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Sample records for mineral spring waters

  1. Strontium isotopic composition of hot spring and mineral spring waters, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notsu, Kenji; Wakita, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Yuji

    1991-01-01

    In Japan, hot springs and mineral springs are distributed in Quaternary and Neogene volcanic regions as well as in granitic, sedimentary and metamorphic regions lacking in recent volcanic activity. The 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio was determined in hot spring and mineral spring waters obtained from 47 sites. The ratios of waters from Quaternary and Neogene volcanic regions were in the range 0.703-0.708, which is lower than that from granitic, sedimentary and metamorphic regions (0.706-0.712). The geographical distribution of the ratios coincides with the bedrock geology, and particularly the ratios of the waters in Quaternary volcanic regions correlate with those of surrounding volcanic rocks. These features suggest that subsurface materials control the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios of soluble components in the hot spring and mineral spring waters. (author)

  2. Discharge, water temperature, and water quality of Warm Mineral Springs, Sarasota County, Florida: A retrospective analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, Patricia A.

    2016-09-27

    Warm Mineral Springs, located in southern Sarasota County, Florida, is a warm, highly mineralized, inland spring. Since 1946, a bathing spa has been in operation at the spring, attracting vacationers and health enthusiasts. During the winter months, the warm water attracts manatees to the adjoining spring run and provides vital habitat for these mammals. Well-preserved late Pleistocene to early Holocene-age human and animal bones, artifacts, and plant remains have been found in and around the spring, and indicate the surrounding sinkhole formed more than 12,000 years ago. The spring is a multiuse resource of hydrologic importance, ecological and archeological significance, and economic value to the community.The pool of Warm Mineral Springs has a circular shape that reflects its origin as a sinkhole. The pool measures about 240 feet in diameter at the surface and has a maximum depth of about 205 feet. The sinkhole developed in the sand, clay, and dolostone of the Arcadia Formation of the Miocene-age to Oligocene-age Hawthorn Group. Underlying the Hawthorn Group are Oligocene-age to Eocene-age limestones and dolostones, including the Suwannee Limestone, Ocala Limestone, and Avon Park Formation. Mineralized groundwater, under artesian pressure in the underlying aquifers, fills the remnant sink, and the overflow discharges into Warm Mineral Springs Creek, to Salt Creek, and subsequently into the Myakka River. Aquifers described in the vicinity of Warm Mineral Springs include the surficial aquifer system, the intermediate aquifer system within the Hawthorn Group, and the Upper Floridan aquifer in the Suwannee Limestone, Ocala Limestone, and Avon Park Formation. The Hawthorn Group acts as an upper confining unit of the Upper Floridan aquifer.Groundwater flow paths are inferred from the configuration of the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer for September 2010. Groundwater flow models indicate the downward flow of water into the Upper Floridan aquifer

  3. Prevalence and Genetic Diversity of Enterococcus faecalis Isolates from Mineral Water and Spring Water in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wei

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Enterococcus faecalis is an important opportunistic pathogen which is frequently detected in mineral water and spring water for human consumption and causes human urinary tract infections, endocarditis and neonatal sepsis. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, virulence genes, antimicrobial resistance and genetic diversity of E. faecalis from mineral water and spring water in China. Of 314 water samples collected from January 2013 to January 2014, 48 samples (15.3% were contaminated E. faecalis. The highest contamination rate occurred in activated carbon filtered water of spring water (34.5%, followed by source water of spring water (32.3% and source water of mineral water (6.4%. The virulence gene test of 58 E. faecalis isolates showed that the detection rates of asa1, ace, cylA, gelE and hyl were 79.3, 39.7, 0, 100, 0%, respectively. All 58 E. faecalis isolates were not resistant to 12 kinds of antibiotics (penicillin, ampicillin, linezolid, quinupristin/dalfopristin, vancomycin, gentamicin, streptomycin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, norfloxacin, nitrofurantoin, and tetracycline. Enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-PCR classified 58 isolates and three reference strains into nine clusters with a similarity of 75%. This study is the first to investigate the prevalence of E. faecalis in mineral water and spring water in China. The results of this study suggested that spring water could be potential vehicles for transmission of E. faecalis.

  4. Long term consumption of mineral spring water containing natural radium-226

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aulenbach, D.B.; Davis, R.E.

    1976-01-01

    The presence of naturally occurring 226 radium in several of the spring waters of Saratoga Springs, New York has been known for some time. However, recently the recommended maximum acceptable limit for consumption of water containing radium has been lowered to the point that the limits are now lower than the concentration of radium observed in several of the wells. A survey was made of 27 individuals who have consumed water from the Hathorn No. 1 Spring for periods varying from 5-65 years. A calculation was made of the 226 radium body burden from equations provided in the literature. The calcium concentration of the springs was determined in consideration of the still unknown comparative selectivity of the body between radium and calcium. Waters from two of the springs were analzyed for 226 radium using the radon emanation method. No adverse effects of consuming the mineral water were observed in the individuals interviewed nor were there any increased incidences of broken or brittle bones among these individuals

  5. Determination of barium in natural waters by ICP-OES technique. Part II: Assessment of human exposure to barium in bottled mineral and spring waters produced in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garboś, Sławomir; Swiecicka, Dorota

    2013-01-01

    A method of the classification of natural mineral and spring waters and maximum admissible concentration (MAC) levels of metals present in such types of waters are regulated by Commission Directive 2003/40/EC, Directive 2009/54/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council and Ordinance of Minister of Health of 30 March 2011 on the natural mineral waters, spring waters and potable waters. MAC of barium in natural mineral and spring waters was set at 1.0 mg/l, while World Health Organization determined the Ba guideline value in water intended for human consumption at the level of 0.7 mg/l. The aims of the study were: the determination of barium in natural mineral and spring waters (carbonated, non-carbonated and medium-carbonated waters) produced and bottled on the area of Poland, and assessment of human exposure to this metal presents in the above-mentioned types of waters. The study concerning barium determinations in 23 types of bottled natural mineral waters and 15 types of bottled spring waters (bought in Polish retail outlets) was conducted in 2010. The analyses were performed by validated method of determination of barium in water based on inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry, using modern internal quality control scheme. Concentrations of barium determined in natural mineral and spring waters were in the ranges from 0.0136 mg/l to 1.12 mg/l and from 0.0044 mg/l to 0.43 mg/l, respectively. Only in the single case of natural mineral water the concentration of barium (1.12 mg/l), exceeded above-mentioned MAC for this metal, which is obligatory in Poland and the European Union - 1.0 mg/l. The long-term monitoring of barium concentration in another natural mineral water (2006 - 2010), in which incidental exceeding MAC was observed in 2006, was conducted. All measured barium concentrations in this water were lower than 1.0 mg/l and therefore, it is possible to state that the proper method of mixing waters taken from six independent

  6. Seasonal variation of 226Ra and 222Rn in mineral spring waters of Aguas da Prata-Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, J. de; Mazzilli, B.; Oliveira S, M.H de; Bernadete, S.

    1996-01-01

    Concentration levels of 226 Ra and 222 Rn have been analysed in most of the mineral spring waters available in the Aguas da Prata region, which is located in the Pocos de Caldas plateau, one of the biggest weathered alkaline intrusions of the world. In this plateau can be found many health resorts[based on springs of thermal and mineral waters. The Aguas da Prata spring waters show a large variety of composition. It has been observed bicarbonates, carbonates and sulphates salts in these mineral waters. The 226 Ra was determined by gross alpha counting of a Ba(Ra)SO 4 precipitate. The measurement was carried out in a low background gas flow proportional counter. The 222 Rn concentrations were determined by liquid scintillation method. Water samples were randomly collected at 9 spring sites over a period of one year, in order to evaluate the seasonal variation of these radionuclides. Lower concentrations were found mostly in the rainy season (summer), which presents 80% of the annual rainfall of the region (1500 mm/year). Higher concentrations up to 2223 mBq/L for 226 Ra and 131 Bq/L for 222 Rn have been observed in waters with low level of soluble salts. Waters which present high levels of carbonate and sulphate salts showed maximum values of 316 mBq/L for 226 Ra and 30 Bq/L for 222 Rn. This behaviour is mainly due to the physicochemical properties of these radionuclides in water as well as to the lithologic structure of the aquifers. (authors). 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  7. A study to evaluate therapeutic properties of minerals of manghopir hot spring, karachi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javed, A.; Iqbal, J.; Khan, F.A.; Siddiqui, I.

    2009-01-01

    European balneologists have extensively studied the therapeutic value of mineral water. Mineral springs with different mineral contents are recommended for various therapeutic uses. People have been using geothermal water for bathing and good health for many thousands of years A mineral hot spring has greater than 1000 mg/L (ppm) of naturally dissolved solids. Hot mineral spring water contains elements like calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium as sulphates, bi- carbonates and chlorides, which are used externally to cure many diseases. Manghopir spring contain 38-84 mg/L calcium, 29-56 mg/L magnesium, 388-555 mg/L sodium, 411-599 mg/L chloride, 186-442 mg/L sulphate, 10-25 mg/L potassium, and 1509-2188 mg/L total dissolved solids while the pH was in the range of 7.2-7.8. The temperature of Manghopir Euthermal hot spring remains constant ranging between 40 to 47 degree C. (author)

  8. Isotopic Investigation of the Origin of Ammonia and Nitrate in the Mineral Spring Waters of Scuol (Lower Engadine, South Eastern Switzerland)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritz, J.; Leuenberger, F.; Balderer, W. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule Zuerich, Geological Institute, Engineering Geology, Zuerich (Switzerland); Eichinger, L. [Hydroisotop GmbH, Schweitenkirchen (Germany)

    2013-07-15

    The mineral springs of scuol-Tarasp are located in the lower Engadine Valley, Graubuenden, south eastern Switzerland. In the last century, they have been investigated with respect to their basic chemical parameters. These springs yield a highly mineralized carbon dioxide water, with large quantities of free CO{sub 2}. Some of the springs also contain high amounts of ammonia. In order to better understand the origin of the water of the different springs, 13 were investigated, focusing this study on the ammonia content and the isotopic composition of the ammonia in the waters. It results from the study that 7 of the 13 springs contain ammonia. Based on the isotope and chemical results we suggest an origin of that ammonia by natural processes as water-rock interaction within the sedimentary and mantle rocks along the water flow path resulting in the enrichment of ammonia as seen in the investigated spring waters. (author)

  9. Determination and assessment of Rn in mineral springs of Shandong province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Jia'ang; Li Fusheng; Chen Yingmin; Chen Yue; Deng Daping; Yuan Ming; Song Gang; Zhang Lianping

    2002-01-01

    Objective: The concentrations and its changes of 222 Rn in mineral springs of Shandong were determined in order to evaluate the committed equivalent dose for people drinking the water. Methods: Scintillation flask method is used for the measurement of 222 Rn concentrations in mineral springs. Results: The concentrations of 222 Rn in mineral springs of Shandong ranged from 0.51 Bq·L -1 to 807.20 Bq·L -1 , the geometric average of it was 22.09 Bq·L -1 . The relationship between the ratios of 222 Rn remains in the water under the natural conditions (P) and the period of time exposed in air (T) was discovered, which is fits for the following function relation: P = 46.666 T -0.517 (0.117 h≤T≤9 h). The committed equivalent dose resulting from 222 Rn concentrations was estimated to be 9.68 x 10 -2 mSv·a -1 , Which is due to drinking the water. Conclusion: The analyses of data indicate that there is no over-burden dose from 222 Rn for people who drink the water of mineral springs of Shandong

  10. Determination of long-lived natural Ra isotopes, 226Ra, in mineral and spring waters from Caxambu (MG) and Aguas de Lindoia (SP) spas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negrao, Sergio Garcia

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the long-lived Ra isotopes, 226 Ra and 228 Ra, natural distribution in mineral and spring waters from Caxambu (MG) and Aguas de Lindoia (SP) water parks. In Caxambu mineral waters it was observed 228 Ra activity concentrations slightly higher than those of 226 Ra. The elevated content of carbonates and bicarbonates of these waters can result in an increased solubility of the both Ra isotopes and may play an important role for the fate of 228 Ra and its equilibrium distribution between solid and liquid phases. In Caxambu Thermal Spa, arithmetic mean activities ranged from 83 mBq L -1 to 3599 mBq L -1 and from 60 mBq L -1 to 4481 mBq L -1 for 226 Ra and 228 Ra, respectively. The highest 226 Ra activity was found in Venancio Spring, while the maximum 228 Ra activity value was determined in Ernestina Guedes. 228 Ra/ 226 Ra activity ratios varied from 0.079 (Conde D'Eau and Princesa Isabel Spring) to 4.2 (Mairink II Spring). In Aguas de Lindoia, arithmetic mean activities ranged from 4.6 mBq L -1 to 41 mBq L -1 and from 30 mBq L -1 to 54 mBq L -1 for 226 Ra and 228 Ra, respectively. The maximum 226 Ra activity concentration was found in the bottled mineral water Sao Jorge, while the higher 228 Ra activity concentration was determined in Santa Filomena Spring (public station 2). 228 Ra/ 226 Ra activity ratios varied from 1.2 (bottled mineral water Sao Jorge) to 9.1 (bottled mineral water Jatoba 1). This work also performed the dose assessment due to the ingestion of 226 Ra and 228 Ra in Caxambu and Aguas de Lindoia mineral and spring waters. The committed effective doses were estimated by using a conservative dosimetric model and taking into account the results over a lifetime (70 years) following intake of both long-lived Ra isotopes. The results from this radiological evaluation showed that the guidance committed effective dose level of 0.1 mSv y-1 recommended by World Health Organization was exceeded in almost all samples studied in

  11. Long-lived natural Ra isotopes in mineral, therapeutic and spring waters in Caxambu, Minas Gerais state, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negrao, Sergio Garcia; Oliveira, Joselene de

    2011-01-01

    In many countries all around the world, there is an increasing tendency to replace surface drinking water by commercially available bottled mineral water from different springs for consumption purposes. These practices involve an increased risk of finding higher activities of natural radionuclides in such waters, predominantly of the uranium-radium decay series. Naturally occurring radionuclides such as 238 U, 226 Ra, 222 Rn, 210 Po and 228 Ra are found frequently dissolved in water supplies and their concentrations vary over an extremely wide range. However, from the point of view of radiation hygiene, results of many worldwide surveys indicate that only 222 Rn, 226 Ra and 228 Ra have been found in concentrations that may be of health concern. 226 Ra and 228 Ra are the most radiotoxic isotopes of radium due to their long half-lives, 1,600 and 5.75 years, respectively. Since their chemical behavior is similar to that of calcium, radium isotopes tend to accumulate mostly in the skeleton after ingestion. For the purposes of this study, samples of mineral spring water were taken in Caxambu, a thermal resort located in the extreme south of Minas Gerais, 370 km south of Belo Horizonte. Caxambu is renowned by its waterpark, which has twelve sources of mineral water already being used in treatment of stomach, liver and kidney diseases, between others. 226 Ra activity concentrations varied from 83 to 3,599 mBq L-1, the highest value determined at Venancio spring. Activity concentrations of 228 Ra ranged from 69 to 4,481 mBq L-1. 228 Ra/ 226 Ra activity ratios varied from 0.079 to 4.2. (author)

  12. The radioactivity of bottled mineral waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrakova, M.; Babarikova, F.; Belanova, A.

    2005-01-01

    Mineral waters with increased contents of minerals (total mineralization ranging from 1000 to 4000 mg.dm -3 ) can also contain increased concentrations of natural radionuclides. For this reason it is necessary to monitor radioactivity of mineral and thermal springs. Hundreds of springs which are used for drinking purposes are spread in many regions all over Slovakia. In our laboratory we determined these radionuclides in mineral waters: total alpha, total beta, volume activity 222 Rn, concentration of U nat , volume 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 210 Po. From values of determined volume activities of radionuclides we calculated total effective dose from reception mineral waters. By calculation of effective dose we supposed consumption of mineral water 150 dm 3 .year -1 (0.4 dm 3 .day -1 ) for adults (according to UNSCEAR). Conversion factors are initiated in the regulation of Ministry of Health of Slovak Republic (MZ SR No.12/2001). (authors)

  13. Biomineralization of radioactive sulfide minerals in strong acidic Tamagawa hot springs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tazaki, Kazue; Watanabe, Hiroaki

    2004-01-01

    Bioaccumulation of radioactive sulfide minerals by bacteria in strong acidic hot spring water was found at Tamagawa Hot Springs, Akita prefecture in Japan. The hot spring water produces Hokutolite of radioactive minerals high radium and radon. The β-ray measurements of sediments and biofilms indicate 1850-2420 and 5700 cpm, respectively, which are 50-100 times higher than that of the water and the air (50-90 cpm). The characteristics of hot spring water show pH (1.2), Eh (140 mV), EC (29 mS/cm), DO (0.8 mg/l), and water temperature (99.5degC), indicating extremely strong acidic and reducing conditions. The hot spring water contains mainly HCl associated with high concentrations of Ca 2+ , Al 3+ , Fe 2+ , HSO 4 - and SO 4 2- . SEM-EDX and TEM demonstrate some insight into how microorganisms affect the chemistry and microbiological characteristics of the strong acidic surroundings with high S, As, Ba, and Ca contents in biofilms. Especially SEM-EDX, ED-XRF, and STEM-EDX elemental content maps illustrate the distribution of sulfur-bearing compounds of barite (BaSO 4 ), gypsum (CaSO 4 ·2H 2 O), elemental sulfur (S) and orpiment(As 2 S 3 ) in the reddish orange biofilms. The presence of a hydrogen sulfide-rich (H 2 S) thermal spring and gypsum deposits suggest the volatilization of H 2 S from the spring water, oxidation of the H 2 S gas to sulfuric acid, and reaction of the sulfuric acid. TEM micrographs of bacteria in the biofilms reveal in detail the intimate connections between biological and mineralogical processes that the cells are entirely accumulated with spherical grains, 100∼200 nm in diameter. The relationship among sulfide minerals, such as barite, gypsum, sulfur, orpiment, and Hakutolite, associated with bacteria implies that heavy metals have been transported from strong acidic hot spring water to sediments through bacteria metabolism. It is possible that the capability of radioactive sulfide biofilms for heavy metal immobilization can be used to

  14. Risk due assessment of the intake of uranium isotopes in mineral spring waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camargo, Iara M.C.; Mazzilli, Barbara

    1998-01-01

    To complement the data of a previous research concerning the evaluation of the lifetime risk of radiation-induced cancer due to the injection of 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 222 Rn in mineral spring waters from a natural highly radioactive region of Brazil. The study was performed to evaluate the lifetime risk of radiation-induced cancer due to the ingestion of 238 U and 234 U in the same spring waters. It is assumed that the risk coefficient for natural U isotopes is the same as for the 226 Ra-induced bone sarcomas and that the equilibrium for skeletal content is 25 times the daily ingestion of 226 Ra, but 11 times the daily ingestion of long-lived uranium isotopes. Waters samples were collected seasonally over a period of one year at all the spring sites used by the local population of Aguas da Prata, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. Concentrations ranging from 2.0 to 28.4 mBq/L and from 4.7 to 143 mBq/L were observed for 238 U and 234 U, respectively. Based upon the measured concentrations the lifetime risk due to the ingestion of uranium isotopes was estimated. A total of 0.3 uranium-induced cancers for 10 6 exposed persons was predicted, suggesting that chronic ingestion of uranium at the levels observed at these springs will result in an incremental increase of fatal cancers of 0.1%. (author)

  15. Natural radioactivity levels in mineral, therapeutic and spring waters in Tunisia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labidi, S., E-mail: labidisalam@yahoo.f [Institut Superieur des Technologies Medicales de Tunis (ISTMT), 9 Avenue du Docteur Z.Essafi, Tunis 1006 (Tunisia); Mahjoubi, H. [Institut Superieur des Technologies Medicales de Tunis (ISTMT), 9 Avenue du Docteur Z.Essafi, Tunis 1006 (Tunisia); Essafi, F. [Faculte de Medecine de Tunis. Section de Biophysique, Tunis (Tunisia); Ben Salah, R. [Faculte de Medecine de Sousse, 270, Sahloul II, 4054 Sousse (Tunisia)

    2010-12-15

    Radioactivity measurements were carried out in 26 groundwater samples from Tunisia. Activity concentrations of uranium were studied by radiochemical separation procedures followed by alpha spectrometry and that for radium isotopes by gamma-ray spectrometry. The results show that, the concentrations in water samples range from 1.2 to 69 mBq/L.1, 1.3 to 153.4 mBq/L, 2.0 to 1630.0 mBq/L and 2.0 to 1032.0 mBq/L for {sup 238}U, {sup 234}U, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra, respectively. The U and Ra activity concentrations are low and similar to those published for other regions in the world. The natural radioactivity levels in the investigated samples are generally increased from mineral waters through therapeutic to the spring waters. The results show that a correlation between total dissolved solids (TDS) values and the {sup 226}Ra concentrations was found to be high indicating that {sup 266}Ra has a high affinity towards the majority of mineral elements dissolved in these waters. High correlation coefficients were also observed between {sup 226}Ra content and chloride ions for Cl{sup -}Na{sup +} water types. This can be explained by the fact that radium forms a complex with chloride and in this form is more soluble. The isotopic ratio of {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U and {sup 226}Ra/{sup 234}U varies in the range from 0.8 to 2.6 and 0.6 to 360.8, respectively, in all investigated waters, which means that there is no radioactive equilibrium between the two members of the {sup 238}U series. The fractionation of isotopes of a given element may occur because of preferential leaching of one, or by the direct action of recoil during radioactive decay. The annual effective doses due to ingestion of the mineral waters have been estimated to be well below the 0.1 mSv/y reference dose level.

  16. Evaluation of Nevsehir mineral waters by using hydrochemical and isotopic data, central Anatolia, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afsin, M.; Kavurmaci, M.

    2002-01-01

    Many mineral waters are located in Nevsehir and its vicinity. Corak, Karakaya and Guemueskent mineral waters are investigated in this study. The springs generally emerge along faults in the study area. The marbles of the Bozcaldag metamorphic basement rocks form the confined aquifer of the springs. The hydrochemical facies of the springs are Na-Ca-HCO 3 of Karakaya cold springs, Ca-HCO 3 of Guemueskent mineral waters; and Na-Cl-HCO 3 of Corak and Karakaya mineral waters, respectively. Because of the gas-mineral-water interaction, total mineralizations are high in a CO 2 dominated and low temperature mineral waters. The springs are of meteoric origin. Corak and Karakaya mineral waters might be contributed by older waters. The Karakaya cold spring is shallow circulated, while the mineral waters which have high the free CO 2 -gas are circulated groundwaters. In addition to the old travertines extending along faultlines, recent travertine depositions appear in places where mineral waters appear. The travertines in these regions are formed under certain conditions including low flow depth, turbulent flow, increasing pH values due to the loss of CO 2

  17. LINEAMENTS MAP OF TURKEY FROM LANDSAT IMAGERY AND SELECTING TARGET AREAS FOR MINERAL EXPLORATION, RELATIONSHIP OF REGIONAL LINEAMENTS TO EARTHQUAKE EPICENTERS, MINERAL WATERS AND HOT SPRINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail HENDEN

    1984-06-01

    Full Text Available Landsat coverage countrywide have been interpreted and a map of lineaments has been prepared. Circular features which are the surface expressions of deep or near   intrusions have  been  carefully mapped in order to investigate their relationship (if any to known mineralizations. From the outset it was postulated that the miner- alizations  are    located at the intersections of lineaments, especially in the vicinity of circular features.  To  test this hypo- thesis known mineralizations were placed on this map. It is noted that the metallic mineral deposits can be grouped into ten regions,  and out  of these,  two regions need to  be explored more intensively. In  some regions selected, locations of possible mineralizations were determined. Earthquake epicenters, mineral water sources and hot spring locations were placed on the  lineaments map. It is seen  that the hot springs and earthquake epicentres are located on regional fault systems.

  18. Effects of mineral water from spring 3 in Băile Tuşnad on experimentally induced alcoholic liver disease

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    Gabriela Dogaru

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Chronic alcohol consumption leads to the development of specific disorders, particularly of the liver. In this study, we aimed to investigate by optical microscopy the hepatic changes occurring after administration of ethyl alcohol for 70 days to Wistar rats, as well as the curative effect of mineral water from spring 3 in Băile Tuşnad administered for 50 days after completion of ethyl alcohol administration. Liver fragments were harvested and histologically processed by paraffin embedding and stained with Goldner’s trichrome method. After the first 70 days of the experiment, in the liver parenchyma, fat loading of hepatocytes and mild perivascular fibrosis were identified. After another 50 days, during which some of the rats drank tap water, the pathological evolution did not seem to stop, but on the contrary, a slight aggravation could be observed, while in rats drinking Tuşnad mineral water there was an arrest of evolution and a slight regression of the described aspects. This study evidences the curative effect of mineral water from spring 3 in Băile Tuşnad on alcoholic liver disease.

  19. Natural radionuclides in some romanian medicinal mineral water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botezatu, E.; Iacob, O. [Institute of Public Health, Iasi (Romania)

    2006-07-01

    Radioactive minerals occur irregularly in the bedrock, similar to other minerals and they dissolve easily in water. Bedrock contains naturally occurring radioactivity including uranium, thorium, radium and potassium. The natural radioactivity results from water passing through deposits of naturally occurring radioactive materials.Many mineral water springs are traditionally used as drinking mineral water sources in the area.During the period from 1997 to 2000, we accomplished a study that had as basic objectives the radioacty control of the drinking mineral waters according to existing standards and evaluation of doses to population by ingestion of mineral water (bottled waters commercially available for human intake and some spring waters).For this reason, we were interested in finding out the extent to which these waters can be a natural radiation source. This survey aimed at assessing the radioactive content of these waters and their contribution to the population exposure.The presented data contribute to a national database concerning the natural radioactive content of Romanian mineral waters. A hypothetical person that undergoes a cure of mineral water by ingestion, inhalation and immersion is receiving an average supplementary dose of 3 {mu}Sv over background radiation of 2,512 {mu}Sv.y{sup -1} due to all natural radiation sources in Romania. The contribution of mineral water used in therapeutic purposes to the natural irradiation of population is very slight, almost insignificant. This supports the conclusion that these spring mineral waters can be used without any restrictions for drinking or bathing / washing for medical therapy of ailing persons even other sources of exposure are also taken into account. (N.C.)

  20. Natural radionuclides, 226Ra, 228Ra and 210Pb, determined in mineral water springs from Parque das Águas de Caxambu, and assessment of the committed effective doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meneghini, Arthur A.; Damatto, Sandra R.; Oliveira, Joselene; Prilip, Amanda

    2017-01-01

    The increase of mineral water consumption and its medicinal use results in the necessity of characterization of these waters sources, once that water is a vital part of human diet. In the mineral waters, besides stable elements, responsible of the chemical composition, the presence of natural radionuclides from the 238 U, 232 Th, 235 U series and 40 K gives the radiation property. The incorporation of these radionuclides through the ingestion and external treatment of mineral waters are a very important point, due the ionizing radiation of these radionuclides are harmful to the organism. The largest mineral water park of the world is situated in Brazil, in the city of Caxambu, called Parque das Águas de Caxambu. In this park are 12 fountains distributed in the park, also a tubular well of 60 meters of depth which regularly provide water spouts, geyser, and another spring located inside the Gloria Hotel. Therefore, the aim of this work was to evaluate the activity concentrations of the radionuclides 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 210 Pb in the mineral waters springs collected at the 'Parque das Águas de Caxambu' and in the Gloria Hotel, as well as to estimate the committed effective doses due to the consumption of these waters. In six campaigns, the radionuclides with the highest concentrations were 226 Ra and 228 Ra in the springs D. Ernestina, Beleza and Venâncio. These springs also presented the highest values of the committed effective dose. (author)

  1. The main chemical properties of hot and cold mineral waters in Bayankhongor, Mongolia

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    D Oyuntsetseg

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, hot and cold mineral springs and sub mineral waters in the Bayankhongor province were examined for their chemical characteristics and identified cold mineral waters classification according to mineral water classification of Mongolia. The hot spring waters belong to Na+-HCO3- and Na+-SO42- types. The cold mineral spring of Lkham belongs to Ca2+-HCO3- type. All sub mineral waters are generally located in the two areas (northern part or mountain forest area and the southern part or Gobi desert area. TDS concentrations of cold springs of the southern part in the study area were higher than northern part’s cold springs. The total dissolved silica content of cold spring was ranged from 4.5mg/L to 26 mg/L which did not correspond to requirements of mineral water standard of Mongolia. Thus, these cold springs are belonging to sub mineral water classification. The sub mineral waters were characterized into four types such as a Ca2+-SO42-, Na+-SO42-, Na+-HCO3 and Ca2+ - HCO3 by their chemical composition in the study area. The values for the quartz, chalcedony geothermometer and the Na/K geothermometer were quite different. The silica-enthalpy mixing model predicts a subsurface reservoir temperature between 124 and 197°C and most of the hot waters have been  probably mixed with cold water. The result shows that an averaged value of calculated temperature ranges from 77°C to 119°C which indicates that studied area has low temperature geothermal resources. DOI: http://doi.dx.org/10.5564/mjc.v15i0.324 Mongolian Journal of Chemistry 15 (41, 2014, p56-62

  2. Radioactive mineral spring precipitates, their analytical and statistical data and the uranium connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadigan, R.A.; Felmlee, J.K.

    1982-01-01

    Major radioactive mineral springs are probably related to deep zones of active metamorphism in areas of orogenic tectonism. The most common precipitate is travertine, a chemically precipitated rock composed chiefly of calcium carbonate, but also containing other minerals. The mineral springs are surface manifestations of hydrothermal conduit systems which extend downward many kilometers to hot source rocks. Conduits are kept open by fluid pressure exerted by carbon dioxide-charged waters rising to the surface propelled by heat and gas (CO2 and steam) pressure. On reaching the surface, the dissolved carbon dioxide is released from solution, and calcium carbonate is precipitated. Springs also contain sulfur species (for example, H2S and HS-), and radon, helium and methane as entrained or dissolved gases. The HS- ion can react to form hydrogen sulfide gas, sulfate salts, and native sulfur. Chemical salts and native sulfur precipitate at the surface. The sulfur may partly oxidize to produce detectable sulfur dioxide gas. Radioactivity is due to the presence of radium-226, radon-222, radium-228, and radon-220, and other daughter products of uranium-238 and thorium-232. Uranium and thorium are not present in economically significant amounts in most radioactive spring precipitates. Most radium is coprecipitated at the surface with barite. Barite (barium sulfate) forms in the barium-containing spring water as a product of the oxidation of sulfur species to sulfate ions. The relatively insoluble barium sulfate precipitates and removes much of the radium from solution. Radium coprecipitates to a lesser extent with manganese-barium- and iron-oxy hydroxides. R-mode factor analysis of abundances of elements suggests that 65 percent of the variance of the different elements is affected by seven factors interpreted as follows: (1) Silica and silicate contamination and precipitation; (2) Carbonate travertine precipitation; (3) Radium coprecipitation; (4) Evaporite precipitation

  3. Mineral textures in Serpentine-hosted Alkaline Springs from the Oman ophiolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giampouras, Manolis; Garcia-Ruiz, Juan Manuel; Bach, Wolfgang; Garrido, Carlos J.; Los, Karin; Fussmann, Dario; Monien, Monien

    2017-04-01

    Meteoric water infiltration in ultramafic rocks leads to serpentinization and the formation of subaerial, low temperature, hydrothermal alkaline springs. Here, we present a detailed investigation of the mineral precipitation mechanisms and textural features of mineral precipitates, along as the geochemical and hydrological characterization, of two alkaline spring systems in the Semail ophiolite (Nasif and Khafifah sites, Wadi Tayin massif). The main aim of the study is to provide new insights into mineral and textural variations in active, on-land, alkaline vents of the Oman ophiolite. Discharge of circulating fluids forms small-scale, localized hydrological catchments consisting in unevenly interconnected ponds. Three different types of waters can be distinguished within the pond systems: i) Mg-type; alkaline (7.9 11.6), Ca-OH-rich waters; and iii) Mix-type waters arising from the mixing of Mg-type and Ca-type waters (9.6 ponds were carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and field-emission scanning electron microscopy coupled to dispersive energy spectroscopy (FE-SEM-EDS). Aragonite and calcite are the dominant minerals (95 vol.%) of the total mineralogical index in all sites. Mg-type waters host hydrated magnesium carbonates (nesquehonite) and magnesium hydroxycarbonate hydrates (artinite) due to evaporation. Brucite, hydromagnesite and dypingite presence in Mix-type waters is spatially controlled by the hydrology of the system and is localized around mixing zones between Ca-type with Mg-type waters. Residence time of discharging waters in the ponds before mixing has an impact on fluid chemistry as it influences the equilibration time with the atmosphere. Acicular aragonite is the main textural type in hyper-alkaline Ca-type waters, acting as a substratum for the growth of calcite and brucite crystals. Low crystallinity, dumbbell shaped and double pyramid aragonite dominates in Mix-type water precipitates. Rate of supersaturation is essential

  4. Hydrogeochemistry and Genesis Analysis of Thermal and Mineral Springs in Arxan, Northeastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomin Gu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the hydrogeochemistry and environmental isotopic compositions of thermal and mineral springs in Arxan, northeastern China, were used to assess the genesis of the thermal system hosted by deep-seated faults. The reservoir temperature was calculated using the mineral saturation index and geothermometers. According to isotopic analysis, the spring water was of meteoric origin. Sixteen springs in the Arxan geothermal system with outlet temperatures ranging from 10.9 to 41.0 °C were investigated. The water samples can be classified into four groups by using a Piper diagram. The aquifer in which the Group I and Group III samples were obtained was a shallow cold aquifer of the Jurassic system, which is related to the local groundwater system and contains HCO3–Ca·Na groundwater. The Group II and Group IV samples were recharged by deeply circulating meteoric water with HCO3–Na and HCO3·SO4–Na·Ca groundwater, respectively. The springs rise from the deep basement faults. The estimated thermal reservoir temperature is 50.9–68.8 °C, and the proportion of shallow cold water ranges from 54% to 87%. A conceptual flow model based on hydrogeochemical results and hydrogeological features is given to describe the geothermal system of the Arxan springs.

  5. [Mineral water as a cure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocco, Priska Binz

    2008-01-01

    The treatment of diseases with mineral spring water belongs to the oldest medical therapies. The "remedy" mineral water is therefore of importance also within the pharmacy. The present pharmacy historical work examines the impact of the use of mineral waters, as well as of their dried components, as therapeutic agents in the 19th and early 20th centuries, i.e. from approx. 1810 to 1930, as well as the contributions given by pharmacists in the development and analysis of mineral water springs. Beside these aspects, the aim here is also to describe the role played by pharmacists in the production of artificial mineral water as well as in the sale and wholesale of natural and artificial mineral water. In the first part of this work the situation in Switzerland and its surrounding countries, such as Germany, France, Italy and Austria, is discussed. The second part contains a case-study of the particular situation in the Canton Tessin. It is known from the scientific literature published at that time that information on mineral water was frequently reported. Starting from the beginning of the 19th century the number of such publications increased tremendously. The major part of them were publications in scientific journals or contributions to medical and pharmaceutical manuals and reference books. In particular the spa-related literature, such as spa-guides, was of growing interest to a broad public. The inclusion of monographs into the Swiss, the Cantonal as well the foreign pharmacopoeias granted a legal frame for the mineral waters and their dried components. These works are of major importance from a pharmacy historical standpoint and represent a unique proof of historical evidence of the old medicinal drug heritage. The most frequently used therapies based on mineral waters were drinking and bath cures. Several diseases, particularly those of a chronic character, were treated with mineral waters. The positive influence of these cures on the recovery of the patients

  6. Natural radionuclides, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 210}Pb, determined in mineral water springs from Parque das Águas de Caxambu, and assessment of the committed effective doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meneghini, Arthur A.; Damatto, Sandra R.; Oliveira, Joselene; Prilip, Amanda, E-mail: ameneghini@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The increase of mineral water consumption and its medicinal use results in the necessity of characterization of these waters sources, once that water is a vital part of human diet. In the mineral waters, besides stable elements, responsible of the chemical composition, the presence of natural radionuclides from the {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th, {sup 235}U series and {sup 40}K gives the radiation property. The incorporation of these radionuclides through the ingestion and external treatment of mineral waters are a very important point, due the ionizing radiation of these radionuclides are harmful to the organism. The largest mineral water park of the world is situated in Brazil, in the city of Caxambu, called Parque das Águas de Caxambu. In this park are 12 fountains distributed in the park, also a tubular well of 60 meters of depth which regularly provide water spouts, geyser, and another spring located inside the Gloria Hotel. Therefore, the aim of this work was to evaluate the activity concentrations of the radionuclides {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 210}Pb in the mineral waters springs collected at the 'Parque das Águas de Caxambu' and in the Gloria Hotel, as well as to estimate the committed effective doses due to the consumption of these waters. In six campaigns, the radionuclides with the highest concentrations were {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra in the springs D. Ernestina, Beleza and Venâncio. These springs also presented the highest values of the committed effective dose. (author)

  7. Soda Creek springs - metamorphic waters in the eastern Alaska Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, D.H.; Donaldson, D.E.; Lamarre, R.A.

    1973-01-01

    The Soda Creek springs are a group of small, cold mineral springs on the southern flank of the eastern Alaska Range. The spring waters contain anomalous concentrations of carbon dioxide, sodium, chlorine, sulfate, boron, and ammonia and are actively precipitating deposits of calcite and aragonite. Sparingly present in these deposits are mixed-layer illite-montmorillonite clays and zeolite minerals. Low-temperaturemetamorphic reactions in subjacent marine sedimentary rocks of Jurassic and Cretaceous age may have produced the fluids and silicate minerals. With only a few exceptions, cool bicarbonate-rich springs in Alaska are concentrated south of the Denali fault system in south-central Alaska, southeastern Alaska, and along the Kaltag-Tintina fault system. These areas are characterized by active or recently activetectonism, major faults and folds, and an abundance of marine sedimentary rocks.

  8. [Investigation of concentration levels of chromium(VI) in bottled mineral and spring waters by high performance ion chromatography technique with application of postcolumn reaction with 1,5-diphenylcarbazide and VIS detection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiecicka, Dorota; Garboś, Sławomir

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this work was optimization and validation of the method of determination of Cr(VI) existing in the form of chromate(VI) in mineral and spring waters by High Performance Ion Chromatography (HPIC) technique with application of postcolumn reaction with 1,5-diphenylcarbazide and VIS detection. Optimization of the method performed with the use of initial apparatus parameters and chromatographic conditions from the Method 218.6 allowed to lowering detection limit for Cr(VI) from 400 ng/l to 2 ng/l. Thanks to very low detection limit achieved it was possible to determine of Cr(VI) concentrations in 25 mineral and spring waters presented at Polish market. In the cases of four mineral and spring waters analyzed, determined Cr(VI) concentrations were below of quantification limit (waters the concentrations of chromium(VI) were determined in the range of 5.6 - 1281 ng/l. The fact of existence of different Cr(VI) concentrations in investigated waters could be connected with secondary contamination of mineral and spring waters by chromium coming from metal installations and fittings. One should be underlined that even the highest determined concentration level of chromium(VI) was below of the maximum admissible concentration of total chromium presented in Polish Decree of Minister of Health from April 29th 2004. Therefore after taking into account determined in this work concentration of Cr(VI), the consumption of all waters analyzed in this study does not lead to essential human health risk.

  9. Thermo-mineral waters of Hammam Meskoutine (north-east Algeria: Composition and origin of mineralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benamara Abdelwaheb

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The extreme north-eastern Algeria, in particular the Guelma city conceals thermal springs, whose waters circulating at great depths allow the rain-waters to warm up (according to the average geothermal gradient of 1°C per 33 m and to acquire a mineralization which depends on the traversed rock. The goal of this research work was to determine mineralization origin of the thermo-mineral waters of Hammam Meskoutine (Algerian N-E. A hydro-chemical study involved analyses of a number of physical and chemical parameters of waters such as: temperature, hydrogen potential, electrolytical conductivity, Cl-, SO4 2-, HCO3 -, Ca2+, Mg2+, K+ and Na+. The data processing on the diagram revealed two dominating chemical facies: sulphate-magnesium and bicarbonate magnesium. With a high conductivity in excess of 2300 μS·cm-1, the temperature reaches 97°C. Calculation of the saturation index shows that the waters are supersaturated in carbonate minerals (calcite, dolomite and aragonite and less saturated with evaporite minerals (halite, anhydrite, sylvite and gypsum. The reconstitution in dissolved salts reveals a dominant salt rich in calcium bicarbonates, in calcium sulphates and secondarily in magnesium salts. Geological sections used in the study zone affirm that the chemical composition of the spring waters comes from the neritic limestone dissolution and the gypso-saline complex of Hammam Meskoutine.

  10. Natural mineral waters: chemical characteristics and health effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrini, Sara; Pampaloni, Barbara; Brandi, Maria Luisa

    2016-01-01

    Summary Water contributes significantly to health and a daily intake of 1.5 to 2 liters of water should be guaranteed, because a good hydration is essential to maintain the body water equilibrium, although needs may vary among people. However, worldwide population is far from the Recommended Allowance for water intake. Among the waters for human uses, there are ‘waters (treated or not), intended for drinking, used for the food and beverages preparation or for other domestic purposes’ and natural mineral waters, that are ‘originated from an aquifer or underground reservoir, spring from one or more natural or bore sources and have specific hygienic features and, eventually, healthy properties’. According to the European Legislation (2009/54/EC Directive), physical and chemical characterization is used to make a classification of the different mineral waters, basing on the analysis of main parameters. Mineral composition enables to classify natural mineral waters as bicarbonate mineral waters, sulphate mineral waters, chloride mineral waters, calcic mineral waters, magnesiac mineral waters, fluorurate mineral waters, ferrous mineral waters and sodium-rich mineral waters. Although the concerns about bottled mineral waters (due to plasticizers and endocrine disruptors), many are the health effects of natural mineral waters and several studies explored their properties and their role in different physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:28228777

  11. [Mineral waters from several Brazilian natural sources].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebelo, M A; Araujo, N C

    1999-01-01

    To divulge information on the chemical composition and physical-chemical features of some mineral waters from Brazilian natural sources that will be of useful protocol investigation and patient advice. The survey was based on bottle labels of non-gaseous mineral waters commercially available in the city of Rio de Janeiro. The íon concentration of each mineral was calculated from the salt content. 36 springs were enralled from different states of the country. The pH (25 degrees C), 4.1 to 9.3, varied on dependence of the source and it was linearey correlated with the cations calcium, magnesium and sodium and the anion bicarbonate. It was atributed to high alkalinity (about 70% of bicarbonate in the molecula-gram) of these salts. The calcium (0.3 to 42 mg/l), magnesium (0.0 to 18 mg/l) and bicarbonate (4 to 228 mg/l) contents are relatively low. The mineral content of the Brazilian springs enrolled in this survey is low; about 70% of the sources having calcium and magnesium less than 10 mg/l and 1.0 mg/l, respectively, similar to local tap water.

  12. Determination of 210 Pb in mineral spring waters of Aguas da Prata city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, S.R.D.

    1993-01-01

    Concentration levels of 210 Pb have been analyzed in 12 mineral spring waters of Aguas da Prata city. The 210 Pb concentration was determined through 210 Bi, by measuring the gross beta activity of the 210 Pb Cr O 4 precipitate after separation from interfering elements by complexation with nitrile tri acetic acid at basic pH. The 210 Bi beta activity was carried out in a low background gas flow proportional counter. Concentrations ranging from lower limit of detection to 1240 mBq/L were observed for 210 Pb. The radiochemical procedure adopted presented a chemical yield around 85% and a lower limit of detection of 4,9 mBq/L. Dose calculations were performed in order to evaluate the importance of this radionuclide to the radiation exposure due to the ingestion of these waters. Based upon measured concentrations, committed effective doses up to 1,1 mSv/y and committed doses to the bone up to 1.7 x 10 1 mSv/y were observed for 210 Pb. (author). 64 refs, 6 figs, 7 tabs

  13. Annual absorbed dose rate at the surface of 38 hot and mineral springs in Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahreyni Toosi, M.; Orougi, M.H.; Sadeghzadeh, A.; Aghamir, A.; Jomehzadeh, A.; Zare, H. [Mashhad Univ. of Medical Sciences, Medical Physics Dep., Faculty of Medicine (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Measurement of background radiation is very important from different points of view especially to human health. In some cases exposure rate near hot and mineral springs are higher than those of normal areas. The high background radiation of hot and mineral springs is primarily due to the presence of very high amounts of Ra 226 and its decay products. In this research, environmental gamma radiation of hot and mineral springs in Khorasan, Mazandaran and Sareeyn town in Ardabil province have been measured. Equipment used in this work included: a survey meter (R.D.S. -110), a tripod and an aluminium frame to hold the survey meter horizontally.R.D.S. -110 is a microprocessor controlled detector. This survey meter has been designed for monitoring X and rays and radiation. Measurements were carried out at one meter above water level in the vicinity of hot and mineral springs. Dose rates were recorded for one hour. The average of all recorded dose rates over one hour period was taken as the exposure rate for each station. The results indicate that in Khorasan province the highest and lowest annual absorbed dose rates were equal to 10.80 mSv/y at Shanigarmab and 0.52 mSv/y at Nasradin source respectively. In Mazandaran province maximum and minimum exposure rates equal to 54.4 and 0.53 mSv/y were obtained at the surface of Talleshmahalleh and Ghormerz sources. Exposure rates at the vicinity of Sarein sources were not very different and ranged from 1.39 to 1.59 mSv/y. The results indicate that in Khorasan province Shahingarmab hot spring has the highest annual absorbed dose rate (10.80 mSv/y) and Nasraddin in Sarbisheh has the lowest level of radiation (0.62 mSv/y). In Mazandaran province Taleshmahalleh hot mineral spring has the highest annual absorbed dose rate (54.41 mSv/y) and Ghormerz mineral spring has the lowest radiation level (0.53 mSv/y). Also in Sareeyn (in Ardabil province) Abechashm source has the highest annual absorbed dose

  14. Isotopic investigations of mineral waters from Someseni - Cluj, Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuna, Stela; Berdea, Petre; Baciu, Calin

    2001-01-01

    The Someseni mineral water spring area is located in the eastern part of Cluj-Napoca city, Romania, at the base of the first alluvial terrace of the Somesul Mic River. The presence of waters with therapeutical qualities in this area is known since the early 1920's. Only five springs are active at this moment. From a geological point of view, the mineral aquifer is located on the western border of the Neogene Transylvanian Basin. The Someseni spring area is situated in the axial zone of an anticline with salt core. Marls, with frequent intercalations of sandstones and volcanic tuffs dominate the lithology of these deposits. We have studied the flows of these waters by means of the hydrogen and oxygen isotopes. The method for determining the oxygen isotope composition was by equilibration with CO 2 and measurement of the isotopic ratio of CO 2 . Hydrogen isotope analysis of these waters was carried out on the hydrogen gas obtained by quantitative reduction of water directly in the inlet system of the mass spectrometer. In the interpretation of other authors, there are two distinct circuits of the waters from Someseni: a deep one, which determines a higher mineralisation, the water being in contact for a longer time with the salt massif, and a shallow one, located in alluvial deposits, which have a slight contact with the salt, reflected by its lower mineralisation. In our opinion, there is a single circuit for these mineral waters. The infiltration occurs through previous layers (volcanic tuffs, sandstones) in an unidentified recharging zone, generating a confined aquifer. This assumption can be sustained by the hydrogen and oxygen isotopes uptake of these waters. (authors)

  15. Hydrogeochemical tracing of mineral water in Jingyu County, Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Baizhong; Xiao, Changlai; Liang, Xiujuan; Wu, Shili

    2016-02-01

    The east Jilin Province in China, Jingyu County has been explored as a potential for enriching mineral water. In order to assess the water quality and quantity, it is of crucial importance to investigate the origin of the mineral water and its flow paths. In this study, eighteen mineral springs were sampled in May and September of 2012, May and September of 2013, and May 2014 and the environment, evolvement, and reaction mechanism of mineral water formation were analysed by hydrochemical data analysis, geochemical modelling and multivariate statistical analysis. The results showed that the investigated mineral water was rich in calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, bicarbonate, chloride, sulphate, fluoride, nitrate, total iron, silicate, and strontium, and mineral water ages ranged from 11.0 to more than 61.0 years. The U-shape contours of the mineral ages indicate a local and discrete recharge. The mineral compositions of the rocks were olivine, potassium feldspar, pyroxene, albite, and anorthite and were under-saturated in the mineral water. The origin of mineral water was from the hydrolysis of basalt minerals under a neutral to slightly alkaline and CO2-rich environment.

  16. Structur e and Functioning of Micr obial Community of Mineral Springs in Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namsaraev B.B.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The microbial mats of dif ferent types of springs in Central Asia (Zabaikalye and Mongolia are described. The species diversity of mat-formed phototrophic bacteria was determined. The rates of microbial destruction processes (sulfate reduction and methane formation were measured. An important role of bacteria and algae in the formation of mineral water composition was shown.

  17. Hydrogeologic, hydrogeochemical and isotopic studies of mineral and thermal waters from Aguas de Lindoia and Lindoia, SP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshinaga, S.

    1990-01-01

    The underground circulation of the so-called mineral waters of Aguas de Lindoia and Lindoia is conditioned by fractures of Complex Amparo crystalline rocks. The geologic studies and its evolutionary history are so important for understanding the origin, circulation and mineralization of these explored waters. The chemical analysis of the waters both from springs and wells pointed to low mineralization with about 100 mg/l TDS. The bi carbonated calcic and calcic-magnesian content was interpreted as coming from alteration processes of silicate minerals. The isotopes δ 18 O and δ 2 H concentrations indicate the meteoric origin, different recharge zones and evaporation phenomena in the springs and wells waters on the study area. The Radon-222 radioactivity used to classification of mineral waters in this legislation is dubious because it is unstable (3,82 days) and may be dangerous to human. (author)

  18. Rise and fall of road salt contamination of water-supply springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Eberhard; Dipretoro, Richard S.

    2006-12-01

    A storage pile of de-icing agent consisting principally of sodium chloride was placed in the recharge area of two springs, and remained there for 2 years. Water flow is through fractures in rocks with low matrix permeability, along a hydraulic gradient developed along fracture zones. Salt contamination in the springs was noticed about 1 year after the salt was placed. When the salt was removed 1 year later, chloride concentrations in the springs exceeded 500 mg/L. Monitoring for the following 5 years showed salt contamination rising for the first year, but receding to normal background after 5 years. Chloride to sodium ratios of the spring waters indicated that some sodium was initially sequestered, probably by ion exchange on clay minerals, in the early part of the monitoring period, and released during the latter part; thereby extending the period of contamination.

  19. Hydrogeochemical and stable isotopic investigations on CO2-rich mineral waters from Harghita Mts. (Eastern Carpathians, Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kis, Boglárka-Mercedesz; Baciu, Călin; Kármán, Krisztina; Kékedy-Nagy, Ladislau; Francesco, Italiano

    2013-04-01

    There is a worldwide interest on geothermal, mineral and groundwater as a resource for energy, drinking water supply and therapeutic needs. The increasing trend in replacing tap water with commercial bottled mineral water for drinking purposes has become an economic, hydrogeologic and medical concern in the last decades. Several investigations have been carried out worldwide on different topics related to geothermal and mineral waters, dealing with mineral water quality assessment, origin of geothermal and mineral waters, geochemical processes that influence water chemistry and water-rock interaction In Romania, the Călimani-Gurghiu-Harghita Neogene to Quaternary volcanic chain (Eastern Carpathians) is one of the most important areas from the point of view of CO2-rich mineral waters. These mineral water springs occur within other post-volcanic phenomena like dry CO2 emissions, moffettes, bubbling pools, H2S gas emissions etc. Mineral waters from this area are used for bottling, local spas and drinking purposes for local people. The number of springs, around 2000 according to literature data, shows that there is still a significant unexploited potential for good quality drinking water in this area. Within the youngest segment of the volcanic chain, the Harghita Mts., its volcaniclastic aprons and its boundary with the Transylvanian Basin, we have carried out an investigation on 23 CO2-rich mineral water springs from a hydrogeochemical and stable isotopic point of view. The mineral waters are Ca-Mg-HCO3 to Na-Cl type. Sometimes mixing between the two types can be observed. We have detected a great influence of water-rock interaction on the stable isotopic composition of the mineral waters, shown by isotopic shifts to the heavier oxygen isotope, mixing processes between shallow and deeper aquifers and local thermal anomalies. Acknowledgements: The present work was financially supported by the Romanian National Research Council, Project PN-II-ID-PCE-2011-3-0537 and by

  20. Determination of 226 Ra and 228 Ra in mineral spring waters of the Aguas da Prata region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, J. de.

    1993-01-01

    Concentration levels of 226 Ra and 228 Ra have been analysed in most of the mineral spring waters available in the Aguas da Prata region. The 226 Ra and 228 Ra were determined by coprecipitation with barium sulphate. The 226 Ra was determined by gross alpha counting of the Ba(Ra)SO 4 precipitate. The determination of 228 Ra was done by measuring the gross beta activity of the same precipitate. Both measurements were carried out in a low background gas flow proportional counter. Dose calculations were performed in order to evaluate the relative importance of such radionuclides to the radiation exposure due to the ingestion of these waters. Based upon measured concentrations, committed effective doses up to 5.5 x 10 -1 mSv/y and 1.0 x 10 -2 mSv/y were observed for 226 Ra and 228 Ra, respectively. These results show that 226 Ra is the main contributor to radiation exposure. (author)

  1. Groundwater flow cycling between a submarine spring and an inland fresh water spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J Hal; Verdi, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Spring Creek Springs and Wakulla Springs are large first magnitude springs that derive water from the Upper Floridan Aquifer. The submarine Spring Creek Springs are located in a marine estuary and Wakulla Springs are located 18 km inland. Wakulla Springs has had a consistent increase in flow from the 1930s to the present. This increase is probably due to the rising sea level, which puts additional pressure head on the submarine Spring Creek Springs, reducing its fresh water flow and increasing flows in Wakulla Springs. To improve understanding of the complex relations between these springs, flow and salinity data were collected from June 25, 2007 to June 30, 2010. The flow in Spring Creek Springs was most sensitive to rainfall and salt water intrusion, and the flow in Wakulla Springs was most sensitive to rainfall and the flow in Spring Creek Springs. Flows from the springs were found to be connected, and composed of three repeating phases in a karst spring flow cycle: Phase 1 occurred during low rainfall periods and was characterized by salt water backflow into the Spring Creek Springs caves. The higher density salt water blocked fresh water flow and resulted in a higher equivalent fresh water head in Spring Creek Springs than in Wakulla Springs. The blocked fresh water was diverted to Wakulla Springs, approximately doubling its flow. Phase 2 occurred when heavy rainfall resulted in temporarily high creek flows to nearby sinkholes that purged the salt water from the Spring Creek Springs caves. Phase 3 occurred after streams returned to base flow. The Spring Creek Springs caves retained a lower equivalent fresh water head than Wakulla Springs, causing them to flow large amounts of fresh water while Wakulla Springs flow was reduced by about half. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  2. Heavy Metals in Spring and Bottled Drinking Waters of Sibylline Mountains National Park (Central Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annibaldi, Anna; Illuminati, Silvia; Truzzi, Cristina; Scarponi, Giuseppe

    2018-02-01

    Heavy metal concentrations (cadmium, lead, and copper) in spring, tap, and bottled waters of the Sibylline Mountains National Park (central Italy) were investigated using square wave anodic stripping voltammetry from 2004 to 2011. The mean (±SD) concentrations detected (1.3 ± 0.4 ng L -1 cadmium, 14 ± 6 ng L -1 lead, and 0.16 ± 0.10 μg L -1 copper) were below the limits stipulated by Italian and European legislation for drinking and natural mineral water. In the three studied areas of the park (Mount Bove north, Mount Bove south, and springs of River Nera) with very few exceptions, both mineral waters bottled in the area and aqueduct waters from public fountains had approximately the same metal concentrations as did the spring waters from which they were derived. Conversely, substantially higher metal concentrations were found at some sites in private houses, which may be due to release of metals from old metal pipes. At the time of this study, waters of Sibylline Mountains National Park were of good quality, and no influence of the bottling process on heavy metal concentrations was found.

  3. Radiological quality of mineral waters battled in Tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemaitre, N.

    2002-01-01

    There are approximately 60 natural water springs in Tunisia, but only 10 of them, mostly in the north, are legally authorized to be sold for bottled mineral water. The object of this study is to determine the radiological content of the mineral waters bottled in Tunisia by calculating the annual effective dose resulting from ingestion of the natural radionuclides in these waters. The results show that radioactivity is relatively low in the Tunisian mineral waters and is due essentially to uranium and radium picked up as the water passes through the deep rocks. Levels measured range from 3.3 to 2.5 mBq/L for 234 U. Radium levels range from 2.0 to 67.0 mBq/L for 226 Ra and from 2.0 to 30.2 mBq/L for 228 Ra. These levels are lower than those measured in many other regions over the world. For daily mineral water consumption over one year, the estimated effective dose level varies between 0.006 and 0.091 mSv for an adult and between 0.008 and 0.107 mSv for a 5-year old child. These results do not present a public health risk in Tunisia. This investigation enabled us to assess the contribution of bottler water to radiological exposure of natural origins. (author)

  4. AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY REGARDING THE BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF MINERAL WATER FROM SPRING 3 IN BĂILE TUŞNAD ON SOME ORGANS AFTER ETHYL ALCOHOL ADMINISTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Dogaru

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Hepatobiliary and renal disorders are currently on the increase, being favored by increasing environmental pollution, alcohol consumption and synthesis drugs. Mineral water from spring 3 in Băile Tuşnad, with a total mineralization of 3351.0 mg/l, is recommended in chronic liver, gallbladder, pancreas diseases, kidney diseases and stones. This study aimed to assess potential changes in the liver, kidney, pancreas and stomach following ethyl alcohol administration in rats, as well as to monitor anatomopathological differences between animals that drank tap water and those that drank Tușnad mineral water, after cessation of ethyl alcohol administration. The study was carried out on 25 white Wistar rats over a period of 100 days. The animals were divided into 3 groups: group I, negative control group – 5 animals; group II, positive control group – 6 animals; group III, experimental group – 14 animals. The animals of group I received tap water (50-75 ml/day/animal throughout the experiment, and those of groups II and III were administered ethyl alcohol 12% (12-15 ml/day/animal during the first 70 days. During the last 30 days of the experiment, the animals of group II received tap water (50-75 ml/day/animal, and those of group III were administered Tuşnad mineral water (50-75 ml/day/animal. On experimental day 70, 5 animals were euthanized (2 of group I, 1 of group II and 2 of group III, and on day 100, the rest of 20 animals were euthanized. Fragments in the form of 4 mm thick slices from the liver, kidneys, pancreas and stomach of the euthanized animals were collected for histological investigations. The only changes detectable by optical microscopy were present in the liver. The rest of the studied organs did not show lesion aspects detectable by optical microscopy. The structural changes found in the liver were represented by mild to moderate fibrosis around the centrilobular venule in about 50% of the lobules. In the outer third of

  5. Spatiotemporal dynamics of spring and stream water chemistry in a high-mountain area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelazny, Miroslaw; Astel, Aleksander; Wolanin, Anna; Malek, Stanislaw

    2011-01-01

    The present study deals with the application of the self-organizing map (SOM) technique in the exploration of spatiotemporal dynamics of spring and stream water samples collected in the Chocholowski Stream Basin located in the Tatra Mountains (Poland). The SOM-based classification helped to uncover relationships between physical and chemical parameters of water samples and factors determining the quality of water in the studied high-mountain area. In the upper part of the Chocholowski Stream Basin, located on the top of the crystalline core of the Tatras, concentrations of the majority of ionic substances were the lowest due to limited leaching. Significantly higher concentration of ionic substances was detected in spring and stream samples draining sedimentary rocks. The influence of karst-type springs on the quality of stream water was also demonstrated. - Highlights: → We use SOM approach to explore physiochemical data for mountain waters. → Geologic structure and hydrological events impact water chemistry. → Limited leaching, typical of crystalline core, reflects in low water mineralization. → Sedimentary rocks are susceptible for leaching. → Eutrophication has not been shown to be a threat in the Chocholowska Valley. - Spatiotemporal dynamics of spring and stream water chemistry in unique high-mountain area was evaluated by the self-organizing map technique.

  6. Determination of Hot Springs Physico-Chemical Water Quality Potentially Use for Balneotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaini Hamzah; Nurul Latiffah Abd Rani; Ahmad Saat; Ab Khalik Wood

    2013-01-01

    Hot springs areas are attractive places for locals and foreigners either for excursion or for medical purposes such as for healing of various types of diseases. This is because the hot spring water is believed rich in salt, sulfur, and sulfate in the water body. For many thousands of years, people have used hot springs water both for cozy bathing and therapy. Balneotherapy is the term used where the patients were immersed in hot mineral water baths emerged as an important treatment in Europe around 1800s. In view of this fact, a study of hot springs water was performed with the objective to determine the concentration of Na + , K + , Ca 2+ , S, SO 4 2- and Cl - in hot springs water around the State of Selangor, Malaysia. Energy dispersive X-ray Fluorescent Spectrometry (EDXRF) was used to measure the concentrations of Na + , K + , Ca 2+ and S meanwhile for SO 4 2- and Cl - anion, Ion Chromatography (IC) was used. The concentration of Na + obtained for filtered and unfiltered samples ranged from 33.68 to 80.95 and 37.03 to 81.91 ppm respectively. Meanwhile, the corresponding concentrations of K + ranged from 1.47 to 45.72 and 1.70 to 56.81 ppm. Concentrations of Ca 2+ ranged from 2.44 to 18.45 and 3.75 to 19.77 ppm. The concentration of S obtained for filtered and unfiltered samples ranged from 1.87 to 12.41 and 6.25 to 12.86 ppm. The concentrations for SO 4 2- and Cl - obtained ranged from 0.15 to 1.51 ppm and 7.06 to 20.66 ppm for filtered samples. The data signified higher concentration of salt and other important nutrients in hot spring water. (author)

  7. Uranium mineralization by ground water in sedimentary rocks, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, K.; Hirono, S.; Sakamaki, Y.

    1975-01-01

    To solve the mechanism of uranium concentration in stratabound uranium deposits occurring in the basal part of Neogene sediments overlying granite basement, attention was paid to uranium leaching from weathered granite by circulating carbonated fissure waters, to effective adsorbents for fixing uranium from uraniferous ground waters, to structural features controlling the ground-water circulation, and other relevant factors. The evidence for uranium transportation by hydothermal solutions, including hot spring waters, is hard to observe. Conclusions are summarized as follows: Uranium in the deposits is supplied from surrounding source rocks, mostly from granite. Uranium is transported by circulating ground-water solutions. The uranium dissolved in ground water is fixed in minerals in various ways, the most important being adsorption by carbonaceous matter. Ore-grade uranium concentrated from very dilute solutions occurs by multiple repetition of a leaching-and-fixation cycle between minerals or adsorbents and circulating uraniferous ground water. Important factors for uranium mineralization are sufficient uranium, supplied mostly from granite, the existence of effective adsorbents such as carbonaceous matter in the host rocks, and favorable geological, geochemical, and geophysical environments. The last seem to require not only physical and chemical conditions but also correct flow and volume of ground water. (U.S.)

  8. Spring and surface water quality of the Cyprus ophiolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Neal

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey of surface, spring and borehole waters associated with the ophiolite rocks of Cyprus shows five broad water types (1 Mg-HCO3, (2 Na-SO4-Cl-HCO3, (3 Na-Ca-Cl-SO4-OH-CO3, (4 Na-Cl-SO4 and (5 Ca-SO4. The waters represent a progression in chemical reactivity from surface waters that evolve within a groundwater setting due to hydrolysis of the basic/ultrabasic rock as modified by CO2-weathering. An increase in salinity is also observed which is due to mixing with a saline end-member (modified sea-water and dissolution of gypsum/anhydrite. In some cases, the waters have pH values greater than 11. Such high values are associated with low temperature serpentinisation reactions. The system is a net sink for CO2. This feature is related not only to the hydrolysis of the primary minerals in the rock, but also to CaCO3 or Ca-Mg-CO3 solubility controls. Under hyperalkaline conditions, virtually all the carbon dioxide is lost from the water due to the sufficiently high calcium levels and carbonate buffering is then insignificant. Calcium sulphate solubility controls may also be operative when calcium and sulphate concentrations are particularly high. Keywords: Cyprus, Troodos, ophiolite, serpentinisation, spring, stream, water quality, bromide, iodine, boron, trace elements, hyperalkaline.

  9. Thermal neutron activation analysis of the water Zamzam at Mecca, Saudi Arabia and the water of the fourty five hot springs at Hot Springs, Arkansas, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melibary, A.R.

    1980-10-01

    Samples from the Islamic holy water Zamzam in Mecca, Saudi Arabia and the famous mineral water of Hot Springs, in Hot Springs, Arkansas were analyzed for trace elements content by thermal neutron activation analysis. For Zamzam the concentration of 37 S, 49 Ca, 38 Cl, 31 Si, 42 K, 24 Na and 82 Br were found, respectively, to be 3, 107, 11, 12, 4, 14, and 9 ppm; and that for Hot Springs Sample, replacing 82 Br with 27 Mg, are 2, 44, 2, 10, 1, 4, and 5 ppm. The experimental limit of detection for pure standards of the nuclides 27 Mg, 128 I, 64 Cu, and 56 Mn were found to be 8, 8x10 - 3, 6x10 - 2, and 2x10 - 4 μg, respectively. These nuclides were not detected in Zamzam, therefore, it was concluded that in Zamzam the concentration levels of the nuclides 27 Mg, 128 I, 64 Cu, and 56 Mn were below that of the limit of detection of pure standards. (orig./HP) [de

  10. Geochemistry of summit fumarole vapors and flanking thermal/mineral waters at Popocatepetl Volcano, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, C.; Goff, F. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Janik, C.J. [Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-06-01

    Popocatepetl Volcano is potentially devastating to populations living in the greater Mexico City area. Systematic monitoring of fumarole gases and flanking thermal/mineral springs began in early 1994 after increased fumarolic and seismic activity were noticed in 1991. These investigations had two major objectives: (1) to determine if changes in magmatic conditions beneath Popocatepetl might be reflected by chemical changes in fumarolic discharges and (2) to determine if thermal/mineral spring waters in the vicinity of Popocatepetl are geochemically related to or influences by the magmatic system. This report summarizes results from these two discrete studies.

  11. Cd, Pb and Cu in spring waters of the Sibylline Mountains National Park (Central Italy, determined by square wave anodic stripping voltammetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Truzzi C.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV was used to determine Cd, Pb and Cu in spring waters of the Sibylline Mountains National Park, Central Italy. Samples were collected from three different areas of the Park (Mount Bove North, Mount Bove South and Springs of River Nera during the period 2004-2011. Physical-chemical parameters were also determined to obtain a general characterization of the waters. Very low metal concentrations were observed (i.e., Cd 1.3±0.4 ng L-1, Pb 13.8±5.6 ng L-1, Cu 157±95 ng L-1, well below the legal limits and also below the medians of known Italian and European data. Comparing the three areas it was noted that waters from the area of the Nera Springs are the poorest in heavy metals and the richest in minerals, that conversely the waters of Mt. Bove North are the richest in heavy metals and the poorest in mineral salts, and finally that intermediate values both for heavy metals and mineral salts were observed for the waters of Mt. Bove South.

  12. Between chemistry, medicine and leisure: Antonio Casares and the study of mineral waters and Spanish spas in the nineteenth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suay-Matallana, Ignacio

    2016-07-01

    This article considers how chemical analyses were employed not only to study and describe mineral waters, but also to promote new spas, and to reinforce the scientific authority of experts. Scientists, jointly with bath owners, visitors and local authorities, created a significant spa market by transforming rural spaces into social and economic sites. The paper analyses the role developed by the chemist Antonio Casares in the commodification of mineral water in mid-19(th) century Spain. His scientific publications and water analyses put a new economic value on some Spanish mineral waters and rural springs. First the paper explores the relationship between geographic factors, regulation, and spa development in 19(th) century Spain, and considers how scientific work improved the economy of some rural areas. Then the transformation of numerous country springs into spas, and the commodification of baths as places between science and leisure is examined. Finally the location of spas across the borders of medicine and chemistry is shown, together with the complex field operations required to study mineral waters. This paper reveals an intense circulation of knowledge between the field, laboratories and scientific publications, as well as the essential role developed by experts like Casares, who not only contributed to the study of rural springs but also to their economic transformation.

  13. The source, discharge, and chemical characteristics of water from Agua Caliente Spring, Palm Springs, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contributors: Brandt, Justin; Catchings, Rufus D.; Christensen, Allen H.; Flint, Alan L.; Gandhok, Gini; Goldman, Mark R.; Halford, Keith J.; Langenheim, V.E.; Martin, Peter; Rymer, Michael J.; Schroeder, Roy A.; Smith, Gregory A.; Sneed, Michelle; Martin, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Agua Caliente Spring, in downtown Palm Springs, California, has been used for recreation and medicinal therapy for hundreds of years and currently (2008) is the source of hot water for the Spa Resort owned by the Agua Caliente Band of the Cahuilla Indians. The Agua Caliente Spring is located about 1,500 feet east of the eastern front of the San Jacinto Mountains on the southeast-sloping alluvial plain of the Coachella Valley. The objectives of this study were to (1) define the geologic structure associated with the Agua Caliente Spring; (2) define the source(s), and possibly the age(s), of water discharged by the spring; (3) ascertain the seasonal and longer-term variability of the natural discharge, water temperature, and chemical characteristics of the spring water; (4) evaluate whether water-level declines in the regional aquifer will influence the temperature of the spring discharge; and, (5) estimate the quantity of spring water that leaks out of the water-collector tank at the spring orifice.

  14. Hot and cold CO{sub 2}-rich mineral waters in Chaves geothermal area (northern Portugal)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aires-Barros, Luis; Marques, Jose Manuel; Graca, Rui Cores; Matias, Maria Jose [Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Lab. de Mineralogia e Petrologia (LAMPIST), Lisboa (Portugal); Weijden, Cornelis H. van der; Kreulen, Rob [Utrecht Univ., Dept. of Geochemistry, Utrecht (Netherlands); Eggenkamp, Hermanus Gerardus M. [Utrecht Univ., Dept. of Geochemistry, Utrecht (Netherlands); Reading Univ., Postgraduate Research Inst. for Sedimentology, Reading (United Kingdom)

    1998-02-01

    In order to update the geohydrologic characterisation of Chaves geothermal area, coupled isotopic and chemical studies have been carried out on hot and cold CO{sub 2}-rich mineral waters discharging, in northern Portugal, along one of the major regional NNE-trending faults (the so-called Verin-Chaves-Penacova Depression). Based upon their location, and chemical and isotopic composition, the analysed waters can be divided into two groups. The northern group belongs to the HCO{sub 3}/Na/CO{sub 2}-rich type, and consists of the hot spring waters of Chaves and the cold spring waters of Vilarelho da Raia. The {delta}D and {delta}{sup 18}O values show that these waters are of meteoric origin. The lack of an {sup 18}O shift indicates that there is no evidence of water/rock interaction at high temperatures. The southern group includes the cold spring waters of Campilho/Vidago and Sabroso/Pedras Salgadas. Their chemistry is similar to that of the northern group but their heavier {delta}D and {delta}{sup 18}O values could be attributed to different recharge altitudes. Mixing between deep mineralised waters and dilute superficial waters of meteoric origin might explain the higher {sup 3}H activity found in the Vidago and Pedras Salgadas mineral waters. Alternatively, they could be mainly related to shallow underground flowpaths. The {delta}{sup 13}C values support a deep-seated origin for the CO{sub 2}. The {delta}{sup 37}Cl is comparable in all the mineral waters of the study areas, indicating a common origin of Cl. The {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios in waters seem to be dominated by the dissolution of plagioclases or granitic rocks. (Author)

  15. Content of 226Ra in tap and mineral waters of the Republic of Croatia and possible health effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marovic, G.; Sencar, J.

    1996-01-01

    The paper describes the study of the content of 222 Ra in drinking water of Croatia: tap water from the public supply system of several major urban centres and bottled mineral water from two mineral water springs. 222 Ra was determined by alpha-spectrometric measurement after radiochemical separation. The study showed that 222 Ra concentrations for investigated categories of waters are below the levels at which any unacceptable dose due to ingestion would arise. (author)

  16. Zeta-potential and flotability of the scheelite mineral in different type of waters, Part 2: Flotability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanović Dragan B.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study floatability of the mineral sheelite from mine 'Rudnik', central Serbia. Flotation tests of the mineral in a Hallimond tube cell were carried out in four different types of water, namely: tap water, distilled water, rain water and spring water. All types of water had different hardness and conductivity as well as natural pH values. It was found that the flotability of mineral scheelite depends on the hardness and electro-conductivity of the chosen type of water as well as on Ca2+ content. Also, it was found the floatability of mineral depends on the scheelite particle size fraction used in microflotation experiments. Presented results may be useful for proper selection of type of water, as well of the type of reagents used in flotation processes.

  17. Mineral water 222 Rn activity decrease due to consumption habits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cipriani, Moacir; Taddei, Maria Helena Tirollo; Silva, Nivaldo Carlos da

    2001-01-01

    Mineral waters from the Pocos de Caldas Plateau springs, an elevated region with high natural radioactivity, in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, have significant 222 Rn concentration on site. The highest concentration in the waters are from: Fonte Villela - Aguas da Prata (∼ 1000 Bql -1 ); Fonte Grande Hotel - Pocinhos do Rio Verde (∼ 400 Brq -1 ) and Fonte CNEN Lab - Pocos de Caldas (∼ 290 Bql -1 ). These waters are used by the population as drinking water and due to consumption habits, can lead to internal doses above accepted limits for the public. This work deals with the decrease of 222 Rn activity in mineral waters fro two different popular consumption habits, and with the adult effective dose equivalent reduction due to water consumption habits. It has been found that the estimated dose based on the biokinetic Crawford-Brown model, can be one fourth of dose based on 222 Rn activity on site. (author)

  18. Ground water monitoring strategies at the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, K.A. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents ground water monitoring strategies at the Weldon Spring Site in east-central Missouri. The Weldon Spring Site is a former ordnance works and uranium processing facility. In 1987, elevated levels of inorganic anions and nitroaromatics were detected in ground water beneath the site. Studies are currently underway to characterize the hydrogeologic regime and to define ground water contamination. The complex hydrogeology at the Weldon Spring Site requires innovative monitoring strategies. Combinations of fracture and conduit flow exist in the limestone bedrock. Perched zones are also present near surface impoundments. Losing streams and springs surround the site. Solving this complex combination of hydrogeologic conditions is especially challenging

  19. Oxygen isotopic composition of sulphates from some mineral waters and mine waters in western Bohemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smejkal, V.

    1979-01-01

    Two main genetic types of sulphate can be distinguished according to the delta 18 O(SO 4 2- ) measurements in sulphate-rich mineral and mine waters of western Bohemia - sulphates in descending mine waters and in weathered outcrops of graphitic pyrite slates from areas outside Tertiary basins, which originated in recent time by the oxidation of sulphides in the presence of atmospheric oxygen, have delta 18 O values from -2.1 to -6.1 per mille SMOW; and sulphates from springs of mineral waters of the renowned spas of Karlovy Vary, Frantiskovy Lazne and Marianske Lazne show distinctly heavier delta 18 O values - from +4.0 to +6.4 per mille, with maximum of values between +5.0 and +6.0 per mille. Similar delta 18 O values have been established in thenardites and in gypsum in Miocene claystones and in sulphates of some mine waters in the nearby Tertiary Cheb and Sokolov Basins. The presented results indicate that sulphates in mineral waters of the Karlovy Vary type originate mainly by leaching of Miocene sulphates and not by present-day oxidation of sulphidic sulphur. (author)

  20. MICROBIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION OF BOTTLED MINERAL AND DRINKING WATERS SOLD IN ESKİŞEHİR (TURKEY MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merih KIVANC

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The microbiological quality of bottled natural spring and mineral water, purchased at different markets in Eskişehir (Turkey markets, was investigated. Applying the membrane filtration method, the aliquots of water samples were analyzed for the presence and enumeration of total coliforms, Es- cherichia coli, Enterococcus spp., Aeromonas hydrophila. Aerobic bacteria were counted as Heterotrophic Bacteria Count (HPC ml-¹ by incubation at 22 and 37 ⁰C. While Bacillus species in bottled mineral water samples have also been determined, any bacteria or contamination in bottled drinking water samples have not found.

  1. Effect of Hydrochemistry on Mineral Precipitation and Textural Diversity in Serpentinization-driven Alkaline Environments; Insights from Thermal Springs in the Oman Ophiolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, W.; Giampouras, M.; Garcia-Ruiz, J. M.; Garrido, C. J.; Los, C.; Fussmann, D.; Monien, P.

    2017-12-01

    Interactions between meteoric water and ultramafic rocks within Oman ophiolite give rise to the formation of thermal spring waters of variable composition and temperature. Discharge of two different types of water forms complex hydrological networks of streams and ponds, in which the waters mix, undergo evaporation, and take up atmospheric CO2. We conducted a pond-by-pond sampling of waters and precipitates in two spring sites within the Wadi Tayin massif, Nasif and Khafifah, and examined how hydrochemistry and associated mineral saturation states affect the variations in mineral phases and textures. Three distinctive types of waters were identified in the system: a) Mg-type (7.9 11.6); Ca-OH-rich waters, and c) Mix-type (9.6 < pH < 11.5); waters arising upon mixing of Mg-type and Ca-type. PHREEQC was used to evaluate the role of mixing in aqueous speciation and the evolution of the saturation index value of different mineral phases. Mineral and textural characterization by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy were combined with these hydrogeochemical constraints to determine the factors controlling mineralogical and textural diversity in the system. In Ca-type waters, uptake of CO2 during the exposure of the fluids to the atmosphere is the predominant precipitation mechanism of CaCO3. High Mg:Ca ratios and high supersaturation rate of CaCO3 favor the growth of aragonite over calcite in mixed fluids. Changes in morphology and texture of aragonite crystals and crystal aggregates indicate the variations in the values of supersaturation and supersaturation rate of CaCO3 in the different water types. Brucite precipitation is common and driven by fluid mixing, while interaction with air-derived CO2 causes its alteration to hydromagnesite. The proximity of gabbroic lithologies appears to affect the presence of Al-bearing layered double hydroxides (LDHs). Furthermore, transformation of nesquehonite to dypingite in Mg-type waters record a

  2. Near-infrared detection of ammonium minerals at Ivanhoe Hot Springs, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krohn, M. D.

    1986-01-01

    Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) data were collected over the fossil hot spring deposit at Ivanhoe, Nevada in order to determine the surface distribution of NH4-bearing minerals. Laboratory studies show that NH4-bearing minerals have characteristic absorption features in the near-infrared (NIR). Ammonium-bearing feldspars and alunites were observed at the surface of Ivanhoe using a hand-held radiometer. However, first look analysis of the AIS images showed that the line was about 500 m east of its intended mark, and the vegetation cover was sufficiently dense to inhibit preliminary attempts at making relative reflectance images for detection of ammonium minerals.

  3. The Consumption of Bicarbonate-Rich Mineral Water Improves Glycemic Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinnosuke Murakami

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hot spring water and natural mineral water have been therapeutically used to prevent or improve various diseases. Specifically, consumption of bicarbonate-rich mineral water (BMW has been reported to prevent or improve type 2 diabetes (T2D in humans. However, the molecular mechanisms of the beneficial effects behind mineral water consumption remain unclear. To elucidate the molecular level effects of BMW consumption on glycemic control, blood metabolome analysis and fecal microbiome analysis were applied to the BMW consumption test. During the study, 19 healthy volunteers drank 500 mL of commercially available tap water (TW or BMW daily. TW consumption periods and BMW consumption periods lasted for a week each and this cycle was repeated twice. Biochemical tests indicated that serum glycoalbumin levels, one of the indexes of glycemic controls, decreased significantly after BMW consumption. Metabolome analysis of blood samples revealed that 19 metabolites including glycolysis-related metabolites and 3 amino acids were significantly different between TW and BMW consumption periods. Additionally, microbiome analysis demonstrated that composition of lean-inducible bacteria was increased after BMW consumption. Our results suggested that consumption of BMW has the possible potential to prevent and/or improve T2D through the alterations of host metabolism and gut microbiota composition.

  4. Interrelations between the surface waters of Danube, karst waters and thermal springs of Bad Deutsch Altenburg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hacker, P [Bundesversuchs- und Forschungsanstalt Arsenal, Vienna (Austria)

    1987-11-15

    Full text: As part of the preliminary works for the hydropower project Hainburg on the Danube, comprehensive geological, geophysical, hydrogeological, hydrological, hydrochemical and radiohydrometrical investigations were carried out. Special attention was paid to the area of Bad Deutsch Altenburg since questions of connections between Danube water, groundwater and the sulphur-medicinal springs of Bad Deutsch Altenburg and karst waters had to be settled. Long term observations and the data from series of analysed water samples led to the following conclusions: (1) The thermal deep groundwater, the autochthonous karst water, the shallow groundwater and the Danube belong to a common system with hydraulic interactions. (2) The discharge of the thermal mineral waters in Bad Deutsch Altenburg is caused by a NW-SE striking fault zone. (3) The thermal mineral waters are overburdened by the karst waters in the area Kirchenberg and Pfaffenberg. At the contact zone mixing occurs. Owing to changing pressure conditions and to the locally different conductivity of the karst aquifer the discharges of mineral waters differ in concentration and temperature. (4) The water level of the thermal mineral waterbody is 1 to 2 m above the water level of the Danube at low flow. This difference is equalized at the Danube water level above 141.5 m a.s.l. Above the mark 142 m a.s.l. a direct influence of the observation wells situated in the Park was observed. (5) Because the Danube has eroded the karst massif (Mesozoic limestones and dolomites, Leitha limestone) down to a depth of about 132-133 m a.s.l. the level of karst water drainage was deeper than today. Currently the area is covered by highly permeable gravels. (6) It is therefore assumed that a considerable amount of thermal water drains directly into the Danube. Recharge and mixing with the shallow groundwater was proved. (7) The considerable discharge implies a catchment which extends beyond the immediate environment. (author)

  5. A parallel analysis of hydrolithospheric beds geodata of Narzan mineral water Kislovodsk deposit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Д. А. Первухин

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The area of the Caucasus Mineral Waters – an environmental spa - occupies a special place among the other  spa regions of Russia due to richness, diversity, abundance and value of its mineral waters, landscape and climate conditions, and therapeutic muds. Lately the rate increased of developing its mineral water resources for both the local spa use and bottling for retail consumers. The growing number of mineral water bottling enterprises and sanatorium organizations affects significantly the amount of mineral water uptake. Irrational water uptake results in deterioration of underground water quality, change of its chemical composition and temperature. Expansion of the depression crater may eventually result in a collapse of seams roofing and vanishing of many water springs. It refers to all the waters underlying the area of Kavkazskie Mineralnye Vody. Due to that situation there is a potential threat of degradation of these deposits of mineral waters. Therefore, an important task consists in building forecast models of hydro-lithospheric processes in the region while the scope of water uptake changes in various parts of the deposit. it will be based on analyzing aerial photographs taken from board unmanned aerial vehicles. Currently such analysis is conducted using simple linear algorithms. The paper suggests to use the Nvidia CUDA technology for the purpose, adapting the mathematics used to ana- lyze aerial photographs to that technology. The initial data for processing were obtained by aerial photography in the course of remote sensing of the area by unmanned aerial vehicles belonging to OJSC «Narzan», Kislovodsk, an enterprise for mining mineral water. Presented in this paper have their Author’s Certificates issued by the Federal Institute of Industrial Property, the Russian Federation.

  6. Age and source of water in springs associated with the Jacksonville Thrust Fault Complex, Calhoun County, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, James L.

    2004-01-01

    silicate hydrolysis of clay minerals occurred. The geochemical modeling program NETPATH was used to investigate possible mixing scenarios that could yield the chemical composition of water collected from springs associated with the Jacksonville Thrust Fault Complex. The results of NETPATH modeling suggest that the primary source of water in Coldwater Spring is a deep aquifer, and only small amounts of rainwater from nearby sources are discharged from the spring. Starting with Piedmont Sports Spring and moving southwest along a conceptual ground-water flow path that parallels the Jacksonville Thrust Fault Complex, NETPATH simulated the observed water quality of each spring, in succession, by mixing rainwater and water from the spring just to the northeast of the spring being modeled. The percentage of rainwater and ground water needed to simulate the quality of water flowing from the springs ranged from 1 to 25 percent rainwater and 75 to 99 percent ground water.

  7. Zeta-potential and flotability of the scheelite mineral in different type of waters, Part 1: Zeta-potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanović Dragan B.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is the investigation of zeta-potential of the mineral scheelite from mine 'Rudnik', located in central Serbia. Electrophoresis measurements using zeta-meter were carried out on four different types of water, namely: tap water, distilled water, rain water and spring water. All types of water had different hardness and conductivity as well as natural pH values. It was found that the zeta-potential of mineral scheelite depends on the hardness and electro-conductivity of the chosen type of water as well as on Ca2+ content. The results obtained reveal the importance of proper choice of water as well as the type of reagents for flotation processes.

  8. Applying spatial analysis techniques to assess the suitability of multipurpose uses of spring water in the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Cheng-Shin

    2016-04-01

    The Jiaosi Hot Spring Region is located in northeastern Taiwan and is rich in geothermal springs. The geothermal development of the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region dates back to the 18th century and currently, the spring water is processed for various uses, including irrigation, aquaculture, swimming, bathing, foot spas, and recreational tourism. Because of the proximity of the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region to the metropolitan area of Taipei City, the hot spring resources in this region attract millions of tourists annually. Recently, the Taiwan government is paying more attention to surveying the spring water temperatures in the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region because of the severe spring water overexploitation, causing a significant decline in spring water temperatures. Furthermore, the temperature of spring water is a reliable indicator for exploring the occurrence and evolution of springs and strongly affects hydrochemical reactions, components, and magnitudes. The multipurpose uses of spring water can be dictated by the temperature of the water. Therefore, accurately estimating the temperature distribution of the spring water is critical in the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region to facilitate the sustainable development and management of the multipurpose uses of the hot spring resources. To evaluate the suitability of spring water for these various uses, this study spatially characterized the spring water temperatures of the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region by using ordinary kriging (OK), sequential Gaussian simulation (SGS), and geographical information system (GIS). First, variogram analyses were used to determine the spatial variability of spring water temperatures. Next, OK and SGS were adopted to model the spatial distributions and uncertainty of the spring water temperatures. Finally, the land use (i.e., agriculture, dwelling, public land, and recreation) was determined and combined with the estimated distributions of the spring water temperatures using GIS. A suitable development strategy

  9. Formation of secondary minerals and uptake of various anions under naturally-occurring hyper-alkaline conditions in Oman - 16344

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anraku, Sohtaro; Sato, Tsutomu; Yoneda, Tetsuro; Morimoto, Kazuya

    2009-01-01

    In Japanese transuranic (TRU) waste disposal facilities, 129 I is the most important key nuclide for the long-term safety assessment. Thus, the K d values of I to natural minerals are important factor in the safety assessment. However, the degradation of cement materials in the repositories can produce high pH pore fluid which can affect the anion transport behavior. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the behavior of anions such as I- under the hyper-alkaline conditions. The natural hyper-alkaline spring water (pH>11) in the Oman ophiolite is known to be generated from the partly serpentinized peridotites. The spring water is characteristically hyper-alkaline, reducing, low-Mg, Si and HCO 3 - , and high-Ca, while the river water is moderately alkaline, oxidizing, high-Mg and HCO 3 - . The mixing of these spring and river water resulted in the formation of secondary minerals. In the present study, the naturally occurring hyper-alkaline conditions near the springs in Oman were used as natural analogue for the interaction between cement pore fluid and natural Mg-HCO 3 - groundwater. The present aim of this paper is to examine the conditions of secondary mineral formation and the anion uptake capacity of these mineral in this system. Water and precipitate samples were collected from the different locations around the spring vent to identify the effect of mixing ratios between spring and river water on mineral composition and water-mineral distribution coefficient of various anions. On-site synthesis was also carried out to support these data quantitatively. Aragonite was observed in all precipitates, while calcite, brucite and Mg-Al hydrotalcite-like compounds (HTlc) were also determined in some samples. Calcite was observed only closed to the springs. At locations far from the springs, calcite formation was inhibited due to high-Mg fluid from river water. Brucite was observed from the springs with relatively low-Al concentration and HTlc was the opposite. During

  10. The Leuze mineral water swimming pool - purposefully optimized energy utilization. Mineralbad Leuze: Sinnvoll optimierte Energienutzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1989-04-01

    The mineral-water swimming pool in Stuttgart-Bad Cannstatt is fed by mineral springs. The author reports on the design and energy technology used in this indoor swimming pool (photographs), pool hall (feed and exhaust air), treatment basin, showers, locker rooms (air throughput rate, feed and exhaust air management), cafeteria, kitchen, gymnastics and technical services rooms, toilets, chemicals storage room, cooling system and heat pump (heat recovery from drained pool water up to 50%). District heating steam (18 bar) is used for heat supply (reducing station). The author comments on the temperature levels required for different heating cycles (hot-pool hall, hot-water basin, skylight heating, space heating) and on thermal output requirements (kW). (HWJ).

  11. Natural Radioactivity of Thermal Springs in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marovic, G.; Sencar, J.; Cesar, D.

    1998-01-01

    The Republic of Croatia is rich in thermal and mineral springs, which are widely popular for medical therapy, tourism, recreation, rehabilitation and drinking. Considering the popularity of the spas and the habits of our population to use the beneficial effects of these springs it is of interest to estimate the radiation doses received by patients or tourists staying in the spas. In view of this, the Radiation Protection Unit of the Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health in Zagreb has been engaged in a research programme dealing with the natural radioactivity concentration in the Croatian thermal and mineral waters. The aim of this paper was to estimate total natural radioactivity (Ra, Ra decay) in thermal and mineral waters from the several spas in Croatia. On basis of the obtained data the Ra and Ra activity ratio was calculated for each investigated spa. In this study possible effects of natural radioactivity were determined for each radionuclide using a derived concentration (DC) for a group of individuals for municipal drinking water supplies. Values exceeding DC represent radionuclide concentrations for radioactive waste. Total percentage ratio for each spring was also calculated. Since natural radioactivity in some spas exceeds DC value the practise of using these waters should be regularly estimated and monitored in order to avoid any possible health effects. (author)

  12. Hydrokinesitherapy in thermal mineral water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rendulić-Slivar Senka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of clients in health spa resorts entails various forms of hydrotherapy. Due to specific properties of water, especially thermal mineral waters, hydrokinesitherapy has a positive effect on the locomotor system, aerobic capabilities of organism and overall quality of human life. The effects of use of water in movement therapy are related to the physical and chemical properties of water. The application of hydrotherapy entails precautionary measures, with an individual approach in assessment and prescription. The benefits of treatment in thermal mineral water should be emphasized and protected, as all thermal mineral waters differ in composition. All physical properties of water are more pronounced in thermal mineral waters due to its mineralisation, hence its therapeutical efficiency is greater, as well.

  13. The effect of soll water conditions on carbon isotope discrimination and minerals contents in spring-planted wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Lin; Liang Zongsuo; Xu Xing; Li Shuhua

    2008-01-01

    Carbon isotope discrimination (triangle open 13 C) has been proposed as indirect selection criterion for transpiration efficiency and grain yield in wheat. However, because of high cost for triangle open 13 C analysis, attempts have been made to identify alternative screening criteria. Ash content (m a ) has been proposed as an alternative criterion for triangle open 13 C in wheat and barley. A pot experiment with three water treatments (45% ± 5% FC, 55% ± 5% FC and 75% ± 5%FC) was conducted and flag leaf triangle open 13 C (triangle openL a ), contents of ash, potassium (K), magnesium (Mg) and calcium (Ca) were measured to study the relationships between triangle open, mineral composition in spring planted bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). In the light of the results obtained in this research, the traits measured showed significant differences among the three water treatments. There were variations in triangle openL a between the genotypes derived from contrasting environments. The improved varieties or advanced lines bred in irrigated areas displayed higher triangle open 13 C values, while the improved and local varieties bred in rain-fed areas exhibited lower triangle open 13 C values Significant positive correlations were found between triangle open 13 C and m a in seedlings and second fully developed leaves at elongation stage and in flag leaves at anthesis stage in severe drought treatment (T 1 ) (r=0.790, P 13 C was negatively associated with potassium (K) content in flag leaves in T 2 (r=0.813, P 2 and T 3 (r=0.725, P 13 C and calcium (Ca) content in flag leaves in T 3 (r=0.708, P a is a possible alternative criterion of triangle open 13 C in vegetative organs especially in stressed environments. K, Mg and Ca contents in flag leaf under moderate water stress or feasible water conditions might be new predictive criteria of triangle openL a . (authors)

  14. Investigation of the mineral potential of the Clipper Gap, Lone Mountain-Weepah, and Pipe Spring plutons, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tingley, J.V.; Maldonado, F.

    1983-01-01

    The Clipper Gap pluton, composed mostly of quartz monzonite with minor granite, granodiorite, and crosscutting alaskite dikes, intrudes Paleozoic western facies strata. A narrow zone of contact metamorphism is present at the intrusive-sediment contact. No mineral production has been recorded from Clipper Gap, but quartz veins containing gold-silver-copper mineral occurrences have been prospected there from the late 1800's to the present. Areas of the Lone Mountain-Weepah plutons that were studied are located in Esmeralda County about 14 km west of Tonopah, Nevada. At Lone Mountain, a Cretaceous intrusive cuts folded Precambrian and Cambrian sediments. Lead-zinc ores have been mined from small replacement ore bodies in the Alpine district, west of Lone Mountain. Copper and molybdenum occurrences have been found along the east flank of Lone Mountain, and altered areas were noted in intrusive outcrops around the south end of Lone Mountain. Mineral occurrences are widespread and varied with mining activity dating back to the 1860's. The Pipe Spring pluton study area is flanked by two important mining districts, Manhattan to the north and Belmont to the northeast. Mining activity at Belmont dates from 1865. Activity at Manhattan was mainly between 1907 and 1947, but the district is active at the present time (1979). Four smaller mining areas, Monarch, Spanish Springs, Baxter Spring, and Willow Springs, are within the general boundary of the area. The Pipe Spring pluton study area contains numerous prospects along the northern contact zone of the pluton. Tungsten-bearing veins occur within the pluton near Spanish Springs, with potential for gold-tungsten placer in the Ralston Valley. Nickel and associated metals occur at Willow Spring and Monarch Ranch, where prospects may be associated with the margin of the Big Ten Peak Caldera

  15. Monitoring and reactive-transport modeling of the spatial and temporal variations of the Strengbach spring hydrochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerer, J.; Chabaux, F.; Lucas, Y.; Clément, A.; Fritz, B.; Beaulieu, E.; Viville, D.; Pierret, M. C.; Gangloff, S.; Négrel, Ph.

    2018-03-01

    This study focuses on 20 years of hydrochemical monitoring of the small springs that emerge in the experimental granitic catchment of Strengbach (OHGE, France) and the simulation of these data using the KIRMAT code. The data indicate that the Strengbach springs display chemostatic behavior; that is, limited temporal variations were noted in the concentrations of dissolved silica (H4SiO4) and most of the basic cations during the studied period (1987-2010), resulting in relative stability of the global weathering fluxes exported by the springs. Only the Ca2+ concentrations reflect a significant decrease in all the Strengbach springs since 1987, and the variations differ from one spring to another. The modeling results show that the decrease in Ca2+ in the Strengbach springs is due to the response of the water-rock interactions within the bedrock to the variations in the chemical composition of the soil solutions, which were characterized by a significant increase in pH and a decrease in Ca2+ concentrations between 1987 and 2010. The decrease in Ca2+ concentrations seen in the Strengbach springs is controlled by changes in the apatite dissolution rate and the compositions of clay minerals induced by the soil solution changes. The differences observed between the Ca2+ trends of the springs are related to changes in the residence time of the water supplying the different springs. The weak impact of the soil solution modifications on the dissolution rates of other primary minerals and on the bulk precipitation rates of the clay minerals explains the relative stability over time of the concentrations of the other cations and dissolved silica in the water derived from the Strengbach springs. Further, the hydrochemical simulations suggest that the chemostatic behavior of the Strengbach springs cannot be explained by the mobilization of waters that are close to chemical equilibrium, but rather by a hydrological control of the spring water residence times. Finally, a

  16. Iodine mineral waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iluta Alexandru

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Iodine mineral waters are found especially in sub-Carpathian region, also in regions with Salif deposits. Waters are currently used iodine in drinking cure for chaps and Basedow. Are also indicated in balneology. Iodine water containing at least 1 mg L, there is pure iodine is usually given the nature of other types of mineral waters further: sodium chlorinated water (Bazna (50-70 mg iodine / l, Baile Govora (50 - 70 mg / l, Bălţăteşti (4-5 mg / l, salted Monteoru (30 mg / l, mine water mixed alkaline chlorination, sulphate, which are indicated for crenoterapie (hypo or isotonic to the bathrooms Olăneşti or Călimăneşti-Căciulata.

  17. water quality evaluation of spring waters in nsukka, nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES Obe

    2013-07-02

    Jul 2, 2013 ... directly from an underground formation from, which water flows naturally to the surface or from a bored ... evidence that surface runoff is readily entering the spring. This may mean the spring is contaminated with ... soil, hydrological factors that lead to runoff, and by biological processes within the aquatic.

  18. Hydrosalinity studies of the Virgin River, Dixie Hot Springs, and Littlefield Springs, Utah, Arizona, and Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerner, Steven J.; Thiros, Susan A.; Gerner, Steven J.; Thiros, Susan A.

    2014-01-01

    -solids concentration. Dissolved-solids concentrations in excess irrigation water draining from the agricultural fields are about 1,700 mg/L higher than the concentrations in the Virgin River water that is currently (2014) used for irrigation that contains inflow from Dixie Hot Springs; this increase results from evaporative concentration and dissolution of mineral salts in the irrigated agricultural fields. The water samples collected from drains downgradient from the irrigated areas are assumed to include the dissolution of all available minerals precipitated in the soil during the previous irrigation season. Based on this assumption, a change to more dilute irrigation water will not dissolve additional minerals and increase the dissolved-solids load in the drain discharge. Following the hypothetical reduction of salts from Dixie Hot Springs, which would result in more dilute Virgin River irrigation water than is currently used, the dissolution of minerals left in the soil from the previous irrigation season would result in a net increase in dissolved-solids concentrations in the drain discharge, but this increase should only last one irrigation season. After one (or several) seasons of irrigating with more dilute irrigation water, mineral precipitation and subsequent re-dissolution beneath the agricultural fields should be greatly reduced, leading to a reduction in dissolved-solids load to the Virgin River below the agricultural drains. A mass-balance model was used to predict changes in the dissolved-solids load in the Virgin River if the salt discharging from Dixie Hot Springs were reduced or removed. Assuming that 33.4 or 26.7 ft3/s of water seeps from the Virgin River to the groundwater system upstream of the Virgin River Gorge Narrows, the immediate hypothetical reduction in dissolved-solids load in the Virgin River at Littlefield, Arizona is estimated to be 67,700 or 71,500 ton/yr, respectively. The decrease in dissolved-solids load in seepage from the Virgin River to the

  19. THE QUALITY OF THE NATURAL MINERAL WATERS FROM BUZĂU COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROBA CARMEN

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The main purposes of the present study were: to investigate the physico-chemical parameters of several mineral springs from Buzău County and to classify the investigated waters in mineral water classes, according to national legislation. The analyzed parameters were: pH, temperature, electrical conductivity (EC, total dissolved solids (TDS, salinity, dissolved oxygen (DO and turbidity. The water samples were collected during October 2014. Generally, the water samples proved to be slightly acidic to neutral, with high levels of TDS (37 7 – 1,271 mg/l. Some of the analyzed dissolved ions (carbonates, bromine and phosphate were not detected in the analyzed waters. The major dissolved ions distribution is dominated by the presence of sodium (3.8 – 589.2 mg/l, calcium (36.5 – 126.3 mg/l, sulphates (60.3 – 412.2 mg/l and bicarbonates (213.2 – 915 mg/l. Magnesium ranged between 9.9 – 40.6 mg/l, potassium between 8.7 – 45.2 mg/l, fluoride between 1.0 and 2.9 mg/l., nitrates between 6.4 and 108.9 mg/l and chlorine was between 9.1 and 211.8 mg/l. Some of the investigated water can be commercialized as sodic water, chlorine water, sulphate water and bicarbonate water.

  20. Accidental contamination during hydrocarbon exploitation and the rapid transfer of heavy-mineral fines through an overlying highly karstified aquifer (Paradiso Spring, SE Sicily)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggieri, Rosario; Forti, Paolo; Antoci, Maria Lucia; De Waele, Jo

    2017-03-01

    The area around Ragusa in Sicily is well known for the exploration of petroleum deposits hosted in Mesozoic carbonate rocks. These reservoirs are overlain by less permeable rocks, whereas the surface geology is characterized by outcrops of Oligo-Miocene carbonate units hosting important aquifers. Some of the karst springs of the area are used as drinking water supplies, and therefore these vulnerable aquifers should be monitored and protected adequately. In the early afternoon (14:00) of 27 May until the late evening (19:30) of 28 May 2011, during the construction of an exploitation borehole (Tresauro 2), more than 1000 m3 of drilling fluids were lost in an unknown karst void. Two days later, from 06:30 on 30 May, water flowing from Paradiso Spring, lying some 13.7 km SW of the borehole and 378 m lower, normally used as a domestic water supply, was so intensely coloured that it was unfit for drinking. Bulk chemical analyses carried out on the water have shown a composition that is very similar to that of the drilling fluids lost at the Tresauro borehole, confirming a hydrological connection. Estimations indicate that the first signs of the drilling fluids took about 59 h to flow from their injection point to the spring, corresponding to a mean velocity of ∼230 m/h. That Paradiso Spring is recharged by a well-developed underground drainage system is also confirmed by the marked flow rate changes measured at the spring, ranging from a base flow of around 10-15 l/s to flood peaks of 2-3 m3/s. Reflecting the source and nature of the initial contamination, the pollution lasted for just a few days, and the water returned to acceptable drinking-water standards relatively quickly. However, pollution related to heavy-mineral fines continues to be registered during flooding of the spring, when the aqueducts are normally shut down because of the high turbidity values. This pollution event offers an instructive example of how hydrocarbon exploitation in intensely karstified

  1. Online analysis: Deeper insights into water quality dynamics in spring water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Rebecca M; Besmer, Michael D; Epting, Jannis; Sigrist, Jürg A; Hammes, Frederik; Huggenberger, Peter

    2017-12-01

    We have studied the dynamics of water quality in three karst springs taking advantage of new technological developments that enable high-resolution measurements of bacterial load (total cell concentration: TCC) as well as online measurements of abiotic parameters. We developed a novel data analysis approach, using self-organizing maps and non-linear projection methods, to approximate the TCC dynamics using the multivariate data sets of abiotic parameter time-series, thus providing a method that could be implemented in an online water quality management system for water suppliers. The (TCC) data, obtained over several months, provided a good basis to study the microbiological dynamics in detail. Alongside the TCC measurements, online abiotic parameter time-series, including spring discharge, turbidity, spectral absorption coefficient at 254nm (SAC254) and electrical conductivity, were obtained. High-density sampling over an extended period of time, i.e. every 45min for 3months, allowed a detailed analysis of the dynamics in karst spring water quality. Substantial increases in both the TCC and the abiotic parameters followed precipitation events in the catchment area. Differences between the parameter fluctuations were only apparent when analyzed at a high temporal scale. Spring discharge was always the first to react to precipitation events in the catchment area. Lag times between the onset of precipitation and a change in discharge varied between 0.2 and 6.7h, depending on the spring and event. TCC mostly reacted second or approximately concurrent with turbidity and SAC254, whereby the fastest observed reaction in the TCC time series occurred after 2.3h. The methodological approach described here enables a better understanding of bacterial dynamics in karst springs, which can be used to estimate risks and management options to avoid contamination of the drinking water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Radioactivity measurement in spring waters of Cantabria, Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soto Torres, J.; Gomez Arozamena, J.

    1999-01-01

    A study of the radioactivity existing in a high number of springs located in Cantabria, Northern Spain, was made. The spring analyzed in three sampling campaign's, And alpha and beta total activities and 226 Ra and 222 Rn concentrations were determined for each sample. The measuring techniques employed were gamma spectrometry with Ge detector, counting with gas flow proportional counter, and counting with ZnS(Ag) scintillating detector. Results show that springs with high radon water concentration have high values respect to the national mean. The springs with the highest radium and radon levels have thermal waters and are located on two deep fault, those have historic seismicity and seismical and geomorphological evidences of recent tectonic activity

  3. MINERAL WATERS IN RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BORGES, TIAGO

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is an autoimmune disorder affecting nearly 1% of adult population. First-line therapies include disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, but creno-balneotherapyis often prescribed in rheumatic disorders and RA is no exception. Objectives: To know the efficacy of creno-balneotherapy in RA. Methods: A Medline based search was made using MeSH terms “balneology” and “rheumatoid arthritis”. Articles concerning the use of mineral waters in RA treatment were included. Results: In RA, two traditional ways of employing mineral waters are commonly used: immersion and peliotherapy. Each owns their benefits to non-specific or hydrotherapeutic effects and specific or crenotherapeutic effects. Mineral waters must be regarded as an adjuvant therapy in quiescent, stable or non-progressive RA. Significant benefits have been accomplished with radonenriched and sulphurous waters. Isothermal or hyperthermal waters should be preferred. Conclusions: Although there is a global lack of evidence, mineral waters are a safe and effective therapy to be considered in RA.

  4. Tracing chlorine sources of thermal and mineral springs along and across the Cascade Range using halogen and chlorine isotope compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Jeffrey T.; Barnes, Jaime D.; Hurwitz, Shaul; Leeman, William P.

    2015-01-01

    In order to provide constraints on the sources of chlorine in spring waters associated with arc volcanism, the major/minor element concentrations and stable isotope compositions of chlorine, oxygen, and hydrogen were measured in 28 thermal and mineral springs along the Cascade Range in northwestern USA. Chloride concentrations in the springs range from 64 to 19,000 mg/L and View the MathML source values range from +0.2‰ to +1.9‰ (average=+1.0±0.4‰), with no systematic variation along or across the arc, nor correlations with their presumed underlying basement lithologies. Additionally, nine geochemically well-characterized lavas from across the Mt. St. Helens/Mt. Adams region of the Cascade Range (Leeman et al., 2004 and Leeman et al., 2005) were analyzed for their halogen concentrations and Cl isotope compositions. In the arc lavas, Cl and Br concentrations from the volcanic front are higher than in lavas from the forearc and backarc. F and I concentrations progressively decrease from forearc to backarc, similar to the trend documented for B in most arcs. View the MathML source values of the lavas range from −0.1 to +0.8‰ (average = +0.4±0.3‰). Our results suggest that the predominantly positive View the MathML source values observed in the springs are consistent with water interaction with underlying 37Cl-enriched basalt and/or altered oceanic crust, thereby making thermal spring waters a reasonable proxy for the Cl isotope compositions of associated volcanic rocks in the Cascades. However, waters with View the MathML source values >+1.0‰ also suggest additional contributions of chlorine degassed from cooling magmas due to subsurface vapor–liquid HCl fractionation in which Cl is lost to the aqueous fluid phase and 37Cl is concentrated in the ascending magmatic HCl vapor. Future work is necessary to better constrain Cl isotope behavior during volcanic degassing and fluid–rock interaction in order to improve volatile flux estimates through

  5. Argillization by descending acid at Steamboat Springs, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoen, Robert; White, Donald E.; Hemley, J.J.

    1974-01-01

    Steamboat Springs, Nevada, an area of present-day hot springs, clearly illustrates the genetic dependence of some kaolin deposits on hot-spring activity. Andesite, granodiorite and arkosic sediments are locally altered at the land surface to siliceous residues consisting of primary quartz and anatase, plus opal from primary silicates. These siliceous residues commonly exhibit the textural and structural features of their unaltered equivalents. Beneath the siliceous residues, kaolin and alunite replace primary silicates and fill open spaces, forming a blanketlike deposit. Beneath the kaolin-alunite zone, montmorillonite, commonly accompanied by pyrite, replaces the primary silicates. On the ground surface, the same alteration mineral zones can be traced outward from the siliceous residue; however, hematite rather than pyrite accompanies montmorillonite.Chemical analysis indicates that sulfuric acid is the active altering agent. The acid forms from hydrogen sulfide that exsolves from deep thermal water, rises above the water table and is oxidized by sulfur-oxidizing bacteria living near the ground surface. This acid dissolves in precipitation or condensed water vapor and percolates downward destroying most of the primary minerals producing a siliceous residue. Coincidence of the water table with the downward transition from siliceous residue to kaolin-alunite signifies decreasing hydrogen metasomatism because of dilution of descending acid by ground water.In hot-spring areas, beds of siliceous sinter deposited at the surface by hypogene thermal water look, superficially, like areas of surficial acid alteration. Features diagnostic of a surficial alteration are the relict rock structures of a siliceous residue and a kaolin-alunite zone immediately beneath.

  6. Risk Assessment of Mineral Groundwater Near Rogaška Slatina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trcek, Branka; Leis, Albrecht

    2017-10-01

    Groundwater resources of mineral and thermo-mineral water are invaluable for planning a sustainable spatial and economic development of the Rogaška Slatina area, which requires a protection of this natural heritage. Numerous previous investigations of Rogaška groundwaters were subjects to balneology and to demands for larger exploitation quantities, that is why information are missing that are essential for definition of the Rogaška fractured aquifer system with mineral and thermo-mineral water and for its protection. The isotopic investigations of groundwaters stored in the Rogaška Slatina fractured aquifer system were performed aiming at answering open questions on the groundwater recharge and dynamics, on connections between different types of aquifers and on solute transport. Environmental isotopes 2H, 18O, 3H, 13C of dissolved inorganic carbon and 14C were analysed in mineral, thermo-mineral and spring waters. Results indicated the source and mechanism of groundwater recharge, its renewability, a transit time distribution, hydraulic interrelationships, the groundwater origin and its evolution due to effects of water-rock interaction. The mean residence time estimates of mineral and thermo- mineral water in the aquifer are between 3400 and 14000 years. On the other hand, the mixing processes between younger and older waters or mineral and spring waters are reflected as well as waters that infiltrated predominantly after the 1960s. These suggest the vulnerability of the research systems to man-made impacts. The presented results coupled with available information on a physical hydrogeology and water chemistry asses the optimal balance between the environmental protection and economic use of mineral water resources in the study area. They are essential for the protection strategy development of mineral and thermo-mineral water in the Rogaška Slatina area bringing together the state administration and local authorities and stakeholders.

  7. Water Quality Evaluation of Spring Waters in Nsukka, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water qualities of springs in their natural state are supposed to be clean and potable. Although, water quality is not a static condition it depends on the local geology and ecosystem, as well as human activities such as sewage dispersion, industrial pollution, use of water bodies as a heat sink, and overuse. The activities on ...

  8. Visit to valuable water springs. 22. ; Kanazawa spring and springs at the mountain flank of Iwate volcano. Meisui wo tazunete. 22. ; Kanazawa shimizu to Iwate sanroku yusuigun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itadera, K. (Kanagawa Hot Springs Research Institute, Kanagawa (Japan)); Shimano, Y. (Utsunomiya Bunsei Junior College, Tochigi (Japan))

    1993-06-30

    This paper describes the following matters on the springs at the mountain flank of Iwate volcano in Iwate Prefecture, with the Kanazawa spring as the main subject: The new and old Iwate volcanos have rock-bed flow deposits which resulted from mountain disintegration, distributed over their south, east and north flanks, and most of the spring water wells up in these areas; the south, east and north flanks have about 80 springs, about 30 springs, and about 10 springs, respectively; the number of springs and the water well-up scale show a trend of inverse proportion; the Kanazawa spring is a generic name of the several springs located on the north flank in the Kanazawa area; its main spring forms a spring pond with an area of about 100 m[sup 2] with a spring water temperature of about 11.5[degree]C, electric conductivity of 200 [mu] S/cm or higher, and a flow-out rate of 500 l/s or more; the Kanazawa spring is characterized by having as large total dissolved component amount as 170 mg/l or more and abundant amount of SO4[sup 2-] and Cl[sup -]; and the spring presents properties different from those in other springs. 10 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Marketing mix of chosen Slovak mineral water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juhanová Silvia

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Considering its small area, Slovakia abounds in many sources of mineral waters and a considerable amount of them can be used for the commercial utilization. STN 86 8000 divides mineral waters in the natural mineral waters, natural mineral table waters and the natural mineral healing waters. Natural mineral water is, after the present norm, in effect water, which rises from natural trapped sources. This type of water contains more than 1 gram of dissolved substances or 1 gram of dissolved CO 2 in 1 litter. Natural mineral table water is water that, with its chemical composition as well as its physical and sensorial attributes is suitable as a refresher. It contains at least 1 gram of melted CO2 and up to 6 grams of dissolved illiquid substances in 1 litter. The mentioned substances are not characterised by any marked pharmacological effect. Natural mineral healing water is water, which with an eye to its chemical composition and physical properties, have a scientifically demonstrable effects to the human health and it is generally used for healing purposes. In the present contribution, an attention is orientated to the occurrence of listed types of waters in Slovakia, in connection with geological conditions of their circulation and accumulation and especially with possibilities of their use on the Slovak buyer’s market.The marketing mix is a complex of information, which can be regulated. Firms accumulate this information to satisfy a customer. Marketing mix of mineral waters includes information about four variables: product (characteristics of product, quality, packing, design..., prices, advertisement, distribution (the way how to get product to customer. Data listed in the contribution come from the sectional market research, which was performed between December 1st and December 22nd 2000 in twenty groceries in

  10. Uranium in spring water and bryophytes at Basin Creek in central Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shacklette, H.T.; Erdman, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    Arkosic sandstones and conglomerates of Tertiary age beneath the Challis Volcanics of Eocene age at Basin Creek, 10 km northeast of Stanley, Idaho, contain uranium-bearing vitrainized carbon fragments. The economic potential of these sandstones and conglomerates is currently being assessed. Water from 22 springs and associated bryophytes were sampled; two springs were found to contain apparently anomalous concentrations (normalized) of uranium. Water from a third spring contained slightly anomalous amounts of uranium, and two species of mosses at the spring contained anomalous uranium and high levels of both cadmium and lead. Water from a fourth spring was normal for uranium, but the moss from the water contained a moderate uranium level and highly anomalous concentrations of lead, germanium, and thallium. These results suggest that, in the Basin Creek area, moss sampling at springs may give a more reliable indication of uranium occurrence than would water sampling. (Auth.)

  11. Salt Content in Ready-to-Eat Food and Bottled Spring and Mineral Water Retailed in Novi Sad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paplović, Ljiljana B Trajković; Popović, Milka B; Bijelović, Sanja V; Velicki, Radmila S; Torović, Ljilja D

    2015-01-01

    Salt intake above 5 g/person/day is a strong independent risk factor for hypertension, stroke and cardiovascular diseases. Published studies indicate that the main source of salt in human diet is processed ready-to-eat food, contributing with 65-85% to daily salt intake. The aim of this paper was to present data on salt content of ready-to-eat food retailed in Novi Sad, Serbia, and contribution of the salt contained in 100 g of food to the recommended daily intake of salt for healthy and persons with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. In 1,069 samples of ready-to-eat food, salt (sodium chloride) content was calculated based on chloride ion determined by titrimetric method, while in 54 samples of bottled water sodium content was determined using flame-photometry. Food items in each food group were categorized as low, medium or high salt. Average salt content of each food group was expressed as a percentage of recommended daily intake for healthy and for persons with CVD risk. Average salt content (g/100 g) ranged from 0.36 ± 0.48 (breakfast cereals) to 2.32 ± 1.02 (grilled meat). The vast majority of the samples of sandwiches (91.7%), pizza (80.7%), salami (73.9%), sausages (72.9%), grilled meat (70.0%) and hard cheese (69.6%) had a high salt profile. Average amount of salt contained in 100 g of food participated with levels ranging from 7.2% (breakfast cereals) to 46.4% (grilled meat) and from 9.6% to 61.8% in the recommended daily intake for healthy adult and person with CVD risk, respectively. Average sodium content in 100 ml of bottled spring and mineral water was 0.33 ± 0.30 mg and 33 ± 44 mg, respectively. Ready-to-eat food retailed in Novi Sad has high hidden salt content, which could be considered as an important contributor to relatively high salt consumption of its inhabitants.

  12. Water mineralization and its importance for health

    OpenAIRE

    N. Babio; C. Ferreira-Pêgo; F. Maraver Eyzaguirre; I. Vitoria Miñana; J. Salas-Salvadó

    2016-01-01

    Water mineralization and its importance for health La mineralización del agua y su importancia para la salud. Water is essential for life, participating in the metabolism of all the living organisms. In recent years, the consumption of tap water has decreased and the consumption of bottled water has increased worldwide. The mineral quality and composition of natural mineral water is known and constantly over the year, and their potential effects on health must be determined. Only magnes...

  13. Do natural spring waters in Australia and New Zealand affect health? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanhope, Jessica; Weinstein, Philip; Cook, Angus

    2018-02-01

    Therapeutic use of spring waters has a recorded history dating back to at least 1550 BC and includes both bathing in and drinking such waters for their healing properties. In Australia and New Zealand the use of therapeutic spring waters is a much more recent phenomenon, becoming a source of health tourism from the late 1800s. We conducted a systematic review aimed at determining the potential health outcomes relating to exposure to Australian or New Zealand natural spring water. We found only low-level evidence of adverse health outcomes relating to this spring water exposure, including fatalities from hydrogen sulphide poisoning, drowning and primary amoebic meningoencephalitis. We found no studies that investigated the therapeutic use of these waters, compared with similar treatment with other types of water. From the broader literature, recommendations have been made, including fencing potentially harmful spring water, and having signage and media messages to highlight the potential harms from spring water exposure and how to mitigate the risks (e.g. not putting your head under water from geothermal springs). Sound research into the potential health benefits of Australian and New Zealand spring waters could provide an evidence base for the growing wellness tourism industry.

  14. MINERAL WATER FROM SUPERMARKET VS. TAP WATER. SOME CONSIDERATIONS RELATED TO INNOCUITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian – Nicolae POPA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available 15 Romanian brands of mineral water were purchased from hypermarket. For each of the 15 mineral waters were determined the content of nitrates, nitrites and pH. The data obtained were compared with the content of nitrates, nitrites and pH of the tap water collected in 15 locations in Bucharest, according to data released by the Apa Nova operator. The results showed that the mean of tap water pH in Bucharest, although slightly higher than the tested mineral waters pH, did not differ significantly from the mean of mineral waters pH, being situated in the alkaline domain. The mean content of nitrates in tap water in Bucharest, did not differ significantly from that of the tested mineral waters (t = 0.811. Nitrates content of tap water in Bucharest was significantly distinct less, as the pH was higher (r = 0.68**. Basically, the change in pH by one unit, lowers the amount of nitrate by 46%. Bucharest tap water nitrites content was significantly lower than that of tested mineral waters (0.005 mg/l to 0.0124; t = 2.674*. Basically, Bucharest tap water contained up to 2.5 times less nitrites than the nitrites mean of tested mineral waters.

  15. Lanthanoid abundance of some neutral hot spring waters in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikawada, Yoshikazu; Oi, Takao; Honda, Teruyuki

    1999-01-01

    Contents of lanthanoids (Ln's) in some neutral hot spring waters as well as in acidic hot spring waters were determined by neutron activation analysis. It was found that a higher pH resulted in lower concentrations of Ln's; the value of correlation coefficient (r) between the logarithm of the concentration of Sm ([Sm]), chosen as the representative of Ln's, and the logarithm of pH was -0.90. The sum of [Al] and [Fe] was strongly correlated with [Ln]'s in the pH range of 1.3 and 8.8; the correlation was expressed as log[Sm] = 0.893 log([Al] + [Fe]) - 5.45 with the r value of 0.98. The sum of [Al] and [Fe] was thus a good measure of the Ln contents in acidic and neutral hot spring waters. The Ln abundance patterns of neutral hot spring waters with normal CO 2 concentrations had concave shapes with relative depletion in the middle-heavy Ln's and seemed to reflect the solubility of Ln carbonates. The neutral hot spring water with a high CO 2 content of 1,800 ppm showed a Ln pattern with a relative enrichment in the heavy Ln's and seemed to reflect the solubility of Ln's observed for CO 2 -rich solutions. (author)

  16. Chemical and Hydro-Geologic Analysis of Ikogosi Warm Spring Water in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Akinola Ikudayisi; Folasade Adeyemo; Josiah Adeyemo

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the hydro-geology and chemical constituents analysis of Ikogosi Warm Spring waters in South West Nigeria. Ikogosi warm spring is a global tourist attraction because it has both warm and cold spring sources. Water samples from the cold spring, warm spring and the meeting point were collected, analyzed and the result shows close similarity in temperature, hydrogen iron concentration (pH), alkalinity, hardness, Calcium, Magnesium, Sodium, Iron, total di...

  17. Fracture-lining minerals in the lower Topopah Spring Tuff at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlos, B.A.; Bish, D.L.; Chipera, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    Fracture-lining minerals in the lower Topopah Spring Member of the Paintbrush Tuff at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, are being examined to characterize potential flow paths within and away from the candidate repository horizon. Fracture coatings within this interval can be divided into five categories based on rock matrix and type of fracture. Fracture coatings in the densely welded tuff above the basal vitrophyre, near the candidate repository horizon, include (1) those related to lithophysal cavities; (2) mordenite and manganese oxides on nearly planar fractures; (3) later fracture coatings consisting of zeolites, smectite, and calcite. Fracture-coating minerals in the vitrophyre are fine-grained and consist of smectite and a variety of zeolites. The non- to partially-welded vitric and/or zeolitic stuff below the vitrophyre contains fractures mostly lined by cristobalite and clinoptilolite. 13 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  18. Hydrogeology and water chemistry of Infranz catchment springs, Bahir Dar Area, Lake Tana Basin, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abera, F. N.

    2017-12-01

    The major springs in the Infranz catchment are a significant source of water for Bahir city and nearby villages, while they help to sustain Infranz River and the downstream wetlands. The aim of the research was to understand the hydrogeological conditions of these high-discharge springs, and to explain the hydrochemical composition of spring waters. Water samples from rainwater and springs were collected and analyzed and compared for major cations and anions. The hydrochemical data analysis showed that all water samples of the springs have freshwater chemistry, Ca-HCO3 type, while deep groundwater shows more evolved types. This indicates limited water-rock interaction and short residence time for the spring waters. The rise of NO3- and PO43- may indicate future water quality degradation unless the anthropogenic activities upgradient and nearby are restricted. The uptake of 75% of spring water for water supply of Bahir Dar results in wetland degradation. Key words: Spring water, Infranz River, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia, hydrochemistry

  19. Correction methods of medicinal properties of mineral waters in Pyatigorsk resort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reps, Valentina; Potapov, Evgeniy; Abramtsova, Anna; Kotova, Margarita

    2016-04-01

    Mineral Water (MW) of Pyatigorsk deposit (PD) is united in five genetic groups (operational stocks of 2809,8 m3/day): carbonic and hydrosulphuric, carbonic, carbonic chloride-hydrocarbonate sodium (salt and alkaline), radonic low carbonate, nitrogen-carbonic terms. A variety of MW types is explained by peculiarities of geological structure and hydrogeological conditions of PD. Here on the sites of the development of deep semi-ring splits there are overflows and a mixture of various complexes. Unloading of deep water strikes happens not only on the earth surface in the form of springs but also at the depth in its edging crumbling rocks of Palaeocene and quarternary deposits. As a result of mixture processes of water and its subsequent metamorphization, various types of mineral water of this deposit are formed. Pyatigorsk resort is in a special protected ecologo-resort region which mode allows to keep stability of structure and ecological purity of MW. Nevertheless, MW variability, compositional differences and MW mineralization determining the level of its biological effect demand studying of action mechanisms of both natural MW, and possibility of its modification for range expansion of rehabilitation action. There have been examined biological effects of the course drinking reception In experiment on 80 rats males of the Wistar line biological effects of the course drinking reception of two MW types: "Krasnoarmeyskaya new" (MW1) of sulphate-hydrocarbonate-chloride calcium-sodium structure with the raised contents of iron (3-5 mg/dm3), mineralization of 5,0-5,2 g/dm3, CO2 of 1,3-2,2 g/dm3, daily flow of 10-86 m3/day, temperature from 14 to 370C on the mouth of the well and spring №2 (MW2) low sulphate, low carbonate sulphate-hydrocarbonate-chloride calcium-sodium, mineralization of 5,0 g/l, CO2 of 0,7 g/dm3, H2 of S 0,01 g/dm3. There has been shown an ability of the drinking course MW1 to influence on endocrine and metabolic continium - cortisol level increased

  20. Carbonate ion-enriched hot spring water promotes skin wound healing in nude rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyan Liang

    Full Text Available Hot spring or hot spa bathing (Onsen is a traditional therapy for the treatment of certain ailments. There is a common belief that hot spring bathing has therapeutic effects for wound healing, yet the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. To examine this hypothesis, we investigated the effects of Nagano hot spring water (rich in carbonate ion, 42°C on the healing process of the skin using a nude rat skin wound model. We found that hot spring bathing led to an enhanced healing speed compared to both the unbathed and hot-water (42°C control groups. Histologically, the hot spring water group showed increased vessel density and reduced inflammatory cells in the granulation tissue of the wound area. Real-time RT-PCR analysis along with zymography revealed that the wound area of the hot spring water group exhibited a higher expression of matrix metalloproteinases-2 and -9 compared to the two other control groups. Furthermore, we found that the enhanced wound healing process induced by the carbonate ion-enriched hot spring water was mediated by thermal insulation and moisture maintenance. Our results provide the evidence that carbonate ion-enriched hot spring water is beneficial for the treatment of skin wounds.

  1. An assessment of the water quality of the Isinuka springs in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The physico-chemical properties of Isinuka springs, a "wonder" water resource in Port St Johns area of Eastern Cape Province, were investigated over three seasonal regimes. Water samples were collected from the five spring sources, along Isinuka river and from Ferry Point Cottage spring and analysed for their quality ...

  2. Modeling CO2-Water-Mineral Wettability and Mineralization for Carbon Geosequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yunfeng; Tsuji, Shinya; Jia, Jihui; Tsuji, Takeshi; Matsuoka, Toshifumi

    2017-07-18

    Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) capture and storage (CCS) is an important climate change mitigation option along with improved energy efficiency, renewable energy, and nuclear energy. CO 2 geosequestration, that is, to store CO 2 under the subsurface of Earth, is feasible because the world's sedimentary basins have high capacity and are often located in the same region of the world as emission sources. How CO 2 interacts with the connate water and minerals is the focus of this Account. There are four trapping mechanisms that keep CO 2 in the pores of subsurface rocks: (1) structural trapping, (2) residual trapping, (3) dissolution trapping, and (4) mineral trapping. The first two are dominated by capillary action, where wettability controls CO 2 and water two-phase flow in porous media. We review state-of-the-art studies on CO 2 /water/mineral wettability, which was found to depend on pressure and temperature conditions, salt concentration in aqueous solutions, mineral surface chemistry, and geometry. We then review some recent advances in mineral trapping. First, we show that it is possible to reproduce the CO 2 /water/mineral wettability at a wide range of pressures using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. As the pressure increases, CO 2 gas transforms into a supercritical fluid or liquid at ∼7.4 MPa depending on the environmental temperature. This transition leads to a substantial decrease of the interfacial tension between CO 2 and reservoir brine (or pure water). However, the wettability of CO 2 /water/rock systems depends on the type of rock surface. Recently, we investigated the contact angle of CO 2 /water/silica systems with two different silica surfaces using MD simulations. We found that contact angle increased with pressure for the hydrophobic (siloxane) surface while it was almost constant for the hydrophilic (silanol) surface, in excellent agreement with experimental observations. Furthermore, we found that the CO 2 thin films at the CO 2 -hydrophilic

  3. Thermo-mineral waters from the Cerna Valley Basin (Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Povara

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In the south-west of the Southern Carpathians, upstream from the confluence of Cerna with Belareca, an aquifer complex has developed, strongly influenced by hydrogeothermal phenomena, acting within two major geological structures, the Cerna Syncline and the Cerna Graben. The complex consists mainly in Jurassic and Cretaceous carbonate rocks, as well as in the upper part of the Cerna Granite, highly fractured, tectonically sunken into the graben. As a result of the tectonic processes which occurred after the end of the Jurassic-Cretaceous sedimentation cycle, limestones may be encountered at 1100 m altitude in the Mehedinţi Mountains, at 150 ¬¬600 m in the Cerna Syncline or sunken into the Cerna Graben down to depths of 1075 m. In certain sections along Cerna, graben limestones outcrop in an intricate relationship with those of the slopes, facilitating the existence of very large scale uni- or bidirectional hydrodynamic links. The geothermal investigations have shown the existence of some areas with values of the geothermal gradient falling into the 110-200°C/km interval, and temperatures of 13.8-16°C at the depth of 30 m (VELICIU, 1978. The zone with the maximal flux intensity is situated between the Băile Herculane railway station and the Crucea Ghizelei Well, an area where 24 sources (10 wells and 14 springs are known. The geothermal anomaly is also extended to the south (Topleţ, north (Mehadia and north-east (Piatra Puşcată, a fact which is stressed by the existence of hypothermal springs with low mineralization. The physical-chemical parameters of the sources show a strong, north-south, variability. At the entire thermo-mineral reservoir scale, the temperature of the water sources, the total mineralization and the H2S quantity are increasing from the north to the south, and the pH and natural radioactivity are diminishing with the same trend.

  4. Evaluation of Minerals Content of Drinking Water in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azlan, Azrina; Khoo, Hock Eng; Idris, Mohd Aizat; Ismail, Amin; Razman, Muhammad Rizal

    2012-01-01

    The drinking and mineral water samples obtained from different geographical locations had concentrations of the selected minerals lower than the standard limits, except for manganese, arsenic, and fluoride. The concentrations of manganese and arsenic in two mineral water samples were slightly higher than the standard international recommended limits. One mineral water sample had a fluoride concentration higher than the standard limits, whereas manganese was not detected in nine drinking and mineral water samples. Most of the selected minerals found in the tap water samples were below the international standard limits, except for iron and manganese. The concentrations of iron and manganese in the tap water samples were higher than the standard limits, which were obtained from one and three of the studied locations, respectively. The potable water obtained from various manufacturers and locations in Peninsular Malaysia is safe for consumption, as the minerals concentrations were below the standard limits prescribed by the Malaysian Food Regulations of 1985. The data obtained may also provide important information related to daily intake of these minerals from drinking water. PMID:22649292

  5. Evaluation of Minerals Content of Drinking Water in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azrina Azlan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The drinking and mineral water samples obtained from different geographical locations had concentrations of the selected minerals lower than the standard limits, except for manganese, arsenic, and fluoride. The concentrations of manganese and arsenic in two mineral water samples were slightly higher than the standard international recommended limits. One mineral water sample had a fluoride concentration higher than the standard limits, whereas manganese was not detected in nine drinking and mineral water samples. Most of the selected minerals found in the tap water samples were below the international standard limits, except for iron and manganese. The concentrations of iron and manganese in the tap water samples were higher than the standard limits, which were obtained from one and three of the studied locations, respectively. The potable water obtained from various manufacturers and locations in Peninsular Malaysia is safe for consumption, as the minerals concentrations were below the standard limits prescribed by the Malaysian Food Regulations of 1985. The data obtained may also provide important information related to daily intake of these minerals from drinking water.

  6. Evaluation of minerals content of drinking water in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azlan, Azrina; Khoo, Hock Eng; Idris, Mohd Aizat; Ismail, Amin; Razman, Muhammad Rizal

    2012-01-01

    The drinking and mineral water samples obtained from different geographical locations had concentrations of the selected minerals lower than the standard limits, except for manganese, arsenic, and fluoride. The concentrations of manganese and arsenic in two mineral water samples were slightly higher than the standard international recommended limits. One mineral water sample had a fluoride concentration higher than the standard limits, whereas manganese was not detected in nine drinking and mineral water samples. Most of the selected minerals found in the tap water samples were below the international standard limits, except for iron and manganese. The concentrations of iron and manganese in the tap water samples were higher than the standard limits, which were obtained from one and three of the studied locations, respectively. The potable water obtained from various manufacturers and locations in Peninsular Malaysia is safe for consumption, as the minerals concentrations were below the standard limits prescribed by the Malaysian Food Regulations of 1985. The data obtained may also provide important information related to daily intake of these minerals from drinking water.

  7. Taking the (southern) waters: science, slavery, and nationalism at the Virginia springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFauci, Lauren E

    2011-04-01

    'Taking the (southern) waters' argues that, in the pre-Civil War period, the space of Virginia's mineral water resorts and the philosophy of southern hydropathic medicine enabled--indeed, fostered--white southerners' constructions of a 'nationalist,' pro-slavery ideology. In the first half of the paper, the author explains how white southern health-seekers came to view the springs region as a medicinal resource peculiarly designed for the healing of southern diseases and for the restoration of white southern constitutions; in the second half, she shows how physical and social aspects of the resorts, such as architectural choices and political events, supported and encouraged pro-slavery ideologies. Taken together, these medical-social analyses reveal how elite white southerners in the antebellum period came to associate the health of their peculiarly 'southern' bodies with the future health of an independent southern nation, one that elided black bodily presence at the same time that its social structures and scientific apparatuses relied upon enslaved black labor.

  8. Ground-water conditions in Utah, spring of 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, D.V.; Garrett, R.B.; Sory, J.D.; Burden, Carole B.; Danner, M.R.; Herbert, L.R.; Steiger, J.I.; ReMillard, M.D.; Slaugh, B.A.; Swenson, R.L.; Howells, J.H.; Christiansen, H.K.; Bagley, A.D.

    1994-01-01

    This is the thirty-first in a series of annual reports that describe ground-water conditions in Utah. Reports in this series, published cooperatively by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Utah Division of Water Resources, provide data to enable interested parties to keep abreast of changing ground-water conditions.This report, like the others in the series, contains information on well construction, ground-water withdrawal from wells, water-level changes, related changes in precipitation and streamflow, and chemical quality of water. Supplementary data, such as maps showing water-level contours, are included in reports of this series only for those years or areas for which applicable data are available and are important to a discussion of changing ground-water conditions.This report includes individual discussions of selected significant areas of ground-water development in the State for calendar year 1993. Water-level fluctuations and selected related data, however, are described from the spring of 1989 to the spring of 1994. Much of the data used in this report were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Divisions of Water Rights and Water Resources, Utah Department of Natural Resources.

  9. Production environment in mineral water plants; Mineral water kojo no seisan kankyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshimatsu, A. [Morinaga Engineering Company, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-01-05

    This paper summarizes mineral waters as commercial products, and the manufacturing facilities thereof. The most widely used pattern of packaging mineral waters is to use either PET bottle or back-in box. The manufacturing process consists generally of: rough filtration of natural water, storage, activated carbon filtration, filtration, sterilization, ultrafine filtration, warm water bottling, capping, cooling, cartoning, storage, and shipment. The rough filtration removes sands. The activated carbon filtration removes water soluble organics. The sterilization is carried out under conditions of retaining the water at 75{degree}C for 15 seconds or retaining at 120 to 140{degree}C for 2 seconds. The ultrafine filtration uses a ceramic filter with a thickness of 0.2{mu}m. Sterilizing harmful microorganisms uses heating operation and filters to remove bacteria. An example may be cited that uses a bio-clean room for the purpose of controlling the harmful microorganisms. Subject microorganisms include a variety of viruses, rickettsia, bacteria, and fungi. The super-high performance (HEPA) filter used in the sterilization is demanded of collecting dusts with sizes of 0.3{mu}m or larger at a collection efficiency of 99.97% or higher. 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Identification of dissolved-constituent sources in mine-site ground water using batch mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, G.M.; Williams, R.S. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Batch-mixing experiments were used to help identify lithologic mineralogic sources of increased concentrations of dissolved solids in water affected by surface coal mining in northwestern Colorado. Ten overburden core samples were analyzed for mineral composition and mixed with distilled water for 90 days until mineral-water equilibrium was reached. Dissolved-solids concentrations ranged from 200 to 8,700 mg/L in water samples extracted from the mixtures after 90 days. Mass-balance simulations were conducted using the geochemical models BALANCE and WATEQF to quantify mineral-water interactions occurring in five selected sample mixtures and in water collected from a spring at a reclaimed mine site. The spring water is affected by mineral-water interactions occurring in all of lithologic units comprising the overburden. Results of the simulations indicate that oxidation of pyrite, dissolution of dolomite, gypsum, and epsomite, and cation-exchange reactions are the primary mineral-water interactions occurring in the overburden. Three lithologic units in the overburden probably contribute most of the dissolved solids to the spring water. Water sample extracts from mixtures using core from these three units accounted for 85 percent of the total dissolved solids in the 10 sample extracts. Other lithologic units in the overburden probably contribute smaller quantities of dissolved solids to the spring water

  11. Some physicochemical aspects of water-soluble mineral flotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhijian; Wang, Xuming; Liu, Haining; Zhang, Huifang; Miller, Jan D

    2016-09-01

    Some physicochemical aspects of water-soluble mineral flotation including hydration phenomena, associations and interactions between collectors, air bubbles, and water-soluble mineral particles are presented. Flotation carried out in saturated salt solutions, and a wide range of collector concentrations for effective flotation of different salts are two basic aspects of water-soluble mineral flotation. Hydration of salt ions, mineral particle surfaces, collector molecules or ions, and collector aggregates play an important role in water-soluble mineral flotation. The adsorption of collectors onto bubble surfaces is suggested to be the precondition for the association of mineral particles with bubbles. The association of collectors with water-soluble minerals is a complicated process, which may include the adsorption of collector molecules or ions onto such surfaces, and/or the attachment of collector precipitates or crystals onto the mineral surfaces. The interactions between the collectors and the minerals include electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions, hydrogen bonding, and specific interactions, with electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions being the common mechanisms. For the association of ionic collectors with minerals with an opposite charge, electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions could have a synergistic effect, with the hydrophobic interactions between the hydrophobic groups of the previously associated collectors and the hydrophobic groups of oncoming collectors being an important attractive force. Association between solid particles and air bubbles is the key to froth flotation, which is affected by hydrophobicity of the mineral particle surfaces, surface charges of mineral particles and bubbles, mineral particle size and shape, temperature, bubble size, etc. The use of a collector together with a frother and the use of mixed surfactants as collectors are suggested to improve flotation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Thermal water of the Yugawara Hot Spring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oki, Y; Ogino, K; Nagatsuka, Y; Hirota, S; Kokaji, F; Takahashi, S; Sugimoto, M

    1963-03-01

    The Yugawara Hot Spring is located in the bottom of the dissected creata of the Yugawara volcano. Natural hot spring water ran dry almost twenty five years ago, and thermal water is now pumped up by means of deep drill holes. The hydrorogy of the thermal water was studied from both geochemical and geophysical points of view. Two types of thermal water, sodium chloride and calcium sulfate, are recognized. Sodium chloride is predominant in the high temperature area and low in the surrounding low temperature area. Calcium sulfate predominates in the low temperature area. Sodium chloride is probably derived from deep magmatic emanations as indicated in the high Li content. Sulfate ion seems to originate from oxidation of pyrite whose impregnation took place in the ancient activity of the Yugawara volcano. The content of Ca is stoichiometrically comparable with SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/. It is suggested that sulfuric acid derived from the oxidation of pyrite attacks calcite formed during the hydrothermal alteration of rocks. Some consideration of well logging in the geothermal area is also discussed. Temperature measurement in recharging of cold water is applicable to the logging of drill holes as well as the electric logging.

  13. Strontium isotope evolution of pore water and calcite in the Topopah Spring Tuff, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, Brian D.; Futa, Kiyoto

    2001-01-01

    Pore water in the Topopah Spring Tuff has a narrow range of (delta) 87 Sr values that can be calculated from the (delta) 87 Sr values of the rock considering advection through and reaction with the overlying nonwelded tuffs of the PTn. This model can be extended to estimate the variation of (delta) 87 Sr in the pore water through time; this approximates the variation of (delta) 87 Sr measured in calcite fracture coatings. In samples of calcite where no silica can be dated by other methods, strontium isotope data may be the only method to determine ages. In addition, other Sr-bearing minerals in the calcite and opal coatings, such as fluorite, may be dated using the same model

  14. Mineralogical assemblages forming at hyperalkaline warm springs hosted on ultramafic rocks: A case study of Oman and Ligurian ophiolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavagnac, Valérie; Ceuleneer, Georges; Monnin, Christophe; Lansac, Benjamin; Hoareau, Guilhem; Boulart, Cédric

    2013-07-01

    We report on the mineralogical assemblages found in the hyperalkaline springs hosted on Liguria and Oman ophiolites based on exhaustive X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microprobe analyses. In Liguria, hyperalkaline springs produce a thin brownish calcite precipitate that covers the bedrock due to the concomitant atmospheric CO2 uptake and neutralization of the hyperalkaline waters. No brucite and portlandite minerals are observed. The discharge of alkaline waters in Oman ophiolite forms white-orange precipitates. Calcium carbonate minerals (calcite and/or aragonite) are the most abundant and ubiquitous precipitates and are produced by the same mechanism as in Liguria. This process is observed as a thin surface crust made of rhombohedral calcite. Morphological features of aragonite vary from needle-, bouquet-, dumbbell-, spheroidal-like habitus according to the origin of carbon, temperature, and ionic composition of the hyperalkaline springs, and the biochemical and organic compounds. Brucite is observed both at hyperalkaline springs located at the thrust plane and at the paleo-Moho. The varying mixing proportions between the surface runoff waters and the hyperalkaline ones control brucite precipitation. The layered double hydroxide minerals occur solely in the vicinity of hyperalkaline springs emerging within the bedded gabbros. Finally, the dominant mineralogical associations we found in Oman (Ca-bearing carbonates and brucite) in a serpentinizing environment driven by the meteoric waters are surprisingly the same as those observed at the Lost City hydrothermal site in a totally marine environment.

  15. Balneological use of thermal waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, John W

    2001-01-01

    People have used geothermal water and mineral waters for bathing and their health for many thousand of years. Balneology, the practice of using natural mineral water for the treatment and cure of disease, also has a long history. Based on archeological finds in Asia, mineral water has been used for bathing since the Bronze Age, about 5000 years ago. Many hot springs have been used in connection with religious rites in Egypt and by the Jews of the Middle East. The Greeks, Turks and Romans were famous for their spa development and use from Persia to England. The word “spa” traces its origin to a town near Liège in southern Belgium near the German border. Here a spring of iron-bearing water was used by an iron master in 1326 to cure his ailments. He founded a health resort at the spring called Espa (meaning fountain in the Walloon language). Espa became so popular that the word know in English as spa became the common designation for similar health resorts around the world.

  16. Spring cleaning: rural water impacts, valuation, and property rights institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Michael; Leino, Jessica; Miguel, Edward; Zwane, Alix Peterson

    2011-01-01

    Using a randomized evaluation in Kenya, we measure health impacts of spring protection, an investment that improves source water quality. We also estimate households' valuation of spring protection and simulate the welfare impacts of alternatives to the current system of common property rights in water, which limits incentives for private investment. Spring infrastructure investments reduce fecal contamination by 66%, but household water quality improves less, due to recontamination. Child diarrhea falls by one quarter. Travel-cost based revealed preference estimates of households' valuations are much smaller than both stated preference valuations and health planners' valuations, and are consistent with models in which the demand for health is highly income elastic. We estimate that private property norms would generate little additional investment while imposing large static costs due to above-marginal-cost pricing, private property would function better at higher income levels or under water scarcity, and alternative institutions could yield Pareto improvements.

  17. Analysis of Spring Development and Gravity Flow System to Capture Water for Local Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adiningrum Cita

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Springs as water sources are relatively inexpensive but highly susceptible to contamination since they are fed by shallow groundwater. Proper spring development helps protect the water from contamination. This study presents an analysis and design of spring development including the type of broncaptering/collecting wall, the dimension for the spring box and the conduction line. In addition, a guideline on “Springwater Construction” published by the Ministry of Public Works has been used in this design. A concentrated spring in Wates, Magelang, Central Java is used as a case study. The design calls for the collection of water from a spring using sets of broncaptering and a spring box, then piping it by gravity a distance of 5.1 kilometers to Van Lith Senior High School. Analysis was done using a manual calculation, which is subsequently compared to the result of HYDROFLO 3 software. Results show that the spring with a flow rate of 0.12 litre/s (manual and 0.17 litre/s (software will be collected into a 5 m3 volume of spring box. The spring box with a +543 m water surface elevation is being supplied to Van Lith +384 m ground elevation using a uniform PVC pipelines with a ¾ inch of diameter.

  18. WATER QUALITY OF THE VRELIĆ SPRING IN DONJE DUBRAVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Trpčić

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In one part of the groundwater flow in the Vrelić cave (near the village Donje Dubrave, during the explorations in 2003, oil pollution was perceived. During field prospection and contact with local population, few possible pollution sources were located. There was a strong possibility that the oil traces in the cave are the result of the railway accident in 1970. Because of the railway accident on Rijeka-Zagreb railroad, tank carriage sliped off from the tracks and the content of the dangerous cargo leaked onto the nearby valley, 800 meters away from the cave entrance. A spring, used sometimes for water supply by the local population is also located nearby. Sampling of the water from the cave and the spring was carried out several times during the next period with the intention of monitoring the pollution impact on water quality in different seasonal (climatic conditions. In the course of the laboratory analysis of the samples the following parameters were determined: Total hardness; Concentrations of Calcium, Magnesium, Iron, Chlorides and Nitrates; pH-value; TOC; colony-forming unit (CFU; total Coliform; fecal Streptococus; Proteus bacteria; Salmonella bacteria and Clostridium perfringens bacteria. Several of other parameters were also measured by mobile devices: Conductivity (EC, TDS, Redox-potential, pH-value and water temperature. Water tracing with Na-fluorescine was carried out before the analysis and the connection between groundwater flow in cave and the spring water was confirmed. After the creation of a topographical (speleological map of the cave and thanks to the surface (field measurements, the distance between the place of Na-fluorescine spill in the cave and the Vrelić spring was defined (the paper is published in Croatian.

  19. Goodenough Spring, Texas, USA: Discharge and water chemistry of a large spring deeply submerged under the binational Amistad Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamps, Ray H.; Tatum, Gregg S.; Gault, Mike; Groeger, Alan W.

    2009-06-01

    Goodenough Spring (Texas, USA) is a large spring near the border of the American state of Texas and the Mexican state of Coahuila, discharging into the international Amistad Reservoir on the river Rio Grande (Rio Bravo). Discharge was routinely measured from 1928 until 1968 to partition the flow of the river between the two countries in accordance with water-use treaties. Samples were analyzed for water-quality parameters in 1967-1968 prior to inundation under 45 m of Amistad Reservoir in 1968. Subsequently, discharge has been estimated indirectly by the International Boundary and Water Commission (IBWC). For the first direct measurements of the spring in 37 years, velocity and cross-sectional measurements were made and water samples collected in the summer of 2005 using advanced self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (SCUBA) techniques. Spring discharge was calculated at 2.03 m3 s-1, approximately one-half of the historical mean of 3.94 m3 s-1. In situ and laboratory analyses of samples for temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, alkalinity, nitrate-nitrogen, dissolved solids, chloride, sulfate, fluoride, phosphorus, calcium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, and iron showed the water quality to be very good for human consumption and crop irrigation. Measurement values are relatively unchanged from those reported 37 years prior.

  20. Sources and chronology of nitrate contamination in spring waters, Suwannee River basin, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Brian G.; Hornsby, H.D.; Bohlke, J.K.; Mokray, M.F.

    1999-01-01

    A multi-tracer approach, which consisted of analyzing water samples for n aturally occurring chemical and isotopic indicators, was used to better understand sources and chronology of nitrate contamination in spring wate rs discharging to the Suwannee and Santa Fe Rivers in northern Florida. Dur ing 1997 and 1998, as part of a cooperative study between the Suwannee River Water Management District and the U.S. Geological Survey, water samples were collected and analyzed from 24 springs and two wells for major ions, nutrients, dissolved organic carbon, and selected environmental isotopes [18O/16O, D/H, 13C/12C, 15N/14N]. To better understand when nitrate entered the ground-water system, water samples were analyzed for chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs; CCl3F, CCl2F2, and C2Cl3F3) and tritium (3H); in this way, the apparent ages and residence times of spring waters and water from shallow zones in the Upper Floridan aquifer were determined. In addition to information obtained from the use of isotopic and other chemical tracers, information on changes in land-use activities in the basin during 1954-97 were used to estimate nitrogen inputs from nonpoint sources for five counties in the basin. Changes in nitrate concentrations in spring waters with time were compared with estimated nitrogen inputs for Lafayette and Suwannee Counties. Agricultural activities [cropland farming, animal farming operations (beef and dairy cows, poultry, and swine)] along with atmospheric deposition have contributed large quantities of nitrogen to ground water in the Suwannee River Basin in northern Florida. Changes in agricultural land use during the past 40 years in Alachua, Columbia, Gilchrist, Lafayette, and Suwannee Counties have contributed variable amounts of nitrogen to the ground-water system. During 1955-97, total estimated nitrogen from all nonpoint sources (fertilizers, animal wastes, atmospheric deposition, and septic tanks) increased continuously in Gilchrist and Lafayette Counties. In

  1. Geochemical characterization of groundwater discharging from springs north of the Grand Canyon, Arizona, 2009–2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beisner, Kimberly R.; Tillman, Fred D.; Anderson, Jessica R.; Antweiler, Ronald C.; Bills, Donald J.

    2017-08-01

    A geochemical study was conducted on 37 springs discharging from the Toroweap Formation, Coconino Sandstone, Hermit Formation, Supai Group, and Redwall Limestone north of the Grand Canyon near areas of breccia-pipe uranium mining. Baseline concentrations were established for the elements As, B, Li, Se, SiO2, Sr, Tl, U, and V. Three springs exceeded U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking water standards: Fence Spring for arsenic, Pigeon Spring for selenium and uranium, and Willow (Hack) Spring for selenium. The majority of the spring sites had uranium values of less than 10 micrograms per liter (μg/L), but six springs discharging from all of the geologic units studied that are located stratigraphically above the Redwall Limestone had uranium values greater than 10 μg/L (Cottonwood [Tuckup], Grama, Pigeon, Rock, and Willow [Hack and Snake Gulch] Springs). The geochemical characteristics of these six springs with elevated uranium include Ca-Mg-SO4 water type, circumneutral pH, high specific conductance, correlation and multivariate associations between U, Mo, Sr, Se, Li, and Zn, low 87Sr/86Sr, low 234U/238U activity ratios (1.34–2.31), detectable tritium, and carbon isotopic interpretation indicating they may be a mixture of modern and pre-modern waters. Similar geochemical compositions of spring waters having elevated uranium concentrations are observed at sites located both near and away from sites of uranium-mining activities in the present study. Therefore, mining does not appear to explain the presence of elevated uranium concentrations in groundwater at the six springs noted above. The elevated uranium at the six previously mentioned springs may be influenced by iron mineralization associated with mineralized breccia pipe deposits. Six springs discharging from the Coconino Sandstone (Upper Jumpup, Little, Horse, and Slide Springs) and Redwall Limestone (Kanab and Side Canyon Springs) contained water with corrected radiocarbon ages as much as 9

  2. Cold-stenothermic spring fauna in mountainous headwaters of the National Park Kellerwald-Edersee in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, Martin; Zaenker, Stefan; Chifflard, Peter

    2017-04-01

    Since 2002, spring habitat investigations and mapping campaigns were executed in the National Park Kellerwald-Edersee (Central Germany, Federal State of Hesse). 693 springs are currently assessed within an ongoing ecological-faunistic inventory with additional data about physico-chemical properties and hydrological conditions of the spring water (e.g. pH value, electrical conductivity, water temperature and flow velocity). 1029 taxa are found so far, whereby, springs are investigated as a land-water ecotone where aquatic and terrestrial fauna was detected. Data continuously stored in the data base of the Hesse Biospeleological Register (Reiss, Steiner, Zaenker 2009) coupled with a Geographical Information System. Spring habitats can be characterized as mostly undisturbed, oligotrophic and near natural structured with heterogenous microhabitat conditions. Nearly 90 percentages of the springs are helocrenic habitats with a diffuse and low discharge, temporally dried out, but staying under wet substrate conditions. 85 percentages of the springs occurring under forests without any cultivation or forest management use. Coarse mineral substrate dominating slightly, followed up by fine mineral substrate types. Most common mineral related microhabitats are microlithal (coarse gravel) and psammopelal (fine silt). The high microhabitat diversity depends mostly to forest correlated organic substrate types. Here, most dominant are CPOM (leaf litter) and woody debris (deadwood). Substrate richness is significantly correlated to preferential fauna colonization of different, partly rare or endangered species. Undisturbed conditions are also characterized by relative cold stenothermy and oligotrophy. The latter is indicated by a very low electrical conductivity (Mean: 236 µS*cm-1). The mean annual water temperature is 9° Celsius with low amplitudes of max. and min. values. Spring water is nearly neutral and there is no identifiable trend in acidification (mean pH value of 6

  3. Sulphurous Mineral Waters: New Applications for Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Manuel Carbajo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulphurous mineral waters have been traditionally used in medical hydrology as treatment for skin, respiratory, and musculoskeletal disorders. However, driven by recent intense research efforts, topical treatments are starting to show benefits for pulmonary hypertension, arterial hypertension, atherosclerosis, ischemia-reperfusion injury, heart failure, peptic ulcer, and acute and chronic inflammatory diseases. The beneficial effects of sulphurous mineral waters, sulphurous mud, or peloids made from sulphurous mineral water have been attributed to the presence of sulphur mainly in the form of hydrogen sulphide. This form is largely available in conditions of low pH when oxygen concentrations are also low. In the organism, small amounts of hydrogen sulphide are produced by some cells where they have numerous biological signalling functions. While high levels of hydrogen sulphide are extremely toxic, enzymes in the body are capable of detoxifying it by oxidation to harmless sulphate. Hence, low levels of hydrogen sulphide may be tolerated indefinitely. In this paper, we review the chemistry and actions of hydrogen sulphide in sulphurous mineral waters and its natural role in body physiology. This is followed by an update of available data on the impacts of exogenous hydrogen sulphide on the skin and internal cells and organs including new therapeutic possibilities of sulphurous mineral waters and their peloids.

  4. Microbiological and chemical assessment of spring water from a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of spring water from Ikare-Akoko, a rural setting in southwest, Nigeria for microbial and chemical contaminants was carried out. Total heterotrophic bacteria count of 4.0 x 106 CFU/mL was highest during the peak of the rainy season in Omi-idu spring (Igbede community) while the lowest population of 0.14 x106 ...

  5. Using of Mineral Recourses for Water Purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumanova, I.V.; Nazarenko, O.B.; Anna, Yu.

    2009-01-01

    Pollution of surface waters results in necessity of underground waters using for drinking. Underground waters are characterized by the high quantity of heavy metals salts. This led to development of methods reducing the concentration of the metal salts in water. Wide spread occurrence, cheapness and high sorption properties of nature minerals allow to consider them as perspective sorbents for different impurities extraction, including dissoluble compounds of heavy metals. Reachable purification efficiency with mineral resources use for the moment satisfies sanitary indexes and standards presenting to portable water in Russia. In given material there are presented the results of research of artificial sorbent and certain minerals sorption characteristics, which are typical for West Siberia. For purification quality improvement from Fe and Mn ions there are suggested to use the method of boiling bed.

  6. Thermal algae in certain radioactive springs in Japan, (3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mifune, Masaaki; Hirose, Hiroyuki.

    1982-01-01

    Shikano Hot Springs are located at five km to the south of Hamamura Station on the Sanin Line in Tottori Prefecture. The water temperature and the pH of the springs are 40.2 - 61.2 0 C, and 7.5 - 7.8, respectively. They belong to simple thermals. Hamamura Hot Springs are located in the neighbourhood of Hamamura Station. The highest radon content of the hot springs is 175.1 x 10 -10 Ci/l, and the great part of the springs belong to radioactive ones. From the viewpoint of the major ionic constituents, they are also classified under weak salt springs, sulfated salt springs, and simple thermals. Regarding the habitates of the algal flora, the water temperature and the pH of the springs are 28.0 - 68.0 0 C, and 6.8 - 7.4, respectively. The thermal algae found by Ikoma and Doi at Hamamura Hot Springs were two species of Cyanophyceae. By the authors, nine species and one variety of Cyanophyceae including Ikoma and Doi's two species were newly found at Shikano and Hamamura Hot Springs. Chlorophyceous alga was not found. The dominant thermal algae of these hot springs were Mastigocladus laminosus, and the other algae which mainly consist of Oscillatoriaceous algae. From these points, it seems that the thermal algae of Shikano and Hamamura Hot Springs belong to the normal type of thermal algae, and they are different from the thermal algae of Ikeda Mineral Springs and Masutomi Hot Springs which belong to strongly radioactive springs. (author)

  7. Nitrate concentration in spring water at the Nogawa basin and its possible source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Kazuhiro; Ogura, Norio

    1978-01-01

    Fluctuation of nitrate concentration in spring water at the Nogawa basin was studied during 1976 - 1977, and the possible source of nitrate nitrogen was discussed. Nitrate concentration in spring water at the station N-O in Kokubunji, Tokyo ranged from 360 to 574 μg at/l with an average value of 502 μg at/l. It seemed that the effluent of spring water at N-O was influenced by rainfall within a short period. A laboratory experiment on production of nitrate in soil showed that ammonium nitrogen added to fresh soil was transformed quantitatively to nitrate nitrogen during 23 days incubation. Thd sup(delta15)N value of nitrate nitrogen in spring water (+0.89%) was similar to that of ammonium nitrogen in sewage (+0.82%) discharging into the Nogawa River. In the area near N-O, domestic wastes have been discharged into the Nogawa River by simple sewers or percolated downward through the soil. These results suggest that one of the main source of nitrate nitrogen in spring water is ammonium and organic nitrogen in domestic wastes. (author)

  8. Determination of {sup 210} Pb in mineral spring waters of Aguas da Prata city; Determinacao de {sup 210} Pb em aguas minerais da cidade de Aguas da Prata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, S R.D.

    1994-12-31

    Concentration levels of {sup 210} Pb have been analyzed in 12 mineral spring waters of Aguas da Prata city. The {sup 210} Pb concentration was determined through {sup 210} Bi, by measuring the gross beta activity of the {sup 210} Pb Cr O{sub 4} precipitate after separation from interfering elements by complexation with nitrile tri acetic acid at basic pH. The {sup 210} Bi beta activity was carried out in a low background gas flow proportional counter. Concentrations ranging from lower limit of detection to 1240 mBq/L were observed for {sup 210} Pb. The radiochemical procedure adopted presented a chemical yield around 85% and a lower limit of detection of 4,9 mBq/L. Dose calculations were performed in order to evaluate the importance of this radionuclide to the radiation exposure due to the ingestion of these waters. Based upon measured concentrations, committed effective doses up to 1,1 mSv/y and committed doses to the bone up to 1.7 x 10{sup 1} mSv/y were observed for {sup 210} Pb. (author). 64 refs, 6 figs, 7 tabs.

  9. Mineral waters from the Tanzawa Mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oki, Y; Tajima, Y; Hirano, T; Ogino, K; Hirota, S; Takahashi, S; Kokaji, F; Moriya, M; Sugimoto, M

    1964-11-01

    Mineral waters from the depths of the Tanzawa mountains are briefly characterized as having high pH values ranging from 9.5 to 10.0. The origin of the mineral waters is discussed in relation to zeolites extensively developed along fractures and joints throughout the Tanzawa mountains. Thermal water (33/sup 0/C) of the Nakagawa spa may be regarded as evidence of past strong geothermal activity. Measurement of geothermal gradient at two locations, Nakagawa (12.6/sup 0/C/100m) and Higashi-sawa (5.55/sup 0/C/100m) also supports the presence of weak thermal activity in the depths. Chemical analysis of the mineral waters indicates that the pH of the system is chiefly controlled by the ratio of CO/sub 3//sup - -//HCO/sub 3//sup -/. The following reaction with zeolites promotes an increase of the pH: HCO/sub 3//sup -/ + (Ca/Na) zeolites reversible CO/sub 3//sup - -/ + H-type (Ca/Na) zeolites + (Ca/sup + +//Na/sup +/).

  10. Laser-fluorescence determination of trace uranium in hot spring water, geothermal water and tap water in Xi'an Lishan region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Wenyan; Zhou Chunlin; Han Feng; Di Yuming

    2002-01-01

    Using the Laser-Fluorescence technique, an investigation was made, adopting the standard mix method, on trace uranium concentrations in hot spring water and geothermal water from Lishan region, and in tap water from some major cities in Shanxi province. Totally 40 samples from 27 sites were investigated. Measurement showed that the tap water contains around 10 -6 g/L of uranium, whose concentrations in both hot spring water and geothermal water are 10 -5 g/L. Most of samples are at normal radioactive background level, some higher contents were determined in a few samples

  11. Sources of nitrate contamination and age of water in large karstic springs of Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, B.G.

    2004-01-01

    In response to concerns about the steady increase in nitrate concentrations over the past several decades in many of Florida's first magnitude spring waters (discharge ???2.8 m3/s), multiple isotopic and other chemical tracers were analyzed in water samples from 12 large springs to assess sources and timescales of nitrate contamination. Nitrate-N concentrations in spring waters ranged from 0.50 to 4.2 mg/L, and ??15N values of nitrate in spring waters ranged from 2.6 to 7.9 per mil. Most ??15N values were below 6 per mil indicating that inorganic fertilizers were the dominant source of nitrogen in these waters. Apparent ages of groundwater discharging from springs ranged from 5 to about 35 years, based on multi-tracer analyses (CFC-12, CFC-113, SF6, 3H/3He) and a piston flow assumption; however, apparent tracer ages generally were not concordant. The most reliable spring-water ages appear to be based on tritium and 3He data, because concentrations of CFCs and SF6 in several spring waters were much higher than would be expected from equilibration with modern atmospheric concentrations. Data for all tracers were most consistent with output curves for exponential and binary mixing models that represent mixtures of water in the Upper Floridan aquifer recharged since the early 1960s. Given that groundwater transit times are on the order of decades and are related to the prolonged input of nitrogen from multiple sources to the aquifer, nitrate could persist in groundwater that flows toward springs for several decades due to slow transport of solutes through the aquifer matrix.

  12. MICROBIAL POPULATION OF HOT SPRING WATERS IN ESKİŞEHİR/TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalan YILMAZ SARIÖZLÜ

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate and find out the bacterial community of hot spring waters in Eskişehir, Turkey, 7 hot spring water samples were collected from 7 different hot springs. All samples were inoculated using four different media (nutrient agar, water yeast extract agar, trypticase soy agar, starch casein agar. After incubation at 50 ºC for 14 days, all bacterial colonies were counted and purified. Gram reaction, catalase and oxidase properties of all isolates were determined and investigated by BIOLOG, VITEK and automated ribotyping system (RiboPrinter. The resistance of these bacteriawas examined against ampiciline, gentamisine, trimethoprime-sulphamethoxazole and tetracycline. As a result, heat resistant pathogenic microorganisms in addition to human normal flora were determined in hot spring waters (43-50 ºC in investigated area. Ten different species belong to 6 genera were identified as Alysiella filiformis, Bordetella bronchiseptica, B. pertussis, Molexalla caprae, M. caviae, M. cuniculi, M. phenylpyruvica, Roseomonas fauriae, Delftia acidovorans and Pseudomonas taetrolens.

  13. Origin and geochemistry of saline spring waters in the Athabasca oil sands region, Alberta, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gue, Anita E.; Mayer, Bernhard; Grasby, Stephen E.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Saline groundwater enters the Athabasca and Clearwater rivers in the AOSR via springs. • High TDS is due to subsurface dissolution of Devonian evaporites and carbonates. • Low δ 18 O values, and 3 H and 14 C data suggest some Laurentide glacial meltwater input. • Bacterial sulfate reduction, methanogenesis, and CH 4 oxidation were identified. • Metal and PAH contents are reported; bitumen does not appear to be major influence. - Abstract: The geochemistry of saline spring waters in the Athabasca oil sands region (AOSR) in Alberta (Canada) discharging from Devonian carbonate rocks into the Athabasca and Clearwater rivers was characterized for major ions, trace elements, dissolved gases, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In addition, stable isotope analyses of H 2 O, SO 4 , dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), Sr, and CH 4 were used to trace the sources of spring waters and their dissolved solutes, and to identify subsurface processes affecting water chemistry. The spring waters had δ 18 O values as low as −23.5‰, suggesting they are composed of up to 75% Laurentide glacial meltwater. Tritium and radiocarbon age-dating results, analyzed for three spring waters, supported a glacial origin. The high salinity of the spring waters (TDS 7210–51,800 mg/L) was due to dissolution of Devonian evaporite and carbonate deposits in the subsurface. Spring waters were affected by bacterial (dissimilatory) sulfate reduction, methanogenesis, and methane oxidation. Trace elements were present in spring waters at varying concentrations, with only one spring containing several predominant oil sands metals (As, Fe, Mo, Ni, Se, Zn) suggesting bitumen as a source. Five springs contained elements (Al, As, B, Fe, Se) at concentrations exceeding water quality guidelines for the protection of aquatic life. Seven PAHs were detected in spring waters (total PAH concentrations ranged from 7.3 to 273.6 ng/L), but most springs contained a maximum of two PAHs

  14. Ikaite precipitation by mixing of shoreline springs and lake water, Mono Lake, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, James L.; Stine, Scott; Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Fitzpatrick, John A.; Stafford, Thomas W., Jr.

    1993-08-01

    Metastable ikaite (CaCO 3·6H 2O) forms abundantly during winter months along the south shoreline of Mono Lake where shoreline springs mix with lake water. Ikaite precipitates because of its decreased solubility at low temperature and because of orthophosphate-ion inhibition of calcite and aragonite. During the spring some of the ikaite is transformed to anhydrous CaCO 3 and is incorporated into tufa, but most is dispersed by wave action into the lake where it reacts to form gaylussite (Na 2Ca(CO 3) 2· 5H 2O). Spring waters have low pH values, are dominantly Ca-Na-HCO 3, have low radiocarbon activities, and are mixtures of deep-seated geothermal and cold groundwaters. Chemical modeling reveals that precipitation of CaCO 3 can occur over a broad range of mixtures of spring and lake water with a maximum production occurring at 96% spring water and 4% lake water. Under these conditions all the Ca and a significant fraction of the CO 3 of the precipitate is spring supplied. A radiocarbon age of 19,580 years obtained on a natural ikaite sample supports this conclusion. With the springs supplying a large and probably variable portion of the carbonate, and with apparent 14C age of the carbonate varying from spring to spring, tufa of similar actual antiquity may yield significantly different 14C dates, making tufa at this location unsuitable for absolute age dating by the radiocarbon method.

  15. Time-integrated radon measurements in spring and well waters by track technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somogyi, G.

    1986-01-01

    The radon content dissolved in natural waters seems to be a very sensitive indicator of potential uranium deposits. We have developed different track methods to perform time-integrated, ''in-situ'' measurements of radon in different natural waters (spring, lake, well) and their neighbouring soil gas. One of our main purposes was to study the seasonal variation of radon content and its possible correlation with certain water (yield, flow rate) and environmental (depth, temperature) parameters. Simultaneous radon measurements have been carried out in lake and spring waters in a cave, in thermal and cold water springs of a public bath and in a deep drilled well. The radon profiles obtained in the deep well lend support to the idea that the environmental radon can travel large distances in microbubbles of a ''carrier geogas''. (author)

  16. Identification of dissolved-constituent sources in mine-site ground water using batch mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Gregory M.; Williams, Robert S.

    1991-01-01

    Batch-mixing experiments were used to help identify lithologic and mineralogic sources of increased concentrations of dissolved solids in water affected by surface coal mining in northwestern Colorado. Ten overburden core samples were analyzed for mineral composition and mixed with distilled water for 90 days until mineral-water equilibrium was reached. Between one day and 90 days after initial contact, specific conductance in the sample mixtures had a median increase of 306 percent. Dissolved-solids concentrations ranged from 200 to 8,700 mg/L in water samples extracted from the mixtures after 90 days. Mass-balance simulations were conducted using the geochemical models BALANCE and WATEQF to quantify mineral-water interactions occurring in five selected sample mixtures and in water collected from a spring at a reclaimed mine site. The spring water is affected by mineral-water interactions occurring in all of the lithologic units comprising the overburden. Results of the simulations indicate that oxidation of pyrite, dissolution of dolomite, gypsum, and epsomite, and cation-exchange reactions are the primary mineral-water interactions occurring in the overburden. Three lithologic units in the overburden (a coal, a sandstone, and a shale) probably contribute most of the dissolved solids to the spring water. Water sample extracts from mixtures using core from these three units accounted for 85 percent of the total dissolved solids in the 10 sample extracts. Other lithologic units in the over-burden probably contribute smaller quantities of dissolved solids to the spring water.

  17. Timescales for nitrate contamination of spring waters, northern Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, B.G.; Böhlke, J.K.; Hornsby, H.D.

    2001-01-01

    Residence times of groundwater, discharging from springs in the middle Suwannee River Basin, were estimated using chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), tritium (3H), and tritium/helium-3 (3H/3He) age-dating methods to assess the chronology of nitrate contamination of spring waters in northern Florida. During base-flow conditions for the Suwannee River in 1997–1999, 17 water samples were collected from 12 first, second, and third magnitude springs discharging groundwater from the Upper Floridan aquifer. Extending age-dating techniques, using transient tracers to spring waters in complex karst systems, required an assessment of several models [piston-flow (PFM), exponential mixing (EMM), and binary-mixing (BMM)] to account for different distributions of groundwater age. Multi-tracer analyses of four springs yielded generally concordant PFM ages of around 20±2 years from CFC-12, CFC-113, 3H, and 3He, with evidence of partial CFC-11 degradation. The EMM gave a reasonable fit to CFC-113, CFC-12, and 3H data, but did not reproduce the observed 3He concentrations or 3H/3He ratios, nor did a combination PFM–EMM. The BMM could reproduce most of the multi-tracer data set only if both endmembers had 3H concentrations not much different from modern values. CFC analyses of 14 additional springs yielded apparent PFM ages from about 10 to 20 years from CFC-113, with evidence of partial CFC-11 degradation and variable CFC-12 contamination. While it is not conclusive, with respect to the age distribution within each spring, the data indicate that the average residence times were in the order of 10–20 years and were roughly proportional to spring magnitude. Applying similar models to recharge and discharge of nitrate based on historical nitrogen loading data yielded contrasting trends for Suwanee County and Lafayette County. In Suwanee County, spring nitrate trends and nitrogen isotope data were consistent with a peak in fertilizer input in the 1970s and a relatively high overall ratio

  18. Preliminary hydrogeochemical analysis of springs in the region of Aguas de Lindoia, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szikszay, M.; Teissedre, J.-M.

    1978-01-01

    The sources of waters in the region of Aguas de Lindoia, Sao Paulo, Brazil are analysed from the chemical and geological point of view. A totality of 26 springs gas been studied, all belonging to the crystalline complex of metamorphic rocks known under the name of Amparo gneisses. All of these springs are of feeble discharge with exception of those of the 'Balneario de Aguas de Lindoia' which are also hypothermal. From the chemical viewpoint, all waters have similar characteristics as much in major elements as in trace elements. According to their composition, they can be classified as bicarbonated sodic, calcic and magnesian waters. Some of them are mixed or chloro-sodic. Only the radioactivity at the spring permits to consider them as mineral waters, having in view their low concentration in dissolved solids. (Author) [pt

  19. Isotopic and chemical features of hot springs in Akita Prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsubaya, Osamu

    1997-01-01

    All over the Akita Prefecture, many hot springs are located. Most of them are of meteoric water, fossil sea water and volcanic gas origins. In the Ohdate-Kazuno area, moderate temperature hot springs of meteoric water origin are found, which may exist as rather shallow formation water in the Green Tuff formations. On the contrary, high temperature geothermal waters of meteoric origin, which are used for power generation, are obtained in two volcanic area of Hachimantai and Oyasu. Those geothermal waters are expected to come up through vertical fissures from depth deeper than 2 km. The difference of these two manners of meteoric water circulation should be necessarily explained to understand the relationship of shallow and deep geothermal systems. About some hot springs of fossil sea water origin, the relationships of δ D and Cl - don't agree to the mixing relation of sea water and meteoric water. This may be explained by two different processes, one of which is mixing of sea water with saline meteoric water (Cl - ca. 12 g/kg). The other is modification of δD by hydrogen isotopic exchange with hydrous minerals underground, or by exchange with atmospheric vapor during a relic lake before burying. (author)

  20. Preliminary geochemical assessment of water in selected streams, springs, and caves in the Upper Baker and Snake Creek drainages in Great Basin National Park, Nevada, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Angela P.; Thodal, Carl E.; Baker, Gretchen M.; Lico, Michael S.; Prudic, David E.

    2014-01-01

    Water in caves, discharging from springs, and flowing in streams in the upper Baker and Snake Creek drainages are important natural resources in Great Basin National Park, Nevada. Water and rock samples were collected from 15 sites during February 2009 as part of a series of investigations evaluating the potential for water resource depletion in the park resulting from the current and proposed groundwater withdrawals. This report summarizes general geochemical characteristics of water samples collected from the upper Baker and Snake Creek drainages for eventual use in evaluating possible hydrologic connections between the streams and selected caves and springs discharging in limestone terrain within each watershed.Generally, water discharging from selected springs in the upper Baker and Snake Creek watersheds is relatively young and, in some cases, has similar chemical characteristics to water collected from associated streams. In the upper Baker Creek drainage, geochemical data suggest possible hydrologic connections between Baker Creek and selected springs and caves along it. The analytical results for water samples collected from Wheelers Deep and Model Caves show characteristics similar to those from Baker Creek, suggesting a hydrologic connection between the creek and caves, a finding previously documented by other researchers. Generally, geochemical evidence does not support a connection between water flowing in Pole Canyon Creek to that in Model Cave, at least not to any appreciable extent. The water sample collected from Rosethorn Spring had relatively high concentrations of many of the constituents sampled as part of this study. This finding was expected as the water from the spring travelled through alluvium prior to being discharged at the surface and, as a result, was provided the opportunity to interact with soil minerals with which it came into contact. Isotopic evidence does not preclude a connection between Baker Creek and the water discharging from

  1. Time-integrated radon measurements in spring and well waters by track technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somogyi, G.; Lenart, L.

    1986-01-01

    The radon content dissolved in natural waters seems to be a very sensitive indicator of potential uranium deposits. We have developed different track methods to perform time-integrated, ''in-situ'' measurements of radon in different natural waters (spring, lake, well) and their neighbouring soil gas. One of our main purposes was to study the seasonal variation of radon content and its possible correlation with certain water (yield, flow rate) and environmental (depth, temperature) parameters. Simultaneous radon measurements have been carried out in lake and spring waters in a cave, in thermal and cold water springs of a public bath and in a deep drilled well. The radon profiles obtained in the deep well lend support to the idea that the environmental radon can travel large distances in microbubbles of a ''carrier geogas''.

  2. Apparent CFC and 3H/ 3He age differences in water from Floridan Aquifer springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happell, James D.; Opsahl, Stephen; Top, Zafer; Chanton, Jeffrey P.

    2006-03-01

    The apparent CFC-11, -12 and -113 ages of Upper Floridan Aquifer water discharged from 31 springs located in Florida and Georgia ranged from 11 to 44 years when samples were collected in 2002 and 2003. Apparent 3H/ 3He ages in these springs ranged from 12 to 66 years. Some of the springs sampled did not yield valid CFC ages because one or more of the CFCs were contaminated by non-atmospheric sources. Of the 31 springs sampled, six were contaminated with all three CFCs and nine were contaminated with one or two CFCs. Of the remaining 16 springs, the CFC distributions of four could be modeled assuming a single source of water, and 11 were best modeled by assuming two sources of water, with one of the water sources >60 years old. The CFC and 3H/ 3He apparent ages and the simple mixing models applied to these ages suggest that past impacts to the water quality of water recharging the sampled springs may take anywhere from 0 to ˜60 years or more to appear in the discharging spring water. In 27 springs where both 3H/ 3He ages and CFC ages were available, five springs gave similar results between the two techniques, while in the other 22 cases the 3H/ 3He apparent ages were 8-40 years greater than the CFC ages. Large excesses of 4He were observed in many of the springs, consistent with a source of older water. This older water may also carry an additional and unaccounted for source of 3He, which may be responsible for the greater 3H/ 3He ages relative to the CFC ages. We believe that the large excess 3He and 4He values and apparent age differences are related to regional climate variations because our samples were obtained at the end of a 4-year drought.

  3. Radon measurements in well and spring water in Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdallah, Samer M.; Habib, Rima R.; Nuwayhid, Rida Y.; Chatila, Malek; Katul, Gabriel

    2007-01-01

    The variation of dissolved radon ( 222 Rn) levels in water supplies remains of interest because of the radiation-induced public health hazards. A large part of the Lebanese population relies on springs and wells for their drinking water. 222 Rn measurements in spring and well water sources were conducted using the E-PERM method at sites ranging from sea level to 1200m above sea level and across several geologic formations within Lebanon. The dissolved radon concentrations ranged from a low of 0.91BqL -1 in a coastal well source to a high of 49.6BqL -1 for a spring source in a mountainous region. Of the 20 sites sampled, only five had radon levels above 11BqL -1 and these mostly occurred in areas adjacent to well-known geological fault zones. A preliminary national average radon level was determined to be about 11.4BqL -1 . In general, as all determined concentrations were well below the 100 and 146BqL -1 revised reference levels proposed in the European Union and the United States, respectively, it is concluded that there is no reason to believe these water sources pose any radon-related hazard. On the other hand, at locations where water is collected directly from the springhead, it is advisable to have a settling/piping system installed allowing for further radon decay and radon loss into the air to alleviate any possible radon problem

  4. A survey of the inorganic chemistry of bottled mineral waters from the British Isles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smedley, Pauline L.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Bottled waters from the UK have major-ion compositions that broadly reflect the compositions of groundwaters abstracted directly from the corresponding host aquifers. → Many trace elements differ in composition from in situ groundwaters due to post-abstraction modifying processes. → All parameters analysed comply with European and national limits for drinking water and with WHO guideline values; elements that most closely approach the limits include U, Ba. → Bottled water compositions clearly show the influence of contamination with Sb from PET bottles, although concentrations do not exceed drinking-water limits. - Abstract: The inorganic chemistry of 85 samples of bottled natural mineral waters and spring waters has been investigated from 67 sources across the British Isles (England, Wales, Scotland, Northern Ireland, Republic of Ireland). Sources include boreholes, springs and wells. Waters are from a diverse range of aquifer lithologies and are disproportionately derived from comparatively minor aquifers, the most represented being Lower Palaeozoic (10 sources), Devonian Sandstone (10 sources) and Carboniferous Limestone (9 sources). The waters show correspondingly variable major-ion compositions, ranging from Ca-HCO 3 , through mixed-cation-mixed-anion to Na-HCO 3 types. Concentrations of total dissolved solids are mostly low to very low (range 58-800 mg/L). All samples analysed in the study had concentrations of inorganic constituents well within the limits for compliance with European and national standards for bottled waters. Concentrations of NO 3 -N reached up to half the limit of 11.3 mg/L, although 62% of samples had concentrations 10 μg/L, both being from the Welsh Devonian Sandstone. The highest observed U concentration was 13.6 μg/L. Solute concentrations in waters contained in glass bottles compared with waters in PET showed slightly though significantly higher concentrations of Al, Ce, Cu, La, Nd, Mn, Sn, W, Zn and

  5. The isotope geochemistry of hot springs gases and waters from Coromandel and Hauraki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, G.L.; Giggenbach, W.F.

    1992-01-01

    Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope analyses have been made on carbon dioxide,methane and water from warm and hot springs in the Coromandel Peninsula and Hauraki Plains. Most of the waters are isotopically unaltered meteoric waters. Methane δ 1 3C values vary widely, from -30%o to -72%o. Warm springs in swamps at Maketu and Kerepehi have microbial methane probably added to the water near the surface. Puriri, Okoroire and Miranda springs produce thermally derived methane, and the Hot Water Beach gas is similar to the Kaitoke gas in chemistry and isotopic composition but altered by shallow microbial oxidation. The Te Aroha gas, though, is not inconsistent with a geothermal origin and the boiling springs and oxygen-isotope altered water are further evidence for high temperatures. Other spring gases have mixtures of thermogenic and microbial methane and none are closely similar to major NZ geothermal CH 4 composition. CO 2 , which is usually present in lesser amounts than N 2 , has isotopic values which suggest a geothermal origin at Te Aroha and Maketu, but otherwise indicates a crustal origin. The dominance of N 2 implies that the fluid flows are tectonic fracture flow rather than geothermal. 3 He/ 4 He data gives further evidence of no major contribution from magmatic material except at Maketu, on the NW boundary of the TVZ. (author). 24 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis of traces of heavy metals (Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ta, Pb, U) in mineral waters after separation on the cellulose-exchanger Hyphan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burba, P.; Lieser, K.H.

    1979-01-01

    Trace elements in mineral water are separated in small columns on the cellulose-exchanger Hyphan, eluted by diluted hydrochloric acid, bound on 100 mg of Hyphan by shaking and determined by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence. The following heavy metals can be analysed quantitatively if present in water in concentrations >= 1 ppb: Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ta, Pb and U. Several commercial mineral waters, a sodium chloride spring and seawater were analyzed for trace elements. The results obtained by X-ray fluorescence and by atomic absorption agree within the limits of error. (orig.) [de

  7. Hydrograph monitoring and analysis for sustainable karst water management in Nyadeng Spring, East Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widyastuti, M.; Fatchurohman, H.; Fathoni, W. A.; Hakim, A. A.; Haryono, E.

    2018-04-01

    Karst aquifer stores abundant water resources within its matrix, conduits, and intergranular pores. Karst aquifer plays an important role in providing water supply, especially in the areas nearby that commonly dry and lack of surface water resources. Karst spring hydrograph analysis is very fundamental step to–assess and determines the condition of the catchment area in karst terrain. Recession curve is believed to be the most stable part in single flood hydrograph that represents the aquifer characteristics. Nyadeng is one of the most significant karst springs that located in Merabu Karst Area, East Borneo. Villagers in Merabu highly depend on Nyadeng Spring for fulfilled their freshwater need. Hydrograph monitoring has been initiated for one year in Nyadeng Spring as a preliminary action for karst water management in Merabu. Water level data series obtained using automatic water level data logger and then correlated with manual discharge measurement to generate stage-discharge rating curve. The stage-discharge rating curve formula for Nyadeng Spring calculated as y = 0,0102e5,8547x with r2 value = 0.8759. From the combination of several single flood events, Master Recession Curve (MRC) was generated to determine flow regime as the main consideration for karstification degree calculation. From the MRC result, flow regimes formula determined as Qt = 3.2-0.001t + 1.2(1-0.012t)+1.6(1-0.035t) indicated that one sub-regime with laminar flow and two sub-regimes with turbulent flow existed. From the MRC formula, the degree of karstification in Nyadeng Spring classified at seventh scale (developed karstification of the aquifer) based on Malik’s karstification degree (2012). The degree of karstification in Nyadeng Spring indicates that the aquifer formed by large conduit channels, fissures, and macro fissures which are able to provide significant water sources that can be utilized for multi purposes. Therefore, it is concluded that spring hydrograph monitoring provide

  8. SMA spring-based artificial muscle actuated by hot and cool water using faucet-like valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Cheol Hoon; Son, Young Su

    2017-04-01

    An artificial muscle for a human arm-like manipulator with high strain and high power density are under development, and an SMA(Shape memory alloy) spring is a good actuator for this application. In this study, an artificial muscle composed of a silicon tube and a bundle of SMA(Shape memory alloy) springs is evaluated. A bundle of SMA springs consists of five SMA springs which are fabricated by using SMA wires with a diameter of 0.5 mm, and hot and cool water actuates it by heating and cooling SMA springs. A faucet-like valve was also developed to mix hot water and cool water and control the water temperature. The mass of silicon tube and a bundle of SMA springs is only 3.3 g and 2.25 g, respectively, and the total mass of artificial muscle is 5.55 g. It showed good actuating performance for a load with a mass of 2.3 kg and the power density was more than 800 W/kg for continuous valve switching with a cycle of 0.6 s. The faucet-like valve can switch a water output from hot water to cold water within 0.3s, and the artificial muscle is actuated well in response to the valve position and speed. It is also presented that the temperature of the mixed water can be controlled depending on the valve position, and the displacement of the artificial muscle can be controlled well by the mixed water. Based on these results, SMA spring-based artificial muscle actuated by hot and cool water could be applicable to the human arm-like robot manipulators.

  9. Hydrology of the coastal springs ground-water basin and adjacent parts of Pasco, Hernando, and Citrus Counties, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knochenmus, Lari A.; Yobbi, Dann K.

    2001-01-01

    The coastal springs in Pasco, Hernando, and Citrus Counties, Florida consist of three first-order magnitude springs and numerous smaller springs, which are points of substantial ground-water discharge from the Upper Floridan aquifer. Spring flow is proportional to the water-level altitude in the aquifer and is affected primarily by the magnitude and timing of rainfall. Ground-water levels in 206 Upper Floridan aquifer wells, and surface-water stage, flow, and specific conductance of water from springs at 10 gaging stations were measured to define the hydrologic variability (temporally and spatially) in the Coastal Springs Ground-Water Basin and adjacent parts of Pasco, Hernando, and Citrus Counties. Rainfall at 46 stations and ground-water withdrawals for three counties, were used to calculate water budgets, to evaluate long-term changes in hydrologic conditions, and to evaluate relations among the hydrologic components. Predictive equations to estimate daily spring flow were developed for eight gaging stations using regression techniques. Regression techniques included ordinary least squares and multiple linear regression techniques. The predictive equations indicate that ground-water levels in the Upper Floridan aquifer are directly related to spring flow. At tidally affected gaging stations, spring flow is inversely related to spring-pool altitude. The springs have similar seasonal flow patterns throughout the area. Water-budget analysis provided insight into the relative importance of the hydrologic components expected to influence spring flow. Four water budgets were constructed for small ground-water basins that form the Coastal Springs Ground-Water Basin. Rainfall averaged 55 inches per year and was the only source of inflow to the Basin. The pathways for outflow were evapotranspiration (34 inches per year), runoff by spring flow (8 inches per year), ground-water outflow from upward leakage (11 inches per year), and ground-water withdrawal (2 inches per year

  10. Determination of groundwater travel time in a karst aquifer by stable water isotopes, Tanour and Rasoun spring (Jordan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, Ibraheem; Wiegand, Bettina; Sauter, Martin; Ptak, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Key words: karst aquifers, stable isotopes, water travel time, Jordan. Tanour and Rasoun karst springs are located about 75 kilometers northwest of the city of Amman in Jordan. The aquifer is composed of Upper Cretaceous limestone that exhibits a moderate to high degree of karstification. The two springs represent the main drinking water resources for the surrounding villages. The yearly water production is about 1,135,000 m3/yr for Tanour spring and 125,350 m3/yr for Rasoun spring (MWI 2015). Due to contamination from microbiological pollution (leakage of wastewater from septic tanks) or infiltration of wastewater from local olive presses, drinking water supply from the two springs is frequently interrupted. From November 2014 through March 2015, spring water samples were collected from Tanour and Rasoun spring for the analysis of stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopes to investigate spring response to precipitation and snowmelt events. Both Tanour and Rasoun spring show a fast response to precipitation and snowmelt events, implying short water travel times. Based on the variation of δ 18O and δ 2H in spring discharge, the average maximum water travel time is in the order of 8 days for Tanour spring and 6 days for Rasoun spring. Due to fast water travel times, Tanour and Rasoun spring can be considered as highly vulnerable to pollutants. δ 18O and δ 2H values of Tanour and Rasoun springs parallel other monitored parameter like water temperature, turbidity, electrical conductivity and spring discharge. In addition, a high turbidity peak was monitored in Tanour spring during a pollution event from olive mills wastewater (Hamdan et al., 2016; Hamdan, in prep.). The fast response in both Tanour and Rasoun springs to precipitation events requires monitoring potential sources of pollution within the catchment area. References: MWI (Ministry of Water and Irrigation) (2015) Monthly Production values for Tanour and Rasoun Springs for the time period between 1996 and 2014

  11. Jet-Suspended, Calcite-Ballasted Cyanobacterial Waterwarts in a Desert Spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichel-Garcia, Ferran; Wade, Bman D.; Farmer, Jack D.

    2002-01-01

    We describe a population of colonial cyanobacteria (waterwarts) that develops as the dominant primary producer in a bottom-fed, warm spring in the Cuatro Cienegas karstic region of the Mexican Chihuahuan Desert. The centimeter-sized waterwarts were suspended within a central, conically shaped, 6-m deep well by upwelling waters. Waterwarts were built by an unicellular cyanobacterium and supported a community of epiphytic filamentous cyanobacteria and diatoms but were free of heterotrophic bacteria inside. Sequence analysis of genes revealed that this cyanobacterium is only distantly related to several strains of other unicellular teria Cyanothece, Waterwarts contained orderly arrangements of mineral made up of microcrystalline low-magnesium calcite with high levels of strontium and sulfur. Waterwarts were 95.9% (v/v) glycan, 2.8% cells, and 1.3% mineral grains and had a buoyant density of 1.034 kg/L. An analysis of the hydrological properties of the spring well and the waterwarts demonstrated that both large colony size and the presence of controlled amounts of mineral ballast are required to prevent the population from being washed out of the well. The unique hydrological characteristics of the spring have likely selected for both traits. The mechanisms by which controlled nucleation of extracellular calcite is achieved remain to be explored.

  12. An Intervention with Mineral Water Decreases Cardiometabolic Risk Biomarkers. A Crossover, Randomised, Controlled Trial with Two Mineral Waters in Moderately Hypercholesterolaemic Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Toxqui

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Water intake is essential for health maintenance and disease prevention. The effects of an intervention with two mineral waters, sodium-bicarbonated mineral water (BW or control mineral water low in mineral content (CW, on cardiometabolic risk biomarkers were studied. In a randomised-controlled crossover-trial, sixty-four moderately hypercholesterolaemic adults were randomly assigned to consume 1 L/day of either BW (sodium, 1 g/L; bicarbonate, 2 g/L or CW with the main meals for eight weeks, separated by an eight-week washout period. Blood lipids, lipid oxidation, glucose, insulin, aldosterone, urine pH, urinary electrolytes, blood pressure, body weight, fluid intake, energy, and nutrients from total diet and beverages were determined. Total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and glucose decreased (p < 0.01, oxidised LDL tended to decrease (p = 0.073, and apolipoprotein B increased during the intervention, without water type effect. Energy and carbohydrates from beverages decreased since soft drinks and fruit juice consumptions decreased throughout the trial. BW increased urinary pH (p = 0.006 and reduced calcium/creatinine excretion (p = 0.011. Urinary potassium/creatinine decreased with both waters. Consumption of 1 L/day of mineral water with the main meals reduces cardiometabolic risk biomarkers, likely to be attributed to a replacement of soft drinks by water. In addition, BW does not affect blood pressure and exerts a moderate alkalizing effect in the body.

  13. Yeasts and filamentous fungi in bottled mineral water and tap water from municipal supplies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirian Ueda Yamaguchi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to analyse the occurrence of yeasts and filamentous fungi in drinking water as well as to investigate their correlation with the indicator bacteria of faecal pollution. Yeasts were detected in 36.6% and 11.6% of the bottled mineral on water dispensers and tap water samples from municipal system, respectively. Twenty-one (35.0% of bottled mineral water and two (3.3% of tap water samples were positive for filamentous fungi. For bottled mineral water 12 (20.0% of 60 samples were positive for total coliform, compared with 3(5.0%out of 60 samples from tap water. The mineral water from dispensers was more contaminated than tap water. Strains belonging to the genera Candida identified to the species level were C. parapsilosis, C. glabrata and C. albicans. Thus, bottled mineral water from water dispensers and tap water could be considered a possible transmission route for filamentous fungi and yeasts, and could constitute a potential health hazard, mainly to immunocompromised indivuals.O principal objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a prevalência de leveduras e fungos filamentosos em água potável, bem como investigar suas correlações com bactérias indicadoras de contaminação fecal. Leveduras foram detectadas em 36,6% e 11,6% das amostras de água mineral de garrafão em dispensadores de água e água de torneira do sistema municipal, respectivamente. Vinte e uma (35,5% das amostras de água mineral de garrafão e duas (3,3% das amostras de água de torneira foram positivas para fungos filamentosos. Para água mineral de garrafão, 12 (20.0% das 60 amostras foram positivas para coliforme total, comparado com 3 (5.0% das 60 amostras de água de torneira. A água coletada de garrafões de água mineral dos dispensadores foi marcadamente mais contaminada que as amostras de água de torneira. Candida spp identificadas ao nível de espécie foram C. parapsilosis, C. glabrata e C. albicans. Como está sendo

  14. The response of chironomid assemblages to mineral richness gradient in the Western Carpathian helocrenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vít Syrovátka

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Chironomid assemblages of helocrene springs were investigated in the Western Carpathians in order to identify potential effect of water mineral richness on the taxonomic structure of the assemblages. A complex gradient considering water chemistry and substratum was used as a measure of basicity (mineral richness. Taxonomic structure, total abundance and abundance of most frequent taxa were related to this gradient with regards to two contrasting habitats: trickle (A and water-loged soil with standing water (B. The variance in chironomid assemblage attributable to basicity was estimated and tested via PERMANOVA as well as the possible effect of the other environmental variables. The response of individual taxa was examined using GAM. The results indicate a strong relationship between basicity and substratum characteristics, with coarser mineral substrata at basic and high amount of organic matter at acidic conditions. Although water chemistry was correlated with and inseparable from these substratum properties, it could not be substituted with them, as they discriminated well only between acidic and basic springs, but did not follow the basicity gradient in either acidic or basic group of springs. Chironomid assemblage showed a strong and systematic response to the complex gradient of mineral richness, which explained the largest portion of variance in both the habitat A and B faunal data and was projected on the first axes of both NMDS ordinations. The assemblage response could be documented by the preference of several taxa for particular mineral richness conditions, while the number of taxa seemed to be highest in the middle of the basicity gradient. As only 17 samples were analysed so far, the results are considered preliminary and, hopefully, more confident results will be available in near future.doi: 10.5324/fn.v31i0.1403.Published online: 17 October 2012.

  15. Report on static hydrothermal alteration studies of Topopah Spring tuff waters in J-13 water at 150{sup 0}C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knauss, K.G.; Beiriger, W.B.

    1984-08-31

    This report presents the results of preliminary experimental work done to define the package environment in a potential nuclear waste repository in the Topopah Spring Member of the Paintbrush Tuff. The work is supported by the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Project as a part of the Waste Package task to design a package suitable for waste storage within volcanic units at the Nevada Test Site. Static hydrothermal alteration experiments were run for 4 months using polished wafers either fully submerged in an appropriate natural ground water or exposed to water-saturated air with enough excess water to allow refluxing. The aqueous results agreed favorably with similar experiments run using crushed tuff, and the use of solid polished wafers allowed us to directly evaluate the effects of reaction on the tuff. The results are preliminary in the sense that these experiments were run in Teflon-lined, static autoclaves, whereas subsequent experiments have been run in Dickson-type gold-cell rocking autoclaves. The results predict relatively minor changes in water chemistry, very minor alteration of the host rock, and the production of slight amounts of secondary minerals, when liquid water could return to the rock pores following the temperature maximum during the thermal period. 7 references, 16 figures, 10 tables.

  16. Water Quality of Hills Water, Supply Water and RO Water Machine at Ulu Yam Selangor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngadiman, N.; ‘I Bahari, N.; Kaamin, M.; Hamid, N. B.; Mokhtar, M.; Sahat, S.

    2016-07-01

    The rapid development resulted in the deterioration of the quality of drinking water in Malaysia. Recognizing the importance of water quality, new alternatives for drinking water such as mineral water processing from reverse osmosis (RO) machine become more popular. Hence, the demand for mineral water, natural spring water or water from the hills or mountains rose lately. More consumers believed the quality of these spring water better than other source of drinking water. However, the quality of all the drinking water sources is to meet the required quality standard. Therefore, this paper aims to measure the quality of the waters from hills, from RO machine and the water supply in Ulu Yam, Selangor Batang Kali, Malaysia. The water quality was determined based on following parameters: ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3), iron (Fe), turbidity (NTU) and pH. The results show that the water from hills has better quality compared to water supply and water from RO machine. The value of NH3 ranged from 0.03 mg/L- 0.67 mg/L; Fe was from 0.03mg/L - 0.12 mg/L, turbidity at 0.42 NTU - 0.88 NTU and pH is at 6.60 - 0.71. Based on the studied parameters, all three types of water are fit for drinking and have met the required national drinking water quality standard.

  17. Investigation of Natural Radioactivity in the Tap and Spring Water in Yaounde Town, Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lydie, R.M.; Hakam, O.K.; Choukri, A.; Lydie, R.M.; Hakam, O.K.; Choukri, A.

    2013-01-01

    The natural radionuclide concentrations in the tap and springs water in Yaounde town, capital of Cameroon with a population of 3.5 million inhabitants were estimated by gamma spectrometry, using both well calibrated Canberra NaI(Tl) and HPGe detector systems. Tap water samples were collected during the dry and the rainy seasons, respectively in December 2002 and July 2003 and spring water samples were collected in August 2010. The radionuclides observed with regularity belonged to the series decay naturally occurring radionuclides headed by 238 U and 232 Th as well as the non-series nuclide 40 K. Assuming an individual daily consumption of 1 litre of water, the average annual intake for these populations is 3821 Bq/y for tap water and 1161 Bq/y for spring water.

  18. Chemical and isotopic investigation of warm springs associated with normal faults in Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, David R.

    1983-04-01

    Thermal springs associated with normal faults in Utah have been analyzed for major cations and anions, and oxygen and hydrogen isotopes. Springs with measured temperatures averaging greater than 40°C are characterized by Na + K- and SO 4 + Cl-rich waters containing 10 3 to 10 4 mg/l of dissolved solids. Lower temperature springs, averaging less than 40°C, are more enriched in Ca + Mg relative to Na + K. Chemical variations monitored through time in selected thermal springs are probably produced by mixing with non-thermal waters. During the summer months at times of maximum flow, selected hot springs exhibit their highest temperatures and maximum enrichments in most chemical constituents. Cation ratios and silica concentrations remain relatively constant through time for selected Utah thermal springs assuring the applicability of the geothermometer calculations regardless of the time of year. Geothermometer calculations utilizing either the quartz (no steam loss), chalcedony or Mg-corrected Na/K/Ca methods indicate that most thermal springs in Utah associated with normal faults have subsurface temperatures in the range of 25 to less than 120°C. This temperature range suggests fluid circulation is restricted to depths less than about three kilometers assuming an average thermal gradient of about 40°C/km. Thermodynamic calculations suggest that most thermal springs are oversaturated with respect to calcite, quartz, pyrophyllite, (Fe, Mg)-montmorillonite, microcline and hematite, and undersaturated with respect to anhydrite, gypsum, fluorite and anorthite. Chalcedony and cristobalite appear to be the only phases consistently at or near saturation in most waters. Theoretical evaluation of mixing on mineral saturation trends indicates that anhydrite and calcite become increasingly more undersaturated as cold, dilute groundwater mixes with a hot (150°C), NaCl-rich fluid. The evolution of these thermal waters issuing from faults appears to be one involving the

  19. Tillage methods and mulch on water saving and yield of spring maize in Chitwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishwari Prasad Upadhyay

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Tillage methods and mulch influences the productivity and water requirement of spring maize hence a field experiment was conducted at the National Maize Research Program, Rampur in spring seasons of 2011 and 2012 with the objectives to evaluate different tillage methods with and without mulch on water requirement and grain yield of spring maize. The experiment was laid out in two factors factorial randomized complete design with three replications. The treatments consisted of tillage methods (Permanent bed, Zero tillage and Conventional tillage and mulch (with and without. Irrigation timing was fixed as knee high stage, tasseling stage and milking/dough stage. Data on number of plants, number of ears, thousand grain weight and grain yield were recorded and analysed using GenStat. Two years combined result showed that the effect of tillage methods and mulch significant influenced grain yield and water requirement of spring maize. The maize grain yield was the highest in permanent beds with mulch (4626 kg ha-1 followed by zero tillage with mulch (3838 kg ha-1. Whereas total water applied calculated during the crop period were the highest in conventional tillage without mulch followed by conventional tillage with mulch. The permanent bed with mulch increased the yield and reduced the water requirement of spring maize in Chitwan.

  20. Chemical composition of hot spring waters in the Oita river basins, Oita prefecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawano, Tamio

    1988-01-30

    The source of the water from Oita River comes from the Kuju and Yubu-Tsurumi Volcanos, pouring into Beppu Bay. Its drainage area is 646 km/sup 2/ with a total length of 55 km. Hot springs are exist throughout most of the basin of the main and branches of Oita River. The chemical components of the hot springs in the Ota River basin -Yufuin, Yunotaira, Nagayu, Shonai/Hazama, and Oita City - have been analyzed. The equivalent of magnesium exceeds that of calcium in the carbonate springs of the above. Ca+Mg has positive correlations with HCO/sub 3/ in these carbonate springs. The water from these springs flows into the rivers and pours into Beppu Bay. The flow rate and chemical component concentration were measured at Fudai bridge. The concentration of chemical components having an average flow rate (30 ton/sec) were calculated. (4 figs, 7 tabs, 10 refs)

  1. Natural mineral bottled waters available on the Polish market as a source of minerals for the consumers. Part 1. Calcium and magnesium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gątarska, Anna; Tońska, Elżbieta; Ciborska, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Natural mineral waters may be an essential source of calcium, magnesium and other minerals. In bottled waters, minerals occur in an ionized form which is very well digestible. However, the concentration of minerals in underground waters (which constitute the material for the production of bottled waters) varies. In view of the above, the type of water consumed is essential. The aim of the study was to estimate the calcium and magnesium contents in products available on the market and to evaluate calcium and magnesium consumption with natural mineral water by different consumer groups with an assumed volume of the consumed product. These represented forty different brands of natural mineral available waters on Polish market. These waters were produced in Poland or other European countries. Among the studied products, about 30% of the waters were imported from Lithuania, Latvia, Czech Republic, France, Italy and Germany. The content of calcium and magnesium in mineral waters was determined using flame atomic absorption spectrometry in an acetylene-air flame. Further determinations were carried out using atomic absorption spectrometer--ICE 3000 SERIES-THERMO-England, equipped with a GLITE data station, background correction (a deuterium lamp) as well as other cathode lamps. Over half of the analysed natural mineral waters were medium-mineralized. The natural mineral waters available on the market can be characterized by a varied content of calcium and magnesium and a high degree of product mineralization does not guarantee significant amounts of these components. Among the natural mineral waters available on the market, only a few feature the optimum calcium-magnesium proportion (2:1). Considering the mineralization degree of the studied products, it can be stated that the largest percentage of products with significant calcium and magnesium contents can be found in the high-mineralized water group. For some natural mineral waters, the consumption of 1 litre daily may

  2. Chemistry of ground water in the Silver Springs basin, Florida, with an emphasis on nitrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, G.G.

    2004-01-01

    The Silver Springs group, in central Marion County, Florida, has a combined average discharge rate of 796 cubic feet per second and forms the headwaters of the Silver River. The springs support a diverse ecosystem and are an important cultural and economic resource. Concentrations of nitrite-plus-nitrate (nitrate-N) in water from the Main Spring increased from less than 0.5 milligrams per liter (mg/L) in the 1960s to about 1.0 mg/L in 2003. The Upper Floridan aquifer supplies the ground water to support spring discharge. This aquifer is at or near land surface in much of the ground-water basin; nutrients leached at land surface can easily percolate downward into the aquifer. Sources of nitrogen in ground water in the Silver Springs basin include atmospheric deposition, fertilizers used by agricultural and urban activities, and human and animal wastes. During 2000-2001, 56 wells in the area contributing recharge to Silver Springs were sampled for major ions, nutrients, and some trace constituents. Selected wells also were sampled for a suite of organic constituents commonly found in domestic and industrial wastewater and for the ratio of nitrogen isotopes (15N/14N) to better understand the sources of nitrate. Wells were selected to be representative of both confined and unconfined conditions of the Upper Floridan aquifer, as well as a variety of land-use types. Data from this study were compared to data collected from 25 wells in 1989-90. Concentrations of nitrate-N in ground water during this study ranged from less than the detection limit of 0.02 to 12 mg/L, with a median of 1.2 mg/L. For data from 1989-90, the range was from less than 0.02 to 3.6 mg/L, with a median of 1.04 mg/L. Water from wells in agricultural land-use areas had the highest median nitrate-N concentration (1.7 mg/L), although it is uncertain if the 12 mg/L maximum concentration was influenced by land-use activities or proximity to a septic tank. The median value for all urban land-use areas was

  3. Climate control of decadal-scale increases in apparent ages of eogenetic karst spring water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jonathan B.; Kurz, Marie J.; Khadka, Mitra B.

    2016-09-01

    Water quantity and quality in karst aquifers may depend on decadal-scale variations in recharge or withdrawal, which we hypothesize could be assessed through time-series measurements of apparent ages of spring water. We tested this hypothesis with analyses of various age tracers (3H/3He, SF6, CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113) and selected solute concentrations [dissolved oxygen (DO), NO3, Mg, and SO4] from 6 springs in a single spring complex (Ichetucknee springs) in northern Florida over a 16-yr period. These springs fall into two groups that reflect shallow short (Group 1) and deep long (Group 2) flow paths. Some tracer concentrations are altered, with CFC-12 and CFC-113 concentrations yielding the most robust apparent ages. These tracers show a 10-20-yr monotonic increase in apparent age from 1997 to 2013, including the flood recession that followed Tropical Storm Debby in mid-2012. This increase in age indicates most water discharged during the study period recharged the aquifer within a few years of 1973 for Group 2 springs and 1980 for Group 1 springs. Inverse correlations between apparent age and DO and NO3 concentrations reflect reduced redox state in older water. Positive correlations between apparent age and Mg and SO4 concentrations reflect increased water-rock reactions. Concentrated recharge in the decade around 1975 resulted from nearly 2 m of rain in excess of the monthly average that fell between 1960 and 2014, followed by a nearly 4 m deficit to 2014. This excess rain coincided with two major El Niño events during the maximum cool phase in the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. Although regional water withdrawal increased nearly 5-fold between 1980 and 2005, withdrawals represent only 2-5% of Ichetucknee River flow and are less important than decadal-long variations in precipitation. These results suggest that groundwater management should consider climate cycles as predictive tools for future water resources.

  4. Effects of Misasa hot spring water on the growth of vegetables (Joint research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Satoshi; Kita, Makoto; Goto, Yukari; Ishimori, Yuu

    2011-11-01

    Tottori University and Japan Atomic Energy Agency started a joint study to investigate the effect of hot spring water on the growth of vegetable plants in 2009. The aim of the study is to examine a feasibility of producing a regionally special vegetable with considering the characteristics of the Misasa district, where radon hot springs are historically famous. This report illustrates the intermediate results obtained from the study carried out from 2009 to 2010. (1) Screening test: Eighteen plants were examined for screening. As the results, Misasa hot spring water used in the water culture enlarged the growths of 14 plants. Lastly, 9 plants were selected as candidate plants for further examinations. (2) Sample preparation: Plants sampled in the water culture were lyophilized and stored in a freezer for nutrio-physiological analyses to select the suitable plant from the 9 plants. (3) Examination in labor-saving cultivation: Preliminary examinations were performed with a large-scale system to establish a practical labor-saving water culture system. (author)

  5. Geochemistry of thermal/mineral waters in the Clear Lake region, California, and implications for hot dry rock geothermal development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, F.; Adams, A.I.; Trujillo, P.E.; Counce, D.; Mansfield, J.

    1993-02-01

    Thermal/mineral waters of the Clear Lake region are broadly classified as thermal meteoric and connote types based on chemical and isotopic criteria. Ratios of conservative components such as B/Cl are extremely different among all thermal/mineral waters of the Clear Lake region except for clusters of waters emerging from specific areas such as the Wilbur Springs district and the Agricultural Park area south of Mt. Konocti. In contrast, ratios of conservative components in large, homogeneous geothermal reservoirs are constant. Stable isotope values of Clear Lake region waters show a mixing trend between thermal meteoric and connote end-members. The latter end-member has enriched [delta]D as well as enriched d[sup l8]O, very different from typical high-temperature geothermal reservoir waters. Tritium data and modeling of ages indicate most Clear Lake region waters are 500 to > 10,000 yr., although mixing of old and young components is implied by the data. The age of end-member connate water is probably > 10,000 yr. Subsurface equilibration temperature of most thermal/mineral waters of the Clear Lake region is [le] 150[degrees]C based on chemical geothermometers but it is recognized that Clear Lake region waters are not typical geothermal fluids and that they violate rules of application of many geothermometers. The combined data indicate that no large geothermal reservoir underlies the Clear Lake region and that small localized reservoirs have equilibration temperatures [le] 150[degrees]C (except for Sulphur Bank Mine). Hot dry rock technologies are the best way to commercially exploit the known high temperatures existing beneath the Clear Lake region, particularly within the main Clear Lake volcanic field.

  6. Microcoulometric measurement of water in minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremer, M.; Elsheimer, H.N.; Escher, E.E.

    1972-01-01

    A DuPont Moisture Analyzer is used in a microcoulometric method for determining water in minerals. Certain modifications, which include the heating of the sample outside the instrument, protect the system from acid gases and insure the conversion of all hydrogen to water vapor. Moisture analyzer data are compared to concurrent data obtained by a modified Penfield method. In general, there is a positive bias of from 0.1 to 0.2% in the moisture analyzer results and a similarity of bias in minerals of the same kind. Inhomogeneity, sample size, and moisture pick-up are invoked to explain deviations. The method is particularly applicable to small samples. ?? 1972.

  7. Microbiological and Geochemical Survey of CO2-Dominated Mofette and Mineral Waters of the Cheb Basin, Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patryk Krauze

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Cheb Basin (NW Bohemia, Czech Republic is a shallow, neogene intracontinental basin. It is a non-volcanic region which features frequent earthquake swarms and large-scale diffuse degassing of mantle-derived CO2 at the surface that occurs in the form of CO2-rich mineral springs and wet and dry mofettes. So far, the influence of CO2 degassing onto the microbial communities has been studied for soil environments, but not for aquatic systems. We hypothesized, that deep-trenching CO2 conduits interconnect the subsurface with the surface. This admixture of deep thermal fluids should be reflected in geochemical parameters and in the microbial community compositions. In the present study four mineral water springs and two wet mofettes were investigated through an interdisciplinary survey. The waters were acidic and differed in terms of organic carbon and anion/cation concentrations. Element geochemical and isotope analyses of fluid components were used to verify the origin of the fluids. Prokaryotic communities were characterized through quantitative PCR and Illumina 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Putative chemolithotrophic, anaerobic and microaerophilic organisms connected to sulfur (e.g., Sulfuricurvum, Sulfurimonas and iron (e.g., Gallionella, Sideroxydans cycling shaped the core community. Additionally, CO2-influenced waters form an ecosystem containing many taxa that are usually found in marine or terrestrial subsurface ecosystems. Multivariate statistics highlighted the influence of environmental parameters such as pH, Fe2+ concentration and conductivity on species distribution. The hydrochemical and microbiological survey introduces a new perspective on mofettes. Our results support that mofettes are either analogs or rather windows into the deep biosphere and furthermore enable access to deeply buried paleo-sediments.

  8. Overexploitation of karst spring as a measure against water scarcity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimkić, Dejan; Dimkić, Milan; Soro, Andjelko; Pavlović, Dusan; Jevtić, Goran; Lukić, Vladimir; Svrkota, Dragan

    2017-09-01

    Water scarcity, especially in the hydrologically critical part of the year, is a problem often present in many cities and regions, particularly in arid and sub-arid areas. Climate change and human water demand compound the problem. This paper discusses a climate change adaptation measure-the possibility of karst spring overexploitation, where there is a siphon-shaped cavity inside the mountain. The pilot area is near the city of Niš, where a decreasing precipitation trend has already been observed and is expected to continue in the future. The paper also presents some basic information related to the pilot area and undertaken investigations. The project, successfully implemented in 2004, has provided the city of Niš with an additional amount of 200 l/s of spring water during the most critical part of the year.

  9. Water chemistry and radon concentrations of thermal springs in Bastak area, south of Persia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirhosseini, S.M.; Moattar, F.; Karbassi, A.R.

    2015-01-01

    Physicochemical factors, major and some minor ions and 222 Rn concentration was measured in Todruyeh, Fotuyeh and Sanguyeh thermal balneutherapy springs in Bastak, south of Iran. Water type of these springs is Na-Cl and water-mixing phenomena seem possible in them. The average of U concentration in Fatuyeh's, Sanguyeh's and Todruyeh's water are 2.2, 1.1, 0.306 ppb, respectively, and the concentration of heavy metals such as Ag, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se, Zn varies from 1 to 10 ppb. The concentration of 222 Rn in the water of Fotuyeh, Sanguyeh and Todruyeh Springs includes 125-253, 53-104, and 7.4-134.7 kBq/m 3 , respectively. Values of mean annual effective doses for inhalation from these waters are below the reference level recommended by WHO. (author)

  10. THE USE OF FLUORIDE CONTAINING MINERAL WATER IN WORT PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunka Yonkova

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to study the quality of wort produced using fluoride containing mineral water. The results show that the mineral water has a negative impact on the enzymatic destruction of starch, proteins, color intensity and pH of the wort. The changes of pH during mashing process using tap and mineral water was studied. The lower acidity of wort obtained using mineral water didn’t change during the brewing process. The fluoride content of beer is lower than 5 mg.L-1 when wort is produced using mineral and tap water in 1:1 ratio and citric acid for pH correction. At the same time, the final degree of fermentation, α-amine nitrogen content and the intensity of color of produced wort are close to the control sample. The changes in fluoride ion concentration are monitored using ion-selective potentiometry. The fluoride content is decreased from 5.7 to 4.75 mg.L-1, the most intense change is observed during the mashing process.

  11. Study of the water-rock interactions of spring waters in the Northern Apennines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venturelli, G.; Toscani, L.

    2000-01-01

    Forty three spring waters have been investigated in the Apennine area of Reggio Emilia province (Parco Regionale del Gigante, Italy). On the basis of the Langelier-Ludwig diagram, the (Na+K+Cl) vs (Ca+Mg) plot and the Cl content, the waters have been divided in five main groups. The chemical composition of the waters suggests that calcite is practically the only source of Ca and alkalinity for group D and E reflect ion exchange and calcite and minor silicate dissolution during a strong water-rock interaction at depth [it

  12. Depositional facies and aqueous-solid geochemistry of travertine-depositing hot springs (Angel Terrace, Mammoth Hot Springs, Yellowstone National Park, USA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fouke, B.W.; Farmer, J.D.; Des Marais, D.J.; Pratt, L.; Sturchio, N.C.; Burns, P.C.; Discipulo, M.K.

    2000-05-01

    Petrographic and geochemical analyses of travertine-depositing hot springs at Angel Terrace, Mammoth Hot Springs, Yellowstone National Park, have been used to define five depositional facies along the spring drainage system. Spring waters are expelled in the vent facies at 71 to 73 C and precipitate mounded travertine composed of aragonite needle botryoids. The apron and channel facies (43--72 C) is floored by hollow tubes composed of aragonite needle botryoids that encrust sulfide-oxidizing Aquificales bacteria. The travertine of the pond facies (30--62 C) varies in composition from aragonite needle shrubs formed at higher temperatures to ridged networks of calcite and aragonite at lower temperatures. Calcite ice sheets, calcified bubbles, and aggregates of aragonite needles (fuzzy dumbbells) precipitate at the air-water interface and settle to pond floors. The proximal-slope facies (28--54 C), which forms the margins of terracette pools, is composed of arcuate aragonite needle shrubs that create small microterracettes on the steep slope face. Finally, the distal-slope facies (28--30 C) is composed of calcite spherules and calcite feather crystals. Despite the presence of abundant microbial mat communities and their observed role in providing substrates for mineralization, the compositions of spring-water and travertine predominantly reflect abiotic physical and chemical processes. Vigorous CO{sub 2} degassing causes a +2 unit increase in spring water pH, as well as Rayleigh-type covariations between the concentration of dissolved inorganic carbon and corresponding {delta}{sup 13}C. Travertine {delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}{sup 18}O are nearly equivalent to aragonite and calcite equilibrium values calculated from spring water in the higher-temperature ({approximately}50--73 C) depositional facies. Conversely, travertine precipitating in the lower-temperature (<{approximately}50 C) depositional facies exhibits {delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}{sup 18}O values that are as

  13. Gross alpha and beta activities in Tunisian mineral water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamrouni Benbelgacem, Samar

    2011-01-01

    The quality of natural mineral water is a universal health problem seeing its vital importance. This problem is related to the presence of the radionuclides since this water is coming from underground, during their circulation it dissolves and conveys the radionuclides which are present in the earth's crust. This problem which leads to the contamination of the mineral water urged the World Health Organization to set standards and to recommend the respect of the median values of the activities alpha and beta within the framework of the man protection against this internal exhibition. Concerning the radiological quality of Tunisian mineral water studied in this project, we showed, by using the gross alpha and beta activities counting, that this water is specific to human consumption since their gross alpha and beta activities do not forward any risk on health.

  14. Radon-enriched spring waters in the South of Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlowska, B.; Hetman, A.; Dorda, J.; Zipper, W.

    2001-01-01

    A method for determination of 222 Rn in natural water samples which involves a Wallac 1414 Win Spectral α/β liquid scintillation counter is described. Samples were collected from springs in health resorts in the Sudety Mountains in Poland. Half of the studied water samples were radon enriched with an activity concentration higher then 74 Bq/l. Seasonal variations of 222 Rn in these waters are under investigation. The method introduced is very convenient and elegant for radon activity measurements.

  15. A natural tracer investigation of the hydrological regime of Spring Creek Springs, the largest submarine spring system in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimova, Natasha T.; Burnett, William C.; Speer, Kevin

    2011-04-01

    This work presents results from a nearly two-year monitoring of the hydrologic dynamics of the largest submarine spring system in Florida, Spring Creek Springs. During the summer of 2007 this spring system was observed to have significantly reduced flow due to persistent drought conditions. Our examination of the springs revealed that the salinity of the springs' waters had increased significantly, from 4 in 2004 to 33 in July 2007 with anomalous high radon ( 222Rn, t1/2=3.8 days) in surface water concentrations indicating substantial saltwater intrusion into the local aquifer. During our investigation from August 2007 to May 2009 we deployed on an almost monthly basis a continuous radon-in-water measurement system and monitored the salinity fluctuations in the discharge area. To evaluate the springs' freshwater flux we developed three different models: two of them are based on water velocity measurements and either salinity or 222Rn in the associated surface waters as groundwater tracers. The third approach used only salinity changes within the spring area. The three models showed good agreement and the results confirmed that the hydrologic regime of the system is strongly correlated to local precipitation and water table fluctuations with higher discharges after major rain events and very low, even reverse flow during prolong droughts. High flow spring conditions were observed twice during our study, in the early spring and mid-late summer of 2008. However the freshwater spring flux during our observation period never reached that reported from a 1970s value of 4.9×10 6 m 3/day. The maximum spring flow was estimated at about 3.0×10 6 m 3/day after heavy precipitation in February-March 2008. As a result of this storm (total of 173 mm) the salinity in the spring area dropped from about 27 to 2 in only two days. The radon-in-water concentrations dramatically increased in parallel, from about 330 Bq/m 3 to about 6600 Bq/m 3. Such a rapid response suggests a direct

  16. Mass Dependent Fractionation of Hg Isotopes in Source Rocks, Mineral Deposits and Spring Waters of the California Coast Ranges, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C. N.; Kesler, S. E.; Blum, J. D.; Rytuba, J. J.

    2007-12-01

    We present here the first study of the isotopic composition of Hg in rocks, ore deposits, and active hydrothermal systems from the California Coast Ranges, one of Earth's largest Hg-depositing systems. The Franciscan Complex and Great Valley Sequence, which form the bedrock in the California Coast Ranges, are intruded and overlain by Tertiary volcanic rocks including the Clear Lake Volcanic Sequence. These rocks contain two types of Hg deposits, hot-spring deposits that form at shallow depths (<300 m) and silica-carbonate deposits that extend to greater depths (200 to 1000 m), as well as active springs and geothermal systems that release Hg to the present surface. The Franciscan Complex and Great Valley Sequence contain clastic sedimentary rocks with higher concentrations of Hg than volcanic rocks of the Clear Lake Volcanic Field. Mean Hg isotope compositions for all three rock units are similar, although the range of values in Franciscan Complex rocks is greater than in either Great Valley or Clear Lake rocks. Hot spring and silica-carbonate Hg deposits have similar average isotopic compositions that are indistinguishable from averages for the three rock units, although δ202Hg values for the Hg deposits have a greater variance than the country rocks. Precipitates from dilute spring and saline thermal waters in the area have similarly large variance and a mean δ202Hg value that is significantly lower than the ore deposits and rocks. These observations indicate there is little or no isotopic fractionation during release of Hg from its source rocks into hydrothermal solutions. Isotopic fractionation does appear to take place during transport and concentration of Hg in deposits, especially in their uppermost parts. Boiling of hydrothermal fluids is likely the most important process causing of the observed Hg isotope fractionation. This should result in the release of Hg with low δ202Hg values into the atmosphere from the top of these hydrothermal systems and a

  17. Preferential soft-tissue preservation in the Hot Creek carbonate spring deposit, British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainey, Dustin K.; Jones, Brian

    2010-05-01

    The relict Holocene Hot Creek carbonate spring deposit in southeast British Columbia is characterized by excellent preservation of soft-tissue organisms (e.g. cyanobacteria), but poor preservation of organisms with hard-tissue (e.g. wood, diatoms). The deposit is formed mainly of calcified cyanobacteria, with fewer mineralized macrophytes (plants), bryophytes (mosses), wood, and diatoms. Cyanobacteria grew as solitary filaments ( Lyngbya) and as radiating hemispherical colonies ( Rivularia). Both were preserved by encrustation and encapsulation while alive, and as casts after filament death and decay. Sheath impregnation was rare to absent. Filament encrustation, whereby calcite crystals nucleated on, and grew away from the sheath exterior, produced moulds that replicated external filament morphology, but hastened filament decay. Filament encapsulation, whereby calcite nucleated in the vicinity of, and grew towards the encapsulated filament, promoted sheath preservation even after trichome decay. Subsequent calcite precipitation inside the hollow sheath generated sheath casts. The inability of mineralizing spring water to penetrate durable cell walls meant that bryophytes, macrophytes, and most wood was preserved by encrustation. Some wood resisted complete decay for several thousand years, and its lignified cell walls allowed rare permineralizations. Diatoms were not preserved in the relict deposit because the frustules were dissolved by the basic spring water. Amorphous calcium carbonate produced by photosynthetic CO 2 removal may have acted as nucleation sites for physicochemically precipitated calcite. Thus, metabolic activities of floral organisms probably initiated biotic mineralization, but continuous inorganic calcite precipitation on and in flora ensured that soft tissues were preserved.

  18. MINERAL WATERS IN RUPEA CITY: PHYSICOCHEMICAL FEATURES AND USE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. MEREŢ

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyse and highlight certain specificities of mineral waters in Rupea city (Braşov County: physicochemical characteristics, a short history of their use, and future use options. The article is based on the synthesis and analysis of information obtained from scientific papers, archival sources, and field investigations conducted between 2010 and 2015. Rupea City is located in the area situated at the contact between the Transylvanian Subcarpathians the Hârtibaciului Plateau, at 64 km northwest of Braşov and 53 km southeast of Sighişoara. The presence of the salt layer in the Tortonian deposits (Miocene at different depths and thickness accounts for the occurrence of concentrated chlorinated-sodic waters, discovered as early as the second half of the 19th century. The first analyses of the Rupea mineral waters were conducted by Henrik Muller (1856, who considered the mineral waters at Băile Cohalm (old name of the Rupea city to be “among the few chlorinated-sodic-sulphated waters of Transylvania”. The measurements conducted on physico-geographical parameters in the study period and the analysis of water samples performed in specialized laboratories showed that these mineral waters preserved their physicochemical characteristics (chorosodic, sulphated, hypertonic, athermal and, consequently, can be used for therapeutic purposes as was the case in the past. The pavilions of the old spa establishment “survived” until the year 2003 when they began to be gradually demolished, and the mineral water storage basins were consolidated and covered. The only one which is still currently being used (for household activities or sheepfold cheese processing is the “muriatic” salt water from the well locals call “Slatina”, located 1.5 km east towards Homorod, in close proximity to Cozd River (ancient name of the Valea Mare River.

  19. Sources of groundwater and characteristics of surface-water recharge at Bell, White, and Suwannee Springs, Florida, 2012–13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, John F.; McBride, W. Scott

    2016-12-21

    Discharge from springs in Florida is sourced from aquifers, such as the Upper Floridan aquifer, which is overlain by an upper confining unit that locally can have properties of an aquifer. Water levels in aquifers are affected by several factors, such as precipitation, recharge, and groundwater withdrawals, which in turn can affect discharge from springs. Therefore, identifying groundwater sources and recharge characteristics can be important in assessing how these factors might affect flows and water levels in springs and can be informative in broader applications such as groundwater modeling. Recharge characteristics include the residence time of water at the surface, apparent age of recharge, and recharge water temperature.The groundwater sources and recharge characteristics of three springs that discharge from the banks of the Suwannee River in northern Florida were assessed for this study: Bell Springs, White Springs, and Suwannee Springs. Sources of groundwater were also assessed for a 150-foot-deep well finished within the Upper Floridan aquifer, hereafter referred to as the UFA well. Water samples were collected for geochemical analyses in November 2012 and October 2013 from the three springs and the UFA well. Samples were analyzed for a suite of major ions, dissolved gases, and isotopes of sulfur, strontium, oxygen, and hydrogen. Daily means of water level and specific conductance at White Springs were continuously recorded from October 2012 through December 2013 by the Suwannee River Water Management District. Suwannee River stage at White Springs was computed on the basis of stage at a U.S. Geological Survey streamgage about 2.4 miles upstream. Water levels in two wells, located about 2.5 miles northwest and 13 miles southeast of White Springs, were also used in the analyses.Major ion concentrations were used to differentiate water from the springs and Upper Floridan aquifer into three groups: Bell Springs, UFA well, and White and Suwannee Springs. When

  20. Time-series analysis of ion and isotope geochemistry of selected springs of the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyles, B.F.; Edkins, J.; Jacobson, R.L.; Hess, J.W.

    1990-11-01

    The temporal variations of ion and isotope geochemistry were observed at six selected springs on the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada and included: Cane, Whiterock, Captain Jack, Topopah, Tippipah, and Oak Springs. The sites were monitored from 1980 to 1982 and the following parameters were measured: temperature, pH, electrical conductance, discharge, cations (Ca{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}. Na{sup +}, K{sup +}), anions Cl{sup {minus}}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}. HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, silica, stable isotopes ({delta}{sup 18}O, {delta}D, {delta}{sup 13}C), and radioactive isotopes ({sup 3}H, {sup 14}C). A more detailed study was continued from 1982 to 1988 at Cane and Whiterock Springs. Field microloggers were installed at these sites in 1985 to measure the high frequency response of temperature, electrical conductance, and discharge to local precipitation. Stage fluctuations near the discharge point dissolve minerals/salts as groundwater inundates the mineralized zone immediately above the equilibrium water table. This phenomena was most noticeable at Whiterock Spring and lagged the discharge response by several hours. Stable isotope analysis of precipitation and groundwater suggests a 1.5 to 2 month travel time for meteoric water to migrate from the recharge area to the discharge point. Groundwater age determinations suggest a mean age of approximately 30 years at Whiterock Spring and possibly older at Cane Spring. However, the short travel time and geochemical integrity of recharge pulses suggest that the waters are poorly mixed along the flow paths. 25 refs., 25 figs., 24 tabs.

  1. Radiation education using local environment. Educational experiment using Misasa spring water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Mariko; Esaka, Takao; Kamata, Masahiro

    2005-01-01

    Hoping that use of natural radioactivity as teaching materials helps learners to understand the existence of radiation in nature, the authors developed several kinds of safe and inexpensive experiments for elementary and junior high school education using hot spring water taken from Misasa, situated in Tottori prefecture, Japan. Here, they report the details of experimental procedure to observe the radioactive equilibrium between Rn 222 released from the hot spring water and its daughters as well as the decay after isolation from Rn 222. The experiment needs no hazardous chemicals nor Bunsen burners, and can be carried out in normal classrooms without any special apparatus. (S. Ohno)

  2. 222Rn determination in mineral waters from the Pocos de Caldas Plateau in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taddei, M.H.T.; Silva, N.C.; Cipriani, M.

    2002-01-01

    It is estimated that 50% of the radioactive effective dose equivalent to man comes from radon and its radioactivity daughters. The main 222 Rn sources are the soils, building materials and potable waters. There is an especial interest in spas waters with high natural radioactivity. It's considered that the use of these waters as drinking waters is a significant radiation exposure factor, and it is worthwhile to assess the consequent dose. Such estimation has been made for the Pocos de Caldas Plateau, which is a region of high natural radioactivity, from volcanic origin, containing several spas (Aguas da Prata, Caldas, Pocos de Caldas and Andradas). The 222 Rn content was determined in 23 spring waters in Pocos de Caldas and neighboring cities. In water sampling, modified Marinelli flasks were used. The determinations were effected with a high resolution gamma ray spectrometer. High concentration variations were observed in the collected mineral waters, the highest values having been found in Fonte Villela's waters, in Aguas da Prata town (926 Bq/l); Grande Hotel's in Caldas Town (420 Bq/l) and COLAB's in Pocos de Caldas region (289 Bq/l). The annual whole body effective dose equivalent estimate for adult due to water ingestion, using the Crowford-Brown's biokinetic model's adult dose conversion factors, was higher than 1 mSv/year in 61% of the analyzed waters. (author)

  3. [Mineral springs on the north-east of Caucasus and its role in the treatment of soldiers of the Russian army in XIX--beginning XX c].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmadov, T Z; Poddubnyĭ, M V

    2013-07-01

    The article is concerned to the history of formation of sanitary-treatment stations on the North Caucasus, in Chechnya (Goryachevodsky and Mikhailovsky mineral springs) till 1917 year. The basis of the article are archive documents, scientific papers of contemporaries and official documents. Goryachevodsky and Mikhailovsky mineral springs were more than 70 years the one the best recreative base of the Caucasian standing army including the caucasian cossack troop. The sanitary-treatment stations were of great importance during the active military actions with Hill people within the territory of Chechnya and Dagestan, during the Crimean War (1853-1856), The Russo-Turkish War of 1877-1878 and the First World War (1914-1918), when the amount of the wounded and ill soldiers increased.

  4. Mercury content in Hot Springs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, R

    1974-01-01

    A method of determination of mercury in hot spring waters by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry is described. Further, the mercury content and the chemical behavior of the elementary mercury in hot springs are described. Sulfide and iodide ions interfered with the determination of mercury by the reduction-vapor phase technique. These interferences could, however, be minimized by the addition of potassium permanganate. Waters collected from 55 hot springs were found to contain up to 26.0 ppb mercury. High concentrations of mercury have been found in waters from Shimoburo Springs, Aomori (10.0 ppb), Osorezan Springs, Aomori (1.3 approximately 18.8 ppb), Gosyogake Springs, Akita (26.0 ppb), Manza Springs, Gunma (0.30 approximately 19.5 ppb) and Kusatu Springs, Gunma (1.70 approximately 4.50 ppb). These hot springs were acid waters containing a relatively high quantity of chloride or sulfate.

  5. Mineral concentrations in diets, water, and milk and their value in estimating on-farm excretion of manure minerals in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, A R; St-Pierre, N R; Silva del Rio, N; Weiss, W P

    2013-05-01

    Thirty-nine commercial dairies in Merced County, California were enrolled in the present study to (1) compare lactating cow mineral intakes (via drinking water and total mixed ration) to the National Research Council (NRC) requirements, (2) evaluate the association between dietary concentrations of minerals with and without drinking water and adjusted for mineral concentrations in milk, and (3) compare 4 different methods to estimate excretion of minerals using either assays or estimations of milk mineral outputs and total daily mineral intake per cow with or without minerals coming from drinking water. Dairies were selected to represent a range of herd milk yields and a range of water mineral contents. Samples of total mixed ration, drinking water, and bulk tank milk were taken on 2 different days, 3 to 7d apart in each farm. Across-farm medians and percentile distributions were used to analyze results. The herd median milk yield interquartile ranged (10th to 90th percentile) from less than 25 to more than 39 kg/d and the concentration of total solids in water interquartile ranged from less than 200 to more than 1,490 mg/L. Including drinking water minerals in the diets increased dietary concentrations by minerals except for Na and Cl, which increased by 9.3 and 6.5%, respectively. Concentrations of P and K in milk were essentially the same as the NRC value to estimate lactation requirements. However, NRC milk values of Ca, Cl, and Zn were 10 to 20% greater than dairy farm values; and Na, Cu, Fe, and Mn were no less than 36% below NRC values. Estimated excretion of minerals via manure varied substantially across farms. Farms in the 10th percentile did have 2 to 3 times less estimated mineral excretions than those in the 90th percentile (depending on the mineral). Although including water minerals increased excretion of most minerals, the actual median effect of Ca, Mg, S, Cu, Fe, and Mn was less than 5%, and about 8% for Na and Cl. Replacing assayed concentrations

  6. Águas minerais de algumas fontes naturais brasileiras Mineral waters from brazilian natural sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. P. Rebelo

    1999-07-01

    -gaseous mineral waters commercially available in the city of Rio de Janeiro. The íon concentration of each mineral was calculated from the salt content. RESULTS. 36 springs were enralled from different states of the country. The pH (25oC, 4.1 to 9.3, varied on dependence of the source and it was linearey correlated with the cations calcium, magnesium and sodium and the anion bicarbonate. It was atributed to high alkalinity (about 70% of bicarbonate in the molecula-gram of these salts. The calcium (0.3 to 42 mg/l, magnesium (0.0 to 18mg/l and bicarbonate (4 to 228 mg/l contents are relatively low. CONCLUSION. The mineral content of the Brazilian springs enrolled in this survey is low; about 70% of the sources having calcium and magnesium less than 10 mg/l and 1.0 mg/l, respectivelly, similar to local tap water.

  7. Why Devil's town has Devil's water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovic, Sladjana; Mitriceski, Bojana

    2015-04-01

    Why Devil's town has Devil's water In the south of Serbia, lies a first-class natural landmark "Devil's Town" at an altitude of 660-700 m. Earthen figures or "towers" as the locals call them, are located in the watershed between two gullies, whose sources joined together create a unique erosive formation, tremendously demolished by the erosive processes. The gullies also have strange names: "Devil's Gully" and "Hell's Gully". There are two rare natural phenomena at the same spot: 202 earthen figures of different shape and dimension, from 2 m to 15 m in height, and from 0.5 m to 3 m in width, with stone caps on the top. They are an outcome of a specific erosive process that lasts for centuries. When figures are formed, they grow, change, shorten, gradually (very slowly) disappear and reappear. The loose soil is dissolved and washed away by the rain. However, the material under the stone caps is protected from the "bombardment" of the rain drops and washout, and remains in place in the form of the rising earthen pillars - figures. Another natural rarity in "Devil's Town" are two springs of extraordinary properties "Devil's Water", which is located in vicinity of these earthen figures, is a cold and extremely acid spring (pH 1.5) of high mineral concentration (15 g/l of water), springing out in "Devil's Gully". In comparison to drinking water, it is 10 to 1000 times richer in minerals (aluminium, iron, potassium, copper, nickel, sulphur, and alaun). "Red Well" is another spring located downstream, in the alluvial plain, 400 m away from the first spring. Its water (pH 3.5) is less acid and has a lower general mineral concentration (4.372 mg/l of water). Due to the oxidation of iron, which is contained in water in large amounts, an attractive red terrace in the form of a fan is created. The main assessment for students is to take some examples of water from Devils Gully and the others from Red Well . Second part is to find out content of minerals in water examples and

  8. Probability-based classifications for spatially characterizing the water temperatures and discharge rates of hot springs in the Tatun Volcanic Region, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Cheng-Shin

    2015-05-01

    Accurately classifying the spatial features of the water temperatures and discharge rates of hot springs is crucial for environmental resources use and management. This study spatially characterized classifications of the water temperatures and discharge rates of hot springs in the Tatun Volcanic Region of Northern Taiwan by using indicator kriging (IK). The water temperatures and discharge rates of the springs were first assigned to high, moderate, and low categories according to the two thresholds of the proposed spring classification criteria. IK was then used to model the occurrence probabilities of the water temperatures and discharge rates of the springs and probabilistically determine their categories. Finally, nine combinations were acquired from the probability-based classifications for the spatial features of the water temperatures and discharge rates of the springs. Moreover, various combinations of spring water features were examined according to seven subzones of spring use in the study region. The research results reveal that probability-based classifications using IK provide practicable insights related to propagating the uncertainty of classifications according to the spatial features of the water temperatures and discharge rates of the springs. The springs in the Beitou (BT), Xingyi Road (XYR), Zhongshanlou (ZSL), and Lengshuikeng (LSK) subzones are suitable for supplying tourism hotels with a sufficient quantity of spring water because they have high or moderate discharge rates. Furthermore, natural hot springs in riverbeds and valleys should be developed in the Dingbeitou (DBT), ZSL, Xiayoukeng (XYK), and Macao (MC) subzones because of low discharge rates and low or moderate water temperatures.

  9. Radon and radon daughters' concentration in spring and wells waters from Presidente Prudente: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osorio, Ana Maria Araya; Saenz, Carlos Alberto Tello; Pereira, Luiz Augusto Stuani

    2009-01-01

    This work presents the preliminary results about the concentration of radon and radon daughters in wells and springs water from Presidente Prudente. Six water samples were studied: three from well-water, two from springs water and one from potable water. For the determination of α-activity the samples were placed inside plastic containers where the CR-39 tracks detectors were outside the water. The track density of α-particles were measured by using optical microscopy. The results show that one sample from well-water presented higher concentration of radon and radon daughters than the other samples. (author)

  10. A New Method of Absorption-Phase Nanotomography for 3D Observation of Mineral-Organic-Water Textiles and its Application to Pristine Carbonaceous Chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiyama, A.; Nakato, A.; Matsuno, J.; Sugimoto, M.; Uesugi, K.; Takeuchi, A.; Nakano, T.; Vaccaro, E.; Russel, S.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; hide

    2017-01-01

    Pristine carbonaceous chondrites contain fine-grained matrix, which is composed largely of amorphous silicates, sub-micron silicate and sulfide crystals, and organic materials. They are regarded as primitive dust in the early Solar System that have suffered minimal alteration in their parent bodies. The matrix generally has different lithologies; some of them are unaltered but some are more or less aqueously altered. Their textures have been examined in 2D usually by FE-SEM/EDS, TEM/EDS, nano-SIMS and micro-XRD. Observation of their complex fine textures, such as spatial relation between different lithologies in 3D, is important for understanding aggregation and alteration processes. Synchrotron radiation (SR)-based X-ray tomography reveals 3D structures nondestructively with high spatial resolution of approximately greater than 100 nm. We have developed a new technique using absorption contrasts called "dual-energy tomography" (DET) to obtain 3D distribution of minerals at SPring-8, SR facility in Japan, and applied successfully to Itokawa particles. Phase and absorption contrast images can be simultaneously obtained in 3D by using "scanning-imaging x-ray microscopy" (SIXM) at SPring-8, which can discriminate between void, water and organic materials. We applied this technique combined with FIB micro-sampling to carbonaceous chondrites to search for primitive liquid water. In this study, we combined the DET and SIXM to obtain three dimensional submicron-scale association between minerals, organic materials and water and applied this to pristine carbonaceous chondrites.

  11. On the genesis and dynamics of mineral waters of Essentuki deposit in the Great Region of Caucasian Mineral Waters on the basis of uranium isotope information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalov, P.I.; Tikhonov, A.I.; Kiselev, G.P.; Merkulova, K.I.

    1991-01-01

    The sources of the Great Region of Caucasian Mineral Waters are established and contribution of each source in the formation of this region is determined using the data on isotopic ratio and content of uranium in mineral waters. The investigation relies on the fact that 234 U/ 238 U radioactivity ratio used as a tracer in different for waters which drain the rocks with different content and distribution of uranium therein. The investigation results reveal the peculiarities of the geological history of the above region and can be used for predicting new deposits of mineral waters

  12. Uranium, thorium and rare earth elements distribution from different iron quadrangle spring waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Cláudia A.; Palmieri, Helena E.L.; Menezes, Maria A. de B.C.; Rodrigues, Paulo C.H.

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the concentrations of thorium, uranium and the rare earth elements (REE) in 26 spring waters, as well as the patterns of the REE of the samples from the Cercadinho, Moeda and Caue aquifers in different municipalities of the Iron Quadrangle (Quadrilatero Ferrifero), located in the central-southeast of Minas Gerais state. The pH value of the ground waters ranged from 3.8 to 7.0, indicating an acid nature of most of the spring waters. The investigation of REE speciation showed that all the REEs exist in the free X"3"+ ionic forms, under the prevailing Eh and pH conditions. In the studied samples the uranium concentrations ( 1000 ng L"-"1) originating from aquifers located in Sabara, Barao de Cocais, Santa Barbara, Mario Campos, Congonhas and Lavras Novas. The REEs patterns in the spring waters from the Cercadinho, Caue and Moeda aquifers are characterized by middle REE (MREE) enrichment compared to light REE (LREE) and heavy REEs (HREE), negative Ce anomalies (except for one sample) and positive Eu anomalies in all three aquifers studied. (author)

  13. Temporal variation of tritium in spring water of East Sikkim region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pant, Diksha; Ansari, Md. Arzoo; Mendhekar, G.N.; Kamble, S.N; Sinha, U.K; Dash, A.; Dhakal, Deepak

    2016-01-01

    Tritium is produced in the atmosphere by the interaction of cosmic rays with the nuclei of the atmospheric gases (mainly nitrogen, σ = 0.388 barn), principally by neutron induced reactions. It is estimated from the natural abundance of tritium that the rate of production is approximately 0.2 tritium atoms/sec.cm 2 area of the earth's surface. Additionally it is possible that tritium may enter the atmosphere from anthropogenic activities like nuclear bomb testing or nuclear reactor. Tritium (T 1/2 = 4540 days) is a particularly suitable tracer for water since hydrogen is part of the water molecule. Tritium can be used for assessing the recharge characteristics of aquifers, in studying artificial recharge characteristics and in determining the 'age' of water with an upper time limit of about 50 years. The objective is to study the temporal changes of tritium content in spring's water of East Sikkim region. Tritium helps in predicting whether the contribution to spring water in rainwater or some other source

  14. Preliminary estimates of residence times and apparent ages of ground water in the Chesapeake Bay watershed, and water-quality data from a survey of springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focazio, Michael J.; Plummer, Niel; Bohlke, John K.; Busenberg, Eurybiades; Bachman, L. Joseph; Powars, David S.

    1998-01-01

    Knowledge of the residence times of the ground-water systems in Chesapeake Bay watershed helps resource managers anticipate potential delays between implementation of land-management practices and any improve-ments in river and estuary water quality. This report presents preliminary estimates of ground-water residence times and apparent ages of water in the shallow aquifers of the Chesapeake Bay watershed. A simple reservoir model, published data, and analyses of spring water were used to estimate residence times and apparent ages of ground-water discharge. Ranges of aquifer hydraulic characteristics throughout the Bay watershed were derived from published literature and were used to estimate ground-water residence times on the basis of a simple reservoir model. Simple combinations of rock type and physiographic province were used to delineate hydrogeomorphic regions (HGMR?s) for the study area. The HGMR?s are used to facilitate organization and display of the data and analyses. Illustrations depicting the relation of aquifer characteristics and associated residence times as a continuum for each HGMR were developed. In this way, the natural variation of aquifer characteristics can be seen graphically by use of data from selected representative studies. Water samples collected in September and November 1996, from 46 springs throughout the watershed were analyzed for chlorofluorocarbons (CFC?s) to estimate the apparent age of ground water. For comparison purposes, apparent ages of water from springs were calculated assuming piston flow. Additi-onal data are given to estimate apparent ages assuming an exponential distribution of ages in spring discharge. Additionally, results from previous studies of CFC-dating of ground water from other springs and wells in the watershed were compiled. The CFC data, and the data on major ions, nutrients, and nitrogen isotopes in the water collected from the 46 springs are included in this report. The apparent ages of water

  15. Quantitative Determination of Spring Water Quality Parameters via Electronic Tongue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noèlia Carbó

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of a voltammetric electronic tongue for the quantitative analysis of quality parameters in spring water is proposed here. The electronic voltammetric tongue consisted of a set of four noble electrodes (iridium, rhodium, platinum, and gold housed inside a stainless steel cylinder. These noble metals have a high durability and are not demanding for maintenance, features required for the development of future automated equipment. A pulse voltammetry study was conducted in 83 spring water samples to determine concentrations of nitrate (range: 6.9–115 mg/L, sulfate (32–472 mg/L, fluoride (0.08–0.26 mg/L, chloride (17–190 mg/L, and sodium (11–94 mg/L as well as pH (7.3–7.8. These parameters were also determined by routine analytical methods in spring water samples. A partial least squares (PLS analysis was run to obtain a model to predict these parameter. Orthogonal signal correction (OSC was applied in the preprocessing step. Calibration (67% and validation (33% sets were selected randomly. The electronic tongue showed good predictive power to determine the concentrations of nitrate, sulfate, chloride, and sodium as well as pH and displayed a lower R2 and slope in the validation set for fluoride. Nitrate and fluoride concentrations were estimated with errors lower than 15%, whereas chloride, sulfate, and sodium concentrations as well as pH were estimated with errors below 10%.

  16. Seasonal change of residence time in spring water and groundwater at a mountainous headwater catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagano, Kosuke; Tsujimura, Maki; Onda, Yuichi; Iwagami, Sho; Sakakibara, Koichi; Sato, Yutaro

    2017-04-01

    Determination of water age in headwater is important to consider water pathway, source and storage in the catchment. Previous studies showed that groundwater residence time changes seasonally. These studies reported that mean residence time of water in dry season tends to be longer than that in rainy season, and it becomes shorter as precipitation and discharge amount increases. However, there are few studies to clarify factors causing seasonal change in mean residence time in spring water and groundwater based on observed data. Therefore, this study aims to reveal the relationship between mean residence time and groundwater flow system using SFconcentration in spring and 10 minutes interval hydrological data such as discharge volume, groundwater level and precipitation amount in a headwater catchment in Fukushima, Japan. The SF6 concentration data in spring water observed from April 2015 to November 2016 shows the mean residence time of springs ranged from zero to 14 years. We also observed a clear negative correlation between discharge rate and residence time in the spring. The residence time in shallow groundwater in rainy season was younger as compared with that in low rainfall period. Therefore, the shallow groundwater with young residence time seems to contribute to the spring in rainy season, causing shorter residence time. Additionally, the residence time of groundwater ranged from 3 to 5 years even in low rainfall period. The residence time in high groundwater table level in ridge was older as compared with that in low groundwater table level. These suggest that the contribution of groundwater with older age in the ridge becomes dominant in the low discharge.

  17. Uranium, thorium and rare earth elements distribution from different iron quadrangle spring waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Cláudia A.; Palmieri, Helena E.L.; Menezes, Maria A. de B.C.; Rodrigues, Paulo C.H., E-mail: cferreiraquimica@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: help@cdtn.br, E-mail: menezes@cdtn.br, E-mail: pchr@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the concentrations of thorium, uranium and the rare earth elements (REE) in 26 spring waters, as well as the patterns of the REE of the samples from the Cercadinho, Moeda and Caue aquifers in different municipalities of the Iron Quadrangle (Quadrilatero Ferrifero), located in the central-southeast of Minas Gerais state. The pH value of the ground waters ranged from 3.8 to 7.0, indicating an acid nature of most of the spring waters. The investigation of REE speciation showed that all the REEs exist in the free X{sup 3+} ionic forms, under the prevailing Eh and pH conditions. In the studied samples the uranium concentrations (<2.3-1176 ng L{sup -1}) were below the guideline level set by Brazilian legislation (Ministry of Health 518- 03/2004). Thorium concentrations ranged from <0.39-11.0 ng L{sup -1} and the sum of the REE ranged from 6.0 to 37657 ng L{sup -1}. As there are no permissible limits related for the REE and thorium for different water quality standards in Brazil, more attention must be paid to the local residents' health risk caused by spring waters (REEs were > 1000 ng L{sup -1}) originating from aquifers located in Sabara, Barao de Cocais, Santa Barbara, Mario Campos, Congonhas and Lavras Novas. The REEs patterns in the spring waters from the Cercadinho, Caue and Moeda aquifers are characterized by middle REE (MREE) enrichment compared to light REE (LREE) and heavy REEs (HREE), negative Ce anomalies (except for one sample) and positive Eu anomalies in all three aquifers studied. (author)

  18. Microbial and chemical characterization of underwater fresh water springs in the Dead Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Ionescu

    Full Text Available Due to its extreme salinity and high Mg concentration the Dead Sea is characterized by a very low density of cells most of which are Archaea. We discovered several underwater fresh to brackish water springs in the Dead Sea harboring dense microbial communities. We provide the first characterization of these communities, discuss their possible origin, hydrochemical environment, energetic resources and the putative biogeochemical pathways they are mediating. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and community fingerprinting methods showed that the spring community originates from the Dead Sea sediments and not from the aquifer. Furthermore, it suggested that there is a dense Archaeal community in the shoreline pore water of the lake. Sequences of bacterial sulfate reducers, nitrifiers iron oxidizers and iron reducers were identified as well. Analysis of white and green biofilms suggested that sulfide oxidation through chemolitotrophy and phototrophy is highly significant. Hyperspectral analysis showed a tight association between abundant green sulfur bacteria and cyanobacteria in the green biofilms. Together, our findings show that the Dead Sea floor harbors diverse microbial communities, part of which is not known from other hypersaline environments. Analysis of the water's chemistry shows evidence of microbial activity along the path and suggests that the springs supply nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matter to the microbial communities in the Dead Sea. The underwater springs are a newly recognized water source for the Dead Sea. Their input of microorganisms and nutrients needs to be considered in the assessment of possible impact of dilution events of the lake surface waters, such as those that will occur in the future due to the intended establishment of the Red Sea-Dead Sea water conduit.

  19. Decorporation of mixture of strontium and cesium isotopes with domestic mineral waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slavov, S.; Filev, G.; Kiradzhiev, G.

    1990-01-01

    The possibilities of Bulgarian mineral waters to decorporate mixtures of strontium and cesium radioisotopes, simultaneous entering the body, were studied. A modified effect in respect to radioactive strontium was found. Modification of the effect of mixing two diferent types of mineral waters was not proven. No effect was found of potassium-containing mineral water on radioactive cesium kinetics. 1 tab., 7 refs

  20. Chemistry of Hot Spring Pool Waters in Calamba and Los Banos and Potential Effect on the Water Quality of Laguna De Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balangue, M. I. R. D.; Pena, M. A. Z.; Siringan, F. P.; Jago-on, K. A. B.; Lloren, R. B.; Taniguchi, M.

    2014-12-01

    Since the Spanish Period (1600s), natural hot spring waters have been harnessed for balneological purposes in the municipalities of Calamba and Los Banos, Laguna, south of Metro Manila. There are at more than a hundred hot spring resorts in Brgy. Pansol, Calamba and Tadlac, Los Banos. These two areas are found at the northern flanks of Mt. Makiling facing Laguna de Bay. This study aims to provide some insights on the physical and chemical characteristics of hot spring resorts and the possible impact on the lake water quality resulting from the disposal of used water. Initial ocular survey of the resorts showed that temperature of the pool water ranges from ambient (>300C) to as high as 500C with an average pool size of 80m3. Water samples were collected from a natural hot spring and pumped well in Los Banos and another pumped well in Pansol to determine the chemistry. The field pH ranges from 6.65 to 6.87 (Pansol springs). Cation analysis revealed that the thermal waters belonged to the Na-K-Cl-HCO3 type with some trace amount of heavy metals. Methods for waste water disposal are either by direct discharge down the drain of the pool or by discharge in the public road canal. Both methods will dump the waste water directly into Laguna de Bay. Taking in consideration the large volume of waste water used especially during the peak season, the effect on the lake water quality would be significant. It is therefore imperative for the environmental authorities in Laguna to regulate and monitor the chemistry of discharges from the pool to protect both the lake water as well as groundwater quality.

  1. On the mineralization model of 'three sources--heat, water and uranium'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xueli

    1992-01-01

    In response to the relations between geological and geothermal settings, geothermal water and uranium mineralizations in the Southeastern China, the model of uranium mineralization in discharge area (depressurization area) of fossil geothermal systems in Mesozoic-Cenozoic Volcanic-magmatic active areas has been put forward and expounded in the view of mineral-formation by the 'three sources'-heat, water and uranium

  2. Volcanic Gases and Hot Spring Water to Evaluate the Volcanic Activity of the Mt. Baekdusan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, S. H.; Lee, S.; Chang, C.

    2017-12-01

    This study performed the analysis on the volcanic gases and hot spring waters from the Julong hot spring at Mt. Baekdu, also known as Changbaishan on the North Korea(DPRK)-China border, during the period from July 2015 to August 2016. Also, we confirmed the errors that HCO3- concentrations of hot spring waters in the previous study (Lee et al. 2014) and tried to improve the problem. Dissolved CO2 in hot spring waters was analyzed using gas chromatograph in Lee et al.(2014). Improving this, from 2015, we used TOC-IC to analysis dissolved CO2. Also, we analyzed the Na2CO3 standard solutions of different concentrations using GC, and confirmed the correlation between the analytical concentrations and the real concentrations. However, because the analytical results of the Julong hot spring water were in discord with the estimated values based on this correlation, we can't estimate the HCO3-concentrations of 2014 samples. During the period of study, CO2/CH4 ratios in volcanic gases are gradually decreased, and this can be interpreted in two different ways. The first interpretation is that the conditions inside the volcanic edifice are changing into more reduction condition, and carbon in volcanic gases become more favorable to distribute into CH4 or CO than CO2. The second interpretation is that the interaction between volcanic gases and water becomes greater than past, and the concentrations of CO2which have much higher solubility in water decreased, relatively. In general, the effect of scrubbing of volcanic gas is strengthened during the quiet periods of volcanic activity rather than active periods. Meanwhile, the analysis of hot spring waters was done on the anion of acidic gases species, the major cations, and some trace elements (As, Cd, Re).This work was funded by the Korea Meteorological Administration Research and Development Program under Grant KMIPA 2015-3060.

  3. Trace uranium determination in beverages and mineral water using fission track techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Y.L.; Lin, J.Y.; Hao, X.H.

    1993-01-01

    The uranium contents of beverages and mineral water have been estimated using the technique of fission track analysis with polycarbonate detector. The U contents in beverages have been found to vary from 0.26 ± 0.03 to 1.65 ± 0.07 ppb, the average value is 0.93 ± 0.05 ppb. The mean U content in mineral water is 9.20 ± 0.16 ppb, which is ∼ 10 times higher than the mean U content of beverages. The present study shows the high U content in mineral water, indicating need for further investigation of U content in mineral water for the studies of radiation health hazards. (Author)

  4. Pilot project 'Karst water Dachstein'. Vol. 2: karst hydrology and contamination risk in springs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheidleder, A.; Mandl, G.W.; Boroviczeny, F.; Hofmann, T.; Schubert, G.; Trimborn, P.; Stichler, W.; Graf, W.

    2001-01-01

    The pilot project 'Karstwasser Dachstein' aimed to ascertain the karst groundwater quality of one of the largest karst massifs in Austria, to examine and quantity the factors influencing karst groundwater quality and to gain experience in the monitoring of karst groundwater quality (Austrian Water Quality Monitoring System). The first phase of the pilot project examined comprehensively the factors influencing and the potential threats endangering karst water quality and was finished in 1994 with Vol. 1 entitled 'Karstwasserqualitaet' (HERLICSKA and LORBEER). The present study is based on the findings of the first phase of the project and aims to combine, analyze and assess the extensive quantity of data material with, special emphasis on karst hydrology and the contamination risk in springs. The interdisciplinary data analysis and the hydrogeological interpretation were carried out by the Austrian Federal Environment Agency (UBA), the Geological Survey of Austria (GBA) and the National Research Centre for Environment and Health (GSF). Their work was based on the detailed description of the geological conditions in the Dachstein area, on the thorough examination of chemical and physical spring water parameters, an isotope analyses of precipitation and spring waters as well as on the results of several tracer experiments and an investigations of the potential impacts of human activities. Investigations of the bacteriological contamination of the spring waters showed that there were only 6 out of 42 springs where there was no evidence of coliform bacteria or faecal germs. These 6 springs are all situated in the southern part of the Dachstein massif. For the analyses carried out to determine the content of chlorinated hydrocarbons, detection limits had been set very low. In all springs, evidence of chlorinated hydrocarbons was found at least once. These concentrations were all below the maximum allowable concentrations set out in the Groundwater Threshold Value

  5. The effect of different soil uses on the quality of spring water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Vilela Andrade Pinto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Several factors are known to be responsible for the degradation of water quality in our Planet’s spring sources. The goal of this study was to evaluate the impact of different anthropogenic activities on physico-chemical and biological properties of five spring water located in Inconfidentes, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Analytical results have demonstrated that water source protected by native vegetation had the highest quality in terms of color, turbidity, biological oxygen demand (BOD5, total phosphate, nitrate, dissolved oxygen (DO, fecal coliforms and thermo-tolerant coliforms. On the other hand, the water quality was negatively impacted by the lack of adequate agricultural practices, such as the use of chemical inputs, the nonexistence of fenced livestock grazing areas and residential sewage system which are considered to be indispensable practices to minimize the environmental impact of anthropogenic activities and to protect human health.

  6. Water in Nominally Anhydrous Minerals from Nakhlites and Shergottites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peslier, Anne H.

    2013-01-01

    Estimating the amount of water in the interior of terrestrial planets has tremendous implications on our understanding of solar nebula evolution, planet formation and geological history, and extraterrestrial volcanism. Mars has been a recent focus of such enquiry with complementary datasets from spacecrafts, rovers and martian meteorite studies. In planetary interiors, water can be dissolved in fluids or melts and hydrous phases, but can also be locked as protons attached to structural oxygen in lattice defects in nominally anhydrous minerals (NAM) such as olivine, pyroxene, or feldspar [1-3]. Measuring water in Martian meteorite NAM is challenging because the minerals are fragile and riddled with fractures from impact processes that makes them break apart during sample processing. Moreover, curing the sample in epoxy causes problems for the two main water analysis techniques, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) and secondary ionization mass spectrometry (SIMS). Measurements to date have resulted in a heated debate on how much water the mantle of Mars contains. SIMS studies of NAM [4], amphiboles [5], and apatites [6-8] from Martian meteorites report finding enough water in these phases to infer that the martian mantle is as hydrous as that of the Earth. On the other hand, a SIMS study of glass in olivine melt inclusions from shergottites concludes that the Martian mantle is much drier [9]. The latter interpretation is also supported by the fact that most martian hydrous minerals generally have the relevant sites filled with Cl and F instead of H [10,11]. As for experimental results, martian basalt compositions can be reproduced using water as well as Cl in the parent melts [12,13]. Here FTIR is used to measure water in martian meteorite minerals in order to constrain the origin of the distribution of water in martian meteorite phases.

  7. Natural radioactivity in bottled mineral water available in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, M.B.; Ralph, B.J.; Wilks, M.J.

    1981-08-01

    The levels of naturally-occurring radioactive elements in bottled mineral water, commercially available in Australia, have been assessed. The survey concentrated upon 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 210 Pb, radionuclides which have a high toxicity in drinking water. Detectable levels of 226 Ra were found to range from 0.02Bq/1 to 0.32Bq/1 in locally-bottled water and from 0.02Bq/1 to 0.44Bq/1 in imported brands. 210 Pb levels were found to be generally very low ( 228 Ra content of bottled water will have a similar distribution to that of 226 Ra. Concentrations of 228 Ra in excess of 0.7Bq/1 were measured in a number of samples. The radiological health implications of the consumption of bottled mineral water are discussed with reference to existing drinking water standards and also in terms of radiation exposure and the increased risk to health. It was concluded that, although some brands of water contain radioactivity in excess of the drinking-water limits recommended by Australian and overseas authorities, the annual radiation dose to an individual will be below the dose-equivalent limits recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for life-long exposure. The increased risk of radiation-induced fatal disease due to the consumption of bottled mineral water is estimated to be less than 10 -5 and is therefore negligible

  8. Fortnightly atmospheric tides forced by spring and neap tides in coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Shinsuke; Isobe, Atsuhiko; Miyao, Yasuyuki

    2015-05-18

    The influence of sea surface temperature (SST) on atmospheric processes over the open ocean has been well documented. However, atmospheric responses to SST in coastal waters are poorly understood. Oceanic stratification (and consequently, SST) in coastal waters largely depends on the fortnightly spring-neap tidal cycle, because of variations in vertical tidal mixing. Here we investigate how changes in SST during the fortnightly tidal cycle affect the lower-level atmosphere over the Seto Inland Sea, Japan. We use a combination of in situ measurements, satellite observations and a regional atmospheric model. We find that the SST in summer shows cool (warm) anomalies over most of the inland sea during spring (neap) tides. Additionally, surface air temperature is positively correlated with the SST as it varies during the fortnightly tidal cycle. Moreover, the fortnightly spring-neap cycle also influences the surface wind speed because the atmospheric boundary layer becomes stabilized or destabilized in response to the difference between air temperature and SST.

  9. Water exchange rate in RAS and dietary inclusion of micro-minerals influence growth, body composition and mineral metabolism in common carp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antony Jesu Prabhu, P.; Kaushik, S.J.; Geurden, I.; Stouten, T.; Fontagné-dicharry, S.; Veron, V.; Mariojouls, C.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Eding, E.H.; Schrama, J.W.

    2017-01-01

    Recirculation aquaculture systems (RASs) operated at low water exchange rates are known to accumulate minerals in the water. This study examined the dietary mineral requirement and metabolism in common carp reared in RAS of contrasting water exchange rates. Two independent RAS (water exchange rates,

  10. Origins of high pH mineral waters from ultramafic rocks, Central Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, Jose M. [Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001, Lisboa (Portugal)], E-mail: jose.marques@ist.ult.pt; Carreira, Paula M. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Estrada Nacional No 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Carvalho, Maria Rosario [Departamento de Geologia, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade de Lisboa, Ed. C6, 3oP, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Matias, Maria J. [Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001, Lisboa (Portugal); Goff, Fraser E. [Earth and Planetary Sciences Department MSCO3-2040, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131-000 (United States); Basto, Maria J.; Graca, Rui C.; Aires-Barros, Luis [Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001, Lisboa (Portugal); Rocha, Luis [Junta de Freguesia, Av. da Libertacao, 45-D, 7460-002, Cabeco de Vide (Portugal)

    2008-12-15

    This paper reviews the geochemical, isotopic ({sup 2}H, {sup 18}O, {sup 13}C, {sup 3}H and {sup 14}C) and numerical modelling approaches to evaluate possible geological sources of the high pH (11.5)/Na-Cl/Ca-OH mineral waters from the Cabeco de Vide region (Central-Portugal). Water-rock interaction studies have greatly contributed to a conceptual hydrogeological circulation model of the Cabeco de Vide mineral waters, which was corroborated by numerical modelling approaches. The local shallow groundwaters belong to the Mg-HCO{sub 3} type, and are derived by interaction with the local serpentinized rocks. At depth, these type waters evolve into the high pH/Na-Cl/Ca-OH mineral waters of Cabeco de Vide spas, issuing from the intrusive contact between mafic/ultramafic rocks and an older carbonate sequence. The Cabeco de Vide mineral waters are supersaturated with respect to serpentine indicating that they may cause serpentinization. Magnesium silicate phases (brucite and serpentine) seem to control Mg concentrations in Cabeco de Vide mineral waters. Similar {delta}{sup 2}H and {delta}{sup 18}O suggest a common meteoric origin and that the Mg-HCO{sub 3} type waters have evolved towards Cabeco de Vide mineral waters. The reaction path simulations show that the progressive evolution of the Ca-HCO{sub 3} to Mg-HCO{sub 3} waters can be attributed to the interaction of meteoric waters with serpentinites. The sequential dissolution at CO{sub 2} (g) closed system conditions leads to the precipitation of calcite, magnesite, amorphous silica, chrysotile and brucite, indicating that the waters would be responsible for the serpentinization of fresh ultramafic rocks (dunites) present at depth. The apparent age of Cabeco de Vide mineral waters was determined as 2790 {+-} 40 a BP, on the basis of {sup 14}C and {sup 13}C values, which is in agreement with the {sup 3}H concentrations being below the detection limit.

  11. Radium removal from Australian spa waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, B.L.; Meakins, R.L.; Bland, C.J.

    1982-01-01

    The dissolved radium content of some mineral spring waters in Victoria and Queensland has been found to exceed the maximum permissible concentration in drinking water. Activities in excess of 40 pCi/1 were measured in some bottles. Studies revealed that the dissolved radium content decreased markedly if the spring water was aerated and filtered prior to bottling. The sediment removed contained ferric hydroxide which is a natural scavenging agent for radium. The formation of such sediments in storage tanks and their removal prior to bottling may create a possible radiation hazard

  12. Water mites (Acari, Hydrachnidia of riparian springs in a small lowland river valley: what are the key factors for species distribution?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Zawal

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the impact of disturbance factors—flooding and intermittency—on the distribution of water mites in the riparian springs situated in the valley of a small lowland river, the Krąpiel. The landscape factors and physicochemical parameters of the water were analysed in order to gain an understanding of the pattern of water mite assemblages in the riparian springs. Three limnological types of springs were examined (helocrenes, limnocrenes and rheocrenes along the whole course of the river and a total of 35 water mite species were found. Our study shows that flooding influences spring assemblages, causing a decrease in crenobiontic water mites in flooded springs. The impact of intermittency resulted in a high percentage of species typical of temporary water bodies. Surprisingly, the study revealed the positive impact of the anthropogenic transformation of the river valley: preventing the riparian springs from flooding enhances the diversity of crenobiontic species in non-flooded springs. In the conclusion, our study revealed that further conservation strategies for the protection of the riparian springs along large rivers would take into account ongoing climatic changes and possible the positive impact of the anthropogenic transformation of river valleys.

  13. Gross alpha radioactivity of drinking water in Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajo-Bohus, L.; Gomez, J.; Greaves, E.D.; Herrera, O.; Salazar, V.; Smith, A.

    1997-01-01

    Bottled mineral water is consumed by a large population in Venezuela. The alpha emitters concentration was measured in samples of bottled water and water springs collected near the surface. Approximately 30% of the total mineral water suppliers was monitored. a database on natural and artificial radioactivity in drinking water was produced. Results indicate that 54% of the waters sampled contain a total alpha radioactivity of less than 0.185 Bql -1 and only 12% above 0.37 Bql -1 . Our results revealed a total annual dose of 2.3 mSv year -1 . (author)

  14. Natural radioactivity in mineral and spa water: the current regulatory approach in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuccetelli, C.; Bochicchio, F.; Ruocco, G.

    2004-01-01

    Mineral and thermal waters can contain radioactivity of natural origin which, in some cases, can lead to radiation-protection problems for both workers and consumers. In Italy, as in many other countries, the consumption of bottled mineral water is rather high and the practice of spending short stays in spas is also popular. Consumer protection against natural radioactivity in mineral water is not regulated at all and exposure from thermal waters is not treated in detail, in either the European Union or Italy. For this reason, the Italian Ministry of Health - which has the duty to authorize spa activities and the sale of mineral water on the basis of water characteristics - asked the Istituto Superiore di Sanita (the Italian National Institute of Health) to provide ad-hoc reports containing both dosimetric calculations and analysis of the radiation-protection regulations to be applied in these situations. On the basis of these reports, the Ministry of Health decided, in two statements for spa and mineral waters respectively, to indicate upper levels for natural radioactivity content. Since 2002, spa water parameters have been in force for authorization of their use and sale, and are to be promulgated by specific and more comprehensive regulations. For mineral waters used for infant feeding and drinking, levels lower than those for general public uses have been proposed, in order to take into account the higher ingestion dose coefficients for infants. At the moment, mineral water levels are not enforced as law. This paper presents the dosimetric calculation results and the Ministry of Health statements. (Author) 17 refs

  15. Effects of Fish Bone Meal Flour and Mineral Water «Abalakhskaya» on Bone Mineral Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Palshina

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of the complex application of fish bone meal flour (FBMF and mineral water «Abalakhskaya» (AMW for correction of calcium-phosphorus metabolism disorders in patients with abnormal bone mineral density and biliary tract pathology.

  16. How important is hydrotherapy? Effects of dynamic action of hot spring water as a rehabilitative treatment for burn patients in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moufarrij, S; Deghayli, L; Raffoul, W; Hirt-Burri, N; Michetti, M; de Buys Roessingh, A; Norberg, M; Applegate, L A

    2014-12-31

    Burn rehabilitation using hydrotherapy can have multiple benefits for the burn patient. The therapy uses specific mineral enriched hot spring water and water jets with varied hydro-pressure to combat hypertrophy, inflammatory reaction signs, abnormal pigmentation, and, more specifically, redness and scarring. Standard operating procedures for burn rehabilitation have been developed and integrated into the Standard of Care at the CHUV hospital using localized hydro-mechanical stimulation of burn sites (20 minutes of alternating anatomical sites) followed by constant pressure large-bore and filiform showers targeting specific scarred areas. These therapeutic regimens are repeated daily for 2 to 3 weeks. Patients showed lasting effects from this regimen (up to 3-6 months), the results becoming permanent with more uniform skin structure, color and visco-elasticity in addition to a decrease in pruritus. The specifications of clinical protocols are described herein along with the virtues of hot spring hydro-pressure therapy for burn rehabilitation. The use of hydrotherapy, which has been a controversial topic among burn units across the world, is also discussed. In North America, hydrotherapy is defined only within the scope of in-patient wound cleansing and is thought to lead to microbial auto-contamination and bacterial resistance. In Switzerland and France the emphasis of hydrotherapy is on rehabilitation after the wound has closed.

  17. Mg- and K-bearing borates and associated evaporites at Eagle Borax spring, Death Valley, California: A spectroscopic exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, J.K.

    1996-01-01

    Efflorescent crusts at the Eagle Borax spring in Death Valley, California, contain an array of rare Mg and K borate minerals, several of which are only known from one or two other localities. The Mg- and/or K-bearing borates include aristarainite, hydroboracite, kaliborite, mcallisterite, pinnoite, rivadavite, and santite. Ulexite and probertite also occur in the area, although their distribution is different from that of the Mg and K borates. Other evaporite minerals in the spring vicinity include halite, thenardite, eugsterite, gypsum-anhydrite, hexahydrite, and bloedite. Whereas the first five of these minerals are found throughout Death Valley, the last two Mg sulfates are more restricted in occurrence and are indicative of Mg-enriched ground water. Mineral associations observed at the Eagle Borax spring, and at many other borate deposits worldwide, can be explained by the chemical fractionation of borate-precipitating waters during the course of evaporative concentration. The Mg sulfate and Mg borate minerals in the Eagle Borax efflorescent crusts point to the fractionation of Ca by the operation of a chemical divide involving Ca carbonate and Na-Ca borate precipitation in the subsurface sediments. At many other borate mining localities, the occurrence of ulexite in both Na borate (borax-kernite) and Ca borate (ulexite-colemanite) deposits similarly reflects ulexite's coprecipitation with Ca carbonate at an early concentration stage. Such ulexite may perhaps be converted to colemanite by later reaction with the coexisting Ca carbonate - the latter providing the additional Ca2+ ions needed for the conversion. Mg and Ca-Mg borates are the expected late-stage concentration products of waters forming ulexite-colemanite deposits and are therefore most likely to occur in the marginal zones or nearby mud facies of ulexite-colemanite orebodies. Under some circumstances, Mg and Ca-Mg borates might provide a useful prospecting guide for ulexite-colemanite deposits

  18. 1988 Hanford riverbank springs characterization report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirkes, R.L.

    1990-12-01

    This reports presents the results of a special study undertaken to characterize the riverbank springs (i.e., ground-water seepage) entering the Columbia River along the Hanford Site. Radiological and nonradiological analyses were performed. River water samples were also analyzed from upstream and downstream of the Site as well as from the immediate vicinity of the springs. In addition, irrigation return water and spring water entering the river along the shoreline opposite Hanford were analyzed. Hanford-origin contaminants were detected in spring water entering the Columbia River along the Hanford Site. The type and concentrations of contaminants in the spring water were similar to those known to exist in the ground water near the river. The location and extent of the contaminated discharges compared favorably with recent ground-water reports and predictions. Spring discharge volumes remain very small relative to the flow of the Columbia. Downstream river sampling demonstrates the impact of ground-water discharges to be minimal, and negligible in most cases. Radionuclide concentrations were below US Department of Energy Derived Concentration Guides (DCGs) with the exception 90 Sr near the 100-N Area. Tritium, while below the DCG, was detected at concentrations above the US Environmental Protection Agency drinking water standards in several springs. All other radionuclide concentrations were below drinking water standards. Nonradiological contaminants were generally undetectable in the spring water. River water contaminant concentrations, outside of the immediate discharge zones, were below drinking water standards in all cases. 19 refs., 5 figs., 12 tabs

  19. Physicochemical and microbial assessment of spring water quality for drinking supply in Piedmont of Béni-Mellal Atlas (Morocco)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barakat, Ahmed; Meddah, Redouane; Afdali, Mustapha; Touhami, Fatima

    2018-04-01

    The present study was conducted to examine the water quality of karst springs located along the Piedmont of Béni-Mellal Atlas (Morocco) for drinking purposes. Twenty-five water samples were collected from seven springs in June, July, August and September 2013, and May 2016 have been analyzed for their physicochemical and microbial characteristics. The analytical data of temperature, pH, DO, TAC, TH, oxidizability and NH4+ showed that all sampled springs are suitable as drinking water according to Moroccan and the World Health Organization (WHO) standards. Nevertheless, EC, turbidity, and NO3- were sometimes noted higher than the allowable limits, what would be ascribed to erosion and leaching of soil and karstic rocks. The microbial analysis revealed the presence of fecal contamination (total coliforms, E. coli, and intestinal enterococci) in all springs at various times. The water quality index (WQI) calculated based on physicochemical and microbial data reveled that water quality categorization for all sampling springs was found to be 'medium' to 'good' for drinking uses in the National Sanitation Foundation WQI (NSF-WQI), and ''necessary treatment becoming more extensive'' to ''purification not necessary'' in the Dinius' Second Index (D-WQI). The Aine Asserdoune and Foum el Anceur springs showed the good quality of drinking water. According to Moroccan standards for water used for drinking purposes, the waters belong to category A1 that requires becoming drinkable a simple physical treatment and disinfection. From the type of parameters present in quantities exceeding drinking water limits, it is very obvious that these water resources are under the influence of anthropogenic activities such as sewage, waste disposal, deforestation and agricultural activities, caused land degradation and nonpoint pollution sources. Environmental attention, such as systematic quality control and adequate treatment before being used for drinking use and access to sewage

  20. [Pay attention to the human health risk of drinking low mineral water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Weiqun

    2015-10-01

    The consumption of low mineral drinking water has been increasing around the world with the shortage of water resources and the development of advanced water treatment technologies. Evidences from systematic document reviews, ecological epidemiological observations, and experimental drinking water intervention studies indicate that lack of minerals in drinking water may cause direct or indirect harm to human health, among which, the associations of magnesium in water with cardiovascular disease, as well as calcium in water with osteoporosis, are well proved by sufficient evidence. This article points out that it is urgent to pay more attention to the issues about establishment of health risk evaluation system on susceptible consuming population, establishment of lab evaluation system on water quality and health effect for non-traditional drinking water, and program of safety mineralization for demineralized or desalinated water and so on.

  1. Variation of radon levels in spring water with meteorological parameters and seismic events in Garhwal Himalayas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, Yogesh; Prasad, Ganesh; Negi, M.S.; Ramola, R.C.; Choubey, V.M.

    2006-01-01

    Radon is being measured continuously in spring water at Badshahi Thaul Campus, Tehri Garhwal in Himalayan region by using radon emanometer since December 2002. An effort was made to correlate the variance of radon concentration in spring water with meteorological parameters and seismic events in study area. The positive correlation (coefficient = 0.79, 0.53, 0.60 and 0.70) was observed between measured radon concentration and minimum and maximum temperature, relative humidity and water discharge rate from the spring, respectively. However, no correlation was recorded between radon concentration and rain fall in the study area. Sudden increase in radon concentration in spring water were observed before the earthquakes occurred on 24 January 2003 of magnitude 3.4 on Richter scale having epicenter near Uttarkashi in Garhwal Himalaya and on 31 January 2003 of magnitude 3.1 on Richter scale having epicenter almost in same area. Similar changes in radon concentration were recorded before the earthquakes occurred on 4 April 2003 with magnitude 4.0 having epicenter near Almora in Kumaon Himalaya and on 26 May 2003 having magnitude 3.5 in Chamoli region of Garhwal Himalaya. Regular radon anomaly was recorded with micro seismic events from 5th August to 4th September 2003, which is discussed in detail. The impact of non geophysical and geophysical events on radon concentration in spring water is discussed in details. This type of study will help us to develop earthquake alarm model from radon in near future. (author)

  2. Physical characteristics and quality of water from selected springs and wells in the Lincoln Point-Bird Island area, Utah Lake, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskin, R.L.; Spangler, L.E.; Holmes, W.F.

    1994-01-01

    From February 1991 to October 1992, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Central Utah Water Conservancy District, investigated the hydrology of the Lincoln Point - Bird Island area in the southeast part of Utah Lake, Utah. The investigation included measurements of the discharge of selected springs and measurements of the physical and chemical characteristics of water from selected springs and wells in the LincolnPoint - Bird Island area. This report contains data for twenty-one distinct springs in the study area including two springs beneath the surface of Utah Lake at Bird Island. Data from this study, combined with data from previous studies, indicate that the location of springs in the Lincoln Point - Bird Island area probably is controlled by fractures that are the result of faulting. Measured discharge of springs in the Lincoln Point - Bird Island area ranged from less than 0.01 cubic foot per second to 0.84 cubic foot per second. Total discharge in the study area, including known unmeasured springs and seeps, is estimated to be about 5 cubic feet per second. Reported and measured temperatures of water from springs and wells in the Lincoln Point - Bird Island area ranged from 16.0 degrees Celsius to 36.5 degrees Celsius. Dissolved-solids con-centrations ranged from 444 milligrams per liter to 7,932 milligrams per liter, and pH ranged from 6.3 to 8.1. Physical and chemical characteristics of spring and well water from the west side of Lincoln Point were virtually identical to the physical and chemical characteristics of water from the submerged Bird Island springs, indicating a similar source for the water. Water chemistry, isotope analyses, and geothermometer calculations indicate deep circulation of water discharging from the springs and indicate that the source of recharge for the springs at Lincoln Point and Bird Island does not appear to be localized in the LincolnPoint - Bird Island area.

  3. Training of panellists for the sensory control of bottled natural mineral water in connection with water chemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey-Salgueiro, Ledicia; Gosálbez-García, Aitana; Pérez-Lamela, Concepción; Simal-Gándara, Jesús; Falqué-López, Elena

    2013-11-01

    As bottled mineral water market is increasing in the world (especially in emergent and developed countries), the development of a simple protocol to train a panel to evaluate sensory properties would be a useful tool for natural drinking water industry. A sensory protocol was developed to evaluate bottled natural mineral water (17 still and 10 carbonated trademarks). The tasting questionnaire included 13 attributes for still water plus overall impression and they were sorted by: colour hues, transparency and brightness, odour/aroma and taste/flavour/texture and 2 more for carbonated waters (bubbles and effervescence). The training lasted two months with, at least, 10 sessions, was adequate to evaluate bottled natural mineral water. To confirm the efficiency of the sensory training procedure two sensory groups formed the whole panel. One trained panel (6 persons) and one professional panel (6 sommeliers) and both participated simultaneously in the water tasting evaluation of 3 sample lots. Similar average scores obtained from trained and professional judges, with the same water trademarks, confirmed the usefulness of the training protocol. The differences obtained for trained panel in the first lot confirm the necessity to train always before a sensory procedure. A sensory water wheel is proposed to guide the training in bottled mineral water used for drinking, in connection with their chemical mineral content. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Trace element analysis of mineral water samples by PIXE and ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, V.John; Augusthy, A.; Varier, K. M.; Magudapathy, P.; Panchapakesan, S.; Nair, K.G.M.

    1998-01-01

    Trace elements present in bottled mineral water have been studied by PIXE and ICP-MS. Samples from ten different brands of brands of bottled mineral water were prepared by preconcentration techniques. Measurements were carried out using the 2 MeV proton beam obtained from 3 MV Tandem pelletron accelerator at the Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar. Our results are compared with Indian standard packaged natural mineral water specifications, World Health Organisation (WHO) and European guidelines for drinking water standards. Concentration of aluminum was found to be more in one of the brands. In general, our results are comparable to the above standards. (author)

  5. Development and utilization of spring water in small scale supply ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development and utilization of spring water in small scale supply scheme for the Kogi State Polytechnic, Lokoja, central Nigeria. Joseph Omada. Abstract. No Abstract. Journal of Mining and Geology 2005, Vol. 41(1): 131-135. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  6. Synchrotron X-ray scattering studies at mineral-water interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiarello, R.P.; Sturchio, N.C.

    1995-01-01

    Synchrotron X-ray scattering techniques provide a powerful tool for the in situ study of atomic scale processes occurring at solid-liquid interfaces. We have applied these techniques to characterize and study reactions at mineral-water interfaces. Here we present two examples. The first is the characterization of the calcite (CaCO 3 ) (10 bar 14) cleavage surface, in equilibrium with deionized water, by crystal truncation rod measurements. The second is the in situ study of the heteroepitaxial growth of otavite (CdCO 3 ) on the calcite (10 bar 14) cleavage surface. The results of such studies will lead to significant progress in understanding mineral-water interface geochemistry

  7. Water quality of springs and water wells which are used in human consumption, in the Jocotitlan volcano region at State of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baca G, A.; Segovia, N.; Iturbe, J.L.; Martinez, V.; Armienta, M.A.; Seidel, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    In this work are presented the results of water quality of seven springs (San Antonio Enchisi, Las Fuentes, El Cerro, Pasteje, Los Reyes, Santa Cruz and Tiacaque) and two water wells (Jocotitlan No. 2 and La Providencia No. 35) which are used for human consumption and that are located surrounding area to Jocotitlan volcano, state of Mexico. It was determined the 222 Rn concentration through liquid scintillation, the 226 Ra by Gamma spectroscopy, the physical-chemical parameters (major elements) and bacteriological, using standardized methods. The minor elements and trace in solution were determined by Icp-Ms mass spectroscopy. The water quality was established in function of the standing standards. Therefore Las Fuentes, El Cerro, Santa Cruz, Tiacaque springs and the Jocotitlan No. 2 well, are drinkable water. So, Pasteje, Los Reyes, San Antonio Enchisi springs and the La Providencia No. 35 well are chemically drinkable but presenting bacteriological pollution. (Author)

  8. Isotope hydrogeochemical characteristics of water bodies in Munigou, Sichuan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hongye; Yin Guan; Yang Junyi; Fan Xiao

    2003-01-01

    Munigou is a part of Huanglong -Jiuzhaigou national scenic in northern Sichuan province. By using isotope geochemistry technique of natural water to analyze the data of δ D, δ 18 O, tritium contents, deuterium excess parameters (d-excess) and element chemical analyses, we discusses the recharge, runoff, discharge and hydraulic relationship between the precipitation, terrain surface water, groundwater and main spring in the Munigou area. Pearl spring and Jadeite spring are major spring resources in this spot. Pearl spring is a hot spring that recharged by the precipitation that sourced from an elevation of more than 3700 m. The part of precipitation infiltrate underground and return the earth's surface after it exchanged quantity of heat with deep hot fluid. So the Pearl spring can be exploited as hot spring; The Jadeite spring is typical acidic karst water cold spring. The velocity of flow of the water in the Jadeite spring's aquifer is slower than the Pearl spring's and the water has long detained time. The spring water has a good quality and important economical value for natural mineral water; Most of runoff in Munigou recharged by precipitation and shallow groundwater. This recharge have seasonal variation and important for scenic spot. These discussed problems in article have far-reaching meaning on evaluation the exploited potential of the Pearl spring and Jadeite spring and is important to protecting and developing the precious natural resource in Munigou area. And provides reference for the similar researches too. (authors)

  9. Sources of nitrate in water from springs and the Upper Floridan aquifer, Suwannee River basin, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, B.G.; Hornsby, H.D.; Böhlke, John Karl

    1999-01-01

    In the Suwannee River basin of northern Florida, nitrate-N concentrations are 1.5 to 20 mg 1-1 in waters of the karstic Upper Floridan aquifer and in springs that discharge into the middle reach of the Suwannee River. During 1996-1997, fertilizers and animal wastes from farming operations in Suwannee County contributed approximately 49% and 45% of the total N input, respectively. Values of ??15N-NO3 in spring waters range from 3.9??? to 5.8???, indicating that nitrate most likely originates from a mixture of inorganic (fertilizers) and organic (animal waste) sources. In Lafayette County, animal wastes from farming operations and fertilizers contributed approximately 53% and 39% of the total N input, respectively, but groundwater near dairy and poultry farms has ??15N-NO3 values of 11.0-12.1???, indicative of an organic source of nitrate. Spring waters that discharge to the Suwannee River from Lafayette County have ??15N-NO3 values of 5.4-8.39???, which are indicative of both organic and inorganic sources. Based on analyses of CFCs, the mean residence time of shallow groundwater and spring water ranges between 8-12 years and 12-25 years, respectively.

  10. Geochemistry and origins of mineralized waters in the Floridan aquifer system, northeastern Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, G.G.

    2001-01-01

    Increases in chloride concentration have been observed in water from numerous wells tapping the Floridan aquifer system in northeastern Florida. Although most increases have been in the eastern part of Duval County, Florida, no spatial pattern in elevated chloride concentrations is discernible. Possible sources of the mineralized water include modern seawater intrusion; unflushed Miocene-to-Pleistocene-age seawater or connate water in aquifer sediments; or mineralized water from deeper zones of the aquifer system or from formations beneath the Floridan aquifer system. The purpose of this study was to document the chemical and isotopic characteristics of water samples from various aquifer zones, and from geochemical and hydrogeologic data, to infer the source of the increased mineralization. Water samples were collected from 53 wells in northeastern Florida during 1997-1999. Wells tapped various zones of the aquifer including: the Fernandina permeable zone (FPZ), the upper zone of the Lower Floridan aquifer (UZLF), the Upper Floridan aquifer (UFA), and both the UFA and the UZLF. Water samples were analyzed for major ions and trace constituents and for isotopes of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, sulfur, strontium, chlorine, and boron. Samples of rock from the aquifer were analyzed for isotopes of oxygen, carbon, and strontium. In general, water from various aquifer zones cannot be differentiated based on chemistry, except for water from FPZ wells. Major-ion concentrations vary as much within the upper zone of the Lower Floridan aquifer and the Upper Floridan aquifer as between these two zones. Simple models of mixing between fresh ground water and either modern seawater or water from the FPZ as a mineralized end member show that many water samples from the UZLF aquifer and the UFA are enriched in bicarbonate, calcium, magnesium, sulfate, fluoride, and silica and are depleted in sodium and potassium (as compared to concentrations predicted by simple mixing). Chemical mass

  11. Culture -independent Pathogenic Bacterial Communities in Bottled Mineral Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdy A. Hassan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Bottled mineral water (BMW is an alternative to mains water and consider it to be better and safer. Access to safe BMW from the bacteria involving potential health hazard is essential to health. Cultivation-independent technique PCR-based single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP for genetic profiling of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes was performed using Com primer set targeting the 16S rRNA genes for detection of pathogenic bacteria in bottled mineral water from the final product of six factories for bottled mineral drinking water in Wadi El-natron region- Egypt. These factories use often ozone technology to treat large quantities of water because of its effectiveness in purifying and conditioning water. A total of 27 single products were isolated from the profiles by PCR re-amplification and cloning. Sequence analysis of 27 SSCP bands revealed that the 16S rRNA sequences were clustered into seven operational taxonomic units (OTUs and the compositions of the communities of the six samples were all common. The results showed that most communities from phyla Alphaproteobacteria and certainly in the Sphingomonas sp. Culture-independent approaches produced complementary information, thus generating a more accurate view for the bacterial community in the BMW, particularly in the disinfection step, as it constitutes the final barrier before BMW distribution to the consumer

  12. Multi-generational drinking of bottled low mineral water impairs bone quality in female rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqun Qiu

    Full Text Available Because of reproductions and hormone changes, females are more sensitive to bone mineral loss during their lifetime. Bottled water has become more popular in recent years, and a large number of products are low mineral water. However, research on the effects of drinking bottled low mineral water on bone health is sparse.To elucidate the skeletal effects of multi-generational bottled water drinking in female rats.Rats continuously drank tap water (TW, bottled natural water (bNW, bottled mineralized water (bMW, or bottled purified water (bPW for three generations.The maximum deflection, elastic deflection, and ultimate strain of the femoral diaphysis in the bNW, bMW, and bPW groups and the fracture strain in the bNW and bMW groups were significantly decreased. The tibiae calcium levels in both the bNW and bPW groups were significantly lower than that in the TW group. The tibiae and teeth magnesium levels in both the bNW and bPW groups were significantly lower than those in the TW group. The collagen turnover markers PICP (in both bNW and bPW groups were significantly lower than that in the TW group. In all three low mineral water groups, the 1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D levels were significantly lower than those in the TW group.Long-term drinking of low mineral water may disturb bone metabolism and biochemical properties and therefore weaken biomechanical bone properties in females. Drinking tap water, which contains adequate minerals, was found to be better for bone health. To our knowledge, this is the first report on drinking bottled low mineral water and female bone quality on three generation model.

  13. Hydrochemical and isotopic properties of the mineralized thermal waters of Kirsehir Province, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unsal, Nail; Celik, Mehmet; Murathan, Atilla M.

    2003-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to determine the chemical and isotopic properties and reservoir temperature of mineralized thermal waters of Kirsehir region, Turkey. Areas which have been included in this study are Savcih, Karakurt, Terme, Bulamach and Mahmutlu. Mahmutlu and Bulamach waters are mainly of the Na-Cl type, Savcih waters are of the Na-HCO 3 -Cl type and Karakurt and Terme waters are mainly of the Ca-HCO 3 type. The Saturation Index values of the waters have been evaluated and mineralized thermal waters were found to be saturated with respect to the calcite and dolomite minerals but undersaturated with respect to the halite mineral in spite of being NaCl type. The results of hydrochemical and environmental isotope ( 18 O, D, 3 H) analyses show that the waters are of meteoric origin and have varying component of relatively old water. The reservoir temperature of the five areas of thermal manifestations fall between 50 and 100 degC. Highest temperatures of about 100 degC have been estimated for Bulamach and Mahmutlu using various chalcedony geothermometers. Mahmutlu mineralized thermal water has longer residence times and higher reservoir temperature compared to other geothermal areas in Kirsehir Province. (author)

  14. Hydrological evolution and chemical structure of a hyper-acidic spring-lake system on Whakaari/White Island, NZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, B. W.; White, S.; Britten, K.; Scott, B. J.

    2017-10-01

    White Island has a long and varied history of acid spring discharge and shallow ephemeral lake formation on its main crater floor. In the 12 months prior to the onset of the 1976-2000 eruptive episode, mass discharge from the spring system increased ca. 10-fold, pointing to a strong coupling of the hydrothermal environment to the evolving magmatic system. Between 1976 and 1978, the formation of numerous eruption vents to 200 m depth in the Western Sub-crater abruptly changed the hydraulic gradients in the volcano, resulting in the reversal of groundwater flow in the massif towards the newly-formed crater(s). This affected not only the style of volcanic activity (leading to phreatic-phreatomagmatic-magmatic eruption cycles), but also led to the demise of the spring system, with discharge from the main crater declining by a factor > 100 by 1979. Eruptive activity ended shortly after a moderate Strombolian eruption in mid-2000, after which ephemeral lakes started to form in the eruption crater complex. Between 2003 and 2015 there were three complete lake filling and evaporative cycles, reflecting varying heat flow through the conduit system beneath the lake. Over these cycles, lake water concentrations of Cl and SO4 varied between ca. 35-150 and 5-45 g/L respectively, with pH values temporally ranging from + 1.5 to - 1. Springs appeared on the Main Crater floor in 2004, and their discharges varied with lake level, pointing to the lake level being a primary control over the piezometric surface in the crater area. Springs closest to the crater complex show direct evidence of crater lake water infiltration into the crater floor aquifer, whereas distal spring discharges show compositional variations reflecting vertical displacement of the interface between shallow, dilute condensate and underlying acidic brine fluids. Source components for the spring fluids include magmatic vapour, dissolved andesitic host rocks, seawater and meteoric water. Lake waters, on the other hand

  15. Mineralization of hormones in breeder and broiler litters at different water potentials and temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmings, Sarah N J; Hartel, Peter G

    2006-01-01

    When poultry litter is landspread, steroidal hormones present in the litter may reach surface waters, where they may have undesirable biological effects. In a laboratory study, we determined the mineralization of [4-14C]-labeled 17beta-estradiol, estrone, and testosterone in breeder litter at three different water potentials (-56, -24, and -12 MPa) and temperatures (25, 35, and 45 degrees C), and in broiler litter at two different water potentials (-24 and -12 MPa) and temperatures (25 and 35 degrees C). Mineralization was similar in both litters and generally increased with increasing water content and decreasing temperature. After 23 wk at -24 MPa, an average of 27, 11, and litter was mineralized to 14CO2 at 25, 35, and 45 degrees C, respectively. In contrast, mineralization of the radiolabeled estradiol and estrone was mineralized. The minimal mineralization suggests that the litters may still be potential sources of hormones to surface and subsurface waters.

  16. Estimates concentrations in bottled 222Rn of the dose due to mineral waters in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assadi, M. R.; Esmaealnejad, M.; Rahmatinejad, Z.

    2006-01-01

    Radon is a radionuclide that has the main role in exposure. Radon in water causes exposure in whole body but the largest dose being received by the stomach, as EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) estimates that radon in drinking water causes about 168 cancer deaths per year: 89 p ercent f rom lung cancer caused by breathing released to the indoor air from water and 11 p ercent f rom stomach cancer caused by consuming water containing radon. Now days the consumption of bottled mineral waters has become very popular. As is known, some kinds of mineral waters contain naturally occurring radionuclides in higher concentration than the usual drinking (tap) water. Surveys and reports on radon in most surface waters is low compared with radon level in groundwater and mineral water. In our work, the concentration of Rn(222) was determined in some bottled mineral waters available in Iran , and in next step the dose contribution ; due to ingestion ; for 1 l d -1 bottled mineral water consumption.

  17. The occurrence of Aeromonas spp. in the bottled mineral water, well water and tap water from the municipal supplies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise de Oliveira Scoaris

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the occurrence of Aeromonas sp in the bottled mineral water, well water and tap water from the municipal supplies. Positive samples were found for Aeromonas spp. 12.7% from the mineral water, 8.3% from the artesian water and 6.5% from the tap water. The recovery of Aeromonas spp. was significantly higher in the bottled mineral and artesian water than in the tap water from municipal supplies. The occurrence of the Aeromonas spp. did not correlate significantly with the contamination indicator bacteria (i.e. total coliforms in the artesian water samples. However, a significant correlation was found between Aeromonas spp. and total coliforms in the both mineral water and tap water samples. The presence or absence of a correlation between the indicator bacteria and Aeromonas could reflect the occasional appearance of the pathogen in the drinking water and the different rates of survival and recovery of these agents compared with those fecal indicators. The finding that 41.6, 14.8 and 9.0 % of the artesian water, bottled mineral water and tap water, respectively, sampled in the current study failed to meet the Brazilian standard for total coliforms in the drinking water should therefore be of concern.A porcentagem de amostras positivas para Aeromonas foi de 12.7% para água mineral, 8.3% para água de poço artesiano e 6.5% para água do sistema público de abastecimento. O isolamento de Aeromonas spp. foi significativamente maior em água mineral e água de poço artesiano do que em água do sistema público. A ocorrência de Aeromonas spp. não teve correlação significativa com os indicadores de contaminação tradicionalmente utilizados (coliformes totais em amostras de água de poço artesiano. No entanto, esta correlação foi positiva e significativa em água mineral e água do sistema público. A presença ou ausência de correlação entre bactérias indicadoras e a presença de Aeromonas pode refletir o

  18. Natural radioactivity in hot and mineral waters in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, I.; Abbass, M.; Kattan, Z.

    1994-08-01

    A study of water chemistry and radioactivity of hot and mineral ground waters was conducted in Syria in order to determine the natural radioactivity levels as well as the mobility process of major radionuclides in the studied systems. The water samples were collected generally from carbonate and basaltic aquifer systems. The chemistry of groundwaters was a reflection of the rock type, while no relationship was found between the radionuclide activities and water temperatures. The increase of 222 Rn concentration in hot and mineral waters was accompanied by a similar increase of the concentration of its patent radionuclides (U t ot and 226 Ra). In parallel, the relative increase of 222 Rn concentration was correlated significantly with the presence of the large faults systems prevailing in the studied areas (Palmyrides and Great African Faults Systems). In all the cases, the radionuclide activity levels were below the maximum contaminant levels given for drinking water and health effects. (author). 11 refs., 7 figs., 8 tabs

  19. Silicon isotope fractionation during silica precipitation from hot-spring waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geilert, Sonja; Vroon, Pieter; Keller, Nicole; Gudbrnadsson, Snorri; Stefánsson, Andri; van Bergen, Manfred

    2014-05-01

    Hot-spring systems in the Geysir geothermal area, Iceland, have been studied to explore silicon isotope fractionation in a natural setting where sinter deposits are actively formed over a temperature interval between 20° and 100° C. The SiO2(aq)concentrations in spring and stream waters range between 290 and 560ppm and stay relatively constant along downstream trajectories, irrespective of significant cooling gradients. The waters are predominantly oversaturated in amorphous silica at the temperatures measured in the field. Correlations between the saturation indices, temperature and amounts of evaporative water loss suggest that cooling and evaporation are the main causes of subaqueous silica precipitation. The δ30Si values of dissolved silica in spring water and outflowing streams average around +1o probably due to the small quantities of instantaneously precipitating silica relative to the dissolved amount. Siliceous sinters, in contrast, range between -0.1o to -4.0o consistent with a preferred incorporation of the light silicon isotope and with values for precipitated silica becoming more negative with downstream decreasing temperatures. Larger fractionation magnitudes are inversely correlated with the precipitation rate, which itself is dependent on temperature, saturation state and the extent of a system. The resulting magnitudes of solid-fluid isotopic fractionation generally decline from -3.5o at 10° C to -2.0o at 90° C. These values confirm a similar relationship between fractionation magnitude and temperature that we found in laboratory-controlled silica-precipitation experiments. However, a relatively constant offset of ca. -2.9o between field and experimental fractionation values indicates that temperature alone cannot be responsible for the observed shifts. We infer that precipitation kinetics are a prominent control of silicon isotope fractionation in aqueous environments, whereby the influence of the extent of the system on the precipitation

  20. Radium 226 and other natural radionuclides in drinking water and in beverages in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gans, I.; Fusban, H.U.; Wollenhaupt, H.; Kiefer, J.; Gloebel, B.; Berlich, J.; Porstendoerfer, J.

    1987-01-01

    Ra-226 was detected in tap water from public water supply plants, commercial bottled mineral water, springs, wells and also in milk, beer and wine; Rn-222 was detected in tap water, springs and wells. For these kinds of water and mineral waters, exploratory measurements on the content of Pb-210, Po-210 and uranium isotopes were carried out, too. While using the new dose concept of the ICRP and with standard quantities for mineral water consumption with the highest concentration measured, only in few cases the partial body doses of 0.9 mSv/a in the critical organs is exceeded, i.e. for Ra-226 and uranium. Even in these cases, effective dose equivalents of 0.3 mSv are not reached. The resulting health hazard lies in the range which is predetermined by external exposure to terrestrial radiation. (orig./DG) With 18 tabs., 7 figs [de

  1. Lower Colorado River GRP Public Water System Springs, Nevada, 2012, Nevada Division of Environmental Protection Bureau of Safe Drinking Water

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Public Water System wells, springs an intake locations are collected and maintained by NDEP Bureau of Safe Drinking Water (BSDW). The data is kept in the Safe...

  2. Preliminary conceptual model for mineral evolution in Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffy, C.J.

    1993-12-01

    A model is presented for mineral alteration in Yucca Mountain, Nevada, that suggests that the mineral transformations observed there are primarily controlled by the activity of aqueous silica. The rate of these reactions is related to the rate of evolution of the metastable silica polymorphs opal-CT and cristobalite assuming that a SiO 2(aq) is fixed at the equilibrium solubility of the most soluble silica polymorph present. The rate equations accurately predict the present depths of disappearance of opal-CT and cristobalite. The rate equations have also been used to predict the extent of future mineral alteration that may result from emplacement of a high-level nuclear waste repository in Yucca Mountain. Relatively small changes in mineralogy are predicted, but these predictions are based on the assumption that emplacement of a repository would not increase the pH of water in Yucca Mountain nor increase its carbonate content. Such changes may significantly increase mineral alteration. Some of the reactions currently occurring in Yucca Mountain consume H + and CO 3 2- . Combining reaction rate models for these reactions with water chemistry data may make it possible to estimate water flux through the basal vitrophyre of the Topopah Spring Member and to help confirm the direction and rate of flow of groundwater in Yucca Mountain

  3. Results from the Big Spring basin water quality monitoring and demonstration projects, Iowa, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowden, R.D.; Liu, H.; Libra, R.D.

    2001-01-01

    Agricultural practices, hydrology, and water quality of the 267-km2 Big Spring groundwater drainage basin in Clayton County, Iowa, have been monitored since 1981. Land use is agricultural; nitrate-nitrogen (-N) and herbicides are the resulting contaminants in groundwater and surface water. Ordovician Galena Group carbonate rocks comprise the main aquifer in the basin. Recharge to this karstic aquifer is by infiltration, augmented by sinkhole-captured runoff. Groundwater is discharged at Big Spring, where quantity and quality of the discharge are monitored. Monitoring has shown a threefold increase in groundwater nitrate-N concentrations from the 1960s to the early 1980s. The nitrate-N discharged from the basin typically is equivalent to over one-third of the nitrogen fertilizer applied, with larger losses during wetter years. Atrazine is present in groundwater all year; however, contaminant concentrations in the groundwater respond directly to recharge events, and unique chemical signatures of infiltration versus runoff recharge are detectable in the discharge from Big Spring. Education and demonstration efforts have reduced nitrogen fertilizer application rates by one-third since 1981. Relating declines in nitrate and pesticide concentrations to inputs of nitrogen fertilizer and pesticides at Big Spring is problematic. Annual recharge has varied five-fold during monitoring, overshadowing any water-quality improvements resulting from incrementally decreased inputs. ?? Springer-Verlag 2001.

  4. Hydrochemical Characteristics and Formation of the Saline or Salty Springs in Eastern Sichuan Basin of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X.

    2017-12-01

    Saline or salty springs provide important information on the hydrogeochemical processes and hydrology within subsurface aquifers. More than 20 saline and salty springs occur in the core of anticlines in the eastern Sichuan Basin in southwestern China where the Lower and Middle Triassic carbonates outcrop. Water samples of 8 saline and salty springs (including one saline hot spring) were collected for analyses of the major and minor constituents, trace elements and stable oxygen and hydrogen isotopes. The TDS of the springs range from 4 to 83 g/L, and they are mainly of Cl-Na type. Sr, Ba and Li are the predominant trace elements. The δ2H and δ18O of the water samples indicate that they are of meteoric origin. The source of salinity of the springs originates from dissolution of minerals in the carbonates, including halite, gypsum, calcite and dolomite. The formation mechanism of the springs is that groundwater receives recharge from infiltration of precipitation, undergoes shallow or deep circulation in the core of the anticline and incongruent dissolution of the salt-bearing carbonates occurs, and emerges in the river valley in the form of springs with relatively high TDS. The 8 springs can be classified into 4 springs of shallow groundwater circulation and 4 springs of deep groundwater circulation according to the depth of groundwater circulation, 7 springs of normal temperature and 1 hot spring according to temperature. There are also 2 up-flow springs: the carbonate aquifers are overlain by relatively impervious sandstone and shale, groundwater may flows up to the ground surface through the local portion of the overlying aquiclude where fractures were relatively well developed, and emerges as an up-flow spring. Knowledge of the hydrochemical characteristics and the geneses of the saline and salty springs are of important significance for the utilization and preservation of the springs.

  5. The comparison of heavy metals (Pb and Cd) in the water and sediment during spring and neap tide tidal periods in Popoh Bay, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yona, D.; Febriana, R.; Handayani, M.

    2018-04-01

    This study attempted to investigate different concentration of lead (Pb) dan cadmium (Cd) in the water and sediment during spring and neap tidal periods in the Popoh Bay, Indonesia. Water and sediment samples were taken during spring and neap tides from eight sampling stations in the study area. The result shows higher concentration of Pb than the concentration of Cd in both spring and neap tides due to higher input of Pb from the oil pollution by boat and fisheries activities. Pb concentrations were doubled during neap tide in both water and sediments with the value of 0.51 and 0.28 ml/L in the water during neap and spring tide, respectively; and 0.27 ppm and 0.16 mg/kg in the sediment during neap and spring tide, respectively. On the other hand, Cd concentrations in the water were found in almost similar values between spring and neap tide (0.159 and 0.165 ml/L in spring tide and neap tide, respectively), but in the sediment, the concentration was a little higher during spring tide (0.09 and 0.05 mg/kg during spring and neap tide, respectively). This study shows that water movement during spring and neap tides has significant effect on the distribution of heavy metals.

  6. Assessment of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 210}Pb concentration in mineral waters from Parque das Águas de Lambari and Contendas, MG and evaluation of the committed effective doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakasugi, Denise S.M.; Damatto, Sandra R., E-mail: denise.sanny@usp.br, E-mail: damatto@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    The exploration of several Brazilian hydromineral resorts, that have springs of radioactive mineral water consumed by the population support the relevance of the present work. This study is being developed in the IPEN with the aid of the responsible for Parque das Águas de Lambari and Contendas. Thereby, this work aims to determine the activity concentrations of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 210}Pb to verify the influence of seasonality in these water parks springs. Thereunto, gross alpha and beta measurements were used after radiochemical separation for these radionuclides determination and measurement in a low background proportional detector. The results showed that Parque das Águas de Lambari presented highest concentration values when compared with Contendas. In Parque das Águas de Contendas , the highest concentration values were 77 ± 5 mBq/L and 129 ± 5 mBq/L for {sup 226}Ra for Gasosa II springs and {sup 228}Ra for Gasosa I spring, respectively, which correspond to the spring season; for {sup 210}Pb, 27 ± 2 mBq/L for Magnesiana spring in the same season. In Parque das Águas de Lambari, the highest concentration values for {sup 226}Ra was 177 ± 2 mBq/L and for {sup 210}Pb, 36 ± 2 mBq/L, both in the Magnesiana spring, for the summer season and 135 ± 5 mBq/L for {sup 228}Ra, in Magnesiana spring, for the spring season. The data were analyzed through descriptive and correlational statistical techniques. Therefore, it was possible to evaluate the committed effective doses due to the consumption of these waters and to assess the radiological risk for the radionuclides studied. (author)

  7. Molecular dynamics of interfacial water and cations associated with clay minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cygan, Randall T.; Greathouse, Jeffery A.; Teich-McGoldrick, Stephanie L.; Nenoff, Tina M.; Daemen, Luke L.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Clay mineral interfaces, including interlayer and external surfaces, play an essential role in many geochemical processes. Adsorption, dissolution, precipitation, nucleation, and growth mechanisms, in particular, are controlled by the interplay of structure, thermodynamics, kinetics, and transport at clay mineral-water interfaces. Molecular details of these geochemical processes are especially important in evaluating the fate of radionuclide waste in the environment. Such details are typically beyond the sensitivity of experimental and analytical methods and therefore require accurate models and simulations. Also, the basal surfaces and interlayers of clay minerals offer structurally constrained interfacial environments to better evaluate the local molecular chemistry. We have developed and used classical and quantum methods to examine the complex behavior of clay mineral-water interfaces and dynamics of interlayer species. Bulk structures, swelling behavior, diffusion, and adsorption processes are evaluated and compared to experimental and spectroscopic findings. In particular, inelastic neutron scattering methods provide a successful probe of vibrational behavior of interlayer species to help guide the simulations. Librations involving rock, wag, and twist motions of water molecules are particularly sensitive to the interlayer environment of smectite minerals such as montmorillonite and beidellite. Trends in librational modes for interlayer water as a function of clay structure and cation hydration energy are readily explained using structural and vibrational analysis derived from molecular simulation. Molecular dynamics simulations of virtual phases, including hydrated pyrophyllite, help to explain the behavior of interlayer water that is not associated with cation species. Additionally, we use large-scale molecular dynamics simulations of other layered minerals, such as muscovite, to evaluate adsorption

  8. Radiological quality of packaged waters produced in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franques, Nathalie; Perrin, Marie-Line; Godet, Jean-Luc; Pineau, Cyril; Loyen, Jeanne; Brassac, Annette; Gleizes, Marc; Baudry, Michel

    2013-09-01

    Based on radionuclide and uranium analyses performed in 2012 by the IRSN on packaged waters produced in France, this report presents the main results on this national survey. The objectives were a systematic measurement of radioactivity indicators, a systematic measurement of uranium content, and a limited measurement of radon-222 content in some samples. After some recalls on the notions of radioactivity and exposure, on uranium and radon properties, and of the present regulation, this report presents the adopted methodology, and discusses the range and limitation of this study. It presents and comments the results of systematic analyses of spring and natural mineral waters (presence of tritium, global beta and alpha activity, uranium concentration), the results of measurements of radon-222, and the results of additional analyses of spring and natural mineral waters (main radionuclides, radium-226, uranium isotopes, other radionuclides). It reports the calculation of doses and the interpretation of results for waters which have been submitted to additional analyses

  9. Lithium content in potable water, surface water, ground water, and mineral water on the territory of Republic of Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Kostik, Vesna; Bauer, Biljana; Kavrakovski, Zoran

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine lithium concentration in potable water, surface water, ground, and mineral water on the territory of the Republic of Macedonia. Water samples were collected from water bodies such as multiple public water supply systems located in 13 cities, wells boreholes located in 12 areas, lakes and rivers located in three different areas. Determination of lithium concentration in potable water, surface water was performed by the technique of inductively coupl...

  10. Recharge Area, Base-Flow and Quick-Flow Discharge Rates and Ages, and General Water Quality of Big Spring in Carter County, Missouri, 2000-04

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imes, Jeffrey L.; Plummer, Niel; Kleeschulte, Michael J.; Schumacher, John G.

    2007-01-01

    Exploration for lead deposits has occurred in a mature karst area of southeast Missouri that is highly valued for its scenic beauty and recreational opportunities. The area contains the two largest springs in Missouri (Big Spring and Greer Spring), both of which flow into federally designated scenic rivers. Concerns about potential mining effects on the area ground water and aquatic biota prompted an investigation of Big Spring. Water-level measurements made during 2000 helped define the recharge area of Big Spring, Greer Spring, Mammoth Spring, and Boze Mill Spring. The data infer two distinct potentiometric surfaces. The shallow potentiometric surface, where the depth-to-water is less than about 250 feet, tends to mimic topographic features and is strongly controlled by streams. The deep potentiometric surface, where the depth-to-water is greater than about 250 feet represents ground-water hydraulic heads within the more mature karst areas. A highly permeable zone extends about 20 mile west of Big Spring toward the upper Hurricane Creek Basin. Deeper flowing water in the Big Spring recharge area is directed toward this permeable zone. The estimated sizes of the spring recharge areas are 426 square miles for Big Spring, 352 square miles for Greer Spring, 290 square miles for Mammoth Spring, and 54 square miles for Boze Mill Spring. A discharge accumulation curve using Big Spring daily mean discharge data shows no substantial change in the discharge pattern of Big Spring during the period of record (water years 1922 through 2004). The extended periods when the spring flow deviated from the trend line can be attributed to prolonged departures from normal precipitation. The maximum possible instantaneous flow from Big Spring has not been adequately defined because of backwater effects from the Current River during high-flow conditions. Physical constraints within the spring conduit system may restrict its maximum flow. The largest discharge measured at Big Spring

  11. Mineralizing urban net-zero water treatment: Field experience for energy-positive water management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tingting; Englehardt, James D

    2016-12-01

    An urban net-zero water treatment system, designed for energy-positive water management, 100% recycle of comingled black/grey water to drinking water standards, and mineralization of hormones and other organics, without production of concentrate, was constructed and operated for two years, serving an occupied four-bedroom, four-bath university residence hall apartment. The system comprised septic tank, denitrifying membrane bioreactor (MBR), iron-mediated aeration (IMA) reactor, vacuum ultrafilter, and peroxone or UV/H 2 O 2 advanced oxidation, with 14% rainwater make-up and concomitant discharge of 14% of treated water (ultimately for reuse in irrigation). Chemical oxygen demand was reduced to 12.9 ± 3.7 mg/L by MBR and further decreased to below the detection limit (treatment. The process produced a mineral water meeting 115 of 115 Florida drinking water standards that, after 10 months of recycle operation with ∼14% rainwater make-up, had a total dissolved solids of ∼500 mg/L, pH 7.8 ± 0.4, turbidity 0.12 ± 0.06 NTU, and NO 3 -N concentration 3.0 ± 1.0 mg/L. None of 97 hormones, personal care products, and pharmaceuticals analyzed were detected in the product water. For a typical single-home system with full occupancy, sludge pumping is projected on a 12-24 month cycle. Operational aspects, including disinfection requirements, pH evolution through the process, mineral control, advanced oxidation by-products, and applicability of point-of-use filters, are discussed. A distributed, peroxone-based NZW management system is projected to save more energy than is consumed in treatment, due largely to retention of wastewater thermal energy. Recommendations regarding design and operation are offered. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Geochemical survey for hot and mineral springs, related to the 1997 May 11 Sumikawa landslide, Akita prefecture; 1997 nen 5 gatsu 11 nichi ni hasseishita Akitaken Sumikawa onsen jisuberi ni kanrenshita kinkyu onsen kosen suishitsu chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, M.; Endo, H. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-07-01

    Landslide and hydrothermal explosions have occurred near the Sumikawa spa in Akita Prefecture in May 1997. Investigations were performed on correlation of fountains, hot and mineral springs and open cracks seen on aerial photographs taken immediately after the events with the present landslide and hydrothermal explosions. Going toward the Sumikawa spa on the mountaineering path along the Sumikawa river from Onuma can find a flow of valley water, which has not appeared suddenly due to the present landslide (the flow has been existing from long time ago, on which bridges have been installed). The sample water quality has low chloride ion concentration and high sulfuric acid and bicarbonate ion concentrations, and is of high-temperature volcanic gas containing a great amount of hydrogen chloride gas. The water quality was determined non-relative to the present hydrothermal explosions. On the other hand, hot springs and well waters distributed around the Akita Yaeyama and Hachimantai areas have low chloride ion concentration and high sulfuric acid ion concentration. The majority is characterized in that their Ca/Na concentration ratio is relatively low. This suggests that the areas have been formed under common geological conditions. However, the water quality is thought to show different properties due to complex influences of transformation zones and exhalation gas (hydrogen sulfide). 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Marble Canyon spring sampling investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCulley, B.

    1985-10-01

    The Mississippian Leadville Limestone is the most permeable formation in the lower hydrostratigraphic unit underlying the salt beds of the Paradox Formation in Gibson Dome, Paradox Basin, Utah, which is being considered as a potential nuclear waste repository site. The closest downgradient outcrop of the Mississippian limestone is along the Colorado River in Marble Canyon, Arizona. This report describes the sampling and interpretation of springs in that area to assess the relative contribution of Gibson Dome-type Leadville Limestone ground water to that spring discharge. The high-volume (hundreds of liters per second or thousands of gallons per minute) springs discharging from fault zones in Marble Canyon are mixtures of water recharged west of the Colorado River on the Kaibab Plateau and east of the river in the Kaiparowits basin. No component of Gibson Dome-type Leadville Limestone ground water is evident in major and trace element chemistry or isotopic composition of the Marble Canyon Springs. A low-volume (0.3 liters per second or 5 gallons per minute) spring with some chemical and isotopic characteristics of Gibson Dome-type Leadville Limestone water diluted by Kaiparowits basin-type water issues from a travertine mound in the Bright Angel Shale on the Little Colorado River. However, the stable isotopic composition and bromide levels of that spring discharge, in addition to probable ground-water flow paths, contradict the dilution hypothesis

  14. Conceptual model for the origin of high radon levels in spring waters - The example of the St. Placidus spring, Grisons, Swiss Alps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gainon, F.; Goldscheider, N.; Surbeck, H.

    2007-01-01

    A variety of geological, hydrochemical and isotopic techniques were applied to explain the origin of exceptionally high radon levels in the St. Placidus spring near the city of Disentis in the Swiss Alps, where an average of 650 Bq/L 222 Rn was measured. 222 Rn is a radioactive noble gas with a half-life of 4 days, which results from the disintegration of radium ( 226 Ra). The high radon levels can neither be explained by generally increased radium content in the fractured aquifer rock (orthogneiss), nor by the radium concentration in the spring water. It was possible to show that there must be a productive radium reservoir inside the aquifer but very near to the spring. This reservoir mainly consists of iron and manganese oxides and hydroxides, which precipitate in a zone where reduced, iron-rich groundwaters mix occasionally with oxygen-rich, freshly infiltrated rainwater or meltwater. The iron, as well as the reduced and slightly acid conditions, can be attributed to pyrite oxidation in the recharge area of the spring. Radium cations strongly adsorb and accumulate on such deposits, and generate radon, which is then quickly transported to the spring with the flowing groundwater. (author)

  15. Diagenetic and other highly mineralized waters in the Polish Carpathians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuber, Andrzej; Chowaniec, Jozef

    2009-01-01

    Highly mineralized waters of different chemical types and origin occur in the flysch formations and their bedrocks in the western part of the Polish Carpathians. The marine sedimentation water of the flysch formations is not preserved, as the most mineralized and the heaviest isotopic values of flysch waters are characterized by δ 18 O and δ 2 H values in the ranges of 5-7 per mille and -(20-30) per mille , respectively. Their origin is related to the dehydration of clay minerals during burial diagenesis, with molecules of marine water completely removed by molecules of released bound water. They are relatively enriched in Na + in respect to the marine water, supposedly due to the release of Na + during the illitization of smectites and preferable incorporation of other cations from the primary brine into newly formed minerals. In some parts of younger formations, i.e. in the Badenian sediments, brines occur with isotopic composition close to SMOW and Cl - contents greatly exceeding the typical marine value of about 19.6 g/L, supposedly due to ultrafiltration. Most probably, the marine water of the flysch formations was similarly enriched chemically in its initial burial stages. Final Cl - contents in diagenetic waters depend on different Cl - contents in the primary brines and on relationships between diagenetic and further ultrafiltration processes. In some areas, diagenetic waters migrate to the surface along fault zones and mix with young local meteoric waters becoming diluted, with the isotope composition scattering along typical mixing lines. In areas with independent CO 2 flow from great depths, they form chloride CO 2 -rich waters. Common CO 2 -rich waters are formed in areas without near-surface occurrences of diagenetic waters. They change from the HCO 3 -Ca type for modern waters to HCO 3 -Mg-Ca, HCO 3 -Na-Ca and other types with elevated TDS, Mg 2+ and/or Na - contents for old waters reaching even those of glacial age. Bedrocks of the flysch are

  16. Effects of Mineral Admixtures, Water Binder Ratio and Curing on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Suitable addition of mineral admixtures like fly ash (FA), silica fume (SF), metakaolin (MK) etc., in concrete improves strength and durability characteristics of concrete. This paper presents the laboratory investigation on the effects of mineral admixtures and water binder ratio on compressive strength is discussed. The study ...

  17. Isotopic variation in spring water and rain water of Sikkim: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diksha; Sinha, U.K.; Ansari, Md. Arzoo; Mendhekar, G.N.; Dash, Ashutosh; Dhakal, Deepak

    2015-01-01

    Environmental stable isotopic signatures of surface water, rainwater and groundwater provide valuable information about interconnection between them. Stable isotopes of H (δ 2 H) and O (δ 18 O) have been widely employed by many researchers to understand rainwater, surface water and groundwater inter-connections. The Global Meteoric Water Line (GMWL, δD= 8 x δ 18 O+10) the locus of precipitation water over whole of the globe, established by Craig, used to tell about the environment of water. For the objective spring water (namely Dhalay Khola, Lower Changey and Bhulkey) were collected from the study area (Sikkim) during May 2013, March 2013 and August 2014. Rainwater sample were also collected with increasing altitude. These samples were analyzed for environmental isotopes (δ 2 H, δ 18 O) by a isotope ratio mass spectrometer (IsoPrime-100) using pyrolysis mode of elemental analyzer for deuterium and gas equilibration method for 18 O. The precision (2 sigma) of (δ 2 H and δ 18 O are ±0.15 and ± 0.1‰ respectively

  18. Mineral Composition of Organically Grown Wheat Genotypes: Contribution to Daily Minerals Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Abrar; Larsson, Hans; Kuktaite, Ramune; Johansson, Eva

    2010-01-01

    In this study, 321 winter and spring wheat genotypes were analysed for twelve nutritionally important minerals (B, Cu, Fe, Se, Mg, Zn, Ca, Mn, Mo, P, S and K). Some of the genotypes used were from multiple locations and years, resulting in a total number of 493 samples. Investigated genotypes were divided into six genotype groups i.e., selections, old landraces, primitive wheat, spelt, old cultivars and cultivars. For some of the investigated minerals higher concentrations were observed in selections, primitive wheat, and old cultivars as compared to more modern wheat material, e.g., cultivars and spelt wheat. Location was found to have a significant effect on mineral concentration for all genotype groups, although for primitive wheat, genotype had a higher impact than location. Spring wheat was observed to have significantly higher values for B, Cu, Fe, Zn, Ca, S and K as compared to winter wheat. Higher levels of several minerals were observed in the present study, as compared to previous studies carried out in inorganic systems, indicating that organic conditions with suitable genotypes may enhance mineral concentration in wheat grain. This study also showed that a very high mineral concentration, close to daily requirements, can be produced by growing specific primitive wheat genotypes in an organic farming system. Thus, by selecting genotypes for further breeding, nutritional value of the wheat flour for human consumption can be improved. PMID:20948934

  19. Spring-recharging in the Himalayas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Anil P.

    2009-01-01

    in the settlement of mountain villages in the Himalayas. In fact, in many places, it was the single factor that determined the location of the villages and naturally rainwater has been the source which recharge the catchments of the springs. Forest cover keeps these catchment areas alive for the slow and constant recharging of the springs. In the recent past due to continuous deforestation, the catchment areas have been drastically reduced. Eventually, these denuded lands were unable to conserve water, which has resulted in the drying-up and dying of many mountain springs. Certainly, this became a major threat to both the natural habitats of the springs, as well as to the survival of the communities. In order to meet the water needs of the villages, the government-development agencies devised a distribution system in which water was diverted from regions with an adequate supply to those deprived of water. This approach to remedy the water shortage brought about significant water conflicts, as the rights to water resources were not well defined. This system also did not adequately address water-management and distribution lines for the water resources

  20. Development of technological modes for preparation of mineral water for sports drinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Kovalenko

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Conducted research study is devoted to development of technological modes of desalination of natural mineral medical-table sodium chloride water for water treatment technologies in the production of beverages for athletes. Materials and methods. Samples of initial water and water that has been desalinated using the experimental installation with different modes were investigated. Measuring of temperature mode of crystallizer was carried out using temperature sensors and digital thermometer. Quality indicators of the water samples using Photometer Palintest 7500 and standard techniques weredetermined. Resultsand discussion.The influence of different factors of the process of freezing on the quality of desalinated natural mineral medical-table sodium chloride water "Kuyalnik" was investigated. The patterns of distribution of components of initial water between the frozen solid phase, and a concentrated solution in the process of freezing are identified. For the majority of the investigated factors order of traffic was such: Ca 2+ >HCO -3 >(Na+>Cl- >(Mg2+>SO2-4 >K+, and with a decrease in water salinity so: Ca2+>SO2-4 >(Na+>Cl- >(HCO-3 >Mg2+>K+. Summary of the study results allowed to recommend the following technological parameters of the carrying out the process of desalination of natural mineral sodium chloride water by freeze: operating temperature mode of crystallizer, which is changing in the process from -2 to -4 ° C, the concentration of carbon dioxide in the water at the beginning of the process of freezing - 3,7 g/dm 3, duration of the desalination process (process without cooling - 60 minutes, one step of freezing, melting of solid phase under ambient conditions without prior separation of the frozen solid phase. With such technological modes of the carrying out the process of freezing it is possible to obtain water with mineral composition, mainly with existing relevant recommendations to the mineral composition of

  1. Geological report on water conditions at Platt National Park, Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Charles Newton; Schoff, Stuart Leeson

    1939-01-01

    Platt National Park, located in southern Oklahoma, containing 842 acres, was established by Acts of Congress in 1902, 1904, and 1906. The reason for the setting aside of this area was the presence in the area of some 30 'mineral' springs, the water from which contains sulphur, bromide, salt, and other minerals, which are believed to possess medicinal qualities. For many generations the sulphur springs of the Chickasaw Nation had been known for their reputed healing qualities. It had long been the custom for families to come from considerable distances on horseback and in wagons and camp near the springs, in order to drink the water. In course of time a primitive town, known as Sulphur Springs, grew up near a group of springs known since as Pavilion Springs at the mouth of Sulphur Creek, now known as Travertine Creek. This town was still in existence at the time of my first visit to the locality in July, 1901. At this time, in company with Joseph A. Taff, of the United States Geological Survey, I spent a week riding over the country making a preliminary survey looking toward the setting aside of the area for a National Park. After the establishment of the National Park, the old town of Sulphur Springs was abandoned, and when the present boundaries of the park had been established the present town of Sulphur, now county seat of Murray County, grew up. In July 1906, on request of Superintendent Joseph F. Swords, I visited the park and made an examination of the various springs and submitted a report, dated August 15, 1906, to Secretary of the Interior E.A. Hitchcock. Copies of this report are on file in the Regional Office and at Platt National Park. In this report I set forth the approximate amount of flow of the various springs, the character of the water in each, and the conditions of the springs as of that date. I also made certain recommendations regarding proposed improvements of each spring. In this report I say: 'In the town of Sulphur, four wells have been

  2. Hot spring deposits on a cliff face: A case study from Jifei, Yunnan Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brian; Peng, Xiaotong

    2014-04-01

    A cliff face in the Jifei karst area, southwest China, is covered by a spectacular succession of precipitates that formed from the hot spring water that once flowed down its surface. This layered succession is formed of aragonite layers that are formed largely of “fountain dendrites”, calcite layers that are formed mostly of “cone dendrites”, and microlaminated layers that contain numerous microbes and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). Many of the aragonite crystals are hollow due to preferential dissolution of their cores. The calcite cone dendrites are commonly covered with biofilms, reticulate Si-Mg coatings, and other precipitates. The microbial layers include dodecahedral calcite crystals and accessory minerals that include opal-A, amorphous Si-Mg coatings, trona, barite, potassium sulfate crystals, mirabillite, and gaylussite. Interpretation of the δ18O(calcite) and δ18O(aragonite) indicates precipitation from water with a temperature of 54 to 66 °C. The active hot spring at the top of the cliff presently ejects water at a temperature of 65 °C. Layers, 1 mm to 6 cm thick, record temporal changes in the fluids from which the precipitates formed. This succession is not, however, formed of recurring cycles that can be linked to diurnal or seasonal changes in the local climate. Indeed, it appears that the climatic contrast between the wet season and the dry season had little impact on precipitation from the spring waters that flowed down the cliff face. Integration of currently available evidence suggests that the primary driving force was aperiodic changes in the CO2 content of the spring waters because that seems to be the prime control on the saturation levels that underpinned precipitation of the calcite and aragonite as well as the dissolution of the aragonite. Such variations in the CO2 content of the spring water were probably due to changes that took place in the subterranean plumbing system of the spring.

  3. Growth Performance, Mineral Digestibility, and Blood Characteristics of Ostriches Receiving Drinking Water Supplemented with Varying Levels of Chelated Trace Mineral Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfori, Hossein; Ghasemi, Hossein Ali; Hajkhodadadi, Iman; Nazaran, Mohammad Hassan; Hafizi, Maryam

    2018-05-01

    The effects of water supplementation of chelated trace minerals (CTM, which is named Bonzaplex designed with chelate compounds technology) on growth performance, apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of minerals, and some blood metabolites, TM, and antioxidant enzyme values in African ostriches were investigated from 8 to 12 months of age. A total of 20 8-month-old ostriches (five birds in five replicate pens) was randomly allocated into one of the following four treatments: (1) control (basal diet + tap water), (2) low CTM (basal diet +100 mg/bird/day CTM powder in tap water), (3) medium CTM (basal diet +1 g/bird/day CTM powder in tap water), and (4) high CTM (basal diet +2 g/bird/day CTM powder in tap water). Compared with control, medium CTM improved (P water can be recommended for improving growth performance, mineral absorption, and antioxidant status of ostriches fed diets containing the recommended levels of inorganic TM.

  4. Isotope and chemical investigation of geothermal springs and thermal water produced by oil wells in potwat area, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M.; Rafique, M.; Tariq, J.A; Choudhry, M.A.; Hussain, Q.M.

    2008-10-01

    Isotopes and geochemical techniques were applied to investigate the origin, subsurface history and reservoir temperatures of geothermal springs in Potwar. Two sets of water samples were collected. Surface temperatures of geothermal springs ranges from 52 to 68.3 C. Waters produced by oil wells in Potwar area were also investigated. Geothermal springs of Potwar area are Na-HCO/sub 3/ type, while the waters produced by oil wells are Na-Cl and Ca-Cl types. Source of both the categories of water is meteoric water recharged from the outcrops of the formations in the Himalayan foothills. These waters undergo very high /sup 18/O-shift (up to 18%) due to rock-water interaction at higher temperatures. High salinity of the oil field waters is due to dissolution of marine evaporites. Reservoir temperatures of thermal springs determined by the Na-K geo thermometers are in the range of 56-91 deg. C, while Na-K-Ca, Na-K-Mg, Na-K-Ca-Mg and quartz geo thermometers give higher temperatures up to 177 C. Reservoir temperature determined by /sup 18/O(SO/Sub 4/-H/sub 2/O) geo thermometer ranges from 112 to 138 deg. C. There is wide variation in reservoir temperatures (54-297 deg. C) of oil fields estimated by different chemical geo thermometers. Na-K geo thermometer seems more reliable which gives close estimates to real temperature (about 100 deg. C) determined during drilling of oil wells. (author)

  5. Photochemical Cycling of Reactive Oxygen Species in Hydrothermal Springs: Impacts on Biosignature Preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mave, M. A.; Hinman, N. W.; Stevens, L.

    2017-12-01

    Biosignatures can be preserved via rapid entombment by aqueous minerals in a system. Wilson et al. (2000) found that high UV flux leads to increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which promote iron (Fe) oxidation, and possible accumulation on microbial surfaces, leading to detectable microfossils. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a measurable ROS that serves as proxy for less stable ROS. Overall diel cycling of H2O2 is likely controlled by changes in photoreactive speciation of Fe (McKnight et al., 1988) in Fe-rich systems. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a 48-hour photochemical field study of Elk Pool in the Norris Geyser Basin at Yellowstone National Park in July, 2017 in which we measured UVA and UVB, along with H2O2 via the scopoletin fluorescence quenching method (Holm et al., 1987). Measurements were taken every few hours, and we found that maximum ROS production occurred during maximum UV irradiation. We also ran several experiments on-site in which we collected and altered spring water to either inactivate or catalyze naturally occurring reactions as well as to isolate primary mechanisms responsible for production of H2O2. Experiments were run in UV permeable Whirlpak bags and Fisherbrand tubes. Elk Pool showed only trace Fe content (pH 4) at the time of our study, so Fe-silica coated petrographic slides were added to the tube experiments (Fe-added experiments). Both sets of experiments included filtered and unfiltered spring water to differentiate biotic from abiotic mechanisms, and both UV-exposed and dark controls to separate UV-induced mechanisms for ROS formation. UV-exposed water always had greater ROS than dark experiments. Filtered spring water had higher ROS concentrations than unfiltered water, except when Fe was added. In the Fe-added experiments, unfiltered spring water had slightly greater ROS production relative to filtered water and had the lowest pH and highest aqueous Fe content after 7 hours. All Fe-added experiments showed

  6. Natural mineral bottled waters available on the Polish market as a source of minerals for the consumers. Part 2: The intake of sodium and potassium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gątarska, Anna; Ciborska, Joanna; Tońska, Elżbieta

    Natural mineral waters are purchased and consumed according to consumer preferences and possible recommendations. The choice of appropriate water should take into account not only the general level of mineralization but also the content of individual components, including electrolytes such as sodium and potassium. Sodium is necessary to ensure the proper physiological functions of the body. It is defined as a health risk factor only when its excessive intake occurs. Potassium acts antagonistically towards sodium and calcium ions, contributes to a reduction of the volume of extracellular fluids and at the same time reduces muscle tension and permeability of cell membranes. The demand for sodium and potassium is of particular importance in people expending significant physical effort, where an increased electrolyte supply is recommended. The aim of the study was to estimate the content of sodium and potassium in natural mineral waters available in the Polish market and to evaluate the intake of those components with the commercially available mineral waters by different groups of consumers at the assumed volume of their consumption. The research material consisted of natural mineral waters of forty various brands available on the Polish market. The examined products were either produced in Poland or originated in other European countries. Among the products under examination, about 30% of the waters were imported from Lithuania, Latvia, the Czech Republic, France, Italy and Germany. A sample for analyses consisted of two package units of the examined water from different production lots. Samples for research were collected at random. The study was conducted with the same samples in in which calcium and magnesium content was determined, which was the subject of the first part of the study. The content of sodium and potassium was determined using the emission technique (acetylene-air flame), with the use of atomic absorption spectrometer – ICE 3000 SERIES – THERMO

  7. Changes of carbon dioxide in surface waters during spring in the Southern Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, D.C.E.; Baar, H.J.W. de; Bathmann, U.V.

    1997-01-01

    The fugacity of CO2 (fCO2) and the content of chlorophyll a in surface-water were determined during consecutive sections between 47° and 60°S along 6°W in austral spring, October–November 1992. In the Polar Frontal region, the fCO2 of surface-water decreased from slightly below the atmospheric value

  8. Ion enrichment of snowmelt water by processes within a podzolic soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazlett, P.W.; Foster, N.W.; English, M.C.

    1992-01-01

    Ion concentrations in snowmelt runoff, forest-floor percolate and mineral-soil percolate collected in a tolerant hardwood forest at the Turkey Lakes Watershed, ON, were determined during the spring snowmelt of 1986. The results were examined to assess the modification of snowmelt water after contact with the forest soil. Concentrations of NO 3 - increased from 17 to 201 μmol c L -1 and SO 4 2- increased from 25 to 107 μmol c L -1 as meltwater passed through the organic layers and the upper mineral-soil horizons. Mineralization of organic N and S, and desorption of So 4 2- from the soil, provide sources of these ions for leaching during the snowmelt period. Ion-exchange reactions in the forest floor and upper mineral soil resulted in a decrease in H + and an increase in Ca 2+ concentration is solution. In the steep topography of this forested basin, the altered snowmelt solutions are rapidly transported downslope towards the aquatic system by lateral flow. Processes within the forest soil may therefore play an important role in determining the effects of snowmelt water on surface water chemistry in the spring

  9. Characterization of the hydrogeology of the sacred Gihon Spring, Jerusalem: a deteriorating urban karst spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiel, Ronit Benami; Grodek, Tamir; Frumkin, Amos

    2010-09-01

    The Gihon Spring, Jerusalem, is important for the major monotheistic religions. Its hydrogeology and hydrochemistry is studied here in order to understand urbanization effects on karst groundwater resources, and promote better water management. High-resolution monitoring of the spring discharge, temperature and electrical conductivity, was performed, together with chemical and bacterial analysis. All these demonstrate a rapid response of the spring to rainfall events and human impact. A complex karst system is inferred, including conduit flow, fissure flow and diffuse flow. Electrical conductivity, Na+ and K+ values (2.0 mS/cm, 130 and 50 mg/l respectively) are very high compared to other nearby springs located at the town margins (0.6 mS/cm, 15 and <1 mg/l respectively), indicating considerable urban pollution in the Gihon area. The previously cited pulsating nature of the spring was not detected during the present high-resolution monitoring. This phenomenon may have ceased due to additional water sources from urban leakage and irrigation feeding the spring. The urbanization of the recharge catchment thus affects the spring water dramatically, both chemically and hydrologically. Appropriate measures should therefore be undertaken to protect the Gihon Spring and other karst aquifers threatened by rapid urbanization.

  10. Determination of concentration of radon, volatile organic compounds (VOC) and water chemistry in springs near to Popocatepetl volcano

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pena, P.; Segovia, N.; Lopez M, B.E.; Cisniega, G.; Valdes, C.; Armienta, M.A.; Mena, M.

    2004-01-01

    Popocatepetl volcano is a high-risk active volcano in Central Mexico where the highest population density in the country is settled. Radon in the soil and groundwater together with water chemistry from samples of nearby springs is analysed as a function of the 2002-2003 volcanic activity. Soil radon indicated fluctuations related both the meteorological parameters and sporadic explosive events. Groundwater radon showed essentially differences in concentration due to the specific characteristics of the studied springs. Water chemistry showed stability along the monitoring period indicating also differences between springs. No anthropogenic pollution from volatile organic compounds was observed. (Author)

  11. Investigation of origin, subsurface processes and reservoir temperature of geothermal springs around Koh-i-Sultan volcano, Chagai, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M.; Rafique, M.; Iqbal, N.; Fazil, M.

    2009-07-01

    In Chagai area, seven springs with maximum surface temperature of 32.2 deg. C located in the vicinity of Miri Crater of Koh-i-Sultan Volcano were investigated using isotope and chemical techniques. Two springs of Padagi Kaur are MgSO/sub 4/ type, while all the other springs at Batal Kaur, Miri Kaur and Chigin Dik are Na-Cl type. Alteration of water to SO/sub 4/ type takes place by absorption of magmatic H/sub 2/S and the acidic solution is further responsible to dissolve rock salt and carbonate minerals. EC increases from Padagi springs (4940 and 8170 S/cm) to Chigin Dik springs (45600 S/cm). Chagai thermal manifestations receive recharge from meteoric waters in the vicinity of Padagi Kaur (east side of Miri Crater), which is heated by the hot magma chamber of Koh-i-Sultan most probably through deep circulation. Movement of the thermal water is from Miri Crater towards Chigin Dik area. Residence time is more than 60 years. The thermal waters do not have any contribution of shallow young groundwater and they have high 1/sup 8/O-shift (6 to 8%) due to rock-water interaction. Reservoir temperatures estimated by different chemical geo thermometers like Na-K, Na-K-Ca, Na-K-Mg 1/2 (triangular plot) are quite high (200-300 deg. C), while the silica and (SO/sub 4/-H/sub 2/O) geo thermometers give relatively low temperature ranges (107-144 deg. C and 112-206 deg. C respectively). (author)

  12. Measurement of radon concentration in ground water at Saijo sake brewery by means of γ-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takenaka, Kodai; Takatori, Hiroshi; Kojima, Yasuaki; Shizuma, Kiyoshi

    2008-01-01

    Recently, natural water such as ground water and/or spring water of various places is popular for the environmental preservation and safety of food. Measurement of the radon concentration in ground water is important for risk estimate of drinking water and whether the water can be authorized as the mineral spring (74 Bq/L). In this work, radon concentration is ground water from eight places which were utilized for Saijo sake breweries was measured by means of γ-ray spectrometry. Radon concentration in each well was measured every month for two years. The variation in the radon concentration was investigated for seasonal variation, difference between the type of well, correlations with pH, water temperature and atmospheric temperature. The results are as follows: An average value of the radon concentration was 160 Bq/L which meant most of ground water satisfies the mineral spring standard. The radon concentration of the drilling well was higher than that of the punched well. The variation in the radon concentration shows no seasonal variations, nor depends on the water temperature, the atmospheric temperature and the pH. (author)

  13. Influence of UV radiation on the microflora of mineral waters mineralized differently

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svorcova, L.

    1981-01-01

    The investigation was carried out on mineral waters with evaporation residues of 25 to 106 mg/l and 6300 to 6500 mg/l, resp., and turbidities up to 50 mg/l SiO 2 and numbers of germs up to 5 . 10 4 ml -1 . The parameters of the radiation device are: rate of water flow 2 to 7 l/min, radiation dosage 1.9 to 8.2 kWs/m 2 , wavelength 253.7 nm. As expected, the elimination performance with regard to the percent efficiency is dependent on the number of germs in the raw water, but the numbers of germs for the pseudomonades, mesophilic and gram-negative germs are always lower than 20/ml in clear raw water. Waters with turbidity values higher than 15 mg/l SiO 2 must be filtered prior to exposure. Iron and manganese bacteria are impaired only slightly, which leads to a rapid aftergrowth in the water. (author)

  14. Diagenetic and other highly mineralized waters in the Polish Carpathians

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuber, Andrzej, E-mail: andrzej.zuber@pgi.gov.pl [Polish Geological Institute, Carpathian Branch, PL-31560 Krakow, ul. Skrzatow 1 (Poland); Chowaniec, Jozef [Polish Geological Institute, Carpathian Branch, PL-31560 Krakow, ul. Skrzatow 1 (Poland)

    2009-10-15

    Highly mineralized waters of different chemical types and origin occur in the flysch formations and their bedrocks in the western part of the Polish Carpathians. The marine sedimentation water of the flysch formations is not preserved, as the most mineralized and the heaviest isotopic values of flysch waters are characterized by {delta}{sup 18}O and {delta}{sup 2}H values in the ranges of 5-7 per mille and -(20-30) per mille , respectively. Their origin is related to the dehydration of clay minerals during burial diagenesis, with molecules of marine water completely removed by molecules of released bound water. They are relatively enriched in Na{sup +} in respect to the marine water, supposedly due to the release of Na{sup +} during the illitization of smectites and preferable incorporation of other cations from the primary brine into newly formed minerals. In some parts of younger formations, i.e. in the Badenian sediments, brines occur with isotopic composition close to SMOW and Cl{sup -} contents greatly exceeding the typical marine value of about 19.6 g/L, supposedly due to ultrafiltration. Most probably, the marine water of the flysch formations was similarly enriched chemically in its initial burial stages. Final Cl{sup -} contents in diagenetic waters depend on different Cl{sup -} contents in the primary brines and on relationships between diagenetic and further ultrafiltration processes. In some areas, diagenetic waters migrate to the surface along fault zones and mix with young local meteoric waters becoming diluted, with the isotope composition scattering along typical mixing lines. In areas with independent CO{sub 2} flow from great depths, they form chloride CO{sub 2}-rich waters. Common CO{sub 2}-rich waters are formed in areas without near-surface occurrences of diagenetic waters. They change from the HCO{sub 3}-Ca type for modern waters to HCO{sub 3}-Mg-Ca, HCO{sub 3}-Na-Ca and other types with elevated TDS, Mg{sup 2+} and/or Na{sup -} contents for

  15. Use of thermal springs for geochemical exploration in Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study an attempt was made to examine precious metals in the localities of the hydrothermal areas in the central Rift valley with the objective of whether thermal springs can hit mineral deposits. Thus, Filwoha, Sodere, Ambo and Wondogenet thermal spring areas were selected and specimens were collected for gold, ...

  16. Links between climate change, water-table depth, and water chemistry in a mineralized mountain watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Andrew H.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Caine, Jonathan S.; Todd, Andrew S.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that climate change is causing rising solute concentrations in mountain lakes and streams. These changes may be more pronounced in mineralized watersheds due to the sensitivity of sulfide weathering to changes in subsurface oxygen transport. Specific causal mechanisms linking climate change and accelerated weathering rates have been proposed, but in general remain entirely hypothetical. For mineralized watersheds, a favored hypothesis is that falling water tables caused by declining recharge rates allow an increasing volume of sulfide-bearing rock to become exposed to air, thus oxygen. Here, we test the hypothesis that falling water tables are the primary cause of an increase in metals and SO4 (100-400%) observed since 1980 in the Upper Snake River (USR), Colorado. The USR drains an alpine watershed geologically and climatologically representative of many others in mineralized areas of the western U.S. Hydrologic and chemical data collected from 2005 to 2011 in a deep monitoring well (WP1) at the top of the USR watershed are utilized. During this period, both water table depths and groundwater SO4 concentrations have generally increased in the well. A numerical model was constructed using TOUGHREACT that simulates pyrite oxidation near WP1, including groundwater flow and oxygen transport in both saturated and unsaturated zones. The modeling suggests that a falling water table could produce an increase in metals and SO4 of a magnitude similar to that observed in the USR (up to 300%). Future water table declines may produce limited increases in sulfide weathering high in the watershed because of the water table dropping below the depth of oxygen penetration, but may continue to enhance sulfide weathering lower in the watershed where water tables are shallower. Advective air (oxygen) transport in the unsaturated zone caused by seasonally variable recharge and associated water table fluctuations was found to have little influence on pyrite

  17. Method for strontium isolation from high-mineralized water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evzhanov, Kh.; Andriyasova, G.M.

    1983-01-01

    A method to isolate strontium from high-mineralized waters containing sodium, magnesium, calcium and strontium chlorides, which differ from the prototype method in a considerable decrease in energy consumption with the preservation of a high degree of Sr, Mg and Ca isolation selectivity, has been suggested. According to the method suggested mineralized waters are treated with alkali (NaOH) in the amount of 95-97% of stoichiometry by magnesium, then after separation of magnesium hydroxide precipitate mother liquor is treated with sodium carbonate in the amount of 50-60% of stoichiometry by calcium. After separation of calcium carbonate precipitate mother liquor is treated with NaOH in the amount of 130-135% of stoichiometry by calcium. After separation of calcium hydroxide precipitate from mother liquor by means of sodium carbonate introduction strontium carbonate is isolated. The degree of strontium extraction in the form of SrCO 3 constitutes 90.5% of its content in the initial solution. The method presented can be used for strontium separation from natural and waste waters

  18. Natural radioactivity in various water samples and radiation dose estimations in Bolu province, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorur, F Korkmaz; Camgoz, H

    2014-10-01

    The level of natural radioactivity for Bolu province of north-western Turkey was assessed in this study. There is no information about radioactivity measurement reported in water samples in the Bolu province so far. For this reason, gross α and β activities of 55 different water samples collected from tap, spring, mineral, river and lake waters in Bolu were determined. The mean activity concentrations were 68.11 mBq L(-1), 169.44 mBq L(-1) for gross α and β in tap water. For all samples the gross β activity is always higher than the gross α activity. All value of the gross α were lower than the limit value of 500 mBq L(-1) while two spring and one mineral water samples were found to have gross β activity concentrations of greater than 1000 mBq L(-1). The associated age-dependent dose from all water ingestion in Bolu was estimated. The total dose for adults had an average value exceeds the WHO recommended limit value. The risk levels from the direct ingestion of the natural radionuclides in tap and mineral water in Bolu were determinated. The mean (210)Po and (228)Ra risk the value of tap and mineral waters slightly exceeds what some consider on acceptable risk of 10(-4) or less. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. 1.3. Chemical and mineral additives of concretes and water used for concrete mix preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saidov, D.Kh.

    2011-01-01

    It is known that chemical and mineral additives increase physicochemical properties of concretes, thus, chemical and mineral additives, including super plasticizer and organo mineral additives are examined in this work. It was noted that along with salt water fresh water can also be used for concrete mix preparation.

  20. Assessment of "2"2"6Ra, "2"2"8Ra and "2"1"0Pb concentration in mineral waters from Parque das Águas de Lambari and Contendas, MG and evaluation of the committed effective doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakasugi, Denise S.M.; Damatto, Sandra R.

    2017-01-01

    The exploration of several Brazilian hydromineral resorts, that have springs of radioactive mineral water consumed by the population support the relevance of the present work. This study is being developed in the IPEN with the aid of the responsible for Parque das Águas de Lambari and Contendas. Thereby, this work aims to determine the activity concentrations of "2"2"6Ra, "2"2"8Ra and "2"1"0Pb to verify the influence of seasonality in these water parks springs. Thereunto, gross alpha and beta measurements were used after radiochemical separation for these radionuclides determination and measurement in a low background proportional detector. The results showed that Parque das Águas de Lambari presented highest concentration values when compared with Contendas. In Parque das Águas de Contendas , the highest concentration values were 77 ± 5 mBq/L and 129 ± 5 mBq/L for "2"2"6Ra for Gasosa II springs and "2"2"8Ra for Gasosa I spring, respectively, which correspond to the spring season; for "2"1"0Pb, 27 ± 2 mBq/L for Magnesiana spring in the same season. In Parque das Águas de Lambari, the highest concentration values for "2"2"6Ra was 177 ± 2 mBq/L and for "2"1"0Pb, 36 ± 2 mBq/L, both in the Magnesiana spring, for the summer season and 135 ± 5 mBq/L for "2"2"8Ra, in Magnesiana spring, for the spring season. The data were analyzed through descriptive and correlational statistical techniques. Therefore, it was possible to evaluate the committed effective doses due to the consumption of these waters and to assess the radiological risk for the radionuclides studied. (author)

  1. Interaction between Bisphosphonates and Mineral Water: Study of Oral Risedronate Absorption in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Akihisa; Akagi, Yuuki; Shimomura, Hitoshi; Aoyama, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Bisphosphonates are antiosteoporotic agents prescribed for patients with osteoporosis. Drug package inserts for bisphosphonate supplements indicate that their bioavailability is reduced by high levels of metal cations (Ca(2+), Mg(2+), etc.). However, standards for these cations in water used for taking risedronate have not been defined. Here, we examined the effect of calcium and magnesium in mineral waters on the bioavailability of the third-generation bisphosphonate, risedronate, following oral administration in rats. As risedronate is unchanged and eliminated renally, risedronate absorption was estimated from the amount excreted in the urine. Risedronate was dissolved in mineral water samples and administered orally at 0.35 mg/kg. Urine samples were collected for 24 h after dosing. Risedronate was extracted from urine using ion-pair solid-phase cartridges and quantified by HPLC with UV detection (262 nm). Cumulative recovery of risedronate was calculated from the amount excreted in the urine. The 24-h recovery of risedronate from evian® (0.32±0.02% [mean±standard deviation (S.D.)], n=4) and Contrex(®) (0.22±0.05%) mineral waters was significantly lower than that from tap water (0.47±0.04%, pAbsorption of risedronate in calcium chloride and magnesium chloride aqueous solutions of the same hardness (822 mg/L) was 54% (0.27±0.04%) and 12% (0.51±0.08%) lower, respectively, compared with ultrapure water; suggesting that absorption of risedronate declines as the calcium concentration of mineral waters increases. Consumption of mineral waters containing high levels of calcium (80 mg/L or above), such as evian® and Contrex(®), is therefore not recommended when taking risedronate.

  2. Microorganisms in the deposits of cold carbon mineral waters of the Russian Far East and their habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalitina, E. G.; Kharitonova, N. A.; Kuzmina, T. V.; Chelnokov, G. A.

    2018-01-01

    Study of the chemical composition of carbon mineral waters has shown the prevalence of calcium, magnesium and sodium among the cations, sulfate, nitrate and chloride ions among the anions, and ferric iron, strontium and manganese in the microelement composition. Results of the microbiological studies have revealed that carbon mineral waters contain various microorganisms that can transform the physical and chemical composition of mineral waters by interfering with geochemical cycles. The sanitary and microbiological properties of carbon mineral waters have been evaluated thus proving that the waters of Medvezhii (Shmakovskoe deposit) are microbiologically clean.

  3. Water quality in vicinity of Fenton Hill Site, 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purtymun, W.D.; Adams, W.H.; Owens, J.W.

    1975-09-01

    The water quality at nine surface water stations, eight ground water stations, and the drilling operations at the Fenton Hill Site have been studied as a measure of the environmental impact of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory geothermal experimental studies in the Jemez Mountains. Surface water quality in the Jemez River drainage area is affected by the quality of the inflow from thermal and mineral springs. Ground water discharges from the Cenozoic Volcanics are similar in chemical quality. Water in the main zone of saturation penetrated by test hole GT-2 is highly mineralized, whereas water in the lower section of the hole, which is in granite, contains a higher concentration of uranium

  4. Origin of life and living matter in hot mineral water

    OpenAIRE

    Ignatov, Ignat; Mosin, Oleg

    2013-01-01

    In this review the composition of water and isotopic structure of water during a process of origin of life is submitted. The data obtained testify that life maintenance depends on physical-chemical properties of water and external factors – temperature and рН. Hot mineral alkaline water, which interacts with CaCO 3 is closest to these conditions. Next in line with regard to quality is sea and mountain water.

  5. IMMOBILIZATION OF HEAVY METALS IN SOILS AND WATER BY A MANGANESE MINERAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    A synthesized Mn mineral used in study on adsorption of heavy metals from water has shown a great adsorption capability for Pb, Cu, Cd, Co, Ni and Zn on this mineral over a pH range from 2 to 8. The retention of Pb on this mineral was as high as 10% of its weight. Application of ...

  6. [The marketing evaluation of the consumers' preference as regards the use of medicinal and medicinal table mineral waters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaskin, D V; Babaskina, L I; Pavlova, A V

    2017-12-28

    The development of modern technologies in physiotherapy with the use of mineral waters, the expansion of the assortment of the medicinal and medicinal table waters as well as increasing the competitive advantages of domestic products require the more extensive marketing survey of the consumers' preferences in the market of mineral waters. The objective of the present study was the marketing evaluation of the consumers' preference in the segment of medicinal and medicinal table mineral waters in the city of Moscow. The survey involved 697 consumers of medicinal and medicinal table mineral waters. The sampling was carried out by the deterministic quota method. The field research was conducted by means of personal verbal interviews (32%) and the CATI to Web method (phone recruiting and on-line questioning) (68%) with the use of the structured questionnaire. Positioning was carried out making use of the two-dimensional schematic map and scoring assessment on an individual basis with calculation of integrated indicators. The marketing evaluation has demonstrated that the principal motive for purchasing mineral waters in more than 40% of respondents was the treatment and prevention of various diseases including disturbances in the urogenital system as well as digestive and respiratory disorders that appear to be the most frequent reasons for the consumption of mineral waters. The main factors that form the preferences of the consumers as regards the use of a concrete variety of mineral waters were elucidated. Of crucial importance for approximately 40% of the consumers (p<0.01) proved to be their health condition, the medical indications, and the available information about the therapeutic effectiveness of one or another type of mineral waters. Other factors were the quality of mineral water, its cost, the manufacturer and/or place of production, the attractiveness of the packaging, etc. The evaluation of the positioning of the mineral water consumers' preferences made

  7. Chemical characteristics of the major thermal springs of Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariner, R.H.; Presser, T.S.; Evans, W.C.

    1976-07-01

    Twenty-one thermal springs in western Montana were sampled for chemical, isotope, and gas compositions. Most of the springs issue dilute to slightly saline sodium-bicarbonate waters of neutral to slightly alkaline pH. A few of the springs issue sodium-mixed anion waters of near neutral pH. Fluoride concentrations are high in most of the thermal waters, up to 18 miligrams per litre, while F/Cl ratios range from 3/1 in the dilute waters to 1/10 in the slightly saline waters. Most of the springs are theoretically in thermodynamic equilibrium with respect to calcite and fluorite. Nitrogen is the major gas escaping from most of the hot springs; however, Hunters Hot Springs issue principally methane. The deuterium content of the hot spring waters is typical of meteoric water in western Montana. Geothermal calculations based on silica concentrations and Na-K-Ca ratios indicate that most of the springs are associated with low temperature aquifers (less than 100/sup 0/C). Chalcedony may be controlling the silica concentrations in these low temperature aquifers even in ''granitic'' terranes.

  8. Microscale Biosignatures and Abiotic Mineral Authigenesis in Little Hot Creek, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily A. Kraus

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Hot spring environments can create physical and chemical gradients favorable for unique microbial life. They can also include authigenic mineral precipitates that may preserve signs of biological activity on Earth and possibly other planets. The abiogenic or biogenic origins of such precipitates can be difficult to discern, therefore a better understanding of mineral formation processes is critical for the accurate interpretation of biosignatures from hot springs. Little Hot Creek (LHC is a hot spring complex located in the Long Valley Caldera, California, that contains mineral precipitates composed of a carbonate base (largely submerged topped by amorphous silica (largely emergent. The precipitates occur in close association with microbial mats and biofilms. Geological, geochemical, and microbiological data are consistent with mineral formation via degassing and evaporation rather than direct microbial involvement. However, the microfabric of the silica portion is stromatolitic in nature (i.e., wavy and finely laminated, suggesting that abiogenic mineralization has the potential to preserve textural biosignatures. Although geochemical and petrographic evidence suggests the calcite base was precipitated via abiogenic processes, endolithic microbial communities modified the structure of the calcite crystals, producing a textural biosignature. Our results reveal that even when mineral precipitation is largely abiogenic, the potential to preserve biosignatures in hot spring settings is high. The features found in the LHC structures may provide insight into the biogenicity of ancient Earth and extraterrestrial rocks.

  9. Determination of arsenic and bromine in hot spring waters by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikawada, Y.; Kawai, S.; Oi, T.

    2004-01-01

    Concentrations of arsenic and bromine dissolved in hot spring waters have been determined by neutron activation analysis using 0.5 cm 3 of sample waters without any chemical pretreatment. The samples prepared for neutron irradiation were simply pieces of filter papers which were infiltrated with samples. With the results of satisfactorily high accuracy and precision, this analytical method was found to be very convenient for the determinations of arsenic and bromine dissolved in water at ppm to sub-ppm levels. (author)

  10. Masters of the springs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Steffen

    2010-01-01

    flanked by villages that relied on these water recourses for agricultural production. The springs emerged in the zone separating the cemeteries from the settlements. The freshwater springs were actively incorporated into the religious landscape of the dead, by consistently erecting mounds of a particular...... for water - a process which perhaps also is evidenced by temple constructions at Barbar, Umm al-Sujur and Abu Zaydan....

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF RAPID TECHNIQUE FOR DETERMINATION OF THE TOTAL MINERALIZATION OF NATURAL WATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Kuchmenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new approach has been proposed for rapid and easy evaluation of a indicator of quality and properties of natural water - soluble salt content (mineralization. The method of quartz crystal microbalance is employed at load of the mass-sensitive resonator electrode (BAW-type with investigated water. The degree of correlation between the various indicators related to the contents of salts and insoluble compounds and the level of mineralization obtained by the standard method (gravimetry has been studied. A procedure for salt weighing by single sensor at unilateral load with small sample of natural water has been developed. The optimal conditions for measurement is established using the design of experiment by model 23 . The possibilities of quartz crystal microbalance for determination of non-volatile compounds in the water are described. The calibration of piezosensor is produced by standard solution NaCl (c = 1.000 g / dm3 at optimal conditions of experiment. The adequacy and accuracy of proposed technique is assessed by the correlation between the results of quartz crystal microbalance and conductometry. The correlation between indicators of mineralization established by quartz crystal microbalance and gravimetry is found. It has been obtained an equation that can be used to calculate the standard indicator of the mineralization by the results of a quartz crystal microbalance using single sensor. The approaches to enhance the analytical capabilities of the developed technique for water with low and high mineralization are proposed. The metrological characteristics of quartz crystal microbalance of insoluble compounds in natural water are estimated. A new technique of determination of the mass concentration of the dry residue in water with a conductivity of 0.2 mS or above has been developed, which can be used for rapid analysis of the water at nonlaboratory conditions and in the laboratory for rapid obtaining the information about a sample.

  12. Spring maize yield, soil water use and water use efficiency under plastic film and straw mulches in the Loess Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wen; Liu, Wenzhao; Xue, Qingwu

    2016-12-01

    To compare the soil water balance, yield and water use efficiency (WUE) of spring maize under different mulching types in the Loess Plateau, a 7-year field experiment was conducted in the Changwu region of the Loess Plateau. Three treatments were used in this experiment: straw mulch (SM), plastic film mulch (PM) and conventional covering without mulch (CK). Results show that the soil water change of dryland spring maize was as deep as 300 cm depth and hence 300 cm is recommended as the minimum depth when measure the soil water in this region. Water use (ET) did not differ significantly among the treatments. However, grain yield was significantly higher in PM compared with CK. WUE was significantly higher in PM than in CK for most years of the experiment. Although ET tended to be higher in PM than in the other treatments (without significance), the evaporation of water in the fallow period also decreased. Thus, PM is sustainable with respect to soil water balance. The 7-year experiment and the supplemental experiment thus confirmed that straw mulching at the seedling stage may lead to yield reduction and this effect can be mitigated by delaying the straw application to three-leaf stage.

  13. LOW WATER DEMAND CEMENTS - WAY OF EFFICIENT USE OF CLINKER AND MINERAL FILLERS IN CONCRETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khokhryakov Oleg Viktorovich

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Subject: the provisions in the updated edition of the technical specifications for cements are analyzed. A trend to decrease the clinker volume in Portland cement due to the wider use of mineral additives, up to 95%, was observed. Research objectives: substantiation of the most complete and efficient use of Portland cement and mineral additives in the composition of low water demand cements. Materials and methods: portland cement, mineral additives and superplasticizer were used as raw materials for obtaining cements of low water demand. The experimental methods comply with the current standards. Results: comparative properties of low water demand cements and cements with mineral additives are presented. The properties of cement-water suspensions of these binders have been studied, and, on their basis, heavy concretes have been made. The results of the grindability of Portland cement and mineral components with a superplasticizer are given. Conclusions: it is shown that the cement of low water demand, in which the advantages of both Portland cement and mineral additives are more fully and efficiently presented, complies with the tendency to decrease the clinker volume to the greatest degree. It is established that the clinker volume index for heavy concrete prepared on low water demand cement is almost four times lower than that for heavy concrete based on common Portland cement.

  14. Investigation of Mineral Alteration in Andesite and Dacite from Three Different Volcano Hydrothermal Systems on Dominica, Lesser Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C. I. V.; Frey, H. M.; Joseph, E. P.; Manon, M. R. F.

    2017-12-01

    The thermal discharges of Dominica are classified as steam-heated acidic-sulphate waters, produced by the mixing of shallow ground waters heated by sulphur bearing gases coming from magmatic sources. This study investigates the mineral alteration associated with three hydrothermal areas in Dominica that exhibit different temperature, pH, water composition and surface water abundance. Hydrothermal features (fumaroles, pools, springs) from Sulphur Springs ranged in temperature from 41 - 97 °C and pH from 1-3 in a predominantly gaseous environment, whereas the Valley of Desolation (69-98 °C and pH 1- 4) and the Cold Soufriere (18-32 °C and pH 1-4) have significant inputs of surface water. At each location, the host andesite-dacite rock was enveloped by a thin rind (up 2 cm) of precipitates, but the degree of alteration and rind thickness/composition varied with location. Cobbles from Sulphur Springs (SS) are grayish white in color with a thin outer rind (3-13 mm), and seemingly unaltered cores. Valley of Desolation (VoD) samples have a variety of patterns of alteration, with some clasts a uniform white-orange color, whereas others have variable thicknesses of an altered rind (1-20 mm), with relatively unaltered cores. Multiple hydrothermal minerals precipitated in the outer rinds display distinctive colors, suggestive of sulphides (dark gray), sulphates (orange and yellow), and iron oxides(?) (pink and purple). Cold Soufriere (CS) samples appear to be the most altered, often crumbling at touch. Others had rinds (2-10 mm) and pinkish gray cores that suggest more alteration compared to VoD and SS samples. Preliminary mineral identification of rind compositions was determined by XRD. Scans indicate the presence of silica polymorphs cristobalite and tridymite, as well as pyrite and sulphur. Elemental maps created using a SEM to identify any gradation caused by the elemental leaching and/or precipitation show that the boundaries between the weathering rind and the host

  15. Can neap-spring tidal cycles modulate biogeochemical fluxes in the abyssal near-seafloor water column?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnewitsch, Robert; Dale, Andrew; Lahajnar, Niko; Lampitt, Richard S.; Sakamoto, Kei

    2017-05-01

    Before particulate matter that settles as 'primary flux' from the interior ocean is deposited into deep-sea sediments it has to traverse the benthic boundary layer (BBL) that is likely to cover almost all parts of the seafloor in the deep seas. Fluid dynamics in the BBL differ vastly from fluid dynamics in the overlying water column and, consequently, have the potential to lead to quantitative and compositional changes between primary and depositional fluxes. Despite this potential and the likely global relevance very little is known about mechanistic and quantitative aspects of the controlling processes. Here, results are presented for a sediment-trap time-series study that was conducted on the Porcupine Abyssal Plain in the abyssal Northeast Atlantic, with traps deployed at 2, 40 and 569 m above bottom (mab). The two bottommost traps were situated within the BBL-affected part of the water column. The time series captured 3 neap and 4 spring tides and the arrival of fresh settling material originating from a surface-ocean bloom. In the trap-collected material, total particulate matter (TPM), particulate inorganic carbon (PIC), biogenic silica (BSi), particulate organic carbon (POC), particulate nitrogen (PN), total hydrolysable amino acids (AA), hexosamines (HA) and lithogenic material (LM) were determined. The biogeochemical results are presented within the context of time series of measured currents (at 15 mab) and turbidity (at 1 mab). The main outcome is evidence for an effect of neap/spring tidal oscillations on particulate-matter dynamics in BBL-affected waters in the deep sea. Based on the frequency-decomposed current measurements and numerical modelling of BBL fluid dynamics, it is concluded that the neap/spring tidal oscillations of particulate-matter dynamics are less likely due to temporally varying total free-stream current speeds and more likely due to temporally and vertically varying turbulence intensities that result from the temporally varying

  16. Spring/dimple instrument tube restraint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeMario, E.E.; Lawson, C.N.

    1993-01-01

    A nuclear fuel assembly for a pressurized water nuclear reactor has a spring and dimple structure formed in a non-radioactive insert tube placed in the top of a sensor receiving instrumentation tube thimble disposed in the fuel assembly and attached at a top nozzle, a bottom nozzle, and intermediate grids. The instrumentation tube thimble is open at the top, where the sensor or its connection extends through the cooling water for coupling to a sensor signal processor. The spring and dimple insert tube is mounted within the instrumentation tube thimble and extends downwardly adjacent the top. The springs and dimples restrain the sensor and its connections against lateral displacement causing impact with the instrumentation tube thimble due to the strong axial flow of cooling water. The instrumentation tube has a stainless steel outer sleeve and a zirconium alloy inner sleeve below the insert tube adjacent the top. The insert tube is relatively non-radioactivated inconel alloy. The opposed springs and dimples are formed on diametrically opposite inner walls of the insert tube, the springs being formed as spaced axial cuts in the insert tube, with a web of the insert tube between the cuts bowed radially inwardly for forming the spring, and the dimples being formed as radially inward protrusions opposed to the springs. 7 figures

  17. Mineral waters of the Pannonian basin spas in the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimo Atila

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The fact itself that thermo-mineral waters and mud have healing effects has always attracted attention throughout the history to exploit, explore and study their benefit on the human body. Modern lifestyle and the speed of life endanger man’s psycho-physical health. This is why people more often return to old time proven values, the nature and natural health resorts. Objective. To establish hydro-geological conditions for the formation of mineral water and to summarize their balneological characteristics in spas, i.e., in rehabilitation centres of the Pannonian basin of the Republic of Serbia, where underground waters are still actively exploited for balneotherapy. Methods. By retrospective descriptive analysis, a recapitulation of hydro-geological conditions for the formation of mineral waters was made and their balneological characteristics were established in eight spas of the Pannonian basin. Results. The healing spas of the Pannonian basin are predominated by HCO3 (2.9 g/l - 4.6% milival, iodic (up to 6.5 mg/l, slightly alkaline (pH up to 8.1 thermal-mineral water (temperature up to 72°C, bounty to 36.6 l/s with a significant content of Br (up to 8.1 mg/l, Fe (to 6.0 mg/l, metaboron (up to 60 mg/l and metasilicon acid (up to 95 mg/l. They are used for external application, bathing and showering. Conclusion. Once the Pannonian Sea (the Paratethys, today a wide plain terrain is a tectonic depression of the lower Pannonian pont age with compact type aquifers. In the geological column of sedimentary rocks a large underground aquifer was formed with free water of high mineralization, high temperature and geothermal properties above the average in relation to the European hydrogeological standards. Therefore, the Pannonian basin can be rightly called a thermal valley with the predominance of sodium hydro-carbonate (alkaline iodine healing water of enviable abundance and reserves.

  18. [The effects of the combined use of mineral water with ascorbic acid and rutin experimentally and clinically].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polushina, N D; Kartazaeva, V A; Botvineva, L A; Kozhevnikov, S A

    2000-01-01

    Effects of a single and course intake of glucose, ascorbic acid and rutin in combination with mineral water Essentuki N17 on blood levels of glucose, hydrocortisone, ACTH, insulin were studied in 336 Wistar male rats. 80 patients with diabetes mellitus type I and II received a course of ascorutin and mineral water. Mineral water proved able to reduce a hyperglycemic effect of vitamins. A course of mineral water and ascorutin promotes improvement of carbohydrate, lipid metabolism, elevates plasma content of ascorbic acid, diminishes the need in sugar-reducing drugs.

  19. Geochemistry and hydrology of perched groundwater springs: assessing elevated uranium concentrations at Pigeon Spring relative to nearby Pigeon Mine, Arizona (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beisner, Kimberly R.; Paretti, Nicholas; Tillman, Fred; Naftz, David L.; Bills, Donald; Walton-Day, Katie; Gallegos, Tanya J.

    2017-01-01

    The processes that affect water chemistry as the water flows from recharge areas through breccia-pipe uranium deposits in the Grand Canyon region of the southwestern United States are not well understood. Pigeon Spring had elevated uranium in 1982 (44 μg/L), compared to other perched springs (2.7–18 μg/L), prior to mining operations at the nearby Pigeon Mine. Perched groundwater springs in an area around the Pigeon Mine were sampled between 2009 and 2015 and compared with material from the Pigeon Mine to better understand the geochemistry and hydrology of the area. Two general groups of perched groundwater springs were identified from this study; one group is characterized by calcium sulfate type water, low uranium activity ratio 234U/238U (UAR) values, and a mixture of water with some component of modern water, and the other group by calcium-magnesium sulfate type water, higher UAR values, and radiocarbon ages indicating recharge on the order of several thousand years ago. Multivariate statistical principal components analysis of Pigeon Mine and spring samples indicate Cu, Pb, As, Mn, and Cd concentrations distinguished mining-related leachates from perched groundwater springs. The groundwater potentiometric surface indicates that perched groundwater at Pigeon Mine would likely flow toward the northwest away from Pigeon Spring. The geochemical analysis of the water, sediment and rock samples collected from the Snake Gulch area indicate that the elevated uranium at Pigeon Spring is likely related to a natural source of uranium upgradient from the spring and not likely related to the Pigeon Mine.

  20. Thermal springs of Malaysia and their potentialdevelopment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim Samsudin, Abdul; Hamzah, Umar; Rahman, Rakmi Ab.; Siwar, Chamhuri; Fauzi Mohd. Jani, Mohd; Othman, Redzuan

    The study on the potential development of hot springs for the tourism industry in Malaysiawas conducted. Out of the 40 hot springs covered, the study identified 9 hot springs having a high potential for development, 14 having medium potential and the remaining 17 having low or least potential for development. This conclusion was arrived at after considering the technical and economic feasibility of the various hot springs. Technical feasibility criteria includes geological factors, water quality, temperature and flow rate. The economic feasibility criteria considers measures such as accessibility, current and market potentials in terms of visitors, surrounding attractions and existing inventory and facilities available. A geological input indicates that high potential hot springs are located close to or within the granite body and associated with major permeable fault zones. They normally occur at low elevation adjacent to topographic highs. High potential hot springs are also characterised by high water temperature, substantial flowrate and very good water quality which is important for water-body contact activities such as soaking. Economic criteria for high potential hot springs are associated with good accessibility, good market, good surrounding attractions like rural and village setting and well developed facilities and infrastructures.

  1. Determination of iron in natural and mineral waters by flame atomic absorption spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROLANDAS KAZLAUSKAS

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Simple methods for the determination of Fe in natural and mineral waters by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS are suggested. The results of the investigation of selectivity of the proposed AAS method proved that this procedure is not affected by high concentrations of other metals. The calibration graph for iron was linear at levels near the detection limit up to at least 0.10 mg ml-1. For the determination of microamounts of iron in mineral waters, an extraction AAS technique was developed. Iron was retained as Fe-8-oxyquinoline complex and extracted into chloroform. The optimal conditions for the extraction of the iron complex were determined. The AAS method was applied to the determination of Fe in mineral waters and natural waters from different areas of Lithuania. The accuracy of the developed method was sufficient and evaluated in comparison with a photometric method. The obtained results demonstrated that the procedure could be successfully applied for the analysis of water samples with satisfactory accuracy.

  2. Arsenic mobilization and attenuation by mineral-water interactions: implications for managed aquifer recharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil, Chelsea W; Yang, Y Jeffrey; Jun, Young-Shin

    2012-07-01

    Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) has potential for addressing deficits in water supplies worldwide. It is also widely used for preventing saltwater intrusion, maintaining the groundwater table, and augmenting ecological stream flows, among many other beneficial environmental applications. However, field MAR sites have experienced arsenic mobilization from aquifer formation minerals due to induced changes in groundwater chemistry. To address this environmental concern, it is crucial to understand the potential sources and sinks impacting arsenic mobilization. This paper outlines important mineral-water interactions that can occur at MAR sites. Detailed information on minerals of concern, physiochemical processes for arsenic mobilization or attenuation, and the potential impact of microbial activity and hydrology on these processes is provided. Based on these mineral-water interactions, guidelines for predicting arsenic mobility are presented, and recommendations are made concerning MAR site monitoring. The review emphasizes important aspects in correlating interfacial reactions to reactive transport modeling and elucidating future challenges, a first step toward developing safer and more sustainable MAR operations.

  3. Calcium Bioavailability from Mineral Waters with Different Mineralization in Comparison to Milk and a Supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greupner, Theresa; Schneider, Inga; Hahn, Andreas

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the bioavailability of calcium from 3 mineral waters with different concentrations of minerals with that of milk and a calcium supplement. A single-center, randomized controlled trial with a crossover design with 21 healthy men and women was conducted at the Institute of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Leibniz University Hannover. The participants consumed the 5 test products providing 300 mg of calcium each on 5 examination days with 1-week wash-out phases in between. Primary outcome variables were the area under the curve of serum calcium levels for 10-hour (AUC 0-10h ) and 24-hour urinary calcium excretion. In all groups, no significant differences in the AUC 0-10h of serum calcium levels as well as in the 24-hour urinary calcium excretion were observed. Likewise, mean changes in serum phosphate and urinary phosphate, as well as serum parathormone, showed no differences between the groups. Given an equivalent bioavailability of calcium in all test products, neither a high concentration of SO 4 2- or of HCO 3 influenced the bioavailability of calcium. Accordingly, the use of mineral water with high concentrations of calcium constitutes a calorie-free calcium source that can improve calcium supply.

  4. Eliminating Heavy Metals from Water with NanoSheet Minerals as Adsorbents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaoxian Song

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals usually referred to those with atomic weights ranging from 63.5 to 200.6. Because of natural-mineral dissolution and human activities such as mining, pesticides, fertilizer, metal planting and batteries manufacture, etc., these heavy metals, including zinc, copper, mercury, lead, cadmium and chromium have been excessively released into water courses, like underground water, lake and river, etc. The ingestion of the heavy metals-contaminated water would raise serious health problems to human beings even at a low concentration. For instance, lead can bring human beings about barrier to the normal function of kidney, liver and reproductive system, while zinc can cause stomach cramps, skin irritations, vomiting and anemia. Mercury is a horrible neurotoxin that may result in damages to the central nervous system, dysfunction of pulmonary and kidney, chest and dyspnea. Chromium (VI has been proved can cause many diseases ranging from general skin irritation to severe lung carcinoma. Accordingly, the World Health Organization announced the maximum contaminant levels (MCL for the heavy metals in drinking water. There are numerous processes for eliminating heavy metals from water in order to provide citizens safe drinking water, including precipitation, adsorption, ion exchange, membrane separation and biological treatment, etc. Adsorption is considered as a potential process for deeply removing heavy metals, in which the selection of adsorbents plays a predominant role. Nano-sheet minerals as the adsorbents are currently the hottest researches in the field. They are obtained from layered minerals, such as montmorillonite, graphite and molybdenite, through the processing of intercalation, electrochemical and mechanical exfoliation, etc. Nano-sheet minerals are featured by their large specific surface area, relatively low costs and active adsorbing sites, leading to be effective and potential adsorbents for heavy metals removal from water

  5. Thermal springs of Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breckenridge, R.M.; Hinckley, B.S.

    1978-01-01

    This bulletin attempts, first, to provide a comprehensive inventory of the thermal springs of Wyoming; second, to explore the geologic and hydrologic factors producing these springs; and, third, to analyze the springs collectively as an indicator of the geothermal resources of the state. A general discussion of the state's geology and the mechanisms of thermal spring production, along with a brief comparison of Wyoming's springs with worldwide thermal features are included. A discussion of geothermal energy resources, a guide for visitors, and an analysis of the flora of Wyoming's springs follow the spring inventory. The listing and analysis of Wyoming's thermal springs are arranged alphabetically by county. Tabulated data are given on elevation, ownership, access, water temperature, and flow rate. Each spring system is described and its history, general characteristics and uses, geology, hydrology, and chemistry are discussed. (MHR)

  6. Natural radioactivity in Brazilian bottled mineral waters and consequent doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, J. de; Paci Mazzilli, B.; Costa, P. da; Akiko Tanigava, P.

    2001-01-01

    The natural activity concentration levels of 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 210 Pb were analyzed in 17 brands of bottled mineral waters commercially available in the Southeast region of Brazil. Concentrations up to 647 mBq x l -1 and 741 mBq x l -1 were observed for 226 Ra and 228 Ra, whereas 210 Pb concentrations reached 85 mBq x l -1 . Average committed effective doses of 1.3 x 10 -2 mSv x y -1 for 226 Ra, 3.4 x 10 -2 mSv x y -1 for 228 Ra and 9.4 x 10 -3 mSv x y -1 for 210 Pb were estimated for the ingestion of these waters. A collective dose of 90 manSv was evaluated, considering the annual production of the bottled mineral waters analyzed in this study. (author)

  7. Does plant uptake or low soil mineral-N production limit mineral-N losses to surface waters and groundwater from soils under grass in summer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatti, Ambreen; McClean, Colin J.; Cresser, Malcolm S.

    2013-01-01

    Summer minima and autumn/winter maxima in nitrate concentrations in rivers are reputedly due to high plant uptake of nitrate from soils in summer. A novel alternative hypothesis is tested here for soils under grass. By summer, residual readily mineralizable plant litter from the previous autumn/winter is negligible and fresh litter input low. Consequently little mineral-N is produced in the soil. Water-soluble and KCl-extractable mineral N in fresh soils and soils incubated outdoors for 7 days have been monitored over 12 months for soil transects at two permanent grassland sites near York, UK, using 6 replicates throughout. Vegetation-free soil is shown to produce very limited mineral-N in summer, despite the warm, moist conditions. Litter accumulates in autumn/winter and initially its high C:N ratio favours N accumulation in the soil. It is also shown that mineral-N generated monthly in situ in soil substantially exceeds the monthly mineral-N inputs via wet deposition at the sites. -- Highlights: •Soil mineral-N has been measured over a year at two grassland sites in the UK. •Rates of mineral-N production have also been measured in vegetation-free soils. •In summer, though soils were warm and moist, rate of mineral-N production was low. •The effect is attributed to low litter inputs in summer when grass is growing well. •Low mineral-N production in summer must be limiting N losses to fresh waters. -- Low mineral-N production in soils under grass limits summer N losses to surface- and ground-waters

  8. Urban net-zero water treatment and mineralization: experiments, modeling and design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englehardt, James D; Wu, Tingting; Tchobanoglous, George

    2013-09-01

    Water and wastewater treatment and conveyance account for approximately 4% of US electric consumption, with 80% used for conveyance. Net zero water (NZW) buildings would alleviate demands for a portion of this energy, for water, and for the treatment of drinking water for pesticides and toxic chemical releases in source water. However, domestic wastewater contains nitrogen loads much greater than urban/suburban ecosystems can typically absorb. The purpose of this work was to identify a first design of a denitrifying urban NZW treatment process, operating at ambient temperature and pressure and circum-neutral pH, and providing mineralization of pharmaceuticals (not easily regulated in terms of environmental half-life), based on laboratory tests and mass balance and kinetic modeling. The proposed treatment process is comprised of membrane bioreactor, iron-mediated aeration (IMA, reported previously), vacuum ultrafiltration, and peroxone advanced oxidation, with minor rainwater make-up and H2O2 disinfection residual. Similar to biological systems, minerals accumulate subject to precipitative removal by IMA, salt-free treatment, and minor dilution. Based on laboratory and modeling results, the system can produce potable water with moderate mineral content from commingled domestic wastewater and 10-20% rainwater make-up, under ambient conditions at individual buildings, while denitrifying and reducing chemical oxygen demand to below detection (<3 mg/L). While economics appear competitive, further development and study of steady-state concentrations and sludge management options are needed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Possibility of organic mineral water 'Naftusia Zbrutschanska' helps in correction of immune system with of

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raksha-Slyusareva, E.A.; Slyusarev, A.A.; Malygina, V.D.

    2005-01-01

    Changing of hemato-immunological state of Chernobyl clean uppers, and conventional heals population, living in Donbass eco crisis region under influence of organic mineral water 'Naftusia Zbrutschanska' was detected. It was registries that including of organic mineral water 'Naftusia Zbrutschanska' in to the complex treatment of Chernobyl clean uppers or for immune correction of conventional heals population corrected not only red and white blood, but immunological state too. Especial after course of the organic mineral water 'Naftusia Zbrutschanska' the considers of lymphocyte populations, restarted to normal date or with tendency to norm

  10. Variations in discharge and temperature of mineral springs at the Frantiskovy Lazne Spa, Czech Republic, during a nearby earthquake swarm in 1985/1986

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    span class="emphasis">Stejskal, Vladimírspan>; span class="emphasis">Málek, Jiříspan>; Novotný, O.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 4 (2008), s. 589-606 ISSN 0039-3169. [West-Bohemia/Vogtland international workshop "Geodynamics of Earthquake Swarm Areas" /8./. Františkovy Lázně, 16.10.2007-19.10.2007] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GD205/05/H020; GA AV ČR IAA300460602 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : western Bohemia * earthquake swarm * mineral springs Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 0.770, year: 2008

  11. Potential for Sulfide Mineral Deposits in Australian Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConachy, Timothy F.

    The world is witnessing a paradigm shift in relation to marine mineral resources. High-value seafloor massive sulfides at active convergent plate boundaries are attracting serious commercial attention. Under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, maritime jurisdictional zones will increase by extending over continental margins and ocean basins. For Australia, this means a possible additional 3.37 million km2 of seabed. Australia's sovereign responsibility includes, amongst other roles, the management of the exploitation of nonliving resources and sea-bed mining. What, therefore, is the potential in Australia's marine jurisdiction for similar deposits to those currently attracting commercial attention in neighboring nations and for other types/styles of sulfide deposits? A preliminary review of opportunities suggests the following: (i) volcanogenic copper—lead—zinc—silver—gold mineralization in fossil arcs and back arcs in eastern waters Norfolk Ridge and the Three Kings Ridge; (ii) Mississippi Valley-type lead—zinc—silver mineralization in the NW Shelf area; (iii) ophiolite-hosted copper mineralization in the Macquarie Ridge Complex in the Southern Ocean; and (iv) submerged extensions of prospective land-based terranes, one example being offshore Gawler Craton for iron oxide—copper—gold deposits. These areas would benefit from pre-competitive surveys of detailed swath bathymetry mapping, geophysical surveys, and sampling to help build a strategic inventory of future seafloor mineral resources for Australia.

  12. Quarry geotechnical report for the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-11-01

    This report has been prepared for the United States Department of Energy's (DOE) Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) by the Project Management Contractor (PMC), which is MK-Ferguson Company (MK-Ferguson) with Jacobs Engineering Group (JEG) as its designated subcontractor. The Weldon Spring site (WSS) comprises the Weldon Spring quarry area and the Weldon Spring chemical plant and raffinate pit areas. This report presents the results of geotechnical investigations conducted during 1989--1990 at the proposed Weldon Spring quarry staging and water treatment facilities in the quarry area. The facilities are intended for treatment of water removed from the quarry area. An access road and a decontamination pad will be necessary for handling and transportation of bulk waste. Results of previous geotechnical investigations performed by other geoscience and environmental engineering firms in the quarry area, were reviewed, summarized and incorporated into this report. Well logging, stratigraphy data, piezometer data, elevations, and soil characteristics are also included

  13. Isotopic Investigation of the Origin of Nitrate of Waters Outflowing from a Waste Deposit Site Near Scuol (Lower Engadine, South Eastern Switzerland)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gschwend, M.; Leuenberger, F.; Eichinger, L. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule Zuerich, Geological Institute, Engineering Geology, Zuerich (Switzerland); Balderer, W. [Hydroisotop GmbH, Schweitenkirchen, Germany (Germany)

    2013-07-15

    Near the village of Scuol in the Lower Engadine Valley (South Eastern Switzerland) Sot Ruinas, a waste disposal site for domestic and construction refuse, has been in use since the 1960s. It is situated in the vicinity of the Inn River. Over the last years enhanced concentrations of ammonia were found in the outflow of this waste site. But the observed elevated ammonia concentrations could also be a result of natural origin, by inflows of mineral water as observed in the mineral springs of the area. These springs could have acquired their high ammonia content by water-rock interaction with adjacent ultramafic rocks. The isotope analyses were oriented towards the hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen isotopes on the ammonia, nitrate and nitrogen molecules. The effect of the waste on the outflowing water downstream could be proved by isotope ratios based on chemical processes of the nitrogen cycle and an influence of natural spring water was excluded. (author)

  14. Thorium-230 dating of thermal waters in the vicinity of the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holloway, R.W.; Carilli, J.T.; Faller, S.H.; Liu, C.K.; Kuroda, P.K.

    1989-01-01

    Radiochemical measurements of the concentrations of thorium and uranium isotopes were carried out for a total of 10 samples of hot springs, mineral springs, and lakes collected in the vicinity of the Nevada Test Site. The uranium-to-thorium ratios in the water samples were found to be generally much greater than those in soils and in rain water. The apparent (230)Th ages calculated from the (230)Th/(232)Th and (234)U/(238)U ratios for most of these water samples were less than 100 years

  15. Mineralogical, crystallographic, and isotopic constraints on the precipitation of aragonite and calcite at Shiqiang and other hot springs in Yunnan Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brian; Peng, Xiaotong

    2016-11-01

    Two active spring vent pools at Shiqiang (Yunnan Province, China) are characterized by a complex array of precipitates that coat the wall around the pool and the narrow ledges that surround the vent pool. These precipitates include arrays of aragonite crystals, calcite cone-dendrites, red spar calcite, unattached dodecahedral and rhombohedral calcite crystals, and late stage calcite that commonly coats and disguises the earlier formed precipitates. Some of the microbial mats that grow on the ledges around the pools have been partly mineralized by microspheres that are formed of Si and minor amounts of Fe. The calcite and aragonite that are interspersed with each other at all scales are both primary precipitates. Some laminae, for example, change laterally from aragonite to calcite over distances of only a few millimetres. The precipitates at Shiqiang are similar to precipitates found in and around the vent pools of other springs found in Yunnan Province, including those at Gongxiaoshe, Zhuyuan, Eryuan, and Jifei. In all cases, the δDwater and δ18Owater indicate that the spring water is of meteoric origin. These are thermogene springs with the carrier CO2 being derived largely from the mantle and reaction of the waters with bedrock. Variations in the δ13Ctravertine values indicate that the waters in these springs were mixed, to varying degrees, with cold groundwater and its soil-derived CO2. Calcite and aragonite precipitation took place once the spring waters had become supersaturated with respect to CaCO3, probably as a result of rapid CO2 degassing. These precipitates, which were not in isotopic equilibrium with the spring water, are characterized by their unusual crystal morphologies. The precipitation of calcite and aragonite, seemingly together, can probably be attributed to microscale variations in the saturation levels that are, in turn, attributable to microscale variations in the rate of CO2 degassing.

  16. Radon concentration measurements in therapeutic spring water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deak, N.; Horvath, A.; Sajo B, L.; Marx, G.

    1996-01-01

    It is believed that people undergoing a curative cycle in a given spa, may receive a dose in the range of 400 mSv/year which is many times the average annual dose so that their risk of lung cancer may increase by 3% or more. To determine the risk due to the natural radioactivity, of the most frequented spas in Budapest (H), we selected four and some others located on the country side being of particular interest. Results of the radon concentration in spring water are presented, with the evidence that some spas have a high radon concentration. We conclude that patients receiving treatment may be exposed to an additional dose in the range of 29-76 mSv/year that at the bronchia could be between 445-1182 mSv/year. (authors). 6 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  17. A proposal of conceptual model for Pertuso Spring discharge evaluation in the Upper Valley of Aniene River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Sappa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Upper Aniene River basin is part of a large karst aquifer, which interacts with the river, and represents the most important water resource in the southeast part of Latium Region, Central Italy, used for drinking, agriculture and hydroelectric supplies. This work provides hydrogeochemical data and their interpretations for 1 spring and 2 cross section of Aniene River, monitored from July 2014 to December 2015, in the Upper Valley of Aniene River, to identify flow paths and hydrogeochemical processes governing groundwater-surface water interactions in this region. These activities deal with the Environmental Monitoring Plan made for the catchment work project of the Pertuso Spring, in the Upper Valley of Aniene River, which is going to be exploited to supply an important drinking water network in the South part of Rome district. Discharge measurements and hydrogeochemical data were analyzed to develop a conceptual model of aquifer-river interaction, with the aim of achieving proper management and protection of this important hydrogeological system. All groundwater samples are characterized as Ca-HCO3 type. Geochemical modeling and saturation index computation of the water samples show that groundwater and surface water chemistry in the study area was evolved through the interaction with carbonate minerals. All groundwater samples were undersaturated with respect to calcite and dolomite, however some of the Aniene River samples were saturated with respect to dolomite. The analysis of Mg2+/Ca2+ ratios indicates that the dissolution of carbonate minerals is important for groundwater and surface water chemistry, depending on the hydrological processes, which control the groundwater residence time and chemical equilibria in the aquifer.

  18. Report on the FY 1998 survey for preservation of Jozankei Hot Spring. Hot spring variation survey; 1998 nendo Jozankei onsen hozen chosa. Onsen hendo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-01

    Of the FY 1998 survey for preservation of Jozankei Hot Spring, a survey was conducted with the aim of grasping the state of variation in ingredients of hot spring, etc. in the area and of elucidating the causes of hot spring variation. During the period from October 27, 1998 to August 28, 1999, the following were carried out: sampling of specimens of spring water at 6 spring sources, river water at 2 points and precipitation at 2 points; measurement of temperature, spring temperature, pH, electric conductivity, etc.; analyses of Na, Ca, CL, HCO{sub 3}, SiO{sub 2}, etc. The results of the analysis are as follows. As to spring sources, A-2, A-7 and B-1, the precipitation or river water flow rate seem to largely affect the variation in hot spring measuring values. As to spring resources, A-6 and B-4, the relation with the precipitation or river water flow rate is not clear, but a big change is recognized in the snow-melting season. The tendency to the two variations seems to be caused by the difference between the spring with which the river water is greatly concerned by the crack system of the spring having reached the river and the spring which was closed on the earth surface. The temperature variation of springs was considered to be affected by the river water which flowed into the springs. (NEDO)

  19. Evaluation of surface water treatment and discharge options for the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyette, M.L.; MacDonell, M.M.

    1992-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), under its Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program, is responsible for conducting response actions at the Weldon Spring site in St. Charles County, Missouri. The site consists of two noncontiguous areas: (1) the chemical plant area, which includes four raffinate pits and two small ponds, and (2) a 3.6-ha (9-acre) quarry located about 6.4 km (4 mi) southwest of the chemical plant area. Both of these areas became chemically and radioactively contaminated as a result of processing and disposal activities that took place from the 1940s through 1960s. The Weldon Spring site, located about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis, is listed on the National Priorities List of the US Environmental Protection Agency. Nitroaromatic explosives were processed by the Army at the chemical plant area during the 1940s, and radioactive materials were processed by DOE's predecessor agency (the Atomic Energy Commission) during the 1950s and 1960s. Overall remediation of the Weldon Spring site is being addressed through the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, and it consists of several components. One component is the management of radioactively and chemically contaminated surface water impoundments at the chemical plant area -- i.e., the four raffinate pits, Frog Pond, and Ash Pond which was addressed under a separate action and documented in an engineering evaluation/cost analysis report. This report discusses the evaluation of surface water treatment at the Weldon Spring site

  20. Hydrogeochemical characteristics and sources of salinity of the springs near Wenquanzhen in the eastern Sichuan Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Juan; Zhou, Xun; Wang, Lidong; Zhang, Yuqi; Shen, Xiaowei; Zhou, Haiyan; Ye, Shen; Fang, Bin

    2017-12-01

    Natural springs have the potential to provide important information on hydrogeochemical processes within aquifers. This study used traditional and classic technical methods and procedures to determine the characteristics and evolution of springs to gain further knowledge on the differences between hot saline springs and cold fresh springs. In a short river segment near Wenquanzhen in the eastern Sichuan Basin, southwest China, several natural springs coexist with total dissolved solids (TDS) ranging from less than 1 to 15 g/L and temperatures from 15 to 40 °C. The springs emanate from the outcropping Lower and Middle Triassic carbonates in the river valley cutting the core of an anticline. The cold springs are of Cl·HCO3-Na·Ca and Cl·SO4-Na types, and the hot saline springs are mainly of Cl-Na type. The chemistry of the springs has undergone some changes with time. The stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopes indicate that the spring waters are of a meteoric origin. The salinity of the springs originates from dissolution of minerals, including halite, gypsum, calcite and dolomite. The evolution of the springs involves the following mechanisms: the groundwater receives recharge from infiltration of precipitation, then undergoes deep circulation in the core of the anticline (incongruent dissolution of the salt-bearing strata occurs), and emerges in the river valley in the form of hot springs with high TDS. Groundwater also undergoes shallow circulation in the northern and southern flanks of the anticline and appears in the river valley in the form of cold springs with low TDS.

  1. Future Availability of Water Supply from Karstic Springs under Probable Climate Change. The case of Aravissos, Central Macedonia, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vafeiadis, M.; Spachos, Th.; Zampetoglou, K.; Soupilas, Th.

    2012-04-01

    The test site of Aravissos is located at 70 Km to the West (W-NW) of Thessaloniki at the south banks of mount Païko, in the north part of Central Macedonia The karstic Aravissos springs supply 40% of total volume needed for the water supply of Thessaloniki, Greece. As the water is of excellent quality, it is feed directly in the distribution network without any previous treatment. The availability of this source is therefore of high importance for the sustainable water supply of this area with almost 1000000 inhabitants. The water system of Aravissos is developed in a karstic limestone with an age of about Late Cretaceous that covers almost the entire western part of the big-anticline of Païko Mountain. The climate in this area and the water consumption area, Thessaloniki, is a typical Mediterranean climate with mild and humid winters and hot and dry summers. The total annual number of rainy days is around 110. The production of the Aravissos springs depends mostly from the annual precipitations. As the feeding catchement and the karst aquifer are not well defined, a practical empirical balance model, that contains only well known relevant terms, is applied for the simulation of the operation of the springs under normal water extraction for water supply in present time. The estimation of future weather conditions are based on GCM and RCM simulation data and the extension of trend lines of the actual data. The future evolution of the availability of adequate water quantities from the springs is finally estimated from the balance model and the simulated future climatic data. This study has been realised within the project CC-WaterS, funded by the SEE program of the European Regional Development Fund (http://www.ccwaters.eu/).

  2. Radium Adsorption to Iron Bearing Minerals in Variable Salinity Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M.; Kocar, B. D.

    2014-12-01

    Radium is a common, naturally occurring radioactive metal found in many subsurface environments. Radium isotopes are a product of natural uranium and thorium decay, and are particularly abundant within groundwaters where minimal flux leads to accumulation within porewaters. Radium has been used as a natural tracer to estimate submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) [1], where the ratios of various radium isotopes are used to estimate total groundwater flux to and from the ocean [2]. Further, it represents a substantial hazard in waste water produced after hydraulic fracturing for natural gas extraction [3], resulting in a significant risk of environmental release and increased cost for water treatment or disposal. Adsorption to mineral surfaces represents a primary pathway of radium retention within subsurface environments. For SGD studies, it is important to understand adsorption processes to correctly estimate GW fluxes, while in hydraulic fracturing, radium adsorption to aquifer solids will mediate the activities of radium within produced water. While some studies of radium adsorption to various minerals have been performed [4], there is a limited understanding of the surface chemistry of radium adsorption, particularly to iron-bearing minerals such as pyrite, goethite and ferrihydrite. Accordingly, we present the results of sorption experiments of radium to a suite of iron-bearing minerals representative of those found within deep saline and near-surface (freshwater) aquifers, and evaluate impacts of varying salinity solutions through the use of artificial groundwater, seawater, and shale formation brine. Further, we explore the impacts of pyrite oxidation and ferrihydrite transformation to other iron-bearing secondary minerals on the retention of radium. This work lays the groundwork for further study of radium use as a tracer for SGD, as well as understanding mechanisms of radium retention and release from deep aquifer materials following hydraulic fracturing

  3. Hydrology and geochemistry of carbonate springs in Mantua Valley, northern Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Karen C.; Spangler, Lawrence E.; Spangler, Lawrence E.; Allen, Constance J.

    1999-01-01

    Water chemistry, tritium data, precipitation-discharge relations, geology, topography, and dye tracing were used to determine recharge areas, ground-water residence times, factors influencing ground-water flow, and aquifer characteristic for five springs that discharge from Paleozoic limestones and dolostones along the margin of Manuta Valley, northern Utah.Temperature of Mantua Valley spring water ranged between 6.0 and 15.0 degrees Celsius. Spring-water temperature indicates that depth of circulation of ground water could be as shallow as 80 feet (25 meters) to as much as 1,150 feet (350 meters). Dissolved-solids concentration in the water from springs ranged from 176 to 268 milligrams per liter. Average total hardness of spring water ranged from 157 to 211 milligrams per liter. Water from all of the springs is a calcium-magnesium-bicarbonate type that generally is undersaturated with respect to calcite and dolomite. The molar calcium/magnesium ratio in spring water ranged from 1.21 to 1.88, and indicates that ground water flows through impure dolostone or a mixed limestone and dolostone terrace.Discharge from carbonate springs in Mantua Valley ranges from about to 10 to 4,300 gallons per minute (0.6 to 271 liters per second). Seasonal variations in chemical parameters and discharge indicate that the aquifers supplying water to most of these springs are predominantly diffuse-flow systems that have been locally enhanced by bedrock dissolution. Estimated recharge area for th springs ranges from 2.7 to 7 square miles (7 to 18 square kilometers).On the basis of tritium age dating, the mean residence time of ground water discharges from Olsens-West Hallins and Maple Springs was determined to be from 3 to 9, and from 4 to 15 years, respectively. Dye tracing from point sources 2.65 miles (4.26 kilometers) southeast of Maple Spring, however, indicates a substantially faster component of flow during snowmelt runoff, with a travel time of about 5 days, or an average ground-water

  4. Impacts of climate change on water footprint of spring wheat production: the case of an irrigation district in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, S. K.; Wu, P. T.; Wang, Y. B.; Zhao, X. N.

    2012-07-01

    The potential impacts of climate change are expected to reshape the patterns of demand and supply of water for agriculture, therefore the assessment of the impacts of climate change on agricultural water consumption will be essential. The water footprint provides a new approach to the assessment of agricultural water consumption under climate change. This paper provides an analysis of the impacts of climate changes on the water footprint of spring wheat in Hetao Irrigation District, China during 1980-2009. Results indicate that: 1) crop evapotranspiration and irrigation water requirements of spring wheat presented a downtrend owing to the climate factors variation in the study period; 2) under the combined influence of increasing crop yield and decreasing crop evapotranspiration, the water footprint decreased during the study period, exhibiting a trend of 0.025 m3 kg{sup -}1 yr{sup -}1; 3) the total contribution rate of the climatic factors for the decline of water footprint of spring wheat during the study period was only -10.45%. These results suggest that the water footprint of a crop, to a large extent, is determined by agricultural management rather than by the regional agro-climate and its variation. Nevertheless, we should pay attention to the adaptation of effective strategies for minimizing the agricultural production risk caused by climate change. (Author) 49 refs.

  5. Nitrogen Source Inventory and Loading Tool: An integrated approach toward restoration of water-quality impaired karst springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eller, Kirstin T; Katz, Brian G

    2017-07-01

    Nitrogen (N) from anthropogenic sources has contaminated groundwater used as drinking water in addition to impairing water quality and ecosystem health of karst springs. The Nitrogen Source Inventory and Loading Tool (NSILT) was developed as an ArcGIS and spreadsheet-based approach that provides spatial estimates of current nitrogen (N) inputs to the land surface and loads to groundwater from nonpoint and point sources within the groundwater contributing area. The NSILT involves a three-step approach where local and regional land use practices and N sources are evaluated to: (1) estimate N input to the land surface, (2) quantify subsurface environmental attenuation, and (3) assess regional recharge to the aquifer. NSILT was used to assess nitrogen loading to groundwater in two karst spring areas in west-central Florida: Rainbow Springs (RS) and Kings Bay (KB). The karstic Upper Floridan aquifer (UFA) is the source of water discharging to the springs in both areas. In the KB study area (predominantly urban land use), septic systems and urban fertilizers contribute 48% and 22%, respectively, of the estimated total annual N load to groundwater 294,400 kg-N/yr. In contrast for the RS study area (predominantly agricultural land use), livestock operations and crop fertilizers contribute 50% and 13%, respectively, of the estimated N load to groundwater. Using overall groundwater N loading rates for the KB and RS study areas, 4.4 and 3.3 kg N/ha, respectively, and spatial recharge rates, the calculated groundwater nitrate-N concentration (2.1 mg/L) agreed closely with the median nitrate-N concentration (1.7 mg/L) from groundwater samples in agricultural land use areas in the RS study area for the period 2010-2014. NSILT results provide critical information for prioritizing and designing restoration efforts for water-quality impaired springs and spring runs affected by multiple sources of nitrogen loading to groundwater. The calculated groundwater N concentration for

  6. Stable isotopes use in hydrogeology studies of mineral and thermal waters (Lindoia region, Sao Paulo, Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshinaga, S.; Silva, A.A.K. de; Matsui, E.

    1991-01-01

    Deuterium and oxygen-18 studies were used to investigate the origin and the mineralizing processes of the mineral water and thermal water in Aguas de Lindoia and Lindoia, Brazilian municipal districts. (M.V.M.)

  7. Petrography, mineralogy, and chemistry of calcite-silica deposits at Exile Hill, Nevada, compared with local spring deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaniman, D.T.; Chipera, S.J.; Bish, D.L.

    1995-12-01

    Chemical, mineralogic, and petrographic analyses of siliceous calcretes from Exile Hill east of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, indicate that pedogenic processes alone account for the formation of the calcretes. These calcretes have been interpreted by some observers as evidence of seismically triggered eruptions of deep water. Such an origin could have important consequences if Yucca Mountain is developed as an unsaturated site for the disposal of high-level nuclear waste. At odds with this hypothesis are the absence of features that should be present at fault-fed springs (e.g., fissure-ridge mounds with microterraces) and the preservation within root casts of delicate pedogenic microfossils, such as calcified filaments and needle-fiber calcites. Mineral-chemical evidence of pedogenic origin is found in heavy-mineral concentrations, reflected in Fe and Sc enrichments. These concentrations, which occur in the most massive of the vein calcretes, require derivation of detritus from a mixture of weathered and eolian materials that occur in the overlying B soil horizons, as opposed to direct incorporation of adjacent unweathered bedrock. Carbonate and silica abundances and accumulation rates are well within the scope of pedogenic processes. Calcium is derived from rainwater or eolian sources, whereas silica is derived in part by dissolution of local volcanic glasses or from dissolution of unstable silica minerals that are abundant in the local tuffs. In contrast with local deposits that are of spring or seep origin, the siliceous calcretes at Yucca Mountain are pedogenic in origin as well as evolution and provide no evidence in support of conjectured spring activity

  8. The potential influence of Asian and African mineral dust on ice, mixed-phase and liquid water clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Wiacek

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This modelling study explores the availability of mineral dust particles as ice nuclei for interactions with ice, mixed-phase and liquid water clouds, also tracking the particles' history of cloud-processing. We performed 61 320 one-week forward trajectory calculations originating near the surface of major dust emitting regions in Africa and Asia using high-resolution meteorological analysis fields for the year 2007. Dust-bearing trajectories were assumed to be those coinciding with known dust emission seasons, without explicitly modelling dust emission and deposition processes. We found that dust emissions from Asian deserts lead to a higher potential for interactions with high ice clouds, despite being the climatologically much smaller dust emission source. This is due to Asian regions experiencing significantly more ascent than African regions, with strongest ascent in the Asian Taklimakan desert at ~25%, ~40% and 10% of trajectories ascending to 300 hPa in spring, summer and fall, respectively. The specific humidity at each trajectory's starting point was transported in a Lagrangian manner and relative humidities with respect to water and ice were calculated in 6-h steps downstream, allowing us to estimate the formation of liquid, mixed-phase and ice clouds. Downstream of the investigated dust sources, practically none of the simulated air parcels reached conditions of homogeneous ice nucleation (T≲−40 °C along trajectories that have not experienced water saturation first. By far the largest fraction of cloud forming trajectories entered conditions of mixed-phase clouds, where mineral dust will potentially exert the biggest influence. The majority of trajectories also passed through atmospheric regions supersaturated with respect to ice but subsaturated with respect to water, where so-called "warm ice clouds" (T≳−40 °C theoretically may form prior to supercooled water or mixed-phase clouds. The importance of "warm ice

  9. A radioecological survey of eatable organisms for natural radionuclides in hot spring water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, H.; Huang, X.; Song, H.; Li, J.; Zhang, J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports a radioecological survey on some aquatic eatable organisms raised in a hot spring water, which is rich in 226 Ra, in Hubei Province; and on agricultural products irrigated with the water. The contents of 226 Ra, 210 Pb and 210 Po in the water, some aquatic organisms, rice, vegetable an some other connected environmental samples were determined. The Concentration Factor (CF) or Transfer Coefficient (TC) from environmental medium into the eatable parts of the organisms for these nuclides as well as relative Distribution Factor (DF) was calculated. (author). 6 refs, 1 fig., 9 tabs

  10. Mineral water and radioactivity. Technical report n. 15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-07-01

    This technical report aims at giving to people taking charge of mineral water analysis, information needed to the interpretation of radioactivity monitoring results. It provides bulk notions on the radioactivity (biological and environmental effects), regulations and reference texts of the WHO (World Health Organization). Examples of activities and absorbed doses calculation are also provided. (A.L.B.)

  11. Sampling and analysis of 100 Area springs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-02-01

    This report is submitted in fulfillment of Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order Milestone M-30-01, submit a report to EPA and Ecology evaluating the impact to the Columbia River from contaminated springs and seeps as described in the operable unit work plans listed in M-30-03. Springs, seeps, sediments, and the Columbia River were sampled for chemical and radiological analyses during the period September 16 through October 21, 1991. A total of 26 locations were sampled. Results of these analyses show that radiological and nonradiological contaminants continue to enter the Columbia River from the retired reactor areas of the 100 Area via the springs. The primary contaminants in the springs are strontium-90, tritium, and chromium. These contaminants were detected in concentrations above drinking water standards. Analysis of total organic carbon were run on all water samples collected; there is no conclusive evidence that organic constituents are entering the river through the springs. Total organic carbon analyses were generally higher for the surface water than for the springs. The results of this study will be used to develop a focused, yet flexible, long-term spring sampling program. Analysis of Columbia River water samples collected at the Hanford Townsite (i.e., downstream of the reactor areas) did not detect any Hanford-specific contaminants

  12. Effects of groundwater withdrawals from the Hurricane Fault zone on discharge of saline water from Pah Tempe Springs, Washington County, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Philip M.

    2018-04-10

    Pah Tempe Springs, located in Washington County, Utah, contribute about 95,000 tons of dissolved solids annually along a 1,500-foot gaining reach of the Virgin River. The river gains more than 10 cubic feet per second along the reach as thermal, saline springwater discharges from dozens of orifices located along the riverbed and above the river on both banks. The spring complex discharges from fractured Permian Toroweap Limestone where the river crosses the north-south trending Hurricane Fault. The Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Program is evaluating the feasibility of capturing and desalinizing the discharge of Pah Tempe Springs to improve downstream water quality in the Virgin River. The most viable plan, identified by the Bureau of Reclamation in early studies, is to capture spring discharge by pumping thermal groundwater from within the Hurricane Fault footwall damage zone and to treat this water prior to returning it to the river.Three multiple-day interference tests were conducted between November 2013 and November 2014, wherein thermal groundwater was pumped from fractured carbonate rock in the fault damage zone at rates of up to 7 cubic feet per second. Pumping periods for these tests lasted approximately 66, 74, and 67 hours, respectively, and the tests occurred with controlled streamflows of approximately 2.0, 3.5, and 24.5 cubic feet per second, respectively, in the Virgin River upstream from the springs reach. Specific conductance, water temperature, and discharge were monitored continuously in the river (upstream and downstream of the springs reach) at selected individual springs, and in the pumping discharge during each of the tests. Water levels were monitored in three observation wells screened in the thermal system. Periodic stream and groundwater samples were analyzed for dissolved-solids concentration and the stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen. Additional discrete measurements of field parameters (specific

  13. Radionuclide behavior in water saturated porous media: Diffusion and infiltration coupling of thermodynamically and kinetically controlled radionuclide water - mineral interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spasennykh, M.Yu.; Apps, J.A.

    1995-05-01

    A model is developed describing one dimensional radionuclide transport in porous media coupled with locally reversible radionuclide water-mineral exchange reactions and radioactive decay. Problems are considered in which radionuclide transport by diffusion and infiltration processes occur in cases where radionuclide water-solid interaction are kinetically and thermodynamically controlled. The limits of Sr-90 and Cs-137 migration are calculated over a wide range of the problem variables (infiltration velocity, distribution coefficients, and rate constants of water-mineral radionuclide exchange reactions)

  14. Radiation dose to the Malaysian populace via the consumption of bottled mineral water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Nasir, Noor Liyana Mohd; Zakirin, Nur Syahira; Kassim, Hasan Abu; Asaduzzaman, Khandoker; Bradley, D. A.; Zulkifli, M. Y.; Hayyan, Adeeb

    2017-11-01

    Due to the geological makeup of the various water bodies, mineral- and groundwater can be expected to contain levels of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) exceeding that of tap and surface water. Acknowledging mineral water to form a vital component of the intake in maintaining the healthy life of an individual, it nevertheless remains important to study the associated radiological implications of NORM content, especially in regard to the consumption of bottled mineral water, the presence of which is prevalent in modern urban society. In present study, various brands of bottled mineral waters that are commonly available in Malaysia were obtained from local markets, the presence of NORM subsequently being assessed by HPGe γ-ray spectrometry. The activity concentrations of the radionuclides of particular interest, 226Ra, 232Th and 40K, were found to be within the respective ranges of 1.45±0.28‒3.30±0.43, 0.65±0.18‒3.39±0.38 and 21.12±1.74‒25.31±1.84 Bq/L. The concentrations of 226Ra, of central importance in radiological risk assessment, exceed the World Health Organisation (WHO, 2011) recommended maximum permissible limit of 1.0 Bq/L; for all three radionuclides taken together, the annual effective doses are greater than the WHO recommended limit of 0.1 mSv/y, a matter of especial concern for those in the developmental stages of life.

  15. Preliminary analysis of geothermal aspects of Brazilian thermal spring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurter, S.J.; Hamza, V.M.

    1982-01-01

    Information on more than 400 geothermal springs in Brazil has been assembled. On the basis of the data colected the temperatures at the maximum depths of circulation of spring waters are calculated using the quality of silica dissolved in water. For some thermal springs temperatures are calculated on the basis of silica determination carrried out by us. Applying linear relations between silica temperature and geothermal flux the average depths of water circulation in the Parana Basin and the Brazilian folded belts surrounding the San Francisco craton are calculated. The radioactivity of the water, derived mainly from the dissolved radon can be correlated with the temperature of the spring. An inverse correlation, as was observed for thermal springs of Pocos de Caldas, can be used to calculate the ascent velocity of thermal waters, where as, a positive correlations could be interpreted as due to the mixing of thermal with surface waters. (Author) [pt

  16. Geohydrologic Investigations and Landscape Characteristics of Areas Contributing Water to Springs, the Current River, and Jacks Fork, Ozark National Scenic Riverways, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugel, Douglas N.; Richards, Joseph M.; Schumacher, John G.

    2009-01-01

    The Ozark National Scenic Riverways (ONSR) is a narrow corridor that stretches for approximately 134 miles along the Current River and Jacks Fork in southern Missouri. Most of the water flowing in the Current River and Jacks Fork is discharged to the rivers from springs within the ONSR, and most of the recharge area of these springs is outside the ONSR. This report describes geohydrologic investigations and landscape characteristics of areas contributing water to springs and the Current River and Jacks Fork in the ONSR. The potentiometric-surface map of the study area for 2000-07 shows that the groundwater divide extends beyond the surface-water divide in some places, notably along Logan Creek and the northeastern part of the study area, indicating interbasin transfer of groundwater between surface-water basins. A low hydraulic gradient occurs in much of the upland area west of the Current River associated with areas of high sinkhole density, which indicates the presence of a network of subsurface karst conduits. The results of a low base-flow seepage run indicate that most of the discharge in the Current River and Jacks Fork was from identified springs, and a smaller amount was from tributaries whose discharge probably originated as spring discharge, or from springs or diffuse groundwater discharge in the streambed. Results of a temperature profile conducted on an 85-mile reach of the Current River indicate that the lowest average temperatures were within or downstream from inflows of springs. A mass-balance on heat calculation of the discharge of Bass Rock Spring, a previously undescribed spring, resulted in an estimated discharge of 34.1 cubic feet per second (ft3/s), making it the sixth largest spring in the Current River Basin. The 13 springs in the study area for which recharge areas have been estimated accounted for 82 percent (867 ft3/s of 1,060 ft3/s) of the discharge of the Current River at Big Spring during the 2006 seepage run. Including discharge from

  17. The Formation of Carbonate Minerals and the Mobility of Heavy Metals during Water-CO2-Mafic Rock Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, Jonas

    to the carbonate precipitation in CarbFix project. In the third study, water and solid samples from two alkaline springs in Oman were examined. The elements detected in the spring waters in order of abundance were Na, Cl, Ca, Mg, SO4, K, Br, Si, F, B, Sr, Al, Fe, Mo, Zn, Ni, Cu, Mn, V, Ba, Cr, Co, Ti, Hg and Pb...

  18. Engineering evaluation/cost analysis for the proposed management of contaminated water in the Weldon Spring quarry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonell, M.M.; Peterson, J.M.; Joya, I.E.

    1989-01-01

    This engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) report has been prepared to support the proposed removal action for management of contaminated water in the Weldon Spring quarry, located near Weldon Spring, Missouri. The water became chemically and radioactively contaminated as a result of contact with various wastes that were disposed of in the quarry between 1942 and 1968. The US Department of Energy is responsible for cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site, which includes the quarry, under its Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP). The major goals of SFMP are to eliminate potential hazards to the public and the environment that are associated with contamination at SFMP sites and to make surplus real property available for other uses, to the extent possible. The objectives of the EE/CA report are to identify the cleanup as a removal action, to document the selection of response activities that will mitigate the potential for release of radioactive or chemical contaminant for the quarry water into the nearby environment, and to address environmental impacts associated with the proposed action. Pursuant to the evaluation alternatives in this report, it is proposed that the water be pumped from the quarry pond to a newly constructed treatment plant for removal of the contaminants of concern. This removal action is necessary for and consistent with the overall response action being planned to minimize potential threats to the public and the environment associated with the current contamination at the quarry. 66 refs., 15 figs., 32 tabs

  19. Environmental quality assessment of cold water stream spring in urban perimeter of Codo City, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana dos Santos Oliveira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Lack of planning, accelerated and uncontrolled growth of Brazilian cities, has triggered a series of impacts in the aquatic ecosystems, including the degradation of springs. This study evaluated the macroscopic shape of the nascent state of cold water creek conservation in the urban area of Codo City, Maranhao State, by applying the Headwaters Environmental Impact Index (IIAN during the visit in the field. The spring is located in New Jerusalem neighborhood, with a poor degree of protection, with main macroscopic impact in degraded vegetation, easy access and the approach of urban facilities.

  20. Isotope techniques to identify recharge areas of springs for rainwater harvesting in the mountainous region of Gaucher area, Chamoli district, Uttarakhand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shivanna, K.; Tirumalesh, K.; Noble, J.; Joseph, T.B.; Singh, Gursharan; Joshi, A.P.; Khati, V.S.

    2008-01-01

    Environmental isotope techniques have been employed to identify the recharge areas of springs in India, in order to construct artificial recharge structures for rainwater harvesting and groundwater augmentation for their rejuvenation. A model project was taken up in the mountainous region of Gaucher area, Chamoli District, Uttarakhand for this purpose. The springs in this regions are seasonal and are derived from seepage waters flowing through the shallow weathered and fractured zone. The chemistry of high-altitude springs is similar to that of precipitation, whereas water-rock interactions contributes to increased mineralization in low-altitude springs. The stable isotopic variation in precipitation suggests that the altitude effect for Gaucher area is -0.55% for δ 18 O and -3.8% for δ 2 H per 100 m rise in altitude. Based on local geology, geomorphology, hydrochemistry and isotope information, the possible recharge areas inferred for valleys 1, 2 and 3 are located at altitudes of 1250, 1330 and 1020 m amsl respectively. Water conservation and recharge structures such as subsurface dykes, check bunds and contour trenches were constructed at the identified recharge areas in the respective valleys for controlling the subsurface flow, rainwater harvesting and groundwater augmentation respectively. As a result, during and after the following monsoon, the discharge rates of the springs not only increased significantly, but also did not dry up even during the dry period. The study shows that the isotope techniques can be effectively used in identifying recharge areas of springs in the Himalayan region. It also demonstrates the advantage of isotope techniques over conventional methods. (author)

  1. Preliminary geothermal investigations at Manley Hot Springs, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    East, J.

    1982-04-01

    Manley Hot Springs is one of several hot springs which form a belt extending from the Seward Peninsula to east-central Alaska. All of the hot springs are low-temperature, water-dominated geothermal systems, having formed as the result of circulation of meteoric water along deepseated fractures near or within granitic intrusives. Shallow, thermally disturbed ground at Manley Hot Springs constitutes an area of 1.2 km by 0.6 km along the lower slopes of Bean Ridge on the north side of the Tanana Valley. This area includes 32 springs and seeps and one warm (29.1/sup 0/C) well. The hottest springs range in temperature from 61/sup 0/ to 47/sup 0/C and are presently utilized for space heating and irrigation. This study was designed to characterize the geothermal system present at Manley Hot Springs and delineate likely sites for geothermal drilling. Several surveys were conducted over a grid system which included shallow ground temperature, helium soil gas, mercury soil and resistivity surveys. In addition, a reconnaissance ground temperature survey and water chemistry sampling program was undertaken. The preliminary results, including some preliminary water chemistry, show that shallow hydrothermal activity can be delineated by many of the surveys. Three localities are targeted as likely geothermal well sites, and a model is proposed for the geothermal system at Manley Hot Springs.

  2. Regulation No. 100/2006 Coll. of the Ministry of Health of the Slovak Republic dated as of February 6, 2006 laying down the requirements for natural healing water and natural mineral water, Balneology details of the report, distribution, extent of monitoring and content analysis of natural healing waters and natural mineral waters and their products and requirements for entry to the list of accredited laboratories maintained by the State Commission bathroom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This Regulation provides: (a) requirements for natural healing water and natural mineral water; (b) requirements for the recognition of natural mineral water; (c) details of balneology report; (d) distribution of natural healing waters and natural mineral water; (e) the extent of tracking of natural healing waters and natural mineral waters and their products; (f) content analysis of natural healing waters and natural mineral waters and their products; (g) registration requirements for accredited laboratories in the list maintained by the State Commission bathroom. This Regulation came into force on March 1, 2006.

  3. Branding Plan for Arctic Well Spring Water: Establishing a Premium Brand in China

    OpenAIRE

    Lesonen, Essi

    2015-01-01

    The Chinese middle class has been growing at a fast pace during the past years and they have more purchasing power than ever. The growing middle class is also concerned about their health and safety and they are willing to spend money on premium international water. The idea for this thesis came from a group of people in Finland and China who are interested in exporting spring water from the Finnish Lapland to China. The reason for choosing China was the enormity and potential of the mark...

  4. Characteristics of thermal-mineral waters in Backa region (Vojvodina) and their exploitation in spa tourism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosic, Kristina; Pivac, Tatjana; Romelic, Jovan; Lazic, Lazar; Stojanovic, Vladimir [Faculty of Science, Department of Geography, Tourism and Hotel Management, University of Novi Sad, Trg Dositeja Obradovica 3, 21000 Novi Sad (RS)

    2011-01-15

    Hydropower, biomass, biogas, biofuels, wind power, solar energy and geothermal energy are the major resources to provide Backa region with most of its. Backa extends between 45 16' and 46 22' of the northern latitude and 18 36' and 20 37' of the eastern longitude. It occupies the north-eastern part of Vojvodina, i.e. the most north-western part of the Republic of Serbia. That is historical-geographic territory bordered on the Danube on its western and eastern side, the Tisa on its eastern side and with the state border towards Hungary on the north. In this paper, the focus will be on renewable sources, specifically geothermal energy in Backa region. The paper analyzes the characteristics of thermal-mineral waters in Backa, the condition and possibilities of their exploitation in spa tourism, and in other economic branches. The tradition of thermo-mineral waters exploitation in spas and public baths is rather long. Today, this type of thermo-mineral waters exploitation in Backa is the widest spread. Permanent, i.e. continuous exploiters of thermal-mineral waters in Backa are primarily balneal-rehabilitation centres and exploiters using the water for technological purposes. (author)

  5. Radon, water chemistry and pollution check by volatile organic compounds in springs around Popocatepetl volcano, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mena

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Popocatepetl volcano is a high-risk active volcano in Central Mexico where the highest population density in the country is settled. Radon in the soil and groundwater together with water chemistry from samples of nearby springs were analysed as a function of the 2002-2003 volcanic activity. The measurements of soil radon indicated fluctuations related to both the meteorological and sporadic explosive events. Groundwater radon showed essential differences in concentration due to the specific characteristics of the studied springs. Water chemistry showed also stability along the monitoring period. No anthropogenic pollution from Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs was observed. An overview of the soil radon behaviour as a function of the volcanic activity in the period 1994-2002 is also discussed.

  6. Effect of spring water on the radon concentration in the air at Masutomi spa in Yamanashi Prefecture, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, Masayo; Koga, Taeko; Morishima, Hiroshige; Kimura, Shojiro; Ohta, Masatoshi

    2012-01-01

    The concentrations of 222 Rn existing in air have been studied by using a convenient and highly sensitive Pico-rad detector system at Masutomi spa in Yamanashi Prefecture, Japan. The measurements in air were carried out indoors and outdoors during the winter of 2000 and the summers of 1999 and 2005. The concentrations of 222 Rn in spring water in this region were measured by the liquid scintillation method. The concentrations of natural radionuclides contained in soils surrounding spa areas were also examined by means of the γ-ray energy spectrometry technique using a Ge diode detector to investigate the correlation between the radionuclides contents and 222 Rn concentrations in air at each point of interest. The atmospheric 222 Rn concentrations in these areas were high, ranging from 5 Bq/m 3 to 2676 Bq/m 3 . The radon concentration at each hotel was high in the order of the bath room, the dressing room, the lobby, and the outdoor area near the hotel, with averages and standard deviations of the concentration of 441 ± 79 Bq/m 3 , 351 ± 283 Bq/m 3 , 121 ± 5 Bq/m 3 , and 23 ± 1 Bq/m 3 , respectively. The source of 222 Rn in the air in the bath room is more likely to be the spring water than the soil. The spring water plays carries the radon to the atmosphere. Our measurements indicated that the 222 Rn concentration in the air was affected by the 222 Rn concentration in spring water rather than that in soil. (author)

  7. From urban municipalities to polar bioremediation: the characterisation and contribution of biogenic minerals for water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freidman, Benjamin L; Northcott, Kathy A; Thiel, Peta; Gras, Sally L; Snape, Ian; Stevens, Geoff W; Mumford, Kathryn A

    2017-06-01

    Minerals of biological origin have shown significant potential for the separation of contaminants from water worldwide. This study details the contribution of biologically derived minerals to water treatment operations, with a focus on filtration media from urban municipalities and remote cold regions. The results support biofilm-embedded iron and manganese to be the building blocks of biogenic mineral development on activated carbon and nutrient-amended zeolites. The presence of similar iron and manganese oxidising bacterial species across all filter media supports the analogous morphologies of biogenic minerals between sites and suggests that biological water treatment processes may be feasible across a range of climates. This is the first time the stages of biogenic mineral formation have been aligned with comprehensive imaging of the biofilm community and bacterial identification; especially with respect to cold regions. Where biogenic mineral formation occurs on filter media, the potential exists for enhanced adsorption for a range of organic and inorganic contaminants and improved longevity of filter media beyond the adsorption or exchange capacities of the raw material.

  8. [Use of drinking mineral waters in children with bronchial asthma and associated biliary tract diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efimenko, N V; Chalaia, E N; Demina, S V

    2008-01-01

    It is shown that supplementation of therapy of bronchial asthma in children by mineral water (Essentuki No 4) has marked beneficial effect on the functional activity of digestive organs and the respiratory system. It is recommended that drinking mineral waters be included in the course of the resort-and-spa treatment of such patients.

  9. Climate-induced warming imposes a threat to north European spring ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyväsjärvi, Jussi; Marttila, Hannu; Rossi, Pekka M; Ala-Aho, Pertti; Olofsson, Bo; Nisell, Jakob; Backman, Birgitta; Ilmonen, Jari; Virtanen, Risto; Paasivirta, Lauri; Britschgi, Ritva; Kløve, Bjørn; Muotka, Timo

    2015-12-01

    Interest in climate change effects on groundwater has increased dramatically during the last decade. The mechanisms of climate-related groundwater depletion have been thoroughly reviewed, but the influence of global warming on groundwater-dependent ecosystems (GDEs) remains poorly known. Here we report long-term water temperature trends in 66 northern European cold-water springs. A vast majority of the springs (82%) exhibited a significant increase in water temperature during 1968-2012. Mean spring water temperatures were closely related to regional air temperature and global radiative forcing of the corresponding year. Based on three alternative climate scenarios representing low (RCP2.6), intermediate (RCP6) and high-emission scenarios (RCP8.5), we estimate that increase in mean spring water temperature in the region is likely to range from 0.67 °C (RCP2.6) to 5.94 °C (RCP8.5) by 2086. According to the worst-case scenario, water temperature of these originally cold-water ecosystems (regional mean in the late 1970s: 4.7 °C) may exceed 12 °C by the end of this century. We used bryophyte and macroinvertebrate species data from Finnish springs and spring-fed streams to assess ecological impacts of the predicted warming. An increase in spring water temperature by several degrees will likely have substantial biodiversity impacts, causing regional extinction of native, cold-stenothermal spring specialists, whereas species diversity of headwater generalists is likely to increase. Even a slight (by 1 °C) increase in water temperature may eliminate endemic spring species, thus altering bryophyte and macroinvertebrate assemblages of spring-fed streams. Climate change-induced warming of northern regions may thus alter species composition of the spring biota and cause regional homogenization of biodiversity in headwater ecosystems. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. [One-time effects of drinking mineral water and tap water enriched with silver nanoparticles on the biochemical markers of liver condition and metabolic parameters in healthy rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efimenko, N V; Frolkov, V K; Kozlova, V V; Kaisinova, A S; Chalaya, E N

    2017-12-05

     The objective of the present research was to study the influence of tap water enriched with silver nanoparticles (NP) as well as that of «Krasnoarmeysky» and «Essentuki №17» mineral waters after their single administration through the oral gavage to the rats on the metabolism of carbohydrates and lipids, the biochemical markers of the liver condition, and the endocrine profile in the healthy animals.  The laboratory animals (130 male Wistar rats) were allocated to thirteen groups comprised of 10 rats each as follows: 1st group (n=10) intact animals, 2nd group (5 minutes after the administration of silver NP (n=10), 3rd group (15 minutes after the of silver NP), 4th group (60 minutes after the administration of silver NP), 5th group (n=10) (5 minutes after the introduction of the «Krasnoarmeysky» mineral water), 6th group (n=10) (15 min after the introduction of the «Krasnoarmeysky» mineral water), 7th group (n=10), (60 minutes after the introduction of the «Krasnoarmeysky» mineral water) 8th group (n=10) (5 minutes after the introduction of the «Essentuki № 17» mineral water), 9th group (n=10) (15 min after the introduction of the «Essentuki № 7» mineral water) , 10th group (n=10) (60 minutes after the introduction of the «Essentuki №17» mineral water), 11th group (n=10) (5 minutes after administration of tap water (control),12th group (n=10) (15 minutes after administration of tap water (control), and 13th (n=10) group 60 minutes after administration of tap water (control).  The study has demonstrated that the tap water enriched with silver nanoparticles similar to the mineral waters caused stress reactions that are inferior to those induced by «Essentuki №17» mineral water in terms of the magnitude; however, the effect provoked by the tap water was of longer duration. Moreover, the tap water enriched with silver nanoparticles stimulates prooxidant reactions, and inhibit the activity of antioxidant protection. Silver nanoparticles

  11. Indoor radon levels in selected hot spring hotels in Guangdong, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Gang; Zhang, Boyou; Wang, Xinming; Gong, Jingping; Chan, Daniel; Bernett, John; Lee, S C

    2005-03-01

    Guangdong is one of the provinces that have most hot springs in China, and many hotels have been set up near hot springs, with spring water introduced into the bath inside each hotel room for hot spring bathing to attract tourists. In the present study, we measured radon in indoor and outdoor air, as well as in hot spring waters, in four hot spring hotels in Guangdong by using NR-667A (III) continuous radon detector. Radon concentrations ranged 53.4-292.5 Bq L(-1) in the hot spring water and 17.2-190.9 Bq m(-3) in outdoor air. Soil gas intrusion, indoor hot spring water use and inefficient ventilation all contributed to the elevated indoor radon levels in the hotel rooms. From the variation of radon levels in closed unoccupied hotel rooms, soil gas intrusion was found to be a very important source of indoor radon in hotel rooms with floors in contact with soils. When there was spring water bathing in the bathes, average radon levels were 10.9-813% higher in the hotel rooms and 13.8-489% higher in bathes compared to their corresponding average levels when there was no spring water use. Spring water use in the hotel rooms had radon transfer coefficients from 1.6x10(-4) to 5.0x10(-3). Radon in some hotel rooms maintained in concentrations much higher than guideline levels might thus have potential health risks to the hotel workers, and technical and management measures should be taken to lower their exposure of radon through inhalation.

  12. Indoor radon levels in selected hot spring hotels in Guangdong, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Gang; Zhang Boyou; Wang Xinming; Gong Jingping; Chan, Daniel; Bernett, John; Lee, S.C.

    2005-01-01

    Guangdong is one of the provinces that have most hot springs in China, and many hotels have been set up near hot springs, with spring water introduced into the bath inside each hotel room for hot spring bathing to attract tourists. In the present study, we measured radon in indoor and outdoor air, as well as in hot spring waters, in four hot spring hotels in Guangdong by using NR-667A (III) continuous radon detector. Radon concentrations ranged 53.4-292.5 Bq L -1 in the hot spring water and 17.2-190.9 Bq m -3 in outdoor air. Soil gas intrusion, indoor hot spring water use and inefficient ventilation all contributed to the elevated indoor radon levels in the hotel rooms. From the variation of radon levels in closed unoccupied hotel rooms, soil gas intrusion was found to be a very important source of indoor radon in hotel rooms with floors in contact with soils. When there was spring water bathing in the bathes, average radon levels were 10.9-813% higher in the hotel rooms and 13.8-489% higher in bathes compared to their corresponding average levels when there was no spring water use. Spring water use in the hotel rooms had radon transfer coefficients from 1.6x10 -4 to 5.0x10 -3 . Radon in some hotel rooms maintained in concentrations much higher than guideline levels might thus have potential health risks to the hotel workers, and technical and management measures should be taken to lower their exposure of radon through inhalation

  13. Crop diversification, tillage, and management system influences on spring wheat yield and soil water use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depleted soil quality, decreased water availability, and increased weed competition constrain spring wheat production in the northern Great Plains. Integrated crop management systems are necessary for improved crop productivity. We conducted a field experiment from 2004-2010 comparing productivity...

  14. Water pollution in relation to mineral exploration: a case study from Alayi-Ovim area of southeastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibe, Kalu K; Akaolisa, Casmir C Zanders

    2012-05-01

    Water samples from rivers, streams, springs, and shallow wells in Alayi-Ovim area of southeast Nigeria have been analyzed for Pb, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mg, PO(4), NO(3), CO(3), SO(4), Cl, and pH. The analyses were carried out using atomic absorption spectrometer and Hach Direct Reading Equipment. Results of the analyses from the area conform to the WHO (1995) standards for drinking water. However, the results show relative enrichment of Ca, pH, Mg, CO(3), and Cl. Low values were obtained for Fe, SO(4), and NO(3). While the Cl and Pb enrichment in the area north of Alayi-Ovim axis is attributed to proximity to the lead-zinc and chloride-rich formations of the Turonian Eze-Aku and the Albian Asu River; the Ca, Mg, SO(4), and CO(3) enrichment in Southern part of Alayi-Ovim is due to the limestone-bearing Late Maastrichtian Nsukka Formation. Furthermore, the very low values of less than 5 ppm for these characters in water in the central region correlate well with the relatively clean Maastrichtian quartz arenite Ajali Sandstone Formation. The Pb-Zn and Cl incursions into the water system from the Older Albian Asu River/Turonian Eze-Aku Formations in the northern part of Alayi-Ovim area and the leaching of Mg, and Ca into the water system in the Maastrichtian limestone area in the south thus constitute geochemical indices for chemical pollution and mineral exploration for brine and dolomitic limestone in the area.

  15. Mineral Dissolution and Precipitation due to Carbon Dioxide-Water-Rock Interactions: The Significance of Accessory Minerals in Carbonate Reservoirs (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaszuba, J. P.; Marcon, V.; Chopping, C.

    2013-12-01

    Accessory minerals in carbonate reservoirs, and in the caprocks that seal these reservoirs, can provide insight into multiphase fluid (CO2 + H2O)-rock interactions and the behavior of CO2 that resides in these water-rock systems. Our program integrates field data, hydrothermal experiments, and geochemical modeling to evaluate CO2-water-rock reactions and processes in a variety of carbonate reservoirs in the Rocky Mountain region of the US. These studies provide insights into a wide range of geologic environments, including natural CO2 reservoirs, geologic carbon sequestration, engineered geothermal systems, enhanced oil and gas recovery, and unconventional hydrocarbon resources. One suite of experiments evaluates the Madison Limestone on the Moxa Arch, Southwest Wyoming, a sulfur-rich natural CO2 reservoir. Mineral textures and geochemical features developed in the experiments suggest that carbonate minerals which constitute the natural reservoir will initially dissolve in response to emplacement of CO2. Euhedral, bladed anhydrite concomitantly precipitates in response to injected CO2. Analogous anhydrite is observed in drill core, suggesting that secondary anhydrite in the natural reservoir may be related to emplacement of CO2 into the Madison Limestone. Carbonate minerals ultimately re-precipitate, and anhydrite dissolves, as the rock buffers the acidity and reasserts geochemical control. Another suite of experiments emulates injection of CO2 for enhanced oil recovery in the Desert Creek Limestone (Paradox Formation), Paradox Basin, Southeast Utah. Euhedral iron oxyhydroxides (hematite) precipitate at pH 4.5 to 5 and low Eh (approximately -0.1 V) as a consequence of water-rock reaction. Injection of CO2 decreases pH to approximately 3.5 and increases Eh by approximately 0.1 V, yielding secondary mineralization of euhedral pyrite instead of iron oxyhydroxides. Carbonate minerals also dissolve and ultimately re-precipitate, as determined by experiments in the

  16. Effects of normal saline and selenium-enriched hot spring water on experimentally induced rhinosinusitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Hyun; Yeo, Sang Won

    2013-01-01

    This prospective, randomized, and controlled study examined the effects of normal saline and selenium-enriched hot spring water on experimentally induced rhinosinusitis in rats. The study comprised two control groups (untreated and saline-treated) and three experimental groups of Sprague Dawley rats. The experimental groups received an instillation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) only, LPS+normal saline (LPS/saline), or LPS+selenium-enriched hot spring water (LPS/selenium). Histopathological changes were identified using hematoxylin-eosin staining. Leakage of exudate was identified using fluorescence microscopy. Microvascular permeability was measured using the Evans blue dye technique. Expression of the Muc5ac gene was measured using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Mucosal edema and expression of the Muc5ac gene were significantly lower in the LPS/saline group than in the LPS group. Microvascular permeability, mucosal edema, and expression of the Muc5ac gene were significantly lower in the LPS/selenium group than in the LPS group. Mucosal edema was similar in the LPS/selenium group and LPS/saline group, but capillary permeability and Muc5ac expression were lower in the LPS/selenium group. This study shows that normal saline and selenium-enriched hot spring water reduce inflammatory activity and mucus hypersecretion in LPS-induced rhinosinusitis in rats. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Hydrogeology, water quality, and simulated effects of ground-water withdrawals from the Floridan aquifer system, Seminole County and vicinity, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spechler, Rick M.; Halford, Keith J.

    2001-01-01

    observed in a few springs with long-term record. Chloride concentrations in water from the Upper Floridan aquifer in Seminole County range areally from 6.2 to 5,300 milligrams per liter. Chloride concentrations are lowest in the recharge areas of the Floridan aquifer system in the western part of Seminole County and near Geneva. The most highly mineralized water occurs adjacent to the Wekiva River in northwestern Seminole County, around the eastern part of Lake Jesup, and along the St. Johns River in eastern Seminole County. Analysis of limited long-term water-quality data indicates that the chloride concentrations in water for most wells in the Floridan aquifer system in Seminole County have not changed significantly in the 20-year period from 1976 to 1996, and probably not since the mid 1950's. Analysis of water samples collected from some Upper Floridan aquifer springs, however, indicates that the water has become more mineralized during recent years. Increases in specific conductance and concentrations of major cations and anions were observed at several of the springs within the study area where long-term water-quality data were available. Associated with these increases in the mineralization of spring water has been an increase in total nitrate-plus- nitrite as nitrogen concentration. A three-dimensional model was developed to simulate ground-water flow in the surficial and Floridan aquifer systems. The steady-state ground-water flow model was calibrated to water-level data that was averaged over a 1-year period from September 1996 through August 1997. The calibrated flow model generally produced simulated water levels in reasonably close agreement with measured water levels. As a result, the calibrated model was used to simulate the effects of expected increases in ground-water withdrawals on the water levels in the surficial aquifer system and on the potentiometric surface of the Upper and Lower Floridan aquifers in Seminole County. The ca

  18. Executive summary: Weldon Spring Site Environmental Report for calendar year 1992. Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    This report has been prepared to provide information about the public safety and environmental protection programs conducted by the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project. The Weldon Spring site is located in southern St. Charles County, Missouri, approximately 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. The site consists of two main areas, the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant and raffinate pits and the Weldon Spring Quarry. The objectives of the Site Environmental Report are to present a summary of data from the environmental monitoring program, to characterize trends and environmental conditions at the site, and to confirm compliance with environmental and health protection standards and requirements. The report also presents the status of remedial activities and the results of monitoring these activities to assess their impacts on the public and environment. The scope of the environmental monitoring program at the Weldon Spring site has changed since it was initiated. Previously, the program focused on investigations of the extent and level of contaminants in the groundwater, surface waters, buildings, and air at the site. In 1992, the level of remedial activities required monitoring for potential impacts of those activities, particularly on surface water runoff and airborne effluents. This report includes monitoring data from routine radiological and nonradiological sampling activities. These data include estimates of dose to the public from the Weldon Spring site; estimates of effluent releases; and trends in groundwater contaminant levels. Also, applicable compliance requirements, quality assurance programs, and special studies conducted in 1992 to support environmental protection programs are reviewed.

  19. Hydrogen-isotopic composition of some hydrous manganese minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hariya, Y.; Tsutsumi, M.

    1981-01-01

    Initial data on the hydrogen-isotopic compositions in hydrous Mn minerals from various occurrences fall in a wide range from -298 to -84per thousand, relative to SMOW. deltaD-values of todorokite and cryptomelane from Tertiary deposits show -89 and -150per thousand. 10 A-manganite and delta-MnO 2 from deep-sea nodules have relatively restricted deltaD-values ranging from -96 to -84per thousand. The deltaD-values for manganese bog ores from recent hot springs show almost -105per thousand. It is recognized that the isotopic values obtained for the deep-sea nodules and recent bog ores are slightly different ranged. Manganite and groutite are unique in their hydrogen-isotopic compositions, having the most depleted deltaD-values ranging from -298 to -236per thousand. MnO(OH) minerals are more deuterium-depleted hydrous minerals than any other hydrothermal minerals from various ore deposits. Hydrogen-isotope fractionation factors between manganite and water were experimentally determined to be 0.7894, 0.7958 and 0.8078 at 150 0 , 200 0 and 250 0 C respectively. The present experimental results indicate that if manganites were formed at temperatures below 250 0 C, under isotopic equilibrium conditions most of the manganite mineralization in the Tertiary manganese deposits must have precipitated from meteoric hydrothermal solutions. (Auth.)

  20. Biological effects of drinking-water mineral composition on calcium balance and bone remodeling markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, S; Baudoin, C; Boute, D; Brazier, M; De La Guéronniere, V; De Vernejoul, M C

    2004-01-01

    To compare the effects of 2 drinking waters containing similar calcium (Ca) concentration in order to analyze the role of ions other than Ca on bone metabolism. These mineral drinking-waters differed by their mineral composition primarily concerning the concentration of bicarbonate (HCO3-), high in the HB, and sulfate, high in HS water. Of 60 included women, 39 completed the study. Patients were randomly assigned to an intake of 1 liter per day of mineral water HB or HS for 28 d, followed by cross-over to the alternative drinking-water for a further 28 d. At baseline and after each period of one month, Ca metabolism parameters, acid-base status, and bone remodeling markers were measured. Changes in Ca metabolism were significant in the HB group where the ionized Ca increased and the PTH decreased. Serum pH showed a similar increase whatever the used drinking water compared to baseline. In the HB group, significant increase in urine pH, and significant decrease in AT-HCO3- and NH4+ were observed. Bone resorption markers, urinary CTx/Cr, Pyr/Cr, and D-Pyr/Cr, significantly decreased in the HB group compared to baseline, and were not significantly modified in the HS group. These results showed a beneficial effect of the bicarbonaterich HB water on bone metabolism. This may account for a better bioavailability of the Ca, a greater alkalinization, and a larger decrease in PTH level secondary to a higher ionized Ca level. The higher content of silica in HB water may have also participated to the positive action on bone balance that was observed. In this short term study, these data underlined the potential role of the mineral drinking water composition on bone metabolism.

  1. Chemical analyses of waters from geysers, hot springs, and pools in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming from 1974 to 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, J.M.; Yadav, S.

    1979-01-01

    Waters from geysers, hot springs, and pools of Yellowstone National Park have been analyzed. We report 422 complete major ion analyses from 330 different locations of geysers, hot springs, and pools, collected from 1974 to 1978. Many of the analyses from Upper, Midway, Lower, and Norris Geyser Basin are recollections of features previously reported.

  2. The impact of geology on the migration of fluorides in mineral waters of the Bukulja and Brajkovac pluton area, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papić Petar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the hydrogeochemical parameters that classify groundwater as mineral water is the content of fluoride ions. Their concentration is both important and limited for bottled mineral waters. Hydrochemical research of mineral waters in the surrounding area of Bukulja and Brajkovac pluton, in central Serbia, was conducted in order to define the chemical composition and genesis of these waters. They are carbonated waters, with content of fluoride ranging from 0.2 up to 6.6 mg/L. Since hydrochemical analyses showed variations in the major water chemistry, it was obvious that, apart from hydrochemical research, some explorations of the structure of the regional terrain would be inevitable. For these purposes, some additional geological research was performed, creating an adequate basis for the interpretation of the genesis of these carbonated mineral waters. The results confirmed the significance of the application of hydrochemical methods in the research of mineral waters. The work tended to emphasize that “technological treatment” for decreasing the concentration of fluoride in mineral waters occurs in nature, indicating the existence of natural defluoridization. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43004

  3. Indoor radon levels in selected hot spring hotels in Guangdong, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song Gang [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Zhang Boyou [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Wang Xinming [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou 510640 (China)]. E-mail: wangxm@gig.ac.cn; Gong Jingping [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Chan, Daniel [Department of Building Services Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (China); Bernett, John [Department of Building Services Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (China); Lee, S.C. [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (China)

    2005-03-01

    Guangdong is one of the provinces that have most hot springs in China, and many hotels have been set up near hot springs, with spring water introduced into the bath inside each hotel room for hot spring bathing to attract tourists. In the present study, we measured radon in indoor and outdoor air, as well as in hot spring waters, in four hot spring hotels in Guangdong by using NR-667A (III) continuous radon detector. Radon concentrations ranged 53.4-292.5 Bq L{sup -1} in the hot spring water and 17.2-190.9 Bq m{sup -3} in outdoor air. Soil gas intrusion, indoor hot spring water use and inefficient ventilation all contributed to the elevated indoor radon levels in the hotel rooms. From the variation of radon levels in closed unoccupied hotel rooms, soil gas intrusion was found to be a very important source of indoor radon in hotel rooms with floors in contact with soils. When there was spring water bathing in the bathes, average radon levels were 10.9-813% higher in the hotel rooms and 13.8-489% higher in bathes compared to their corresponding average levels when there was no spring water use. Spring water use in the hotel rooms had radon transfer coefficients from 1.6x10{sup -4} to 5.0x10{sup -3}. Radon in some hotel rooms maintained in concentrations much higher than guideline levels might thus have potential health risks to the hotel workers, and technical and management measures should be taken to lower their exposure of radon through inhalation.

  4. Measurements of natural radioactivity concentration in drinking water samples of Shiraz city and springs of the Fars province, Iran, and dose estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehdizadeh, S.; Faghihi, R.; Sina, S.; Derakhshan, S.

    2013-01-01

    The Fars province is located in the south-west region of Iran where different nuclear sites has been established, such as Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant. In this research, 92 water samples from the water supplies of Shiraz city and springs of the Fars province were investigated with regard to the concentrations of natural radioactive elements, total uranium, 226 Ra, gross alpha and gross beta. 226 Ra concentration was determined by the 222 Rn emanation method. To measure the total uranium concentration, a laser fluorimetry analyzer (UA-3) was used. The mean concentration of 226 Ra in Shiraz's water resources was 23.9 mBq l -1 , while 93% of spring waters have a concentration 2 mBq l -1 . The results of uranium concentration measurements show the mean concentrations of 7.6 and 6 mg l -1 in the water of Shiraz and springs of Fars, respectively. The gross alpha and beta concentrations measured by the evaporation method were lower than the limit of detection of the measuring instruments used in this survey. The mean annual effective doses of infants, children and adults from 238 U and 226 Ra content of Shiraz's water and spring waters were estimated. According to the results of this study, the activity concentration in water samples were below the maximum permissible concentrations determined by the World Health Organization and the US Environmental Protection Agency. Finally, the correlation between 226 Ra and total U activity concentrations and geochemical properties of water samples, i.e. pH, total dissolve solids and SO 4 2- , were estimated. (authors)

  5. Modeling of Possible Conditions for Origin of First Organic Forms in hot Mineral Water

    OpenAIRE

    Ignat Ignatov; Oleg Mosin

    2014-01-01

    The composition of water, its temperature and pH value was analyzed in experiments with modelling of primary hydrosphere and possible conditions for origin of first organic forms in hot mineral water. For this aim the authors performed experiments with hot mineral and seawater from Bulgaria by IR-spectrometry (DNES-method). As model systems were used cactus juice of Echinopsis pachanoi and Mediterranean jellyfish Cotylorhiza tuberculata. It was considered the reactions of condensation and deh...

  6. Sensory Evaluation and Oxidative Stability of a Suncream Formulated with Thermal Spring Waters from Ourense (NW Spain and Sargassum muticum Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Balboa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to evaluate four thermal spring waters from Ourense and a Sargassum muticum extract as cosmetic ingredients for the preparation of a suncream. The thermal spring waters were tested for their suitability as an aqueous phase main component, and the algal extract was added as an antioxidant instead of using synthetic preservatives in the cosmetic formula. The emulsion was tested for lipid oxidation during a period of 9 months and for consumer acceptance by performing a sensory test on controls and blanks. Further, color parameters were considered, and a pH determination was performed. The S. muticum extract protected from primary and secondary oxidation as efficiently as Fucus sp. or α-tocopherol extracts. In addition, the sensorial test revealed that consumers preferred suncreams prepared with the S. muticum extract and with thermal spring water from O Tinteiro and A Chavasqueira. The pH of the suncreams varied with the selection of the ingredients, and no oscillations in colorimetric values were visually observed. Our results indicate that the algal extract and the thermal spring waters from Ourense are potential cosmetic ingredients, since they showed effectiveness as antioxidant ingredients, and the suncreams were well accepted by consumers.

  7. The saltiest springs in the Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, James G.; Diggles, Michael F.; Evans, William C.; Klemic, Karin

    2017-07-20

    The five saltiest springs in the Sierra Nevada in California are found between 38.5° and 38.8° N. latitude, on the South Fork American River; on Caples Creek, a tributary of the Silver Fork American River; and on the North Fork Mokelumne River. The springs issue from Cretaceous granitic rocks in the bottoms of these major canyons, between 1,200- and 2,200-m elevation. All of these springs were well known to Native Americans, who excavated meter-sized basins in the granitic rock, within which they produced salt by evaporation near at least four of the five spring sites. The spring waters are dominated by Cl, Na, and Ca; are enriched relative to seawater in Ca, Li, and As; and are depleted in SO4, Mg, and K. Tritium analyses indicate that the spring waters have had little interaction with rainfall since about 1954. The waters are apparently an old groundwater of meteoric origin that resided at depth before moving up along fractures to the surface of the exhumed granitic rocks. However, along the way these waters incorporated salts from depth, the origin of which could have been either from marine sedimentary rocks intruded by the granitic magmas or from fluid inclusions in the granitic rocks. Prolonged storage at depth fostered water-rock interactions that undoubtedly modified the fluid compositions.

  8. The impact of river water intrusion on trace metal cycling in karst aquifers: an example from the Floridan aquifer system at Madison Blue Spring, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, A. L.; Martin, J. B.; Screaton, E.; Spellman, P.; Gulley, J.

    2011-12-01

    Springs located adjacent to rivers can serve as recharge points for aquifers when allogenic runoff increases river stage above the hydraulic head of the spring, forcing river water into the spring vent. Depending on relative compositions of the recharged water and groundwater, the recharged river water could be a source of dissolved trace metals to the aquifer, could mobilize solid phases such as metal oxide coatings, or both. Whether metals are mobilized or precipitated should depend on changes in redox and pH conditions as dissolved oxygen and organic carbon react following intrusion of the river water. To assess how river intrusion events affect metal cycling in springs, we monitored a small recharge event in April 2011 into Madison Blue Spring, which discharges to the Withlacoochee River in north-central Florida. Madison Blue Spring is the entrance to a phreatic cave system that includes over 7.8 km of surveyed conduits. During the event, river stage increased over base flow conditions for approximately 25 days by a maximum of 8%. Intrusion of the river water was monitored with conductivity, temperature and depth sensors that were installed within the cave system and adjacent wells. Decreased specific conductivity within the cave system occurred for approximately 20 days, reflecting the length of time that river water was present in the cave system. During this time, grab samples were collected seven times over a period of 34 days for measurements of major ion and trace metal concentrations at the spring vent and at Martz sink, a karst window connected to the conduit system approximately 150 meters from the spring vent. Relative fractions of surface water and groundwater were estimated based on Cl concentrations of the samples, assuming conservative two end-member mixing during the event. This mixing model indicates that maximum river water contribution to the groundwater system was approximately 20%. River water had concentrations of iron, manganese, and other

  9. Deposition and benthic mineralization of organic carbon: A seasonal study from Faroe Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    á Norði, Gunnvør; Glud, Ronnie N.; Simonsen, Knud; Gaard, Eilif

    2018-01-01

    Seasonal variations in sedimentation and benthic mineralization of organic carbon (OC) were investigated in a Faroese fjord. Deposited particulate organic carbon (POC) was mainly of marine origin, with terrestrial material only accounting for rates were associated to the spring bloom. The dynamics in the benthic solute exchange were governed by stratification that isolated the bottom water during summer and intensified sediment resuspension during winter. The POC export from the euphotic zone could not sustain the benthic mineralization rate (10.8 mol C m- 2 yr- 1) and the calculated burial rate (9.8 mol C m- 2 yr- 1) of organic material in the central basin. This indicated considerable focusing of material in the central part of the fjord. This was supported by the fact that the measured benthic mineralization rate - in contrast to most investigations - actually increased with increasing water depth. In August, when mineralization was at its maximum, the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) release from the sediment increased by 2.2 mmol m- 2 d- 1 for every m increase in water depth at 30-60 m depth. Due to sediment focusing, the OC burial in the deepest part of the fjord was 9.8 mol C m- 2 yr- 1. This was 2.4 times higher than the average OC burial in the fjord, estimated from the total sedimentation, and benthic mineralization accounting for the water depth related changes in activity. The study in Kaldbaksfjørður underscore that fjords are important sites for long time OC burial, but emphasize the need for accounting for spatial variations when extrapolating results from a single or few stations to the scale of the entire fjord.

  10. Evaluation of radon in hot spring waters in Zacatecas State, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favila R, E.; Lopez del Rio, H.; Davila R, I.; Mireles G, F.

    2010-10-01

    It is well know that radon is a potent human carcinogen. Because of the health concern of radon exposure, concentrations of 222 Rn were determined in ten hot spring water samples from the Mexican state of Zacatecas. The thermal water is collected in pools and used mainly for recreational purposes. In addition to radon level, the water samples were characterized for temperature, conductivity, and ph. Liquid scintillation spectrometry was used to measure 222 Rn and its decay products by mixing directly an aliquot of water with a commercial liquid scintillation. All measurements were carried out using a liquid scintillation counter (Wallac 1411). The water temperature ranged from 28 to 59 C, while the ph varied from 7.2 to 9.0, and the water conductivity was between 202.4 and 1072 μS/cm. The 222 Rn concentration varied in the range 3.9-32.6 Bq/L. In addition, the risk to radon exposure was assessed by considering three -real and possible- radon exposure scenarios: 1) ingestion of bottled thermal water, 2) direct ingestion of thermal water; and 3) vapor inhalation. The annual effective dose calculated for ingestion of bottled thermal water was 0.010-0.083 mSv/yr; for ingestion of water was 0.65-5.47 mSv/yr; and for inhalation was 0.28-2.81 mSv/yr. (Author)

  11. [The effect of mineral water on serotonin and insulin production (an experimental study)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polushina, N D

    1998-01-01

    Radioimmunoassay (DRG kits) and orthotoluidine test were conducted to measure blood serotonin, insulin and glucose in 70 intact Wistar rat males before and after a course of drinking mineral water Essentuki 17 (MW). After the MW drinking course, a single dose of mineral water increases basal levels of serotonin and insulin, sensitivity of endocrine cells to MW. Serotonin and insulin rose maximally on minute 5 after the drink while in contrast to minute 15 and 30 before initiation of the MW drinking course. A direct correlation was found between blood concentrations of serotonin and insulin.

  12. Shallow groundwater investigations at Weldon Spring, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    The Missouri Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geology and Land Survey (MDNR-DGLS) conducted investigations of the upper aquifer in the vicinity of the abandoned Weldon Spring Chemical Plant in southwest St. Charles County, Missouri. The objective of the investigation was to better define the relationships between precipitation, surface runoff, groundwater recharge and shallow groundwater discharge within the study area, thereby assisting the Department of Energy in designing an appropriate groundwater monitoring plan for the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project. The results of the investigations indicate that the upper aquifer has been affected by karst development but that well developed karst does not exist on or around the site. Dye traces conducted during the study have shown that surface water which leaves the site enters the subsurface in losing streams around the site and travels rapidly to one or more local springs. Upper aquifer recharge areas, constructed from dye trace and potentiometric data, generally follow surface water drainage patterns on the south side of the site, but cross surface-water drainage divides north of the site. Nine springs may receive recharge from site runoff, depending upon the amount of runoff. In addition to these springs, one perennial spring and two intermittent springs to the southwest of the site may receive recharge from site infiltration. 25 refs., 13 figs

  13. Natural radionuclides in Austrian bottled mineral waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriele Wallner; Tania Jabbar

    2010-01-01

    All commercially available mineral waters of Austrian origin were investigated with regard to the natural radionuclides 228 Ra, 226 Ra, 210 Pb, 210 Po, 238 U and 234 U. From 1 to 1.5 L of sample the nuclides were extracted and measured sequentially: the radium isotopes as well as 210 Pb were measured by liquid scintillation counting after separation on a membrane loaded with element-selective particles (Empore Radium Disks), 210 Po was determined by α-particle spectroscopy after spontaneous deposition onto a copper planchette and uranium was determined also by α-particle spectroscopy after anion separation and microprecipitation with NdF 3 . The calculated committed effective doses for adults, teens and babies were compared to the total indicative dose of 0.1 mSv/year given in the EC Drinking Water Directive. The dominant portion of the committed effective dose was due to 228 Ra. Highly mineralised waters showed also higher 226 Ra and 228 Ra levels. (author)

  14. Using MicroFTIR to Map Mineral Distributions in Serpentinizing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, A.; Kubo, M. D.; Cardace, D.

    2016-12-01

    Serpentinization, the water-rock reaction forming serpentine mineral assemblages from ultramafic precursors, can co-occur with the production of hydrogen, methane, and diverse organic compounds (McCollom and Seewald, 2013), evolving water appropriate for carbonate precipitation, including in ophiolite groundwater flow systems and travertine-producing seeps/springs. Serpentinization is regarded as a geologic process important to the sustainability of the deep biosphere (Schrenk et al., 2013) and the origin of life (Schulte et al., 2006). In this study, we manually polished wafers of ultramafic rocks/associated minerals (serpentinite, peridotite, pyroxenite, dunite; olivine, diopside, serpentine, magnetite), and travertine/constituent minerals (carbonate crusts; calcite, dolomite), and observed mineral boundaries and interfaces using µFTIR analysis in reflection mode. We used a Thermo Nicolet iS50 FTIR spectrometer coupled with a Continuum IR microscope to map minerals/boundaries. We identify, confirm, and document FTIR wavenumber regions linked to serpentinite- and travertine-associated minerals by referencing IR spectra (RRUFF) and aligning with x-ray diffraction. The ultramafic and carbonate samples are from the following field localities: McLaughlin Natural Reserve - a UC research reserve, Lower Lake, CA; Zambales, PH; Ontario, CA; Yellow Dog, MI; Taskesti, TK; Twin Sisters Range, WA; Sharon, MA; Klamath Mountains, CA; Dun Mountain, NZ; and Sussex County, NJ. Our goals are to provide comprehensive µFTIR characterization of mineral profiles important in serpentinites and related rocks, and evaluate the resolving power of µFTIR for the detection of mineral-encapsulated, residual organic compounds from biological activity. We report on µFTIR data for naturally occurring ultramafics and travertines and also estimate the limit of detection for cell membrane components in mineral matrices, impregnating increasing mass proportions of xanthan gum in a peridotite sand

  15. A new mercury-accumulating Mucor hiemalis strain EH8 from cold sulfidic spring water biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, Enamul; Fritscher, Johannes

    2016-10-01

    Here, we report about a unique aquatic fungus Mucor hiemalisEH8 that can remove toxic ionic mercury from water by intracellular accumulation and reduction into elemental mercury (Hg 0 ). EH8 was isolated from a microbial biofilm grown in sulfidic-reducing spring water sourced at a Marching's site located downhill from hop cultivation areas with a history of mercury use. A thorough biodiversity survey and mercury-removal function analyses were undertaken in an area of about 200 km 2 in Bavaria (Germany) to find the key biofilm and microbe for mercury removal. After a systematic search using metal removal assays we identified Marching spring's biofilm out of 18 different sulfidic springs' biofilms as the only one that was capable of removing ionic Hg from water. EH8 was selected, due to its molecular biological identification as the key microorganism of this biofilm with the capability of mercury removal, and cultivated as a pure culture on solid and in liquid media to produce germinating sporangiospores. They removed 99% of mercury from water within 10-48 h after initial exposure to Hg(II). Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated occurrence of intracellular mercury in germinating sporangiospores exposed to mercury. Not only associated with intracellular components, but mercury was also found to be released and deposited as metallic-shiny nanospheres. Electron-dispersive x-ray analysis of such a nanosphere confirmed presence of mercury by the HgM α peak at 2.195 keV. Thus, a first aquatic eukaryotic microbe has been found that is able to grow even at low temperature under sulfur-reducing conditions with promising performance in mercury removal to safeguard our environment from mercury pollution. © 2016 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. A microbiological study of bottled mineral water marketed in Ludhiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, M; Kaur, H

    2006-01-01

    The microbiological quality of bottled mineral water marketed in Ludhiana was examined, Twenty three brands were analyzed for presumptive coliform count by multiple tube tests, and E. coli count was confirmed by Eijkman test. Bacterial and fungal loads were tested by membrane filtration test. Out of 23 only one sample (4.4%) showed the presumptive coliform count to be 460 most probable number (MPN)l 1 00ml,and 1 was found to be positive when tested by Eijkman test for Ecoli. In the membrane filtration test three samples (13%) showed more than two types of bacteria. Different types of bacteria isolated included Bacillus sp (19/23). Pseudomonas spp (13123), Ecoli, Klebsiella sp and S.albus one each Fungi was isolated from five of twenty three. (22%) samples. Only one brand of mineral water was unfit for human consumption. The rest of the samples were contaminated with non pathogenic flora.

  17. In situ mid-infrared spectroscopic titration of forsterite with water in supercritical CO2: Dependence of mineral carbonation on quantitative water speciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loring, J. S.; Thompson, C. J.; Wang, Z.; Schaef, H. T.; Martin, P.; Qafoku, O.; Felmy, A. R.; Rosso, K. M.

    2011-12-01

    Geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide holds promise for helping mitigate CO2 emissions generated from the burning of fossil fuels. Supercritical CO2 (scCO2) plumes containing variable water concentrations (wet scCO2) will displace aqueous solution and dominate the pore space adjacent to caprocks. It is important to understand possible mineral reactions with wet scCO2 to better predict long-term caprock integrity. We introduce novel in situ instrumentation that enables quantitative titrations of reactant minerals with water in scCO2 at temperatures and pressures relevant to target geologic reservoirs. The system includes both transmission and attenuated total reflection mid-infrared optics. Transmission infrared spectroscopy is used to measure concentrations of water dissolved in the scCO2, adsorbed on mineral surfaces, and incorporated into precipitated carbonates. Single-reflection attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy is used to monitor water adsorption, mineral dissolution, and carbonate precipitation reactions. Results are presented for the infrared spectroscopic titration of forsterite (Mg2SiO4), a model divalent metal silicate, with water in scCO2 at 100 bar and at both 50 and 75°C. The spectral data demonstrate that the quantitative speciation of water as either dissolved or adsorbed is important for understanding the types, growth rates, and amounts of carbonate precipitates formed. Relationships between dissolved/adsorbed water, water concentrations, and the role of liquid-like adsorbed water are discussed. Our results unify previous in situ studies from our laboratory based on infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction.

  18. Flow-induced vibration of helical coil compression springs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stokes, F.E.; King, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    Helical coil compression springs are used in some nuclear fuel assembly designs to maintain holddown and to accommodate thermal expansion. In the reactor environment, the springs are exposed to flowing water, elevated temperatures and pressures, and irradiation. Flow parallel to the longitudinal axis of the spring may excite the spring coils and cause vibration. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the flow-induced vibration (FIV) response characteristics of the helical coil compression springs. Experimental tests indicate that a helical coil spring responds like a single circular cylinder in cross-flow. Two FIV excitation mechanisms control spring vibration. Namely: 1) Turbulent Buffeting causes small amplitude vibration which increases as a function of velocity squared. 2) Vortex Shedding causes large amplitude vibration when the spring natural frequency and Strouhal frequency coincide. Several methods can be used to reduce or to prevent vortex shedding large amplitude vibrations. One method is compressing the spring to a coil pitch-to-diameter ratio of 2 thereby suppressing the vibration amplitude. Another involves modifying the spring geometry to alter its stiffness and frequency characteristics. These changes result in separation of the natural and Strouhal frequencies. With an understanding of how springs respond in the flowing water environment, the spring physical parameters can be designed to avoid large amplitude vibration. (orig.)

  19. Contribution of 222Rn-bearing water to indoor radon and indoor air quality assessment in hot spring hotels of Guangdong, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Gang; Wang Xinming; Chen Diyun; Chen Yongheng

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the contribution of radon ( 222 Rn)-bearing water to indoor 222 Rn in thermal baths. The 222 Rn concentrations in air were monitored in the bathroom and the bedroom. Particulate matter (PM, both PM 10 and PM 2.5 ) and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) were also monitored with portable analyzers. The bathrooms were supplied with hot spring water containing 66-260 kBq m -3 of 222 Rn. The results show that the spray of hot spring water from the bath spouts is the dominant mechanism by which 222 Rn is released into the air of the bathroom, and then it diffuses into the bedroom. Average 222 Rn level was 110-410% higher in the bedrooms and 510-1200% higher in the bathrooms compared to the corresponding average levels when there was no use of hot spring water. The indoor 222 Rn levels were influenced by the 222 Rn concentrations in the hot spring water and the bathing times. The average 222 Rn transfer coefficients from water to air were 6.2 x 10 -4 -4.1 x 10 -3 . The 24-h average levels of CO 2 and PM 10 in the hotel rooms were 89% and 22% higher than the present Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) standard of China. The main particle pollutant in the hotel rooms was PM 2.5 . Radon and PM 10 levels in some hotel rooms were at much higher concentrations than guideline levels, and thus the potential health risks to tourists and especially to the hotel workers should be of great concern, and measures should be taken to lower inhalation exposure to these air pollutants. - Highlights: → 222 Rn-bearing water is the main contributor to indoor radon in hot spring hotel. → The PM 2.5 and CO 2 are also the main indoor pollutants in the hotel rooms. → Higher radon and PM levels might have significant negative health effects to human. → The radon transfer coefficients are consistent with the published data.

  20. Discrimination of mineral waters using near infrared spectroscopy and aquaphotomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munćan Jelena S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite that water is one of the most studied materials today its dynamic properties are still not well understood. Water state in human organism is of high importance for normal healthy functioning of human body. Different kinds of water are usually classified according to its present solutes, and concentrations of these solutes, but though it is known that water molecules can form clusters around present solutes, classification of waters based on types of water molecular organization and present clusters is not present in current literature. In this study we used multivariate analysis for classification of commercial mineral waters based on their near infrared spectra (NIR. Further, we applied Aquaphotomics, a new approach for interpretation of near infrared spectra of water, which gives insight into organization of water molecules in each of these waters.

  1. Geochemical studies of Ishiwa hot springs in Yamanashi Prefecture-yearly change of hot springs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiyama, T. (Yamanashi Prefecture Womens Junior College, Japan)

    1971-12-01

    The effect of drilling on the Ishiwa hot springs was studied. About 50 wells have been drilled since 1961 when the first well was drilled to a depth of 146 m where 47/sup 0/C water flowed at 1376 l/min. Changes have occurred in flow rate, temperature, and chemical composition of the spring water. In area A near the foot of northern Okura-Keijisan along the Byodo and Fuefuki rivers, the pH value was 8.0 to 8.2 when drilling began, but it is now 7.4 to 8.0. In area B in the central spring area along the Chikatsu water reservoir, the pH was about 8.5 when drilling began, but is presently 10. The shift of area A pH to acidic is thought to be due to the effect of river water. The shift in area B pH to alkaline was thought to be connected to the fountainhead with pH 10 which appeared in the Kami-Ogihara Resseki district in Shioyama City. The fountainhead was located along the Fuefuki River at the foot of Obosatsu, 20 km from the Ishiwa area.

  2. Measurements of radon and radium activity in bottled mineral water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kappke, Jaqueline; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Correa, Janine N.; Reque, Marilson; Tabuchi, Camila Garcia; Del Claro, Flavia; Perna, Allan Felipe, E-mail: jaquelinekappke@gmail.com [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Deniak, Valeriy [Instituto de Pesquisa Pele Pequeno Principe, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Current work presents the results of further development of optimized experimental protocol for RAD7 instant radon detector (Durridge Company Inc.) usage in low level radon in water measurements and the results concerning Ra-226 activity evaluation in bottled mineral water samples purchased at Brazilian market. With the purpose to achieve the statistically consistent results for the activity levels of 0.1Bq/L for radon (radium) activity in water, present study used modified experimental protocol which consists of: 1) water samples were stored in hermetically sealed glass vials of 250mL during 30 days to guarantee that Rn-222 will reach the secular equilibrium; 2) the measurements were performed using WAT250 protocol of RAD7 detector; 3) with an aim to decrease the background, the cleaning (activated carbon filter) and drying (DRIERITE desiccant) vessels, which have a function to retain the radioactive decay product of Rn-222 and humidity, were connected to a closed air loop of RAD7 permanently by means of valves and taps, which gave a possibility to repeat all sequence of measurements (including background evaluation) three or four times without to open the air loop and disconnect the sample vial with water. Each water sample was submitted to such measurements two or three times. Obtained results presented the level of Ra-226 activity in studied samples of bottled mineral water that varied from 0.007 ± 0.061 Bq/L to 0.145 ± 0.049 Bq/L, which is below the limit of 0,5 Bq/L established by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2011 for drinking water. (author)

  3. Measurements of radon and radium activity in bottled mineral water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kappke, Jaqueline; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Correa, Janine N.; Reque, Marilson; Tabuchi, Camila Garcia; Del Claro, Flavia; Perna, Allan Felipe; Deniak, Valeriy

    2013-01-01

    Current work presents the results of further development of optimized experimental protocol for RAD7 instant radon detector (Durridge Company Inc.) usage in low level radon in water measurements and the results concerning Ra-226 activity evaluation in bottled mineral water samples purchased at Brazilian market. With the purpose to achieve the statistically consistent results for the activity levels of 0.1Bq/L for radon (radium) activity in water, present study used modified experimental protocol which consists of: 1) water samples were stored in hermetically sealed glass vials of 250mL during 30 days to guarantee that Rn-222 will reach the secular equilibrium; 2) the measurements were performed using WAT250 protocol of RAD7 detector; 3) with an aim to decrease the background, the cleaning (activated carbon filter) and drying (DRIERITE desiccant) vessels, which have a function to retain the radioactive decay product of Rn-222 and humidity, were connected to a closed air loop of RAD7 permanently by means of valves and taps, which gave a possibility to repeat all sequence of measurements (including background evaluation) three or four times without to open the air loop and disconnect the sample vial with water. Each water sample was submitted to such measurements two or three times. Obtained results presented the level of Ra-226 activity in studied samples of bottled mineral water that varied from 0.007 ± 0.061 Bq/L to 0.145 ± 0.049 Bq/L, which is below the limit of 0,5 Bq/L established by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2011 for drinking water. (author)

  4. Hydrochemical Characteristics of Springs in Oke–Igbo, Ondo State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    each spring and analyzed for temperature, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), total ... Boiling of the spring water, is therefore, .... spring against sudden change in pH might also .... The altitude of the springs may have.

  5. [History of hot spring bath treatment in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Wanpeng; Wang, Xiaojun; Xiang, Yinghong; Gu Li, A Man; Li, Ming; Zhang, Xin

    2011-07-01

    As early as the 7th century B.C. (Western Zhou Dynasty), there is a recording as 'spring which contains sulfur could treat disease' on the Wentang Stele written by WANG Bao. Wenquan Fu written by ZHANG Heng in the Easten Han Dynasty also mentioned hot spring bath treatment. The distribution of hot springs in China has been summarized by LI Daoyuan in the Northern Wei Dynasty in his Shuijingzhu which recorded hot springs in 41 places and interpreted the definition of hot spring. Bencao Shiyi (by CHEN Cangqi, Tang Dynasty) discussed the formation of and indications for hot springs. HU Zai in the Song Dynasty pointed out distinguishing hot springs according to water quality in his book Yuyin Conghua. TANG Shenwei in the Song Dynasty noted in Jingshi Zhenglei Beiji Bencao that hot spring bath treatment should be combined with diet. Shiwu Bencao (Ming Dynasty) classified hot springs into sulfur springs, arsenicum springs, cinnabar springs, aluminite springs, etc. and pointed out their individual indications. Geologists did not start the work on distribution and water quality analysis of hot springs until the first half of the 20th century. There are 972 hot springs in Wenquan Jiyao (written by geologist ZHANG Hongzhao and published in 1956). In July 1982, the First National Geothermal Conference was held and it reported that there were more than 2600 hot springs in China. Since the second half of the 20th century, hot spring sanatoriums and rehabilitation centers have been established, which promoted the development of hot spring bath treatment.

  6. Seasonal formation of ikaite (caco 3 · 6h 2o) in saline spring discharge at Expedition Fiord, Canadian High Arctic: Assessing conditional constraints for natural crystal growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omelon, Christopher R.; Pollard, Wayne H.; Marion, Giles M.

    2001-05-01

    - Spring discharge at Expedition Fiord (Pollard et al., 1999) on Axel Heiberg Island in the Canadian High Arctic produces a variety of travertine forms in addition to a diverse collection of mineral precipitates. This paper focuses on clusters of thermally unstable crystals believed to be the mineral ikaite (CaCO 3 · 6H 2O) growing seasonally along two spring outflows at Colour Peak. This form of calcium carbonate mineral occurs along small sections of discharge outflow as white euhedral crystals up to 0.5 cm in length. Difficulty in sampling, storage and transport of the samples for analysis has hampered attempts to confirm the presence of ikaite by X-ray diffraction. However, various field observations and the remarkable instability of these crystals at normal ambient temperatures strengthens our argument. This paper provides a description of these particular CaCO 3 · 6H 2O crystals and their environmental surroundings, and attempts to determine the validity of ikaite precipitation at this site by theoretical geochemical modeling: these results are compared with other reported observations of ikaite to both understand their occurrence and help delineate their geochemical characteristics. It is believed that the restrictive combination of spring water chemistry and long periods of low temperatures characteristic of arctic climates are necessary for ikaite growth at this site. The fact that ikaite is not forming at a second group of saline springs 11 km away allows us to more specifically outline conditions controlling its presence.

  7. Study on the leaching of phthalates from polyethylene terephthalate bottles into mineral water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keresztes, Szilvia; Tatár, Enikő; Czégény, Zsuzsanna; Záray, Gyula; Mihucz, Victor G.

    2013-01-01

    Carbonated and non-carbonated mineral water samples bottled in 0.5-L, 1.5-L and 2.0-L polyethylene terephthalate (PET) containers belonging to three different water brands commercialized in Hungary were studied in order to determine their phthalate content by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Among the six investigated phthalates, diisobutyl phthalate, di-n-butyl-phthalate, benzyl-butyl phthalate and di(2-ethyl-hexyl) phthalate (DEHP) were determined in non-carbonated samples as follows: −1 –0.2 μg L −1 , −1 –0.8 μg L −1 , −1 –0.1 μg L −1 and −1 –1.7 μg L −1 , respectively. Any of the above-mentioned phthalate esters could be detected in carbonated mineral water samples. DEHP was the most abundant phthalate in the investigated samples. It could be detected after 44 days of storage at 22 °C and its leaching was the most pronounced when samples were stored over 1200 days. Mineral water purchased in PET bottles of 0.5 L had the highest phthalate concentrations compared to those obtained for waters of the identical brand bottled in 1.5-L or 2.0-L PET containers due to the higher surface/volume ratio. No clear trend could be established for phthalate leaching when water samples were kept at higher temperatures (max. 60 °C) showing improper storage conditions. Phthalate determination by pyrolysis–gas chromatography/mass spectrometric measurements in the plastic material as well as in the aqueous phase proved the importance of the quality of PET raw material used for the production of the pre-form (virgin vs. polymer containing recycled PET). - Highlights: • DEHP — most abundant phthalate in bottled mineral water • Temperature and contact surface area influence phthalate leaching. • Phthalate occurrence depends on virgin vs. polymer containing recycled PET. • pH (carbonated vs. non-carbonated samples) affects hydrolysis of phthalate esters

  8. Fracture coatings in Topopah Spring Tuff along drill hole wash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlos, B.A.; Chipera, S.J.; Bish, D.L.

    1994-01-01

    Fracture-lining minerals are being studied as part of site characterization to determine the suitability of Yucca Mountain, Nevada as a potential high level nuclear waste repository. Fracture coatings in the Paintbrush Group provide information on potential flow paths above the water table both toward and away from the potential repository and provide information on the distribution of fracture-lining minerals needed to model thermal effects of waste emplacement. Fracture coatings within the predominantly non-zeolitic Paintbrush Group vary both with depth and laterally across Yucca Mountain, whereas fracture coatings in tuffs below the Paintbrush Group are related to the mineralogy of the tuffs and follow a consistent pattern of distribution with predominantly quartz, calcite, and manganese oxides in the devitrified intervals and mordenite and clinoptilolite in the zeolitic intervals. The zeolites stellerite and heulandite are more abundant in fractures in the Topopah Spring Tuff in drill holes USW G-1 and UE-25 a number-sign l, located along Drill Hole Wash (at the northern end of Yucca Mountain) than in core from other parts of Yucca Mountain. Buesch et al. (2) present evidence for a complex fault system along Drill Hole Wash. To investigate the possibility that the abundant fracture-lining zeolites in USW G-1 and UE-25 a number-sign 1 are related to the Drill Hole Wash fault, the Topopah Spring Tuff was examined in drill cores from USW UZ-14, USW G-1, USW NRG-7/7a, and UE-25 a number-sign l

  9. A Novel Approach for Analyzing Water Diffusion in Mineral and Vegetable Oil-Paper Insulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Du

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Water diffusion characteristics of mineral and vegetable oil-paper insulation systems are important for insulation condition evaluation of oil-filled transformers. In this paper, we describe a novel application method of in situ attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR approach for analyzing the diffusion process of water molecules in oil-immersed insulating paper. Two-dimensional correlation was used to analyze the 3700 cm-1 to 3000 cm- 1 hydroxyl peak. The observed results indicated that water molecules form two types of hydroxyl (OH with oil-impregnated paper in the diffusion process are weak and strong hydrogen bonds, respectively. 2D infrared correlation analysis revealed that three OH stretching vibration spectra absorption peaks was existed in hygroscopic vegetable oil-immersed insulating paper. And there are four OH stretching vibration spectra absorption peaks in mineral oil-immersed insulation paper. Furthermore, mineral oil-impregnated paper and vegetable oil-impregnated paper diffusion coefficients were obtained by nonlinear fitting.

  10. Arsenic species in ecosystems affected by arsenic-rich spring water near an abandoned mine in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Y.T. [Department of Earth System Science, Yonsei University, 134 Shinchon-Dong, Sudaemoon-Gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Nano Environment Materials Research Team, Korea Basic Science Institute, Seoul 136-600 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, H.O., E-mail: dunee@kbsi.re.k [Nano Environment Materials Research Team, Korea Basic Science Institute, Seoul 136-600 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, C. [Nano Environment Materials Research Team, Korea Basic Science Institute, Seoul 136-600 (Korea, Republic of); Woo, N.C., E-mail: ncwoo@yonsei.ac.k [Department of Earth System Science, Yonsei University, 134 Shinchon-Dong, Sudaemoon-Gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    The objectives of this study were to quantitatively estimate the distribution of arsenic with its speciation and to identify potential pathways for transformation of arsenic species from samples of water, sediments, and plants in the ecosystem affected by the Cheongog Spring, where As(V) concentration reached levels up to 0.270 mg L{sup -1}. After flowing about 100 m downstream, the arsenic level showed a marked reduction to 0.044 mg L{sup -1} (about 84% removal) without noticeable changes in major water chemistry. The field study and laboratory hydroponic experiments with the dominant emergent plants along the creek (water dropwort and thunbergian smartweed) indicated that arsenic distribution, reduction, and speciation appear to be controlled by, (i) sorption onto stream sediments in exchangeable fractions, (ii) bioaccumulation by and possible release from emergent plants, and (iii) transformation of As(V) to As(III) and organic species through biological activities. - Biogeochemical reactions with emergent plants and sediments control the fate of arsenic along creeks originating from a high-As Spring.

  11. Water relations, stomatal response and transpiration of Quercus pubescens trees during summer in a Mediterranean carbon dioxide spring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tognetti, R.; Miglietta, F.; Raschi, A. [Consiglio Nazionale della Ricerche, Firenze (Italy); Longobucco, A. [Centro Studi per l`Informatica applicata all`Agricoltura, Firenze (Italy)

    1999-04-01

    Variations in water relations and stomatal response of downy oak (Quercus pubescens) were analyzed under Mediterranean field conditions during two consecutive summers at two locations characterized by different atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations due to the presence of a CO{sub 2} spring at one of the locations. The heat-pulse velocity technique was used to estimate water use during a five-month period from June to November 1994. At the end of the sap flow measurements, the trees were harvested and foliage and sapwood area measured. The effect of elevated CO{sub 2} concentration on leaf conductance was less at high leaf-to-air water vapour pressure difference than at low leaf-to-air water vapour pressure difference. Mean and diurnal sap fluxes were consistently higher in trees at the control site than in the trees at the CO{sub 2} spring site. Results are discussed in terms of effects of elevated CO{sub 2} concentration on plant water use at the organ and whole-tree level. 76 refs., 9 figs.

  12. BfR recommends the establishment of a European maximum level for uranium in drinking and mineral water

    OpenAIRE

    German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment

    2007-01-01

    Uranium is a widespread, radioactive heavy metal on earth. It is to be found in varying concentrations and states in various rocks and minerals as well as in water, soil and air. Uranium may also reach the environment anthropogenically for instance in mineral phosphate fertilisers. Because of its widespread presence traces of uranium can also be detected in foods like drinking and mineral water. Uranium is not essential for humans. The ongoing intake of higher uranium concentration...

  13. Dynamics of water confined in clay minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Caer, S.; Pommeret, S.; Renault, J.Ph.; Lima, M.; Righini, R.; Gosset, D.; Simeone, D.; Bergaya, F.

    2012-01-01

    Ultrafast infrared spectroscopy of the O-D stretching mode of dilute HOD in H 2 O probes the local environment and the hydrogen bond network of confined water. The dynamics of water molecules confined in the interlayer space of montmorillonites (Mt) and in interaction with two types of cations (Li + and Ca 2+ ) but also with the negatively charged siloxane surface are studied. The results evidence that the OD vibrational dynamics is significantly slowed down in confined media: it goes from 1.7 ps in neat water to 2.6 Ps in the case of Li + cations with two water pseudo-layers (2.2-2.3 ps in the case of Ca 2+ cations) and to 4.7 ps in the case of Li + cations with one water pseudo-layer. No significant difference between the two cations is noticed. In this 2D confined geometry (the interlayer space being about 0.6 nm for two water pseudo-layers), the relaxation time constants obtained are comparable to the ones measured in analogous concentrated salt solutions. Nevertheless, and in strong opposition to the observations performed in the liquid phase, anisotropy experiments evidence the absence of rotational motions on a 5 ps time scale, proving that the hydrogen bond network in the interlayer space of the clay mineral is locked at this time scale. (authors)

  14. PENGELOLAAN MATA AIR UNTUK PENYEDIAAN AIR RUMAHTANGGA BERKELANJUTAN DI LERENG SELATAN GUNUNGAPI MERAPI (Springs Management for Sustainability Domestic Water Supply in the South West of Merapi Volcano Slope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarmadji Sudarmadji

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Mata air merupakan pemunculan air tanah ke permukaan tanah. Pemanfaatan mata air sangat beragam, antara lain penggunaan untuk keperluan air minum, irigasi, perikanan, untuk obyek wisata. Mata air mempunyai debit terbatas, namun kualitasnya baik, penggunaannya beragam, hal tersebut sering terjadi konflik pemanfaatan. Di saat musim kemarau, beberapa mata air merupakan sumber air satu-satunya di suatu tempat, sehingga pengelolaannya harus dilakukan secara baik. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mempelajari pengelolaan mata air berbasis teknologi tepat guna dalam penyediaan air rumahtangga di lereng selatan Gunungapi Merapi. Penelitian dilakukan dengan survei dan observasi di lapangan terhadap mata air yang digunakan untuk penyediaan air rumahtangga. Sejumlah responden pengguna mata air dan tokoh masyarakat setempat diwawancarai secara bebas dan terstruktur untuk memperoleh data pengelolaan mata air. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kondisi lingkungan dan karakteristik mata air, pengetahuan masyarakat dan budaya lokal yang beragam akan berpengaruh terhadap pengelolaanmata air. Perkembangan teknologi tidak dapat diabaikan dalam pengelolaan sumberdaya air. Hal ini dapat dipadukan dengan budaya masyarakat setempat dalam pengelolaan mata air, sehingga dapat diperoleh manfaat yang optimal dan kesinambungan fungsi dan manfaat mata air tersebut.   ABSTRACT Spring is the groundwater which comes out on ground surface. The use of water from springs is very diverse, varying from water for drinking, irrigation, fisheries, even for tourism. The springs usually have a limited discharge but the water quality from springs is good, therefore they are often facing some conflicts in utilization. In the dry season, in fact the springs are the only source of water supply; therefore the management of the spring should be done properly. This research aims to study the spring management based on appropriate technology in relation to household water supply in the

  15. Kinetic theory of oxygen isotopic exchange between minerals and water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criss, R.E.; Gregory, R.T.; Taylor, H.P.

    1987-01-01

    Kinetic and mass conservation equations are used to describe oxygen isotopic exchange between minerals and water in "closed" and open hydrothermal systems. In cases where n coexisting mineral phases having different reaction rates are present, the exchange process is described by a system of n + 1 simultaneous differential equations consisting of n pseudo first-order rate equations and a conservation of mass equation. The simultaneous solutions to these equations generate curved exchange trajectories on ??-?? plots. Families of such trajectories generated under conditions allowing for different fluid mole fractions, different fluid isotopic compositions, or different fluid flow rates are connected by positive-sloped isochronous lines. These isochrons reproduce the effects observed in hydrothermally exchanged mineral pairs including 1) steep positive slopes, 2) common reversals in the measured fractionation factors (??), and 3) measured fractionations that are highly variable over short distances where no thermal gradient can be geologically demonstrated. ?? 1987.

  16. Effect of mineral nitrogen fertilization on growth characteristics of lucerne under induced water deficiency stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasileva, V.; Vasilev, E.; Athar, M.

    2011-01-01

    Utility of lucerne crop fertilization with nitrogen fertilizer has been discussed in literature with controversy. In this study experiment was conducted to determine the effect of mineral nitrogen at the doses of 40, 80, 120 and 160 mg N/kg on some characteristics of lucerne under induced water deficiency stress at the stage of budding in a pot trial. It was found that mineral nitrogen at the doses of 120 and 160 mg N/kg soil increased the productivity of dry top mass by 17 and 23% in conditions of optimum moisture, and by 9% in conditions of water deficiency stress at the dose of 80 mg N/kg soil. Application of mineral nitrogen at the dose of 120 and 160 mg N/kg soil increased the quantity of dry root mass by 43 and 38% for the conditions of optimum moisture, and by 54-56% for conditions of water deficiency stress. Mineral nitrogen fertilizing at the dose of 40 mg N/kg soil had the lowest suppressive effect on the nodulation (11%). The dose of 160 mg N/kg soil was found to be toxic to nodulation. The dose of 80 mg N/kg soil, at which the crop had the lowest sensitivity to water deficiency stress, was optimal for lucerne development. (author)

  17. Production of Mineral Water Using Palm Bunch Ash (PBA) From ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A public health strategy for increasing the potassium and magnesium intake of the population was explored. These electrolytes have been confirmed by epidemiological studies to have some health benefits. A process for production of mineral water using palm bunch ash was developed. The composition of the palm bunch ...

  18. Bottled water, spas, and early years of water chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, William; Landa, Edward R.; Meeks, Lisa

    1995-01-01

    Although hot springs have been used and enjoyed for thousands of years, it was not until the late 1700s that they changed the course of world civilization by being the motivation for development of the science of chemistry. The pioneers of chemistry such as Priestley, Cavendish, Lavoisier, and Henry were working to identify and generate gases, in part, to determine their role in carbonated beverages. In the 18th century, spas in America were developed to follow the traditional activities of popular European spas. However, they were to become a dominant political and economic force in American history on three major points: (1) By far the most important was to provide a place for the leaders of individual colonies to meet and discuss the need for separation from England and the necessity for the Revolutionary War; (2) the westward expansion of the United States was facilitated by the presence of hot springs in many locations that provided the economic justification for railroads and settlement; and (3) the desire for the preservation of hot springs led to the establishment of the National Park Service. Although mineral springs have maintained their therapeutic credibility in many parts of the world, they have not done so in the United States. We suggest that the American decline was prompted by: (1) the establishment of The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine in 1893; (2) enactment of the Pure Food and Drug Act of 1907; and (3) the remarkable achievement of providing safe water supplies for American cities by the end of the 1920s. The current expanding market for bottled water is based in part on bottled water being an alternative beverage Ito alcohol and sweetened drinks and the inconsistent palatability and perceived health hazards of some tap waters.

  19. Bone Mineral 31P and Matrix-Bound Water Densities Measured by Solid-State 1H and 31P MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Alan C.; Li, Cheng; Rajapakse, Chamith S.; Bashoor- Zadeh, Mahdieh; Bhagat, Yusuf A.; Wright, Alexander C.; Zemel, Babette S.; Zavaliangos, Antonios; Wehrli, Felix W.

    2014-01-01

    Bone is a composite material consisting of mineral and hydrated collagen fractions. MRI of bone is challenging due to extremely short transverse relaxation times, but solid-state imaging sequences exist that can acquire the short-lived signal from bone tissue. Previous work to quantify bone density via MRI used powerful experimental scanners. This work seeks to establish the feasibility of MRI-based measurement on clinical scanners of bone mineral and collagen-bound water densities, the latter as a surrogate of matrix density, and to examine the associations of these parameters with porosity and donors’ age. Mineral and matrix-bound water images of reference phantoms and cortical bone from 16 human donors, ages 27-97 years, were acquired by zero-echo-time 31P and 1H MRI on whole body 7T and 3T scanners, respectively. Images were corrected for relaxation and RF inhomogeneity to obtain density maps. Cortical porosity was measured by micro-CT, and apparent mineral density by pQCT. MRI-derived densities were compared to x-ray-based measurements by least-squares regression. Mean bone mineral 31P density was 6.74±1.22 mol/L (corresponding to 1129±204 mg/cc mineral), and mean bound water 1H density was 31.3±4.2 mol/L (corresponding to 28.3±3.7 %v/v). Both 31P and bound water (BW) densities were correlated negatively with porosity (31P: R2 = 0.32, p bone mineralization ratio (expressed here as the ratio of 31P density to bound water density), which is proportional to true bone mineralization, was found to be uncorrelated with porosity, age, or pQCT density. This work establishes the feasibility of image-based quantification of bone mineral and bound water densities using clinical hardware. PMID:24846186

  20. New Approaches for Responsible Management of Offshore Springs in Semi-arid Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaban, Amin; de Jong, Carmen; Al-Sulaimani, Zaher

    2017-04-01

    In arid and semi-arid regions, such as the Mediterranean and Gulf Region where water is scarce water demand has been exacerbated and become a major environmental challenge. Presently there is massive pressure to develop new water sources to alleviate existing water stress. In the quest for more freshwater even groundwater discharge into the sea in the form of "off-shore freshwater springs" (or submarine groundwater discharge) has been contemplated as a potential source of unconventional water in coastal zones. Offshore-springs are derived from aquifers with complex geological controls mainly in the form of faults and karst conduits. Representing a border-line discipline, they have been poorly studied with only few submarine groundwater monitoring sites existing worldwide. Recently, innovative techniques have been developed enabling springs to be detected via remote sensing such as airborne surveys or satellite images. "Thermal Anomalies" can be clearly identified as evidence for groundwater discharge into the marine environment. A diversity of groundwater routes along which off-shore springs are fed from land sources can be recognized and near-shore and offshore springs differentiated and classified according to their geometry. This is well pronounced along the coast of Lebanon and offshore of Oman. Offshore springs play an important role in the marine ecosystem as natural sources of mercury, metals, nutrients, dissolved carbon species and in cooling or warming ocean water. However, they are extremely sensitive to variations in qualitative and quantitative water inputs triggered by climate change and anthropogenic impacts especially in their recharge zones. Pollutants such as sewage, detergents, heavy metals or herbicides that negatively affect water quality of offshore springs can transit the groundwater rapidly. Recently these springs have also been severely affected by uncontrolled water abstraction from land aquifers. In Bahrain, overpumping combined with

  1. Radiological Studies in the Hot Spring Region of Oyoun Mossa and Hammam Faraun Thermal Spring Areas in Western Sinai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, Kh.A.; Badran, H.M.; Ramadan, Kh.A.; Seddeek, M.K.; Sharshar, T.; Sharshar, T.

    2009-01-01

    Radioactivity in and around the two hot springs, Oyoun Mossa and Hammam Faraun, Western Sinai has been determined. The ground water, sediment and sand samples were measured by gamma-ray spectrometer for 232 Th, 226 Ra and 40 K isotopes. The enrichment of 226 Ra in Hammam Faraun hot spring was the most prominent feature. The concentration of 226 Ra in Oyoun Mossa and Hammam Faraun hot springs are 68 and 2377 Bq/kg for sediments, 3.5 and 54.7 Bq/kg for wild plants, and 205 and 1945 mBq/l for the ground water, respectively. In addition, the concentration of sand samples are 14 times larger in the area of Hammam Faraun compared with that of Oyoun Mossa. On the other hand, the concentration of 232 Th in different samples are comparable in the two areas while 137 Cs concentrations are relatively higher in Oyoun Mossa. For the purpose of comparison, sand samples were collected from two locations 5-12 km away from each spring. The activity concentrations of the four locations are comparable and in agreement with those from the area of the two springs except in one case. The major difference was the activity concentration of 226 Ra in the area of Hammam Faraun, which is much higher. The concentrations of all detected isotopes in water samples from these two springs are much higher than that detected in 27 natural wells in north Sinai. The results of the present study indicate that water only in Hammam Faraun hot spring is contaminated with 238 U-isotopes and the surrounding area is affected by this contamination. The calculated annual effective dose equivalents in the surroundings of Hammam Faraun (81.8 μSv) is superior to the maximum contaminant levels recommended.

  2. Extreme fractionation of 234U 238U and 230Th 234U in spring waters, sediments, and fossils at the Pomme de Terre Valley, southwestern Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, B. J.

    1982-01-01

    Isotopic fractionation as great as 1600% exists between 234U and 238U in spring waters, sediments, and fossils in the Pomme de Terre Valley, southwestern Missouri. The activity ratios of 234U 238U in five springs range from 7.2 to 16 in water which has been discharged for at least the past 30,000 years. The anomalies in 234U 238U ratio in deep water have potential usefulness in hydrologic investigations in southern Missouri. Clayey units overlying the spring bog sediments of Trolinger Spring are enriched in 230Th relative to their parent 234U by as much as 720%. The results indicate that both preferential displacement via alpha recoil ejection and the preferential emplacement via recoiling and physical entrapment are significant processes that are occurring in the geologic environment. ?? 1982.

  3. Evaluating Monitoring Strategies to Detect Precipitation-Induced Microbial Contamination Events in Karstic Springs Used for Drinking Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Besmer

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of microbial drinking water quality is a key component for ensuring safety and understanding risk, but conventional monitoring strategies are typically based on low sampling frequencies (e.g., quarterly or monthly. This is of concern because many drinking water sources, such as karstic springs are often subject to changes in bacterial concentrations on much shorter time scales (e.g., hours to days, for example after precipitation events. Microbial contamination events are crucial from a risk assessment perspective and should therefore be targeted by monitoring strategies to establish both the frequency of their occurrence and the magnitude of bacterial peak concentrations. In this study we used monitoring data from two specific karstic springs. We assessed the performance of conventional monitoring based on historical records and tested a number of alternative strategies based on a high-resolution data set of bacterial concentrations in spring water collected with online flow cytometry (FCM. We quantified the effect of increasing sampling frequency and found that for the specific case studied, at least bi-weekly sampling would be needed to detect precipitation events with a probability of >90%. We then proposed an optimized monitoring strategy with three targeted samples per event, triggered by precipitation measurements. This approach is more effective and efficient than simply increasing overall sampling frequency. It would enable the water utility to (1 analyze any relevant event and (2 limit median underestimation of peak concentrations to approximately 10%. We conclude with a generalized perspective on sampling optimization and argue that the assessment of short-term dynamics causing microbial peak loads initially requires increased sampling/analysis efforts, but can be optimized subsequently to account for limited resources. This offers water utilities and public health authorities systematic ways to evaluate and optimize their

  4. Remote sensing of geologic mineral occurrences for the Colorado mineral belt using LANDSAT data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, R. H. (Principal Investigator); Trexler, D. W.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. LANDSAT imagery was examined as a practical and productive tool for mineral exploration along the Colorado Mineral Belt. An attempt was made to identify all large, active and/or abandoned mining districts on the imagery which initially were discovered by surface manifestations. A number of strong photolinements, circular features, and color anomalies were identified. Some of these form a part of the structural and igneous volcanic framework in which mineral deposits occur. No specific mineral deposits such as veins or porphyries were identified. Promising linear and concentric features were field checked at several locations. Some proved to be fault zones and calderas; others were strictly topographic features related to stream or glacial entrenchment. The Silverton Caldera region and the Idaho Springs-Central City district were chosen and studied as case histories to evaluate the application of LANDSAT imagery to mineral exploration. Evidence of specific mineralization related to ore deposits in these two areas were observed only on low level photography.

  5. Calibration and validation of measures a total alpha beta counter in the tunisian mineral water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasri, Sihem; Skhiri, Noura

    2009-01-01

    The risks due to contamination of mineral waters are essentially risk internal radiation following ingestion of radionuclides which brought us in this study to determine the global alpha and beta of the Tunisian mineral water. We used an alpha beta global counter. The results obtained by this technique have shown that alpha activity of these 10 waters are all lower than 50 mBq / l and are varied between 3.75 and 8.4 mBq / l and beta activity was found only 9 waters are also lower than 50 mBq / l (between 7.17 and 18.25) when only one is between 100 and 500 mBq / l (101.17).

  6. Distribution of sequence-based types of legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 strains isolated from cooling towers, hot springs, and potable water systems in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Tian; Zhou, Haijian; Ren, Hongyu; Guan, Hong; Li, Machao; Zhu, Bingqing; Shao, Zhujun

    2014-04-01

    Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 causes Legionnaires' disease. Water systems contaminated with Legionella are the implicated sources of Legionnaires' disease. This study analyzed L. pneumophila serogroup 1 strains in China using sequence-based typing. Strains were isolated from cooling towers (n = 96), hot springs (n = 42), and potable water systems (n = 26). Isolates from cooling towers, hot springs, and potable water systems were divided into 25 sequence types (STs; index of discrimination [IOD], 0.711), 19 STs (IOD, 0.934), and 3 STs (IOD, 0.151), respectively. The genetic variation among the potable water isolates was lower than that among cooling tower and hot spring isolates. ST1 was the predominant type, accounting for 49.4% of analyzed strains (n = 81), followed by ST154. With the exception of two strains, all potable water isolates (92.3%) belonged to ST1. In contrast, 53.1% (51/96) and only 14.3% (6/42) of cooling tower and hot spring, respectively, isolates belonged to ST1. There were differences in the distributions of clone groups among the water sources. The comparisons among L. pneumophila strains isolated in China, Japan, and South Korea revealed that similar clones (ST1 complex and ST154 complex) exist in these countries. In conclusion, in China, STs had several unique allelic profiles, and ST1 was the most prevalent sequence type of environmental L. pneumophila serogroup 1 isolates, similar to its prevalence in Japan and South Korea.

  7. Swedish Spring Wheat Varieties with the Rare High Grain Protein Allele of NAM-B1 Differ in Leaf Senescence and Grain Mineral Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asplund, Linnéa; Bergkvist, Göran; Leino, Matti W.; Westerbergh, Anna; Weih, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Some Swedish spring wheat varieties have recently been shown to carry a rare wildtype (wt) allele of the gene NAM-B1, known to affect leaf senescence and nutrient retranslocation to the grain. The wt allele is believed to increase grain protein concentration and has attracted interest from breeders since it could contribute to higher grain quality and more nitrogen-efficient varieties. This study investigated whether Swedish varieties with the wt allele differ from varieties with one of the more common, non-functional alleles in order to examine the effect of the gene in a wide genetic background, and possibly explain why the allele has been retained in Swedish varieties. Forty varieties of spring wheat differing in NAM-B1 allele type were cultivated under controlled conditions. Senescence was monitored and grains were harvested and analyzed for mineral nutrient concentration. Varieties with the wt allele reached anthesis earlier and completed senescence faster than varieties with the non-functional allele. The wt varieties also had more ears, lighter grains and higher yields of P and K. Contrary to previous information on effects of the wt allele, our wt varieties did not have increased grain N concentration or grain N yield. In addition, temporal studies showed that straw length has decreased but grain N yield has remained unaffected over a century of Swedish spring wheat breeding. The faster development of wt varieties supports the hypothesis of NAM-B1 being preserved in Fennoscandia, with its short growing season, because of accelerated development conferred by the NAM-B1 wt allele. Although the possible effects of other gene actions were impossible to distinguish, the genetic resource of Fennoscandian spring wheats with the wt NAM-B1 allele is interesting to investigate further for breeding purposes. PMID:23555754

  8. [The mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of reflexotherapy and drinking mineral waters in the patients presenting with metabolic syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhernov, V A; Frolkov, V K; Zubarkina, M M

    Both acupuncture and drinking mineral water can influence the metabolism of carbohydrates and lipids as well as their hormonal regulation, but the possibility of the application of these therapeutic factors for the correction of insulin resistance has not been studied in the patients presenting with metabolic syndrome. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects produced by the intake of drinking mineral water and acupuncture on the various parameters characterizing the patients suffering from metabolic syndrome in combination with altered insulin resistance. Ninety patients with this condition included in the study underwent the analysis of their the blood pressure, body mass index, blood glucose and lipid levels, insulin and cortisol secretion. We undertook the analysis of the effects of the single and repeated intakes of Essentuki No 17 mineral water included in the combined treatment of the patients with metabolic syndrome and revealed many common responses of the organism to its therapeutic action. Specifically, the stress-type reactions suggested the initiation of the adaptive processes in the system of hormonal regulation of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Simultaneously, the manifestations of insulin resistance became less pronounced indicating that both acupuncture and drinking mineral water suppressed the action of the main pathogenic mechanisms underlying the development of metabolic syndrome. Moreover, it was shown that acupuncture had a stronger hypotensive effect in the combination with the decrease of the overproduction of cortisol whereas the intake of the mineral water had a greater metabolic potential and contributed to the intensification of the basal secretion of glucocorticoids. Both reflexotherapy and drinking mineral water have a well apparent effect on the pathogenetic reactions of the metabolic syndrome and therefore can be used in addition to the standard therapy to activate the non-specific, phylogenetically

  9. Spheres of discharge of springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Abraham E.; Stevens, Lawrence E.

    2009-02-01

    Although springs have been recognized as important, rare, and globally threatened ecosystems, there is as yet no consistent and comprehensive classification system or common lexicon for springs. In this paper, 12 spheres of discharge of springs are defined, sketched, displayed with photographs, and described relative to their hydrogeology of occurrence, and the microhabitats and ecosystems they support. A few of the spheres of discharge have been previously recognized and used by hydrogeologists for over 80 years, but others have only recently been defined geomorphologically. A comparison of these spheres of discharge to classification systems for wetlands, groundwater dependent ecosystems, karst hydrogeology, running waters, and other systems is provided. With a common lexicon for springs, hydrogeologists can provide more consistent guidance for springs ecosystem conservation, management, and restoration. As additional comprehensive inventories of the physical, biological, and cultural characteristics are conducted and analyzed, it will eventually be possible to associate spheres of discharge with discrete vegetation and aquatic invertebrate assemblages, and better understand the habitat requirements of rare or unique springs species. Given the elevated productivity and biodiversity of springs, and their highly threatened status, identification of geomorphic similarities among spring types is essential for conservation of these important ecosystems.

  10. Ground-water flow and ground- and surface-water interaction at the Weldon Spring quarry, St. Charles County, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imes, J.L.; Kleeschulte, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    Ground-water-level measurements to support remedial actions were made in 37 piezometers and 19 monitoring wells during a 19-month period to assess the potential for ground-water flow from an abandoned quarry to the nearby St. Charles County well field, which withdraws water from the base of the alluvial aquifer. From 1957 to 1966, low-level radioactive waste products from the Weldon Spring chemical plant were placed in the quarry a few hundred feet north of the Missouri River alluvial plain. Uranium-based contaminants subsequently were detected in alluvial ground water south of the quarry. During all but flood conditions, lateral ground-water flow in the bedrock from the quarry, as interpreted from water-table maps, generally is southwest toward Little Femme Osage Creek or south into the alluvial aquifer. After entering the alluvial aquifer, the ground water flows southeast to east toward a ground-water depression presumably produced by pumping at the St. Charles County well field. The depression position varies depending on the Missouri River stage and probably the number and location of active wells in the St. Charles County well field

  11. Study on the leaching of phthalates from polyethylene terephthalate bottles into mineral water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keresztes, Szilvia; Tatár, Enikő [Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Bioanalytics, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Eötvös Loránd University, H-1117 Budapest, Pázmány Péter sétány 1/A (Hungary); Czégény, Zsuzsanna [Institute of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-1525 Budapest, P.O. Box 17 (Hungary); Záray, Gyula [Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Bioanalytics, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Eötvös Loránd University, H-1117 Budapest, Pázmány Péter sétány 1/A (Hungary); Mihucz, Victor G., E-mail: vigami72@yahoo.es [Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Bioanalytics, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Eötvös Loránd University, H-1117 Budapest, Pázmány Péter sétány 1/A (Hungary)

    2013-08-01

    Carbonated and non-carbonated mineral water samples bottled in 0.5-L, 1.5-L and 2.0-L polyethylene terephthalate (PET) containers belonging to three different water brands commercialized in Hungary were studied in order to determine their phthalate content by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Among the six investigated phthalates, diisobutyl phthalate, di-n-butyl-phthalate, benzyl-butyl phthalate and di(2-ethyl-hexyl) phthalate (DEHP) were determined in non-carbonated samples as follows: < 3.0 ng L{sup −1}–0.2 μg L{sup −1}, < 6.6 ng L{sup −1}–0.8 μg L{sup −1}, < 6.0 ng L{sup −1}–0.1 μg L{sup −1} and < 16.0 ng L{sup −1}–1.7 μg L{sup −1}, respectively. Any of the above-mentioned phthalate esters could be detected in carbonated mineral water samples. DEHP was the most abundant phthalate in the investigated samples. It could be detected after 44 days of storage at 22 °C and its leaching was the most pronounced when samples were stored over 1200 days. Mineral water purchased in PET bottles of 0.5 L had the highest phthalate concentrations compared to those obtained for waters of the identical brand bottled in 1.5-L or 2.0-L PET containers due to the higher surface/volume ratio. No clear trend could be established for phthalate leaching when water samples were kept at higher temperatures (max. 60 °C) showing improper storage conditions. Phthalate determination by pyrolysis–gas chromatography/mass spectrometric measurements in the plastic material as well as in the aqueous phase proved the importance of the quality of PET raw material used for the production of the pre-form (virgin vs. polymer containing recycled PET). - Highlights: • DEHP — most abundant phthalate in bottled mineral water • Temperature and contact surface area influence phthalate leaching. • Phthalate occurrence depends on virgin vs. polymer containing recycled PET. • pH (carbonated vs. non-carbonated samples) affects hydrolysis of phthalate esters.

  12. Water Temperature, Invertebrate Drift, and the Scope for Growth for Juvenile Spring Chinook Salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovtang, J. C.; Li, H. W.

    2005-05-01

    We present a bioenergetic assessment of habitat quality based on the concept of the scope for growth for juvenile Chinook salmon. Growth of juvenile salmonids during the freshwater phase of their life history depends on a balance between two main factors: energy intake and metabolic costs. The metabolic demands of temperature and the availability of food play integral roles in determining the scope for growth of juvenile salmonids in stream systems. We investigated differences in size of juvenile spring Chinook salmon in relation to water temperature and invertebrate drift density in six unique study reaches in the Metolius River Basin, a tributary of the Deschutes River in Central Oregon. This project was initiated to determine the relative quality and potential productivity of habitat in the Metolius Basin prior to the reintroduction of spring Chinook salmon, which were extirpated from the middle Deschutes basin in the early 1970's due to the construction of a hydroelectric dam. Variations in the growth of juvenile Chinook salmon can be described using a multiple regression model of water temperature and invertebrate drift density. We also discuss the relationships between our bioenergetic model, variations of the ideal free distribution model, and physiological growth models.

  13. Development of lucerne (Medicago sativa L.) treated with mineral fertilizer and manure at optimal and water deficit conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasileva, V; Kostov, O; Vasilev, E

    2006-01-01

    A study on the effect of different rates of mineral fertilizer and manure on yield parameters of lucerne under optimal and water deficit conditions was carried out. Leached chernozem soil and lucerne cultivar Victoria were used. The soil was treated with ammonium nitrate and fully matured cattle manure. The plants were grown under optimum moisture content of 80% and 40% of field capacity. The water deficit stress decreased top and root biomass by 11-75% and 3-29% at mineral and organic fertilization, respectively. The applied mineral and organic N strongly depressed nodules development. Both mineral fertilizer and organic manure at dose of 210 mg N kg(-1) soil completely inhibited the appearance of nodules. Next to nitrogen, water deficit stress further inhibited the development of nodules. Nitrogen fertilization increased seed productivity in the two experimental moisture conditions. The water deficit stress decreased seed productivity by 18 to 33% as compared to optimum conditions. The plant treatments with manure were much more resistant to water deficit and recovering ability of plants was faster as compared to treatments with mineral fertilizer. The application of manure stimulates development of drought-stress tolerance in lucerne. However, the results obtained can be considered for the soil type and experimental conditions used.

  14. Formulation and make-up of simulate dilute water, low ionic content aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gdowski, G.

    1997-01-01

    This procedure describes the formulation and make-up of Simulated Dilute Water (SOW), a low-ionic-content water to be used for Activity E-20-50, Long-Term Corrosion Studies. This water has an ionic content which is nominally a factor of ten higher than that of representative waters at or near Yucca Mountain. Representative waters were chosen as J-13 well water [Harrar, 1990] and perched water at Yucca Mountain [Glassley, 1996]. J-13 well water is obtained from ground water that is in contact with the Topopah Spring tuff, which is the repository horizon rock. The perched water is located in the Topopah Spring tuff, but below the repository horizon and above the water table. A nominal times ten higher ionic content was chosen to simulate the effect of ionic concentrating due to elevated temperature water flowing through fractures where salts and minerals have been deposited due to evaporation and boiling

  15. Determination of radium activity in some natural mineral waters using radioactive chemical extraction method and alpha spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Thi Oanh; Duong Van Thang; Duong Duc Thang; Nguyen Van Khanh; Doan Thuy Hau; Pham Bao Ngoc

    2017-01-01

    The 226 Ra activity concentration in several of mineral water samples of Northern Vietnam was measured by using alpha spectrometry. Ra adsorption techniques on manganese oxide were applied to produce thin alpha samples. The efficiency of sample preparation process was determined by conducting similar procedures for IAEA reference materials. The 226 Ra content in mineral water ranged from (11.33 ± 1.00) mBq/l to (38.00 ± 4.50) mBq/l. The measured maximum values do not exceed the permissible limit radiation dose for all samples (100 mBq/l - USEPA ). This study may be useful for assessing impacts of radiation dose from mineral water on human health. (author)

  16. Discharge, water quality, and native fish abundance in the Virgin River, Utah, Nevada, and Arizona, in support of Pah Tempe Springs discharge remediation efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthew P.; Lambert, Patrick M.; Hardy, Thomas B.

    2014-01-01

    Pah Tempe Springs discharge hot, saline, low dissolved-oxygen water to the Virgin River in southwestern Utah, which is transported downstream to Lake Mead and the Colorado River. The dissolved salts in the Virgin River negatively influence the suitability of this water for downstream agricultural, municipal, and industrial use. Therefore, various remediation scenarios to remove the salt load discharged from Pah Tempe Springs to the Virgin River are being considered. One concern about this load removal is the potential to impact the ecology of the Virgin River. Specifically, information is needed regarding possible impacts of Pah Tempe Springs remediation scenarios on the abundance, distribution, and survival of native fish in the Virgin River. Future efforts that aim to quantitatively assess how various remediation scenarios to reduce the load of dissolved salts from Pah Tempe Springs into the Virgin River may influence the abundance, distribution, and survival of native fish will require data on discharge, water quality, and native fish abundance. This report contains organized accessible discharge, water quality, and native fish abundance data sets from the Virgin River, documents the compilation of these data, and discusses approaches for quantifying relations between abiotic physical and chemical conditions, and fish abundance.

  17. Hydrogeochemical And Isotopic Investigation Of Nasrettin Hoca Springs, Eskisehir, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet ÇELİK

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study are to investigate the water quality, the contamination and water-rock interaction of the Nasrettin Hoca springs, with an ultimate aim of establishing protection measures. Within the scope of this study, the springs in and around the catchment area, Bağbaşı springs, Hatip spring, Ali spring, Saracık Fountain and Babadat spring, were investigated. The springs are of Ca-Mg-HCO3 type when basic hydrogeochemical features are considered, are under the influence of marble-limestone and meta ophiolitic units located in the recharge area and are of shallow circulation. The trace element contents of the springs show the influence of the carbonate rocks comprising the reservoir (Sr and the basement rocks (Ni, Al. The protection areas of Nasrettin Hoca springs against contamination are determined as three different zones by considering the hydrogeologic and topographical features of the region and the Turkish Standards

  18. Contribution of (222)Rn-bearing water to indoor radon and indoor air quality assessment in hot spring hotels of Guangdong, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Gang; Wang, Xinming; Chen, Diyun; Chen, Yongheng

    2011-04-01

    This study investigates the contribution of radon ((222)Rn)-bearing water to indoor (222)Rn in thermal baths. The (222)Rn concentrations in air were monitored in the bathroom and the bedroom. Particulate matter (PM, both PM(10) and PM(2.5)) and carbon dioxide (CO(2)) were also monitored with portable analyzers. The bathrooms were supplied with hot spring water containing 66-260 kBq m(-3) of (222)Rn. The results show that the spray of hot spring water from the bath spouts is the dominant mechanism by which (222)Rn is released into the air of the bathroom, and then it diffuses into the bedroom. Average (222)Rn level was 110-410% higher in the bedrooms and 510-1200% higher in the bathrooms compared to the corresponding average levels when there was no use of hot spring water. The indoor (222)Rn levels were influenced by the (222)Rn concentrations in the hot spring water and the bathing times. The average (222)Rn transfer coefficients from water to air were 6.2 × 10(-4)-4.1 × 10(-3). The 24-h average levels of CO(2) and PM(10) in the hotel rooms were 89% and 22% higher than the present Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) standard of China. The main particle pollutant in the hotel rooms was PM(2.5). Radon and PM(10) levels in some hotel rooms were at much higher concentrations than guideline levels, and thus the potential health risks to tourists and especially to the hotel workers should be of great concern, and measures should be taken to lower inhalation exposure to these air pollutants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Water geochemistry to estimate reservoir temperature of Stabio springs, Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pera, Sebastian; Soma, Linda

    2017-04-01

    The Mendrisiotto region located in Southern Switzerland and close to the Italian border, is characterized by the presence of a thick sequence of Mesozoic limestones and dolostones above a volcanic rocks from Permian (Bernoulli, 1964). Within the carbonates, fractures and dissolution processes increased limestone permeability and favored the widespread presence of springs. The presence of few localized H2S and CH4 bearing springs is known from historical times in Stabio. Its localization is related to the faulting affecting the area (Balderer et Al., 2007). These waters were classified by Greber et Al. (1997) as Na-(Ca)-(Mg)-HCO3-Cl-(SO4) type with having a total dissolved solid content in the range of 0.8 and 1.2 gl-1. According with Balderer et Al. (2007) the stable isotopic composition deviates from the global meteoric water line (IAEA, 1984) being the values of δ18O and δ2H respectively 0.8 ‰ and 5‰ lower than the normal shallow groundwater of the area. The values of δ13C of TDIC (-1.54‰ 1.44 ) indicate exchange with CO2 of thermo - metamorphic or even Mantle origin. While 14C in TDIC (7.95, 26.0 pMC) and 3H (1.1 ±0.7, 3.1±0.7 TU) indicates uprising of deep water along faults with some mixing. To estimate reservoir temperature, a new sampling was conducted in 2015 for chemical and isotopic analysis. The sampling was carried out from the only source that allows getting water directly from the dolostone in order to avoid mixing. Although some differences are noticed respect to previous studies, the results show a substantial agreement for stable isotopic composition of water, δ13C and 14C of TDIC. Reservoir temperature was calculated by using several geothermometers. The results show a great variability ranging from 60 ˚ C using Silica to more than 500 ˚ C using cationic ( Na - Ca) geothermometers; indicating that besides mixing, exchange processes and chemical reactions along flow path affect results. This study was partially funded by Azienda

  20. Delineating the Rattlesnake Springs, New Mexico Watershed Using Precision Gravity Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doser, D. I.; Boykov, N. D.; Baker, M. R.; Kaip, G. M.; Langford, R. P.

    2009-12-01

    Rattlesnake Springs serves as the sole domestic water source for Carlsbad Caverns National Park. The recent development of oil and gas leases and agricultural lands surrounding the springs has led to concern about contamination of the fracture controlled aquifer system. We have conducted a series of precision gravity surveys (station spacing 200 to 300 m in a 4 x 4 km area), combined with other geophysical studies and geologic mapping, to delineate possible fracture systems in the gypsum and carbonate bedrock that feed the spring system. Our combined results suggest several pathways for water to enter the springs. A series of WNW-ESE striking features are apparent in our gravity data that appear to align with relict spring valleys we have mapped to the west of the springs. A self potential survey indicates that water is entering the springs at a shallow level from the northwest direction. However, gravity data also indicate a north-south trending fracture system could be providing a pathway for water to enter from the south. This is consistent with drawdown tests conducted in the 1950’s and 1960’s on irrigation wells located to the south of the springs. The north-south fracture system appears related to a basin bounding fault system observed in the regional gravity data.

  1. Development of alternative materials for BWR fuel springs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uruma, Y.; Osato, T.; Yamazaki, K.

    2002-01-01

    Major sources of radioactivity introduced into reactor water of BWR were estimated fuel crud and in-core materials (especially, fuel springs). Fuel springs are used for fixation of fuel cladding tubes with spacer grid. Those are small parts (total length is only within 25 mm) and so many numbers are loaded simultaneously and then total surfaces area are calculated up to about 200 m 2 . Fuel springs are located under high radiation field and high oxidative environment. Conventional fuel spring is made of alloy-X750 which is one of nickel-based alloy and is reported to show relatively higher corrosion release rate. 58 Co and 60 Co will be released directly into reactor water from intensely radio-activated fuel springs surface and increase radioactivity concentrations in primary coolant. Corrosion release control from fuel springs is an important technical item and a development of alternative material instead of alloy-X750 for fuel spring is a key subject to achieve ultra low man-rem exposure BWR plant. In present work, alloy-X718 which started usage for PWR fuel springs and stainless steel type 316L which has many mechanical property data are picked up for alternative materials and compared their corrosion behaviors with conventional material. Corrosion experiment was conducted under vapor-water two phases flow which is simulated fuel cladding surface boiling condition. After exposure, corrosion film formed under corrosion test was analyzed in detail and corrosion film amount and corrosion release amount are estimated among three materials. (authors)

  2. Determination of risk zones, due to radon : prospecting and analysis of spring water in Wallonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The emanation of radon from geologic formations can be detected by analyzing the ground water at the emergence of springs. Two measuring methods are described and compared : the Lucas method and the liquid scintillation method. Although more sampling has to be done, a first conclusion can be drawn from the results. The link between the radium concentration in some geologic formations and the determination of risk zones for radon contamination can be proved through radon measurements in water. 9 figs., 6 tabs., 2 charts (H.E.)

  3. Mineral sources of water and their influence on the safe disposal of radioactive wastes in bedded salt deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fallis, S.M.

    1973-12-01

    With the increased use of nuclear energy, there will be subsequent increases in high-level radioactive wastes such as Sr 90 , Cs 137 , and Pu 239 . Several agencies have considered the safest possible means to store or dispose of wastes in geologic environments such as underground storage in salt deposits, shale beds, abandoned dry mines, and in clay and shale pits. Salt deposits have received the most favorable attention because they exist in dry environments and because of other desirable properties of halite (its plasticity, gamma-ray shielding, heat dissipation ability, low mining cost, and worldwide abundance). Much work has been done on bedded salt deposits, particularly the Hutchinson Salt Member of the Wellington Formation at Lyons, Kansas. Salt beds heated by the decay of the radioactive wastes may release water by dehydration of hydrous minerals commonly present in evaporite sequences or water present in other forms such as fluid inclusions. More than 80 hydrous minerals are known to occur in evaporite deposits. The occurrences, total water contents (up to 63%) and dehydration temperatures (often less that 150 0 C) of these minerals are given. Since it is desirable to dispose of radioactive wastes in a dry environment, care must be taken that large quantities of water are not released through the heating of hydrous minerals. Seventy-four samples from four cores taken at Lyons, Kansas, were analyzed by x-ray diffraction. The minerals detected were halite, anhydrite, gypsum, polyhalite, dolomite, magnesite, quartz, feldspar, and the clay minerals illite, chlorite, kaolinite, vermiculite, smectite, mixed-layer clay, and corrensite (interstratified chlorite-vermiculite). Of these, gypsum, polyhalite and the clay minerals are all capable of releasing water when heated

  4. Acid-base balance and hydration status following consumption of mineral-based alkaline bottled water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heil Daniel P

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study sought to determine whether the consumption of a mineral-rich alkalizing (AK bottled water could improve both acid-base balance and hydration status in young healthy adults under free-living conditions. The AK water contains a naturally high mineral content along with Alka-PlexLiquid™, a dissolved supplement that increases the mineral content and gives the water an alkalizing pH of 10.0. Methods Thirty-eight subjects were matched by gender and self-reported physical activity (SRPA, hrs/week and then split into Control (12 women, 7 men; Mean +/- SD: 23 +/- 2 yrs; 7.2 +/- 3.6 hrs/week SRPA and Experimental (13 women, 6 men; 22 +/- 2 yrs; 6.4 +/- 4.0 hrs/week SRPA groups. The Control group consumed non-mineralized placebo bottled water over a 4-week period while the Experimental group consumed the placebo water during the 1st and 4th weeks and the AK water during the middle 2-week treatment period. Fingertip blood and 24-hour urine samples were collected three times each week for subsequent measures of blood and urine osmolality and pH, as well as total urine volume. Dependent variables were analyzed using multivariate repeated measures ANOVA with post-hoc focused on evaluating changes over time within Control and Experimental groups (alpha = 0.05. Results There were no significant changes in any of the dependent variables for the Control group. The Experimental group, however, showed significant increases in both the blood and urine pH (6.23 to 7.07 and 7.52 to 7.69, respectively, a decreased blood and increased urine osmolality, and a decreased urine output (2.51 to 2.05 L/day, all during the second week of the treatment period (P Conclusions Consumption of AK water was associated with improved acid-base balance (i.e., an alkalization of the blood and urine and hydration status when consumed under free-living conditions. In contrast, subjects who consumed the placebo bottled water showed no changes over the

  5. Determination of trace U in beverages and mineral water using SSNTD (solid state nuclear track detector)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Junying; Zheng Liping; Cheng Yulin; Hao Xiuhong

    1991-01-01

    Trace U in beverages and mineral water has been estimated using the fission track analysis technique. The U contents in beverages vary from 0.26 ± 0.03 to 1.65 ± 0.07 ppb, with an average of 0.93 ± 0.05 ppb. The mean U content in mineral water is 9.20 ± 0.16 ppb, which is 10 times higher than that in other beverages

  6. Multi-scale experimental and numerical study of the structure and the dynamics of water confined in clay minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillaud, Emmanuel Bertrand

    2017-01-01

    Clay are complex minerals with a multi-scale porosity and a remarkable ability to swell under humid atmosphere. These materials have many applications in catalysis, waste management, construction industry... However, the properties of confined water are still not fully understood, due in particular to the complexity of water itself. The aim of this work is, using mainly molecular simulations and vibrational spectroscopy, to understand the structure and the dynamics of water confined in clay minerals. To evaluate the accuracy of numerical models to describe water confined in clay minerals, and to understand the origin of its structural and dynamical properties, a large part of the work was devoted to the building blocks of clays: pure bulk water, water at the surface of a solid, and salt water. To this extent, the viscoelastic properties of water from the deeply supercooled regime to the boiling temperature were investigated using classical molecular dynamics. The evolution of the friction properties of water on a prototypical solid surface was also analyzed, and the accuracy of ab initio approaches and empirical salt models was studied. In a second part, those results were confronted to the properties of water confined in clay minerals at low and room temperature, studied both experimentally and numerically. Experimental work consisted mostly in extensive far- and -mid infrared absorption spectrometry measurements, whereas numerical work mainly consisted in empirical molecular dynamics simulations. Especially, the existence of confinement- or temperature-induced phase transitions of confined water was investigated. (author)

  7. Water-chemistry data for selected springs, geysers, and streams in Ye