WorldWideScience

Sample records for mineral titanium phosphate

  1. Sorption of cesium on titanium and zirconium phosphates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedev, V.N.; Mel'nik, N.A.; Rudenko, A.V.

    2003-01-01

    Titanium and zirconium phosphates were prepared from mineral raw materials of the Kola Peninsula. Their capability to recover cesium cations from the model solutions and liquid radioactive waste (LRW) was studied. Titanium phosphate prepared from solutions formed by titanite breakdown demonstrates greater distribution coefficients of cesium as compared to zirconium phosphate. Titanium phosphate as a cheaper agent featuring greater sorption capacity was recommended for treatment of LRW to remove cesium [ru

  2. TUCS/phosphate mineralization of actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, K.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1997-10-01

    This program has as its objective the development of a new technology that combines cation exchange and mineralization to reduce the concentration of heavy metals (in particular actinides) in groundwaters. The treatment regimen must be compatible with the groundwater and soil, potentially using groundwater/soil components to aid in the immobilization process. The delivery system (probably a water-soluble chelating agent) should first concentrate the radionuclides then release the precipitating anion, which forms thermodynamically stable mineral phases, either with the target metal ions alone or in combination with matrix cations. This approach should generate thermodynamically stable mineral phases resistant to weathering. The chelating agent should decompose spontaneously with time, release the mineralizing agent, and leave a residue that does not interfere with mineral formation. For the actinides, the ideal compound probably will release phosphate, as actinide phosphate mineral phases are among the least soluble species for these metals. The most promising means of delivering the precipitant would be to use a water-soluble, hydrolytically unstable complexant that functions in the initial stages as a cation exchanger to concentrate the metal ions. As it decomposes, the chelating agent releases phosphate to foster formation of crystalline mineral phases. Because it involves only the application of inexpensive reagents, the method of phosphate mineralization promises to be an economical alternative for in situ immobilization of radionuclides (actinides in particular). The method relies on the inherent (thermodynamic) stability of actinide mineral phases.

  3. Calcium phosphate-based coatings on titanium and its alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, R; Seshadri, S K; Kwon, T Y; Kim, K H

    2008-04-01

    Use of titanium as biomaterial is possible because of its very favorable biocompatibility with living tissue. Titanium implants having calcium phosphate coatings on their surface show good fixation to the bone. This review covers briefly the requirements of typical biomaterials and narrowly focuses on the works on titanium. Calcium phosphate ceramics for use in implants are introduced and various methods of producing calcium phosphate coating on titanium substrates are elaborated. Advantages and disadvantages of each type of coating from the view point of process simplicity, cost-effectiveness, stability of the coatings, coating integration with the bone, cell behavior, and so forth are highlighted. Taking into account all these factors, the efficient method(s) of producing these coatings are indicated finally.

  4. Mesoporous titanium phosphates and related molecular sieves ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    phosphate using a dilute H2O2 oxidant supports the tetrahedral coordination of Ti in ... production of H2 by photo-reduction of water under UV light irradiation. ... have been extensively studied and used as acid catalysts, adsorbents and ion ... mesoporous silica materials is also of outstanding interest because of their ...

  5. Titanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Laurel G.; Bedinger, George M.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Schulz, Klaus J.; DeYoung,, John H.; Seal, Robert R.; Bradley, Dwight C.

    2017-12-19

    Titanium is a mineral commodity that is essential to the smooth functioning of modern industrial economies. Most of the titanium produced is refined into titanium dioxide, which has a high refractive index and is thus able to impart a durable white color to paint, paper, plastic, rubber, and wallboard. Because of their high strength-to-weight ratio and corrosion resistance, titanium metal and titanium metal alloys are used in the aerospace industry as well as for welding rod coatings, biological implants, and consumer goods.Ilmenite and rutile are currently the principal titanium-bearing ore minerals, although other minerals, including anatase, perovskite, and titanomagnetite, could have economic importance in the future. Ilmenite is currently being mined from two large magmatic deposits hosted in rocks of Proterozoic-age anorthosite plutonic suites. Most rutile and nearly one-half of the ilmenite produced are from heavy-mineral alluvial, fluvial, and eolian deposits. Titanium-bearing minerals occur in diverse geologic settings, but many of the known deposits are currently subeconomic for titanium because of complications related to the mineralogy or because of the presence of trace contaminants that can compromise the pigment production process.Global production of titanium minerals is currently dominated by Australia, Canada, Norway, and South Africa; additional amounts are produced in Brazil, India, Madagascar, Mozambique, Sierra Leone, and Sri Lanka. The United States accounts for about 4 percent of the total world production of titanium minerals and is heavily dependent on imports of titanium mineral concentrates to meet its domestic needs.Titanium occurs only in silicate or oxide minerals and never in sulfide minerals. Environmental considerations for titanium mining are related to waste rock disposal and the impact of trace constituents on water quality. Because titanium is generally inert in the environment, human health risks from titanium and titanium

  6. Mineral resource of the month: titanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambogi, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Titanium is hip - at least when it comes to airplanes and jewelry. Known for its high strength-to weight ratio and its resistance to corrosion, titanium and its alloys can also be found in everything from knee replacements to eyeglass frames to baseball bats to fighter planes.

  7. Characterization and in vitro biological evaluation of mineral/osteogenic growth peptide nanocomposites synthesized biomimetically on titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Cen; Kong, Xiangdong [Bio-X Center, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Zhang, Sheng-Min [Advanced Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Center, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Lee, In-Seop, E-mail: inseop@yonsei.ac.kr [Bio-X Center, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Institute of Natural Sciences, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Mineral/OGP nanocomposite layers were synthesized biomimetically on Ti substrates. • Incorporated OGP affected the morphology and ultimate structure of mineral. • Incorporated OGP improved the MSCs adhesion, proliferation, and ALP activity. - Abstract: Nanocomposite layers of mineral/osteogenic growth peptide (OGP) were synthesized on calcium phosphate coated titanium substrates by immersing in calcium-phosphate buffer solution containing OGP. Peptide incorporated mineral was characterized by determining quantity loaded, effects on mineral morphology and structure. Also, the biological activity was investigated by cell adhesion, proliferation assay, and measurement of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and micro-bicinchoninic acid (BCA) assay revealed that OGP was successfully incorporated with mineral and the amount was increased with immersion time. Incorporated OGP changed the mineral morphology from sharp plate-like shape to more rounded one, and the octacalcium phosphate structure of the mineral was gradually transformed into apatite. With confocal microscopy to examine the incorporation of fluorescently labeled peptide, OGP was evenly distributed throughout mineral layers. Mineral/OGP nanocomposites promoted cell adhesion and proliferation, and also increased ALP activity of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Results presented here indicated that the mineral/OGP nanocomposites formed on titanium substrates had the potential for applications in dental implants.

  8. Characterization and in vitro biological evaluation of mineral/osteogenic growth peptide nanocomposites synthesized biomimetically on titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Cen; Kong, Xiangdong; Zhang, Sheng-Min; Lee, In-Seop

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Mineral/OGP nanocomposite layers were synthesized biomimetically on Ti substrates. • Incorporated OGP affected the morphology and ultimate structure of mineral. • Incorporated OGP improved the MSCs adhesion, proliferation, and ALP activity. - Abstract: Nanocomposite layers of mineral/osteogenic growth peptide (OGP) were synthesized on calcium phosphate coated titanium substrates by immersing in calcium-phosphate buffer solution containing OGP. Peptide incorporated mineral was characterized by determining quantity loaded, effects on mineral morphology and structure. Also, the biological activity was investigated by cell adhesion, proliferation assay, and measurement of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and micro-bicinchoninic acid (BCA) assay revealed that OGP was successfully incorporated with mineral and the amount was increased with immersion time. Incorporated OGP changed the mineral morphology from sharp plate-like shape to more rounded one, and the octacalcium phosphate structure of the mineral was gradually transformed into apatite. With confocal microscopy to examine the incorporation of fluorescently labeled peptide, OGP was evenly distributed throughout mineral layers. Mineral/OGP nanocomposites promoted cell adhesion and proliferation, and also increased ALP activity of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Results presented here indicated that the mineral/OGP nanocomposites formed on titanium substrates had the potential for applications in dental implants

  9. Selective flotation of phosphate minerals with hydroxamate collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jan D.; Wang, Xuming; Li, Minhua

    2002-01-01

    A method is disclosed for separating phosphate minerals from a mineral mixture, particularly from high-dolomite containing phosphate ores. The method involves conditioning the mineral mixture by contacting in an aqueous in environment with a collector in an amount sufficient for promoting flotation of phosphate minerals. The collector is a hydroxamate compound of the formula; ##STR1## wherein R is generally hydrophobic and chosen such that the collector has solubility or dispersion properties it can be distributed in the mineral mixture, typically an alkyl, aryl, or alkylaryl group having 6 to 18 carbon atoms. M is a cation, typically hydrogen, an alkali metal or an alkaline earth metal. Preferably, the collector also comprises an alcohol of the formula, R'--OH wherein R' is generally hydrophobic and chosen such that the collector has solubility or dispersion properties so that it can be distributed in the mineral mixture, typically an alkyl, aryl, or alkylaryl group having 6 to 18 carbon atoms.

  10. Characterization and in vitro biological evaluation of mineral/osteogenic growth peptide nanocomposites synthesized biomimetically on titanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cen; Kong, Xiangdong; Zhang, Sheng-Min; Lee, In-Seop

    2015-04-01

    Nanocomposite layers of mineral/osteogenic growth peptide (OGP) were synthesized on calcium phosphate coated titanium substrates by immersing in calcium-phosphate buffer solution containing OGP. Peptide incorporated mineral was characterized by determining quantity loaded, effects on mineral morphology and structure. Also, the biological activity was investigated by cell adhesion, proliferation assay, and measurement of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and micro-bicinchoninic acid (BCA) assay revealed that OGP was successfully incorporated with mineral and the amount was increased with immersion time. Incorporated OGP changed the mineral morphology from sharp plate-like shape to more rounded one, and the octacalcium phosphate structure of the mineral was gradually transformed into apatite. With confocal microscopy to examine the incorporation of fluorescently labeled peptide, OGP was evenly distributed throughout mineral layers. Mineral/OGP nanocomposites promoted cell adhesion and proliferation, and also increased ALP activity of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Results presented here indicated that the mineral/OGP nanocomposites formed on titanium substrates had the potential for applications in dental implants.

  11. Mineral phosphate solubilizing bacterial community in agro-ecosystem

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mineral phosphate solubilizing bacterial community in agro-ecosystem. N Saha, S Biswas. Abstract. The present communication deals with the assessment of phosphate solubilizing bacterial community structure across artificially created fertility gradient with regards to N, P and K status of soil in the experimental site.

  12. Biomimetic coprecipitation of calcium phosphate and bovine serum albumin on titanium alloy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Yuelian; Layrolle, Pierre; de Bruijn, Joost Dick; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; de Groot, K.

    2001-01-01

    Titanium alloy implants were precoated biomimetically with a thin and dense layer of calcium phosphate and then incubated either in a supersaturated solution of calcium phosphate or in phosphate-buffered saline, each containing bovine serum albumin (BSA) at various concentrations, under

  13. Mesoporous titanium phosphate molecular sieves with ion-exchange capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaumik, A; Inagaki, S

    2001-01-31

    Novel open framework molecular sieves, titanium(IV) phosphates named, i.e., TCM-7 and -8 (Toyota Composite Materials, numbers 7 and 8), with new mesoporous cationic framework topologies obtained by using both cationic and anionic surfactants are reported. The (31)P MAS NMR, UV-visible absorption, and XANES data suggest the tetrahedral state of P and Ti, and stabilization of the tetrahedral state of Ti in TCM-7/8 is due to the incorporation of phosphorus (at Ti/P = 1:1) vis-à-vis the most stable octahedral state of Ti in the pure mesoporous TiO(2). Mesoporous TCM-7 and -8 show anion exchange capacity due to the framework phosphonium cation and cation exchange capacity due to defective P-OH groups. The high catalytic activity in the liquid-phase partial oxidation of cyclohexene with a dilute H(2)O(2) oxidant supports the tetrahedral coordination of Ti in these materials.

  14. Immobilization of calcium and phosphate ions improves the osteoconductivity of titanium implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunarso; Toita, Riki; Tsuru, Kanji; Ishikawa, Kunio

    2016-01-01

    In this work, to elevate weak osteoconductivity of titanium (Ti) implant, we prepared a Ti implant having both calcium and phosphate ions on its surface. To modify calcium and phosphate ions onto Ti, phosphate ions were first immobilized by treating the Ti with a NaH 2 PO 4 solution, followed by CaCl 2 treatment to immobilize calcium ions, which created the calcium and phosphate ions-modified Ti (Ca-P-Ti). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and thin-layer X-ray diffraction measurement confirmed that both phosphate and calcium ions were co-immobilized onto the Ti surface on the molecular level. Three-hour after seeding MC3T3-E1 murine pre-osteoblast cells on substrates, cell number on Ca-P-Ti was much larger than that of Ti and phosphate-modified Ti (P-Ti), but was similar to that of calcium-modified Ti (Ca-Ti). Also, MC3T3-E1 cells on Ca-P-Ti expressed larger amount of vinculin, a focal adhesion protein, than those on other substrates, probably resulting in larger cell size as well as greater cell proliferation on Ca-P-Ti than those on other substrates. Alkaline phosphatase activity of cells on Ca-P-Ti was greater than those on Ti and P-Ti, but was almost comparable to that of Ca-Ti. Moreover, the largest amount of bone-like nodule formation was observed on Ca-P-Ti. These results provide evidence that calcium and phosphate ions-co-immobilization onto Ti increased the osteoconductivity of Ti by stimulating the responses of pre-osteoblast cells. This simple modification would be promising technique for bone tissue implant including dental and orthopedic implants. - Highlights: • Phosphate and calcium ions have been successfully co-immobilize on Ti surface. • Co-immobilization of Ca and phosphate ions (Ca-P-Ti) did not alter the original surface morphology. • Ca-P-Ti significantly improved initial MC3T3-E1 cell adhesion. • Ca-P-Ti demonstrated remarkable cell proliferation, differentiation and mineralization. • Overall, Ca-P-Ti would be a promising bone

  15. Synthesis and Electrochemical Performance of a Lithium Titanium Phosphate Anode for Aqueous Lithium-Ion Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Wessells, Colin; La Mantia, Fabio; Deshazer, Heather; Huggins, Robert A.; Cui, Yi

    2011-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries that use aqueous electrolytes offer safety and cost advantages when compared to today's commercial cells that use organic electrolytes. The equilibrium reaction potential of lithium titanium phosphate is -0.5 V with respect

  16. Environmental prospects of uranium from mineral phosphates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnug, Ewald; Haneklaus, Nils

    2012-01-01

    Uranium (U) is a natural resource that is found in rock phosphates (P). Each year farmers apply unwittingly 167 t/yr U to their soils by P fertilisation. If extracted and used for electricity generation with state of the art nuclear power plants this amount of U could cover the energy demand of 2.4 x 10 6 average German households. Otherwise this finite resource is wasted. U from P fertilisers is an uncommon contribution of agriculture to climate protection. Using the key to calculate the CO 2 depending German car tax band, 1 kilogram P would be valued with 1.8 Euro. More than that the extraction of U from rock phosphates is an efficient measure to avoid U entering the food chain. In particular translocation processes in soils of fertiliser-applied U by run-off and leaching which result in the contamination of surface waters and finally drinking water can be impeded efficiently. (orig.)

  17. Environmental prospects of uranium from mineral phosphates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnug, Ewald [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Faculty 2 - Life Sciences; Haneklaus, Nils [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernenergetik und Energiesysteme

    2012-12-15

    Uranium (U) is a natural resource that is found in rock phosphates (P). Each year farmers apply unwittingly 167 t/yr U to their soils by P fertilisation. If extracted and used for electricity generation with state of the art nuclear power plants this amount of U could cover the energy demand of 2.4 x 10{sup 6} average German households. Otherwise this finite resource is wasted. U from P fertilisers is an uncommon contribution of agriculture to climate protection. Using the key to calculate the CO{sub 2} depending German car tax band, 1 kilogram P would be valued with 1.8 Euro. More than that the extraction of U from rock phosphates is an efficient measure to avoid U entering the food chain. In particular translocation processes in soils of fertiliser-applied U by run-off and leaching which result in the contamination of surface waters and finally drinking water can be impeded efficiently. (orig.)

  18. Uranyl phosphate mineral in Gapyeong area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, S.J.

    1980-01-01

    An uranyl phosphate crystal from Gapeong area is studied by means of single crystal x-ray diffraction and electron microscopic qualitative analysis of chemical contents. The crystal is identified as meta-ankoleite which has a unit cell of super structure with a=b=6.99 A, c=17.69 A and space group P4 2 22. There exists some indication in the total fluorescent spectrum of the sample that potassium may be partially substituted by calcium. The chemical formula of this meta-ankoleite may be expressed by Ksub(1-2x)Casub(x)(UO 2 PO 4 ) (H 2 O)sub(3-x). (Author)

  19. Difference in surface reactions between titanium and zirconium in Hanks' solution to elucidate mechanism of calcium phosphate formation on titanium using XPS and cathodic polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsutsumi, Y.; Nishimura, D.; Doi, H.; Nomura, N.; Hanawa, T.

    2009-01-01

    Titanium and zirconium were immersed in Hanks' solution with and without calcium and phosphate ions, and the surfaces were characterized with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to determine the mechanism of calcium phosphate formation on titanium in simulated body fluids and in a living body. In addition, they were cathodically polarized in the above solutions. XPS characterization and cathodic polarization revealed differences in the surface properties in the ability of calcium phosphate formation between titanium and zirconium. The surface oxide film on titanium is not completely oxidized and is relatively reactive; that on zirconium is more passive and protective than that on titanium. Neither calcium nor phosphate stably exists alone on titanium, and calcium phosphate is naturally formed on it; calcium phosphate formed on titanium is stable and protective. On the other hand, calcium is never incorporated on zirconium, while zirconium phosphate, which is easily formed on zirconium, is highly stable and protective. Our study presents new information regarding the surface property of titanium and demonstrates that the characteristics of titanium and zirconium may be applied to various medical devices and new surface modification techniques.

  20. Uranium Sequestration by Aluminum Phosphate Minerals in Unsaturated Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerden, James L. Jr.

    2007-01-01

    A mineralogical and geochemical study of soils developed from the unmined Coles Hill uranium deposit (Virginia) was undertaken to determine how phosphorous influences the speciation of uranium in an oxidizing soil/saprolite system typical of the eastern United States. This paper presents mineralogical and geochemical results that identify and quantify the processes by which uranium has been sequestered in these soils. It was found that uranium is not leached from the saturated soil zone (saprolites) overlying the deposit due to the formation of a sparingly soluble uranyl phosphate mineral of the meta-autunite group. The concentration of uranium in the saprolites is approximately 1000 mg uranium per kg of saprolite. It was also found that a significant amount of uranium was retained in the unsaturated soil zone overlying uranium-rich saprolites. The uranium concentration in the unsaturated soils is approximately 200 mg uranium per kg of soil (20 times higher than uranium concentrations in similar soils adjacent to the deposit). Mineralogical evidence indicates that uranium in this zone is sequestered by a barium-strontium-calcium aluminum phosphate mineral of the crandallite group (gorceixite). This mineral is intimately inter-grown with iron and manganese oxides that also contain uranium. The amount of uranium associated with both the aluminum phosphates (as much as 1.4 weight percent) has been measured by electron microprobe micro-analyses and the geochemical conditions under which these minerals formed has been studied using thermodynamic reaction path modeling. The geochemical data and modeling results suggest the meta-autunite group minerals present in the saprolites overlying the deposit are unstable in the unsaturated zone soils overlying the deposit due to a decrease in soil pH (down to a pH of 4.5) at depths less than 5 meters below the surface. Mineralogical observations suggest that, once exposed to the unsaturated environment, the meta-autunite group

  1. Flotation and screening recovery of titanium minerals from a monazite mineral sands circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruckard, W.J.; Heyes, G.W.; Guy, P.J.

    2001-01-01

    Investigations were undertaken to assess the suitability of CSIRO flotation methods for improving the efficiency of separation of heavy minerals in the monazite circuit at the Westralian Sands Limited operations at Capel, Western Australia. Flotation work was conducted on two plant samples. The first was a high-titanium product containing considerable amounts of zircon and silica as quartz and aluminosilicates, and the second was a low monazite/zircon material containing high levels of silica. A three-stage process including reverse flotation was developed to treat the first sample. In this process monazite, zircon, quartz, and aluminosilicates were selectively concentrated by flotation and screening to produce a titanium-rich product. In the first stage, an acid amine float, monazite, zircon, and some non-zircon silica were recovered and in the second stage, an alkaline amine float using a fluoride activator, more quartz and staurolite were floated. The titanium minerals were thus concentrated in the unfloated fraction. In the third stage, the titanium-rich flotation tail was screened at 250 μm to remove the remaining coarse aluminosilicates. In a single pass, the three-stage process yielded a TiO 2 recovery of 64.0 per cent with the titanium-rich product assaying 70.3 per cent TiO 2

  2. Dense and porous titanium substrates with a biomimetic calcium phosphate coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, A.A., E-mail: aantunesr@yahoo.com.br [Powder Technology Laboratory, Materials Processing and Characterization Division, National Institute of Technology, No. 82 Venezuela Avenue, Room 602, 20081-312 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Balestra, R.M. [Powder Technology Laboratory, Materials Processing and Characterization Division, National Institute of Technology, No. 82 Venezuela Avenue, Room 602, 20081-312 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rocha, M.N. [Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Program, COPPE, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, P.O. Box 68505, 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Peripolli, S.B. [Materials Metrology Division, National Institute of Metrology, Normalization and Quality, No. 50 Nossa Senhora das Gracas Street, Building 3, 25250-020 Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil); Andrade, M.C. [Polytechnic Institute of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro State University, s/n, Alberto Rangel Street, 28630-050 Nova Friburgo, RJ (Brazil); Pereira, L.C. [Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Program, COPPE, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, P.O. Box 68505, 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Oliveira, M.V. [Powder Technology Laboratory, Materials Processing and Characterization Division, National Institute of Technology, No. 82 Venezuela Avenue, Room 602, 20081-312 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A biomimetic coating method with simplified solution is proposed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Titanium substrates are submitted to chemical and heat treatments. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Titanium substrates are coated with biocompatible calcium phosphate phases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The simplified solution shows potential to be applied as a coating technique. - Abstract: The present work studied a biomimetic method using a simplified solution (SS) with calcium and phosphorus ions for coating titanium substrates, in order to improve their bioactivity. Commercially pure titanium dense sheet, microporous and macroporous titanium samples, both produced by powder metallurgy, were treated in NaOH solution followed by heat-treating and immersed in SS for 7, 14 or 21 days. The samples characterization was performed by quantitative metallographic analysis, confocal scanning optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy and low angle X-ray diffraction. The results showed coatings with calcium phosphate precipitation in all samples, with globular or plate-like morphology, typical of hydroxyapatite and octacalcium phosphate, respectively, indicating that the solution (SS) has potential for coating titanium substrates. In addition, the different surfaces of substrates had an effect on the formed calcium phosphate phase and thickness of coatings, depending on the substrate type and imersion time in the simplified solution.

  3. Inducing mineral precipitation in groundwater by addition of phosphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartmann Thomas

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Induced precipitation of phosphate minerals to scavenge trace elements from groundwater is a potential remediation approach for contaminated aquifers. The success of engineered precipitation schemes depends on the particular phases generated, their rates of formation, and their long term stability. The purpose of this study was to examine the precipitation of calcium phosphate minerals under conditions representative of a natural groundwater. Because microorganisms are present in groundwater, and because some proposed schemes for phosphate mineral precipitation rely on stimulation of native microbial populations, we also tested the effect of bacterial cells (initial densities of 105 and 107 mL-1 added to the precipitation medium. In addition, we tested the effect of a trace mixture of propionic, isovaleric, formic and butyric acids (total concentration 0.035 mM. Results The general progression of mineral precipitation was similar under all of the study conditions, with initial formation of amorphous calcium phosphate, and transformation to poorly crystalline hydroxylapatite (HAP within one week. The presence of the bacterial cells appeared to delay precipitation, although by the end of the experiments the overall extent of precipitation was similar for all treatments. The stoichiometry of the final precipitates as well as Rietveld structure refinement using x-ray diffraction data indicated that the presence of organic acids and bacterial cells resulted in an increasing a and decreasing c lattice parameter, with the higher concentration of cells resulting in the greatest distortion. Uptake of Sr into the solids was decreased in the treatments with cells and organic acids, compared to the control. Conclusions Our results suggest that the minerals formed initially during an engineered precipitation application for trace element sequestration may not be the ones that control long-term immobilization of the contaminants. In

  4. Synthesis and characterization of nanocomposite powders of calcium phosphate/titanium oxide for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delima, S.A.; Camargo, N.H.A.; Souza, J.C.P.; Gemelli, E., E-mail: sarahamindelima@hotmail.com, E-mail: dem2nhac@joinville.udesc.br, E-mail: souzajulio@joinville.udesc.br, E-mail: gemelli@joinville.udesc.br [Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina (UDESC), Joinville, SC (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Tecnologicas

    2009-07-01

    The nanostructured bioceramics of calcium phosphate are current themes of research and they are becoming important as bone matrix in regeneration of tissues in orthopedic and dental applications. Nanocomposite powders of calcium phosphate, reinforced with nanometric particles of titanium oxide, silica oxide and alumina oxid ealpha, are being widely studied because they offer new microstructures, nanostructures and interconnected microporosity with high superficial area of micropores that contribute to osteointegration and osteoinduction processes. This study is about the synthesis of nanocomposites powders of calcium phosphate reinforced with 1%, 2%, 3% and 5% in volume of titanium oxide and its characterization through the techniques of X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA), Thermogravimetry (TG) and Dilatometry. (author)

  5. Synthesis and characterization of nanocomposite powders of calcium phosphate/titanium oxide for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delima, S.A.; Camargo, N.H.A.; Souza, J.C.P.; Gemelli, E.

    2009-01-01

    The nanostructured bioceramics of calcium phosphate are current themes of research and they are becoming important as bone matrix in regeneration of tissues in orthopedic and dental applications. Nanocomposite powders of calcium phosphate, reinforced with nanometric particles of titanium oxide, silica oxide and alumina oxid ealpha, are being widely studied because they offer new microstructures, nanostructures and interconnected microporosity with high superficial area of micropores that contribute to osteointegration and osteoinduction processes. This study is about the synthesis of nanocomposites powders of calcium phosphate reinforced with 1%, 2%, 3% and 5% in volume of titanium oxide and its characterization through the techniques of X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA), Thermogravimetry (TG) and Dilatometry. (author)

  6. A review of phosphate mineral nucleation in biology and geobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omelon, Sidney; Ariganello, Marianne; Bonucci, Ermanno; Grynpas, Marc; Nanci, Antonio

    2013-10-01

    Relationships between geological phosphorite deposition and biological apatite nucleation have often been overlooked. However, similarities in biological apatite and phosphorite mineralogy suggest that their chemical formation mechanisms may be similar. This review serves to draw parallels between two newly described phosphorite mineralization processes, and proposes a similar novel mechanism for biologically controlled apatite mineral nucleation. This mechanism integrates polyphosphate biochemistry with crystal nucleation theory. Recently, the roles of polyphosphates in the nucleation of marine phosphorites were discovered. Marine bacteria and diatoms have been shown to store and concentrate inorganic phosphate (Pi) as amorphous, polyphosphate granules. Subsequent release of these P reserves into the local marine environment as Pi results in biologically induced phosphorite nucleation. Pi storage and release through an intracellular polyphosphate intermediate may also occur in mineralizing oral bacteria. Polyphosphates may be associated with biologically controlled apatite nucleation within vertebrates and invertebrates. Historically, biological apatite nucleation has been attributed to either a biochemical increase in local Pi concentration or matrix-mediated apatite nucleation control. This review proposes a mechanism that integrates both theories. Intracellular and extracellular amorphous granules, rich in both calcium and phosphorus, have been observed in apatite-biomineralizing vertebrates, protists, and atremate brachiopods. These granules may represent stores of calcium-polyphosphate. Not unlike phosphorite nucleation by bacteria and diatoms, polyphosphate depolymerization to Pi would be controlled by phosphatase activity. Enzymatic polyphosphate depolymerization would increase apatite saturation to the level required for mineral nucleation, while matrix proteins would simultaneously control the progression of new biological apatite formation.

  7. Phosphated minerals to be used as radioactive reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braganca, M.J.C.S.; Tauhata, L.; Clain, A.F.; Moreira, I.

    2003-01-01

    The production and the supplying of certified reference materials, or deliberated contaminated materials containing natural radionuclides for laboratories which analyses environmental samples are fundamentals for the correct measurements of their radioactive levels. This analysis quality represents a important step for the safeguards of the population health, and quality control of the imported and exported products, such as minerals, agricultural and raw materials. The phosphate rocks, containing significant concentrations of thorium, and used as raw material and fertilizers justified a study for better characterization and distinction to be used cas certified reference radioactive materials. Therefore, samples from the two carboanalytical-alkaline chimneys (Araxa and Catalao), and one from metasedimentar origin (Patos de Minas), distant 100 km from each other, were collected and chemical and cholecystographic characterized by optical emission, X-ray diffraction and fluorescence. The element concentrations were determined by neutron activation analysis, ICP-MS and ICP-AES. The results, after multivariate statistical analysis and study of correlations among elements, have shown geochemical similarities of the phosphates from Araxa and Catalao, and differences from Patos de Minas, despite of the geographic proximity. The concentration of thorium between 200 and 500 (mg/g) allows to use such minerals as reference materials

  8. Intensive Hemodialysis, Mineral and Bone Disorder, and Phosphate Binder Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copland, Michael; Komenda, Paul; Weinhandl, Eric D; McCullough, Peter A; Morfin, Jose A

    2016-11-01

    Mineral and bone disorder is a common complication of end-stage renal disease. Notably, hyperphosphatemia likely promotes calcification of the myocardium, valves, and arteries. Hyperphosphatemia is associated with higher risk for cardiovascular mortality and morbidity along a gradient beginning at 5.0mg/dL. Among contemporary hemodialysis (HD) patients, mean serum phosphorus level is 5.2mg/dL, although 25% of patients have serum phosphorus levels of 5.5 to 6.9mg/dL; and 13%, >7.0mg/dL. Treatment of hyperphosphatemia is burdensome. Dialysis patients consume a mean of 19 pills per day, half of which are phosphate binders. Medicare Part D expenditures on binders for dialysis patients approached $700 million in 2013. Phosphorus removal with thrice-weekly HD (4 hours per session) is ∼3,000mg/wk. However, clearance is unlikely to counterbalance dietary intake, which varies around a mean of 7,000mg/wk. Dietary restriction and phosphate binders are important interventions, but each has limitations. Dietary control is complicated by limited access to healthy food choices and unclear labeling. Meanwhile, adherence to phosphate binders is poor, especially in younger patients and those with high pill burden. Multiple randomized clinical trials show that intensive HD reduces serum phosphorus levels. In the Frequent Hemodialysis Network (FHN) trial, short daily and nocturnal schedules reduced serum phosphorus levels by 0.6 and 1.6mg/dL, respectively, relative to 3 sessions per week. A similar effect of nocturnal HD was observed in an earlier trial. In the daily arm of the FHN trial, intensive HD significantly lowered estimated phosphate binder dose per day, whereas in the nocturnal arm, intensive HD led to binder discontinuation in 75% of patients. However, intensive HD appears to have no meaningful effects on serum calcium and parathyroid hormone concentrations. In conclusion, intensive HD, especially nocturnal HD, lowers serum phosphorus levels and decreases the need for

  9. Osteogenic potential of bone marrow stromal cells on smooth, roughened, and tricalcium phosphate-modified titanium alloy surfaces.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Colombo, John S

    2012-09-01

    This study investigated the influence of smooth, roughened, and tricalcium phosphate (TCP)-coated roughened titanium-aluminum-vanadium (Ti-6Al-4V) surfaces on the osteogenic potential of rat bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs).

  10. Influence of pulse ratio on codeposition of copper species with calcium phosphate coatings on titanium by means of electrochemically assisted deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf-Brandstetter, Cornelia; Oswald, Steffen; Bierbaum, Susanne; Wiesmann, Hans-Peter; Scharnweber, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    Aim of this study was to combine the well-known biocompatibility and ostoeconductivity of thin calcium phosphate coatings on titanium with proangiogenic signals from codeposited copper species. Copper species could be integrated in mineral layers based on hydroxyapatite by means of electrochemically assisted deposition from electrolytes containing calcium, phosphate, and copper ions. Different combinations of duration and intensity of galvanostatic pulses result in different amounts of deposited calcium phosphate and of copper species even for the same applied total charge. Absolute amounts of copper varied between 2.1 and 6.9 μg/cm², and the copper was distributed homogeneously as shown by EDX mapping. The presence of copper did not change the crystalline phase of deposited calcium phosphate (hydroxyapatite) but provoked a significant decrease in deposited amounts by factor 3 to 4. The copper was deposited mainly as Cu(I) species with a minor fraction of basic copper phosphates. Reduction of copper occurred not only at the surface of titanium but also within the hydroxyapatite coating due to the reaction with hydrogen produced by the electrolysis of water during the cathodic polarization of the substrate. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Mineral phosphate solubilizing bacterial community in agro-ecosystem

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... patterns. Four insoluble phosphate sources; purulia rock phosphate (PRP), mussourie rock phosphate. (MRP) ... community composition analysis (Garland, 1996a) and ..... the threshold level that enabled only a few species to.

  12. Calcium phosphate thin films enhance the response of human mesenchymal stem cells to nanostructured titanium surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mura M McCafferty

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The development of biomaterial surfaces possessing the topographical cues that can promote mesenchymal stem cell recruitment and, in particular, those capable of subsequently directing osteogenic differentiation is of increasing importance for the advancement of tissue engineering. While it is accepted that it is the interaction with specific nanoscale topography that induces mesenchymal stem cell differentiation, the potential for an attendant bioactive chemistry working in tandem with such nanoscale features to enhance this effect has not been considered to any great extent. This article presents a study of mesenchymal stem cell response to conformal bioactive calcium phosphate thin films sputter deposited onto a polycrystalline titanium nanostructured surface with proven capability to directly induce osteogenic differentiation in human bone marrow–derived mesenchymal stem cells. The sputter deposited surfaces supported high levels of human bone marrow–derived mesenchymal stem cell adherence and proliferation, as determined by DNA quantification. Furthermore, they were also found to be capable of directly promoting significant levels of osteogenic differentiation. Specifically, alkaline phosphatase activity, gene expression and immunocytochemical localisation of key osteogenic markers revealed that the nanostructured titanium surfaces and the bioactive calcium phosphate coatings could direct the differentiation towards an osteogenic lineage. Moreover, the addition of the calcium phosphate chemistry to the topographical profile of the titanium was found to induce increased human bone marrow–derived mesenchymal stem cell differentiation compared to that observed for either the titanium or calcium phosphate coating without an underlying nanostructure. Hence, the results presented here highlight that a clear benefit can be achieved from a surface engineering strategy that combines a defined surface topography with an attendant, conformal

  13. Synthesis and Electrochemical Performance of a Lithium Titanium Phosphate Anode for Aqueous Lithium-Ion Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Wessells, Colin

    2011-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries that use aqueous electrolytes offer safety and cost advantages when compared to today\\'s commercial cells that use organic electrolytes. The equilibrium reaction potential of lithium titanium phosphate is -0.5 V with respect to the standard hydrogen electrode, which makes this material attractive for use as a negative electrode in aqueous electrolytes. This material was synthesized using a Pechini type method. Galvanostatic cycling of the resulting lithium titanium phosphate showed an initial discharge capacity of 115 mAh/g and quite good capacity retention during cycling, 84% after 100 cycles, and 70% after 160 cycles at a 1 C cycling rate in an organic electrolyte. An initial discharge capacity of 113 mAh/g and capacity retention of 89% after 100 cycles with a coulombic efficiency above 98% was observed at a C/5 rate in pH -neutral 2 M Li2 S O4. The good cycle life and high efficiency in an aqueous electrolyte demonstrate that lithium titanium phosphate is an excellent candidate negative electrode material for use in aqueous lithium-ion batteries. © 2011 The Electrochemical Society.

  14. Preparation and characterization of phosphate glasses containing titanium and vanadium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaoua, S. [Laboratoire de Chimie du Solide, Faculte des Sciences Ain Chock, Casablanca (Morocco); Krimi, S. [Laboratoire de Chimie du Solide, Faculte des Sciences Ain Chock, Casablanca (Morocco)]. E-mail: krimisaida@yahoo.fr; El Jazouli, A. [Laboratoire de Chimie des Materiaux Solides, Faculte des Sciences Ben M' Sik, Casablanca (Morocco); Hlil, E.K. [Laboratoire de Cristallographie du CNRS, Grenoble (France)]. E-mail: hlil@grenoble.cnrs.fr; Waal, D. de [Department of Chemistry, University of Pretoria, 0002 Pretoria (South Africa)

    2007-02-21

    Na{sub 5-x}Ti{sub 1-x}V {sub x}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} (0 {<=} x {<=} 1) phosphates glasses have been obtained in air by direct fusion of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, TiO{sub 2}, V{sub 2}O{sub 5} and (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}HPO{sub 4}. Vitreous Na{sub 5}Ti(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} is colourless while the glasses containing vanadium are green, due to the reduction of V{sup 5+} to V{sup 4+}. Glass transition and crystallization temperatures (T {sub g}, T {sub c}) decrease when the amount of vanadium increases. EPR, Raman and UV-vis spectra have been investigated. The results are consistent with the presence of V{sup 4+} ions in distorted octahedra with very strong V-O bond.

  15. Titanium minerals of placer deposits as a source for new materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotova, Olga; Ponaryadov, Alexey

    2015-04-01

    Heavy mineral deposits are a source of the economic important element titanium, which is contained in ilmenite and leucoxene. The mineral composition of placer titanium ore and localization pattern of ore minerals determine their processing and enriching technologies. New data on the mineralogy of titanium ores from modern coastal-marine placer in Stradbroke Island, Eastern Australia, and Pizhma paleoplacer in Middle Timan, Russia, and materials on their basis are presented. The samples were studied by the following methods: optical-mineralogical (stereomicroscope MBS-10, polarizing microscope POLAM L-311), semiquantitative x-ray phase analysis (x-ray difractometer X'Pert PRO MPD). Besides microprobe (VEGA 3 TESCAN) and x-ray fluorescent analysis (XRF-1800 Shimadzu) were used. By the mineralogical composition ores of the both deposits are complex: enriched by valuable minerals. Apart from main ore concentrates it is possible to obtain accompanying nonmetallic products. This will increase the efficiency of deposit exploitation. Ilmenite dominates in ore sands of Stradbroke Island, and leucoxene dominates in the ores of the Pizhma titanium deposit. Australian ilmenite and its altered varieties are mainly characterized by a very high MnO content (from 5.24 to 11.08 %). The irregular distribution of iron oxides, titanium and manganese in the altered ilmenite was shown in the paper. E.g., in the areas of substitution of ilmenite by pseudorutile the concentrations of the given elements are greatly various due to various ratios of basic components in each grain. Their ratios are equal in the area of rutile evolution. Moreover, the high content of gold, diamonds and also rare earth elements (REE) and rare metals (their forms are not determined) were studied. We found native copper on the surface of minerals composing titanium-bearing sandstones of the Pizhma placer. According to the technological features of rocks (density and magnetic) studied placers are close. The

  16. Titanium mineral resources in heavy-mineral sands in the Atlantic coastal plain of the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Ellefsen, Karl J.

    2018-04-16

    This study examined titanium distribution in the Atlantic Coastal Plain of the southeastern United States; the titanium is found in heavy-mineral sands that include the minerals ilmenite (Fe2+TiO3), rutile (TiO2), or leucoxene (an alteration product of ilmenite). Deposits of heavy-mineral sands in ancient and modern coastal plains are a significant feedstock source for the titanium dioxide pigments industry. Currently, two heavy-mineral sands mining and processing operations are active in the southeast United States producing concentrates of ilmenite-leucoxene, rutile, and zircon. The results of this study indicate the potential for similar deposits in many areas of the Atlantic Coastal Plain.This study used the titanium analyses of 3,457 stream sediment samples that were analyzed as part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Geochemical Survey program. This data set was analyzed by an integrated spatial modeling technique known as Bayesian hierarchical modeling to map the regional-scale, spatial distribution of titanium concentrations. In particular, clusters of anomalous concentrations of titanium occur: (1) along the Fall Zone, from Virginia to Alabama, where metamorphic and igneous rocks of the Piedmont region contact younger sediments of the Coastal Plain; (2) a paleovalley near the South Carolina and North Carolina border; (3) the upper and middle Atlantic Coastal Plain of North Carolina; (4) the majority of the Atlantic Coastal Plain of Virginia; and (5) barrier islands and stretches of the modern shoreline from South Carolina to northeast Florida. The areas mapped by this study could help mining companies delimit areas for exploration.

  17. Electrochemically assisted deposition of strontium modified magnesium phosphate on titanium surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meininger, M.; Wolf-Brandstetter, C.; Zerweck, J.; Wenninger, F.; Gbureck, U.; Groll, J.; Moseke, C.

    2016-01-01

    Electrochemically assisted deposition was utilized to produce ceramic coatings on the basis of magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite) on corundum-blasted titanium surfaces. By the addition of defined concentrations of strontium nitrate to the coating electrolyte Sr 2+ ions were successfully incorporated into the struvite matrix. By variation of deposition parameters it was possible to fabricate coatings with different kinetics of Sr 2+ into physiological media, whereas the release of therapeutically relevant strontium doses could be sustained over several weeks. Morphological and crystallographic examinations of the immersed coatings revealed that the degradation of struvite and the release of Sr 2+ ions were accompanied by a transformation of the coating to a calcium phosphate based phase similar to low-crystalline hydroxyapatite. These findings showed that strontium doped struvite coatings may provide a promising degradable coating system for the local application of strontium or other biologically active metal ions in the implant–bone interface. - Highlights: • Sr-doped struvite coatings have been deposited on titanium by electrochemically assisted deposition. • Sr content can be adjusted by means of process time, current density and pulse mode. • Sr-doped coatings release therapeutically relevant Sr doses in physiological media for several weeks. • During immersion in physiological media Sr-doped struvite coatings transform into a low crystalline calcium phosphate phase.

  18. Electrochemically assisted deposition of strontium modified magnesium phosphate on titanium surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meininger, M. [Department for Functional Materials in Medicine and Dentistry, University of Würzburg, Pleicherwall 2, D-97070 Würzburg (Germany); Wolf-Brandstetter, C. [Max Bergmann Center for Biomaterials, Technical University of Dresden, Budapester Straße 27, D-01069 Dresden (Germany); Zerweck, J.; Wenninger, F.; Gbureck, U.; Groll, J. [Department for Functional Materials in Medicine and Dentistry, University of Würzburg, Pleicherwall 2, D-97070 Würzburg (Germany); Moseke, C., E-mail: claus.moseke@fmz.uni-wuerzburg.de [Department for Functional Materials in Medicine and Dentistry, University of Würzburg, Pleicherwall 2, D-97070 Würzburg (Germany)

    2016-10-01

    Electrochemically assisted deposition was utilized to produce ceramic coatings on the basis of magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite) on corundum-blasted titanium surfaces. By the addition of defined concentrations of strontium nitrate to the coating electrolyte Sr{sup 2+} ions were successfully incorporated into the struvite matrix. By variation of deposition parameters it was possible to fabricate coatings with different kinetics of Sr{sup 2+} into physiological media, whereas the release of therapeutically relevant strontium doses could be sustained over several weeks. Morphological and crystallographic examinations of the immersed coatings revealed that the degradation of struvite and the release of Sr{sup 2+} ions were accompanied by a transformation of the coating to a calcium phosphate based phase similar to low-crystalline hydroxyapatite. These findings showed that strontium doped struvite coatings may provide a promising degradable coating system for the local application of strontium or other biologically active metal ions in the implant–bone interface. - Highlights: • Sr-doped struvite coatings have been deposited on titanium by electrochemically assisted deposition. • Sr content can be adjusted by means of process time, current density and pulse mode. • Sr-doped coatings release therapeutically relevant Sr doses in physiological media for several weeks. • During immersion in physiological media Sr-doped struvite coatings transform into a low crystalline calcium phosphate phase.

  19. Structural modification of titanium surface by octacalcium phosphate via Pulsed Laser Deposition and chemical treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. Smirnov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD technique was applied to coat titanium for orthopaedic and dental implant applications. Calcium carbonate (CC was used as starting coating material. The deposited CC films were transformed into octacalcium phosphate (OCP by chemical treatments. The results of X-ray diffraction (XRD, Raman, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR and scanning electron microscopy (SEM studies revealed that the final OCP thin films are formed on the titanium surface. Human myofibroblasts from peripheral vessels and the primary bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BMMSs were cultured on the investigated materials. It was shown that all the investigated samples had no short-term toxic effects on cells. The rate of division of myofibroblast cells growing on the surface and saturated BMMSs concentration for the OCP coating were about two times faster than of cells growing on the CC films.

  20. Synthesis and structural characterisation using Rietveld and pair distribution function analysis of layered mixed titanium-zirconium phosphates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnell, Victoria A.; Readman, Jennifer E.; Tang, Chiu C.; Parker, Julia E.; Thompson, Stephen P.; Hriljac, Joseph A.

    2010-01-01

    Crystalline metal (IV) phosphates with variable zirconium-to-titanium molar ratios of general formula (Ti 1-x Zr x )(HPO 4 ) 2 .H 2 O have been prepared by precipitation of soluble salts of the metals with phosphoric acid and heating the amorphous solids in 12 M H 3 PO 4 in an autoclave. The new materials are structurally characterised by Rietveld analysis of synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction data and pair distribution function (PDF) analysis of high energy synchrotron X-ray total scattering data. A broad range of zirconium-titanium phosphate solid solutions were formed showing isomorphous substitution of titanium by zirconium in the α-titanium phosphate lattice and vice versa for titanium substitution into the α-zirconium phosphate lattice. In both cases the solubility is partial with the coexistence of two substituted phases observed in samples with nominal compositions between the solubility limits. - Graphical abstract: Layered phosphates of general formula (Ti 1-x Zr x )(HPO 4 ).H 2 O have been prepared by the hydrothermal treatment of amorphous gels in phosphoric acid and characterised by Rietveld analysis of high resolution synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction data and pair distribution function analysis of high energy synchrotron X-ray total scattering data.

  1. Reducing the cadmium content of crude phosphates and mineral fertilizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plessen, H von; Schimmel, G

    1987-10-01

    Crude sedimentary phosphates generally contain cadmium together with traces of other heavy metals. These Cd traces generally end up in fertilizers produced from the crude phosphates. Processes have therefore been developed to separate the Cd from the crude phosphate or from the crude phosphoric acids arising therefrom as intermediates. In this way, the Cd content of the crude phosphate can be reduced to less the 10% of its original value, and to 50% thereof by extractive treatment with acidic calcium nitrate solution. Older calcination processes for crude phosphate have been improved to give residual Cd contents of 10 to 50% at temperatures of 800 to 1000/sup 0/C. Cadmium can be removed almost quantitatively from crude phosphate by means of dialkyl dithiophosphoric acid esters by extraction, binding to adsorbents, or ion flotation. Cadmium can be extracted from crude acids in high yield by long-chained amines. After partial neutralization of the crude acids, precipitation as cadmium sulphide is also possible.

  2. Biomechanical properties of jaw periosteum-derived mineralized culture on different titanium topography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Att, Wael; Kubo, Katsutoshi; Yamada, Masahiro; Maeda, Hatsuhiko; Ogawa, Takahiro

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the biomechanical properties of periosteum-derived mineralized culture on different surface topographies of titanium. Titanium surfaces modified by machining or by acid etching were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Rat mandibular periosteum-derived cells were cultured on either of the titanium surfaces. Cell proliferation was evaluated by cell counts, and gene expression was analyzed using a reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) stain assay was employed to evaluate osteoblastic activity. Matrix mineralization was examined via von Kossa stain assay, total calcium deposition, and SEM. The hardness and elastic modulus of mineralized cultures were measured using a nano-indenter. The machined surface demonstrated a flat topographic configuration, while the acid-etched surface revealed a uniform micron-scale roughness. Both cell density and ALP activity were significantly higher on the machined surface than on the acid-etched surface. The expression of bone-related genes was up-regulated or enhanced on the acid-etched surface compared to the machined surface. Von Kossa stain showed significantly greater positive areas for the machined surface compared to the acid-etched surface, while total calcium deposition was statistically similar. Mineralized culture on the acid-etched surface was characterized by denser calcium deposition, more mature collagen deposition on the superficial layer, and larger and denser globular matrices inside the matrix than the culture on the machined surface. The mineralized matrix on the acid-etched surface was two times harder than on the machined surface, whereas the elastic modulus was comparable between the two surfaces. The design of this study can be used as a model to evaluate the effect of implant surface topography on the biomechanical properties of periosteum-derived mineralized culture. The results suggest that mandibular periosteal cells respond to different

  3. Biomimetically-mineralized composite coatings on titanium functionalized with gelatin methacrylate hydrogels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Guoxin, E-mail: tanguoxin@126.com [School of Chemical Engineering and Light Industry, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510006 (China); Zhou, Lei [School of Chemical Engineering and Light Industry, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510006 (China); Ning, Chengyun, E-mail: imcyning@scut.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Technology, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510641 (China); Tan, Ying [School of Chemical Engineering and Light Industry, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510006 (China); Ni, Guoxin [Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, 510515 (China); Liao, Jingwen; Yu, Peng; Chen, Xiaofeng [College of Materials Science and Technology, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510641 (China)

    2013-08-15

    Immobilizing organic–inorganic hybrid composites onto the implant surface is a promising strategy to improve host acceptance of the implant. The objective of this present study was to obtain a unique macroporous titanium-surface with the organic–mineral composite coatings consisting of gelatin methacrylate hydrogel (GelMA) and hydroxyapatite (HA). A 3-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl methacrylate (TMSPMA) layer was first coated onto the titanium surface, and surface was then covalently functionalized with GelMA using a photochemical method. Mineralization of the GelMA coating on the titanium surface was subsequently carried out by a biomimetic method. After 3-day mineralization, a large number of mineral phases comprising spherical amorphous nanoparticles were found randomly deposited inside GelMA matrix. The resulting mineralized hydrogel composites exhibited a unique rough surface of macroporous structure. The structure of the prepared GelMA/HA composite coating was studied by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectra (EDS), attenuated total refraction Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Water contact angle measurement revealed the hydrophilicity properties of composite coatings. GelMA/HA on titanium after the TMSPMA treatment is very stable when tested in vitro with a PBS solution at 37 °C, due to the role of TMSPMA as a molecular bridge. It was expected that the macroporous GelMA/HA composite coatings might potentially promote and accelerate titanium (Ti)-based implants osseointegration for bone repair and regeneration.

  4. Cellular Performance Comparison of Biomimetic Calcium Phosphate Coating and Alkaline-Treated Titanium Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Yu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of biomimetic calcium phosphate coating on osteoblasts behavior in vitro is not well established yet. In this study, we investigated the behavior of osteoblastic rat osteosarcoma 17/2.8 cells (ROS17/2.8 on two groups of biomaterial surfaces: alkaline-treated titanium surface (ATT and biomimetic calcium phosphate coated ATT (CaP. The cell attachment, proliferation, differentiation, and morphology on these surfaces were extensively evaluated to reveal the impact of substrate surface on osteoblastic cell responses. It was found that the ROS17/2.8 cells cultured on the ATT surface had higher attachment and proliferation rates compared to those on the CaP surface. Our results also showed that the calcium phosphate coatings generated in this work have an inhibiting effect on osteoblast adhesion and further influenced the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblast compared to the ATT surface in vitro. Cells on the ATT surface also exhibited a higher alkaline phosphatase activity than on the CaP surface after two weeks of culture. Immunofluorescence staining and scanning electron microscopy results showed that the cells adhered and spread faster on the ATT surface than on the CaP surface. These results collectively suggested that substrate surface properties directly influence cell adhesion on different biomaterials, which would result in further influence on the cell proliferation and differentiation.

  5. Ammonia vapor sensing properties of polyaniline-titanium(IV)phosphate cation exchange nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Asif Ali; Baig, Umair; Khalid, Mohd

    2011-02-28

    In this study, the electrically conducting polyaniline-titanium(IV)phosphate (PANI-TiP) cation exchange nanocomposite was synthesized by sol-gel method. The cation exchange nanocomposite based sensor for detection of ammonia vapors was developed at room temperature. It was revealed that the sensor showed good reversible response towards ammonia vapors ranging from 3 to 6%. It was found that the sensor with p-toluene sulphonic acid (p-TSA) doped exhibited higher sensing response than hydrochloric acid doped. This sensor has detection limit ≤1% ammonia. The response of resistivity changes of the cation exchange nanocomposite on exposure to different concentrations of ammonia vapors shows its utility as a sensing material. These studies suggest that the cation exchange nanocomposite could be a good material for ammonia sensor at room temperature. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Ion exchanger material based on Titanium phosphate for liquid radioactive waste treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maslova, M.; Gerasimova, L. [Tananaev Institute of Chemistry and Technology of Rare Elements and Mineral Resources, Kola Scientific Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Apatity (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-01

    A comparative study of the physicochemical and service properties of samples of Ti(OH) 1.36(HPO4) 1.32 * 2.3H2O sorbent in the finely dispersed and granulated forms, mastered for commercial production, was made. The sorption of Cs and Sr cations from solutions of various, compositions was studied in batch experiments, and the diffusion coefficients of the exchanging ions were determined. The hydrolytic stability of the. sorbents was examined with the aim to determine the optimal operation conditions. Experiments showed that the cation exchangers based on titanium phosphate are the most efficient in removal from liquid radioactive waste of induced radioactive isotopes of corrosion products, which is due to formation of weakly dissociating compounds of nonferrous metal ions with functional groups of the ion exchangers in the sorbent phase. (author)

  7. Antimicrobial peptides on calcium phosphate-coated titanium for the prevention of implant-associated infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazemzadeh-Narbat, Mehdi; Kindrachuk, Jason; Duan, Ke

    2010-01-01

    of this study was to develop a technique that enables the loading and local delivery of a unique group of cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMP) through implant surfaces. A thin layer of micro-porous calcium phosphate (CaP) coating was processed by electrolytic deposition onto the surface of titanium as the drug......Prevention of implant-associated infections has been one of the main challenges in orthopaedic surgery. This challenge is further complicated by the concern over the development of antibiotic resistance as a result of using traditional antibiotics for infection prophylaxis. The objective......) bacteria with 106-fold reductions of both bacterial strains within 30 min as assessed by measuring colony-forming units (CFU). Repeated CFU assays on the same CaP-Tet213 specimen demonstrated retention of antimicrobial activity by the CaP-Tet213 surfaces through four test cycles. The susceptibility...

  8. Competitive sorption between glyphosphate and inorganic phosphate on clay minerals and low organic matter soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dion, H.M.; Hill, H.H.Jr.; Washington State Univ., Pullmann, WA; Harsh, J.B.; Washington State Univ., Pullmann, WA

    2001-01-01

    Inorganic phosphate may influence the adsorption of glyphosate to soil surface sites. It has been postulated that glyphosphate sorption is dominated by the phosphoric acid moiety, therefore, inorganic phosphate could compete with glyphosate for surface sorption sites. Sorption of glyphosate is examined in low organic carbon systems where clay minerals dominate the available adsorption sites using 32 P-labeled phosphate and 14 C-labeled glyphosate to track sorption. Glyphosate sorption was found to be strongly dependent on phosphate additions. Isotherms were generally of the L type, which is consistent with a limited number of surface sites. Most sorption on whole soils could be accounted for by sorption observed on model clays of the same mineral type as found in the soils. (author)

  9. Phosphate geochemistry, mineralization processes, and Thioploca distribution in shelf sediments off central Chile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmkvist, Lars; Arning, Esther T.; Küster-Heins, Kathrin

    2010-01-01

    Sediments underlying the major costal upwelling systems of the world oceans are hot-spots of modern formation of hydroxyapatites, often associated with benthic communities of large, nitrate-accumulating sulfur bacteria. We studied the association between phosphate release, organic phosphorus...... to the pore water reached 100-300 μM peak concentrations within the uppermost 0-5 cm and phosphate was lost to the overlying anoxic water column. The large phosphate release was not directly related to the presence of Thioploca but was rather the result of a high deposition and mineralization rate of fresh...

  10. Adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells – Their osteogenicity and osteoblast in vitro mineralization on titanium granule carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Morten; Syberg, Susanne; Jørgensen, Niklas Rye

    2013-01-01

    Adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) may be osteogenic, may generate neoangiogenisis and may be progenitors for differentiated osteoblast mineralization. Titanium granules may be suitable as carriers for these cells. The aim was to demonstrate the osteogenic potential of ADMSCs...

  11. Structural studies of calcium phosphate doped with titanium and zirconium obtained by high-energy mechanical alloying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, C C; Sombra, A S B [Telecommunications and Materials Science and Engineering Laboratory (LOCEM), Physics Department, Federal University of Ceara, Campus do Pii, Postal Code 6030, 60455-760, Fortaleza-Ceara (Brazil)], E-mail: sombra@fisica.ufc.br

    2009-12-15

    In this paper, we present a new variation of the solid-state procedure on the synthesis of bioceramics with titanium (CapTi) and zirconium (CapZr), considering that zirconium (ZrO{sub 2}) and titanium oxide (TiO{sub 2}) are strengthening agents, due to their superb force and fracture toughness. The high efficiency of the calcination process opens a new way of producing commercial amounts of nanocrystalline bioceramics. In this work, a new variation of the solid-state procedure method was used to produce nanocrystalline powders of titanium and zirconium, using two different experimental chemical routes: CapTi: Ca(H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}){sub 2}+TiO{sub 2} and CapZr: Ca(H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}){sub 2}+ZrO{sub 2}. The powders were submitted to calcination processes (CapTic and CapZrc) at 800, 900 and 1000 deg. C. The calcium titanium phosphate phase, CaTi{sub 4}P{sub 6}O{sub 24}, was obtained in the CapTic reaction and the calcium zirconium phosphate, CaZr{sub 4}P{sub 6}O{sub 24}, was obtained in the CapZrc reaction. The obtained ceramics were characterized by x-ray powder diffraction (XRD), infrared (IR) spectroscopy, Raman scattering spectroscopy (RSS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. This method was compared with the milling process (CapTim and CapZrm), where in the last process the melting is not necessary and the powder obtained is nanocrystalline. The calcium titanium phosphate phase, CaTi{sub 4}P{sub 6}O{sub 24}, was obtained in the reaction CapTim, but in CapZrm the formation of any calcium phosphate phase even after 15 h of dry mechanical alloying was not observed.

  12. Protein adsorption and biomimetic mineralization behaviors of PLL-DNA multilayered films assembled onto titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao Wenli [Key Laboratory of Advanced Technologies of Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Feng Bo, E-mail: fengbo@swjtu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Advanced Technologies of Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Ni Yuxiang [Key Laboratory of Advanced Technologies of Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Yang Yongli [College of Material Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610054 (China); Lu Xiong; Weng Jie [Key Laboratory of Advanced Technologies of Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China)

    2010-11-01

    Titanium and its alloys are frequently used as surgical implants in load bearing situations, such as hip prostheses and dental implants, owing to their biocompatibility, mechanical and physical properties. In this paper, a layer-by-layer (LBL) self-assembly technique, based on the polyelectrolyte-mediated electrostatic adsorption of poly-L-lysine (PLL) and DNA, was used to the formation of multilayer on titanium surfaces. Then bovine serum albumin (BSA) adsorption and biomimetic mineralization of modified surfaces were studied. The chemical composition and wettability of assembled substrates were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), fluorescence microscopy and water contact angle measurement, respectively. The XPS analysis indicated that the layers were assembled successfully through electrostatic attractions. The measurement with ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometer revealed that the LBL films enhanced ability of BSA adsorption onto titanium. The adsorption quantity of BSA on the surface terminated with PLL was higher than that of the surface terminated with DNA, and the samples of TiOH/P/D/P absorbed BSA most. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed that samples of assembled PLL or/and DNA had better bioactivity in inducing HA formation. Thus the assembling of PLL and DNA onto the surface of titanium in turn via a layer-by-layer self-assembly technology can improve the bioactivity of titanium.

  13. Investigation of chromosomal aberrations in human lymphocytes of syrian phosphate miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alachkar, W; Othman, M [Radio - Biology and Health Dept. Syrian Atomic Energy Commission, (Syrian Arab Republic)

    1995-10-01

    The aim of thus study is to investigate the risk of exposure to Uranium and its radioactive products in Syrian phosphate miners (Khneefees and Al-sharkia). Chromosomal aberrations have been estimated in peripheral blood lymphocytes of miners using whole blood cultures `in vitro` for 48 hrs. The control group has been the normal population in damascus 180 km far from khneefees and 210 km from Al-sharkia. Our results have shown a significant difference between the miners and our control group; however there was no significant difference between the two miners groups. These results show an accumulative biological effect induced by environmental contamination in the Syrian phosphate mines. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Thermally unstable complexants/phosphate mineralization of actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, K.

    1996-01-01

    In situ immobilization is an approach to isolation of radionuclides from the hydrosphere that is receiving increasing attention. Rather than removing the actinides from contaminated soils, this approach transforms the actinides into intrinsically insoluble mineral phases resistant to leaching by groundwater. The principal advangates of this concept are the low cost and low risk of operator exposure and/or dispersion of the radionuclides to the wider environment. The challenge of this approach is toe accomplish the immobilization without causing collateral damage to the environment (the cure shouldn't be worse than the disease) and verification of system performance

  15. Biomimetic nanoparticles with polynucleotide and PEG mixed-monolayers enhance calcium phosphate mineralization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasconcellos, Kayla B.; McHugh, Sean M.; Dapsis, Katherine J.; Petty, Alexander R.; Gerdon, Aren E., E-mail: gerdoar@emmanuel.edu [Emmanuel College (United States)

    2013-09-15

    Biomineralization of hydroxyapatite (Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}(OH){sub 2}) is of significant importance in biomedical applications such as bone and dental repair, and biomimetic control of mineral formation may lead to more effective restorative procedures. Gold nanoparticles are functional scaffolds on which to assemble multi-component monolayers capable of mimicking protein activity in the templated synthesis of calcium phosphate. The goal of this research was to explore nanoparticle templates with mixed-monolayers of uncharged polar polyethylene glycol (PEG) molecules and highly charged polynucleotide and amino acid molecules in their ability to influence mineralization rates and mineral particle size and morphology. This research demonstrates through time-resolved optical density and dynamic light scattering measurements that the combination of tiopronin, PEG, and DNA presented on a nanoparticle surface decreases nanoparticle aggregation from 59 to 21 nm solvated radius, increases mineralization kinetics from 1.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} to 3.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} OD/min, and decreases mineral particle size from 685 to 442 nm average radius. FT-IR and TEM data demonstrate that mineralized material, while initially amorphous, transforms to a semi-crystalline material when guided by template interactions. This demonstrates that surface-tailored monolayer protected cluster scaffolds are successful and controllable mineralization templates with further potential for biomedical applications involving calcium phosphate and other biomaterials.

  16. Biomimetic nanoparticles with polynucleotide and PEG mixed-monolayers enhance calcium phosphate mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcellos, Kayla B.; McHugh, Sean M.; Dapsis, Katherine J.; Petty, Alexander R.; Gerdon, Aren E.

    2013-09-01

    Biomineralization of hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2) is of significant importance in biomedical applications such as bone and dental repair, and biomimetic control of mineral formation may lead to more effective restorative procedures. Gold nanoparticles are functional scaffolds on which to assemble multi-component monolayers capable of mimicking protein activity in the templated synthesis of calcium phosphate. The goal of this research was to explore nanoparticle templates with mixed-monolayers of uncharged polar polyethylene glycol (PEG) molecules and highly charged polynucleotide and amino acid molecules in their ability to influence mineralization rates and mineral particle size and morphology. This research demonstrates through time-resolved optical density and dynamic light scattering measurements that the combination of tiopronin, PEG, and DNA presented on a nanoparticle surface decreases nanoparticle aggregation from 59 to 21 nm solvated radius, increases mineralization kinetics from 1.5 × 10-3 to 3.1 × 10-3 OD/min, and decreases mineral particle size from 685 to 442 nm average radius. FT-IR and TEM data demonstrate that mineralized material, while initially amorphous, transforms to a semi-crystalline material when guided by template interactions. This demonstrates that surface-tailored monolayer protected cluster scaffolds are successful and controllable mineralization templates with further potential for biomedical applications involving calcium phosphate and other biomaterials.

  17. Effect of polydopamine on the biomimetic mineralization of mussel-inspired calcium phosphate cement in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zongguang [Key Lab of Advanced Technologies of Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Qu, Shuxin, E-mail: qushuxin@swjtu.edu.cn [Key Lab of Advanced Technologies of Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Zheng, Xiaotong; Xiong, Xiong [Key Lab of Advanced Technologies of Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Fu, Rong; Tang, Kuangyun; Zhong, Zhendong [Department of Plastic Surgery, Academy of Medical Sciences and Sichuan Provincial People' s Hospital, Chengdu 610041 (China); Weng, Jie [Key Lab of Advanced Technologies of Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China)

    2014-11-01

    Inspired by the excellent adhesive property of mussel adhesive protein, we added polydopamine (PDA) to calcium phosphate cement (PDA–CPC) to enhance its compressive strength previously. The mineralization and mechanism on PDA–CPC were investigated by soaking it in simulated body fluid in this study. The results indicated that PDA promoted the conversion of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate and α-tricalcium phosphate to hydroxyapatite (HA) in the early stage but inhibited this conversion subsequently. PDA promoted the rapid mineralization on PDA–CPC to form a layer of nanoscale calcium phosphate (CaP) whereas there was no CaP formation on the control-CPC after 1 d of soaking. This layer of nanoscale CaP was similar to that of natural bone, which was always observed during soaking. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed that the peak of C=O of PDA existed in the newly formed CaP on PDA–CPC, indicating the co-precipitation of CaP with PDA. Furthermore, the newly formed CaP on PDA–CPC was HA confirmed by transmission electron microscopy, which the newly formed HA was in association with PDA. Therefore, PDA increased the capacity of mineralization of CPC and induced the formation of nanoscale bone-like apatite on PDA–CPC. Thus, this provides the feasible route for surface modification on CPC. - Highlights: • Effect of polydopamine (PDA) on the in vitro mineralization of PDA-CPC was studied. • PDA promoted the rapid mineralization on PDA-CPC to form a nanoscale HA layer. • The precipitation of the nanoscale HA layer on PDA-CPC accompanied with PDA. • Polydopamine induced mineralization is feasible for surface modification of CaP.

  18. Titanium phosphate glass microcarriers induce enhanced osteogenic cell proliferation and human mesenchymal stem cell protein expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilay J Lakhkar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have developed 50- to 100-µm-sized titanium phosphate glass microcarriers (denoted as Ti5 that show enhanced proliferation of human mesenchymal stem cells and MG63 osteosarcoma cells, as well as enhanced human mesenchymal stem cell expression of bone differentiation markers, in comparison with commercially available glass microspheres at all time points. We also demonstrate that these microcarriers provide superior human mesenchymal stem cell proliferation with conventional Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle medium than with a specially developed commercial stem cell medium. The microcarrier proliferative capacity is revealed by a 24-fold increase in MG63 cell numbers in spinner flask bioreactor studies performed over a 7-day period, versus only a 6-fold increase in control microspheres under the same conditions; the corresponding values of Ti5 and control microspheres under static culture are 8-fold and 7-fold, respectively. The capability of guided osteogenic differentiation is confirmed by ELISAs for bone morphogenetic protein-2 and osteopontin, which reveal significantly greater expression of these markers, especially osteopontin, by human mesenchymal stem cells on the Ti5 microspheres than on the control. Scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy images reveal favorable MG63 and human mesenchymal stem cell adhesion on the Ti5 microsphere surfaces. Thus, the results demonstrate the suitability of the developed microspheres for use as microcarriers in bone tissue engineering applications.

  19. Photoluminescence properties of Er{sup 3+}-doped alkaline earth titanium phosphate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murthy, D.V.R.; Babu, A. Mohan [Department of Physics, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati 517 502 (India); Jamalaiah, B.C. [Department of Physics, Sree Vidyanikethan Engineering College, Tirupati, 517 102 (India); Moorthy, L. Rama, E-mail: lrmphysics@yahoo.co.i [Department of Physics, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati 517 502 (India); Jayasimhadri, M.; Jang, Kiwan; Lee, Ho Sueb [Department of Physics, Changwon National University, Changwon 641-773 (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Soung Soo [Department of Photonics, Silla University, Pusan 617-736 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Jung Hyun [Department of Physics, Pukyong National University, Pusan 608-737 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-02-18

    Er{sup 3+}-doped alkaline earth titanium phosphate (RTP) glasses with molar composition of 24 (NaPO{sub 3}){sub 6} + 30 KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4} + 25 TiO{sub 2} + 20 RCl{sub 2} + 1 Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} were prepared by melt quenching technique. Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters ({Omega}{sub 2,4,6}) were determined from the experimental oscillator strengths (f{sub exp}) of absorption bands. From these parameters spontaneous emission probabilities (A{sub R}), luminescence branching ratios ({beta}{sub R}) and radiative lifetimes ({tau}{sub R}) have been calculated. Visible and near infrared photoluminescence spectra has been recorded by exciting the samples at 380 and 970 nm respectively. An intense broad emission band at 1.53 {mu}m was observed corresponding to {sup 4}I{sub 13/2} {yields} {sup 4}I{sub 15/2} transition. McCumber theory has been applied to determine the emission cross-sections ({sigma}{sub e}) of the {sup 4}I{sub 13/2} {yields} {sup 4}I{sub 15/2} transition using the absorption cross-sections ({sigma}{sub a}). The lifetimes of {sup 4}S{sub 3/2} level were measured for the glasses by exciting the samples at 540 nm wavelength and the quantum efficiencies were also determined.

  20. Note: CO₂-mineral dissolution experiments using a rocking autoclave and a novel titanium reaction cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purser, Gemma; Rochelle, Christopher A; Wallis, Humphrey C; Rosenqvist, Jörgen; Kilpatrick, Andrew D; Yardley, Bruce W D

    2014-08-01

    A novel titanium reaction cell has been constructed for the study of water-rock-CO2 reactions. The reaction cell has been used within a direct-sampling rocking autoclave and offers certain advantages over traditional "flexible gold/titanium cell" approaches. The main advantage is robustness, as flexible cells are prone to rupture on depressurisation during gas-rich experiments. The reaction cell was tested in experiments during an inter-laboratory comparison study, in which mineral kinetic data were determined. The cell performed well during experiments up to 130 °C and 300 bars pressure. The data obtained were similar to those of other laboratories participating in the study, and also to previously published data.

  1. Paracrystalline Disorder from Phosphate Ion Orientation and Substitution in Synthetic Bone Mineral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marisa, Mary E; Zhou, Shiliang; Melot, Brent C; Peaslee, Graham F; Neilson, James R

    2016-12-05

    Hydroxyapatite is an inorganic mineral closely resembling the mineral phase in bone. However, as a biological mineral, it is highly disordered, and its composition and atomistic structure remain poorly understood. Here, synchrotron X-ray total scattering and pair distribution function analysis methods provide insight into the nature of atomistic disorder in a synthetic bone mineral analogue, chemically substituted hydroxyapatite. By varying the effective hydrolysis rate and/or carbonate concentration during growth of the mineral, compounds with varied degrees of paracrystallinity are prepared. From advanced simulations constrained by the experimental pair distribution function and density functional theory, the paracrystalline disorder prevalent in these materials appears to result from accommodation of carbonate in the lattice through random displacement of the phosphate groups. Though many substitution modalities are likely to occur in concert, the most predominant substitution places carbonate into the mirror plane of an ideal phosphate site. Understanding the mineralogical imperfections of a biologically analogous hydroxyapatite is important not only to potential bone grafting applications but also to biological mineralization processes themselves.

  2. Comparison of how different feed phosphates affect performance, bone mineralization and phosphorus retention in broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manel Hamdi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the comparative P bio-avalability of different sources of phosphate based on their effects on animal performance, bones mineralization and mineral retention in broilers. To achieve this goal, two experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1, twenty diets were prepared including five different phosphorus sources, either mono-calcium phosphate (MCP or 4 different batches of di-calcium phosphate, to supplement non phytic P (NPP levels at 3.0, 3.5, 4.0 and 4.5 g/kg in the diets. In Experiment 2, three treatments were used: the low MCP diet was deficient in NPP (3.1 g/kg for the starter phase and 2.8 g/kg for the grower phase; the high MCP diet and the high TCP (tri-calcium phosphate diet included adequate levels of NPP (4.4-4.7 g/kg for the starter phase and 4.2-4.3 g/kg for the grower phase. Phytase was not added to experimental diets. Results of Exp. 1 indicated that an increase of NPP in the diet from 3.0 to 4.0 g/kg increased weight gain and feed intake between d 1 and d 21 (Trial 1. Alternatively, tibia weight and ash percentage at d 21 responded up to the level of 4.5 g/kg and showed significant difference with birds of the 4.0 g/kg NPP group. In Trial 2, chickens fed with the high MCP and TCP had improved growth performances and bone mineralization. No differences were observed on the P availability among different mineral P sources. A level of 4.5 g/kg, NPP is recommended when phytase is not included to maximize both performance and bone mineralization in broiler chickens up to d 21.

  3. Nanoscale Phase Stability Reversal During the Nucleation and Growth of Titanium Oxide Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummmer, D. R.; Heaney, P. J.; Kubicki, J. D.; Kent, P. R.; Post, J. E.

    2008-12-01

    Fine-grained titanium oxide minerals are important in soils, where they affect a variety of geochemical processes. They are also industrially important as catalysts, pigments, food additives, and dielectrics. Recent research has indicated an apparent reversal of thermodynamic stability between TiO2 phases at the nanoscale thought to be caused by an increased contribution of surface energy to the total free energy. Time-resolved X-ray diffraction (XRD) experiments in which titanium oxides crystallize from aqueous TiCl4 solutions confirm that anatase, a metastable phase, is always the first phase to nucleate under our range of initial conditions. Rutile peaks are observed only minutes after the first appearance of anatase, after which anatase abundance slowly decreases while rutile continues to form. Whole pattern refinement of diffraction data reveals that lattice constants of both phases increase throughout the crystallization process. In addition, transmission electron microscope (TEM) observations and kinetic modeling indicate that anatase does not undergo a solid-state transformation to the rutile structure as once thought. Instead, anatase appears to re-dissolve and then feed the growth of already nucleated rutile nanocrystals. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were employed to model 1, 2, and 3 nm particles of both mineral phases. The total surface energies calculated from these models did yield lower values for anatase than for rutile by 8-13 kJ/mol depending on particle size, indicating that surface free energy is sufficient to account for stability reversal. However, these whole-particle surface energies were much higher than the sum of energies of each particle's constituent crystallographic surfaces. We attribute the excess energy to defects associated with the edges and corners of nanoparticles, which are not present on a 2-D periodic surface. This previously unreported edge and corner energy may play a dominant role in the stability reversal

  4. Expression of a mineral phosphate solubilizing gene from Erwinia herbicola in two rhizobacterial strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, H; Gonzalez, T; Selman, G

    2001-11-30

    A genetic construction was carried out using the broad host range vector pKT230 and plasmid pMCG898, which encodes the Erwinia herbicola pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) synthase, a gene involved in mineral phosphate solubilization (mps). The final construction was transformed and expressed in Escherichia coli MC1061, and the recombinant plasmids were transferred to Burkholderia cepacia IS-16 and Pseudomonas sp. PSS recipient cells by conjugation. Clones containing recombinant plasmids produced higher clearing halos in plates with insoluble phosphate as the unique (P) source, in comparison with those of strains without plasmids, demonstrating the heterologous expression of the E. herbicola gene in the recipient strains. This genetic manipulation allowed the increase in mps ability of both strains, enhancing their potentialities as growth promoters of agricultural crops. These results represent the first report on the application of the recombinant DNA methodology for the obtaining of improved phosphate solubilizing ability from rhizobacterial strains for biofertilization purposes.

  5. Chapter 9: Model Systems for Formation and Dissolution of Calcium Phosphate Minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orme, C A; Giocondi, J L

    2006-07-29

    Calcium phosphates are the mineral component of bones and teeth. As such there is great interest in understanding the physical mechanisms that underlie their growth, dissolution, and phase stability. Control is often achieved at the cellular level by the manipulation of solution states and the use of crystal growth modulators such as peptides or other organic molecules. This chapter begins with a discussion of solution speciation in body fluids and relates this to important crystal growth parameters such as the supersaturation, pH, ionic strength and the ratio of calcium to phosphate activities. We then discuss the use of scanning probe microscopy as a tool to measure surface kinetics of mineral surfaces evolving in simplified solutions. The two primary themes that we will touch on are the use of microenvironments that temporally evolve the solution state to control growth and dissolution; and the use of various growth modifiers that interact with the solution species or with mineral surfaces to shift growth away from the lowest energy facetted forms. The study of synthetic minerals in simplified solution lays the foundation for understand mineralization process in more complex environments found in the body.

  6. Artificial citrate operon and Vitreoscilla hemoglobin gene enhanced mineral phosphate solubilizing ability of Enterobacter hormaechei DHRSS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Kavita; Kumar, Chanchal; Archana, G; Kumar, G Naresh

    2014-10-01

    Mineral phosphate solubilization by bacteria is mediated through secretion of organic acids, among which citrate is one of the most effective. To overproduce citrate in bacterial systems, an artificial citrate operon comprising of genes encoding NADH-insensitive citrate synthase of E. coli and Salmonella typhimurium sodium-dependent citrate transporter was constructed. In order to improve its mineral phosphate solubilizing (MPS) ability, the citrate operon was incorporated into E. hormaechei DHRSS. The artificial citrate operon transformant secreted 7.2 mM citric acid whereas in the native strain, it was undetectable. The transformant released 0.82 mM phosphate in flask studies in buffered medium containing rock phosphate as sole P source. In fermenter studies, similar phenotype was observed under aerobic conditions. However, under microaerobic conditions, no citrate was detected and P release was not observed. Therefore, an artificial citrate gene cluster containing Vitreoscilla hemoglobin (vgb) gene under its native promoter, along with artificial citrate operon under constitutive tac promoter, was constructed and transformed into E. hormaechei DHRSS. This transformant secreted 9 mM citric acid under microaerobic conditions and released 1.0 mM P. Thus, incorporation of citrate operon along with vgb gene improves MPS ability of E. hormaechei DHRSS under buffered, microaerobic conditions mimicking rhizospheric environment.

  7. Micro-computerised tomography optimisation for the measurement of bone mineral density around titanium dental implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, C.; Swain, M.; Duncan, W.

    2010-01-01

    Titanium dental implants (screws) are commonly used to replace missing teeth by forming a biological union with bone ('osseointegration'). Micro-computerised tomography (μCT) may be useful for measuring bone mineral density around dental implants. Major issues arise because of various artefacts that occur with polychromatic X-rays associated bench type instruments that may compromise interpretation of the observations. In this study various approaches to minimise artefacts such as; beam hardening, filtering and edge effects are explored with a homogeneous polymeric material, Teflon, with and without an implant present. The implications of the limitations of using such polychromatic μCT systems to quantify bone mineral density adjacent to the implant are discussed. (author)

  8. New hydrogen titanium phosphate sulfate electrodes for Li-ion and Na-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ran; Mieritz, Daniel; Seo, Dong-Kyun; Chan, Candace K.

    2017-03-01

    NASICON-type materials with general formula AxM2(PO4)3 (A = Li or Na, M = Ti, V, and Fe) are promising candidates for Li- and Na-ion batteries due to their open three-dimensional framework structure. Here we report the electrochemical properties of hydrogen titanium phosphate sulfate, H0.4Ti2(PO4)2.4(SO4)0.6 (HTPS), a new mixed polyanion material with NASICON structure. Micron-sized HTPS aggregates with crystallite grain size of ca. 23 nm are synthesized using a sol-gel synthesis in an acidic medium. The properties of the as-synthesized HTPS, ball-milled HTPS, and samples prepared as carbon composites using an in-situ glucose decomposition reaction are investigated. A capacity of 148 mAh g-1 corresponding to insertion of 2 Li+ per formula unit is observed in the ball-milled HTPS over the potential window of 1.5-3.4 V vs. Li/Li+. Lithiation at ca. 2.8 and 2.5 V is determined to occur through filling of the M1 and M2 sites, respectively. Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) are used characterize the HTPS before and after cycling. Evaluation of the HTPS in a Na-ion cell is also performed. A discharge capacity of 93 mAh g-1 with sodiation at ca. 2.9 and 2.2 V vs. Na/Na+ is observed.

  9. Adhesive bonding of super-elastic titanium-nickel alloy castings with a phosphate metal conditioner and an acrylic adhesive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, H; Tanoue, N; Yanagida, H; Atsuta, M; Koike, M; Yoneyama, T

    2003-06-01

    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the bonding characteristics of super-elastic titanium-nickel (Ti-Ni) alloy castings. Disk specimens were cast from a Ti-Ni alloy (Ti-50.85Ni mol%) using an arc centrifugal casting machine. High-purity titanium and nickel specimens were also prepared as experimental references. The specimens were air-abraded with alumina, and bonded with an adhesive resin (Super-Bond C & B). A metal conditioner containing a phosphate monomer (Cesead II Opaque Primer) was also used for priming the specimens. Post-thermocycling average bond strengths (MPa) of the primed groups were 41.5 for Ti-Ni, 30.4 for Ti and 19.5 for Ni, whereas those of the unprimed groups were 21.6 for Ti, 19.3 for Ti-Ni and 9.3 for Ni. Application of the phosphate conditioner elevated the bond strengths of all alloy/metals (P elastic Ti-Ni alloy castings can be achieved with a combination of a phosphate metal conditioner and a tri-n-butylborane-initiated adhesive resin.

  10. Trace elements in rock phosphates and P containing mineral and organo-mineral fertilizers sold in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kratz, Sylvia, E-mail: sylvia.kratz@jki.bund.de; Schick, Judith; Schnug, Ewald

    2016-01-15

    68 rock phosphates and 162 P containing (organo-)mineral fertilizers sold in Germany were evaluated with regard to trace element contents. While Al, As, B, Be, Cd, Cr, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Tl, U, and Zn were higher in sedimentary than in igneous rock phosphates, the opposite was true for Co, Cu, Sn, Mn, Ti, Fe, and Sr. Comparing element concentrations to the currently valid legal limit values defined by the German Fertilizer Ordinance, it was found that some PK and many straight P fertilizers (superphosphate, triple superphosphate, partly acidulated rock phosphates) exceeded the limit of 50 mg Cd/kg P{sub 2}O{sub 5}. Mean values for As, Ni, Pb, and Tl remained below legal limits in almost all cases. While no legal limit has been defined for U in Germany yet, the limit of 50 mg U/kg P{sub 2}O{sub 5} for P containing fertilizers proposed by the German Commission for the Protection of Soils was clearly exceeded by mean values for all fertilizer types analyzed. A large share of the samples evaluated in this work contained essential trace elements at high concentrations, with many of them not being declared as such. Furthermore, trace elements supplied with these fertilizers at a fertilization rate leveling P uptake would exceed trace element uptake by crops. This may become most relevant for B and Fe, since many crops are sensitive to an oversupply of B, and Fe loads exceeding plant uptake may immobilize P supplies for the crops by forming Fe phosphate salts. The sample set included two products made from thermochemically treated sewage sludge ash. The products displayed very high concentrations of Fe and Mn and exceeded the legal limit for Ni, emphasizing the necessity to continue research on heavy metal removal from recycled raw materials and the development of environmentally friendly and agriculturally efficient fertilizer products. - Highlights: • Mineral fertilizers (MF) sold in Germany often exceed legal limits for Cd • MF sold in Germany contain high

  11. Adsorption and release of amino acids mixture onto apatitic calcium phosphates analogous to bone mineral

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Rhilassi, A.; Mourabet, M.; El Boujaady, H.; Bennani-Ziatni, M.; Hamri, R. El; Taitai, A.

    2012-10-01

    Study focused on the interaction of adsorbate with poorly crystalline apatitic calcium phosphates analogous to bone mineral. Calcium phosphates prepared in water-ethanol medium at physiological temperature (37 °C) and neutral pH, their Ca/P ratio was between 1.33 and 1.67. Adsorbate used in this paper takes the mixture form of two essential amino acids L-lysine and DL-leucine which have respectively a character hydrophilic and hydrophobic. Adsorption and release are investigated experimentally; they are dependent on the phosphate type and on the nature of adsorbate L-lysine, DL-leucine and their mixture. Adsorption of mixture of amino acids on the apatitic calcium phosphates is influenced by the competition between the two amino acids: L-lysine and DL-leucine which exist in the medium reaction. The adsorption kinetics is very fast while the release kinetics is slow. The chemical composition of apatite has an influence on both adsorption and release. The interactions adsorbate-adsorbent are electrostatic type. Adsorption and release reactions of the amino acid mixture are explained by the existence of the hydrated surface layer of calcium phosphate apatite. The charged sbnd COOsbnd and sbnd NH3+ of adsorbates are the strongest groups that interact with the surface of apatites, the adsorption is mainly due to the electrostatic interaction between the groups sbnd COOsbnd of amino acids and calcium Ca2+ ions of the apatite. Comparative study of interactions between adsorbates (L-lysine, DL-leucine and their mixture) and apatitic calcium phosphates is carried out in vitro by using UV-vis and infrared spectroscopy IR techniques.

  12. NELL-1 increases pre-osteoblast mineralization using both phosphate transporter Pit1 and Pit2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowan, Catherine M. [Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Los Angeles, 420 Westwood Plaza,7523 Boelter Hall, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Dental and Craniofacial Research Institute and Section of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, University of California, Los Angeles, 40833 Le Conte Ave, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Zhang, Xinli; James, Aaron W.; Mari Kim, T.; Sun, Nichole [Dental and Craniofacial Research Institute and Section of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, University of California, Los Angeles, 40833 Le Conte Ave, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Wu, Benjamin [Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Los Angeles, 420 Westwood Plaza,7523 Boelter Hall, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Dental and Craniofacial Research Institute and Section of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, University of California, Los Angeles, 40833 Le Conte Ave, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Ting, Kang [Dental and Craniofacial Research Institute and Section of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, University of California, Los Angeles, 40833 Le Conte Ave, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Soo, Chia, E-mail: bsoo@ucla.edu [UCLA and Orthopaedic Hospital Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and the Orthopaedic, Hospital Research Center, University of California, Los Angeles, 2641 Charles E. Young Dr. South, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2012-06-08

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NELL-1 accelerates extracellular matrix mineralization in MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NELL-1 significantly increases intracellular inorganic phosphate levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NELL-1 positively regulates osteogenesis but not proliferation in MC3T3-E1 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NELL-1 regulates inorganic phosphate transporter activity. -- Abstract: NELL-1 is a potent osteoinductive molecule that enhances bone formation in multiple animal models through currently unidentified pathways. In the present manuscript, we hypothesized that NELL-1 may regulate osteogenic differentiation accompanied by alteration of inorganic phosphate (Pi) entry into the osteoblast via sodium dependent phosphate (NaPi) transporters. To determine this, MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts were cultured in the presence of recombinant human (rh)NELL-1 or rhBMP-2. Analysis was performed for intracellular Pi levels through malachite green staining, Pit-1 and Pit-2 expression, and forced upregulation of Pit-1 and Pit-2. Results showed rhNELL-1 to increase MC3T3-E1 matrix mineralization and Pi influx associated with activation of both Pit-1 and Pit-2 channels, with significantly increased Pit-2 production. In contrast, Pi transport elicited by rhBMP-2 showed to be associated with increased Pit-1 production only. Next, neutralizing antibodies against Pit-1 and Pit-2 completely abrogated the Pi influx effect of rhNELL-1, suggesting rhNELL-1 is dependent on both transporters. These results identify one potential mechanism of action for rhNELL-1 induced osteogenesis and highlight a fundamental difference between NELL-1 and BMP-2 signaling.

  13. NELL-1 increases pre-osteoblast mineralization using both phosphate transporter Pit1 and Pit2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, Catherine M.; Zhang, Xinli; James, Aaron W.; Mari Kim, T.; Sun, Nichole; Wu, Benjamin; Ting, Kang; Soo, Chia

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► NELL-1 accelerates extracellular matrix mineralization in MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts. ► NELL-1 significantly increases intracellular inorganic phosphate levels. ► NELL-1 positively regulates osteogenesis but not proliferation in MC3T3-E1 cells. ► NELL-1 regulates inorganic phosphate transporter activity. -- Abstract: NELL-1 is a potent osteoinductive molecule that enhances bone formation in multiple animal models through currently unidentified pathways. In the present manuscript, we hypothesized that NELL-1 may regulate osteogenic differentiation accompanied by alteration of inorganic phosphate (Pi) entry into the osteoblast via sodium dependent phosphate (NaPi) transporters. To determine this, MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts were cultured in the presence of recombinant human (rh)NELL-1 or rhBMP-2. Analysis was performed for intracellular Pi levels through malachite green staining, Pit-1 and Pit-2 expression, and forced upregulation of Pit-1 and Pit-2. Results showed rhNELL-1 to increase MC3T3-E1 matrix mineralization and Pi influx associated with activation of both Pit-1 and Pit-2 channels, with significantly increased Pit-2 production. In contrast, Pi transport elicited by rhBMP-2 showed to be associated with increased Pit-1 production only. Next, neutralizing antibodies against Pit-1 and Pit-2 completely abrogated the Pi influx effect of rhNELL-1, suggesting rhNELL-1 is dependent on both transporters. These results identify one potential mechanism of action for rhNELL-1 induced osteogenesis and highlight a fundamental difference between NELL-1 and BMP-2 signaling.

  14. Plasma electrolytic oxidation of titanium in a phosphate/silicate electrolyte and tribological performance of the coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliasghari, S.; Skeldon, P., E-mail: p.skeldon@manchester.ac.uk; Thompson, G.E.

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Plasma electrolytic oxidation performed of titanium in silicate/phosphate electrolyte. • Range of duty cycle, current density, positive-to-negative current ratio studied. • Coatings contain anatase, rutile, Ti{sub 3}O{sub 5}, and amorphous silica. • Ptfe incorporated into coatings by addition of ptfe emulsion to the electrolyte. • Fiction reduced but wear life relatively short due to porosity of coatings. - Abstract: Plasma electrolytic oxidation of titanium has been investigated using a phosphate/silicate electrolyte with a square waveform and a frequency of 50 Hz. A range of constant rms current densities, duty cycles and negative-to-positive current ratios was employed. The resultant coatings were examined by analytical scanning and transmission electron microscopies and X-ray diffraction. The coatings, which were limited in thickness to ∼40 to 50 μm, contained anatase, rutile, Ti{sub 2}O{sub 5} and silicon-rich, amorphous material. The tribological behaviour was investigated using a ball-on-disc test, revealing a coefficient of friction against steel of ∼0.8, which reduced to ∼0.4 by incorporation of ptfe particles from the electrolyte. However, due to the composition and morphology of the coatings, their wear life was relatively short.

  15. Plasma electrolytic oxidation of titanium in a phosphate/silicate electrolyte and tribological performance of the coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliasghari, S.; Skeldon, P.; Thompson, G.E.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Plasma electrolytic oxidation performed of titanium in silicate/phosphate electrolyte. • Range of duty cycle, current density, positive-to-negative current ratio studied. • Coatings contain anatase, rutile, Ti 3 O 5 , and amorphous silica. • Ptfe incorporated into coatings by addition of ptfe emulsion to the electrolyte. • Fiction reduced but wear life relatively short due to porosity of coatings. - Abstract: Plasma electrolytic oxidation of titanium has been investigated using a phosphate/silicate electrolyte with a square waveform and a frequency of 50 Hz. A range of constant rms current densities, duty cycles and negative-to-positive current ratios was employed. The resultant coatings were examined by analytical scanning and transmission electron microscopies and X-ray diffraction. The coatings, which were limited in thickness to ∼40 to 50 μm, contained anatase, rutile, Ti 2 O 5 and silicon-rich, amorphous material. The tribological behaviour was investigated using a ball-on-disc test, revealing a coefficient of friction against steel of ∼0.8, which reduced to ∼0.4 by incorporation of ptfe particles from the electrolyte. However, due to the composition and morphology of the coatings, their wear life was relatively short

  16. The comparison of phosphate-titanate-silicate layers on the titanium and Ti6Al4V alloy base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokita, M.

    2011-08-01

    The studied layers were composed of two parts: titanate-silicate underlayer for better adhesion and titanate-phosphate-silicate layers for potential bioparameters. The layers with different amounts of hydroxyapatite were deposited on titanium and Ti6Al4V alloy substrates using dipping sol-gel method and electrophoresis. The selection of sol/suspension composition, deposition time and heat treatment conditions have the decisive influence on the layers parameters. The obtained layers should be very thin and almost amorphous. The specific nature of ceramic layers on the metal substrates excludes the use of some measurements methods or makes it difficult to interpret the measurement results. All the obtained samples were compared using XRD analysis data (GID technique), SEM with EDX measurements and FTIR spectroscopy (transmission and reflection techniques) before and after soaking in simulated body fluid. FTIR spectroscopy with mathematical treatment of the spectra (BIO-RAD Win-IR program, Arithmetic-subtract function) was used to detect the increase or decrease of any phosphate phases during SBF soaking. Based on the FTIR results the processes of hydroxyapatite (HAp) growth or layer dissolution were estimated. The layers deposited on titanium substrate are more crystalline then the ones deposited on Ti6Al4V. During SBF soaking process the growth of small amount of microcrystalline carbonate hydroxyapatite was observed on titanium substrate. The layer on Ti6Al4V base contained amorphous carbonate apatite. During heating treatment above about 870-920 K this apatite transforms into carbonate hydroxyapatite. The Ti6Al4V substrate seems to be more advantageous in context of potentially bioactive materials obtaining.

  17. Biocompatibility of the titanium-based implant surfaces: Effect of the calcium dihydrogen phosphate on osteoblast cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaluđerović Milena R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the presence of calcium dihydrogen phosphate in acid media on titanium-based implant surfaces, Ticer, employed in clinics, and its white form (Ticer white, on osteoblast cells was investigated. Novel surfaces M1 and M2 were obtained by immersing Ticer and Ticer white surfaces in calcium dihydrogen phosphate solution at pH 3.5. The surfaces were characterized by SEM, EDS and X-ray diffraction. The results related to interaction of investigated surfaces and human osteoblast cells from indirect biocompatibility (MTT and SRB assays, proliferation (DAPI assay and mode of cell death (acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB double staining were found to be in good agreement, as well as findings from osteocalcin (OC and bone sialoprotein (BSP expression. Surfaces were obtained by employing anodic plasma-electrochemical oxidation with spark discharges without subsequent surface modifications were found to be more compatible. Soaking of Ticer and Ticer white in phosphate solution gave toxic materials (M1 and M2 which induced apoptosis and secondary necrosis in osteoblast cells.

  18. Artificial Citrate Operon Confers Mineral Phosphate Solubilization Ability to Diverse Fluorescent Pseudomonads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikary, Hemanta; Sanghavi, Paulomi B.; Macwan, Silviya R.; Archana, Gattupalli; Naresh Kumar, G.

    2014-01-01

    Citric acid is a strong acid with good cation chelating ability and can be very efficient in solubilizing mineral phosphates. Only a few phosphate solubilizing bacteria and fungi are known to secrete citric acids. In this work, we incorporated artificial citrate operon containing NADH insensitive citrate synthase (gltA1) and citrate transporter (citC) genes into the genome of six-plant growth promoting P. fluorescens strains viz., PfO-1, Pf5, CHAO1, P109, ATCC13525 and Fp315 using MiniTn7 transposon gene delivery system. Comprehensive biochemical characterization of the genomic integrants and their comparison with plasmid transformants of the same operon in M9 minimal medium reveals the highest amount of ∼7.6±0.41 mM citric and 29.95±2.8 mM gluconic acid secretion along with ∼43.2±3.24 mM intracellular citrate without affecting the growth of these P. fluorescens strains. All genomic integrants showed enhanced citric and gluconic acid secretion on Tris-Cl rock phosphate (TRP) buffered medium, which was sufficient to release 200–1000 µM Pi in TRP medium. This study demonstrates that MPS ability could be achieved in natural fluorescent pseudomonads by incorporation of artificial citrate operon not only as plasmid but also by genomic integration. PMID:25259527

  19. Sucrose dependent mineral phosphate solubilization in Enterobacter asburiae PSI3 by heterologous overexpression of periplasmic invertases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Chanchal; Wagh, Jitendra; Archana, G; Naresh Kumar, G

    2016-12-01

    Enterobacter asburiae PSI3 solubilizes mineral phosphates in the presence of glucose by the secretion of gluconic acid generated by the action of a periplasmic pyrroloquinoline quinone dependent glucose dehydrogenase. In order to achieve mineral phosphate solubilization phenotype in the presence of sucrose, plasmids pCNK4 and pCNK5 containing genes encoding the invertase enzyme of Zymomonas mobilis (invB) and of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (suc2) under constitutive promoters were constructed with malE signal sequence (in case of invB alone as the suc2 is secreted natively). When introduced into E. asburiae PSI3, E. a. (pCNK4) and E. a. (pCNK5) transformants secreted 21.65 ± 0.94 and 22 ± 1.3 mM gluconic acid, respectively, in the presence of 75 mM sucrose and they also solubilized 180 ± 4.3 and 438 ± 7.3 µM P from the rock phosphate. In the presence of a mixture of 50 mM sucrose and 25 mM glucose, E. a. (pCNK5) secreted 34 ± 2.3 mM gluconic acid and released 479 ± 8.1 µM P. Moreover, in the presence of a mixture of eight sugars (10 mM each) in the medium, E. a. (pCNK5) released 414 ± 5.3 µM P in the buffered medium. Thus, this study demonstrates incorporation of periplasmic invertase imparted P solubilization ability to E. asburiae PSI3 in the presence of sucrose and mixture of sugars.

  20. Imbalance of morphofunctional responses of Jurkat T lymphoblasts at short-term culturing with relief zinc- or copper-containing calcium phosphate coating on titanium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvinova, L S; Shupletsova, V V; Dunets, N A; Khaziakhmatova, O G; Yurova, K A; Khlusova, M Yu; Slepchenko, G B; Cherempey, E G; Sharkeev, Yu P; Komarova, E G; Sedelnikova, M B; Khlusov, I A

    2017-01-01

    Morphofunctional response of Jurkat T cells that were cultured for 24 h on substrates prepared from commercially pure titanium with relief microarc bilateral calcium phosphate coating containing copper or zinc was studied. Changes in the concentration of essential trace elements contained in this coating can cause significant imbalance of molecular processes of differentiation, secretion, apoptosis, and necrosis and reduce tumor cell survival.

  1. Bi-functionalization of a calcium phosphate-coated titanium surface with slow-release simvastatin and metronidazole to provide antibacterial activities and pro-osteodifferentiation capabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.; Zhang, X.; Jin, X.; Fan, C.; Ye, H.; Ou, M.; Lv, L.; Wu, G.; Zhou, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Coating the surface of titanium implants or other bone graft substitute materials with calcium phosphate (Ca-P) crystals is an effective way to enhance the osteoconduction of the implants. Ca-P coating alone cannot confer pro-osteodifferentiation and antibacterial capabilities on implants; however,

  2. Radiological impact during the extraction, processing and use of phosphate minerals in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerquera, Juan T.; Prendes Alonso, Miguel; Ramos Biltres, Odalys

    2008-01-01

    The use of phosphates for the production of fertilisers is a practice broadly diffused in the world. Their wide use is associated to the contribution of this material to formulation of Nk fertilisers. It is known in turn that phosphates have in their composition appreciable quantities of radioactive elements of natural origin. For this reason the use of phosphates in the composition of fertilizers can cause a radiological impact to both workers and public during all the phases of extraction and processing of phosphates, as well as during the production and application of these fertilizers. Finally the transfer of radionuclides contained in the fertilizers to the products of human consumption (vegetables, milk, meat) can produce an additional radiological impact on population. In Cuba there exist six locations of phosphoric rocks, located in the counties of Pinar del Rio, Havana, Matanzas, Sancti-Spiritus and Holguin. From these deposits there were studied the two ones which are in exploitation: 'La Pimienta' deposit, located in the West part of the country and 'Trinidad de Guedes' deposit, located in the Centre-West of Cuba. Paper shows the results obtained by the Center for Radiation Protection and Hygiene (CPHR) in the determination of radionuclides concentrations in collected in the sites samples. Based on these results and taking into account both the features of routine works carried out in the sites and the later use of collected mineral as fertilizer, doses to mining workers and to members of the public were estimated. Estimated doses are in the range 0.3 - 2.70 mSv per year for workers and in the range 1.3 - 17 μSv per year. (author)

  3. FTIR absorption reflection study of biomimetic growth of phosphates on titanium implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoch, A.; Jastrzębski, W.; Brożek, A.; Stoch, J.; Szaraniec, J.; Trybalska, B.; Kmita, G.

    2000-11-01

    Titanium has been used for many medical applications; however, its joining to a living bone still is not satisfactorily good, challenging appropriate investigations. The aim of this work was to generate chemical modifications at its surface such that in vivo conditions, heterogeneous nucleation, and then growth of apatite from the body fluid could be easily induced and successfully performed. For this purpose, on the titanium samples, the oxide sublayers containing titanium, calcium and silicon (TCS) were deposited from a suitable solution using the sol-gel deep-coating procedure. Dried samples were heated at 400°C then cooled and thermostatically held in synthetic body fluids (SBF, SBFIII) under physiological conditions to mimic the natural process of apatite formation. Changes in surface composition of TCS sublayers caused by the heating were studied with XPS. Infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy monitored successive steps of apatite growth. It was found that in SBF, at the precoated titanium surface, nucleation and growth of the apatite containing carbonate took place. In SBFIII, for a higher concentration of calcium ions in comparison with SBF, a much-enhanced growth of the apatite free of carbonate was observed. TCS precoatings applied on stainless steel and Cr-Co-Mo alloy (Micromed) act also as bioactive interfaces with high ability to nucleation of biologically equivalent apatite. Biomimetic formation of this apatite on biologically inactive materials can be an important step in implant surgery.

  4. Rapid prototyped porous titanium coated with calcium phosphate as a scaffold for bone tissue engineering.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez, M.A.; Sohier, J.; Gaillard, C.A.J.M.; Quillard, S.; Dorget, M.; Layrolle, P.

    2008-01-01

    High strength porous scaffolds and mesenchymal stem cells are required for bone tissue engineering applications. Porous titanium scaffolds (TiS) with a regular array of interconnected pores of 1000 microm in diameter and a porosity of 50% were produced using a rapid prototyping technique. A calcium

  5. Promoting Effect of Layered Titanium Phosphate on the Electrochemical and Photovoltaic Performance of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng Changsheng

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We reported a composite electrolyte prepared by incorporating layered α-titanium phosphate (α-TiP into an iodide-based electrolyte using 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate(EmimBF4 ionic liquid as solvent. The obtained composite electrolyte exhibited excellent electrochemical and photovoltaic properties compared to pure ionic liquid electrolyte. Both the diffusion coefficient of triiodide (I3 − in the electrolyte and the charge-transfer reaction at the electrode/electrolyte interface were improved markedly. The mechanism for the enhanced electrochemical properties of the composite electrolyte was discussed. The highest conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC was obtained for the composite electrolyte containing 1wt% α-TiP, with an improvement of 58% in the conversion efficiency than the blank one, which offered a broad prospect for the fabrication of stable DSSCs with a high conversion efficiency.

  6. Novel phosphate-grafted ePTFE copolymers for optimum in vitro mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wentrup-Byrne, Edeline; Suzuki, Shuko; Groendahl, Lisbeth; Suwanasilp, Juthakarn Jessica

    2010-01-01

    Surface modification via graft copolymerization is an attractive method for optimizing polymers used in biomedical applications. We developed a novel method using a mixed solvent system (either water and dichloromethane (DCM) or water, methanol and DCM) consisting of two solvent phases for grafting 2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl phosphate onto expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE). This new method resulted in the fabrication of grafted membranes with greater grafting extents (GEs) (as evaluated from x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)) in the organic phase than those obtained when grafting was carried out in a single phase. It also made it possible to graft in the aqueous phase, a process that is otherwise inhibited by the concomitant formation of large amounts of highly crystalline homopolymer. Thorough characterization of the grafted membranes using gravimetric, XPS and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) not only permitted evaluation of the grafting outcomes but also made it possible to analyze their dependence on monomer concentration and solvent composition. A selection of membranes was tested for their in vitro mineralization capacity using simulated body fluid. It was found that an 'ideal' mineralization outcome, i.e. a uniform coating of carbonated hydroxyapatite (cHAP) formed on the sample grafted in the aqueous phase of the water/DCM two-phase solvent system. A detailed discussion bringing together these results, as well as results from a series of earlier studies, allows conclusions regarding polymer chemistry and the topology necessary for cHAP mineralization.

  7. In vitro Evaluation of Calcium Phosphate Precipitation on Possibly Bioactive Titanium Surfaces in the Presence of Laminin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostas Bougas

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the present study was to evaluate calcium phosphate precipitation and the amount of precipitated protein on three potentially bioactive surfaces when adding laminin in simulated body fluid.Material and Methods: Blasted titanium discs were prepared by three different techniques claimed to provide bioactivity: alkali and heat treatment (AH, anodic oxidation (AO or hydroxyapatite coating (HA. A blasted surface incubated in laminin-containing simulated body fuid served as a positive control (B while a blasted surface incubated in non laminin-containing simulated body fuid served as a negative control (B-. The immersion time was 1 hour, 24 hours, 72 hours and 1 week. Surface topography was investigated by interferometry and morphology by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. Analysis of the precipitated calcium and phosphorous was performed by Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX and the adsorbed laminin was quantified by iodine (125I labeling.Results: SEM demonstrated that all specimens except for the negative control were totally covered with calcium phosphate (CaP after 1 week. EDX revealed that B- demonstrated lower sum of Ca and P levels compared to the other groups after 1 week. Iodine labeling demonstrated that laminin precipitated in a similar manner on the possibly bioactive surfaces as on the positive control surface.Conclusions: Our results indicate that laminin precipitates equally on all tested titanium surfaces and may function as a nucleation center thus locally elevating the calcium concentration. Nevertheless further studies are required to clarify the role of laminin in the interaction of biomaterials with the host bone tissue.

  8. Characterization of Porous Phosphate Coatings Enriched with Magnesium or Zinc on CP Titanium Grade 2 under DC Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Rokosz

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to study and determine the effect of voltage increasing from 500 up to 650 VDC on chemical and electrochemical properties of the obtained porous coatings with plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO processes, known also as micro arc oxidation (MAO. In the present paper, the chemical and electrochemical characterization of porous phosphate coatings enriched with magnesium or zinc on commercially pure (CP Titanium Grade 2 under DC-PEO obtained in electrolytes based on concentrated 85% analytically pure H3PO4 (98 g/mole acid with additions of 500 g·L−1 of zinc nitrate Zn(NO32∙6H2O or magnesium nitrate Mg(NO32∙6H2O, are described. These materials were characterized using scanning electron microscope (SEM with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES. It was found that the voltage of PEO process has influence on the chemical composition and thickness of the obtained porous coatings as well as on their electrochemical behavior. The higher the potential of PEO treatment, the higher the amount of zinc-to-phosphorus ratio for zinc enriched coatings was obtained, whereas in magnesium enriched coatings, the average amount of magnesium detected in PEO coating is approximately independent of the PEO voltages. Based on XPS studies, it was found out that most likely the top 10 nm of porous coatings is constructed of titanium (Ti4+, magnesium (Mg2+, zinc (Zn2+, and phosphates PO43− and/or HPO42− and/or H2PO4− and/or P2O74−. On the basis of GDOES studies, a four-sub-layer model of PEO coatings is proposed. Analysis of the potentiodynamic corrosion curves allowed to conclude that the best electrochemical repeatability was noted for magnesium and zinc enriched coatings obtained at 575 VDC.

  9. Porous titania surfaces on titanium with hierarchical macro- and mesoporosities for enhancing cell adhesion, proliferation and mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Guang; Müller, Werner E.G.; Wang, Xiaohong; Lilja, Louise; Shen, Zhijian

    2015-01-01

    Titanium received a macroporous titania surface layer by anodization, which contains open pores with average pore diameter around 5 μm. An additional mesoporous titania top layer following the contour of the macropores, of 100–200 nm thickness and with a pore diameter of 10 nm, was formed by using the evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA) method with titanium (IV) tetraethoxide as the precursor. A coherent laminar titania surface layer was thus obtained, creating a hierarchical macro- and mesoporous surface that was characterized by high-resolution electron microscopy. The interfacial bonding between the surface layers and the titanium matrix was characterized by the scratch test that confirmed a stable and strong bonding of titania surface layers on titanium. The wettability to water and the effects on the osteosarcoma cell line (SaOS-2) proliferation and mineralization of the formed titania surface layers were studied systematically by cell culture and scanning electron microscopy. The results proved that the porous titania surface with hierarchical macro- and mesoporosities was hydrophilic that significantly promoted cell attachment and spreading. A synergistic role of the hierarchical macro- and mesoporosities was revealed in terms of enhancing cell adhesion, proliferation and mineralization, compared with the titania surface with solo scale topography. - Highlights: • We developed a hierarchical macro- and mesoporous surface layer on titanium. • New surface layer was strong enough to sustain on implant surface. • New surface owned better surface wettability. • New surface can promote SaOS-2 cell adhesion, proliferation and mineralization. • Synergistic effects on cell responses occur when two porous structures coexist

  10. Porous titania surfaces on titanium with hierarchical macro- and mesoporosities for enhancing cell adhesion, proliferation and mineralization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Guang [Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Arrhenius Laboratory, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Müller, Werner E.G.; Wang, Xiaohong [ERC Advanced Grant Research Group at the Institute for Physiological Chemistry, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Duesbergweg 6, D-55128 Mainz (Germany); Lilja, Louise [Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Arrhenius Laboratory, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping (Sweden); Shen, Zhijian, E-mail: shen@mmk.su.se [Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Arrhenius Laboratory, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2015-02-01

    Titanium received a macroporous titania surface layer by anodization, which contains open pores with average pore diameter around 5 μm. An additional mesoporous titania top layer following the contour of the macropores, of 100–200 nm thickness and with a pore diameter of 10 nm, was formed by using the evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA) method with titanium (IV) tetraethoxide as the precursor. A coherent laminar titania surface layer was thus obtained, creating a hierarchical macro- and mesoporous surface that was characterized by high-resolution electron microscopy. The interfacial bonding between the surface layers and the titanium matrix was characterized by the scratch test that confirmed a stable and strong bonding of titania surface layers on titanium. The wettability to water and the effects on the osteosarcoma cell line (SaOS-2) proliferation and mineralization of the formed titania surface layers were studied systematically by cell culture and scanning electron microscopy. The results proved that the porous titania surface with hierarchical macro- and mesoporosities was hydrophilic that significantly promoted cell attachment and spreading. A synergistic role of the hierarchical macro- and mesoporosities was revealed in terms of enhancing cell adhesion, proliferation and mineralization, compared with the titania surface with solo scale topography. - Highlights: • We developed a hierarchical macro- and mesoporous surface layer on titanium. • New surface layer was strong enough to sustain on implant surface. • New surface owned better surface wettability. • New surface can promote SaOS-2 cell adhesion, proliferation and mineralization. • Synergistic effects on cell responses occur when two porous structures coexist.

  11. Effects of titanium nanoparticles on self-cleaning and structural features of zinc-magnesium-phosphate glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, S.F.; Sahar, M.R.; Ghoshal, S.K.

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Water contact angle for sample S2, S3, S4 and S5. The water contact angle increased with increased the titanium NPs content (mol%). - Highlights: • ZnO–MgO–P_2O_5 embedded TiO_2 NPs prepared by conventional melt-quenching method. • The amorphous nature is confirmed by X-ray diffraction spectroscopy. • The structural characteristics of glasses is investigated using FTIR and Raman. • Wettability of the glasses surface by water contact angle. - Abstract: The loss of glass transparency on surface pollutants contamination unless inhibited not only causes vision obscurity but also responsible for major aesthetic damages of cultural heritage. It is due to the sticking of fine dirt particles on wetting layers, a complex process with several possible ramifications still to be clarified. We report the influence of titanium dioxide or titania (TiO_2) nanoparticles (NPs) on the structural and self-cleaning properties of zinc–magnesium–phosphate glasses. Following melt-quenching method glass samples of optimized composition (42 − x)P_2O_5–8MgO–50ZnO–xTiO_2 with x = 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 mol% are prepared. XRD patterns verified their amorphous nature and TEM images revealed the nucleation of TiO_2 NPs of average diameter ≈4.05 ± 0.01 nm. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra displayed four absorption band centred at 1618–3438 cm"−"1, 902– 931 cm"−"1, 757–762 cm"−"1 and 531–560 cm"−"1. Raman spectra exhibited four peaks each accompanied by a blue-shift. Water contact angle is found to increase with the increase of titanium NPs concentration into the amorphous matrix. This knowledge can be used to set up strategies and selective treatments to preventing glass transparency loss via the modification of self-cleaning attributes.

  12. The development and characterization of a primarily mineral calcium phosphate - poly(epsilon-caprolactone) biocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkley, Ian Robert

    Orthopaedic reconstruction often involves the surgical introduction of structural implants that provide for rigid fixation, skeletal stabilization, and bone integration. The high stresses incurred by these implanted devices have historically limited material choices to metallic and select polymeric formulations. While mechanical requirements are achieved, these non-degradable materials do not participate actively in the remodeling of the skeleton and present the possibility of long-term failure or rejection. This is particularly relevant in cervical fusion, an orthopaedic procedure to treat damaged, degenerative or diseased intervertebral discs. A significant improvement on the available synthetic bone replacement/regeneration options for implants to treat these conditions in the cervical spine may be achieved with the development of primarily mineral biocomposites comprised of a bioactive ceramic matrix reinforced with a biodegradable polymer. Such a biocomposite may be engineered to possess the clinically required mechanical properties of a particular application, while maintaining the ability to be remodeled completely by the body. A biocomposite of Si-doped calcium phosphate (Si-CaP) and poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) was developed for application as such a synthetic bone material for potential use as a fusion device in the cervical spine. In this thesis, a method by which high mineral content Si-CaP/PCL biocomposites with interpenetrating matrices of mineral and polymer phases may be prepared will be demonstrated, in addition to the effects of the various preparation parameters on the biocomposite density, porosity and mechanical properties. This new technique by which dense, primarily ceramic Si-CaP/PCL biocomposites were prepared, allowed for the incorporation of mineral contents ranging between 45-97vol%. Polymer infiltration, accomplished solely by passive capillary uptake over several days, was found to be capable of fully infiltrating the microporosity

  13. Electrochemical investigation of mineral electrodes in phosphate-buffered alkaline solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Erdenechimeg

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cyclic voltammetric methods have been applied to study the electrochemical behavior of the sulfide minerals in phosphate-buffered alkaline solution. The redox process of electrodes of sulfide ores was investigated using silicone-impregnated graphite electrode. The cathodic and anodic reaction products in alkaline solution were determined within the potential range of -2V to +2V (vs. Ag/AgCl. The several successive measurement cycles’ voltammograms leads to the appearance of a new anodic peak at E = 450mV, which is absent in the first cycle and curves, as well as other features that appear in cycling, can probably be explained by secondary electrochemical transformations of the products formed by the oxidation of the original pyrite at the interface between the electrode material.DOI: http://doi.dx.org/10.5564/mjc.v15i0.318 Mongolian Journal of Chemistry 15 (41, 2014, p33-35

  14. Mineral phosphate solubilization by wild type and radiation induced mutants of pantoea dispersa and pantoea terrae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murugesan, Senthilkumar; Lee, Young Keun; Kim, Jung Hun

    2009-01-01

    Three mineral phosphate solubilizing (MPS) bacteria where isolated from rhizosphere soil samples of common bean and weed plants. 16S rDNA analysis indicated that the isolate P2 and P3 are closely related to Pantoea dispersa while isolate P4 is closely related to Pantoea terrae. Islates P2 and P3 recorded 381.60 μg ml -1 of tricalcium phosphate (TCP) solubilization respectively on 3 days incubation. Isolate P4 recorded the TCP solubilization of 215.85 μg ml -1 and the pH was dropped to 4.44 on 24 h incubation. Further incubation of P4 sharply decreased the available phosphorous to 28.94 μg ml -1 and pH level was raised to 6.32. Gamma radiation induced mutagenesis was carried out at LD 99 dose of the wild type strains. The total of 14 mutant clones with enhanced MPS activity and 4 clones with decreased activity were selected based on solubilization index (SI) and phosphate solubilization assay. Mutant P2-M1 recorded the highest P-solubilizing potential among any other wild or mutnat clones by releasing 504.21 μg ml -1 of phosphorous i.e. 35% higher than its wild type by the end of day 5. A comparative evaluation of TCP solubilization by wild type isolates of Pantoea and their mutants, led to select three MPS mutant clones such as P2-M1, P3-M2 and P3-M4 with a potential to release >471.67 μg ml 1 of phosphorous from TCP. These over expressing mutant clones are considered as suitable candidates for biofertilization

  15. Water-Soluble Cellulose Derivatives Are Sustainable Additives for Biomimetic Calcium Phosphate Mineralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Taubert

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of cellulose-based polyelectrolytes on biomimetic calcium phosphate mineralization is described. Three cellulose derivatives, a polyanion, a polycation, and a polyzwitterion were used as additives. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, IR and Raman spectroscopy show that, depending on the composition of the starting solution, hydroxyapatite or brushite precipitates form. Infrared and Raman spectroscopy also show that significant amounts of nitrate ions are incorporated in the precipitates. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy shows that the Ca/P ratio varies throughout the samples and resembles that of other bioinspired calcium phosphate hybrid materials. Elemental analysis shows that the carbon (i.e., polymer contents reach 10% in some samples, clearly illustrating the formation of a true hybrid material. Overall, the data indicate that a higher polymer concentration in the reaction mixture favors the formation of polymer-enriched materials, while lower polymer concentrations or high precursor concentrations favor the formation of products that are closely related to the control samples precipitated in the absence of polymer. The results thus highlight the potential of (water-soluble cellulose derivatives for the synthesis and design of bioinspired and bio-based hybrid materials.

  16. Efficacy of Octacalcium Phosphate Collagen Composite for Titanium Dental Implants in Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadashi Kawai

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous studies showed that octacalcium (OCP collagen composite (OCP/Col can be used to repair human jaw bone defects without any associated abnormalities. The present study investigated whether OCP/Col could be applied to dental implant treatment using a dog tooth extraction socket model. Methods: The premolars of dogs were extracted; each extraction socket was extended, and titanium dental implants were placed in each socket. OCP/Col was inserted in the space around a titanium dental implant. Autologous bone was used to fill the other sockets, while the untreated socket (i.e., no bone substitute material served as a control. Three months after the operation, these specimens were analyzed for the osseointegration of each bone substitute material with the surface of the titanium dental implant. Results: In histomorphometric analyses, the peri-implant bone areas (BA% and bone-implant contact (BIC% were measured. There was no difference in BA% or BIC% between OCP/Col and autologous bone. Conclusion: These results suggested that OCP/Col could be used for implant treatment as a bone substitute.

  17. Spectral-luminescence properties of trivalent titanium in aluminum-sodium phosphate glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukhanov, S.B.; Batyaev, I.M.

    1992-01-01

    Since development of the first crystal laser, Al 2 O 3 crystals remain the most widely used in quantum electronics. In the present work, the aluminum-sodium phosphate glass, Al 2 O 3 -Na 2 O 3 -P 2 O 5 , was studied with different proportions of components. A luminescence medium is obtained based on phosphate glass doped by Ti 3+ ions with intense emission in the 700-900-nm spectral range. This glass is a promising lasing medium for tunable solid-state lasers. 12 refs., 2 figs

  18. Increased acellular and cellular surface mineralization induced by nanogrooves in combination with a calcium-phosphate coating.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klymov, A.; Song, J.; Cai, X; Riet, J. te; Leeuwenburgh, S.C.; Jansen, J.A.; Walboomers, X.F.

    2016-01-01

    The current work evaluated the influence of nanoscale surface-topographies in combination with a calcium phosphate (CaP) coating on acellular and cellular surface mineralization. Four groups of substrates were produced, including smooth, grooved (940nm pitch, 430nm groove width, 185nm depth), smooth

  19. Titanium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fage, Simon W; Muris, Joris; Jakobsen, Stig S

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to titanium (Ti) from implants and from personal care products as nanoparticles (NPs) is common. This article reviews exposure sources, ion release, skin penetration, allergenic effects, and diagnostic possibilities. We conclude that human exposure to Ti mainly derives from dental...... and medical implants, personal care products, and foods. Despite being considered to be highly biocompatible relative to other metals, Ti is released in the presence of biological fluids and tissue, especially under certain circumstances, which seem to be more likely with regard to dental implants. Although...... most of the studies reviewed have important limitations, Ti seems not to penetrate a competent skin barrier, either as pure Ti, alloy, or as Ti oxide NPs. However, there are some indications of Ti penetration through the oral mucosa. We conclude that patch testing with the available Ti preparations...

  20. Increasing potassium (K release from K-containing minerals in the presence of insoluble phosphate by bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Sarikhani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Phosphorus and potassium are major essential macronutrients for biological growth and development. Application of soil microorganisms is one approach to enhance crop growth. Some bacteria are efficient in releasing K and solubilizing P from mineral sources but their behavior was not studied more in presence together. Materials and methods: In this study the ability of seven bacterial strains, including Pseudomonas putida P13, P. putida Tabriz, P. fluorescens Tabriz, P. fluorescens Chao, Pantoea agglomerans P5, Azotobacter sp. and Bacillus megaterium JK3 to release mineral K from muscovite and biotite with application of insoluble (Ca3(PO42 or soluble (Na2HPO4 P-sources was investigated. Nutrient Broth was used to prepare an overnight culture of bacteria to inoculate in Aleksandrov medium, which was used to study the dissolution of silicate minerals. It should be mentioned that Aleksandrov medium was used to determine the amount of released P from tricalcium phosphate (TCP while muscovite was added to the medium as a sole source of potassium. Concentration of P was determined spectrophotometrically by ammonium-vanadate-molybdate method and K was determined by flame photometry. Results: The insoluble P-source led to a significantly increased released K into assay medium (66%, and the net release of K from the biotite was significantly enhanced. Among bacterial strains, the highest mean of released K was observed with P. putida P13 which released more K (27% than the control. The amounts of released K from micas in the presence of insoluble and soluble phosphate by P. putida P13 were 8.25 and 4.87 mg/g, respectively. Discussion and conclusion: Application of insoluble phosphate could increase K release from mica minerals. The enhanced releasing of mineral K might be attributed to the release of organic acids from the bacteria, a mechanism which plays a pivotal role in solubilizing phosphate from inorganic source of phosphate.

  1. Origin and nature of the aluminium phosphate-sulfate minerals (APS) associated with uranium mineralization in triassic red-beds (Iberian Range, Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marfil, R.; Iglesia, A. la; Estupinan, J.

    2013-10-01

    This study focuses on the mineralogical and chemical study of an Aluminium-phosphate-sulphate (APS) mineralization that occurs in a classic sequence from the Triassic (Buntsandstein) of the Iberian Range. The deposit is constituted by sandstones, mud stones, and conglomerates with arenaceous matrix, which were deposited in fluvial to shallow-marine environments. In addition to APS minerals, the following diagenetic minerals are present in the classic sequence: quartz, K-feldspar, kaolinite group minerals, illite, Fe-oxides-hydroxides, carbonate-sulphate cement-replacements and secondary uraniferous minerals. APS minerals were identified and characterized by optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and electron microprobe. Microcrystalline APS crystals occur replacing uraniferous minerals, associated with kaolinite, mica and filling pores, in distal fluvial-to-tidal arkoses-subarkoses. Given their Ca, Sr, and Ba contents, the APS minerals can be defined as a solid solution of crandallite- goyacite-gorceixite (0.53 Ca, 0.46 Sr and 0.01 Ba). The chemical composition, low LREE concentration and Sr > S suggest that the APS mineral were originated during the supergene alteration of the Buntsandstein sandstones due to the presence of the mineralizing fluids which causes the development of Ubearing sandstones in a distal alteration area precipitating from partially dissolved and altered detrital minerals. Besides, the occurrence of dickite associated with APS minerals indicates they were precipitated at diagenetic temperatures (higher than 80 degree centigrade), related to the uplifting occurred during the late Cretaceous post-rift thermal stage.(Author)

  2. Origin and nature of the aluminium phosphate-sulfate minerals (APS) associated with uranium mineralization in triassic red-beds (Iberian Range, Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marfil, R.; Iglesia, A. la; Estupinan, J.

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on the mineralogical and chemical study of an Aluminium-phosphate-sulphate (APS) mineralization that occurs in a classic sequence from the Triassic (Buntsandstein) of the Iberian Range. The deposit is constituted by sandstones, mud stones, and conglomerates with arenaceous matrix, which were deposited in fluvial to shallow-marine environments. In addition to APS minerals, the following diagenetic minerals are present in the classic sequence: quartz, K-feldspar, kaolinite group minerals, illite, Fe-oxides-hydroxides, carbonate-sulphate cement-replacements and secondary uraniferous minerals. APS minerals were identified and characterized by optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and electron microprobe. Microcrystalline APS crystals occur replacing uraniferous minerals, associated with kaolinite, mica and filling pores, in distal fluvial-to-tidal arkoses-subarkoses. Given their Ca, Sr, and Ba contents, the APS minerals can be defined as a solid solution of crandallite- goyacite-gorceixite (0.53 Ca, 0.46 Sr and 0.01 Ba). The chemical composition, low LREE concentration and Sr > S suggest that the APS mineral were originated during the supergene alteration of the Buntsandstein sandstones due to the presence of the mineralizing fluids which causes the development of Ubearing sandstones in a distal alteration area precipitating from partially dissolved and altered detrital minerals. Besides, the occurrence of dickite associated with APS minerals indicates they were precipitated at diagenetic temperatures (higher than 80 degree centigrade), related to the uplifting occurred during the late Cretaceous post-rift thermal stage.(Author)

  3. The mechanism underlying calcium phosphate precipitation on titanium via ultraviolet, visible, and near infrared laser-assisted biomimetic process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahanti, Moumita; Nakamura, Maki; Pyatenko, Alexander; Sakamaki, Ikuko; Koga, Kenji; Oyane, Ayako

    2016-01-01

    We recently developed a rapid single-step calcium phosphate (CaP) precipitation technique on several substrates using a laser-assisted biomimetic process (LAB process). In this process, ultraviolet (UV, λ   =  355 nm) pulsed laser irradiation has been applied to a substrate that is immersed in a supersaturated CaP solution. In the present study, the LAB process for CaP precipitation on a titanium substrate was successfully expanded to include not only UV but also visible (VIS, λ   =  532 nm) and near infrared (NIR, λ   =  1064 nm) lasers. Surface heating and plasma-mediated surface reactions (micro-deformation, oxidization, photoexcitation, and wetting) generated by UV, VIS, or NIR lasers are considered to be involved in the CaP precipitation on the titanium surface in the LAB process. The kinetics of these reactions and consequently of CaP precipitation were dependent on the laser wavelength and fluence. The higher laser fluence did not always accelerate CaP precipitation on the substrate; rather, it was found that an optimal range of fluence exists for each laser wavelength. These results suggest that for efficient CaP precipitation, a suitable laser wavelength should be selected according to the optical absorption properties of the substrate material and the laser fluence should also be adjusted to induce surface heating and plasma-mediated surface reactions that are favorable for CaP precipitation. (paper)

  4. Effects of titanium nanoparticles on self-cleaning and structural features of zinc-magnesium-phosphate glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismail, S.F.; Sahar, M.R., E-mail: mrahim057@gmail.com; Ghoshal, S.K.

    2016-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Water contact angle for sample S2, S3, S4 and S5. The water contact angle increased with increased the titanium NPs content (mol%). - Highlights: • ZnO–MgO–P{sub 2}O{sub 5} embedded TiO{sub 2} NPs prepared by conventional melt-quenching method. • The amorphous nature is confirmed by X-ray diffraction spectroscopy. • The structural characteristics of glasses is investigated using FTIR and Raman. • Wettability of the glasses surface by water contact angle. - Abstract: The loss of glass transparency on surface pollutants contamination unless inhibited not only causes vision obscurity but also responsible for major aesthetic damages of cultural heritage. It is due to the sticking of fine dirt particles on wetting layers, a complex process with several possible ramifications still to be clarified. We report the influence of titanium dioxide or titania (TiO{sub 2}) nanoparticles (NPs) on the structural and self-cleaning properties of zinc–magnesium–phosphate glasses. Following melt-quenching method glass samples of optimized composition (42 − x)P{sub 2}O{sub 5}–8MgO–50ZnO–xTiO{sub 2} with x = 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 mol% are prepared. XRD patterns verified their amorphous nature and TEM images revealed the nucleation of TiO{sub 2} NPs of average diameter ≈4.05 ± 0.01 nm. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra displayed four absorption band centred at 1618–3438 cm{sup −1}, 902– 931 cm{sup −1}, 757–762 cm{sup −1} and 531–560 cm{sup −1}. Raman spectra exhibited four peaks each accompanied by a blue-shift. Water contact angle is found to increase with the increase of titanium NPs concentration into the amorphous matrix. This knowledge can be used to set up strategies and selective treatments to preventing glass transparency loss via the modification of self-cleaning attributes.

  5. Modulation of small intestinal phosphate transporter by dietary supplements of mineral phosphorus and phytase in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Korinna; Zeller, Ellen; Rodehutscord, Markus

    2015-05-01

    Dietary phosphorus (P) is known as a main modulator of phosphate (Pi) transporter expression. The effect of supplemented mineral P with or without phytase on protein expression of two sodium-dependent Pi (NaPi) transporters and a calcium channel was studied in the small intestine of broilers. Thirty-six broilers were randomly assigned to six different diets at 15 days of age. Two levels of total P (tP, adjusted by monocalcium phosphate (MCP) supplementation), 0.39% (BD-) and 0.47% (BD+) were fed until day 25; and at each tP level, three levels of phytase were used with 0, 500, and 12,500 FTU/kg of an E. coli phytase. Mucosa samples from jejunum and ileum were taken and apical membranes were isolated by MgCl2 precipitation. Protein expression of NaPi IIb, NaPi type III (PiT1) and the calcium channel TRPV6 were semiquantitatively measured by Western blotting and jejunal mucosal phytase activity by measurement of Pi release. The jejunal NaPi IIb transporter was expressed with two distinct bands, which were modulated differently by diet. NaPi IIb Band1 increased (P phytase supplementation but was not affected by MCP supplementation. This inverse modulation of Band1 and Band2 was significantly related to the amount of net absorbed P with higher expression of Band1 at higher amounts of net absorbed P. In addition, a second Pi transporter, PiT1, was detected in which ileal expression decreased (P phytase supplementation. The expression of the calcium channel TRPV6 was increased in BD+ groups. A trend for an interaction between MCP and phytase supplementation on mucosal phytase activity was observed (P = 0.079) with a decrease in activity when BD+ with 12,500 FTU/kg phytase was fed. Chicken intestinal epithelial cells responded to dietary supplemented phytase and MCP by changing the Pi transporter expression in apical membranes. In conclusion, availability of Pi is most likely the key modulator of transporter protein expression. However, a contribution of lower inositol

  6. Investigation of Organic Matters and their Roles in Deposition and Phosphate Mineralization in the Kuh-e-Sefid Deposit, Ramhormoz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houshang Pourkaseb

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction It has been recently stated that phosphorite deposits are in fact marine biogenic materials, due to bacterial activity producing bio-apatite. In addition, Phosphorites contain 15–20 wt.% P2O5 (Tzifas et al., 2014. In this deposit, phosphate mineralization has occurred as phosphorite lenses with Eocene age within the Pabdeh Formation, with thickness up to 1.5 meters and width of 15 meters and its hosted rock is black shale. According to the presence of indices of fossils such as Globorotalia, Hantkenina, its age can be attributed to the middle Eocene. The Pabdeh formation is a very rich organic matter in addition to the presence of phosphate (Damiri, 2011. The formation due to planktonic foraminifera rich in organic matter is like the hydrocarbon source rock (Daneshian et al., 2012. In marine basins where upwelling and productivity are limited, phosphates may develop outside of microbial cells and also within bacterial cellular structures, formed by slow bacterial assimilation of phosphorus from assaying organic matter in areas of restricted sedimentation (O’Brine et al., 1981. It is therefore suggested that the upwelling currents did that in the recycling of phosphorus from dead organisms such as fishes and other marine vertebrates. The aim of this study is investigation of organic matter’s species and their roles in deposition and phosphate mineralization in the Kuh-e-Sefid phosphate deposit using XRD, FTIR and Rock-Eval pyrolysis. Materials and methods In field observations, 12 samples were selected and they were taken from units of phosphate and shale host rock in the Kuh-e-Sefid phosphate ore deposit. Ten cross sections were studied by conventional microscopic methods. Rock-Eval analysis was used in order to determine the organic carbon in the geology Department of the Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz. The Phosphorite samples were determined by XRD at the Kansaran Binaloud Company in the Science and Technology campus in

  7. Zirconium-titanium-phosphate nanoparticles. Triton X-100 based size modification, characterization and application in radiochemical separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, R.; Sen, B.; Chattopadhyay, P. [Burdwan Univ. (India). Dept. of Chemistry

    2014-07-01

    Zirconium-titanium-phosphate nanoparticles (ZTP) of different sizes were synthesized using tritron X-100 (polyethylene glycol-p-isooctylphenyl ether) surfactant. The materials were characterized by FTIR and powdered X-ray diffraction (XRD). The structural and morphological details of the material were obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The SEM study was followed by energy dispersive spectroscopic analysis (EDS) for elemental analysis of the sample. The important peaks of the XRD spectra were analyzed to determine the probable composition of the material. The particle sizes were determined by dynamic light scattering (DLS) method. Ion exchange capacity was measured for different metal ions with sizes of the ZTP nanoparticles and size-dependent ion exchange property of the material was investigated thoroughly. The nanomaterial of the smallest size of around 5 nm was employed to separate carrier-free {sup 137m}Ba from {sup 137}Cs in column chromatographic technique using 1.0 M HNO{sub 3} as eluting agent at pH = 5. (orig.)

  8. Calcium phosphate glass-ceramics for bioactive coating on a β-titanium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasuga, T.; Nogami, M.; Niinomi, M.

    2003-01-01

    The formation of a porous coating is the decisive feature for the bio-compatibility of silica-free calcium phosphate glass ceramics on alloy surfaces like the β-Ti structured Ti-29Nb-13Ta-4.6Zr used in this work. The ceramic composition is highly important: 50CaO-40P 2 O 5 -7Na 2 O-3TiO 2 glass powder produces a pore-free coating unable to bind hydroxyapatite, whereas 60CaO-30P 2 O 5 -7Na 2 O-3TiO 2 glass incorporates pores from which a crystalline hydroxyapatite phase can grow over the surface from simulated body fluid (see Figure). (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  9. Calcium phosphate glass-ceramics for bioactive coating on a {beta}-titanium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasuga, T.; Nogami, M. [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Niinomi, M. [Department of Production Systems Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, Tenpaku-cho, Toyohashi 441-8580 (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    The formation of a porous coating is the decisive feature for the bio-compatibility of silica-free calcium phosphate glass ceramics on alloy surfaces like the {beta}-Ti structured Ti-29Nb-13Ta-4.6Zr used in this work. The ceramic composition is highly important: 50CaO-40P{sub 2}O{sub 5}-7Na{sub 2}O-3TiO{sub 2} glass powder produces a pore-free coating unable to bind hydroxyapatite, whereas 60CaO-30P{sub 2}O{sub 5}-7Na{sub 2}O-3TiO{sub 2} glass incorporates pores from which a crystalline hydroxyapatite phase can grow over the surface from simulated body fluid (see Figure). (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  10. Characterization of the aspects of osteoprogenitor cell interactions with physical tetracalcium phosphate anchorage on titanium implant surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Chia-Ling [Advanced Medical Devices and Composites Laboratory, Department of Fiber and Composite Materials, Feng Chia University, Taichung 40724, Taiwan (China); Dental Medical Devices and Materials Research Center, College of Dental Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Chang, Ya-Yuan; Liou, Cian-Hua [Alliance Global Technology Co., Ltd., Kaohsiung Medical Device Special Zone in Southern Taiwan Science Park, Kaohsiung 82151, Taiwan (China); Chen, Wen-Cheng, E-mail: wencchen@fcu.edu.tw [Advanced Medical Devices and Composites Laboratory, Department of Fiber and Composite Materials, Feng Chia University, Taichung 40724, Taiwan (China)

    2015-04-01

    Well-designed implants are used not only to modify the geometry of the implant but also to change the chemical properties of its surfaces. The present study aims to assess the biofunctional effects of tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP) particles as a physical anchor on the implant surface derived through sandblasting. The characteristics of the surface, cell viability, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity toward osteoprogenitor cells (D1) were obtained. D1 cells were cultured on a plain surface that underwent sandblasting and acid etching (SLA) (control SLA group) and on different SLA surfaces with different anchoring TTCP rates (new test groups, M and H). The mean anchoring rates were 57% (M) and 74% (H), and the anchored thickness was estimated to range from 12.6 μm to 18.3 μm. Compared with the control SLA surface on Ti substrate, the new test groups with different TTCP anchoring rates (M and H) failed to improve cell proliferation significantly but had a well-differentiated D1 cell phenotype that enhanced ALP expression in the early stage of cell cultures, specifically, at day 7. Results suggest that the SLA surface with anchored TTCP can accelerate progenitor bone cell mineralization. This study shows the potential clinical application of the constructed geometry in TTCP anchorage on Ti for dental implant surface modification. - Highlights: • TTCP (tetracalcium phosphate) as a physical anchorage on implant is characterized. • Theoretical values of anchored thickness and capping areas were estimated. • TTCP anchored by sandblasting can accelerate progenitor bone cell mineralization. • TTCP anchored on SLA (sandblasting and acid etching) surface is a promising method.

  11. Characterization of the aspects of osteoprogenitor cell interactions with physical tetracalcium phosphate anchorage on titanium implant surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Chia-Ling; Chang, Ya-Yuan; Liou, Cian-Hua; Chen, Wen-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Well-designed implants are used not only to modify the geometry of the implant but also to change the chemical properties of its surfaces. The present study aims to assess the biofunctional effects of tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP) particles as a physical anchor on the implant surface derived through sandblasting. The characteristics of the surface, cell viability, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity toward osteoprogenitor cells (D1) were obtained. D1 cells were cultured on a plain surface that underwent sandblasting and acid etching (SLA) (control SLA group) and on different SLA surfaces with different anchoring TTCP rates (new test groups, M and H). The mean anchoring rates were 57% (M) and 74% (H), and the anchored thickness was estimated to range from 12.6 μm to 18.3 μm. Compared with the control SLA surface on Ti substrate, the new test groups with different TTCP anchoring rates (M and H) failed to improve cell proliferation significantly but had a well-differentiated D1 cell phenotype that enhanced ALP expression in the early stage of cell cultures, specifically, at day 7. Results suggest that the SLA surface with anchored TTCP can accelerate progenitor bone cell mineralization. This study shows the potential clinical application of the constructed geometry in TTCP anchorage on Ti for dental implant surface modification. - Highlights: • TTCP (tetracalcium phosphate) as a physical anchorage on implant is characterized. • Theoretical values of anchored thickness and capping areas were estimated. • TTCP anchored by sandblasting can accelerate progenitor bone cell mineralization. • TTCP anchored on SLA (sandblasting and acid etching) surface is a promising method

  12. Fe-Ca-phosphate, Fe-silicate, and Mn-oxide minerals in concretions from the Monterey Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medrano, M.D.; Piper, D.Z.

    1997-01-01

    Concentrically zoned phosphatic-enriched concretions were collected at three sites from the Monterey Formation. The following minerals were identified: vivianite, lipscombite, rockbridgeite, leucophosphite, mitridatite, carbonate fluorapatite, nontronite, todorokite, and barite. The mineralogy of the concretions was slightly different at each of the three collection sites. None of the concretions contains all of the minerals, but the spatial distribution of minerals in individual concretions, overlapping mineralogies between different concretions, and the geochemical properties of the separate minerals suggest a paragenesis represented by the above order. Eh increased from the precipitation of vivianite to that of rockbridgeite/lipscombite. The precipitation of leucophosphite, then mitridatite, carbonate fluorapatite and todorokite/Fe-oxide indicates increasing pH. Concretion growth culminated with the precipitation of todorokite, a Mn oxide, and minor amounts of barite along microfractures. Conspicuously absent are Fe-sulfide and Mn-phosphate minerals. The concretions are hosted by finely laminated diatomite. The laminations exhibit little to no deformation around the concretions, requiring that the concretions formed after compaction. We interpret this sediment feature and the paragenesis as recording the evolving pore-water chemistry as the formation was uplifted into the fresh-ground-water zone.

  13. Phosphates (V) recovery from phosphorus mineral fertilizers industry wastewater by continuous struvite reaction crystallization process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutnik, Nina; Kozik, Anna; Mazienczuk, Agata; Piotrowski, Krzysztof; Wierzbowska, Boguslawa; Matynia, Andrzej

    2013-07-01

    Continuous DT MSMPR (Draft Tube Mixed Suspension Mixed Product Removal) crystallizer was provided with typical wastewater from phosphorus mineral fertilizers industry (pH < 4, 0.445 mass % of PO4(3-), inorganic impurities presence), dissolved substrates (magnesium and ammonium chlorides) and solution alkalising the environment of struvite MgNH4PO4·6H2O reaction crystallization process. Research ran in constant temperature 298 K assuming stoichiometric proportions of substrates or 20% excess of magnesium ions. Influence of pH (8.5-10) and mean residence time (900-3600 s) on product size distribution, its chemical composition, crystals shape, size-homogeneity and process kinetics was identified. Crystals of mean size ca. 25-37 μm and homogeneity CV 70-83% were produced. The largest crystals, of acceptable homogeneity, were produced using 20% excess of magnesium ions, pH 9 and mean residence time 3600 s. Under these conditions nucleation rate did not exceed 9 × 10(7) 1/(s m(3)) according to SIG (Size Independent Growth) MSMPR kinetic model. Linear crystal growth rate was 4.27 × 10(-9) m/s. Excess of magnesium ions influenced struvite reaction crystallization process yield advantageously. Concentration of phosphate(V) ions decreased from 0.445 to 9.2 × 10(-4) mass %. This can be regarded as a very good process result. In product crystals, besides main component - struvite, all impurities from wastewater were detected analytically. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Uranium concentrations in the phosphates of Congo related to marin and continental mineral authigenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giresse, P.; N'Landou, J. de Dieu; Wiber, M.

    1984-01-01

    In the Maastrichtian phosphates of Tchivoula (Congo), uanium, for the most part fixed and tetravalent in marine apatites in there after mobilized and occasionally concentrates during the course of successive stages of dissolution, recrystallization (secondary apatite) or authigenesis (ferro-aluminous phosphates, autunite and torbernite). Very high levels near the top of the deposit appear to be related to the percolation of uraniferous solutions from Ypresian phosphatic beds which are no longer present. In the marine Tertiary phosphates of Djeno, diagenesis is less advanced; radial changes in uranium concentration on the scale of individual coprolites of selacians can be observed and are related to the loss of P 2 O 5 [fr

  15. Aggregation and transport of rutile titanium dioxide nanoparticles with montmorillonite and diatomite in the presence of phosphate in porous sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Peng; Xu, Nan; Li, Duo; Huangfu, Xinxing; Li, Zuling

    2018-08-01

    Crop soil is inevitably contaminated by the excess of phosphate (P) fertilizers. A large amount of nanoparticle titanium dioxide (nTiO 2 ) entered soils as well due to the wide use of engineered nanomaterials. It is of great urgency and a high priority to investigate the mechanisms of nTiO 2 deposition with the presence of P in crop soils. This study investigated the transport behavior of (1.0 g L -1 ) rutile nTiO 2 with two representative clay particles (montmorillonite or diatomite) in the presence of P through the saturated quartz sand. In 10 mM NaCl electrolyte solution at pH 6.0, the recovery percentage of nTiO 2 was 36.3% from sand column. Nevertheless, it was reduced to 18.6% and 11.1% while montmorillonite and diatomite present in suspensions, respectively. Obviously, the improvement of nTiO 2 retention in sand was more pronounced by diatomite than montmorillonite. The likely mechanism for this result was that large aggregates were formed due to the attachment of nTiO 2 to montmorillonite and diatomite. Moreover, the surface of diatomite with the larger hydrodynamic radius was less negatively charged by comparison with montmorillonite. However, this phenomenon disappeared with the addition of P. P adsorption increases the repulsive force between particles and sand and the fast release of attached nTiO 2 -montmorillonite and diatomite from sand. The two-site kinetic retention model and the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory suggested that the combination of k 1/ k 1d , k 2 and secondary minimum energy can be used to accurately describe the attachment of nTiO 2 -montmorillonite and diatomite to sand in the presence of P. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Photoactive layer-by-layer films of cellulose phosphate and titanium dioxide containing phosphotungstic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullah, Sajjad [Instituto de Química de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, PO Box 780, São Carlos, São Paulo 13564-970 (Brazil); Acuña, José Javier Sáez [Centro de Ciências Naturais e Humanas, Universidade Federal do ABC, Santo Andre, Sao Paulo, 09210-170 (Brazil); Pasa, André Avelino [Surface and Thin Film Laboratory, Physics Department, Federal University of Santa Catarina, PO Box 476, Florianópolis, SC 88040-900 (Brazil); Bilmes, Sara A. [Universidad de Buenos Aires, Facultad Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Instituto de Química Física de los Materiales, Medio Ambiente y Energía – INQUIMAE, Ciudad Universitaria, Pab. 2, Buenos Aires C1428EHA (Argentina); Vela, Maria Elena; Benitez, Guillermo [Laboratorio de Nanoscopías y Fisicoquímica de Superficies, Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicoquímicas Teóricas y Aplicadas (INIFTA), Universidad Nacional de La Plata – CONICET, diagonal 113 esquina 64. C.C.16.Suc.4, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Rodrigues-Filho, Ubirajara Pereira, E-mail: uprf@iqsc.usp.br [Instituto de Química de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, PO Box 780, São Carlos, São Paulo 13564-970 (Brazil)

    2013-07-15

    A versatile layer-by-layer (LbL) procedure for the preparation of highly dispersed, adherent and porous multilayer films of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (NPs) and phosphotungstic acid (HPW) on a variety of substrates at room temperature was developed based on the use of cellulose phosphate (CP) as an efficient and non-conventional polyelectrolyte. UV/vis absorption spectroscopy confirmed the linear and regular growth of the films with the number of immersion cycles and a strong adsorption ability of CP towards TiO{sub 2} NPs. FTIR spectroscopy showed that HPW binds to the surface of TiO{sub 2} through the oxygen atom at the corner of the Keggin structure. XPS results showed that the interaction between TiO{sub 2} and CP is through Ti–O–P linkage. A model is proposed for the TiO{sub 2}–HPW interaction based on XPS and FTIR results. FEG/SEM study of the surface morphology revealed a porous film structure with a homogenous distribution of the TiO{sub 2} NPs induced by CP. HRTEM studies showed that the resulting composite films consist of crystalline anatase and rutile phases and poly-nano-crystalline HPW with a semi-crystalline TiO{sub 2}–HPW interface. These CP/TiO{sub 2} and CP/TiO{sub 2}/HPW LbL films showed good photoactivity against both saturated and unsaturated species, for instance, stearic acid (SA), crystal violet (CV) and methylene blue (MB) under UV irradiation. The CP/HPW films formed on bacterial cellulose (BC) showed good photochromic response which is enhanced in presence of TiO{sub 2} due to an interfacial electron transfer from TiO{sub 2} to HPW. This simple and environmentally safe method can be used to form coatings on a variety of surfaces with photoactive TiO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2}/HPW films.

  17. Effect of Various Feed Phosphates on Biochemical Indices of Blood and Mineral Composition of Bones in Finishing Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Dobrzański

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of three different chemical feed phosphates on the blood biochemical indicators and the content of main minerals of bones in finishing pigs. Over a period of 85 days of fattening, monocalcium (MCP, Finnish product, dicalcium (DCP, Polish product and calcium-sodium (CSP, Russian product phosphates were used in fattener feeding. The feeding was based on standard mixtures of starter, grower and finisher type. Dicalcium phosphate was produced according to the new, pro-ecological technology based on phosphoric acid. The content of Ca, Na, P, solubility of P in citric acid, and the concentration of undesirable substances (As, Cd, F, Hg and Pb were determined in feed phosphates. At the end of the fattening period, blood was collected from 36 finishing pigs (12 from each group and the following biochemical indicators were determined in the serum: enzymatic activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT, creatine kinase (CK, lactic dehydrogenase (LDH, lactic acid (LA; the concentration of total protein, albumins, glucose, urea, creatinine, content of triglycerides, cholesterol and its high density lipoproteins (HDL and low density lipoproteins (LDL fractions, and mineral components concentration (Ca, Cl, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na, P, Zn. Basic macroelement content (Ca, Mg, P was determined in the thigh bones from 30 pigs (10 from each group. Significant differences (p < 0.05 between groups were observed only in some biochemical indicators, i.e. CK, LDH and LA. The highest content of Ca, Mg and P was found in the bones of pigs fed mixtures supplemented with DCP which indicates improved bioavailability of main macroelements from that phosphate.

  18. Osteocyte regulation of phosphate homeostasis and bone mineralization underlies the pathophysiology of the heritable disorders of rickets and osteomalacia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jian Q.; Clinkenbeard, Erica L.; Yuan, Baozhi; White, Kenneth E.; Drezner, Marc K.

    2013-01-01

    Although recent studies have established that osteocytes function as secretory cells that regulate phosphate metabolism, the biomolecular mechanism(s) underlying these effects remain incompletely defined. However, investigations focusing on the pathogenesis of X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH), autosomal dominant hypophosphatemic rickets (ADHR), and autosomal recessive hypophosphatemic rickets (ARHR), heritable disorders characterized by abnormal renal phosphate wasting and bone mineralization, have clearly implicated FGF23 as a central factor in osteocytes underlying renal phosphate wasting, documented new molecular pathways regulating FGF23 production, and revealed complementary abnormalities in osteocytes that regulate bone mineralization. The seminal observations leading to these discoveries were the following: 1) mutations in FGF23 cause ADHR by limiting cleavage of the bioactive intact molecule, at a subtilisin-like protein convertase (SPC) site, resulting in increased circulating FGF23 levels and hypophosphatemia; 2) mutations in DMP1 cause ARHR, not only by increasing serum FGF23, albeit by enhanced production and not limited cleavage, but also by limiting production of the active DMP1 component, the C-terminal fragment, resulting in dysregulated production of DKK1 and β-catenin, which contributes to impaired bone mineralization; and 3) mutations in PHEX cause XLH both by altering FGF23 proteolysis and production and causing dysregulated production of DKK1 and β-catenin, similar to abnormalities in ADHR and ARHR, but secondary to different central pathophysiological events. These discoveries indicate that ADHR, XLH, and ARHR represent three related heritable hypophosphatemic diseases that arise from mutations in, or dysregulation of, a single common gene product, FGF23 and, in ARHR and XLH, complimentary DMP1 and PHEX directed events that contribute to abnormal bone mineralization. PMID:23403405

  19. Biomineralization ability and interaction of mineral trioxide aggregate and white portland cement with dentin in a phosphate-containing fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Carmona, Jessie F; Felippe, Mara S; Felippe, Wilson T

    2009-05-01

    Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) has been shown to be bioactive because of its ability to produce biologically compatible carbonated apatite. This study analyzed the interaction of MTA and white Portland cement with dentin after immersion in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Dentin disks with standardized cavities were filled with ProRoot MTA, MTA Branco, MTA BIO, white Portland cement + 20% bismuth oxide (PC1), or PC1 + 10% of calcium chloride (PC2) and immersed in 15 mL of PBS for 2 months. The precipitates were weighed and analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray diffraction. The calcium ion release and pH of the solutions were monitored at 5, 15, 25, and 35 days. The samples were processed for SEM observations. Data were analyzed by using analysis of variance or Kruskall-Wallis tests. Our findings revealed the presence of amorphous calcium phosphate precipitates with different morphologies. The apatite formed by the cement-PBS system was deposited within collagen fibrils, promoting controlled mineral nucleation on dentin, observed as the formation of an interfacial layer with tag-like structures. All the cements tested were bioactive. The cements release some of their components in PBS, triggering the initial precipitation of amorphous calcium phosphates, which act as precursors during the formation of carbonated apatite. This spontaneous precipitation promotes a biomineralization process that leads to the formation of an interfacial layer with tag-like structures at the cement-dentin interface.

  20. Surface characterization and corrosion behavior of calcium phosphate-base composite layer on titanium and its alloys via plasma electrolytic oxidation: A review paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafieerad, A R; Ashra, M R; Mahmoodian, R; Bushroa, A R

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, calcium phosphate-base composites, such as hydroxyapatite (HA) and carbonate apatite (CA) have been considered desirable and biocompatible coating layers in clinical and biomedical applications such as implants because of the high resistance of the composites. This review focuses on the effects of voltage, time and electrolytes on a calcium phosphate-base composite layer in case of pure titanium and other biomedical grade titanium alloys via the plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) method. Remarkably, these parameters changed the structure, morphology, pH, thickness and crystallinity of the obtained coating for various engineering and biomedical applications. Hence, the structured layer caused improvement of the biocompatibility, corrosion resistance and assignment of extra benefits for Osseo integration. The fabricated layer with a thickness range of 10 to 20 μm was evaluated for physical, chemical, mechanical and tribological characteristics via XRD, FESEM, EDS, EIS and corrosion analysis respectively, to determine the effects of the applied parameters and various electrolytes on morphology and phase transition. Moreover, it was observed that during PEO, the concentration of calcium, phosphor and titanium shifts upward, which leads to an enhanced bioactivity by altering the thickness. The results confirm that the crystallinity, thickness and contents of composite layer can be changed by applying thermal treatments. The corrosion behavior was investigated via the potentiodynamic polarization test in a body-simulated environment. Here, the optimum corrosion resistance was obtained for the coating process condition at 500 V for 15 min in Ringer solution. This review has been summarized, aiming at the further development of PEO by producing more adequate titanium-base implants along with desired mechanical and biomedical features. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of Titanium Mesh Surfaces-Coated with Hydroxyapatite/β-Tricalcium Phosphate Nanotubes on Acetabular Bone Defects in Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thuy-Duong Thi Nguyen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The management of severe acetabular bone defects in revision reconstructive orthopedic surgery is challenging. In this study, cyclic precalcification (CP treatment was used on both nanotube-surface Ti-mesh and a bone graft substitute for the acetabular defect model, and its effects were assessed in vitro and in vivo. Nanotube-Ti mesh coated with hydroxyapatite/β-tricalcium phosphate (HA/β-TCP was manufactured by an anodizing and a sintering method, respectively. An 8 mm diameter defect was created on each acetabulum of eight rabbits, then treated by grafting materials and covered by Ti meshes. At four and eight weeks, postoperatively, biopsies were performed for histomorphometric analyses. The newly-formed bone layers under cyclic precalcified anodized Ti (CP-AT meshes were superior with regard to the mineralized area at both four and eight weeks, as compared with that under untreated Ti meshes. Active bone regeneration at 2–4 weeks was stronger than at 6–8 weeks, particularly with treated biphasic ceramic (p < 0.05. CP improved the bioactivity of Ti meshes and biphasic grafting materials. Moreover, the precalcified nanotubular Ti meshes could enhance early contact bone formation on the mesh and, therefore, may reduce the collapse of Ti meshes into the defect, increasing the sufficiency of acetabular reconstruction. Finally, cyclic precalcification did not affect bone regeneration by biphasic grafting materials in vivo.

  2. Post-prandial changes in plasma mineral levels in rainbow trout fed a complete plant ingredient based diet and the effect of supplemental di-calcium phosphate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antony Jesu Prabhu, P.; Schrama, J.W.; Mariojouls, C.; Godin, S.; Fontagné-Dicharry, S.; Geurden, I.; Surget, A.; Bouyssiere, B.; Kaushik, S.J.

    2014-01-01

    Post-prandial changes in plasma mineral levels and utilisation of minerals in rainbow trout fed complete plant ingredient based diets with or without supplemental di-calcium phosphate (DCP) were studied over an 8 week period. Three diets were used: diet M was FM and fish oil (FO) based diet

  3. Adsorption of Nucleic Acid Bases, Ribose, and Phosphate by Some Clay Minerals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideo Hashizume

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Besides having a large capacity for taking up organic molecules, clay minerals can catalyze a variety of organic reactions. Derived from rock weathering, clay minerals would have been abundant in the early Earth. As such, they might be expected to play a role in chemical evolution. The interactions of clay minerals with biopolymers, including RNA, have been the subject of many investigations. The behavior of RNA components at clay mineral surfaces needs to be assessed if we are to appreciate how clays might catalyze the formation of nucleosides, nucleotides and polynucleotides in the “RNA world”. The adsorption of purines, pyrimidines and nucleosides from aqueous solution to clay minerals is affected by suspension pH. With montmorillonite, adsorption is also influenced by the nature of the exchangeable cations. Here, we review the interactions of some clay minerals with RNA components.

  4. Regulatory inhibition of biological tissue mineralization by calcium phosphate through post-nucleation shielding by fetuin-A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Joshua C., E-mail: joshchang@ucla.edu [Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA and Mathematical Biosciences Institute, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Miura, Robert M., E-mail: miura@njit.edu [Department of Mathematical Sciences, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, New Jersey 07102 (United States)

    2016-04-21

    In vertebrates, insufficient availability of calcium and inorganic phosphate ions in extracellular fluids leads to loss of bone density and neuronal hyper-excitability. To counteract this problem, calcium ions are usually present at high concentrations throughout bodily fluids—at concentrations exceeding the saturation point. This condition leads to the opposite situation where unwanted mineral sedimentation may occur. Remarkably, ectopic or out-of-place sedimentation into soft tissues is rare, in spite of the thermodynamic driving factors. This fortunate fact is due to the presence of auto-regulatory proteins that are found in abundance in bodily fluids. Yet, many important inflammatory disorders such as atherosclerosis and osteoarthritis are associated with this undesired calcification. Hence, it is important to gain an understanding of the regulatory process and the conditions under which it can go awry. In this manuscript, we extend mean-field continuum classical nucleation theory of the growth of clusters to encompass surface shielding. We use this formulation to study the regulation of sedimentation of calcium phosphate salts in biological tissues through the mechanism of post-nuclear shielding of nascent mineral particles by binding proteins. We develop a mathematical description of this phenomenon using a countable system of hyperbolic partial differential equations. A critical concentration of regulatory protein is identified as a function of the physical parameters that describe the system.

  5. Phosphated minerals to be used as radioactive reference materials; Minerais fosfatados para serem utilizados como materiais de referencia radioativos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braganca, M.J.C.S.; Tauhata, L. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes (LNMRI); Clain, A.F. [Universidade Severino Sombra, Vassouras, RJ (Brazil); Moreira, I. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC/Rio), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2003-07-01

    The production and the supplying of certified reference materials, or deliberated contaminated materials containing natural radionuclides for laboratories which analyses environmental samples are fundamentals for the correct measurements of their radioactive levels. This analysis quality represents a important step for the safeguards of the population health, and quality control of the imported and exported products, such as minerals, agricultural and raw materials. The phosphate rocks, containing significant concentrations of thorium, and used as raw material and fertilizers justified a study for better characterization and distinction to be used cas certified reference radioactive materials. Therefore, samples from the two carboanalytical-alkaline chimneys (Araxa and Catalao), and one from metasedimentar origin (Patos de Minas), distant 100 km from each other, were collected and chemical and cholecystographic characterized by optical emission, X-ray diffraction and fluorescence. The element concentrations were determined by neutron activation analysis, ICP-MS and ICP-AES. The results, after multivariate statistical analysis and study of correlations among elements, have shown geochemical similarities of the phosphates from Araxa and Catalao, and differences from Patos de Minas, despite of the geographic proximity. The concentration of thorium between 200 and 500 (mg/g) allows to use such minerals as reference materials.

  6. Human alveolar bone cell proliferation, expression of osteoblastic phenotype, and matrix mineralization on porous titanium produced by powder metallurgy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Adalberto Luiz; Crippa, Grasiele Edilaine; de Oliveira, Paulo Tambasco; Taba, Mario; Lefebvre, Louis-Philippe; Beloti, Marcio Mateus

    2009-05-01

    This study aimed at investigating the influence of the porous titanium (Ti) structure on the osteogenic cell behaviour. Porous Ti discs were fabricated by the powder metallurgy process with the pore size typically between 50 and 400 microm and a porosity of 60%. Osteogenic cells obtained from human alveolar bone were cultured until subconfluence and subcultured on dense Ti (control) and porous Ti for periods of up to 17 days. Cultures grown on porous Ti exhibited increased cell proliferation and total protein content, and lower levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity than on dense Ti. In general, gene expression of osteoblastic markers-runt-related transcription factor 2, collagen type I, alkaline phosphatase, bone morphogenetic protein-7, and osteocalcin was lower at day 7 and higher at day 17 in cultures grown on porous Ti compared with dense Ti, a finding consistent with the enhanced growth rate for such cultures. The amount of mineralized matrix was greater on porous Ti compared with the dense one. These results indicate that the porous Ti is an appropriate substrate for osteogenic cell adhesion, proliferation, and production of a mineralized matrix. Because of the three-dimensional environment it provides, porous Ti should be considered an advantageous substrate for promoting desirable implant surface-bone interactions.

  7. Regulation of Soluble Phosphate on the Ability of Phytate Mineralization and β-Propeller Phytase Gene Expression of Pseudomonas fluorescens JZ-DZ1, a Phytate-Mineralizing Rhizobacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lan; Wu, Xiao-Qin; Zeng, Qing-Wei; Liu, Hong-Bin

    2016-12-01

    Phytate-mineralizing rhizobacteria (PMR) play an important role in providing phosphorus for the sustainable plant growth. It is important to investigate the ability of PMR to produce phytase under different phosphate levels for its application. The effects of different concentrations of soluble phosphate on the ability of phytate mineralization of Pseudomonas fluorescens JZ-DZ1, a phytate-mineralizing rhizobacterium, were investigated in both solid and liquid media. The results on solid media showed that halo zone width gradually reduced with concentrations of soluble phosphate increasing from 0.05 to 20 mM, indicating the reduction of the ability of phytate mineralization. The results were consistent with the quantitative detection of phytase activity from the overall trend. An 1866-bp β-propeller phytase (BPP) gene (phyPf) was cloned from the strain, and the deduced amino acid sequence of phyPf shared 98 % of identity with a known BPP from Pseudomonas sp. BS10-3 (AJF36073.1). The results of relative real-time quantitative PCR assay showed that the expression of phyPf was induced by a low concentration (0.1 mM) of soluble phosphate, suggesting that BPP secretion was regulated by gene phyPf. The BPP-harboring bacterium P. fluorescens JZ-DZ1 with low phosphate-inducible ability of phytate mineralization could be potentially applied to promote phosphorus uptake for plants in the future.

  8. Positive feedback between acidification and organic phosphate mineralization in the rhizosphere of maize (Zea mays L.).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ding, X.; Fu, L.; Liu, C.; Chen, F.; Hoffland, E.; Shen, J.; Zhang, F.; Feng, G.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract To test the hypothesis that rhizosphere acidification would enhance the hydrolyzation of organic phosphates by increasing phosphatase activity. A Petri dish experiment with sterile agar and a pot experiment with a low P soil were used. In the Petri dish experiment, roots of each plant were

  9. SEALING ABILITY OF MINERAL TRIOXIDE AGGREGATE, CALCIUM PHOSPHATE CEMENT, AND GLASS IONOMER CEMENT IN THE REPAIR OF FURCATION PERFORATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabath Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro sealing ability of three repair materials. Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA; Group A, calcium phosphate cement (CPC; Group B, and light cured glass ionomer cement (GIC; Group C when used to repair the perforation created in the pulpal floor of fifty extracted human permanent molars. Materials and methods: Preparation of access openings and furcation perforations were done, and the teeth divided into five experimental groups (A, B, C including two controls (D, E with ten samples in each group randomly. Following the repair procedure, the pulp chambers and access openings were filled with composite resin and immersed in 2% methylene blue solution for 48 hours. The teeth were sectioned longitudinally and the linear dye penetration measured under a stereo­microscope. Results: The comparison of the linear length of micro-leakage (mm among the experimental groups revealed no significant difference (p = 0.332. On calculating the percentage of depth of leakage to the total length of the perforation, it was observed that the mean leakage was 35.5% in Group A, 53.6% in Group B and the highest, 87.5% in Group C. The mean of leakage percentage was statistically significant by Kruskal-Wallis test (p = 0.003. The results indicated that the dye penetration used as furcation perforation repair material was least with mineral trioxide aggregate. Comparing the depth of penetration of dye, 50% of the Group A samples showed less than 25% of depth penetration. While 40% of Group B cases had more than 50% dye penetration. In our study, all Group C teeth had ≥ 50% dye penetration. Conclusions: The present study indicated that GIC had the greatest dye penetration followed by CPC and MTA. Mineral trioxide aggregate and calcium phosphate cement had comparatively better sealing ability than glass ionomer cement.

  10. Characterization and corrosion resistance of anodic electrodeposited titanium oxide/phosphate films on Ti-20Nb-10Zr-5Ta bioalloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popa, Monica; Vasilescu, Cora; Drob, Silviu I.; Osiceanu, Petre; Anastasescu, Mihai; Calderon-Moreno, Jose M., E-mail: josecalderonmoreno@yahoo.com [Institute of Physical Chemistry ' Ilie Murgulescu' of the Romanian Academy, Bucharest (Romania)

    2013-07-15

    In this work, the anodic galvanostatic electrodeposition of an oxidation film containing phosphates on Ti-20Nb-10Zr-5Ta alloy from orthophosphoric acid solution is presented. Its composition was determined by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Raman micro-spectroscopy, and its topography by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The corrosion resistance of the coated alloy in simulated human fluid (by linear polarization method and monitoring of open circuit potentials, corresponding open circuit potential gradients) as well as the characterization of the coating (by Raman spectroscopy and depth profile X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)) deposited in a period of 300 h soaking in simulated human body fluid were studied. The electrodeposited film was composed of amorphous titanium dioxide and contained phosphate groups. The corrosion resistance of the coated Ti-20Nb-10Zr-5Ta alloy in neutral and alkaline Ringer's solutions was higher than that of the bare alloy due to the protective properties of the electrodeposited film. The corrosion parameters improved over time as result of the thickening of the surface film by the deposition from the physiological solution. The deposited coating presented a variable composition in depth: at the deeper layer nucleated nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite and at the outer layer amorphous calcium phosphate. (author)

  11. Characterization and corrosion resistance of anodic electrodeposited titanium oxide/phosphate films on Ti-20Nb-10Zr-5Ta bioalloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popa, Monica; Vasilescu, Cora; Drob, Silviu I.; Osiceanu, Petre; Anastasescu, Mihai; Calderon-Moreno, Jose M.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, the anodic galvanostatic electrodeposition of an oxidation film containing phosphates on Ti-20Nb-10Zr-5Ta alloy from orthophosphoric acid solution is presented. Its composition was determined by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Raman micro-spectroscopy, and its topography by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The corrosion resistance of the coated alloy in simulated human fluid (by linear polarization method and monitoring of open circuit potentials, corresponding open circuit potential gradients) as well as the characterization of the coating (by Raman spectroscopy and depth profile X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)) deposited in a period of 300 h soaking in simulated human body fluid were studied. The electrodeposited film was composed of amorphous titanium dioxide and contained phosphate groups. The corrosion resistance of the coated Ti-20Nb-10Zr-5Ta alloy in neutral and alkaline Ringer's solutions was higher than that of the bare alloy due to the protective properties of the electrodeposited film. The corrosion parameters improved over time as result of the thickening of the surface film by the deposition from the physiological solution. The deposited coating presented a variable composition in depth: at the deeper layer nucleated nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite and at the outer layer amorphous calcium phosphate. (author)

  12. Phosphate-Solubilizing and -Mineralizing Abilities of Bacteria Isolated from Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO Guang-Can; TIAN Shu-Jun; CAI Miao-Ying; XIE Guang-Hui

    2008-01-01

    Microorganisms capable of solubilizing and mineralizing phosphorus (P) pools in soils are considered vital in promoting P bioavailability. The study was conducted to screen and isolate inorganic P-solubilizing bacteria (IPSB) and organic P-mineralizing bacteria (OPMB) in soils taken from subtropical flooded and temperate non-flooded soils, and to compare inorganic P-solubilizing and organic P-solubilizing abilities between IPSB and OPMB. Ten OPMB strains were isolated and identified as Bacillus cereus and Bacillus megaterium, and five IPSB strains as B. megaterium, Burkholderia caryophylli,Pseudomonas ciehorii, and Pseudomonas syringae. P-solubilizing and -mineralizing abilities of the strains were measured using the methods taking cellular P into account. The IPSB strains exhibited inorganic P-sohibilizing abilities ranging between 25.4-41.7 μg P mL-1 and organic P-mineralizing abilities between 8.2-17.8 μg P mL-1. Each of the OPMB strains also exhibited both solubilizing and mineralizing abilities varying from 4.4 to 26.5 μg P mL-1 and from 13.8 to 62.8 μg P mL-1, respectively. For both IPSB and OPMB strains, most of the P mineralized from the organic P source was incorporated into the bacterial cells as cellular P. A significantly negative linear correlation (P < 0.05) was found between culture pH and P solubilized from inorganic P by OPMB strains. The results suggested that P solubilization and mineralization could coexist in the same bacterial strain.

  13. Mineralogy and geochemistry of phosphate minerals and brannerite from the Proterozoic Carbon Leader Reef gold and uranium placer deposit, Witwatersrand, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberthuer, T.

    1987-01-01

    Yttrium-phosphate, the most common phosphate phase, is closely associated with detrital uraninite. It is assumed having formed by the reaction of mobile phosphate with Y and HREE liberated from the lattice of detrital uraninite, during diagenesis and/or metamorphism of the sediments. Authigenic brannerite (UTi 2-3 O 6-8 ) is well-defined microscopically and geochemically. Textural relationships indicate that both titanium migrated to uraninite, forming brannerite, and mobile uranium caused the 'branneritization' of rutile/leucoxene. Microprobe analyses demonstrate that brannerite from the Carbon Leader Reef displays a distinct and small variation of UO 2 /TiO 2 ratios, which lie close to the theoretical value of 1.117 for UTi 3 O 8 , in contrast to uraniferous leucoxene/brannerite from other Witwatersrand-type deposits, the latter showing a wide scatter of UO 2 /TiO 2 ratios. (orig./HP)

  14. Phurcalite: a rare secondary calcium uranium phosphate mineral from Putholi, Chittaurgarh District, Rajasthan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Yamuna; Singh, K.D.P.; Bhatt, A.K.

    1999-01-01

    X-ray powder diffraction data are presented for phurcalite [Ca 2 (UO 2 ) 3 (PO 4 ) 2 (OH) 4 , 4H 2 O], with orthorhombic symmetry, a very rare, yellow coloured, secondary uranium mineral, from Putholi (24 o 57' 45 : 74 o 38' 30). The host rock is quartzite which contains fluoroapatite, pyrite, goethite, hematite, magnetite, chlorite and mica as accessory minerals. Measured cell parameters of the phurcalite are : a = 17.3416 A, b=16.1138 A and c =13.5491 A, with a cell volume of 3786.16 A. (author)

  15. The effect of coating patterns with spinel-based investment on the castability and porosity of titanium cast into three phosphate-bonded investments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieralini, Anelise R F; Benjamin, Camila M; Ribeiro, Ricardo Faria; Scaf, Gulnara; Adabo, Gelson Luis

    2010-10-01

    This study evaluated the effect of pattern coating with spinel-based investment Rematitan Ultra (RU) on the castability and internal porosity of commercially pure (CP) titanium invested into phosphate-bonded investments. The apparent porosity of the investment was also measured. Square patterns (15 × 15 × 0.3 mm(3)) were either coated with RU, or not and invested into the phosphate-bonded investments: Rematitan Plus (RP), Rema Exakt (RE), Castorit Super C (CA), and RU (control group). The castings were made in an Ar-arc vacuum-pressure machine. The castability area (mm(2) ) was measured by an image-analysis system (n = 10). For internal porosity, the casting (12 × 12 × 2 mm(3) ) was studied by the X-ray method, and the projected porous area percentage was measured by an image-analysis system (n = 10). The apparent porosity of the investment (n = 10) was measured in accordance with the ASTM C373-88 standard. Analysis of variance (One-way ANOVA) of castability was significant, and the Tukey test indicated that RU had the highest mean but the investing technique with coating increased the castability for all phosphate-bonded investments. The analysis of the internal porosity of the cast by the nonparametric test demonstrated that the RP, RE, and CA with coating and RP without coating did not differ from the control group (RU), while the CA and RE casts without coating were more porous. The one-way ANOVA of apparent porosity of the investment was significant, and the Tukey test showed that the means of RU (36.10%) and CA (37.22%) were higher than those of RP (25.91%) and RE (26.02%). Pattern coating with spinel-based material prior to phosphate-bonded investments can influence the castability and the internal porosity of CP Ti. © 2010 by The American College of Prosthodontists.

  16. Bone healing around nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite, deproteinized bovine bone mineral, biphasic calcium phosphate, and autogenous bone in mandibular bone defects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broggini, Nina; Bosshardt, Dieter D; Jensen, Simon S

    2015-01-01

    The individual healing profile of a given bone substitute with respect to osteogenic potential and substitution rate must be considered when selecting adjunctive grafting materials for bone regeneration procedures. In this study, standardized mandibular defects in minipigs were filled...... with nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (HA-SiO), deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM), biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) with a 60/40% HA/β-TCP (BCP 60/40) ratio, or particulate autogenous bone (A) for histological and histomorphometric analysis. At 2 weeks, percent filler amongst the test groups (DBBM (35.65%), HA......-SiO (34.47%), followed by BCP 60/40 (23.64%)) was significantly higher than the more rapidly substituted autogenous bone (17.1%). Autogenous bone yielded significantly more new bone (21.81%) over all test groups (4.91%-7.74%) and significantly more osteoid (5.53%) than BCP 60/40 (3%) and DBBM (2...

  17. Biological response to titanium implants coated with nanocrystals calcium phosphate or type 1 collagen in a dog model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alghamdi, H.S.A.; Oirschot, B.A. van; Bosco, R.; Beucken, J.J. van den; Aldosari, A.A.; Anil, S.; Jansen, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The current study aimed to evaluate the osteogenic potential of electrosprayed organic and non-organic surface coatings in a gap-implant model over 4 and 12 weeks of implantation into the dog mandible. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sixteen Beagle dogs received experimental titanium implants in

  18. Heterologous expression of pyrroloquinoline quinone (pqq) gene cluster confers mineral phosphate solubilization ability to Herbaspirillum seropedicae Z67.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagh, Jitendra; Shah, Sonal; Bhandari, Praveena; Archana, G; Kumar, G Naresh

    2014-06-01

    Gluconic acid secretion mediated by the direct oxidation of glucose by pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ)-dependent glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) is responsible for mineral phosphate solubilization in Gram-negative bacteria. Herbaspirillum seropedicae Z67 (ATCC 35892) genome encodes GDH apoprotein but lacks genes for the biosynthesis of its cofactor PQQ. In this study, pqqE of Erwinia herbicola (in plasmid pJNK1) and pqq gene clusters of Pseudomonas fluorescens B16 (pOK53) and Acinetobacter calcoaceticus (pSS2) were over-expressed in H. seropedicae Z67. Transformants Hs (pSS2) and Hs (pOK53) secreted micromolar levels of PQQ and attained high GDH activity leading to secretion of 33.46 mM gluconic acid when grown on 50 mM glucose while Hs (pJNK1) was ineffective. Hs (pJNK1) failed to solubilize rock phosphate, while Hs (pSS2) and Hs (pOK53) liberated 125.47 μM and 168.07 μM P, respectively, in minimal medium containing 50 mM glucose under aerobic conditions. Moreover, under N-free minimal medium, Hs (pSS2) and Hs (pOK53) not only released significant P but also showed enhanced growth, biofilm formation, and exopolysaccharide (EPS) secretion. However, indole acetic acid (IAA) production was suppressed. Thus, the addition of the pqq gene cluster, but not pqqE alone, is sufficient for engineering phosphate solubilization in H. seropedicae Z67 without compromising growth under nitrogen-fixing conditions.

  19. Dynamics and diversity of phosphate mineralizing bacteria in the coral reefs of Gulf of Mannar

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kannapiran, E.; Ravindran, J.

    .2g, Ammonium sulphate 0.5g, Magnesium sulphate 0.1g, Potassium chloride 0.2g, Dextrose 10g, Soil extract 200ml, Distilled water 800ml, Trace element 1ml, Agar 18g and pH 7.2±0.1) [11] was used for the enumeration of Inorganic Phosphate Solubilizing... The biological decomposition of organic phosphorus in the marine environment is considered as the result of bacterial action and rate of decomposition of organic phosphorus by bacteria depend on the density of the phosphatase producing bacterial population [14...

  20. Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minerals are important for your body to stay healthy. Your body uses minerals for many different jobs, including keeping your bones, muscles, heart, and brain working properly. Minerals are also important for making enzymes and hormones. ...

  1. Aluminium phosphate sulphate minerals (APS) associated with proterozoic unconformity-type uranium deposits: crystal-chemical characterisation and petrogenetic significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaboreau, St.

    2005-01-01

    Aluminium phosphate sulfate minerals (APS) are particularly widespread and spatially associated with hydrothermal clay alteration in both the East Alligator River Uranium Field (Northern Territory, Australia) and the Athabasca basin (Saskatchewan, Canada), in the environment of proterozoic unconformity-related uranium deposits (URUD). The purpose of this study is both: 1) to characterize the nature and the origin of the APS minerals on both sides of the middle proterozoic unconformity between the overlying sandstones and the underlying metamorphic basement rocks that host the uranium ore bodies, 2) to improve our knowledge on the suitability of these minerals to indicate the paleo-conditions (redox, pH) at which the alteration processes relative to the uranium deposition operated. The APS minerals result from the interaction of oxidising and relatively acidic fluids with aluminous host rocks enriched in monazite. Several APS-bearing clay assemblages and APS crystal-chemistry have also been distinguished as a function of the distance from the uranium ore bodies or from the structural discontinuities which drained the hydrothermal solutions during the mineralisation event. One of the main results of this study is that the index mineral assemblages, used in the recent literature to describe the alteration zones around the uranium ore bodies, can be theoretically predicted by a set of thermodynamic calculations which simulate different steps of fluid-rock interaction processes related to a downward penetrating of hyper-saline, oxidizing and acidic diagenetic fluids through the lower sandstone units of the basins and then into the metamorphic basement rocks. The above considerations and the fact that APS with different crystal-chemical compositions crystallized in a range of fO 2 and pH at which uranium can either be transported in solution or precipitated as uraninite in the host-rocks make these minerals not only good markers of the degree of alteration of the

  2. Promotion of osteogenic differentiation of stem cells and increase of bone-bonding ability in vivo using urease-treated titanium coated with calcium phosphate and gelatin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhong-Ming; Qi, Yi-Ying; Du, Shao-Hua; Feng, Gang; Unuma, Hidero; Yan, Wei-Qi

    2013-10-01

    Because of its excellent biocompatibility and low allergenicity, titanium has been widely used for bone replacement and tissue engineering. To produce a desirable composite with enhanced bone response and mechanical strength, in this study bioactive calcium phosphate (CaP) and gelatin composites were coated onto titanium (Ti) via a novel urease technique. The cellular responses to the CaP/gelatin/Ti (CaP/gel/Ti) and bone bonding ability were evaluated with proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on CaP/gel/Ti and CaP/Ti in vitro. The results showed that the optical density values, alkaline phosphatase expression and genes expression of MSCs on CaP/gel/Ti were similar to those on CaP/Ti, yet significantly higher than those on pure Ti (p layer. An interfacial layer, containing Ti, Ca and P, was found to form at the interface between bone and the implant on all three groups by EDS analysis. However, the content of Ca, P in the surface of CaP/gel/Ti implants was more than in the other two groups at each time point. The CaP/gel/Ti modified by the urease method was not only beneficial for MSCs proliferation and osteogenic differentiation, but also favorable for bone bonding ability on Ti implants in vivo, suggesting that Ti functionalized with CaP and gelatin might have a great potential in clinical joint replacement or dental implants.

  3. Are iron-phosphate minerals a sink for phosphorus in anoxic Black Sea sediments?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikki Dijkstra

    Full Text Available Phosphorus (P is a key nutrient for marine organisms. The only long-term removal pathway for P in the marine realm is burial in sediments. Iron (Fe bound P accounts for a significant proportion of this burial at the global scale. In sediments underlying anoxic bottom waters, burial of Fe-bound P is generally assumed to be negligible because of reductive dissolution of Fe(III (oxyhydroxides and release of the associated P. However, recent work suggests that Fe-bound P is an important burial phase in euxinic (i.e. anoxic and sulfidic basin sediments in the Baltic Sea. In this study, we investigate the role of Fe-bound P as a potential sink for P in Black Sea sediments overlain by oxic and euxinic bottom waters. Sequential P extractions performed on sediments from six multicores along two shelf-to-basin transects provide evidence for the burial of Fe-bound P at all sites, including those in the euxinic deep basin. In the latter sediments, Fe-bound P accounts for more than 20% of the total sedimentary P pool. We suggest that this P is present in the form of reduced Fe-P minerals. We hypothesize that these minerals may be formed as inclusions in sulfur-disproportionating Deltaproteobacteria. Further research is required to elucidate the exact mineral form and formation mechanism of this P burial phase, as well as its role as a sink for P in sulfide-rich marine sediments.

  4. Are iron-phosphate minerals a sink for phosphorus in anoxic Black Sea sediments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Nikki; Kraal, Peter; Kuypers, Marcel M M; Schnetger, Bernhard; Slomp, Caroline P

    2014-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is a key nutrient for marine organisms. The only long-term removal pathway for P in the marine realm is burial in sediments. Iron (Fe) bound P accounts for a significant proportion of this burial at the global scale. In sediments underlying anoxic bottom waters, burial of Fe-bound P is generally assumed to be negligible because of reductive dissolution of Fe(III) (oxyhydr)oxides and release of the associated P. However, recent work suggests that Fe-bound P is an important burial phase in euxinic (i.e. anoxic and sulfidic) basin sediments in the Baltic Sea. In this study, we investigate the role of Fe-bound P as a potential sink for P in Black Sea sediments overlain by oxic and euxinic bottom waters. Sequential P extractions performed on sediments from six multicores along two shelf-to-basin transects provide evidence for the burial of Fe-bound P at all sites, including those in the euxinic deep basin. In the latter sediments, Fe-bound P accounts for more than 20% of the total sedimentary P pool. We suggest that this P is present in the form of reduced Fe-P minerals. We hypothesize that these minerals may be formed as inclusions in sulfur-disproportionating Deltaproteobacteria. Further research is required to elucidate the exact mineral form and formation mechanism of this P burial phase, as well as its role as a sink for P in sulfide-rich marine sediments.

  5. Characterization and Mineralization of Strontium Doped Nano Hydroxyapatite Coating on Titanium Rods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuang WANG

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Pure nano hydroxyapatite (nHA and strontium doped nano hydroxyapatite (Sr-nHA, Sr/(Ca+Sr =10% were prepared by a one-step method which mainly used the principle of homogeneous phase co-precipitation. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR revealed that the intensity of absorption was decreased with Sr doping. X-ray diffraction (XRD showed that special peak position of Sr-nHA shifted to a smaller 2θ angle compared with the pure nHA. Both the pure nHA (39.46±11.19nm in length and 15.90±3.65 nm in width and Sr-nHA (32.95±10.21 nm in length and 13.18±3.18 nm in width samples showed a tiny nano-rod feature. Moreover, Tc4 (Ti-6Al-4V rods (1 mm in diameter and 20 mm in length coated with pure nHA or Sr-nHA were prepared by high-energy plasma spraying. Elements of calcium (Ca, phosphorus (P, oxygen (O and Sr were detected on the Sr-nHA coating surface by Energy Dispersive Spectrometry (EDS. XRD result also indicates the chemical composition almost did not change significantly after spraying. By immersion in the simulated body fluid (SBF, in vitro mineralization ability was estimated and the superficial coats were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and XRD. The results showed that Sr-nHA spraying surface has a better mineralization ability than the pure nHA coating. Therefore, the synthesized Sr-nHA would have potential for biological prostheses and other implantable materials.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.23.3.17254

  6. 3D printing of mineral-polymer bone substitutes based on sodium alginate and calcium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorov, Aleksey A; Fedotov, Alexander Yu; Mironov, Anton V; Komlev, Vladimir S; Popov, Vladimir K; Zobkov, Yury V

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a relatively simple route for three-dimensional (3D) printing of complex-shaped biocompatible structures based on sodium alginate and calcium phosphate (CP) for bone tissue engineering. The fabrication of 3D composite structures was performed through the synthesis of inorganic particles within a biopolymer macromolecular network during 3D printing process. The formation of a new CP phase was studied through X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Both the phase composition and the diameter of the CP particles depend on the concentration of a liquid component (i.e., the "ink"). The 3D printed structures were fabricated and found to have large interconnected porous systems (mean diameter ≈800 μm) and were found to possess compressive strengths from 0.45 to 1.0 MPa. This new approach can be effectively applied for fabrication of biocompatible scaffolds for bone tissue engineering constructions.

  7. Development, characterisation and biocompatibility testing of a cobalt-containing titanium phosphate-based glass for engineering of vascularized hard tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, In-Ho [Department of Nanobiomedical Science and WCU Research Center of Nanobiomedical Science, Dankook University, Chungnam 330-714 (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Hye-sun [Department of Nanobiomedical Science and WCU Research Center of Nanobiomedical Science, Dankook University, Chungnam 330-714 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biochemical Engineering, University College London, Torrington Place, London, WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Lakhkar, Nilay J. [Division of Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering, Eastman Dental Institute, University College London, 256 Gray' s Inn Road, London WC1X 8LD (United Kingdom); Kim, Hae-Won [Department of Nanobiomedical Science and WCU Research Center of Nanobiomedical Science, Dankook University, Chungnam 330-714 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Tissue Regeneration Engineering (ITREN), Dankook University, Cheonan 330-714 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biomaterials Science, College of Dentistry, Dankook University, Cheonan 330-714 (Korea, Republic of); Gong, Myoung-Seon [Department of Nanobiomedical Science and WCU Research Center of Nanobiomedical Science, Dankook University, Chungnam 330-714 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Tissue Regeneration Engineering (ITREN), Dankook University, Cheonan 330-714 (Korea, Republic of); Knowles, Jonathan C. [Department of Nanobiomedical Science and WCU Research Center of Nanobiomedical Science, Dankook University, Chungnam 330-714 (Korea, Republic of); Division of Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering, Eastman Dental Institute, University College London, 256 Gray' s Inn Road, London WC1X 8LD (United Kingdom); Wall, Ivan B., E-mail: i.wall@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Nanobiomedical Science and WCU Research Center of Nanobiomedical Science, Dankook University, Chungnam 330-714 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biochemical Engineering, University College London, Torrington Place, London, WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom)

    2013-05-01

    There is a continuing need to develop scaffold materials that can promote vascularisation throughout the tissue engineered construct. This study investigated the effect of cobalt oxide (CoO) doped into titanium phosphate glasses on material properties, biocompatibility and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion by osteoblastic MG63 cells. Glasses composed of (P{sub 2}O{sub 5}){sub 45}(Na{sub 2}O){sub 20}(TiO{sub 2}){sub 05}(CaO){sub 30−x}(CoO){sub x}(x = 0, 5, 10, and 15 mol%) were fabricated and the effect of Co on physicochemical properties including density, glass transition temperature (T{sub g}), degradation rate, ion release, and pH changes was assessed. The results showed that incorporation of CoO into the glass system produced an increase in density with little change in T{sub g}. It was then confirmed that the pH did not change significantly when CoO was incorporated in the glass, and stayed constant at around 6.5–7.0 throughout the dissolution study period of 336 h. Ion release results followed a specific pattern with increasing amounts of CoO. In general, although incorporation of CoO into a titanium phosphate glass increased its density, other bulk and surface properties of the glass did not show any significant changes. Cell culture studies performed using MG63 cells over a 7-day period indicated that the glasses provide a stable surface for cell attachment and are biocompatible. Furthermore, VEGF secretion was significantly enhanced on all glasses compared with standard tissue culture plastic and Co doping enhanced this effect further. In conclusion, the developed Co-doped glasses are stable and biocompatible and thus offer enhanced potential for engineering vascularized tissue. - Highlights: ► Phosphate-based glasses can be successfully doped with cobalt oxide. ► The resulting glass is highly stable with low degradation rate. ► Co-doped glasses are biocompatible but do not favour cell proliferation. ► Osteoblastic MG63 cells

  8. Goldquarryite, a new Cd-bearing phosphate mineral from the Gold Quarry mine, Eureka County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Andrew C.; Cooper, M.A.; Hawthorne, F.C.; Gault, Robert A.; Jensen, M.C.; Foord, E.E.

    2003-01-01

    Goldquarryite, idealized formula CuCd2Al3(PO44F2(H2O)10(H2O 2, structure-derived formula (Cu0.70???0.30??1.00(Cd1.68Ca0.32??2.00Al3 (PO44F2(H2O)10[(H2O 1.60F0.40]??2.00, is triclinic, space group P1, with unit-cell parameters derived from crystal structure: a = 6.787(1), b = 9.082(2), c = 10.113(2) A??, ?? = 101.40(1)??, ?? = 104.27(1)??, ?? = 102.51(1)??, V = 568.7(3) A??3, a:b:c: = 0.7473:1:1.1135, Z = 1. The strongest seven reflections in the X-ray powder-diffraction pattern are [d(A??)(I)(hkl)]: 9.433(100)(001); 4.726(30)(002); 3.700(30)(022); 3.173(30b)(122, 113, 120, 003); 3.010(30)(122, 212); 2.896(30)(211); 2.820(50)(022). The mineral occurs on a single specimen collected from the 5,425-foot bench, Gold Quarry mine, Eureka County, Nevada, as isolated clusters of radiating sprays of crystals and as compact parallel crystal aggregates, which are both found on and between breccia fragments. Sprays and aggregates never exceed 3 mm in longest dimension and typically average about 0.5 mm in size. Goldquarryite is a late-stage supergene mineral associated with opal, carbonate-fluorapatite and hewettite, on a host rock composed principally of brecciated and hydrothermally rounded jasperoid fragments which have been lightly cemented by late-stage silicification. Individual euhedral crystals are acicular to bladed, elongate [100], with a length-to-width ratio of approximately 20:1; the maximum size is 1.5 mm but most crystals do not exceed 0.4 mm in length. Forms are {010}, {001} major and {100} very minor. The mineral is pleochroic; translucent (masses) to transparent (crystals); very pale blue to blue-gray (crystals) or blue (masses); with a white streak and a vitreous to glassy luster. Goldquarryite is brittle, lacks cleavage, has an irregular fracture, and is nonfluorescent; hardness (Mohs') is estimated at 3-4; measured density is 2.78(1) g/cm3 (sink-float techniques using methylene iodide-acetone mixtures), calculated density is 2.81 g/cm3 (for formula and unit

  9. Bi-functionalization of a calcium phosphate-coated titanium surface with slow-release simvastatin and metronidazole to provide antibacterial activities and pro-osteodifferentiation capabilities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunsong Liu

    Full Text Available Coating the surface of titanium implants or other bone graft substitute materials with calcium phosphate (Ca-P crystals is an effective way to enhance the osteoconduction of the implants. Ca-P coating alone cannot confer pro-osteodifferentiation and antibacterial capabilities on implants; however, it can serve as a carrier for biological agents which could improve the performance of implants and bone substitutes. Here, we constructed a novel, bi-functional Ca-P coating with combined pro-osteodifferentiation and antibacterial capabilities. Different concentrations of metronidazole (MNZ and simvastatin (SIM were integrated into biomimetic Ca-P coatings on the surface of titanium disks. The biological effects of this bi-functional biomimetic coating on human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMMSCs, human adipose derived stromal cells (hASCs, and Porphyromonas gingivalis were assessed in vitro. We observed that Ca-P coatings loaded with both SIM and MNZ display favorable release kinetics without affecting cell proliferation or attachment. In the inhibition zone test, we found that the bi-functional coating showed lasting antibacterial effects when incubated with Porphyromonas gingivalis for 2 and 4 days. Moreover, the osteodifferentiation of hBMMSCs and hASCs were increased when cultured on this bi-functional coating for 7 and 14 days. Both drugs were loaded onto the Ca-P coating at specific concentrations (10(-5 M SIM; 10(-2 M MNZ to achieve optimal release kinetics. Considering the safety, stability and low cost of SIM and MNZ, this novel bi-functional Ca-P coating technique represents a promising method to improve the performance of metal implants or other bone substitute materials, and can theoretically be easily translated to clinical applications.

  10. Effects of silver adsorbed on fumed silica, silver phosphate glass, bentonite organomodified with silver and titanium dioxide in aquatic indicator organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomacheski, Daiane; Pittol, Michele; Simões, Douglas Naue; Ribeiro, Vanda Ferreira; Santana, Ruth Marlene Campomanes

    2017-06-01

    In order to reduce the level of transmission of diseases caused by bacteria and fungi, the development of antimicrobial additives for use in personal care, hygiene products, clothing and others has increased. Many of these additives are based on metals such as silver and titanium. The disposal of these products in the environment has raised concerns pertaining to their potential harmfulness for beneficial organisms. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of the shape, surface chemistry, size and carrier of three additives containing silver and one with titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) on microcrustacean survival. Daphnia magna was used as a bioindicator for acute exposure test in suspensions from 0.0001 to 10,000ppm. Ceriodaphnia dubia was used for chronic test in TiO 2 suspensions from 0.001 to 100ppm. D. magna populations presented high susceptibility to all silver based additives, with 100% mortality after 24hr of exposure. A different result was found in the acute experiments containing TiO 2 suspensions, with mortality rates only after 48hr of incubation. Even on acute and chronic tests, TiO 2 did not reach a linear concentration-response versus mortality, with 1ppm being more toxic than 10,000ppm on acute test and 0.001 more toxic than 0.01ppm on chronic assay. Silver based material toxicity was attributed to silver itself, and had no relation to either form (nano or ion) or carrier (silica, phosphate glass or bentonite). TiO 2 demonstrated to have a low acute toxicity against D. magna. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Influence Of Carboxymethyl Cellulose For The Transport Of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles In Clean Silica And Mineral-Coated Sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    The transport properties of titanium dioxide (anatase polymorph) nanoparticles encapsulated by carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) were evaluated as a function of changes in the solute chemical properties in clean quartz, amorphous aluminum and iron hydroxide-coated sands. While prist...

  12. Lithium1.3Aluminum0.3Titanium1.7Phosphate as a solid state Li-ion conductor: Issues with microcracking and stability in aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Spencer D.

    Lithium aluminum titanium phosphate (LATP) with formula Li1.3Al0.3Ti1.7(PO4)3 was analyzed and tested to better understand its applicability as a solid state ion conducting ceramic material for electrochemical applications. Sintered samples were obtained from Ceramatec, Inc. in Salt Lake City and characterized in terms of density, phase-purity, fracture toughness, Young's modulus, thermal expansion behavior, mechanical strength, a.c. and d.c. ionic conductivity, and susceptibility to static and electrochemical corrosion in aqueous Li salt solutions. It was shown that LATP is prone to microcrack generation because of high thermal expansion anisotropy. A.c. impedance spectra of high-purity LATP of varying grain sizes showed that microcracking had a negative impact on the ionic conduction of Li along grain boundaries, with fine-grained (1.7±0.7 µm) LATP having twice the ionic conductivity of the same purity of coarse-grained (4.8±1.9 µm) LATP at 50°C. LATP with detectible secondary phases had lower ionic conductivity for similar grain sizes, as would be expected. The Young's modulus of fine-grained LATP was measured to be 115 GPa, and the highest biaxial strength was 191±11 MPa when tested in mineral oil, 144±13 MPa as measured in air, and 26±7 MPa after exposure to deionized water, suggesting that LATP undergoes stress-corrosion cracking. After exposure to LiOH, the strength was 76±19 MPa. This decrease in strength was observed despite there being no measureable change in a.c. impedance spectra, X-ray diffraction, or sample mass, suggesting phosphate glasses at grain boundaries. The chemical and electrochemical stability of high-purity LATP in aqueous electrochemical cells was evaluated using LiOH, LiCl, LiNO3, and LiCOOCH3 salts as the Li source. LATP was found to be most stable between pH 8-9, with the longest cell operating continuously at 25 mA cm-2 for 625 hours at 40°C in LiCOOCH3. At pH values outside of the 7-10 range, eventual membrane degradation

  13. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) stimulates mineralization of MC3T3-E1 cells through calcium and phosphate uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassinary, João Alberto Fioravante; Lunardelli, Adroaldo; Basso, Bruno de Souza; Dias, Henrique Bregolin; Catarina, Anderson Velasque; Stülp, Simone; Haute, Gabriela Viegas; Martha, Bianca Andrade; Melo, Denizar Alberto da Silva; Nunes, Fernanda Bordignon; Donadio, Márcio Vinícius Fagundes; Oliveira, Jarbas Rodrigues de

    2018-03-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) on pre-osteoblast mineralization using in vitro bioassays. Pre-osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells were exposed to LIPUS at 1 MHz frequency, 0.2 W/cm 2 intensity and 20% duty cycle for 30 min. The analyses were carried out up to 336 h (14 days) after exposure. The concentration of collagen, phosphate, alkaline phosphatase, calcium and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) in cell supernatant and the presence of calcium deposits in the cells were analyzed. Our results showed that LIPUS promotes mineralized nodules formation. Collagen, phosphate, and calcium levels were decreased in cell supernatant at 192 h after LIPUS exposure. However, alkaline phosphatase and TGF-β1 concentrations remained unchanged. Therapeutic pulsed ultrasound is capable of stimulating differentiation and mineralization of pre-osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells by calcium and phosphate uptake with consequent hydroxyapatite formation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Physical-chemical study of hydroxi-phosphates and associated minerals occurring in the Pirocaua Plateau (MA) and Jandia hill (PA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reymao, M. de F.F.

    1983-01-01

    A lateritic profile rich in alumino-calcic and aluminum hidroxi-phosphates (Pirocaua, MA), and another also rich in alumino-calcic and containning iron and calcium hidroxi-phosphates (Jandia, PA) has been investigated in order to elucidate the formation of the secondary minerals and the trace element behaviour during tropical weathering. For such purposes it was decided to use X-ray diffractometry and chemical analysis and it was pointed out the applicability of infrared absorption spectroscopy and differential thermal analysis for the mineral characterization. In order to relate the geochemical alterations it was included a theoretical thermodynamic study. Infrared absorption spectroscopy and differential thermal analysis have been demonstrated to be valuables methods for studying minerals. Results are presented which demonstrate the usefullness of these techniques. These studies show that it is now possible to correlate differential thermal analysis and infrared data with that from other techniques (chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction patterns) and that the methods yields valuable supplemental information. Theoretical calculations and the use of thermodynamic data (standard free energie and solubility products) reveal some important conclusions about chemical equilibria, mineral formation, solubility and stability relations. (Author) [pt

  15. Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Aren't minerals something you find in the earth, like iron and quartz? Well, yes, but small ... canned salmon and sardines with bones leafy green vegetables, such as broccoli calcium-fortified foods — from orange ...

  16. Promotion of osteogenic differentiation of stem cells and increase of bone-bonding ability in vivo using urease-treated titanium coated with calcium phosphate and gelatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Zhong-Ming; Qi, Yi-Ying; Du, Shao-Hua; Feng, Gang; Yan, Wei-Qi; Unuma, Hidero

    2013-01-01

    Because of its excellent biocompatibility and low allergenicity, titanium has been widely used for bone replacement and tissue engineering. To produce a desirable composite with enhanced bone response and mechanical strength, in this study bioactive calcium phosphate (CaP) and gelatin composites were coated onto titanium (Ti) via a novel urease technique. The cellular responses to the CaP/gelatin/Ti (CaP/gel/Ti) and bone bonding ability were evaluated with proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on CaP/gel/Ti and CaP/Ti in vitro. The results showed that the optical density values, alkaline phosphatase expression and genes expression of MSCs on CaP/gel/Ti were similar to those on CaP/Ti, yet significantly higher than those on pure Ti (p < 0.05). CaP/gel/Ti and CaP/Ti rods (2 mm in diameter, 10 mm in length) were also implanted into femoral shaft of rabbits and pure Ti rods served as control (n = 10). Histological examination, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) measurements were performed at 4 and 8 weeks after the operation. The histological and SEM observations demonstrated clearly that more new bone formed on the surface of CaP/gel/Ti than in the other two groups at each time point. The CaP/gel/Ti bonded to the surrounding bone directly with no intervening soft tissue layer. An interfacial layer, containing Ti, Ca and P, was found to form at the interface between bone and the implant on all three groups by EDS analysis. However, the content of Ca, P in the surface of CaP/gel/Ti implants was more than in the other two groups at each time point. The CaP/gel/Ti modified by the urease method was not only beneficial for MSCs proliferation and osteogenic differentiation, but also favorable for bone bonding ability on Ti implants in vivo, suggesting that Ti functionalized with CaP and gelatin might have a great potential in clinical joint replacement or dental implants. (paper)

  17. Iron-titanium oxide minerals and magnetic susceptibility anomalies in the Mariano Lake-Lake Valley cores - Constraints on conditions of uranium mineralization in the Morrison Formation, San Juan Basin, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, R.L.; Fishman, N.S.; Scott, J.H.; Hudson, M.R.

    1986-01-01

    Petrographic study of the Mariano Lake-Lake Valley cores reveals three distinct zones of postdepositional alteration of detrital Fe-Ti (iron-titanium) oxide minerals in the Westwater Canyon Member of the Upper Jurassic Morrisson Formation. In the uranium-bearing and adjacent portions of the Westwater Canyon, these detrital Fe-Ti oxide minerals have been thoroughly altered by leaching of iron. Stratigraphically lower parts of the Westwater Canyon and the underlying Recapture Member are characterized by preservation of Fe-Ti oxide grains, primarily magnetite and ilmenite, and of hematite, and by an absence or uranium concentrations. Partly destroyed Fe-Ti oxide minerals occupy an interval between the zones of destruction and preservation. Alteration patterns of the Fe-Ti oxide minerals are reflected in bore-hole magnetic susceptibility logs. Magnetic susceptibility response in the upper parts of the Westwater Canyon Member is flat and uniformly <500 μSI units, but at greater depths it fluctuates sharply, from <1,000 to nearly 8,000 μSI units. The boundary between uniformly low and high magnetic susceptibility response corresponds closely to the interval that divides the zone of completely altered from the zone of preserved detrital Fe-Ti oxide minerals. The alteration pattern suggests that solutions responsible for destruction of the Fe-ti oxide minerals originated in the overlying Brushy Basin Member of the Morrison Formation. Previous studies indicate that these solutions were rich in soluble organic matter and perhaps in uranium. Uranium precipitation may have been controlled by a vertically fluctuation interface between organic-rich solutions and geochemically different fluids in which the detrital Fe-Ti oxide minerals were preserved

  18. Recovery of uranium from the Syrian phosphate by solid-liquid method using alkaline solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shlewit, H.; Alibrahim, M.

    2007-01-01

    Uranium concentrations were analyzed in the Syrian phosphate deposits. Mean concentrations were found between 50 and 110 ppm. As a consequence, an average phosphate dressing of 22 kg/ha phosphate would charge the soil with 5-20 g/ha uranium when added as a mineral fertilizer. Fine grinding phosphate produced at the Syrian mines was used for uranium recovery by carbonate leaching. The formation of the soluble uranyl tricarbonate anion UO 2 (CO 3 ) 3 4- permits use of alkali solutions of sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate salts for the nearly selective dissolution of uranium from phosphate. Separation of iron, aluminum, titanium, etc., from the uranium during leaching was carried out. Formation of some small amounts of molybdates, vanadates, phosphates, aluminates, and some complexes metal was investigated. This process could be used before the manufacture of TSP fertilizer, and the final products would contain smaller uranium quantities. (author)

  19. Evaluation of the sealing ability of bone cement as furcation perforation repair material when compared with mineral trioxide aggregate and calcium phosphate cement: An in-vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Chordiya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was undertaken to compare the sealing ability of bone cement as furcation perforation repair material when compared with mineral trioxide aggregate and calcium phosphate cement. Materials and Methods: A total of 70 sound mandibular molars were selected for this study. The sample teeth were randomly divided into five groups: group I - n=20, perforation repair material used, mineral trioxide aggregate; group II - n=20, perforation repair material used, calcium phosphate cement; group III - n=20, perforation repair material used, bone cement; group IV - positive control, n=5, the furcation were not repaired with any material; group V - negative control, n=5, furcation area intact, no perforation done. The teeth were immersed in silver nitrate solution for 2 hours and then rinsed with photographic developer solution for 6 hours. They were then sectioned in a longitudinal direction and examined under a stereomicroscope. In each section the actual values of dye leakage were calculated from outer margins of perforation to the level of pulpal floor and were then subjected to statistical analysis. Results: An unpaired ′t′ test revealed that different groups exhibited significantly different dye penetrations (P<0.01. Conclusion: Furcation perforation repaired with MTA showed minimum microleakage (mean 54.5%, calcium phosphate cement showed maximum microleakage (100%, and bone cement showed moderate dye leakage (87.8%.

  20. Study of phosphatic nodules as a possible source of uranium mineralization in warcha sandstone of nilawahan group salt range using SSNTD technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, A.A.; Ullah, K.; Ullah, N.; Mohammad, A.

    2004-07-01

    The strong in the sedimentary depositional characteristics between the Warcha Sandstone of Nilawahan Group in the Salt Range and the uranium bearing sandstones of Siwalik Group in the foot hills of Himalaya and Sulaiman Ranges tempted the geologists to investigate the former group for the occurrence of any uranium deposits in it. Like volcanic ash beds in Siwaliks, phosphatic nodules may be a possible source of uranium mineralization in Warcha Sandstone of Nilawahan Group. Samples of phosphatic nodules occurring in the Sandstone of Nilawahan Group Salt Range were analyzed using Solid State Nuclear Track Detention Technique (SSNTD) for the determination of their uranium concentration. The results obtained are quite encouraging and favour the idea of exploring the area in detail for any possible occurrence of uranium deposit. Uranium concentration in these samples ranges from (434 + - 39) ppm to (964+ -81)ppm with and average concentration of (699 + - 62) ppm. (author)

  1. Minerals yearbook: The mineral industry of Brazil. 1988 international review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ensminger, H.R.

    1988-01-01

    Brazil's gross domestic product (GDP) grew only slightly in 1988 to $277 billion at current prices. The growth rate was the smallest registered since 1983, when the rate was minus 2.8%. The economy's performance was strongly influenced by a 2% to 3% decrease in industrial production and civil construction. The mineral industry, however, countered the downward trend in the industrial sector and grew a modest 1.4%. Topics discussed in the report include the following: Government policies and programs; Production; Trade; Commodity review--Metals (Aluminum, Aluminia, and Bauxite, Columbium, Copper, Gold, Iron and Steel, Manganese, Tin, Titanium); Industrial Minerals (Gem stones, Phosphate rock, Quartz); Mineral fuels (Coal, Natural gas, Petroleum, Nuclear power); Nonmineral energy sources (Alcohol, Hydroelectric)

  2. Minerals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaquero, M. P.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available The possible changes in the mineral composition of food during frying could be the consequence of losses by leaching, or changes in concentrations caused by exchanges between the food and culinary fat of other compounds. The net result depends on the type of food, the frying fat used and the frying process. Moreover, the modifications that frying produces in other nutrients could indirectly affect the availability of dietary minerals. The most outstanding ones are those that can take place in the fat or in the protein. With respect to the interactions between frying oils and minerals, we have recent knowledge concerning the effects of consuming vegetable oils used in repeated fryings of potatoes without turnover, on the nutritive utilization of dietary minerals. The experiments have been carried out in pregnant and growing rats, which consumed diets containing, as a sole source of fat, the testing frying oils or unused oils. It seems that the consumption of various frying oils, with a polar compound content lower or close to the maximum limit of 25% accepted for human consumption, does not alter the absorption and metabolism of calcium, phosphorous, iron or copper. Magnesium absorption from diets containing frying oils tends to increase but the urinary excretion of this element increases, resulting imperceptible the variations in the magnesium balance. The urinary excretion of Zn also increased although its balance remained unchanged. Different studies referring to the effects of consuming fried fatty fish on mineral bioavailability will also be presented. On one hand, frying can cause structural changes in fish protein, which are associated with an increase in iron absorption and a decrease in body zinc retention. The nutritive utilization of other elements such as magnesium, calcium and copper seems to be unaffected. On the other hand; it has been described that an excess of fish fatty acids in the diet produces iron depletion, but when fatty

  3. Mineralization of soluble P fertilizers and insoluble rock phosphate in response to phosphate-solubilizing bacteria and poultry manure and their effect on the growth and P utilization efficiency of chilli (Capsicum annuum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, M. K.; Musa, N.; Manzoor, M.

    2015-08-01

    The ability of soil microorganisms and organic manure to convert insoluble phosphorus (P) to an accessible form offers a biological rescue system for improving P utilization efficiency in soil-plant systems. Our objective was to examine the P mineralization potential of two soluble P fertilizers (SPF), i.e., single superphosphate (SSP) and diammonium phosphate (DAP), and of insoluble rock phosphate (RP) with and without phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) and poultry manure (PM) and their subsequent effect on the growth, yield and P utilization efficiency (PUE) of chilli (Capsicum annuum L.). An incubation study was carried out on a loam (slightly alkaline) soil with 12 treatments: T0 - control; T1 - RP; T2 - SSP; T3 - DAP; T4 - PM; T5 - 1/2 RP+1/2 SSP; T6 - 1/2 RP+1/2 DAP; T7 - 1/2 RP+1/2 PM; T8 - RP+PSB; T9 - 1/2 RP+1/2 SSP+PSB; T10 - 1/2 RP+1/2 DAP+PSB; and T11 - 1/2 RP+1/2 PM+PSB. Phosphorus mineralization was measured by analyzing extractable P from the amended soil incubated under controlled conditions at 25 °C for periods of 0, 5, 15, 25, 35 and 60 days. A complementary greenhouse experiment was conducted in pots with chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) as a test crop. Growth, yield, P uptake and PUE of the chilli was determined during the study. Results indicated that P mineralization in soil amended with RP was 6.0-11.5 mg kg-1, while both soluble P fertilizers resulted in 68-73 mg P kg-1 at day 0, which decreased by 79-82 % at the end of incubation. The integrated use of PSB and PM with RP in T11 stimulated P mineralization by releasing a maximum of 25 mg P kg-1 that was maintained at high levels without any loss. Use of PSB decreased soil pH. In the greenhouse experiment, RP alone or RP+PSB did not have a significant impact on plant growth. However, the combined use of RP, PM and PSB in T11 resulted in similar growth, yield and P uptake of chilli as DAP. The PUE of applied P varied from 4 to 29 % and was higher in the treatments that included PSB. We conclude

  4. Studies on effective decomposition of monazite minerals by variety of phosphate fluxes for simple and direct determination of uranium by LED fluorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopal, Leela; Hanuman, V.V.; Chakrapani, G.

    2013-01-01

    A simple, rapid, effective sample decomposition method is developed for the determination of uranium (U) in monazite minerals by fluorimetric (Light Emitting Diodes (LED) based) technique. The salts of sodium dihydrogen phosphate (NaH 2 PO 4 ), disodium hydrogen phosphate (Na 2 HPO 4 ) and tetrasodium pyrophosphate (Na 4 P 2 O 7 ) were used to conduct studies on effective decomposition and dissolution of monazite minerals. The flux short listed for sample decomposition has several advantages. The fusion is very simple (involve minimal skills), time saving and eco-friendly (no acids were used for sample dissolution), where as in the reported conventional sample decomposition methods involving fusion with sodium peroxide, mixture of KHF 2 and NaF, mineral acids are being used for sample decomposition to get clear solution. Further this solution cannot be used directly for uranium determination by LED fluorimetry; hence separation is required, resulting in low sample throughput. In the present method no such separation is required as the flux itself acts as a fluorescence enhancing reagent and buffer (maintaining the optimum pH of 7.1 ± 0.1). The fused melt of the flux mixture when dissolved in water, gives clear and stable solution. The accuracy and precision of the method was evaluated by analyzing Certified Reference Material, IGS-36 (Institute of Geological Sciences, UK) and monazite samples received from BSOI, Trivandrum. The accuracy of the data was further evaluated by comparing with conventional standard decomposition methods. The results are well within experimental error. RSD of the method is ±2% at 0.30% U 3 O 8 in monazite minerals. (author)

  5. Structure of selected basic zinc/copper (II) phosphate minerals based upon near-infrared spectroscopy--implications for hydrogen bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Ray L; Reddy, B Jagannadha; Palmer, Sara J; Keeffe, Eloise C

    2011-03-01

    The NIR spectra of reichenbachite, scholzite and parascholzite have been studied at 298 K. The spectra of the minerals are different, in line with composition and crystal structural variations. Cation substitution effects are significant in their electronic spectra and three distinctly different electronic transition bands are observed in the near-infrared spectra at high wavenumbers in the 12,000-7600 cm(-1) spectral region. Reichenbachite electronic spectrum is characterised by Cu(II) transition bands at 9755 and 7520 cm(-1). A broad spectral feature observed for ferrous ion in the 12,000-9000 cm(-1) region both in scholzite and parascholzite. Some what similarities in the vibrational spectra of the three phosphate minerals are observed particularly in the OH stretching region. The observation of strong band at 5090 cm(-1) indicates strong hydrogen bonding in the structure of the dimorphs, scholzite and parascholzite. The three phosphates exhibit overlapping bands in the 4800-4000 cm(-1) region resulting from the combinations of vibrational modes of (PO(4))(3-) units. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison between two sampling methods by results obtained using petrographic techniques, specially developed for minerals of the Itataia uranium phosphate deposit, Ceara, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salas, H.T.; Murta, R.L.L.

    1985-01-01

    The results of comparison of two sampling methods applied to a gallery of the uranium-phosphate ore body of Itataia-Ceara State, Brazil, along 235 metres of mineralized zone, are presented. The results were obtained through petrographic techniques especially developed and applied to both samplings. In the first one it was studied hand samples from a systematically sampling made at intervals of 2 metres. After that, the estimated mineralogical composition studies were carried out. Some petrogenetic observations were for the first time verified. The second sampling was made at intervals of 20 metres and 570 tons of ore extracted and distributed in sections and a sample representing each section was studied after crushing at -65. Their mineralogy were quantified and the degree of liberation of apatite calculated. Based on the mineralogical data obtained it was possible to represent both samplings and to make the comparison of the main mineralogical groups (phosphates, carbonates and silicates). In spite of utilizing different methods and methodology and the kind of mineralization, stockwork, being quite irregular, the results were satisfactory. (Author) [pt

  7. The therapeutic effect on bone mineral formation from biomimetic zinc containing tricalcium phosphate (ZnTCP in zinc-deficient osteoporotic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Chou

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of biomimetic zinc-containing tricalcium phosphate (ZnTCP produced by hydrothermally converting calcium carbonate exoskeletons from foraminifera, in the treatment of osteoporotic mice. X-Ray powder diffraction showed crystallographic structures matching JCPDS profile for tricalcium phosphate. Mass spectroscopy used to calculate total composition amount showed similar amount of calcium (5×10(4 µg/g and phosphate (4×10(4 ppm after conversion and the presence of zinc (5.18×10(3 µg/g. In vitro zinc release showed no release in PBS buffer and <1% zinc release in 7 days. In vivo evaluation was done in ovariectomized mice by implanting the ZnTCP samples in the soft tissues near the right femur bone for four weeks. Thirty ddY mice (5 weeks old, average weight of 21 g were divided into six experimental groups (normal, sham, OVX, β-TCP, ZnTCP and direct injection of zinc. CT images were taken every two weeks where the bone mineral density (BMD and bone mineral content (BMC were calculated by software based on CT images. The ZnTCP group exhibits cortical and cancellous bone growth of 45% and 20% respectively. While sham, OVX and β-TCP suffered from bone loss. A correlation was made between the significant body weight increase in ZnTCP with the significant increase in plasma zinc level compared with OVX. The presented results indicate that biomimetic ZnTCP were effective in preventing and treating bone loss in osteoporotic mice model.

  8. Weathering Profiles in Phosphorus-Rich Rocks at Gusev Crater, Mars, Suggest Dissolution of Phosphate Minerals into Potentially Habitable Near-Neutral Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adcock, Christopher T; Hausrath, Elisabeth M

    2015-12-01

    Abundant evidence indicates that significant surface and near-surface liquid water has existed on Mars in the past. Evaluating the potential for habitable environments on Mars requires an understanding of the chemical and physical conditions that prevailed in such aqueous environments. Among the geological features that may hold evidence of past environmental conditions on Mars are weathering profiles, such as those in the phosphorus-rich Wishstone-class rocks in Gusev Crater. The weathering profiles in these rocks indicate that a Ca-phosphate mineral has been lost during past aqueous interactions. The high phosphorus content of these rocks and potential release of phosphorus during aqueous interactions also make them of astrobiological interest, as phosphorus is among the elements required for all known life. In this work, we used Mars mission data, laboratory-derived kinetic and thermodynamic data, and data from terrestrial analogues, including phosphorus-rich basalts from Idaho, to model a conceptualized Wishstone-class rock using the reactive transport code CrunchFlow. Modeling results most consistent with the weathering profiles in Wishstone-class rocks suggest a combination of chemical and physical erosion and past aqueous interactions with near-neutral waters. The modeling results also indicate that multiple Ca-phosphate minerals are likely in Wishstone-class rocks, consistent with observations of martian meteorites. These findings suggest that Gusev Crater experienced a near-neutral phosphate-bearing aqueous environment that may have been conducive to life on Mars in the past. Mars-Gusev Crater-Wishstone-Reactive transport modeling-CrunchFlow-Aqueous interactions-Neutral pH-Habitability.

  9. Origin and nature of the aluminium phosphate-sulfate minerals (APS associated with uranium mineralization in triassic red-beds (Iberian Range, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marfil, R.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the mineralogical and chemical study of an Aluminium–phosphate–sulphate (APS mineralization that occurs in a clastic sequence from the Triassic (Buntsandstein of the Iberian Range. The deposit is constituted by sandstones, mudstones, and conglomerates with arenaceous matrix, which were deposited in fluvial to shallow-marine environments. In addition to APS minerals, the following diagenetic minerals are present in the clastic sequence: quartz, K-feldspar, kaolinite group minerals, illite, Fe-oxides-hidroxides, carbonate-sulphate cement-replacements and secondary uraniferous minerals. APS minerals were identified and characterized by optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and electron microprobe. Microcrystalline APS crystals occur replacing uraniferous minerals, associated with kaolinite, mica and filling pores, in distal fluvial-to-tidal arkoses-subarkoses. Given their Ca, Sr, and Ba contents, the APS minerals can be defined as a solid solution of crandallite-goyacite-gorceixite (0.53 Ca, 0.46 Sr and 0.01 Ba. The chemical composition, low LREE concentration and Sr > S suggest that the APS mineral were originated during the supergene alteration of the Buntsandstein sandstones due to the presence of the mineralizing fluids which causes the development of U-bearing sandstones in a distal alteration area precipitating from partially dissolved and altered detrital minerals. Besides, the occurrence of dickite associated with APS minerals indicates they were precipitated at diagenetic temperatures (higher than 80ºC, related to the uplifting occurred during the late Cretaceous post-rift thermal stage.Este trabajo se centra en el estudio de los minerales fosfato-sulfato alumínicos (APS que se producenen una secuencia clástica del Triásico (Buntsandstein de la Cordillera Ibérica. El depósito está constituido por areniscas, lutitas y conglomerados con matriz arenosa, que fueron depositados en

  10. Electrospinning of calcium phosphate-poly(D,L-lactic acid nanofibers for sustained release of water-soluble drug and fast mineralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu QW

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Qi-Wei Fu,1,* Yun-Peng Zi,1,* Wei Xu,1 Rong Zhou,1 Zhu-Yun Cai,1 Wei-Jie Zheng,1 Feng Chen,2 Qi-Rong Qian1 1Department of Orthopedics, Changzheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, 2State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Calcium phosphate-based biomaterials have been well studied in biomedical fields due to their outstanding chemical and biological properties which are similar to the inorganic constituents in bone tissue. In this study, amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP nanoparticles were prepared by a precipitation method, and used for preparation of ACP-poly(D,L-lactic acid (ACP-PLA nanofibers and water-soluble drug-containing ACP-PLA nanofibers by electrospinning. Promoting the encapsulation efficiency of water-soluble drugs in electrospun hydrophobic polymer nanofibers is a common problem due to the incompatibility between the water-soluble drug molecules and hydrophobic polymers solution. Herein, we used a native biomolecule of lecithin as a biocompatible surfactant to overcome this problem, and successfully prepared water-soluble drug-containing ACP-PLA nanofibers. The lecithin and ACP nanoparticles played important roles in stabilizing water-soluble drug in the electrospinning composite solution. The electrospun drug-containing ACP-PLA nanofibers exhibited fast mineralization in simulated body fluid. The ACP nanoparticles played the key role of seeds in the process of mineralization. Furthermore, the drug-containing ACP-PLA nanofibers exhibited sustained drug release which simultaneously occurred with the in situ mineralization in simulated body fluid. The osteoblast-like (MG63 cells with spreading filopodia were well observed on the as-prepared nanofibrous mats after culturing for 24 hours, indicating a high cytocompatibility. Due

  11. Interactions between supplemented mineral phosphorus and phytase on phytate hydrolysis and inositol phosphates in the small intestine of broilers1,2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, Ellen; Schollenberger, Margit; Witzig, Maren; Shastak, Yauheni; Kühn, Imke; Hoelzle, Ludwig E; Rodehutscord, Markus

    2015-05-01

    Phytate breakdown in the digestive tract of broilers is affected by supplements of mineral phosphorus (P) and phytase with unknown interactions between the 2 factors. It was the objective to study phytate hydrolysis and the presence of inositol phosphate isomers (InsPs) as affected by supplements of mineral P and phytase in the small intestine of broilers. Fifteen-day old broilers were assigned to 48 pens of 20 broilers each (n = 8 pens/treatment). Two low-P corn-soybean meal-based diets without (BD-; 4.4 g P/kg dry matter) or with monocalcium phosphate (MCP; BD+; 5.2 g P/kg dry matter) were supplied without or with added phytase at 500 or 12,500 FTU/kg. On d 24, digesta from the duodenum/jejunum and lower ileum was pooled per segment on a by-pen basis, freeze-dried, and analyzed for P, InsPs, and the marker TiO2. Another 180 broilers (n = 6 pens/treatment, 10 birds each) were fed the 3 BD+ diets from d 1 to 21 to assess the influence of supplemented phytase on tibia mineralization and strength. Significant interactions between MCP and phytase supplements on myo-inositol 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakis (dihydrogen phosphate) (InsP6) hydrolysis (duodenum/jejunum: P ≤ 0.001; ileum: P = 0.004) and level of specific lower InsPs were detected. Supplementation with 12,500 FTU/kg phytase resulted in 92% InsP6 hydrolysis and strong degradation of InsP5. This treatment resulted in higher P net absorption, affirmed by higher BW gain, tibia strength, and mineralization compared to treatments without or with 500 FTU/kg phytase (P ≤ 0.05). MCP supplementation reduced the degradation of InsP6 and specific lower InsPs in birds fed diets without or with 500 FTU/kg of phytase (P ≤ 0.05), but did not reduce InsP6 hydrolysis or degradation of InsP5 at the high phytase dose. Effects of added MCP on phytase efficacy depend on the dose of supplemented phytase. Differences in the concentrations of lower InsPs indicated that the initial step of InsP6 hydrolysis is not the only

  12. Carbon nanotubes/pectin/minerals substituted apatite nanocomposite depositions on anodized titanium for hard tissue implant: In vivo biological performance"†

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govindaraj, Dharman; Rajan, Mariappan; Munusamy, Murugan A.; Alarfaj, Abdullah A.; Higuchi, Akon; Suresh Kumar, S.

    2017-01-01

    A surface deposition approach enveloping the use of biocompatible trace components and strengthening materials will affect the physicochemical and osseointegration properties of nanocomposite deposited implants. The current work is aimed at the development of functionalized carbon nanotubes (f-CNT)/Pectin (P)/mineralized hydroxyapatite (M-HA) ((f-CNT/P/M-HA)) nanocomposite depositions by electrophoretic deposition on anodized titanium (TiO_2) implant. The capacity of f-CNT manages the cost of mechanical strength, while pectin (extracted from pomegranate peel) and minerals (strontium, magnesium, and zinc) enhance the biocompatibility of the HA deposition was investigate utilizing different methods. The functional and morphological analyses were done by FTIR, XRD, XPS, SEM-EDX and TEM. The mechanical depiction results show improved adherence quality for the nanocomposite deposition. Additionally, an enhanced viability of osteoblast cells (MG63 (HOS)) was monitored in vitro on the f-CNT/P/M-HA nanocomposite deposition. The capacity of the nanocomposite deposited TiO_2 implant to encourage bone development was assessed in vivo. Hence, the as-synthesized nanocomposite deposited TiO_2 that joins the comfort osteoconductivity of mineralized hydroxyapatite, pectin collectively with the compressive strength of f-CNT can have numerous uses in orthopaedics since it could enhance implant fixation in human bone. - Highlights: • Successful development of CNTs–Pectin reinforced M-HA nanocomposite coating on TiO_2 by electrodeposition. • The success of nanocomposite coatings was evidenced with FTIR, XRD, XPS, SEM-EDX, and TEM. • Nanocomposite coating on TiO_2 is bio-resistive, better candidate for implant applications. • The fabricate nanocomposite coatings showed good biocompatibility and no adverse effect from in vitro and in vivo tests.

  13. Carbon nanotubes/pectin/minerals substituted apatite nanocomposite depositions on anodized titanium for hard tissue implant: In vivo biological performance{sup †}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Govindaraj, Dharman [Biomaterials in Medicinal Chemistry Lab, Department of Natural Products Chemistry, School of Chemistry, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai 625021 (India); Rajan, Mariappan, E-mail: rajanm153@gmail.com [Biomaterials in Medicinal Chemistry Lab, Department of Natural Products Chemistry, School of Chemistry, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai 625021 (India); Munusamy, Murugan A.; Alarfaj, Abdullah A. [Department of Botany and Microbiology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Higuchi, Akon [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National Central University, Jhong-li, Taoyuan, 32001 Taiwan (China); Suresh Kumar, S. [Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang (Malaysia)

    2017-06-15

    A surface deposition approach enveloping the use of biocompatible trace components and strengthening materials will affect the physicochemical and osseointegration properties of nanocomposite deposited implants. The current work is aimed at the development of functionalized carbon nanotubes (f-CNT)/Pectin (P)/mineralized hydroxyapatite (M-HA) ((f-CNT/P/M-HA)) nanocomposite depositions by electrophoretic deposition on anodized titanium (TiO{sub 2}) implant. The capacity of f-CNT manages the cost of mechanical strength, while pectin (extracted from pomegranate peel) and minerals (strontium, magnesium, and zinc) enhance the biocompatibility of the HA deposition was investigate utilizing different methods. The functional and morphological analyses were done by FTIR, XRD, XPS, SEM-EDX and TEM. The mechanical depiction results show improved adherence quality for the nanocomposite deposition. Additionally, an enhanced viability of osteoblast cells (MG63 (HOS)) was monitored in vitro on the f-CNT/P/M-HA nanocomposite deposition. The capacity of the nanocomposite deposited TiO{sub 2} implant to encourage bone development was assessed in vivo. Hence, the as-synthesized nanocomposite deposited TiO{sub 2} that joins the comfort osteoconductivity of mineralized hydroxyapatite, pectin collectively with the compressive strength of f-CNT can have numerous uses in orthopaedics since it could enhance implant fixation in human bone. - Highlights: • Successful development of CNTs–Pectin reinforced M-HA nanocomposite coating on TiO{sub 2} by electrodeposition. • The success of nanocomposite coatings was evidenced with FTIR, XRD, XPS, SEM-EDX, and TEM. • Nanocomposite coating on TiO{sub 2} is bio-resistive, better candidate for implant applications. • The fabricate nanocomposite coatings showed good biocompatibility and no adverse effect from in vitro and in vivo tests.

  14. Affinity of hydroxyapatite to metal cations. A study on the composition and structure of phosphates formed in the presence of titanium and aluminium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, C.C. [Instituto de Eng. Biomedica, Porto (Portugal). Lab. de Biomateriais; Porto Univ. (Portugal). Faculdade de Engenharia; Inst. Superior de Engenharia, Porto (Portugal); Barbosa, M.A. [Instituto de Eng. Biomedica, Porto (Portugal). Lab. de Biomateriais; Porto Univ. (Portugal). Faculdade de Engenharia

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to contribute to the understanding of the effect of titanium, aluminium and titanium/aluminium on the Hap structure and to investigate if a synergistic effect between the two cations exists. The effect of the metal ion concentration was studied. The solids were analysed by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, FT-Raman spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. (orig.)

  15. Solid-State Fermentation Reduces Phytic Acid Level, Improves the Profile of Myo-Inositol Phosphates and Enhances the Availability of Selected Minerals in Flaxseed Oil Cake

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Summary Flaxseed oil cake was subjected to fermentation with Rhizopus oligosporus (DSM 1964 and ATCC 64063), and the phytate (InsP6) content, myo-inositol phosphate profile and in vitro bioavailability of essential minerals were studied. Flaxseed oil cake had a phytate mass fraction of 13.9 mg/g. A 96-hour fermentation of flaxseed oil cake by R. oligosporus DSM 1964 and R. oligosporus ATCC 64063 decreased the InsP6 content by 48 and 33%, respectively. The strains had different phytate-degrading activities: fermentation of flaxseed oil cake with R. oligosporus DSM 1964 was more advantageous, yielding InsP3-5 as a predominating myo-inositol compound, while fermentation with R. oligosporus ATCC 64603 produced predominantly InsP5-6. Solid-state fermentation of flaxseed oil cake enhanced in vitro bioavailability of calcium by 14, magnesium by 3.3 and phosphorus by 2–4%. PMID:29089855

  16. Effect of zinc-containing β-tricalcium phosphate nano particles injection on jawbone mineral density and mechanical strength of osteoporosis model rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokudome, Yoshihiro; Otsuka, Makoto; Ito, Atsuo

    2011-01-01

    Zinc-containing β-tricalcium phosphate (ZnTCP) nano particles were injected into zinc-deficient rats to promote osteogenesis. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (4 weeks old, average weight of 70 g) were divided into four groups: Normal rats (not ovariectomized (OVX)), Control rats (OVX), and OVX rats injected with a suspension of ZnTCP nano particles or ZnSO 4 . The ZnTCP contained 6.17% zinc. The suspensions (0.6 mg as a zinc volume/0.2 ml) were injected around the jaw bone once a week for 12 weeks. Local effects on the bone mineral content (BMC) of jawbone, and systemic effects on body weight, the BMC of both femurs determined by X-ray computed tomography, and bone mechanical strength (BMS) measured by the three-point bending method, were examined. The BMC of jaw bone was significantly higher in the ZnTCP-treated group than un-treated or ZnSO 4 -treated group. Body weight, the BMC of femurs, and BMS were also significantly higher in the ZnTCP treated-group. The zinc-containing β-tricalcium phosphate nano particles were effective at preventing bone loss induced by ovariectomy in rats and have potential uses for treating periodontitis. (author)

  17. Efficacy of reactive mineral-based sorbents for phosphate, bacteria, nitrogen and TOC removal--column experiment in recirculation batch mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Charlotte; Lakshmanan, Ramnath; Renman, Gunno; Rajarao, Gunaratna Kuttuva

    2013-09-15

    Two mineral-based materials (Polonite and Sorbulite) intended for filter wells in on-site wastewater treatment were compared in terms of removal of phosphate (PO4-P), total inorganic nitrogen (TIN), total organic carbon (TOC) and faecal indicator bacteria (Escherichia coli and Enterococci). Using an innovative, recirculating system, septic tank effluent was pumped at a hydraulic loading rate of 3000 L m(2) d(-1) into triplicate bench-scale columns of each material over a 90-day period. The results showed that Polonite performed better with respect to removal of PO4-P, retaining on average 80% compared with 75% in Sorbulite. This difference was attributed to higher CaO content in Polonite and its faster dissolution. Polonite also performed better in terms of removal of bacteria because of its higher pH value. The total average reduction in E. coli was 60% in Polonite and 45% in Sorbulite, while for Enterococci the corresponding value was 56% in Polonite and 34% in Sorbulite. Sorbulite removed TIN more effectively, with a removal rate of 23%, while Polonite removed 11% of TIN, as well as TOC. Organic matter (measured as TOC) was accumulated in the filter materials but was also released periodically. The results showed that Sorbulite could meet the demand in removing phosphate and nitrogen with reduced microbial release from the wastewater treatment process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. COMBINED BIOLOGICAL-PHOTOCATALYTIC TREATMENT FOR THE MINERALIZATION OF A MIXTURE OF CHLOROPHENOLS IN AN ELECTROLYTE-CONTAINING MODEL WATER AND SPONTANEOUS SEDIMENTATION OF TITANIUM DIOXIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanus Suryaman

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available To shorten the biological treating time and to examine the effect of electrolytes in a model water on the photocatalytic treatment, the combined biological-photocatalytic treatment was evaluated for removal of a mixture (total: 100 mg L-1, each: 25 mg L-1 of 2-chlorophenol (2-CP, 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP, 2,4,5-trichlorophenol (2,4,5-TCP, and pentachlorophenol (PCP in tap water. The mineralization of the four phenols was performed by a flow (biological treatment-circulative flow (photocatalytic treatment operation under black light and sunlight irradiations. After a large portion of biodegradable 2-CP and 2,4-DCP, and around half amount of slightly biodegradable 2,4,5-TCP were removed by the biological treatment, the remained three chlorophenols, biorecalcitrant PCP, and  biodegradation products were completely removed by the subsequent photocatalytic treatment. The combined treatment significantly shortened the degradation time only the biotreatment. High circulative flow rate (600 mL min-1 enabled for TiO2 particles to completely suspend in a tubular photoreactor and resulted in high removals of chlorophenols and TOC. Sunlight irradiation was successfully used and the saving of the electric energy of black light was possible. Since TiO2 particles in the tap water spontaneously sedimented on standing after the photocatalytic treatment, the combined system can be operated by integrating it with the TiO2 separation.   Keywords: photocatalysis, titanium dioxide, biodegradation, pollutant, wastewater

  19. Cationic flotation for separating U-bearing phosphorite mineral from uraniferous phosphatic sandstone deposit of Gebel Qatrani, Western desert of Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abel Monem, H.M.

    1986-01-01

    Uraniferous phosphatic sandstone is one of the important radioactive oligocene deposits of Gebel Qatrani, Western desert of Egypt, which is assayed 72,36% SiO 2 , 9.85% P 2 O 5 and 0.091% of oU. Attrition scrubbing process was utilized to assist in the mild of libration of uraniferous phosphorite locked grains of the crushed oversize fraction (+48 mesh). Cationic flotation using AEROMINE 3037 of American Cynamide Company, diluted with kerosene in ratio 1,2 (wt/wt), and 2.5mg/50g pine oil as frothier were used for separating U-bearing phosphorite as hydrophilic mineral from the associated siliceous gangue minerals at pH 6.5. A proposed flowsheet was designed for production of a high grade uraniferous phosphorite concentrate assaying 32.01% P 2 O 5 , 0.39% eU and 5.65% SiO 2 with an overall recovery of 71.98%

  20. Distribution of Some Elements in Biosubstrates of Workers Occupied in the Production of Mineral Nitrogenous Phosphate Fertilizers

    CERN Document Server

    Gorbunov, A V; Lyapunov, S M; Okina, O I; Pavlov, S S; Geological Institute RAS, Moscow, Russia

    2005-01-01

    The data on the content of some trace elements typical for the production of nitrogenous phosphate fertilizers (F, Sr, rare-earth elements), as well as heavy and toxic metals in industrial products, occupational air, drinking water and biosubstrates (urine, hair) of the factory workers are presented. The correlations between the content of fluorine in urine and hair of workers and between the content of fluorine, length of service and age, have been shown. The correlation dependence between the content of F in biosubstrates and a number of trace elements typical for the given type of production has been evaluated. The comparison of the morbidity and character of diseases of the factory workers and of the local residents unoccupied in the production has been made.

  1. Distribution of some trace elements in biosubstrates of workers occupied in the production of mineral nitrogenous phosphate fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbunov, A.V.; Lyapunov, S.M.; Okina, O.I.; Frontasyeva, M.V.; Pavlov, S.S.

    2005-01-01

    The data on the content of some trace elements typical for the production of nitrogeneous phosphate fertilizers (F, Sr, rare-earth elements), as well as heavy and toxic metals in industrial products, occupational air, drinking water and bio substrates (urine, hair) of the factory workers are presented. The correlations between the content of fluorine in urine and hair of workers and between the content of fluorine, length of service and age, have been shown. The correlation dependence between the content of F in bio substrates and a number of trace elements typical for the given type of production has been evaluated. The comparison of the morbidity and character of diseases of the factory workers and of the local residents unoccupied in the production has been made

  2. Immobilization of transition metal ions on zirconium phosphate monolayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melezhik, A.V.; Brej, V.V.

    1998-01-01

    It is shown that ions of transition metals (copper, iron, vanadyl, titanium) are adsorbed on zirconium phosphate monolayers. The zirconium phosphate threshold capacity corresponds to substitution of all protons of hydroxyphosphate groups by equivalent amounts of copper, iron or vanadyl. Adsorption of polynuclear ions is possible in case of titanium. The layered substance with specific surface up to 300 m 2 /g, wherein ultradispersed titanium dioxide particles are intercalirated between zirconium-phosphate layers, is synthesized

  3. Titanium metal: extraction to application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gambogi, Joseph (USGS, Reston, VA); Gerdemann, Stephen J.

    2002-09-01

    In 1998, approximately 57,000 tons of titanium metal was consumed in the form of mill products (1). Only about 5% of the 4 million tons of titanium minerals consumed each year is used to produce titanium metal, with the remainder primarily used to produce titanium dioxide pigment. Titanium metal production is primarily based on the direct chlorination of rutile to produce titanium tetrachloride, which is then reduced to metal using the Kroll magnesium reduction process. The use of titanium is tied to its high strength-to-weight ratio and corrosion resistance. Aerospace is the largest application for titanium. In this paper, we discuss all aspects of the titanium industry from ore deposits through extraction to present and future applications. The methods of both primary (mining of ore, extraction, and purification) and secondary (forming and machining) operations will be analyzed. The chemical and physical properties of titanium metal will be briefly examined. Present and future applications for titanium will be discussed. Finally, the economics of titanium metal production also are analyzed as well as the advantages and disadvantages of various alternative extraction methods.

  4. Osteoconduction of impacted porous titanium particles with a calcium-phosphate coating is comparable to osteoconduction of impacted allograft bone particles: in vivo study in a nonloaded goat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walschot, Lucas H B; Aquarius, René; Schreurs, Barend W; Verdonschot, Nico; Buma, Pieter

    2012-08-01

    Impaction grafting restores bone defects in hip arthroplasty. Defects are reconstructed with bone particles (BoP) as substitute materials with adequate mechanical and biological properties are not yet available. Ceramic particles (CeP) have mechanical drawbacks as opposed to porous titanium particles (TiP). In this in vivo study, bone ingrowth and bone volume in coated and noncoated TiP were compared to porous biphasic calcium-phospate CeP and allograft BoP. Coatings consisted of silicated calcium-phosphate and carbonated apatite. Materials were implanted in goats and impacted in cylindrical defects (diameter 8 mm) in the cancellous bone of the femur. On the basis of fluorochrome labeling and histology, bone ingrowth distance was measured at 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Cross-sectional bone area was measured at 12 weeks. TiP created a coherent matrix of entangled particles. CeP pulverized and were noncoherent. Bone ingrowth in TiP improved significantly by the coatings to levels comparable to BoP and CeP. Cross-sectional bone area was smaller in CeP and TiP compared to BoP. The osteoconductive properties of impacted TiP with a calcium-phosphate coating are comparable to impacted allograft bone and impacted biphasic ceramics. A more realistic loaded in vivo study should prove that coated TiP is an attractive alternative to allograft bone. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Influence of Irradiance, Flow Rate, Reactor Geometry, and Photopromoter Concentration in Mineralization Kinetics of Methane in Air and in Aqueous Solutions by Photocatalytic Membranes Immobilizing Titanium Dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignazio Renato Bellobono

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Photomineralization of methane in air (10.0–1000 ppm (mass/volume of C at 100% relative humidity (dioxygen as oxygen donor was systematically studied at 318±3 K in an annular laboratory-scale reactor by photocatalytic membranes immobilizing titanium dioxide as a function of substrate concentration, absorbed power per unit length of membrane, reactor geometry, and concentration of a proprietary vanadium alkoxide as photopromoter. Kinetics of both substrate disappearance, to yield intermediates, and total organic carbon (TOC disappearance, to yield carbon dioxide, were followed. At a fixed value of irradiance (0.30 W⋅cm-1, the mineralization experiments in gaseous phase were repeated as a function of flow rate (4–400 m3⋅h−1. Moreover, at a standard flow rate of 300 m3⋅h−1, the ratio between the overall reaction volume and the length of the membrane was varied, substantially by varying the volume of reservoir, from and to which circulation of gaseous stream took place. Photomineralization of methane in aqueous solutions was also studied, in the same annular reactor and in the same conditions, but in a concentration range of 0.8–2.0 ppm of C, and by using stoichiometric hydrogen peroxide as an oxygen donor. A kinetic model was employed, from which, by a set of differential equations, four final optimised parameters, k1 and K1, k2 and K2, were calculated, which is able to fit the whole kinetic profile adequately. The influence of irradiance on k1 and k2, as well as of flow rate on K1 and K2, is rationalized. The influence of reactor geometry on k values is discussed in view of standardization procedures of photocatalytic experiments. Modeling of quantum yields, as a function of substrate concentration and irradiance, as well as of concentration of photopromoter, was carried out very satisfactorily. Kinetics of hydroxyl radicals reacting between themselves, leading to hydrogen peroxide, other than with substrate or

  6. Bone Formation with Deproteinized Bovine Bone Mineral or Biphasic Calcium Phosphate in the Presence of Autologous Platelet Lysate: Comparative Investigation in Rabbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carole Chakar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone substitutes alone or supplemented with platelet-derived concentrates are widely used to promote bone regeneration but their potency remains controversial. The aim of this study was, therefore, to compare the regenerative potential of preparations containing autologous platelet lysate (APL and particles of either deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM or biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP, two bone substitutes with different resorption patterns. Rabbit APL was prepared by freeze-thawing a platelet suspension. Critical-size defects in rabbit femoral condyle were filled with DBBM or DBBM+APL and BCP or BCP+APL. Rabbits were sacrificed after six weeks and newly formed bone and residual implanted material were evaluated using nondemineralized histology and histomorphometry. New bone was observed around particles of all fillers tested. In the defects filled with BCP, the newly formed bone area was greater (70%; P<0.001 while the residual material area was lower (60%; P<0.001 than that observed in those filled with DBBM. New bone and residual material area of defects filled with either APL+DBBM or APL+BCP were similar to those observed in those filled with the material alone. In summary, osteoconductivity and resorption of BCP were greater than those of DBBM, while APL associated with either DBBM or BCP did not have an additional benefit.

  7. Preservation and promotion of bone formation in the mandible as a response to a novel calcium-phosphate based biomaterial in mineral deficiency induced low bone mass male versus female rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Kritika; Naula, Diana P.; Mijares, Dindo Q.; Janal, Malvin N.; LeGeros, Raquel Z.; Zhang, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Calcium and other trace mineral supplements have previously demonstrated to safely improve bone quality. We hypothesize that our novel calcium-phosphate based biomaterial (SBM) preserves and promotes mandibular bone formation in male and female rats on mineral deficient diet (MD). Sixty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to receive one of three diets (n = 10): basic diet (BD), MD or mineral deficient diet with 2% SBM. Rats were sacrificed after 6 months. Micro-Computed Tomography (μCT) was used to evaluate bone volume and 3D-microarchitecture while microradiography (Faxitron) was used to measure bone mineral density from different sections of the mandible. Results showed that bone quality varied with region, gender and diet. MD reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and volume and increased porosity. SBM preserved BMD and bone mineral content (BMC) in the alveolar bone and condyle in both genders. In the alveolar crest and mandibular body, while preserving more bone in males, SBM also significantly supplemented female bone. Results indicate that mineral deficiency leads to low bone mass in skeletally immature rats, comparatively more in males. Furthermore, SBM administered as a dietary supplement was effective in preventing mandibular bone loss in all subjects. This study suggests that the SBM preparation has potential use in minimizing low peak bone mass induced by mineral deficiency and related bone loss irrespective of gender. PMID:26914814

  8. Titanium ; dream new material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong Tae; Kim Seung Eon; Heoon, Yong Taek; Jung, Hui Won

    2001-11-01

    The contents of this book are history of Titanium, present situation of Titanium industry, property of Titanium alloy, types of it, development of new alloy of Titanium smelting of Titanium, cast of Titanium and heat treatment of Titanium, Titanium alloy for plane, car parts, biological health care, and sport leisure and daily life, prospect, and Titanium industrial development of Titanium in China.

  9. Ionic conductivity of the lithium titanium phosphate (Li/sub 1+x/M/sub x/Ti/sub 2-x/(PO/sub 4/)/sub 3/, M=Al, Sc, Y, and La) systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aono, H.; Sugimoto, E.; Sadaaka, Y.; Imanaka, N.; Adachi, G.Y.

    1989-01-01

    High lithium ionic conductivity was obtained in Li/sub 1+X/M/sub X/Ti/sub 2-X/(PO/sub 4/)/sub 3/ (M=Al, Sc, Y, and La) systems. Lithium titanium phosphate, LiTi/sub 2/(PO/sub 4/)/sub 3/, is composed of both TiO/sub 6/ octahedra and PO/sub 4/ tetrahedra, which are linked by corners to form a three dimensional network, with a space group R3-barC. Some workers have already described that the conductivity increased considerably if Ti/sup 4+/ in LiTi/sub 2/(PO/sub 4/)/sub 3/ was substituted by slightly larger cations such as Ga/sup 3+/(1),Sc/sup 3+/(2), and In/sup 3+/(3,4). These results are similar to each other because of their close ionic radii. In this communication, substitution effects of Ti/sup 4+/ in LiTi/sub 2/(PO/sub 4/)/sub 3/ by various ions (Al/sup 3+/, Sc/sup 3+/, Y/sup 3+/, and La/sup 3+/) on their conductivities are reported

  10. Fourier transform infrared imaging of femoral neck bone: reduced heterogeneity of mineral-to-matrix and carbonate-to-phosphate and more variable crystallinity in treatment-naive fracture cases compared with fracture-free controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourion-Arsiquaud, Samuel; Lukashova, Lyudmilla; Power, Jon; Loveridge, Nigel; Reeve, Jonathan; Boskey, Adele L

    2013-01-01

    After the age of 60 years, hip fracture risk strongly increases, but only a fifth of this increase is attributable to reduced bone mineral density (BMD, measured clinically). Changes in bone quality, specifically bone composition as measured by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic imaging (FTIRI), also contribute to fracture risk. Here, FTIRI was applied to study the femoral neck and provide spatially derived information on its mineral and matrix properties in age-matched fractured and nonfractured bones. Whole femoral neck cross sections, divided into quadrants along the neck's axis, from 10 women with hip fracture and 10 cadaveric controls were studied using FTIRI and micro-computed tomography. Although 3-dimensional micro-CT bone mineral densities were similar, the mineral-to-matrix ratio was reduced in the cases of hip fracture, confirming previous reports. New findings were that the FTIRI microscopic variation (heterogeneity) of the mineral-to-matrix ratio was substantially reduced in the fracture group as was the heterogeneity of the carbonate-to-phosphate ratio. Conversely, the heterogeneity of crystallinity was increased. Increased variation of crystallinity was statistically associated with reduced variation of the carbonate-to-phosphate ratio. Anatomical variation in these properties between the different femoral neck quadrants was reduced in the fracture group compared with controls. Although our treatment-naive patients had reduced rather than increased bending resistance, these changes in heterogeneity associated with hip fracture are in another way comparable to the effects of experimental bisphosphonate therapy, which decreases heterogeneity and other indicators of bone's toughness as a material. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  11. Carriers in mesenchymal stem cell osteoblast mineralization-State-of-the-art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Morten; Jørgensen, Niklas Rye; Hørberg, Mette

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Tissue engineering is a new way to regenerate bone tissue, where osteogenic capable cells combine with an appropriate scaffolding material. Our aim was in a Medline Search to evaluate osteoblast mineralization in vitro and in vivo including gene expressing combining mesenchymal stem cells...... (MSCs) and five different carriers, titanium, collagen, calcium carbonate, calcium phosphate and polylactic acid-polyglycolic acid copolymer for purpose of a meta-or a descriptive analysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The search included the following MeSH words in different combinations-mesenchymal stem...... cells, alkaline phosphatase, bone regeneration, tissue engineering, drug carriers, tissue scaffolds, titanium, collagen, calcium carbonate, calcium phosphates and polylactic acid-polyglycolic acid copolymer. RESULTS: Two out of 80 articles included numerical values and as control, carriers and cells...

  12. Generation of composites for bone tissue-engineering applications consisting of gellan gum hydrogels mineralized with calcium and magnesium phosphate phases by enzymatic means.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Timothy E L; Krawczyk, Grzegorz; Pamula, Elzbieta; Declercq, Heidi A; Schaubroeck, David; Bucko, Miroslaw M; Balcaen, Lieve; Van Der Voort, Pascal; Bliznuk, Vitaliy; van den Vreken, Natasja M F; Dash, Mamoni; Detsch, Rainer; Boccaccini, Aldo R; Vanhaecke, Frank; Cornelissen, Maria; Dubruel, Peter

    2016-11-01

    Mineralization of hydrogels, desirable for bone regeneration applications, may be achieved enzymatically by incorporation of alkaline phosphatase (ALP). ALP-loaded gellan gum (GG) hydrogels were mineralized by incubation in mineralization media containing calcium and/or magnesium glycerophosphate (CaGP, MgGP). Mineralization media with CaGP:MgGP concentrations 0.1:0, 0.075:0.025, 0.05:0.05, 0.025:0.075 and 0:0.1 (all values mol/dm 3 , denoted A, B, C, D and E, respectively) were compared. Mineral formation was confirmed by IR and Raman, SEM, ICP-OES, XRD, TEM, SAED, TGA and increases in the the mass fraction of the hydrogel not consisting of water. Ca was incorporated into mineral to a greater extent than Mg in samples mineralized in media A-D. Mg content and amorphicity of mineral formed increased in the order A hydroxyapatite (CDHA). Mineral formed in medium C was a combination of CDHA and an amorphous phase. Mineral formed in medium D was an amorphous phase. Mineral formed in medium E was a combination of crystalline and amorphous MgP. Young's moduli and storage moduli decreased in dependence of mineralization medium in the order A > B > C > D, but were significantly higher for samples mineralized in medium E. The attachment and vitality of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells were higher on samples mineralized in media B-E (containing Mg) than in those mineralized in medium A (not containing Mg). All samples underwent degradation and supported the adhesion of RAW 264.7 monocytic cells, and samples mineralized in media A and B supported osteoclast-like cell formation. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Stem cell engineered bone with calcium-phosphate coated porous titanium scaffold or silicon hydroxyapatite granules for revision total joint arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gareta, Elena; Hua, Jia; Rayan, Faizal; Blunn, Gordon W

    2014-06-01

    Aseptic loosening in total joint replacements (TJRs) is mainly caused by osteolysis which leads to a reduction of the bone stock necessary for implant fixation in revision TJRs. Our aim was to develop bone tissue-engineered constructs based on scaffolds of clinical relevance in revision TJRs to reconstitute the bone stock at revision operations by using a perfusion bioreactor system (PBRS). The hypothesis was that a PBRS will enhance mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) proliferation and osteogenic differentiation and will provide an even distribution of MSCs throughout the scaffolds when compared to static cultures. A PBRS was designed and implemented. Scaffolds, silicon substituted hydroxyapatite granules and calcium-phosphate coated porous TiAl6V4 cylinders, were seeded with MSCs and cultured either in static conditions or in the PBRS at 0.75 mL/min. Statistically significant increased cell proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity was found in samples cultured in the PBRS. Histology revealed a more even cell distribution in the perfused constructs. SEM showed that cells arranged in sheets. Long cytoplasmic processes attached the cells to the scaffolds. We conclude that a novel tissue engineering approach to address the issue of poor bone stock at revision operations is feasible by using a PBRS.

  14. Fourier Transformed Infra-Red Imaging of Femoral Neck Bone: Reduced Heterogeneity of Mineral-to-Matrix and Carbonate-to-Phosphate and more Variable Crystallinity in Treatment-Naïve Fracture Cases compared to Fracture-Free Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourion-Arsiquaud, Samuel; Lukashova, Lyudmilla; Power, Jon; Loveridge, Nigel; Reeve, Jonathan; Boskey, Adele L.

    2012-01-01

    After age 60 hip fracture risk strongly increases, but only a fifth of this increase is attributable to reduced mineral density (BMD, measured clinically). Changes in bone quality, specifically bone composition as measured by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopic imaging (FTIRI), also contribute to fracture risk. Here, FTIRI was applied to study the femoral neck and provide spatially derived information on its mineral and matrix properties in age-matched fractured and non-fractured bones. Whole femoral neck cross sections, divided into quadrants along the neck’s axis, from 10 women with hip fracture and 10 cadaveric controls were studied using FTIRI and micro-computed Tomography. Although 3-dimensional micro-CT bone mineral densities were similar, the mineral-to-matrix ratio was reduced in the cases of hip fracture, confirming previous reports. New findings were that the FTIRI microscopic variation (heterogeneity) of the mineral-to-matrix ratio was substantially reduced in the fracture group as was the heterogeneity of the carbonate-to-phosphate ratio. Conversely, the heterogeneity of crystallinity was increased. Increased variation of crystallinity was statistically associated with reduced variation of the carbonate-to-phosphate ratio. Anatomical variation in these properties between the different femoral neck quadrants was reduced in the fracture group compared to controls. While our treatment-naïve patients had reduced rather than increased bending resistance, these changes in heterogeneity associated with hip fracture are in another way comparable to the effects of experimental bisphosphonate therapy, which decreases heterogeneity and other indicators of bone’s toughness as a material. PMID:22865771

  15. A deposit model for magmatic iron-titanium-oxide deposits related to Proterozoic massif anorthosite plutonic suites: Chapter K in Mineral Deposit Models for Resource Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Laurel G.; Nicholson, Suzanne W.; Fey, David L.

    2013-01-01

    This descriptive model for magmatic iron-titanium-oxide (Fe-Ti-oxide) deposits hosted by Proterozoic age massif-type anorthosite and related rock types presents their geological, mineralogical, geochemical, and geoenvironmental attributes. Although these Proterozoic rocks are found worldwide, the majority of known deposits are found within exposed rocks of the Grenville Province, stretching from southwestern United States through eastern Canada; its extension into Norway is termed the Rogaland Anorthosite Province. This type of Fe-Ti-oxide deposit dominated by ilmenite rarely contains more than 300 million tons of ore, with between 10- to 45-percent titanium dioxide (TiO2), 32- to 45-percent iron oxide (FeO), and less than 0.2-percent vanadium (V).

  16. Grazing incidence synchrotron X-ray diffraction of marbles consolidated with diammonium hydrogen phosphate treatments: non-destructive probing of buried minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possenti, Elena; Colombo, Chiara; Conti, Claudia; Gigli, Lara; Merlini, Marco; Plaisier, Jasper Rikkert; Realini, Marco; Gatta, G. Diego

    2018-05-01

    Diammonium hydrogen phosphate (DAP)-based consolidating treatments react with carbonatic stones and form calcium phosphates phases, whose composition depends on the availability of free calcium ions. In this work, an innovative non-destructive approach based on grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) with synchrotron radiation (SR) is used to investigate DAP-treated Carrara marble specimens and to study the influence of the substrate composition on the crystallization of calcium phosphate phases. The outcomes indicate that the presence of compositional micro-heterogeneity of Carrara marble favours the formation of specific phases. Dicalcium phosphate dihydrate, a calcium phosphate with a low Ca/P molar ratio, is formed on carbonatic phases with a low Ca amount, such as dolomite grains and Mg-containing veins. Furthermore, this study highlights the potentialities of SR-GIXRD as a powerful non-destructive tool for the diagnostic of Cultural Heritage objects since it allows investigating the conservation history of stone materials and their interaction with the environment.

  17. Occurrence and functioning of phosphate solubilizing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Occurrence and functioning of phosphate solubilizing microorganisms from oil palm tree ( Elaeis guineensis ) rhizosphere in Cameroon. ... While the use of soluble mineral phosphate fertilizers is the obvious best means to combat phosphate ... in order to improve agricultural production, using low inputs technology. Isolates ...

  18. Rock phosphate solubilization by the ectomycorrhizal fungus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-06-18

    Jun 18, 2014 ... To evaluate phosphate solubilization of ... and MHB had the potential to solubilize these phosphates by decreasing the pH and confirmed that ... Minerals like N, P, K, Ca, S, Zn, Cu and Sr are ... sterile distilled water, chopped, homogenized in 10 ml sterile .... The role of carbon source is important in mineral.

  19. A spanish mineral of zirconium and hafnium. Separation of the two elements by liquid-liquid extraction, using tributyl phosphate as chelating agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz Sanchez, F.; Cruz Castillo, F. de la; Fernandez Cellini, R.

    1962-01-01

    The zirconium and Hafnium oxides are obtained from a Spanish mineral of zircon with an average contest of 55% in ZrO 2 -HfO 2 . An alkaline fusion to open the mineral, followed by a purification by crystallization as (Zr O-Hf O)Cl 2 H 2 O or as (Zr-Hf) (SO 4 ) 2 . 4H 2 O, is used. A discussion of the best experimental conditions for opening the mineral and of the purification method is made. (Author) 45 refs

  20. Vitamin D, Phosphate and Fibroblast Growth Factor 23: A role in the pathogenesis and management of Chronic Kidney Disease and Chronic Kidney Disease Mineral and Bone Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Damasiewicz, Matthew John

    2017-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is defined by the presence of proteinuria or decreased kidney function, with a prevalence of 10-15% in the adult population. CKD can progress to end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) and is associated with progressive abnormalities of bone and mineral metabolism, defined as CKD mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD). The use of vitamin D in CKD, the optimal level for initiating treatment and the use of current and novel biomarkers in the management of ...

  1. Effect of Sr2+AND Mg2+ IONS on electrochemical deposition of calcium phosphates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correia, M.B.; Gualberto Junior, J.P.; Macedo, M.C.S.S.; Resende, C.X.; Santos, E.A. [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), SE (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    The incorporation of Sr2+ and Mg2+ ions into apatite favors the mineralization process of the bone, besides it to prevent the osteoporosis. In this work, it was evaluated the individual effect of Sr2+ and Mg2+ ions in the electrochemical deposition process of calcium phosphate on metallic substrate. The electrodeposition was performed using a conventional three- electrode cell. The titanium sheets were immersed in the electrolyte containing Ca(NO3)2 and NH4H2PO4 and a potential of -0. 8 V was applied. The coatings were characterized by SEM and XRD. By XRD analysis was possible to identify octacalcium phosphate in the control sample. However, after the addition of Mg2+ ions the OCP becomes the secondary phase while the brushite showed as majoritary phase. On the other hand, the incorporation of Sr2+ ions stabilized the OCP phase. (author)

  2. Outlook 96: Minerals and Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Papers discussing the future of Australia's minerals and energy are presented under the following headings: Australia in the global minerals and energy markets; minerals exploration; steelmaking raw materials; aluminium and alumina; gold; nickel; base metals; titanium minerals; energy for a sustainable future; electricity; electricity in Asia; crude oil; coal trade; natural gas in Australia and uranium. Relevant papers are individually indexed/abstracted. Tabs., figs., refs

  3. A comparative assessment of enamel mineral content and Streptococcus mutans population between conventional composites and composites containing nano amorphous calcium phosphate in fixed orthodontic patients: a split-mouth randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanbin, Arezoo; Farzanegan, Fahimeh; Atai, Mohammad; Jamehdar, Saeed Amel; Golfakhrabadi, Parvaneh; Shafaee, Hooman

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this 'split-mouth design' trial was to evaluate the effect of the nano amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP) containing composite on enamel mineral contents and streptococcus mutans population in fixed orthodontic patients. Randomized, prospective, single-center controlled trial. Twenty-four patients between the ages of 13-18 years participated in this study. The control and test sides were randomly selected by a coin toss (1:1 ratio). On the control side orthodontic brackets were bonded on the buccal surfaces of upper premolars and laterals using an orthodontic composite (Transbond XT), and on the study side NACP-containing composite was used. Outcome measures were the mineral content around the brackets and S.mutans count. The later were calculated in the plaque around the brackets by real-time PCR at 3 months, and 6 months after the initiation of treatment. All stages of the study were blind using coding system. Paired t-test and repeated measurements were used for data analysis. In the third and sixth month, the bacterial population was significantly lower in the study side than the control side (P = 0.01 and 0.000).The mineral content of the study side was significantly higher than the controls, 6 months after brocket bonding (P = 0.004). There were no significant differences between the premolars and lateral teeth for all measurements. This research was performed in a single-center by one experienced clinician. NACP-containing composites have the potential to inhibit mineral content loss and S.mutans colonization around orthodontic brackets during fixed orthodontic treatments. This trial was not registered. The protocol was not published before trial commencement. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. A new synthetic granular calcium phosphate compound induces new bone in a sinus lift rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trbakovic, Amela; Hedenqvist, Patricia; Mellgren, Torbjörn; Ley, Cecilia; Hilborn, Jöns; Ossipov, Dmitri; Ekman, Stina; Johansson, Carina B; Jensen-Waern, Marianne; Thor, Andreas

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if a synthetic granular calcium phosphate compound (CPC) and a composite bisphosphonate-linked hyaluronic acid-calcium phosphate hydrogel (HABP·CaP) induced similar or more amount of bone as bovine mineral in a modified sinus lift rabbit model. Eighteen adult male New Zeeland White rabbits, received randomly one of the two test materials on a random side of the face, and bovine mineral as control on the contralateral side. In a sinus lift, the sinus mucosa was elevated and a titanium mini-implant was placed in the alveolar bone. Augmentation material (CPC, HABP·CaP or bovine bone) was applied in the space around the implant. The rabbits were euthanized three months after surgery and qualitative and histomorphometric evaluation were conducted. Histomorphometric evaluation included three different regions of interest (ROIs) and the bone to implant contact on each installed implant. Qualitative assessment (p = <.05), histomorphometric evaluations (p = < .01), and implant incorporation (p = <.05) showed that CPC and bovine mineral induced similar amount of bone and more than the HABP·CaP hydrogel. CPC induced similar amount of bone as bovine mineral and both materials induced more bone than HABP·CaP hydrogel. The CPC is suggested as a synthetic alternative for augmentations in the maxillofacial area. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. High Temperature Reactors for a proposed IAEA Coordinated Research Project on Energy Neutral Mineral Development Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haneklaus, Nils; Reitsma, Frederik; Tulsidas, Harikrishnan

    2014-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is promoting a new Coordinated Research Project (CRP) to elaborate on the applicability and potential of using High Temperature Reactors (HTRs) to provide process heat and/or electricity to power energy intensive mineral development processes. The CRP aims to provide a platform for cooperation between HTR-developers and mineral development processing experts. Energy intensive mineral development processes with (e.g. phosphate-, gold-, copper-, rare earth ores) or without (e.g. titanium-, aluminum ore) the possibility to recover accompanying uranium and/or thorium that could be developed and used to run the HTR for “energy neutral” processing of the primary ore shall be discussed according to the participants needs. This paper specifically focuses on the aspects that need to be addressed by HTR-designers and developers. First requirements that should be fulfilled by the HTR-designs are highlighted together with the desired outcomes of the research project. (author)

  6. Uranium abundance in some sudanese phosphate ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, A.A.; Eltayeb, M.A.H.

    2009-01-01

    This work was carried out mainly to analysis of some Sudanese phosphate ores, for their uranium abundance and total phosphorus content measured as P 2 O 5 %. For this purpose, 30 samples of two types of phosphate ore from Eastern Nuba Mountains, in Sudan namely, Kurun and Uro areas were examined. In addition, the relationship between uranium and major, and trace elements were obtained, also, the natural radioactivity of the phosphate samples was measured, in order to characterize and differentiate between the two types of phosphate ores. The uranium abundance in Uro phosphate with 20.3% P 2 O 5 is five time higher than in Kurun phosphate with 26.7% P 2 O 5 . The average of uranium content was found to be 56.6 and 310 mg/kg for Kurun and Uro phosphate ore, respectively. The main elements in Kurun and Uro phosphate ore are silicon, aluminum, and phosphorus, while the most abundant trace elements in these two ores are titanium, strontium and barium. Pearson correlation coefficient revealed that uranium in Kurun phosphate shows strong positive correlation with P 2 O 5 , and its distribution is essentially controlled by the variations of P2O5 concentration, whereas uranium in Uro phosphate shows strong positive correlation with strontium, and its distribution is controlled by the variations of Sr concentration. Uranium behaves in different ways in Kurun phosphate and in Uro phosphate. Uro phosphate shows higher concentrations of all the estimated radionuclides than Kurun phosphate. According to the obtained results, it can be concluded that Uro phosphate is consider as secondary uranium source, and is more suitable for uranium recovery, because it has high uranium abundance and low P 2 O 5 %, than Kurun phosphate. (authors) [es

  7. Titanium 󈨠: Science and Technology. Proceedings of a Symposium Sponsored by the Titanium Committee of the Minerals, Metals and Materials Structural Metals Division Held at the World Titanium Conference (7th) in San Diego, California on June 29-July 2, 1992. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    the TIG Welding of Commercially Pure Titanium Sheet ........................................................... 1,601 M.F. Gittos and M.M. Scott An...the welding current and the plasma gas flow rate are such that the plasma penetrates completely through the workpiece ( keyhole technique). A double...necessary. The maximum weldable thickness in keyhole welding was 18 mm. However, penetration became less regular. The optimum welding conditions with a 16 mm

  8. Influence of octacalcium phosphate coating on osteoinductive properties of biomaterials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habibovic, Pamela; van der Valk, C.M.; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; de Groot, K.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the influence of octacalcium phosphate (OCP) coating on osteoinductive behaviour of the biomaterials. Porous titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V), hydroxyapatite (HA), biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) and polyethylene glyco terephtalate/polybuthylene terephtalate (PEGT–PBT)

  9. Aluminium phosphate sulphate minerals (APS) associated with proterozoic unconformity-type uranium deposits: crystal-chemical characterisation and petrogenetic significance; Les sulfates phosphates d'aluminium hydrates (APS) dans l'environnement des gisements d'uranium associes a une discordance proterozoique: caracterisation cristallochimique et signification petrogenetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaboreau, St

    2005-07-01

    Aluminium phosphate sulfate minerals (APS) are particularly widespread and spatially associated with hydrothermal clay alteration in both the East Alligator River Uranium Field (Northern Territory, Australia) and the Athabasca basin (Saskatchewan, Canada), in the environment of proterozoic unconformity-related uranium deposits (URUD). The purpose of this study is both: 1) to characterize the nature and the origin of the APS minerals on both sides of the middle proterozoic unconformity between the overlying sandstones and the underlying metamorphic basement rocks that host the uranium ore bodies, 2) to improve our knowledge on the suitability of these minerals to indicate the paleo-conditions (redox, pH) at which the alteration processes relative to the uranium deposition operated. The APS minerals result from the interaction of oxidising and relatively acidic fluids with aluminous host rocks enriched in monazite. Several APS-bearing clay assemblages and APS crystal-chemistry have also been distinguished as a function of the distance from the uranium ore bodies or from the structural discontinuities which drained the hydrothermal solutions during the mineralisation event. One of the main results of this study is that the index mineral assemblages, used in the recent literature to describe the alteration zones around the uranium ore bodies, can be theoretically predicted by a set of thermodynamic calculations which simulate different steps of fluid-rock interaction processes related to a downward penetrating of hyper-saline, oxidizing and acidic diagenetic fluids through the lower sandstone units of the basins and then into the metamorphic basement rocks. The above considerations and the fact that APS with different crystal-chemical compositions crystallized in a range of fO{sub 2} and pH at which uranium can either be transported in solution or precipitated as uraninite in the host-rocks make these minerals not only good markers of the degree of alteration of the

  10. Formation of an ascorbate-apatite composite layer on titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Atsuo [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Institute for Human Science and Biomedical Engineering, Central 6, Higashi 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8566 (Japan); Sogo, Yu [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Institute for Human Science and Biomedical Engineering, Central 6, Higashi 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8566 (Japan); Ebihara, Yuko [School of Science and Technology, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Sinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8050 (Japan); Onoguchi, Masahiro [School of Science and Technology, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Sinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8050 (Japan); Oyane, Ayako [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Nanotechnology Research Institute, Central 4, Higashi 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8562 (Japan); Ichinose, Noboru [School of Science and Technology, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Sinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8050 (Japan)

    2007-09-15

    An ascorbate-apatite composite layer was successfully formed on NaOH- and heat-treated titanium by coprecipitating L-ascorbic acid phosphate and low-crystalline apatite in a supersaturated calcium phosphate solution at 37 {sup 0}C for 48 h. The supersaturated calcium phosphate solutions used have chemical compositions attainable by mixing infusion fluids officially approved for clinical use. The amount of immobilized L-ascorbic acid phosphate ranged from 1.0 to 2.3 {mu}g mm{sup -2}, which is most likely to be sufficient for the in vitro osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells on titanium. Since ascorbate is important for the collagen synthesis and subsequent osteogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells, titanium coated with the ascorbate-apatite composite layer would be useful as a scaffold in bone tissue engineering and as a bone substitute.

  11. Formation of an ascorbate-apatite composite layer on titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Atsuo; Sogo, Yu; Ebihara, Yuko; Onoguchi, Masahiro; Oyane, Ayako; Ichinose, Noboru

    2007-01-01

    An ascorbate-apatite composite layer was successfully formed on NaOH- and heat-treated titanium by coprecipitating L-ascorbic acid phosphate and low-crystalline apatite in a supersaturated calcium phosphate solution at 37 0 C for 48 h. The supersaturated calcium phosphate solutions used have chemical compositions attainable by mixing infusion fluids officially approved for clinical use. The amount of immobilized L-ascorbic acid phosphate ranged from 1.0 to 2.3 μg mm -2 , which is most likely to be sufficient for the in vitro osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells on titanium. Since ascorbate is important for the collagen synthesis and subsequent osteogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells, titanium coated with the ascorbate-apatite composite layer would be useful as a scaffold in bone tissue engineering and as a bone substitute

  12. Comparison of calcium carbonate and aluminium hydroxide as phosphate binders on biochemical bone markers, PTH(1-84), and bone mineral content in dialysis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, B; Jensen, J D; Nielsen, H K

    1991-01-01

    Bone mineral content, estimated by single-photon absorptiometry of the forearm, serum values of intact parathyroid hormone (PTH(1-84], osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase, 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (1,25(OH)2D3), and aluminium were determined during treatment with calcium carbonate (CaCO3......) or aluminium hydroxide (Al(OH)3) in 11 dialysis patients participating in a randomised cross-over study. Each treatment period lasted 6 months. Serum phosphorus was maintained in the range 1.5-2.0 mmol/l. During Al(OH)3 treatment bone mineral content (BMC) decreased by 11% per half-year (mean), but only by 3...... 0.05), osteocalcin decreased (89% versus 117%, P less than 0.01), alkaline phosphatase decreased (92% versus 116%, P less than 0.05), and aluminium decreased (56% versus 189%, P less than 0.05). 1,25(OH)2D3 remained unchanged in both periods. No increase in soft-tissue calcification was demonstrated...

  13. Electrosprayed calcium phosphate coatings for biomedical purposes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwenburgh, S.C.G.

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis, the suitability of the Electrostatic Spray Deposition (ESD) technique was studied for biomedical purposes, i.e., deposition of calcium phosphate (CaP) coatings onto titanium substrates. Using ESD, which is a simple and cheap deposition method for inorganic and organic coatings, it

  14. Osteoconduction of impacted porous titanium particles with a calcium-phosphate coating is comparable to osteoconduction of impacted allograft bone particles: In vivo study in a nonloaded goat model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walschot, L.H.B.; Aquarius, R.; Schreurs, B.W.; Verdonschot, Nicolaas Jacobus Joseph; Buma, P.

    2012-01-01

    Aims: Impaction grafting restores bone defects in hip arthroplasty. Defects are reconstructed with bone particles (BoP) as substitute materials with adequate mechanical and biological properties are not yet available. Ceramic particles (CeP) have mechanical drawbacks as opposed to porous titanium

  15. Osteoconduction of impacted porous titanium particles with a calcium-phosphate coating is comparable to osteoconduction of impacted allograft bone particles: in vivo study in a nonloaded goat model.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walschot, L.H.B.; Aquarius, R.J.; Schreurs, B.W.; Verdonschot, N.J.; Buma, P.

    2012-01-01

    AIMS: Impaction grafting restores bone defects in hip arthroplasty. Defects are reconstructed with bone particles (BoP) as substitute materials with adequate mechanical and biological properties are not yet available. Ceramic particles (CeP) have mechanical drawbacks as opposed to porous titanium

  16. Australian mineral industry annual review. Preliminary summaries 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    Salient statistics and a general industry overview are presented. Special attention is given to the following mineral commodities: aluminium, black coal, copper, fertiliser minerals, gemstones, gold, iron, lead, manganese, nickel, tin, titanium, tungsten, uranium, zinc and zirconium.

  17. Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy of synthetic and biological calcium phosphates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, G R; Zunic, W B; Durig, J R; Wuthier, R E

    1994-05-01

    Fourier-transform (FT) Raman spectroscopy was used to characterize the organic and mineral components of biological and synthetic calcium phosphate minerals. Raman spectroscopy provides information on biological minerals that is complimentary to more widely used infrared methodologies as some infrared-inactive vibrational modes are Raman-active. The application of FT-Raman technology has, for the first time, enabled the problems of high sample fluorescence and low signal-to-noise that are inherent in calcified tissues to be overcome. Raman spectra of calcium phosphates are dominated by a very strong band near 960 cm-1 that arises from the symmetric stretching mode (v1) of the phosphate group. Other Raman-active phosphate vibrational bands are seen at approximately 1075 (v3), 590 (v4), and 435 cm-1 (v2). Minerals containing acidic phosphate groups show additional vibrational modes. The different calcium phosphate mineral phases can be distinguished from one another by the relative positions and shapes of these bands in the Raman spectra. FT-Raman spectra of nascent, nonmineralized matrix vesicles (MV) show a distinct absence of the phosphate v1 band even though these structures are rich in calcium and phosphate. Similar results were seen with milk casein and synthetic Ca-phosphatidyl-serine-PO4 complexes. Hence, the phosphate and/or acidic phosphate ions in these noncrystalline biological calcium phosphates is in a molecular environment that differs from that in synthetic amorphous calcium phosphate. In MV, the first distinct mineral phase to form contained acidic phosphate bands similar to those seen in octacalcium phosphate. The mineral phase present in fully mineralized MV was much more apatitic, resembling that found in bones and teeth.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Uso de Fosfato Bicálcico Granulado Sobre o Desempenho e Mineralização Óssea de Frangos de Corte Effect of Granulated Dicalcium Phosphate on the Performance and Bone Mineralization in Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OM Junqueira

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do experimento foi avaliar os efeitos do tamanho da partícula do fosfato bicálcico (fina ou granulada e dos níveis de fósforo total sobre o desempenho de frangos de corte e sobre os teores de cálcio, fósforo e magnésio dos ossos. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 3x2 com 3 níveis de fósforo total (0,5%; 0,6% e 0,7% e duas granulometrias de fosfato bicálcico (fina e granulada. Foram utilizados 300 pintos de corte com um dia de idade, machos, da linhagem Cobb, alojados em baterias metálicas em 6 tratamentos com 5 repetições de 10 aves, totalizando 30 gaiolas dispostas em 6 baterias de 5 andares cada. Os resultados demonstraram que o uso do fosfato granulado resultou em melhor desempenho dos animais. Aves alimentadas com o nível de 0,5% de fósforo total apresentaram o pior desempenho, sendo que o nível de 0,6% proporcionou melhor desempenho das aves. As diferentes granulometrias do fosfato, não diferiram estatisticamente quanto a percentagem de matéria mineral, cálcio, fósforo e magnésio nos ossos.The objective of the experiment was to evaluate the effects of particle size of dicalcium phosphate (fine or granulated and of the levels of total phosphorus on the performance of broilers and levels of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium of the bones. Three hundred one-day chicks, males, Cobb strain, were used in an experimental design involving six treatments in a factorial arrangement 2x3 (2 particles size of dicalcium phosphate and 3 phosphorus levels of 0,5%, 0,6% e 0,7%. It was concluded that the addition of granulated dicalcium phosphate resulted in a better performance. The level of 0,5% total phosphorus depressed body weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion and level 0,6% showed better performance. Total bone ash and bone calcium were not affected by treatments, however, better bone phosphorus was found when the broilers received the diet with 0,7% total

  19. Phosphate control in dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cupisti A

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Adamasco Cupisti,1 Maurizio Gallieni,2 Maria Antonietta Rizzo,2 Stefania Caria,3 Mario Meola,4 Piergiorgio Bolasco31Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy; 2Nephrology and Dialysis Unit, San Carlo Borromeo Hospital, Milan, Italy; 3Territorial Department of Nephrology and Dialysis, ASL Cagliari, Italy; 4Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies, University of Pisa, Pisa, ItalyAbstract: Prevention and correction of hyperphosphatemia is a major goal of chronic kidney disease–mineral and bone disorder (CKD–MBD management, achievable through avoidance of a positive phosphate balance. To this aim, optimal dialysis removal, careful use of phosphate binders, and dietary phosphate control are needed to optimize the control of phosphate balance in well-nourished patients on a standard three-times-a-week hemodialysis schedule. Using a mixed diffusive–convective hemodialysis tecniques, and increasing the number and/or the duration of dialysis tecniques are all measures able to enhance phosphorus (P mass removal through dialysis. However, dialytic removal does not equal the high P intake linked to the high dietary protein requirement of dialysis patients; hence, the use of intestinal P binders is mandatory to reduce P net intestinal absorption. Unfortunately, even a large dose of P binders is able to bind approximately 200–300 mg of P on a daily basis, so it is evident that their efficacy is limited in the case of an uncontrolled dietary P load. Hence, limitation of dietary P intake is needed to reach the goal of neutral phosphate balance in dialysis, coupled to an adequate protein intake. To this aim, patients should be informed and educated to avoid foods that are naturally rich in phosphate and also processed food with P-containing preservatives. In addition, patients should preferentially choose food with a low P-to-protein ratio. For example, patients could choose egg white or protein from a vegetable source

  20. Phosphate Salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body. They are involved in cell structure, energy transport and storage, vitamin function, and numerous other processes ... Phosphate-containing foods and beverages include cola, wine, beer, whole grain cereals, nuts, dairy products and some ...

  1. Vibrational spectroscopy of the phosphate mineral lazulite--(Mg, Fe)Al2(PO4)2·(OH)2 found in the Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Ray L; Xi, Yunfei; Beganovic, Martina; Belotti, Fernanda Maria; Scholz, Ricardo

    2013-04-15

    This research was done on lazulite samples from the Gentil mine, a lithium bearing pegmatite located in the municipality of Mendes Pimentel, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Chemical analysis was carried out by electron microprobe analysis and indicated a magnesium rich phase with partial substitution of iron. Traces of Ca and Mn, (which partially replaced Mg) were found. The calculated chemical formula of the studied sample is: (Mg0.88, Fe0.11)Al1.87(PO4)2.08(OH)2.02. The Raman spectrum of lazulite is dominated by an intense sharp band at 1060 cm(-1) assigned to PO stretching vibrations of of tetrahedral [PO4] clusters presents into the HPO4(2-) units. Two Raman bands at 1102 and 1137 cm(-1) are attributed to both the HOP and PO antisymmetric stretching vibrations. The two infrared bands at 997 and 1007 cm(-1) are attributed to the ν1PO4(3-) symmetric stretching modes. The intense bands at 1035, 1054, 1081, 1118 and 1154 cm(-1) are assigned to the ν3PO4(3-) antisymmetric stretching modes from both the HOP and tetrahedral [PO4] clusters. A set of Raman bands at 605, 613, 633 and 648 cm(-1) are assigned to the ν4 out of plane bending modes of the PO4, HPO4 and H2PO4 units. Raman bands observed at 414, 425, 460, and 479 cm(-1) are attributed to the ν2 tetrahedral PO4 clusters, HPO4 and H2PO4 bending modes. The intense Raman band at 3402 and the infrared band at 3403 cm(-1) are assigned to the stretching vibration of the OH units. A combination of Raman and infrared spectroscopy enabled aspects of the molecular structure of the mineral lazulite to be understood. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Accessing alkali-free NASICON-type compounds through mixed oxoanion sol–gel chemistry: Hydrogen titanium phosphate sulfate, H{sub 1−x}Ti{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3−x}(SO{sub 4}){sub x} (x=0.5–1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mieritz, Daniel; Davidowski, Stephen K.; Seo, Dong-Kyun, E-mail: dseo@asu.edu

    2016-10-15

    We report a direct sol–gel synthesis and characterization of new proton-containing, rhombohedral NASICION-type titanium compounds with mixed phosphate and sulfate oxoanions. The synthetic conditions were established by utilizing peroxide ion as a decomposable and stabilizing ligand for titanyl ions in the presence of phosphates in a strong acidic medium. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), induction-coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopic (ICP-OES) elemental analysis, and Raman and {sup 1}H magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS-NMR) spectroscopic studies have determined the presence of sulfate and proton ions in the structure, for which the compositional range has been found to be H{sub 1−x}Ti{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3−x}(SO{sub 4}){sub x} (x=0.5–1). The particulate products exhibit a nanocrystalline nature observed through characterization with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The N{sub 2} sorption isotherm measurements and subsequent Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) and Barrett–Joyner–Halenda (BJH) analyses confirmed the presence of the textural meso- and macropores in the materials. Future studies would determine the potential of the new compounds in various applications as battery materials, proton conductors and solid acid catalysts. - Graphical abstract: A series of proton-containing NASICON-type compounds, H{sub 1−x}Ti{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3−x}(SO{sub 4}){sub x} (x=0.5–1), were discovered through a new sol–gel synthetic method that utilizes peroxide ion as a decomposable and stabilizing ligand for titanyl ions in the presence of phosphates in a strong acidic medium.

  3. Phosphate-a poison for humans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komaba, Hirotaka; Fukagawa, Masafumi

    2016-10-01

    Maintenance of phosphate balance is essential for life, and mammals have developed a sophisticated system to regulate phosphate homeostasis over the course of evolution. However, due to the dependence of phosphate elimination on the kidney, humans with decreased kidney function are likely to be in a positive phosphate balance. Phosphate excess has been well recognized as a critical factor in the pathogenesis of mineral and bone disorders associated with chronic kidney disease, but recent investigations have also uncovered toxic effects of phosphate on the cardiovascular system and the aging process. Compelling evidence also suggests that increased fibroblastic growth factor 23 and parathyroid hormone levels in response to a positive phosphate balance contribute to adverse clinical outcomes. These insights support the current practice of managing serum phosphate in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease, although definitive evidence of these effects is lacking. Given the potential toxicity of excess phosphate, the general population may also be viewed as a target for phosphate management. However, the widespread implementation of dietary phosphate intervention in the general population may not be warranted due to the limited impact of increased phosphate intake on mineral metabolism and clinical outcomes. Nonetheless, the increasing incidence of kidney disease or injury in our aging society emphasizes the potential importance of this issue. Further work is needed to more completely characterize phosphate toxicity and to establish the optimal therapeutic strategy for managing phosphate in patients with chronic kidney disease and in the general population. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Opportunities in the electrowinning of molten titanium from titanium dioxide

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Vuuren, DS

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available used, the following forms of titanium are produced: titanium sponge, sintered electrode sponge, powder, molten titanium, electroplated titanium, hydride powder, and vapor-phase depos- ited titanium. Comparing the economics of alter- native...-up for producing titanium via the Kroll process is approximately as follows: ilmenite ($0.27/kg titanium sponge); titanium slag ($0.75/kg titanium sponge); TiCl4 ($3.09/kg titanium sponge); titanium sponge raw materials costs ($5.50/kg titanium sponge); total...

  5. Serum Calcium, Inorganic Phosphates and some Haematological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: Sickle cell disease has long been associated with bone deformities and pain. Mineral salts such as calcium and inorganic phosphate are critical in bone formation and metabolism. This investigation was designed to study the serum concentration of these minerals as well as some haematological parameters in ...

  6. Ultrasonic effects on titanium tanning of leather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Biyu; Shi, Bi; Sun, Danhong; Chen, Yaowen; Shelly, Dennis C

    2007-03-01

    The effects of ultrasound on titanium tanning of leather were investigated. Either 20 or 40 kHz ultrasound was applied to the titanium tanning of pigskins. Five different treatment conditions were carried out and the effects were examined, such as leather shrinkage temperature (T(s)), titanium content and titanium distribution in the leather. Overall heat loading was carefully controlled. Results showed that 20 kHz ultrasound effectively improves titanium agent penetration into the hide and increases the leather's shrinkage temperature. Doubling the frequency to 40 kHz produced negligible enhancements. An impressive 105.6 degrees C T(s) was achieved using 20 kHz ultrasound pretreatment of the tanning liquor followed by 20 kHz ultrasound in the tanning mixture (liquor plus pigskins) in a special salt-free medium. Finally, using a unique ultrasonic tanning drum with 26.5 kHz ultrasound, the T(s) reached a record level of 106.5 degrees C, a value not achieved in conventional (no ultrasound) titanium tanning. The ultrasonic effects on titanium tanning of leather are judged to make a superior mineral tanned leather.

  7. A scheme for the complete elemental characterisation of brannerite mineral using ICP-AES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Premadas, A.; Bose, Roopa

    2013-01-01

    Brannerite occurs along with other refractory minerals in pegmatite veins. Literature survey indicates lack of systematic and detailed chemical analysis procedure for brannerites. This paper report suitable sample decomposition procedures, yielding stable sample solution, suitable for the ICP-AES determination of major, minor and certain trace elements normally associated with brannerite mineral. Three different simple decomposition procedures such as (i) acid digestion (ii) fusion with lithium metaborate (iii) fusion with mixture of tetra sodium pyrophosphate and monosodium dihydrogen phosphate are used to obtain the sample solution for elemental analysis. In presence of higher concentrations of uranium and titanium, the major elements in brannerite mineral, a detailed study of the influence of uranium and titanium on ICP-AES determination of other elements, three commonly used emission lines of each element was carried out. The REEs, Y, Sc and Th have been determined after the removal of major matrix elements using oxalate precipitation. The accuracy of the proposed procedures is established by analyzing synthetic brannerite samples prepared by mixing high purity oxides or chlorides in a proportion similar to natural brannerite samples. The results indicate the method is accurate. The reproducibility studies carried out on one sample shows the % RSD varied from 2 to 5%. (author)

  8. Influence of inorganic compounds on the combustion of coal. III. The effect of water of constitution of added compounds, moisture, and mineral matter in coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newall, H F

    1939-01-01

    The effects on the combustion rate from excess moisture and the addition of selected inorganic substances to powdered coals were determined. The catalytic effect of 19 known inorganic ash constituents on combustion rates was also examined. Alumina and silica were found to inhibit combustion while ferric oxide accelerated it. Titanium, Ge, and B oxides, along with gypsum and calcium phosphate, decreased the rate of combusion, while Ca, Mg, Mn, and V oxides increased combustion rates. Although several of the ash constituents in coal directly affected combustion rates, the effect of adding them to the coal prior to combustion did not correlate with the effect of the mineral matter already in the coal.

  9. Influence of two barrier membranes on staged guided bone regeneration and osseointegration of titanium implants in dogs. Part 2: augmentation using bone graft substitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihatovic, Ilja; Becker, Jürgen; Golubovic, Vladimir; Hegewald, Andrea; Schwarz, Frank

    2012-03-01

    To assess the influence of two barrier membranes and two bone graft substitutes on staged guided bone regeneration and osseointegration of titanium implants in dogs. Saddle-type defects were prepared in the lower jaws of 6 fox hounds and randomly filled with a natural bone mineral (NBM) and a biphasic calcium phosphate (SBC) and allocated to either an in situ gelling polyethylene glycol (PEG) or a collagen membrane (CM). At 8 weeks, modSLA titanium implants were inserted and left to heal in a submerged position. At 8+2 weeks, respectively, dissected blocks were processed for histomorphometrical analysis (e.g., mineralized tissue [MT], bone-to-implant contact [BIC]). The mean MT values (mm2) and BIC values (%) tended to be higher in the PEG groups (MT: NBM [3.4±1.7]; SBC [4.2±2]/BIC: NBM [67.7±16.9]; SBC [66.9±17.8]) when compared with the corresponding CM groups (MT: NBM [2.5±0.8]; SBC [2.3±1.6]/BIC: NBM [54.1±22.6]; SBC [61±8.7]). These differences, however, did not reach statistical significance. It was concluded that all augmentation procedures investigated supported bone regeneration and staged osseointegration of modSLA titanium implants. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  10. Batagayite, CaZn2(Zn,Cu)6(PO4)4(PO3OH)3·12H2O, a new phosphate mineral from Këster tin deposit (Yakutia, Russia): occurrence and crystal structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakovenchuk, Victor N.; Pakhomovsky, Yakov A.; Konopleva, Nataliya G.; Panikorovskii, Taras L.; Bazai, Ayya; Mikhailova, Julia A.; Bocharov, Vladimir N.; Ivanyuk, Gregory Yu.; Krivovichev, Sergey V.

    2017-12-01

    Batagayite, CaZn2(Zn,Cu)6(PO4)4(PO3OH)3·12H2O, is a new secondary phosphate mineral from the Këster deposit, Arga-Ynnykh-Khai massif, NE Yakutia, Russia. It is monoclinic, P21, a = 8.4264(4), b = 12.8309(6), c = 14.6928(9) Å, β = 98.514(6)o, V = 1571.05(15) Å3 and Z = 2 (from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data). Batagayite crystals are blades up to 2 mm long, flattened on {001} and elongated on [100]; blades often grow in radial aggregates. Associated minerals are arsenolite, native copper, epifanovite, fluorapatite, libethenite, Na-analogue of batagayite, pseudomalachite, quartz, sampleite, tobermorite, and Mg-analogue of hopeite. The streak is white and the luster is vitreous. The mineral is brittle and has a perfect cleavage on {001}, no parting was observed. The Mohs hardness is 3. Density, determined by the float-sink method in Clerici solution, is 2.90(3) g/cm3, and the calculated density is 3.02 g/cm3 (using the empirical formula and single-crystal unit-cell parameters). Batagayite is biaxial, optically negative, α = 1.566 ± 0.002, β = 1.572 ± 0.002, γ = 1.573 ± 0.002 at 589 nm. 2V meas. = 40(5)°, 2V calc = 44.3°. Optical orientation: Z is perpendicular to (001), further details unclear. No dispersion or pleochroism were observed. The mean chemical composition determined by electron microprobe is: Na2O 0.31, MgO 1.39, Al2O3 0.55, SiO2 0.48, P2O5 34.37, K2O 0.17, CaO 2.76, MnO 1.03, CuO 5.80, ZnO 35.62, CdO 0.24 wt%. The H2O content estimated from the crystal-structure refinement is 16.83 wt%, giving a total of 99.55 wt%. The empirical formula calculated on the basis of P + Si = 7 is (Zn6.22Cu1.04Ca0.70Mg0.49Mn0.21Al0.15Na0.14K0.05Cd0.03)Σ9.03(P6.89Si0.11)Σ7.00O24.91(OH)3.09·12.10H2O. The mineral easily dissolves in 10% room-temperature HCl. The eight diagnostic lines in the X-ray powder-diffraction pattern are (I-d[Å]-hkl): 100-14.59-001, 25-6.34-012, 11-6.02-111, 37-4.864-003, 13-4.766-112, 20-3.102-1 \\overline {2} \\overline {4} , 11

  11. Economical characteristics of base types of minerals. 1. Metallic minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khasanov, A.Kh.

    1990-01-01

    Metallic minerals is raw materials base of black and colour metallurgy. In this article of book author describes the group of black metals (iron, manganese, chromium), group of tempers (titanium, vanadium, nickel, cobalt, molybdenum, tungsten), colour metals (copper, lead, zinc, aluminium, tin, mercury, antimony, bismuth) and etc.

  12. Nano-scale study of the nucleation and growth of calcium phosphate coating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barrère, F.; Snel, M.M.E.; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; de Groot, K.; Layrolle, Pierre

    2004-01-01

    The nucleation and growth of a calcium phosphate (Ca-P) coating deposited on titanium implants from simulated body fluid was investigated by using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). Forty titanium alloy plates were assigned into two groups. One group

  13. Chemical changes in DMP1-null murine bone & silica based pecvd coatings for titanium implant osseoapplications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maginot, Megen

    In order to improve clinical outcomes in bone-implant systems, a thorough understanding of both local bone chemistry and implant surface chemistry is necessary. This study consists, therefore, of two main parts: one focused on determining the nature of the changes in bone chemistry in a DMP1-null transgenic disease model and the other on the development of amorphous silica-based coatings for potential use as titanium bone implant coatings. For the study of bone mineral in the DMP1 transgenic model, which is known to have low serum phosphate levels, transgenic DMP1-null and wild type mice were fed a high phosphate diet, sacrificed, and had their long bone harvested. This bone was characterized using SEM, FTIR, microCT and XANES and compared to DMP1-null and wild type control groups to assess the therapeutic effect of high Pi levels on the phenotype and the role of DMP1 in mineralization in vivo. Findings suggest that though the high phosphate diet results in restoring serum phosphate levels, it does not completely rescue the bone mineral phenotype at an ultrastructural level and implicates DMP1 in phosphate nucleation. Since plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) silica like coatings have not previously been fabricated for use in oessoapplications, the second part of this study initially focused on the characterization of novel SiOx chemistries fabricated via a chemical vapor deposition process that were designed specifically to act as bioactive coatings with a loose, hydrogenated structure. These coatings were then investigated for their potential initial stage response to bone tissue through immersion in a simulated body fluid and through the culture of MC3T3 cells on the coating surfaces. Coating surfaces were characterized by SEM, FTIR, contact angle measurements, and XANES. Coating dissolution and ionic release were also investigated by ICP-OES. Findings suggest that some SiOx chemistries may form a bioactive coating while more highly substituted

  14. Electrosprayed calcium phosphate coatings for biomedical purposes.

    OpenAIRE

    Leeuwenburgh, S.C.G.

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis, the suitability of the Electrostatic Spray Deposition (ESD) technique was studied for biomedical purposes, i.e., deposition of calcium phosphate (CaP) coatings onto titanium substrates. Using ESD, which is a simple and cheap deposition method for inorganic and organic coatings, it was possible to obtain thin CaP layers with an extremely wide range of chemical and morphological characteristics. Various CaP phases and phase mixtures were deposited and a broad diversity of coatin...

  15. The Properties of Titanium and Its Alloys

    OpenAIRE

    BIŠĆAN, VLATKA; LUETIĆ, VIKTORIJA

    2012-01-01

    Titanium metal is silver-grey color and high gloss, the ninth element of the abundance in the Earth’s crust, and can be found in meteorites. It has a low electrical conductivity and low coefficient of thermal expansion. Since titanium has a great passivity, its physical property is a high level of corrosion resistance to most mineral acids and chlorides. It has mechanical properties such as steel, has a high melting temperature and is light. Since it is highly resistant to corrosion it is app...

  16. Kampelite, Ba3Mg1.5Sc4(PO4)6(OH)3·4H2O, a new very complex Ba-Sc phosphate mineral from the Kovdor phoscorite-carbonatite complex (Kola Peninsula, Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakovenchuk, Victor N.; Ivanyuk, Gregory Yu.; Pakhomovsky, Yakov A.; Panikorovskii, Taras L.; Britvin, Sergei N.; Krivovichev, Sergey V.; Shilovskikh, Vladimir V.; Bocharov, Vladimir N.

    2018-02-01

    Kampelite, Ba3Mg1.5Sc4(PO4)6(OH)3·4H2O, is a new Ba-Sc phosphate from the Kovdor phoscorite-carbonatite complex (Kola Peninsula, Russia). It is orthorhombic, Pnma, a = 11.256(1), b = 8.512(1), c = 27.707(4) Å, V = 2654.6(3) Å3 and Z = 4 (from powder diffraction data) or a = 11.2261(9), b = 8.5039(6), c = 27.699(2) Å, V = 2644.3(3) Å3 (from single-crystal diffraction data). The mineral was found in a void within the calcite-magnetite phoscorite (enriched in hydroxylapatite and Sc-rich baddeleyite) inside the axial zone of the Kovdor phoscorite-carbonatite pipe. Kampelite forms radiated aggregates (up to 1.5 mm in diameter) of platy crystals grown on the surfaces of crystals of quintinite-2 H in close association with pyrite, bobierrite and quintinite-3 R. Kampelite is colourless, with a pearly lustre and a white streak. The cleavage is perfect on {001}, the fracture is smooth. Mohs hardness is about 1. In transmitted light, the mineral is colourless without pleochroism or dispersion. Kampelite is biaxial + (pseudouniaxial), α ≈ β = 1.607(2), γ = 1.612(2) (589 nm), and 2 V calc = 0°. The calculated and measured densities are 3.28 and 3.07(3) g·cm-3, respectively. The mean chemical composition determined by electron microprobe is: MgO 4.79, Al2O3 0.45, P2O5 31.66, K2O 0.34, Sc2O3 16.17, Mn2O3 1.62, Fe2O3 1.38, SrO 3.44, and BaO 29.81 wt%. The H2O content estimated from the crystal-structure refinement is 7.12 wt%, giving a total of 96.51 wt%. The empirical formula calculated on the basis of P = 6 apfu (atoms per formula unit) is (Ba2.62Sr0.45K0.10Ca0.06)Σ3.23Mg1.60Mn0.28(Sc3.15Fe3+ 0.23Al0.12)Σ3.50(PO4)6(OH)2.61·4.01H2O. The simplified formula is Ba3Mg1.5Sc4(PO4)6(OH)3·4H2O. The mineral easily dissolves in 10% cold HCl. The strongest X-ray powder-diffraction lines [listed as d in Å ( I) ( hkl)] are as follows: 15.80(100)(001), 13.86(45)(002), 3.184(18)(223), 3.129(19)(026), 2.756(16)(402), 2.688(24)(10 10). The crystal structure of kampelite was

  17. Titanium and titanium alloys: fundamentals and applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leyens, C; Peters, M

    2003-01-01

    ... number of titanium alloys have paved the way for light metals to vastly expand into many industrial applications. Titanium and its alloys stand out primarily due to their high specific strength and excellent corrosion resistance, at just half the weight of steels and Ni-based superalloys. This explains their early success in the aerospace and the...

  18. New french uranium mineral species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branche, G.; Chervet, J.; Guillemin, C.

    1952-01-01

    In this work, the authors study the french new uranium minerals: parsonsite and renardite, hydrated phosphates of lead and uranium; kasolite: silicate hydrated of uranium and lead uranopilite: sulphate of uranium hydrated; bayleyite: carbonate of uranium and of hydrated magnesium; β uranolite: silicate of uranium and of calcium hydrated. For all these minerals, the authors give the crystallographic, optic characters, and the quantitative chemical analyses. On the other hand, the following species, very rare in the french lodgings, didn't permit to do quantitative analyses. These are: the lanthinite: hydrated uranate oxide; the α uranotile: silicate of uranium and of calcium hydrated; the bassetite: uranium phosphate and of hydrated iron; the hosphuranylite: hydrated uranium phosphate; the becquerelite: hydrated uranium oxide; the curite: oxide of uranium and lead hydrated. Finally, the authors present at the end of this survey a primary mineral: the brannerite, complex of uranium titanate. (author) [fr

  19. Effects of service environments on aluminum-brazed titanium (ABTi)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, W. L.

    1978-01-01

    Aluminum brazed titanium (ABTi) structures were evaluated during prolonged exposure to extreme environments: elevated temperature exposure to airline service fluids, hydraulic fluid, and seawater, followed by laboratory corrosion tests. Solid-face and perforated face honeycomb sandwich panel specimens, stressed panel assemblies, and faying surface brazed joints were tested. The corrosion resistance of ABTi is satisfactory for commercial airline service. Unprotected ABTi proved inherently resistant to attack by all of the extreme service aircraft environments except: seawater at 700 K (800 F) and above, dripping phosphate ester hydraulic fluid at 505 K (450 F), and a marine environment at ambient temperature. The natural oxides and deposits present on titanium surfaces in airline service provide protection against hot salt corrosion pitting. Coatings are required to protect titanium dripping phosphate ester fluid at elevated temperatures and to protect exposed acoustic honeycomb parts against corrosion in a marine environment.

  20. Calcium phosphates: what is the evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Sune

    2010-03-01

    A number of different calcium phosphate compounds such as calcium phosphate cements and solid beta-tricalcium phosphate products have been introduced during the last decade. The chemical composition mimics the mineral phase of bone and as a result of this likeness, the materials seem to be remodeled as for normal bone through a cell-mediated process that involves osteoclastic activity. This is a major difference when compared with, for instance, calcium sulphate compounds that after implantation dissolve irrespective of the new bone formation rate. Calcium phosphates are highly biocompatible and in addition, they act as synthetic osteoconductive scaffolds after implantation in bone. When placed adjacent to bone, osteoid is formed directly on the surface of the calcium phosphate with no soft tissue interposed. Remodeling is slow and incomplete, but by adding more and larger pores, like in ultraporous beta-tricalcium phosphate, complete or nearly complete resorption can be achieved. The indications explored so far include filling of metaphyseal fracture voids or bone cysts, a volume expander in conjunction with inductive products, and as a carrier for various growth factors and antibiotics. Calcium phosphate compounds such as calcium phosphate cement and beta-tricalcium phosphate will most certainly be part of the future armamentarium when dealing with fracture treatment. It is reasonable to believe that we have so far only seen the beginning when it comes to clinical applications.

  1. Uranium Extraction from Phosphates: - Background, Opportunities, Process Overview & Way Forward for Commercialisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tulsidas, Harikrishnan; Hilton, Julian; Kumar Haldar, Tapan

    2014-01-01

    Uranium Extraction from Phosphate - an attractive proposition: • Uranium is co-product of phosphate Industry and makes phosphate Industry economically viable & socially more acceptable; • Enable utilisation of mineral deposits having low Phosphate value through economic co-production of Phosphatic fertiliser & Uranium; • Bring new countries in global map of Uranium resources; • Enables socio-economic up-gradation of major part of global population by achieving Energy, food & Environmental security - so important in today’s scenario

  2. Structure and Degradation Behaviour of Calcium Phosphate Glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, A M B; Correia, R N; Fernandes, M H V; Oliveira, J M M

    2011-01-01

    Some studies have shown a relationship between glass structure and in vitro mineralization, generally associated with the rate of glass degradation, nature of released ions and subsequent Ca-P precipitation on glass surfaces when immersed in a Simulated Body Fluid (SBF). The knowledge of the ionic species distribution in glasses and of the involved bond strengths can be used to assess the in vitro behaviour of a glass. The role of ions such as silicon or titanium is of major importance for the development of new compositions and also for the control of glass degradation behaviour. A comparative study with two calcium phosphate glasses series was performed: Both glasses series - one with Si and another with Ti - include P 2 O 5 and alkaline earth ions in their compositions. Surface reactivity of glasses from the SiO 2 -containing system have been studied in SBF showing the precipitation of a Ca-P surface layer that increases with increasing MgO/CaO ratio. In glasses from the TiO 2 -containing series it is shown that the increase of TiO 2 contributes for the stabilization of the glass network thus allowing the control of their degradation rate when immersed in SBF. The relationship between structural features of these calcium-phosphate glasses and their degradation behaviour in SBF is discussed in terms of the structural role of Si and Ti ions. It is concluded that glasses with less interconnected species favour the Ca-P surface precipitation. The understanding of this relationship in synthetic physiological fluids is expected to allow the tailoring of glass degradation rates in complex biological systems.

  3. How do arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi handle phosphate? New insight into fine-tuning of phosphate metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezawa, Tatsuhiro; Saito, Katsuharu

    2018-04-27

    Contents Summary I. Introduction II. Foraging for phosphate III. Fine-tuning of phosphate homeostasis IV. The frontiers: phosphate translocation and export V. Conclusions and outlook Acknowledgements References SUMMARY: Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi form symbiotic associations with most land plants and deliver mineral nutrients, in particular phosphate, to the host. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms of phosphate acquisition and delivery in the fungi is critical for full appreciation of the mutualism in this association. Here, we provide updates on physical, chemical, and biological strategies of the fungi for phosphate acquisition, including interactions with phosphate-solubilizing bacteria, and those on the regulatory mechanisms of phosphate homeostasis based on resurveys of published genome sequences and a transcriptome with reference to the latest findings in a model fungus. For the mechanisms underlying phosphate translocation and export to the host, which are major research frontiers in this field, not only recent advances but also testable hypotheses are proposed. Lastly, we briefly discuss applicability of the latest tools to gene silencing in the fungi, which will be breakthrough techniques for comprehensive understanding of the molecular basis of fungal phosphate metabolism. © 2018 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  4. Intercomparison of radon emanation in Moroccan and Tunisian phosphate rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, A.; Membrey, F.; Klein, D.; Chambaudet, A.; Iraqui, R.

    1992-01-01

    We suggest a method for measuring the emanation of radon gas of phosphates mineral from different origins using solid state track nuclear detectors (CR39 and LR115) with the aim to determinate radioactivity effects on the human. (author)

  5. Electrochemical surface modification of titanium in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyo-Han; Ramaswamy, Narayanan

    2009-01-01

    Titanium and its alloys have good biocompatibility with body cells and tissues and are widely used for implant applications. However, clinical procedures place more stringent and tough requirements on the titanium surface necessitating artificial surface treatments. Among the many methods of titanium surface modification, electrochemical techniques are simple and cheap. Anodic oxidation is the anodic electrochemical technique while electrophoretic and cathodic depositions are the cathodic electrochemical techniques. By anodic oxidation it is possible to obtain desired roughness, porosity and chemical composition of the oxide. Anodic oxidation at high voltages can improve the crystallinity of the oxide. The chief advantage of this technique is doping of the coating of the bath constituents and incorporation of these elements improves the properties of the oxide. Electrophoretic deposition uses hydroxyapatite (HA) powders dispersed in a suitable solvent at a particular pH. Under these operating conditions these particles acquire positive charge and coatings are obtained on the cathodic titanium by applying an external electric field. These coatings require a post-sintering treatment to improve the coating properties. Cathodic deposition is another type of electrochemical method where HA is formed in situ from an electrolyte containing calcium and phosphate ions. It is also possible to alter structure and/or chemistry of the obtained deposit. Nano-grained HA has higher surface energy and greater biological activity and therefore emphasis is being laid to produce these coatings by cathodic deposition.

  6. Impaired Phosphate Tolerance Revealed With an Acute Oral Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Mandy E; White, Christine A; Hopman, Wilma M; Ward, Emilie C; Jeronimo, Paul S; Adams, Michael A; Holden, Rachel M

    2018-01-01

    Elevated serum phosphate is consistently linked with cardiovascular disease (CVD) events and mortality in the setting of normal and impaired kidney function. However, serum phosphate does not often exceed the upper limit of normal until glomerular filtration rate (GFR) falls below 30 mL/min/m 2 . It was hypothesized that the response to an oral, bioavailable phosphate load will unmask impaired phosphate tolerance, a maladaptation not revealed by baseline serum phosphate concentrations. In this study, rats with varying kidney function as well as normo-phosphatemic human subjects, with inulin-measured GFR (13.2 to 128.3mL/min), received an oral phosphate load. Hormonal and urinary responses were evaluated over 2 hours. Results revealed that the more rapid elevation of serum phosphate was associated with subjects and rats with higher levels of kidney function, greater responsiveness to acute changes in parathyroid hormone (PTH), and significantly more urinary phosphate at 2 hours. In humans, increases in urinary phosphate to creatinine ratio did not correlate with baseline serum phosphate concentrations but did correlate strongly to early increase of serum phosphate. The blunted rise in serum phosphate in rats with CKD was not the result of altered absorption. This result suggests acute tissue deposition may be altered in the setting of kidney function impairment. Early recognition of impaired phosphate tolerance could translate to important interventions, such as dietary phosphate restriction or phosphate binders, being initiated at much higher levels of kidney function than is current practice. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  7. Biofunctionalization of titanium for dental implant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takao Hanawa

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Surface modification is an important and predominant technique for obtaining biofunction in metals for biomedical use including dentistry. One surface modification technique is a process that changes the surface composition, structure, and morphology of a material, leaving the bulk mechanical properties intact. A tremendous number of surface modification techniques to improve the hard tissue compatibility of titanium have been developed. Hydroxyapatite layer, titanium oxide layer, and calcium titanate layer with various morphologies are deposited using electrochemical treatment including micro-arc oxidation. Also, surface modification layers without hydroxyapatite and calcium phosphate are chemically formed that accelerate bone formation. Other approach is the immobilization of biofunctional molecules such as poly(ethylene glycol to the metal surface to control the adsorption of proteins and adhesion of cells, platelets, and bacteria. In the case of immobilization of biomolecules such as collagen and peptide, bone formation and soft tissue adhesion are improved.

  8. The preparation and the sustained release of titanium dioxide hollow particles encapsulating L-ascorbic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga, Yoko; Kadota, Kazunori; Shimosaka, Atsuko; Yoshida, Mikio; Oshima, Kotaro; Shirakawa, Yoshiyuki

    2018-05-01

    The preparation of the titanium dioxide hollow particles encapsulating L-ascorbic acid via sol-gel process using inkjet nozzle has been performed, and the sustained release and the effect protecting against degradation of L-ascorbic acid in the particles were investigated. The morphology of titanium dioxide particles was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS). The sustained release and the effect protecting against degradation of L-ascorbic acid were estimated by dialysis bag method in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) (pH = 7.4) as release media. The prepared titanium dioxide particles exhibited spherical porous structures. The particle size distribution of the titanium dioxide particles was uniform. The hollow titanium dioxide particles encapsulating L-ascorbic acid showed the sustained release. It was also found that the degradation of L-ascorbic acid could be inhibited by encapsulating L-ascorbic acid in the titanium dioxide hollow particles.

  9. UV photofunctionalization promotes nano-biomimetic apatite deposition on titanium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saita M

    2016-01-01

    in the valleys and at the inclines of micro-roughened structures without affecting the existing micro-configuration. Micro-roughened titanium and apatite-deposited titanium surfaces had similar roughness values. The attachment, spreading, settling, proliferation, and alkaline phosphate activity of bone marrow-derived osteoblasts were promoted on apatite-coated titanium with photofunctionalization.Conclusion: UV-photofunctionalization of titanium enabled faster deposition of nanoscale biomimetic apatite, resulting in the improved biological capability compared to the similarly prepared apatite-deposited titanium without photofunctionalization. Photofunctionalization-assisted biomimetic apatite deposition may be a novel method to effectively enhance micro-roughened titanium surfaces without altering their microscale morphology. Keywords: nanotechnology, dental and orthopedic implants, superhydrophilic, hydrocarbon, osseointegration 

  10. Sealing glasses for titanium and titanium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brow, Richard K.; McCollister, Howard L.; Phifer, Carol C.; Day, Delbert E.

    1997-01-01

    Barium lanthanoborate sealing-glass compositions are provided comprising various combinations (in terms of mole-%) of boron oxide (B.sub.2 O.sub.3), barium oxide (BaO), lanthanum oxide (La.sub.2 O.sub.3), and at least one other oxide selected from the group consisting of aluminum oxide (Al.sub.2 O.sub.3), calcium oxide (CaO), lithium oxide (Li.sub.2 O), sodium oxide (Na.sub.2 O), silicon dioxide (SiO.sub.2), or titanium dioxide (TiO.sub.2). These sealing-glass compositions are useful for forming hermetic glass-to-metal seals with titanium and titanium alloys having an improved aqueous durability and favorable sealing characteristics. Examples of the sealing-glass compositions are provided having coefficients of thermal expansion about that of titanium or titanium alloys, and with sealing temperatures less than about 900.degree. C., and generally about 700.degree.-800.degree. C. The barium lanthanoborate sealing-glass compositions are useful for components and devices requiring prolonged exposure to moisture or water, and for implanted biomedical devices (e.g. batteries, pacemakers, defibrillators, pumps).

  11. Osseointegration is improved by coating titanium implants with a nanostructured thin film with titanium carbide and titanium oxides clustered around graphitic carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veronesi, Francesca [Laboratory of Preclinical and Surgical Studies, Rizzoli Orthopedic Institute, Via Di Barbiano 1/10, Bologna 40136 (Italy); Giavaresi, Gianluca; Fini, Milena [Laboratory of Preclinical and Surgical Studies, Rizzoli Orthopedic Institute, Via Di Barbiano 1/10, Bologna 40136 (Italy); Laboratory of Biocompatibility, Innovative Technologies and Advanced Therapies, Department Rizzoli RIT, Via Di Barbiano 1/10, Bologna 40136 (Italy); Longo, Giovanni [CNR Istituto di Struttura della Materia, CNR, Via del Fosso del Cavaliere 100, 00133 Roma (Italy); Ioannidu, Caterina Alexandra; Scotto d' Abusco, Anna [Dept. of Biochemical Sciences, Sapienza University of Roma, Ple A. Moro 5, 00185 Roma (Italy); Superti, Fabiana; Panzini, Gianluca [Dept. of Technologies and Health, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Viale Regina Elena, 299 Roma (Italy); Misiano, Carlo [Romana Film Sottili, Anzio, Roma (Italy); Palattella, Alberto [Dept. of Clinical Sciences and Translational Medicine, Tor Vergata University, Via Montpellier 1, 00133 Roma (Italy); Selleri, Paolo; Di Girolamo, Nicola [Exotic Animals Clinic, Via S. Giovannini 53, 00137 Roma (Italy); Garbarino, Viola [Dept. of Radiology, S.M. Goretti Hospital, Via G. Reni 2, 04100 Latina (Italy); Politi, Laura [Dept. of Biochemical Sciences, Sapienza University of Roma, Ple A. Moro 5, 00185 Roma (Italy); Scandurra, Roberto, E-mail: roberto.scandurra@uniroma1.it [Dept. of Biochemical Sciences, Sapienza University of Roma, Ple A. Moro 5, 00185 Roma (Italy)

    2017-01-01

    Titanium implants coated with a 500 nm nanostructured layer, deposited by the Ion Plating Plasma Assisted (IPPA) technology, composed of 60% graphitic carbon, 25% titanium oxides and 15% titanium carbide were implanted into rabbit femurs whilst into the controlateral femurs uncoated titanium implants were inserted as control. At four time points the animals were injected with calcein green, xylenol orange, oxytetracycline and alizarin. After 2, 4 and 8 weeks femurs were removed and processed for histology and static and dynamic histomorphometry for undecalcified bone processing into methylmethacrylate, sectioned, thinned, polished and stained with Toluidine blue and Fast green. The overall bone-implant contacts rate (percentage of bone-implant contacts/weeks) of the TiC coated implant was 1.6 fold than that of the uncoated titanium implant. The histomorphometric analyses confirmed the histological evaluations. More precisely, higher Mineral Apposition Rate (MAR, μm/day) (p < 0.005) and Bone Formation Rate (BFR, μm{sup 2}/μm/day) (p < 0.0005) as well as Bone Implant Contact (Bic) and Bone Ingrowth values (p < 0.0005) were observed for the TiC coated implants compared to uncoated implants. In conclusion the hard nanostructured TiC layer protects the bulk titanium implant against the harsh conditions of biological tissues and in the same time, stimulating adhesion, proliferation and activity of osteoblasts, induces a better bone-implant contacts of the implant compared to the uncoated titanium implant. - Highlights: • Ti implants were coated with a nanostructured film composed of C{sub gr}, TiC and TiO{sub x}. • The TiC layer stimulates adhesion, proliferation and activity of osteoblasts. • Uncoated and TiC coated titanium implants were implanted in rabbit femurs. • Bone-implant contacts of TiC coated implants were higher than that of uncoated. • Mineral Apposition Rate of TiC coated implants were higher than that of uncoated.

  12. Osseointegration is improved by coating titanium implants with a nanostructured thin film with titanium carbide and titanium oxides clustered around graphitic carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veronesi, Francesca; Giavaresi, Gianluca; Fini, Milena; Longo, Giovanni; Ioannidu, Caterina Alexandra; Scotto d'Abusco, Anna; Superti, Fabiana; Panzini, Gianluca; Misiano, Carlo; Palattella, Alberto; Selleri, Paolo; Di Girolamo, Nicola; Garbarino, Viola; Politi, Laura; Scandurra, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Titanium implants coated with a 500 nm nanostructured layer, deposited by the Ion Plating Plasma Assisted (IPPA) technology, composed of 60% graphitic carbon, 25% titanium oxides and 15% titanium carbide were implanted into rabbit femurs whilst into the controlateral femurs uncoated titanium implants were inserted as control. At four time points the animals were injected with calcein green, xylenol orange, oxytetracycline and alizarin. After 2, 4 and 8 weeks femurs were removed and processed for histology and static and dynamic histomorphometry for undecalcified bone processing into methylmethacrylate, sectioned, thinned, polished and stained with Toluidine blue and Fast green. The overall bone-implant contacts rate (percentage of bone-implant contacts/weeks) of the TiC coated implant was 1.6 fold than that of the uncoated titanium implant. The histomorphometric analyses confirmed the histological evaluations. More precisely, higher Mineral Apposition Rate (MAR, μm/day) (p < 0.005) and Bone Formation Rate (BFR, μm 2 /μm/day) (p < 0.0005) as well as Bone Implant Contact (Bic) and Bone Ingrowth values (p < 0.0005) were observed for the TiC coated implants compared to uncoated implants. In conclusion the hard nanostructured TiC layer protects the bulk titanium implant against the harsh conditions of biological tissues and in the same time, stimulating adhesion, proliferation and activity of osteoblasts, induces a better bone-implant contacts of the implant compared to the uncoated titanium implant. - Highlights: • Ti implants were coated with a nanostructured film composed of C gr , TiC and TiO x . • The TiC layer stimulates adhesion, proliferation and activity of osteoblasts. • Uncoated and TiC coated titanium implants were implanted in rabbit femurs. • Bone-implant contacts of TiC coated implants were higher than that of uncoated. • Mineral Apposition Rate of TiC coated implants were higher than that of uncoated.

  13. Classification of titanium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macias B, L.R.; Garcia C, R.M.; Maya M, M.E.; Ita T, A. De; Palacios G, J.

    2002-01-01

    In this work the X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (Sem) and the X-ray Dispersive Energy Spectroscopy techniques are used with the purpose to achieve a complete identification of phases and mixture of phases of a crystalline material as titanium dioxide. The problem for solving consists of being able to distinguish a sample of titanium dioxide being different than a titanium dioxide pigment. A standard sample of titanium dioxide with NIST certificate is used, which indicates a purity of 99.74% for the TiO 2 . The following way is recommended to proceed: a)To make an analysis by means of X-ray diffraction technique to the sample of titanium dioxide pigment and on the standard of titanium dioxide waiting not find differences. b) To make a chemical analysis by the X-ray Dispersive Energy Spectroscopy via in a microscope, taking advantage of the high vacuum since it is oxygen which is analysed and if it is concluded that the aluminium oxide appears in a greater proportion to 1% it is established that is a titanium dioxide pigment, but if it is lesser then it will be only titanium dioxide. This type of analysis is an application of the nuclear techniques useful for the tariff classification of merchandise which is considered as of difficult recognition. (Author)

  14. Niger Republic mineral planning : Part four Second volume : Main mineral substances specific study and their geological context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franconi, Antoine; Joo', Julien; Zibo, Idde

    1981-01-01

    This volume describes Niger Republic mineral substances capable of rising economic interest. After relating minerals occurrence , indices and deposits types, conclusions and recommendations have been made for mineral prospecting. Mineral substances described are : Copper, lead and zinc, molybdena, iron, manganese, titanium, vanadium, nickel and chrome ( cobalt and platinoid ), lithium, lignite, diamond and diverse substances rare earth, beryllium, silver, bismuth arsenic and antimony, barytine, alunite, talc and asbestos ( graphite and diatomite) [fr

  15. Electrowinning molten titanium from titanium dioxide

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Vuuren, DS

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available the Manufacturing and Materials Industry in it quest for global competitiveness CSIR Manufacturing and Materials Technology 3 Rationale – Titanium Cost Build-up Material Cost Ilmenite $0.27/kg Ti sponge Titanium slag $0.75/kg Ti Sponge TiCl4 and TiO2 $3....10/kg Ti Sponge Ti Sponge raw materials costs $5.50/kg Ti Sponge Total Ti Sponge cost $9-$11/kg Ti Sponge Ti ingot $15-17/kg Ti Aluminium $1.7/kg Al Supporting the Manufacturing and Materials Industry in its quest for global competitivenessorting...

  16. Uranium traps in the phosphate bearing sudr chalk, in northeastern sinai, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, H.A.; El-Aassy, I.E.; Mahdy, M.A.; Dabbour, G.A.; Mansour, M.Gh.; Morsy, A.M.

    1998-01-01

    The maastrichtian sudr formation in northeastern sinai is composed of three members, the lower chalk, the middle phosphate and chart-bearing and the upper chalk members. Lemon yellow secondary uranium mineralization, distributed in the lower chalk member and in some phosphate beds from the middle phosphate member are observed. The XRD analyses of some samples from the uranium bearing chalk and the phosphate beds showed the presence of the secondary uranium minerals carnotite, bergenite and upalite. The mode of uranium occurrences could be interpreted as a result of the phosphatic beds decomposition and their subjection to later diagenetic processes. Uranium leaching circulation from phosphate rocks led to the liberation of uranium from the phosphates, and vanadium from the bituminous material and clay minerals. These migrated and were deposited locally and within the underlying chalk beds which acted as a lithologic trap

  17. Are Polyphosphates or Phosphate Esters Prebiotic Reagents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Anthony D.; Miller, Stanley L.

    1995-01-01

    It is widely held that there was a phosphate compound in prebiotic chemistry that played the role of adenosine triphosphate and that the first living organisms had ribose-phosphate in the backbone of their genetic material. However, there are no known efficient prebiotic synthesis of high-energy phosphates or phosphate esters. We review the occurrence of phosphates in nature, the efficiency of the volcanic synthesis of P4O10, the efficiency of polyphosphate synthesis by heating phosphate minerals under geological conditions, and the use of high-energy organic compounds such as cyanamide or hydrogen cyanide. These are shown to be inefficient processes especially when the hydrolysis of the polyphosphates is taken into account. For example, if a whole atmosphere of methane or carbon monoxide were converted to cyanide which somehow synthesized polyphosphates quantitatively, the polyphosphate concentration in the ocean would still have been insignificant. We also attempted to find more efficient high-energy polymerizing agents by spark discharge syntheses, but without success. There may still be undiscovered robust prebiotic syntheses of polyphosphates, or mechanisms for concentrating them, but we conclude that phosphate esters may not have been constituents of the first genetic material. Phosphoanhydrides are also unlikely as prebiotic energy sources.

  18. Biomineralization of carbonate and phosphate by moderately halophilic bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sánchez-Román, Mónica; Rivadeneyra, Maria A.; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; McKenzie, Judith A.

    We investigated the precipitation of carbonate and phosphate minerals by 19 species of moderately halophilic bacteria using media with variable Mg 2+/Ca2+ ratios. The precipitated minerals were calcite, magnesium (Mg) calcite, and struvite (MgNH4PO4· 6H2O) in variable proportions depending on the

  19. Regularities in Low-Temperature Phosphatization of Silicates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savenko, A. V.

    2018-01-01

    The regularities in low-temperature phosphatization of silicates are defined from long-term experiments on the interaction between different silicate minerals and phosphate-bearing solutions in a wide range of medium acidity. It is shown that the parameters of the reaction of phosphatization of hornblende, orthoclase, and labradorite have the same values as for clayey minerals (kaolinite and montmorillonite). This effect may appear, if phosphotization proceeds, not after silicate minerals with a different structure and composition, but after a secondary silicate phase formed upon interaction between silicates and water and stable in a certain pH range. Variation in the parameters of the reaction of phosphatization at pH ≈ 1.8 is due to the stability of the silicate phase different from that at higher pH values.

  20. On the mechanism of ion exchange in zirconium phosphates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clearfield, A.; Frianeza, T.N.

    1978-01-01

    α-titanium phosphate, Ti(HPO 4 ) 2 .H 2 O, was found to form two sodium ion exchanged phases. A half exchanged phase of ideal composition TiNaH(PO 4 ) 2 .4H 2 O formed first. However, before all of the titanium phosphate was converted to this phase a second phase of higher Na + content formed. Thus, a three phase solid existed until sufficient sodium ion uptake (approximately 5.5 meq/g) produced only the two exchanged phases. Finally, the half exchanged phase was converted to the more highly loaded one and this latter phase existed from 6 to 8 meq/g of Na + uptake. Severe disordering of the crystal lattice during exchange is proposed to explain this unusual exchange behavior. A broad range of titanium phosphate-zirconium phosphate solid solutions was found to form. Their behavior towards Na + -H + exchange was determined and interpreted on the basis of the known behavior of the pure phases. Mixed Ti-Zr solid solutions of their pyrophosphates were obtained at elevated temperatures. (author)

  1. Nanoscale Bonding between Human Bone and Titanium Surfaces: Osseohybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Sik Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Until now, the chemical bonding between titanium and bone has been examined only through a few mechanical detachment tests. Therefore, in this study, a sandblasted and acid-etched titanium mini-implant was removed from a human patient after 2 months of placement in order to identify the chemical integration mechanism for nanoscale osseointegration of titanium implants. To prepare a transmission electron microscopy (TEM specimen, the natural state was preserved as much as possible by cryofixation and scanning electron microscope/focused ion beam (SEM-FIB milling without any chemical treatment. High-resolution TEM (HRTEM, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, and scanning TEM (STEM/electron energy loss spectroscopic analysis (EELS were used to investigate the chemical composition and structure at the interface between the titanium and bone tissue. HRTEM and EDS data showed evidence of crystalline hydroxyapatite and intermixing of bone with the oxide layer of the implant. The STEM/EELS experiment provided particularly interesting results: carbon existed in polysaccharides, calcium and phosphorus existed as tricalcium phosphate (TCP, and titanium existed as oxidized titanium. In addition, the oxygen energy loss near edge structures (ELNESs showed a possibility of the presence of CaTiO3. These STEM/EELS results can be explained by structures either with or without a chemical reaction layer. The possible existence of the osseohybridization area and the form of the carbon suggest that reconsideration of the standard definition of osseointegration is necessary.

  2. A Weighty Subject: Exploration for Heavy Minerals Across the State of Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, J.; Woolsey, A. I.; Yarbrough, L. D.; Platt, B. F.; Widanagamage, I. H.; Easson, G. L.

    2017-12-01

    Preliminary analysis has shown that an array of industrial minerals is known to occur in offshore deposits on the Gulf Coast as well as on-shore deposits in the Upper Cretaceous and Paleogene-Neogene clastic units, such as the Meridian Sand Member of the Eocene Tallahatta Formation in northeastern Mississippi. Furthermore, economic deposits occur within Holocene sediments along the Pearl and Pascagoula Rivers as well as along the modern Gulf of Mexico shoreline. These industrial minerals include suites of heavy minerals (specific gravity ≥2.97) that contain oxides of titanium (ilmenite, rutile, and leucoxene), oxides of zirconium (zircon), and the complex rare-earth-bearing phosphates (monazite and xenotime). These oxides are essential constituents of a wide-range of industrial materials critical to common technologies and the bulk of these mineral commodities are presently dependent on foreign supply. Current offshore deposits have been shown to be economic but are likely no longer accessible given their location within the Gulf Islands National Seashore. This comprehensive study is developing a heavy mineral occurrence dataset for the state of Mississippi including detailed analyses of the industrial mineral resources available within the state. More than 100 samples have been collected across the state from active and non-operating sand pit mining locations. The heavy mineral fraction of each sample was separated using lithium heteropolytungstates (LST) and gravity-based separation techniques. A grain mount for each sample was prepared with the heavy mineral fraction and the percentage values for each heavy mineral species were obtained from 200 grain counts per sample grain mount. Typical heavy mineral fraction for the sample set was approximately 0.9 % with an array from 0.0% to some samples ranging to a greater concentration of 7.5%. The resulting dataset will be further analyzed for geospatial similarities in trends and occurrences. Additional data

  3. Chitosan patterning on titanium alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Gilabert Chirivella, Eduardo; Pérez Feito, Ricardo; Ribeiro, Clarisse; Ribeiro, Sylvie; Correia, Daniela; González Martin, María Luisa; Manero Planella, José María; Lanceros Méndez, Senentxu; Gallego Ferrer, Gloria; Gómez Ribelles, José Luis

    2017-01-01

    Titanium and its alloys are widely used in medical implants because of their excellent properties. However, bacterial infection is a frequent cause of titanium-based implant failure and also compromises its osseointegration. In this study, we report a new simple method of providing titanium surfaces with antibacterial properties by alternating antibacterial chitosan domains with titanium domains in the micrometric scale. Surface microgrooves were etched on pure titanium disks at i...

  4. Production of titanium tetrachloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perillo, P.M.; Botbol, O.

    1990-01-01

    This report presents a summary of results from theoperation of a laboratory scale for the production in batches of approximately 100 gs of titanium tetrachloride by chlorination with chloroform and carbon tetrachloride between 340 deg C and 540 deg C. Chlorination agent vapors were passed through a quartz column reacting with titanium oxide powder agglomerated in little spheres. Obtained titanium tetrachloride was condensed in a condenser, taken in a ballon and then purified by fractional distillation. Optimun temperature for chloroform was 400 deg C with 74 % yield and for carbon tetrachloride was 500 deg C with 69 % yield. (Author) [es

  5. Uranium from phosphate ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurst, F.J.

    1983-01-01

    The following topics are described briefly: the way phosphate fertilizers are made; how uranium is recovered in the phosphate industry; and how to detect covert uranium recovery operations in a phsophate plant

  6. High Temperature Reactors for a new IAEA Coordinated Research Project on energy neutral mineral development processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haneklaus, Nils, E-mail: n.haneklaus@berkeley.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, 4118 Etcheverry Hall, MC 1730, Berkeley, CA 94720-1730 (United States); Reitsma, Frederik [IAEA, Division of Nuclear Power, Section of Nuclear Power Technology Development, VIC, PO Box 100, Vienna 1400 (Austria); Tulsidas, Harikrishnan [IAEA, Division of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Technology, Section of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Materials, VIC, PO Box 100, Vienna 1400 (Austria)

    2016-09-15

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is promoting a new Coordinated Research Project (CRP) to elaborate on the applicability and potential of using High Temperature Reactors (HTRs) to provide process heat and/or electricity to power energy intensive mineral development processes. The CRP aims to provide a platform for cooperation between HTR-developers and mineral development processing experts. Energy intensive mineral development processes with (e.g. phosphate-, gold-, copper-, rare earth ores) or without (e.g. titanium-, aluminum ore) the possibility to recover accompanying uranium and/or thorium that could be developed and used as raw material for nuclear reactor fuel enabling “energy neutral” processing of the primary ore if the recovered uranium and/or thorium is sufficient to operate the greenhouse gas lean energy source used shall be discussed according to the participants needs. This paper specifically focuses on the aspects to be addressed by HTR-designers and developers. First requirements that should be fulfilled by the HTR-designs are highlighted together with the desired outcomes of the research project.

  7. Changes in serum phosphate and potassium and their effects on mortality in malnourished African HIV-infected adults starting antiretroviral therapy and given vitamins and minerals in lipid-based nutritional supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehman, Andrea Mary; Woodd, Susannah Louise; Heimburger, Douglas Corbett

    2017-01-01

    Malnourished HIV-infected patients starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) are at high risk of early mortality, some of which may be attributed to altered electrolyte metabolism. We used data from a randomised controlled trial of electrolyte-enriched lipid-based nutritional supplements to assess...... that changes in serum electrolytes, largely irrespective of the starting point and the direction of change, were more strongly associated with mortality than were absolute electrolyte levels. Although K and phosphate are required for tissue deposition during recovery from malnutrition, further studies...... are needed to determine whether specific supplements exacerbate physiologically adverse shifts in electrolyte levels during nutritional rehabilitation of ill malnourished HIV patients....

  8. Electroplating on titanium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, J. R.

    1971-01-01

    Activation process forms adherent electrodeposits of copper, nickel, and chromium on titanium alloy. Good adhesion of electroplated deposits is obtained by using acetic-hydrofluoric acid anodic activation process.

  9. Miners' welfare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, C

    1984-06-13

    The Miners' Welfare Committee (MWC) was formed in Britain in 1921 and initiated building programmes to provide welfare amenities for miners and families, using architecture to improve the quality of a miner's working and leisure time. The article reviews the MWC's work, and assesses the design and architecture at the Selby Coalfield. (7 refs.)

  10. Titanium oxide fever

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Jonge, D.; Visser, J.

    2012-01-01

    One measure to improve air quality is to apply photo-catalytic substances that capture NOx onto the road surface or onto baffle boards alongside the roads. The effect of titanium oxide containing clinkers with coating was discussed in the report 'Demonstration project of air-purifying pavement in Hengelo, The Netherlands' that was published in May 2011. This article examines the way in which the effectiveness of this study was determined. Can titanium oxide containing clinkers and coatings indeed capture NOx?. [nl

  11. Machining of titanium alloys

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a collection of examples illustrating the resent research advances in the machining of titanium alloys. These materials have excellent strength and fracture toughness as well as low density and good corrosion resistance; however, machinability is still poor due to their low thermal conductivity and high chemical reactivity with cutting tool materials. This book presents solutions to enhance machinability in titanium-based alloys and serves as a useful reference to professionals and researchers in aerospace, automotive and biomedical fields.

  12. Occupational radiation risks in conveyance of bulk phosphate and potash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grof, Y.; Even, O.; Schlesinger, T.; Margaliot, M.

    1996-01-01

    The issue of occupational ionizing radiation risks encountered in the conveyance and storage of Phosphates and Potash as loose cargo got very minor attention from the national health and occupational safety authorities in the world. In Israel, the Phosphates include an average 100- 150 ppm of Uranium in equilibrium with its daughters, while in Phosphates produced in most other countries the inaction reaches regularly only few ppm up to 50 ppm. Because of the high content of the Uranium in the Phosphate in Israel we must take into consideration the radiological implications involved in the handling of this mineral. The radiological implications of handling Potash are less significant but can not be neglected as we demonstrate bellow In this presentation we will estimate the occupational radiological risks involved in the storing and transportation of Phosphate and Potash. Note, that the main risk in working with Phosphate and Potash is the risk from the dust itself (authors)

  13. Occupational radiation risks in conveyance of bulk phosphate and potash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grof, Y; Even, O; Schlesinger, T; Margaliot, M [Israel Atomic Energy Commission, Yavne (Israel). Soreq Nuclear Research Center

    1996-12-01

    The issue of occupational ionizing radiation risks encountered in the conveyance and storage of Phosphates and Potash as loose cargo got very minor attention from the national health and occupational safety authorities in the world. In Israel, the Phosphates include an average 100- 150 ppm of Uranium in equilibrium with its daughters, while in Phosphates produced in most other countries the inaction reaches regularly only few ppm up to 50 ppm. Because of the high content of the Uranium in the Phosphate in Israel we must take into consideration the radiological implications involved in the handling of this mineral. The radiological implications of handling Potash are less significant but can not be neglected as we demonstrate bellow In this presentation we will estimate the occupational radiological risks involved in the storing and transportation of Phosphate and Potash. Note, that the main risk in working with Phosphate and Potash is the risk from the dust itself (authors).

  14. Vitamin E Phosphate Coating Stimulates Bone Deposition in Implant-related Infections in a Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovati, Arianna B; Bottagisio, Marta; Maraldi, Susanna; Violatto, Martina B; Bortolin, Monica; De Vecchi, Elena; Bigini, Paolo; Drago, Lorenzo; Romanò, Carlo L

    2018-06-01

    Implant-related infections are associated with impaired bone healing and osseointegration. In vitro antiadhesive and antibacterial properties and in vivo antiinflammatory effects protecting against bone loss of various formulations of vitamin E have been demonstrated in animal models. However, to the best of our knowledge, no in vivo studies have demonstrated the synergistic activity of vitamin E in preventing bacterial adhesion to orthopaedic implants, thus supporting the bone-implant integration. The purpose of this study was to test whether a vitamin E phosphate coating on titanium implants may be able to reduce (1) the bacterial colonization of prosthetic implants and (2) bone resorption and osteomyelitis in a rat model of Staphylococcus aureus-induced implant-related infection. Twelve rats were bilaterally injected in the femurs with S aureus UAMS-1-Xen40 and implanted with uncoated or vitamin E phosphate-coated titanium Kirschner wires without local or systemic antibiotic prophylaxis. Eight rats represented the uninfected control group. A few hours after surgery, two control and three infected animals died as a result of unexpected complications. With the remaining rats, we assessed the presence of bacterial contamination with qualitative bioluminescence imaging and Gram-positive staining and with quantitative bacterial count. Bone changes in terms of resorption and osteomyelitis were quantitatively analyzed through micro-CT (bone mineral density) and semiquantitatively through histologic scoring systems. Six weeks after implantation, we found only a mild decrease in bacterial count in coated versus uncoated implants (Ti versus controls: mean difference [MD], -3.705; 95% confidence interval [CI], -4.416 to -2.994; p E-treated group compared with uncoated implants (knee joint: MD, -11.88; 95% CI, -16.100 to -7.664; p E-coated nails compared with the uncoated nails. These preliminary findings indicate that vitamin E phosphate implant coatings can exert a

  15. Studies on the Castability of Pure Titanium (Part 3) Influence of casting pressure and sprue diameter on the titanium castability

    OpenAIRE

    YONEDA, TAKANORI; KUROIWA, AKIHIRO; IGARASHI, YOSHIMASA; OHNO, TAKAFUMI; SEKIGUCHI, YUUJI; INOUE, YOSHIHISA; MIGO, SHINYA

    1998-01-01

    We analyzed the external defects of castings with mesh grid patterns with 3 different kinds of phosphate bonded casting molds with 2 parameters (sprue diameter and casting pressure). Castability with pure titanium was affected by the parameters of sprue diameter, and casting pressure with different casting molds. The sprue condition was the most affective casting condition in the all directional pressure type casting machine. In 2 types of casting molds, one was strongly affected by the casti...

  16. Titanium by design: TRIP titanium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Jamie

    Motivated by the prospect of lower cost Ti production processes, new directions in Ti alloy design were explored for naval and automotive applications. Building on the experience of the Steel Research Group at Northwestern University, an analogous design process was taken with titanium. As a new project, essential kinetic databases and models were developed for the design process and used to create a prototype design. Diffusion kinetic models were developed to predict the change in phase compositions and microstructure during heat treatment. Combining a mobility database created in this research with a licensed thermodynamic database, ThermoCalc and DICTRA software was used to model kinetic compositional changes in titanium alloys. Experimental diffusion couples were created and compared to DICTRA simulations to refine mobility parameters in the titanium mobility database. The software and database were able to predict homogenization times and the beta→alpha plate thickening kinetics during cooling in the near-alpha Ti5111 alloy. The results of these models were compared to LEAP microanalysis and found to be in reasonable agreement. Powder metallurgy was explored using SPS at GM R&D to reduce the cost of titanium alloys. Fully dense Ti5111 alloys were produced and achieved similar microstructures to wrought Ti5111. High levels of oxygen in these alloys increased the strength while reducing the ductility. Preliminary Ti5111+Y alloys were created, where yttrium additions successfully gettered excess oxygen to create oxides. However, undesirable large oxides formed, indicating more research is needed into the homogeneous distribution of the yttrium powder to create finer oxides. Principles established in steels were used to optimize the beta phase transformation stability for martensite transformation toughening in titanium alloys. The Olson-Cohen kinetic model is calibrated to shear strains in titanium. A frictional work database is established for common alloying

  17. Phosphate acquisition efficiency and phosphate starvation tolerance ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    3Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, College of Agriculture, Lembucherra, Tripura 799 ... vated in soil like red and lateritic or acid, with low soluble phosphate content. ..... activation of genes involved in the adaptation of Arabidopsis to.

  18. Beach sand mineral industries in India and challenges of value addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patra, R.N.

    2016-01-01

    Beach sand minerals (BSM) are a suite of seven minerals that often occur together in various proportions in the beach sands of coastal India. They are also called heavy minerals as they have densities in the range 3.2 gms/cc to 5.2 gms/cc, which are higher than the sand. Ilmenite, leucoxene and rutile are oxide minerals of titanium metal. Zircon is silicate of zirconium where as silimanite is silicate of aluminum. The titanium, zirconium and thorium bearing minerals are atomic minerals under the atomic energy act 1962 and need no objection from the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) for their mining. Further authorization is necessary from DAE to handle and process monazite as it contains thorium, as it is a prescribed substance under the notification issued under the atomic energy act. Radioactive nature of monazite also mandates obtaining permission from Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) with a view to ensure regulatory compliance with radiological safety. Monazite is processed to produce rare earths, trisodium phosphate (TSP) and thorium compounds.Thorium values are stockpiled in engineered trenches for use in nuclear power program of the country where as rare earths are used for manufacture of high power permanent magnets, energy efficient optical phosphors, metal alloys for battery to store electricity and hydrogen, as additives to glass for imparting special optical properties and myriads of applications in defence and strategic sectors. Rare earths of late have assumed importance as high power rare earths based permanent magnets are used in manufacture of wind mills, MRI machines, magnetic levitated bearings etc, having minimal impact on green house gas generation and use in renewable energy sector. The presentation brings out the limitation of value added product industries in India, the efforts taken by Indian Rare Earths Ltd. (IREL) in developing value added products in the face of technology denial regime and hostile market dynamics. The road map for

  19. A spanish mineral of zirconium and hafnium. Separation of the two elements by liquid-liquid extraction, using tributyl phosphate as chelating agent; Beneficio de un mineral espanol de circonio-hafnio. Separacion de ambos elementos por extraccion liquido-liquido, empleando fosfato de tributilo como agente de quelacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz Sanchez, F; Cruz Castillo, F. de la; Fernandez Cellini, R

    1962-07-01

    The zirconium and Hafnium oxides are obtained from a Spanish mineral of zircon with an average contest of 55% in ZrO{sub 2}-HfO{sub 2}. An alkaline fusion to open the mineral, followed by a purification by crystallization as (Zr O-Hf O)Cl{sub 2} H{sub 2}O or as (Zr-Hf) (SO{sub 4}){sub 2}. 4H{sub 2}O, is used. A discussion of the best experimental conditions for opening the mineral and of the purification method is made. (Author) 45 refs.

  20. Minerals in deserts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.I.

    1982-01-01

    Almost any kind of mineral deposit can occur in desert areas, and the lack of vegetation and soil cover makes finding them easier. Some kinds of deposits, though, are more likely to occur in deserts than elsewhere. Some of these result from processes genetically related to the present desert climate that improved lower grade deposits of ore. One such process, termed secondary enrichment, is most effective in areas with deep water tables, and many low-grade copper, silver, and uranium deposits have been converted into mineable ore by the downward migration and redeposition of soluble metals. In a desert terrane, placer processes are effective whenever running water flowing over steep slopes erodes outcropping ore bodies and transports and concentrates the heavier ore minerals at lower levels, thus converting low-grade or hard-to-mine bedrock deposits into economically workable concentrations. Other kinds of deposits are better preserved in deserts because the lower rainfall at the surface, and the lower volume of flow and the greater depths to groundwater, result in less destruction of soluble ores; deposits of salines and phosphates are the most notable ores affected by these factors. Still other ore deposits are created as a consequence of the arid climate, mostly because the high evaporation rates operating on standing bodies of water produce brines that can lead directly to concentrations of salts and indirectly to secondary minerals, such as zeolites, that are produced by reaction of silicate minerals with saline waters

  1. Deposit model for heavy-mineral sands in coastal environments: Chapter L in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Fey, David L.; Shah, Anjana K.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Hoefen, Todd M.

    2014-01-01

    This report provides a descriptive model of heavy-mineral sands, which are sedimentary deposits of dense minerals that accumulate with sand, silt, and clay in coastal environments, locally forming economic concentrations of the heavy minerals. This deposit type is the main source of titanium feedstock for the titanium dioxide (TiO2) pigments industry, through recovery of the minerals ilmenite (Fe2+TiO3), rutile (TiO2), and leucoxene (an alteration product of ilmenite). Heavy-mineral sands are also the principal source of zircon (ZrSiO4) and its zirconium oxide; zircon is often recovered as a coproduct. Other heavy minerals produced as coproducts from some deposits are sillimanite/kyanite, staurolite, monazite, and garnet. Monazite [(Ce,La,Nd,Th)PO4] is a source of rare earth elements as well as thorium, which is used in thorium-based nuclear power under development in India and elsewhere.

  2. Bacterial formation of phosphatic laminites off Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arning, E T; Birgel, D; Brunner, B; Peckmann, J

    2009-06-01

    Authigenic phosphatic laminites enclosed in phosphorite crusts from the shelf off Peru (10 degrees 01' S and 10 degrees 24' S) consist of carbonate fluorapatite layers, which contain abundant sulfide minerals including pyrite (FeS(2)) and sphalerite (ZnS). Low delta(34)S(pyrite) values (average -28.8 per thousand) agree with bacterial sulfate reduction and subsequent pyrite formation. Stable sulfur isotopic compositions of sulfate bound in carbonate fluorapatite are lower than that of sulfate from ambient sea water, suggesting bacterial reoxidation of sulfide by sulfide-oxidizing bacteria. The release of phosphorus and subsequent formation of the autochthonous phosphatic laminites are apparently caused by the activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria and associated sulfide-oxidizing bacteria. Following an extraction-phosphorite dissolution-extraction procedure, molecular fossils of sulfate-reducing bacteria (mono-O-alkyl glycerol ethers, di-O-alkyl glycerol ethers, as well as the short-chain branched fatty acids i/ai-C(15:0), i/ai-C(17:0) and 10MeC(16:0)) are found to be among the most abundant compounds. The fact that these molecular fossils of sulfate-reducing bacteria are distinctly more abundant after dissolution of the phosphatic laminite reveals that the lipids are tightly bound to the mineral lattice of carbonate fluorapatite. Moreover, compared with the autochthonous laminite, molecular fossils of sulfate-reducing bacteria are: (1) significantly less abundant and (2) not as tightly bound to the mineral lattice in the other, allochthonous facies of the Peruvian crusts consisting of phosphatic coated grains. These observations confirm the importance of sulfate-reducing bacteria in the formation of the phosphatic laminite. Model calculations highlight that organic matter degradation by sulfate-reducing bacteria has the potential to liberate sufficient phosphorus for phosphogenesis.

  3. Atomic structure of intracellular amorphous calcium phosphate deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, F; Blumenthal, N C; Posner, A S; Becker, G L; Lehninger, A L

    1975-06-01

    The radial distribution function calculated from x-ray diffraction of mineralized cytoplasmic structures isolated from the hepatopancreas of the blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) is very similar to that previously found for synthetic amorphous calcium phosphate. Both types of mineral apparently have only short-range atomic order, represented as a neutral ion cluster of about 10 A in longest dimension, whose probable composition is expressed by the formula Ca9(PO4)6. The minor differences observed are attributed to the presence in the biological mineral of significant amounts of Mg-2+ and ATP. Synthetic amorphous calcium phosphate in contact with a solution containing an amount of ATP equivalent to that of the biological mineral failed to undergo conversion to the thermodynamically more stable hydroxyapatite. The amorphous calcium phosphate of the cytoplasmic mineral granules is similarly stable, and does not undergo conversion to hydroxyapatite, presumably owing to the presence of ATP and Mg-2+, known in inhibitors of the conversion process. The physiological implications of mineral deposits consisting of stabilized calcium phosphate ion clusters are discussed.

  4. Biodegradation of tert-butylphenyl diphenyl phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heitkamp, M.A.; Freeman, J.P.; Cerniglia, C.E.

    1986-01-01

    The biodegradation of tert-butylphenyl diphenyl phosphate (BPDP) was examined in microcosms containing sediment and water from five different ecosystems as part of studies to elucidate the environmental fate of phosphate ester flame retardants. Biodegradation of [ 14 C]BPDP was monitored in the environmental microcosms by measuring the evolution of 14 CO 2 . Over 37% of BPDP was mineralized after 8 weeks in microcosms from an ecosystem which had chronic exposure to agricultural chemicals. In contrast, only 1.7% of BPDP was degraded to 14 CO 2 in samples collected from a noncontaminated site. The exposure concentration of BPDP affected the percentage which was degraded to 14 CO 2 in microcosms from the two most active ecosystems. Mineralization was highest at a concentration of 0.1 mg of BPDP and was inhibited with 10- and 100-fold higher concentrations of BPDP. The authors observed adaptive increases in both microbial populations and phosphoesterase enzymes in some sediments acclimated to BPDP. Chemical analyses of the residues in the microcosms indicated undegraded BPDP and minor amounts of phenol, tert-butylphenol, diphenyl phosphate, and triphenyl phosphate as biodegradation products. These data suggest that the microbial degradation of BPDP results from at least three catabolic processes and is highest when low concentrations of BPDP are exposed to sediment microorganisms of eutrophic ecosystems which have high phosphotri- and diesterase activities and previous exposure to anthropogenic chemicals

  5. Osteoblastic response to pectin nanocoating on titanium surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurzawska, Katarzyna, E-mail: kagu@sund.ku.dk [Research Center for Ageing and Osteoporosis, Departments of Medicine and Diagnostics, Copenhagen University Hospital Glostrup, Ndr. Ringvej 57, 2600 Glostrup (Denmark); Institute of Odontology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Nørre Allé 20, 2200 Copenhagen N (Denmark); Svava, Rikke [Department of Plant Environment Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Thorvaldsensvej 40, 1871 Frederiksberg C (Denmark); Copenhagen Center for Glycomics, Institute for Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 3B, 2200 Copenhagen N (Denmark); Yihua, Yu; Haugshøj, Kenneth Brian [Microtechnology and Surface Analysis, Danish Technological Institute, Gregersensvej 8, 2630 Taastrup (Denmark); Dirscherl, Kai [Dansk Fundamental Metrologi A/S, Matematiktorvet 307, 2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Levery, Steven B. [Copenhagen Center for Glycomics, Institute for Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 3B, 2200 Copenhagen N (Denmark); Byg, Inge [Department of Plant Environment Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Thorvaldsensvej 40, 1871 Frederiksberg C (Denmark); Damager, Iben [Novozymes A/S, Krogshoejvej 36, 2880 Bagsvaerd (Denmark); Nielsen, Martin W. [Department of Systems Biology, Technical University of Denmark, Matematiktorvet, Building 301, Kgs. Lyngby DK-2800 (Denmark); Jørgensen, Bodil [Department of Plant Environment Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Thorvaldsensvej 40, 1871 Frederiksberg C (Denmark); Jørgensen, Niklas Rye [Research Center for Ageing and Osteoporosis, Departments of Medicine and Diagnostics, Copenhagen University Hospital Glostrup, Ndr. Ringvej 57, 2600 Glostrup (Denmark); and others

    2014-10-01

    Osseointegration of titanium implants can be improved by organic and inorganic nanocoating of the surface. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of organic nanocoating of titanium surface with unmodified and modified pectin Rhamnogalacturonan-Is (RG-Is) isolated from potato and apple with respect to surface properties and osteogenic response in osteoblastic cells. Nanocoatings on titanium surfaces were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy, contact angle measurements, atomic force microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The effect of coated RG-Is on cell adhesion, cell viability, bone matrix formation and mineralization was tested using SaOS-2 cells. Nanocoating with pectin RG-Is affected surface properties and in consequence changed the environment for cellular response. The cells cultured on surfaces coated with RG-Is from potato with high content of linear 1.4-linked galactose produced higher level of mineralized matrix compared with control surfaces and surfaces coated with RG-I with low content of linear 1.4-linked galactose. The study showed that the pectin RG-Is nanocoating not only changed chemical and physical titanium surface properties, but also specific coating with RG-Is containing high amount of galactan increased mineralized matrix formation of osteoblastic cells in vitro. - Highlights: • Surface nanocoating with plant-derived Rhamnogalacturonan-I (RG-I) is proposed. • Titanium surface became more hydrophilic after RG-Is nanocoating. • RG-Is with high galactose content resulted in high level of mineralized matrix. • RG-I is a new candidate for improvement of bone healing and osseointegration.

  6. Laboratory scale stabilization of N-springs groundwater strontium-90 using phosphatic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moody, T.E.; Petersen, S.W.; Torne, E.G.; Vlcakova, J.; Higginbotham, J.F.

    1996-09-01

    This document presents the results of a laboratory study designed to evaluate the ability of phosphatic materials to sorb strontium-90 from soil and groundwater. This study was initiated to investigate the potential use of phosphatic materials as permeable geochemical barriers for groundwater contaminated with strontium-90. Groundwater discharges to the Columbia River create potential human food chain hazards; therefore, it is imperative to immobilize the contamination before it reaches the river. Phosphate materials have been proven by various researchers to be chemical compounds that combine with contaminant metals forming into insoluble metal-phosphate minerals. These minerals are stable and insoluble under normal soil conditions

  7. Industrial experience with titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, B.M.; Shoesmith, D.W.

    1997-09-01

    Titanium is a reference material for the construction of waste containers in the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program. It has been in industrial service for over 30 a, often in severe corrosion environments, but it is still considered a relatively exotic material with limited operating history. This has arisen because of the aerospace applications of this material and the misconception that the high strength-to-weight ratio dominates the choice of this material. In fact, the advantage of titanium lies in its high reliability and excellent corrosion resistance. It has a proven record in seawater heat exchanger service and a demonstrated excellent reliability even in polluted water. For many reasons it is the technically correct choice of material for marine applications. In this report we review the industrial service history of titanium, particularly in hot saline environments, and demonstrate that it is a viable waste container material, based upon this industrial service history and operating experience. (author)

  8. Heavy mineral concentration from oil sand tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chachula, F.; Erasmus, N. [Titanium Corp. Inc., Regina, SK (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    This presentation described a unique technique to recover heavy minerals contained in the froth treatment tailings produced by oil sand mining extraction operations in Fort McMurray, Alberta. In an effort to process waste material into valuable products, Titanium Corporation is developing technology to recover heavy minerals, primarily zircon, and a portion of bitumen contained in the final stage of bitumen processing. The process technology is being developed to apply to all mined oil sands operations in the Fort McMurray region. In 2004, Titanium Corporation commissioned a pilot research facility at the Saskatchewan Research Council to test dry oil sands tailings. In 2005, a bulk sampling pilot plant was connected to the fresh oil sands tailings pipeline on-site in Fort McMurray, where washed sands containing heavy minerals were processed at a pilot facility. The mineral content in both deposited tailings and fresh pipeline tailings was assessed. Analysis of fresh tailings on a daily basis identified a constant proportion of zircon and higher levels of associated bitumen compared with the material in the deposited tailings. The process flow sheet design was then modified to remove bitumen from the heavy minerals and concentrate the minerals. A newly modified flotation process was shown to be a viable processing route to recover the heavy minerals from froth treatment tailings. 8 refs., 9 tabs., 12 figs.

  9. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugama, Toshifumi

    1997-01-01

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate .alpha.-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal.

  10. Surface modification of titanium and titanium alloys by ion implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautray, Tapash R; Narayanan, R; Kwon, Tae-Yub; Kim, Kyo-Han

    2010-05-01

    Titanium and titanium alloys are widely used in biomedical devices and components, especially as hard tissue replacements as well as in cardiac and cardiovascular applications, because of their desirable properties, such as relatively low modulus, good fatigue strength, formability, machinability, corrosion resistance, and biocompatibility. However, titanium and its alloys cannot meet all of the clinical requirements. Therefore, to improve the biological, chemical, and mechanical properties, surface modification is often performed. In view of this, the current review casts new light on surface modification of titanium and titanium alloys by ion beam implantation. (c) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Thermogravimetric experiments with titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, L.J.; Longhurst, G.R.

    1991-02-01

    In the process of preparing for pyrophoricity experiments involving uranium, we conducted hydriding and air-exposure experiments on titanium. In these experiments the hydriding reactions and response to air-exposure was generally within the range expected based on work reported by others. One aberrant behavior was a sudden weight gain followed by a significant weight loss. We speculate that loss may be due to hydrogen evolution from the TiH 2 resulting from local heating by oxidation reactions. We verified that titanium is not pyrophoric at temperatures less than 750 degree C. 18 refs. 1 fig

  12. Phosphate application to firing range soils for Pb immobilization: The unclear role of phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrysochoou, Maria; Dermatas, Dimitris; Grubb, Dennis G.

    2007-01-01

    Phosphate treatment has emerged as a widely accepted approach to immobilize Pb in contaminated soils and waste media, relying on the formation of the highly insoluble mineral pyromorphite as solubility-controlling phase for Pb. As such, phosphate treatment has been proposed as a Best Management Practice (BMP) for firing ranges where Pb occurs in its metallic forms and several other phases (carbonates, oxides). While pyromorphite thermodynamically has the potential to control Pb solubility at low levels, its formation is kinetically controlled by pH, the solubility of the phosphate source, and the solubility of Pb species. Treatability studies have shown that excess quantities of soluble and acidic phosphate sources, such as phosphoric acid, are necessary for successful in situ treatment. Even under these conditions, Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS), the only reliable method to identify and quantify Pb speciation, showed that Pb conversion to pyromorphite in in situ treated soils was less than 45% after 32 months. Furthermore, the use of lime (CaO) to restore soil pH in acidified soil treatments inhibited further conversion. Additionally, phosphate treatment is known to reduce bioavailability through pyromorphite formation in the intestinal tract, and the phytoaccumulation of Pb; both desirable effects for Pb-impacted areas. Given the costs of phosphate treatment, the use of biogenic phosphate sources, such as bone meal, may be a more environmentally sustainable approach toward this end. In the many studies focusing on phosphate treatment, the attendant P leaching and eutrophication have been largely overlooked, along with other issues such as the enhanced leaching of oxyanionic contaminants, such as Se, As and W. The success and sustainability of applying phosphate as a BMP in firing range soils therefore remain questionable

  13. Niger Republic Mineral Planning : Part IV - first volume : Main mineral substances specific study and their geological context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franconi, Antoine; Joo', Julien; Zibo, Idde

    1981-01-01

    This volume contains the detailed study of mineral substances industrially exploited to date : uranium, coal, non metallic building materials and public activities, and non conventionally exploited substances, that are : tin, columbite-tantalite, tungsten, gold, phosphates and evaporates [fr

  14. Effect of surface treatment of titanium posts on the tensile bond strength

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmage, P; Sohn, J; Ozcan, M; Nergiz, [No Value

    Objectives. Retention of composite resins to metal can be improved when metal surfaces are conditioned. The purpose of this investigation was to investigate the effect of two conditioning treatments on the tensile bond strength of four resin-based luting cements and zinc phosphate cement to titanium

  15. Microstructure and osteoblast response of gradient bioceramic coating on titanium alloy fabricated by laser cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Min; Fan Ding; Li Xiukun; Li Wenfei; Liu Qibin; Zhang Jianbin

    2008-01-01

    To construct a bioactive interface between metal implant and the surrounding bone tissue, the gradient calcium phosphate bioceramic coating on titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) was designed and fabricated by laser cladding. The results demonstrated that the gradient bioceramic coating was metallurgically bonded to the titanium alloy substrate. The appearance of hydroxyapatite and β-tricalcium phosphate indicated that the bioactive phases were synthesized on the surface of coating. The microhardness gradually decreased from the coating to substrate, which could help stress relaxation between coating and bone tissue. Furthermore, the methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay of cell proliferation revealed that the laser-cladded bioceramic coating had more favorable osteoblast response compared with the surface of untreated titanium alloy substrate

  16. Microstructure and osteoblast response of gradient bioceramic coating on titanium alloy fabricated by laser cladding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng Min [State Key Laboratory of Gansu Advanced Non-ferrous Metal Materials, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou 730050 (China)], E-mail: zhminmin@sina.com; Fan Ding; Li Xiukun [State Key Laboratory of Gansu Advanced Non-ferrous Metal Materials, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou 730050 (China); Li Wenfei; Liu Qibin [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Guizhou University, Guiyang 550003 (China); Zhang Jianbin [State Key Laboratory of Gansu Advanced Non-ferrous Metal Materials, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou 730050 (China)

    2008-11-15

    To construct a bioactive interface between metal implant and the surrounding bone tissue, the gradient calcium phosphate bioceramic coating on titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) was designed and fabricated by laser cladding. The results demonstrated that the gradient bioceramic coating was metallurgically bonded to the titanium alloy substrate. The appearance of hydroxyapatite and {beta}-tricalcium phosphate indicated that the bioactive phases were synthesized on the surface of coating. The microhardness gradually decreased from the coating to substrate, which could help stress relaxation between coating and bone tissue. Furthermore, the methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay of cell proliferation revealed that the laser-cladded bioceramic coating had more favorable osteoblast response compared with the surface of untreated titanium alloy substrate.

  17. Increased serum phosphate concentrations in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease treated with diuretics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravaca, Francisco; García-Pino, Guadalupe; Martínez-Gallardo, Rocío; Ferreira-Morong, Flavio; Luna, Enrique; Alvarado, Raúl; Ruiz-Donoso, Enrique; Chávez, Edgar

    2013-01-01

    Serum phosphate concentrations usually show great variability in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (ACKD) not on dialysis. Diuretics treatment can have an influence over the severity of mineral-bone metabolism alterations related to ACKD, but their effect on serum phosphate levels is less known. This study aims to determine whether diuretics are independently associated with serum phosphate levels, and to investigate the mechanisms by which diuretics may affect phosphate metabolism. 429 Caucasian patients with CKD not on dialysis were included in this cross-sectional study. In addition to conventional serum biochemical measures, the following parameters of renal phosphate excretion were assessed: 24-hours urinary phosphate excretion, tubular maximum phosphate reabsorption (TmP), and fractional excretion of phosphate (FEP). 58% of patients were on treatment with diuretics. Patients on diuretics showed significantly higher mean serum phosphate concentration (4.78 ± 1.23 vs. 4.24 ± 1.04 mg/dl; Pdiuretics. By multivariate linear and logistic regression, significant associations between diuretics and serum phosphate concentrations or hyperphosphataemia remained after adjustment for potential confounding variables. In patients with the highest phosphate load adjusted to kidney function, those treated with diuretics showed significantly lower FEP than those untreated with diuretics. Treatment with diuretics is associated with increased serum phosphate concentrations in patients with ACKD. Diuretics may indirectly interfere with the maximum renal compensatory capacity to excrete phosphate. Diuretics should be considered in the studies linking the relationship between serum phosphate concentrations and cardiovascular alterations in patients with CKD.

  18. Titanium and zirconium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinard Legry, G.

    1994-01-01

    Titanium and zirconium pure and base alloys are protected by an oxide film with anionic vacancies which gives a very good resistance to corrosion in oxidizing medium, in some ph ranges. Results of pitting and crevice corrosion are given for Cl - , Br - , I - ions concentration with temperature and ph dependence, also with oxygenated ions effect. (A.B.). 32 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  19. Proteoliposomes as matrix vesicles' biomimetics to study the initiation of skeletal mineralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M.S. Simão

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available During the process of endochondral bone formation, chondrocytes and osteoblasts mineralize their extracellular matrix by promoting the formation of hydroxyapatite (HA seed crystals in the sheltered interior of membrane-limited matrix vesicles (MVs. Ion transporters control the availability of phosphate and calcium needed for HA deposition. The lipidic microenvironment in which MV-associated enzymes and transporters function plays a crucial physiological role and must be taken into account when attempting to elucidate their interplay during the initiation of biomineralization. In this short mini-review, we discuss the potential use of proteoliposome systems as chondrocyte- and osteoblast-derived MVs biomimetics, as a means of reconstituting a phospholipid microenvironment in a manner that recapitulates the native functional MV microenvironment. Such a system can be used to elucidate the interplay of MV enzymes during catalysis of biomineralization substrates and in modulating in vitro calcification. As such, the enzymatic defects associated with disease-causing mutations in MV enzymes could be studied in an artificial vesicular environment that better mimics their in vivo biological milieu. These artificial systems could also be used for the screening of small molecule compounds able to modulate the activity of MV enzymes for potential therapeutic uses. Such a nanovesicular system could also prove useful for the repair/treatment of craniofacial and other skeletal defects and to facilitate the mineralization of titanium-based tooth implants.

  20. Oxygen Extraction from Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscatello, Tony

    2017-01-01

    Oxygen, whether used as part of rocket bipropellant or for astronaut life support, is a key consumable for space exploration and commercialization. In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) has been proposed many times as a method for making space exploration more cost effective and sustainable. On planetary and asteroid surfaces the presence of minerals in the regolith that contain oxygen is very common, making them a potential oxygen resource. The majority of research and development for oxygen extraction from minerals has been for lunar regolith although this work would generally be applicable to regolith at other locations in space. This presentation will briefly survey the major methods investigated for oxygen extraction from regolith with a focus on the current status of those methods and possible future development pathways. The major oxygen production methods are (1) extraction from lunar ilmenite (FeTiO3) with either hydrogen or carbon monoxide, (2) carbothermal reduction of iron oxides and silicates with methane, and (3) molten regolith electrolysis (MRE) of silicates. Methods (1) and (2) have also been investigated in a two-step process using CO reduction and carbon deposition followed by carbothermal reduction. All three processes have byproducts that could also be used as resources. Hydrogen or carbon monoxide reduction produce iron metal in small amounts that could potentially be used as construction material. Carbothermal reduction also makes iron metal along with silicon metal and a glass with possible applications. MRE produces iron, silicon, aluminum, titanium, and glass, with higher silicon yields than carbothermal reduction. On Mars and possibly on some moons and asteroids, water is present in the form of mineral hydrates, hydroxyl (-OH) groups on minerals, andor water adsorbed on mineral surfaces. Heating of the minerals can liberate the water which can be electrolyzed to provide a source of oxygen as well. The chemistry of these processes, some key

  1. Effect of Nanosheet Surface Structure of Titanium Alloys on Cell Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Komasa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Titanium alloys are the most frequently used dental implants partly because of the protective oxide coating that spontaneously forms on their surface. We fabricated titania nanosheet (TNS structures on titanium surfaces by NaOH treatment to improve bone differentiation on titanium alloy implants. The cellular response to TNSs on Ti6Al4V alloy was investigated, and the ability of the modified surfaces to affect osteogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow cells and increase the success rate of titanium implants was evaluated. The nanoscale network structures formed by alkali etching markedly enhanced the functions of cell adhesion and osteogenesis-related gene expression of rat bone marrow cells. Other cell behaviors, such as proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity, osteocalcin deposition, and mineralization, were also markedly increased in TNS-modified Ti6Al4V. Our results suggest that titanium implants modified with nanostructures promote osteogenic differentiation, which may improve the biointegration of these implants into the alveolar bone.

  2. Bone response adjacent to calcium phosphate electrostatic spray deposition coated implants: an experimental study in goats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manders, P.J.D.; Wolke, J.G.C.; Jansen, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A new technique to deposit calcium phosphate (CaP) coatings onto titanium substrates has been developed recently. This electrostatic spray deposition (ESD) technique seems to be very promising. It appears to have clinical advantages such as an inexpensive and simple set-up, high

  3. Effect of amorphous fluorinated coatings on photocatalytic properties of anodized titanium surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persico, Federico [Dipartimento di Chimica, Materiali e Ingegneria Chimica “Giulio Natta”, Politecnico di Milano, via Mancinelli 7, 20131, Milano (Italy); Consorzio Interuniversitario Nazionale per la Scienza e Tecnologia dei Materiali, Via G. Giusti, 9, 50121 Firenze (Italy); Sansotera, Maurizio, E-mail: maurizio.sansotera@polimi.it [Dipartimento di Chimica, Materiali e Ingegneria Chimica “Giulio Natta”, Politecnico di Milano, via Mancinelli 7, 20131, Milano (Italy); Consorzio Interuniversitario Nazionale per la Scienza e Tecnologia dei Materiali, Via G. Giusti, 9, 50121 Firenze (Italy); Diamanti, Maria Vittoria [Dipartimento di Chimica, Materiali e Ingegneria Chimica “Giulio Natta”, Politecnico di Milano, via Mancinelli 7, 20131, Milano (Italy); Magagnin, Luca; Venturini, Francesco; Navarrini, Walter [Dipartimento di Chimica, Materiali e Ingegneria Chimica “Giulio Natta”, Politecnico di Milano, via Mancinelli 7, 20131, Milano (Italy); Consorzio Interuniversitario Nazionale per la Scienza e Tecnologia dei Materiali, Via G. Giusti, 9, 50121 Firenze (Italy)

    2013-10-31

    The photocatalytic activity promoted by anodized titanium surfaces coated with different amorphous perfluoropolymers was evaluated. A copolymer between tetrafluoroethylene and perfluoro-4-trifluoromethoxy-1,3-dioxole and two perfluoropolyethers containing ammonium phosphate and triethoxysilane functionalities, respectively, were tested as coating materials. These coatings revealed good adhesion to the anodized titanium substrate and conferred to it both hydrophobicity and oleophobicity. The photocatalytic activity of the coating on anodized titanium was evaluated by monitoring the degradation of stearic acid via Infrared spectroscopy. The degradation rate of stearic acid was reduced but not set to zero by the presence of the fluorinated coatings, leading to the development of advanced functional coatings. The morphological variations of the coatings as a result of photocatalysis were also determined by atomic force microscopy. - Highlights: • Coated anodized titanium surfaces show a decreased wettability. • Evaluation of the stability of perfluorinated coatings towards photocatalysis. • Amorphous perfluorinated coatings do not hinder photocatalytic activity.

  4. Proton induced luminescence of minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvo del Castillo, H.; Millan, A.; Calderon, T. [Depto. Geologia y Geoquimica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Ctra. Colmenar, km. 15, 28049, Madrid (Spain); Beneitez, P. [Departamento Quimica Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain); Ruvalcaba S, J.L. [lFUNAM, Circuito de la lnvestigacion Cientifica s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents a summary of Ionoluminescence (IL) for several minerals commonly found in jewellery pieces and/or artefacts of historical interest. Samples including silicates and non-silicates (native elements, halide, oxide, carbonate and phosphate groups) have been excited with a 1.8 MeV proton beam, and IL spectra in the range of 200- 900 nm have been collected for each one using a fiber optic coupled spectrometer. Light emissions have been related to Cr{sup 3+}, Mn{sup 2+} and Pr{sup 3+} ions, as well as intrinsic defects in these minerals. Results show the potential of IL for impurity characterization with high detection limits, local symmetry studies, and the study of the origin of minerals. (Author)

  5. Bone mineralisation in premature infants cannot be predicted from serum alkaline phosphatase or serum phosphate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faerk, J; Peitersen, Birgit; Petersen, S

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The bone mineral content of premature infants at term is lower than in mature infants at the same postconceptional age. Serum alkaline phosphatase and serum phosphate are often used as indicators of bone mineralisation. OBJECTIVE: To analyse the association between bone mineral content...... content was measured at term (mean gestational age 41 weeks) by dual energy x ray absorptiometry and corrected for body size. RESULTS: Serum alkaline phosphatase was significantly negatively associated with serum phosphate (p mineral content was not associated with mean serum alkaline...... and serum alkaline phosphatase and serum phosphate. METHODS: Serum alkaline phosphatase and phosphate were measured at weekly intervals during admission in 108 premature infants of gestational age below 32 weeks (mean (SD) gestational age 29 (2) weeks; mean (SD) birth weight 1129 (279) g). Bone mineral...

  6. Influence of two barrier membranes on staged guided bone regeneration and osseointegration of titanium implants in dogs: part 1. Augmentation using bone graft substitutes and autogenous bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Frank; Mihatovic, Ilja; Golubovic, Vladimir; Hegewald, Andrea; Becker, Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    To assess the influence of two barrier membranes and two bone graft substitutes mixed with autogenous bone (AB) on staged guided bone regeneration and osseointegration of titanium implants in dogs. Four saddle-type defects each were prepared in the upper jaw of six fox hounds and randomly filled with a natural bone mineral (NBM)+AB and a biphasic calcium phosphate (SBC)+AB and allocated to either an in situ gelling polyethylene glycol (PEG) or a collagen membrane (CM). At 8 weeks, modSLA titanium implants were inserted and left to heal in a submerged position. At 8+2 weeks, dissected blocks were processed for histomorphometrical analysis (e.g., treated area [TA], bone-to-implant contact [BIC]). The mean TA values (mm(2) ) and BIC values (%) tended to be higher in the PEG groups(TA: NBM+AB [10.4 ± 2.5]; SBC+AB [10.4 ± 5.8]/BIC: NBM+AB [86.4 ± 20.1]; SBC+AB [80.1 ± 21.5]) when compared with the corresponding CM groups (TA: NBM+AB [9.7 ± 4.8]; SBC+AB [7.8 ± 4.3]/BIC: NBM+AB [71.3 ± 20.8]; SBC+AB [72.4 ± 20.3]). A significant difference was observed for the mean TA values in the SBC+AB groups. It was concluded that all augmentation procedures investigated supported bone regeneration and staged osseointegration of modSLA titanium implants. However, the application of PEG may be associated with increased TA values. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. Sorption of phosphate onto calcite; results from batch experiments and surface complexation modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sø, Helle Ugilt; Postma, Dieke; Jakobsen, Rasmus

    2011-01-01

    The adsorption of phosphate onto calcite was studied in a series of batch experiments. To avoid the precipitation of phosphate-containing minerals the experiments were conducted using a short reaction time (3h) and low concentrations of phosphate (⩽50μM). Sorption of phosphate on calcite was stud......The adsorption of phosphate onto calcite was studied in a series of batch experiments. To avoid the precipitation of phosphate-containing minerals the experiments were conducted using a short reaction time (3h) and low concentrations of phosphate (⩽50μM). Sorption of phosphate on calcite...... of a high degree of super-saturation with respect to hydroxyapatite (SIHAP⩽7.83). The amount of phosphate adsorbed varied with the solution composition, in particular, adsorption increases as the CO32- activity decreases (at constant pH) and as pH increases (at constant CO32- activity). The primary effect...... of ionic strength on phosphate sorption onto calcite is its influence on the activity of the different aqueous phosphate species. The experimental results were modeled satisfactorily using the constant capacitance model with >CaPO4Ca0 and either >CaHPO4Ca+ or >CaHPO4- as the adsorbed surface species...

  8. Aggregate and Mineral Resources - Minerals

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — This point occurrence data set represents the current mineral and selected energy resources of Utah. The data set coordinates were derived from USGS topographic maps...

  9. Mechanochemistry of titanium oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veljković Ivana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanochemistry represents an alternative route in synthesis of nanomaterials. Mechanochemical routes are attractive because of their simplicity, flexibility, and ability to prepare materials by solid state reactions at room temperature. The aim of this work is the mechanochemical synthesis of nanostructured titanium oxides of different composition starting from mixtures of Ti and TiO2, TiO and TiO2 or Ti2O3 and TiO2. Emphasis is on the Magneli phases Ti4O7 and Ti5O9 because their mixture is commercially known as EBONEX material. The materials prepared were characterized by XRPD, TG/DTA analysis, SEM and optical microscopy. Titanium monoxide and several Magneli oxides, Ti4O7, Ti5O9 and Ti6O11, are successfully prepared. The results are very interesting because the EBONEX materials were prepared at lower than usual temperature, which would decrease the effective cost of production.

  10. Phosphine from rocks: mechanically driven phosphate reduction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glindemann, Dietmar; Edwards, Marc; Morgenstern, Peter

    2005-11-01

    Natural rock and mineral samples released trace amounts of phosphine during dissolution in mineral acid. An order of magnitude more phosphine (average 1982 ng PH3 kg rock and maximum 6673 ng PH3/kg rock) is released from pulverized rock samples (basalt, gneiss, granite, clay, quartzitic pebbles, or marble). Phosphine was correlated to hardness and mechanical pulverization energy of the rocks. The yield of PH3 ranged from 0 to 0.01% of the total P content of the dissolved rock. Strong circumstantial evidence was gathered for reduction of phosphate in the rock via mechanochemical or "tribochemical" weathering at quartz and calcite/marble inclusions. Artificial reproduction of this mechanism by rubbing quartz rods coated with apatite-phosphate to the point of visible triboluminescence, led to detection of more than 70 000 ng/kg PH3 in the apatite. This reaction pathway may be considered a mechano-chemical analogue of phosphate reduction from lightning or electrical discharges and may contribute to phosphine production via tectonic forces and processing of rocks.

  11. Industrial experience with titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, B M; Shoesmith, D W

    1997-09-01

    Titanium is a reference material for the construction of waste containers in the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program. It has been in industrial service for over 30 a, often in severe corrosion environments, but it is still considered a relatively exotic material with limited operating history. This has arisen because of the aerospace applications of this material and the misconception that the high strength-to-weight ratio dominates the choice of this material. In fact, the advantage of titanium lies in its high reliability and excellent corrosion resistance. It has a proven record in seawater heat exchanger service and a demonstrated excellent reliability even in polluted water. For many reasons it is the technically correct choice of material for marine applications. In this report we review the industrial service history of titanium, particularly in hot saline environments, and demonstrate that it is a viable waste container material, based upon this industrial service history and operating experience. (author) 83 refs., 17 tabs., 3 figs.

  12. Advances in titanium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seagle, S.R.; Wood, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    As described above, new developments in the aerospace market are focusing on higher temperature alloys for jet engine components and higher strength/toughness alloys for airframe applications. Conventional alloys for engines have reached their maximum useful temperature of about 1000 F (540 C) because of oxidation resistance requirements. IMI 834 and Ti-1100 advanced alloys show some improvement, however, the major improvement appears to be in gamma titanium aluminides which could extend the maximum usage temperature to about 1500 F (815 C). This puts titanium alloys in a competitive position to replace nickel-base superalloys. Advanced airframe alloys such as Ti-6-22-22S, Beta C TM , Ti-15-333 and Ti-10-2-3 with higher strength than conventional Ti-6-4 are being utilized in significantly greater quantities, both in military and commercial applications. These alloys offer improved strength with little or no sacrifice in toughness and improved formability, in some cases. Advanced industrial alloys are being developed for improved corrosion resistance in more reducing and higher temperature environments such as those encountered in sour gas wells. Efforts are focused on small precious metal additions to optimize corrosion performance for specific applications at a modest increase in cost. As these applications develop, the usage of titanium alloys for industrial markets should steadily increase to approach that for aerospace applications. (orig.)

  13. Amorphous calcium phosphate and its application in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Wei-bin

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Amorphous Calcium Phosphate (ACP is an essential mineral phase formed in mineralized tissues and the first commercial product as artificial hydroxyapatite. ACP is unique among all forms of calcium phosphates in that it lacks long-range, periodic atomic scale order of crystalline calcium phosphates. The X-ray diffraction pattern is broad and diffuse with a maximum at 25 degree 2 theta, and no other different features compared with well-crystallized hydroxyapatite. Under electron microscopy, its morphological form is shown as small spheroidal particles in the scale of tenths nanometer. In aqueous media, ACP is easily transformed into crystalline phases such as octacalcium phosphate and apatite due to the growing of microcrystalline. It has been demonstrated that ACP has better osteoconductivity and biodegradability than tricalcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite in vivo. Moreover, it can increase alkaline phosphatase activities of mesoblasts, enhance cell proliferation and promote cell adhesion. The unique role of ACP during the formation of mineralized tissues makes it a promising candidate material for tissue repair and regeneration. ACP may also be a potential remineralizing agent in dental applications. Recently developed ACP-filled bioactive composites are believed to be effective anti-demineralizing/remineralizing agents for the preservation and repair of tooth structures. This review provides an overview of the development, structure, chemical composition, morphological characterization, phase transformation and biomedical application of ACP in dentistry.

  14. Titanium fasteners. [for aircraft industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    Titanium fasteners are used in large quantities throughout the aircraft industry. Most of this usage is in aluminum structure; where titanium structure exists, titanium fasteners are logically used as well. Titanium fasteners offer potential weight savings to the designer at a cost of approximately $30 per pound of weight saved. Proper and least cost usage must take into consideration type of fastener per application, galvanic couples and installation characteristics of protective coatings, cosmetic appearance, paint adhesion, installation forces and methods available and fatigue performance required.

  15. Joining of Gamma Titanium Aluminides

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baeslack, William

    2002-01-01

    .... Although organized and presented by joining process, many of the observations made and relationships developed, particularly those regarding the weldability and welding metallurgy of gamma titanium...

  16. Fumarolic minerals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balic Zunic, Tonci; Garavelli, Anna; Jakobsson, Sveinn Peter

    2016-01-01

    The fumarolic mineralogy of the Icelandic active volcanoes, the Tyrrhenian volcanic belt (Italy) and the Aegean active arc (Greece) is investigated, and literature data surveyed in order to define the characteristics of the European fumarolic systems. They show broad diversity of mineral...... associations, with Vesuvius and Vulcano being also among the world localities richest in mineral species. Volcanic systems, which show recession over a longer period, show fumarolic development from the hightemperature alkaline halide/sulphate, calcic sulphate or sulphidic parageneses, synchronous...... with or immediately following the eruptions, through mediumtemperature ammonium minerals, metal chlorides, or fluoride associations to the late low-temperature paragenesis dominated by sulphur, gypsum, alunogen, and other hydrous sulphates. The situation can be different in the systems that are not recessing but show...

  17. Recent revisions of phosphate rock reserves and resources: a critique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edixhoven, J.D.; Gupta, J.; Savenije, H.H.G.

    2014-01-01

    Phosphate rock (PR) is a finite mineral indispensable for fertilizer production, while P (phosphorus) is a major pollutant if applied or discharged in excess, causing widespread eutrophication (Carpenter and Bennet, 2011). High-grade PR is obtained from deposits which took millions of years to form

  18. Recent revisions of phosphate rock reserves and resources : A critique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edixhoven, J.D.; Gupta, J.; Savenije, H.H.G.

    2014-01-01

    Phosphate rock (PR) is a finite mineral indispensable for fertilizer production, while P (phosphorus) is a major pollutant if applied or discharged in excess, causing widespread eutrophication (Carpenter and Bennet, 2011). High-grade PR is obtained from deposits which took millions of years to form

  19. Reduced CSF leak in complete calvarial reconstructions of microvascular decompression craniectomies using calcium phosphate cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eseonu, Chikezie I; Goodwin, C Rory; Zhou, Xin; Theodros, Debebe; Bender, Matthew T; Mathios, Dimitrios; Bettegowda, Chetan; Lim, Michael

    2015-12-01

    Calcium phosphate cement provides a biomaterial that can be used for calvarial reconstruction in a retrosigmoid craniectomy for microvascular decompression (MVD). This study evaluates the outcomes of postoperative CSF leak and wound infection for patients undergoing a complete cranioplasty using calcium phosphate cement versus incomplete cranioplasty using polyethylene titanium mesh following a retrosigmoid craniectomy for MVD. The authors evaluated 211 cases involving patients who underwent first-time retrosigmoid craniectomies performed by a single attending surgeon fortrigeminal neuralgia from October 2008 to June 2014. From this patient population, 111 patients underwent calvarial reconstruction after retrosigmoid craniectomy using polyethylene titanium mesh, and 100 patients had reconstructions using calcium phosphate cement. A Pearson's chi-square test was used to compare postoperative complications of CSF leak and wound infection in these 2 types of cranioplasties. The polyethylene titanium mesh group included 5 patients (4.5%) with postoperative CSF leak or pseudomeningocele and 3 patients (2.7%) with wound infections. In the calcium phosphate cement group, no patients had a CSF leak, and 2 patients (2%) had wound infections. This represented a statistically significant reduction of postoperative CSF leak in patients who underwent calcium phosphate reconstructions of their calvarial defect compared with those who underwent polyethylene titanium mesh reconstructions (p = 0.03). No significant difference was seen between the 2 groups in the number of patients with postoperative wound infections. Calcium phosphate cement provides a viable alternative biomaterial for calvarial reconstruction of retrosigmoid craniectomy defects in patients who have an MVD. The application of this material provides a biocompatible barrier that reduces the incidence of postoperative CSF leaks.

  20. Mineral sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents an outlook of the Australian mineral sand industry and covers the major operators. It is shown that conscious of an environmentally minded public, the Australian miners have led the way in the rehabilitation of mined areas. Moreover the advanced ceramic industry is generating exciting new perspectives for zircon producers and there is a noticeable growth in the electronic market for rare earths, but in long term the success may depend as much on environmental management and communication skills as on mining and processing skills

  1. Chemical changes of titanium and titanium dioxide under electron bombardment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romins Brasca

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The electron induced effect on the first stages of the titanium (Ti0 oxidation and titanium dioxide (Ti4+ chemical reduction processes has been studied by means of Auger electron spectroscopy. Using factor analysis we found that both processes are characterized by the appearance of an intermediate Ti oxidation state, Ti2O3 (Ti3+.

  2. Plasmonic Titanium Nitride Nanostructures via Nitridation of Nanopatterned Titanium Dioxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guler, Urcan; Zemlyanov, Dmitry; Kim, Jongbum

    2017-01-01

    Plasmonic titanium nitride nanostructures are obtained via nitridation of titanium dioxide. Nanoparticles acquired a cubic shape with sharper edges following the rock-salt crystalline structure of TiN. Lattice constant of the resulting TiN nanoparticles matched well with the tabulated data. Energy...

  3. Infrared spectroscopy of different phosphates structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastrzębski, W; Sitarz, M; Rokita, M; Bułat, K

    2011-08-15

    Infrared (IR) spectroscopic studies of mineral and synthetic phosphates have been presented. The interpretation of the spectra has been preceded by the isolated [PO(4)](3-) tetrahedron spectra analyse. The K(3)PO(4) saturated aqueous solution was measured in the special cell for liquids. The obtained IR results have been compared with the theoretical number of IR-active modes. The number and positions of the bands due to P-O vibrations have been established. The phase composition of the phosphates has been determined using XRD and IR spectroscopy methods. The influence of non-tetrahedral cations on the shape of the spectra and the positions of bands has been analysed and the crystalline field splitting effect has been discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Characterisation of Phosphate Accumulating Organisms and Techniques for Polyphosphate Detection: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cédric Tarayre

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Phosphate minerals have long been used for the production of phosphorus-based chemicals used in many economic sectors. However, these resources are not renewable and the natural phosphate stocks are decreasing. In this context, the research of new phosphate sources has become necessary. Many types of wastes contain non-negligible phosphate concentrations, such as wastewater. In wastewater treatment plants, phosphorus is eliminated by physicochemical and/or biological techniques. In this latter case, a specific microbiota, phosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs, accumulates phosphate as polyphosphate. This molecule can be considered as an alternative phosphate source, and is directly extracted from wastewater generated by human activities. This review focuses on the techniques which can be applied to enrich and try to isolate these PAOs, and to detect the presence of polyphosphate in microbial cells.

  5. Characteristics productive and meat quality of broiler chickens fed finisher diet without vitamin-mineral supplement or limestone and dicalcium phosphate and submitted to heat stress pre-slaughter Características produtivas e de qualidade de carne de frangos de corte submetidos a dietas de terminação sem suplemento vitamínicomineral ou calcário e fosfato bicálcico e submetidos a estresse térmico pré-abate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Regina Brunelli

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Search mechanisms that can reduce the cost of production of poultry is an important factor in the poultry industry. Thus the objective of this study was to evaluate the removal of vitamin and mineral supplement or limestone and dicalcium phosphate feed during the finishing phase, further of the broilers chickens to heat stress pre-slaughter. Hybro male broiler (n=108 aged 42 days old were evaluated until 49 days old to evaluate the performance, carcass and cuts yield, blood biochemistry and meat quality. The results showed that the removal of vitamin and mineral supplement or limestone and dicalcium phosphate feed during the finishing phase did not impair the performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality, as well as showing a possible mechanism to reduce production costs. While heat stress pre-slaughter provided a poor meat quality of poultry. Buscar mecanismos que possam reduzir o custo de produção das aves, sem reduzir o desempenho e a qualidade do produto final é um importante fator dentro da cadeia avícola. Desta forma, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a retirada do suplemento vitamínico-mineral ou calcário e fosfato bicálcico da ração na fase de acabamento, além de submeter os frangos de corte a estresse térmico pré-abate visando avaliar o desempenho e a qualidade de carne do peito. Foram utilizados 108 frangos de corte machos da linhagem Hybro com 42 dias de idade, que receberam uma ração controle, ração sem suplemento vitamínico-mineral e sem calcário e fosfato bicálcico, dos 42 aos 49 dias de idade. Foram avaliados os dados de desempenho, rendimento de carcaça e cortes, bioquímica do sangue e qualidade de carne. Os resultados mostraram que a retirada do suplemento vitamínico-mineral ou o calcário e o fosfato bicálcico da dieta de terminação não prejudicou o desempenho, características de carcaça e qualidade de carne, mostrando assim como um possível mecanismo para reduzir os custos de produ

  6. Chitosan: collagen sponges. In vitro mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Virginia da C.A.; Silva, Gustavo M.; Plepis, Ana Maria G.

    2011-01-01

    The regeneration of bone tissue is a problem that affects many people and scaffolds for bone tissue growth has been widely studied. The aim of this study was the in vitro mineralization of chitosan, chitosan:native collagen and chitosan:anionic collagen sponges. The sponges were obtained by lyophilization and mineralization was made by soaking the sponges in alternating solutions containing Ca 2+ and PO 4 3- . The mineralization was confirmed by infrared spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray and X-ray diffraction observing the formation of phosphate salts, possibly a carbonated hydroxyapatite since Ca/P=1.80. The degree of mineralization was obtained by thermogravimetry calculating the amount of residue at 750 deg C. The chitosan:anionic collagen sponge showed the highest degree of mineralization probably due to the fact that anionic collagen provides additional sites for interaction with the inorganic phase. (author)

  7. [Bone Cell Biology Assessed by Microscopic Approach. Bone mineralization by ultrastructural imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Tomoka

    2015-10-01

    Bone mineralization can be divided into two phases ; one is primary mineralization associated with osteoblastic bone formation, and the other is secondary mineralization which gradually increases mineral density of bone matrix after the primary mineralization. Primary mineralization is initiated by matrix vesicles synthesized by mature osteoblasts. Crystalline calcium phosphates are nucleated inside these matrix vesicles, and then, get out of them forming spherical mineralized nodule, which can grow more by being supplied with Ca2+ and PO4(3-) (matrix vesicle mineralization). Thereafter, the mineralized nodules make contacts with surrounding collagen fibrils, extending mineralization along with their longitudinal axis from the contact points (collagen mineralization). In this review, the ultrastructural findings on bone mineralization, specially, primary mineralization will be provided.

  8. Physical metallurgy of titanium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collings, E.W.

    1988-01-01

    Researches in electric, magnetic, thermophysical properties of titanium alloys in the wide range of temperatures (from helium upto elevated one), as well as stability of phases in alloys of different types are generalized. Fundamental description of physical properties of binary model alloys is given. Acoustic emission, shape memory and Bauschinger effects, pseudoelasticity, aging and other aspects of physical metallurgy of titanium alloys are considered

  9. Uranium production from phosphates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketzinel, Z.; Folkman, Y.

    1979-05-01

    According to estimates of the world's uranium consumption, exploitation of most rich sources is expected by the 1980's. Forecasts show that the rate of uranium consumption will increase towards the end of the century. It is therefore desirable to exploit poor sources not yet in use. In the near future, the most reasonable source for developing uranium is phosphate rock. Uranium reserves in phosphates are estimated at a few million tons. Production of uranium from phosphates is as a by-product of phosphate rock processing and phosphoric acid production; it will then be possible to save the costs incurred in crushing and dissolving the rock when calculating uranium production costs. Estimates show that the U.S. wastes about 3,000 tons of uranium per annum in phosphoric acid based fertilisers. Studies have also been carried out in France, Yugoslavia and India. In Israel, during the 1950's, a small plant was operated in Haifa by 'Chemical and Phosphates'. Uranium processes have also been developed by linking with the extraction processes at Arad. Currently there is almost no activity on this subject because there are no large phosphoric acid plants which would enable production to take place on a reasonable scale. Discussions are taking place about the installation of a plant for phosphoric acid production utilising the 'wet process', producing 200 to 250,000 tons P 2 O 5 per annum. It is necessary to combine these facilities with uranium production plant. (author)

  10. Titanium for salt water service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadiyar, H.S.; Shibad, P.R.

    1980-01-01

    Titanium has potential as major material of construction in desalination plants, in condensers and heat exchangers, in view of its excellent corrosion resistance to salt water upto at least 120deg C. The advantages of titanium in such applications are brought out. The various specific problems such as pitting, crevice and galvanic corrosion and the preventive methods, for adopting titanium have been discussed. The hydriding problem can be overcome by suitably controlling the operating parameters such as temperature and surface preparation. A case has been made to prove the economic viability of titanium in comparison to Al-brass and Cu-Ni alloy. The future of titanium seems to be very promising in view of the negligible tube failures and outages. (auth.)

  11. Fabrication and in vitro evaluation of the collagen/hyaluronic acid PEM coating crosslinked with functionalized RGD peptide on titanium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying; Luo, Qiaojie; Li, Xiaodong; Zhang, Feng; Zhao, Shifang

    2012-02-01

    Surface modification of titanium (Ti) using biomolecules has attracted much attention recently. In this study, a new strategy has been employed to construct a stable and bioactive coating on Ti. To this end, a derivative of hyaluronic acid (HA), i.e. HA-GRGDSPC-(SH), was synthesized. The disulfide-crosslinked Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD)-containing collagen/hyaluronic acid polyelectrolyte membrane (PEM) coating was then fabricated on Ti through the alternate deposition of collagen and HA-GRGDSPC-(SH) with five assembly cycles and subsequent crosslinking via converting free sulphydryl groups into disulfide linkages (RGD-CHC-Ti group). The assembly processes for PEM coating and the physicochemical properties of the coating were carefully characterized. The stability of PEM coating in phosphate-buffered saline solution could be adjusted by the crosslinking degree, while its degradation behaviors in the presence of glutathione were glutathione concentration dependent. The adhesion and proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells were significantly enhanced in the RGD-CHC-Ti group. Up-regulated bone specific genes, enhanced alkaline phosphatase activity and osteocalcin production, the increased areas of mineralization were also observed in the RGD-CHC-Ti group. These results indicate that the strategy employed herein may function as an effective way to construct stable, RGD-containing bioactive coatings on Ti. Copyright © 2011 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Hydrothermal minerals

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nath, B.N.

    flux. Circulation of seawater through the oceanic crust and upper mantle gives rise to a complex series of physical and chemical reactions that lead to the 1) formation of seafloor mineral deposits; 2) alteration of oceanic crust; 3) control... temperature in the high-temperature reaction zone near the heat source. Important parameters in determining the high- temperature fluid composition are • pressure, • temperature, • water/rock ratio, • rock composition, • recharge fluid...

  13. Hybrid calcium phosphate coatings for implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malchikhina, Alena I.; Shesterikov, Evgeny V.; Bolbasov, Evgeny N.; Ignatov, Viktor P.; Tverdokhlebov, Sergei I.

    2016-08-01

    Monophasic biomaterials cannot provide all the necessary functions of bones or other calcined tissues. It is necessary to create for cancer patients the multiphase materials with the structure and composition simulating the natural bone. Such materials are classified as hybrid, obtained by a combination of chemically different components. The paper presents the physical, chemical and biological studies of coatings produced by hybrid technologies (HT), which combine primer layer and calcium phosphate (CaP) coating. The first HT type combines the method of vacuum arc titanium primer layer deposition on a stainless steel substrate with the following micro-arc oxidation (MAO) in phosphoric acid solution with addition of calcium compounds to achieve high supersaturated state. MAO CaP coatings feature high porosity (2-8%, pore size 5-7 µm) and surface morphology with the thickness greater than 5 µm. The thickness of Ti primer layer is 5-40 µm. Amorphous MAO CaP coating micro-hardness was measured at maximum normal load Fmax = 300 mN. It was 3.1 ± 0.8 GPa, surface layer elasticity modulus E = 110 ± 20 GPa, roughness Ra = 0.9 ± 0.1 µm, Rz = 7.5 ± 0.2 µm, which is less than the titanium primer layer roughness. Hybrid MAO CaP coating is biocompatible, able to form calcium phosphates from supersaturated body fluid (SBF) solution and also stimulates osteoinduction processes. The second HT type includes the oxide layer formation by thermal oxidation and then CaP target radio frequency magnetron sputtering (RFMS). Oxide-RFMS CaP coating is a thin dense coating with good adhesion to the substrate material, which can be used for metal implants. The RFMS CaP coating has thickness 1.6 ± 0.1 µm and consists of main target elements calcium and phosphorus and Ca/P ratio 2.4. The second HT type can form calcium phosphates from SBF solution. In vivo study shows that hybrid RFMS CaP coating is biocompatible and produces fibrointegration processes.

  14. Osteoblast growth behavior on porous-structure titanium surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Yuan; Ding Siyang; Peng Hui; Lu Shanming; Wang Guoping; Xia Lu; Wang Peizhi

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Micro-arc oxidation technology formed a porous feature on titanium surface. ► This porous surface accelerated adhesion, proliferation and differentiation compared with smooth surface. ► Osteogenesis-related proteins and genes were up regulated by this porous surface. ► It is anticipated that micro-arc oxidation surface could enhance osteoblastic activity and bone regeneration. - Abstract: A bioavailable surface generated by nano-technology could accelerate implant osteointegration, reduce healing time and enable implants to bear early loading. In this study, a nano-porous surface of titanium wafers was modified using micro-arc oxidation technique; surface of smooth titanium was used as control group. Surface characteristic was evaluated by investigating morphology, roughness and hydrophilicity of titanium wafers. In vitro studies, osteoblastic adhesion, proliferation and ALP activity, as well as gene and protein expressions relative to mineralization were assayed. Our results showed that a crater-liked nano-porous surface with greater roughness and better hydrophilicity were fabricated by micro-arc oxidation. It was further indicated that nano-porous surface could enhance adhesion, proliferation and ALP activity of osteoblasts compared with smooth surfaces. In addition, gene and protein expression of collagen-I, osteocalcin and osteopontin were also obviously increased. In summary, micro-arc oxidized techniques could form an irregular nano-porous morphology on implant surface which is favorable to improve osteoblastic function and prospected to be a potent modification of dental implant.

  15. Corrosion resistance of a magnetic stainless steel ion-plated with titanium nitride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai, K; Sawase, T; Matsumura, H; Atsuta, M; Baba, K; Hatada, R

    2000-04-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the corrosion resistance of a titanium nitride (TiN) ion-plated magnetic stainless steel (447J1) for the purpose of applying a magnetic attachment system to implant-supported prostheses made of titanium. The surface hardness of the TiN ion-plated 447J1 alloy with varying TiN thickness was determined prior to the corrosion testing, and 2 micrometers thickness was confirmed to be appropriate. Ions released from the 447J1 alloy, TiN ion-plated 447J1 alloy, and titanium into a 2% lactic acid aqueous solution and 0.1 mol/L phosphate buffered saline (PBS) were determined by means of an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). Long-term corrosion behaviour was evaluated using a multisweep cyclic voltammetry. The ICP-AES results revealed that the 447J1 alloy released ferric ions into both media, and that the amount of released ions increased when the alloy was coupled with titanium. Although both titanium and the TiN-plated 447J1 alloy released titanium ions into lactic acid solution, ferric and chromium ions were not released from the alloy specimen for all conditions. Cyclic voltamograms indicated that the long-term corrosion resistance of the 447J1 alloy was considerably improved by ion-plating with TiN.

  16. Recovering uranium from phosphates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergeret, M [Compagnie de Produits Chimiques et Electrometallurgiques Pechiney-Ugine Kuhlmann, 75 - Paris (France)

    1981-06-01

    Processes for the recovery of the uranium contained in phosphates have today become competitive with traditional methods of working uranium sources. These new possibilities will make it possible to meet more rapidly any increases in the demand for uranium: it takes ten years to start working a new uranium deposit, but only two years to build a recovery plant.

  17. Phosphate and Cardiovascular Disease beyond Chronic Kidney Disease and Vascular Calcification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinee Disthabanchong

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Phosphate is essential for life but its accumulation can be detrimental. In end-stage renal disease, widespread vascular calcification occurs as a result of chronic phosphate load. The accumulation of phosphate is likely to occur long before the rise in serum phosphate above the normal range since several observational studies in both general population and early-stage CKD patients have identified the relationship between high-normal serum phosphate and adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Consumption of food high in phosphate increases both fasting and postprandial serum phosphate and habitual intake of high phosphate diet is associated with aging, cardiac hypertrophy, endothelial dysfunction, and subclinical atherosclerosis. The decline in renal function and dietary phosphate load can increase circulating fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23 which may have a direct impact on cardiomyocytes. Increased FGF-23 levels in both CKD and general populations are associated with left ventricular hypertrophy, congestive heart failure, atrial fibrillation, and mortality. Increased extracellular phosphate directly affects endothelial cells causing cell apoptosis and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs causing transformation to osteogenic phenotype. Excess of calcium and phosphate in the circulation can promote the formation of protein-mineral complex called calciprotein particles (CPPs. In CKD, these CPPs contain less calcification inhibitors, induce inflammation, and promote VSMC calcification.

  18. An investigation into mineral processing of north Semnan refractory earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslani, S.; Samin-Bani-Hashemi, H.R.; Taghi-Zadeh, O.

    2002-01-01

    This paper is dealing with refractory earth of North Semnan. Having an area of 2000 square kilometers, Semnan province is mainly formed by sedimentary rocks with a verity of refractory earth, red earth and kaolin containing heavy minerals. The refractory earth of this area contains a considerable rate of aluminum oxide in shape of dia spore minerals, behemoth and gybsite along with heavy minerals of iron and titanium. To improve the quality of refractory earth, in order to be used in related industries, these minerals have to be separated. To assess the quality of refractory earth of North Semnan as the raw materials of refractory industries, their genesis and mineralogy properties have been precisely studied. Based on the rate of aluminium oxide of the refractory earth of North Semnan mines, a suitable mineral deposit has been selected for more investigation. Using XRD and X RF methods along with electronic and photo microscopes, the refractory earth and heavy minerals of them have been assessed. The elementary laboratory experiments of fragmentation and magnetic separation have been performed. It has been proved that the iron minerals can be separated and, therefore, the quality of the refractory earth can be improved. The separation of titanium minerals has to be investigated with other methods

  19. Bioactivity of calcium phosphate bioceramic coating fabricated by laser cladding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yizhi; Liu, Qibin; Xu, Peng; Li, Long; Jiang, Haibing; Bai, Yang

    2016-05-01

    There were always strong expectations for suitable biomaterials used for bone regeneration. In this study, to improve the biocompatiblity of titanium alloy, calcium phosphate bioceramic coating was obtained by laser cladding technology. The microstructure, phases, bioactivity, cell differentiation, morphology and resorption lacunae were investigated by optical microscope (OM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining and scanning electronic microscope (SEM), respectively. The results show that bioceramic coating consists of three layers, which are a substrate, an alloyed layer and a ceramic layer. Bioactive phases of β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and hydroxyapatite (HA) were found in ceramic coating. Osteoclast precursors have excellent proliferation on the bioceramic surface. The bioceramics coating could be digested by osteoclasts, which led to the resorption lacunae formed on its surface. It revealed that the gradient bioceramic coating has an excellent bioactivity.

  20. Bioactivity of calcium phosphate bioceramic coating fabricated by laser cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Yizhi; Liu, Qibin; Xu, Peng; Li, Long; Jiang, Haibing; Bai, Yang

    2016-01-01

    There were always strong expectations for suitable biomaterials used for bone regeneration. In this study, to improve the biocompatiblity of titanium alloy, calcium phosphate bioceramic coating was obtained by laser cladding technology. The microstructure, phases, bioactivity, cell differentiation, morphology and resorption lacunae were investigated by optical microscope (OM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining and scanning electronic microscope (SEM), respectively. The results show that bioceramic coating consists of three layers, which are a substrate, an alloyed layer and a ceramic layer. Bioactive phases of β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and hydroxyapatite (HA) were found in ceramic coating. Osteoclast precursors have excellent proliferation on the bioceramic surface. The bioceramics coating could be digested by osteoclasts, which led to the resorption lacunae formed on its surface. It revealed that the gradient bioceramic coating has an excellent bioactivity. (letter)

  1. Plasma electrolytic oxidation of Titanium Aluminides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgenstern, R; Sieber, M; Lampke, T; Grund, T; Wielage, B

    2016-01-01

    Due to their outstanding specific mechanical and high-temperature properties, titanium aluminides exhibit a high potential for lightweight components exposed to high temperatures. However, their application is limited through their low wear resistance and the increasing high-temperature oxidation starting from about 750 °C. By the use of oxide ceramic coatings, these constraints can be set aside and the possible applications of titanium aluminides can be extended. The plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) represents a process for the generation of oxide ceramic conversion coatings with high thickness. The current work aims at the clarification of different electrolyte components’ influences on the oxide layer evolution on alloy TNM-B1 (Ti43.5Al4Nb1Mo0.1B) and the creation of compact and wear resistant coatings. Model experiments were applied using a ramp-wise increase of the anodic potential in order to show the influence of electrolyte components on the discharge initiation and the early stage of the oxide layer growth. The production of PEO layers with technically relevant thicknesses close to 100 μm was conducted in alkaline electrolytes with varying amounts of Na 2 SiO 3 ·5H 2 O and K 4 P 2 O 7 under symmetrically pulsed current conditions. Coating properties were evaluated with regard to morphology, chemical composition, hardness and wear resistance. The addition of phosphates and silicates leads to an increasing substrate passivation and the growth of compact oxide layers with higher thicknesses. Optimal electrolyte compositions for maximum coating hardness and thickness were identified by statistical analysis. Under these conditions, a homogeneous inner layer with low porosity can be achieved. The frictional wear behavior of the compact coating layer is superior to a hard anodized layer on aluminum. (paper)

  2. Effect of calcium phosphate coating crystallinity and implant surface roughness on differentiation of rat bone marrow cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brugge, P.J. ter; Wolke, J.G.C.; Jansen, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    In this study, we examined the effect of calcium phosphate (Ca-P) coating crystallinity and of surface roughness on growth and differentiation of osteogenic cells. Grit-blasted titanium substrates were provided with Ca-P coatings of different crystallinities. Rat bone marrow (RBM) cells were

  3. Preparation of titanium diboride powders from titanium alkoxide and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Department of Materials and Manufacturing Process, Malek Ashtar University of Technology, Tehran. 15875-1744, Iran ... Titanium diboride is a hard refractory material with a high melting point ... (λ = 1⋅540598 Å) radiation. Morphology of the ...

  4. Equilibriums of sorption of impurities of 3 d - cations by inorganic sorbents from phosphate and arsenate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filatova, L.N.; Kurdyumova, T.N.; Bagrov, V.M.; Blyum, G.Z.

    1986-01-01

    Present article is devoted to equilibriums of sorption of impurities of 3 d - cations by inorganic sorbents from phosphate and arsenate solutions. Equilibriums of sorption of microquantities of iron, scandium, zink, copper, cobalt and manganese by inorganic sorbents on the basis of titanium and aluminium oxides from phosphate and arsenate solutions are studied. The influence of structural and chemical properties of matrix on sorption properties of oxides in phosphate and arsenate solutions is studied as well. It is defined that in concentrated solutions the sorption value of trace contaminant depends on a character of cation of alkaline metal.

  5. Hydrogen in titanium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wille, G.W.; Davis, J.W.

    1981-04-01

    The titanium alloys that offer properties worthy of consideration for fusion reactors are Ti-6Al-4V, Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo-Si (Ti-6242S) and Ti-5Al-6Sn-2Zr-1Mo-Si (Ti-5621S). The Ti-6242S and Ti-5621S are being considered because of their high creep resistance at elevated temperatures of 500 0 C. Also, irradiation tests on these alloys have shown irradiation creep properties comparable to 20% cold worked 316 stainless steel. These alloys would be susceptible to slow strain rate embrittlement if sufficient hydrogen concentrations are obtained. Concentrations greater than 250 to 500 wppm hydrogen and temperatures lower than 100 to 150 0 C are approximate threshold conditions for detrimental effects on tensile properties. Indications are that at the elevated temperature - low hydrogen pressure conditions of the reactors, there would be negligible hydrogen embrittlement

  6. Anticorrosive Performance of Zinc Phosphate Coatings on Mild Steel Developed Using Galvanic Coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Arthanareeswari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The anticorrosive performance of zinc phosphate coatings developed by galvanic coupling technique on mild steel substrates using the cathode materials such as titanium (Ti, copper (Cu, brass (BR, nickel (Ni, and stainless steel (SS is elucidated in this study. Thermal and chemical stability tests, immersion test in 3.5% NaCl, ARE salt droplet test, and salt spray test were carried out. The study reveals that the mild steel substrates phosphated under galvanically coupled condition showed better corrosion resistance than the one coated without coupling. The open circuit potential (OCP of phosphated mild steel panels in 3.5% NaCl was found to be a function of phosphate coating weight and porosity of the coating.

  7. Degradation processes of reinforced concretes by combined sulfate–phosphate attack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Secco, Michele; Lampronti, Giulio Isacco; Schlegel, Moritz-Caspar; Maritan, Lara; Zorzi, Federico

    2015-01-01

    A novel form of alteration due to the interaction between hydrated cement phases and sulfate and phosphate-based pollutants is described, through the characterization of concrete samples from an industrial reinforced concrete building. Decalcification of the cement matrices was observed, with secondary sulfate and phosphate-based mineral formation, according to a marked mineralogical and textural zoning. Five alteration layers may be detected: the two outermost layers are characterized by the presence of gypsum–brushite solid solution phases associated with anhydrous calcium sulfates and phosphates, respectively, while a progressive increase in apatite and ammonium magnesium phosphates is observable in the three innermost layers, associated with specific apatite precursors (brushite, octacalcium phosphate and amorphous calcium phosphate, respectively). The heterogeneous microstructural development of secondary phases is related to the chemical, pH and thermal gradients in the attacked cementitious systems, caused by different sources of pollutants and the exposure to the sun's radiation

  8. Degradation processes of reinforced concretes by combined sulfate–phosphate attack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Secco, Michele, E-mail: michele.secco@unipd.it [Inter-Departmental Research Center for the Study of Cement Materials and Hydraulic Binders (CIRCe), University of Padova, Via Gradenigo 6, 35131 Padova (Italy); Department of Civil, Environmental and Architectural Engineering (ICEA), University of Padova, Via Marzolo 9, 35131 Padova (Italy); Lampronti, Giulio Isacco, E-mail: gil21@cam.ac.uk [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, CB2 3EQ Cambridge (United Kingdom); Schlegel, Moritz-Caspar, E-mail: moritz-caspar.schlegel@helmholtz-berlin.de [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Unter den Eichen 87, 12205 Berlin (Germany); Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fürMaterialien und Energie GmbH, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Maritan, Lara, E-mail: lara.maritan@unipd.it [Department of Geosciences, University of Padova, Via Gradenigo 6, 35131 Padova (Italy); Zorzi, Federico, E-mail: federico.zorzi@unipd.it [Department of Geosciences, University of Padova, Via Gradenigo 6, 35131 Padova (Italy)

    2015-02-15

    A novel form of alteration due to the interaction between hydrated cement phases and sulfate and phosphate-based pollutants is described, through the characterization of concrete samples from an industrial reinforced concrete building. Decalcification of the cement matrices was observed, with secondary sulfate and phosphate-based mineral formation, according to a marked mineralogical and textural zoning. Five alteration layers may be detected: the two outermost layers are characterized by the presence of gypsum–brushite solid solution phases associated with anhydrous calcium sulfates and phosphates, respectively, while a progressive increase in apatite and ammonium magnesium phosphates is observable in the three innermost layers, associated with specific apatite precursors (brushite, octacalcium phosphate and amorphous calcium phosphate, respectively). The heterogeneous microstructural development of secondary phases is related to the chemical, pH and thermal gradients in the attacked cementitious systems, caused by different sources of pollutants and the exposure to the sun's radiation.

  9. Titanium oxide nanoparticles as additives in engine oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena Laad

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This research study investigates the tribological behaviour of titanium oxide (TiO2 nanoparticles as additives in mineral based multi-grade engine oil. All tests were performed under variable load and varying concentrations of nanoparticles in lubricating oil. The friction and wear experiments were performed using pin-on-disc tribotester. This study shows that mixing of TiO2 nanoparticles in engine oil significantly reduces the friction and wear rate and hence improves the lubricating properties of engine oil. The dispersion analysis of TiO2 nanoparticles in lubricating oil using UV spectrometer confirms that TiO2 nanoparticles possess good stability and solubility in the lubricant and improve the lubricating properties of the engine oil. Keywords: Titanium oxide, Nanoparticles, UV spectrometer, Tribotester, Engine oil

  10. Structure and amphoteric properties of titanium dioxide gels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kertesz, C.

    1991-01-01

    Mechanisms responsible for the in-solution ion retention by titanium dioxide are studied. Mineral oxide gel formation and structure are described and various titanium dioxide gel synthesis modes are presented. A two-phase model, taking into account the porous nature of the solid and allowing for the application of the mass action law, is adopted. The oxide amphoteric properties are studied with the potentiometric titration technique. Hysteresis loops are imputed to the slowness of the acid-basic neutralization reaction. The main characteristics are determined: isoelectric point, cation and anion retention capacity. Depending on the suspension agitation, the speed limiting factor may be the diffusion in the film or the diffusion in the particle. 60 fig., 128 ref

  11. Future supply of, and demand for, titanium, copper and lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grover, L.K.

    1991-01-01

    A literature survey has been conducted to assess the future world supply of, and demand for, titanium, copper and lead. These metals are candidates for the fabrication of containers for the immobilization and disposal of Canada's nuclear used-fuel in an underground disposal vault at a Used-Fuel Disposal Centre. The Centre is assumed to begin operation by the year 2020 and continue for about 40 years. The survey has shown that the world has abundant supplies of titanium minerals (mostly in the form of ilmenite), which are expected to last up to at least 2110. However, for copper and lead, the balance between supply and demand may warrant increased monitoring beyond the year 2000. A number of factors that can influence supply and demand are discussed

  12. Detonation nanodiamonds biofunctionalization and immobilization to titanium alloy surfaces as first steps towards medical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Juliana P L; Shaikh, Afnan Q; Reitzig, Manuela; Kovalenko, Daria A; Michael, Jan; Beutner, René; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio; Scharnweber, Dieter; Opitz, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    Due to their outstanding properties nanodiamonds are a promising nanoscale material in various applications such as microelectronics, polishing, optical monitoring, medicine and biotechnology. Beyond the typical diamond characteristics like extreme hardness or high thermal conductivity, they have additional benefits as intrinsic fluorescence due to lattice defects without photobleaching, obtained during the high pressure high temperature process. Further the carbon surface and its various functional groups in consequence of the synthesis, facilitate additional chemical and biological modification. In this work we present our recent results on chemical modification of the nanodiamond surface with phosphate groups and their electrochemically assisted immobilization on titanium-based materials to increase adhesion at biomaterial surfaces. The starting material is detonation nanodiamond, which exhibits a heterogeneous surface due to the functional groups resulting from the nitrogen-rich explosives and the subsequent purification steps after detonation synthesis. Nanodiamond surfaces are chemically homogenized before proceeding with further functionalization. Suspensions of resulting surface-modified nanodiamonds are applied to the titanium alloy surfaces and the nanodiamonds subsequently fixed by electrochemical immobilization. Titanium and its alloys have been widely used in bone and dental implants for being a metal that is biocompatible with body tissues and able to bind with adjacent bone during healing. In order to improve titanium material properties towards biomedical applications the authors aim to increase adhesion to bone material by incorporating nanodiamonds into the implant surface, namely the anodically grown titanium dioxide layer. Differently functionalized nanodiamonds are characterized by infrared spectroscopy and the modified titanium alloys surfaces by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The process described shows an adsorption and

  13. Detonation nanodiamonds biofunctionalization and immobilization to titanium alloy surfaces as first steps towards medical application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana P. L. Gonçalves

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to their outstanding properties nanodiamonds are a promising nanoscale material in various applications such as microelectronics, polishing, optical monitoring, medicine and biotechnology. Beyond the typical diamond characteristics like extreme hardness or high thermal conductivity, they have additional benefits as intrinsic fluorescence due to lattice defects without photobleaching, obtained during the high pressure high temperature process. Further the carbon surface and its various functional groups in consequence of the synthesis, facilitate additional chemical and biological modification. In this work we present our recent results on chemical modification of the nanodiamond surface with phosphate groups and their electrochemically assisted immobilization on titanium-based materials to increase adhesion at biomaterial surfaces. The starting material is detonation nanodiamond, which exhibits a heterogeneous surface due to the functional groups resulting from the nitrogen-rich explosives and the subsequent purification steps after detonation synthesis. Nanodiamond surfaces are chemically homogenized before proceeding with further functionalization. Suspensions of resulting surface-modified nanodiamonds are applied to the titanium alloy surfaces and the nanodiamonds subsequently fixed by electrochemical immobilization. Titanium and its alloys have been widely used in bone and dental implants for being a metal that is biocompatible with body tissues and able to bind with adjacent bone during healing. In order to improve titanium material properties towards biomedical applications the authors aim to increase adhesion to bone material by incorporating nanodiamonds into the implant surface, namely the anodically grown titanium dioxide layer. Differently functionalized nanodiamonds are characterized by infrared spectroscopy and the modified titanium alloys surfaces by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The process described shows an

  14. A Study on Kaolin and Titanium dioxide affecting Physical Properties of Electrocoating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Wonseog; Hwang, Woonsuk

    2013-01-01

    The electrocoating for automotive bodies is pigmented with a mixture of titanium dioxide and kaolin. In this study, the effects of titanium dioxide and kaolin contents in coating on electrodeposition process, drying, and surface properties such as surface roughness, gloss, impact resistance and corrosion resistance were investigated. Titanium dioxide and kaolin in coating do not have a decisive effect on curing reaction during drying and corrosion resistance but on gloss, surface roughness, impact resistance and electrodeposition process of coating. According to its size and shape on coating surface, pigment contents increased during drying process. However, the contents of kaolin and TiO 2 in coating didn't affect the corrosion resistance on zinc phosphated substrate, and the curing properties

  15. Thermomechanical treatment of titanium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khorev, A.K.

    1979-01-01

    The problems of the theory and practical application of thermomechanical treatment of titanium alloys are presented. On the basis of the systematic investigations developed are the methods of thermomechanical treatment of titanium alloys, established are the optimum procedures and produced are the bases of their industrial application with an account of alloy technological peculiarities and the procedure efficiency. It is found that those strengthening methods are more efficient at which the contribution of dispersion hardening prevails over the strengthening by phase hardening

  16. A phosphate transporter from the mycorrhizal fungus Glomus versiforme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, M J; van Buuren, M L

    1995-12-07

    Vesicular-arbuscular (VA) mycorrhizal fungi form symbiotic associations with the roots of most terrestrial plants, including many agriculturally important crop species. The fungi colonize the cortex of the root to obtain carbon from their plant host, while assisting the plant with the uptake of phosphate and other mineral nutrients from the soil. This association is beneficial to the plant, because phosphate is essential for plant growth and development, especially during growth under nutrient-limiting conditions. Molecular genetic studies of these fungi and their interaction with plants have been limited owing to the obligate symbiotic nature of the VA fungi, so the molecular mechanisms underlying fungal-mediated uptake and translocation of phosphate from the soil to the plant remain unknown. Here we begin to investigate this process by identifying a complementary DNA that encodes a transmembrane phosphate transporter (GvPT) from Glomus versiforme, a VA mycorrhizal fungus. The function of the protein encoded by GvPT was confirmed by complementation of a yeast phosphate transport mutant. Expression of GvPT was localized to the external hyphae of G. versiforme during mycorrhizal associations, these being the initial site of phosphate uptake from the soil.

  17. Enhanced human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell functions on cathodic arc plasma-treated titanium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu W

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Wei Zhu,1 George Teel,1 Christopher M O’Brien,1 Taisen Zhuang,1 Michael Keidar,1 Lijie Grace Zhang1–3 1Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, 3Department of Medicine, The George Washington University, Washington, DC, USA Abstract: Surface modification of titanium for use in orthopedics has been explored for years; however, an ideal method of integrating titanium with native bone is still required to this day. Since human bone cells directly interact with nanostructured extracellular matrices, one of the most promising methods of improving titanium’s osseointegration involves inducing biomimetic nanotopography to enhance cell–implant interaction. In this regard, we explored an approach to functionalize the surface of titanium by depositing a thin film of textured titanium nanoparticles via a cathodic arc discharge plasma. The aim is to improve human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (MSC attachment and differentiation and to reduce deleterious effects of more complex surface modification methods. Surface functionalization was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, contact angle testing, and specific protein adsorption. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy examination demonstrate the deposition of titanium nanoparticles and the surface roughness change after coating. The specific fibronectin adsorption was enhanced on the modified titanium surface that associates with the improved hydrophilicity. MSC adhesion and proliferation were significantly promoted on the nanocoated surface. More importantly, compared to bare titanium, greater production of total protein, deposition of calcium mineral, and synthesis of alkaline phosphatase were observed from MSCs on nanocoated titanium after 21 days. The method described herein presents a promising alternative method for inducing more cell favorable nanosurface for improved orthopedic applications

  18. Results of bone regenerate study after osteosynthesis with bioinert and calcium phosphate-coated bioactive implants in experimental femoral neck fractures (experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Kazanin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective - to analyze the results of X-ray, cytomorphometric and immunohistochemistry experimental studies of bone regenerates after osteosynthesis with bioinert and calcium phosphate-coated bioactive implants. Material and methods. The study was conducted on experimental femoral neck fractures in rabbit males. Reparative osteogenesis processes were studied in groups of bioinert titanium implant osteosynthesis and calcium phosphate-coated bioactive titanium implant osteosynthesis. The animals were clinically followed-up during the postoperative period. X-ray, cytomorphometric and immunohistochemistry studies of samples extracted from femoral bones were conducted over time on days 1, 7, 14, 30 and 60. The animal experiments were kept and treated according to recommendations of international standards, Helsinki Declaration on animal welfare and approved by the local ethics committee. All surgeries were performed under anesthesia, and all efforts were made to minimize the suffering of the animals. Results. In the animal group without femoral neck fracture osteosynthesis, femoral neck pseudoarthrosis was observed at the end of the experiment. The results of cytomorphometric and immunohistochemistry studies conducted on day 60 of the experiment confirmed that the cellular composition of the bone regenerate in the group of calcium phosphate-coated bioactive titanium implants corresponded to a more mature bone tissue than in the group of bioinert titanium implants. Conclusion. The results of the statistical analysis of cytomorphometric and immunohistochemistry data show that the use of calcium phosphate-coated bioactive titanium implants allows to achieve significantly earlier bone tissue regeneration.

  19. Renal phosphate handling: Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayan Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus is a common anion. It plays an important role in energy generation. Renal phosphate handling is regulated by three organs parathyroid, kidney and bone through feedback loops. These counter regulatory loops also regulate intestinal absorption and thus maintain serum phosphorus concentration in physiologic range. The parathyroid hormone, vitamin D, Fibrogenic growth factor 23 (FGF23 and klotho coreceptor are the key regulators of phosphorus balance in body.

  20. A biomimetic strategy to form calcium phosphate crystals on type I collagen substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Zhang [Department of Restorative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, National University of Singapore, 5 Lower Kent Ridge Road 119074, Singapore (Singapore); Neoh, Koon Gee [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, National University of Singapore, Kent Ridge 119260, Singapore (Singapore); Kishen, Anil, E-mail: anil.kishen@utoronto.ca [Discipline of Endodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Toronto, 124 Edward Street, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2010-07-20

    Objective: The aim of this study is to induce mineralization of collagen by introducing phosphate groups onto type I collagen from eggshell membrane (ESM) by treating with sodium trimetaphosphate (STMP). This strategy is based on the hypothesis that phosphate groups introduced on collagen can mimic the nucleating role of phosphorylated non-collagenous proteins bound to collagen for inducing mineralization in natural hard tissue. Method: The collagen membrane was phosphorylated by treating it with a solution of STMP and saturated calcium hydroxide. The phosphorylated collagen was subsequently exposed to a mineralization solution and the pattern of mineralization on the surface of phosphorylated collagen substrate was analyzed. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), field emission electron microscopy (FESEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and microhardness test were used to characterize the collagen substrate and the pattern of minerals formed on the collagen surface. Results: The FTIR and EDX results indicated that the phosphate groups were incorporated onto the collagen surface by treatment with STMP. During the mineralization process, the plate-like mineral, octacalcium phosphate (OCP), which was initially formed on the surface of ESM, was later transformed into needle-like hydroxyapatite (HAP) as indicated by the SEM, FESEM, EDX and XRD findings. The microhardness test displayed significant increase in the Knoop hardness number of the mineralized collagen. Conclusions: Phosphate groups can be introduced onto type I collagen surface by treating it with STMP and such phosphorylated collagen can induce the mineralization of type I collagen.

  1. Niger Republic Mineral Planning : Part IV - first volume : Main mineral substances specific study and their geological context; Plan Mineral de la Republique du Niger : Tome IV - 1er volume : Etude specifique des principales substances minerals et leur contexte geologique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franconi, Antoine; Joo' , Julien; Zibo, Idde

    1981-07-01

    This volume contains the detailed study of mineral substances industrially exploited to date : uranium, coal, non metallic building materials and public activities, and non conventionally exploited substances, that are : tin, columbite-tantalite, tungsten, gold, phosphates and evaporates. [French] Ce volume contient l'etude detaillee des substances minerals exploitees industriellement a ce jour : l'uranium, le charbon, les materiaux non metalliques de construction et de travaux publics et les substances exploitees artisanalement qui sont : l'etain, la Colombo-tantalite, le tungstene, l'or, les phosphates et les evaporates.

  2. Apatite mineralization in elasmobranch skeletons via a polyphosphate intermediate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omelon, Sidney; Lacroix, Nicolas; Lildhar, Levannia; Variola, Fabio; Dean, Mason

    2014-05-01

    All vertebrate skeletons are stiffened with apatite, a calcium phosphate mineral. Control of apatite mineralization is essential to the growth and repair of the biology of these skeletons, ensuring that apatite is deposited in the correct tissue location at the desired time. The mechanism of this biochemical control remains debated, but must involve increasing the localized apatite saturation state. It was theorized in 1923 that alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity provides this control mechanism by increasing the inorganic phosphate (Pi) concentration via dephosphorylation of phosphorylated molecules. The ALP substrate for biological apatite is not known. We propose that polyphosphates (polyPs) produced by mitochondria may be the substrate for biological apatite formation by ALP activity. PolyPs (PO3-)n, also known as condensed phosphates, represent a concentrated, bioavailable Pi-storage strategy. Mitochondria import Pi and synthesize phosphate polymers through an unknown biochemical mechanism. When chelated with calcium and/or other cations, the effective P-concentration of these neutrally charged, amorphous, polyP species can be very high (~ 0.5 M), without inducing phosphate mineral crystallization. This P-concentration in the low Pi-concentration biological environment offers a method of concentrating P well above an apatite supersaturation required for nucleation. Bone is the most studied mineralized skeletal tissue. However, locating and analyzing active mineralizing areas is challenging. We studied calcified cartilage skeletons of elasmobranch fishes (sharks, stingrays and relatives) to analyse the phosphate chemistry in this continually mineralizing skeleton. Although the majority of the elasmobranch skeleton is unmineralized cartilage, it is wrapped in an outer layer of mineralized tissue comprised of small tiles called tesserae. These calcified tesserae continually grow through the formation of new mineral on their borders. Co-localization of ALP and

  3. Triphenyl phosphate allergy from spectacle frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, L; Andersen, K E; Egsgaard, Helge

    1986-01-01

    A case of triphenyl phosphate allergy from spectacle frames is reported. Patch tests with analytical grade triphenyl phosphate, tri-m-cresyl phosphate, and tri-p-cresyl phosphate in the concentrations 5%, 0.5% and 0.05% pet. showed positive reactions to 0.05% triphenyl phosphate and 0.5% tri......-m-cresyl phosphate, but no reaction to tri-p-cresyl phosphate. Gas chromatography of the tricresyl phosphate 5% pet. patch test material supplied from Trolab showed that it contained a mixture of a wide range of triaryl phosphates, including 0.08% triphenyl phosphate which is above the threshold for detecting...

  4. Surface Modification of Porous Titanium Granules for Improving Bioactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaji, Zahra Gorgin; Houshmand, Behzad; Faghihi, Shahab

    The highly porous titanium granules are currently being used as bone substitute material and for bone tissue augmentation. However, they suffer from weak bone bonding ability. The aim of this study was to create a nanostructured surface oxide layer on irregularly shaped titanium granules to improve their bioactivity. This could be achieved using optimized electrochemical anodic oxidation (anodizing) and heat treatment processes. The anodizing process was done in an ethylene glycol-based electrolyte at an optimized condition of 60 V for 3 hours. The anodized granules were subsequently annealed at 450°C for 1 hour. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and x-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize the surface structure and morphology of the granules. The in vitro bioactivity of the samples was evaluated by immersion of specimens in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 1, 2, and 3 weeks. The human osteoblastic sarcoma cell line, MG63, was used to evaluate cell viability on the samples using dimethylthiazol-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The results demonstrated the formation of amorphous nanostructured titanium oxide after anodizing, which transformed to crystalline anatase and rutile phases upon heat treatment. After immersion in SBF, spherical aggregates of amorphous calcium phosphate were formed on the surface of the anodized sample, which turned into crystalline hydroxyapatite on the surface of the anodized annealed sample. No cytotoxicity was detected among the samples. It is suggested that anodic oxidation followed by heat treatment could be used as an effective surface treatment procedure to improve bioactivity of titanium granules implemented for bone tissue repair and augmentation.

  5. Silicon-Doped Titanium Dioxide Nanotubes Promoted Bone Formation on Titanium Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xijiang; Wang, Tao; Qian, Shi; Liu, Xuanyong; Sun, Junying; Li, Bin

    2016-02-26

    While titanium (Ti) implants have been extensively used in orthopaedic and dental applications, the intrinsic bioinertness of untreated Ti surface usually results in insufficient osseointegration irrespective of the excellent biocompatibility and mechanical properties of it. In this study, we prepared surface modified Ti substrates in which silicon (Si) was doped into the titanium dioxide (TiO₂) nanotubes on Ti surface using plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) technology. Compared to TiO₂ nanotubes and Ti alone, Si-doped TiO₂ nanotubes significantly enhanced the expression of genes related to osteogenic differentiation, including Col-I, ALP, Runx2, OCN, and OPN, in mouse pre-osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells and deposition of mineral matrix. In vivo, the pull-out mechanical tests after two weeks of implantation in rat femur showed that Si-doped TiO₂ nanotubes improved implant fixation strength by 18% and 54% compared to TiO₂-NT and Ti implants, respectively. Together, findings from this study indicate that Si-doped TiO₂ nanotubes promoted the osteogenic differentiation of osteoblastic cells and improved bone-Ti integration. Therefore, they may have considerable potential for the bioactive surface modification of Ti implants.

  6. Titanium nanostructures for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, M; Gongadze, E; Perutkova, Š; A Iglič; Mazare, A; Schmuki, P; Kralj-Iglič, V; Milošev, I; Mozetič, M

    2015-01-01

    Titanium and titanium alloys exhibit a unique combination of strength and biocompatibility, which enables their use in medical applications and accounts for their extensive use as implant materials in the last 50 years. Currently, a large amount of research is being carried out in order to determine the optimal surface topography for use in bioapplications, and thus the emphasis is on nanotechnology for biomedical applications. It was recently shown that titanium implants with rough surface topography and free energy increase osteoblast adhesion, maturation and subsequent bone formation. Furthermore, the adhesion of different cell lines to the surface of titanium implants is influenced by the surface characteristics of titanium; namely topography, charge distribution and chemistry. The present review article focuses on the specific nanotopography of titanium, i.e. titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) nanotubes, using a simple electrochemical anodisation method of the metallic substrate and other processes such as the hydrothermal or sol-gel template. One key advantage of using TiO 2 nanotubes in cell interactions is based on the fact that TiO 2 nanotube morphology is correlated with cell adhesion, spreading, growth and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells, which were shown to be maximally induced on smaller diameter nanotubes (15 nm), but hindered on larger diameter (100 nm) tubes, leading to cell death and apoptosis. Research has supported the significance of nanotopography (TiO 2 nanotube diameter) in cell adhesion and cell growth, and suggests that the mechanics of focal adhesion formation are similar among different cell types. As such, the present review will focus on perhaps the most spectacular and surprising one-dimensional structures and their unique biomedical applications for increased osseointegration, protein interaction and antibacterial properties. (topical review)

  7. Titanium nanostructures for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, M.; Mazare, A.; Gongadze, E.; Perutkova, Š.; Kralj-Iglič, V.; Milošev, I.; Schmuki, P.; Iglič, A.; Mozetič, M.

    2015-02-01

    Titanium and titanium alloys exhibit a unique combination of strength and biocompatibility, which enables their use in medical applications and accounts for their extensive use as implant materials in the last 50 years. Currently, a large amount of research is being carried out in order to determine the optimal surface topography for use in bioapplications, and thus the emphasis is on nanotechnology for biomedical applications. It was recently shown that titanium implants with rough surface topography and free energy increase osteoblast adhesion, maturation and subsequent bone formation. Furthermore, the adhesion of different cell lines to the surface of titanium implants is influenced by the surface characteristics of titanium; namely topography, charge distribution and chemistry. The present review article focuses on the specific nanotopography of titanium, i.e. titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotubes, using a simple electrochemical anodisation method of the metallic substrate and other processes such as the hydrothermal or sol-gel template. One key advantage of using TiO2 nanotubes in cell interactions is based on the fact that TiO2 nanotube morphology is correlated with cell adhesion, spreading, growth and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells, which were shown to be maximally induced on smaller diameter nanotubes (15 nm), but hindered on larger diameter (100 nm) tubes, leading to cell death and apoptosis. Research has supported the significance of nanotopography (TiO2 nanotube diameter) in cell adhesion and cell growth, and suggests that the mechanics of focal adhesion formation are similar among different cell types. As such, the present review will focus on perhaps the most spectacular and surprising one-dimensional structures and their unique biomedical applications for increased osseointegration, protein interaction and antibacterial properties.

  8. Geochemical exploration for phosphate in the State of Acre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, M.L. da; Melo Costa, W.A. de; Santos, A.J.M. dos

    1989-01-01

    The geochemical prospecting conducted for phosphates in Acre which could explain the good fertility of the region was charged to discover this material. The phosphates are strictly built of all the bone structures and coprolites of the several fragments of vertebrate fossils, which are widespread in the region. The phosphatic fossils are bedded in the Solimoes Formation, especially its basal to intermediary conglomeratic bed. The fossils are constituted of low crystallinity apatite, and their matrix sediments include quartz, feldspars, smectite, halloysite and calcite. The P 2 O 5 content reaches up to 5% in the sediments and up to 32% in the fragments. The fossils are enriched in U 3 O 8 and rare earth elements. There is no perspect of classic or mineral deposits but the geological knowlwdge will permit the improvement of the use of the soils in Acre. (author) [pt

  9. Integrated assessment of the phosphate industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, M.T.; Cotter, S.J.

    1980-05-01

    The phosphate industry in the United States includes three major activities, namely, mining and milling of phosphate rock, phosphate product manufacture, and phosphate product use. Phosphatic materials contain uranium, thorium, and their decay products in greater than background amounts. This assessment of the radiological impacts associated with the redistribution of radioactive components of phosphate materials may provide insight into the effects of uranium extraction from phosphate materials for use in the nuclear fuel cycle

  10. A comparative study of zirconium and titanium implants in rat: osseointegration and bone material quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerth, Rebecca M; Katunar, María R; Gomez Sanchez, Andrea; Orellano, Juan C; Ceré, Silvia M; Wagermaier, Wolfgang; Ballarre, Josefina

    2014-02-01

    Permanent metal implants are widely used in human medical treatments and orthopedics, for example as hip joint replacements. They are commonly made of titanium alloys and beyond the optimization of this established material, it is also essential to explore alternative implant materials in view of improved osseointegration. The aim of our study was to characterize the implant performance of zirconium in comparison to titanium implants. Zirconium implants have been characterized in a previous study concerning material properties and surface characteristics in vitro, such as oxide layer thickness and surface roughness. In the present study, we compare bone material quality around zirconium and titanium implants in terms of osseointegration and therefore characterized bone material properties in a rat model using a multi-method approach. We used light and electron microscopy, micro Raman spectroscopy, micro X-ray fluorescence and X-ray scattering techniques to investigate the osseointegration in terms of compositional and structural properties of the newly formed bone. Regarding the mineralization level, the mineral composition, and the alignment and order of the mineral particles, our results show that the maturity of the newly formed bone after 8 weeks of implantation is already very high. In conclusion, the bone material quality obtained for zirconium implants is at least as good as for titanium. It seems that the zirconium implants can be a good candidate for using as permanent metal prosthesis for orthopedic treatments.

  11. In Situ Laser Coating of Calcium Phosphate on TC4 Surface for Enhancing Bioactivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Chi; WANG Yong; ZHANG Ya-ping; GAO Jia-cheng

    2007-01-01

    Titanium alloy has been a successful implant material owing to its excellent ratio of strength to weight,toughness, and bio-inert oxide surface. Significant progress has been made in improving the bioactivity of titanium alloy by coating its oxide surface with calcium phosphates. In the present study, in situ coating was reported on Ti6Al4V(TC4) surface with calcium phosphate (Ca-P) bioceramics synthesized and synchronously cladded by laser beam. This coating was grown by first preplacing directly the raw powders, which contain 80% of CaHPO4 ·2H2O, 20% of CaCO3, and dram of rare earth (RE), on the TC4 surfaces, and then exposing the surfaces to the laser beam with a power density of 12. 73-15.27 MW · m-2 and a scanning velocity of 10. 5 m/s. The resultant coating was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis and Different-thermal Scanning (TG-DSC), and Energy Dispersive X-ray Detection (EDX). The results show that these laser ceramics include hydroxyapatite (HA), tricalcium phosphate (TCP), Ca2P2O7, and other Ca-P phases, and the interface between the coating and the TC4 substrate has tighter fixation, in which the chemical bonding is approved. These laser hybrid coatings are useful in enhancing the bioactivity of titanium alloy surfaces.

  12. Titanium pigmentation. An electron probe microanalysis study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupre, A.; Touron, P.; Daste, J.; Lassere, J.; Bonafe, J.L.; Viraben, R.

    1985-01-01

    A patient had an unusual pigmentary disease induced by titanium dioxide. The use of a topical cream containing titanium dioxide caused a xanthomalike appearance on the patient's penis. Electron probe microanalysis was valuable in establishing the cause of this balanitis

  13. Biomimetic calcium phosphate coatings on recombinant spider silk fibres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Liang; Habibovic, Pamela; Van Blitterswijk, Clemens A [Department of Tissue Regeneration, University of Twente, PO Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Hedhammar, My; Johansson, Jan [Department of Anatomy, Physiology and Biochemistry, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, the Biomedical Centre, Box 575, 751 23 Uppsala (Sweden); Blom, Tobias; Leifer, Klaus [Department of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, Box 534, S-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2010-08-01

    Calcium phosphate ceramic coatings, applied on surfaces of metallic and polymeric biomaterials, can improve their performance in bone repair and regeneration. Spider silk is biocompatible, strong and elastic, and hence an attractive biomaterial for applications in connective tissue repair. Recently, artificial spider silk, with mechanical and structural characteristics similar to those of native spider silk, has been produced from recombinant minispidroins. In the present study, supersaturated simulated body fluid was used to deposit calcium phosphate coatings on recombinant spider silk fibres. The mineralization process was followed in time using scanning electron microscopy equipped with an energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) detector and Raman spectroscope. Focused ion beam technology was used to produce a cross section of a coated fibre, which was further analysed by EDX. Preliminary in vitro experiments using a culture of bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) on coated fibres were also performed. This study showed that recombinant spider silk fibres were successfully coated with a homogeneous and thick crystalline calcium phosphate layer. In the course of the mineralization process from modified simulated body fluid, sodium chloride crystals were first deposited on the silk surface, followed by the deposition of a calcium phosphate layer. The coated silk fibres supported the attachment and growth of hMSCs.

  14. Biomimetic calcium phosphate coatings on recombinant spider silk fibres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Liang; Habibovic, Pamela; Van Blitterswijk, Clemens A; Hedhammar, My; Johansson, Jan; Blom, Tobias; Leifer, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    Calcium phosphate ceramic coatings, applied on surfaces of metallic and polymeric biomaterials, can improve their performance in bone repair and regeneration. Spider silk is biocompatible, strong and elastic, and hence an attractive biomaterial for applications in connective tissue repair. Recently, artificial spider silk, with mechanical and structural characteristics similar to those of native spider silk, has been produced from recombinant minispidroins. In the present study, supersaturated simulated body fluid was used to deposit calcium phosphate coatings on recombinant spider silk fibres. The mineralization process was followed in time using scanning electron microscopy equipped with an energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) detector and Raman spectroscope. Focused ion beam technology was used to produce a cross section of a coated fibre, which was further analysed by EDX. Preliminary in vitro experiments using a culture of bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) on coated fibres were also performed. This study showed that recombinant spider silk fibres were successfully coated with a homogeneous and thick crystalline calcium phosphate layer. In the course of the mineralization process from modified simulated body fluid, sodium chloride crystals were first deposited on the silk surface, followed by the deposition of a calcium phosphate layer. The coated silk fibres supported the attachment and growth of hMSCs.

  15. Phosphate Solubilising Fungi from Mangroves of Bhitarkanika, Orissa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NIBHA GUPTA

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Mangroves have evolved several adaptations to swampy and saline environments. It is situated at the inter-phase between marine and terrestrial environment, which is highly productive providing nutrients to surrounding micro biota. Similar adaptive characteristics in the form and function may occur with the associated microflora in such environments. Several free living and symbiotic microorganisms occurred in such saline habitats and some of them are reported for their beneficial activity in mangrove ecosystem like biomineralization of organic matter and bio-transformation of minerals. In view of this, 106 fungi isolated from rhizosphere and phyllosphere of mangrove plants grown in Bhitarkanika, Orissa were screened on plate culture containing Pikovaskaya medium for the phosphate solubilization. Selected fungi were evaluated for their phosphate solubilization potential under different cultural conditions. A total of 36 fungi were isolated that showed variable halo zone on medium containing tricalcium phosphate when grown under different pH and temperature. The highest zone was formed by Aspergillus PF8 (63 mm and Aspergillus PF127 (46.5 mm. The observation on tricalcium phosphate solubilization activity of Paecilomyces, Cladobotrytis, Helminthosporium is rare. However, a detailed and elaborative studies are needed to confirm better mineral solubilization potential of these fungi.

  16. Printing of Titanium implant prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiria, Florencia Edith; Shyan, John Yong Ming; Lim, Poon Nian; Wen, Francis Goh Chung; Yeo, Jin Fei; Cao, Tong

    2010-01-01

    Dental implant plays an important role as a conduit of force and stress to flow from the tooth to the related bone. In the load sharing between an implant and its related bone, the amount of stress carried by each of them directly related to their stiffness or modulus. Hence, it is a crucial issue for the implant to have matching mechanical properties, in particular modulus, between the implant and its related bone. Titanium is a metallic material that has good biocompatibility and corrosion resistance. Whilst the modulus of the bulk material is still higher than that of bone, it is the lowest among all other commonly used metallic implant materials, such as stainless steel or cobalt alloy. Hence it is potential to further reduce the modulus of pure Titanium by engineering its processing method to obtain porous structure. In this project, porous Titanium implant prototype is fabricated using 3-dimensional printing. This technique allows the flexibility of design customization, which is beneficial for implant fabrication as tailoring of implant size and shape helps to ensure the implant would fit nicely to the patient. The fabricated Titanium prototype had a modulus of 4.8-13.2 GPa, which is in the range of natural bone modulus. The compressive strength achieved was between 167 to 455 MPa. Subsequent cell culture study indicated that the porous Titanium prototype had good biocompatibility and is suitable for bone cell attachment and proliferation.

  17. Better prospects for phosphate production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    The extraction of uranium as a by product of phosphate production is discussed. Techniques being commercially developed are described. The trend towards the wet process, in which sulphuric acid is used to dissolve the phosphate, producing phosphoric acid, is also the preferred method for uranium recovery. Recovery from a wet process phosphoric acid stream, integrated with phosphate fertilizer manufacture, is becoming increasingly commercially viable for the production of yellow-cake.

  18. on association of trialkyl phosphates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petkovic, D.M.; Maksimovic, Z.B.

    1976-01-01

    The association constants of tri-n-butyl (TBP), tri-n-propyl (TPP) and triethyl phosphate (TEP) with chloroform, carbon tetrachloride and benzene were determined by dielectric constant, proton magnetic resonance and vapor pressure measurements. Correlation of the trialkyl phosphate-chloroform association constants, using the Hammett equation, showed their increase with the number of carbon atoms in the aliphatic radicals. The change of trialkyl phosphate reactivity with temperature was used to determine the thermodynamic quantities. (author)

  19. Incorporating catechol into electroactive polypyrrole nanowires on titanium to promote hydroxyapatite formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengao Wang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available To improve the osteointegration property of biomedical titanium, nano-architectured electroactive coating was synthesized through the electrochemical polymerization of dopamine and pyrrole. The highly binding affinity of Ca2+ to the catechol moiety of doped dopamine enabled efficient interaction between polypyrrole/polydopamine nanowires and mineral ions. The results indicate that the PPy/PDA nanowires preserved its efficient electro-activity and accelerated the hydroxyapatite deposition in a simulated body fluid. The PPy/PDA nanowires coating could be applied to promote the osteointegration of titanium implant.

  20. Anodic growth of titanium dioxide nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of producing nanostructures of titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) by anodisation of titanium (Ti) in an electrochemical cell, comprising the steps of: immersing a non-conducting substrate coated with a layer of titanium, defined as the anode, in an electrolyte solution...... an electrical contact to the layer of titanium on the anode, where the electrical contact is made in the electrolyte solution...

  1. Minerals Yearbook, volume I, Metals and Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2018-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industries and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Content of the individual Minerals Yearbook volumes follows:Volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters about virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. Chapters on survey methods, summary statistics for domestic nonfuel minerals, and trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries in the United States are also included.Volume II, Area Reports: Domestic, contains a chapter on the mineral industry of each of the 50 States and Puerto Rico and the Administered Islands. This volume also has chapters on survey methods and summary statistics of domestic nonfuel minerals.Volume III, Area Reports: International, is published as four separate reports. These regional reports contain the latest available minerals data on more than 180 foreign countries and discuss the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations and the United States. Each report begins with an overview of the region’s mineral industries during the year. It continues with individual country chapters that examine the mining, refining, processing, and use of minerals in each country of the region and how each country’s mineral industry relates to U.S. industry. Most chapters include production tables and industry structure tables, information about Government policies and programs that affect the country’s mineral industry, and an outlook section.The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the Minerals Yearbook are welcomed.

  2. Laboratory of minerals purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The laboratory of minerals purification was organized in 1962 where with application of modern physical and chemical methods were investigated the mechanism of flotation reagents interaction with minerals' surface, was elaborated technologies on rising complexity of using of republic's minerals

  3. Biofunctionalization of Titanium Granules with Simvastatin for Improving Osteogenic Activity and Antibacterial Properties (Ex Vivo Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaji, Zahra Gorgin; Houshmand, Behzad; Abbasi, Shahsanam; Shafiei, Sara; Faghihi, Shahab

    Titanium-based biomaterials present good biocompatibility, while their osseointegration and antibacterial properties need to be improved. This study aimed to enhance the bone-bonding ability of titanium-based granules, which are intended to be used as bone graft. The titanium granules were anodized in ethylene glycol-based electrolyte and subsequently annealed to be loaded separately with simvastatin. The samples were then inspected with attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) for drug loading. The release of simvastatin from titanium granule samples was measured after soaking samples in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) for 30 days using ultraviolet-visible (UV/Vis) spectroscopy. The alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of MG63 osteosarcoma-loaded samples was measured, and microbroth dilution assay was performed to evaluate the antibacterial potential of drug-loaded and nonloaded titanium granule samples for bacterial growth. The results expressed the gradual and constant release of simvastatin within the duration of the examination. ALP of the samples showed improved activity of anodized and annealed granules, while the antibacterial test illustrated no significant improvement in their bactericidal effects. However, the simvastatin-loaded samples showed an improved antibacterial effect compared with nonloaded samples. It is assumed that anodizing, annealing, and subsequent simvastatin loading of titanium granules could be used as surface modification to improve osseointegration and restrain bacterial growth and adhesion. It is fair to believe that the results of this study could be used to treat titanium granules as bone graft substitute materials for dental and orthopedic applications.

  4. Uranium fluorides analysis. Titanium spectrophotometric determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    Titanium determination in uranium hexafluoride in the range 0.7 to 100 microgrammes after transformation of uranium fluoride in sulfate. Titanium is separated by extraction with N-benzoylphenylhydroxylamine, reextracted by hydrochloric-hydrofluoric acid. The complex titanium-N-benzoylphenylhydroxylamine is extracted by chloroform. Spectrophotometric determination at 400 nm [fr

  5. 21 CFR 73.1575 - Titanium dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Titanium dioxide. 73.1575 Section 73.1575 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1575 Titanium dioxide. (a) Identity and specifications. (1) The color additive titanium dioxide shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements...

  6. 40 CFR 180.1195 - Titanium dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Titanium dioxide. 180.1195 Section 180.1195 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS... Titanium dioxide. Titanium dioxide is exempted from the requirement of a tolerance for residues in or on...

  7. 21 CFR 73.2575 - Titanium dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Titanium dioxide. 73.2575 Section 73.2575 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2575 Titanium dioxide. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive titanium dioxide shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements...

  8. 21 CFR 73.575 - Titanium dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Titanium dioxide. 73.575 Section 73.575 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.575 Titanium dioxide. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive titanium dioxide is synthetically prepared TiO2, free from admixture with other substances. (2) Color...

  9. 21 CFR 73.3126 - Titanium dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Titanium dioxide. 73.3126 Section 73.3126 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 73.3126 Titanium dioxide. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive titanium dioxide (CAS Reg. No. 13463-67-7), Color Index No. 77891, shall...

  10. Adaptive mesh refinement in titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colella, Phillip; Wen, Tong

    2005-01-21

    In this paper, we evaluate Titanium's usability as a high-level parallel programming language through a case study, where we implement a subset of Chombo's functionality in Titanium. Chombo is a software package applying the Adaptive Mesh Refinement methodology to numerical Partial Differential Equations at the production level. In Chombo, the library approach is used to parallel programming (C++ and Fortran, with MPI), whereas Titanium is a Java dialect designed for high-performance scientific computing. The performance of our implementation is studied and compared with that of Chombo in solving Poisson's equation based on two grid configurations from a real application. Also provided are the counts of lines of code from both sides.

  11. South Africa's mineral industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-06-01

    The main aim of the Minerals Bureau in presenting this annual review is to provide an up-to-date reference document on the current state of the mineral industry in South Africa. This includes a brief look at the production, trade, economy, resources and deposits of precious metals and minerals, energy minerals, metallic minerals, and non-metallic minerals. One article discusses the production, trade, export, deposits and economy of uranium

  12. Phosphate Recovery From Sewage Sludge Containing Iron Phosphate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilfert, P.K.

    2018-01-01

    The scope of this thesis was to lay the basis for a phosphate recovery technology that can be applied on sewage sludge containing iron phosphate. Such a technology should come with minimal changes to the existing sludge treatment configuration while keeping the use of chemicals or energy as small as

  13. 21 CFR 137.175 - Phosphated flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Phosphated flour. 137.175 Section 137.175 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Related Products § 137.175 Phosphated flour. Phosphated flour, phosphated white flour, and phosphated...

  14. Miscellaneous Industrial Mineral Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes miscellaneous industrial minerals operations in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team...

  15. The titanium oxide phi system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galehouse, D. C.; Davis, S. P.

    1980-01-01

    The phy system of titanium oxide has been studied in emission in the near-infrared, with the Fourier transform spectrometer at a resolution of 8000,000. Approximately 3000 lines from 25 bands of this system have been identified, including all five 0-0 and 0-1 bands corresponding to the five natural titanium isotopes. Eleven vibrational levels have been observed, and all bands have been rotationally analyzed. Band intensities are agreement with known isotopic abundances and calculated Franck-Condon factors.

  16. Phytase-mediated enzymatic mineralization of chitosan-enriched hydrogels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lišková, Jana; Douglas, Timothy E.L.; Wijnants, Robbe

    2018-01-01

    Hydrogels mineralized with calcium phosphate (CaP) are increasingly popular bone regeneration biomaterials. Mineralization can be achieved by phosphatase enzyme incorporation and incubation in calcium glycerophosphate (CaGP). Gellan gum (GG) hydrogels containing the enzyme phytase and chitosan...... oligomer were mineralized in CaGP solution and characterized with human osteoblast-like MG63 cells and adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSC). Phytase induced CaP formation. Chitosan concentration determined mineralization extent and hydrogel mechanical reinforcement. Phytase-induced mineralization...... promoted MG63 adhesion and proliferation, especially in the presence of chitosan, and was non-toxic to MG63 cells (with and without chitosan). ADSC adhesion and proliferation were poor without mineralization. Chitosan did not affect ADSC osteogenic differentiation....

  17. Investigation of calcium phosphate coatings for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusof Abdullah; Idris Besar; Muhammad Jamal Md Isa; Mohamad Abd Razak; Hyzan Mohd Yusof

    1999-01-01

    Calcium phosphate is the main constituent of our bone and tooth minerals. The use of this bioactive material for coating implant such as artificial joint prosthesis, therefore, can promote biological fixation and enhance biocompatibility. Our initial work has been focused on the evaluation of experimental conditions of coating preparation and the effects of post-deposition calcium phosphate coatings on stainless steel substrates. The coating layers were produced by the precipitation technique and coatings were carried out in sol-gel by the dipping method. For comparison purposes a wet method was used to obtain a fine calcium phosphate ceramic powder for fabrication of microcrystal suspension used as a coating material. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive microanalysis (EDS), energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to characterise the morphology, chemical composition and structure of the coatings. The results showed that the dip coating of stainless steel substrates using viscous solutions lead to the formation of porous calcium phosphate layers. These results suggested that fabrication of bioactive calcium phosphate coatings using this route offers significant advantages over the currently used methods due to considerably lower temperature process involved and may produce better result for substrates with complex shapes

  18. Phosphate homeostasis in CKD: report of a scientific symposium sponsored by the National Kidney Foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Geoffrey A; Ix, Joachim H; Ketteler, Markus; Martin, Kevin J; Thadhani, Ravi I; Tonelli, Marcello; Wolf, Myles; Jüppner, Harald; Hruska, Keith; Wheeler, David C

    2013-09-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD)-mineral and bone disorder is associated with diverse metabolic and endocrine disturbances that ultimately may contribute to further loss of kidney function, bone demineralization, and fatal or nonfatal cardiovascular events. Recent insights into the pathophysiology of the events that unfold during the development of this disorder suggest that disturbances in phosphate metabolism are pivotal. The consequences of abnormal phosphate homeostasis are evident at estimated glomerular filtration rates <70 mL/min/1.73 m(2), long before serum phosphate levels increase. Healthy individuals with blood phosphate levels in the top quartile of the normal range have an increased risk of developing CKD, reaching end-stage renal disease, and experiencing cardiovascular events. Substantial public health consequences may be related to increased dietary phosphorus exposure from additives that contain phosphate in the food supply and from modest increases in serum phosphate levels; however, it remains to be established whether interventions aimed at these targets can impact on the development of adverse clinical outcomes. Current approaches involving dietary intervention and intestinal phosphate binders are based on principles and assumptions that need to be examined more rigorously. Compelling animal, observational, and clinical data indicate that interventions directed at lowering phosphate exposure and serum phosphate levels should be subject to rigorous clinical trials that use appropriate placebo comparators and focus on key clinical outcomes, such as cardiovascular events, progression of CKD, fractures, quality of life, and mortality. Copyright © 2013 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effectiveness and cost-efficiency of phosphate binders in hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsifkovits, Johannes

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Health political background: In 2006, the prevalence of chronic renal insufficiency in Germany was 91,718, of which 66,508 patients were on dialysis. The tendency is clearly growing. Scientific background: Chronic renal insufficiency results in a disturbance of the mineral balance. It leads to hyperphosphataemia, which is the strongest independent risk factor for mortality in renal patients. Usually, a reduction in the phosphate intake through nutrition and the amount of phosphate filtered out during dialysis are not sufficient to reduce the serum phosphate values to the recommended value. Therefore, phosphate binders are used to bind ingested phosphate in the digestive tract in order to lower the phosphate concentration in the serum. Four different groups of phosphate binders are available: calcium- and aluminium salts are the traditional therapies. Sevelamer and Lanthanum are recent developments on the market. In varying doses, all phosphate binders are able to effectively lower phosphate concentrations. However, drug therapies have achieved recommended phosphate levels in only 50 percent of patients during the last years. Research questions: How effective and efficient are the different phosphate binders in chronic renal insufficient patients? Methods: The systematic literature search yielded 1,251 abstracts. Following a two-part selection process with predefined criteria 18 publications were included in the assessment. Results: All studies evaluated conclude that serum phosphate, serum calcium and intact parathyroid hormone can be controlled effectively with all phosphate binders. Only the number of episodes of hypercalcaemia is higher when using calcium-containing phosphatebinders compared to Sevelamer and Lanthanum. Regarding the mortality rate, the cardiovascular artery calcification and bone metabolism no definite conclusions can be drawn. In any case, the amount of calcification at study start seems to be crucial for the further

  20. Minerals from Macedonia: XV. Sivec mineral assemble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boev, Blazho; Jovanovski, Gligor; Makreski, Petre; Bermanec, Vladimir

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents investigations carried out on the collected minerals from the Sivec deposit. It is situated in the vicinity of the town of Prilep, representing a rare occurrence of sugary white dolomite marbles. The application of suitable methods of exploitation of decorative-dimension stones makes possible to obtain large amounts of commercial blocks well known in the world. Despite the existence of dolomite marbles, a series of exotic minerals are typical in Sivec mineralization. Among them, the most significant are: calcite, fluorite, rutile, phlogopite, corundum, diaspore, almandine, kosmatite (clintonite or margarite), clinochlore, muscovite, quartz, pyrite, tourmaline and zoisite. An attempt to identify ten collected minerals using the FT IR spectroscopy is performed. The identification of the minerals was based on the comparison of the infrared spectra of our specimens with the corresponding literature data for the mineral species originating all over the world. The coloured pictures of all studied silicate minerals are presented as well. (Author)

  1. Mineralogical and textural characteristics of Kakul (Hazara) phosphate rock, NWFP, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehmood, R.; Bhatti, M.A.; Kazmi, K.R.; Mehmood, A.; Sheikh, S.T.; Aleem Shah, S.A.

    2010-01-01

    Various types of minerals, present in phosphate rock of Hazara area of Khyber Pukhtoonkhwa Province of Pakistan, were identified and their concentration was determined using a suitable method. The characteristics of the rock were defined by petrography, X-ray diffraction, and chemical analysis and the textural characteristics such as grain size, grain shape and their arrangement in the rock body were also investigated. The degree of liberation of phosphate-bearing mineral was studied by the particle-counting method. Mineralogical and textural observations indicated that fine-grained rock may be suitable for beneficiation by the froth flotation separation technique. (author)

  2. L-Myo-inositol 1-phosphate synthase in the aquatic fern Azolla filiculoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benaroya, Rony Oren; Zamski, Eli; Tel-Or, Elisha

    2004-02-01

    L-Myo-inositol 1-phosphate synthase (INPS EC 5.5.1.4) catalyzes the conversion of D-glucose 6-phosphate to L-myo-inositol 1-phosphate. INPS is a key enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of phytate which is a common form of stored phosphates in higher plants. The present study monitored the increase of INPS expression in Azolla filiculoides resulting from exposure to inorganic phosphates, metals and salt stress. The expression of INPS was significantly higher in Azolla plants that were grown in rich mineral growth medium than those maintained on nutritional growth medium. The expression of INPS protein and corresponding mRNA increased in plants cultured in minimal nutritional growth medium when phosphate or Zn2+, Cd2+ and NaCl were added to the growth medium. When employing rich mineral growth medium, INPS protein content increased with the addition of Zn2+, but decreased in the presence of Cd2+ and NaCl. These results indicated that accumulation of phytate in Azolla is a result of the intensified expression of INPS protein and mRNA, and its regulation may be primarily derived by the uptake of inorganic phosphate, and Zn2+, Cd2+ or NaCl.

  3. Adsorption of some radionuclides on kaolinite mineral surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafez, M.B.; Said, F.I.A.

    1986-01-01

    Fixation of 187 Cs(I), 144 Ce(III), 90 Sr(II), 233 U(VI), 239 Pu(IV) and 211 Am(III) from aqueous and phosphate media on kaolinite was studied. The fixation of the nuclides on the mineral was found to depend on the pH and the hydrolytic behaviour of the elements

  4. Trace mineral interactions during elevated calcium consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, K.T.; Luhrsen, K.R.

    1986-01-01

    Elevated calcium consumption is reported to affect trace mineral bioavailability. The authors examined this phenomenon in both single dose radio-label test meals and an eight week feeding trial in rats. In the single dose studies, human milk, cows milk, and various calcium sources were examined in relation to radio-iron and radio-zinc retention. 59 Fe retention was greater from human milk than cows milk. However, when the calcium content of human milk was adjusted (with CaHPO 4 or CaCO 3 ) to equal the level in cows milk, iron retention was depressed. Similarly, when calcium sources (CaCO 3 , CaHPO 4 , hydroxy-apatite, bone meal) were examined at different calcium:metal molar ratios, the degree of inhibition on metal retention varied. In general, phosphate salts were more inhibiting than carbonates. In the feeding trial, calcium was fed in diets at normal (0.5%) or elevated (1.5%) levels. Serum, liver, kidney, and bone trace mineral profiles were obtained. In general, most trace elements showed decreased levels in the tissues. Zinc and iron were most striking, followed by magnesium with minor changes in copper. A high calcium:high mineral supplemented group was also fed. Mixed mineral supplementation prevented all calcium interactions. These data indicate the importance of calcium mineral interactions in bioavailability considerations in both milk sources and in mineral supplementation

  5. Phosphate glasses, containing nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisitsyna, E.A.; Khalilev, V.D.; Koryavin, A.A.; Goncharova, L.N.

    1987-01-01

    Possibilities of nitrogen-containing glass synthesis by the introduction into the charge of ammonium salts, as well as aluminium nitride, are studied. Zinc alumoyttrium phosphate glass (mol. %) Zn(PO 3 ) 2 - 4O, Al(PO 3 ) 3 - 3O, Y(PO 3 ) 3 -3O is suggested as a matrix. It is shown that the effect of amide and imide groups on the properties of the glass is less noticeable than the effect of nitride groups. Direct introduction of nitride constituent was realized using AlN, but aluminium introduction was taken into account so that the oxide was subtracted. The attempt to introduce more than 2.5 mass % of nitrogen into initial matrix by aluminium nitride has failed due to repeated restoration of glass with amorphous phosphorus isolation

  6. Near-Net Shape Fabrication Using Low-Cost Titanium Alloy Powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. David M. Bowden; Dr. William H. Peter

    2012-03-31

    The use of titanium in commercial aircraft production has risen steadily over the last half century. The aerospace industry currently accounts for 58% of the domestic titanium market. The Kroll process, which has been used for over 50 years to produce titanium metal from its mineral form, consumes large quantities of energy. And, methods used to convert the titanium sponge output of the Kroll process into useful mill products also require significant energy resources. These traditional approaches result in product forms that are very expensive, have long lead times of up to a year or more, and require costly operations to fabricate finished parts. Given the increasing role of titanium in commercial aircraft, new titanium technologies are needed to create a more sustainable manufacturing strategy that consumes less energy, requires less material, and significantly reduces material and fabrication costs. A number of emerging processes are under development which could lead to a breakthrough in extraction technology. Several of these processes produce titanium alloy powder as a product. The availability of low-cost titanium powders may in turn enable a more efficient approach to the manufacture of titanium components using powder metallurgical processing. The objective of this project was to define energy-efficient strategies for manufacturing large-scale titanium structures using these low-cost powders as the starting material. Strategies include approaches to powder consolidation to achieve fully dense mill products, and joining technologies such as friction and laser welding to combine those mill products into near net shape (NNS) preforms for machining. The near net shape approach reduces material and machining requirements providing for improved affordability of titanium structures. Energy and cost modeling was used to define those approaches that offer the largest energy savings together with the economic benefits needed to drive implementation. Technical

  7. Advances in cost effective processing of titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, O.E.

    1993-01-01

    Recently an industry expert pointed out that one of the greatest hindrances to the growth of titanium usage has been the low percentage of material usable in the final product. Due to the extensive processing, forming, and machining operations typically performed on titanium, yield losses are high. This is especially true in aerospace applications where most titanium is used. In engine components, the start to finish ratio, known as the buy to fly ratio, is often as high as 7 to 1. This can be illustrated by looking at the use of titanium in Pratt and Whitney engines. In the JT-8D-217 used on Boeing's 737-200, the titanium buyweight is 5,385 pounds, whereas the finished titanium, flyweight is just 758 pounds. This start to finish ratio is 7.1:1, giving titanium 17.0% of total engine weight. (orig.)

  8. Lactobacillusassisted synthesis of titanium nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jha Anal

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractAn eco-friendlylactobacillussp. (microbe assisted synthesis of titanium nanoparticles is reported. The synthesis is performed at room temperature. X-ray and transmission electron microscopy analyses are performed to ascertain the formation of Ti nanoparticles. Individual nanoparticles as well as a number of aggregates almost spherical in shape having a size of 40–60 nm are found.

  9. On structural recrystallization in titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirzaev, D.A.; Schastlivtsev, V.M.; Shtejnberg, M.M.; Ul'yanov, V.G.; AN SSSR, Sverdlovsk. Inst. Fiziki Metallov)

    1984-01-01

    The effect of preliminary superfast quenching on structural changes at inverse α→β transformation in titanium is studied. Cooling at rates more than 10 4 deg/s results in grain refining at succeeding annealing in β- and α- regions. The obtained effect is explained by additional phase transformation-induced hardening conditioned by decrease of the transformation point at superfast cooling

  10. Nanodispersed boriding of titanium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostyuk, K.O.; Kostyuk, V.O.

    2015-01-01

    The problem of improving the operational reliability of machines is becoming increasingly important due to the increased mechanical, thermal and other loads on the details. There are many surface hardening methods for machines parts which breakdown begins with surface corruption. The most promising methods are chemical-thermal treatment. The aim of this work is to study the impact of boriding on the structure and properties of titanium alloy. Materials and Methods: The material of this study is VT3-1 titanium alloy. The boriding were conducted using nanodispersed powder blend based on boric substances. It is established that boriding of paste compounds allows obtaining the surface hardness within 30 - 29 GPa and with declining to 27- 26 GPa in layer to the transition zone (with total thickness up to 110 μm) owing to changes of the layer phase composition where T 2 B, TiB, TiB 2 titanium borides are formed. The increasing of chemical-thermal treatment time from 15 minutes to 2 hours leads to thickening of the borated layer (30 - 110 μm) and transition zone (30 - 190 μm). Due to usage of nanodispersed boric powder, the boriding duration is decreasing in 2 - 3 times. This allows saving time and electric energy. The developed optimal mode of boriding the VT3-1 titanium alloy allows obtaining the required operational characteristics and to combine the saturation of the surface layer with atomic boron and hardening

  11. Osteoblast growth behavior on porous-structure titanium surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian Yuan; Ding Siyang; Peng Hui; Lu Shanming; Wang Guoping [Research Institute of Stomatology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China); Xia Lu, E-mail: shelueia@yahoo.com.cn [Research Institute of Stomatology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China); Wang Peizhi, E-mail: wangpzi@sina.com [Research Institute of Stomatology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Micro-arc oxidation technology formed a porous feature on titanium surface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This porous surface accelerated adhesion, proliferation and differentiation compared with smooth surface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Osteogenesis-related proteins and genes were up regulated by this porous surface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It is anticipated that micro-arc oxidation surface could enhance osteoblastic activity and bone regeneration. - Abstract: A bioavailable surface generated by nano-technology could accelerate implant osteointegration, reduce healing time and enable implants to bear early loading. In this study, a nano-porous surface of titanium wafers was modified using micro-arc oxidation technique; surface of smooth titanium was used as control group. Surface characteristic was evaluated by investigating morphology, roughness and hydrophilicity of titanium wafers. In vitro studies, osteoblastic adhesion, proliferation and ALP activity, as well as gene and protein expressions relative to mineralization were assayed. Our results showed that a crater-liked nano-porous surface with greater roughness and better hydrophilicity were fabricated by micro-arc oxidation. It was further indicated that nano-porous surface could enhance adhesion, proliferation and ALP activity of osteoblasts compared with smooth surfaces. In addition, gene and protein expression of collagen-I, osteocalcin and osteopontin were also obviously increased. In summary, micro-arc oxidized techniques could form an irregular nano-porous morphology on implant surface which is favorable to improve osteoblastic function and prospected to be a potent modification of dental implant.

  12. Enzymatic mineralization of hydrogels for bone tissue engineering by incorporation of alkaline phosphatase.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douglas, T.E.L.; Messersmith, P.B.; Chasan, S.; Mikos, A.G.; Mulder, E.L.W. de; Dickson, G.; Schaubroeck, D.; Balcaen, L.; Vanhaecke, F.; Dubruel, P.; Jansen, J.A.; Leeuwenburgh, S.C.G.

    2012-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), an enzyme involved in mineralization of bone, is incorporated into three hydrogel biomaterials to induce their mineralization with calcium phosphate (CaP). These are collagen type I, a mussel-protein-inspired adhesive consisting of PEG substituted with catechol groups,

  13. Cell Attachment Following Instrumentation with Titanium and Plastic Instruments, Diode Laser, and Titanium Brush on Titanium, Titanium-Zirconium, and Zirconia Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Melissa S; Cerutis, D Roselyn; Miyamoto, Takanari; Nunn, Martha E

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the surface characteristics and gingival fibroblast adhesion of disks composed of implant and abutment materials following brief and repeated instrumentation with instruments commonly used in procedures for implant maintenance, stage-two implant surgery, and periimplantitis treatment. One hundred twenty disks (40 titanium, 40 titaniumzirconium, 40 zirconia) were grouped into treatment categories of instrumentation by plastic curette, titanium curette, diode microlaser, rotary titanium brush, and no treatment. Twenty strokes were applied to half of the disks in the plastic and titanium curette treatment categories, while half of the disks received 100 strokes each to simulate implant maintenance occurring on a repetitive basis. Following analysis of the disks by optical laser profilometry, disks were cultured with human gingival fibroblasts. Cell counts were conducted from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images. Differences in surface roughness across all instruments tested for zirconia disks were negligible, while both titanium disks and titaniumzirconium disks showed large differences in surface roughness across the spectrum of instruments tested. The rotary titanium brush and the titanium curette yielded the greatest overall mean surface roughness, while the plastic curette yielded the lowest mean surface roughness. The greatest mean cell counts for each disk type were as follows: titanium disks with plastic curettes, titanium-zirconium disks with titanium curettes, and zirconia disks with the diode microlaser. Repeated instrumentation did not result in cumulative changes in surface roughness of implant materials made of titanium, titanium-zirconium, or zirconia. Instrumentation with plastic implant curettes on titanium and zirconia surfaces appeared to be more favorable than titanium implant curettes in terms of gingival fibroblast attachment on these surfaces.

  14. Standard characterization of phosphate rock samples from the FAO/IAEA phosphate project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binh, Truong; Zapata, F.

    2002-01-01

    Phosphate rocks (PR) are phosphate-bearing minerals that vary widely in their inherent characteristics and consequently their agronomic potential. In the framework of a FAO/IAEA networked research project, the evaluation of the agronomic effectiveness of natural and modified PR products under a variety of soil climate and crop management conditions was carried out. The characterization of phosphate rocks is the first and essential step in evaluating their suitability for direct application. If several PR sources are utilized, standardized methods should be used for comparison purposes to determine their agronomic potential. This paper describes the standard characterization of phosphate rock products utilized in the project, in particular the mineralogical and crystallographic analyses, physical analyses, chemical composition and solubility in conventional reagents. A total of 28 phosphate rock samples from 15 countries were collected and analyzed in specialized laboratories. The data on mineralogy, chemical composition and solubility in conventional reagents are closely interrelated. An arbitrary classification of the reactivity of the PR samples was made based on the solubility indices in conventional reagents. On another hand, the results of the crystallographic parameters, calculated indices of absolute solubility, specific surface and porosity reflect the variability of the physical state and the sample pre-conditioning treatment of the analyzed products. A proper characterization of phosphate rock samples should provide the maximum of basic information that can be obtained in a cost-effective manner in normal chemical laboratories. Based on the results of this characterization, the following determinations are recommended: a description of the sample, major elemental (total P, Ca, Mg) composition, solubility in conventional reagents (neutral ammonium citrate, citric and formic acid) and particle size analysis. The classification of PR samples for direct

  15. Effect of pre-calving zeolite, magnesium and phosphorus supplemention on periparturient serum mineral concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Anders; Pallesen, Flemming; Jørgensen, Rolf Jess

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test whether supplementing dry cow rations with phosphorus (P) and magnesium (Mg) would interfere with the beneficial effect of zeolite supplementation on the periparturient blood calcium (Ca) concentration in dairy cattle. Three groups (A-C) of 10 Danish Jersey...... cows were each given the following daily supplements from 2 weeks before the expected date of calving until actual calving: group A: zeolite, monoammonium phosphate, standard dry cow mineral and vitamin mix, containing 61g magnesium phosphate; group B: zeolite, standard mineral and vitamin mix without...... the magnesium phosphate and group C: standard mineral and vitamin mix, monoammonium phosphate. All cows in group B had an apparently less variable serum calcium concentration around calving with no cases of milk fever and no subclinical hypocalcaemia or hypomagnesaemia recorded. In contrast, a parturient drop...

  16. New french uranium mineral species; Nouvelles especes uraniferes francaises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branche, G; Chervet, J; Guillemin, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Lab. du Fort de Chatillon, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1952-07-01

    In this work, the authors study the french new uranium minerals: parsonsite and renardite, hydrated phosphates of lead and uranium; kasolite: silicate hydrated of uranium and lead uranopilite: sulphate of uranium hydrated; bayleyite: carbonate of uranium and of hydrated magnesium; {beta} uranolite: silicate of uranium and of calcium hydrated. For all these minerals, the authors give the crystallographic, optic characters, and the quantitative chemical analyses. On the other hand, the following species, very rare in the french lodgings, didn't permit to do quantitative analyses. These are: the lanthinite: hydrated uranate oxide; the {alpha} uranotile: silicate of uranium and of calcium hydrated; the bassetite: uranium phosphate and of hydrated iron; the hosphuranylite: hydrated uranium phosphate; the becquerelite: hydrated uranium oxide; the curite: oxide of uranium and lead hydrated. Finally, the authors present at the end of this survey a primary mineral: the brannerite, complex of uranium titanate. (author) [French] Dans ce travail, les auteurs etudient les nouveaux mineraux uraniferes francais: parsonsite et renardite, phosphates hydrates de plomb et d'uranium; kasolite: silicate hydrate d'uranium et de plomb uranopilite: sulfate d'uranium hydrate; bayleyite: carbonate d'uranium et de magnesium hydrate; {beta} uranolite: silicate d'uranium et de calcium hydrate. Pour tous ces mineraux, les auteurs donnent les caracteres cristallographiques, optiques, et les analyses chimiques quantitatives. Par contre, les especes suivantes, tres rares dans les gites francais, n'ont pas permis d'effectuer d'analyses quantitatives. Ce sont: l'ianthinite: oxyde uraneux hydrate; l'{alpha} uranotile: silicate d'uranium et de calcium hydrate; le bassetite: phosphate d'uranium et de fer hydrate; la hosphuranylite: phosphate duranium hydrate; la becquerelite: oxyde d'uranium hydrate; la curite: oxyde d'uranium et de plomb hydrate. Enfin, les auteurs presentent a la fin de cette etude

  17. Investigation of chromosomal aberrations in human lymphocytes of Syrian phosphate mine workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Achkar, W.; Osman, M.

    1994-04-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the exposure risk to Uranium and its radioactive products in Syrian phosphate miners (Khneefees and Al-Sharkia). Chromosomal aberrations have been estimated in peripheral blood lymphocytes of miners using whole blood cultures 'in vitro' for 48 hrs. The control group has been the normal population in Damascus 180 km far from Khneefees and 210 Km from Al-Sharkia. Our results have shown a significant difference between the miners and our control group. However there was no significant difference between the two miners groups. These results show an accumulative biological effect induced by environmental contamination in the Syrian phosphate mines. (author). 21 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs

  18. New titanium and titanium/hydroxyapatite coatings on ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene-in vitro osteoblastic performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, M A; Lopes, M A; Santos, J D; Fernandes, M H; Gomes, P S; Vila, M; Silva, R F

    2010-01-01

    The development of optimized hip joint materials is one of the most challenging opportunities in prosthetic technologies. In current approaches, ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) has been a favorite material for the acetabular component and, regarding the cementless technique, several coating options may be considered to contain and stabilize bearing surfaces and establish an improved interface with bone. In this work, newly developed constructs of UHMWPE coated with either commercially pure titanium (cpTi-UHMWPE), by DC magnetron sputtering, or with commercially pure titanium and hydroxyapatite (cpTi/HA-UHMWPE), by DC/RF magnetron co-sputtering, have been prepared and biologically characterized with human bone marrow-derived osteoblastic cultures. The cpTi-UHMWPE samples allowed a high cell growth and the expression of the complete osteoblastic phenotype, with high alkaline phosphatase activity, expression of osteogenic-associated genes and evident cell-mediated mineralization of the extracellular matrix. In comparison, the cpTi/HA-UHMWPE samples reported lower cell proliferation but earlier cell-mediated matrix mineralization. Accordingly, these newly developed systems may be suitable candidates to improve the osteointegration process in arthroplastic devices; nevertheless, further biological evaluation should be conducted.

  19. Electrochemical Reduction of Zinc Phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chang Hwan; Lee, Jung Hyun; Shin, Woon Sup

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrated first that the electrochemical reduction of zinc phosphate in neutral phosphate buffer is possible and potentially applicable to bio-compatible rechargeable battery. The actual redox component is Zn(s)/Zn phosphate(s) and the future research about the control of crystal formation for the better cyclability is required. In lead-acid battery, the electrochemical redox reaction of Pb (s) /PbSO 4(s) is used by reducing Pb(II) and oxidizing Pb(0) in sulfate rich solution. Since both reduced form and oxidized form are insoluble, they cannot diffuse to the opposite electrodes and react. It is a very common strategy to make a stable battery electrode that a metal element is reduced and oxidized in solution containing an abundance of anion readily precipitating with the metal ion. For the application of this strategy to construction of rechargeable battery using bio-compatible electrode materials and electrolytes, the use of phosphate ion can be considered as anion readily precipitating with metal ions. If phosphate buffer with neutral pH is used as electrolyte, the better bio-compatibility will be achieved than most of rechargeable battery using strong acid, strong base or organic solvent as electrolyte solution. There are many metal ions readily precipitating with phos-phate ion, and zinc is one of them

  20. Preparation of pHEMA-CP composites with high interfacial adhesionvia template-driven mineralization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jie; Saiz, Eduardo; Bertozzi, Carolyn R.

    2002-12-05

    We report a template-driven nucleation and mineral growth process for the high-affinity integration of calcium phosphate (CP) with a poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (pHEMA) hydrogel scaffold. A mineralization technique was developed that exposes carboxylate groups on the surface of crosslinked pHEMA, promoting high-affinity nucleation and growth of calcium phosphate on the surface along with extensive calcification of the hydrogel interior. External factors such as the heating rate, the agitation of the mineral stock solution and the duration of the process that affect the outcome of the mineralization were investigated. This template-driven mineralization technique provides an efficient approach toward bonelike composites with high mineral-hydrogel interfacial adhesion strength.

  1. Manufacture of nanosized apatite coatings on titanium with different surface treatments using a supersaturated calcification solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Paz Ramos

    Full Text Available The biomimetic method is used for the deposition of calcium phosphate coatings (Ca - P on the surface of different biomaterials. However, the application of this method requires long exposure times in order to obtain a suitable layer thickness for its use in medical devices. In this paper, we present a fast approach to obtain apatite coatings on titanium, using a combination of supersaturated calcification solution (SCS with chemical modification of the titanium surface. Also, it was evaluated the effect of four different surface treatments on the apatite deposition rate. Commercially pure titanium plates were activated by chemical or thermochemical treatments. Then, the activated samples were immersed in a solution with high content of calcium and phosphate ions at 37 ºC for 24 h, mimicking the physiological conditions. The coatings were studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX. The use of SCS solutions allowed the formation of crystalline hydroxyapatite coatings within a period of 24 h with a thickness between 1 and 5.3 µm. Besides, precipitates of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles with a globular configuration, forming aggregates with submicrometer size, were found in SCS solutions.

  2. Adsorption of arsenic and phosphate onto the surface of calcite as revealed by batch experiments and surface complexation modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sø, Helle Ugilt

    different calcite-equilibrated solutions that varied in pH, PCO2, ionic strength and activity of Ca2+, CO3 2- and HCO3 -. To avoid the precipitation of phosphate or arsenic-containing minerals the experiments were conducted using a short reaction time (generally 3 h) and a low concentration of phosphate...... adsorption affinity for calcite is greater as compared to arsenate and the phosphate sorption isotherms are more strongly curved. However, the amount of both arsenate and phosphate adsorbed varied with the solution composition in the same manner. In particular, adsorption increased as the CO3 2- activity...... decreased (at constant pH) and as pH increased (at constant CO3 2- activity). The dependency on the carbonate activity indicates competition for sorption sites between carbonate and arsenate/phosphate, whereas the pH dependency is likely a response to changes in arsenate and phosphate speciation...

  3. Hydrogen permeation resistant phosphate coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    A method for reducing hydrogen diffusion through metal wherein the metal is coated with a phosphate-radical-containing, phosphate-glass-forming material on at least one surface thereof. The coating is then heated to at least 350 0 C to form a phosphate glass. This method is especially applicable to nuclear reactors to minimize tritium diffusion. The coating is preferably formed with a solution of phosphoric acid which may also contain compounds such as MnSO 4 , SiO 2 and Na 2 Cr 2 0 7 . (author)

  4. Hydrogen permeation resistant phosphate coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    A method for reducing hydrogen diffusion through metal is described. The metal is coated with a phosphate-radical-containing, phosphate-glass-forming material on at least one surface. The coating is then heated to at least 350 0 C to form a phosphate glass. This method is especially applicable to nuclear reactors to minimize tritium diffusion. The coating is preferably formed with a solution of phosphoric acid which may also contain compounds such as MnSO 4 , SiO 2 and Na 2 Cr 2 O 7 . (author)

  5. Analysis of titanium content in titanium tetrachloride solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Xiaoguo; Dong, Yingnan; Li, Shanshan; Guan, Duojiao; Wang, Jianyu; Tang, Meiling

    2018-03-01

    Strontium titanate, barium titan and lead titanate are new type of functional ceramic materials with good prospect, and titanium tetrachloride is a commonly in the production such products. Which excellent electrochemical performance of ferroelectric tempreature coefficient effect.In this article, three methods are used to calibrate the samples of titanium tetrachloride solution by back titration method, replacement titration method and gravimetric analysis method. The results show that the back titration method has many good points, for example, relatively simple operation, easy to judgment the titration end point, better accuracy and precision of analytical results, the relative standard deviation not less than 0.2%. So, it is the ideal of conventional analysis methods in the mass production.

  6. Influence of titanium implant surface characteristics on bone regeneration in dehiscence-type defects: an experimental study in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Frank; Sager, Martin; Kadelka, Ines; Ferrari, Daniel; Becker, Jürgen

    2010-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare bone regeneration in dehiscence-type defects at titanium implants with chemically modified sandblasted/acid-etched (modSLA) or dual acid-etched surfaces with a calcium phosphate nanometre particle modification (DCD/CaP). Buccal dehiscence-type defects were surgically created following implant site preparation in both the upper and the lower jaws of 12 fox hounds. Both types of implants were randomly allocated in a split-mouth design and left to heal in a submerged position for 2 and 8 weeks. Dissected blocks were processed for histomorphometrical analysis [e.g. new bone height (NBH), percentage of bone-to-implant contact (BIC), area of new bone fill (BF), and area of mineralized tissue (MT) within BF]. At 2 and 8 weeks, both groups revealed comparable mean BF (2.3+/-0.6 to 2.5+/-0.6 mm(2)versus 2.0+/-0.6 to 1.4+/-0.5 mm(2)) and MT (31.1+/-14.3-83.2+/-8.2%versus 38.9+/-15.9-84.4+/-6.3%) values. However, modSLA implants revealed significantly higher mean NBH (2.4+/-0.8 to 3.6+/-0.3 mm versus 0.9+/-0.8 to 1.8+/-1.4 mm) and BIC (53.3+/-11.3-79.5+/-6.6%versus 19.3+/-16.4-47.2+/-30.7%) values than DCD/CaP implants. ModSLA implants may have a higher potential to support osseointegration in dehiscence-type defects than DCD/CaP implants.

  7. Nanocoating of titanium implant surfaces with organic molecules. Polysaccharides including glycosaminoglycans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gurzawska, Katarzyna Aleksandra; Svava, Rikke; Jørgensen, Niklas Rye

    2012-01-01

    Long-term stability of titanium implants are dependent on a variety of factors. Nanocoating with organic molecules is one of the method used to improve osseointegration. Nanoscale modification of titanium implants affects surface properties, such as hydrophilicity, biochemical bonding capacity...... and roughness. This influences cell behaviour on the surface such as adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of cells as well as the mineralization of the extracellular matrix at the implant surfaces. The aim of the present systematic review was to describe organic molecules used for surface nanocoating...... nanocoatings. The included in vivo studies, showed improvement of bone interface reactions measured as increased Bone-to-Implant Contact length and Bone Mineral Density adjacent to the polysaccharide coated surfaces. Based on existing literature, surface modification with polysaccharide and glycosaminoglycans...

  8. Precaecal phosphorus digestibility of inorganic phosphate sources in male broilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikker, P.; Spek, J. W.; Van Emous, R. A.; Van Krimpen, M. M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study, comprising two experiments, was (1) to determine in Experiment 1 the relationship of incremental dietary P (phosphorus) content on precaecal digestible P in male broilers and (2) to determine in Experiment 2 the precaecal P digestibility of various inorganic P sources at marginal levels of P supply.In Experiment 1, a total of 260 male Ross 308 broilers were divided into groups of 10 birds per pen resulting in 8 replicates for treatment 1 and 6 replicates for treatments 2–4. Experimental diets were formulated to contain 4 incremental concentrations of digestible P by means of increasing concentrations of monocalcium phosphate (MCP). In the second experiment, 480-d-old male Ross 308 broilers were divided in groups of 12 birds per pen resulting in 16 replicates for the basal diet and 6 replicates for each test diet. A total of 4 inorganic P sources, MCP, monodicalcium phosphate (MDCP), dicalcium phosphate (DCP) and defluorinated phosphate (DFP) were added to the basal diet to determine the precaecal P digestibility. Three of the 4 inorganic P sources (MCP, MDCP and DCP) represented a mix of batches from different producers. At the end of both experiments, the chyme of the posterior part of the small intestine was collected. Digestibility of P and Ca was determined using titanium dioxide as indigestible marker.In Experiment 1, a reduction in precaecal digestibility of P was observed above an estimated precaecal digestible dietary P concentration of 4.8 g/kg.The precaecal P digestibility of the tested inorganic P sources in Experiment 2 was 78.3% for MCP, 59.0% for DCP, 70.7% for MDCP and 31.5% for DFP. PMID:27635437

  9. Multifunction Sr, Co and F co-doped microporous coating on titanium of antibacterial, angiogenic and osteogenic activities

    OpenAIRE

    Jianhong Zhou; Lingzhou Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Advanced multifunction titanium (Ti) based bone implant with antibacterial, angiogenic and osteogenic activities is stringently needed in clinic, which may be accomplished via incorporation of proper inorganic bioactive elements. In this work, microporous TiO2/calcium-phosphate coating on Ti doped with strontium, cobalt and fluorine (SCF-TiCP) was developed, which had a hierarchical micro/nano-structure with a microporous structure evenly covered with nano-grains. SCF-TiCP greatly inhibited t...

  10. Mineral supplementation in Tunisian smallholder dairy farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rekhis, J.; Kouki-Chebbi, K.; Dhaouadi, B.; Khlif, K.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the experiment was to determine the effects of supplementation of di-calcium-phosphate in the form of blocks in late pregnancy (2 months before calving), on production and reproduction parameters of dairy cattle in smallholder farms. The experiment covered 63 animals in 20 smallholder farms, divided into control and supplemented groups. Results showed that mineral supplementation had a significant effect on calf weight, milk fat content and reproduction parameters. Calves born to cattle supplemented with di-calcium-phosphate were heavier by 1.67 kg than those in the control group. Similarly, the average milk fat content in the supplemented group was 5.6 g/L (P 0.05). (author)

  11. Calcium phosphates for biomedical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Canillas

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The history of calcium phosphates in the medicine field starts in 1769 when the first evidence of its existence in the bone tissue is discovered. Since then, the interest for calcium phosphates has increased among the scientific community. Their study has been developed in parallel with new advances in materials sciences, medicine or tissue engineering areas. Bone tissue engineering is the field where calcium phosphates have had a great importance. While the first bioceramics are selected according to bioinert, biocompatibility and mechanical properties with the aim to replace bone tissue damaged, calcium phosphates open the way to the bone tissue regeneration challenge. Nowadays, they are present in the majority of commercial products directed to repair or regenerate damaged bone tissue. Finally, in the last few decades, they have been suggested and studied as drug delivering devices and as vehicles of DNA and RNA for the future generation therapies.

  12. Variability of nitrate and phosphate

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sardessai, S.; Sundar, D.

    Nitrate and phosphate are important elements of the biogeochemical system of an estuary. Observations carried out during the dry season April-May 2002, and March 2003 and wet season September 2002, show temporal and spatial variability of these two...

  13. Preparation of calcium phosphate paste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Reusmaazran Yusof; Norzita Yaacob; Idris Besar; Che Seman Mahmood; Rusnah Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    Calcium phosphate paste were prepared by mixing between calcium sodium potassium phosphate, Ca 2 NaK (PO 4 ) 2 (CSPP) and monocalcium phosphate monohydrate, Ca(H 2 PO 4 ) 2 .H 2 O (MCPM). CSPP were obtained by reaction between calcium hydrogen phosphate (CaHPO 4 ), potassium carbonate (K 2 CO 3 ) and sodium carbonate (Na 2 CO 3 ) in solid state sintering process followed by quenching in air at 1000 degree Celsius. The paste was aging in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 0.5, 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 hrs, 3, 7 and 14 days. The morphological investigation indicated the formation of apatite crystal were first growth after 24 hours. The obvious growth of apatite crystal was shown at 3 days. The obvious growth of apatite crystal was shown in 7 and 14 days indicated the prediction of paste would have rapid reaction with bone after implantation. (author)

  14. Calcium phosphates for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canillas, M.; Pena, P.; Aza, A.H. de; Rodriguez, M.A.

    2017-07-01

    The history of calcium phosphates in the medicine field starts in 1769 when the first evidence of its existence in the bone tissue is discovered. Since then, the interest for calcium phosphates has increased among the scientific community. Their study has been developed in parallel with new advances in materials sciences, medicine or tissue engineering areas. Bone tissue engineering is the field where calcium phosphates have had a great importance. While the first bioceramics are selected according to bioinert, biocompatibility and mechanical properties with the aim to replace bone tissue damaged, calcium phosphates open the way to the bone tissue regeneration challenge. Nowadays, they are present in the majority of commercial products directed to repair or regenerate damaged bone tissue. Finally, in the last few decades, they have been suggested and studied as drug delivering devices and as vehicles of DNA and RNA for the future generation therapies. (Author)

  15. Products and stability of phosphate reactions with lead under freeze-thaw cycling in simple systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hafsteinsdottir, Erla G., E-mail: erla.hafsteinsdottir@gmail.com [Department of Environment and Geography, Macquarie University, NSW 2109 (Australia); White, Duanne A., E-mail: duanne.white@mq.edu.au [Department of Environment and Geography, Macquarie University, NSW 2109 (Australia); Gore, Damian B., E-mail: damian.gore@mq.edu.au [Department of Environment and Geography, Macquarie University, NSW 2109 (Australia); Stark, Scott C., E-mail: scott.stark@aad.gov.au [Environmental Protection and Change, Australian Antarctic Division, Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities, Tasmania 7050 (Australia)

    2011-12-15

    Orthophosphate fixation of metal contaminated soils in environments that undergo freeze-thaw cycles is understudied. Freeze-thaw cycling potentially influences the reaction rate, mineral chemical stability and physical breakdown of particles during fixation. This study determines what products form when phosphate (triple superphosphate [Ca(H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}){sub 2}] or sodium phosphate [Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4}]) reacts with lead (PbSO{sub 4} or PbCl{sub 2}) in simple chemical systems in vitro, and assesses potential changes in formation during freeze-thaw cycles. Systems were subjected to multiple freeze-thaw cycles from +10 deg. C to -20 deg. C and then analysed by X-ray diffractometry. Pyromorphite formed in all systems and was stable over multiple freeze-thaw cycles. Low temperature lead orthophosphate reaction efficiency varied according to both phosphate and lead source; the most time-efficient pyromorphite formation was observed when PbSO{sub 4} and Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4} were present together. These findings have implications for the manner in which metal contaminated materials in freezing ground can be treated with phosphate. - Highlights: > Formation of lead phosphate products in cold environments is identified. > Potential change in formation during freeze-thaw cycling is assessed. > Lead phosphate reaction efficiency varies according to phosphate and lead source. > Pyromorphite formation is stable during 240 freeze-thaw cycles. - Pyromorphite, formed from Pb phosphate fixation, is stable during multiple freeze-thaw cycles but the efficiency of the fixation depends on the phosphate source and the type of Pb mineral.

  16. Products and stability of phosphate reactions with lead under freeze-thaw cycling in simple systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafsteinsdottir, Erla G.; White, Duanne A.; Gore, Damian B.; Stark, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    Orthophosphate fixation of metal contaminated soils in environments that undergo freeze-thaw cycles is understudied. Freeze-thaw cycling potentially influences the reaction rate, mineral chemical stability and physical breakdown of particles during fixation. This study determines what products form when phosphate (triple superphosphate [Ca(H 2 PO 4 ) 2 ] or sodium phosphate [Na 3 PO 4 ]) reacts with lead (PbSO 4 or PbCl 2 ) in simple chemical systems in vitro, and assesses potential changes in formation during freeze-thaw cycles. Systems were subjected to multiple freeze-thaw cycles from +10 deg. C to -20 deg. C and then analysed by X-ray diffractometry. Pyromorphite formed in all systems and was stable over multiple freeze-thaw cycles. Low temperature lead orthophosphate reaction efficiency varied according to both phosphate and lead source; the most time-efficient pyromorphite formation was observed when PbSO 4 and Na 3 PO 4 were present together. These findings have implications for the manner in which metal contaminated materials in freezing ground can be treated with phosphate. - Highlights: → Formation of lead phosphate products in cold environments is identified. → Potential change in formation during freeze-thaw cycling is assessed. → Lead phosphate reaction efficiency varies according to phosphate and lead source. → Pyromorphite formation is stable during 240 freeze-thaw cycles. - Pyromorphite, formed from Pb phosphate fixation, is stable during multiple freeze-thaw cycles but the efficiency of the fixation depends on the phosphate source and the type of Pb mineral.

  17. Iron and manganese shuttles control the formation of authigenic phosphorus minerals in the euxinic basins of the Baltic Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jilbert, T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304835714; Slomp, C.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/159424003

    2013-01-01

    Microanalysis of epoxy resin-embedded sediments is used to demonstrate the presence of authigenic iron (Fe) (II) phosphates and manganese (Mn)-calcium (Ca)-carbonate-phosphates in the deep euxinic basins of the Baltic Sea. These minerals constitute major burial phases of phosphorus (P) in this area,

  18. Titanium gettering in Doublet III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Grassie, J.S.; Callis, R.; Campbell, G.

    1980-08-01

    The application of mild titanium gettering in the Doublet III tokamak has led to a significant improvement in the obtainable operating regimes and discharge parameters for all of the many plasma cross-sectional shapes studied. With gettering, low-Z impurities and radiated power are greatly reduced. The maximum line averaged electron density has increased 50% (anti n/sub e max/ approx. 1 x 10 20 /m 3 ), corresponding to a Murakami coefficient of nearly 6

  19. Phosphate solubilization and multiple plant growth promoting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phosphate solubilizing efficiencies of the strains were analyzed using different insoluble phosphorus sources and the results show that most isolates released a substantial amount of soluble phosphate from tricalcium phosphate, rock phosphate and bone meal. Screening for multiple plant growth promoting attributes ...

  20. Magnesium substitution in the structure of orthopedic nanoparticles: A comparison between amorphous magnesium phosphates, calcium magnesium phosphates, and hydroxyapatites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabiyouni, Maryam; Ren, Yufu; Bhaduri, Sarit B.

    2015-01-01

    As biocompatible materials, magnesium phosphates have received a lot of attention for orthopedic applications. During the last decade multiple studies have shown advantages for magnesium phosphate such as lack of cytotoxicity, biocompatibility, strong mechanical properties, and high biodegradability. The present study investigates the role of Mg +2 and Ca +2 ions in the structure of magnesium phosphate and calcium phosphate nanoparticles. To directly compare the effect of Mg +2 and Ca +2 ions on structure of nanoparticles and their biological behavior, three groups of nanoparticles including amorphous magnesium phosphates (AMPs) which release Mg +2 , calcium magnesium phosphates (CMPs) which release Mg +2 and Ca +2 , and hydroxyapatites (HAs) which release Ca +2 were studied. SEM, TEM, XRD, and FTIR were used to evaluate the morphology, crystallinity, and chemical properties of the particles. AMP particles were homogeneous nanospheres, whereas CMPs were combinations of heterogeneous nanorods and nanospheres, and HAs which contained heterogeneous nanosphere particles. Cell compatibility was monitored in all groups to determine the cytotoxicity effect of particles on studied MC3T3-E1 preosteoblasts. AMPs showed significantly higher attachment rate than the HAs after 1 day and both AMPs and CMPs showed significantly higher proliferation rate when compared to HAs after 7 days. Gene expression level of osteoblastic markers ALP, COL I, OCN, OPN, RUNX2 were monitored and they were normalized to GAPDH housekeeping gene. Beta actin expression level was monitored as the second housekeeping gene to confirm the accuracy of results. In general, AMPs and CMPs showed higher expression level of osteoblastic genes after 7 days which can further confirm the stimulating role of Mg + 2 and Ca +2 ions in increasing the proliferation rate, differentiation, and mineralization of MC3T3-E1 preosteoblasts. - Highlights: • Role of Mg 2+ and Ca 2+ ions in proliferation, and differentiation

  1. Electrical properties of phosphate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mogus-Milankovic, A; Santic, A; Reis, S T; Day, D E

    2009-01-01

    Investigation of the electrical properties of phosphate glasses where transition metal oxide such as iron oxide is the network former and network modifier is presented. Phosphate glasses containing iron are electronically conducting glasses where the polaronic conduction is due to the electron hopping from low to high iron valence state. The identification of structural defects caused by ion/polaron migration, the analysis of dipolar states and electrical conductivity in iron phosphate glasses containing various alkali and mixed alkali ions was performed on the basis of the impedance spectroscopy (IS). The changes in electrical conductivity from as-quenched phosphate glass to fully crystallized glass (glass-ceramics) by IS are analyzed. A change in the characteristic features of IS follows the changes in glass and crystallized glass network. Using IS, the contribution of glass matrix, crystallized grains and grain boundary to the total electrical conductivity for iron phosphate glasses was analyzed. It was shown that decrease in conductivity is caused by discontinuities in the conduction pathways as a result of the disruption of crystalline network where two or more crystalline phases are formed. Also, phosphate-based glasses offer a unique range of biomaterials, as they form direct chemical bonding with hard/soft tissue. The surface charges of bioactive glasses are recognized to be the most important factors in determining biological responses. The improved bioactivity of the bioactive glasses as a result of the effects of the surface charges generated by electrical polarization is discussed.

  2. Analogy and differences between aluminium and titanium electrowinning

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Vuuren, DS

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available larger market. The authors have tested this route experimentally, but could not produce pure titanium. The failure of electrowinning pure, molten titanium has been interpreted in terms of the analogy and differences between aluminium and titanium...

  3. Research and Development on Titanium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    1949-10-31

    information concerning the runs made * * In order to check the general operation of the train and furnace, a number of qualitative runs were made. These runs... General Technique. * . . * * . 109 The Analysis of Titanium . . . . ... ... 112 Notes and Comments, . . . .. . .. . . . 113 The Results from Vacuum...described in this report are as follows: 1. Arc ielting Titanium-Base Alloys. 2. Evaluation of Experimental Titanium-Base Alloys. 3. Investigation of

  4. Titanium metal obtention by fused salts electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perillo, P.M.; Ares, Osvaldo; Botbol, Jose.

    1989-01-01

    Potassium fluorotitanate dissolved in fused sodium chloride or potassium chloride may be electrolyzed under an inert gas atmosphere. Solid electrolysis products are formed on the cathode which contains titanium metal, sodium chloride, lower fluorotitanates and small quantities of alkali metal fluorotitanate. The extraction of titanium from the electrolysis products may be carried out by aqueous leaching (removal of chloride salts of alkali metals and a certain amount of fluorotitanates). Titanium metal obtained is relatively pure. (Author)

  5. Production of titanium from ilmenite: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohli, R.

    1981-12-01

    The general principles for beneficiation of titanium ores are reviewed and the specific processes used in individual units in various countries are discussed. This is followed by a critical evaluation of various current and potential reduction methods for the production of titanium metal from the processed concentrates. Finally, the report outlines a research program for the development of a commercially viable alternative method for the production of titanium metal.

  6. Strength and structure of nanocrystalline titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noskova, N.I.; Pereturina, I.A.; Elkina, O.A.; Stolyarov, V.V.

    2004-01-01

    Investigation results on strength and plasticity of nanocrystalline titanium VT-1 are presented. Specific features of plastic deformation on tension of this material specimens in an electron microscope column are studied in situ. It is shown that nanocrystalline titanium strength and plasticity at room temperature are dependent on the structure and nanograin size. It is revealed that deformation processes in nanocrystalline titanium are characterized by activation of deformation rotational modes and microtwinning [ru

  7. Cranioplasty with individual titanium implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishinov, S.; Stupak, V.; Sadovoy, M.; Mamonova, E.; Koporushko, N.; Larkin, V.; Novokshonov, A.; Dolzhenko, D.; Panchenko, A.; Desyatykh, I.; Krasovsky, I.

    2017-09-01

    Cranioplasty is the second procedure in the history of neurosurgery after trepanation, and it is still relevant despite the development of civilization and progress in medicine. Each cranioplasty operation is unique because there are no two patients with identical defects of the skull bones. The development of Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) technique opened up the possibility of direct implant printing of titanium, a biocompatible metal used in medicine. This eliminates the need for producing any intermediate products to create the desired implant. We have produced 8 patient-specific titanium implants using this technique for patients who underwent different decompressive cranioectomies associated with bone tumors. Follow-up duration ranged from 6 to 12 months. We observed no implant-related reactions or complications. In all cases of reconstructive neurosurgery we achieved good clinical and aesthetic results. The analysis of the literature and our own experience in three-dimensional modeling, prototyping, and printing suggests that direct laser sintering of titanium is the optimal method to produce biocompatible surgical implants.

  8. Machinability evaluation of titanium alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Masafumi; Okuno, Osamu

    2004-03-01

    In the present study, the machinability of titanium, Ti-6Al-4V, Ti-6A1-7Nb, and free-cutting brass was evaluated using a milling machine. The metals were slotted with square end mills under four cutting conditions. The cutting force and the rotational speed of the spindle were measured. The cutting forces for Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-6Al-7Nb were higher and that for brass was lower than that for titanium. The rotational speed of the spindle was barely affected by cutting. The cross sections of the Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-6Al-7Nb chips were more clearly serrated than those of titanium, which is an indication of difficult-to-cut metals. There was no marked difference in the surface roughness of the cut surfaces among the metals. Cutting force and the appearance of the metal chips were found to be useful as indices of machinability and will aid in the development of new alloys for dental CAD/CAM and the selection of suitable machining conditions.

  9. Ion implantation induced nanotopography on titanium and bone cell adhesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braceras, Iñigo, E-mail: inigo.braceras@tecnalia.com [Tecnalia, Mikeletegi Pasealekua 2, 20009 Donostia-San Sebastian (Spain); CIBER de Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (Ciber-BBN) (Spain); Vera, Carolina; Ayerdi-Izquierdo, Ana [Tecnalia, Mikeletegi Pasealekua 2, 20009 Donostia-San Sebastian (Spain); CIBER de Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (Ciber-BBN) (Spain); Muñoz, Roberto [Tecnalia, Mikeletegi Pasealekua 2, 20009 Donostia-San Sebastian (Spain); Lorenzo, Jaione; Alvarez, Noelia [Tecnalia, Mikeletegi Pasealekua 2, 20009 Donostia-San Sebastian (Spain); CIBER de Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (Ciber-BBN) (Spain); Maeztu, Miguel Ángel de [Private Practice, P° San Francisco, 43 A-1°, 20400 Tolosa (Spain)

    2014-08-15

    Graphical abstract: Titanium surfaces modified by inert ion implantation affect cell adhesion through modification of the nanotopography in the same dimensional range of that of human bone inorganic phases. - Highlights: • Inert ion implantation on Ti modifies surface nanotopography and bone cell adhesion. • Ion implantation can produce nanostructured surfaces on titanium in the very same range as of those of the mineral phase of the human bone. • Appropriate tool for studying the relevance of nanostructured surfaces on bone mineralization and implant osseointegration. • Ion implantation induced nanotopography have a statistically significant influence on bone cell adhesion. - Abstract: Permanent endo-osseous implants require a fast, reliable and consistent osseointegration, i.e. intimate bonding between bone and implant, so biomechanical loads can be safely transferred. Among the parameters that affect this process, it is widely admitted that implant surface topography, surface energy and composition play an important role. Most surface treatments to improve osseointegration focus on micro-scale features, as few can effectively control the effects of the treatment at nanoscale. On the other hand, ion implantation allows controlling such nanofeatures. This study has investigated the nanotopography of titanium, as induced by different ion implantation surface treatments, its similarity with human bone tissue structure and its effect on human bone cell adhesion, as a first step in the process of osseointegration. The effect of ion implantation treatment parameters such as energy (40–80 keV), fluence (1–2 e17 ion/cm{sup 2}) and ion species (Kr, Ar, Ne and Xe) on the nanotopography of medical grade titanium has been measured and assessed by AFM and contact angle. Then, in vitro tests have been performed to assess the effect of these nanotopographies on osteoblast adhesion. The results have shown that the nanostructure of bone and the studied ion implanted

  10. Ion implantation induced nanotopography on titanium and bone cell adhesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braceras, Iñigo; Vera, Carolina; Ayerdi-Izquierdo, Ana; Muñoz, Roberto; Lorenzo, Jaione; Alvarez, Noelia; Maeztu, Miguel Ángel de

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Titanium surfaces modified by inert ion implantation affect cell adhesion through modification of the nanotopography in the same dimensional range of that of human bone inorganic phases. - Highlights: • Inert ion implantation on Ti modifies surface nanotopography and bone cell adhesion. • Ion implantation can produce nanostructured surfaces on titanium in the very same range as of those of the mineral phase of the human bone. • Appropriate tool for studying the relevance of nanostructured surfaces on bone mineralization and implant osseointegration. • Ion implantation induced nanotopography have a statistically significant influence on bone cell adhesion. - Abstract: Permanent endo-osseous implants require a fast, reliable and consistent osseointegration, i.e. intimate bonding between bone and implant, so biomechanical loads can be safely transferred. Among the parameters that affect this process, it is widely admitted that implant surface topography, surface energy and composition play an important role. Most surface treatments to improve osseointegration focus on micro-scale features, as few can effectively control the effects of the treatment at nanoscale. On the other hand, ion implantation allows controlling such nanofeatures. This study has investigated the nanotopography of titanium, as induced by different ion implantation surface treatments, its similarity with human bone tissue structure and its effect on human bone cell adhesion, as a first step in the process of osseointegration. The effect of ion implantation treatment parameters such as energy (40–80 keV), fluence (1–2 e17 ion/cm 2 ) and ion species (Kr, Ar, Ne and Xe) on the nanotopography of medical grade titanium has been measured and assessed by AFM and contact angle. Then, in vitro tests have been performed to assess the effect of these nanotopographies on osteoblast adhesion. The results have shown that the nanostructure of bone and the studied ion implanted

  11. Neutron activation analysis of alternative phosphate rocks used in animal nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canella, Artur A.; Ferreira, Walter M.

    2005-01-01

    Since 1980's, Bovine Sponghiform Encephalophaty has insidiously created a fierce battleground between farmers, scientists, environmentalists and consumers. The use of meat and bone meals is currently prohibited in ruminant feeds throughout the world. Some inorganic sources offer the combination of high phosphorus content and acceptable animal digestibility make them options as supplemental phosphorus, for instance phosphate rocks, general term applied to minerals valued chiefly for their phosphorus content. However, phosphate rocks are long been known containing hazardous elements, make them sometimes unsuitable for animal nutrition. Neutron Activation Analysis has been supportive to the mineral evaluation of alternative phosphate rocks. This evaluation is subject of on-going doctoral thesis which has been carried-out by the main author. The NAA method has been very efficient due to its highly sensitive and multi-elemental nature. In this paper results of Vanadium content from three different phosphate rocks are presented. Their values have been pointed out that Brazilian phosphate rocks present hazardous elements at the same levels of phosphate rocks from some countries of Africa, North America and Middle East, data from our study (Brazilian data) and FAO - Food and Agriculture Organization (others countries). (author)

  12. Redistribution of Iron and Titanium in High-Pressure Ultramafic Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, Rosalind J.; Evans, Katy A.; Reddy, Steven M.; Lester, Gregory W.

    2017-11-01

    The redox state of iron in high-pressure serpentinites, which host a significant proportion of Fe3+ in subduction zones, can be used to provide an insight into iron cycling and constrain the composition of subduction zone fluids. In this study, we use oxide and silicate mineral textures, interpretation of mineral parageneses, mineral composition data, and whole rock geochemistry of high-pressure retrogressed ultramafic rocks from the Zermatt-Saas Zone to constrain the distribution of iron and titanium, and iron oxidation state. These data provide an insight on the oxidation state and composition of fluids at depth in subduction zones. Oxide minerals host the bulk of iron, particularly Fe3+. The increase in mode of magnetite and observation of magnetite within antigorite veins in the investigated ultramafic samples during initial retrogression is most consistent with oxidation of existing iron within the samples during the infiltration of an oxidizing fluid since it is difficult to reconcile addition of Fe3+ with the known limited solubility of this species. However, high Ti contents are not typical of serpentinites and also cannot be accounted for by simple mixing of a depleted mantle protolith with the nearby Allalin gabbro. Titanium-rich phases coincide with prograde metamorphism and initial exhumation, implying the early seafloor and/or prograde addition and late mobilization of Ti. If Ti addition has occurred, then the introduction of Fe3+, also generally considered to be immobile, cannot be disregarded. We explore possible transport vectors for Ti and Fe through mineral texture analysis.

  13. Titanium Matrix Composite Pressure Vessel, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — For over 15 years, FMW Composite Systems has developed Metal Matrix Composite manufacturing methodologies for fabricating silicon-carbide-fiber-reinforced titanium...

  14. Appcelerator Titanium patterns and best practices

    CERN Document Server

    Pollentine, Boydlee

    2013-01-01

    The book takes a step-by-step approach to help you understand CommonJS and Titanium architecture patterns, with easy to follow samples and plenty of in-depth explanations If you're an existing Titanium developer or perhaps a new developer looking to start off your Titanium applications "the right way", then this book is for you. With easy to follow examples and a full step-by-step account of architecting a sample application using CommonJS and MVC, along with chapters on new features such as ACS, you'll be implementing enterprise grade Titanium solutions in no time. You should have some JavaSc

  15. Criterion of titanium aviation alloy application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stasyunas, O.P.

    1976-01-01

    The most significant statistic mechanical characteristics are presented of titanium as compared with those of aluminium and steel. Based on these data one can draw conclusions as to the advantages and disadvantages of titanium. High chemical activity and diffusivity of titanium place limitations on the use of its alloys. Despite the promising features of a needle-like structure, specifications still keep relying on a globular structure, which is explained by the easeiness of the production. Titanium is expensive, sometimes its cost may by a factor of 20 exceed that of other aviation materials

  16. The mineralogical behavior of the phosphatic sedimentation in Pernambuco-Paraiba sedimentar coastal basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albuquerque Menor, E. de; Amaral, A.J.R. do

    1979-01-01

    This work reports the execution of the ''Phosphate in the Sedimentary coastal zone of Pernambuco-Paraiba'' Project, resulting from the execution of 35 drilling holes distributed between Paulista City, State of Pernambuco and the Miriri river valley, State of Paraiba. The rocks were analysed by X-ray diffraction, and the results were used in the working up of mineralogical logs. The mineralogical logs interpretation makes possible to distinguish phosphorite and sandy phosphorite areas inside a mineralization zone, wich laterally passes to a phosphatic carbonatic rocks area situated far from cost line of that epoch. Differences of the mineral paragenesis are used under a regional sedimentar model conception and indicated as prospecting guides. The dominance of Kaolinite is related to continental sediments (Beberibe Formation). The dominance of montmorillonite, on the other hand, is more to marine facies than to particular conditions of the phosphatic mineralization. The analysis of these conditions shows that the continental areas resistant to the pre-Maestrichtrian transegressive oscillations coincide to the more favourable places to the phosphatic mineralization. (author) [pt

  17. Controlling surface microstructure of calcium phosphate ceramic from random to custom-design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Liao; Luo, Xiaoman; Barbieri, D.; Bao, Chongyun; Yuan, Huipin

    2014-01-01

    Calcium phosphate ceramics have long been studied as bone graft substitutes due to their similarity with the mineral constitute of bone and teeth, excellent biocompatibility and bioactivity. Chemical composition, macrostructure and surface microstructure are believed to be important for the bone

  18. Relative biological activity of amorphous calcium and calcium-magnesium phosphates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silina, E.N.; Kunitsa, T.N.; Shuslikova, E.S.; Griggs, J.; Levchenko, L.V.; Karjaubaeva, R.A.; Sinyayev, V.A.

    2005-01-01

    Three amorphous calcium and calcium-magnesium phosphates that are close on composition to mineral basis of the bone tissues are compared on bioactivity in the given article. Properties of the hydrated substances produced from water solutions and their derivations, which are formed due to thermal treatment, are discussed here. As a detector of bioactivity was used microbial culture E-Coli. [author

  19. Mg-phosphate ceramics produced from the product of thermal transformation of cement-asbestos

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pérez-Estébanez, Marta; Mácová, Petra; Šašek, Petr; Viani, Alberto; Gualtieri, A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 2 (2014), s. 187-192 ISSN 1640-4920. [Conference on Environment and Mineral Processing /18./. Ostrava, 29.05.2014-31.05.2014] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1219 Keywords : cement -asbestos * magnesium phosphate ceramics * amorphous Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage http://www.potopk.com.pl/archiwum.html

  20. Rare-earth elements and uranium in phosphatic nodules from the continental margins of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nath, B.N.; Rao, B.R.; Rao, K.M.; Rao, Ch.M.

    of Pleistocene age. They are less than 1-5 cm in size, have carbonate flourapatite (CFA) as a single authigenic mineral phase, are free of detrital inclusions, and have very high P sub(2) O sub(5) contents (> 30%). In addition, soft and hard phosphatic nodules...

  1. Titanium. Properties, raw datum surface, physicochemical basis and fabrication technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garmata, V.A.; Petrun'ko, A.N.; Galitskij, N.V.; Olesov, Yu.G.; Sandler, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    On the nowadays science and technology achievements the complex of titanium metallurgy problems comprising raw material base, physico-chemical basis and fabrication technique, properties and titanium usage fields is considered for the first time. A particular attention is given to raw material base, manufacturing titanium concentrates and titanium tetrachloride, metallothermal reduction, improvement of metal quality. Data on titanium properties are given, processes of titanium powder metallurgy, scrap and waste processing, problems of economics and complex raw material use are considered

  2. Hydroxyapatite coatings produced on commercially pure titanium by micro-arc oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Yong [College of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Wang Yingjun [College of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Ning Chengyun [College of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Nan Kaihui [College of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Han Yong [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2007-09-15

    A porous hydroxyapatite (HA) coating on commercially pure titanium was prepared by micro-arc oxidation (MAO) in electrolytic solution containing calcium acetate and {beta}-glycerol phosphate disodium salt pentahydrate ({beta}-GP). The thickness, phase, composition morphology and biocompatibility of the oxide coating were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with an energy dispersive x-ray spectrometer (EDS) and cell culture. The thickness of the MAO film was about 20 {mu}m, and the coating was porous and uneven without any apparent interface to the titanium substrates. The result of XRD showed that the porous coating was made up of HA film. The favorable osteoblast cell affinity gives HA film good biocompatibility. HA coatings are expected to have significant uses for medical applications such as dental implants and artificial bone joints.

  3. Hydroxyapatite coatings produced on commercially pure titanium by micro-arc oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yong; Wang, Yingjun; Ning, Chengyun; Nan, Kaihui; Han, Yong

    2007-09-01

    A porous hydroxyapatite (HA) coating on commercially pure titanium was prepared by micro-arc oxidation (MAO) in electrolytic solution containing calcium acetate and beta-glycerol phosphate disodium salt pentahydrate (beta-GP). The thickness, phase, composition morphology and biocompatibility of the oxide coating were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with an energy dispersive x-ray spectrometer (EDS) and cell culture. The thickness of the MAO film was about 20 microm, and the coating was porous and uneven without any apparent interface to the titanium substrates. The result of XRD showed that the porous coating was made up of HA film. The favorable osteoblast cell affinity gives HA film good biocompatibility. HA coatings are expected to have significant uses for medical applications such as dental implants and artificial bone joints.

  4. Hydroxyapatite coatings produced on commercially pure titanium by micro-arc oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yong; Wang Yingjun; Ning Chengyun; Nan Kaihui; Han Yong

    2007-01-01

    A porous hydroxyapatite (HA) coating on commercially pure titanium was prepared by micro-arc oxidation (MAO) in electrolytic solution containing calcium acetate and β-glycerol phosphate disodium salt pentahydrate (β-GP). The thickness, phase, composition morphology and biocompatibility of the oxide coating were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with an energy dispersive x-ray spectrometer (EDS) and cell culture. The thickness of the MAO film was about 20 μm, and the coating was porous and uneven without any apparent interface to the titanium substrates. The result of XRD showed that the porous coating was made up of HA film. The favorable osteoblast cell affinity gives HA film good biocompatibility. HA coatings are expected to have significant uses for medical applications such as dental implants and artificial bone joints

  5. Construction Minerals Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes construction minerals operations in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team (MIT) of the...

  6. Agricultural Minerals Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes agricultural minerals operations in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team (MIT) of the...

  7. UV-activated 7-dehydrocholesterol-coated titanium implants promote differentiation of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells into osteoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satué, María; Ramis, Joana M; Monjo, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D metabolites are essential for bone regeneration and mineral homeostasis. The vitamin D precursor 7-dehydrocholesterol can be used after UV irradiation to locally produce active vitamin D by osteoblastic cells. Furthermore, UV-irradiated 7-dehydrocholesterol is a biocompatible coating for titanium implants with positive effects on osteoblast differentiation. In this study, we examined the impact of titanium implants surfaces coated with UV-irradiated 7-dehydrocholesterol on the osteogenic differentiation of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells. First, the synthesis of cholecalciferol (D3) was achieved through the incubation of the UV-activated 7-dehydrocholesterol coating for 48 h at 23℃. Further, we investigated in vitro the biocompatibility of this coating in human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells and its potential to enhance their differentiation towards the osteogenic lineage. Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells cultured onto UV-irradiated 7-dehydrocholesterol-coated titanium implants surfaces, combined with osteogenic supplements, upregulated the gene expression of several osteogenic markers and showed higher alkaline phosphatase activity and calcein blue staining, suggesting increased mineralization. Thus, our results show that the use of UV irradiation on 7-dehydrocholesterol -treated titanium implants surfaces generates a bioactive coating that promotes the osteogenic differentiation of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells, with regenerative potential for improving osseointegration in titanium-based bone anchored implants. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Mineral commodity summaries 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2015-01-01

    Each chapter of the 2015 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS) includes information on events, trends, and issues for each mineral commodity as well as discussions and tabular presentations on domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, 5-year salient statistics, and world production and resources. The MCS is the earliest comprehensive source of 2014 mineral production data for the world. More than 90 individual minerals and materials are covered by two-page synopses.

  9. Hydrothermal treatment of titanium alloys for the enhancement of osteoconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuldesmi, Mansjur, E-mail: mzuldesmi@yahoo.com [Department of Materials Science & Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Manad State University (UNIMA) (Indonesia); Waki, Atsushi [Department of Materials Science & Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan); Kuroda, Kensuke; Okido, Masazumi [EcoTopia Science Institute, Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan)

    2015-04-01

    The surface wettability of implants is a crucial factor in their osteoconductivity because it influences the adsorption of cell-attached proteins onto the surface. In this study, a single-step hydrothermal surface treatment using distilled water at a temperature of 180 °C for 3 h was applied to titanium (Ti) and its alloys (Ti–6Al–4V, Ti–6Al–7Nb, Ti–29Nb–13Ta–4.6Zr, Ti–13Cr–1Fe–3Al; mass%) and compared with as-polished Ti implants and with implants produced by anodizing Ti in 0.1 M of H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} with applied voltages from 0 V to 150 V at a scanning rate of 0.1 V s{sup −1}. The surface-treated samples were stored in a five time phosphate buffered saline (× 5 PBS(−)) solution to prevent increasing the water contact angle (WCA) with time. The surface characteristics were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, surface roughness, and contact angle measurement using a 2 μL droplet of distilled water. The relationship between WCA and osteoconductivity at various surface modifications was examined using in vivo tests. The results showed that a superhydrophilic surface with a WCA ≤ 10° and a high osteoconductivity (R{sub B–I}) of up to 50% in the cortical bone part, about four times higher than the as-polished Ti and Ti alloys, were provided by the combination of the hydrothermal surface treatment and storage in × 5 of PBS(−). - Highlights: • Hydrothermal treatment in distilled water was applied to titanium alloys. • Surface characteristics and osteoconductivity by in vivo test were evaluated. • Water contact angles of titanium alloys were decreased by hydrothermal treatment. • Osteoconductivity of titanium alloys improved notably by hydrothermal treatment after stored in × 5 of PBS (−)

  10. The vapour phase deposition of boron on titanium by the reaction between gaseous boron trichloride and titanium metal. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, D.J.; Shelton, R.A.J.

    1965-03-01

    The reaction, between boron trichloride vapour and titanium has been investigated in the temperature range 200 - 1350 deg. C. It has been found that an initial reaction leads to the formation of titanium tetrachloride and the deposition of boron on titanium, but that except for reactions between 900 and 1000 deg. C, the system is complicated by the formation of lower titanium chlorides due to secondary reactions between the titanium and titanium tetrachloride

  11. Adding functionality with additive manufacturing: Fabrication of titanium-based antibiotic eluting implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, Sophie C.; Jamshidi, Parastoo; Eisenstein, Neil M.; Webber, Mark A.; Hassanin, Hany; Attallah, Moataz M.; Shepherd, Duncan E.T.; Addison, Owen; Grover, Liam M.

    2016-01-01

    Additive manufacturing technologies have been utilised in healthcare to create patient-specific implants. This study demonstrates the potential to add new implant functionality by further exploiting the design flexibility of these technologies. Selective laser melting was used to manufacture titanium-based (Ti-6Al-4V) implants containing a reservoir. Pore channels, connecting the implant surface to the reservoir, were incorporated to facilitate antibiotic delivery. An injectable brushite, calcium phosphate cement, was formulated as a carrier vehicle for gentamicin. Incorporation of the antibiotic significantly (p = 0.01) improved the compressive strength (5.8 ± 0.7 MPa) of the cement compared to non-antibiotic samples. The controlled release of gentamicin sulphate from the calcium phosphate cement injected into the implant reservoir was demonstrated in short term elution studies using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. Orientation of the implant pore channels were shown, using micro-computed tomography, to impact design reproducibility and the back-pressure generated during cement injection which ultimately altered porosity. The amount of antibiotic released from all implant designs over a 6 hour period (< 28% of the total amount) were found to exceed the minimum inhibitory concentrations of Staphylococcus aureus (16 μg/mL) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (1 μg/mL); two bacterial species commonly associated with periprosthetic infections. Antibacterial efficacy was confirmed against both bacterial cultures using an agar diffusion assay. Interestingly, pore channel orientation was shown to influence the directionality of inhibition zones. Promisingly, this work demonstrates the potential to additively manufacture a titanium-based antibiotic eluting implant, which is an attractive alternative to current treatment strategies of periprosthetic infections. - Highlights: • Titanium implants were additively manufactured with surface connected reservoirs. • Implants

  12. Bioavailabilty of deposit phosphates in animal feeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godoy, Susmira; Chicco, C.F.

    1997-01-01

    In order to evaluate the growth, the absorption and the dynamics of phosphorus and calcium phosphates of high fluorine content , triple superphosphates (TSP) and two sedimentary phosphates Riecito (RIO) and Monte Fresco (MONTE) vs dicalcium phosphate (DICAL), they were carried out two experiments with sheep. In the first one, with a duration of 360 days, the group (six animals) consumed DICAL, and at the 330 day of feeding it was divided in two groups, one under the same treatment and to the other one it was added 500 ppm of fluorine like NaF (DICAL+F). In this experiment the growth was evaluated, and at the end of the period, it was determined the phosphorus and calcium absorption and kinetics, the retention of fluorine in different sources, as well as the bony mineralization. In the second experiment, with a duration of 30 days, the phosphorus absorption and kinetics, as and the retention of fluorine in the sources under study, were determined. In both experiments, for the dynamic studies it was used the isotopic dilution technique, by means of the dosage, through jugular injection, of 200 uCi 3 2P and, for via oral, 200 uCi 4 5Ca. The weight gained (g / animal /day ) was 75, 87, 56 and 53 for DICAL, RIO, MONTE and TSP, respectively, with significant differences (P'0.05) in favor of DICAL and RIO. The true absorption of phosphorus (%), for the fed animals during 30 and 360 days, respectively, was 73 and 76 for DICAL, 40 and 57 for RIO, 36 and 57 for MONTE and, 79 and 71 for TSP, being significantly higher (P'0.05), for both periods, the values of DICAL and TSP. The evaluation of 12 months of absorption of RIVER and MONTE was higher than during the period of 30 days. The absorption of calcium at the 362 days was higher for DICAL and RIO in relation to MONTE and TSP. The addition of fluorine during 30 days didn't affect the calcium and phosphorus absorption. The run time to reach the maximum level of specific activity of calcium in blood was higher for RIO, MONTE

  13. Fissure minerals, literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, S.Aa.

    1980-01-01

    This paper is a review of methods used for direct and indirect dating of tectonic events. Isotope geochemistry including stable isotopes as well as fission track- dating, fluid inclusion and thermoluminescens techniques have been considered. It has been concluded that an investigation of tectonic (and thermal) events should start with a detailed study of the mineral phases grown in seald fissures as well as minerals from fissure walls. This study should include phase identification, textures as well as mineral chemistry. The information from this study is fundamental for the decision of further investigations. Mineral chemistry including isotopes and fluid inclusion studies will give an essential knowledge about crystallization conditions for fissure minerals concerned. Direct dating using fission tracks as well as radioactive isotopes could be useful for some minerals. Application of thermoluminescens dating on fissure minerals is doubtful. (Auth.)

  14. Organic Minerals in the Origin of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benner, S.; Biondi, E.; Kim, H. J.

    2017-12-01

    Models for the origin of life are plagued by fundamental problems that, due to their difficulty, are called "paradoxes". One of these, known to anyone who has ever worked in a kitchen, is that organics, when given energy and left to itself, does not generate life. Rather, organics devolve to give tarry mixtures that become increasingly complex and increasingly less likely to support life (like asphalt). However, even if those mixtures escape devolution to create something useful for Darwinism, like building blocks for RNA, the water in which they must work is corrosive, leading to their destruction. Even if RNA is created, it is itself easily degraded. One current trend to manage those paradoxes turns to minerals in environments on early Earth. Inorganic minerals containing borate have now been shown to prevent the destruction of ribose (the R in RNA) and other carbohydrates essential for early Earth. Evaporite desert basins supplied with aqueous runoff from tourmaline-containing basalts are ideal environments for forming borate minerals, especially if they are made alkaline by serpentinizing peridotite. In the evaporite environments, drying cycles mitigate the destructive capability of water. Further, we have shown that phosphate is segregated from calcium (avoiding formation of relatively unreacted apatites) if magnesium and borate are present. Further, a common magnesium borophosphate (luneburgite) not only makes phosphate available for prebiotic synthesis, but selectively phosphorylates RNA building blocks as it releases borate to stabilize them against further degradation. Finally, a variety of minerals bind and stabilize RNA itself. Research in this area has also discovered organic minerals that might have been relevant to the origins of life on Earth. Such minerals are scarce on Earth today, since they are easily consumed by microbial communities. However, on a prebiotic Earth, organic minerals could have stored organic species as intermediates towards our

  15. Low temperature study of nonstoichiometric titanium carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashmetov, M.Yu.

    2005-05-01

    By low temperature neutron diffraction method was studied structure in nonstoichiometric titanium carbide from room temperature up to 12K. It is found of low temperature phase in titanium carbide- TiC 0.71 . It is established region and borders of this phase. It is determined change of unit cell parameter. (author)

  16. Casting of Titanium and its Alloys

    OpenAIRE

    R. L. Saha; K. T. Jacob

    1986-01-01

    Titaniuni and its alloys have many applications in aerospace, marine and other engineering industries. Titanium requires special melting techniques because of its high reactivity at elevated temperatures and needs special mould materials and methods for castings. This paper reviews the development of titanium casting technology.

  17. Appcelerator Titanium business application development cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Bahrenberg, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    Presented in easy to follow, step by step recipes, this guide is designed to lead you through the most important aspects of application design.Titanium developers who already have a basic knowledge of working with Appcelerator Titanium but want to further develop their knowledge for use with business applications

  18. Thermoexpanded graphite modification by titanium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semko, L.S.; Gorbik, P.P.; Chujko, O.O.; Kruchek, Ya.Yi.; Dzyubenko, L.S.; Orans'ka, O.Yi.

    2006-01-01

    A method of the synthesis of thermoexpanded graphite (TEG) powders coated by titanium dioxide is developed. The conversion of n-buthylorthotitanate into TiO 2 on the TEG surface is investigated. The optimal parameters of the synthesis and the structure of titanium dioxide clusters on the TEG surface are determined

  19. Partition of rare-earths in phosphates laterites from Maicuru, Brazil - PA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemos, V.P.; Costa, M.L. da.

    1987-01-01

    The phosphatic laterites of Maicuru-Para are formed of aluminium phosphates, mainly of the crandallite group, followed by wardite, augellite and senegallite. The crandallite group is represented in the form of the solid solution goyazite-florencite-crandallite, in variable proportions. In three samples, the florencite occurs as the predominant member, while in the others crandallite is the main mineral. The unit-cell dimension of florencites, in two samples, measured are the same as those of the florencites from other deposits. The rare earths occur mainly in this mineral group with predominance of the light rare earth elements. This is well observed in the condrite normalized REE patterns. These enrichments are not regular. The geochemical characteristics of the rare earth distribution in the crandallites of Maicuru, leads tho suggest this mineral was formed from distinct lithologies. (author) [pt

  20. Preparation of in situ hardening composite microcarriers: Calcium phosphate cement combined with alginate for bone regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung-Hui; Lee, Eun-Jung; Knowles, Jonathan C

    2014-01-01

    Novel microcarriers consisting of calcium phosphate cement and alginate were prepared for use as three-dimensional scaffolds for the culture and expansion of cells that are effective for bone tissue engineering. The calcium phosphate cement-alginate composite microcarriers were produced by an emulsification of the composite aqueous solutions mixed at varying ratios (calcium phosphate cement powder/alginate solution = 0.8–1.2) in an oil bath and the subsequent in situ hardening of the compositions during spherodization. Moreover, a porous structure could be easily created in the solid microcarriers by soaking the produced microcarriers in water and a subsequent freeze-drying process. Bone mineral-like apatite nanocrystallites were shown to rapidly develop on the calcium phosphate cement–alginate microcarriers under moist conditions due to the conversion of the α-tricalcium phosphate phase in the calcium phosphate cement into a carbonate–hydroxyapatite. Osteoblastic cells cultured on the microspherical scaffolds were proven to be viable, with an active proliferative potential during 14 days of culture, and their osteogenic differentiation was confirmed by the determination of alkaline phosphatase activity. The in situ hardening calcium phosphate cement–alginate microcarriers developed herein may be used as potential three-dimensional scaffolds for cell delivery and tissue engineering of bone. PMID:23836845

  1. Geologic structure of Gofitsky deposit of titanium and zirconium and perspectives of the reserve base of titanium and zirconium in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukhmazov, Iskander

    2016-04-01

    With the fall of the Soviet Union, all the mining deposits of titanium and zirconium appeared outside of Russian Federation. Therefore the studying of deposits of titanium and zirconium in Russia is very important nowadays. There is a paradoxical situation in the country: in spite of possible existence of national mineral resource base of Ti-Zr material, which can cover needs of the country, Russia is the one of the largest buyers of imported Ti-Zr material in the world. Many deposits are not mined, and those which are in the process of mining have poor reserves. Demand for this raw material is very great not only for Russia, but also for the world in general. Today there is a scarcity of zircon around the world and it will only increase through time. Therefore prices of products of titanium and zirconium also increase. Consequently Russian deposits of titanium and zirconium with higher content than foreign may become competitive. Russia is forced to buy raw materials (zirconium and titanium production) from former Soviet Union countries at prices higher than the world's and thus incur huge losses, including customs charges. Russia should create its own mineral resource base of Ti-Zr. Studied titanium-zirconium deposits of Stavropol region may become the basis for the south part of Russia. At first, Beshpagirsky deposit should be pointed out. It has large reserves of ore sands with high content of Ti-Zr. A combination of favorable geographical position of the area with developed industrial infrastructure makes it very beneficial as an object for high priority development. Gofitsky deposit should be pointed out as well. Its sands have a wide areal distribution and a high content of titanium and zirconium. Chokrak, Karagan-Konksk and Sarmatian sediments of the Miocene of Gofitsky deposit are productive for titanium and zirconium placers within Stavropol region of Russia. Gofitsky deposit was evaluated from financial and economic point of view and the following data

  2. Titanium dioxide nanomaterials for photocatalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yan; Li, Zhe; Green, Michael; Just, Michael; Chen, Xiaobo; Li, Yang Yang

    2017-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) has been long regarded as one of the more promising photocatalysts to remove environmental pollution and to generate hydrogen from water under sunlight irradiation via photocatalysis. TiO 2 is environmentally benign and thus is considered a ‘green’ catalyst. In this review we present a short introduction to the physical and electronic properties of TiO 2 , its photocatalytic mechanisms, and some recent examples of various TiO 2 materials used for photocatalysis; these examples include 0, 1, 2, 3D, faceted, defected, composited, and hydrogenated TiO 2 materials. (topical review)

  3. Welding and Joining of Titanium Aluminides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jian; Qi, Junlei; Song, Xiaoguo; Feng, Jicai

    2014-01-01

    Welding and joining of titanium aluminides is the key to making them more attractive in industrial fields. The purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of recent progress in welding and joining of titanium aluminides, as well as to introduce current research and application. The possible methods available for titanium aluminides involve brazing, diffusion bonding, fusion welding, friction welding and reactive joining. Of the numerous methods, solid-state diffusion bonding and vacuum brazing have been most heavily investigated for producing reliable joints. The current state of understanding and development of every welding and joining method for titanium aluminides is addressed respectively. The focus is on the fundamental understanding of microstructure characteristics and processing–microstructure–property relationships in the welding and joining of titanium aluminides to themselves and to other materials. PMID:28788113

  4. Welding and Joining of Titanium Aluminides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Cao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Welding and joining of titanium aluminides is the key to making them more attractive in industrial fields. The purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of recent progress in welding and joining of titanium aluminides, as well as to introduce current research and application. The possible methods available for titanium aluminides involve brazing, diffusion bonding, fusion welding, friction welding and reactive joining. Of the numerous methods, solid-state diffusion bonding and vacuum brazing have been most heavily investigated for producing reliable joints. The current state of understanding and development of every welding and joining method for titanium aluminides is addressed respectively. The focus is on the fundamental understanding of microstructure characteristics and processing–microstructure–property relationships in the welding and joining of titanium aluminides to themselves and to other materials.

  5. Characterization of a biomimetic coating on dense and porous titanium substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, M.N. da; Pereira, L.C. [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (PEMM/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais; Ribeiro, A.A.; Oliveira, M.V. de, E-mail: marize.varella@int.gov.b [Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia (INT), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Andrade, M.C. de [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (IPRJ/UERJ), Nova Friburgo, RJ (Brazil). Inst. Politecnico

    2010-07-01

    Bioactive materials have been studied as coatings on bioinert subtracts. Thus, it is possible to combine the bioactivity of materials such as calcium phosphate with the excellent mechanical properties of metals. Titanium (Ti) implants can be bioactivated by a biomimetic precipitation method. This study introduces a biomimetic method under a simplified solution (SS) with calcium and phosphorus ions. As substrates, commercially pure Ti sheet and micro-porous Ti samples produced by powder metallurgy were used. The substrates were submitted to chemical and heat treating and then immersed in the SS for 7, 14, 21 days. Surface roughness was evaluated by confocal scanning optical microscopy. Coating characterization was performed by scanning electron microscopy and high resolution X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results showed calcium phosphate crystal morphologies observed in all samples, which was confirmed by XRD phase identifications. These results reveal the solution potential for coating Ti substrates. (author)

  6. Characterization of a biomimetic coating on dense and porous titanium substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, M.N. da; Pereira, L.C.; Andrade, M.C. de

    2010-01-01

    Bioactive materials have been studied as coatings on bioinert subtracts. Thus, it is possible to combine the bioactivity of materials such as calcium phosphate with the excellent mechanical properties of metals. Titanium (Ti) implants can be bioactivated by a biomimetic precipitation method. This study introduces a biomimetic method under a simplified solution (SS) with calcium and phosphorus ions. As substrates, commercially pure Ti sheet and micro-porous Ti samples produced by powder metallurgy were used. The substrates were submitted to chemical and heat treating and then immersed in the SS for 7, 14, 21 days. Surface roughness was evaluated by confocal scanning optical microscopy. Coating characterization was performed by scanning electron microscopy and high resolution X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results showed calcium phosphate crystal morphologies observed in all samples, which was confirmed by XRD phase identifications. These results reveal the solution potential for coating Ti substrates. (author)

  7. Uranium endowments in phosphate rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulrich, Andrea E.; Schnug, Ewald; Prasser, Horst-Michael; Frossard, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    This study seeks to identify and specify the components that make up the prospects of U recovery from phosphate rock. A systems approach is taken. The assessment includes i) reviewing past recovery experience and lessons learned; ii) identifying factors that determine recovery; and iii) establishing a contemporary evaluation of U endowments in phosphate rock reserves, as well as the available and recoverable amounts from phosphate rock and phosphoric acid production. We find that in the past, recovery did not fulfill its potential and that the breakup of the Soviet Union worsened then-favorable recovery market conditions in the 1990s. We find that an estimated 5.7 million tU may be recoverable from phosphate rock reserves. In 2010, the recoverable tU from phosphate rock and phosphoric acid production may have been 15,000 tU and 11,000 tU, respectively. This could have filled the world U supply-demand gap for nuclear energy production. The results suggest that the U.S., Morocco, Tunisia, and Russia would be particularly well-suited to recover U, taking infrastructural considerations into account. We demonstrate future research needs, as well as sustainability orientations. We conclude that in order to promote investment and production, it seems necessary to establish long-term contracts at guaranteed prices, ensuring profitability for phosphoric acid producers. - Highlights: • We identify components that underlie the recovery of uranium from phosphate rock. • We estimate that 11,000 tU may have been recoverable from phosphoric acid in 2010. • Recovery is a resource conservation and environmental pollution control strategy. • To ensure investment in recovery technology, profitability needs to be secured

  8. Uranium endowments in phosphate rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulrich, Andrea E., E-mail: andrea.ulrich@env.ethz.ch [Institute for Environmental Decisions (IED), Natural and Social Science Interface, ETH Zurich Universitässtrasse 22, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Institute for Agricultural Sciences, Plant Nutrition, ETH Zurich, Eschikon 33, 8315 Lindau (Switzerland); Schnug, Ewald, E-mail: e.schnug@tu-braunschweig.de [Department of Life Sciences, Technical University of Braunschweig, Pockelsstraße 14, D-38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Prasser, Horst-Michael, E-mail: prasser@lke.mavt.ethz.ch [Institute of Energy Technology, Laboratory of Nuclear Energy Systems, ETH Zurich, Sonneggstrasse 3, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Frossard, Emmanuel, E-mail: emmanuel.frossard@usys.ethz.ch [Institute for Agricultural Sciences, Plant Nutrition, ETH Zurich, Eschikon 33, 8315 Lindau (Switzerland)

    2014-04-01

    This study seeks to identify and specify the components that make up the prospects of U recovery from phosphate rock. A systems approach is taken. The assessment includes i) reviewing past recovery experience and lessons learned; ii) identifying factors that determine recovery; and iii) establishing a contemporary evaluation of U endowments in phosphate rock reserves, as well as the available and recoverable amounts from phosphate rock and phosphoric acid production. We find that in the past, recovery did not fulfill its potential and that the breakup of the Soviet Union worsened then-favorable recovery market conditions in the 1990s. We find that an estimated 5.7 million tU may be recoverable from phosphate rock reserves. In 2010, the recoverable tU from phosphate rock and phosphoric acid production may have been 15,000 tU and 11,000 tU, respectively. This could have filled the world U supply-demand gap for nuclear energy production. The results suggest that the U.S., Morocco, Tunisia, and Russia would be particularly well-suited to recover U, taking infrastructural considerations into account. We demonstrate future research needs, as well as sustainability orientations. We conclude that in order to promote investment and production, it seems necessary to establish long-term contracts at guaranteed prices, ensuring profitability for phosphoric acid producers. - Highlights: • We identify components that underlie the recovery of uranium from phosphate rock. • We estimate that 11,000 tU may have been recoverable from phosphoric acid in 2010. • Recovery is a resource conservation and environmental pollution control strategy. • To ensure investment in recovery technology, profitability needs to be secured.

  9. Maxi- and mini-ferritins: minerals and protein nanocages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevers, Loes E; Theil, Elizabeth C

    2011-01-01

    Ferritins synthesize ferric oxide biominerals and are central to all life for concentrating iron and protection against oxidative stress from the ferrous and oxidant chemistry. The ferritin protein nanocages and biomineral synthesis are discussed in terms of wide biological distribution of the maxi-ferritins (24 subunit ± heme) and mini-ferritins (Dps) (12 subunit), conservations of the iron/oxygen catalytic sites in the protein cages, mineral formation (step i. Fe(II) entry and binding, step ii. O(2) or H(2)O(2) binding and formation of transition intermediates, step iii. release of differric oxo mineral precursors from active sites, step iv. nucleation and mineralization) properties of the minerals, and protein control of mineral dissolution and release of Fe(II). Pores in ferritin protein cages control iron entry for mineralization and iron exit after mineral dissolution. The relationship between phosphate or the presence of catalytically inactive subunits (animal L subunits) and ferritin iron mineral disorder is developed based on new information about contributions of ferritin protein cage structure to nucleation in protein cage subunit channels that exit close enough to those of other subunits and exiting mineral nuclei to facilitate bulk mineral formation. How and where protons move in and out of the protein during mineral synthesis and dissolution, how ferritin cage assembly with 12 or 24 subunits is encoded in the widely divergent ferritin amino acid sequences, and what is the role of the protein in synthesis of the bulk mineral are all described as problems requiring new approaches in future investigations of ferritin biominerals.

  10. Grouping Minerals by Their Formulas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Bridget

    2018-01-01

    Minerals are commonly taught in ways that emphasize mineral identification for its own sake or maybe to help identify rocks. But how do minerals fit in with other science content taught? The author uses mineral formulas to help Earth science students wonder about the connection between elements, compounds, mixtures, minerals, and mineral formulas.…

  11. Acidity characterization of a titanium and sulfate modified vermiculite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, W.Y.; Centeno, M.A.; Odriozola, J.A.; Moreno, S.; Molina, R.

    2008-01-01

    A natural vermiculite has been modified with titanium and sulfated by the intercalation and impregnation method in order to optimize the acidity of the clay mineral, and characterization of samples were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption isotherms, diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) and temperature programmed desorption with ammonia (TPD-NH 3 ). All the modified solids have a significantly higher number of acidic sites with respect to the parent material and in all of these, Broensted as well as Lewis acidity are identified. The presence of sulfate appears not to increase the number of acidic centers in the modified clay. For the materials sulfated with the intercalation method, it is observed that the strength of the acidic sites found in the material increases with the nominal sulfate/metal ratio. Nevertheless, when elevated quantities of sulfur are deposited, diffusion problems in the heptane reaction appear

  12. Antiwear and antioxidant studies of cardanol phosphate ester additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzetto, S.E.; Oliveira, L.D.M.; Lomonaco, D.; Veloso, P.A., E-mail: selma@ufc.br [Lab. de Produtos e Tecnologia em Processos (LPT), Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2012-07-15

    In the search for new applications and products derived from Cashew Nut Shell Liquid (CNSL), we report herein the synthesis and characterization (GC/MS and {sup 1}H, {sup 13}C, and {sup 31}P NMR) of four phosphate esters derived from hydrogenated cardanol, including their applications as antiwear additives for diesel (S500) and as antioxidant additives for mineral oils, evaluated through the HFRR test and oxidative stability analyses, respectively. The results obtained showed very good to excellent performances promoted by the bioadditives evaluated, especially for the thiophosphorylated derivative, which notably reduced the sludge residue and the acidity index of the oxidized oil (0.52 mg NaOH/g sample) and also improved the diesel lubricity, reducing the wear of metal parts by more than 50% (330 {Mu}m). Keywords: Cardanol; Antiwear; Antioxidant; Diesel; Mineral oil. (author)

  13. Interactions of casein micelles with calcium phosphate particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tercinier, Lucile; Ye, Aiqian; Anema, Skelte G; Singh, Anne; Singh, Harjinder

    2014-06-25

    Insoluble calcium phosphate particles, such as hydroxyapatite (HA), are often used in calcium-fortified milks as they are considered to be chemically unreactive. However, this study showed that there was an interaction between the casein micelles in milk and HA particles. The caseins in milk were shown to bind to the HA particles, with the relative proportions of bound β-casein, αS-casein, and κ-casein different from the proportions of the individual caseins present in milk. Transmission electron microscopy showed no evidence of intact casein micelles on the surface of the HA particles, which suggested that the casein micelles dissociated either before or during binding. The HA particles behaved as ion chelators, with the ability to bind the ions contained in the milk serum phase. Consequently, the depletion of the serum minerals disrupted the milk mineral equilibrium, resulting in dissociation of the casein micelles in milk.

  14. X-ray absorption and magnetic studies of trivalent lanthanide ions sorbed on pristine and phosphate-modified boehmite surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Soh-Joung; Helmke, Philip A.; Amonette, James E.; Bleam, William F.

    2002-01-01

    The feasibility of immobilizing radionuclides on mineral surfaces was examined in the absence and the presence of phosphate anions, using trivalent lanthanide ions (Eu3+, Gd3+, and Dy3+) as chemical analogues of trivalent actinide radionuclides. The amount of the lanthanide ions (Ln3+) sorbed on boehmite (gamma-AlOOH) surfaces dramatically increased on the presence of phosphate below pH 5. The structure of the sorbed lanthanide was determined by X-ray absorption spectroscopy, magnetic susceptibility measurements, and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. We proved Dy3+ forms precipitates on boehmite surfaces in the presence of phosphate, and Gd3+ both in the presence and absence of phosphate. In the presence of phosphate, however, these rare-earth cations react to from ultrafine particles of LnPO4 surface precipitates on boehmite surfaces

  15. Calcium Bioavailability from Mineral Waters with Different Mineralization in Comparison to Milk and a Supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greupner, Theresa; Schneider, Inga; Hahn, Andreas

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the bioavailability of calcium from 3 mineral waters with different concentrations of minerals with that of milk and a calcium supplement. A single-center, randomized controlled trial with a crossover design with 21 healthy men and women was conducted at the Institute of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Leibniz University Hannover. The participants consumed the 5 test products providing 300 mg of calcium each on 5 examination days with 1-week wash-out phases in between. Primary outcome variables were the area under the curve of serum calcium levels for 10-hour (AUC 0-10h ) and 24-hour urinary calcium excretion. In all groups, no significant differences in the AUC 0-10h of serum calcium levels as well as in the 24-hour urinary calcium excretion were observed. Likewise, mean changes in serum phosphate and urinary phosphate, as well as serum parathormone, showed no differences between the groups. Given an equivalent bioavailability of calcium in all test products, neither a high concentration of SO 4 2- or of HCO 3 influenced the bioavailability of calcium. Accordingly, the use of mineral water with high concentrations of calcium constitutes a calorie-free calcium source that can improve calcium supply.

  16. Fabrication of mineralized electrospun PLGA and PLGA/gelatin nanofibers and their potential in bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Z X; Li, H F; Sun, Z Z; Zheng, W; Zheng, Y F

    2013-03-01

    Surface mineralization is an effective method to produce calcium phosphate apatite coating on the surface of bone tissue scaffold which could create an osteophilic environment similar to the natural extracellular matrix for bone cells. In this study, we prepared mineralized poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and PLGA/gelatin electrospun nanofibers via depositing calcium phosphate apatite coating on the surface of these nanofibers to fabricate bone tissue engineering scaffolds by concentrated simulated body fluid method, supersaturated calcification solution method and alternate soaking method. The apatite products were characterized by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and X-ray diffractometry (XRD) methods. A large amount of calcium phosphate apatite composed of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD), hydroxyapatite (HA) and octacalcium phosphate (OCP) was deposited on the surface of resulting nanofibers in short times via three mineralizing methods. A larger amount of calcium phosphate was deposited on the surface of PLGA/gelatin nanofibers rather than PLGA nanofibers because gelatin acted as nucleation center for the formation of calcium phosphate. The cell culture experiments revealed that the difference of morphology and components of calcium phosphate apatite did not show much influence on the cell adhesion, proliferation and activity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Phosphorus release from phosphate rock and iron phosphate by low-molecular-weight organic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ren-kou; Zhu, Yong-guan; Chittleborough, David

    2004-01-01

    Low-molecular-weight(LMW) organic acids widely exist in soils, particularly in the rhizosphere. A series of batch experiments were carried out to investigate the phosphorus release from rock phosphate and iron phosphate by low-molecular-weight organic acids. Results showed that citric acid had the highest capacity to solubilize P from both rock and iron phosphate. P solubilization from rock phosphate and iron phosphate resulted in net proton consumption. P release from rock phosphate was positively correlated with the pKa values. P release from iron phosphate was positively correlated with Fe-organic acid stability constants except for aromatic acids, but was notcorrelated with pKa. Increase in the concentrations of organic acids enhanced P solubilization from both rock and iron phosphate almost linearly. Addition of phenolic compounds further increased the P release from iron phosphate. Initial solution pH had much more substantial effect on P release from rock phosphate than from iron phosphate.

  18. An investigation of the mineral in ductile and brittle cortical mouse bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Florez, Naiara; Garcia-Tunon, Esther; Mukadam, Quresh; Saiz, Eduardo; Oldknow, Karla J; Farquharson, Colin; Millán, José Luis; Boyde, Alan; Shefelbine, Sandra J

    2015-05-01

    Bone is a strong and tough material composed of apatite mineral, organic matter, and water. Changes in composition and organization of these building blocks affect bone's mechanical integrity. Skeletal disorders often affect bone's mineral phase, either by variations in the collagen or directly altering mineralization. The aim of the current study was to explore the differences in the mineral of brittle and ductile cortical bone at the mineral (nm) and tissue (µm) levels using two mouse phenotypes. Osteogenesis imperfecta model, oim(-/-) , mice have a defect in the collagen, which leads to brittle bone; PHOSPHO1 mutants, Phospho1(-/-) , have ductile bone resulting from altered mineralization. Oim(-/-) and Phospho1(-/-) were compared with their respective wild-type controls. Femora were defatted and ground to powder to measure average mineral crystal size using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and to monitor the bulk mineral to matrix ratio via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). XRD scans were run after TGA for phase identification to assess the fractions of hydroxyapatite and β-tricalcium phosphate. Tibiae were embedded to measure elastic properties with nanoindentation and the extent of mineralization with backscattered electron microscopy (BSE SEM). Results revealed that although both pathology models had extremely different whole-bone mechanics, they both had smaller apatite crystals, lower bulk mineral to matrix ratio, and showed more thermal conversion to β-tricalcium phosphate than their wild types, indicating deviations from stoichiometric hydroxyapatite in the original mineral. In contrast, the degree of