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Sample records for mineral oil certified

  1. Certified reference materials for the determination of mineral oil hydrocarbons in water, soil and waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, M.; Liebich, A.; Win, T.; Nehls, I.

    2005-07-01

    The international research project HYCREF, funded by the European Commission in the 5{sup th} Framework programme, aimed to develop methods to prepare homogeneous and stable water-, soil- and waste reference materials contaminated with mineral oil hydrocarbons and to test certify the mineral oil content by gas chromatographic methods. As mineral oil products are important sources for environmental contaminations a high need exists for certified reference materials for their determination using the new gas chromatographic methods (soil: ISO/FDIS 16703, waste: ENpr 14039, water: ISO 9377-2). The experimental conditions and results for preparation and characterisation of a total of nine reference materials (3 water, 3 soil- and 3 waste materials) are described and discussed. Target values for the reference materials were defined at the beginning of the project in order to have clear quality criteria, which could be compared with the achieved results at the end of the project. These target specifications were related to the maximum uncertainty from test certification exercises (<5% for soil/waste and <10% for water), the maximum inhomogeneity between bottles (<3%) and minimum requirements for stability (>5 years for soil/waste and >2 years for water). The feasibility studies showed that solid materials (soil, waste) could be prepared sufficiently homogeneous and stable. The test certified values of the 6 solid materials comprise a wide range of mineral oil content from about 200-9000 mg/kg with expanded uncertainties between 5.7-13.1% using a coverage factor k (k=2). The development of new water reference materials - the so-called ''spiking pills'' for an offshore- and a land-based discharge water represents one of the most innovative aspects of the project. The spiking pill technology facilitates the application and storage and improves the material stability compared with aqueous materials. Additional to the preparation and test certification of

  2. Mineral oil content in sediments and soils: comparability, traceability and a certified reference material for quality assurance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Roland; Buge, Hans-Gerhard; Bremser, Wolfram; Nehls, Irene [Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM), Berlin (Germany)

    2006-06-15

    The performance of twelve laboratories with previously established proficiency in the determination of the mineral oil content in a fresh water sediment is described. The summation parameter total petrol hydrocarbon (TPH) is defined according to ISO 16703:2004 with regard to the sample preparation to be applied, the flame ionisation detection (FID) and the boiling range of C{sub 10}-C{sub 40} to be integrated. Comprehensive tests of homogeneity and stability have been carried out on the candidate material using appropriate models. The outcome of the study served as the basis for the certification of the candidate reference material as ERM-CC015a. The certified mass fraction is 1,820{+-}130mgkg{sup -1}and traceability was established by using an appropriate calibration standard certified for the mass fraction of C{sub 10}-C{sub 40}. The interlaboratory scatter of measurement results in this exercise can largely be explained by the variability of the individual calibrations based on this common calibration standard. (orig.)

  3. Mineral oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schult-Bornemann, Karl-Heinz

    2015-01-01

    The dominant theme in the world energy market was the fall in oil prices in 2014. From 115 US-$/bbl in June it dropped to below 50 US-$/bbl in January 2015. Thereby the shale oil revolution has had the strong impact on the global energy situation, to this point has been predicted for three years. Although no one could predict the exact height of the fall in oil prices, but with oil as a reserve currency for all other fuels, it has not only had an impact on the gas and coal prices, but other commodities, such as copper, have also yielded. About cause and effect, there is a lot of speculation - not all of which are supported by wisdom. [de

  4. Mineral oil industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brasser, L.J.; Suess, M.J.; Grefen, K.; Reinisch, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    In this chapter a general picture is presented of the air pollution aspects in the mineral oil industry. The complete field is covered, starting from drilling operations and the well head up to the delivery of the products to the consumer. A large field of activities as is given by the mineral oil

  5. Refining mineral oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1946-07-05

    A process is described refining raw oils such as mineral oils, shale oils, tar, their fractions and derivatives, by extraction with a selected solvent or a mixture of solvents containing water, forming a solvent more favorable for the hydrocarbons poor in hydrogen than for hydrocarbons rich in hydrogen, this process is characterized by the addition of an aiding solvent for the water which can be mixed or dissolved in the water and the solvent or in the dissolving mixture and increasing in this way the solubility of the water in the solvent or the dissolving mixture.

  6. 21 CFR 573.680 - Mineral oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mineral oil. 573.680 Section 573.680 Food and... Listing § 573.680 Mineral oil. Mineral oil may be safely used in animal feed, subject to the provisions of this section. (a) Mineral oil, for the purpose of this section, is that complying with the definition...

  7. Mineral oil; Mineraloel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schult-Bornemann, Karl-Heinz [Magdeburg Univ. (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The dominant theme in the world energy market was the fall in oil prices in 2014. From 115 US-$/bbl in June it dropped to below 50 US-$/bbl in January 2015. Thereby the shale oil revolution has had the strong impact on the global energy situation, to this point has been predicted for three years. Although no one could predict the exact height of the fall in oil prices, but with oil as a reserve currency for all other fuels, it has not only had an impact on the gas and coal prices, but other commodities, such as copper, have also yielded. About cause and effect, there is a lot of speculation - not all of which are supported by wisdom. [German] Das beherrschende Thema im Weltenergiemarkt war der Absturz des Rohoelpreises in 2014. Von 115 US-$/bbl im Juni sank er auf unter 50 US-$/bbl im Januar 2015. Damit hat die Schieferoelrevolution den kraeftigen Einfluss auf die Weltenergiesituation gehabt, der an dieser Stelle seit drei Jahren vorhergesagt wurde. Zwar konnte niemand die exakte Hoehe des Rueckgangs des Oelpreises prognostizieren, aber mit Oel als Leitwaehrung fuer alle anderen Energietraeger hat es nicht nur Einfluss auf den Gas- und Kohlepreis gehabt, sondern andere Rohstoffe, wie zum Beispiel Kupfer, haben ebenfalls nachgegeben. Ueber Ursache und Wirkung gibt es viele Spekulationen - nicht alle sind von Weisheit getragen.

  8. Purifying mineral oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hood, J J

    1919-02-24

    A natural or an uncracked oil is desulfurized by vaporizing it and bringing the vapor into contact with granular alumina or ignited magnesite at a temperature below the boiling-point of sulfur. The alumina may be prepared from the trihydrate or bauxite. Sulfuretted hydrogen resulting from the dissociation of the sulfur compounds may be absorbed in oxide of iron, Weldon mud, or the like. Specifications 5,208/83, 14,405/92, 7,272/14, and 109,077 are referred to.

  9. Distilling mineral oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, N M

    1885-10-29

    Stills of waggon-shape with side flues are employed; the legs are sheltered from the direct furnace heat, and apparatus for injecting steam into them is provided. The feed pipe to the primary still is vertical; as the more volatile portions of the oil evaporate the heavier portions sink into the legs from which they are drawn off by pipes entering secondary stills horizontally. In the same manner the heavier portions are removed from these stills to coking ovens. A feed-heating apparatus of the kind described in Specification No. 540, A.D. 1883, is employed.

  10. Mineral oils, tars. [British patent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Brien, A M; Handmarch, E

    1933-08-11

    Hydrocarbon materials such as mineral oils and tars from coal, shale, lignite, or peat are freed from phenols and like oxy-bodies by heating under pressure in a closed vessel to a temperature and for a time sufficient to effect reduction of the oxy-bodies, and then removing the water formed by the reaction. 350/sup 0/ to 400/sup 0/C. for 30 to 60 minutes is suitable. Any wax-like constituents are converted to liquids of lower viscosity and settling point. The product may be fractionated to give light oils and a residue of aviation Diesel fuel. In an example, oil from the low-temperature distillation of coal and having a tar acid content of 30 per cent is treated in a tubular converter at 380/sup 0/C. and 400 lb. per sq. in for 40 min., and the benzine toluol, and xylol distilled; the residue has a tar acid content of only 7.6 per cent.

  11. Influence of oil and mineral characteristics on oil-mineral interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, P.A.; Lunel, T.; Daniel, F.; Swannell, R.; Lee, K.; Stoffyn-Egli, P.

    1998-01-01

    A laboratory study was conducted to simulate the process of oil-mineral interaction in seawater. Thirteen different crudes, emulsions and oil products were used in the study. The objective was to improve the fundamental understanding of the characteristics of oils and minerals that influence the process. The findings of an initial phase of studies based on the swirling flask and marine simulation procedures were also described. Oil content associated with flocs to oil and mineral characteristics were discussed. Emulsions were prepared at 10 degrees C by vigorously mixing the oil with excess artificial seawater in a Kilner jar using a high shear homogenizer. Topped oils were prepared by distillation to 250 degrees C. The biodegraded oil was prepared from the topped crude oil. Biodegradation was achieved over a 28 day period using natural seawater and naturally occurring hydrocarbon degraders. The relationships between oil concentration, oil density and mineral exchange capacity were determined. The study showed that greater oil concentrations in the water column could be expected with (1) the presence of mineral fines, (2) minerals with greater cation exchange rates, (3) minerals with finer sizes, and (4) oils of lower viscosity and density. It was determined that in coastal waters the viscosity of the oil/emulsion will likely be the main factor affecting oil-mineral interactions. The viscosity limit for allowing oil fines interaction is likely to be dependent on the energy in the coastal zone affected by the oil pollution. 18 refs., 5 tabs., 13 figs

  12. Mineral Oils: Untreated and Mildly Treated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about mineral oils, which can raise the risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer, particularly of the scrotum. Workers in a variety of manufacturing industries are most commonly exposed to mineral oils, as are workers in engine repair, copper mining, and commercial printing.

  13. Farmers’ decision analysis to select certified palm oil seedlings in Lampung, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utoyo, Bambang; Yolandika, Clara

    2018-03-01

    This research aimed to analyse (1) decission making process of certified and uncertified palm oil seedlings and (2) factors that influence farmer decision to select certified and uncertified palm oil seedlings. This research was conducted in some districts in Lampung, such as Mesuji, Central Lampung, Tulang Bawang, North Lampung, Way Kanan and South Lampung. The respondents consisted of 30 farmers using certified seeds and 30 farmers using uncertified seeds. The study was conducted from January to May 2017. In addition, factors that influence farmer decision was analysed by logistic regression model. The results showed that decision making on the use of certified or uncertified palm seeds by farmers through the stages: introduction of problems or needs, searching of information, alternative evaluation, purchasing decisions, and post-purchase behaviour. Factors that significantly influence farmer's decision to use certified seeds were land area, seeds price, external influenced, and farmers’ perception.

  14. Heavy mineral concentration from oil sand tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chachula, F.; Erasmus, N. [Titanium Corp. Inc., Regina, SK (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    This presentation described a unique technique to recover heavy minerals contained in the froth treatment tailings produced by oil sand mining extraction operations in Fort McMurray, Alberta. In an effort to process waste material into valuable products, Titanium Corporation is developing technology to recover heavy minerals, primarily zircon, and a portion of bitumen contained in the final stage of bitumen processing. The process technology is being developed to apply to all mined oil sands operations in the Fort McMurray region. In 2004, Titanium Corporation commissioned a pilot research facility at the Saskatchewan Research Council to test dry oil sands tailings. In 2005, a bulk sampling pilot plant was connected to the fresh oil sands tailings pipeline on-site in Fort McMurray, where washed sands containing heavy minerals were processed at a pilot facility. The mineral content in both deposited tailings and fresh pipeline tailings was assessed. Analysis of fresh tailings on a daily basis identified a constant proportion of zircon and higher levels of associated bitumen compared with the material in the deposited tailings. The process flow sheet design was then modified to remove bitumen from the heavy minerals and concentrate the minerals. A newly modified flotation process was shown to be a viable processing route to recover the heavy minerals from froth treatment tailings. 8 refs., 9 tabs., 12 figs.

  15. Development of certified reference material of mineral composition of natural water designed to control of turbidity measurement accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmila I. Gorjaeva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The results of development of a certified reference material (CRM of mineral composition of natural water are presented. A solution prepared from the material of the CRM specimen imitates mineral composition of natural surface water. The certified values are mass fractions of nitrate ions, chloride ions, fluoride ions, and total iron and turbidity according to formazine scale. Materials and methods. The certified values of mass concentrations of the components were determined using calculated experimental evaluation procedure;the certified turbidity value was determinedusing the certified turbidimetric method. Results. The relative expanded uncertainty (k = 2 of the certified turbidity values does not exceed 5 %, the same value for mass concentrationsis not more than 3.5 %. Relative standard uncertainty from heterogeneity does not exceed 1.0 %. The shelf life of the developed CRM is set to 3 years. Discussion and conclusion. Developed CRM was registered in the State Register of CRM's as GSO 10815-2016. The CRM is designed to control the accuracy of results of the certified characteristics measurements, including proficiency testing of laboratories using interlaboratory comparative tests. The CRM can be used for validation of measurement procedures.

  16. Separating cresote from tars, mineral oils, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdmann, E

    1921-01-07

    Phenolic bodies are extracted from tars such as lignite, shale, peat, coal, producer and low temperature tars, and from tar distillates and residues and from mineral oils and distillates by washing with a mixture of acetone and water. Acetone extracts of the tars etc., may be mixed with water or aqueous acetone to cause the separation of the oils, while the creosote remains in solution.

  17. Distillation of oil-bearing minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1952-12-03

    A process of distilling oil-bearing minerals of the type of oil shale which disintegrate during distillation consists of subjecting the subdivided minerals to a distillation temperature in the form of a highly turbulent dense mass fluidized by an upwardly flowing gasiform medium in a distillation zone and supplying the heat required for the distillation by burning solid distillation residue with a combustion-supporting gas in the form of a fluidized mass of solids in a separate combustion zone at a combustion temperature and returning solid combustion residue substantially at the combustion temperature to the distillation zone. Combustion temperature is positively maintained at a figure not exceeding 1,200/sup 0/F and at a figure which is not substantially more than 50/sup 0/F higher than the distillation temperature.

  18. Promoting landscape heterogeneity to improve the biodiversity benefits of certified palm oil production: Evidence from Peninsular Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badrul Azhar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO is responsible for the certification of palm oil producers that comply with sustainability standards. However, it is not known whether RSPO-certified plantations are effective in maintaining biodiversity. Focusing on Peninsular Malaysia, we show that both RSPO-certified plantations and uncertified large-scale plantations are characterized by very low levels of landscape heterogeneity. By contrast, heterogeneity measures were many times higher in palm oil producing smallholdings, despite their lack of RSPO certification. The low heterogeneity of large-scale oil palm plantations, including those certified by the RSPO, is likely to severely limit their value for biodiversity conservation. Uncertified smallholdings, in contrast, are much more heterogeneous and therefore hold substantially greater promise for the integration of palm oil production and biodiversity conservation than large-scale plantations. With oil palm agriculture further expanding, certification schemes should mandate producers to improve biodiversity conservation through landscape management that promotes greater landscape heterogeneity.

  19. Distillation of oil-bearing minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1952-05-21

    In the process of distilling oil-bearing minerals such as oil shale which disintegrates during distillation, wherein the subdivided minerals are subjected to a distillation temperature in the form of a highly turbulent dense mass fluidized by an upwardly flowing gasiform medium in a distillation zone and the heat required by the distillation is supplied by burning solid distillation residue with a combustion-supporting gas in the form of a fluidized mass of solids in a separate combustion zone at a temperature substantially higher than the distillation temperature and returning solid combustion residue substantially at the higher temperature to the distillation zone. The steps of starting up the process which consists of maintaining in the distillation and combustion zones dense turbulent fluidized beds of non-disintegrating solids, circulating the non-disintegrating solids between said beds, heating the circulating solids by an auxiliary heat supply until the bed in the distillation zone has reached at least the distillation temperature, thereafter charging fresh oil-bearing minerals to the bed in the distillation zone, continuing the circulation, withdrawing solids which have passed through the combustion zone at a rate adequate to maintain a solids balance, supplying the combustion-supporting gas to the combustion zone to cause the combustion of the residue, and discontinuing the auxilary heating when sufficient heat for the distillation is being generated in the combustion zone.

  20. Studies about mineral oils maintenance in NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceclan, R.E.; Floarea, O.; Ceclan, M.; Bercia, R.

    1997-01-01

    The maintenance of mineral oils, used as lubricating agent or insulating fluids is a very important problem for the reducing of operating costs in the Nuclear Power Plants. Their maintenance means the maintaining of their solid particles and water content between the allowed limits given by the international standards. A modern dehydration technology is the film desorption of water from mineral oils. The paper presents a mathematical model of the falling film dehydration process of mineral oils in a cylindrical film desorber. The model's equations were solved numerically using a FORTRAN programme made by the authors. The model allows the determination of water concentration radial and longitudinal profiles in the oil film. The simulation results are compared with the experimental results obtained by the authors on their own laboratory experimental plant and the good agreement found validated the mathematical model. The model was solved using a fully implicit numerical scheme, in which the longitudinal convection terms were approximated by the upstream difference and the transverse diffusion terms by the central difference to transform the governing equations into finite-difference equations. The finite-difference system obtained is an algebraic system with a tridiagonal matrix that can be efficiently solved by the Thomas algorithm. To account for the drastic variations of velocity and concentration in the regions near the inner boundary and interface, a nonuniform spatial grid in the r-direction was chosen. A grid with 401 gridpoints was used in the computations.The model allows the determination of water concentration radial and longitudinal profiles in the oil film. The simulation results are compared with the experimental results obtained by the authors on their own laboratory experimental plant and the good agreement found validated the mathematical model. (authors)

  1. Mineral oil hydrocarbons in food - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grob, Koni

    2018-06-12

    Work on mineral oil hydrocarbons (MOH) contaminating food is reviewed up to about 2010, when the subject received broad publicity. It covers the period of the main discoveries and elimination or reduction of the dominant sources: release agents used in industrial bakeries, spraying of rice, additions to animal feed, contamination of edible oils from various sources and migration from paperboard packaging. In most cases highly refined ("white") oils were involved, but also technical oils, e.g. from the environment, and more or less crude oil fractions from jute and sisal bags. There were numerous unexpected sources, and there might still be more of those. The exposure of the consumers to MOH must have been markedly reduced in the meantime. Environmental influx may have become dominant, particularly when taking into account that these MOH go through several degradation processes which might enrich the species resisting metabolic elimination. Major gaps are in the systematic investigation of sources and the largely unavoidable levels from environmental contamination, but also in the toxicological evaluation of the various types of hydrocarbons. A regulation is overdue that avoids the present discrepancy between the low tolerance to MOH perceived as contaminants and the very high legal limits for some applications - the MOH are largely the same.

  2. Method of removing paraffin from mineral oils, shale oils, tar oils, and their fractions or residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmquist, F T.E.

    1949-09-08

    A method is described for removing paraffin from mineral oils, shale oils, tar oils, and their fractions or residues by centrifuging in the presence of oil-dissolving and paraffin-precipitating solvents, by which the precipitated paraffin is made to pass through an indifferent auxiliary liquid, in which a removal of oil takes place, characterized in that as auxiliary liquid is used a liquid or mixture of liquids whose surface tension against the oil solution is sufficiently low for the paraffin to pass the layer of auxiliary liquid in the form of separate crystals.

  3. Certified Reference Material IAEA-448: Soil from Oil Field Contaminated with Technically Enhanced Radium-226

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    To ensure reliable evaluation of potential radiological hazards and proper decision making related to radiation protection measures, the IAEA, through the IAEA Environment Laboratories, supports Member State laboratories in their efforts to maintain readiness and to improve the quality of analytical results. It does so by producing reference materials, by developing standardized methods for sample collection and analysis, and by conducting interlaboratory comparisons and proficiency tests as tools for external quality control of analytical results. The problem of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) contamination is known to be widespread, occurring in oil and gas production facilities throughout the world. It has become a subject of attention in many IAEA Member States. In response to this radiological concern, facilities in many Member States have been characterizing the nature and extent of NORM in oil and gas installations and in the surrounding environment, evaluating the potential for exposure to workers and the public, and developing methods for properly managing these relatively high massic activity residues. Within this context, the IAEA Environment Laboratories, in cooperation with the Atomic Energy Commission of Syria, an IAEA Collaborating Centre, have prepared a new certified reference material of soil contaminated with NORM, identified as IAEA-448, certified for the massic activity of 226Ra. This report presents the methodologies used for the production and certification of IAEA-448

  4. Effect of mineral oil, sunflower oil, and coconut oil on prevention of hair damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rele, Aarti S; Mohile, R B

    2003-01-01

    Previously published results showed that both in vitro and in vivo coconut oil (CNO) treatments prevented combing damage of various hair types. Using the same methodology, an attempt was made to study the properties of mineral oil and sunflower oil on hair. Mineral oil (MO) was selected because it is extensively used in hair oil formulations in India, because it is non-greasy in nature, and because it is cheaper than vegetable oils like coconut and sunflower oils. The study was extended to sunflower oil (SFO) because it is the second most utilized base oil in the hair oil industry on account of its non-freezing property and its odorlessness at ambient temperature. As the aim was to cover different treatments, and the effect of these treatments on various hair types using the above oils, the number of experiments to be conducted was a very high number and a technique termed as the Taguchi Design of Experimentation was used. The findings clearly indicate the strong impact that coconut oil application has to hair as compared to application of both sunflower and mineral oils. Among three oils, coconut oil was the only oil found to reduce the protein loss remarkably for both undamaged and damaged hair when used as a pre-wash and post-wash grooming product. Both sunflower and mineral oils do not help at all in reducing the protein loss from hair. This difference in results could arise from the composition of each of these oils. Coconut oil, being a triglyceride of lauric acid (principal fatty acid), has a high affinity for hair proteins and, because of its low molecular weight and straight linear chain, is able to penetrate inside the hair shaft. Mineral oil, being a hydrocarbon, has no affinity for proteins and therefore is not able to penetrate and yield better results. In the case of sunflower oil, although it is a triglyceride of linoleic acid, because of its bulky structure due to the presence of double bonds, it does not penetrate the fiber, consequently resulting

  5. Refining of the cracked products of mineral oils, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seelig, S

    1928-06-02

    A process is disclosed for the refining of the distilled or cracked products from mineral oil, shale oil, or brown-coal-tar oil, with the aid of alkali-plumbite solution, characterized by adding to the plumbite solution from oxide, iron hydroxide, basic oxide, or an iron salt.

  6. A DANREF certified reference plastic for measurement of overall migration into the food simulant olive oil by single sided testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, K. H.; Lillemark, L.; Petersen, Jens Højslev

    2000-01-01

    A reference material for the determination of overall migration from a plastic coextrudate into the fatty food simulant olive oil was produced and certified in an interlaboratory study. The analyses were carried out according to the ENV 1186 standard from the European Committee for Standardization...... (CEN) [1, 2, 3] with exposure of the coextrudate to olive oil for 10 days at 40 degrees C. After an initial preliminary interlaboratory study eight laboratories participated in the certification round, and two different methods were used to obtain single sided exposure of the plastic to the oil...

  7. Mineral and surface issues in oil and gas operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasseur, P.F.

    1998-01-01

    The Farmers' Advocate Office was created in 1972 to help put Alberta mineral owners on an equal footing with the energy sector. Most mineral owners are at a disadvantage when dealing with the disposition of their minerals because they have little or no knowledge of what they own or what their surface rights are. This paper addresses key features of mineral leasing arrangements in Alberta and explains their potential impact. It also brings to the mineral owner's attention some specific problems and concerns including mineral rights, the lease agreement, signing considerations, length of leases, delayed production payment, drilling rental, royalties, and gas cost allowance. Issues regarding oil and gas production including shut-in wells, off-set clauses , drilling depth, taxes and prepayment for minerals are also discussed from the perspective of a mineral owner

  8. Lethal and Sublethal Effects of Mineral Oil on Potato Pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galimberti, Andrew; Alyokhin, Andrei

    2018-05-28

    Mineral oil is a product used to reduce Potato Virus Y transmission in potato fields. However, there is little information available about other effects that oil may have on insect pests of potato. To better understand how mineral oil affects potato pests, we performed a series of experiments testing the effects of oil on mortality, behavior, and development of potato aphids, Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), green peach aphids, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), and Colorado potato beetles, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). All three species showed negative behavioral responses to oil-treated potato foliage. Oil treatment also increased aphid mortality. Colorado potato beetle mortality was not affected, but developing on oil-treated potato plants resulted in prolonged development and smaller adults. Additionally, oil acted synergistically with the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae); Colorado potato beetle larvae were killed more rapidly when sprayed with both products compared with when sprayed with B. bassiana alone. Based on these results, mineral oil has the potential for expanded use in potato IPM programs.

  9. Corrosion protection performance of palm and mineral oil media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Nik Sani, W.B.; Ani, F.N.; Masjuki, H.H.

    2002-01-01

    In European forest, especially Scandinavian, almost all forest machines are filled with biodegradable fluid. The fluid is of synthetic type. The ratio between the lowest cost of mineral oil and the synthetic fluid is about 1:4. The high cost of this biodegradable fluid can be a major obstacle to be used in developing countries. Malaysia and South East Asia are known for its natural beauties. However, a spill of mineral based oils to their land and seas may result in long term water and soil contamination. Thus crop or agricultural based oil product can provide the solution to this problem. However, considering the demand placed on the oil in service, the service performance such as relation to component compatibility with the crop based oil is crucial to be investigated. The ability of crop based oils to protect and reduce corrosion formation is still unexplored. It is important for each oil to preserve its oxidation stability and remain non-corrosive during service. This paper reports the results of copper corrosion tests. The test includes mass change monitoring, oxide scales and microscopic analysis using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Relative Increase of total acid number and weight loss during copper immersion has proved that metal corrosion in contact with oil was caused by oil degradation that produces acidic compounds. Coppers that were immersed in oil temperature of 60 0 C show that increase of temperature in presence of transition metal induces oil degradation. (Author)

  10. Research of losses of oil oil and mineral oil at transportation and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akzhigitov, A.S.

    2005-01-01

    Full text : All way of hydrocarbonic raw material from a mouth of oil wells up to the consumer is accompanied by losses which occur as a result of evaporation, outflow and change of quality. Therefore preservation of quantity and quality of oil and mineral oil during transportation and storages is the major not only economic, but also an ecological problem. The facilitated fractional structure, the big maintenance concern to prominent features of the majority oil from underground salts adjournment Prycaspi in them of the easy hydrocarbons, the raised gas factor in conditions of deposits and presence in structure of gases, except for hydrocarbons and sour a component, - hydrogen sulphide, carbonic gas, etc. The superficial tests stabilized on phase structure oil depending on conditions of preparation for external transport and the subsequent processing can contain this or that quantity of residual hydrogen sulphide, easy hydrocarbons and the lowest sulfhydrates. For change of temperature and external pressure, during transportation and storage the part of easy hydrocarbons and not hydrocarbonic connections (sulfur organic) can be allocated from oil in a gaseous phase and in case of hit in an atmosphere sharply worsens ecology. In the Western Kazakhstan during the years period the temperature of air sometimes reaches up to 40-45 degrees. As is known, at such temperature there is a strengthened warming up of the open surface of oil tanks, that finally leads to increase evaporation easy oil and oil hydrocarbons. With this purpose experiences by quantitative definition evaporation lungs oil and petromixes of the Western Kazakhstan were spent. As a result of the lead works it is found out, that the size of losses at the given fixed temperature depends on evaporation by nature, fractional and hydrocarbonic structures of oil

  11. Removal of mineral oil and wastewater pollutants using hard coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRANISLAV R. SIMONOVIĆ

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the use of hard coal as an adsorbent for removal of mineral oil from wastewater. In order to determine the efficiency of hard coal as an adsorbent of mineral oil, process parameters such as sorption capacity (in static and dynamic conditions, temperature, pH, contact time, flow rate, and chemical pretreatment were evaluated in a series of batch and continuous flow experiments. There were significant differences in the mineral oil removal for various pH values examined. The adsorption of mineral oil increased as pH values diverged from 7 (neutral. At lower temperatures, the adsorption was notably higher. The wastewater flow rate was adjusted to achieve optimal water purification. Equilibrium was reached after 10 h in static conditions. At that time, more than 99% of mineral oil had been removed. At the beginning of the filtering process, the adsorption rate increased rapidly, only to show a minor decrease afterwards. Equilibrium data were fitted to Freundlich models to determine the water-hard coal partitioning coefficient. Physical adsorption caused by properties of the compounds was the predominant mechanism in the removal process.

  12. Global market trade policy analysis for petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals, crude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagheri, F.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on surveying the custom tariffs imposed on the world export market of Petroleum Oils and Oils Obtained from Bituminous Minerals, Crude. We obtained the data according to the most updated available data provided online by UNCTAD and World Bank. The results indicate that none of the 142 countries in the world market of this product have imposed non-tariff trade barriers on the import of Petroleum Oils and Oils Obtained from Bituminous Minerals, Crude. The developed countries and the countries with transition economies are the main world import partners. European Union, United States, China, Japan, South Korea, Canada, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, South Africa, Australia, Turkey, Brazil, Sweden and Belarus are the examples and have imposed low custom tariffs on Petroleum Oils and Oils Obtained from Bituminous Minerals, Crude.

  13. 25 CFR 213.6 - Leases for minerals other than oil and gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Leases for minerals other than oil and gas. 213.6 Section 213.6 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF... Leases for minerals other than oil and gas. Uncontested mining leases for minerals other than oil and gas...

  14. Method of refining mineral and shale oils, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1950-12-06

    A method is described for refining mineral oils, shale oils, tar oil. The oil is preferably treated with concentrated sulphuric acid, of not less than 90% by weight concentration or with chloro-sulphonic acid in order to extract the more reactive components of the oil. The solution (extract phase) is separated from the treated oil (raffinate phase) by centrifuging, characterised by centrifugally separating the extract phase from the raffinate phase before any noticeable chemical reaction with subsequent solution of acid reaction products in the raffinate phase has taken place. The acid remaining in the raffinate phase is allowed to react chemically with the more reactive constituents. The sludge formed is removed from the raffinate phase by centrifuging.

  15. Aspiration pneumonia of mineral oil: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malheiros, Noemia Reis; Costa Praxedes, Marcia da; Machado, Dianne Mello; Marchiori, Edson

    1995-01-01

    The authors report a case of 14 month-old boy with clinical features of dyspnea, cough and acrocyanosis following aspiration of mineral oil used in the treatment of partial small bowel obstruction by Ascaris lumbricoides. A chest roentgenogram was reported as extensive bilateral confluent consolidation that showed progressive improvement and the presence of a bilateral infiltration. The diagnosis of aspiration pneumonia of mineral oil was confirmed by lung biopsy. Radiological and anatomo pathological aspects are presented as well as a review of the medical literature about the case. (author). 6 refs., 3 figs

  16. Development of the German mineral oil market in 1995. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohnfeld, J.; Heinze, W.

    1996-01-01

    Following a brief glance at the boundary conditions for the German market (world oil market, inland energy consumption), the development of inland sales is described. One after one, the mineral oil products Otto engine fuel, diesel fuel, light fuel oil and heavy fuel oil are considered. Further sections deal with crude oil supply, the supply of mineral oil produce, refinery production, the development in the sales sector, the profit situation of the mineral oil industry, the development of prices (according to products) and expenditure in foreign exchange for mineral oil. The article contains numerous tables and graphs; comparisons with the years previously illustrate development trends. (UA) [de

  17. 21 CFR 172.878 - White mineral oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... yeast contamination during fermentation In an amount not to exceed good manufacturing practice. 4. As a... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true White mineral oil. 172.878 Section 172.878 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN...

  18. Oil spill research program, U. S. Minerals Management Service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaBelle, R. P.; Mullin, J. V.; White, A. C.

    1997-01-01

    The oil spill prevention and response research program of the U.S. Minerals Management Service was described including its goals and objectives, some recently funded projects, and future research directions. As it is now the trend in most research organizations, a large part of the program is carried out in cooperation with other major research centers to leverage funds and to maximize study results. For example, joint research with Environment Canada focuses on the physical and chemical properties of dispersants, remote sensing and mapping oil slicks and shoreline cleanup strategies. Similarly, cooperative projects are underway with the National Institute of Standards and Technology in assessing the capabilities of in-situ burning as an oil spill response tool. Research capabilities of OHMSETT - The National Oil Spill Response Test Facility were also reviewed. A series of tables listed titles of research projects completed during 1995-1996. 5 tabs.,

  19. Modernisation of the mineral oil industry in the new Laender

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlueter, P.

    1995-01-01

    The structural differences between the energy economies of the two Germanies on the advent of reunification could hardly have been greater. The centralist, planned economy was oriented to autarky and therefore relied heavily on its domestic energy source of brown coal. In 1989 brown coal accounted for 68.4%, hence more than two thirds, of the Democratic Republic's total primary energy consumption of 128 million t of coal equivalent. Its corresponding share in the old Laender was only 23.5%. In the old Laender mineral oil with a share of 40% represented the prime energy source, whereas in the new Laender it accounted for only 14% of primary energy consumption. However, this small proportion in no way reflects the true significance of the mineral oil industry in the former GDR. (orig.) [de

  20. Rapid analytical procedure for determination of mineral oils in edible oil by GC-FID.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrona, Magdalena; Pezo, Davinson; Nerin, Cristina

    2013-12-15

    A procedure for the determination of mineral oils in edible oil has been fully developed. The procedure consists of using a sulphuric acid-impregnated silica gel (SAISG) glass column to eliminate the fat matter. A chemical combustion of the fatty acids takes place, while the mineral oils are not affected by the sulphuric acid. The column is eluted with hexane using a vacuum pump and the final extract is concentrated and analysed by gas chromatography (GC) with flame ionisation detector (FID). The detection limit (LOD) and the quantification limit (LOQ) in hexane were 0.07 and 0.21 μg g(-1) respectively and the LOQ in vegetable oil was 1 μg g(-1). Only a few minutes were necessary for sample treatment to have a clean extract. The efficiency of the process, measured through the recoveries from spiked samples of edible oil was higher than 95%. The procedure has been applied to determine mineral oil in olive oil from the retailed market. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. 25 CFR 227.10 - Minerals other than oil and gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Minerals other than oil and gas. 227.10 Section 227.10 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS... Minerals other than oil and gas. Unreserved, unwithdrawn, and unallotted lands which have not been leased...

  2. Recovery of mineral oil from waste emulsion using electrocoagulation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razali Mohd Najib

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a research to recover mineral oil from industrial waste emulsion. This research also evaluates the standard of water produced after the oil recovery. The ecosystem could be polluted if this waste is not treated prior to discharge. The equipment needed for this experiment is power supply (generator, connecting wire and metal plate for providing the coagulant. The chosen plates were aluminium and iron plate. The power supply will be connected to the plate producing anode (positive terminal and cathode (negative terminal. Both plates are immersed into a beaker containing waste emulsion. The charge supplied by the current will cause the aluminium or ferum to dissisipate and became ions. These ions will attract the oil to flock together and float at the surface. The water will then filter by using filter paper. Electrocoagulation was done without addition of chemical thus can prevent the hazard from the chemicals. The samples was sent for oil and grease test. The optimum time needed for recovery of oil was 3 hours. The percentage recovery reach constant trend of 95% afterwards. When the power consumption increases, the percentage recovery also increases. However, the current should be lower than 0.5 ampere as it is the limit that human body can withstand. Thus, power consumption of 27.5 Watt was chosen as optimum value. The oil recovery of at power consumption at 27.5W is 96%. The best plate in the process was the aluminium pair which can recover more than ferum plate. The present work concludes the promising future for waste water treatment by usage of electrocoagulation technique.

  3. Natural (Mineral, Vegetable, Coconut, Essential) Oils and Contact Dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verallo-Rowell, Vermén M; Katalbas, Stephanie S; Pangasinan, Julia P

    2016-07-01

    Natural oils include mineral oil with emollient, occlusive, and humectant properties and the plant-derived essential, coconut, and other vegetable oils, composed of triglycerides that microbiota lipases hydrolyze into glycerin, a potent humectant, and fatty acids (FAs) with varying physico-chemical properties. Unsaturated FAs have high linoleic acid used for synthesis of ceramide-I linoleate, a barrier lipid, but more pro-inflammatory omega-6:-3 ratios above 10:1, and their double bonds form less occlusive palisades. VCO FAs have a low linoleic acid content but shorter and saturated FAs that form a more compact palisade, more anti-inflammatory omega-6:-3 ratio of 2:1, close to 7:1 of olive oil, which disrupts the skin barrier, otherwise useful as a penetration enhancer. Updates on the stratum corneum illustrate how this review on the contrasting actions of NOs provide information on which to avoid and which to select for barrier repair and to lower inflammation in contact dermatitis genesis.

  4. The effect of used engine oil on carbohydrate, mineral content and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL

    reductase activity in plants that were exposed to engine oil. Therefore ... change oil from motor vehicles and power generating machines. ... The availability of essential mineral element is ... representing each treatment and this was replicated.

  5. AFM annual report 1983 (Petroleum Industry). [Export Federation for Mineral Oil, Federal Republic of Germany]. AFM Jahresbericht 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    The annual report 1983 of the Export Federation for Mineral Oil (AFM) contains informations about the mineral oil economics, the market development for selected main products and the environmental protection. The AFM terms (standard conditions for barge transactions) for the mineral oil industry are given. The AFM Oil Market Report Daily has extended the frame of its reports in 1983.

  6. Comparative Study of Breakdown Voltage of Mineral, Synthetic and Natural Oils and Based Mineral Oil Mixtures under AC and DC Voltages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abderrahmane Beroual

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a comparative study of AC and DC breakdown voltages of based mineral oil mixtures with natural and synthetic esters mainly used in high voltage power transformers. The goal was to analyze the performances of oil mixtures from the dielectric withstand point of view and to predict the behavior of transformers originally filled with mineral oil and re-filled with synthetic or natural ester oils when emptied for maintenance. The study concerns mixtures based on 20%, 50%, and 80% of natural and synthetic ester oils. AC breakdown voltages were measured using a sphere-sphere electrode system according to IEC 60156 specifications; the same specification was adopted for DC measurements since there is no standard specifications for this voltage waveform. A statistical analysis of the mean values, standard deviations, and histograms of breakdown voltage data was carried out. The Normal and Weibull distribution functions were used to analyze the experimental data and the best function that the data followed was used to estimate the breakdown voltage with risk of 1%, 10%, and 50% probability. It was shown that whatever the applied voltage waveforms, ester oils always have a significantly higher breakdown voltage than mineral oil. The addition of only 20% of natural or synthetic ester oil was sufficient to considerably increase the breakdown voltage of mineral oil. The dielectric strength of such a mixture is much higher than that of mineral oil alone and can reach that of ester oils. From the point of view of dielectric strength, the mixtures constitute an option for improving the performance of mineral oil. Thus, re-filling of transformers containing up to 20% mineral oil residues with ester oils, does not present any problem; it is even advantageous when considering only the breakdown voltage. Under AC, the mixtures with natural ester always follow the behavior of vegetable oil alone. With the exception of the 20% mixture of natural

  7. Mineral oil and synthetic hydrocarbons in cosmetic lip products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederer, M; Stebler, T; Grob, K

    2016-04-01

    Lipsticks and lip care products may contain saturated hydrocarbons which either stem from mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH) or are synthetic, that is polyolefin oligomeric saturated hydrocarbons (POSH). Some of these hydrocarbons are strongly accumulated and form granulomas in human tissues, which prompted Cosmetics Europe (former Colipa) to issue a recommendation for their use in lip care and oral products. From 2012 to 2014, MOSH+POSH were determined in 175 cosmetic lip products taken from the Swiss market in order to estimate their contribution to human exposure. Mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons and POSH were extracted and analysed by GC with FID. Areas were integrated as a total as well as by mass ranges with cuts at n-C25 and n-C34 to characterize the molecular mass distribution. About 68% of the products contained at least 5% MOSH+POSH (total concentration). For regular users, these products would be major contributors to their MOSH+POSH exposure. About 31% of the products contained more than 32% MOSH+POSH. Their regular usage would amount in an estimated MOSH+POSH exposure exceeding the highest estimated dietary exposure. The majority of the products contained hydrocarbons with a molecular mass range which was not in line with the recommendations of Cosmetics Europe. Taking into account that material applied to the lips largely ends up being ingested, MOSH and POSH levels should be reduced in the majority of cosmetic lip products. As the extensive evaluation of the data available on MOSH (EFSA J., 10, 2012, 2704) did not enable the specification of limits considered as safe, the present level of dietary exposure and its evaluation as 'of potential concern' provide the relevant bench mark, which means that lip products should contain clearly less than 5% MOSH+POSH. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  8. Ex situ bioremediation of mineral oil in soils: Aerated pile treatment. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graves, D.

    1998-04-01

    Under a contract with Southern Company Services, a pilot-scale evaluation of mineral oil biodegradation was conducted at Plant Mitchell. The evaluation consisted of two demonstrations to examine land treatment and aerated pile treatment of soil contaminated with the mineral insulating oil used in electrical transformers. Treatment of mineral oil contaminated soil is problematic in the State of Georgia and throughout the US because current practice is to excavate and landfill the contaminated soil. In many cases, the cost associated with these activities far exceeds the environmental risk of mineral oil in soil. This project was designed to evaluate the performance of bioremediation for the treatment of mineral oil in soil. Testing was carried out in a demonstration facility prepared by Georgia Power Company. The facility consisted of 12 independent treatment cells constructed on a concrete pad and covered with a roof

  9. Mineral catalysis of oil producing reactions in coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shridharani, K.G.

    1983-01-01

    This work was concerned primarily with the development of a relatively inexpensive, readily available, high activity catalyst that can be used as a disposable catalyst in coal liquefaction processes. For a fair evaluation of the developmental mineral catalyst (presulfided iron oxide), it was necessary to determine at different stages of this work, whether catalyst inhibition, deactivation or activity was the limiting factor in coal liquefaction catalysis. First, different routes were explored to prepare a high hydrogenation activity, iron-based catalyst. Naphthalene hydrogenation was used as a model reaction to rate the hydrogenation activities of different additives. Presulfiding of iron oxide with H/sub 2/S, under controlled conditions, rendered the highest hydrogenation activity mineral catalyst, which had a hydrogenation activity even greater than that of commercial CoMo/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalyst sulfided with creosote oil and hydrogen. Sulfiding of CoMo/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalyst with H/sub 2/S remarkably improved its initial hydrogenation activity. Second, the catalyst inhibition and deactivation during liquefaction were studied. Liquefaction-process solvents contain a number of compounds that can either deactivate or inhibit the hydrogenation activity of a catalyst. Finally, the hydrocracking activity of the presulfided iron oxide catalyst was compared with that of commercial catalysts, CoMo/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and low alumina FCC catalyst.

  10. Microbial mineral illization of montmorillonite in low-permeability oil reservoirs for microbial enhanced oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Kai; Sun, Shanshan; Xiao, Meng; Liu, Tongjing; Xu, Quanshu; Dong, Honghong; Wang, Di; Gong, Yejing; Sha, Te; Hou, Jirui; Zhang, Zhongzhi; Fu, Pengcheng

    2018-05-11

    Microbial mineral illization has been investigated for its role in the extraction and recovery of metals from ores. Here we report our application of mineral bioillization for the microbial enhanced oil recovery in low-permeability oil reservoirs. It aimed to reveal the etching mechanism of the four Fe (III)-reducing microbial strains under anaerobic growth conditions on the Ca-montmorillonite. The mineralogical characterization of the Ca-montmorillonite was performed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectrometer. Results showed that the microbial strains could efficiently reduce Fe (III) at an optimal rate of 71 %, and alter the crystal lattice structure of the lamella to promote the interlayer cation exchange, and to efficiently inhibit the Ca-montmorillonite swelling at an inhibitory rate of 48.9 %. Importance Microbial mineral illization is ubiquitous in the natural environment. Microbes in low-permeability reservoirs are able to enable the alteration of the structure and phase of the Fe-poor minerals by reducing Fe (III) and inhibiting clay swelling which is still poorly studied. This study aimed to reveal the interaction mechanism between Fe (III)-reducing bacterial strains and Ca-montmorillonite under anaerobic atmosphere, and to investigate the extent and rates of Fe (III) reduction and phase changes with their activities. Application of Fe (III)-reducing bacteria will provide a new way to inhibit clay swelling, to elevate reservoir permeability, and to reduce pore throat resistance after water flooding for enhanced oil recovery in low-permeability reservoirs. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  11. Minerals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaquero, M. P.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available The possible changes in the mineral composition of food during frying could be the consequence of losses by leaching, or changes in concentrations caused by exchanges between the food and culinary fat of other compounds. The net result depends on the type of food, the frying fat used and the frying process. Moreover, the modifications that frying produces in other nutrients could indirectly affect the availability of dietary minerals. The most outstanding ones are those that can take place in the fat or in the protein. With respect to the interactions between frying oils and minerals, we have recent knowledge concerning the effects of consuming vegetable oils used in repeated fryings of potatoes without turnover, on the nutritive utilization of dietary minerals. The experiments have been carried out in pregnant and growing rats, which consumed diets containing, as a sole source of fat, the testing frying oils or unused oils. It seems that the consumption of various frying oils, with a polar compound content lower or close to the maximum limit of 25% accepted for human consumption, does not alter the absorption and metabolism of calcium, phosphorous, iron or copper. Magnesium absorption from diets containing frying oils tends to increase but the urinary excretion of this element increases, resulting imperceptible the variations in the magnesium balance. The urinary excretion of Zn also increased although its balance remained unchanged. Different studies referring to the effects of consuming fried fatty fish on mineral bioavailability will also be presented. On one hand, frying can cause structural changes in fish protein, which are associated with an increase in iron absorption and a decrease in body zinc retention. The nutritive utilization of other elements such as magnesium, calcium and copper seems to be unaffected. On the other hand; it has been described that an excess of fish fatty acids in the diet produces iron depletion, but when fatty

  12. Certified Schools

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Certified schools must provide specific information regarding the school, the nature and requirements of the educational program, location and contact information,...

  13. Mineral oil barrier sequential polymer treatment for recycled paper products in food packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Uttam C.; Fragouli, Despina; Bayer, Ilker S.; Mele, Elisa; Conchione, Chiara; Cingolani, Roberto; Moret, Sabrina; Athanassiou, Athanassia

    2017-01-01

    Recycled cellulosic paperboards may include mineral oils after the recycle process, which together with their poor water resistance limit their use as food packaging materials. In this work, we demonstrate that a proper functionalization of the recycled paper with two successive polymer treatments, imposes a mineral oil migration barrier and simultaneously renders it waterproof and grease resistant, making it an ideal material for food contact. The first poly (methyl methacrylate) treatment penetrates the paper network and creates a protective layer around every fiber, permitting thus the transformation of the paperboard to a hydrophobic material throughout its thickness, reducing at the same time the mineral oil migration. Subsequently, the second layer with a cyclic olefin copolymer fills the open pores of the surface, and reduces the mineral oil hydrocarbons migration at levels below those proposed by the BMEL. Online liquid chromatography-gas chromatography coupled with flame ionization detection quantitatively demonstrate that this dual functional treatment prevents the migration of both saturated (mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons) and aromatic hydrocarbon (mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbons) mineral oils from the recycled paperboard to a dry food simulant.

  14. Mineral content of insect infested stored legumes treated with edible oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modgil, R

    2000-12-01

    Mineral content of three insect (pulse beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis L.) infested legumes viz. chick pea, mung pea and pigeon pea stored for six months and treated with three edible oils viz. groundnut, mustard and coconut oil has been studied. With increase in storage period significant increase in calcium, phosphorus and iron content of untreated legumes was observed. After three months of storage slight increase in three minerals was observed in the legumes treated with coconut oil which continued till the end of sixth months as compared to other two oil treated counterparts. The storage period was associated with insect infestation which in turn influenced the mineral content of legumes. Ground nut and mustard oils were able to protect legumes for six months against insect infestation when applied in small amounts (0.5%). Whereas coconut oil had protective effect against insect infestation for four months only.

  15. Towards an understanding of the role of clay minerals in crude oil formation, migration and accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lin Mei; Zhou, Chun Hui; Keeling, John; Tong, Dong Shen; Yu, Wei Hua

    2012-12-01

    This article reviews progress in the understanding of the role of clay minerals in crude oil formation, migration and accumulation. Clay minerals are involved in the formation of kerogen, catalytic cracking of kerogen into petroleum hydrocarbon, the migration of crude oil, and the continued change to hydrocarbon composition in underground petroleum reservoirs. In kerogen formation, clay minerals act as catalysts and sorbents to immobilize organic matter through ligand exchange, hydrophobic interactions and cation bridges by the mechanisms of Maillard reactions, polyphenol theory, selective preservation and sorptive protection. Clay minerals also serve as catalysts in acid-catalyzed cracking of kerogen into petroleum hydrocarbon through Lewis and Brønsted acid sites on the clay surface. The amount and type of clay mineral affect the composition of the petroleum. Brønsted acidity of clay minerals is affected by the presence and state of interlayer water, and displacement of this water is a probable driver in crude oil migration from source rocks. During crude oil migration and accumulation in reservoirs, the composition of petroleum is continually modified by interaction with clay minerals. The clays continue to function as sorbents and catalysts even while they are being transformed by diagenetic processes. The detail of chemical interactions and reaction mechanisms between clay minerals and crude oil formation remains to be fully explained but promises to provide insights with broader application, including catalytic conversion of biomass as a source of sustainable energy into the future.

  16. An in situ FTIR step-scan photoacoustic investigation of kerogen and minerals in oil shale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alstadt, Kristin N; Katti, Dinesh R; Katti, Kalpana S

    2012-04-01

    Step-scan photoacoustic infrared spectroscopy experiments were performed on Green River oil shale samples obtained from the Piceance Basin located in Colorado, USA. We have investigated the molecular nature of light and dark colored areas of the oil shale core using FTIR photoacoustic step-scan spectroscopy. This technique provided us with the means to analyze the oil shale in its original in situ form with the kerogen-mineral interactions intact. All vibrational bands characteristic of kerogen were found in the dark and light colored oil shale samples confirming that kerogen is present throughout the depth of the core. Depth profiling experiments indicated that there are changes between layers in the oil shale molecular structure at a length scale of micron. Comparisons of spectra from the light and dark colored oil shale core samples suggest that the light colored regions have high kerogen content, with spectra similar to that from isolated kerogen, whereas, the dark colored areas contain more mineral components which include clay minerals, dolomite, calcite, and pyrite. The mineral components of the oil shale are important in understanding how the kerogen is "trapped" in the oil shale. Comparing in situ kerogen spectra with spectra from isolated kerogen indicate significant band shifts suggesting important nonbonded molecular interactions between the kerogen and minerals. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Interaction of oil and mineral fines on shorelines: review and assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owens, Edward H.; Lee, Kenneth

    2003-01-01

    The interaction of fine mineral particles with stranded oil in an aqueous medium reduces the adhesion of the oil to solid surfaces, such as sediments or bedrock. The net result is the formation of stable, micron-sized, oil droplets that disperse into the water column. In turn, the increase in surface area makes the oil more available for biodegradation. This interaction, referred to as oil-mineral aggregate (OMA) formation, can explain how oiled shorelines are cleaned naturally in the absence of wave action in very sheltered coastal environments. OMA formation also plays an important role in the efficacy of shoreline treatment techniques, such as physical mixing and sediment relocation that move oiled sediments into the zone of wave action to promote the interaction between oil and mineral fines. Successful application of these shoreline treatment options has been demonstrated at two spill events (the Tampa Bay response in Florida and the Sea Empress operation in Wales) and at a controlled oil spill experiment in the field (the 1997 Svalbard ITOSS program). Sediment relocation harnesses the hydraulic action of waves so that the processes of fine-particle interaction and physical abrasion usually occur in tandem on open coasts. There has been no evidence of significant detrimental side-effects of residual oil in pelagic or benthic environments associated with the use of these treatment options to enhance rates of dispersion and oil biodegradation

  18. Interaction of oil and mineral fines on shorelines: review and assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owens, Edward H.; Lee, Kenneth

    2003-12-01

    The interaction of fine mineral particles with stranded oil in an aqueous medium reduces the adhesion of the oil to solid surfaces, such as sediments or bedrock. The net result is the formation of stable, micron-sized, oil droplets that disperse into the water column. In turn, the increase in surface area makes the oil more available for biodegradation. This interaction, referred to as oil-mineral aggregate (OMA) formation, can explain how oiled shorelines are cleaned naturally in the absence of wave action in very sheltered coastal environments. OMA formation also plays an important role in the efficacy of shoreline treatment techniques, such as physical mixing and sediment relocation that move oiled sediments into the zone of wave action to promote the interaction between oil and mineral fines. Successful application of these shoreline treatment options has been demonstrated at two spill events (the Tampa Bay response in Florida and the Sea Empress operation in Wales) and at a controlled oil spill experiment in the field (the 1997 Svalbard ITOSS program). Sediment relocation harnesses the hydraulic action of waves so that the processes of fine-particle interaction and physical abrasion usually occur in tandem on open coasts. There has been no evidence of significant detrimental side-effects of residual oil in pelagic or benthic environments associated with the use of these treatment options to enhance rates of dispersion and oil biodegradation.

  19. THE ORGANIZATIONAL-ECONOMIC MECHANISM OF RESTRUCTURING OF THE MARKET OF MINERAL OIL IN REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.I. Efimenkov

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Restructuring, in opinion of the experts, one of the basic ways of steady development of managing subjects in modern conditions. In clause strategy of organizational-economic restructuring of the regional market of mineral oil is considered. Concrete actions of complex restructuring of the market of mineral oil in region and the mechanism of management are resulted by reorganization of the given market.

  20. Mineral oil metal working fluids (MWFs)-development of practical criteria for mist sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, A T; Groves, J A; Unwin, J; Piney, M

    2000-05-01

    Not all mineral oil metalworking fluids (MWFs) in common use form stable airborne mists which can be sampled quantitatively onto a filter. This much has been known for some time but no simple method of identifying oils too volatile for customary filter sampling has been developed. Past work was reviewed and experiments were done to select simple criteria which would enable such oils to be identified. The sampling efficiency for a range of commercial mineral oil MWF were assessed by drawing clean air through spiked filters at 2 l. min(-1) for periods up to 6 h before analysis. The physical properties of MWF are governed by their composition and kinematic viscosity was found to be the most practical and easily available index of the potential for sample loss from the filter. Oils with viscosities greater that 18 cSt (at 40 degrees C) lost less than 5% of their weight, whereas those with viscosities less than 18 cSt gave losses up to 71%. The losses from the MWF were mostly aliphatic hydrocarbons (C(10)-C(18)), but additives such as alkyl benzenes, esters, phenols and terpene odorants were also lost. The main recommendation to arise from the work is that filter sampling can be performed on mineral oils with viscosities of 18 cSt (at 40 degrees C) or more with little evaporative losses from the filter. However, sampling oils with viscosities less than 18 cSt will produce results which may significantly underestimate the true value. Over a quarter of UK mineral oil MWFs are formulated from mineral oils with viscosities less than 18 cSt (at 40 degrees C). The problem of exposure under-estimation and inappropriate exposure sampling could be widespread. Further work is being done on measurement of mixed phase mineral oil mist exposure.

  1. Performance of the mineral blended ester oil-based drilling fluid systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismail, A.R.; Kamis, A.; Foo, K.S. [University Teknologi (Malaysia)

    2001-06-01

    A study was conducted in which the properties of ester oil-based drilling fluid systems were examined using a blended mixture of ester and synthetic mineral oil. Biodegradable invert emulsion ester-based fluids are preferred over mineral oil-based drilling fluids for environmental reasons, but they tend to cause alkaline hydrolysis resulting in solidification of the drilling fluid systems. The drilling fluid examined here consisted of Malaysian palm oil ester derivatives (methyl laureate ester or isopropyl laureate ester) blended with commercially available synthetic mineral oil. This mineral oil was added to reduce the problem of alkaline hydrolysis. This mixture, however, was found to be unstable and could not solve the problem at high temperature. The isopropyl laureate and mineral oil blended system was more stable towards the hydrolysis process up to 250 degrees F. In order to enhance the performance of an invert emulsion drilling fluid system, it was recommended that brine water content of the fluid system be lowered. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  2. Could Bad Certifiers Certify Best?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bizotto, Jacopo; Rudiger, Jesper; Vigier, Adrien

    2017-01-01

    We study product certification in settings where the certifier maximizes social welfare and bases his decisions on a mixture of information, some of which is voluntarily disclosed by the sellers, and some of which he acquires first hand by testing products. We show that unless the certifier is able...... to pre-commit to a testing strategy, then having better access to information may lead to worse certification quality, by crowding out information disclosed by the sellers. Policy implications are discussed....

  3. Oil. From mineral resource treasure to resource plague

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabezas, M.

    2006-01-01

    Rising oil prices in the seventies resulted, also because of overspending, in disappointing economic development in the oil-producing countries. Although policy reactions to the current rise of the oil prices did not have that effect so far, there is the danger for financial instability [nl

  4. 25 CFR 215.23a - Suspension of operations and production on leases for minerals other than oil and gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... minerals other than oil and gas. 215.23a Section 215.23a Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEAD AND ZINC MINING OPERATIONS AND LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.23a Suspension of operations and production on leases for minerals other than oil and gas. The provisions of...

  5. Spilt oil mineralization and influence upon marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokuda, Hiroshi

    1991-01-01

    Several months have elapsed since the end of the Gulf War, and in spite of the efforts of specialists and workers, several hundreds oil fields are still burning, and coasts are smeared with oil. The effect that oil field fires exerted to the atmosphere and global environment is set aside, and in this report, the decomposition of oil spilled into the sea and its effect exerted to living things are discussed. The oil quantity flowed out from the valve for loading tankers was difficult to estimate, but it seemed 3 or 4 million barrels. Spilled durable oil impairs the amenity. The process of oil decomposition, the presence of the bacteria decomposing hydrocarbon in the sea, the factors affecting the microorganism decomposition, the capability of oil decomposition in Japanese coastal areas, and the final products of oil decomposition are reported. The effects that spilled oil exerted to marine plants, animals, the drowning of sea birds, the disturbance of information transmission and the ecosystem that does not recover are described. When useful marine living things are restored to the original state, marine product industry can declare the end of pollution, but on the ecosystem, the declaration of end does not exist. (K.I.)

  6. A Comparative Experimental Analysis of Tribological Properties Between Commercial Mineral Oil and Neat Castor Oil using Taguchi Method in Boundary Lubrication Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bhaumik

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to carry out a comparative experimental analysis of tribological properties of 372cSt mineral oil and 229cSt castor oil. The antiwear and extreme pressure properties of both the oils have been analysed according to ASTM G 99 and ASTM D-2783 standards. The surfaces of the balls and pins after tribo tests have been analysed using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM images. The present test results predict that the antiwear and extreme pressure properties in case of the selected commercially available mineral oil are better than neat castor oil. Both coefficient of friction and frictional force increased by 16-42 % and 16-35 % respectively in case of neat castor oil as compared with that of the mineral oil. The load carrying capacity in case of mineral oil has been found to be 250 kg while in case of castor oil it has been found to be 126 kg. SEM images show a higher plastic deformation in case of castor oil as compared to the mineral oil. Both mineral oil and castor oil showed surface deteriorations and increase in roughness after 40 hrs of intermittent running during scuffing test. Thus, the present investigation indicates that the tribological properties of neat castor are inferior to that of mineral oil although close observation of the results shows that both AW and EP properties of neat castor oil are much closer to that of commercial mineral oil. Thus, the present work would help in formulating castor oil based new bio lubricants with better anti wear and extreme pressure properties

  7. A Novel Approach for Analyzing Water Diffusion in Mineral and Vegetable Oil-Paper Insulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Du

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Water diffusion characteristics of mineral and vegetable oil-paper insulation systems are important for insulation condition evaluation of oil-filled transformers. In this paper, we describe a novel application method of in situ attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR approach for analyzing the diffusion process of water molecules in oil-immersed insulating paper. Two-dimensional correlation was used to analyze the 3700 cm-1 to 3000 cm- 1 hydroxyl peak. The observed results indicated that water molecules form two types of hydroxyl (OH with oil-impregnated paper in the diffusion process are weak and strong hydrogen bonds, respectively. 2D infrared correlation analysis revealed that three OH stretching vibration spectra absorption peaks was existed in hygroscopic vegetable oil-immersed insulating paper. And there are four OH stretching vibration spectra absorption peaks in mineral oil-immersed insulation paper. Furthermore, mineral oil-impregnated paper and vegetable oil-impregnated paper diffusion coefficients were obtained by nonlinear fitting.

  8. Effects of Mineral Oils on Host Selection Behavior of Diaphorina citri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mofit Eko Poerwanto

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Response of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae on citrus leaves treated with horticultural and agricultural mineral oil (HMO & AMO was evaluated under laboratory condition in choice and non-choice trials. Combination of HMO and AMO at concentration of 0 up to 2% was applied to citrus leaves. Mineral oil applications significantly reduced the proportion of D. citri stayed on citrus leaves for feeding with the proposed mechanisms: 1 oils covered leaves thus hampered it for releasing volatile compounds, 2 oil film preventing the direct contact of tarsus or palpus to leaf surfaces, and 3 the volatile compounds produced by mineral oils also blended with plant volatiles in the atmosphere and reduced the probability of olfactory receptors capturing the olfactory cues for locating the feeding site. Mineral oils also increased the mortality of D. citri due to the refusion for feeding on the treated citrus leaves. The effect of AMO was more prominent than HMO.   Tanggapan Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae pada daun jeruk yang diperlakukan dengan minyak mineral (HMO dan AMO dievaluasi dengan metode pilihan maupun tanpa pilihan di laboratorium. Kombinasi antara HMO dan AMO pada konsentrasi 0% sampai dengan 2% diaplikasikan pada daun jeruk. Minyak mineral secara nyata menurunkan proporsi D. citri hinggap untuk makan pada daun jeruk, yang mungkin disebabkan oleh mekanisme: 1 minyak melapisi daun sehingga tidak mampu melepaskan senyawa volatil, 2 lapisan minyak menghalangi kontak langsung antara tarsus atau palpus pada permukaan daun, dan 3 senyawa volatil dari minyak bercampur dengan volatil tanaman di udara sehingga menurunkan probabilitas reseptor olfaktori menangkap sinyal penanda lokasi inang. Minyak mineral juga meningkatkan mortalitas, akibat dari penolakan makan pada daun jeruk yang diperlakukan. Pengaruh AMO lebih besar dari pada HMO.

  9. Mineral content prediction for unconventional oil and gas reservoirs based on logging data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maojin, Tan; Youlong, Zou; Guoyue

    2012-09-01

    Coal bed methane and shale oil &gas are both important unconventional oil and gas resources, whose reservoirs are typical non-linear with complex and various mineral components, and the logging data interpretation model are difficult to establish for calculate the mineral contents, and the empirical formula cannot be constructed due to various mineral. The radial basis function (RBF) network analysis is a new method developed in recent years; the technique can generate smooth continuous function of several variables to approximate the unknown forward model. Firstly, the basic principles of the RBF is discussed including net construct and base function, and the network training is given in detail the adjacent clustering algorithm specific process. Multi-mineral content for coal bed methane and shale oil &gas, using the RBF interpolation method to achieve a number of well logging data to predict the mineral component contents; then, for coal-bed methane reservoir parameters prediction, the RBF method is used to realized some mineral contents calculation such as ash, volatile matter, carbon content, which achieves a mapping from various logging data to multimineral. To shale gas reservoirs, the RBF method can be used to predict the clay content, quartz content, feldspar content, carbonate content and pyrite content. Various tests in coalbed and gas shale show the method is effective and applicable for mineral component contents prediction

  10. Effects of a polymeric organic coagulant for industrial mineral oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    wastewater treatment using response surface methodology (RSM). E Kweinor Tetteh* and S ... wastewater systems for separating oil from water, due to their effectiveness ..... cost, and evaluating and making decisions for the process response ...

  11. Can Stable Isotope combined with Trace Element Analysis distinguish between pure and g.g.A. (protected geographical indication, P.G.I.) certified Pumpkin Seed Oils?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier-Augenstein, Wolfram; Kemp, Helen; Midwood, Andy

    2013-04-01

    Styrian Pumpkin Seed Oil is a premium single seed vegetable oil that is uniquely linked to the geographic region of Styria where it is grown and produced. In 1996, the strong regional ties of this typical Styrian speciality were recognised by the EU-Commission who declared "Styrian Pumpkin Seed Oil P.G.I." as a Protected Geographical Indication (article 5 VO(EWG) Nr. 2081/92). In 1998, more than 2,000 domestic pumpkin seed producers and 30 oil mills formed an association of Styrian pumpkin seed oil producers, which is now called the "Gemeinschaft Steirisches Kürbiskernöl g.g.A.". This producers' association was formed in order to protect the regionality and the high quality of Styrian Pumpkin Seed Oil P.G.I. Procedures implemented by this producers' association document every step in the process from pumpkin seeds to seed crushing in oil mills and finally bottling of Styrian Pumpkin Seed Oil P.G.I., keeping a contiguous record of all production steps including annual harvest amounts. This permits full traceability of every bottle of Styrian Pumpkin Seed Oil P.G.I from harvest to the finished, bottled products found on the shelf of delis and even supermarkets. Despite these efforts of the producers' association, there have been repeated claims of g.g.A. (P.G.I.) certified bottles of Styrian Pumpkin Seed Oil (PSO) having been analysed independently and shown to contain either mixtures of Styrian and non-Styrian PSO or no Styrian PSO at all. Since keeping records of annual harvest amounts of pumpkin seeds would make it very difficult for an "over-production" by mixing or substitution of alien PSO's to go unnoticed, we formed the hypothesis that the red-flagged bottles could have been counterfeits containing alien PSO with bottles sporting fake g.g.A. seals and fake serial numbers. An alternative hypothesis was that the chosen method of detection of allegedly misrepresented g.g.A. Styrian PSO resulted in a high number of false negatives thus incorrectly rejecting

  12. Mineral oil residues in soil and apple under temperate conditions of Kashmir, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Malik Mukhtar; Wani, Ashraf Alam; Sofi, Mubashir; Ara, Ishrat

    2018-03-09

    The study was undertaken to ascertain the persistence of Orchol-13, a mineral oil used against insect pests of horticultural fruit crops in soil and apple following the dormant and summer applications of 2 and 0.75% respectively. Soil samples were collected during dormant, while as both soil and apple samples were collected during summer season. Samples were collected at 0, 1, 3, and 5 days post treatment in both the seasons. Average recoveries of paraffinic constituents (which constitute about 60% of mineral oils by composition) from soil and apple at 1 μg ml -1 spiking level were found to be 74.18 and 76.81% respectively. The final quantification of paraffinic constituents was performed on gas chromatograph equipped with flame ionization detector (GC-FID). No paraffinic constituents of mineral oil could be detected in soil and apple at 0 day post treatment in both the seasons.

  13. Review of data on the dermal penetration of mineral oils and waxes used in cosmetic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, T; Bury, D; Fautz, R; Hauser, M; Huber, B; Markowetz, A; Mishra, S; Rettinger, K; Schuh, W; Teichert, T

    2017-10-05

    Mineral oils and waxes used in cosmetic products, also referred to as "personal care products" outside the European Union, are mixtures of predominantly saturated hydrocarbons consisting of straight-chain, branched and ring structures with carbon chain lengths greater than C16. They are used in skin and lip care cosmetic products due to their excellent skin tolerance as well as their high protecting and cleansing performance and broad viscosity options. Recently, concerns have been raised regarding potential adverse health effects of mineral oils and waxes from dermal application of cosmetics. In order to be able to assess the risk for the consumer the dermal penetration potential of these ingredients has to be evaluated. The scope and objective of this review are to identify and summarize publicly available literature on the dermal penetration of mineral oils and waxes as used in cosmetic products. For this purpose, a comprehensive literature search was conducted. A total of 13 in vivo (human, animal) and in vitro studies investigating the dermal penetration of mineral oils and waxes has been identified and analysed. The majority of the substances were dermally adsorbed to the stratum corneum and only a minor fraction reached deeper skin layers. Overall, there is no evidence from the various studies that mineral oils and waxes are percutaneously absorbed and become systemically available. Thus, given the absence of dermal uptake, mineral oils and waxes as used in cosmetic products do not present a risk to the health of the consumer. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Mineralization of a Malaysian crude oil by Pseudomonas sp. and Achromabacter sp. isolated from coastal waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, J.; Ahmad, M.F.

    1995-12-31

    Regarded as being a potentially effective tool to combat oil pollution, bioremediation involves mineralization, i.e., the conversion of complex hydrocarbons into harmless CO{sub 2} and water by action of microorganisms. Therefore, in achieving optimum effectiveness from the application of these products on crude oil in local environments, the capability of the bacteria to mineralize hydrocarbons was evaluated. The microbial laboratory testing of mineralization on local oil degraders involved, first, isolation of bacteria found at a port located on the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Subsequently, these bacteria were identified by means of Biomereux`s API 20E and 20 NE systems and later screened by their growth on a Malaysian crude oil. Selected strains of Pseudomonas sp. and Achromabacter sp. were then exposed individually to a similar crude oil in a mineralization unit and monitored for 16 days for release of CO{sub 2}. Pseudomonas paucimobilis was found to produce more CO{sub 2} than Achromobacter sp. When tested under similar conditions, mixed populations of these two taxa produced more CO{sub 2} than that produced by any individual strain. Effective bioremediation of local crude in Malaysian waters can therefore be achieved from biochemically developed Pseudomonas sp. strains.

  15. Effects of bioremediation agents on oil degradation in mineral and sandy salt marsh sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Q.; Mendelssohn, I.A.; Henry, C.B. Jr.; Roberts, P.O.; Walsh, M.M.; Overton, E.B.; Portier, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    Although bioremediation for oil spill cleanup has received considerable attention in recent years, its satisfactory use in the cleanup of oil spills in the wetland environment is still generally untested. A study of the often most used bioremediation agents, fertiliser, microbial product and soil oxidation, as a means of enhancing oil biodegradation in coastal mineral and sandy marsh substrates was conducted in controlled greenhouse conditions. Artificially weathered south Louisiana crude oil was applied to sods of marsh (soil and intact vegetation) at the rate of 2 l m -2 . Fertiliser application enhanced marsh plant growth, soil microbial populations, and oil biodegradation rate. The live aboveground biomass of Spartina alterniflora with fertiliser application was higher than that without fertiliser. The application of fertiliser significantly increased soil microbial respiration rates, indicating the potential for enhancing oil biodegradation. Bioremediation with fertiliser application significantly reduced the total targeted normal hydrocarbons (TTNH) and total targeted aromatic hydrocarbons (TTAH) remaining in the soil, by 81% and 17%, respectively, compared to those of the oil controls. TTNH/hopane and TTAAH/hopane ratios showed a more consistent reduction, further suggesting an enhancement of oil biodegradation by fertilisation. Furthermore, soil type affected oil bioremediation; the extent of fertiliser-enhanced oil biodegradation was greater for sandy (13% TTNH remaining in the treatments with fertiliser compared to the control) than for mineral soils (26% of the control), suggesting that fertiliser application was more effective in enhancing TTNH degradation in the former. Application of microbial product and soil oxidant had no positive effects on the variables mentioned above under the present experimental conditions, suggesting that microbial degraders are not limiting biodegradation in this soil. Thus, the high cost of microbial amendments during

  16. Experimental Investigation of the Use of Waste Mineral Oils as a Fuel with Organic-Based Mn Additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bülent Özdalyan

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The heat values of waste mineral oils are equal to the heat value of the fuel oil. However, heat value alone is not sufficient for the use of waste minerals oils as fuel. However, the critical physical properties of fuels such as density and viscosity need to be adapted to the system in order to be used. In this study, the engine oils used in the first 10,000 km of the vehicles were used as waste mineral oil. An organic-based Mn additive was synthesized to improve the properties of the waste mineral oil. It was observed that mixing the Mn additive with the waste mineral oil at different doses (4, 8, 12, and 16 ppm improves the viscosity of the waste oil and the flash point. The resulting fuel was evaluated for emission using different loads in a 5 kW capacity generator to compare the fuel with standard diesel fuel and to determine the effect of Mn addition. In the experimental study, it was observed that the emission characteristics of the fuel obtained from waste mineral oil were worse than diesel fuel, but some improvement was observed with Mn addition. As a result, we found that the use of waste mineral oils in engines in fuel standards was not appropriate, but may be improved with additives.

  17. Evaluation of mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH and mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH in pure mineral hydrocarbon-based cosmetics and cosmetic raw materials using 1H NMR spectroscopy [version 2; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk W. Lachenmeier

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Mineral hydrocarbons consist of two fractions, mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH and mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH. MOAH is a potential public health hazard because it may include carcinogenic polycyclic compounds. In the present study, 400 MHz nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy was introduced, in the context of official controls, to measure MOSH and MOAH in raw materials or pure mineral hydrocarbon final products (cosmetics and medicinal products. Quantitative determination (qNMR has been established using the ERETIC methodology (electronic reference to access in vivo concentrations based on the PULCON principle (pulse length based concentration determination. Various mineral hydrocarbons (e.g., white oils, paraffins or petroleum jelly were dissolved in deuterated chloroform. The ERETIC factor was established using a quantification reference sample containing ethylbenzene and tetrachloronitrobenzene. The following spectral regions were integrated: MOSH δ 3.0 – 0.2 ppm and MOAH δ 9.2 - 6.5, excluding solvent signals. Validation showed a sufficient precision of the method with a coefficient of variation <6% and a limit of detection <0.1 g/100 g. The applicability of the method was proven by analysing 27 authentic samples with MOSH and MOAH contents in the range of 90-109 g/100 g and 0.02-1.10 g/100 g, respectively. It is important to distinguish this new NMR-approach from the hyphenated liquid chromatography-gas chromatography methodology previously used to characterize MOSH/MOAH amounts in cosmetic products. For mineral hydrocarbon raw materials or pure mineral hydrocarbon-based cosmetic products, NMR delivers higher specificity without any sample preparation besides dilution. Our sample survey shows that previous methods may have overestimated the MOAH amount in mineral oil products and opens new paths to characterize this fraction. Therefore, the developed method can be applied for routine monitoring of consumer

  18. The surface-active bio oil solution in sulfured copper mineral benefit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.E. Brossard

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Surface-active bio-oil (SABO solutions, prepared from vacuum pyrolysis bio-oil with a phenol-to-levoglucosan mass ratio of 4.8, was compared to pine-oil (PO as foaming agent in the process of flotation of sulfured copper minerals. With the aid of 2³ factorial designs, regression models were obtained for % Cu in flotation concentrate (L Cu and % Cu recovery (R, as functions of foaming agent-to-Cu mineral, collector-to-Cu mineral mass ratio and liquid-to-solid ratio (v/w. Experimental designs composed of a saturated design in its first half and a fold over design in its second half allowed to study the influence of flotation conditions on L Cu and R when SABO was the foaming agent. The factors selected were: particle size; pulp pH; flotation time; initial Cu content in the mineral (mineral type; liquid-to-solid ratio and finally SABO-to-mineral and collector-to-mineral mass ratio. Within the chosen experimental region only pulp pH affected significantly both responses. It is shown that high pulp pH, in the presence of minerals rich in Cu content leads to a significant increase in L Cu and R. Although SABO to mineral mass ratio is high compared to PO, it is considered that an optimization study on pulp pH should reduce this difference making SABO an attractive alternative to PO and a way to widen the field of applications of pyrolysis products.

  19. Effects of a polymeric organic coagulant for industrial mineral oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The removal of chemical oxidation demand (COD), soap oil and grease (SOG), total suspended solids (TSS) and turbidity from the MOW were used as the response variables for the coagulation flotation process. This was done with a standard dissolved air flotation jar test. The results show that the actual COD, SOG, TSS ...

  20. Performances of cutting fluids in turning. Mineral oil - RM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axinte, Dragos Aurelian; Belluco, Walter

    1999-01-01

    Scope of the present measurement campaign is the evaluation of the cutting fluid performance. The report presents the standard routine and the results obtained when turning stainless steel and brass with a commercial vegetable based oil called RM. The methods were developed to be applicable...

  1. Method for obtaining a varnish with a base of mineral oil obtained by distillation of bituminous schists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchionni, A

    1945-07-24

    A method for obtaining a varnish is described characterized by the fact that the following ingredients are being used; mineral oil from the distillation of bituminous schists in the proportions already cited in the description, diluted with benzene or turpentine, with admixture of coloring matter. Varnish with a base of mineral oil from the distillation of bituminous schists is obtained.

  2. Risk assessment for mineral oil : development of standardized analitical methods in soil and soil-like materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, J.; Hutter, J.W.; Win, T.; Barnabas, I.; Whittle, P.; Hansen, N.; Sakai, H.

    2005-01-01

    The present standard methods for the determination of mineral oil in environmental matrices give a total concentration. This concentration is not found to be a good estimate for ecotoxicological, human and agricultural risks. It is shown that the existing ISO standards for mineral oil and volatile

  3. The influence of external field on the lubricity of mineral oil for railway transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voronin Serhii

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of mineral oil is associated with its gradual operational degradation caused by its natural aging and contamination with various impurities. As the concentration of impurities increases, the number of active surface molecules which determine the operational properties of mineral oils decreases. A promising method of recovery of the operational properties of oils is the treatment with an electric field, which makes it possible to enhance the activity of surfactants in the tribo-contact area. This statement is proved through the improvement of the wettability of the bronze surface with mineral oils after their treatment with an electrostatic field. However, the method of electrical treatment is associated with the need to increase the requirements for the purity of liquids, especially to the presence of water, which requires creating an oil pre-treatment system. As an alternative, a method of electrical treatment with special field parameters is proposed enabling to accelerate the coalescence process. The major parameter that accelerates the coalescence process is the electric field oscillation frequency. The results of the study give grounds for choosing the optimal field parameters.

  4. Effects of tallow, choice white grease, palm oil, corn oil, or soybean oil on apparent total tract digestibility of minerals in diets fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriman, L A; Walk, C L; Parsons, C M; Stein, H H

    2016-10-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of supplementing diets fed to growing pigs with fat sources differing in their composition of fatty acids on the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of minerals. A diet based on corn, potato protein isolate, and 7% sucrose was formulated. Five additional diets that were similar to the previous diet with the exception that sucrose was replaced by 7% tallow, choice white grease, palm oil, corn oil, or soybean oil were also formulated. Diets were formulated to contain 0.70% Ca and 0.33% standardized total tract digestible P. Growing barrows ( = 60; 15.99 ± 1.48 kg initial BW) were allotted to a randomized complete block design with 2 blocks of 30 pigs, 6 dietary treatments, and 10 replicate pigs per treatment. Experimental diets were provided for 12 d with the initial 5 d being the adaptation period. Total feces were collected for a 5-d collection period using the marker-to-marker approach, and the ATTD of minerals, ether extract, and acid hydrolyzed ether extract was calculated for all diets. Digestibility of DM was greater ( soybean oil compared with the diet containing choice white grease or the basal diet, with all other diets being intermediate. The ATTD of Ca, S, and P was greater ( soybean oil, corn oil, palm oil, or tallow than for pigs fed the basal diet or the diet containing choice white grease. The ATTD of Mg, Zn, Mn, Na, and K were not different among dietary treatments. The ATTD of ether extract was greater ( oil, corn oil, or soybean oil compared with the diet containing choice white grease, and the ATTD of acid hydrolyzed ether extract in the diet containing soybean oil was also greater ( oil, corn oil, or soybean oil may increase the ATTD of some macrominerals, but that appears not to be the case if choice white grease is used. There was no evidence of negative effects of the fat sources used in this experiment on the ATTD of any minerals.

  5. Application of thin-layer chromatography of fat and oil, fatty acid and mineral oil for science education. Yushi, shibosan, koyu no hakuso chromatography to sono kyozaiteki katsuyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawabuchi, K [Ehime Univ., Ehime (Japan); Takechi, Y; Morimoto, M [Ehime (Japan)

    1990-08-20

    In this article, with regard to application of thin-layer chromatography of fat and oil, fatty acid and mineral oil for science education, a study was made mainly on quality finding of n-hexane extracts provided in the law of prevention of water pollution, and separation of hydrolysis products of fat and oil. As a result, the existance of fat and oil, fatty acid and mineral oil in the enviromental water and the hydrolysis process of fat and oil could experimentally be confirmed. This is considered to be useful for studying teaching material on fat and oil. This report deals with the reagents and device, and specifies standard solution, thin-layer plate, spread solvent, spread tank and thermostat, and states, for its operation, the method using enzyme for hydrolysis of fat and oil and the method using potassium hydroxide. It also contemplates on R {sub f} values of fat and oil, fatty acid and mineral oil, etc., as well as spread of fat and oil, oils contained in n-hexane extracts and hydrolysis products of fat and oil. 6 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Iron utilization and liver mineral concentrations in rats fed safflower oil, flaxseed oil, olive oil, or beef tallow in combination with different concentrations of dietary iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shotton, Andrea D; Droke, Elizabeth A

    2004-03-01

    Diets with a higher proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (i.e., linoleic acid) have decreased iron absorption and utilization compared with diets containing a higher proportion of the saturated fatty acid stearic acid (e.g., beef tallow). However, less is known regarding the influence of other polyunsaturated or monounsaturated fatty acids, along with higher dietary iron, on iron absorption and utilization. The present study was conducted to compare the effects of dietary fat sources known to vary in (n-3), (n-6), and (n-9) fatty acids on iron utilization and liver mineral concentrations. Male weanling rats were fed a diet containing 10, 35, or 100 microg/g iron in combination with safflower oil, flaxseed oil, olive oil, or beef tallow for 8 wk. Indicators of iron status, iron utilization, and liver iron concentrations were unaffected by an interaction between the fat source and iron concentration. Plasma copper was the only variable affected by an interaction between the fat source and dietary iron. Findings of this study demonstrate that flaxseed oil and olive oil may alter tissue minerals and affect iron utilization. Further studies should be conducted to establish the effect of varying (n-3), (n-6), and (n-9) fatty acids on trace mineral status and iron utilization.

  7. Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minerals are important for your body to stay healthy. Your body uses minerals for many different jobs, including keeping your bones, muscles, heart, and brain working properly. Minerals are also important for making enzymes and hormones. ...

  8. The U.S. Minerals Management Service - oil spill response research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullin, J.V.

    1998-01-01

    The Minerals Management Service (MMS), is the principal U.S. Government agency funding offshore oil spill response research. The MMS, a bureau of the Department of the lnterior, maintains a comprehensive Oil Spill Response Research program in support of oil spill prevention and response. Through funding provided by MMS, scientists and engineers from the public and private sectors worldwide are working to address outstanding gaps in information and technology concerning the cleanup of oil spills. A large portion of the program is executed through cooperation with major research centers to leverage funds and maximize sharing of research results. This paper outlines the program, its goals, results from recently funded projects and future research directions. (author)

  9. Microbiological method for exploitation of oil deposits with a high mineralization of interstitial waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senyukov, V M; Yulbarisov, E M; Taldykina, N N; Shishenina, E P

    1970-07-01

    A literature review is made of microbiological processes suitable for secondary oil recovery. On the basis of literature data, basic experiments were conducted in the Arlansk field. This field has viscous oil, highly mineralized connate water (rho = 1.18) and permeability above 1,000 md. A mixture of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria with nutrient was injected through one well, then 650 cu m of fresh water was injected. Mineralogical and bacteriological analyses were made of produced fluids in nearby wells. Both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria were found in produced fluids, 600 m from the injection wells. On the basis of this result, it was concluded that microbiological processes can be used to increase secondary recovery of oil. However, no oil recovery data are presented. (10 refs.)

  10. Estrogenic Activity of Mineral Oil Aromatic Hydrocarbons Used in Printing Inks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Tarnow

    Full Text Available The majority of printing inks are based on mineral oils (MOs which contain complex mixtures of saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons. Consumer exposure to these oils occurs either through direct skin contacts or, more frequently, as a result of MO migration into the contents of food packaging that was made from recycled newspaper. Despite this ubiquitous and frequent exposure little is known about the potential toxicological effects, particularly with regard to the aromatic MO fractions. From a toxicological point of view the huge amount of alkylated and unsubstituted compounds therein is reason for concern as they can harbor genotoxicants as well as potential endocrine disruptors. The aim of this study was to assess both the genotoxic and estrogenic potential of MOs used in printing inks. Mineral oils with various aromatic hydrocarbon contents were tested using a battery of in vitro assays selected to address various endpoints such as estrogen-dependent cell proliferation, activation of estrogen receptor α or transcriptional induction of estrogenic target genes. In addition, the comet assay has been applied to test for genotoxicity. Out of 15 MOs tested, 10 were found to potentially act as xenoestrogens. For most of the oils the effects were clearly triggered by constituents of the aromatic hydrocarbon fraction. From 5 oils tested in the comet assay, 2 showed slight genotoxicity. Altogether it appears that MOs used in printing inks are potential endocrine disruptors and should thus be assessed carefully to what extent they might contribute to the total estrogenic burden in humans.

  11. Organic and mineral fertilization and chemical composition of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina B. Sodré

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Melissa officinalis L., Lamiaceae, is an herb with great growth prospects in the cosmetic industry due to its essential oil. In order to improve its production, it is necessary to study related agricultural practices. This study evaluated the effect of organic and mineral fertilization on the chemical composition of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L. essential oil. The assay was conducted at the "Fazenda Experimental do Glória" of the Federal University of Uberlândia, and essential oil extraction and GC/MS analyses were completed by the Centre for Research and Development on Plant Genetic Resources of the Campinas Agronomic Institute. The assay was conducted in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The tested treatments were six types of fertilization (0, 1, 2, 4, 8 kg.m-2 of cattle manure and mineral fertilizing with 60 g.m-2 of NPK 4-14-8 + 4 g.m-2 of boric acid with four replications. The essential oil was extracted by hydrodistillation in a modified Clevenger apparatus. The chemical composition was analyzed by GC/MS. The essential oil presented the same compounds for all treatments; however, the relative proportion of some chemical constituents was altered according to the treatment. Neral, geranial, and citronellal were the major constituents.

  12. Organic and mineral fertilization and chemical composition of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina B. Sodré

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Melissa officinalis L., Lamiaceae, is an herb with great growth prospects in the cosmetic industry due to its essential oil. In order to improve its production, it is necessary to study related agricultural practices. This study evaluated the effect of organic and mineral fertilization on the chemical composition of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L. essential oil. The assay was conducted at the "Fazenda Experimental do Glória" of the Federal University of Uberlândia, and essential oil extraction and GC/MS analyses were completed by the Centre for Research and Development on Plant Genetic Resources of the Campinas Agronomic Institute. The assay was conducted in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The tested treatments were six types of fertilization (0, 1, 2, 4, 8 kg.m-2 of cattle manure and mineral fertilizing with 60 g.m-2 of NPK 4-14-8 + 4 g.m-2 of boric acid with four replications. The essential oil was extracted by hydrodistillation in a modified Clevenger apparatus. The chemical composition was analyzed by GC/MS. The essential oil presented the same compounds for all treatments; however, the relative proportion of some chemical constituents was altered according to the treatment. Neral, geranial, and citronellal were the major constituents.

  13. Tribological Effects of Mineral-Oil Lubricant Contamination with Biofuels: A Pin-on-Disk Tribometry and Wear Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Shanta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of biodiesel produces engine oil dilution because of unburned biodiesel impinging on cold walls of the combustion chamber, being scrapped to the oil pan, and leading to changes of oil friction, wear and lubricity properties. In this paper, mixtures of SAE 15W-40 oil, which were contaminated by known percentages of the biodiesels from canola oil, peanut oil, soybean oil, and chicken fat, were tested in a pin-on-disk tribometer. A contact was employed of AISI 1018 steel disk and AISI 316 stainless-steel ball for pin material, and friction force and specific wear were measured. Wear on the disk surfaces showed that any degree of mineral-oil dilution by the tested biodiesels reduces the wear protection of engine oil even at small mixture percentages. However, these reductions were not substantially different than those observed for same percentages of dilution of mineral oil by fossil diesel. The tested mixture of oil contaminated with animal fat feedstock (e.g., chicken fat biodiesel showed the best wear behavior as compared to those for the other tested mixtures (of mineral oil with vegetable feedstock biodiesel dilutions. Obtained results are discussed as baseline for further studies in a renewable energy multidisciplinary approach on biofuels and biolubes.

  14. Method for the production of solid hydroxides contained in mineral oils, mineral oil-like materials or mineral oil-containing materials and uses of products thus obtained. Verfahren zur Herstellung von Mineraloele, mineraloelaehnliche Stoffe oder mineraloelhaltige Stoffe enthaltenden festen Hydroxiden sowie die Verwendung danach erhaltener Produkte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boelsing, F

    1975-07-29

    A method has been developed which permits mineral oils, mineral oil-like substances or mineral oil-containing substances (eg waste oil) to be separated in powder form, even when these substance are present in a continuous phase with water (for example, oil slurries). A compound (eg. line) which forms a hydroxide with water is added, the formed hydroxide then acts as carrier substance. Prerequisite for obtaining the end-product in powdered form is that the homogeneous mixing of the oil-containing substance and hydroxide-forming substance takes place at a faster rate than the necessary auxilliary reaction, namely hydroxide formation, and further that water in present in at least stoichiometric quantities. The powdered end-product finds numerous applications eg. road construction, soil conditioning and compacting, recultivation measures in cement manufacture, and others.

  15. High-sensitive portable ASE-2 X-ray analyzer of sulfur in mineral oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anchugov, I.S.; Goganov, A.D.; Plotnikov, R.I.

    2007-01-01

    The high-sensitivity ASE-2 analyzer of sulfur on the basis of existing ASE-I device is designed. ASE-2 analyzer realizes a standard method of energy dispersion X-ray fluorescent determinations of a sulfur mass fraction in mineral oil and allows to carry out the quantitative determination of sulfur in hydrocarbonic raw material and fuel in a 0.002-5 mass.% range [ru

  16. Problems of mineral tax computation in the oil and gas sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Н. Г. Привалов

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper demonstrates the role of mineral tax in the overall sum of tax revenues in the budget. Problems of tax computation and payment have been reviewed; taxpayers and taxation basis of the amount of extracted minerals have been clearly defined. Issues of rental content of natural resource taxes are reviewed, as well as problems of right definition of the rental component in the process of mineral tax calculation for liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons.One of important problems in mineral tax calculation is a conflict between two laws – the Subsoil Law and the Tax Code of Russian Federation (26th chapter. There is an ambiguity in the mechanism of calculating amounts of extracted mineral resources – from the positions of the Tax Code and the Subsoil Law. The second problem is in the necessity to amend the mineral tax for oil extraction the same way as it has been done for gas extraction, when characteristics of each field are taken into account.This will provide a basis for correct computation of the natural resource rent for liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons. The paper offers recommendations for Russian authorities on this issue.

  17. Influence of Water and Mineral Oil on the Leaks in Satellite Motor Commutation Unit Clearances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Śliwiński Paweł

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the flow rates of mineral oil and water flowing, as working media, through the commutation unit of a hydraulic satellite motor. It is demonstrated that geometrical dimensions of commutation unit clearances change as a function of the machine shaft rotation angle. Methods for measuring the rate of this flow and the pressure in the working chamber are presented. The results of pressure measurements in the working chamber during the transition from the filling cycle to the emptying cycle are included. The pressure in the motor’s working chamber changes linearly as a function of the shaft rotation angle, which has a significant effect on the leakage in the commutation unit clearances. The paper presents new mathematical formulas in the form: Q=f(Δpγ to calculate the flow rate of water and mineral oil in the commutation unit clearances. The γ factor is described as a function of fluid viscosity and clearance length (the motor shaft rotation angle. The coefficients used in these formulas were determined based on the results of laboratory tests of a motor supplied with water and mineral oil.

  18. Crude oil polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons removal via clay-microbe-oil interactions: Effect of acid activated clay minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugochukwu, Uzochukwu C; Fialips, Claire I

    2017-07-01

    Acid treatment of clay minerals is known to modify their properties such as increase their surface area and surface acidity, making them suitable as catalysts in many chemical processes. However, the role of these surface properties during biodegradation processes of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is only known for mild acid (0.5 M Hydrochloric acid) treated clays. Four different clay minerals were used for this study: a montmorillonite, a saponite, a palygorskite and a kaolinite. They were treated with 3 M hydrochloric acid to produce acid activated clay minerals. The role of the acid activated montmorillonite, saponite, palygorskite and kaolinite in comparison with the unmodified clay minerals in the removal of PAHs during biodegradation was investigated in microcosm experiments. The microcosm experiments contained micro-organisms, oil, and clays in aqueous medium with a hydrocarbon degrading microorganism community predominantly composed of Alcanivorax spp. Obtained results indicated that acid activated clays and unmodified kaolinite did not enhance the biodegradation of the PAHs whereas unmodified montmorillonite, palygorskite and saponite enhanced their biodegradation. In addition, unmodified palygorskite adsorbed the PAHs significantly due to its unique channel structure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. 30 CFR 90.203 - Certified person; maintenance and calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY HEALTH STANDARDS-COAL MINERS WHO HAVE EVIDENCE OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF PNEUMOCONIOSIS Sampling Procedures § 90.203 Certified person; maintenance and calibration. (a) Approved sampling devices shall be maintained and calibrated by a certified person. (b) To be certified, a...

  20. 30 CFR 71.202 - Certified person; sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certified person; sampling. 71.202 Section 71... Sampling Procedures § 71.202 Certified person; sampling. (a) The respirable dust sampling required by this... on sampling of respirable coal mine dust. (c) A person may be temporarily certified by MSHA to take...

  1. 30 CFR 70.202 - Certified person; sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certified person; sampling. 70.202 Section 70... HEALTH MANDATORY HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Sampling Procedures § 70.202 Certified person; sampling. (a) The respirable dust sampling required by this part shall be done by a certified person. (b...

  2. 75 FR 67996 - Environmental Documents Prepared for Proposed Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-04

    ... Environmental Documents Prepared for Proposed Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of Mexico Outer... regarding whether those effects have significant impacts. Environmental Assessments are used to evaluate.... ACTION: Notice of the Availability of Environmental Documents Prepared for OCS Mineral Proposals by the...

  3. 77 FR 34405 - Environmental Documents Prepared for Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of Mexico Outer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... Geophysical Survey, SEA M09- Planning Area of the 013. Gulf of Mexico. Energy Resource Technology GOM, South... Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Region AGENCY... documents prepared for OCS mineral proposals by the Gulf of Mexico OCS Region SUMMARY: BOEM, in accordance...

  4. Mineral-Surfactant Interactions for Minimum Reagents Precipitation and Adsorption for Improved Oil Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Somasundaran

    2008-09-20

    Chemical EOR can be an effective method for increasing oil recovery and reducing the amount of produced water; however, reservoir fluids are chemically complex and may react adversely to the polymers and surfactants injected into the reservoir. While a major goal is to alter rock wettability and interfacial tension between oil and water, rock-fluid and fluid-fluid interactions must be understood and controlled to minimize reagent loss, maximize recovery and mitigate costly failures. The overall objective of this project was to elucidate the mechanisms of interactions between polymers/surfactants and the mineral surfaces responsible for determining the chemical loss due to adsorption and precipitation in EOR processes. The role of dissolved inorganic species that are dependent on the mineralogy is investigated with respect to their effects on adsorption. Adsorption, wettability and interfacial tension are studied with the aim to control chemical losses, the ultimate goal being to devise schemes to develop guidelines for surfactant and polymer selection in EOR. The adsorption behavior of mixed polymer/surfactant and surfactant/surfactant systems on typical reservoir minerals (quartz, alumina, calcite, dolomite, kaolinite, gypsum, pyrite, etc.) was correlated to their molecular structures, intermolecular interactions and the solution conditions such as pH and/or salinity. Predictive models as well as general guidelines for the use of polymer/surfactant surfactant/surfactant system in EOR have been developed The following tasks have been completed under the scope of the project: (1) Mineral characterization, in terms of SEM, BET, size, surface charge, and point zero charge. (2) Study of the interactions among typical reservoir minerals (quartz, alumina, calcite, dolomite, kaolinite, gypsum, pyrite, etc.) and surfactants and/or polymers in terms of adsorption properties that include both macroscopic (adsorption density, wettability) and microscopic (orientation

  5. Gloves against mineral oils and mechanical hazards: composites of carboxylated acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber latex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzemińska, Sylwia; Rzymski, Władysław M; Malesa, Monika; Borkowska, Urszula; Oleksy, Mariusz

    2016-09-01

    Resistance to permeation of noxious chemical substances should be accompanied by resistance to mechanical factors because the glove material may be torn, cut or punctured in the workplace. This study reports on glove materials, protecting against mineral oils and mechanical hazards, made of carboxylated acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (XNBR) latex. The obtained materials were characterized by a very high resistance of the produced materials to oil permeation (breakthrough time > 480 min). The mechanical properties, and especially tear resistance, of the studied materials were improved after the addition of modified bentonite (nanofiller) to the XNBR latex mixture. The nanocomposite meets the requirements in terms of parameters characterizing tear, abrasion, cut and puncture resistance. Therefore, the developed material may be used for the production of multifunctional protective gloves.

  6. Gloves against mineral oils and mechanical hazards: composites of carboxylated acrylonitrile–butadiene rubber latex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzemińska, Sylwia; Rzymski, Władysław M.; Malesa, Monika; Borkowska, Urszula; Oleksy, Mariusz

    2016-01-01

    Resistance to permeation of noxious chemical substances should be accompanied by resistance to mechanical factors because the glove material may be torn, cut or punctured in the workplace. This study reports on glove materials, protecting against mineral oils and mechanical hazards, made of carboxylated acrylonitrile–butadiene rubber (XNBR) latex. The obtained materials were characterized by a very high resistance of the produced materials to oil permeation (breakthrough time > 480 min). The mechanical properties, and especially tear resistance, of the studied materials were improved after the addition of modified bentonite (nanofiller) to the XNBR latex mixture. The nanocomposite meets the requirements in terms of parameters characterizing tear, abrasion, cut and puncture resistance. Therefore, the developed material may be used for the production of multifunctional protective gloves. PMID:26757889

  7. On the recovery of oil-polluted soils with mineral zeolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasulova, Z.Q.; Huseynzade, G.A.; Hajiyeva, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    Full text : The purpose of this study - ecological analysis of soil invertebrates in the oil-polluted soils and testing adsorbent for purificatication of such soils. In the study cenoses of Absheron 48 species of soil invertebrates belonging to 5 families, 13 orders, 24 families were revealed. For these purposes the local mineral -zeolite was applied. The results of experiments showed that refinement with zeolite makes positive impact on development of fauna of soil invertebrates. The studies were conducted in 2011-2013 in locally contaminated areas of oilfields of Absheron Peninsula. Radiation background in the studied areas ranges from 50-600 mR/hr

  8. Synthetics, mineral oils, and bio-based lubricants chemistry and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Rudnick, Leslie R

    2005-01-01

    As the field of tribology has evolved, the lubrication industry is also progressing at an extraordinary rate. Updating the author's bestselling publication, Synthetic Lubricants and High-Performance Functional Fluids, this book features the contributions of over 60 specialists, ten new chapters, and a new title to reflect the evolving nature of the field: Synthetics, Mineral Oils, and Bio-Based Lubricants: Chemistry and Technology. The book contains chapters on all major lubricant fluids used in a wide range of applications. For each type of lubricant, the authors discuss the historical develo

  9. Process for the extraction of valuable products from coals, pitches, mineral oils, and the like

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1936-06-05

    A process is described for the treating of coke, lignite, peat, etc., and mineral oils with the help of hydrogen or other reducing gases and under pressure to recover valuable hydrocarbons, characterized by the carbonaceous substances and the reducing gas coming together already heated totally or in part at least from 350/sup 0/C to the temperature necessary for the reaction. The substances to be treated becoming extracted in the form of paste or liquid from the reaction chamber and then returned to it and being reacted outside the reaction zone in the presence of the reducing gases at the temperature necessary for the reaction.

  10. 30 CFR 90.202 - Certified person; sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certified person; sampling. 90.202 Section 90... HEALTH MANDATORY HEALTH STANDARDS-COAL MINERS WHO HAVE EVIDENCE OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF PNEUMOCONIOSIS Sampling Procedures § 90.202 Certified person; sampling. (a) The respirable dust sampling required by this...

  11. Improvement of mineral oil saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons determination in edible oil by liquid-liquid-gas chromatography with dual detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoccali, Mariosimone; Barp, Laura; Beccaria, Marco; Sciarrone, Danilo; Purcaro, Giorgia; Mondello, Luigi

    2016-02-01

    Mineral oils, which are mainly composed of saturated hydrocarbons and aromatic hydrocarbons, are widespread food contaminants. Liquid chromatography coupled to gas chromatography with flame ionization detection represents the method of choice to determine these two families. However, despite the high selectivity of this technique, the presence of olefins (particularly squalene and its isomers) in some samples as in olive oils, does not allow the correct quantification of the mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbons fraction, requiring additional off-line tools to eliminate them. In the present research, a novel on-line liquid chromatography coupled to gas chromatography method is described for the determination of hydrocarbon contamination in edible oils. Two different liquid chromatography columns, namely a silica one (to retain the bulk of the matrix) and a silver-ion one (which better retains the olefins), were coupled in series to obtain the mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbons hump free of interfering peaks. Furthermore, the use of a simultaneous dual detection, flame ionization detector and triple quadrupole mass spectrometer allowed us not only to quantify the mineral oil contamination, but also to evaluate the presence of specific markers (i.e. hopanes) to confirm the petrogenic origin of the contamination. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. The Influence of Water and Mineral Oil On Volumetric Losses in a Hydraulic Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Śliwiński Pawel

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper volumetric losses in hydraulic motor supplied with water and mineral oil (two liquids having significantly different viscosity and lubricating properties are described and compared. The experimental tests were conducted using an innovative hydraulic satellite motor, that is dedicated to work with different liquids, including water. The sources of leaks in this motor are also characterized and described. On this basis, a mathematical model of volumetric losses and model of effective rotational speed have been developed and presented. The results of calculation of volumetric losses according to the model are compared with the results of experiment. It was found that the difference is not more than 20%. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that this model well describes in both the volumetric losses in the motor supplied with water and oil. Experimental studies have shown that the volumetric losses in the motor supplied with water are even three times greater than the volumetric losses in the motor supplied with oil. It has been shown, that in a small constant stream of water the speed of the motor is reduced even by half in comparison of speed of motor supplied with the same stream of oil.

  13. Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Aren't minerals something you find in the earth, like iron and quartz? Well, yes, but small ... canned salmon and sardines with bones leafy green vegetables, such as broccoli calcium-fortified foods — from orange ...

  14. Treatment of Mineral Oil Refinery Wastewater in Microbial Fuel Cells Using Ionic Liquid Based Separators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasna Addi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Microbial fuel cells (MFCs are an environmentally friendly technology that can recover electricity directly from several wastes at ambient temperatures. This work explores the use of mineral oil refinery wastewater as feedstock in single-chamber air-cathode MFC devices. A polymer inclusion membrane based on the ionic liquid methyltrioctylammonium chloride, [MTOA+][Cl−], at a concentration of 70% w/w, was used as separator, showing a good efficiency in power production and chemical oxygen demand (COD removal. The power and the chemical oxygen demand removal reached values of 45 mW/m3 and over 80%, respectively. The evolution of other parameters of the wastewater including nitrites, phosphates and sulphates were also studied. Kjeldahl nitrogen and sulphates were significantly reduced during MFC operation. The results show that mineral oil refinery wastewater can be used as feedstock in air breathing cathode-microbial fuel cells based on polymer ionic liquid inclusion membranes. This configuration could represent a good alternative for wastewater depuration while producing energy during the process.

  15. Fruit quality in the peach and nectarine with application of hydrogenated cyanamide and mineral oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarita Leonel

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the quality of the fruit in peach and nectarine cultivars with and without the application of hydrogenated cyanamide and mineral oil, for two production cycles (2009 and 2010. The experiment was carried out at the School of Agricultural Science of the São Paulo State University (UNESP, at Botucatu in the Brazilian state of São Paulo, located at latitude 22º51'55" S and longitude 48º26'22" E, at an altitude of 810 m. The predominant climate type is warm temperate (mesothermal with rains in the summer and dry in the winter. The following were evaluated: soluble solids, titratable acidity, pH, ratio, firmness, vitamin C and pulp yield. The use of hydrogenated cyanamide and mineral oil had no effect on the quality attributes of the fruit, except for pH, where those fruits under application of the products showed higher values. The cultivars all had a pulp yield greater than 90%, with 'Tourmaline' showing the highest yield (96 %. The levels of vitamin C varied according to the cultivars, where 'Marli' (16.9 mg 100 g-1 and 'Dourado-2' (16.5 mg 100 g-1, stood out for having the highest levels.

  16. Matching Index-of-Refraction for 3D Printing Model Using Mixture of Herb Essential Oil and Light Mineral Oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Min Seop; Choi, Hae Yoon; Kim, Eung Soo

    2013-01-01

    This study has extensively investigated the emerging 3-D printing technologies for use of MIR-based flow field visualization methods such as PIV and LDV. As a result, mixture of Herb essential oil and light mineral oil has been evaluated to be great working fluid due to its adequate properties. Using this combination, the RIs between 1.45 and 1.55 can be accurately matched, and most of the transparent materials are found to be ranged in here. Conclusively, the proposed MIR method are expected to provide large flexibility of model materials and geometries for laser based optical measurements. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) are the two major optical technologies used for flow field visualization in the latest fundamental thermal-hydraulics researches. Those techniques seriously require minimizing optical distortions for enabling high quality data. Therefore, matching index of refraction (MIR) between model materials and working fluids are an essential part of minimizing measurement uncertainty. This paper proposes to use 3-D Printing technology for manufacturing models for the MIR-based optical measurements. Because of the large flexibility in geometries and materials of the 3-D Printing, its application is obviously expected to provide tremendous advantages over the traditional MIR-based optical measurements. This study focuses on the 3-D printing models and investigates their optical properties, transparent printing techniques, and index-matching fluids

  17. Matching Index-of-Refraction for 3D Printing Model Using Mixture of Herb Essential Oil and Light Mineral Oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Min Seop; Choi, Hae Yoon; Kim, Eung Soo [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    This study has extensively investigated the emerging 3-D printing technologies for use of MIR-based flow field visualization methods such as PIV and LDV. As a result, mixture of Herb essential oil and light mineral oil has been evaluated to be great working fluid due to its adequate properties. Using this combination, the RIs between 1.45 and 1.55 can be accurately matched, and most of the transparent materials are found to be ranged in here. Conclusively, the proposed MIR method are expected to provide large flexibility of model materials and geometries for laser based optical measurements. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) are the two major optical technologies used for flow field visualization in the latest fundamental thermal-hydraulics researches. Those techniques seriously require minimizing optical distortions for enabling high quality data. Therefore, matching index of refraction (MIR) between model materials and working fluids are an essential part of minimizing measurement uncertainty. This paper proposes to use 3-D Printing technology for manufacturing models for the MIR-based optical measurements. Because of the large flexibility in geometries and materials of the 3-D Printing, its application is obviously expected to provide tremendous advantages over the traditional MIR-based optical measurements. This study focuses on the 3-D printing models and investigates their optical properties, transparent printing techniques, and index-matching fluids.

  18. Control of coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae with botanical insecticides and mineral oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Neves Celestino

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate botanical oils, mineral oils and an insecticide that contained azadirachtin (ICA for the control of Hypothenemus hampei, in addition to the effects of residual castor oil. We evaluated the effectiveness of the vegetable oils of canola, sunflower, corn, soybean and castor, two mineral oils (assist® and naturol®, and the ICA for the control of H. hampei. The compounds were tested at a concentration of 3.0% (v v-1. The median lethal concentration (LC50 was estimated with Probit analysis. The oil of castor bean and extract of castor bean cake were also evaluated at concentrations of 3.0% (v v-1 and 3.0% (m v-1, respectively. The mortality rates for H. hampei caused by the ICA and the castor oil were 40.8 and 53.7%, with LC50 values of 6.71 and 3.49% (v v-1, respectively. In the castor oil, the methyl esters of the fatty acids were palmitic (1.10%, linoleic (4.50%, oleic (4.02%, stearic (0.50% and ricinoleic acids (88.04%. The extract of the castor bean cake was not toxic to H. hampei. The persistence of the castor oil in the environment was low, and the cause of mortality for H. hampei was most likely the blockage of the spiracles, which prevented the insects from breathing.

  19. Influence of the mineral composition of clay rocks on the stability of oil wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amorocho, P. R; Badillo, Juan

    2012-01-01

    In the oil companies, the operation of drilling well bore could be more expensive if the composition of the rocks is clay, the cost could increase between 10 and 15% from the starting budget. In order to decrease this problem, the oil industry has spent too much money for developing mechanisms that can provide better control and stability in clay formations during the drilling. The Society Petroleum Engineers (SPE) in some researches have published that the main chemical effects that are involved in the interaction of perforation fluids and the clay formation are: 1) chemical osmosis; and 2) hydration stresses, although, there are others like: Capillary effects, dehydration, differences in pressure and cationic exchange. These factors are not present generally in independent form. At Piedemonte Llanero the problem of the well bore stability represents a high spending of money for oil companies, caused in this region by chemical factors between fluid/rock and mechanical factors as resulted of the stresses in the area. Metil Blue Testing (MBT) and X-ray Diffraction (DR-X) were made in samples of clay; these were taken from cuts extracted of boreholes drilled in some places of the Colombian Llanos. It was found that these samples had a moderate content of reactive and low content of swell minerals.The samples main component was kaolinite, this mineral does not let the rock get swell, but it produces caving in the hole. However, it is necessary to do other tests to quantify the damages and evaluate the influence of there gime of the stress during the perforation of well bore.

  20. Increased mineral oil bioavailability in slurries by monovalent cation-induced dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonge, H. de; Verstraten, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    Bioavailability of apolar contaminants is an important limiting factor for microbial reclamation of polluted soils. This paper describes a laboratory study of the relation between microaggregate stability and bioavailability of mineral oil in soil-water slurries. The stability of microaggregates in slurries is regulated by the valence and surface affinity of the cations in the system, and by the complexing anion P 2 O 7 4- (metaphosphate). A silt loam, contaminated with a weathered gas oil, was collected from an oil refinery site. Degradation rates were monitored in small-scale incubations at solid:liquid ratios of 1:5 (w/w). The solution contained Ca, Na, or K as the dominant cation. The levels of nutrients and metaphosphate were varied. Biodegradation rates increased with the sequence Ca 2 treatment. Measurements of the particle size distribution the slurry showed that an increase in the finer fractions qualitatively correlated with enhanced biodegradation. This is a strong indication that dispersion of the microaggregates increased bioavailability of the contaminant

  1. Evaluation of efficacy of mineral oil, charcoal, and smectite in a rat model of equine cantharidin toxicosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qualls, H J; Holbrook, T C; Gilliam, L L; Njaa, B L; Panciera, R J; Pope, C N; Payton, M E

    2013-01-01

    The efficacy of orally administered therapeutics for the treatment of cantharidin intoxication has not been evaluated in controlled studies. To develop a model of acute cantharidin intoxication in laboratory rats and to evaluate in this model the relative efficacy of 3 gastrointestinal therapies used to treat equine cantharidin toxicosis. Sixty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats. A blinded, randomized, controlled study was performed on rats surgically implanted with telemetry transmitters for evaluating heart rate, locomotor activity, and body temperature. Orogastric administration of cantharidin was performed within 15 seconds before administration of mineral oil, activated charcoal, or smectite. Negative control groups received therapeutic agents alone. Urine was collected for cantharidin analysis. Rats were sacrificed 24 hours after intoxication, and tissues were collected for histopathologic evaluation. Data analysis included ANOVA procedures and contingency tables. Six of 8 cantharidin-intoxicated rats treated with mineral oil died; bradycardia and hypothermia developed in the animals of this group 0-8 hours after intoxication. Rats treated with mineral oil had higher urine cantharidin concentrations than rats receiving cantharidin alone or with smectite (P = .04). The most severe hypothermia (30.6°C ± 1.0) developed in rats administered mineral oil at 4-8 hours after intoxication, whereas those treated with charcoal (35.2°C ± 0.8) had mean body temperatures higher than all other treatment groups (P = .03). Survival times in the charcoal (P = .16) and smectite (P = .12) treatment groups were not statistically different from negative controls. Mineral oil is often used in the treatment of equine cantharidin toxicosis. Our findings suggest that mineral oil increases cantharidin absorption, worsening morbidity and fatality in rats. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  2. Review of Research Progress on the Electrical Properties and Modification of Mineral Insulating Oils Used in Power Transformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobo Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In November 2017, the first ±1100 kV high-voltage direct-current power transformer in the world, which was made by Siemens in Nurnberg, passed its type test. Meanwhile, in early 2017, a ±1000 kV ultra-high voltage (UHV substation was officially put into operation in Tianjin, China. These examples illustrate that the era of UHV power transmission is coming. With the rapid increase in power transmission voltage, the performance requirements for the insulation of power transformers are getting higher and higher. The traditional mineral oils used inside power transformers as insulating and cooling agents are thus facing a serious challenge to meet these requirements. In this review, the basic properties of traditional mineral insulating oil are first introduced. Then, the variation of electrical properties such as breakdown strength, permittivity, and conductivity during transformer operation and aging is summarized. Next, the modification of mineral insulating oil is investigated with a focus on the influence of nanoparticles on the electrical properties of nano-modified insulating oil. Recent studies on the performance of mineral oil at molecular and atomic levels by molecular dynamics simulations are then described. Finally, future research hotspots and notable research topics are discussed.

  3. A Comparative Experimental Analysis of Tribological Properties Between Commercial Mineral Oil and Neat Castor Oil using Taguchi Method in Boundary Lubrication Regime

    OpenAIRE

    S. Bhaumik; S.D Pathak

    2016-01-01

    The present work aims to carry out a comparative experimental analysis of tribological properties of 372cSt mineral oil and 229cSt castor oil. The antiwear and extreme pressure properties of both the oils have been analysed according to ASTM G 99 and ASTM D-2783 standards. The surfaces of the balls and pins after tribo tests have been analysed using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images. The present test results predict that the antiwear and extreme pressure properties in case of the sele...

  4. Stability evaluation and chemical characterization of different vegetable oils viewing the search for candidates for certified reference materials for bio diesel; Avaliacao da estabilidade e caracterizacao quimica de diferentes oleos vegetais visando a busca de candidatos a materiais de referencia certificado (MRC) para biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, Georgiana F. da; Fonseca, Mauricio G.; Goncalves, Lenise V.F.; Silva, Regina Celia F. da; Silva, Fernanda M.R. da; Rodrigues, Janaina M. [Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Normalizacao e Qualidade Industrial (LABOR/INMETRO), Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Analises Organicas; Leal, Rodrigo V.P. [Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Normalizacao e Qualidade Industrial (LAMBOC/INMETRO), Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Motores, Combustiveis e Lubrificantes], Email: rvleal@inmetro.gov.br; Cunha, Valnei S. [Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Normalizacao e Qualidade Industrial (DIMCI/INMETRO), Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil). Diretoria de Metrologia Cientifica e Industrial

    2009-07-01

    Viewing the characterization of the various vegetable oils aiming to obtain a data bank that allows the production of certified reference materials for bio diesel of different blends, a study of chemical-physical characterization of different oils and derivative of bio diesel.

  5. Theoretical investigation of isotope exchange reaction in tritium-contaminated mineral oil in vacuum pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Liang; Xie, Yun [Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Du, Liang [Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); School of Radiation Medicine and Protection (SRMP), School for Radiological and Interdisciplinary Sciences (RAD-X), Suzhou 215000 (China); Li, Weiyi [School of Physics and Chemistry, Xihua University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Tan, Zhaoyi, E-mail: zhyitan@126.com [Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China)

    2015-04-28

    Highlights: • This is the first theoretical investigation about T–H exchange in vacuum oil. • T–H isotope exchange is accomplished through two different change mechanisms. • Isotope exchange is selective, molecules with −OH and −COOH exchange more easily. • The methyl and methylene radicals in waste oil were observed by {sup 1}HNMR. - Abstract: The mechanism of the isotope exchange reaction between molecular tritium and several typical organic molecules in vacuum pump mineral oil has been investigated by density functional theory (DFT), and the reaction rates are determined by conventional transition state theory (TST). The tritium–hydrogen isotope exchange reaction can proceed with two different mechanisms, the direct T–H exchange mechanism and the hyrogenation–dehydrogenation exchange mechanism. In the direct exchange mechanism, the titrated product is obtained through one-step via a four-membered ring hydrogen migration transition state. In the hyrogenation–dehydrogenation exchange mechanism, the T–H exchange could be accomplished by the hydrogenation of the unsaturated bond with tritium followed by the dehydrogenation of HT. Isotope exchange between hydrogen and tritium is selective, and oil containing molecules with −OH and −COOH groups can more easily exchange hydrogen for tritium. For aldehydes and ketones, the ability of T–H isotope exchange can be determined by the hydrogenation of T{sub 2} or the dehydrogenation of HT. The molecules containing one type of hydrogen provide a single product, while the molecules containing different types of hydrogens provide competitive products. The rate constants are presented to quantitatively estimate the selectivity of the products.

  6. Porphyrin metabolism in lymphocytes of miners exposed to diesel exhaust at oil shale mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muzyka, V.; Bogovski, S.; Lang, I.; Schmidt, N.; Ryazanov, V.; Veidebaum, T. [Laboratory of Environmental Carcinogens, Institute of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, Hiiu 42, Tallinn 11619 (Estonia); Scheepers, P.T.J. [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University Medical Centre St Radboud, P.O. Box 9101, Nijmegen NL 6500 HB (Netherlands)

    2004-04-25

    The present study was carried out on the evaluation and application of new biomarkers for populations exposed to occupational diesel exhaust at oil shale mines. Since not only genotoxic effects may play an important role in the generation of tumors, the level of porphyrin metabolism was proposed as a biomarker of diesel exhaust exposure effects. The data on determination of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) synthesis and heme formation in lymphocytes from groups of 50 miners exposed to diesel exhaust and 50 unexposed surface workers of oil shale mine are presented. All workers were examined and interviewed using structured questionnaires. The levels of benzene, carbon monoxide and nitric oxides in air as well as concentrations of 1-nitropyrene and elemental carbon in particulate matter were used for evaluation of exposure to diesel exhaust in mine. The levels of ALA and protoporphyrin (PP), activities of ALA synthetase (ALA-S) and ferrochelatase (FC), as well as levels of PP associated with DNA (PP/DNA) were investigated in lymphocytes spectrophotometrically. Significant differences in activity of ALA synthesis and heme formation between exposed miners and surface workers were found (207{+-}23 vs. 166{+-}14 pmol/10{sup 6} lymp./30' for ALA-S and 46.1{+-}3.8 vs. 54.8{+-}4.1 pmol/10{sup 6} lymp./60' for FC activities, respectively, P<0.001). ALA-S activity was higher and ALA accumulated in lymphocytes of exposed miners. Inhibition of FC activity caused PP cellular accumulation and an increase in the PP/DNA level (P<0.05). Tobacco smoking led to the increase of ALA biosynthesis in lymphocytes of both surface and underground smokers. The comparison of data obtained for non-smokers and smokers of both groups of workers has shown a significant difference (P<0.05). The work duration of underground or surface workers did not significantly influence the investigated biochemical parameters. The determination of ALA synthesis in lymphocytes could be a useful biomonitoring

  7. Association between occupational exposure to mineral oil and rheumatoid arthritis: results from the Swedish EIRA case–control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sverdrup, Berit; Källberg, Henrik; Bengtsson, Camilla; Lundberg, Ingvar; Padyukov, Leonid; Alfredsson, Lars; Klareskog, Lars

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between exposure to mineral oil and the risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and in addition to perform a separate analysis on the major subphenotypes for the disease; namely, rheumatoid factor (RF)-positive RA, RF-negative RA, anticitrulline-positive RA and anticitrulline-negative RA, respectively. A population-based case–control study of incident cases of RA was performed among the population aged 18–70 years in a defined area of Sweden during May 1996–December 2003. A case was defined as an individual from the study base who for the first time received a diagnosis of RA according to the American College of Rheumatology criteria of 1987. Controls were randomly selected from the study base with consideration taken for age, gender and residential area. Cases (n = 1,419) and controls (n = 1,674) answered an extensive questionnaire regarding lifestyle factors and occupational exposures, including different types of mineral oils. Sera from cases and controls were investigated for RF and anticitrulline antibodies. Among men, exposure to any mineral oil was associated with a 30% increased relative risk of developing RA (relative risk = 1.3, 95% confidence interval = 1.0–1.7). When cases were subdivided into RF-positive RA and RF-negative RA, an increased risk was only observed for RF-positive RA (relative risk = 1.4, 95% confidence interval 1.0–2.0). When RA cases were subdivided according to the presence of anticitrulline antibodies, an increased risk associated with exposure to any mineral oil was observed only for anticitrulline-positive RA (relative risk = 1.6, 95% confidence interval = 1.1–2.2). Analysis of the interaction between oil exposure and the presence of HLA-DR shared epitope genes regarding the incidence of RA indicated that the increased risk associated with exposure to mineral oil was not related to the presence of shared epitope genotypes. In conclusion, our study

  8. Evaluation of replacement thread lubricants for red lead and graphite in mineral oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungling, T.L.; Rauth, D.R.; Goldberg, D.

    1998-04-30

    Eight commercially available thread lubricants were evaluated to determine the best replacement for Red Lead and Graphite in Mineral Oil (RLGMO). The evaluation included coefficient of friction testing, high temperature anti-seizing testing, room temperature anti-galling testing, chemical analysis for detrimental impurities, corrosion testing, off-gas testing, and a review of health and environmental factors. The coefficient of friction testing covered a wide variety of factors including stud, nut, and washer materials, sizes, manufacturing methods, surface coatings, surface finishes, applied loads, run-in cycles, and relubrication. Only one lubricant, Dow Corning Molykote P37, met all the criteria established for a replacement lubricant. It has a coefficient of friction range similar to RLGMO. Therefore, it can be substituted directly for RLGMO without changing the currently specified fastener torque values for the sizes, materials and conditions evaluated. Other lubricants did not perform as well as Molykote P37 in one or more test or evaluation categories.

  9. IARC 1987 re-evaluation of carcinogenicity of mineral oils and bitumens - CONCAWE comments and interpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-10-01

    Following the IARC response to CONCAWE comments on their 1987 re-evaluation of carcinogenicity of mineral oils and bitumens, CONCAWE decided that a revised version of Report No. 87/63 should be published in this report. The objective is to ensure that all who may be concerned with carcinogenicity classifications of these petroleum products, including national and international regulatory authorities, are aware of the reasons for the differences between the 1984 and 1987 IARC classifications and of CONCAWE's reservations concerning the revised classifications. This document reviews important differences between the new and previous evaluations, which are summarized in tabular form, and also indicates how the differences have occurred. In addition, it provides CONCAWE's interpretation of the available evidence, taking into account points discussed with IARC. 1 tab.

  10. The ecotoxicology of vegetable versus mineral based lubricating oils 3. Coral fertilization and adult corals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercurio, Philip; Negri, Andrew P.; Burns, Kathryn A.; Heyward, Andrew J.

    2004-01-01

    Biodegradable vegetable-derived lubricants (VDL) might be less toxic to marine organisms than mineral-derived oils (MDL) due to the absence of high molecular weight aromatics, but this remains largely untested. In this laboratory study, adult corals and coral gametes were exposed to various concentrations of a two-stroke VDL-1A and a corresponding MDL to determine which lubricant type was more toxic to each life stage. In the fertilization experiment, gametes from the scleractinian coral Acropora microphthalma were exposed to water-accommodated fractions (WAF) of VDL-1A and MDL for four hours. The MDL and VDL-1A WAFs inhibited normal fertilization of the corals at 200 μg l -1 total hydrocarbon content (THC) and 150 μg l -1 THC respectively. Disturbance of a stable coral-dinoflagellate symbiosis is regarded as a valid measure of sub-lethal stress in adult corals. The state of the symbiosis in branchlets of adult colonies of Acropora formosa was monitored using indicators such as dinoflagellate expulsion and dark-adapted photosystem II yields of dinoflagellate (using pulse amplitude modulation fluorescence). An effect on symbiosis was measurable following 48 h exposure to the lubricants at concentrations of 190 μg l -1 and 37 μg l -1 THC for the MDL and VDL-1A respectively. GC/MS revealed that the main constituent of the VDL-1A WAF was the compound coumarin, added by the manufacturer to improve odour. The fragrance containing coumarin was removed from the lubricant formulation and the toxicity towards adult corals re-examined. The coumarin-free VDL-2 exhibited significantly less toxicity towards the adult corals than all of the other oil types tested, with the only measurable effect being a slight but significant drop in photosynthetic efficiency at 280 μg l -1 . - Vegetable-derived lubricants were less toxic to adult corals than their mineral counterparts

  11. Evaluation of low toxicity mineral oil base drilling fluids; Avaliacao de fluidos de perfuracao a base de oleo mineral de baixa toxidez

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponte, Ielton Frederico da [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. Div. de Explotacao

    1989-12-31

    In order to introduce low toxicity mineral oil base drilling fluids in Brazil, we carried out a series with a low aromatic content basic oil for lubricants, produced by PETROBRAS: the Lubrax Industrial OB-9 (Lubind OB-9). This oil, as well as its mixture with aviation kerosene to reduce viscosity, was found adequate for use in drilling fluids together with other national products developed by companies that supply additives for drilling fluids in Brazil. We present the results of laboratory tests with systems of four different manufacturers, one of which was chosen for initial field tests. These tests, which were carried out at the Miranga and Bu River Fields, in the Drilling District of Bahia, produced satisfactory results. We anticipate the use of these fluids in other areas where the company operates. (author) 2 refs., 3 tabs.

  12. Evaluation of low toxicity mineral oil base drilling fluids; Avaliacao de fluidos de perfuracao a base de oleo mineral de baixa toxidez

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponte, Ielton Frederico da [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. Div. de Explotacao

    1990-12-31

    In order to introduce low toxicity mineral oil base drilling fluids in Brazil, we carried out a series with a low aromatic content basic oil for lubricants, produced by PETROBRAS: the Lubrax Industrial OB-9 (Lubind OB-9). This oil, as well as its mixture with aviation kerosene to reduce viscosity, was found adequate for use in drilling fluids together with other national products developed by companies that supply additives for drilling fluids in Brazil. We present the results of laboratory tests with systems of four different manufacturers, one of which was chosen for initial field tests. These tests, which were carried out at the Miranga and Bu River Fields, in the Drilling District of Bahia, produced satisfactory results. We anticipate the use of these fluids in other areas where the company operates. (author) 2 refs., 3 tabs.

  13. Process for treating the dialyzed spent liquor from sulphonic acid containing sulfur minerals or tar oils or ammonium salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wernicke, E A

    1936-08-09

    Process for working up the dialyzate from sulfonic acid, sulfur-containing mineral or tar oils, or their ammonium salts, characterized by the combination of known steps, in the dialyzate being reacted with alkaline-earth oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate, and the resulting slightly soluble sulfate being filtered off and evaporated if necessary.

  14. Theory and application of landfarming to remediate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and mineral oil-contaminated sediments: beneficial reuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, J.; Rulkens, W.H.; Sims, R.C.; Rijtema, P.E.; Zweers, A.J.

    2007-01-01

    When applying landfarming for the remediation of contaminated soil and sediment, a fraction of the soil-bound contaminant is rapidly degraded; however, a residual concentration may remain, which slowly degrades. Degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and mineral oil can be described

  15. Comparison of mineral oil and esters as cooling liquids in high voltage transformer in aspect of environment protection

    OpenAIRE

    Dombek Grzegorz; Goscinski Przemyslaw; Nadolny Zbigniew

    2017-01-01

    The article presents the results of computer simulation of temperature field of transformer filled with mineral oil and alternatives insulating liquids which include synthetic and natural esters. The analysis was based on the results of computer simulation of temperature field of 10 MVA distribution transformer, using the program COMSOL Multiphysics.

  16. Comparison of mineral oil and esters as cooling liquids in high voltage transformer in aspect of environment protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dombek Grzegorz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of computer simulation of temperature field of transformer filled with mineral oil and alternatives insulating liquids which include synthetic and natural esters. The analysis was based on the results of computer simulation of temperature field of 10 MVA distribution transformer, using the program COMSOL Multiphysics.

  17. Effect of seed treatments on the chemical composition of two amaranth species: oil, sugars, fibres, minerals and vitamins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gamel, T.H.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Mesallam, A.S.; Damir, A.A.; Shekib, L.A.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of seed treatments, including cooking, popping, germination and flour air classification on several components of Amaranthus caudatus and A. cruentus seeds, including oil, sugars, fibre, minerals and vitamins were studied. The lipid, crude and dietary fibre, ash, and sugar contents were

  18. 76 FR 38673 - Environmental Documents Prepared for Proposed Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ... the Survey, SEA M10-008. Gulf of Mexico. Coastal Technology Corporation, Located on the Atlantic 2/1.... Planning Areas of the Gulf of Mexico. Energy Resource Technology GOM, Matagorda Island, Block 2/3/2011 Inc... Environmental Documents Prepared for Proposed Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of Mexico Outer...

  19. Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabbri, S

    1909-11-29

    Mineral, shale, and like oils are treated successively with sulfuric acid, milk of lime, and a mixture of calcium oxide, sodium chloride, and water, and finally a solution of naphthalene in toluene is added. The product is suitable for lighting, and for use as a motor fuel; for the latter purpose, it is mixed with a light spirit.

  20. ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY, MINERAL CONTENT AND ESSENTIAL OIL COMPOSITION FROM SELECT ALGERIAN MEDICINAL PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadjira Guenane1

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to analyze the total antioxidant capacity, minerals contents of four plants (Juniperus oxycedrus, Thymus capitatus, Laurus nobilis and Eruca vesicaria and chemical composition of the essential oils of the aerial parts of T. capitatus. Their antioxidant activity was assessed by DPPH, ABTS and FRAPS assays. Total phenol and flavonoid contents of the extracts were also determined. The results showed that the L. nobilis extract had the highest total phenolic and flavonoids contents (19.11 ± 0.22 mg GAE•g-1 dw, 4.47 ± 0.12 mg QE•g-1 dw, respectively. The extract of E. vesicaria had the highest value of TEAC for scavenging DPPH, whereas L. nobilis extract was active for ABTS and FRAP. GC/MS analysis revealed that the essential oil from the aerial parts of T. capitatus contained thirty-seven compounds; thymol was the major constituent (82.79 %. Atomic absorption spectroscopy showed high levels of Ca, K, Mg and Fe, and trace amounts of Zn, Cu and Mn in all four extracts.

  1. Theoretical investigation of isotope exchange reaction in tritium-contaminated mineral oil in vacuum pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Liang; Xie, Yun; Du, Liang; Li, Weiyi; Tan, Zhaoyi

    2015-04-28

    The mechanism of the isotope exchange reaction between molecular tritium and several typical organic molecules in vacuum pump mineral oil has been investigated by density functional theory (DFT), and the reaction rates are determined by conventional transition state theory (TST). The tritium-hydrogen isotope exchange reaction can proceed with two different mechanisms, the direct T-H exchange mechanism and the hyrogenation-dehydrogenation exchange mechanism. In the direct exchange mechanism, the titrated product is obtained through one-step via a four-membered ring hydrogen migration transition state. In the hyrogenation-dehydrogenation exchange mechanism, the T-H exchange could be accomplished by the hydrogenation of the unsaturated bond with tritium followed by the dehydrogenation of HT. Isotope exchange between hydrogen and tritium is selective, and oil containing molecules with OH and COOH groups can more easily exchange hydrogen for tritium. For aldehydes and ketones, the ability of T-H isotope exchange can be determined by the hydrogenation of T2 or the dehydrogenation of HT. The molecules containing one type of hydrogen provide a single product, while the molecules containing different types of hydrogens provide competitive products. The rate constants are presented to quantitatively estimate the selectivity of the products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Peroxidized mineral oil increases the oxidant status of culture media and inhibits in vitro porcine embryo development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, C A; Nohalez, A; Ceron, J J; Rubio, C P; Roca, J; Cuello, C; Rodriguez-Martinez, H; Martinez, E A; Gil, M A

    2017-11-01

    The use of oils with undetected alterations is a long-recognized problem for in vitro embryo production systems. Since peroxides in oils have been associated with reduced embryo production outcomes, our goals were (1) to evaluate the effects of a batch of mineral oil (MO) that was suspected to be altered on the in vitro production of pig embryos and (2) to determine oil peroxide values throughout culture and the transfer of oxidant agents from oil to culture media. Sunflower oil, which has a completely different chemical composition than MO but a higher oxidative status, and unaltered MO were used as controls. Oocyte maturation, fertilization and embryo development were affected differently depending on the oil overlay used. While the suspected MO was not able to sustain in vitro maturation and fertilization, the oocytes incubated in the presence of sunflower oil were matured and fertilized similarly to those of the unaltered MO group. Moreover, the cleavage rate of presumed zygotes cultured under the suspected MO was severely reduced compared with those cultured under the other oils, and none of the cleaved embryos developed to the blastocyst stage. Although the cleavage rates in the sunflower oil and unaltered MO groups were similar, embryos cultured under sunflower oil also failed to develop to the blastocyst stage. Our results revealed that the suspected MO and sunflower oil had similar levels of peroxides and that these levels were much higher than those of the unaltered MO. The total oxidant status was higher in media incubated under peroxidized oils than in fresh media or media incubated without an oil overlay or under unaltered MO, indicating that oxidant agents were transferred to the incubation media. However, unlike the sunflower oil group, the culture media incubated under the suspected MO had high levels of total oxidant status and low levels of hydrogen peroxide and reactive oxygen species, suggesting the presence of other unknown oxidant agents in

  3. Comparative study of the chemical composition and mineral element content of Artocarpus heterophyllus and Treculia africana seeds and seed oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, Ibironke Adetolu

    2008-07-01

    A comparative study of Artocarpus heterophyllus and Treculia africana seeds, both of Moraceae family, was carried out to establish their chemical compositions and evaluate their mineral element content in order to investigate the possibility of using them for human and or animal consumption and also to examine if there is a relationship between the properties of these seeds. A. heterophyllus and T. africana are rich in protein; their protein contents are higher than those from high protein animal sources such as beef and marine fishes. Both seeds have high carbohydrate content and could act as source of energy for animals if included in their diets. The oil contents of the seeds are 11.39% and 18.54% for A. heterophyllus and T. africana, respectively. The oils are consistently liquid at room temperature. The results of the physicochemical properties of the two seeds are comparable to those of conventional oil seeds such as groundnut and palm kernel oils and could be useful for nutritional and industrial purposes. The seeds were found to be good sources of mineral elements. The result revealed potassium to be the prevalent mineral elements which are 2470.00 ppm and 1680.00 ppm for A. heterophyllus and T. africana, respectively followed by sodium, magnesium and then calcium. They also contain reasonable quantity of iron, in particular A. heterophyllus 148.50 ppm.

  4. Combination of complementary data mining methods for geographical characterization of extra virgin olive oils based on mineral composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayago, Ana; González-Domínguez, Raúl; Beltrán, Rafael; Fernández-Recamales, Ángeles

    2018-09-30

    This work explores the potential of multi-element fingerprinting in combination with advanced data mining strategies to assess the geographical origin of extra virgin olive oil samples. For this purpose, the concentrations of 55 elements were determined in 125 oil samples from multiple Spanish geographic areas. Several unsupervised and supervised multivariate statistical techniques were used to build classification models and investigate the relationship between mineral composition of olive oils and their provenance. Results showed that Spanish extra virgin olive oils exhibit characteristic element profiles, which can be differentiated on the basis of their origin in accordance with three geographical areas: Atlantic coast (Huelva province), Mediterranean coast and inland regions. Furthermore, statistical modelling yielded high sensitivity and specificity, principally when random forest and support vector machines were employed, thus demonstrating the utility of these techniques in food traceability and authenticity research. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Distribution of clay minerals in the process streams produced by the extraction of bitumen from Athabasca oil sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminsky, H.A.W.; Etsell, T.H.; Ivey, D.G. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Materials Engineering; Omotoso, O. [Natural Resources Canada, Devon, AB (Canada). CETC

    2009-02-15

    The clay minerals present in the oil sands were studied with particular reference to how they are partitioned in bitumen ore during the extraction process. Bitumen production from surface-mined oil sands accounts for nearly two-thirds of the total bitumen production in Alberta. Every cubic meter of mined ore results in 1.3 cubic meters of mature fine tailings (MFT). The characteristic differences between the clay minerals that report to the froth versus the tailings streams were also examined to determine which minerals could impact different unit operations in the bitumen extraction process. X-ray diffraction and random powder samples were used to quantify the clay minerals. Particle size distribution and clay activity balances were also conducted. The degree of partitioning during the conditioning and flotation stages in a batch extractor was determined by the surface properties of the clay minerals. The water-continuous tailings stream was separated into fine and coarse tailings fractions through sedimentation. The study showed that bitumen-clay interactions may be dominated by kaolinite or iron oxides. Clays are responsible for the poor settling behaviour of MFTs. The clay minerals present in the oil sands include illite, illite-smectite, kaolinite, kaolinite-smectite, and chlorite. The close proximity of the tailings ponds to the Athabasca River and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emission require that the ponds be reclaimed to a natural landscape before mine closure. In addition to its impact on fine tailings reclamation, clay mineralogy plays a role in extraction froth flotation and emulsion stability during froth treatment. The mineralogy of the froth solids was found to be different from the mineralogy of the middlings and tailings solids. 39 refs., 6 tabs., 6 figs.

  6. Evaluation of kraft paper chemical byproducts in insulating mineral oil of energized transformers; Avaliacao de subprodutos quimicos de papel tipo kraft em oleo mineral isolante de transformadores energizados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Portella, Mariana d' Orey Gaivao; Portella, Kleber Franke; Swinka Filho, Vitoldo; Silva, Guilherme Cunha da; Stocco, Guilherme Barrachina; Batista, Douglas Antonio; Sabec, Daiane Cristina; Deger, Claudio Adriano [Instituto de Tecnologia para o Desenvolvimento (LATEC), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)], E-mails: mariana.portella@lactec.org.br, portella@laclec.org.br; Andreoli, Mario Carlos [Centro de Transmissao de Energia Eletrica Paulista (CTEEP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: mandreoli@cteep.com.br

    2011-10-15

    The insulating paper is a major determinant of the remaining lifetime of an electrical transformer, since it is not possible to analyse or replace this equipment during operation. However, using the quantification of the furanic compounds concentration formed in mineral oil, it is possible to infer about the quality of the material, confirming the presence of degradation. Given the existence of new kinds of solid insulation, this research aimed at studying a new analytical methodology, using the techniques of liquid chromatography with mass detection of these substances in order to increase the reliability of the results, assisting the preventive maintenance. (author)

  7. Tribological study of a highly hydrolytically stable phenylboronic acid ester containing benzothiazolyl in mineral oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zhipeng; Li, Xiufeng; Zhang, Yawen; Ren, Tianhui; Zhao, Yidong; Zeng, Xiangqiong; Heide, E. van der

    2014-01-01

    A novel long chain alkyl phenylboronic acid ester containing heterocyclic compound, bis (1-(benzothiazol-2-ylthio) propan-2-yl)-4-dodecylphenylboronic acid ester (DBBMT), was synthesized and characterized. The hydrolytic stability of the DBBMT was evaluated and the results show that DBBMT is of outstanding hydrolytic stability compared with normal borate esters, which indicates that the designed molecular structure, by introducing benzene ring to conjugate with the electron-deficient boron and the benzothiazole as a hinder group, is effective on obtaining a hydrolytically stable long chain alkyl phenylboronic acid ester. The tribological properties of DBBMT and ZDDP in mineral base oil were evaluated using a four-ball tribometer, which suggests that the DBBMT possesses comprehensive tribological properties and could be a potential candidate for the replacement of ZDDP. Furthermore, in order to understand the tribological behaviors, the worn surface was analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. The results indicate that the elements S, B, O and Fe perform complicated tribochemical reactions to form the compact tribological film composed of B 2 O 3 , FeS, Fe 3 O 4 and FeSO 4 .

  8. Pathogenic characteristics of yeasts isolated from vaginal secretion preserved under mineral oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Severo Gomes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the pathogenicity of yeasts isolated from vaginal secretion of pregnant and non-pregnant women - stored in mineral oil at the URM Mycology Collection, Department of Mycology, Federal University of Pernambuco - 30 samples belonging to the genera Candida, Rhodotorula, Trichosporon, and Kloeckera, were studied regarding their pathogenic characteristics, ability to grow at room temperature (28°C ± 1°C, 37°C, and 42°C for 72 hours, and production of both phospholipase and proteinase. Results showed that all 30 isolates (100% were able to grow at room temperature and 37°C, and that 17 samples (57% were able to grow at 42°C. Evaluation of enzymatic activity showed protease activity in only two isolates (7%, namely C. maritima and C. obtusa. Phospholipase activity was detected in 20 isolates (67% using soy lecithin as substrate at different temperatures. The characterization of yeasts isolated from vaginal secretion and determination of their enzymatic activity may contribute to understanding the epidemiology of vulvovaginitis and assist in the treatment of patients.

  9. Fumed and Precipitated Hydrophilic Silica Suspension Gels in Mineral Oil: Stability and Rheological Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiki Sugino

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Hydrophilic fumed silica (FS and precipitated silica (PS powders were suspended in mineral oil; increasing the silica volume fraction (φ in the suspension led to the formation of sol, pre-gel, and gel states. Gelation took place at lower φ values in the FS than the PS suspension because of the lower silanol density on the FS surface. The shear stresses and dynamic moduli of the FS and PS suspensions were measured as a function of φ. Plots of the apparent shear viscosity against shear rate depended on φ and the silica powder. The FS suspensions in the gel state exhibited shear thinning, followed by a weak shear thickening or by constant viscosity with an increasing shear rate. In contrast, the PS suspensions in the gel state showed shear thinning, irrespective of φ. The dynamic moduli of the pre-gel and gel states were dependent on the surface silanol density: at a fixed φ, the storage modulus G′ in the linear viscoelasticity region was larger for the FS than for the PS suspension. Beyond the linear region, the G′ of the PS suspensions showed strain hardening and the loss modulus G″ of the FS and PS suspensions exhibited weak strain overshoot.

  10. Mechanisms of mineral scaling in oil and geothermal wells studied in laboratory experiments by nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoernstad, T.; Stamatakis, E.

    2006-01-01

    Two independent nuclear methods have been developed and tested for studies of mineral scaling mechanisms and kinetics related to the oil and geothermal industry. The first is a gamma transmission method to measure mass increase with a 30 MBq source of 133 Ba. The other method applies radioactive tracers of one or more of the scaling components. CaCO 3 -precipitation has been used as an example here where the main tracer has been 47 Ca 2+ . While the transmission method is an indirect method, the latter is a direct method where the reactions of specific components may be studied. Both methods are on-line, continuous and non-destructive, and capable to study scaling of liquids with saturation ratios approaching the solubility product. A lower limit for detection of CaCO 3 with the transmission method in sand-packed columns with otherwise reasonable experimental parameters is estimated to be < 1 mg in a 1 cm section of the tube packed with silica sand while the lower limit of detection for the tracer method with reasonable experimental parameters is estimated to < 1 μg in the same tube section. (author)

  11. The forming of coke by catalytic cracking of black mineral oil by catalysts on the base of activated aluminium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirzaeva, L.M.; Akhverdiev, R.B.; Aliev, Eh.T.; Gusejnova, A.D.; Gadzhi-Kasumov, V.S.; Akerson, V.I.; Sarmurzina, R.G.

    1995-01-01

    The paper deals with an investigation in coke formation under black mineral oil reactions on oxide catalysts which care based on activated aluminium alloys containing 2-20% of active components of In and Ga. The coke yield is of extreme nature and depends on the content of active components in the catalyst composition. The application of thermogravimetric method shows that the oxidation of coke depositions after black mineral oil cracking proceeds in the same temperature range while after the steam-water treatment of coked catalysts the oxidation of coke deposition proceeds at higher temperatures with different temperature maximums which points to the inhomogeneity of coke depositions. It is shown that the catalyst phase composition changes significantly during the reaction under the effect of reaction mixture. 4 refs., 3 figs

  12. Ferrofluid synthesis using oleic acid coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles dispersed in mineral oil for heat transfer applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran, Mohd; Rahman Ansari, Akhalakur; Hussain Shaik, Aabid; Abdulaziz; Hussain, Shahir; Khan, Afzal; Rehaan Chandan, Mohammed

    2018-03-01

    Ferrofluids are stable dispersion of iron oxide nanoparticles in a carrier fluid which find potential applications in heat transfer. Fe3O4 nanoparticles of mean size in the range of 5–10 nm were synthesized using conventional co-precipitation method. This work deals with the synthesis of ferrofluids using mineral oil as a carrier fluid and oleic acid coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles as dispersed phase. Morphology (shape and size) and crystallinity of the synthesized nanoparticle is captured using TEM and XRD. Oleic acid coating on nanoparticle is probed using FTIR for confirming the stability of ferrofluid. Thermal properties of mineral oil based ferrofluid with varying concentration of nanoparticles are evaluated in terms of thermal conductivity. It was found that the thermal conductivity of ferrofluid increases upto 2.5% (w/v) nanoparticle loading, where a maximum enhancement of ∼51% in thermal conductivity was recorded as compared to the base fluid.

  13. ENERGY STAR Certified Displays

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 7.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Displays that are effective as of July 1, 2016....

  14. ENERGY STAR Certified Boilers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Boilers that are effective as of October 1,...

  15. ENERGY STAR Certified Televisions

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 7.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Televisions that are effective as of October 30,...

  16. ENERGY STAR Certified Dehumidifiers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 4.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Dehumidifiers that are effective as of October...

  17. ENERGY STAR Certified Telephones

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Telephony (cordless telephones and VoIP...

  18. Certified Electronics Recyclers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn how EPA encourages all electronics recyclers become certified by demonstrating to an accredited, independent third-party auditor and that they meet specific standards to safely recycle and manage electronics.

  19. Understanding the contamination of food with mineral oil: the need for a confirmatory analytical and procedural approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spack, Lionel W; Leszczyk, Gabriela; Varela, Jesus; Simian, Hervé; Gude, Thomas; Stadler, Richard H

    2017-06-01

    The contamination of food by mineral oil hydrocarbons (MOHs) found in packaging is a long-running concern. A main source of MOHs in foods is the migration of mineral oil from recycled board into the packed food products. Consequently, the majority of food manufacturers have taken protective measures, e.g., by using virgin board instead of recycled fibres and, where feasible, introducing functional barriers to mitigate migration. Despite these protective measures, MOHs may still be observed in low amounts in certain food products, albeit due to different entry points across the food supply chain. In this study, we successfully apply gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to demonstrate, through marker compounds and the profile of the hydrocarbon response, the possible source of contamination using mainly chocolate and cereals as food matrices. The conventional liquid chromatography-one-dimensional GC coupled to a flame ionisation detector (LC-GC-FID) is a useful screening method, but in cases of positive samples it must be complemented by a confirmatory method such as, for example, GC-MS, allowing a verification of mineral oil contamination. The procedural approach proposed in this study entails profile analysis, marker identification, and interpretation and final quantification.

  20. Bacterial diversity in the active stage of a bioremediation system for mineral oil hydrocarbon-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Nicole; Schlömann, Michael; Mau, Margit

    2006-11-01

    Soils contaminated with mineral oil hydrocarbons are often cleaned in off-site bioremediation systems. In order to find out which bacteria are active during the degradation phase in such systems, the diversity of the active microflora in a degrading soil remediation system was investigated by small-subunit (SSU) rRNA analysis. Two sequential RNA extracts from one soil sample were generated by a procedure incorporating bead beating. Both extracts were analysed separately by generating individual SSU rDNA clone libraries from cDNA of the two extracts. The sequencing results showed moderate diversity. The two clone libraries were dominated by Gammaproteobacteria, especially Pseudomonas spp. Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria were two other large groups in the clone libraries. Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Epsilonproteobacteria were detected in lower numbers. The obtained sequences were predominantly related to genera for which cultivated representatives have been described, but were often clustered together in the phylogenetic tree, and the sequences that were most similar were originally obtained from soils and not from pure cultures. Most of the dominant genera in the clone libraries, e.g. Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Sphingomonas, Acidovorax and Thiobacillus, had already been detected in (mineral oil hydrocarbon) contaminated environmental samples. The occurrence of the genera Zymomonas and Rhodoferax was novel in mineral oil hydrocarbon-contaminated soil.

  1. Effects of packaging, mineral oil coating, and storage time on biogenic amine levels and internal quality of eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, T C; Assis, D C S; Menezes, L D M; Oliveira, D D; Lima, A L; Souza, M R; Heneine, L G D; Cançado, S V

    2014-12-01

    This study was carried out with the aim of evaluating the effects of mineral oil application on eggshells and the use of plastic packages with lids on the physical-chemical and microbiological quality and biogenic amine contents of eggs stored under refrigeration for up to 125 d. A total of 1,920 eggs from 46-wk-old Hyline W36 laying hens were randomly distributed into 4 groups soon after classification: (i) 480 eggs were stored in pulp carton tray packages; (ii) 480 eggs were stored in plastic packages with lids; (iii) 480 eggs were stored in carton packages after the application of mineral oil; and (iv) 480 eggs were stored in plastic packages with lids after the application of mineral oil. The internal quality was measured by Haugh units, by the counts of mesophilic and psychrotrophic microorganisms, by the most probable number of total and thermal-tolerant coliforms, by the counts of molds and yeasts, by the analysis of Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus spp., and by the levels of biogenic amines in the egg yolk and albumen. The application of mineral oil to the eggshell resulted in higher Haugh unit values throughout storage, and the use of plastic packages altered the internal quality. The application of mineral oil and the use of packaging had no effects on the microbiological and biogenic amine results. Microbiological analyses showed the absence of Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, thermal-tolerant coliforms, and fungi. However, the highest counts of mesophilic (1.1 × 10(7) cfu/g) and psychrotrophic (6.7 × 10(7) cfu/g) microorganisms were recorded. The highest values of biogenic amines detected and quantified were putrescine (2.38 mg/kg) and cadaverine (7.27 mg/kg) in the egg yolk and putrescine (1.95 mg/kg), cadaverine (2.83 mg/kg), and phenylethylamine (2.57 mg/kg) in the albumen. Despite these results, the biogenic amine levels recorded were considered low and would not be harmful to consumer health. ©2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  2. Possibilities of substituting mineral oil products in the Land Baden-Wuerttemberg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolinski, U.; Labahn, K.D.

    1979-10-01

    The target given in the energy programme of Baden-Wuerttemberg in the year 1975, to lower the share of mineral oil products in this Federal State to less than 50%, can be realized. As a consequence of the structure of heating plants in industry as well as in households and, for other consumers and power plants, 5.7 million t coal equivalents of petroleum are to be substituted within one year. Thus the share of petroleum - compared to the values estimated in the status-quo prognosis - would be lowered to even less than 45%. The energy sources required for substitution are mainly available in the form of the energy sources natural gas and pit-coal, and, in the long term, in the form of 'new energy sources'. But since the prices of energy sources finally decide whether the consumers are prepared for substituting their petroleum or not in a competitive economic system, and the price relations among the energy sources are not likely to change - even if there are further price increases - the realization of the objective can hardly be expected without supporting measures from energy policy. The investigation showed that the most efficient measures would be also the most dirigistic ones, however, they cannot be recommended from the point of view of a policy of order. At last there are - apart from the enlightenment - the monetary measures which are able to change the corner data of the competitive situation among the energy sources with the desired substitution effect, but which do not affect the individual freedom of decision. (orig./UA) [de

  3. Determination of optimum harvesting time for vitamin C, oil and mineral elements in berries sea buckthorn (hippophae rhamnoides)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arif, S.; Ahmed, S.D.; Shah, A.H.; Hassan, L.; Awan, S.I.; Hamid, A.; Batool, F.

    2010-01-01

    Sea buck thorn a magic plant from Northern areas of Pakistan has multiple uses against various ailments, soil enrichment and environmental purposes. The fruit berries are rich in vitamin C, vitamin A, vitamin E, essential oil, Phytosterol and minerals (Fe, Ca, P, Mn and K). The micro nutrient like vitamin C, oil, phosphorus, magnesium and calcium contents in fruit berries of cultivated sea buck thorn (Hippophae rhamnoides. L. spp. sinensis) harvested at three ripening times were determined using biochemical analysis techniques. Harvesting at different stages of fruit ripening was the primary factor determining maximum expression of these biochemical constituents. Biochemical contents were determined at three fruit developmental stages i.e., unripened stage, medium stage and at full-ripened stage. During this study a decline in vitamin C contents was observed along with the fruit ripening. The oil contents in both seed and pulp increased with fruit ripening. Similarly, the mineral contents like magnesium, calcium and phosphorus contents increases with the fruit ripening in sea buck thorn. The main idea was to identify the maximum expression of biochemical at different stages of fruit maturity. It is concluded that it is better to harvest fruit berries at medium stage of fruit ripening when maximum vitamin C is present. For maximum oil and mineral contents fruit must be harvested at ripening stage. The fruit mesocarp is the area where all genes related with micro nutrients are active at one time i.e., when fruit is maturing, hence the characterization of gene expression activities at this stage may help in the isolation of these genes for future commercial use. (author)

  4. Tensão superficial estática de soluções aquosas com óleos minerais e vegetais utilizados na agricultura Surface tension of mineral oils and vegetable oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina G. de Mendonça

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a tensão superficial estática de soluções aquosas com formulações de óleos minerais e vegetais emulsionáveis utilizados como adjuvantes na agricultura. Os óleos minerais e vegetais, quando adicionados aos produtos fitossanitários, podem imprimir características desejáveis à calda de pulverização, como reduzir a tensão superficial em soluções aquosas, possibilitar maior contato da calda com a superfície vegetal ou reduzir o potencial de deriva durante as pulverizações. Foram testados os seguintes produtos comerciais: óleos minerais (Assist, Attach, Dytrol, Iharol, Mineral Oil, Spinner, Sunspray-E e Triona e óleos vegetais (Agrex'oil Vegetal, Crop Oil, Natur'l Óleo, Óleo Vegetal Nortox e Veget Oil, todos com registro de uso na agricultura. A tensão superficial das soluções aquosas foi avaliada em 11 concentrações para cada produto (0,025; 0,05; 0,1; 0,25; 0,5; 0,75; 1,0; 1,5; 2,0; 2,5 e 3,0% v/v. Essa propriedade dos óleos minerais e dos óleos vegetais foi estimada medindo-se a massa das gotas formadas na extremidade de uma bureta. Ao conjunto de dados obtidos para cada produto, na avaliação da tensão superficial, foram determinadas as análises de variância e de regressão, ajustando-se os dados ao Modelo de Mitscherlich. Entre os óleos minerais, destacaram-se os produtos: Assist, Dytrol, Iharol e Mineral Oil por apresentarem as menores tensões superficiais mínimas estimadas pelo Modelo, respectivamente, 29,255; 28,442; 26,097 e 28,584 mN m-1. Os óleos vegetais que apresentaram os menores valores de tensão superficial mínima estimados pelo Modelo, foram: Agrex' oil Vegetal (27,716 mN m-1, Natur'l óleo (28,216 mN m-1, Veget Oil (27,308 mN m-1 e Crop Oil (29,964 mN m-1.The aim of this work was to evaluate the surface tension of water emulsion with mineral oils and vegetable oils used as adjuvant. The mineral and vegetable oils when added to the agrochemicals can

  5. Testing the ecotoxicology of vegetable versus mineral based lubricating oils: 1. Degradation rates using tropical marine microbes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercurio, Philip; Burns, Kathryn A.; Negri, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    Vegetable-derived lubricants (VDL) might be more biodegradable than mineral-derived lubricants (MDL) due to the absence of high molecular weight aromatics, but this remains largely untested in tropical conditions. In this laboratory study, the degradation rates of 2-stroke, 4-stroke and hydraulic VDLs were compared with their MDL counterparts in the presence of mangrove and coral reef microbial communities. While MDLs were comprised largely of unresolved saturated and some aromatic hydrocarbons, their VDL counterparts contained, potentially more degradable, fatty acid methyl esters. Degradation of some VDL was observed by day 7, with the 2-stroke VDL markedly consumed by mangrove microorganisms and the hydraulic VDL degraded by both microorganism communities after this short period. All of the VDL groups were significantly more degraded than the comparable MDLs mineral oil lubricants over 14 days in the presence of either mangrove or coral reef microbial communities. In general the mangrove-sourced microorganisms more efficiently degraded the lubricants than reef-sourced microorganisms. - Vegetable-derived lubricants were more degradable than mineral oil lubricants

  6. Testing the ecotoxicology of vegetable versus mineral based lubricating oils: 1. Degradation rates using tropical marine microbes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercurio, Philip; Burns, Kathryn A.; Negri, Andrew

    2004-05-01

    Vegetable-derived lubricants (VDL) might be more biodegradable than mineral-derived lubricants (MDL) due to the absence of high molecular weight aromatics, but this remains largely untested in tropical conditions. In this laboratory study, the degradation rates of 2-stroke, 4-stroke and hydraulic VDLs were compared with their MDL counterparts in the presence of mangrove and coral reef microbial communities. While MDLs were comprised largely of unresolved saturated and some aromatic hydrocarbons, their VDL counterparts contained, potentially more degradable, fatty acid methyl esters. Degradation of some VDL was observed by day 7, with the 2-stroke VDL markedly consumed by mangrove microorganisms and the hydraulic VDL degraded by both microorganism communities after this short period. All of the VDL groups were significantly more degraded than the comparable MDLs mineral oil lubricants over 14 days in the presence of either mangrove or coral reef microbial communities. In general the mangrove-sourced microorganisms more efficiently degraded the lubricants than reef-sourced microorganisms. - Vegetable-derived lubricants were more degradable than mineral oil lubricants.

  7. Pre-treatment of Used-Cooking Oil as Feed Stocks of Biodiesel Production by Using Activated Carbon and Clay Minerals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudy Syah Putra

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Many low-cost feedstock i.e. used-cooking oil (UCO for the production of biodiesel fuel (BDF has contained a large amount of water and high proportion of free fatty acids (FFAs. Therefore, a pre-treatment process to reduce the water content (<0.1 wt.% and FFAs (<2.0 wt.% were necessary in order to avoid an undesirable side reactions, such as saponification, which could lead to serious problem of product separation and low fatty acid methyl ester (FAME yield. . In this study, a pre-treatment process of used cooking oil as a feedstock for the production of BDF by using various adsorbents such as Activated Carbon (AC and various clay minerals, for example Smectite (S, Bentonite (B, Kaolinite (K, and Powdered Earthenware (PE were evaluated. The oil obtained from pre-treatment was compared with oil without pre-treatment process. In this study, we reported a basic difference in material ability to the oil, depending on the adsorption condition with respect to the physico-chemical parameters, e.g. refractive index (R, density (ρ, FFAs, and water content (W. The results showed that the water content and FFAs in the oil has decreased when using AC as an adsorbent compared with clay minerals. However, the refractive index of oil has similar with the oil without pre-treatment process as well; meanwhile, the density of oil has increased after the pre-treatment process by using clay minerals.

  8. FAME in mineral oil products, especially HEL; FAME in Mineraloelprodukten insbesondere HEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmiedel, H.P.

    2001-03-01

    Politicians want to support the use of renewable raw materials for heating of buildings as a means to improve the environment, assist farmers and to secure jobs. Because of their similarity with mineral oil products preference is given to the use of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). The European Commission has mandated the European Commission for Standardization CEN to define a specification for FAME as a heating fuel. If a standard is to be developed, test methods and critical values have to be determined, that allow a good prediction of the field performance of the products under consideration. For this a determination of the relationship between field performance and laboratory test results is required. So far only a limited amount of data for the use of FAME as a heating fuel is available, because in the past fatty acid methyl esters have mostly been marketed as diesel fuel. As some requirements for heating fuels are similar to those of diesel fuel, the experiences obtained with this are useful. This literature survey summarizes the currently available results. It can be seen that so far especially for oxidative and thermal stability no satisfactory test methods exist. FAME preferably should be stored in the dark excluding air. Presence of water can result in hydrolysis and microbes could cause problems. Manufacturers of heating equipment have found malfunction by corrosion. (orig.) [German] Aus umwelt-, landwirtschafts- und arbeitsmarktpolitischen Gruenden soll der Einsatz nachwachsender Rohstoffe zur Gebaeudebeheizung gefoerdert werden. Bevorzugt ist dabei wegen ihrer Aehnlichkeit mit Mineraloelprodukten an den Einsatz von Fettsaeuremethylestern (FAME) gedacht. Die Europaeische Kommission hat das europaeische Komitee fuer Normung CEN beauftragt, eine Norm fuer den Einsatz von FAME als Heizoel zu entwickeln. Fuer die Erstellung einer Norm muessen Testmethoden und Grenzwerte bestimmt werden, die eine gute Voraussage der Nutzungseigenschaften der jeweiligen

  9. 77 FR 56273 - Conflict Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ... auditor and to certify the audit. In addition, Section 13(p) requires the report to include a description.... Auditor Independence iii. Audit Objective 4. Recycled and Scrap Minerals a. Proposed Rules b. Comments on... Minerals Report must also identify the independent private sector auditor \\23\\ and certify the independent...

  10. Analysis of Anti-Wear Properties of CuO Nanoparticles as Friction Modifiers in Mineral Oil (460cSt Viscosity Using Pin-On-Disk Tribometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bhaumik

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work investigated the anti-wear properties of CuO nanoparticles based mineral oil using pin-on-disk apparatus. The pin material selected was EN 24(untreated as it is used in gear manufacturing. Commonly used graphite macro particles (wt.% and CuO nanoparticles(wt.% were used as additives. It had been observed that the additives based mineral oil samples exhibited superior antiwear properties than pure mineral oil. Both CuO nanoparticles (0.2 wt.% and graphite (0.2 wt.% based lubricant showed significant decrease in coefficient of friction and specific wear rate. There was a reduction in both coefficient of friction (28.5 % approx. and specific wear rate (70 % approx. in case of CuO nanolubricants and graphite based mineral oil as compared with the pure mineral oil.Flash-fire point, viscosity and viscosity index also increased with the increase in additive concentration. The surface characteristics of the pin were studied using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM and surface roughness tester. The SEM images showed more rough surfaces in case of pure mineral oil samples as compared with graphite and CuO nanoparticles based samples. The surface roughness values of the pins in case of graphite (0.2 wt.% and CuO nano particles (0.2 wt.% based lubricant were much lesser than pure mineral oil. From the results predicted minimum 0.2 wt.% CuO nanoparticles were required to enhance the antiwear property of the lubricant. This work aimed in bringing a comparative experimental analysis using CuO nanoparticles and commonly used graphite macro particles as lubricant additives on various properties such as viscosity, flash point, fire point, surface roughness and anti-wear properties. Thus, the work would be useful in developing new nano lubricants with minimum additive concentration.

  11. Treatment of used machine and industrial mineral oil in Republic of Serbia under the sanctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stankovic, D.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we present the only system of collection and recycling of used oil in Serbia, developed by NIS - Refinery, Belgrade. In addition to the discussion about the environmental dangers of used machine oil, we present the advantages of organized collection and its reuse. Our analysis shows steady decline of the collected amount of used oil during the period of economical sanctions. The amount collected by Jugopetrol, NAP and Beopetrol was drastically reduced in 1999 (35%) and 2000 (75%) with respect to 1995 (43%). The Yugoslav Army increased the percentage of collected used oil in the total amount collected from 23% to 33% in 1999 to 53% in 2000. Automechanical services did not participate in the collection of used oil in the last three years. Having all this in mind we might ask ourselves what happened to the used oil that was not collected? We also point out the advantages and disadvantages of the system for collection and recycling in the conditions of ten years of economical sanctions, including old equipment and technology, regulations, price politics and difficult economical conditions. We discuss the reasons for the decline of the collected amount of used oil. The ecological problems of misuse of used oil will only increase, having in mind industrialization and the increase in the number of cars. The solution lies in the introduction of state regulations that will require and reinforce collection and recycling of used oil. (author)

  12. Moisture effect on the dielectric response and space charge behaviour of mineral oil impregnated paper insulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Jian; Liao Ruijin; Chen, George

    2011-01-01

    Dielectric response and space charge behaviour of oil-paper insulation sample with different moisture contents were investigated using the frequency dielectric spectroscopy (FDS) and the pulsed electroacoustic (PEA) technique, respectively. The influence of moisture on the dielectric response and space charge behaviour of oil impregnated paper insulation was analysed. Results show that the moisture has great effect on the FDS and space charge behaviour of oil impregnated paper insulation. In the frequency range of 10 -2 ∼10 6 Hz, the conductivity and the capacitance of oil impregnated paper increases with its moisture content. The space charge distribution of oil-paper sample with lower and higher moisture contents is very different from each other. The higher the moisture concentration of the oil impregnated paper, the easier the negative charge penetration into the insulation paper. There is a significant amount of positive charge accumulated at the paper-paper interface near to the cathode for oilpaper sample with lower moisture content. However, the positive charge appears in the middle layer paper for oil-paper sample with higher moisture content. Due to the high conductivity, the charge trapped in the oil-paper sample with higher moisture content disappears much faster than that in the oil-paper sample with lower moisture content after removing the voltage.

  13. Moisture effect on the dielectric response and space charge behaviour of mineral oil impregnated paper insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao Jian; Liao Ruijin [State Key Laboratory of Power Transmission Equipment and System Security and New Technology, Chongqing University (China); Chen, George, E-mail: jh210v@ecs.soton.ac.uk [School of Electronics and Computer Science, University of Southampton (United Kingdom)

    2011-08-12

    Dielectric response and space charge behaviour of oil-paper insulation sample with different moisture contents were investigated using the frequency dielectric spectroscopy (FDS) and the pulsed electroacoustic (PEA) technique, respectively. The influence of moisture on the dielectric response and space charge behaviour of oil impregnated paper insulation was analysed. Results show that the moisture has great effect on the FDS and space charge behaviour of oil impregnated paper insulation. In the frequency range of 10{sup -2}{approx}10{sup 6}Hz, the conductivity and the capacitance of oil impregnated paper increases with its moisture content. The space charge distribution of oil-paper sample with lower and higher moisture contents is very different from each other. The higher the moisture concentration of the oil impregnated paper, the easier the negative charge penetration into the insulation paper. There is a significant amount of positive charge accumulated at the paper-paper interface near to the cathode for oilpaper sample with lower moisture content. However, the positive charge appears in the middle layer paper for oil-paper sample with higher moisture content. Due to the high conductivity, the charge trapped in the oil-paper sample with higher moisture content disappears much faster than that in the oil-paper sample with lower moisture content after removing the voltage.

  14. Efficacy and Safety of a Mineral Oil-Based Head Lice Shampoo: A Randomized, Controlled, Investigator-Blinded, Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Luise; Eertmans, Frank; Wolf, Doerte; Rossel, Bart; Adriaens, Els

    2016-01-01

    Due to increased resistance and safety concerns with insecticide-based pediculicides, there is growing demand for head lice treatments with a physical mode of action. Certain mineral oils kill lice by blocking spiracles or by disrupting the epicuticular wax layer. The present study was performed to evaluate efficacy and safety of a mineral oil-based shampoo. This randomized, controlled, investigator-blinded, monocentric study (EudraCT registration no. 2014-002918-23) was performed from October 2014-June 2015 in Germany. A mineral oil shampoo (Mosquito® Med Läuse Shampoo 10 in Germany, Paranix or Silcap shampoo elsewhere), registered as medical device, was compared to a conventional, locally reimbursed, pyrethroid-based pediculicide (Goldgeist® Forte solution). In total, 107 patients (>1 year) with confirmed head lice infestation were included (test arm: n = 53; control arm: n = 54). All subjects received two applications of either test or control product at day 0 and day 7, according to the instructions for use. Efficacy and safety was evaluated directly, 1h and 24h after first application, before and after second treatment, and at day 10. The main objective was demonstrating a cure rate for the test product, being superior to 70% at day 10. Cure rates at day 10 (corrected for re-infestation) for the test product (96.1%) and control (94%) significantly exceeded the pre-defined target (70%) (p shampoo) can be safe and effective alternatives for insecticide-based pediculicides, with less risk for development of resistance because of the physical mode of action. German Clinical Trials Register (DRKS) DRKS00009753 and EudraCT database 2014-002918-23.

  15. Family mineral estate planning in Saskatchewan: a primer for members of the oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elash, P.D.

    1997-01-01

    The estate and tax planning problems that are commonly encountered by private individuals who own mines and minerals situated in Saskatchewan were discussed. The basic concepts of legal ownership of mines and minerals, petroleum and natural gas leases, drilling licenses and spacing regulations were reviewed, followed by a summary of basic estate and tax planning strategies. These strategies emphasized the three fundamental objectives of estate and tax planning for family mineral holdings, namely (1) eliminating estate tax, (2) income splitting to minimize tax payable from year to year, and (3) title consolidation to simplify ownership. The various means by which an 'Estate Freeze' can be effected - sale/transfer to spouse and/or children, trust, incorporation, and subsequent sale of mineral assets to the corporation, and the basic tax planning instruments available to to the family mineral owner also have been addressed

  16. Efficacy and Safety of a Mineral Oil-Based Head Lice Shampoo: A Randomized, Controlled, Investigator-Blinded, Comparative Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luise Wolf

    Full Text Available Due to increased resistance and safety concerns with insecticide-based pediculicides, there is growing demand for head lice treatments with a physical mode of action. Certain mineral oils kill lice by blocking spiracles or by disrupting the epicuticular wax layer. The present study was performed to evaluate efficacy and safety of a mineral oil-based shampoo.This randomized, controlled, investigator-blinded, monocentric study (EudraCT registration no. 2014-002918-23 was performed from October 2014-June 2015 in Germany. A mineral oil shampoo (Mosquito® Med Läuse Shampoo 10 in Germany, Paranix or Silcap shampoo elsewhere, registered as medical device, was compared to a conventional, locally reimbursed, pyrethroid-based pediculicide (Goldgeist® Forte solution. In total, 107 patients (>1 year with confirmed head lice infestation were included (test arm: n = 53; control arm: n = 54. All subjects received two applications of either test or control product at day 0 and day 7, according to the instructions for use. Efficacy and safety was evaluated directly, 1h and 24h after first application, before and after second treatment, and at day 10. The main objective was demonstrating a cure rate for the test product, being superior to 70% at day 10.Cure rates at day 10 (corrected for re-infestation for the test product (96.1% and control (94% significantly exceeded the pre-defined target (70% (p < 0.001, 2-sided, 1-sample, chi-square test with confirmed non-inferiority for the test product. Over all visits, cure rates were consistently higher for the test product, whereas more initially-cured subjects remained lice-free until end of study (78%; control: 60%. Both products were safe and well tolerated, offering good esthetical effects.This study showed that substance-based medical devices (including the tested mineral oil shampoo can be safe and effective alternatives for insecticide-based pediculicides, with less risk for development of resistance because

  17. Boron deprivation alters rat behaviour and brain mineral composition differently when fish oil instead of safflower oil is the diet fat source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Forrest H; Penland, James G

    2006-01-01

    To determine whether boron deprivation affects rat behaviour and whether behavioural responses to boron deprivation are modified by differing amounts of dietary long-chain omega-3 fatty acids. Female rats were fed diets containing 0.1 mg (9 micromol)/kg boron in a factorial arrangement with dietary variables of supplemental boron at 0 and 3mg (278 micromol)/kg and fat sources of 75 g/kg safflower oil or 65 g/kg fish (menhaden) oil plus 10 g/kg linoleic acid. After 6 weeks, six females per treatment were bred. Dams and pups continued on their respective diets through gestation, lactation and after weaning. Between ages 6 and 20 weeks, behavioural tests were performed on 13-15 male offspring from three dams in each dietary treatment. The rats were euthanized at age 21 weeks for the collection of tissues and blood. At ages 6 and 19 weeks, auditory startle was evaluated with an acoustic startle system and avoidance behaviour was evaluated by using an elevated plus maze. At ages 7 and 20 weeks, spontaneous behaviour activity was evaluated with a photobeam activity system. A brightness discrimination test was performed on the rats between age 15 and 16 weeks. Brain mineral composition was determined by coupled argon plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Plasma total glutathione was determined by HPLC and total cholesterol and 8-iso-prostaglandin F2alpha (8-iso-PGF2alpha) were determined by using commercially available kits. Boron-deficient rats were less active than boron-adequate rats when fed safflower oil based on reduced number, distance and time of horizontal movements, front entries, margin distance and vertical breaks and jumps in the spontaneous activity evaluation. Feeding fish oil instead of safflower oil attenuated the activity response to boron deprivation. In the plus maze evaluation, the behavioural reactivity of the boron-deficient rats fed fish oil was noticeably different than the other three treatments. They made more entries into both open and closed

  18. The influence of modification of elastomer compositions in polyethylene oxides on their resistance to mineral oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. P. Uss

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of modifying of elastomer compositions based on nitrile rubber in the medium of low molecular weight polyethylene oxide on resistance of rubbers to liquid aggressive mediawas studied. Standard hydrocarbon oilsoil ASTM №1 and ASTM №3, having a constant chemical composition and properties, were used as aggressive fluids. Resistance of elastomer compositions to standard oil was evaluated by change in weight, volume and relative compression set after keeping the samples in these oils at elevated temperatures. The influence of aggressive environment on the degree of swelling and the value of compression set of compositions modified in polyethylene oxides medium was established. It has been shown that the mass/volume of modified rubbers during aging in oil ASTM №1 reduced to a lesser degree compared to unmodified samples, which is probably due to the influence of low molecular weight polyethylene oxides for the formation of vulcanizates structure. At the same time exposure to oil ASTM №3 of elastomer compositions increases the degree of swelling of modified rubber more than unmodified, which can be due to destruction by the action of aggressive medium additional intermolecular bonds between macromolecules of polyethylene oxide and rubber, resulting in increased flexibility of the elastomeric matrix segments. It revealed that modification of rubbers in low molecular weightpolyethylene oxides facilitates preparation of rubber with low compression set after aging in standard oils at elevated temperatures.

  19. Radioactive certified reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Kazuo

    2010-01-01

    Outline of radioactive certified reference materials (CRM) for the analysis of nuclear materials and radioactive nuclides were described. The nuclear fuel CRMs are supplied by the three institutes: NBL in the US, CETAMA in France and IRMM in Belgium. For the RI CRMs, the Japan Radioisotope Association is engaged in activities concerning supply. The natural-matrix CRMs for the analysis of trace levels of radio-nuclides are prepared and supplied by NIST in the US and the IAEA. (author)

  20. Oil. From mineral resource treasure to resource plague; Olie. Van bodemschat tot grondstofvloek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabezas, M. [Divisie Financiele Stabiliteit, De Nederlandsche Bank, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2006-12-01

    Rising oil prices in the seventies resulted, also because of overspending, in disappointing economic development in the oil-producing countries. Although policy reactions to the current rise of the oil prices did not have that effect so far, there is the danger for financial instability. [Dutch] De olieprijsstijgingen in de jaren zeventig leidden door overbesteding tot tegenvallende economische prestaties bij veel olieproducerende landen. De beleidsreacties op de recente olieprijsstijging zijn tot dusverre hoopgevend, maar desondanks liggen er gevaren voor de financiele stabiliteit op de Ioer.

  1. Water pollution potential of mineral oils with high content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (heavy fuel oil and neutral oil extracts); Untersuchungen zur Wassergefaehrdung durch Mineraloele mit hohen Gehalten an polycyclischen aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffen (Heizoel Schwer und Extrakte)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albers, G. [Mobil Schmierstoff GmbH, Hamburg (Germany)

    1999-01-01

    A data base on highly aromatic mineral oils has been compiled to classify mineral oil products according to their water-pollution potential (water hazard class or Wassergefaehrdungsklasse, WGK). This activity has been undertaken through the Commission for Water Hazardous Materials (Kommission Bewertung Wassergefaehrdender Stoffe, KBwS). In this special case, highly aromatic mineral oils containing a high concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (Polyaromatische Kohlenwasserstoffe, PAK) were evaluated. A test method for measuring the elution potential of PAK into water was developed on petroleum products with high viscosity and high freeze point. This method was applied to determine the solubility of 23 PAK (including 16 PAK according to EPA 610 and 6 PAK according to the German drinking water regulation (Trinkwasserverordnung, TVO)) from heavy fuel oil and neutral oil extract in the aqueous phase. For the 6 PAK, according to TVO, a sum limit of 0,2 {mu}g/l in drinking water is permitted by German legislation. This limit was not exceeded in any of the water phases examined. (orig.) [Deutsch] Fuer die Einstufung von Mineraloelprodukten in die Wassergefaehrdungsklassen (WGK) durch die Kommission Bewertung Wassergefaehrdender Stoffe ist es notwendig, Basisdaten zur Verfuegung zu stellen. Im speziellen Fall handelt es sich um die Bewertung von Mineraloelen, die sich durch einen hohen Gehalt an polycyclischen aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffen (PAK) auszeichnen. Zur Eluierbarkeit von PAK`s aus Produkten mit hoher Viskosiaet bzw. mit hohem Stockpunkt wurde eine Pruefmethode entwickelt. Diese Methode wurde zur Bestimmung der Loeslichkeit von 23 PAK`s (16 PAK`s nach EPA-Liste incl. 6 PAK`s der TVO) aus den Mineraloelen Heizoel Schwer und Neutralextrakt in der Wasserphase eingesetzt. Fuer die PAK der TVO ist in der TVO ein Summengrenzwert von 0,2 {mu}g/l Trinkwasser angegeben. Dieser Grenzwert wurde in keiner der untersuchten Wasserphasen ueberschritten. (orig.)

  2. Difficulties of Alternatively Certified Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonfeld, Irvin Sam; Feinman, Samantha J.

    2012-01-01

    This daily diary study followed, over a 2-week period, 252 beginning New York City public school teachers. Seventy percent were alternatively certified (New York City Teaching Fellows) and the rest, traditionally certified teachers. Alternatively certified teachers were more likely to experience stressors such as violent incidents and classroom…

  3. The chronic toxicity of mineral oil-wet and synthetic liquid-wet cuttings on an estuarine fish, Fundulus grandis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, F.V.; Rushing, J.H.; Churan, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    One of the major factors concerning oil-wet cuttings discharges in the long-term effect on the aquatic environment. This paper investigates the survival and growth of the mud minnow, Fundulus grandis, when exposed to different concentrations of mineral oil-wet and synthetic liquid-wet cuttings in flow-through bioassay chambers. The test fluids were a low aromatic mineral oil-based mud (MOBM) and a synthetic liquid-based mud (SBM). Each test fluid was added to a container of dried water-based cuttings which contained minimum hydrocarbons. The fluid and cuttings were mixed to obtain the desired test concentrations. The study tested three concentrations (1%, 5%, and 8.4% by dry weight) of each fluid on the cuttings. Growth rates during the 3-day period were modest with fish in 1% MOBM losing weight. The highest percent growth rates were obtained with fish cultured in 5% SBM and the controls. However, overall growth was not significantly different between treatments. Mean growth did show a significant difference between controls and 5% SBM, and other treatments. The cuttings of the 5% and 8.4% concentrations of both treatments looked like paste. These pastes may have slowed the movement of organics off of the cuttings beds and affected biodegradability and growth rates. Cuttings in the controls and 1% concentrations stayed suspended in the water column longer when disturbed and looked more like loose gravel. Uptake of the MOBM occurred in the internal organs and tissue of fish. No such uptake was observed in the fish tissue with the SBM; a very low level of synthetic liquid was detected in one gut sample only. This may be the major reason for the variations noted in growth rates. Fish mortality during the study was related to the buildup of anaerobic conditions and insufficient aeration. Fish survival for the entire study was 94%

  4. Formation of carbonaceous nano-layers under high interfacial pressures during lubrication with mineral and bio-based oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baltrus, John P. [U.S. DOE

    2014-01-01

    In order to better protect steel surfaces against wear under high loads, understanding of chemical reactions between lubricants and metal at high interfacial pressures and elevated temperatures needs to be improved. Solutions at 5 to 20 wt. % of zinc di-2-ethylhexyl dithio phosphate (ZDDP) and chlorinated paraffins (CP) in inhibited paraffinic mineral oil (IPMO) and inhibited soy bean oil (ISBO) were compared on a Twist Compression Tribotester (TCT) at 200 MPa. Microscopy of wear tracks after 10 seconds tribotesting showed much smoother surface profiles than those of unworn areas. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) coupled with Ar-ion sputtering demonstrated that additive solutions in ISBO formed 2–3 times thicker carbon-containing nano-layers compared to IPMO. The amounts of Cl, S or P were unexpectedly low and detectable only on the top surface with less than 5 nm penetration. CP blends in IPMO formed more inorganic chlorides than those in ISBO. It can be concluded that base oils are primarily responsible for the thickness of carbonaceous nano-layers during early stages of severe boundary lubrication, while CP or ZDDP additive contributions are important, but less significant.

  5. Testing the ecotoxicology of vegetable versus mineral based lubricating oils: 2. Induction of mixed function oxidase enzymes in barramundi, Lates calcarifer, a tropical fish species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercurio, Philip; Burns, Kathryn A.; Cavanagh, Joanne

    2004-05-01

    An increasing number of vegetable-based oils are being developed as environmentally friendly alternatives to petroleum products. However, toxicity towards key tropical marine species has not been investigated. In this study we used laboratory-based biomarker induction experiments to compare the relative stress of a vegetable-based lubricating oil for marine 2-stroke engines with its mineral oil-based counterpart on tropical fish. The sub-lethal stress of 2-stoke outboard lubricating oils towards the fish Lates calcarifer (barramundi) was examined using liver microsomal mixed function oxidase (MFO) induction assays. This study is the first investigation into the use of this key commercial species in tropical North Queensland, Australia in stress assessment of potential hydrocarbon pollution using ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) induction. Our results indicated that barramundi provide a wide range of inducible rates of EROD activity in response to relevant organic stressors. The vegetable- and mineral-based lubricants induced significant EROD activity at 1.0 mg kg{sup -1} and there was no significant difference between the two oil treatments at that concentration. At increasing concentrations of 2 and 3 mg kg{sup -1}, the mineral-based lubricant resulted in slightly higher EROD activity than the vegetable-based lubricant. The EROD activity of control and treated barramundi are found to be within ranges for other species from temperate and tropical environments. These results indicate that vegetable-based lubricants may be less stressful to barramundi than their mineral counterparts at concentrations of lubricant {>=}2 mg kg{sup -1}. There is great potential for this species to be used in the biomonitoring of waterways around tropical North Queensland and SE Asia. - Vegetable-based lubricating oils appear to cause a tropical fish species less stress than mineral oils.

  6. Testing the ecotoxicology of vegetable versus mineral based lubricating oils: 2. Induction of mixed function oxidase enzymes in barramundi, Lates calcarifer, a tropical fish species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercurio, Philip; Burns, Kathryn A.; Cavanagh, Joanne

    2004-01-01

    An increasing number of vegetable-based oils are being developed as environmentally friendly alternatives to petroleum products. However, toxicity towards key tropical marine species has not been investigated. In this study we used laboratory-based biomarker induction experiments to compare the relative stress of a vegetable-based lubricating oil for marine 2-stroke engines with its mineral oil-based counterpart on tropical fish. The sub-lethal stress of 2-stoke outboard lubricating oils towards the fish Lates calcarifer (barramundi) was examined using liver microsomal mixed function oxidase (MFO) induction assays. This study is the first investigation into the use of this key commercial species in tropical North Queensland, Australia in stress assessment of potential hydrocarbon pollution using ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) induction. Our results indicated that barramundi provide a wide range of inducible rates of EROD activity in response to relevant organic stressors. The vegetable- and mineral-based lubricants induced significant EROD activity at 1.0 mg kg -1 and there was no significant difference between the two oil treatments at that concentration. At increasing concentrations of 2 and 3 mg kg -1 , the mineral-based lubricant resulted in slightly higher EROD activity than the vegetable-based lubricant. The EROD activity of control and treated barramundi are found to be within ranges for other species from temperate and tropical environments. These results indicate that vegetable-based lubricants may be less stressful to barramundi than their mineral counterparts at concentrations of lubricant ≥2 mg kg -1 . There is great potential for this species to be used in the biomonitoring of waterways around tropical North Queensland and SE Asia. - Vegetable-based lubricating oils appear to cause a tropical fish species less stress than mineral oils

  7. Characteristic of natural rubber latex-methyl metha-crylate copolymer in mineral lubricant base oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meri Suhartini; Rahmawati

    2010-01-01

    Natural rubber latex-methyl methacrylate copolymer was diluted in xylene, then diluted in four types of lubricant base oil with concentrations of 0.25%, 1%, 5%, and 10%. The mixed solutions were analyzed to obtain kinematics viscosity, viscosity index, density, ash content, metal content, flash point, shear stability and total alkali number. The viscosity index of sample, increased by adding the copolymer solution. The results showed that lubricant base oil of High Viscosity index (HVI) 60 and mixed HVI 60: HVI 650 gave optimum viscosity index. The higher concentration of polymer added into base lubricant oil, the higher viscosity index obtained. The shear stability test showed that the kinematics viscosity of sample decreased 6.5% after 60 minutes of treatment test. (author)

  8. DGNB certified Healthcare Centres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsgaard, Camilla; Larsen, Tine Steen

    2015-01-01

    for sustainability and wants a certification. This research investigates the decision‐making and design process (DMaDP) behind four DGNB certified Healthcare Centres (HCC) in Northern Jutland in Denmark. In general, knowledge about the DMaDP is important. However it is important to know what part DGNB plays...... a dialog about DGNB and energy concept is important even before anyone start sketching. Experiences with the different approaches will be further outlined in the paper.Future research has the intention to collect further knowledge about DGNB and DMaDP in practise. This project was limited to Healthcare...

  9. On the performance of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for direct determination of trace metals in lubricating oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Lijuan [Institut Lumière Matière, UMR5306 Université Lyon 1-CNRS, Université de Lyon, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); State Key Laboratory of Precision Spectroscopy, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Cao, Fan; Xiu, Junshan; Bai, Xueshi; Motto-Ros, Vincent [Institut Lumière Matière, UMR5306 Université Lyon 1-CNRS, Université de Lyon, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Gilon, Nicole [Institut des Sciences Analytiques, UMR5280 Université Lyon 1-CNRS, Université de Lyon, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Zeng, Heping [State Key Laboratory of Precision Spectroscopy, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Yu, Jin, E-mail: jin.yu@univ-lyon1.fr [Institut Lumière Matière, UMR5306 Université Lyon 1-CNRS, Université de Lyon, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Key Laboratory for Laser Plasmas (Ministry of Education), Department of Physics and Astrophysics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2014-09-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) provides a technique to directly determine metals in viscous liquids and especially in lubricating oils. A specific laser ablation configuration of a thin layer of oil applied on the surface of a pure aluminum target was used to evaluate the analytical figures of merit of LIBS for elemental analysis of lubricating oils. Among the analyzed oils, there were a certified 75cSt blank mineral oil, 8 virgin lubricating oils (synthetic, semi-synthetic, or mineral and of 2 different manufacturers), 5 used oils (corresponding to 5 among the 8 virgin oils), and a cooking oil. The certified blank oil and 4 virgin lubricating oils were spiked with metallo-organic standards to obtain laboratory reference samples with different oil matrix. We first established calibration curves for 3 elements, Fe, Cr, Ni, with the 5 sets of laboratory reference samples in order to evaluate the matrix effect by the comparison among the different oils. Our results show that generalized calibration curves can be built for the 3 analyzed elements by merging the measured line intensities of the 5 sets of spiked oil samples. Such merged calibration curves with good correlation of the merged data are only possible if no significant matrix effect affects the measurements of the different oils. In the second step, we spiked the remaining 4 virgin oils and the cooking oils with Fe, Cr and Ni. The accuracy and the precision of the concentration determination in these prepared oils were then evaluated using the generalized calibration curves. The concentrations of metallic elements in the 5 used lubricating oils were finally determined. - Highlights: • Direct determination of wear metals in lubricating oils using LIBS. • Generalized calibration curves for different oils. • Ablation of a thin oil layer on a pure metallic target.

  10. Synthesizing Certified Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, Michael; Schumann, Johann; Fischer, Bernd

    2002-01-01

    Code certification is a lightweight approach to demonstrate software quality on a formal level. Its basic idea is to require producers to provide formal proofs that their code satisfies certain quality properties. These proofs serve as certificates which can be checked independently. Since code certification uses the same underlying technology as program verification, it also requires many detailed annotations (e.g., loop invariants) to make the proofs possible. However, manually adding theses annotations to the code is time-consuming and error-prone. We address this problem by combining code certification with automatic program synthesis. We propose an approach to generate simultaneously, from a high-level specification, code and all annotations required to certify generated code. Here, we describe a certification extension of AUTOBAYES, a synthesis tool which automatically generates complex data analysis programs from compact specifications. AUTOBAYES contains sufficient high-level domain knowledge to generate detailed annotations. This allows us to use a general-purpose verification condition generator to produce a set of proof obligations in first-order logic. The obligations are then discharged using the automated theorem E-SETHEO. We demonstrate our approach by certifying operator safety for a generated iterative data classification program without manual annotation of the code.

  11. Porphyrin metabolism in lymphocytes of miners exposed to diesel exhaust at oil shale mine.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muzyka, V.; Scheepers, P.T.J.; Bogovski, S.; Lang, I.; Schmidt, N.; Ryazanov, V.; Veidebaum, T.

    2004-01-01

    The present study was carried out on the evaluation and application of new biomarkers for populations exposed to occupational diesel exhaust at oil shale mines. Since not only genotoxic effects may play an important role in the generation of tumors, the level of porphyrin metabolism was proposed as

  12. Soybean plant-based toxicity assessment and phytoremediation of soils contaminated by vegetable and mineral oils used in power electrical transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Karina; Módenes, Aparecido Nivaldo; Espinoza-Quiñones, Fernando Rodolfo; Trigueros, Daniela Estelita Goes; Júnior, Luiz Antônio Zanão; Schuelter, Adilson Ricken; Neves, Camila Vargas; Kroumov, Alexander Dimitrov

    2018-04-01

    In this work, deleterious effects in soils due to the presence of dielectric fluids were investigated. For this purpose, vegetable (Envirotemp ® FR3) and mineral (Lubrax AV 66 IN) oils were used for simulating a set of soils contaminated in different oil contents (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10%) in which three 120-days soybean crop periods (SCP) were carried out using the species Glycine max (L.) Merr. Both soil and soybean plant samples were analysed on following the changes on chemical attributes, content of oils and greases (COG) in soils and phytotechnical characteristics of soybean plant. No significant changes on soil chemical attributes were found. For a 0.5% vegetable oil fraction, COG removals of 35, 60 and 90% were observed after the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd SCPs, respectively, whereas removals of 25, 40 and 70% were observed for 0.5% mineral oil fraction after the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd SCPs, respectively. There was an effectively accumulated removal on all tested oil fractions as being proportional to the integrated 120-days SCPs, suggesting a lesser number of crops for a complete abatement of oil fraction in soil. A 100% recovery on the seedlings emergence fractions was also evidenced, revealing that at least a number of 7 and 9 SCPs should be applied continuously in soils contaminated by vegetable and mineral oils, respectively, in order to no longer jeopardize soybean plant growth. Finally, an empirical prediction of the number of SCPs necessary for the complete removal of oil from the soil was proposed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Cottonseed protein, oil, and mineral status in near-isogenic Gossypium hirsutum cotton lines expressing fuzzy/linted and fuzzless/linted seed phenotypes under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nacer eBellaloui

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cotton is an important crop in the world and is a major source of oil for human consumption and cotton meal for livestock. Cottonseed nutrition (seed composition: protein, oil, and minerals determine the quality of seeds. Therefore, maintaining optimum levels of cottonseed nutrition is critical. Physiological and genetic mechanisms controlling the levels of these constituents in cottonseed are still largely unknown. Our previous research conducted under greenhouse conditions showed that seed and leaf nutrition differed between fuzzless and fuzzy seed isolines. Therefore, the objective of this research was to investigate the seed fuzz phenotype (trait effects on seed protein, oil, N, C, S, and minerals in five sets of near-isogenic mutant cotton lines for seed fuzz in a two-year experiment under field condition to evaluate the stability of the effect of the trait on seed nutrition. The isolines (genotypes in each set differ for the seed fuzz trait (fuzzless/linted seed line, N lines, and fuzzy/linted seed line, F lines. Results showed that seed protein was higher in the fuzzy genotype in all sets, but seed oil was higher in fuzzless genotype in all sets. The concentrations of seed Ca and C were higher in all fuzzless genotypes, but N, S, B, Fe, and Zn were higher in most of the fuzzy genotypes. Generally, minerals were higher in leaves of F lines, suggesting the translocation of minerals from leaves to seeds was limited. The research demonstrated that fiber development could be involved in cottonseed composition. This may be due to the involvement of fiber development in carbon and nitrogen metabolism, and the mobility of nutrients from leaves (source to seed (sink. This information is beneficial to breeders to consider fuzzless cottonseed for potential protein and oil use and select for higher oil or higher protein content, and to physiologists to further understand the mobility of minerals to increase the quality of cottonseed nutrition for

  14. Thermal properties of mixtures of mineral oil and natural ester in terms of their application in the transformer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadolny Zbigniew

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes research results of thermal properties of mineral oil and natural ester. Percentage proportions of both the liquids were as follows: 100/0, 95/5, 80/20, 50/50, 20/80, 0/100. The authors present measurement results of thermal conductivity, viscosity, specific heat, density, and thermal expansion of the created mixtures. The measurements were taken in a relatively wide temperature range: 25 °C, 40 °C, 60 °C, and 80 °C. On the basis of the measurement results, convection heat transfer coefficient α was calculated and the most advantageous proportion of both the components of the mixture was pointed in terms of cooling effectiveness of the transformer.

  15. Fumigant Toxicity of the Essential Oil of Caraway, Carum carvi on the Tomato Leaf Miner, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Goudarzvande Chegini

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The tomato leafminer (TLM, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, is an important pest on tomato, potato and other Solanaceous with a great economic importance. Tomato borer can be regarded as a serious threat to tomato production in Iran. TLM larvae cause losses of up to 100% by attacking tomato leaves, flowers, stems, and especially fruits. TLM larvae act as leaf miners, and in high numbers, they can totally destroy the plant foliage; TLM infestation can destroy crop production early on by infesting both developing and ripe fruits. Management of the pest can be problematic, particularly when the infestation pressure is high. One of the main tools in its management is the use of conventional synthetic insecticides, however, this overreliance on the use of synthetic insecticides quickly leads to problems of insecticide resistance. The use of natural compounds such as plant essential oils is considered as alternatives to chemical pesticides due to their lower toxicity on the non-target and low persistence in the environment. In recent years essential oils of medicinal plants have received much attention as pest control chemical agents. The discovery of active compounds that are less persistent will be beneficial for both the environment and agricultural product consumers. Materials and Methods: The egg, 2nd larval instars, and adult of TLM were used to determine the fumigant toxicity of the C. cavi. The essential oil of aerial parts of C. cavi, was extracted by hydrodistillation using a modified Clevenger-type apparatus. Conditions of extraction were: 50g of air-dried sample, 1:12 plant material/water volume ratio and 4h distillation. The obtained oil was dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and stored in the refrigerator at + 4°C until used. The fumigant toxicity of essential oil on larvae 2nd (inside leaf and egg were tested in macro plastic container volume 1800 ml, The vials were contained leaves containing larvae

  16. Migration kinetics of mineral oil hydrocarbons from recycled paperboard to dry food: monitoring of two real cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzini, R; Biedermann, M; Grob, K; Garbini, D; Barbanera, M; Braschi, I

    2013-01-01

    Mineral oil hydrocarbons present in printing inks and recycled paper migrate from paper-based food packaging to foods primarily through the gas phase. Migration from two commercial products packed in recycled paperboard, i.e. muesli and egg pasta, was monitored up to the end of their shelf life (1 year) to study the influence of time, storage conditions, food packaging structure and temperature. Mineral oil saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons (MOSH and MOAH, respectively), and diisopropyl naphthalenes (DIPN) were monitored using online HPLC-GC/FID. Storage conditions were: free standing, shelved, and packed in transport boxes of corrugated board, to represent domestic, supermarket and warehouse storage, respectively. Migration to food whose packs were kept in transport boxes was the highest, especially after prolonged storage, followed by shelved and free-standing packs. Tested temperatures were representative of refrigeration, room temperature, storage in summer months and accelerated migration testing. Migration was strongly influenced by temperature: for egg pasta directly packed in paperboard, around 30 mg kg⁻¹ of MOSH migrated in 8 months at 20°C, but in only 1 week at 40°C. Muesli was contained into an internal polyethylene bag, which firstly adsorbed hydrocarbons and later released them partly towards the food. Differently, the external polypropylene bag, containing pasta and recycled paper tray, strongly limited the migration towards the atmosphere and gave rise to the highest level of food contamination. Tests at increased temperatures not only accelerated migration, but also widened the migration of hydrocarbons to higher molecular masses, highlighting thus a difficult interpretation of data from accelerated simulation.

  17. Dielectric properties of transformer paper impregnated by mineral oil based magnetic fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timko, M; Marton, K; Tomco, L; Kopcansky, P; Koneracka, M

    2010-01-01

    The influence of combined magnetic and electric field on permittivity of transformer paper used in power transformers was observed. Transformer paper was impregnated by pure transformer oil ITO 100 and magnetic fluids based on transformer oil ITO 100 with different concentrations of magnetite nanoparticles. The measurements were carried out with help of high precision capacitance bridge. The electric intensity between circular planar electrodes was in the region of weak electric field (E > 10 6 V/m). The increase of electric permittivity of transformer paper impregnated by magnetic fluid opposite pure transformer paper was observed. The experiments showed that permittivity of insulator system consisting of pure transformer paper and impregnated transformer paper naturally depends on number of paper layers. The magnetodielectric effect was found to be dependent on magnetite nanoparticles concentration in magnetic fluids.

  18. Solid-State Fermentation Reduces Phytic Acid Level, Improves the Profile of Myo-Inositol Phosphates and Enhances the Availability of Selected Minerals in Flaxseed Oil Cake

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Summary Flaxseed oil cake was subjected to fermentation with Rhizopus oligosporus (DSM 1964 and ATCC 64063), and the phytate (InsP6) content, myo-inositol phosphate profile and in vitro bioavailability of essential minerals were studied. Flaxseed oil cake had a phytate mass fraction of 13.9 mg/g. A 96-hour fermentation of flaxseed oil cake by R. oligosporus DSM 1964 and R. oligosporus ATCC 64063 decreased the InsP6 content by 48 and 33%, respectively. The strains had different phytate-degrading activities: fermentation of flaxseed oil cake with R. oligosporus DSM 1964 was more advantageous, yielding InsP3-5 as a predominating myo-inositol compound, while fermentation with R. oligosporus ATCC 64603 produced predominantly InsP5-6. Solid-state fermentation of flaxseed oil cake enhanced in vitro bioavailability of calcium by 14, magnesium by 3.3 and phosphorus by 2–4%. PMID:29089855

  19. Testing the ecotoxicology of vegetable versus mineral based lubricating oils: 1. Degradation rates using tropical marine microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercurio, Philip; Burns, Kathryn A; Negri, Andrew

    2004-05-01

    Vegetable-derived lubricants (VDL) might be more biodegradable than mineral-derived lubricants (MDL) due to the absence of high molecular weight aromatics, but this remains largely untested in tropical conditions. In this laboratory study, the degradation rates of 2-stroke, 4-stroke and hydraulic VDLs were compared with their MDL counterparts in the presence of mangrove and coral reef microbial communities. While MDLs were comprised largely of unresolved saturated and some aromatic hydrocarbons, their VDL counterparts contained, potentially more degradable, fatty acid methyl esters. Degradation of some VDL was observed by day 7, with the 2-stroke VDL markedly consumed by mangrove microorganisms and the hydraulic VDL degraded by both microorganism communities after this short period. All of the VDL groups were significantly more degraded than the comparable MDLs mineral oil lubricants over 14 days in the presence of either mangrove or coral reef microbial communities. In general the mangrove-sourced microorganisms more efficiently degraded the lubricants than reef-sourced microorganisms.

  20. A novel non-mineral oil-based adjuvant. II. Efficacy of a synthetic sulfolipopolysaccharide in a squalane-in-water emulsion in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.A.Th. Hilgers (L. A Th); P.L.I. Platenburg (P. L I); A. Luitjens (A.); B. Groenveld (B.); T. Dazelle (T.); J.T.M. Weststrate

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThe adjuvanticity of a sulfolipopolysaccharide (SLP) incorporated into a squalane-in-water emulsion (SLP/S/W) was compared with that of a mineral oil-in-water (O/W) adjuvant currently used in commercial porcine vaccines. Groups of pigs were immunized twice with vaccines comprising either

  1. Lipoid pneumonia in children following aspiration of mineral oil used in the treatment of constipation: high-resolution CT findings in 17 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanetti, Glaucia; Marchiori, Edson; Gasparetto, Taisa D.; Escuissato, Dante L.; Soares Souza, Arthur

    2007-01-01

    Exogenous lipoid pneumonia is a rare disorder caused by aspiration of mineral, vegetable and animal oils. High-resolution CT findings of lipoid pneumonia in children taking mineral oil for constipation have been rarely reported. To evaluate the high-resolution CT findings in 17 children with exogenous lipoid pneumonia following aspiration of mineral oil. The study included nine boys and eight girls, with ages ranging from 2 months to 9 years. All patients underwent high-resolution CT and the images were reviewed by two radiologists who reached decisions by consensus. The inclusion criteria were an abnormal radiograph, history of taking mineral oil and the presence of intrapulmonary lipids proved by bronchoalveolar lavage or open lung biopsy. The most common symptoms were cough (n = 13), mild fever (n = 11), and progressive dyspnea (n = 9). The main CT findings were air-space consolidations (100%), usually with areas of fatty attenuation (70.6%), areas of ground-glass attenuation (52.9%), and a crazy-paving pattern (17.6%), predominating bilaterally in the posterior and lower regions of the lungs. The high-resolution CT features in children with exogenous lipoid pneumonia are air-space consolidations and ground-glass attenuation, occasionally with a crazy-paving pattern, distributed bilaterally in the posterior and lower zones of the lungs. (orig.)

  2. Lipoid pneumonia in children following aspiration of mineral oil used in the treatment of constipation: high-resolution CT findings in 17 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanetti, Glaucia [University of Rio de Janeiro, Department of Radiology, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Marchiori, Edson [University of Rio de Janeiro, Department of Radiology, University Federal Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Gasparetto, Taisa D. [University Federal Fluminense, Department of Radiology, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Escuissato, Dante L. [University of Parana, Department of Radiology, Curitiba (Brazil); Soares Souza, Arthur [School of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto (ASSJ), Department of Radiology, Sao Jose do Rio Preto (Brazil)

    2007-11-15

    Exogenous lipoid pneumonia is a rare disorder caused by aspiration of mineral, vegetable and animal oils. High-resolution CT findings of lipoid pneumonia in children taking mineral oil for constipation have been rarely reported. To evaluate the high-resolution CT findings in 17 children with exogenous lipoid pneumonia following aspiration of mineral oil. The study included nine boys and eight girls, with ages ranging from 2 months to 9 years. All patients underwent high-resolution CT and the images were reviewed by two radiologists who reached decisions by consensus. The inclusion criteria were an abnormal radiograph, history of taking mineral oil and the presence of intrapulmonary lipids proved by bronchoalveolar lavage or open lung biopsy. The most common symptoms were cough (n = 13), mild fever (n = 11), and progressive dyspnea (n = 9). The main CT findings were air-space consolidations (100%), usually with areas of fatty attenuation (70.6%), areas of ground-glass attenuation (52.9%), and a crazy-paving pattern (17.6%), predominating bilaterally in the posterior and lower regions of the lungs. The high-resolution CT features in children with exogenous lipoid pneumonia are air-space consolidations and ground-glass attenuation, occasionally with a crazy-paving pattern, distributed bilaterally in the posterior and lower zones of the lungs. (orig.)

  3. 30 CFR 18.80 - Approval of machines assembled with certified or explosion-proof components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of machines assembled with certified... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Machines Assembled With Certified or Explosion-Proof Components, Field...

  4. Treatment of wastewater contaminated with detergents and mineral oils using effective and scalable technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelmoez, Wael; Barakat, Nasser A M; Moaz, Asmaa

    2013-01-01

    In this work, effective, cheap and scalable methodology is introduced to treat oily wastewater. The water produced from car-wash processes was utilized as a model because it has various pollutants - oil, lubricants, detergents, solid particles, etc. The results showed that the turbidity and chemical oxygen demand (COD) values dramatically decrease by using the proposed treatment process, which consists of coagulation, flocculation, sand filtration, and oxidation followed by sand as well as activated carbon filtration. Moreover, the operating conditions were optimized. Without adjustment of the pH value of car-wash wastewater, it was found that 200 ppm of ferric chloride, as a coagulant, and 1 ppm of potassium permanganate, as an oxidant, are the optimum doses. The COD and turbidity values of the final treated wastewater were reduced by almost 88 and 100%, respectively. A prototype with 15 L capacity was designed and fabricated to investigate the scaling up and continuity of the proposed treatment strategy. The results were very promising and indicated that the introduced methodology can be industrially applied.

  5. Characterization of Lignin Precipitated From The Soda Black Liquor of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fibers by Various Mineral Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.N Mohamad Ibrahim

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Soda lignin from oil palm empty fruit bunch was directly isolated by various mineral acids i.e. sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, phosphoric acid and nitric acid at three levels of concentration (20% v/v, 60%v/v and concentrated. A comparison study was performed through physicochemical properties and structural features using FT-IR, UV, 13C-NMR and nitrobenzene oxidation. The FT-IR results showed that there is no significant difference between the main structures of the lignin isolated by various acids. However, low concentration of phosphoric acid is preferable because of its highest yield. The S: V: H ratio of 7-15:6-11:1 as evaluated by the nitrobenzene oxidation procedure suggests that soda lignin can be classified as belonging to either the cereal straw on grass type. The UV results indicate that phosphoric acid consistently gave the highest absorbance value among the four acids tested in this study regardless of its concentration level. The C13-FTNMR spectra, suggest that the lignin structure is independent of the type of acid used for precipitation.

  6. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Dishwashers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 2.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Dishwashers that are effective as of...

  7. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Ovens

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 2.2 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Ovens that are effective as of...

  8. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Boilers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Boilers that are effective as of...

  9. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Griddles

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.2 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Griddles that are effective as of May...

  10. ENERGY STAR Certified Smart Thermostats

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Connected Thermostats that are effective as of...

  11. ENERGY STAR Certified Residential Dishwashers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 6.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Residential Dishwashers that are effective as of...

  12. ENERGY STAR Certified Roof Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Roof Products that are effective as of July 1,...

  13. ENERGY STAR Certified Pool Pumps

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.1 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Pool Pumps that are effective as of February 15,...

  14. ENERGY STAR Certified Imaging Equipment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 2.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Imaging Equipment that are effective as of...

  15. ENERGY STAR Certified Vending Machines

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.1 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Refrigerated Beverage Vending Machines that are...

  16. Find a NCCAOM Certified Practitioner

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in finding a NCCAOM Certified Diplomate. The NCCAOM Find a Practitioner Directory is a voluntary directory designed ... by the NCCAOM. If you are unable to find an individual in our registry and would like ...

  17. ENERGY STAR Certified Water Coolers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 2.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Water Coolers that are effective as of February...

  18. ENERGY STAR Certified Audio Video

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Audio Video Equipment that are effective as of...

  19. ENERGY STAR Certified Ceiling Fans

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.1 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Ceiling Fans that are effective as of April 1,...

  20. ENERGY STAR Certified Ventilating Fans

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 4.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Ventilating Fans that are effective as of...

  1. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Fryers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Fryers that are effective as of...

  2. ENERGY STAR Certified Products - Lighting

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data set contains a simplified list of all currently certified ENERGY STAR Lighting models with basic model information collected across all product categories...

  3. ENERGY STAR Certified Residential Freezers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 5.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Residential Refrigerators and Freezers that are...

  4. ENERGY STAR Certified Residential Refrigerators

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 5.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Residential Refrigerators and Freezers that are...

  5. Birches against mineral oils. Lignin - a renewable resource for the alternative production of phenols; Birke contra Erdoel. Lignin - ein nachwachsender Rohstoff zur alternativen Gewinnung von Phenolen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zehnpfund, C.; Bormann, J.; Wehrkamp zu Hoene, F. [Gymnasium Bersenbrueck (Germany)

    1998-02-01

    We wanted to offer an alternative for the `After-mineral oil time` with our work when we attempted to isolate phenols, which are won up to now from mineral oil, of a growing raw material. Phenols are economic important substances for production of epoxies, herbicides, artificial resins, dyes and drugs (e.g. aspirin or Paracetamol). We managed to isolate phenols with normal conditions of lignin, a component of wood. (orig.) [Deutsch] Wir wollten mit unserer Arbeit eine Alternative fuer die `Nach-Erdoel-Zeit` bieten, indem wir versuchten, Phenole, die bisher aus Erdoel gewonnen werden, aus einem nachwachsenden Rohstoff zu isolieren. Phenole sind volkswirtschaftlich bedeutsame Substanzen zur Herstellung von Kunststoffen, Herbiziden, Kunstharzen, Farbstoffen und Arzneimitteln (z.B. Aspirin oder Paracetamol). Es gelang uns, Phenole unter Normalbedingungen aus Lignin, einem Bestandteil des Holzes, zu isolieren. (orig.)

  6. Efficacy of mineral oil combined with insecticides for the control of aphid virus vectors to reduce potato virus Y infections in seed potatoes (Solanum tuberosum)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars M.; Nielsen, Steen L.

    2012-01-01

    Aphids are major vectors of plant viruses. Potato virus Y (PVY) is the most important aphid-transmitted virus affecting potato crops in Denmark. Because of a changed seed potato growing strategy, the seed potato area in Denmark is changing from regions with a low average temperature to regions...... with a higher average temperature. This means that the aphids may infest the potato crops earlier and the population development of the aphids may be faster, and consequently PVY may more easily become epidemic in seed potato crops. With a view to reducing the spread of PVY a 3-year experiment was carried out...... with a combination of mineral oil and insecticides. In 2005 and 2007 when a very high number of aphids were present, nearly all plants were infected with PVY. In 2006 with a lower number of aphids a smaller proportion of the plants were infected, and a tendency to a lower PVY incidence in mineral-oil treated plots...

  7. Optimization of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) for rapid determination of mineral oil saturated (MOSH) and aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH) in cardboard and paper intended for food contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moret, Sabrina; Sander, Maren; Purcaro, Giorgia; Scolaro, Marianna; Barp, Laura; Conte, Lanfranco S

    2013-10-15

    Packaging can represent a primary source of food contamination with mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH) and aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH), especially when recycled cardboard or mineral oil based printing inks are used. A pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) method, followed by on-line LC-GC analysis, has been optimized for rapid mineral oil determination in cardboard and paper samples. The proposed method involves extraction with hexane (2 cycles) at 60°C for 5 min, and allows for the processing of up to 6 samples in parallel with minimal sample manipulation and solvent consumption. It gave good repeatability (coefficient of variation lower than 5%) and practically quantitative extraction yield (less than 2% of the total contamination found in a third separate cycle). The method was applied to different cardboards and paper materials intended for food contact. Results obtained were similar to those obtained by applying classical solvent extraction with hexane/ethanol 1:1 (v/v) as described by Lorenzini et al. [20]. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Use of nanoparticles to make mineral oil lubricants feasible for use in a residential air conditioner employing hydro-fluorocarbons refrigerants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ruixiang [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University 710049 Xi' an (China); School of Environment and Energy Engineering, Beijing University of Civil Engineering and Architecture, No. 1, Zhanlan Guan Road, Beijing 100044 (China); Wu, Qingping; Wu, Yezheng [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University 710049 Xi' an (China)

    2010-11-15

    The application of nano-fluids in refrigerating systems is considered to be a potential way to improve the energy efficiency and reliability of HVAC and R facilities and to make economic the use of environment-friendly refrigerants. In this paper, we report a method that uses nanoparticles to enhance the energy efficiency of retrofitted residential air conditioners (RAC) employing HFCs as alternative refrigerants. The reliability and performance of RAC with nanoparticles in the working fluid have been investigated experimentally. A new mineral-based nano-refrigeration oil (MNRO), formed by blending some nanoparticles (NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) into naphthene based oil B32, was employed in the RAC using R410a as refrigerant. A method showing how to disperse the NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles in the mineral oil refrigeration lubricants is presented together with an investigation of their stability. The solubilities of the new MNRO in R134a, R407C, R410a and R425a were measured. The performances of the RAC, such as the cooling/heating capacity, the power input and the energy efficiency ratio, were determined. The results indicate that the mixture of R410a/MNRO works normally in the RAC. The cooling/heating EER of the RAC increased about 6% by replacing the Polyol-Easter oil VG 32 lubricant with MNRO. (author)

  9. Determination of mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbons in edible oils and fats by online liquid chromatography-gas chromatography-flame ionization detection - Evaluation of automated removal strategies for biogenic olefins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestola, Marco; Schmidt, Torsten C

    2017-07-07

    The determination of mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH) in foodstuffs gained in importance over the last years as carcinogenicity cannot be excluded for certain MOAH. The existence of olefins in foodstuffs, such as edible oils and fats, can be problematic for the determination of MOAH by LC-GC-FID. Removal of these interfering substances by HPLC based on polarity differences is not possible. During gas chromatographic separation heavily overloaded peaks are observed rendering the detection of small mineral oil contaminations almost impossible. Therefore, removal of these olefins is necessary before subjection of the sample to LC-GC-FID. Epoxidation of olefins to increase their polarity proved to be a valuable tool in the past. Precision and trueness of the results as shown in a collaborative trial, however, are relying on exact reaction conditions. Additionally, it is known that certain MOAH are oxidized during epoxidation and therefore get lost. In the scope of this work, hydroboration, bromohydrin reaction, and epoxidation were examined for their potential for derivatization of unsaturated hydrocarbons with increased robustness and higher recovery of MOAH. Epoxidation by meta-chloroperoxybenzoic acid (mCPBA) delivered the best removal of olefins. Factors influencing this reaction were enlightened. Adaption of the reaction conditions and time-controlled automation increased the recovery of polycyclic MOAH. Good precision (RSD r oils spiked with a lubricating mineral oil (at 24.5mg/kg of MOAH). The trueness of the method was verified by analyzing collaborative trial samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Fertilizers applied to certified organic tomato culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, T.C.G.; De Nadai Fernandes, E.A.; Ferrari, A.A.; Bacchi, M.A.; Tagliaferro, F.S.

    2010-01-01

    The tomato culture demands large quantities of mineral nutrients, which are supplied by synthetic fertilizers in the conventional cultivation system. In the organic cultivation system only alternative fertilizers are allowed by the certifiers and accepted as safe for humans and environment. The chemical composition of rice bran, oyster flour, cattle manure and ground charcoal, as well as soils and tomato fruits were evaluated by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The potential contribution of organic fertilizers to the enrichment of chemical elements in soil and their transfer to fruits was investigated using concentration ratios for fertilizer and soil samples, and also for soil and tomato. Results evidenced that these alternative fertilizers could be taken as important sources of Br, Ca, Ce, K, Na and Zn for the organic tomato culture. (author)

  11. Genotoxicity of diesel engine emissions during combustion of vegetable oils, mineral oil, and their blends; Gentoxizitaet von Dieselmotoremissionen bei Verbrennung von Pflanzenoelen, Mineraloeldiesel und deren Mischkraftstoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buenger, Joern

    2013-07-09

    High particle emissions and strong mutagenic effects were observed after combustion of vegetable oil in diesel engines. This study tested the hypothesis that these results are affected by the amount of unsaturated or polyunsaturated fatty acids of vegetable oils and that blends of diesel fuel and vegetable oil are mutagenic. Three different vegetable oils (linseed oil, LO; palm tree oil, PO; rapeseed oil, RO), blends of 20% vegetable oil and 80% diesel fuel (B20) and 50% vegetable oil and 50% diesel fuel (B50) as well as common diesel fuel (DF) were combusted in a heavy duty diesel engine. The exhaust was investigated for particle emissions and its mutagenic effect in comparison to emissions of DF. The engine was operated using European Stationary Cycle. Particle mass was determined gravimetrically while mutagenicity was determined using the bacterial reverse mutation assay with tester strains TA98 and TA100. Combustion of LO caused the largest amount of total particulate matter (TPM). In comparison to DF it particularly raised the soluble organic fraction (SOF). RO presented second highest TPM and SOF, followed by PO which was scarcely above DF. B50 revealed the lowest amount of TPM while B20 reached as high as DF. RO revealed the highest number of mutations of the vegetable oils closely followed by LO. PO was less mutagenic, but still induced stronger effects than DF. B50 showed higher mutagenic potential than B20. While TPM and SOF were strongly correlated with the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the vegetable oils, mutagenicity had a significant correlation with the amount of total unsaturated fatty acids. Vegetable oil blends seem to be less mutagenic than the pure oils with a shifted maximum compared to blends with biodiesel and DF. This study supports the hypothesis that numbers of double bounds in unsaturated fatty acids of vegetable oils combusted in diesel engines influence the amount of emitted particles and the mutagenicity of the exhaust. And

  12. Short and long term modulation of tissue minerals concentrations following oral administration of black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) seed oil to laboratory rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basheer, Irum; Qureshi, Irfan Zia

    2018-01-15

    Nigella sativa, or commonly called black cumin is a small herb of family Ranunculaceae is a well-known medicinal plant but its effects on tissue mineral concentrations of animal bodies is unknown. To study the effect of oral administration of fixed oil of black cumin seeds on tissues mineral content using laboratory rats as experimental model. Experimental animals were exposed to two oral doses of seed oil (60 and 120 ml kg -1 body weight). Short- and long term experiments lasted 24 h and 60 days respectively, with three replicates each. Oil extracted from black cumin seeds was subjected to GC-MS to identify chemical components. Following the wet digestion in nitric acid, samples of whole blood and organs of rats were subjected to atomic absorption spectrophotometry for determination of elements concentrations. Data were compared statistically at p < .05. Compared to control, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn showed decrease, whereas Co, Na, Mg and K demonstrated increase, but Ca showed both increase and decrease in most of the tissues upon short term exposure to low and high doses of black cumin oil. During long term exposure, Cr, Fe, Mn, Cu exhibited decrease; Co, Na, Mg and Ca concentrations demonstrated an upregulation, whereas Ni and Zn showed increase and decrease in most of the tissues. Comparison of short term with long term experiments at low dose revealed increases in Fe, Zn, Cu, Mg, K and Ca, a decrease in Cr, Mn, Ni and Cu in most tissues, but both increase and decrease in Na. At high dose, an increase occurred in Fe, Ni, Zn, K, Ca, Mg, a decrease in Cr, while both increase and decrease in Cu, Co and Na concentrations. Our study demonstrates that oral administration of black cumin seeds oil to laboratory rats significantly alters tissue trace elements and electrolytes concentrations. The study appears beneficial but indicates modulatory role of black cumin oil as regards mineral metabolism with far reaching implications in health and disease. Copyright © 2017

  13. ENERGY STAR Certified Vending Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Refrigerated Beverage Vending Machines that are effective as of March 1, 2013. A detailed listing of key efficiency criteria are available at

  14. ENERGY STAR Certified Ceiling Fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Ceiling Fans that are effective as of April 1, 2012. A detailed listing of key efficiency criteria are available at http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=ceiling_fans.pr_crit_ceiling_fans

  15. ENERGY STAR Certified Ventilating Fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 4.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Ventilating Fans that are effective as of October 1, 2015. A detailed listing of key efficiency criteria are available at http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=vent_fans.pr_crit_vent_fans

  16. Potential Use of Insecticides and Mineral Oils for the Control of Transmission of Major Aphid-Transmitted Potato Viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drago Milošević

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Viruses occurring in Serbia and other countries in the region are a huge problem constrainingseed potato production. At lower altitudes, in lowland and hilly regions, wheretable potato production is widely distributed, more than 50% of healthy plants becomeinfected with potato virus Y during one growing season. Under these conditions, seed potatoproduction is hindered due to a high infection pressure of potato virus Y which spreads farmore rapidly compared to leaf roll virus, virus S and other viruses hosted by this plant species.This study tended to clarify a frequent dilemma regarding the use of insecticides in preventingthe infection of healthy plants with potato virus Y and leaf roll virus, given the oraland written recommendations from pesticide manufacturers, agronomists and scientistsin the field of crop protection arising from a logical conclusion that aphid vector controlresults in virus transmission control.The present findings, which are in agreement with reports of authors from other countries,show that the use of insecticides is ineffective in preventing potato virus Y which isnonpersistently transmitted by aphids from an external source of infection.However, insecticides can exhibit efficacy in preventing potato virus Y transmissionfrom infected plants to healthy plants within a crop, which can have an overall positiveeffect only if seed potato is grown in areas that have no external source of infection.The present results and those of other authors show that insecticides are effective inpreventing the infection of healthy plants with persistently transmitted leaf roll virus.Mineral oils provide effective control of potato virus Y by preventing the infection ofpotato plants with the virus. They can be combined with other management practices toprotect seed potato crops against the virus.Given the fact that the initial first-year infection of healthy potato plants with virus Y inrelation to leaf roll virus is approximately 10

  17. The impact of fish oil and wheat germ oil combination on mineral-bone and inflammatory markers in maintenance hemodialysis patients: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Hadeer; Mostafa, Tarek M; El-Azab, Gamal A; Abd El Wahab, Ahmed M; Elshahawy, Heba; Sayed-Ahmed, Nagy Ah

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to examine the impact of combined supplementation of fish oil (FO) with antioxidants like wheat germ oil (WGO) on mineral-bone and inflammatory markers in maintenance HD patients. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial involved 46 HD patients who were randomly assigned into two groups to receive daily 3000 mg of FO [1053 mg omega-3 fatty acids (ω-3 FAs)] plus 300 mg of WGO [0.765 mg vitamin E] or placebo for 4 months. Blood concentrations of hemoglobin (Hgb), white blood cells, mineral-bone parameters including serum calcium (Ca), phosphorus, calcium-phosphorus product, parathyroid hormone, alkaline phosphatase, and osteoprotegerin and serum concentrations of inflammatory markers including high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, ferritin, and uric acid were measured before and after the intervention. Eighty-seven percentage of patients in each group completed the study. The mean serum Ca levels increased significantly in the supplemented group at the end of study (p = 0.0016), and this increment was also significant as compared to placebo group (p = 0.0418). No significant alterations were observed in the other measured parameters within each group during the study (as p values were >0.05). FO plus WGO supplementation showed beneficial effect on serum Ca levels of HD patients without any statistically significant effect on other mineral-bone and inflammatory markers. Further investigations are required to confirm it.

  18. Migration of mineral oil from party plates of recycled paperboard into foods: 1. Is recycled paperboard fit for the purpose? 2. Adequate testing procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dima, Giovanna; Verzera, Antonella; Grob, Koni

    2011-11-01

    Party plates made of recycled paperboard with a polyolefin film on the food contact surface (more often polypropylene than polyethylene) were tested for migration of mineral oil into various foods applying reasonable worst case conditions. The worst case was identified as a slice of fried meat placed onto the plate while hot and allowed to cool for 1 h. As it caused the acceptable daily intake (ADI) specified by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) to be exceeded, it is concluded that recycled paperboard is generally acceptable for party plates only when separated from the food by a functional barrier. Migration data obtained with oil as simulant at 70°C was compared to the migration into foods. A contact time of 30 min was found to reasonably cover the worst case determined in food.

  19. Possible Involvement of Permian Phosphoria Formation Oil as a Source of REE and Other Metals Associated with Complex U-V Mineralization in the Northern Bighorn Basin?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita L. Moore-Nall

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The origin of V, U, REE and other metals in the Permian Phosphoria Formation have been speculated and studied by numerous scientists. The exceptionally high concentrations of metals have been interpreted to reflect fundamental transitions from anoxic to oxic marine conditions. Much of the oil in the Bighorn Basin, is sourced by the Phosphoria Formation. Two of the top 10 producing oil fields in Wyoming are located approximately 50 km west of two abandoned U-V mining districts in the northern portion of the basin. These fields produce from basin margin anticlinal structures from Mississippian age reservoir rock. Samples collected from abandoned U-V mines and prospects hosted in Mississippian aged paleokarst in Montana and Wyoming have hydrocarbon residue present and contain anomalous high concentrations of many metals that are found in similar concentrations in the Phosphoria Formation. As, Hg, Mo, Pb, Tl, U, V and Zn, often metals of environmental concern occur in high concentrations in Phosphoria Formation samples and had values ranging from 30–1295 ppm As, 0.179–12.8 ppm Hg, 2–791 ppm Mo, <2–146 ppm Pb, 10–490 ppm Tl, 907–86,800 ppm U, 1240–18,900 ppm V, and 7–2230 ppm Zn, in mineralized samples from this study. The REE plus Y composition of Madison Limestone- and limestone breccia hosted-bitumen reflect similar patterns to both mineralized samples from this study and to U.S. Geological Survey rock samples from studies of the Phosphoria Formation. Geochemical, mineralogical and field data were used to investigate past theories for mineralization of these deposits to determine if U present in home wells and Hg content of fish from rivers on the proximal Crow Indian Reservation may have been derived from these deposits or related to their mode of mineralization.

  20. Characteristics of a tractor engine using mineral and biodiesel fuels blended with rapeseed oil Características de um motor de trator alimentado com combustíveis mineral e biodisel misturados com óleo de colza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tone Godeša

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the most unfavourable characteristics of crude vegetable oil when used as the fuel is the high viscosity. To improve this weakness, oil can be blended with mineral diesel or biodiesel fuels. This study was designed to evaluate how the use of mineral diesel or biodiesel blend with cold pressed rapeseed (Brassica napus oil affects the engine power, torque and fuel consumption. A tractor equipped with direct injection, water cooling system and three-cylinder diesel engine was used for the experiment. Fuels used were standard diesel fuel (diesel, rapeseed oil methyl ester - biodiesel (B100 and their mixtures with 10, 30 and 50 vol. % of cold pressed rapeseed oil (RO. Increased portion of RO in diesel fuel blends had almost no effect on the torque measured on the tractor PTO shaft; it however decreased the maximal power. Fuel blends with B100 and rising RO content (up to 50% gave a positive correlation with maximal torque and power. By increasing the portion of RO from 0 to 50%, the minimal specific fuel consumption increased by 6.65% with diesel and decreased by 2.98% with B100 based fuel.Uma das características mais desfavoráveis dos óleos vegetais crus usados como combustível é a alta viscosidade. Para melhorar este ponto fraco, o óleo pode ser misturado com diesel mineral ou biodiesel. Este estudo foi desenvolvido para avaliar como o uso de diesel mineral ou biodiesel misturado a oleo de colza (Brassica napus extraído por pressão a frio afeta a potência do motor, o torque e o consumo de combustível, empregando um trator equipado com injeção direta, sistema de refrigeração de água e um motor de três cilindros. Os combustíveis utilizados foram o diesel padrão (diesel, éster metílico de óleo de sementes de colza - biodiesel (B100 e suas misturas com 10, 30 e 50 % vol. de óleo de semente de colza pressionado a frio (RO. Maiores proporções de RO nas misturas de diesel praticamente não tiveram efeito sobre o torque

  1. 7 CFR 983.7 - Certified pistachios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certified pistachios. 983.7 Section 983.7 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.7 Certified pistachios. Certified pistachios are those that meet...

  2. 7 CFR 1221.4 - Certified organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certified organization. 1221.4 Section 1221.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... organization. Certified organization means any organization that has been certified by the Secretary pursuant...

  3. 7 CFR 1280.103 - Certified organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certified organization. 1280.103 Section 1280.103 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... organization. Certified organization means any organization which has been certified by the Secretary pursuant...

  4. Summary of research and information needs for the management of selected onshore energy minerals: oil shale, tar sands, arctic oil and gas, and uranium. Final report 1982-83

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-11-01

    The report assesses research needs for the management, regulation, reclamation, and conservation of oil shale, tar sands, arctic oil and gas, and uranium deposits currently under federal jurisdiction and concludes that additional research is required to achieve the goals of good management, including conservation, protection of life and property, and minimization of environmental degradation. The report recommends (1) establishment of a standing advisory scientific and engineering committee on onshore minerals management research to influence future research directions and implementation; (2) development of a comprehensive library and data center for research results; and (3) encouragement of the operation of demonstration-scale production facilities where they are lacking. More detailed summaries of current knowledge and perceived research needs are to be found in the four interim reports of the committee.

  5. Excise taxes for mineral oils. Investigation of the monitoring. Retrospective of the report; Accijnzen op minerale olien. Toezicht doorgelicht. Terugblik 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-03-30

    December 2003 the Netherlands Court of Audit published a report with the title 'Excise Taxes for Mineral Oils. Investigation of the Monitoring'. The study was carried out in cooperation with the Belgian Court of Audit. The aim of the report was to assess the tasks of the customs with regard to excise taxes on mineral oils (licensing and related procedures). The aim of this report is to review if and whether the Dutch government followed and implemented the recommendations, as formulated in the 2003 report. [Dutch] De Algemene Rekenkamer publiceerde op 13 december 2003 haar onderzoek 'Accijnzen op minerale olien: toezicht doorgelicht. In dit onderzoek, dat gezamenlijk met het Rekenhof van Belgie werd uitgevoerd, is nagegaan in hoeverre de Douane zijn taken op het gebied van de accijns op minerale olien (vergunningverlening, vergunningbeheer en controles) op een goede manier vervult (volgens de eigen voorschriften, risico's in voldoende mate afgedekt enzovoort). Ook is onderzocht in hoeverre er sprake is van een 'administratief gesloten' Europees accijnssysteem, zoals bij de instelling in 1993 werd beoogd.

  6. Application of passive sonar technology to mineral processing and oil sands applications : if you can measure it, you can manage it

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Keefe, C.; Viega, J.; Fernald, M. [CiDRA Corp., Wallingford, CT (United States)

    2007-07-01

    SONAR-based flow and entrained air measurement instruments were described. This new class of industrial flow and compositional analyzers was developed by CiDRA to provide new measurement insight and quantifiable value to industrial process operators. Passive sonar array-based processing units have been installed worldwide in several industrial applications and are particularly suited for a wide range of mineral processing applications, including slurry flow rate measurement and fluid characterization. This paper also described the SONAR-based, clamp-on SONARtrac technology, a scalable platform that provides several other value added measurements and information such as speed of sound, entrained air/gas, gas hold-up, and velocity profile. Oil sands, tailings and bitumen slurries present considerable measurement challenges for in-line flow measurement devices in terms of measurement accuracy, reliability and maintenance. The sonar-based technology platform has been used in a variety of oil sands processes, hydrotransport, and minerals beneficiation applications. This paper described these applications with particular reference to difficult slurry flow measurement and control in the areas of comminution and flotation such as mill discharge, hydrocyclone feed/overflow, final concentrate, thickener discharge, and tailings. 5 refs., 4 tabs., 23 figs.

  7. Formation of Anhydrite due to Interaction Between Water Soluble CO2 (aq) and Calcite Mineral During Enhanced Oil Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakravarty, Krishna Hara; Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup; Thomsen, Kaj

    2015-01-01

    In the Low Salinity based EOR method, formation and migration of fines have proved to have profound effect on the displacement efficiency of residual oil. Salinity variations of injected brines have also been shown to affect oil recovery for WAG-CO2 processes. But the effect of fines in EOR during...... simulations were conducted over a temperature range of 50°C to 250°C and a pressure range of 5 bars to 500 bars. The amounts of fines formation taking place for different LSWAG-CO2 processes were correlated to the described oil recovery. It is observed that significant amounts of fines formation can take...... with the available SO42- ions. The salinity and composition of brines present in pore space shows direct correlation with the amount of fines produced during CO2 injection. With increase in temperature and pressure, the amount fines formation increased significantly. The described oil recovery for different LSWAG...

  8. Mineral statistics yearbook 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    A summary of mineral production in Saskatchewan was compiled and presented as a reference manual. Statistical information on fuel minerals such as crude oil, natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas and coal, and of industrial and metallic minerals, such as potash, sodium sulphate, salt and uranium, was provided in all conceivable variety of tables. Production statistics, disposition and value of sales of industrial and metallic minerals were also made available. Statistical data on drilling of oil and gas reservoirs and crown land disposition were also included. figs., tabs

  9. [Mineral elements analysis of Momordica charantiap seeds by ICP-AES and fatty acid profile identification of seed oil by GC-MS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-ru; Deng, Ze-yuan; Fan, Ya-wei; Li, Jing; Liu, Zhi-han

    2010-08-01

    In the present study, a special kind of Momordica charantia seeds produced in Hai Nan was selected and analyzed. Firstly, inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrophotometry (ICP-AES) was used to determine the mineral elements. It was clear that the contents of K, Mg and P are the highest in the seeds; Cr and Zn takes up to 5.65% and 45.45% high, especially, which are rare in plant foods. These minerals, especially Cr and Zn might have a complex effect on those proteins or polysaccharides and form a stronger anticipation of hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia and cholesterol. Secondly, seed oil was extracted by supercritical CO2 extraction with a yield ratio of 36.89, and the fatty acids were treated by methylation in alkaline process and purified by thin-layer chromatography, then analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) identification. The saturated fatty acids (SFA) take up 36.712, and mainly are stearic acid; monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) is only 3.33% which is dominantly linoleic acid (LA); Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) accounted for 59.96%, and the alpha-eleostearic acid takes up 54.26% as the main fatty acids in all. The plentiful alpha-eleostearic acid leads to strong effects of inhibiting tumor cell proliferation, lowering blood fat, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory and preventing cardiovascular diseases, and so on. Knowing clearly the mineral elements distribution and identifying the composition of fatty acid, especially the main fatty acids in the oil, are both of great guiding importance to further exploit the clinical and edible value in Momordica charantiap seeds.

  10. Application of Thermal Desorption Unit (TDU) to treat low-toxicity mineral oil base cuttings in Barinas District, Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rendon, Ruben [Petroleos de Venezuela, Caracas (Venezuela); Luzardo, Janeth; Alcoba, Alcides [M-I SWACO, Houston, TX (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The potential environmental impact of oil-based drill cuttings is generating increased scrutiny in the oil and gas industry. If left untreated, oil-based cuttings not only increase the risk of environmental liabilities, but also affect revenue, as drilling generates wastes that in most cases require special treatment before disposal. Consequently, the oil industry is looking for technologies to help minimize environmental liabilities. Accordingly, the Barinas District of PDVSA has started a pilot trial to treat oil-based drilling cuttings by applying thermal desorption technology. The main objective of this technology is recovering trapped hydrocarbons, while minimizing wastes and preparing solids to be disposed of through a mobile treatment plant. This novel technology has been used worldwide to treat organic pollutants in soil. Thermal desorption is a technology based on the application of heat in soils polluted with organic compounds. With this technology, target temperatures vary according to the type and concentration of detected pollutants along with its characterization, in such a way that compounds are disposed of by volatilization. As part of the integral waste management development along with the pilot trial for hydrocarbon-contaminated solid waste treatment, trials on soils were undertaken by applying process-generated ashes in equally-sized bins, with different mixtures (ashes, ashes organic material, ashes-organic material-sand, ashes-land). The resulting process offers an immediate soil remediation and final disposal solution for toxic and dangerous waste. (author)

  11. Certifiable Java for Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeberl, Martin; Dalsgaard, Andreas Engelbredt; Hansen, Rene Rydhof

    2014-01-01

    The Certifiable Java for Embedded Systems (CJ4ES) project aimed to develop a prototype development environment and platform for safety-critical software for embedded applications. There are three core constituents: A profile of the Java programming language that is tailored for safety......-critical applications, a predictable Java processor built with FPGA technology, and an Eclipse based application development environment that binds the profile and the platform together and provides analyses that help to provide evidence that can be used as part of a safety case. This paper summarizes key contributions...

  12. Certified randomness in quantum physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acín, Antonio; Masanes, Lluis

    2016-12-07

    The concept of randomness plays an important part in many disciplines. On the one hand, the question of whether random processes exist is fundamental for our understanding of nature. On the other, randomness is a resource for cryptography, algorithms and simulations. Standard methods for generating randomness rely on assumptions about the devices that are often not valid in practice. However, quantum technologies enable new methods for generating certified randomness, based on the violation of Bell inequalities. These methods are referred to as device-independent because they do not rely on any modelling of the devices. Here we review efforts to design device-independent randomness generators and the associated challenges.

  13. 78 FR 72096 - Environmental Documents Prepared for Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of Mexico Outer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... Mexico. SEA T13-003. ATP Oil & Gas Corporation, Brazos, Block 544, Lease 7/11/2013 Structure Removal, SEA... Exploration III, Galveston, Block A40, 7/15/2013 L.P., Structure Removal, SEA ES/ Lease OCS-G 26487, SR 13-128..., 078. located 56 miles from the nearest Louisiana shoreline. Hall-Houston Exploration III, High Island...

  14. Impacts of Horticultural Mineral Oils and Two Insecticide Practices on Population Fluctuation of Diaphorina citri and Spread of Huanglongbing in a Citrus Orchard in Sarawak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Chan Teck Leong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspects of the incidence and spread of the citrus disease huanglongbing (HLB in relation to the vector Diaphorina citri population fluctuation were studied from January 1999 to December 2001 seasons in a 0.8 ha citrus orchard at Jemukan (1° 33′N, 110° 41′E, Southwest Sarawak in Malaysia. In relation to insecticide and horticultural mineral oils (HMOs use, levels of HLB infection rose quite rapidly over the next 3 years in the unsprayed control and less rapidly in the other treatments such as imidacloprid, nC24HMO, and triazophos/cypermethrin/chlorpyrifos. Levels of HLB as determined by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR were 42.2%, 9.4%, 11.4%, and 22.7%, respectively. The effects of nC24HMO and conventional pesticides on the citrus psyllid population and parasitoids in citrus orchard were also determined.

  15. Inactivated H9N2 avian influenza virus vaccine with gel-primed and mineral oil-boosted regimen could produce improved immune response in broiler breeders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, D-H; Kwon, J-S; Lee, H-J; Lee, Y-N; Hur, W; Hong, Y-H; Lee, J-B; Park, S-Y; Choi, I-S; Song, C-S

    2011-05-01

    The frequent economic losses incurred with H9N2 low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAI) infection have raised serious concerns for the poultry industry. A 1-dose regimen with inactivated H9N2 LPAI vaccine could not prevent vaccinated poultry from becoming infected and from shedding wild viruses. A study was conducted to determine whether a 2-dose regimen of inactivated H9N2 LPAI vaccine could enhance the immunologic response in chickens. Such gel-primed and mineral oil-boosted regimen has produced encouraging results associated with improved immune responses to an H9N2 LPAI. This strategy could be cost effective and helpful for preventing avian influenza virus in the poultry industry.

  16. Optimisation of pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) for rapid and efficient extraction of superficial and total mineral oil contamination from dry foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moret, Sabrina; Scolaro, Marianna; Barp, Laura; Purcaro, Giorgia; Sander, Maren; Conte, Lanfranco S

    2014-08-15

    Pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) represents a powerful technique which can be conveniently used for rapid extraction of mineral oil saturated (MOSH) and aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH) from dry foods with a low fat content, such as semolina pasta, rice, and other cereals. Two different PLE methods, one for rapid determination of superficial contamination mainly from the packaging, the other for efficient extraction of total contamination from different sources, have been developed and optimised. The two methods presented good performance characteristics in terms of repeatability (relative standard deviation lower than 5%) and recoveries (higher than 95%). To show their potentiality, the two methods have been applied in combination on semolina pasta and rice packaged in direct contact with recycled cardboard. In the case of semolina pasta it was possible to discriminate between superficial contamination coming from the packaging, and pre-existing contamination (firmly enclosed into the matrix). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Carbonizing bituminous minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1921-05-01

    A process for carbonizing bituminous minerals, like oil-shale, in a furnace with addition of air in the presence of heat-receiving material is characterized by the fact that to the feed such solid or liquid material (with the exception of oil) is added, which, through vaporization or heat-binding decomposition or conversion, hinders the establishment of excessive temperatures.

  18. Environmental Accounting and Reporting in Fossil Fuel Sector : A Study on Bangladesh Oil, Gas and Mineral Corporation (Petrobangla)

    OpenAIRE

    Bose, Sudipta

    2006-01-01

    Petrobangla is the sole responsible organization to maintain the fossil fuel sector in Bangladesh. It is accountable to next generations for oil, gas and other natural resources. It is necessary to ensure optimum use of these resources. Development activities cannot be sustained if these resources are depleted through wasteful use. This study indicates that Petrobangla takes many initiatives to provide environment-friendly energy in the economy. Environmental Accounting and reporting is th...

  19. Integrated project: Microbiological and physiological studies on the presence of residual concentrations in mineral-oil-contaminated soils after rehabilitation. Final report. Pt. 2; Mikrobiologische und physiologische Untersuchungen zur Frage der Restkonzentration bei der Sanierung mineraloelkontaminierter Boeden. Abschlussbericht. T. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miethe, D.; Riis, V.; Stimming, M.

    1996-01-04

    It has been known for a long time that microorganisms are able to utilise mineral oils. Today various methods are practised which exploit autochthonous microorganisms` ability to utilise mineral oils. The main problem of microbial decomposition of hydrocarbons is that mineral oil residues remain. The aim of the present research project was therefore to determine the limits of the metabolisability of the substrate and find out why residues remain. Mineral oils and residual fractions differ markedly in their decomposability. Intermediate distillates are easily decomposed to a degree of 95-97% by well-adapted consorts. For high-boiling mineral oils (bp>400 C) the degree of decomposition is approx. 60%. Extracts from contaminated sites range from 40 to 60% in their degree of decomposability. The incomplete microbial decomposition of mineral oils is mainly due to their structure. There remain chemically and thermally extremely, inert hydrocarbons (mainly aliphatic and aromatic fused-ring systems) which are either hardly metabolisable or not at all. An important factor in soils or at other contaminated sites is that some of the substrate is not available because it is bound to the matrix thus increasing the proportion of residue. The next task after examining and presenting the causes of incomplete decomposition is to minimise residual mineral oil concentrations remaining after microbial decomposition. Here the use of special surfactants or of auxiliary substrates could point a way. Project applications to this end have already been submitted to the Federal Ministry for Education and Research. (orig.) [Deutsch] Dass Mikroorganismen in der Lage sind, Mineraloele zu verwerten, ist seit langem bekannt. Verfahren, die das Potential autochthoner Mikroorganismen zur Verwertung von Mineraloelen nutzen sind Praxis. Hauptproblem beim mikrobiellen Abbau der Kohlenwasserstoffe ist das Verbleiben von Mineraloelresten. Das Ziel des Forschungsvorhabens war die Ermittlung der Grenzen

  20. Quebra de dormência de pereira 'Hosui' com uso de óleo mineral em dois tipos de condução Dormancy broken of 'Hosui' pear trees with mineral oil in two training systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odirlei Raimundo de Oliveira

    2008-06-01

    , need to have their dormancy broken by artificial means. In order to minimize such problem, an experiment was conducted in a 4-year-old 'Hosui' pear (Pyrus pyrifolia with 4.0 x 4.0m tree spacing orchard, at the Canguiri Station, in Pinhais-PR (latitude 25º25'S, longitude 49º08' and altitude of 920m, pertaining to the Federal University of Parana, in which accumulation of 141 chilling hours under 7.2ºC was reached during the 2005 winter. Treatments were applied when plants were at the A1 phenological stage (bud swelling, using a completely randomized factorial design with 4 replications in a 2x4x7 factorial scheme in which two types of tree training, vase or central leader, three mineral oil concentrations, 4, 6 or 8%, and a control applied from August to November 2005, and seven weekly performed evaluations based on the number of buds at pre-budding stage as well as broken and dead buds in four previously selected horizontally inclined 1-year-old stems per tree were tested. Obtained results showed that application of mineral oil at 4, 6 and 8% anticipated bud break compared to the control and enhanced bud break percentage in both training systems, being the concentrations of 6% and 8% more effective in anticipating bud break than 4%. The percentage of bud break at the 84th day after mineral oil application did not differ between the two training systems, i.e. vase and central leader.

  1. Quality of Organic Vegetables Grown in Two Certified Sites on the Outskirts of Bucharest Municipality

    OpenAIRE

    Lungu Mihaela; Ștefănescu Sorin Liviu; Dumitrașcu Monica

    2017-01-01

    Soil fertility properties, irrigation water quality, mineral nutrition, and some vegetables mineral composition were studied in the frame of a project regarding yield quality monitoring in certified organic vegetable farms, in two farms placed on the outskirts of Bucharest Municipality which provide products for the town’s organic market. Chemical analysis of the soil samples collected from the two farms reflects a good fertility, close to the natural one of this region soils, with well-balan...

  2. Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobbett, G T.B.

    1907-07-08

    Crude petroleum having a density of 850 to 900 is purified with sulfuric acid, decanted, mixed with benzine or petrol, and again treated with sulfuric acid and decanted. The remaining acid and coloring-matter are removed by washing with water, or treating with oxalic acid, zinc carbonate, lead carbonate, calcium carbonate, or oxide of zinc. The product is used as a fuel for internal-combustion engines. Specifications No. 28,104, A.D. 1906, and No. 12,606, A.D. 1907, are referred to. According to the Provisional Specification, the process is applicable to shale or schist oil.

  3. ENERGY STAR Certified Data Center Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Data Center Storage that are effective as of December 2, 2013. A detailed listing of key efficiency criteria are available at http://www.energystar.gov/certified-products/detail/data_center_storage

  4. On-road performance analysis of R134a/R600a/R290 refrigerant mixture in an automobile air-conditioning system with mineral oil as lubricant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravikumar, T.S.; Mohan Lal, D.

    2009-01-01

    R134a has been accepted as the single major refrigerant in the automobile industry and it has been used worldwide. But, the problem associated with it is the use of the PAG oil as the lubricant. Unlike the conventional mineral oil, the synthetic PAG oil used with R134a is highly hygroscopic in nature. The PAG lubricants come with different additives unique for different compressors. This leads to serious service issues. Therefore, a refrigerant, which will be readily available to replace R12, and also compatible with mineral oil, is needed. In the present study the readily available R134a is used in place of R12. However, to avoid PAG oil and to use the conventional mineral oil as lubricant, R134a is mixed with the commercially available hydrocarbon blend, (45.2% R290 and 56.8% R600a) in the proportion of 91% and 9%, respectively by mass. The quantity of hydrocarbons used is well below the lower flammable limit. This new mixture R134a/R600a/R290 is tested in the air-conditioning system of a passenger car 'on road' in the true running conditions and compared with the results that has been obtained with R12. The cool down performance under varying speed and varying ambient conditions, system performance under severe accelerating conditions and bumper-to-bumper traffic conditions is studied. The test results show that the new blend can be a promising substitute for the existing R12 systems and it can eliminate the use of hygroscopic PAG oil.

  5. Variations in the growth, oil quantity and quality, and mineral nutrients of chamomile genotypes under salinity stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Askari-Khorasgani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how plants respond to salinity, which severely restricts plant growth, productivity, and survival, is highly important in agriculture. Using three genotypes of Matricaria recutita L. (Shiraz, Ahvaz, and Isfahan with different sensitivity to NaCl, the effect of long-term (about 110 days NaCl treatments (2.5, 6, 9, and 12 dS*m-1 on crop growth, oil quality and quantity, and nutrient variations were investigated to underpin its agricultural management in the future. The adaptation strategy and plant responses were influenced by salinity level, genotype, and genotype × salinity interactions. With higher productivity compared to the Isfahan genotype, the Shiraz and Ahvaz genotypes had efficient Na+ exclusion at root surface as an avoidance strategy; however, under higher NaCl concentration, their higher performance were mainly attributed to the Na+ sequestration in root vacuoles and higher Ca2+/Na+, Mg2+/Na+, and root/shoot ratios as tolerance strategies. The higher oil yield and chamazulene percentage in the Isfahan genotype were not affected by salinity level and were only genotype dependent. Under 12 dS*m-1 NaCl, roots of the Shiraz and Ahvaz genotypes accumulated markedly higher Ca2+ (2.5% and 1.5% respectively and Mg2+ (1.6% and 1.3% respectively, required for membrane stability and chlorophyll synthesis, respectively, more than the Isfahan genotype (0.2% Ca and 0.1% Mg2+ and considerably more than the control plants to keep low concentrations of ion toxicity of Na2+ and Cl- in shoots. Overall, greater salt tolerance found in the Shiraz and Ahvaz genotypes could be due to a variety of mechanisms, including higher efficiency of nutrient uptake (Ca2+, Mg2+, and Zn2+, utilization (N, P, Ca2+, and Mg2+, compartmentation (Na in roots, and maintenance of higher root/shoot ratios. Taking flower and oil yield as well as chamazulene percentage into consideration, the findings recommended cultivation of the Ahvaz genotype in the absence of

  6. Manitoba oil activity review, 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Annual review is presented of Manitoba Crown oil and gas dispositions, mineral owner leasing and revenue, geophysical and drilling activity, areas of activity, oil production and markets, oil prices, value of production, provincial revenue from oil production, surface owners, spills and reclamation, municipal taxes, the Manitoba Drilling Incentive Program, oil reserves, oil industry expenditures, and industry employment. Highlights of the current year are included

  7. Minerals industry survey, 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    This is the seventh edition of the statistical survey commissioned by the Australian Mining Industry Council. It represents the most comprehensive review of the financial position of the Australian minerals industry and provides timely financial data on the minerals industry. The tables of this survey have been prepared for AMIC by Coopers and Lybrand, Chartered Accountants, based on information supplied to them in confidence by the respondent companies. For the purpose of the survey, the minerals industry has been defined as including exploration for, and extraction and primary processing of, minerals in Australia. The oil and gas industry is not included.

  8. Recovery of asphalt from bituminous minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jossinet, J

    1881-12-31

    A process is disclosed for the recovery of asphalt from bituminous minerals, consisting in that the mineral is extracted with mineral oil, which is recovered by distilling the raw asphalt and distilling the solution to obtain on the one hand the liquid oil contained in the raw asphalt for use in the extraction and on the other hand distilled asphalt.

  9. Outlook 96: Minerals and Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Papers discussing the future of Australia's minerals and energy are presented under the following headings: Australia in the global minerals and energy markets; minerals exploration; steelmaking raw materials; aluminium and alumina; gold; nickel; base metals; titanium minerals; energy for a sustainable future; electricity; electricity in Asia; crude oil; coal trade; natural gas in Australia and uranium. Relevant papers are individually indexed/abstracted. Tabs., figs., refs

  10. 30 CFR 202.100 - Royalty on oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Royalty on oil. 202.100 Section 202.100 Mineral... Federal and Indian Oil § 202.100 Royalty on oil. (a) Royalties due on oil production from leases subject...) All oil (except oil unavoidably lost or used on, or for the benefit of, the lease, including that oil...

  11. Fenologia, brotação de gemas e produção de frutos de macieira em resposta à aplicação de cianamida hidrogenada e óleo mineral Phenology, budbreak and apple fruit production by hydrogen cyanamide and mineral oil application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando José Hawerroth

    2009-01-01

    , detecting this effects along of productive season became important. Thus, this study was carried out during 2007/2008 season, in Caçador, Santa Catarina State, Brazil, aiming to evaluate different hydrogen cyanamide and mineral oil combinations on phenology, budbreak and apple fruit production. The experimental design was a randomized block, with six replications, in factorial arrangement (5x2, with five budbreak promoter treatments (1. control; 2. mineral oil 3.2%; 3. mineral oil 3.2% + hydrogen cyanamide 0.20%; 4. mineral oil 3.2% + hydrogen cyanamide 0.39%; 5. mineral oil 3.2% + hydrogen cyanamide 0.59% and two cultivars (Imperial Gala and Suprema's Fuji. The budbreak promoters application anticipated and reduced the blooming period, increasing the blooming overlap between Imperial Gala and Suprema's Fuji cultivars. The budbreak promoters equalized and increased the budbreak in axillary and terminal buds, with the major budbreak level observed in Imperial Gala cultivar with 0.44% of hydrogen cyanamide and 3.2% of mineral oil treatment. The increase of hydrogen cyanamide concentration showed the tendency to decrease the fruit set. It was observed different treatment responses on production and mean fruit weight, probably to be related to fruit production predominance in different frutification structures.

  12. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Ice Machines

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 2.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Automatic Commercial Ice Makers that are...

  13. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Refrigerators and Freezers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 4.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Refrigerators and Freezers that are...

  14. ENERGY STAR Certified Geothermal Heat Pumps

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.1 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Geothermal Heat Pumps that are effective as of...

  15. 12 CFR 327.2 - Certified statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the FDIC's e-business Web site FDICconnect a quarterly certified statement invoice each assessment... of the Assessments Section. (4) Each assessment period, the FDIC will provide courtesy e-mail...

  16. ENERGY STAR Certified Residential Clothes Washers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 8.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Clothes Washers that are effective as of...

  17. ENERGY STAR Certified Residential Clothes Dryers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.1 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Clothes Dryers that are effective as of January...

  18. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Clothes Washers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 8.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Clothes Washers that are effective as of...

  19. ENERGY STAR Certified Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment that are...

  20. ENERGY STAR Certified Light Commercial HVAC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.1 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Light Commercial HVAC that are effective as of...

  1. ENERGY STAR Certified Room Air Conditioners

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 4.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Room Air Conditioners that are effective as of...

  2. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Steam Cookers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.2 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Steam Cookers that are effective as...

  3. ENERGY STAR Certified Small Network Equipment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Small Networking Equipment that are effective as...

  4. ENERGY STAR Certified Room Air Cleaners

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.2 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Room Air Cleaners that are effective as of July...

  5. Get Your Automotive Program Nationally Certified!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundquist, Patricia A.

    2000-01-01

    Automotive programs that nationally certified enhance student recruitment and give students better employment opportunities. Technicians who earn the Automotive Service Excellence credential have joined the ranks of professionals in the automotive service industry. (Author/JOW)

  6. ENERGY STAR Certified Uninterruptible Power Supplies

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Uninterruptible Power Supplies that are...

  7. The influence of sublethal deposits of agricultural mineral oil on the functional and numerical responses of Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae) to its prey, Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yingen; Meats, Alan; Beattie, G Andrew C; Spooner-Hart, Robert; Herron, Grant A

    2009-08-01

    Occasional pesticide application in integrated pest management to at least part of a crop requires that any biological control agents must re-invade previously sprayed areas in order that resurgent pests can be constrained. The ability of the phytoseiid predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis to feed on adult two-spotted spider mite (TSSM) Tetranychus urticae on excised leaf discs in both control conditions and in a treatment with a sub lethal residue of agricultural mineral oil (AMO) was assessed. The predator exhibited a Type II functional response with the asymptote significantly higher in the AMO conditions due to the fact that the prey grew slower and reached a smaller size in this treatment. In terms of prey volume eaten, the satiation level of the predator was unchanged by the AMO deposits. The numbers of eggs produced by adult P. persimilis females at densities of 4, 8 and 16 TSSM adult females/disc in the control were significantly higher than those in the AMO treatment, but were similar for the higher density levels, 32 and 64 prey per disc. Thus the functional response in terms of volume of prey eaten explained the numerical response in terms of predator eggs produced. The presence of AMO deposits when the prey were at high density had no effect on predator efficiency (volume eaten) but resulted in a lower intake than that in control conditions when there was a greater distance between prey.

  8. Age-Related Loss in Bone Mineral Density of Rats Fed Lifelong on a Fish Oil-Based Diet Is Avoided by Coenzyme Q10 Addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Varela-López

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available During aging, bone mass declines increasing osteoporosis and fracture risks. Oxidative stress has been related to this bone loss, making dietary compounds with antioxidant properties a promising weapon. Male Wistar rats were maintained for 6 or 24 months on diets with fish oil as unique fat source, supplemented or not with coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10, to evaluate the potential of adding this molecule to the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA-based diet for bone mineral density (BMD preservation. BMD was evaluated in the femur. Serum osteocalcin, osteopontin, receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand, ostroprotegerin, parathyroid hormone, urinary F2-isoprostanes, and lymphocytes DNA strand breaks were also measured. BMD was lower in aged rats fed a diet without CoQ10 respect than their younger counterparts, whereas older animals receiving CoQ10 showed the highest BMD. F2-isoprostanes and DNA strand breaks showed that oxidative stress was higher during aging. Supplementation with CoQ10 prevented oxidative damage to lipid and DNA, in young and old animals, respectively. Reduced oxidative stress associated to CoQ10 supplementation of this n-3 PUFA-rich diet might explain the higher BMD found in aged rats in this group of animals.

  9. The importance of using certified seed

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdanović Sandra; Mladenov Velimir; Balešević-Tubić Svetlana

    2015-01-01

    Certified seed is produced from the seed of known genetic origin and genetic purity with controlled and tested production, processed and declared in accordance with the Law on Seeds. Production of certified seed is carried out under the supervision of the Ministry of Agriculture and Environmental Protection, by seed producers formally listed in the Seed Register. Seed is processed in registered seed processing centres and quality is tested in laboratories accredited for seed testing. The orga...

  10. Superação da dormência de cultivares de mirtileiro em ambiente protegido com cianamida hidrogenada e óleo mineral Dormancy breaking of blueberries cultivars in a protected environment with hydrogen cyanamide and mineral oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Coletti

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O mirtileiro é uma frutífera de clima temperado que necessita de frio no outono/inverno. A insuficiência de frio pode provocar deficiente e desuniforme brotação e floração, com reflexos na produção. A pesquisa realizada na Universidade de Passo Fundo-RS, teve por objetivo estudar a superação da dormência de cultivares de mirtileiro (Georgiagem, Climax e Aliceblue em ambiente protegido, tratadas em 25-07-2007 com cianamida hidrogenada (CH, nas doses de 0,52% e 1,04% (1% e 2% do produto comercial Dormex®, com a adição de 0,5% de óleo mineral (OM, comparando com plantas sem tratamento. As plantas encontravam-se no terceiro ciclo vegetativo e no primeiro de produção. O plantio foi realizado em 2005, no espaçamento de 0,7 m x 2,0 m, com irrigação por gotejamento. De acordo com os resultados obtidos, a aplicação no final de julho de CH + OM concentrou e uniformizou a floração e antecipou a brotação das cvs. Georgiagem e Clímax. A cianamida hidrogenada, nas concentrações de 0,52% e 1,04% (1% e 2% de Dormex®, combinado com 0,5% de óleo mineral, não teve efeito na porcentagem de brotação, mas reduziu a produção, evidenciando efeitos fitotóxicos.Blueberry require chilling hours accumulation in the fall/winter. Insufficient cold accumulation can cause deficient and desuniform sprouting and blooming, with negative consequences on yield. The research conducted in Passo Fundo University, state of Rio Grande do Sul, had the objective of studying the dormancy breaking of blueberries cultivars (Georgiagem, Climax and Aliceblue under greenhouse conditions, submitted to treatments with hydrogen cyanamide (HC at the doses of 0.52% and 1.04% (1% and 2% of the commercial product Dormex®, with the addition of 0.5% of mineral oil (MO, and compare them to a control, without hydrogen cyanamide treatment. Planting was made in December 2005, at a 0.7 m x 2.0 m space, with drip irrigation. The plants were evaluated in the third

  11. 30 CFR 281.8 - Rights to minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rights to minerals. 281.8 Section 281.8 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF MINERALS OTHER THAN OIL, GAS, AND SULPHUR IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF General § 281.8 Rights to minerals. (a) Unless...

  12. Efeito da inclusão de diferentes fontes lipídicas e óleo mineral na dieta sobre a digestibilidade dos nutrientes e os níveis plasmáticos de gordura em equinos Inclusion of different fat sources and mineral oil in equine diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Martins Ribeiro

    2009-10-01

    quantity nor the type of oil added to the diets. The smallest dry matter (DM digestibility values, organic matter (OM and ether extract (EE were observed for the diets with the addition of mineral oil (58.90, 60.29 and 32.02% compared to the control diet, whose values were 62.58, 64.41 and 77.71%. The EE digestibility coefficient obtained for the diets with animal fat (90.26% and vegetable fat (86.47%. The diet with mineral oil reduced the HDL-C concentration (68.75 mg/dL compared to the control diet (76.00 mg/dL. The adition of fat sources and mineral oil did not influence the acceptability of the diet by the horses. The vegetable oil did not differ from animal fat regarding nutrient digestibility, but these fat sources affected ether extract digestibility. The addition of mineral oil reduced the plastmatic HDL-C levels while the addition of animal fat and vegetable fat did not alter the cholesterol plasmatic concentrations.

  13. Alternatives to Mineral Oil Adjuvants in Vaccines Against Aeromonas salmonicida subs. salmonicida in Rainbow Trout Offer Reductions in Adverse Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, Kasper Rømer; Koppang, Erling Olaf; Christensen, Dennis

    2017-01-01

    In an effort to reduce the frequency and severity of adverse reactions seen from the use of mineral oil adjuvants in salmonid fish, the effects of two alternative adjuvants were assessed, focusing on the induction of adverse effects as well as protection. Using rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)...... protection appears similar to that of the benchmark formulation, thus introducing viable, potential alternative types of adjuvants for use in future fish vaccines....

  14. Mineral industry statistics 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    Production, consumption and marketing statistics are given for solid fuels (coal, peat), liquid fuels and gases (oil, natural gas), iron ore, bauxite and other minerals quarried in France, in 1975. Also accident statistics are included. Production statistics are presented of the Overseas Departments and territories (French Guiana, New Caledonia, New Hebrides). An account of modifications in the mining field in 1975 is given. Concessions, exploitation permits, and permits solely for prospecting for mineral products are discussed. (In French)

  15. Evaluation of Vermicompost and Nitrogen Biofertilizer Effects on Flowering Shoot Yield, Essential Oil and Mineral Uptake (N, P and K in Summer Savory (Satureja hortensis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Haj Seyed Hadi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Summer Savory (Satureia hortensis L. is the representative plants of Lamiaceae family, which has high significant nutritional and taste values. Its pharmacopoeial raw material is herb (Satureiae herba, which contains many different biologically active compounds beside essential oil and minerals like calcium, potassium, magnesium, iron, and zinc. Sustainable agricultural systems has became an important issue throughout the world. It is obvious that intensive cultivation has led to a rapid decline in organic matter and nutrient levels as well as affecting the physical soil properties . The biofertilizers practice (such as vermicompost and biological nitrogen fixing bacteria has been recognized for a long time as an effective means of improving the structure and fertility of the soil, increasing the microbial diversity, activity and population, improving the water storage capacity of soils and crop yield. Materials and Methods This investigation was conducted at agricultural research fields of RAN Company at Firouzkuh, Iran in 2015. Factorial experiment based on randomized complete blocks design with two factors and three replications were chosen as an experimental design. The factors were biological nitrogen fertilizer at three levels of Control, Nitroxine and Supernitroplus, and vermicompost at four levels 0, 5, 10 and 15 ton per hectare. Measured traits consisted of fresh and dry plant weight, flowering shoot yield, essential oil content, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium percentage in aboveground shoots. All data were subjected to statistical analysis (one-way ANOVA using SAS software. Duncan’s multiple range test (DMRT at 5% probability level were performed to calculate means of comparison. Data were transformed when necessary before analysis to satisfy the assumptions of normality. Results and Discussion Results showed that the highest fresh and dry plant weight (41.10 and 12.93g/plant, respectively and essential oil content

  16. 7 CFR 945.7 - Certified seed potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certified seed potatoes. 945.7 Section 945.7... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN... Certified seed potatoes. Certified seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes officially certified and...

  17. A Comparison of Retention Rates of Alternatively Certified and Traditional Certified Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dial, Micah

    1992-01-01

    A survey of 2,500 teachers entering a large urban school district over the last 7 years showed that alternatively certified teachers were as likely as traditional, university-certified teachers to remain in the profession and pay back the school district's initial investment in teacher training. Many become committed to teaching as a meaningful…

  18. Executive order no. 297 of 3. April 2006. Executive order concerning the law on energy taxation in relation to mineral oil products etc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    With this the law on energy taxation in relation to mineral oil products etc. is announced, with reference to executive order no. 701 of 28. September 1998 with the amendments which follow paragraph 1 of law no. 325 of 28. May 1999, paragraph 16 of law no. 380 of 2. June 1999, paragraph 2 of law no. 390 of 2. June 1999, paragraph 1 of law no. 960 of 20. December 1999, paragraph 4 of law no. 963 of 20. December 1999, paragraph 9 of law no. 165 of 15. March 2000, paragraph 30 of law no. 1029 of 22. November 2000, paragraph 1 of law no. 1297 of 20. December 2000, paragraph 1 of law no. 393 of 6. June 2002, law no. 395 of 6. June 2002, paragraph 4 of law no. 962 of 2. December 2003, paragraph 2 of law no. 1391 of 20. December 2004, paragraph 27 of law no. 325 of 18. May 2005, paragraph 47 of law no. 428 of 6. June 2005, paragraph 12 of law no. 1414 of 21. December 2005, paragraph 5 of law no. 1416 of 21. December 2005 and paragraph 5 of law no. 1417 of 21. December 2005. The law contains provisions which implement Directive 2003/96/EC of 17. October 2003 relating to restructuring of the Community framework for the taxation of energy products and electricity as well as parts of Directive 2003/17/EC of 3. March 2003 amending Directive 98/70/EC of 13. October 1998 relating to the quality of petrol and diesel fuel. (BA)

  19. An investigation of safety climate in OHSAS 18001-certified and non-certified organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahramani, Abolfazl

    2016-09-01

    Many organizations worldwide have implemented Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series (OHSAS) 18001 in their premises because of the assumed positive effects of this standard on safety. Few studies have analyzed the effect of the safety climate in OHSAS 18001-certified organizations. This case-control study used a new safety climate questionnaire to evaluate three OHSAS 18001-certified and three non-certified manufacturing companies in Iran. Hierarchical regression indicated that the safety climate was influenced by OHSAS implementation and by safety training. Employees who received safety training had better perceptions of the safety climate and its dimensions than other respondents within the certified companies. This study found that the implementation of OHSAS 18001 does not guarantee improvement of the safety climate. This study also emphasizes the need for high-quality safety training for employees of the certified companies to improve the safety climate.

  20. ENERGY STAR Certified Geothermal Heat Pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Geothermal Heat Pumps that are effective as of January 1, 2012. A detailed listing of key efficiency criteria are available at http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=geo_heat.pr_crit_geo_heat_pumps

  1. Certified reference materials for organic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    QianChuanfan

    2002-01-01

    This presentation discusses the requirements for certified reference materials (CRMs) to be used in measurements of residues of pesticides in food and environmental samples. It deals with the types of CRMs, matrix selection, sample preparation and representativeness. It also discusses CRM validity period and gives some examples of CRM preparation

  2. 31 CFR 306.45 - Certifying individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certifying individuals. 306.45 Section 306.45 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL... employees of depository institutions, corporate central credit unions, and institutions that are members of...

  3. 31 CFR 357.31 - Certifying individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certifying individuals. 357.31 Section 357.31 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL... institutions, corporate central credit unions, and institutions that are members of Treasury-recognized...

  4. 31 CFR 346.14 - Certifying officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certifying officers. 346.14 Section 346.14 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL... imprint of the corporate seal, or, where the institution is an authorized issuing agent for United States...

  5. 31 CFR 341.14 - Certifying officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certifying officers. 341.14 Section 341.14 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL... imprint of the corporate seal, or, where the institution is an authorized issuing agent for United States...

  6. 28 CFR 33.32 - Certified programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Statistics, and the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, certifies that the following... the National Institute of Justice, Director of the Bureau of Justice Statistics, and Administrator of the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, as having proved successful. (15)(i...

  7. Mineral Resource Information System for Field Lab in the Osage Mineral Reservation Estate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, H.B.; Johnson, William I.

    1999-04-27

    The Osage Mineral Reservation Estate is located in Osage County, Oklahoma. Minerals on the Estate are owned by members of the Osage Tribe who are shareholders in the Estate. The Estate is administered by the Osage Agency, Branch of Minerals, operated by the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). Oil, natural gas, casinghead gas, and other minerals (sand, gravel, limestone, and dolomite) are exploited by lessors. Operators may obtain from the Branch of Minerals and the Osage Mineral Estate Tribal Council leases to explore and exploit oil, gas, oil and gas, and other minerals on the Estate. Operators pay a royalty on all minerals exploited and sold from the Estate. A mineral Resource Information system was developed for this project to evaluate the remaining hydrocarbon resources located on the Estate. Databases on Microsoft Excel spreadsheets of operators, leases, and production were designed for use in conjunction with an evaluation spreadsheet for estimating the remaining hydrocarbons on the Estate.

  8. Determination of the mineral compositions of some selected oil-bearing seeds and kernels using Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Özcan, M.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to establish the mineral contents of oil-bearing seeds and kernels such as peanut, turpentine, walnut, hazelnut, sesame, corn, poppy, almond, sunflower etc., using Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES. Significant differences in mineral composition were observed among crops. All seeds and kernels contained high amounts of Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na, P and Zn. B, Cr, Cu, Li, Ni, Sr, Ti while V contents of the crops were found to be very low. The levels of K and P of all crops in this study were found to be higher than those of other seeds and kernels. The results obtained from analyses of the crops showed that the mean levels of potassiumcontent ranged from 1701.08 mg/kg (corn to 20895.8 mg/kg (soybean, the average content of phosphorus ranged from 3076.9 mg/kg (turpentine to 12006,5 mg/kg to 2617.4 mg/kg (cotton seed, and Ca from 68.4 mg/kg (corn to 13195.7 mg/kg (poppy seed. The results show that these values may  be useful for the evaluation of dietary information. Particularly the obtained results provide evidence that soybean, pinestone and poppy seed are a good source of K, P and Ca, respectively. Whereas pinestone is a good source of zinc.La finalidad del trabajo es establecer el contenido en elementos minerales de semillas oleaginosas tales como cacahuetes, trementina, avellana, sesamo, maiz, almendras, girasol, utilizando ICP-AES. Se han observado diferencias significativas en la composición de minerales entre cosechas. Todas las semillas contienen cantidades elevadas de Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na, P y Zn. Los contenidos de B, Cr, Cu, Li, Ni, Sr, Ti y V, sin embargo, fueron bajos. Los contenidos de K y P en todas las semillas estudiadas fueron superiores a las de otras semillas. El contenido medio de K osciló entre 1.701,1 mg/kg (maiz a 20.895,8 mg/kg (soja, el P entre 3.076.9 mg/kg (trementina a 12.006.5 mg/kg o 2.617,4 mg/kg (semilla de algodón, y Ca de 68,4 mg/kg (maiz a 13.195,7 mg

  9. 25 CFR 225.33 - Assignment of minerals agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assignment of minerals agreements. 225.33 Section 225.33 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS Minerals Agreements § 225.33 Assignment of minerals agreements. An...

  10. 30 CFR 256.80 - Leases of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leases of other minerals. 256.80 Section 256.80 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF SULPHUR OR OIL AND GAS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Section 6 Leases § 256.80 Leases of other minerals. The...

  11. Leakage from medically-certified to self-certified workplace absence among norwegian employees

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsen, Geir Runar; Ytterstad, Elinor

    2017-01-01

    Source at https://dx.doi.org/10.1080/20021518.2017.1411119 There are two different kinds of sickness absence in Norway: self-certified absence (SCA), and medically-certified absence (MCA). In this study of 6437 Norwegian employees, we applied logistic regression models for a dichotomous SCA variable on initially 38 independent vari- ables including age and gender. Our findings showed that employees reporting long-term health issues but no record of MCA in the past 12 months (...

  12. Afghanistans Oil, Gas, and Minerals Industries: $488 Million in U.S. Efforts Show Limited Progress Overall, and Challenges Prevent Further Investment and Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    26 SIGAR 16-11-AR/Afghanistan’s Extractive Industries Page vi ABBREVIATIONS AGS Afghanistan Geological Survey APA ...home to a variety of geological formations with an abundance of minerals, precious metals, gemstones, and hydrocarbons, estimated by TFBSO to be worth...mineral resources. The MoMP’s Afghan Petroleum Authority ( APA ) has exclusive responsibility for establishing hydrocarbon policy and regulating the

  13. Certified pediatric nurses' perceptions of job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Janet; Harrison, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    The Pediatric Nursing Certification Board surveyed a national sample of 1354 hospital-based certified pediatric nurses (CPNs) to determine their perceptions of certification on job satisfaction and other factors. There is a substantial body of literature that demonstrates job satisfaction among nurses positively increases retention and reduces absenteeism and burnout. CPNs seek certification for a personal sense of achievement, professional recognition, and validation of clinical competency. The certified nurse survey respondents had self-reported high levels of job satisfaction and indicated that relationships with colleagues and a supportive work environment were very important to their levels of job satisfaction. The results of this study highlight important factors for hospitals to consider as they plan strategies and cost-effective ways to positively affect patient care and retain qualified pediatric nurses at the bedside.

  14. Control of San Jose Scale Nymphs, Diaspidiotus perniciosus (Comstock, on Almond and Apple Orchards with Pyriproxyfen, Phenoxycarb, Chlorpyrifos, and Mineral Oil Control de Ninfas de la Escama de San José, Diaspidiotus perniciosus (Comstock, en Almendros y Manzanos con Piriproxifen, Fenoxicarb, Clorpirifos y Aceite Mineral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Sazo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of pyriproxyfen, phenoxycarb, chlorpyrifos, and mineral oil in the control of first generation nymphs of the San Jose scale (SJC, Diaspidiotus perniciosus (Comstock, in almond, Prunusdulcis (Mill. D.A. Webb, and apple, Malusdomestica Borkh. orchards was studied in the 2001-2002 season in central Chile. One and two sprays of pyriproxyfen 0.07% and phenoxycarb 0.05% were applied, the first at the beginning of the appearance of nymphs in early spring (biofix, and the other 15 days later, and were compared with one spray of chlorpyrifos 0.08% applied at the biofix. Also, one and two sprays of mineral oil 1% were evaluated, the first applied 7 days after the biofix, and the second 15 days after the first spray. Evaluations were done in the laboratory at the end of the dispersion of first generation nymphs, on December 27 and 28 for almonds and apples, respectively, counting the number of nymphs fixed per lineal meter of new twigs collected at infested sectors, percentage of infested apples, and the number of scales fixed per fruit. Results were subjected to ANOVA and Duncan multiple range tests. At low level infestation, one application of pyriproxyfen 0.07%, phenoxycarb 0.05%, or mineral oil 1% in spring reduced significantly (P≤0.05 the number of nymphs fixed per twig, at a level similar to that of a traditional treatment of chlorpyrifos 0.08%. However, at greater infestations, one spray of pyriproxyfen or mineral oil in spring was insufficient to control ESJ.En la temporada 2001-2002 se estudió el efecto de piriproxifen, fenoxicarb, clorpyrifos y aceite mineral en el control de las ninfas de la primera generación de la Escama de San José (ESJ, Diaspidiotus perniciosus (Comstock, en almendros, Prunusdulcis (Mill. D.A. Webb, y manzanos, Malusdomestica Borkh., en Chile central. Se hicieron una y dos aplicaciones de piriproxifen 0,07% y fenoxicarb 0,05%, la primera en el inicio del nacimiento de ninfas de primavera (biofix y la segunda

  15. Certifying the absence of quantum nonlocality

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Carl A.; Shi, Yaoyun

    2016-01-01

    Quantum nonlocality is an inherently non-classical feature of quantum mechanics and manifests itself through violation of Bell inequalities for nonlocal games. We show that in a fairly general setting, a simple extension of a nonlocal game can certify instead the absence of quantum nonlocality. Through contraposition, our result implies that a super-classical performance for such a game ensures that a player's output is unpredictable to the other player. Previously such output unpredictabilit...

  16. Manitoba oil activity review, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This report is the annual review of Manitoba Crown oil and gas dispositions, mineral owner leasing and revenue, geophysical and drilling activity, areas of activity, oil production and markets, oil prices, value of production, provincial revenue from oil production, surface owners, spills and reclamation, municipal taxes, the Manitoba Drilling Incentive Program, oil reserves, oil industry expenditures, and industry employment. Highlights of the current year are included

  17. Manitoba oil activity review, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This report is the annual review of Manitoba Crown oil and gas dispositions, mineral owner leasing and revenue, geophysical and drilling activity, areas of activity, oil production and markets, oil prices, value of production, provincial revenue from oil production, surface owners, spills and reclamation, municipal taxes, the Manitoba Drilling Incentive Program, oil reserves, oil industry expenditures, and industry employment. Highlights of the current year are included

  18. Mineral facilities of Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almanzar, Francisco; Baker, Michael S.; Elias, Nurudeen; Guzman, Eric

    2010-01-01

    This map displays over 1,700 records of mineral facilities within the countries of Europe and western Eurasia. Each record represents one commodity and one facility type at a single geographic location. Facility types include mines, oil and gas fields, and plants, such as refineries, smelters, and mills. Common commodities of interest include aluminum, cement, coal, copper, gold, iron and steel, lead, nickel, petroleum, salt, silver, and zinc. Records include attributes, such as commodity, country, location, company name, facility type and capacity (if applicable), and latitude and longitude geographical coordinates (in both degrees-minutes-seconds and decimal degrees). The data shown on this map and in table 1 were compiled from multiple sources, including (1) the most recently available data from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook (Europe and Central Eurasia volume), (2) mineral statistics and information from the USGS Minerals Information Web site (http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/europe.html), and (3) data collected by the USGS minerals information country specialists from sources, such as statistical publications of individual countries, annual reports and press releases of operating companies, and trade journals. Data reflect the most recently published table of industry structure for each country at the time of this publication. Additional information is available from the country specialists listed in table 2.

  19. Job satisfaction among multiple sclerosis certified nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulick, Elsie E; Halper, June; Costello, Kathleen

    2007-08-01

    Several studies document high levels of job satisfaction among certified nurses, but no study has examined job satisfaction and factors influencing job satisfaction of certified multiple sclerosis (MS) nurses. This study tested a theoretical model proposing that two organizational factors, colleague relationships and benefits, will predict job satisfaction. Job satisfaction was represented by four factors: autonomy, professional status, professional growth, and time efficiency. Participants included MS nurses certified for 6 months or more practicing mostly in three countries (Canada, Great Britain, and the United States) who anonymously completed the Misener Nurse Practitioner Job Satisfaction Scale, an overall job satisfaction rating, and demographic information. Findings indicate that colleague relationships and benefits significantly estimated organization structure and that autonomy, professional status, professional growth, and time efficiency significantly estimated job satisfaction; furthermore, organization factors such as colleague relationships and benefits significantly predict job satisfaction. Among the countries, several statistically significant differences were observed between job satisfaction factors as well as items in both organization and job satisfaction subscales. Average factor scores among the countries were mostly rated satisfactory. The International Organization of Multiple Sclerosis Nurses Executive Board plans to use the study findings to see how it needs to focus efforts as an organization toward enhancing and standardizing MS care and develop MS nurse professionalism worldwide.

  20. Development of solid water-equivalent radioactive certified reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finke, E.; Greupner, H.; Groche, K.; Rittwag, R.; Geske, G.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a brief description of the development of solid water-equivalent beta volume radioactive certified reference materials. These certified reference materials were prepared for the beta fission nuclides 90 Sr/ 90 Y, 137 Cs, 147 Pm and 204 Tl. Comparative measurements of liquid and solid water-equivalent beta volume radioactive certified reference materials are discussed. (author)

  1. 76 FR 19310 - Information Collection; Certified State Mediation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Farm Service Agency Information Collection; Certified State Mediation... supports the Certified State Mediation Program. The information collection is necessary to ensure the grant... submit comments by any of the following methods: Mail: Carol Wagner, Certified State Mediation Program...

  2. Contributions to Economic Geology, 1913: Part II - Mineral Fuels - Oil and Gas in the Western Part of the Olympic Peninsula, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupton, Charles T.

    1915-01-01

    High-grade paraffin oil is reported to have been discovered in the western part of the Olympic Peninsula, Wash., as early as 1881. Since then attempts to obtain oil or gas in commercial quantities by drilling have been made from time to time in different localities in this region, but without success. Within the past few years interest has been aroused in oil seeps near the mouth of Hoh River and in gas vents in other parts of the field to such an extent that many persons have been attracted to this country to search for oil and gas. As a result of this interest and on account of the fact that efforts had been made to lease tracts of land for this purpose in the Queniult Indian Reservation, an examination of this region was made by the United States Geological Survey at the request of the Office of Indian Affairs. The results of the investigation, which are enumerated below and which are discussed in detail throughout this report, suggest that certain parts of the field are worthy of careful consideration by oil operators. The following summary includes the most important facts regarding the area examined: High-grade paraffin oil issues from two seeps near the mouth of Hoh River, and at other localities oil-saturated sandy clay ('smell mud' of the Indians) is exposed. Natural gas containing about 95 per cent methane escapes from a conical mound just north of the mouth of Queniult River and also from an inverted cone-shaped water-filled depression on Hoh River a short distance west of Spruce post office. Other minor gas vents are also known in this field and are described in detail in this report. Three wells - one in the reservation about 1 mile north and slightly west from Taholah, another near the mouth of Hoh River, and the third about 1 mile south of Forks - are being drilled for oil and gas. So far as drilling has progressed none of these wells have encountered oil in paying quantities, but all of them have struck small amounts of gas. A study of the structure

  3. Causes of fatal accidents for instrument-certified and non-certified private pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Bob Siyuan; Guindani, Michele; Boyd, Douglas D

    2014-11-01

    Instrument certification (IFR) enhances a pilot's skills in precisely controlling the aircraft and requires a higher level of standards in maintaining heading and altitude compared with the less stringent private pilot certificate. However, there have been no prior studies to compare fatal accident causes for airmen with, and without, this rating, The NTSB accident database was queried for general aviation fatal accidents for private pilots with, and without IFR certification. Exact Poisson tests were used to calculate whether two rate parameters were equal (ratio of 1), normalized to the number of IFR-rated pilots and flight hours in the given time period. Proportion tests were used to determine whether there were significant differences in fatal accident causes between IFR-certified and non-certified pilots. A logistic regression for log-odds success was used in determining the trend and effect of age on fatal accident rates. IFR certification was associated with a reduced risk of accidents due to failure to maintain obstacle/terrain clearance and spatial disorientation for day and night operations respectively. In contrast, the likelihood of fatal accident due to equipment malfunction during day operations was higher for IFR-certified pilots. The fatal accident rate decreased over the last decade for IFR-certified but not for non-IFR-certified private pilots. However, the overall accident rate for IFR-certified private pilots was more than double that of the cohort lacking this certification. Finally, we found a trend for an increased fatality rate with advancing age for both group of pilots. Our findings informs on where training and/or technology should be focused. Both training for aerodynamic stalls, which causes over a quarter of all fatal accidents, should be intensified for both IFR-certified and non-certified private pilots. Similarly, adherence to minimum safe altitudes for both groups of pilots should be encouraged toward reducing the fatal accidents

  4. 77 FR 55420 - Minerals Management: Adjustment of Cost Recovery Fees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-10

    ... mining, oil and gas extraction, and the mining and quarrying of nonmetallic minerals) as an individual...\\ New value \\4\\ New fee \\5\\ Oil & Gas (parts 3100, 3110, 3120, 3130, 3150) Noncompetitive lease... Leasing of Solid Minerals Other Than Coal and Oil Shale (parts 3500, 3580) Applications other than those...

  5. 76 FR 59058 - Minerals Management: Adjustment of Cost Recovery Fees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    ... mining, oil and gas extraction, and the mining and quarrying of nonmetallic minerals) as an individual... increase New value New fee \\5\\ fee \\1\\ value \\2\\ \\3\\ \\4\\ Oil & Gas (parts 3100, 3110, 3120, 3130, 3150... interest transfer 60 61.94 0.84 62.78 65 Leasing of Solid Minerals Other Than Coal and Oil Shale (parts...

  6. 78 FR 49945 - Minerals Management: Adjustment of Cost Recovery Fees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ..., oil and gas extraction, and the mining and quarrying of nonmetallic minerals) as an individual...\\ Increase \\3\\ New value \\4\\ New fee \\5\\ Oil & Gas (parts 3100, 3110, 3120, 3130, 3150) Noncompetitive lease... Solid Minerals Other Than Coal and Oil Shale (parts 3500, 3580) Applications other than those 35 34.99 0...

  7. Microwave assisted saponification (MAS) followed by on-line liquid chromatography (LC)-gas chromatography (GC) for high-throughput and high-sensitivity determination of mineral oil in different cereal-based foodstuffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moret, Sabrina; Scolaro, Marianna; Barp, Laura; Purcaro, Giorgia; Conte, Lanfranco S

    2016-04-01

    A high throughput, high-sensitivity procedure, involving simultaneous microwave-assisted extraction (MAS) and unsaponifiable extraction, followed by on-line liquid chromatography (LC)-gas chromatography (GC), has been optimised for rapid and efficient extraction and analytical determination of mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH) and mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH) in cereal-based products of different composition. MAS has the advantage of eliminating fat before LC-GC analysis, allowing an increase in the amount of sample extract injected, and hence in sensitivity. The proposed method gave practically quantitative recoveries and good repeatability. Among the different cereal-based products analysed (dry semolina and egg pasta, bread, biscuits, and cakes), egg pasta packed in direct contact with recycled paperboard had on average the highest total MOSH level (15.9 mg kg(-1)), followed by cakes (10.4 mg kg(-1)) and bread (7.5 mg kg(-1)). About 50% of the pasta and bread samples and 20% of the biscuits and cake samples had detectable MOAH amounts. The highest concentrations were found in an egg pasta in direct contact with recycled paperboard (3.6 mg kg(-1)) and in a milk bread (3.6 mg kg(-1)). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Seletividade de cultivares de soja RR® submetidos a misturas em tanque de glyphosate + chlorimuron-ethyl associadas a óleo mineral e inseticidas selectivity of soybean RR® genotypes submitted to glyphosate + chlorimuron-ethyl tank mixtures associated to mineral oil and insecticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.D.G. Maciel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O uso de glyphosate para o controle de plantas daninhas em soja RR® apresenta características essenciais no conceito de praticabilidade. Entretanto, apesar de não permitido na legislação brasileira, tem-se aumentado a associação com outros herbicidas para manejo de espécies de difícil controle, assim como a sua mistura em tanque em combinação com inseticidas e adjuvantes. Com o objetivo de avaliar a seletividade de cultivares de soja RR® submetidos a misturas em tanque de formulações de glyphosate (Polaris®, Roundup Ready® e Roundup WG® com chlorimuron-ethyl (Classic®, e suas associações com óleo mineral (Joint Oil® e inseticidas novaluron (Gallaxy 100 EC®, permethrin (Piredan® e methomyl (Lannate BR®, um experimento foi conduzido a campo na cidade de Maracaí-SP, na safra 2006/2007. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições, em esquema fatorial 16 x 4, sendo 16 as associações das misturas em tanque entre as formulações de glyphosate, óleo mineral e inseticidas e quatro cultivares: Monsoy 7210RR®, Monsoy 7979RR®, BRS 245RR® e CD 214RR®. Sintomas visuais de intoxicação inicial dos cultivares estudados foram caracterizados por clorose e encarquilhamento nas folhas para todas as misturas em tanque das formulações de glyphosate + chlorimuron-ethyl, associadas ou não ao óleo mineral e inseticidas novaluron, permethrin e methomyl. Todas as misturas em tanque não promoveram reduções significativas de produtividade para os cultivares Monsoy 7210RR®, Monsoy 7979RR® e BRS 245RR® e controlaram Ipomoea spp. com eficácia apenas satisfatória a partir dos 21 DAA (dias após aplicação.The use of glyphosate for weed control in soybean RR® presents essential practical characteristics. However, although not allowed by the current Brazilian legislation, the association with other herbicides has been increasing for species of difficult control, as well as the use of tank

  9. Carbon sequestration in depleted oil shale deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, Alan K; Carroll, Susan A

    2014-12-02

    A method and apparatus are described for sequestering carbon dioxide underground by mineralizing the carbon dioxide with coinjected fluids and minerals remaining from the extraction shale oil. In one embodiment, the oil shale of an illite-rich oil shale is heated to pyrolyze the shale underground, and carbon dioxide is provided to the remaining depleted oil shale while at an elevated temperature. Conditions are sufficient to mineralize the carbon dioxide.

  10. Occupational exposure to mineral oil metalworking fluid (MWFs) mist: Development of new methodologies for mist sampling and analysis. Results from an inter-laboratory comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huynh, C Khanh; Herrera, H; Parrat, J; Wolf, R; Perret, V

    2009-01-01

    Metalworking Fluids (MWFs) are largely used in the sector of undercutting, a large professional activity in Switzerland, in particular in the fine mechanic and watch making industry. France proposes a Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) of 1 mg.m -3 of aerosol. The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) sets its value at 5 mg.m -3 but a proposal to lower the standard ('intended changes') to 0.2 mg.m -3 of aerosol is pending since 2001. However, it has not become a recognized threshold limit value for exposure. Since 2003, the new Swiss PEL (MAK) recommendations would be 0.2 mg.m -3 of aerosol (oil with boiling point > 350 deg. C without additives) and/or 20 mg.m -3 of oil aerosol + vapour for medium or light oil. To evaluate evaporative losses of sampled oil, the German 'Berufsgenossenschaftliches Institut fuer Arbeitssicherheit' (BGIA) recommends the use of a XAD-2 cartridge behind the filter. The method seems to work perfectly for MWFs in a clean occupational atmosphere free from interference of light vapour cleaning solvent such as White Spirit. But, in real situation, machine shop atmosphere contaminated with traces of White Spirit, the BGIA method failed to estimate the MWFs levels (over-estimation). In this paper, we propose a new approach meant to measure both oil vapours and aerosols. Five inter-laboratory comparisons are discussed, based on the production of oil mist in an experimental chamber under controlled conditions.

  11. Miners' welfare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, C

    1984-06-13

    The Miners' Welfare Committee (MWC) was formed in Britain in 1921 and initiated building programmes to provide welfare amenities for miners and families, using architecture to improve the quality of a miner's working and leisure time. The article reviews the MWC's work, and assesses the design and architecture at the Selby Coalfield. (7 refs.)

  12. International directory of certified radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosse, G.; Bambynek, W.

    1983-01-01

    This directory lists the products of 16 suppliers of certified reference materials (CRM) of radioactivity as given in their catalogues. Included are only products for which certificates are delivered and whose uncertainties are given according to the rules defined in ICRU Report No. 12, ''Certification of Standardized Radioactive Sources'' (International Commission on Radiation and Measurements, Washington, 1968). Only those products are included of which the standard uncertainties according to the above rules are less than 10%. Prices of the products are not mentioned since they frequently change. The products are divided into four groups: Radioactive Solutions, Radioactive Gases, Solid Sources and Sources for Liquid Scintillation Counting). (orig./WL)

  13. International directory of certified radioactive sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosse, G; Bambynek, W

    1983-01-01

    This directory lists the products of 16 suppliers of certified reference materials (CRM) of radioactivity as given in their catalogues. Included are only products for which certificates are delivered and whose uncertainties are given according to the rules defined in ICRU Report No. 12, ''Certification of Standardized Radioactive Sources'' (International Commission on Radiation and Measurements, Washington, 1968). Only those products are included of which the standard uncertainties according to the above rules are less than 10%. Prices of the products are not mentioned since they frequently change. The products are divided into four groups: Radioactive Solutions, Radioactive Gases, Solid Sources and Sources for Liquid Scintillation Counting).

  14. Going the distance for certified cancer registrars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backus, Amanda; Kolender, Ellen R

    2009-01-01

    Cancer registry departments are using electronic technology to solve the local and national Certified Tumor Registrar (CTR) shortages. As demand for CTRs continues to increase without an accompanied increase in the supply of qualified personnel, cancer registry departments are looking for new solutions to this growing local and national trend. In order to solve this problem, some cancer registries have started using telecommunication to fill the empty positions within their departments. This is the case at Roper St. Francis Healthcare (RSFH) in Charleston, SC, where Cancer Registry Manager, Ellen Kolender, RHIA, CTR, used telecommuting to fill one full-time and one part-time CTR position.

  15. CEH Certified Ethical Hacker Study Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Graves, Kimberly

    2010-01-01

    Prepare for the new version of CEH certification with this advanced guide. Once you learn the thought processes of unethical hackers, you can figure out how to secure your computer systems to defend against them. That's the philosophy behind ethical hacking, and it's a growing field. Prepare for certification in this important area with this advanced study guide that covers all exam objectives for the challenging CEH Certified Ethical Hackers exam. The book provides full coverage of exam topics, real-world examples, and a CD with additional materials for extra review and practice.:; Covers eth

  16. CISA Certified Information Systems Auditor : study guide

    CERN Document Server

    Cannon, David L

    2011-01-01

    The industry-leading study guide for the CISA exam, fully updated. More than 27,000 IT professionals take the Certified Information Systems Auditor exam each year. SC Magazine lists the CISA as the top certification for security professionals. Compliances, regulations, and best practices for IS auditing are updated twice a year, and this is the most up-to-date book available to prepare aspiring CISAs for the next exam.: CISAs are among the five highest-paid IT security professionals; more than 27,000 take the exam each year and the numbers are growing; Standards are updated twice a year, and t

  17. Converting heavy oils into light oils, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mony, H

    1915-12-22

    A process is described for transforming heavy oils obtained by the carbonization of lignites, peats, coals, shales into light oils, and also the heavy oils of mineral and vegetable origin, consisting of heating the heavy oils or tars in the presence of one or more solid substances or liquids suitably chosen to cause the distillation of the oils under atmospheric pressure at an appropriate temperature; solid and liquid substances which favor the production of light products under the influence of heat being added preferably to the oil to be treated before putting it in the retort and before heating, so that light oils are obtained by treatment of the heavy oils in a single operation.

  18. Reflections on International Certified Nursing Assistants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Penelope Ann

    2017-01-01

    The author, a former university faculty member who taught English to speakers of other languages and now a nursing home resident, shares her observations about how English language proficiency, culture, and religious differences affect her care. She provides examples of communication challenges that can be annoying or cause harm, her coping strategies, and reasons many certified nursing assistants might never be fully fluent in English. She explains how international certified nursing assistants can benefit residents because of skills developed by family-centered care in their countries of origin. She also discusses related issues-the importance of being culturally competent about U.S. culture. She points out how religiousness not only affects residents but is a buffer for staff against the stress of physically and emotionally demanding low-wage work. Overall, the author likes receiving care from individuals from other countries, finding reward in comparing how her personal struggle with illness and paralysis resonates with the trauma of migration and how learning firsthand about varying beliefs and attitudes clarifies her identity and place in world history.

  19. 77 FR 5415 - National Organic Program: Notice of Draft Guidance for Accredited Certifying Agents, Certified...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ... in order to be excluded from the organic certification requirements of Part 205. The NOSB recommended... handling operations that are or are not excluded from organic certification. The draft guidance proposes... excluded from certification and, therefore, must be certified organic operations. \\1\\ NOSB Recommendation...

  20. Training and Certification Program for Certified Energy Auditors (CEA) and Certified Building Commissioning Professionals (CBCP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kent, Bill

    2012-08-24

    The Association of Energy Engineers (AEE) has offered energy efficiency training and certification programs for over 30 years. During that time AEE has certified more than 22,000 professionals. All of our certification programs are the result of extensive industry research and program development and oversight by certification boards. For this project award, AEE proposed to work with the Department of Energy to utilize and extend existing industry recognized Certified Energy Auditor (CEA) and Certified Building Commissioning Professional (CBCP) programs under this Training Program Development Announcement. These expanded training programs will have significant impact in training professionals for building commissioning and energy auditing to achieve the goal of bringing existing buildings up to their optimal energy performance potential and ensuring that new buildings maintain their expected optimal level of performance. The goals and objectives of the training development project were achieved with the development of new training programs that are now being offered as self-sustaining commercial training and certification programs. These new programs are training and certifying professionals who are accomplishing the goal of increasing building energy performance in both existing and new buildings.

  1. Minerals From the Marine Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruickshank, Michael J.

    The current interest in minerals centering on, among other things, potential shortages, long-term needs, and deep seabed nodules, accentuates the usefulness and timeliness of this little book authored by a former chairman of the British National Environmental Research Council.In less than 100 pages, the author puts into perspective the potential for producing minerals from offshore areas of the world. After introducing the reader to the ocean environment and the extraordinary variety of the nature of the seabed, the author describes in some detail the variety of minerals found there. This is done in seven separate chapters entitled ‘Bulk and Non-Metallic Minerals From the Seas’ ‘Metals From the Shallow Seas’ ‘Metals From the Deep Oceans’ ‘Minerals From Solution’ ‘Oil and Gas from the Shallow Seas’ ‘Oil and Gas From Deep Waters’ and ‘Coal Beneath the Sea.’ The remaining chapters give a brief regional review of marine minerals distribution for eight areas of significant socioeconomic structure, and a short recapitulation of special problems of mineral recovery in the marine environment including such matters as the effect of water motion on mineral processing and of international law on investments. Glossaries of geological periods and technical terms, a short list of references, and an index complete the work.

  2. Varying response of the concentration and content of soybean seed mineral elements, carbohydrates, organic acids, amino acids, protein, and oil to phosphorus starvation and CO2 enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    A detailed investigation of the concentration (g-1 seed weight) and content (g plant-1) of seed mineral elements and metabolic profile under phosphorus (P) starvation at ambient (aCO2) and elevated carbon dioxide (eCO2) in soybean is limited. Soybean plants were grown in a controlled environment at ...

  3. Quality of Organic Vegetables Grown in Two Certified Sites on the Outskirts of Bucharest Municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lungu Mihaela

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Soil fertility properties, irrigation water quality, mineral nutrition, and some vegetables mineral composition were studied in the frame of a project regarding yield quality monitoring in certified organic vegetable farms, in two farms placed on the outskirts of Bucharest Municipality which provide products for the town’s organic market. Chemical analysis of the soil samples collected from the two farms reflects a good fertility, close to the natural one of this region soils, with well-balanced organic matter, total nitrogen, accessible phosphorus and potassium contents. The nitrates contents concord with the plants nutrition demands and don’t present the risk to accumulate in vegetables or to leach into the groundwater. Slightly increased microelements, both total and soluble forms, occur. Soil microbiological properties are favorable for vegetable plants growth. A good biodiversity is noticed. There are differences between soil properties in open field and greenhouses, induced both by the type and degree of mechanical works and materials applied for fertilization and plant protection. Good conditions are generally created for plants mineral nutrition. Mineral nutrition status of the vegetables grown in organic conditions, assessed by the leaves mineral composition, doesn’t differ from the one of the vegetables grown in conventional conditions. The vegetables (fresh material harvested from the two studied farms have good, even high, concentrations of mineral elements important for the yield nutritional quality. The excessive microelements quantities noticed in soil don’t transfer in the yield, so the latter quality and nutritional properties are not altered.

  4. Efeito da aplicação de cianamida hidrogenada e óleo mineral na quebra de dormência e producão do pessegueiro-'Flamecrest' Effect of the application of hidrogen cyanamid and mineral oil on dormancy breaking and peach production, cv. Flamecrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GILMAR ARDUINO BETTIO MARODIN

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de aumentar a produção e qualidade de frutos do pessegueiro- 'Flamecrest', de alta exigência em frio, realizou-se um experimento no Município de Farroupilha-RS, no ano de 2000, com o uso de cianamida hidrogenada e óleo mineral. Estudou-se o efeito de duas diferentes épocas de aplicação dos tratamentos (15-7 e 2-8 sobre a brotação, floração, frutificação, produção e antecipação de colheita. Foram testados os efeitos dos seguintes tratamentos: cianamida hidrogenada (C.H. 1,22; 2,45; 3,675 e 4,90 g de i.a.L-1 com óleo mineral (O.M. 10 g de i.a.L-1; O.M. 10 g de i.a.L-1 isolado e testemunha (sem pulverização. Os tratamentos não anteciparam a brotação das gemas floríferas, porém C.H. 2,45 e 4,90 g de i.a.L-1 com O.M. a 10 g de i.a.L-1 proporcionaram plantas com maior brotação das gemas vegetativas. Não houve efeito marcante dos tratamentos sobre a floração e a porcentagem de frutos vingados nas duas épocas. O número de frutos raleados por planta foi superior para os tratamentos com C.H. 2,45 e 4,90 g de i.a.L-1 com O.M. 10 g de i.a.L-1 quando aplicados na segunda época. Já, para o número e massa total dos frutos colhidos, destacaram-se, na primeira época (15-7, os tratamentos com C.H. 1,22 e 3,675 g de i.a.L-1 + O.M. 10 g de i.a.L-1 e, na segunda época (2-8, os tratamentos com C.H. 2,45 e 4,90 g de i.a.L-1 + O.M. 10 g de i.a.L-1. Os tratamentos da segunda época resultaram em produções médias superiores à primeira. A massa média dos frutos não foi alterada de forma clara pelos tratamentos, assim como o teor de sólidos solúveis totais e a resistência de polpa.With the objective of increasing yields and fruit quality of cv. Flamecrest peaches, a cultivar with high chilling units demand, the present experiment was conducted in an orchard near to the Farroupilha city, in the year 2000. The hidrogen cyanamid and mineral oil were applied in two different times: middle of July and begining of

  5. Development of solid water-equivalent radioactive certified reference materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finke, E.; Greupner, H.; Groche, K.; Rittwag, R. (Office for Standardization, Metrology and Quality Control (ASMW), Berlin (Germany, F.R.)); Geske, G. (Jena Univ. (Germany, F.R.))

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a brief description of the development of solid water-equivalent beta volume radioactive certified reference materials. These certified reference materials were prepared for the beta fission nuclides {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 147}Pm and {sup 204}Tl. Comparative measurements of liquid and solid water-equivalent beta volume radioactive certified reference materials are discussed. (author).

  6. Measurement of the νμ Charged Current π+ to Quasi-Elastic Cross Section Ratio on Mineral Oil in a 0.8 GeV Neutrino Beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linden, Steven K.

    2011-01-01

    Charged current single pion production (CCπ + ) and charged current quasi-elastic scattering (CCQE) are the most abundant interaction types for neutrinos at energies around 1 GeV, a region of great interest to oscillation experiments. The cross-sections for these processes, however, are not well understood in this energy range. This dissertation presents a measurement of the ratio of CCπ + to CCQE cross-sections for muon neutrinos on mineral oil (CH 2 ) in the MiniBooNE experiment. The measurement is presented here both with and without corrections for hadronic re-interactions in the target nucleus and is given as a function of neutrino energy in the range 0.4 GeV ν + events collected in MiniBooNE, and with a fractional uncertainty of roughly 11% in the region of highest statistics, this measurement represents a dramatic improvement in statistics and precision over previous CCπ + and CCQE measurements.

  7. Development studies of captopril certified reference material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Nogueira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the studies performed with the candidate Certified Reference Material (CRM of captopril, the first CRM of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API in Brazil, including determination of impurities (organic, inorganic and volatiles, homogeneity testing, short- and long-term stability studies, calculation of captopril content using the mass balance approach, and estimation of the associated measurement uncertainty.Este artigo descreve os estudos realizados com o candidato a Material de Referência Certificado (MRC de captopril, primeiro MRC de fármacos no Brasil, incluindo a determinação de impurezas (orgânicas, inorgânicas e voláteis, testes de homogeneidade, testes de estabilidade de curta e longa duração, cálculo do teor de captopril por balanço de massa e estimativa da incerteza de medição associada ao valor certificado.

  8. Recovery of hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1941-02-10

    A process is disclosed for recovery of hydrocarbon oils, especially lubricating oils or diesel oils, through pressure hydrogenation of distillation, extraction of hydrogenation products from coal or coaly materials or from oils such as mineral oils or tars in liquid phase by use in a reaction vessel of fixed-bed catalysts, characterized in that as starting material is employed material which has been freed of asphaltic and resinous material by hydrogenation refining, vacuum-steam distillation, treatment with hydrogen-rich hydrocarbons (hydroforming), or sulfuric acid.

  9. A quick guide to API 510 certified pressure vessel inspector syllabus example questions and worked answers

    CERN Document Server

    Matthews, Clifford

    2010-01-01

    The API Individual Certification Programs (ICPs) are well established worldwide in the oil, gas, and petroleum industries. This Quick Guide is unique in providing simple, accessible and well-structured guidance for anyone studying the API 510 Certified Pressure Vessel Inspector syllabus by summarizing and helping them through the syllabus and providing multiple example questions and worked answers.Technical standards are referenced from the API 'body of knowledge' for the examination, i.e. API 510 Pressure vessel inspection, alteration, rerating; API 572 Pressure vessel inspection; API

  10. Purifying oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1930-04-15

    Gasoline, lamp oils, and lubricating or other mineral or shale oils are refined by contacting the vapor with a hot aqueous solution of salts of zinc, cadmium, or mercury, or mixtures thereof which may contain 0-5-3-0 percent of oxide or hydroxide in solution or suspension. Chlorides, bromides, iodides, sulfates, nitrates, and sulfonates of benzol, toluol, xylol, and petroleum are specified. Washing with a solution of sodium or potassium hydroxide or carbonate of calcium hydroxide may follow. The oil may first be purified by sulfuric acid or other known agent, or afterwards caustic alkali and sulfuric acid. The Specification as open to inspection under Sect. 91 (3) (a) describes also the use of salts of copper, iron, chromium, manganese, aluminum, nickel, or cobalt, with or without their oxides or hydroxides. This subject-matter does not appear in the Specification as accepted.

  11. Larvicidal effects of mineral turpentine, low aromatic white spirits, aqueous extracts of Cassia alata, and aqueous extracts, ethanolic extracts and essential oil of betel leaf (Piper betle) on Chrysomya megacephala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumarasinghe, Sujith Prasad W; Karunaweera, Nadira D; Ihalamulla, Ranjan L; Arambewela, Lakshmi S R; Dissanayake, Roshinie D S C T

    2002-12-01

    Many methods have been employed, with variable success, in the treatment of cutaneous myiasis caused by Chrysomya species. Experiment 1: to assess the larvicidal effect of mineral turpentine (MT) and the main ingredient of MT, low aromatic white spirits (LAWS), on Chrysomya megacephala larvae in vitro. Experiment 2: to assess the larvicidal effects of aqueous extracts of winged senna (Cassia alata), and aqueous extracts, ethanolic extracts and essential oil of betel leaf (Piper betle). In experiment 1, two samples of LAWS were obtained from two industrialists (samples 1 and 2). Adult flies of C. megacephala were bred in the insectory of the Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo. Petri dishes were prepared with pads of cotton wool. These cotton pads were soaked separately in MT, LAWS samples 1 and 2, and normal saline as a control. Ten larvae were placed in each Petri dish. The activity of the larvae was observed and recorded half-hourly. MT and the two samples of LAWS were analyzed by chromatography. In experiment 2, volatile essential oil of betel was prepared using a standard steam distillation process. An ethanolic extract of betel was obtained after boiling the crushed leaf with water, and mixing the stock with ethanol. Betel oil dilutions of 1-4% were prepared using 1% Tween 80 (v/v aq) as a solvent, with 0.05 g/100 mL sodium lauryl sulphate (as stabilizer) and 0.01 g/100 mL methyl paraben (as a preservative). Cotton wool swabs soaked in 1, 2, 3 and 4% essential oil of betel in 1% Tween 80 (v/v aq) prepared as above, 1, 2, 3 and 4% ethanolic extract of betel, 50 and 25% aqueous extract of C. alata, and 50 and 25% aqueous extract of betel were placed in separate Petri dishes. Ten larvae were placed in each Petri dish. 1% Tween 80 solvent with the stabilizer and the preservative, but without betel essential oil, was used as a negative control and MT was used as a positive control. Larval motility was assessed as before. MT and

  12. Assessment of Antioxidant Indices after incorporating Crude Oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Exposure to crude oil pollution leads to the formation ... vitamin/mineral mixture (5 %). The food ..... hepatic antioxidant enzymes against cadmium induced liver ... Interaction of crude oil with alpha-tocopherol: ... Essential oil from Monodora.

  13. The Impact of Mentoring on Alternatively Certified Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, Becky

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the perceived effectiveness of mentoring for teachers certified through non-traditional avenues. This quantitative study investigated the type and amount of support teachers certified through the Arkansas Non-traditional Licensure Program (NTLP) and the Master of Arts in Teaching Program (MATP) received…

  14. 19 CFR 159.36 - Multiple certified rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... multiple rates have been certified for a foreign currency, the rate to be used for Customs purposes shall... TREASURY (CONTINUED) LIQUIDATION OF DUTIES Conversion of Foreign Currency § 159.36 Multiple certified rates... rates of exchange (e.g., official and free) for a foreign currency: (a) Rates to be published. When the...

  15. 19 CFR 159.35 - Certified daily rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY (CONTINUED) LIQUIDATION OF DUTIES Conversion of Foreign Currency § 159.35 Certified daily rate. The daily buying rate of foreign currency which is determined by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York and certified to the Secretary of the Treasury in accordance with 31 U.S.C. 5151(e) shall be used for...

  16. 19 CFR 115.9 - Certifying Authorities responsibilities-containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certifying Authorities responsibilities-containers...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CARGO CONTAINER AND ROAD VEHICLE CERTIFICATION PURSUANT TO INTERNATIONAL CUSTOMS CONVENTIONS Administration § 115.9 Certifying Authorities responsibilities—containers. (a) General. Containers...

  17. 76 FR 80741 - TRICARE: Certified Mental Health Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ...] TRICARE: Certified Mental Health Counselors AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Department of Defense. ACTION... would allow licensed or certified mental health counselors to be able to independently provide care to... mental health counselors (CMHCs), who will be authorized to practice independently under TRICARE. During...

  18. Tribological Characteristics Evaluation of Mustard Oil Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Hassan Jabal

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A progressive increase in the desire for environmentally friendly lubricants by users and strict government regulations for the use of these lubricants has provided an opportunity to use plant oils as biodegradable lubricants, therefore vegetable oils have been investigated to replace oil lubricants because of their maintaining the conditions of nature (environment properties. In this paper, the influences of the blending ratio of mustard seeds oil with commercial mineral oil (SAE40 on the tribological characteristics were investigated and compared with mineral oil using the four-ball tribotester. Mustard seeds oil was blended with mineral oil at a volumetric ratio ranging from 22.5 to 90%. All experimental works were confirmed to ASTM D4172-B standard. The results exhibit that some blends of mustard seeds oil with mineral oil have lower wear scar diameter, friction torque, Friction coefficient and a higher parameter of flash temperature value compared to mineral oil and neat mustard seed oil. In conclusion, the mustard seed oil blend (MU22.5 shows a better anti-wear and anti-friction performance compared to oil samples. Therefore, mustard seeds oil has the potential to be used as a lubricant of mating surfaces.

  19. Certified metamodels for sensitivity indices estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prieur Clémentine

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Global sensitivity analysis of a numerical code, more specifically estimation of Sobol indices associated with input variables, generally requires a large number of model runs. When those demand too much computation time, it is necessary to use a reduced model (metamodel to perform sensitivity analysis, whose outputs are numerically close to the ones of the original model, while being much faster to run. In this case, estimated indices are subject to two kinds of errors: sampling error, caused by the computation of the integrals appearing in the definition of the Sobol indices by a Monte-Carlo method, and metamodel error, caused by the replacement of the original model by the metamodel. In cases where we have certified bounds for the metamodel error, we propose a method to quantify both types of error, and we compute confidence intervals for first-order Sobol indices. L’analyse de sensibilité globale d’un modèle numérique, plus précisément l’estimation des indices de Sobol associés aux variables d’entrée, nécessite généralement un nombre important d’exécutions du modèle à analyser. Lorsque celles-ci requièrent un temps de calcul important, il est judicieux d’effectuer l’analyse de sensibilité sur un modèle réduit (ou métamodèle, fournissant des sorties numériquement proches du modèle original mais pour un coût nettement inférieur. Les indices estimés sont alors entâchés de deux sortes d’erreur : l’erreur d’échantillonnage, causée par l’estimation des intégrales définissant les indices de Sobol par une méthode de Monte-Carlo, et l’erreur de métamodèle, liée au remplacement du modèle original par le métamodèle. Lorsque nous disposons de bornes d’erreurs certifiées pour le métamodèle, nous proposons une méthode pour quantifier les deux types d’erreurs et fournir des intervalles de confiance pour les indices de Sobol du premier ordre.

  20. Rheology of unstable mineral emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokolović Dunja S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the rheology of mineral oils and their unstable water emulsion were investigated. The oil samples were domestic crude oil UA, its fractions UA1, UA4 and blend semi-product UP1, while the concentration of oil in water emulsions was in the range from 1 up to 30%. The results were analyzed based on shear stress. The oil samples UA, UA1 and UP1 are Newtonian fluids, while UA4 is pseudoplastic fluid. The samples UA and UA4 show higher value of shear stress (83.75 Pa, 297 Pa, then other two samples UA1 and UP1 (18.41 Pa, 17.52 Pa. Rheology of investigated oils due to its complex chemical composition should be analyzed as a simultaneous effect of all their components. Therefore, structural composition of the oils was determined, namely content of paraffins, naphthenes, aromatics and asphaltenes. All samples contain paraffins, naphthenes and aromatics but only oils UA and UA4 contain asphaltenes as well. All investigated emulsions except 30% EUA4 are Newtonian fluids. The EUA4 30% emulsion shows pseudoplastic behaviour, and it is the only 30% emulsion among investigated ones that achieves lower shear stress then its oil. The characteristics of oil samples that could have an influence on their properties and their emulsion rheology, were determined. These characteristics are: neutralization number, interfacial tension, dielectric constant, and emulsivity. Oil samples UA and UA4 have significantly higher values of neutralization number, dielectric constants, and emulsivity. The sample UA has the lowest value of interface tension and the greatest emulsivity, indicating that this oil, among all investigated, has the highest preference for building emulsion. This could be the reason why 20% and 30% emulsions of the oil UA achieve the highest shear stress among all investigated emulsions.

  1. Mineral exploration, Australia, March quarter 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    This publication contains annual and quarterly statistics of exploration for minerals in Australia. Part 1 sets out statistics of exploration for minerals and oil shale for which data are no longer available for separate publication. Part 2 gives details of petroleum exploration.

  2. Milk Production of Ettawah Grade Goat Fed Diet Containing Different Protein and Energy Contents Supplemented with Organic Mineral and Grapes Seed Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muktiani, A.; Kusumanti, E.; Harjanti, D. W.

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of different protein and energy contents and supplementation ofZinc (Zn), Chromium (Cr) and grapes seed oil on milk production in dairy goat.Randomized block design(RBD) was used in this study. Twelve lactating Ettawah crossbreed goats divided into three groupsbased on milk production. The treatment ration were:T1 = ration containing 16% CPand 66% TDN; T2 = ration containing 14% CP and 63% TDN supplemented with Zn 20 ppm + Cr 2 ppm; and T3 = T2 + 22 ml grapes seed oil/head/day. The ration wasa dry complete feed in the form of pellet. The feed ingredients used were rice bran, cassava, wheat pollard, soybean meal, coconut meal, molasses, coffee husk and corn straw.Experiment was conducted over 30 days. Results revealed that the goat fed the ration supplemented with Zn and Cr(T2) producehigher milk yield (1012.29 g/day) and better in milk fat production (Poil in the T3 (P<0.05), but no significant in milk fat production compared with T1. In conclusion,drycomplete feed containingof CP 14%, TDN 63% supplemented with Zn 20 ppm + Cr 2ppm is recommended for lactating dairy goat.

  3. Impact study of the consumption of oil and flour fortified in vitamins and minerals on the nutritional status of children aged less than five years in Morocco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguenaou, Hassan; El Menchawy, Imane; El Mzibri, Mohammed; El Haloui, Noureddine; Azlaf, Mehdi; El Gadari, Hind; Rjimati, El Arbi

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Micronutrient deficiencies represent a major public health problem in Morocco. The ministry of health and his partners developed a national program to fight against these deficiencies. Fortification of foods consumed on large scale is one of the strategies of this program (e.g. oil fortified in vitamin A and D3 and flour fortified in elementary iron and folic acid). After achieving a feasibility study on food fortification (2001) and introducing the fortified oil on market (2002) and the fortified flour (2006), the ministry of health and his partners undertook impact studies (sentinel surveillance system) in 2006, 2007 and 2008. Methodology: The impact studies (sentinel surveillance system) (2006- 2007 -2008) were carried out in all the regions of Morocco. The collection of data concerning the fortified food from population (childbearing women and children under the age of five) included: a-knowledge, b- attitudes, c-practices, d- Hb analysis, e-estimation of serum ferritine (with CRP), f- estimation of serum folic acid, g- estimation of serum retinol, h-estimation of serum vitamin D3. We will only present the results of children aged less then five years in this abstract. Results: In 2006, the fortified oil covers almost 100% of households , while fortified flour covers 17%. In 2007, fortified flour covers 21% of households while in 2008, it covers 37%. Before the introduction of oil fortified in vitamin A; the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency (Retinol <200μg/l) in children was 41% (n = 1453). In 2008 it dropped to 22.7%. Before the introduction of flour fortified in elementary iron and folic acid; the prevalence of anemia (Hb<11 g/dl) was 31.5% (n = 1354) in 2000. In 2007 anemia was 37.7% (n = 1197), Iron deficiency (Ferritin < 12 μg/l) was 15.7%, Folic acid deficiency (< 3 ng/ml) was 31.3%. In 2008 anemia was 28,9% (n = 1183), Iron deficiency was 13.8%, Folic acid deficiency was 30.6%. The fortification of flour did not have an

  4. Characterizations of a quality certified athletic trainer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raab, Scot; Wolfe, Brent D; Gould, Trenton E; Piland, Scott G

    2011-01-01

    Didactic proficiency does not ensure clinical aptitude. Quality athletic health care requires clinical knowledge and affective traits. To develop a grounded theory explaining the constructs of a quality certified athletic trainer (AT). Delphi study. Interviews in conference rooms or business offices and by telephone. Thirteen ATs (men = 8, women = 5) stratified across the largest employment settings (high school, college, clinical) in the 4 largest districts of the National Athletic Trainers? Association (2, 3, 4, 9). Open-ended interview questions were audio recorded, transcribed, and reviewed before condensing. Two member checks ensured trustworthiness. Open coding reduced text to descriptive adjectives. We grouped adjectives into 5 constructs (care, communication, commitment, integrity, knowledge) and grouped these constructs into 2 higher-order constructs (affective traits, effective traits). According to participants, ATs who demonstrate the ability to care, show commitment and integrity, value professional knowledge, and communicate effectively with others can be identified as quality ATs. These abilities facilitate the creation of positive relationships. These relationships allow the quality AT to interact with patients and other health care professionals on a knowledgeable basis that ultimately improves health care delivery. Our resulting theory supported the examination of characteristics not traditionally assessed in an athletic training education program. If researchers can show that these characteristics develop ATs into quality ATs (eg, those who work better with others, relate meaningfully with patients, and improve the standard of health care), they must be cultivated in the educational setting.

  5. Teacher quality: a comparison of National Board-certified and non-Board-certified teachers of deaf students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheetz, Nanci A; Martin, David S

    2006-01-01

    THE STUDY was designed to identify specific components of teacher excellence, focusing initially on the characteristics of the small number of teachers of the deaf who are certified by the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS), then comparing those with the characteristics of other teachers identified as master teachers by university faculty in teacher preparation in deafness. Classroom observation, written lesson plans, teacher questionnaires on beliefs, and content analysis of interactive electronic focus groups were used to compare the two groups of teachers. Results indicated similarities between Board-certified and non-Board-certified master teachers in regard to teacher behaviors and commitment to well-founded pedagogical principles. Differences were found in classroom priorities and in the greater level of interconnectivity expressed by Board-certified teachers as the result of becoming Board certified. Recommendations are made for preparing teachers of deaf students.

  6. 30 CFR 201.100 - Responsibilities of the Associate Director for Minerals Revenue Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Responsibilities of the Associate Director for Minerals Revenue Management. 201.100 Section 201.100 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT GENERAL Oil and Gas, Onshore § 201.100...

  7. 25 CFR 225.36 - Minerals agreement cancellation; Bureau of Indian Affairs notice of noncompliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Minerals agreement cancellation; Bureau of Indian Affairs... INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS Minerals Agreements § 225.36 Minerals agreement cancellation; Bureau of Indian Affairs notice of noncompliance. (a) If the...

  8. 48 CFR 52.215-20 - Requirements for Certified Cost or Pricing Data and Data Other Than Certified Cost or Pricing Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Cost or Pricing Data and Data Other Than Certified Cost or Pricing Data. 52.215-20 Section 52.215-20... Certified Cost or Pricing Data and Data Other Than Certified Cost or Pricing Data. As prescribed in 15.408(l), insert the following provision: Requirements for Certified Cost or Pricing Data and Data Other Than...

  9. 48 CFR 52.215-21 - Requirements for Certified Cost or Pricing Data and Data Other Than Certified Cost or Pricing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Cost or Pricing Data and Data Other Than Certified Cost or Pricing Data-Modifications. 52.215-21... Requirements for Certified Cost or Pricing Data and Data Other Than Certified Cost or Pricing Data... Pricing Data and Data Other Than Certified Cost or Pricing Data—Modifications (OCT 2010) (a) Exceptions...

  10. Toxic State–Corporate Crimes, Neo-liberalism and Green Criminology: The Hazards and Legacies of the Oil, Chemical and Mineral Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Ruggiero

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses examples from the history and practices of multi-national and large companies in the oil, chemical and asbestos industries to examine their legal and illegal despoiling and destruction of the environment and impact on human and non-human life. The discussion draws on the literature on green criminology and state-corporate crime and considers measures and arrangements that might mitigate or prevent such damaging acts. This paper is part of ongoing work on green criminology and crimes of the economy. It places these actions and crimes in the context of a global neo-liberal economic system and considers and critiques the distorting impact of the GDP model of ‘economic health’ and its consequences for the environment.

  11. Aggregate and Mineral Resources - Minerals

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — This point occurrence data set represents the current mineral and selected energy resources of Utah. The data set coordinates were derived from USGS topographic maps...

  12. Formulating evidence-based guidelines for certified nurse-midwives and certified midwives attending home births.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Elizabeth; Avery, Melissa; Frisvold, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    Implementing national home birth guidelines for certified nurse-midwives (CNMs) and certified midwives (CMs) in the United States may facilitate a common approach to safe home birth practices. Guidelines are evidence-based care recommendations for specified clinical situations that can be modified by individual providers to meet specific client needs. Following a review of home birth guidelines from multiple countries, a set of home birth practices guidelines for US CNMs/CMs was drafted. Fifteen American Midwifery Certification Board, Inc. (AMCB)-certified home birth midwives who participate in the American College of Nurse-Midwives (ACNM) home birth electronic mailing list considered the use of such a document in their practices and reviewed and commented on the guidelines. The proposed guidelines addressed client screening, informed consent, antepartum care, routine intrapartum care, obstetric complications and hospital transports, postpartum care, neonatal care, gynecologic care, primary care, peer reviews, recordkeeping, and physician collaboration. The reviewers had varying assessments as to whether the guidelines reflected international standards and current best evidence. The primary concern expressed was that an adoption of national guidelines could compromise provider autonomy. Incorporation of evidence-based guidelines is an ACNM standard and was recommended by the Home Birth Consensus Summit. Clinical practice guidelines are informed by current evidence and supported by experts in a given discipline. Implementation of guidelines ensures optimal patient care and is becoming increasingly central to reimbursement and to medicolegal support. A set of practice guidelines based on current best evidence and internationally accepted standards was developed and reviewed by an interested group of US CNMs/CMs. Further discussion with home birth midwives and other stakeholders about the development and implementation of home birth guidelines is needed, especially in

  13. Mineral resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    This paper reports that to prevent the concentration of control over federal oil and gas resources in a few companies or individuals, Congress has limited the number of acres of oil and gas leases that one party may control in a single state. An exception to this limitation involves lease acreage within the boundaries of development contracts. These contracts permit oil and gas lease operators and pipeline companies to contract with enough lessees to economically justify large-scale drilling operations for the production and transportation of oil and gas, subject to approval by the Secretary of the Interior, who must find that such contracts are in the public interest. Since 1986 Interior has entered into or approved 10 contracts with 12 lease operators for exploration of largely unleased federal lands-ranging from about 180,000 to 3.5 million acres in four western states-and has designated them as developmental contracts. GAO believes that the 10 contracts do not satisfy the legal requirements for development contracts because they are for oil and gas exploration on largely unleased federal lands, rather than for developing existing leases. By designating the 10 contracts as development contracts, Interior has enabled nine of the 12 contract parties to accumulate lease acreage that vastly exceeds the statutory acreage limitation. All nine of the contract parties were major or large independent oil companies. As a result, other parties who wish to participate in developing federal oil and gas resources within the four states may be adversely affected because the parties to Interior's contracts have been able to compete for and obtain lease acreage beyond the statutory acreage limitation. Although Interior believes that the Secretary has the discretion under law to use development contracts in the current manner, in April 1989 it ceased issuing these contracts pending completion of GAO's review

  14. Process for complete conversion of coal oils, shale oils, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubois, P

    1911-07-08

    A process is described for complete conversion of mineral coal oil, shale oil, and other similar oils in pitch, characterized by these oils being mixed with a nonvolatile substance with a boiling point on the average higher than the boiling point of the oil to be treated, and then being heated under pressure with the introduction of air, whereby the heating is interrupted if necessary on account of the known exothermic reaction and the conversion of the oil in the pitch or its distillation can be carried out without further heating.

  15. Fumarolic minerals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balic Zunic, Tonci; Garavelli, Anna; Jakobsson, Sveinn Peter

    2016-01-01

    The fumarolic mineralogy of the Icelandic active volcanoes, the Tyrrhenian volcanic belt (Italy) and the Aegean active arc (Greece) is investigated, and literature data surveyed in order to define the characteristics of the European fumarolic systems. They show broad diversity of mineral...... associations, with Vesuvius and Vulcano being also among the world localities richest in mineral species. Volcanic systems, which show recession over a longer period, show fumarolic development from the hightemperature alkaline halide/sulphate, calcic sulphate or sulphidic parageneses, synchronous...... with or immediately following the eruptions, through mediumtemperature ammonium minerals, metal chlorides, or fluoride associations to the late low-temperature paragenesis dominated by sulphur, gypsum, alunogen, and other hydrous sulphates. The situation can be different in the systems that are not recessing but show...

  16. Nonparametric decision tree: The impact of ISO 9000 on certified and non certified companies Nonparametric decision tree: The impact of ISO 9000 on certified and non certified companies Nonparametric decision tree: The impact of ISO 9000 on certified and non certified companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Texeira Quirós

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This empirical study analyzes a questionnaire answered by a sample of ISO 9000 certified companies and a control sample of companies which have not been certified, using a multivariate predictive model. With this approach, we assess which quality practices are associated to the likelihood of the firm being certified. Design/methodology/approach: We implemented nonparametric decision trees, in order to see which variables influence more the fact that the company be certified or not, i.e., the motivations that lead companies to make sure. Findings: The results show that only four questionnaire items are sufficient to predict if a firm is certified or not. It is shown that companies in which the respondent manifests greater concern with respect to customers relations; motivations of the employees and strategic planning have higher likelihood of being certified. Research implications: the reader should note that this study is based on data from a single country and, of course, these results capture many idiosyncrasies if its economic and corporate environment. It would be of interest to understand if this type of analysis reveals some regularities across different countries. Practical implications: companies should look for a set of practices congruent with total quality management and ISO 9000 certified. Originality/value: This study contributes to the literature on the internal motivation of companies to achieve certification under the ISO 9000 standard, by performing a comparative analysis of questionnaires answered by a sample of certified companies and a control sample of companies which have not been certified. In particular, we assess how the manager’s perception on the intensity in which quality practices are deployed in their firms is associated to the likelihood of the firm being certified.Purpose: This empirical study analyzes a questionnaire answered by a sample of ISO 9000 certified companies and a control sample of companies

  17. Mineral sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents an outlook of the Australian mineral sand industry and covers the major operators. It is shown that conscious of an environmentally minded public, the Australian miners have led the way in the rehabilitation of mined areas. Moreover the advanced ceramic industry is generating exciting new perspectives for zircon producers and there is a noticeable growth in the electronic market for rare earths, but in long term the success may depend as much on environmental management and communication skills as on mining and processing skills

  18. 25 CFR 225.22 - Approval of minerals agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Approval of minerals agreements. 225.22 Section 225.22 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL... financial return to the Indian parties thereto; the extent, nature, value or disposition of the mineral...

  19. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Hot Food Holding Cabinet

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 2.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Hot Food Holding Cabinets that are...

  20. Certified reference materials of trace elements in water

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Many decisions regarding the suitability of material/products are based on the ... In the present scenario of globalization of economy, use of certified reference ... our national accreditation body, National Accreditation Board for Testing and ...

  1. 7 CFR 205.665 - Noncompliance procedure for certifying agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... applicable State organic program's governing State official all records concerning its certification...) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Administrative Compliance § 205.665... agent. (f) Cessation of certification activities. A certifying agent whose accreditation is suspended or...

  2. Destabilization of emulsions by natural minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Songhu; Tong, Man; Wu, Gaoming

    2011-09-15

    This study developed a novel method to destabilize emulsions and recycle oils, particularly for emulsified wastewater treatment. Natural minerals were used as demulsifying agents, two kinds of emulsions collected from medical and steel industry were treated. The addition of natural minerals, including artificial zeolite, natural zeolite, diatomite, bentonite and natural soil, could effectively destabilize both emulsions at pH 1 and 60 °C. Over 90% of chemical oxygen demand (COD) can be removed after treatment. Medical emulsion can be even destabilized by artificial zeolite at ambient temperature. The mechanism for emulsion destabilization by minerals was suggested as the decreased electrostatic repulsion at low pH, the enhanced gathering of oil microdroplets at elevated temperature, and the further decreased surface potential by the addition of minerals. Both flocculation and coalescence were enhanced by the addition of minerals at low pH and elevated temperature. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Brine crude oil interactions at the oil-water interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakravarty, Krishna Hara; Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup; Thomsen, Kaj

    2015-01-01

    The impact of brine salinity and its ionic composition on oil displacement efficiency has been investigated extensively in recent years due to the potential of enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Wettability alterations through relative interactions at the mineral surface have been the basis of proposed...... in enhancing oil emulsion formation by increasing interactions between polar acids and brine solutions. The results propose the potential use of HPO42- ions in reservoirs having inactive mineral surfaces. The relative oil affinity of different ions including K+, Na+, Mg2+, and Ca2+ (cations), and Cl-, SO42...... and thus reduces the interfacial viscoelasticity of the trapped oil. These results show significant correlation between oil emulsion formation and increased oil recovery. Copyright 2015; Society of Petroleum Engineers...

  4. Measurement of the νμ Charged Current π+ to Quasi-Elastic Cross Section Ratio on Mineral Oil in a 0.8 GeV Neutrino Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linden, Steven K. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Charged current single pion production (CCπ+) and charged current quasi-elastic scattering (CCQE) are the most abundant interaction types for neutrinos at energies around 1 GeV, a region of great interest to oscillation experiments. The cross-sections for these processes, however, are not well understood in this energy range. This dissertation presents a measurement of the ratio of CCπ+ to CCQE cross-sections for muon neutrinos on mineral oil (CH2) in the MiniBooNE experiment. The measurement is presented here both with and without corrections for hadronic re-interactions in the target nucleus and is given as a function of neutrino energy in the range 0.4 GeV < Eν < 2.4 GeV. With more than 46,000 CCπ+ events collected in MiniBooNE, and with a fractional uncertainty of roughly 11% in the region of highest statistics, this measurement represents a dramatic improvement in statistics and precision over previous CCπ+ and CCQE measurements.

  5. Nutrição mineral, crescimento e teor de óleo essencial da menta em solução nutritiva sob diferentes concentrações de fósforo e épocas de coleta Mineral nutrition, growth and essential oil content of mint in nutrient solution under different phosphorus concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos R. Rodrigues

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito de concentrações de P e épocas de coleta sobre o crescimento, nutrição mineral e teor de óleo essencial da menta (Mentha piperita L.. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados com parcelas subdivididas, em esquema fatorial 2x5, sendo 2 épocas de coleta (65 e 95 dias de cultivo (DC e 5 concentrações de P na solução nutritiva (6; 12; 18; 24 e 30 mg L-1, com 4 repetições. Foi determinada a massa seca de folhas (MSF, caules (MSC, raízes (MSR e total (MST e as relações folha:caule (F:C e parte aérea:raiz (PA:R. Também, foi determinado o teor de óleo essencial em folhas frescas. Os níveis críticos foliares e acúmulo de nutrientes na parte aérea da menta foram estimados por meio da análise química das folhas e caules. As concentrações de P na solução influenciaram o crescimento e a produção de óleo essencial pela menta. Na coleta realizada aos 65 DC, apenas a MSF foi influenciada pelo P, não se observando efeito sobre os teores de óleo essencial. Aos 95 DC, o aumento da concentração de P promoveu aumentos significativos na massa seca das partes e do total da menta e, também, nos teores de óleo essencial, sendo o teor máximo (2,192 dag kg-1 obtido com 19,50 mg L-1 de P. As maiores concentrações de P avaliadas (24 e 30 mg L-1, promoveram aumentos na produção de matéria fresca e seca da parte aérea da menta, mas, reduziram os teores de óleo essencial, devido ao efeito de diluição, não significando, portanto, ganhos de produção de óleo por planta. Os teores foliares dos nutrientes associados ao teor máximo de óleo aos 95 DC foram em g kg-1: N=37,2; =3,9; K=21,2; Ca=9,3; Mg=3,8; S=3,0; e, em mg kg-1: B=35; Cu=8; Fe=323; Mn=145 e Zn=22. A exigência nutricional aos 95 DC relacionada ao teor máximo de óleo essencial seguiu a seqüência: N>K>Ca>P>Mg>S>Fe>Mn>B>Zn>Cu.The effect of P concentrations and harvest period upon the growth, mineral nutrition and essential oil

  6. Assessment of radiological risk parameters associated with some selected rivers around oil mineral producing sites in Abia State, Nigeria due to gross alpha and beta radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enyinna, Paschal Ikenna; Uzochukwu, Francis C.

    2016-01-01

    The study of gross alpha and beta radiation in environmental components and water bodies in particular is very crucial to the environmental, radiation and medical Physicist as this helps to promote good water quality and environmental hygiene. This research work understudied the radiological risk parameters due to gross alpha and beta radiations associated with three selected rivers around crude oil production sites in Abia State, Nigeria. Gross alpha and beta activities were computed for the three rivers based on analytical measurements carried out using a well-calibrated IN-20 model gas-flow proportional counter. Radiological risk parameters were computed from the activity concentrations which included; annual effective dose equivalent of radiation from ingested water (AEDE), annual gonadal dose equivalent (AGDE), and excess lifetime cancer risk (ELCR). The mean of the total AEDE due to the sum of alpha and beta radiations for the three rivers are 0.868 ± 0.221 mSv/y, 1.008 ± 0.156 mSv/y, and 0.917 ± 0.214 mSv/y; and are above the World Health Organization (WHO) permissible limit of 0.1 mSv/y. The mean of the total AGDE are 4.048 ± 1.063 mSv/y, 4.756 ± 0.739 mSv/y, and 4.295 ± 1.026 mSv/y; and are above the world average limit of 0.3 mSv/y. The mean of the total ELCR are (3.038 ± 0.774) X 10"-"3, (3.529 ± 0.547) X 10"-"3, and (3.210 ± 0.748) X 10"-"3; and are above the world average limit of 0.29 X 10"-"3. Most values of ELCR computed in this work are >6.0 X 10"-"4 estimated to be the risk of fatal and weighted nonfatal health conditions over a lifetime (70 years) derived from the radiation dose of 0.1 mSv/y (WHO permissible limit for drinking water). Drinking water from these surveyed sources could impact negatively on the end users. (author)

  7. The argan oil project: going from utopia to reality in 20 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charrouf Zoubida

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The “argan oil project” is nowadays considered as an economic success that harmoniously combined sustainable development, integrated research-action and socio-economic progress. Actually, it was a long battle whose main stages are presented here. The main stages of the argan oil project include a detailed chemical study of argan oil in order to certify argan oil quality and establish an official quality norm and obtain a geographic indication, pharmacological analyses to certify cosmetic argan oil safety, and finally a strong desire to develop Moroccan rural areas by implementing women’s cooperatives and easing the women’s access to education.

  8. Hydrothermal minerals

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nath, B.N.

    flux. Circulation of seawater through the oceanic crust and upper mantle gives rise to a complex series of physical and chemical reactions that lead to the 1) formation of seafloor mineral deposits; 2) alteration of oceanic crust; 3) control... temperature in the high-temperature reaction zone near the heat source. Important parameters in determining the high- temperature fluid composition are • pressure, • temperature, • water/rock ratio, • rock composition, • recharge fluid...

  9. Tribological Characteristics Evaluation of Mustard Oil Blends

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Hassan Jabal; Muhannad Zaidan Khalefa

    2018-01-01

    A progressive increase in the desire for environmentally friendly lubricants by users and strict government regulations for the use of these lubricants has provided an opportunity to use plant oils as biodegradable lubricants, therefore vegetable oils have been investigated to replace oil lubricants because of their maintaining the conditions of nature (environment) properties. In this paper, the influences of the blending ratio of mustard seeds oil with commercial mineral oil (SAE40) on the ...

  10. Mineral and tar oils and paraffin and mineral waxes, extracting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1927-09-01

    In the extraction of soluble bodies from coal and the like carbonaceous material, the coal is preheated in a closed vessel and then heated under pressure with the solvent. The pressure in either or both stages may be increased by gases or vapours more or less inert under the conditions, e.g. hydrogen, steam, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen. In an example, brown coal is maintained at 300/sup 0/C for 10 hours, thus producing a pressure of 100 atmospheres, and is then extracted for 10 hours at 300/sup 0/C and 100 atmospheres with benzene in a closed vessel. Over 60 per cent of the coal is dissolved. After separation of the undissolved coal and removal of the solvent the soluble products may be treated with either to extract resinous matter, and then with cyclohexane to extract wax-like matters. Alternatively the soluble products, alone or in solution or with the undissolved coal, may be destructively hydrogenated, or be cracked in presence of activated aluminium and hydrogen chloride.

  11. National Board Certified Teachers andTheir Students' Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie G. Vandevoort

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary research on teaching indicates that teachers are powerful contributors to students’ academic achievement, though the set and interrelationships of characteristics that make for high-quality and effective teaching have yet to be satisfactorily determined. Nevertheless, on the basis of the extant research and a vision of exemplary teaching, the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards stipulated a definition of a superior teacher. The Board did this without empirical evidence to support their claim that teachers’ who meet the standards set by the Board were superior in promoting academic achievement to those who did not meet those standards. In the 17 years since the founding of the National Board, only a few empirical studies have addressed this important issue. In this study we compare the academic performance of students in the elementary classrooms of 35 National Board Certified teachers and their non-certified peers, in 14 Arizona school districts. Board Certified teachers and their principals provide additional information about these teachers and their schools. Four years of results from the Stanford Achievement Tests in reading, mathematics and language arts, in grades three through six, were analyzed. In the 48 comparisons (four grades, four years of data, three measures of academic performance, using gain scores adjusted for students’ entering ability, the students in the classes of National Board Certified Teachers surpassed students in the classrooms of non-Board certified teachers in almost threequarters of the comparisons. Almost one-third of these differences were statistically significant. In the cases where the students of non-Board certified teachers gained more in an academic year, none of the differences found were statistically significant. Effect size, translated into grade equivalents, informs us that the gains made by students of Board Certified teachers were over one month greater than the

  12. Financing of certified centers: a willingness-to-pay analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, Falk C; Scharl, Anton; Hildebrandt, Thomas; Kotziabassis, Efstratios; Schrauder, Michael G; Bani, Mayada R; Müller, Andreas; Hauzenberger, Tanja; Loehberg, Christian R; Jud, Sebastian M; Fasching, Peter A; Hartmann, Arndt; Schulz-Wendtland, Rüdiger; Strnad, Vratislav; Beckmann, Matthias W; Lux, Michael Patrick

    2013-03-01

    Although care in certified breast centers is now established throughout Germany, numerous services are still not being reimbursed. This also affects other centers involved in the specialty of gynecology such as gynecological cancer centers, perinatal centers, and endometriosis centers. Although a certified center is entitled to charge additional fees, these are in most cases not reimbursed. Calculation of additional costs is limited by the fact that data from the Institute for the Hospital Reimbursement System (Institut für das Entgeltsystem im Krankenhaus, InEK) do not reflect interdisciplinary services and procedures. For decision-makers, society's willingness to pay is an important factor in guiding decisions on the basis of social priorities. A hypothetical maximum willingness to pay can be calculated using a willingness-to-pay analysis, making it possible to identify deficiencies in the arbitrary setting of health budgets at the macro-level. In a multicenter study conducted between November 2009 and December 2010, 2,469 patients at a university hospital and at a non-university hospital were asked about the extent of their awareness of certified centers, the influence of centers on hospital presentation, and about personal attitudes toward quality-oriented reimbursement. A subjective assessment of possible additional charges was calculated using a willingness-to-pay analysis. In the overall group, 53.4 % of the patients were aware of what a certified center is and 27.4 % had specific information (obstetrics 40.0/32.3 %; mastology 66.8/23.2 %; gynecological oncology 54.7/27.3 %; P < 0.001). For 43.8 %, a certified center was one reason or the major reason for presentation (obstetrics 26.2 %; mastology 66.8 %; gynecological oncology 46.6 %; P < 0.001). A total of 72.6 % were in favor of quality-oriented reimbursement and 69.7 % were in favor of an additional charge for a certified center amounting to €538.56 (mastology €643.65, obstetrics €474

  13. Chemical Equilibrium and Mineral Saturation in Waters from Oil Wells of the Activo Luna Field, Tabasco, Mexico; Equilibrio quimico y grado de saturacion de minerales en aguas de pozos petroleros de Activo Luna, Tabasco, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barragan R, Rosa Maria; Arellano G, Victor M.; Portugal M, Enrique; Torres R, Vicente [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (Mexico); Torres Alvarado, Ignacio [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico); Ascencio C, Fernando; Martinez A; Ana E [Petroleos Mexicanos (Mexico)

    2001-09-01

    Chemical equilibrium of formation waters from seven oil wells of the Activo Luna field (Tabasco, Mexico) was modelled. Saturation indices of characteristic hydrothermal minerals were calculated at ambient and reservoir conditions in order to predict scaling potential of deep and surface installations. The salinity of waters was found to be in the range from 43,000 (well Escuintle 2) to 250,000 (well Lune 3B) mg/kg as total dissolved solids. The water samples were classified as sodium-chioride type. Ionic strength for the solutions was found to be between 0.75 and 6.5. Activity coefficients were estimated by virial (Pitzer equations) methods using the GEOCHEMIST WORKENCH (GWB) software. Minerals such as anhydrite, halite, alunite, fluorite and barite were found to be supersaturated at reservoir conditions. A solid scale sample obtained from well Luna-3B was analysed. Analysis indicate the presence of calcite, anhydrite, fluorite and sphalerite which suggest the occurrence of temperatures of at least 180 Celcius degrees with acidic conditions and high chemical corrosion potential. [Spanish] Se modelo el equilibrio quimico de aguas de formacion producidas por siete pozos petroleros pertenecientes al Activo Luna, en el estado de Tabasco, Mexico, se calcularon los indices de saturacion de minerales caracteristicos tanto en las condiciones ambiente como en las de yacimiento, con el proposito de apoyar el control de incrustaciones en las instalaciones superficiales y profundas. La salinidad de las salmueras se encontro en el rango de 43,000 (pozos Escuintle 2) a 250,000 (pozos Luna 3B) mg/kg de solidos disueltos totales y las muestras se clasificaron como del tipo clorurado-sodico. La fuerza ionica de las soluciones varia entre 0.75 y 6.5 molar, por lo que los coeficientes de actividad de la modelacion de equilibrio quimico se estimaron por metodos viriales empleando las ecuaciones de Pitzer mediante el programa GEOCHEMIST WORKBENCH (GWB). Minerales como anhidrita, halita

  14. Marine oil spill response organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendry, C.

    1997-01-01

    The obligations under the law relative to the prevention of marine oil spills and the type of emergency plans needed to mitigate any adverse effects caused by a marine oil spill were discussed. The organizational structure, spill response resources and operational management capabilities of Canada's newly created Response Organizations (ROs) were described. The overall range of oil spill response services that the RO provides to the domestic oil handling, oil transportation and the international shipping industries were reviewed. Amendments to the Canada Shipping Act which require that certain ships and oil handling facilities take oil spill preparedness and response measures, including having an arrangement with an RO certified by the Canadian Coast Guard, were outlined. Canadians now benefit from five ROs established to provide coast-to-coast oil spill response coverage. These include the Western Canada Marine Response Corporation, the Canadian Marine Response Management Corporation, the Great Lakes Response Corporation, the Eastern Canada Response Corporation and the Atlantic Emergency Response Team Ltd. ROs have the expertise necessary to organize and manage marine oil spill response services. They can provide equipment, personnel and operational management for the containment, recovery and cleanup of oil spilled on water

  15. The Effectiveness of "Teach for America" and Other Under-certified Teachers

    OpenAIRE

    Ildiko Laczko-Kerr; David C. Berliner

    2002-01-01

    The academic achievements of students taught by under-certified primary school teachers were compared to the academic achievements of students taught by regularly certified primary school teachers.  This sample of under-certified teachers included three types of under-qualified personnel: emergency, temporary and provisionally certified teachers.  One subset of these under-certified teachers was from the national program "Teach For America (TFA)."  Recent college graduates are placed by TF...

  16. 25 CFR 225.28 - Approval of amendments to minerals agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Approval of amendments to minerals agreements. 225.28 Section 225.28 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS Minerals Agreements § 225.28 Approval of amendments to...

  17. 25 CFR 225.40 - Government employees cannot acquire minerals agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Government employees cannot acquire minerals agreements. 225.40 Section 225.40 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS Minerals Agreements § 225.40 Government...

  18. NEW CZECH & CERTIFIED METHODOLOGY „TOOLS OF RESILIENCE“

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel DOBEŠ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with possibilities of better governance regarding natural and anthropogenic risks and building of resilience of medium towns and cities against disasters. Such systematic approach could be applied for example using new Czech certified methodology “Tools Of Resilience”, which has been developed recently within the short project number no. VF20152016047 under the grant of Czech Ministry of the Interior in period 2015 - 2016 and afterwards certified in 2017 by Czech Ministry of the Environment. Basic starting points, used methods, steps of new methodology and its annexes, will be breafly described in the topic.

  19. Final Report - Certifying the Performance of Small Wind Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherwood, Larry [Small Wind Certification Council, Clifton Park, NY (United States)

    2015-08-28

    The Small Wind Certification Council (SWCC) created a successful accredited certification program for small and medium wind turbines using the funding from this grant. SWCC certifies small turbines (200 square meters of swept area or less) to the American Wind Energy Association (AWEA) Small Wind Turbine Performance and Safety Standard (AWEA Standard 9.1 – 2009). SWCC also certifies medium wind turbines to the International Electrical Commission (IEC) Power Performance Standard (IEC 61400-12-1) and Acoustic Performance Standard (IEC 61400-11).

  20. CEH certified ethical hacker : version 8 : study guide

    CERN Document Server

    Oriyano, Sean-Philip

    2014-01-01

    Prepare for the new Certified Ethical Hacker version 8 exam with this Sybex guide Security professionals remain in high demand. The Certified Ethical Hacker is a one-of-a-kind certification designed to give the candidate a look inside the mind of a hacker. This study guide provides a concise, easy-to-follow approach that covers all of the exam objectives and includes numerous examples and hands-on exercises. Coverage includes cryptography, footprinting and reconnaissance, scanning networks, enumeration of services, gaining access to a system, Trojans, viruses, worms, covert channels, and muc

  1. Process of transforming into light oils heavy oils from carbonization of lignites, coals, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mony, H

    1926-12-20

    A process is described for transforming into light oils the heavy oils coming from the carbonization of lignites, peats, coals, and shales, and heavy oils from original minerals and vegetables, consisting of heating the heavy oils or tars in the presence of one or more solid or liquid substances conveniently chosen, with a veiw to effect distillation of the oils under atmospheric pressure at an appropriate temperature, the solids or liquid substances favoring the formation of light products under the influence of heat, being preferably added to the oil before admitting it to the retort and heating, so that the light oils are obtained from the heavy oils in a single operation.

  2. Method of treating oil-bearing shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, N H

    1926-04-14

    The process is given for treating shale or other oil-bearing mineral which consists of the application of dry heat to render the oil soluble and subjects the product of the heat treatment to an operation to extract the soluble oils.

  3. Distilling hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze, J E

    1923-03-19

    In distilling mineral oils such as petroleum, shale oil, distillates and topped or residual oils, particularly to obtain lubricating oils, the distillation is carried out under reduced pressures below an absolute pressure of 25 mm. of mercury and preferably below about 5 mm. of mercury, and the distillate is collected in fractions determined by the physical characteristics, such as viscosity, flash point, fire point, etc. Superheated steam may be passed through the liquid during distillation. A horizontal cylindrical still provided with cross braces and peripheral ribs interrupted at the base is connected through a condensing coil immersed in a steam chest and a baffled chamber with distillate receiver and is evacuated by a pump. Steam from a boiler and superheater is injected into the still through a perforated pipe. Steam and light oil vapors passing from the chamber are condensed in a coil.

  4. Mineral revenues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    This paper reports that the Interior Department's offshore oil and gas leasing program issued 123 leases offshore Florida, North Carolina, and Alaska between 1981 and 1988 that have since been suspended before exploration or development could begin. The suspensions were imposed on the basis of environmental concerns. Companies holding the leases paid a total of $507.8 million upfront for the leases and another $9.9 million in annual rent fees. GAO estimated the cost to the federal government of buying back the leases at between $889.4 million and $970.7 million for the 123 leases in bonuses, rents, and interests owed the companies, plus an additional $42.5 million the companies have spent on the leases. Thus, as of December 31, 1990, under the sunk cost approach, the government could be required to reimburse the lessees for about $1 billion

  5. 40 CFR 85.1505 - Final admission of certified vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Importation of Motor Vehicles and Motor... vehicle or engine from the previous test (e.g., adjusting the RPM, timing, air-to-fuel ratio, etc.) other... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Final admission of certified vehicles...

  6. 77 FR 43535 - Grantee Codes for Certified Radiofrequency Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 2 [FCC 12-60] Grantee Codes for Certified Radiofrequency Equipment AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This document... authorization program for radiofrequency (RF) devices under part 2 of its rules. This program is one of the...

  7. 19 CFR 159.34 - Certified quarterly rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Hong Kong, India, Iran, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico... Customs purposes in connection with merchandise exported on such date. (2) Certified daily rate. If the... merchandise exported on such day. [T.D. 73-175, 38 FR 17482, July 2, 1973, as amended by T.D. 81-117, 46 FR...

  8. A Comparison of Alienation among Alternatively and Traditionally Certified Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoho, Alan R.; Martin, Nancy K.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the perceptions of alienation among alternatively and traditionally certified teachers. A total of 228 teachers in grades K-12 from a public university offering both traditional certification (TC) and cooperative alternative certification (AC) graduate programs were assessed using the School Alienation…

  9. Relevant or determinant: Importance in certified sustainable food consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van Y.K.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2013-01-01

    Perceived relevance and determinance are two distinct constructs, underlying the overall concept of attribute importance. The present study proposes a survey based measure of attribute determinance. Based on construal level theory it is argued and empirically shown that actual choices of certified

  10. Software testing an ISTQB-BCS certified tester foundation guide

    CERN Document Server

    Hambling, Brian; Samaroo, Angelina; Thompson, Geoff; Williams, Peter; Hambling, Brian

    2015-01-01

    This practical guide provides insight into software testing, explaining the basics of the testing process and how to perform effective tests. It provides an overview of different techniques and how to apply them. It is the best-selling official textbook of the ISTQB-BCS Certified Tester Foundation Level.

  11. 31 CFR 360.55 - Individuals authorized to certify.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Individuals authorized to certify. 360.55 Section 360.55 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued... imprint of either the corporate seal of the institution or of the issuing or paying agent's stamp. The...

  12. 31 CFR 315.55 - Individuals authorized to certify.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Individuals authorized to certify. 315.55 Section 315.55 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued... authenticated by a legible imprint either of a corporate stamp of the institution or of the issuing or paying...

  13. 31 CFR 353.55 - Individuals authorized to certify.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Individuals authorized to certify. 353.55 Section 353.55 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued... imprint of either the corporate seal of the institution or of the issuing or paying agent's stamp. The...

  14. 78 FR 79010 - Criteria to Certify Coal Mine Rescue Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... coal requires more heat to combust; (3) anthracite dust does not propagate an explosion; and (4) there... to Certify Coal Mine Rescue Teams AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor. ACTION... updated the coal mine rescue team certification criteria. The Mine Improvement and New Emergency Response...

  15. The Meaning of Reflective Teaching to National Board Certified Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Sharlotte F.

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative study examined how National Board certified teachers (NBCTs) perceive the meaning of reflective teaching and how their perceptions compare to the literature on reflective thinking and teaching. The study included five participants who had completed the National Board certification process. Data collection included three…

  16. 19 CFR 115.7 - Designation of additional Certifying Authorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Designation of additional Certifying Authorities. 115.7 Section 115.7 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CARGO CONTAINER AND ROAD VEHICLE CERTIFICATION PURSUANT TO INTERNATIONAL CUSTOMS...

  17. 19 CFR 115.12 - Records maintained by Certifying Authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Records maintained by Certifying Authority. 115.12 Section 115.12 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CARGO CONTAINER AND ROAD VEHICLE CERTIFICATION PURSUANT TO INTERNATIONAL CUSTOMS...

  18. 44 CFR 204.53 - Certifying costs and payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....21 and U. S. Treasury 31 CFR part 205, Cash Management Improvement Act. ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Certifying costs and payments. 204.53 Section 204.53 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY...

  19. 40 CFR 85.1407 - Notification of intent to certify.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... handling costs and taxes; (ii) A detailed breakout of the total number of hours necessary to install the... documentation that demonstrate compliance with the life cycle cost requirements specified in § 85.1403(b)(1)(ii... by the equipment certifier as evidence of compliance with the emission requirements specified in § 85...

  20. Telecoupled governance of land use change: Sustainable palm oil conservation benefits limited by preferential certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilmayr, R.; Carlson, K. M.; Gibbs, H.; Noojipady, P.; Burns, D.; Morton, D. C.; Walker, N.; Paoli, G.; Kremen, C.

    2016-12-01

    Dozens of trans-national corporations have made public commitments to purchase only zero-deforestation palm oil, a commodity responsible for substantial tropical forest loss. Eco-certification is a basic requirement of most such forest-related procurement policies, and >20% of palm oil was certified in 2015.While the impact of certification on deforestation in oil palm plantations has never been tested, such evaluation is critical to inform improvements of voluntary sustainability initiatives. Here, we use a new, comprehensive data set of Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO) certified and non-certified oil palm plantation boundaries (191,561 km2) in Indonesia, the leading global producer of palm oil to generate robust spatio-temporal estimates of certification's impact on deforestation and fires from 2000-2014. We find that certification reduced forest cover loss embodied in RSPO certified palm oil through two mechanisms. Certification had a significant protective effect, which lowered plantation deforestation rates by 29%.However, due to preferential certification of plantations developed before 2000, little forest was available for protection; forest area conserved totaled 56±4.9 km2. Our models suggest that increased adoption of RSPO certification may reduce the ability of palm oil companies to selectively certify previously cleared regions, and consequently strengthen the role of certification in protecting the tropical forests at greatest risk from agricultural encroachment. We reflect upon the complex interactions between traditional government policies, and emerging market-based governance structures in this telecoupled system.

  1. 21 CFR 178.3620 - Mineral oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Mansville Company, diatomaceous earth, or equivalent. Magnesium oxide-Celite 545 mixture (2+1) by weight... seeds (for example, beans, peas, rice, and lentils); whole root crop vegetables of the types identified...

  2. Improved process for producing oil from minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peck, E B; Tomkins, D G

    1946-11-21

    In a process for carrying out thermal reactions in the presence of a fluidized solid, the step of preheating the solid feed is described which comprises passing a heated vapor in heat-exchange relation with the fluidized solid under such conditions that the temperature of the fluidized solid is maintained at reaction temperature.

  3. A comparison of certified and noncertified pet foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R G

    1997-11-01

    The market presents the buyer with a wide array of pet food choices. Marketing pet foods has changed in the last decade and today foods may be bought at a variety of outlets. The present study compares nutrient composition, digestibility, and effect on urine pH (cat foods only) of selected certified and noncertified pet foods from different outlets. The selected foods were considered analogous in terms of declared ingredients and macronutrient profiles. The analytical methods used were those of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists as described in the Pet Food Certification Protocol of the Canadian Veterinary Medical Association. The test foods were sampled 4 times from August 1994 to July 1995. Both certified and noncertified products met the nutritional requirements on a consistent basis, although 1 of the noncertified dog foods consistently failed to meet the zinc requirements. This same product also failed to meet the Canadian Veterinary Medical Association's standards for concentrations of protein, calcium, and phosphorus. One of the noncertified cat foods failed to meet the recommended calcium level. With the exception of fat digestion in 1 noncertified food, there were no statistically significant differences in major nutrient digestibility between certified and noncertified pet foods. There were some statistically significant differences in digestibility within both the certified and noncertified groups of foods. The practical significance of any of the statistical differences in digestibility is uncertain. Urine pH observed in cats fed noncertified test diets was variable, with some values greater than 7.0 as a maximum or 6.5 as an average. The general conclusion of this study was that the commonly available certified products were the nutritional equal of those foods that position themselves as "premium."

  4. Treating oil in a maritime environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seebacher, G.

    2002-01-01

    Some details of the International Maritime Organisation's marine pollution regulations are discussed. In simple terms, under IMO regulations oily water must be processed through approved equipment and can be legally discharged if the oil content in the treated effluent is less than 15 ppm. These regulations also make it clear that it is not permitted to use emulsifiers to hide the oil in the effluent. To separate the free oil from water, gravity enhanced separators can be used effectively. With conventional means it is possible to remove free oil from an oily water mixture, to the less than 15 part per million oil content. Conventional IMO certified oil content meters accurately read free oil content in the 0-30 ppm region, to prevent formation of an oil film from treated oily water discharges. Some additional basic rules of thumb worthy of consideration when separating oil from oily water: in general, it is cheaper to prevent oil discharge of oil into the effluent stream than to remove it; emulsifier-enriched lubricating oils emulsify readily and are difficult to remove when present in suspended droplets; the larger the amount of contamination, the greater the difficulty of removing the oil; an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure

  5. Rate of biodegradation of crude oil by microorganisms isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rate of biodegradation of crude oil by micro-organisms isolated from crude oil sludge environment in Eket, Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria was studied. Mineral salt medium supplemented with crude oil was used and three most abundant species isolated from a crude oil sludged soil - Micrococcus varians, Bacillus subtilis ...

  6. Development of an aerobic/anaerobic process for in-situ-rehabilitation of a mostly with mineral oil contaminated location. Final report; Entwicklung eines aeroben/anaeroben Verfahrens zur `In situ-Sanierung` eines vorwiegend mineraloelkontaminierten Altlaststandortes. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auerbach, C; Winsel, E; Wartenberg, G

    1994-12-31

    - A location contaminated with mineral oil was tested for the possibility of a bioremediation; - the microbiological tests showed, that there is both an aerobiotic and an optional anaerobic autochthonous pollutants degrading microflora but only the activation of the aerobiotic germs was possible by both suitable nutrients and test conditions; - in degrading tests with a high concentration of pollutants a degradation was possible by addition of different nutrients. Within a week a degradation of about 70% was shown. In areas of lower concentration the possible degradation was smaller. - An in-situ-rehabilitation by a hydraulic supply of the soil microorganisms was not possible because of the anisotropic conditions at the location in a depth of 5-10 m; - an in-situ-rehabilitation with both soil air aspiration and aeration, for the supply of the soil microorganisms too, is even possible at anisotropic soil conditions; - now there is knowledge about both a variable filtration and tubing for an optimal adaptation for the bioremediation to the damage; - apparatus were developped for in-situ-rehabilitation for small and medium locations, useable for biological processes too; - there is a wide utilization of the aeration apparatus is because of the careful environmental use. (orig.) [Deutsch] - Ein Mineraloel-kontaminierter Altlaststandort wurde im Hinblick auf eine moegliche biologische Sanierung untersucht. - Die mikrobiologischen Untersuchungen ergaben, dass eine aerobe und fakultativ anaerobe autochthone schadstoffabbauende Mikroflora vorhanden ist, aber nur der aeroben Keime durch geeignete Naehrstoffe und Versuchsbedingungen aktivierbar waren. - In Abbauuntersuchungen durch Zusatz unterschiedlicher Naehrsalze konnte bei hoher Schadstoffkonzentration schon nach 1 Woche ein Abbau > 70% erreicht werden. In niederen Konzentrationsbereichen war die Schadstoffabbaupotenz wesentlich geringer. - Die anisotropen Verhaeltnisse am Standort in 5-10m Tiefe liessen eine In

  7. Transformer oil maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, J. [A.F. White Ltd., Brantford, ON (Canada)

    2002-08-01

    Proactive treatment is required in the case of transformer oil, since the oil degrades over time, which could result in the potential failure of the transformer or costly repairs. A mineral-based oil is used for transformers because of its chemical properties and dielectric strength. Water and particulate are the main contaminants found in transformer oil, affecting the quality of the oil through reduced insulation. Acid that forms in the oil when reacting with oxygen is called oxidization. It reduces the heat dissipation of the transformer as the acid forms sludge which settles on the windings of the transformer. The first step in the preventive maintenance program associated with transformer oil is the testing of the oil. The base line is established through initial testing, and subsequent annual testing identifies any changes. The minimal requirements are: (1) dielectric breakdown, a measure of the voltage conducted by the oil; (2) neutralization/acid number, which detects the level of acid present in the oil; (3) interfacial tension, which identifies the presence of polar compounds; (4) colour, which displays quality, aging and the presence of contaminants; and (5) water, which decreases the dielectric breakdown voltage. The analysis of the gases present in the oil is another useful tool in a maintenance program for the determination of a possible fault such as arcing, corona or overheated connections and is accomplished through Dissolved Gas Analysis (DGA). Remediation treatment includes upgrading the oil. Ideally, reclamation should be performed in the early stages of the acid buildup before sludging occurs. Onsite reclamation includes Fuller's earth processing and degasification, a process briefly described by the author.

  8. Some basic properties of environmentally adapted oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeglund, E. [Div. of Machine Elements, Luleaa University of Technology (Sweden)

    1998-11-01

    Environmental concern has led to a development of lubricants that are less harmful to the environmental than traditional mineral based oils. Biodegradability and non-toxicity are desired properties together with a competitive price and if possible they should also be derived from renewable raw materials. In order to have a major breakthrough for the new, environmentally adapted lubricating oils they must perform well in mechanical and hydraulic systems. They must reduce wear, increase efficiency and reduce maintenance costs equally well, or preferably better than mineral based oils. This paper presents primary results from an investigation where four environmentally adapted oils (rape seed, pine tree, diester and TMP-ester) are compared to a conventional naphthenic mineral oil. Viscosity and viscosity-pressure coefficients, limiting shear stress, friction properties and film forming ability have been evaluated under elastohydrodynamic conditions. It was found that the mineral oil had the highest values of pressure-viscosity coefficient, limiting shear stress and coefficient of friction. Rape seed oil had the second highest pressure-viscosity coefficient but the lowest limiting shear stress and coefficient of friction. Pine tree oil, diester and TMP-ester formed an intermediate group with rather similar results. The Hamrock-Dowson equation for central film thickness was found to overestimate film thickness by about 10-20 per cent with the least discrepancy for the mineral oil. (orig.) 8 refs.

  9. Aerobic microbial enhanced oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torsvik, T. [Univ. of Bergen (Norway); Gilje, E.; Sunde, E.

    1995-12-31

    In aerobic MEOR, the ability of oil-degrading bacteria to mobilize oil is used to increase oil recovery. In this process, oxygen and mineral nutrients are injected into the oil reservoir in order to stimulate growth of aerobic oil-degrading bacteria in the reservoir. Experiments carried out in a model sandstone with stock tank oil and bacteria isolated from offshore wells showed that residual oil saturation was lowered from 27% to 3%. The process was time dependent, not pore volume dependent. During MEOR flooding, the relative permeability of water was lowered. Oxygen and active bacteria were needed for the process to take place. Maximum efficiency was reached at low oxygen concentrations, approximately 1 mg O{sub 2}/liter.

  10. Palm Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm oil is obtained from the fruit of the oil palm tree. Palm oil is used for preventing vitamin A deficiency, cancer, ... blood pressure, high cholesterol, and cyanide poisoning. Palm oil is used for weight loss and increasing the ...

  11. Diesel oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil ... Diesel oil ... Diesel oil poisoning can cause symptoms in many parts of the body. EYES, EARS, NOSE, AND THROAT Loss of ... most dangerous effects of hydrocarbon (such as diesel oil) poisoning are due to inhaling the fumes. NERVOUS ...

  12. Minerals Yearbook, volume I, Metals and Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2018-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industries and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Content of the individual Minerals Yearbook volumes follows:Volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters about virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. Chapters on survey methods, summary statistics for domestic nonfuel minerals, and trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries in the United States are also included.Volume II, Area Reports: Domestic, contains a chapter on the mineral industry of each of the 50 States and Puerto Rico and the Administered Islands. This volume also has chapters on survey methods and summary statistics of domestic nonfuel minerals.Volume III, Area Reports: International, is published as four separate reports. These regional reports contain the latest available minerals data on more than 180 foreign countries and discuss the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations and the United States. Each report begins with an overview of the region’s mineral industries during the year. It continues with individual country chapters that examine the mining, refining, processing, and use of minerals in each country of the region and how each country’s mineral industry relates to U.S. industry. Most chapters include production tables and industry structure tables, information about Government policies and programs that affect the country’s mineral industry, and an outlook section.The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the Minerals Yearbook are welcomed.

  13. Laboratory of minerals purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The laboratory of minerals purification was organized in 1962 where with application of modern physical and chemical methods were investigated the mechanism of flotation reagents interaction with minerals' surface, was elaborated technologies on rising complexity of using of republic's minerals

  14. Report of the finance committee on the draft of the bill to amend the tax law on mineral oil and liquer in 1981 (MinoeBranntwStAeandG 1981). Bericht des Finanzausschusses zu dem von der Bundesregierung eingebrachten Entwurf eines Mineraloel- und Branntweinsteuer-Aenderungsgesetzes 1981 (MinoeBranntwStAendG 1981)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    The report gives the views of those associations which took part in the hearing on the bill. The majority of committee members stood firm to the basic concept of making use of taxes for consolidating the budget and for improving the balance of payments. The increase in mineral oil tax does only present a limited correction, since the tax share in the petrol price once amounted to 75 per cent. In the meantime it has dropped below 50 per cent due to increasing oil prices. The committee has thoroughly dealt with aspects of market restriction and with the consequences of an increased unemployment ratio. The necessary process of adaptation the automotive industry will have to undergo has already been set in motion. It will at the most be expedited by this new law.

  15. Mineral wealth and the economic transition: Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auty, R.M.

    1998-01-01

    The exploitation of mineral wealth can amplify the problems of the transition economies in three basic ways. First, the rebound of the real exchange rate that characterises a successful transition may be augmented by the capital inflow required to expand mineral production. This can cause both recession in the short-run and lower growth in the medium-term. Second, when the mineral revenues expand, the Dutch Disease effects may intensify the transition-related shrinkage of the non-mining tradable sector, thereby retarding economic diversification and rendering the economy vulnerable to external shocks. Third, a mineral boom tends to concentrate revenue on the government, which may use it to postpone difficult decisions on economic reform and/or dissipate the revenue due to weak financial markets and inadequate public accountability. Kazakhstan, like oil-rich Azerbaijan, is a late reformer and displays evidence of a faster transition rebound than other less resource-rich countries in the CIS do. However, Kazakhstan has two advantages over Azerbaijan. First, Kazakhstan has a more diversified mineral endowment with which to counter any trend towards single commodity specialization. Second, Kazakhstan is making a later start on oil expansion so that it can learn from the experience of Azerbaijan. Priorities for Kazakhstan are the continuation of prudent economic policies, the creation of institutions to enhance the transparency of the revenue flows, and the use of environmental accounting to provide a rationale for the deployment of the oil rents. (author)

  16. Oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsouros, M.H.

    1992-01-01

    The world annually transports 1.7 billion tons of oil by sea, and oil spills, often highly concentrated discharges, are increasing from a variety of sources. The author discusses sources of oils spills: natural; marine transportation; offshore oil production; atmospheric sources; municipal industrial wastes and runoff. Other topics include: the fate of the spilled oil; the effects of the oil; the response to oil spills; and prevention of oil spills. 30 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  17. South Africa's mineral industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-06-01

    The main aim of the Minerals Bureau in presenting this annual review is to provide an up-to-date reference document on the current state of the mineral industry in South Africa. This includes a brief look at the production, trade, economy, resources and deposits of precious metals and minerals, energy minerals, metallic minerals, and non-metallic minerals. One article discusses the production, trade, export, deposits and economy of uranium

  18. Elemental Quantification and Residues Characterization of Wet Digested Certified and Commercial Carbon Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Simoes, Filipa R. F.; Batra, Nitin M.; Warsama, Bashir H.; Canlas, Christian; Patole, Shashikant; Yapici, Tahir F.; Costa, Pedro M. F. J.

    2016-01-01

    .g., graphene and nanotubes) has suffered from the lack of efficient digestion steps and certified reference materials (CRM). Here, various commercial and certified graphitic carbon materials were subjected to a

  19. Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... up. How Oil Harms Animals and Plants in Marine Environments In general, oil spills can affect animals and plants in two ways: from the oil ... up. How Oil Harms Animals and Plants in Marine Environments In general, oil spills can affect animals and plants in two ways: from the oil ...

  20. Exponential gain of randomness certified by quantum contextuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Um, Mark; Zhang, Junhua; Wang, Ye; Wang, Pengfei; Kim, Kihwan

    2017-04-01

    We demonstrate the protocol of exponential gain of randomness certified by quantum contextuality in a trapped ion system. The genuine randomness can be produced by quantum principle and certified by quantum inequalities. Recently, randomness expansion protocols based on inequality of Bell-text and Kochen-Specker (KS) theorem, have been demonstrated. These schemes have been theoretically innovated to exponentially expand the randomness and amplify the randomness from weak initial random seed. Here, we report the experimental evidence of such exponential expansion of randomness. In the experiment, we use three states of a 138Ba + ion between a ground state and two quadrupole states. In the 138Ba + ion system, we do not have detection loophole and we apply a methods to rule out certain hidden variable models that obey a kind of extended noncontextuality.

  1. Certified Basic Life Support Instructors Assess Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Skills Poorly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Camilla; Rasmussen, Stinne E; Kristensen, Mette Amalie

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: High-quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) improves survival from cardiac arrest. During basic life support (BLS) training, instructors assess CPR skills to enhance learning outcome. Emergency department staff and senior residents have been shown to assess chest compression...... quality poorly. Currently no studies have evaluated CPR assessment among certified BLS instructors. The aim of this study was to investigate certified BLS instructors’ assessment of chest compressions and rescue breathing.Methods: Data were collected at BLS courses for medical students at Aarhus...... of CPR skills may be beneficial to ensure high-quality learning outcome.Author Disclosures: C. Hansen: None. S.E. Rasmussen: None. M.A. Nebsbjerg: None. M. Stærk: None. B. Løfgren: None....

  2. Measuring Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetist Organizational Climate: Instrument Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Donald; Poghosyan, Lusine

    2017-08-01

    No tool exists measuring certified registered nurse anesthetist (CRNA) organizational climate. The study's purpose is to adapt a validated tool to measure CRNA organizational climate. Content validity of the Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetist Organizational Climate Questionnaire (CRNA-OCQ) was established. Pilot testing was conducted to determine internal reliability consistency of the subscales. Experts rated the tool as content valid. The subscales had high internal consistency reliability (with respective Cronbach's alphas): CRNA-Anesthesiologist Relations (.753), CRNA-Physician Relations (.833), CRNA-Administration Relations (.895), Independent Practice (.830), Support for CRNA Practice (.683), and Professional Visibility (.772). Further refinement of the CRNA-OCQ is necessary. Measurement and assessment of CRNA organizational climate may produce evidence needed to improve provider and patient outcomes.

  3. A new certified reference material for size analysis of nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, Adelina; Kestens, Vikram; Franks, Katrin; Roebben, Gert; Lamberty, Andrée; Linsinger, Thomas P. J.

    2012-01-01

    A certified reference material, ERM-FD100, for quality assurance and validation of various nanoparticle sizing methods, was developed by the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements. The material was prepared from an industrially sourced colloidal silica containing nanoparticles with a nominal equivalent spherical diameter of 20 nm. The homogeneity and stability of the candidate reference material was assessed by means of dynamic light scattering and centrifugal liquid sedimentation. Certification of the candidate reference material was based on a global interlaboratory comparison in which 34 laboratories participated with various analytical methods (DLS, CLS, EM, SAXS, ELS). After scrutinising the interlaboratory comparison data, 4 different certified particle size values, specific for the corresponding analytical method, could be assigned. The good comparability of results allowed the certification of the colloidal silica material for nanoparticle size analysis.

  4. Production of quality/certified seed of fodder-crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhutta, A.R.; Hussain, A.

    2006-01-01

    Although, Pakistan has well developed Seed-production and certification Programme for major crops, but seed programme for fodder-crops is still not well organized. Availability of local certified seed, remained 250-350 mt for Berseem, Sorghum, maize, barley and oat. About 5000 to 9000 mt of seed has being imported during 2003-04 to 2005-06. Fodder Research Institute and jullundhur Seed Corporation have demonstrated a model of public/private partnership for initiation of certified seed of a few fodder crops. To produce quality seeds of fodder crops, various steps, procedures and prescribed standards have been given, which will help in production of quality seed of fodder crops in Pakistan. (author)

  5. Cu determination in crude oil distillation products by atomic absorption and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after analyte transfer to aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalewska, Zofia; Ruszczynska, Anna; Bulska, Ewa

    2005-01-01

    Cu was determined in a wide range of petroleum products from crude oil distillation using flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Different procedures of sample preparation were evaluated: (i) mineralization with sulfuric acid in an open system (ii) mineralization in a closed microwave system (iii) combustion in hydrogen-oxygen flame in the Wickbold's apparatus (iv) matrix evaporation followed by acid dissolution, and (v) acidic extraction. All the above procedures led to the transfer of the analyte into an aqueous solution for the analytical measurement step. It was found that application of FAAS was limited to the analysis of the heaviest petroleum products of high Cu content. In ICP-MS, the use of internal reference method (with Rh or In as internal reference element) was required to eliminate the matrix effects in the analysis of extracts and the concentrated solutions of mineralized heavy petroleum products. The detection limits (in original samples) were equal to, respectively, 10, 86, 3.3, 0.9 and 0.4 ng g -1 in procedures i-v with ETAAS detection and 10, 78, 1.1 and 0.5 ng g -1 in procedures i-iii and v with ICP-MS detection. The procedures recommended here were validated by recovery experiments, certified reference materials analysis and comparison of results, obtained for a given sample, in different ways. The Cu content in the analyzed samples was: 50-110 ng g -1 in crude oil, -1 in gasoline, -1 in atmospheric oil, -1 in heavy vacuum oil and 140-300 ng g -1 in distillation residue

  6. Cu determination in crude oil distillation products by atomic absorption and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after analyte transfer to aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalewska, Zofia; Ruszczyńska, Anna; Bulska, Ewa

    2005-03-01

    Cu was determined in a wide range of petroleum products from crude oil distillation using flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Different procedures of sample preparation were evaluated: (i) mineralization with sulfuric acid in an open system, (ii) mineralization in a closed microwave system, (iii) combustion in hydrogen-oxygen flame in the Wickbold's apparatus, (iv) matrix evaporation followed by acid dissolution, and (v) acidic extraction. All the above procedures led to the transfer of the analyte into an aqueous solution for the analytical measurement step. It was found that application of FAAS was limited to the analysis of the heaviest petroleum products of high Cu content. In ICP-MS, the use of internal reference method (with Rh or In as internal reference element) was required to eliminate the matrix effects in the analysis of extracts and the concentrated solutions of mineralized heavy petroleum products. The detection limits (in original samples) were equal to, respectively, 10, 86, 3.3, 0.9 and 0.4 ng g - 1 in procedures i-v with ETAAS detection and 10, 78, 1.1 and 0.5 ng g - 1 in procedures i-iii and v with ICP-MS detection. The procedures recommended here were validated by recovery experiments, certified reference materials analysis and comparison of results, obtained for a given sample, in different ways. The Cu content in the analyzed samples was: 50-110 ng g - 1 in crude oil, oil, oil and 140-300 ng g - 1 in distillation residue.

  7. Miscellaneous Industrial Mineral Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes miscellaneous industrial minerals operations in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team...

  8. Biodegradation performance of environmentally-friendly insulating oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; He, Yan; Cai, Shengwei; Chen, Cheng; Wen, Gang; Wang, Feipeng; Fan, Fan; Wan, Chunxiang; Wu, Liya; Liu, Ruitong

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, biodegradation performance of rapeseed insulating oil (RDB) and FR3 insulating oil (FR3) was studied by means of ready biodegradation method which was performed with Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) 301B. For comparison, the biodegradation behaviour of 25# mineral insulating oil was also characterized with the same method. The testing results shown that the biodegradation degree of rapeseed insulating oil, FR3 insulating oil and 25# mineral insulating oil was 95.8%, 98.9% and 38.4% respectively. Following the “new chemical risk assessment guidelines” (HJ/T 154 - 2004), which illustrates the methods used to identify and assess the process safety hazards inherent. The guidelines can draw that the two vegetable insulating oils, i.e. rapeseed insulating oil and FR3 insulating oil are easily biodegradable. Therefore, the both can be classified as environmentally-friendly insulating oil. As expected, 25# mineral insulating oil is hardly biodegradable. The main reason is that 25# mineral insulating oil consists of isoalkanes, cyclanes and a few arenes, which has few unsaturated bonds. Biodegradation of rapeseed insulating oil and FR3 insulating oil also remain some difference. Biodegradation mechanism of vegetable insulating oil was revealed from the perspective of hydrolysis kinetics.

  9. Vehicle Authentication via Monolithically Certified Public Key and Attributes

    OpenAIRE

    Dolev, Shlomi; Krzywiecki, Łukasz; Panwar, Nisha; Segal, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Vehicular networks are used to coordinate actions among vehicles in traffic by the use of wireless transceivers (pairs of transmitters and receivers). Unfortunately, the wireless communication among vehicles is vulnerable to security threats that may lead to very serious safety hazards. In this work, we propose a viable solution for coping with Man-in-the-Middle attacks. Conventionally, Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) is utilized for a secure communication with the pre-certified public key. H...

  10. A proposed evolution for the Italian certified electronic mail system

    OpenAIRE

    Buzzi, Marina; Ferrucci, Luca; Francesco, Gennai; Petrucci, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    One the main objective of the European Commission is to innovate and bring ICT to its full potential in any sector, including eGovernment, eCommerce, and eHealth services. Certified Electronic Mail (CEM) systems of Member States are currently not interoperable, thus impacting on economic growth and competitiveness. The paper investigates the use of the DNSSec technology as a technological evolution of the Italian CEM System and the first step towards interoperability and adherence to internat...

  11. Certified Nursing Assistants’ Explanatory Models of Nursing Home Resident Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Piven, Mary Lynn; Anderson, Ruth A.; Colón-Emeric, Cathleen S.; Sandelowski, Margarete

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we explored how Certified Nursing Assistants (CNAs) understood resident depression. Interviews with 18 CNAs, working in two nursing homes were guided by Kleinman’s Explanatory Models of Illness framework. Interview data were content analyzed and CNAs’ descriptions of depression were compared to the MDS 2.0 Mood Screen and to DSM-IV-TR Depression Criteria. CNAs identified causes, signs, and symptoms of depression, but they were unsure about the duration and normalcy of depressio...

  12. Cost analysis of LEED certified United States navy buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Kirar, Carl V.

    2011-01-01

    CIVINS (Civilian Institutions) Thesis document A study was completed at UW-Madison in 2010 that reviewed the energy consumption of US Navy buildings which earned Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certification by the United States Green Building Council (USGBC). The research compared LEED certified buildings to a commercial counterpart within the US Navy inventory against Executive Order (EO) 13423. The EO mandated that all federal agencies meet a 30 percent reduction of...

  13. Climate change and WTO : boundary mediation on certified emission reductions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ho Cheol

    2011-07-01

    This book mentions climate change and WTO with is climate change true? International effort for reduce of greenhouse gas with UNFCCC, Kyoto protocol, Copenhagen Accord and Cancun Agreement, WTO norm, discussion on introduction of boundary mediation on certified emission reductions, analysis on regulation related WTO norm, violation of regulation on border measure of prohibition, violation of principle on GATT, justification, except through Article 20 of GATT, assessment of policy and supplementation on the law.

  14. A comparison of certified and noncertified pet foods.

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, R G

    1997-01-01

    The market presents the buyer with a wide array of pet food choices. Marketing pet foods has changed in the last decade and today foods may be bought at a variety of outlets. The present study compares nutrient composition, digestibility, and effect on urine pH (cat foods only) of selected certified and noncertified pet foods from different outlets. The selected foods were considered analogous in terms of declared ingredients and macronutrient profiles. The analytical methods used were those ...

  15. Implementation plans for the Korean certified tumor registrar qualification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boo, Yoo-Kyung; Lim, Hyun-Sook; Won, Young-Joo

    2014-01-01

    Cancer registration data is used to understand the nation's cancer burden, and to provide significant baseline data for cancer control efforts, as well as, research on cancer incidence, mortality, survival, and prevalence. A system that approves, assesses, and manages the qualification of specialists, responsible for performing cancer registration, has not been developed in Korea. This study presents ways to implement a certification system designed for the qualification of tumor registrars in Korea. Requirements for implementing a certified tumor registrar qualification system were determined by reviewing the system for establishing qualifications in Korea and the American qualification system via the National Cancer Registrars Association (NCRA). Moreover, a survey was conducted on Korean medical records administrators, who had taken the U.S. Certified Tumor Registrar (CTR) examination, in order to review their opinions regarding these requirements. This study verified the feasibility of a qualification examination based on the opinions of CTR specialists by determining the following: items, and the associated ratings, of the qualifications necessary to register individuals as certified tumor registrars in a private qualification system; status of human resources required for the examination or training processes; plans regarding the organization needed for management, and operation of qualifications, examination standards, subject areas, examination methods, examination qualifications, or education and training programs. The implementation of a certified tumor registrar qualification system will lead to enhanced job competency for specialists and a qualitative improvement of cancer registration data. It will also reliably foster human resources that will lay the groundwork needed to establish scientific and reasonable national cancer management policies.

  16. Minerals Industry' 97. Survey report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this annual survey is to provide timely and accurate financial data such as production, price movements, profitability, distribution of assets by activity, employment and labour cost and taxation on the Australian minerals industry. It aims to facilitate more informed debate on the industry's role and importance in the economy. The report also includes information on the safety and health performance and overseas exploration expenditure of the minerals industry. This twenty-first survey relates to the year ended 30 June 1997. The proportion of activity covered in this year's survey is comparable with the 1996 survey. The mineral industry is defined as including exploration for, extraction and primary processing of minerals in Australia. The oil, gas, iron and steel industries are excluded. As for the uranium industry, increased mine capacity over the medium term saw a switch away from spot market purchases to long term contracts for uranium in 1996. This, coupled with announced releases from the US stockpile, saw downward pressure on spot market prices for uranium during 1996/97. The average spot market price for U 3 O 8 fell by an average of 6 percent during 1996/97 and was approximately 16 percent lower than three years ago. General uncertainty over the future profitability of coal industry is compounded by the likely softness of future coal prices

  17. Analysis of the kerogen of oil shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quass, F W; Down, A L

    1939-01-01

    Comments are given on the method developed by F. W. Quass for reducing the amount of mineral matter present in certain coals and oil shales (torbanites). The method consisted of grinding oil shale with water in a porcelain ball mill in the presence of oil. The oil formed a paste with the carbonaceous material, and a greater portion of the mineral matter remained suspended in the water and was separated. Ultimate analyses of the enriched samples indicated that the percent of carbon was higher, the percent of hydrogen and oxygen was lower, and the ratio of carbon to hydrogen and carbon to oxygen increased in the enriched samples.

  18. 7 CFR 785.4 - Grants to certified State mediation programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grants to certified State mediation programs. 785.4..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS CERTIFIED STATE MEDIATION PROGRAM § 785.4 Grants to certified State mediation programs. (a) Eligibility. To be eligible to receive a grant, a State mediation program...

  19. 43 CFR 44.23 - How does the Department certify payment computations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Certified Public Accountant, or an independent public accountant, that the statement has been audited in... guidelines that State auditors, independent Certified Public Accountants, or independent public accountants... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How does the Department certify payment...

  20. 7 CFR 457.145 - Potato crop insurance-certified seed endorsement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potato crop insurance-certified seed endorsement. 457... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.145 Potato crop insurance—certified seed endorsement. The Potato Crop Insurance Certified Seed Endorsement Provisions for...

  1. 7 CFR 201.73 - Processors and processing of all classes of certified seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Certified Seed § 201.73 Processors and processing... of certified seed: (a) Facilities shall be available to perform processing without introducing... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Processors and processing of all classes of certified...

  2. Minerals from Macedonia: XV. Sivec mineral assemble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boev, Blazho; Jovanovski, Gligor; Makreski, Petre; Bermanec, Vladimir

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents investigations carried out on the collected minerals from the Sivec deposit. It is situated in the vicinity of the town of Prilep, representing a rare occurrence of sugary white dolomite marbles. The application of suitable methods of exploitation of decorative-dimension stones makes possible to obtain large amounts of commercial blocks well known in the world. Despite the existence of dolomite marbles, a series of exotic minerals are typical in Sivec mineralization. Among them, the most significant are: calcite, fluorite, rutile, phlogopite, corundum, diaspore, almandine, kosmatite (clintonite or margarite), clinochlore, muscovite, quartz, pyrite, tourmaline and zoisite. An attempt to identify ten collected minerals using the FT IR spectroscopy is performed. The identification of the minerals was based on the comparison of the infrared spectra of our specimens with the corresponding literature data for the mineral species originating all over the world. The coloured pictures of all studied silicate minerals are presented as well. (Author)

  3. Strata control in mineral engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieniawski, Z.T.

    1986-01-01

    This book covers the state-of-the-art of strata control practice both in the United States and abroad with respect to strata reinforcement by rock bolting, long wall mining technology and innovations in energy development, such as mining for oil and tunneling for storage of high-level nuclear waste in deep underground repositories. It features coverage of design concepts in rock engineering and rockbolt systems, stability of rock pillars, rockbursts, shaft design and construction and a detailed consideration of mineral and energy needs in the United States

  4. Efficacy of fipronil aerially applied in oil adjuvants and drift retardants against boll weevils, Anthonomus Grandis Boheman (Coleoptera:Curculionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph E. Mulrooney

    2002-01-01

    Results of aerial application tests in the field and insecticide transfer tests in the laboratory showed that cottonseed oil was the most effective oil adjuvant to use with fipronil for controlling boll weevils under field conditions and for transferring fipronil from cotton leaf surfaces to boll weevils. The mineral oil and mineral oil + drift retardant more...

  5. Metal working oils. Cutting oils, rolling oils, quenching oils, rust preventive oils; Kinzoku kakoyu. Sessakuyu, atsuenyu, yakiireyu, boseiyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyama, S. [Idemitsu Kosan Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-04-01

    With the demand against complicating working techniques for a background, foundations of the consideration for each of the lubricants in future are outlined. 1. Cutting oils: From the standpoint of speeding up and fireproofing, share of water-soluble type has come up to 30-40%. In this type, emulsifying dispersants and preservatives are combined. 2. Rolling oils: According to thinning of the standard thickness of steel plates, pressure of contacting surfaces has come up to 300 kg/mm{sup 2}(max.) and slip speed has increased too. In stainless steel plates, in order to get rid of the heat-streak (baking streak originated from wearing-out of oil film) shifting from neat oil to emulsion type is required. 3. Quenching oils: Following two systems are recent tendencies, the mineral oil system having excellent thermostability or the water system containing polyalkylneglycol etc., but the latter is expected from the viewpoint of fireproofing. 4. Rust preventive oils: As this oils do not aim at the rust prevention for long term, degreasing property is required. 20 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  6. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF INNOVATION PERFORMANCE IN CERTIFIED FIRMS IN MONTENEGRO AND REPUBLIC OF SRPSKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravko Krivokapic

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Research subjects of this study are certified companies and their commitment to innovation, as well as their own development and implementation of innovation. Certified companies are those companies that have set one or more standards: ISO 9001:2008, ISO 14001: 2004, HACCP, OHSAS 18001, ISO 17025:2006, ISO 27001. The research is based on 60 certified companies in Montenegro and 165 certified companies Republic of Srpska. The research was conducted at certified companies from all regions, for every activity and sizes. For this purpose it was used questionnaire with 91 questions and it was filled in like interview.

  7. Oil and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, F

    1974-10-01

    The shift in world income due to the increase in oil prices has resulted in a world economy that has been thrown off balance. Nine papers are presented that explore the background and the main implications of this ''watershed'' in international relations, particularly the extent to which it will affect the development prospects of poor countries and the climate of trade between poor and rich nations in the next few years. Two papers, ''Diary of Events in the Oil Market 1971--1974'' and ''Statistical Background,'' provide information on the financial changes implied by the price increase; some of the figures should be treated as preliminary estimates only. ''Large International Firms in the Oil Industry'' examines the part played by the major oil companies in developments in the oil market leading up to the events of 1973. Two papers, ''Can OPEC Maintain Current Prices'' and ''OPEC As a Model for Other Mineral Exporters,'' present optimistic conclusions, from the viewpoint of developing countries, on their future capability for controlling their own destinies in trade. ''A Note on Some Issues Raised for Science and Technology Policy by the Increase in Oil Prices'' looks at options open to producers and consumers of raw materials. ''Assessing the Economic Impact on Developing Countries and Some Policy Suggestions,'' ''A Note on the Implications of the Oil Price Increases for British Aid Policy,'' and ''Confrontation Versus Co-operation'' are three papers concerned with difficulties of developing countries and particularly India, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka. (MCW)

  8. Performance of palm oil as a biobased machining lubricant when drilling inconel 718

    OpenAIRE

    Abd Rahim Erween; Sasahara Hiroyuki

    2017-01-01

    Metalworking fluid acts as cooling and lubrication agent at the cutting zone in the machining process. However, conventional Metalworking fluid such mineral oil gives negative impact on the human and environment. Therefore, the manufacture tends to substitute the mineral oil to bio-based oil such as vegetables and synthetic oil. In this paper, the drilling experiment was carried out to evaluate the efficiency of palm oil and compare it with minimal quantity lubrication technique using synthet...

  9. Experimental study of the processes of aerosol production for technical oil cleanup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medvedev Gennadiy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available From the experimental study of mechanism of fine mist formation in oil-flooded screw compressor it has been drawn the conclusion on evaporation of fine aerosol of mineral oil that has been obtained in two ways: on the basis of oil spray with mechanical burner and on the basis of volume condensation of oil vapour in air. The given paper presents experimental facility for the production of mineral oil aerosol and also comparison of the experimentation results with calculations.

  10. Diagnosis of poor safety culture as a major shortcoming in OHSAS 18001-certified companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahramani, Abolfazl

    2017-04-07

    The evaluation of safety performance in occupational health and safety assessment series (OHSAS) 18001-certified companies provides useful information about the quality of the management system. A certified organization should employ an adequate level of safety management and a positive safety culture to achieve a satisfactory safety performance. The present study conducted in six manufacturing companies: three OHSAS 18001-certified, and three non-certified to assess occupational health and safety (OHS) as well as OHSAS 18001 practices. The certified companies had a better OHS practices compared with the non-certified companies. The certified companies slightly differed in OHS and OHSAS 18001 practices and one of the certified companies had the highest activity rates for both practices. The results indicated that the implemented management systems have not developed and been maintained appropriately in the certified companies. The in-depth analysis of the collected evidence revealed shortcomings in safety culture improvement in the certified companies. This study highlights the importance of safety culture to continuously improve the quality of OHSAS 18001 and to properly perform OHS/OHSAS 18001 practices in the certified companies.

  11. Norwegian farmers ceasing certified organic production: characteristics and reasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaten, Ola; Lien, Gudbrand; Koesling, Matthias; Løes, Anne-Kristin

    2010-12-01

    This article examines the characteristics of and reasons for Norwegian farmers' ceasing or planning to cease certified organic production. We gathered cross-sectional survey data in late 2007 from organic farmers deregistering between January 2004 and September 2007 (n=220), and similar data from a random sample of farmers with certified organic management in 2006 (n=407). Of the respondents deregistering by November 2007, 17% had quit farming altogether, 61% now farmed conventionally, and 21% were still farming by organic principles, but without certification. Nearly one in four organic farmers in 2007 indicated that they planned to cease certification within the next 5-10 years. From the two survey samples, we categorised farmers who expect to be deregistered in 5-10 years into three groups: conventional practices (n=139), continuing to farm using organic principles (uncertified organic deregistrants, n=105), and stopped farming (n=33). Of the numerous differences among these groups, two were most striking: the superior sales of uncertified organic deregistrants through consumer-direct marketing and the lowest shares of organic land among conventional deregistrants. We summarised a large number of reasons for deregistering into five factors through factor analysis: economics, regulations, knowledge-exchange, production, and market access. Items relating to economics and regulations were the primary reasons offered for opting out. The regression analysis showed that the various factors were associated with several explanatory variables. Regulations, for example, figured more highly among livestock farmers than crop farmers. The economic factor strongly reflected just a few years of organic management. Policy recommendations for reducing the number of dropouts are to focus on economics, environmental attitudes, and the regulatory issues surrounding certified organic production. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Applications of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to certifiable food colors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marmion, D.M.

    Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was found suitable for the identification of individual colours, for distinguishing individual colours from colour mixtures, for the identification and semi-quantitative determination of the individual colours in mixtures and for proofs of the adulteration of certified colours adding noncertified colours. The method is well suited for observing the purity of colours and may also be used as the control method in the manufacture of colours and in assessing their stability and their resistance to increased temperature and light. (M.K.)

  13. Brazil's mineral development: potential and problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lloyd, B; Wheeler, E

    1977-03-01

    Brazil's vast mineral wealth still lies in the ground largely unexploited. Lack of adequate communications and the past political instability of the country has greatly hampered mineral exploration, and risk capital for major schemes has only recently been forthcoming. In 1975, Brazil's oil imports alone cost US $3073 million, creating an unhealthy balance of payments deficit and causing the external national debt to reach US $22 billion by the end of that year--an increase of a further 25% in this debt took place during 1976. Substantial price rises in imported machinery followed that of oil, while the prices of Brazil's main exports, coffee, sugar and soya, have continued to fluctuate widely. As a result of the oil price rise Brazil has moved from a traditional trade balance to substantial deficit, although this has fallen from its 1974 peak of 4.6 billion, largely as a result of government policies. Brazil has untapped deposits of bauxite, tin, zinc, iron ore, nickel, as well as oil, and is firmly set on the path that will make her one of the world's major sources of raw materials by the year 2000. The government has made the exploitation of natural resources, particularly the previously neglected oil and gas sectors, one of the cornerstones of its economic strategy. Yet in 1975 the mineral sector produced less than 2% of Brazil's GNP, although it did contribute 11% of exports. Apart from iron oreand manganese, mineral production is small and the country is still a net importer of copper, zinc, nickel, tin, and lead. Without a substantial increase in exports the government's whole economic/social and political strategy will be at risk.

  14. Mineral facilities of Northern and Central Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Michael S.; Elias, Nurudeen; Guzman, Eric; Soto-Viruet, Yadira

    2010-01-01

    This map displays almost 900 records of mineral facilities within the countries that formerly constituted the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). Each record represents one commodity and one facility type at a single geographic location. Facility types include mines, oil and gas fields, and plants, such as refineries, smelters, and mills. Common commodities of interest include aluminum, cement, coal, copper, gold, iron and steel, lead, nickel, petroleum, salt, silver, and zinc. Records include attributes, such as commodity, country, location, company name, facility type and capacity (if applicable), and latitude and longitude geographical coordinates (in both degrees-minutes-seconds and decimal degrees). The data shown on this map and in table 1 were compiled from multiple sources, including (1) the most recently available data from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook (Europe and Central Eurasia volume), (2) mineral statistics and information from the USGS Minerals Information Web site (http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/europe.html), and (3) data collected by the USGS minerals information country specialists from sources, such as statistical publications of individual countries, annual reports and press releases of operating companies, and trade journals. Data reflect the most recent published table of industry structure for each country at the time of this publication. Additional information is available from the country specialists listed in table 2

  15. Mineral facilities of Asia and the Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Michael S.; Elias, Nurudeen; Guzman, Eric; Soto-Viruet, Yadira

    2010-01-01

    This map displays over 1,500 records of mineral facilities throughout the continent of Asia and the countries of the Pacific Ocean. Each record represents one commodity and one facility type at a single geographic location. Facility types include mines, oil and gas fields, and plants, such as refineries, smelters, and mills. Common commodities of interest include aluminum, cement, coal, copper, gold, iron and steel, lead, nickel, petroleum, salt, silver, and zinc. Records include attributes, such as commodity, country, location, company name, facility type and capacity (if applicable), and latitude and longitude geographical coordinates (in both degrees-minutes-seconds and decimal degrees). The data shown on this map and in table 1 were compiled from multiple sources, including (1) the 2008 U.S. Geological Survey Minerals Yearbook (Asia and the Pacific volume), (2) minerals statistics and information from the U.S. Geological Survey Minerals Information Web site (http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/), and (3) data collected by U.S. Geological Survey minerals information country specialists. Other sources include statistical publications of individual countries, annual reports and press releases of operating companies, and trade journals. Due to the sensitivity of some energy commodity data, the quality of these data should be evaluated on a country-by-country basis. Additional information is available from the country specialists listed in table 2.

  16. Influence of salinity on bioremediation of oil in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhykerd, R.L.; Weaver, R.W.; McInnes, K.J.

    1995-01-01

    Spills from oil production and processing result in soils being contaminated with oil and salt. The effect of NaCl on degradation of oil in a sandy-clay loam and a clay loam soil was determined. Soils were treated with 50 g kg -1 non-detergent motor oil (30 SAE). Salt treatments included NaCl amendments to adjust the soil solution electrical conductivities to 40, 120, and 200 dS m -1 . Soils were amended with nutrients and incubated at 25 o C. Oil degradation was estimated from the quantities of CO 2 evolved and from gravimetric determinations of remaining oil. Salt concentrations of 200 dS m -1 in oil amended soils resulted in a decrease in oil mineralized by 44% for a clay loam and 20% for a sandy-clay loam soil. A salt concentration of 40 dS m -1 reduced oil mineralization by about 10% in both soils. Oil mineralized in the oil amended clay-loam soil was 2-3 times greater than for comparable treatments of the sandy-clay loam soil. Amending the sandy-clay loam soil with 5% by weight of the clay-loam soil enhanced oil mineralization by 40%. Removal of salts from oil and salt contaminated soils before undertaking bioremediation may reduce the time required for bioremediation. (author)

  17. Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil spills often happen because of accidents, when people make mistakes or equipment breaks down. Other causes include natural disasters or deliberate acts. Oil spills have major environmental and economic effects. Oil ...

  18. Mineral raw materials for power production in legislation of the Republic of Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matisa, Z.

    1999-01-01

    According to the Constitution of the Republic of Croatia, mineral wealth is a public good of legal interest to the Republic of Croatia and enjoys its special protection. The Mining Law establishes that mineral wealth (including mineral resources that are used for power production) is the property of the Republic of Croatia. Among other mineral raw materials, this refers to mineral raw materials that are used for power production: coal, oil, natural gas, radioactive mineral raw materials and geothermal waters. These mineral resources are as almost all other mineral raw materials with the exception of geothermal waters, an unrecoverable natural resource. The right to use that natural resource may be granted only by a concession. The mining legislation provides for exploration and exploitation of mineral raw materials. Exploration of oil and gas is considered to comprise operations and testing with the aim to establish the existence, position and form of oil and natural gas deposits, their quality and quantity, as well as exploitation conditions. Exploitation of oil and natural gas is considered to comprise extraction from deposits, refining and transport, as well as disposal in geological structures. Mineral raw materials used in power production amount to 63% of national total primary energy production, and they cover 33% of total power consumption in the country. Legislation in the Republic of Croatia, which refers to exploration and exploitation of oil and natural gas, allows economic utilization of that unrecoverable natural wealth to run smoothly and in compliance with practices in our European environment. (author)

  19. On being a certifying abortion consultant: an ethical dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkson, S E

    1980-05-14

    The medical profession was relieved when the Contraceptive, Sterilization and Abortion Act was passed in New Zealand in 1977, but it now appears that there are continuing problems with the implementation of the law. Most of the law's clauses are concerned with the practical aspects of the performance of abortions in New Zealand. Outlined in the law are requirements for licenses of hospitals, certifying consultants and operating surgeons, and the tasks of the supervising committee are specified. Thus, the medical profession accepted the impossible job of becoming the arbiter of morals of New Zealand society. There have been problems, since passage of the law, with inadequate numbers of certifying consultants being recruited, the resignation of the chair of the Abortion Supervisory Committee, a lack of resources to provide the required counseling services, and local variation in interpretations resulting in inconsistent treatment of abortion requests in different parts of the country. The basis of the problem is the fact that this law requires a moral rather than a medical decision to be made. Although at 1st glance the phrase serious risk to mental health would appear to be easily interpreted, this is not so. The morality of an act of abortion depends on the right afforded the fetus, and no society has as yet achieved a consensus on this. Thus, this must remain the conviction of each separate individual. Some guidance may come from medidal and legal advisers in this moral decision, but it is impossible to delegate personal moral decisions.

  20. Sustaining without Changing: The Metabolic Rift of Certified Organic Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Alexander McGee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Many proponents of organic farming claim that it is a sustainable alternative to conventional agriculture due to its reliance on natural agro-inputs, such as manure based fertilizers and organic pesticides. However, in this analysis we argue that although particular organic farming practices clearly benefit ecosystems and human consumers, the social context in which some organic farms develop, limit the potential environmental benefits of organic agriculture. Specifically, we argue that certified organic farming’s increased reliance on agro-inputs, such as organic fertilizers and pesticides, reduces its ability to decrease global water pollution. We review recent research that demonstrates the environmental consequences of specific organic practices, as well as literature showing that global organic farming is increasing its reliance on agro-inputs, and contend that organic farming has its own metabolic rift with natural water systems similar to conventional agriculture. We use a fixed-effects panel regression model to explore how recent rises in certified organic farmland correlate to water pollution (measured as biochemical oxygen demand. Our findings indicate that increases in the proportion of organic farmland over time increases water pollution. We conclude that this may be a result of organic farms increasing their reliance on non-farm agro-inputs, such as fertilizers.

  1. Process and apparatus for distilling bituminous minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veyrier, J A

    1922-03-27

    This process of distillation of bituminous minerals and particularly bituminous limestone is characterized by the fact that the minerals are introduced into the retort where they stand only the temperature necessary to distill the water and lighter oils that they contain and then are drawn out into the hearth and serve for heating the retort. The apparatus is characterized by the fact that the retort has a screw conveyor, placed in the flue of the hearth, supplied with a chamber for evacuation below this hearth.

  2. Provisional 2008 assessment of solid mineral fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-03-01

    This article first comments data on solid mineral fuel consumption in France in 2008, i.e., the overall consumption, and the consumption by different sectors (energy production in coal plants, iron and steel industry, other industries, housing and office buildings). Then, it comments solid mineral fuel imports and their origins. It comments and explains the price evolution since 1999 (notably on the Antwerp-Rotterdam-Amsterdam market) in relationship with maritime transport price, availabilities and problems, and with the evolution of coal demand (notably in China) and oil prices. Finally, it briefly comments the French residual production and stocks

  3. Process for treating oil-chalk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1925-10-20

    A process for treating oil-chalk or similar oil-containing minerals is characterized in that the material is treated in a stream of air diluted with indifferent gases at a temperature of about 150/sup 0/ to 160/sup 0/C.

  4. Construction Minerals Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes construction minerals operations in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team (MIT) of the...

  5. Agricultural Minerals Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes agricultural minerals operations in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team (MIT) of the...

  6. The Effectiveness of "Teach for America" and Other Under-certified Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildiko Laczko-Kerr

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The academic achievements of students taught by under-certified primary school teachers were compared to the academic achievements of students taught by regularly certified primary school teachers.  This sample of under-certified teachers included three types of under-qualified personnel: emergency, temporary and provisionally certified teachers.  One subset of these under-certified teachers was from the national program "Teach For America (TFA."  Recent college graduates are placed by TFA where other under-qualified under-certified teachers are often called upon to work, namely, low-income urban and rural school districts. Certified teachers in this study were from accredited universities and all met state requirements for receiving the regular initial certificate to teach.  Recently hired under-certified and certified teachers (N=293 from five low-income school districts were matched on a number of variables, resulting in 109 pairs of teachers whose students all took the mandated state achievement test. Results indicate 1 that students of TFA teachers did not perform significantly different from students of other under-certified teachers, and 2 that students of certified teachers out-performed students of teachers who were under-certified.  This was true on all three subtests of the SAT 9—reading, mathematics and language arts.  Effect sizes favoring the students of certified teachers were substantial.  In reading, mathematics, and language, the students of certified teachers outperformed students of under-certified teachers, including the students of the TFA teachers, by about 2 months on a grade equivalent scale.  Students of under-certified teachers make about 20% less academic growth per year than do students of teachers with regular certification.  Traditional programs of teacher preparation apparently result in positive effects on the academic achievement of low-income primary school children.  Present

  7. Oil analysis in machine diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaehaeoja, P.

    2006-07-01

    spilled into the soil during use and in accident situations, and they can migrate to groundwater layers. Biodegradation of oils can remove them from the soil or water completely or at least diminish the amount of harmful substances. An automatic, respirometric BOD OxiTop method was used to evaluate the biodegradability of various oils in water and soil media. The biodegradation of certain bio and mineral hydraulic oils was evaluated in groundwater, where bio oils usually biodegraded more effectively than mineral oils. The use of oils in machines weakened especially the biodegradability of bio oils. Biodegradability of bio oils was also studied in standard conditions of OECD 301 F and bio oils usually biodegraded moderately good in these conditions. The biodegradation of forestry chain oils and wood preservative oils was evaluated in forest soils. Linseed oil biodegraded moderately, but certain experimental wood preservatives biodegraded more effectively. Widely used creosote oil biodegraded in a lesser degree. Rapeseed oil-based chain oils biodegraded more effectively than corresponding tall oil. (orig.)

  8. Mineral commodity summaries 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2015-01-01

    Each chapter of the 2015 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS) includes information on events, trends, and issues for each mineral commodity as well as discussions and tabular presentations on domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, 5-year salient statistics, and world production and resources. The MCS is the earliest comprehensive source of 2014 mineral production data for the world. More than 90 individual minerals and materials are covered by two-page synopses.

  9. Evaluation of Reservoir Wettability and its Effect on Oil Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, Jill S.

    2002-01-29

    The objectives of this five-year project were: (1) to achieve improved understanding of the surface and interfacial properties of crude oils and their interactions with mineral surfaces, (2) to apply the results of surface studies to improve predictions of oil production from laboratory measurements, and (3) to use the results of this research to recommend ways to improve oil recovery by waterflooding.

  10. 30-Day Mortality and Readmission after Hemorrhagic Stroke among Medicare Beneficiaries in Joint Commission Primary Stroke Center Certified and Non-Certified Hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtman, Judith H.; Jones, Sara B.; Leifheit-Limson, Erica C.; Wang, Yun; Goldstein, Larry B.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Purpose Ischemic stroke patients treated at Joint Commission Primary Stroke Center (JC-PSC) certified hospitals have better outcomes. Data reflecting the impact of JC-PSC status on outcomes after hemorrhagic stroke are limited. We determined whether 30-day mortality and readmission rates after hemorrhagic stroke differed for patients treated at JC-PSC certified versus non-certified hospitals. Methods The study included all fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries ≥65 years old with a primary discharge diagnosis of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) or intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in 2006. Covariate-adjusted logistic and Cox proportional hazards regression assessed the effect of care at a JC-PSC certified hospital on 30-day mortality and readmission. Results There were 2,305 SAH and 8,708 ICH discharges from JC-PSC certified hospitals and 3,892 SAH and 22,564 ICH discharges from non-certified hospitals. Unadjusted in-hospital mortality (SAH: 27.5% vs. 33.2%, pmortality (SAH: 35.1% vs. 44.0%, pmortality was 34% lower (OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.58–0.76) after SAH and 14% lower (OR 0.86, 95% CI 0.80–0.92) after ICH for patients discharged from JC-PSC certified hospitals. There was no difference in 30-day risk-adjusted readmission rates for SAH or ICH based on JC-PSC status. Conclusions Patients treated at JC-PSC certified hospitals had lower risk-adjusted mortality rates for both SAH and ICH but similar 30-day readmission rates as compared with non-certified hospitals. PMID:22033986

  11. Structural financing and management of investment projects in the Nigerian mineral industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akingbola, E. B. O.

    1997-01-01

    The mineral industry is attractive because of the diversity and abundance of the deposits. The economic and financial implications of exploiting these are considered. The issues discussed include capital requirement, international outlook, investment opportunities in the mineral industry, oil and gas, solid minerals, attracting investment into the mineral industry,structural financing, macro economic stability. The paper concludes that the ability of the industry to continue attracting foreign capital is crucial to its survival, growth and development

  12. Distilling oils and bituminous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutz, H

    1925-08-25

    In the distillation of bituminous materials such as coal, brown coal, peat, or mineral and tar oils or tar, in the presence of hot neutral gases such as hydrogen, illuminating gas, or water-gas, sulfur dioxide is also fed into the above-mentioned materials or into the vapors evolved therefrom. By this treatment better products are obtained.

  13. Alberta's new oil boom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikiforuk, A.

    1997-01-01

    A massive expansion of Canada's oil sands and the oil-mining business is underway. The prediction is that within five years there will be at least three, possibly six, huge new open pit mines north of Fort McMurray, Alberta. It was suggested that within 20 years, possibly half of Canada's oil supply will come from the oil sands industry which has already attracted $10 billion worth of developments. Unlike conventional crude, the oil sands contain bitumen, water, clay, minerals and lots of sands. Shallow deposits are mined like coal. Deeper formations make use of in-situ thermal recovery techniques. Extraction costs are presently at $15 per barrel, aiming for $12 by 1999. Return on investment is in double digits. Estimates of reserves in the Athabasca, Cold Lake, Peace River and Wabasca deposits go as high as 1.7 trillion barrels, or about twice as much as Saudi Arabia's conventional crude reserves. Syncrude has built a $5 billion production facility and two pipelines have already been proposed to transport the oil sands crude to midwestern US refineries. US refineries prize synthetic crude as excellent mixing stock. The major problem with oil sands is that unlike conventional oil, these reserves require an enormous amount of energy to exploit, which in turn means lots of foul air and greenhouse gases. There are many environmental unknowns, and without a clear management framework in sight the addition of two or three Syncrude-size operations has the potential to create a real and significant acid rain problem in the Western Canada Basin

  14. AWS certified solutions architect official study guide associate exam

    CERN Document Server

    Baron, Joe; Bixler, Tim; Gaut, Biff; Kelly, Kevin E; Senior, Sean; Stamper, John

    2017-01-01

    This is your opportunity to take the next step in your career by expanding and validating your skills on the AWS cloud. AWS has been the frontrunner in cloud computing products and services, and the AWS Certified Solutions Architect Official Study Guide for the Associate exam will get you fully prepared through expert content, and real-world knowledge, key exam essentials, chapter review questions, access to Sybex's interactive online learning environment, and much more. This official study guide, written by AWS experts, covers exam concepts, and provides key review on exam topics, including: * Mapping Multi-Tier Architectures to AWS Services, such as web/app servers, firewalls, caches and load balancers * Understanding managed RDBMS through AWS RDS (MySQL, Oracle, SQL Server, Postgres, Aurora) * Understanding Loose Coupling and Stateless Systems * Comparing Different Consistency Models in AWS Services * Understanding how AWS CloudFront can make your application more cost efficient, faster and secure * Implem...

  15. Core Competencies of the Certified Pediatric Doctor of Chiropractic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hewitt, Elise; Hestbaek, Lise; Pohlman, Katherine A

    2016-01-01

    An outline of the minimum core competencies expected from a certified pediatric doctor of chiropractic was developed using a Delphi consensus process. The initial set of seed statements and substatements was modeled on competency documents used by organizations that oversee chiropractic and medical...... education. These statements were distributed to the Delphi panel, reaching consensus when 80% of the panelists approved each segment. The panel consisted of 23 specialists in chiropractic pediatrics (14 females) from across the broad spectrum of the chiropractic profession. Sixty-one percent of panelists...... had postgraduate pediatric certifications or degrees, 39% had additional graduate degrees, and 74% were faculty at a chiropractic institution and/or in a postgraduate pediatrics program. The panel were initially given 10 statements with related substatements formulated by the study's steering...

  16. Do personality traits predict work outcomes of certified nursing assistants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovach, Christine R; Simpson, Michelle R; Reitmaier, Amy B; Johnson, Addie; Kelber, Sheryl T

    2010-10-01

    The purposes of this study were to describe personality traits of certified nursing assistants (CNAs) employed at nursing homes and explore relationships between personality traits, job satisfaction, and job performance. The sample included 177 CNAs providing direct care to residents in three nursing homes. CNAs with high and low job performance skills were distinguished by the cluster of traits associated with teamwork skills. Overall, 21.3% of the variance in job satisfaction was explained by the personality traits of Adjustment, Prudence, Likeability, Excitable, and Dutiful, F(8, 145) = 4.899, p personality, job satisfaction, and job performance provide important information about the personality traits of nursing staff who are most likely to enjoy and perform well in the nursing home setting. Knowledge of these links may be useful for hiring the appropriate person for direct care nursing home positions. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.

  17. Bias detection and certified reference materials for random measurands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukhin, Andrew L.

    2015-12-01

    A problem that frequently occurs in metrology is the bias checking of data obtained by a laboratory against the specified value and uncertainty estimate given in the certificate of analysis. The measurand—a property of a certified reference material (CRM)—is supposed to be random with a normal distribution whose parameters are given by the certificate specifications. The laboratory’s data from subsequent measurements of the CRM (a CRM experiment) are summarized by the sample mean value and its uncertainty which is commonly based on a repeatability standard deviation. New confidence intervals for the lab’s bias are derived. Although they may lack intuitive appeal, those obtained by using higher order asymptotic methods, compared and contrasted in this paper, are recommended.

  18. DH-1a: a certified uranium-thorium reference ore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steger, H.F.; Bowman, W.S.; Zechanowitsch, G.

    1981-09-01

    A 122-kg sample of uranium-thorium ore, DH-1a, from Elliot Lake, Ontario, was prepared as a compositional reference material to replace the similar certified ore, DH-1. DH-1a was ground to minus 74μm, blended in one lot, and bottled in 200 g units. The homogeneity of DH-1a with respect to uranium was confirmed using the volumetric umpire method. The recommended value for uranium is based on the data from the confirmation of homogeneity. For thorium, twelve laboratories provided results in a free choice analytical program. A statistical analysis of the data gave a recommended value of 0.263 percent for uranium and 0.091 percent for thorium

  19. Certifying the decommissioned Shippingport reactor vessel for transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Towell, R.H.

    1990-01-01

    The decommissioned Shippingport reactor pressure vessel with its concentric neutron shield tank was shipped to Hanford, WA as part of the effort to restore the Shippingport Station to its original condition. The metal walls of the reactor vessel had become radioactive from neutron bombardment while the reactor was operating so it had to be shipped under the regulations for transporting radioactive material. Because of the large amount of radioactivity in the walls, 16,467 Curies, and because the potentially dispersible corrosion layer on the inner walls of both tanks was also radioactive, the Shippingport reactor vessel was transported under the most stringent of the regulations, those for a type B package. Compliance with the packaging regulations was confirmed via independent analysis by the staff of the Department of Energy certifying official and the Shippingport reactor vessel was shipped under DOE Certificate of Compliance USA/9515/B(U)

  20. Compliance with Environmental and Social Legislation in Certified Forestry Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Vinicius Santana Leite

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the contribution of the FSC forestry certification system to improve the forestry sector, in terms of compliance to environmental and social laws and improvements in working conditions resulting from the certification process. Thirty-seven auditing reports from five Brazilian forestry companies were evaluated, throughout the 2006-2013 period. Non-compliance and observations were analyzed and organized into categories, which identified the main performance issues found in certified forestry organizations. 301 instances of non-compliance and 138 observations of audit reports were verified, where 48 and 57% respectively, were linked to the two principles studied. For obtaining and/or maintaining the certificate it is necessary for all violations to be resolved. Therefore, it was concluded that forest certification contributes to the advancement of the forestry sector in Brazil, in relation to compliance with legal, social and labor issues.