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Sample records for mineral nodule formation

  1. Evaluation of low doses of gamma irradiation in the formation of mineralization nodules in osteoblasts culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Targino, Bárbara; Pinto, Thais Lazarine; Silva, Evily Fernandes; Somessari, E.S.R.; Bellini, Maria Helena; Affonso, Regina [Instituto De Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Full text: Introduction: Osteoblasts are specialized fibroblasts that secrete and mineralize the bone matrix. The mineralized extracellular matrix is mainly composed of type I collagen, osteocalcin, and the inorganic mineral hydroxylapatite1. The use of radiation as therapy in some cancers causes great bone loss. However, low dose radiation may have the opposite effect. Low dose X-irradiation on osteoblastic culture had effects on proliferation and differentiation with increase of mineralization nodules2. However, there is little information on the potential therapeutic efficacy of low-dose gamma-irradiation in the formation of mineralization nodules. Objective: To evaluate the effects of irradiation with 60Co γ-rays in low doses in the formation of mineralization nodules in culture of osteoblasts. Methods: MC3T3-E1 cells were bought by the Banco de Células do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (MC3T3-E1 Subclone 14). The cells were cultured in α-MEM medium consisting of 10% FBS and without β-glycerophosphate and L-ascorbic acid (GIBCO, Custom Product, Catalog No. A1049001) (Zhao Y, Guan H, Liu S et al. Biol. Pharm. Bull. 2005, 28(8):1371-1376). Plating efficiency assays: cells were plated at a density of 100 cell/plate into 60 mm Petri dishes. After 14 days the places were stained with violet crystal and the colonies were counted. -glycerophosphate and 50 mg/ml ascorbic acid, and analyzed on days 7, 14 and 21. Osteoblast culture irradiation assay: cells were plated at a density of 1 x 105 cells/plate on 60 mm dishes and the next day were irradiated by 60Co source with 0 (as the control), 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 Gy using the GammaCell 220 - Irradiation Unit of Canadian-Atomic Energy Commission Ltd. (CTR-IPEN). On day 21 of culture, undifferentiated (without ascorbic acid and β-glycerophosphate), differentiating cells (0 Gy) and irradiated cells at different doses, the medium was removed, cells were washed with phosphate buffer saline, fixed with 70% ethyl alcohol and

  2. Evaluation of low doses of gamma irradiation in the formation of mineralization nodules in osteoblasts culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Targino, Bárbara; Pinto, Thais Lazarine; Silva, Evily Fernandes; Somessari, E.S.R.; Bellini, Maria Helena; Affonso, Regina

    2017-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Osteoblasts are specialized fibroblasts that secrete and mineralize the bone matrix. The mineralized extracellular matrix is mainly composed of type I collagen, osteocalcin, and the inorganic mineral hydroxylapatite1. The use of radiation as therapy in some cancers causes great bone loss. However, low dose radiation may have the opposite effect. Low dose X-irradiation on osteoblastic culture had effects on proliferation and differentiation with increase of mineralization nodules2. However, there is little information on the potential therapeutic efficacy of low-dose gamma-irradiation in the formation of mineralization nodules. Objective: To evaluate the effects of irradiation with 60Co γ-rays in low doses in the formation of mineralization nodules in culture of osteoblasts. Methods: MC3T3-E1 cells were bought by the Banco de Células do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (MC3T3-E1 Subclone 14). The cells were cultured in α-MEM medium consisting of 10% FBS and without β-glycerophosphate and L-ascorbic acid (GIBCO, Custom Product, Catalog No. A1049001) (Zhao Y, Guan H, Liu S et al. Biol. Pharm. Bull. 2005, 28(8):1371-1376). Plating efficiency assays: cells were plated at a density of 100 cell/plate into 60 mm Petri dishes. After 14 days the places were stained with violet crystal and the colonies were counted. -glycerophosphate and 50 mg/ml ascorbic acid, and analyzed on days 7, 14 and 21. Osteoblast culture irradiation assay: cells were plated at a density of 1 x 105 cells/plate on 60 mm dishes and the next day were irradiated by 60Co source with 0 (as the control), 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 Gy using the GammaCell 220 - Irradiation Unit of Canadian-Atomic Energy Commission Ltd. (CTR-IPEN). On day 21 of culture, undifferentiated (without ascorbic acid and β-glycerophosphate), differentiating cells (0 Gy) and irradiated cells at different doses, the medium was removed, cells were washed with phosphate buffer saline, fixed with 70% ethyl alcohol and

  3. Giemsa as a fluorescent dye for mineralizing bone-like nodules in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Querido, W; Farina, M; Balduino, A

    2012-01-01

    Giemsa was first used as a fluorescent dye for mineralized bone and cartilage in tissue sections. The aim of this study was to establish the use of Giemsa as a fluorescent dye for mineralizing bone-like nodules produced in cell cultures. Osteoblasts were grown under mineralizing conditions for 14 days, producing typical bone-like nodules. Upon staining with Giemsa stock solution for 1 min, the mineralizing nodules could be selectively visualized emitting intense green and red fluorescence when observed under blue and green illumination, respectively. The textural details of the nodules were clearly observed under fluorescence microscopy, allowing to identify regions with different degrees of mineralization. The mineralized nature of the nodules was confirmed using von Kossa's method, Alizarin Red S staining and x-ray mapping for Ca and P in a scanning electron microscope, showing a strong correlation between the mineralizing and the fluorescent nodules. The selective fluorescence was related to the mineral phase, being absent in decalcified samples. The use of Giemsa as a fluorescent dye for mineralizing bone-like nodules presents a simple alternative method to quickly analyze biomineralization assays in vitro under fluorescence microscopy, particularly in the biological evaluation of biomaterials. (communication)

  4. Effect of Emdogain enamel matrix derivative and BMP-2 on the gene expression and mineralized nodule formation of alveolar bone proper-derived stem/progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawzy El-Sayed, Karim M; Dörfer, Christof; Ungefroren, Hendrick; Kassem, Neemat; Wiltfang, Jörg; Paris, Sebastian

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Emdogain (Enamel Matrix Derivative, EMD) and Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 (BMP-2), either solely or in combination, on the gene expression and mineralized nodule formation of alveolar bone proper-derived stem/progenitor cells. Stem/progenitor cells were isolated from human alveolar bone proper, magnetically sorted using STRO-1 antibodies, characterized flowcytometrically for their surface markers' expression, and examined for colony formation and multilineage differentiation potential. Subsequently, cells were treated over three weeks with 100 μg/ml Emdogain (EMD-Group), or 100 ng/ml BMP-2 (BMP-Group), or a combination of 100 ng/ml BMP-2 and 100 μg/ml Emdogain (BMP/EMD-Group). Unstimulated stem/progenitor cells (MACS(+)-Group) and osteoblasts (OB-Group) served as controls. Osteogenic gene expression was analyzed using RTq-PCR after 1, 2 and 3 weeks (N = 3/group). Mineralized nodule formation was evaluated by Alizarin-Red staining. BMP and EMD up-regulated the osteogenic gene expression. The BMP Group showed significantly higher expression of Collagen-I, III, and V, Alkaline phosphatase and Osteonectin compared to MACS(+)- and OB-Group (p < 0.05; Two-way ANOVA/Bonferroni) with no mineralized nodule formation. Under in-vitro conditions, Emdogain and BMP-2 up-regulate the osteogenic gene expression of stem/progenitor cells. The combination of BMP-2 and Emdogain showed no additive effect and would not be recommended for a combined clinical stimulation. Copyright © 2013 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Interleukin-1beta-induced release of matrix proteins into culture media causes inhibition of mineralization of nodules formed by periodontal ligament cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, H H; Lin, W L; Cho, M I

    1999-05-01

    The mechanism by which interleukin-1beta (IL-1) inhibits the formation of mineralized tissue nodules by periodontal ligament (PDL) cells in vitro was investigated through the processes of morphological analysis, immunoprecipitation, and Northern blot analysis. PDL cells were obtained from a 2-day-old coagulum in tooth socket and cultured in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM) containing 10% fetal bone serum (FBS) and antibiotics. Confluent cells were grown for up to 3 weeks in the presence of ascorbic acid (AA), beta-glycerophosphate (GP), and dexamethasone (Dex), or IL-1. PDL cells cultured in the presence of GP and AA did not differentiate, but those treated with Dex, GP, and AA (Dex group) underwent differentiation, showing four stages (confluent, multilayer, nodule, and mineralization) of disparate morphological characteristics. In contrast, the cells treated with IL-1, Dex, GP, and AA (IL-1 group) did form multilayers but failed to form mineralized nodules. Electron microscopy demonstrated that the Dex-induced mineralized nodules contain multilayers of fibroblastic cells, numerous collagen fibrils, and dense globular as well as fused electron dense patches that are associated with numerous apatite crystals. The nodule-like structures in the IL-1 group were also comprised of multilayered fibroblastic cells, but they contained only a small number of collagen fibrils, and no dense globular or fused patches. Von Kossa staining confirmed the presence of numerous mineralized nodules in the Dex group and their scarceness in the IL-1 group. Northern blot analysis of IL-1-treated cells, however, revealed the presence of mRNAs for type I collagen (Col I), secreted protein, acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC), osteopontin (OPN), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bone sialoprotein (BSP), and osteocalcin (OC), whose expression patterns and levels were comparable to those of the Dex group. Immunoprecipitation analysis of OPN and BSP in the cell/matrix layers and the culture

  6. Analysis of nodule meristem persistence and ENOD40 functioning in Medicago truncatula nodule formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wan Xi,

    2007-01-01

    Medicago root nodules are formed as a result of the interaction of the plant with the soil-borne bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti. Several plant genes are induced during nodule formation and MtENOD40 is one of the earliest genes activated. The precise function as well as the molecule

  7. Study of tissue engineered bone nodules by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Halil Murat; Hu, Bin; Suso, Josep Sulé; El Haj, Alicia; Yang, Ying

    2011-02-21

    The key criteria for assessing the success of bone tissue engineering are the quality and quantity of the produced minerals within the cultured constructs. The accumulation of calcium ions and inorganic phosphates in culture medium serves as nucleating agents for the formation of hydroxyapatite, which is the main inorganic component of bone. Bone nodule formation is one of the hallmarks of mineralization in such cell cultures. In this study, we developed a new two-step procedure to accelerate bone formation in which mouse bone cell aggregates were produced first on various chemically treated non-adhesive substrates. After this step, the bone cells' growth and mineralization were followed in conventional culture plates. The number and size of cell aggregates were studied with light microscopy. The minerals' formation in the form of nodules produced by the cell aggregates and the bone crystal quality were studied with Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The FTIR spectra of the ash specimens (mineral phase only) from thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) provided valuable information of the quality of the minerals. The υ(4) PO(4) region (550-650 cm(-1)), which reveals apatitic and non-apatitic HPO(4) or PO(4) environments, and phosphate region (910-1180 cm(-1)) were examined for the minerals produced in the form of nodules. The peak position and intensity of the spectra demonstrate that the quality of the bone produced by cell aggregates, especially from the bigger ones, which were formed on Plunoric treated substrates, exhibit a composition more similar to that of native bone. This work establishes a new protocol for high quality bone formation and characterization, with the potential to be applied to bone tissue engineering.

  8. The aluminosilicate fraction of North Pacific manganese nodules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, J.L.; Piper, D.Z.; Leong, K.

    1981-01-01

    Nine nodules collected from throughout the deep North Pacific were analyzed for their mineralogy and major-element composition before and after leaching with Chester-Hughes solution. Data indicate that the mineral phillipsite accounts for the major part (> 75%) of the aluminosilicate fraction of all nodules. It is suggested that formation of phillipsite takes place on growing nodule surfaces coupled with the oxidation of absorbed manganous ion. All the nodules could be described as ternary mixtures of amorphous iron fraction (Fe-Ti-P), manganese oxide fraction (Mn-Mg Cu-Ni), and phillipsite fraction (Al-Si-K-Na), these fractions accounting for 96% of the variability of the chemical composition. ?? 1981.

  9. Genesis and growth of internal microstructures of manganese nodule

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Banakar, V.K.; Tarkian, M.

    tension of the 2 adjacent colloidal precipitate surfaces which have a tendency to grow into a spheroid, probably similar to phenomenon of drop formation. Detrital components within the nodule material identified include heavy titanium minerals, viz...

  10. High-temperature thermomagnetic properties of vivianite nodules, Lake El'gygytgyn, Northeast Russia

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    P. S. Minyuk

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Vivianite, a hydrated iron phosphate, is abundant in sediments of Lake El'gygytgyn, located in the Anadyr Mountains of central Chukotka, northeastern Russia (67°30′ N, 172°05′ E. Magnetic measurements, including mass-specific low-field AC magnetic susceptibility, field-dependent magnetic susceptibility, hysteresis parameters, temperature dependence of the induced magnetization, as well as susceptibility in different heating media, provide ample information on vivianite nodules. Electron microprobe analyses, electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy were used to identify diagnostic minerals. Vivianite nodules are abundant in both sediments of cold (anoxic and warm (oxic stages. Magnetic susceptibility of the nodules varies from 0.78 × 10−6 m3 kg−1 to 1.72 × 10−6 m3 kg−1 (average = 1.05 × 10−6 m3 kg−1 and is higher than the susceptibility of sediments from the cold intervals. Magnetic properties of vivianite are due to the respective product of oxidation as well as sediment and mineral inclusions. Three types of curves for high-temperature dependent susceptibility of vivianite indicate different degrees of oxidation and inclusions in the nodules. Vivianite acts as a reductant and reduces hematite to magnetite and masks the goethite–hematite transition during heating. Heating vivianite and sulfur mixtures stimulates the formation of monoclinic pyrrhotite. An additive of arsenic inhibits the formation of magnetite prior to its Curie temperature. Heating selective vivianite and pyrite mixtures leads to formation of several different minerals – magnetite, monoclinic pyrrhotite, and hexagonal pyrrhotite, and makes it difficult to interpret the thermomagnetic curves.

  11. [Bone Cell Biology Assessed by Microscopic Approach. Bone mineralization by ultrastructural imaging].

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    Hasegawa, Tomoka

    2015-10-01

    Bone mineralization can be divided into two phases ; one is primary mineralization associated with osteoblastic bone formation, and the other is secondary mineralization which gradually increases mineral density of bone matrix after the primary mineralization. Primary mineralization is initiated by matrix vesicles synthesized by mature osteoblasts. Crystalline calcium phosphates are nucleated inside these matrix vesicles, and then, get out of them forming spherical mineralized nodule, which can grow more by being supplied with Ca2+ and PO4(3-) (matrix vesicle mineralization). Thereafter, the mineralized nodules make contacts with surrounding collagen fibrils, extending mineralization along with their longitudinal axis from the contact points (collagen mineralization). In this review, the ultrastructural findings on bone mineralization, specially, primary mineralization will be provided.

  12. Effect of Irradiation on Apoptosis, Cell Cycle Arrest and Calcified Nodule Formation of Rat Calvarial Osteoblast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Mi; Choi, Hang Moon; Heo, Min Suk; Lee, Sam Sun; Choi, Soon Chul; Park, Tae Won

    2000-01-01

    The study was aimed to detect the induction of apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and calcified nodule formation after irradiation on primarily cultured osteoblasts. Using rat calvarial osteoblasts, the effects of irradiation on apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, and calcified nodule formation were studied. The single irradiation of 10, 20 Gy was done with 5.38 Gy/min dose rate using the 137 Cs cell irradiator at 4th and 14th day of culture. Apoptosis induction and cell cycle arrest were assayed by the flow cytometry at 1, 2, 3, and 4 days after irradiation. The formation of calcified nodules was observed by alizarin red staining at 1, 3, 10, 14 days after irradiation at 4th day of culture, and at 1, 4, 5 days after irradiation at 14th day of culture. Apoptosis was not induced by 10 or 20 Gy independent of irradiation and culture period. Irradiation did not induced G1 arrest in post-irradiated osteoblasts. After irradiation at 4th-day of culture, G2 arrest was induced but it was not statistically significant after irradiation at 14th-day of culture. In the case of irradiated cells at 4th day of culture, calcified nodules were not formed and at 14th-day of culture after irradiation, calcified nodule formation did not affected. Taken together, these results suggest that irradiation at the dose of 10-20 Gy would not affect apoptosis induction of osteoblasts. Cell cycle and calcified nodule formation were influenced by the level of differentiation of osteblasts.

  13. Ultrastructural analysis of bone nodules formed in vitro by isolated fetal rat calvaria cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhargava, U.; Bar-Lev, M.; Bellows, C.G.; Aubin, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    When cells enzymatically digested from 21 d fetal rat calvaria are grown in ascorbic acid and Na beta-glycerophosphate, they form discrete three-dimensional nodular structures with the histological and immunohistochemical appearance of woven bone. The present investigation was undertaken to verify that bone-like features were identifiable at the ultrastructural level. The nodules formed on top of a fibroblast-like multilayer of cells. The upper surface of the nodules was lined by a continuous layer of cuboidal osteoblastic cells often seen to be joined by adherens junctions. Numerous microvilli, membrane protrusions, and coated pits could be seen on the upper surface of these cells, their cytoplasm contained prominent RER and Golgi membranes, and processes extended from their lower surfaces into a dense, highly organized collagenous matrix. Some osteocyte-like cells were completely embedded within this matrix; they also displayed RER and prominent processes which extended through the matrix and often made both adherens and gap junctional contacts with the processes of other cells. The fibroblastic cells not participating in nodule formation were surrounded by a less dense collagenous matrix and, in contrast to the matrix of the nodules, it did not mineralize. An unmineralized osteoid-like layer was seen directly below the cuboidal top layer of cells. A mineralization front was detectable below this in which small, discrete structures resembling matrix vesicles and feathery mineral crystals were evident and frequently associated with the collagen fibrils. More heavily mineralized areas were seen further into the nodule. Electron microprobe and electron and X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the mineral to be hydroxyapatite

  14. The importance of nodule CO2 fixation for the efficiency of symbiotic nitrogen fixation in pea at vegetative growth and during pod formation.

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    Fischinger, Stephanie Anastasia; Schulze, Joachim

    2010-05-01

    Nodule CO2 fixation is of pivotal importance for N2 fixation. The process provides malate for bacteroids and oxaloacetate for nitrogen assimilation. The hypothesis of the present paper was that grain legume nodules would adapt to higher plant N demand and more restricted carbon availability at pod formation through increased nodule CO2 fixation and a more efficient N2 fixation. Growth, N2 fixation, and nodule composition during vegetative growth and at pod formation were studied in pea plants (Pisum sativum L.). In parallel experiments, 15N2 and 13CO2 uptake, as well as nodule hydrogen and CO2 release, was measured. Plants at pod formation showed higher growth rates and N2 fixation per plant when compared with vegetative growth. The specific activity of active nodules was about 25% higher at pod formation. The higher nodule activity was accompanied by higher amino acid concentration in nodules and xylem sap with a higher share of asparagine. Nodule 13CO2 fixation was increased at pod formation, both per plant and per 15N2 fixed unit. However, malate concentration in nodules was only 40% of that during vegetative growth and succinate was no longer detectable. The data indicate that increased N2 fixation at pod formation is connected with strongly increased nodule CO2 fixation. While the sugar concentration in nodules at pod formation was not altered, the concentration of organic acids, namely malate and succinate, was significantly lower. It is concluded that strategies to improve the capability of nodules to fix CO2 and form organic acids might prolong intensive N2 fixation into the later stages of pod formation and pod filling in grain legumes.

  15. Acropetal Auxin Transport Inhibition Is Involved in Indeterminate But Not Determinate Nodule Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason L. P. Ng

    2018-02-01

    require a different mechanism during the formation of determinate nodules.

  16. Continuous and intermittent exposure of neonatal rat calvarial cells to PTHrP (1-36 inhibits bone nodule mineralization in vitro by downregulating bone sialoprotein expression via the cAMP signaling pathway [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/18x

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzan A Kamel

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The development and growth of the skeleton in the absence of parathyroid-hormone-related protein (PTHrP is abnormal.  The shortening of appendicular bones in PTHrP gene null mice is explained by an effect of PTHrP on endochondral bone growth.  Whether or not PTHrP influences intramembranous ossification is less clear.  The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of exogenous PTHrP on intramembranous ossification in vitro.  Neonatal rat calvarial cells maintained in primary cell culture conditions that permit spontaneous formation of woven bone nodules by intramembranous ossification were studied. The expression of PTHrP, parathyroid hormone 1 receptor (PTH1R, and alkaline phosphatase (AP by osteogenic cells in developing nodules and the effects of PTHrP (1-36 on nodule development was determined over 3-18 days. PTHrP and PTH1R were detected colonies of osteogenic cells on culture day three, and AP was detected on day six. PTHrP and its receptor were localized in pre-osteoblasts, osteoblasts, and osteocytes, and AP activity was detected in pre-osteoblasts and osteoblasts but not osteocytes. Continuous and intermittent exposure to PTHrP (1-36 decreased the number of mineralized bone nodules and bone sialoprotein (BSP mRNA and protein, but had no effect on the number of AP-positive osteogenic cell colonies, cell proliferation, apoptosis, or osteopontin (OPN mRNA. These results demonstrate that osteogenic cells that participate in the formation of woven bone nodules in vitro exhibit PTHrP and PTH1R before they demonstrate AP activity. Exogenous PTHrP (1-36 inhibits the mineralization of woven bone deposited during bone nodule formation in vitro, possibly by reducing the expression of BSP.

  17. Monitoring Cu nodule formation using Ni marker layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafouresse, M.C., E-mail: mlafouresse@gmail.co [Department of Civil and Earth Resources Engineering, Kyoto University, Katsura, Kyoto 615-8540 (Japan); Fukunaka, Y. [Institute for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Waseda University, Shinjuku Ku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); ISS Science Project Office, JAXA, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305-8505 (Japan); Matsuoka, T. [Department of Civil and Earth Resources Engineering, Kyoto University, Katsura, Kyoto 615-8540 (Japan); Schwarzacher, W. [H. H. Wills Physics Laboratory, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom)

    2011-04-30

    Highlights: {yields} Ni marker layers to monitor electrodeposited Cu nodule morphological evolution. {yields} The edges of the nodules trace out a straight line. {yields} Difference in growth between spheres and hemispheres. {yields} Nodule on nodule growth at high overpotential. {yields} No dramatic effect of the diffusion layer thickness on the film morphology. - Abstract: We have used Ni marker layers to study the evolution of the characteristic spheroidal nodule morphology in electrodeposited Cu films. Ultrathin Ni layers were electrodeposited in-between Cu layers, and cross sections prepared by electrochemical polishing. During growth of a typical spheroidal feature, the edge (i.e. where there is a discontinuity in the surface slope) traces out a straight line in the cross-sectional image. At high overpotential, the cross-sections show nodule-on-nodule growth, giving rise to the well known cauliflower morphology. Rotating disk electrode studies reveal that, surprisingly, the absolute diffusion layer thickness does not appear to play a major role in the development of spheres.

  18. Monitoring Cu nodule formation using Ni marker layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafouresse, M.C.; Fukunaka, Y.; Matsuoka, T.; Schwarzacher, W.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Ni marker layers to monitor electrodeposited Cu nodule morphological evolution. → The edges of the nodules trace out a straight line. → Difference in growth between spheres and hemispheres. → Nodule on nodule growth at high overpotential. → No dramatic effect of the diffusion layer thickness on the film morphology. - Abstract: We have used Ni marker layers to study the evolution of the characteristic spheroidal nodule morphology in electrodeposited Cu films. Ultrathin Ni layers were electrodeposited in-between Cu layers, and cross sections prepared by electrochemical polishing. During growth of a typical spheroidal feature, the edge (i.e. where there is a discontinuity in the surface slope) traces out a straight line in the cross-sectional image. At high overpotential, the cross-sections show nodule-on-nodule growth, giving rise to the well known cauliflower morphology. Rotating disk electrode studies reveal that, surprisingly, the absolute diffusion layer thickness does not appear to play a major role in the development of spheres.

  19. The study of morphology and formation mechanism for tourmaline nodules of aplites from Khaku area (Hamedan with using fractal and three dimensional analysis

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    Ali Asghar Sepahi-Gerow

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In aplites of Khaku area, located in the east of the Alvand body, tourmaline noduleswith spherical and dendritic shapes are dispersed. Some of these nodules have light halothat is actually a transition zone between the core of nodules and the host aplites.Geometrically, these nodules are fractal shapes. In these nodules fractal dimension vary from 1.46 in dendritic nodules to 1.92 in spherical nodules. In three-dimensionalreconstructions of the studied nodule, the average volume for the core is 34% and 66%for its margin. Based on evidences such as lack of veins between nodules, tourmalineswith anhedral forms, presence of a leucocratic halo in the aureole of some nodules, theirspherical shape, their linear and flow dispersion in the host rock these nodules have been crystallized in magmatic condition. In the final stages of magma crystallizationand the B content increment followed by beginning of unmixing in the melt, distinctspherical bubbles have been developed which gave rise to nodules formation. Magmaticsystem acts as chaotic systems and the presence of rotational and limited closed areas inthe vicinity of areas with disturbed paths has led to the formation of rounded anddendritic nodules beside each other.

  20. Dynamics of formation of ferromanganese nodules in the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mukhopadhyay, R.; Ghosh, A.K.

    ., 2008). It is therefore interesting to examine and model the various factors that might influence the formation, growth and characters of nodules in the neighbouring sectors within the IONF (sector A to D, Fig. 2). The seafloor underlying... these sectors, originated from the Indian Ocean Ridge System (IORS), and is strikingly different from one sector to another. For example, the sectors A and C were formed during crustal stretching, and are characterised by a largely smooth seafloor...

  1. Proliferation and mineralization ability of dental pulp cells derived from primary and permanent teeth

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    Suttatip Kamolmatyakul

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to compare the proliferation and mineralization ability of CFU-F selected dental pulp cellsderived from primary and permanent teeth. Those cells were isolated by enzyme digestion and analyzed for their colonyformingcapacity. The cell proliferation was measured by the MTT assay on day 1, day 7, and day14. Alizarin Red S stainingwas used to detect mineralized nodule formation of the cells on day 7, 14, 21, and 28. Proliferation of CFU-F selected pulpcells from primary teeth was significantly higher than that of CFU-F selected pulp cells from permanent teeth in all periods ofthe experiment. Upon cultured cells in mineralization inducing media, the mineralized nodules appeared as early as day 14 inCFU-F selected pulp cells from primary teeth and MG-63, whereas those of CFU-F selected pulp cells from permanent teethcan be found at day 21. On day 21 and day 28, the mineralized nodules of the CFU-F selected pulp cells from the primaryteeth group were more than those in the CFU-F selected pulp cells from the permanent teeth group. Mineralized noduleformation in the CFU-F selected pulp cells from the permanent teeth group appeared later and were less than those ofCFU-F selected pulp cells from primary teeth. However, mineralized nodules in CFU-F selected pulp cells from the permanentteeth group increased very fast after their appearance. Those results suggest that CFU-F selected pulp cells from primaryteeth had a higher proliferation rate and mineralization rate when compared to CFU-F selected pulp cells from permanentteeth.

  2. Nod factor supply under water stress conditions modulates cytokinin biosynthesis and enhances nodule formation and N nutrition in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudent, Marion; Salon, Christophe; Smith, Donald L; Emery, R J Neil

    2016-09-01

    Nod factors (NF) are molecules produced by rhizobia which are involved in the N 2 -fixing symbiosis with legume plants, enabling the formation of specific organs called nodules. Under drought conditions, nitrogen acquisition by N 2 -fixation is depressed, resulting in low legume productivity. In this study, we evaluated the effects of NF supply on nitrogen acquisition and on cytokinin biosynthesis of soybean plants grown under drought. NF supply to water stressed soybeans increased the CK content of all organs. The profile of CK metabolites also shifted from t-Z to cis-Z and an accumulation of nucleotide and glucoside conjugates. The changes in CK coincided with enhanced nodule formation with sustained nodule specific activity, which ultimately increased the total nitrogen fixed by the plant.

  3. Molecular biomineralization: toward an understanding of the biogenic origin of polymetallic nodules, seamount crusts, and hydrothermal vents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohong; Wiens, Matthias; Schröder, Heinz C; Schloßmacher, Ute; Müller, Werner E G

    2011-01-01

    Polymetallic nodules and crusts, hydrothermal vents from the Deep Sea are economically interesting, since they contain alloying components, e.g., manganese or cobalt, that are used in the production of special steels; in addition, they contain rare metals applied for plasma screens, for magnets in hard disks, or in hybrid car motors. While hydrothermal vents can regenerate in weeks, polymetallic nodules and seamount crusts grow slowly. Even though the geochemical basis for the growth of the nodules and crusts has been well studied, the contribution of microorganisms to the formation of these minerals remained obscure. Recent HR-SEM (high-resolution scanning electron microscopy) analyses of nodules and crusts support their biogenic origin. Within the nodules, bacteria with surface S-layers are arranged on biofilm-like structures, around which Mn deposition starts. In crusts, coccoliths represent the dominant biologically formed structures that act as bio-seeds for an initial Mn deposition. In contrast, hydrothermal vents have apparently an abiogenic origin; however, their minerals are biogenically transformed by bacteria. In turn, strategies can now be developed for biotechnological enrichment as well as selective dissolution of metals from such concretions. We are convinced that the recent discoveries will considerably contribute to our understanding of the participation of organic matrices in the enrichment of those metals and will provide the basis for feasibility studies for biotechnological applications.

  4. Strategy for polymetallic nodule mining

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sharma, R.

    in industrializing their economies. Of the known mineral reselVcs these countries have nearly 50% of the nickel resclVcs, over 50% ofcopper reselVcs, 75% ofcobalt reserves, and aboul 25% of manganese reserves, and are major suppliers to the world markets... of these minerals. These counlries face the comhined effect oflosl markets and reduced price levels broughlabout by deep seabed nodule production. They depend on revenue earned from mineral exports more than do developed nations and have less flexibility...

  5. Petrography of thoriferous hydrocarbon nodules in sandstones, and their significance for petroleum exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parnell, J.; Monson, B.; Tosswill, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    Nodules of thorium-rich hydrocarbon are recorded in sandstone sequences from several basins. The hydrocarbon nodules contain mineral inclusions, particularly of thorite or monazite. There is evidence both for accretion of hydrocarbons around detrital heavy mineral grains and for epigenetic growth by interaction of hydrocarbons with thorium-bearing fluids. Both mechanisms depend upon the precipitation of solid hydrocarbons induced by irradiation from thorium. The nodules exhibit aggressive replacement of other grains, a characteristic of radioanomalous hydrocarbons. The occurrence of the nodules is dependent upon an appropriate (plutonic) source for the thorium, but given this constraint they are important evidence for hydrocarbon migration pathways. (author)

  6. Morphological assessment of bone mineralization in tibial metaphyses of ascorbic acid-deficient ODS rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Tomoka; Li, Minqi; Hara, Kuniko; Sasaki, Muneteru; Tabata, Chihiro; de Freitas, Paulo Henrique Luiz; Hongo, Hiromi; Suzuki, Reiko; Kobayashi, Masatoshi; Inoue, Kiichiro; Yamamoto, Tsuneyuki; Oohata, Noboru; Oda, Kimimitsu; Akiyama, Yasuhiro; Amizuka, Norio

    2011-08-01

    Osteogenic disorder shionogi (ODS) rats carry a hereditary defect in ascorbic acid synthesis, mimicking human scurvy when fed with an ascorbic acid-deficient (aa-def) diet. As aa-def ODS rats were shown to feature disordered bone formation, we have examined the bone mineralization in this rat model. A fibrous tissue layer surrounding the trabeculae of tibial metaphyses was found in aa-def ODS rats, and this layer showed intense alkaline phosphatase activity and proliferating cell nuclear antigen-immunopositivity. Many osteoblasts detached from the bone surfaces and were characterized by round-shaped rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER), suggesting accumulation of malformed collagen inside the rER. Accordingly, fine, fragile fibrillar collagenous structures without evident striation were found in aa-def bones, which may result from misassembling of the triple helices of collagenous α-chains. Despite a marked reduction in bone formation, ascorbic acid deprivation seemed to have no effect on mineralization: while reduced in number, normal matrix vesicles and mineralized nodules could be seen in aa-def bones. Fine needle-like mineral crystals extended from these mineralized nodules, and were apparently bound to collagenous fibrillar structures. In summary, collagen mineralization seems unaffected by ascorbic acid deficiency in spite of the fine, fragile collagenous fibrils identified in the bones of our animal model.

  7. Mode of distribution of uranium mineralization and sequence of the formation of minerals in albitites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grechishnikov, N.P.; Kramar, O.A.; Rapovich, F.I.

    1985-01-01

    On the basis of analysis and generalization of factural material data on the distribution nature of accessory uranium mineralization in albitites permitting to judge of the role and textural-structural peculiarities of enclosing rocks in mineralization localization are given. It is shown that the uranium mineral formation is closely related with the albitite formation and proceeded during two stages. A main mass of primary uranium minerals (brannerites and uraninites) in the form of impregnated mineralization was formed during the first uraninite-brannerite-albitite stage. Uranium oxides, silicates and titanates in the shape of veines formed. During the second coffinite-pitchblende-chloritic stage the formation of uranium oxides, silicates and titanates occured. Uranium mineralization in albitites developes in zones of cataclasm, small jointing, mylonitization localizing in fine-grained aggregates. A main mass of primary uranium minerals in albitites (brannerite, uraninite relates to neogenic during metasomatosis dark-coloured minerals (riebenite, aegirine, chlorite)

  8. Cyclosporin A promotes mineralization by human cementoblastoma-derived cells in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzate, Higinio; Alvarez, Marco A; Narayanan, A Sampath

    2005-06-01

    The immunosuppressive drug cyclosporin A has been shown to induce cementum deposition in vivo in experimental animals. Using cementoblastoma-derived cells, we have studied whether this drug will be useful to study cementum mineralization and differentiation in vitro. Human cementoblastoma cells and gingival fibroblasts (controls) were cultured and treated with 0.5, 1.0 and 5.0 microg/ml of cyclosporin A. Cell proliferation was evaluated by MTT (tetrazolium) assay and cell number, and cell viability was assessed by trypan blue dye exclusion. Induction of mineralization was evaluated by alizarin red S staining to detect mineralized nodules and by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to assess the expression of bone differentiation markers alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, bone sialoprotein and core-binding factor a1 (Cbfa1). Cyclosporin A at 5.0 microg/ml concentration reduced significantly the increase in the number of cementoblastoma cells. A dose-dependent increase in the number of mineralized nodules occurred in cultures of cementoblastoma-derived cells treated with cyclosporin A, and RT-PCR analyses showed significantly higher levels of expression of alkaline phosphatase, bone sialoprotein, type I collagen, matrix metalloproteinase-1, osteocalcin, osteopontin, and Cbfa1. Human gingival fibroblast proliferation and cell number were not affected. Mineralized nodules were not detected in gingival fibroblasts and bone specific proteins were not expressed. Presence of cyclosporin A during 14-day culture period appears to suppress the proliferation of cementoblastoma cells and induce the formation mineralized-like tissue by these cells.

  9. [Nodulation competitiveness of nodule bacteria: Genetic control and adaptive significance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishchuk, O P; Vorobyov, N I; Provorov, N A

    2017-01-01

    The most recent data on the system of cmp (competitiveness) genes that determine the nodulation competitiveness of rhizobial strains, i.e., the ability to compete for nodule formation in leguminous plants, is analyzed. Three genetic approaches for the construction of economically valuable strains of rhizobia are proposed: the amplification of positive regulators of competitiveness, the inactivation of the negative regulators of this trait, and the introduction of efficient competitiveness factors into strains capable of active nitrogen fixation.

  10. Uranium in Pacific deep-sea sediments and manganese nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunzendorf, H.; Plueger, W.L.; Friedrich, G.H.

    1983-01-01

    A total of 1344 manganese nodules and 187 pelagic sediments from 9 areas in the North and the South Pacific were analyzed for U by the delayed-neutron counting technique. A strong positive correlation between U and Fe in nodules and sediments suggests a co-precipitative removal from sea water into the Fe-rich (ferromanganese mineral phase MnO 2 . Enrichment of U and Fe in nodules from the northwestern slopes of two submarine hills (U between 6 and 9 ppm) in the equatorial nodule belt is thought to be caused by directional bottom water flow creating elevated oxygenized conditions in areas opposed to the flow. Economically important nodule deposits from the nodule belt and the Peru Basin have generally low U contents, between 3 and 5 ppm. Insignificant resources of U of about 4 x 10 5 in the Pacific manganese nodules are estimated. (orig.)

  11. Effects of washed platelets vs platelet-rich plasma on the proliferation and mineralization of rat dental pulp cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L; Xie, Y H; Lin, B R

    2015-08-14

    We examined the effects of washed platelets (WPLTs) and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) on the proliferation and mineralization of rat dental pulp cells. Rat dental pulp cells were separated, cultured, and identified. Medium containing 1, 10, 100, or 500 mL/L PRP or WPLTs was added to 4th generation cells. The MTS method was used to determine cell proliferation. Alizarin red staining was used to observe the formation of mineralized nodules after cell mineralization and induction for 10 and 20 days under different culture conditions, and the areas of the mineralized nodules formed 20 days after induction were computed. The addition of 1, 10, and 100 mL/L WPLTs or PRP significantly promoted rat dental pulp cell proliferation (P 0.05). Under the same concentrations, no significant differences on cell proliferation were observed between WPLT and PRP treatments (P > 0.05 in all groups). After 10 days mineralization and culture, the 100 and 500 mL/L WPLT and PRP group positive nodule rates were significantly higher than those of the low concentration and the control groups (P < 0.05). After 20 days, the areas of the mineralized nodules formed in the 100 and 500 mL/L WPLT and PRP groups were significantly larger than those in the control group (P < 0.05). These results demonstrate that both WPLTs and PRP are equally able to significantly promote the proliferation and calcification of rat dental pulp cells under a certain range of concentrations.

  12. Composition, characteristics and genesis of the ferromanganese crusts and nodules from the Indian and Pacific oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S.; Peng, X.

    2017-12-01

    Ferromanganese crusts and nodules are considered to be one of the most important players in the geochemical cycling of the oceans. However, the lack of integrated studies affects our explicit understanding of the mineralization, characteristics and genesis of the crusts and nodules. In this study, the mineralogy, geochemistry and molecular biology in ferromanganese crusts and nodules obtained from various oceans were explored. The crusts/nodules are composed predominantly of vernadite (δ-MnO2) and amorphous Fe oxides/hydroxides. The shale normalized negative Ce-anomalies, characteristic of hydrothermal oxides, are retained in JL and TVG6. In hydrogenous oxides, the positive Ce-anomalies were found in 21V-S7 and DY119-4. The iron isotopic compositions range between -0.543 and -0.002‰ in δ56Fe IRMM14. Using molecular 16S rRNA gene techniques (clone libraries, real-time PCR) we show that nodules (JL-B and TVG6) provide a suitable habitat for prokaryotes with an abundant and diverse prokaryotic community dominated by Mn(II)-oxidizing bacteria (Pseudomonas putida GB-1). These bacteria were not detected in the crust samples (21V-S7 and DY119-4). The results suggest that a biologically driven Manganese cycle inside the nodule that may be relevant to their formation.

  13. Marine biominerals: perspectives and challenges for polymetallic nodules and crusts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohong; Müller, Werner E G

    2009-06-01

    Deep sea minerals in polymetallic nodules, crusts and hydrothermal vents are not only formed by mineralization but also by biologically driven processes involving microorganisms (biomineralization). Within the nodules, free-living and biofilm-forming bacteria provide the matrix for manganese deposition, and in cobalt-rich crusts, coccolithophores represent the dominant organisms that act as bio-seeds for an initial manganese deposition. These (bio)minerals are economically important: manganese is an important alloying component and cobalt forms part of special steels in addition to being used, along with other rare metals, in plasma screens, hard-disk magnets and hybrid car motors. Recent progress in our understanding of the participation of the organic matrices in the enrichment of these metals might provide the basis for feasibility studies of biotechnological applications.

  14. Foliar application of pyraclostrobin fungicide enhances the growth, rhizobial-nodule formation and nitrogenase activity in soybean (var. JS-335).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Juhie; Sharma, Sonika; Guruprasad, K N

    2014-09-01

    A field study was conducted to investigate the impact of the fungicide pyraclostrobin (F500 - Headline®; a.i. 20%) on the activity of nitrogenase in soybean (var. JS-335). Pyraclostrobin (F500) was applied on the leaves of soybean plants at 10 and 20 days after emergence (DAE) of seedlings at concentrations ranging from 0.05% to 1%. Leghemoglobin (Lb) content and nitrogenase activity in root nodules were analyzed at 45(th)day after emergence of seedlings indicated a remarkable increase in Lb content and enhanced activity of nitrogenase in the root nodules of pyraclostrobin treated plants. The fungicide also enhanced the number of nodules along with weight of nodules, root biomass and growth of shoot and leaves. Enhanced nitrogen fixation in the root nodules by pyraclostrobin improves the growth of the plant in soybean before flowering and pod formation which ultimately resulted in yield and yield attributes. These results suggest that pyraclostrobin (F500) can be successfully employed as a foliar spray under field conditions to enhance the growth, nitrogen assimilation and hence yield of soybean. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Mineralogy of polymetallic nodules and associated sediments from the Central Indian Ocean Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, V.P

    in montmorillonite, chlorite and illite, delta MnO sub(2) is the dominant mineral phase in the nodules of the southern Central Indian Ocean Basin. These nodules have a smooth surface texture, are relatively rich in Fe and Co, and are associated with pelagic clay...

  16. Impact-Induced Clay Mineral Formation and Distribution on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Valentin, E. G.; Craig, P. I.

    2015-01-01

    Clay minerals have been identified in the central peaks and ejecta blankets of impact craters on Mars. Several studies have suggested these clay minerals formed as a result of impact induced hydrothermalism either during Mars' Noachian era or more recently by the melting of subsurface ice. Examples of post-impact clay formation is found in several locations on Earth such as the Mjolnir and Woodleigh Impact Structures. Additionally, a recent study has suggested the clay minerals observed on Ceres are the result of impact-induced hydrothermal processes. Such processes may have occurred on Mars, possibly during the Noachian. Distinguishing between clay minerals formed preor post-impact can be accomplished by studying their IR spectra. In fact, showed that the IR spectra of clay minerals is greatly affected at longer wavelengths (i.e. mid-IR, 5-25 micron) by impact-induced shock deformation while the near-IR spectra (1.0-2.5 micron) remains relatively unchanged. This explains the discrepancy between NIR and MIR observations of clay minerals in martian impact craters noted. Thus, it allows us to determine whether a clay mineral formed from impact-induced hydrothermalism or were pre-existing and were altered by the impact. Here we study the role of impacts on the formation and distribution of clay minerals on Mars via a fully 3-D Monte Carlo cratering model, including impact- melt production using results from modern hydrocode simulations. We identify regions that are conducive to clay formation and the location of clay minerals post-bombardment.

  17. Organogenic nodule formation in hop: a tool to study morphogenesis in plants with biotechnological and medicinal applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes, Ana M; Santos, Filipa; Pais, Maria S

    2010-01-01

    The usage of Humulus lupulus for brewing increased the demand for high-quality plant material. Simultaneously, hop has been used in traditional medicine and recently recognized with anticancer and anti-infective properties. Tissue culture techniques have been reported for a wide range of species, and open the prospect for propagation of disease-free, genetically uniform and massive amounts of plants in vitro. Moreover, the development of large-scale culture methods using bioreactors enables the industrial production of secondary metabolites. Reliable and efficient tissue culture protocol for shoot regeneration through organogenic nodule formation was established for hop. The present review describes the histological, and biochemical changes occurring during this morphogenic process, together with an analysis of transcriptional and metabolic profiles. We also discuss the existence of common molecular factors among three different morphogenic processes: organogenic nodules and somatic embryogenesis, which strictly speaking depend exclusively on intrinsic developmental reprogramming, and legume nitrogen-fixing root nodules, which arises in response to symbiosis. The review of the key factors that participate in hop nodule organogenesis and the comparison with other morphogenic processes may have merit as a study presenting recent advances in complex molecular networks occurring during morphogenesis and together, these provide a rich framework for biotechnology applications.

  18. Study of phosphatic nodules as a possible source of uranium mineralization in warcha sandstone of nilawahan group salt range using SSNTD technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, A.A.; Ullah, K.; Ullah, N.; Mohammad, A.

    2004-07-01

    The strong in the sedimentary depositional characteristics between the Warcha Sandstone of Nilawahan Group in the Salt Range and the uranium bearing sandstones of Siwalik Group in the foot hills of Himalaya and Sulaiman Ranges tempted the geologists to investigate the former group for the occurrence of any uranium deposits in it. Like volcanic ash beds in Siwaliks, phosphatic nodules may be a possible source of uranium mineralization in Warcha Sandstone of Nilawahan Group. Samples of phosphatic nodules occurring in the Sandstone of Nilawahan Group Salt Range were analyzed using Solid State Nuclear Track Detention Technique (SSNTD) for the determination of their uranium concentration. The results obtained are quite encouraging and favour the idea of exploring the area in detail for any possible occurrence of uranium deposit. Uranium concentration in these samples ranges from (434 + - 39) ppm to (964+ -81)ppm with and average concentration of (699 + - 62) ppm. (author)

  19. Environmental studies for mining of deep-sea polymetallic nodules - Accomplishments and future plans

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sharma, R.

    on marine ecosystem, the project on ‘EIA studies for nodule mining in CIB’ was initiated in 1996, under the national programme on polymetallic nodules funded by the Dept. of Ocean Development. Mining of the deep-sea minerals [1] is expected to alter... for the future • Development of predictive ecosystem models • Creation of environmental database • Evaluating the biogeochemical coupling of biota with deep-sea ecosystem • Development of environment management plan for nodule mining References...

  20. Activation of cell divisions in legume nodulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nadzieja, Marcin

    organogenesis. Coordination of these two interdependent processes results in formation of nodules - bacterial accommodating structures where fixation of atmospheric nitrogen takes place. Plant hormones such as auxin and cytokinin play important roles in nodulation. In some legumes the infection process...... of auxin transport inhibitors or cytokinin alone was shown to induce cortical cell divisions in the absence of rhizobia in certain legume species. While the roles of auxin and cytokinin in nodulation have been studied extensively, the precise timing, location and means of molecular crosstalk between...

  1. Biogenic origin of polymetallic nodules from the Clarion-Clipperton Zone in the Eastern Pacific Ocean: electron microscopic and EDX evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohong; Schlossmacher, Ute; Wiens, Matthias; Schröder, Heinz C; Müller, Werner E G

    2009-01-01

    Polymetallic/ferromanganese nodules (Mn-nodules) have been assigned a huge economic potential since they contain considerable concentrations of manganese, copper, nickel, iron, and cobalt. It has been assumed that they are formed by, besides hydrogenous, nonbiogenic processes, biogenic processes based on metabolic processes driven by microorganisms. In the present study, we applied the techniques of digital optical microscopy and high-resolution scanning electron microscopy to search for microorganisms in Mn-nodules. They were collected from the Clarion-Clipperton Zone in the Eastern Pacific Ocean and are composed of Mn (23.9%), Cu (0.69%), Ni (1.02%), Fe (10.9%), and Co (0.29%). These Mn-nodules, between 2.3 and 4.8 cm, show a distinct lamination; they are composed of small-sized micronodules, 100 to 450 microm in size, which are bound together by an interstitial whitish material. In the micronodules, a dense accumulation of microorganisms/bacteria could be visualized. Only two morphotypes exist: (1) round-shaped cocci and (2) elongated rods. The cocci (diameter: approximately 3.5 microm) are arranged in bead-like chains, while the rods (approximately 2 x 0.4 microm) are arranged either as palisades or in a linear row. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analyses showed that the areas rich in microorganisms/bacteria are also rich in Mn, while in regions where no microorganisms are found, the element Si is dominant. We suggest that growth of the Mn-nodules starts with the formation of "micronodules." The formation of micronodules is assumed to be mediated by microorganisms. After accretion of biogenic and additional nonbiogenic minerals, the micronodules assemble to large nodules on the sea floor through additional inclusion of nonbiogenic material.

  2. Automatic Solitary Lung Nodule Detection in Computed Tomography Images Slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sentana, I. W. B.; Jawas, N.; Asri, S. A.

    2018-01-01

    Lung nodule is an early indicator of some lung diseases, including lung cancer. In Computed Tomography (CT) based image, nodule is known as a shape that appears brighter than lung surrounding. This research aim to develop an application that automatically detect lung nodule in CT images. There are some steps in algorithm such as image acquisition and conversion, image binarization, lung segmentation, blob detection, and classification. Data acquisition is a step to taking image slice by slice from the original *.dicom format and then each image slices is converted into *.tif image format. Binarization that tailoring Otsu algorithm, than separated the background and foreground part of each image slices. After removing the background part, the next step is to segment part of the lung only so the nodule can localized easier. Once again Otsu algorithm is use to detect nodule blob in localized lung area. The final step is tailoring Support Vector Machine (SVM) to classify the nodule. The application has succeed detecting near round nodule with a certain threshold of size. Those detecting result shows drawback in part of thresholding size and shape of nodule that need to enhance in the next part of the research. The algorithm also cannot detect nodule that attached to wall and Lung Chanel, since it depend the searching only on colour differences.

  3. Formation of secondary minerals in a lysimeter approach - A mineral-microbe interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäffner, F.; Merten, D.; De Giudici, G.; Beyer, A.; Akob, D. M.; Ricci, P. C.; Küsel, K.; Büchel, G.

    2012-04-01

    Heavy metal contamination of large areas due to uranium mining operations poses a serious long-term environmental problem. In the Ronneburg district (eastern Thuringia, Germany), leaching of low grade uranium bearing ores (uranium content metals, especially Cd, Ni, Co, Cu and Zn due to a residual contamination even after remediation efforts. To reveal the processes of secondary mineral precipitation in the field a laboratory lysimeter approach was set up under in situ-like conditions. Homogenized soil from the field site and pure quartz sand were used as substrates. In general, in situ measurements of redox potentials in the substrates showed highly oxidizing conditions (200-750 mV). Water was supplied to the lysimeter from below via a mariottés bottle containing contaminated groundwater from the field. Evaporation processes were allowed, providing a continuous flow of water. This led to precipitation of epsomite and probably aplowite on the top layer of substrate, similar to what is observed in field investigations. After 4 weeks, the first iron and manganese bearing secondary minerals became visible. Soil water samples were used to monitor the behaviour of metals within the lysimeter. Saturation indices (SI) for different secondary minerals were calculated with PHREEQC. The SI of goethite showed oversaturation with respect to the soil solution. SEM-EDX analyses and IR spectroscopy confirmed the formation of goethite. Geochemical data revealed that goethite formation was mainly dominated by Eh/pH processes and that heavy metals, e.g. Zn and U, could be enriched in this phase. Although Eh/pH data does not support formation of manganese minerals, Mn(II)-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) could be isolated from field soil samples, supporting the fact that microorganisms may influence this natural attenuation process. Laser ablation ICP-MS data reveal accumulation of manganese in MOB biomass on Mn(II)-containing agar plates. Furthermore, it was possible to show the importance

  4. Evidence for the formation of different-sized nodules by different accretionary processes

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Valsangkar, A.B.; Karisiddaiah, S.M.

    suggests that the smaller (M and I) nodules are diagenetic and the larger (S, B, L, and V) are hydrogenetic, exhibiting variations in todorokite abundance and in chemical composition. There is also substantial evidence that the nodules of high economic...

  5. Formation of calcareous nodules in loess-paleosol sequences: Reviews of existing models with a proposed new "per evapotranspiration model"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanrong; Zhang, Weiwei; Aydin, Adnan; Deng, Xiaohong

    2018-04-01

    Loess is a product of aeolian deposition during Quaternary glaciation cycles. Loess-paleosol sequences are rich in calcareous nodules (CNs). In the literature, two models are widely cited for the formation of CNs, namely "per descendum" and "per ascendum". However, there has been no direct testing or monitoring to support either of these contradictory models. This paper reviews a large number of multidisciplinary literature to evaluate the consistency, reliability and rationality of these two models. Three main conclusions are drawn: (1) the causative factors (variation of pH value along loess-paleosol sequence, decrease of CO2 partial pressure, and reduction of solvent water) that are used to support the per descendum model do not completely explain the supersaturation of infiltration solution with CaCO3, thereby making this model questionable; (2) the per ascendum model explains the formation of CNs along narrow horizons through upward evaporation; however, it fails to produce sporadic distributions and irregular shapes of nodules on loess slope faces and the frequent appearance of nodules around plant roots. In order to reconcile these deficiencies, we conducted an extensive field survey in various parts of Shanxi province. Based on this new set of observations, it was concluded that the "per ascendum" model can be extended to explain all occurrences of CNs. This extended model is called "per evapotranspiration".

  6. Electron Transfer Strategies Regulate Carbonate Mineral and Micropore Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Zhirui; Tice, Michael M.

    2018-01-01

    Some microbial carbonates are robust biosignatures due to their distinct morphologies and compositions. However, whether carbonates induced by microbial iron reduction have such features is unknown. Iron-reducing bacteria use various strategies to transfer electrons to iron oxide minerals (e.g., membrane-bound enzymes, soluble electron shuttles, nanowires, as well as different mechanisms for moving over or attaching to mineral surfaces). This diversity has the potential to create mineral biosignatures through manipulating the microenvironments in which carbonate precipitation occurs. We used Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, Geothrix fermentans, and Geobacter metallireducens GS-15, representing three different strategies, to reduce solid ferric hydroxide in order to evaluate their influence on carbonate and micropore formation (micro-size porosity in mineral rocks). Our results indicate that electron transfer strategies determined the morphology (rhombohedral, spherical, or long-chained) of precipitated calcium-rich siderite by controlling the level of carbonate saturation and the location of carbonate formation. Remarkably, electron transfer strategies also produced distinctive cell-shaped micropores in both carbonate and hydroxide minerals, thus producing suites of features that could potentially serve as biosignatures recording information about the sizes, shapes, and physiologies of iron-reducing organisms.

  7. VsENOD5, VsENOD12 and VsENOD40 expression during Rhizobium-induced nodule formation on Vicia sativa roots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vijn, I; Yang, W C; Pallisgård, N

    1995-01-01

    We isolated ENOD5, ENOD12 and ENOD40 homologues from Vicia sativa and studied their expression pattern during Rhizobium-induced nodule formation. Comparison of the VsENOD40 nucleotide sequence with the pea, soybean and alfalfa ENOD40 sequences showed that the sequences contain two conserved regions...... the expression pattern of VsENOD5, VsENOD12 and VsENOD40 during Rhizobium-induced nodule formation. Although the expression of these genes is largely similar to that of the pea counterparts, differences where found for the expression of VsENOD12 and VsENOD40 in Vicia. VsENOD12 is expressed in the whole...... prefixation zone II, whereas in pea ENOD12 is only expressed in the distal part of this zone. VsENOD40 is expressed in the uninfected cells of interzone II-III, while in pea ENOD40 is expressed in both the uninfected and infected cells of this zone. Udgivelsesdato: 1995-Sep...

  8. Biologic origin of iron nodules in a marine terrace chronosequence, Santa Cruz, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, M.S.; Vivit, D.; Schulz, C.; Fitzpatrick, J.; White, A.

    2010-01-01

    The distribution, chemistry, and morphology of Fe nodules were studied in a marine terrace soil chronosequence northwest of Santa Cruz, California. The Fe nodules are found at depths hyphae throughout the nodules, including organic structures incorporating fine-grained Fe oxides. The fine-grained nature of the Fe oxides was substantiated by M??ssbauer spectroscopy. Our microscopic observations led to the hypothesis that the nodules in the Santa Cruz terrace soils are precipitated by fungi, perhaps as a strategy to sequester primary mineral grains for nutrient extraction. The fungal structures are fixed by the seasonal wetting and dry cycles and rounded through bioturbation. The organic structures are compacted by the degradation of fungal C with time. ?? Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  9. Electron Transfer Strategies Regulate Carbonate Mineral and Micropore Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Zhirui; Tice, Michael M

    2018-01-01

    Some microbial carbonates are robust biosignatures due to their distinct morphologies and compositions. However, whether carbonates induced by microbial iron reduction have such features is unknown. Iron-reducing bacteria use various strategies to transfer electrons to iron oxide minerals (e.g., membrane-bound enzymes, soluble electron shuttles, nanowires, as well as different mechanisms for moving over or attaching to mineral surfaces). This diversity has the potential to create mineral biosignatures through manipulating the microenvironments in which carbonate precipitation occurs. We used Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, Geothrix fermentans, and Geobacter metallireducens GS-15, representing three different strategies, to reduce solid ferric hydroxide in order to evaluate their influence on carbonate and micropore formation (micro-size porosity in mineral rocks). Our results indicate that electron transfer strategies determined the morphology (rhombohedral, spherical, or long-chained) of precipitated calcium-rich siderite by controlling the level of carbonate saturation and the location of carbonate formation. Remarkably, electron transfer strategies also produced distinctive cell-shaped micropores in both carbonate and hydroxide minerals, thus producing suites of features that could potentially serve as biosignatures recording information about the sizes, shapes, and physiologies of iron-reducing organisms. Key Words: Microbial iron reduction-Micropore-Electron transfer strategies-Microbial carbonate. Astrobiology 18, 28-36.

  10. Hollow Nodules Gas Escape Sedimentary Structures in Lacustrine Deposits on Earth and Gale Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaccorsi, R.; Willson, D.; Fairen, A. G.; Baker, L.; McKay, C.; Zent, A.; Mahaffy, P. R.

    2015-12-01

    Curiosity's Mastcam and MAHLI instruments in Gale Crater (GC) imaged mm-sized circular rimmed hollow nodules (HNs) (Figure 1A), pitting the Sheepbed mudstone of Yellowknife Bay Formation [1,2]. HNs are significantly smaller than the solid nodules within the outcrop, with an external mean diameter of 1.2 mm and an interior one of 0.7 mm [2] Several formation mechanisms of HNs have been discussed, such as: (1) Diagenetic dissolution of soluble mineral phases; or, (2) Gas bubbles released shortly after sediment deposition [1-3]. In an ephemeral pond in Ubehebe Crater (Death Valley, CA) we observed the formation of hollow nodule sedimentary structures produced by gas bubbles (Figure 1C) preserved in smectite-rich mud that are strikingly similar to those imaged in GC (Figure 1A). This finding supports the gas bubble hypothesis [2]. Ubehebe Crater (UC) surface sediment hollow nodules were sampled, imaged, and their internal diameter measured (200 hollow structures) showing similar shape, distribution, and composition to those imaged by Curiosity in GC. UC in-situ observations suggest the gas bubbles were generated within the slightly reducing ephemerally submerged mud. These intra-crater deposits remain otherwise extremely dry year round, i.e., Air_rH ~2-5%; ground H2O wt%: 1-2%; Summer air/ground T: 45-48ºC/67-70ºC [4-5]. Data from the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM), CheMin, and ChemCam instruments onboard the rover revealed that HNs-bearing mudstone are rich in smectite clay e.g., ~18-20% [6,7] deposited in a neutral to mildly alkaline environment, capturing a period when the surface was potentially habitable [1]. The UC HNs-hosting deposits are also rich in smectite clays (~30%) and occur in an ephemeral shallow freshwater setting [4-5]. If present, surface hollow nodules are easy to find in dry clay-rich mud in lacustrine sediments, so they could represent a new indicator of ephemeral but habitable/inhabited environments on both Earth and early Mars. References: [1

  11. Compositional changes of surface sediments and variability of manganese nodules in the Peru Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchig, Vesna; von Stackelberg, Ulrich; Hufnagel, Heinz; Durn, Goran

    Two types of manganese nodules were observed in the Peru Basin: large botryoidal nodules in basins and small ellipsoidal nodules on slope positions. The sediment in areas with large botryoidal nodules contains a thinner and weaker oxidation zone than the sediment under small ellipsoidal nodules, indicating that diagenetic processes in the sediment, which supply manganese nodules with metals for their growth, are stronger in sediments on which large botryoidal nodules grow. Organic matter, which activates remobilization of metals, occurs mostly in the form of refractory lipidic compounds in the inner capsule of radiolaria. This material needs bacterial degradation to act as a reducing agent. Easily oxidizable organic components could not be found in the sediments. Other changes in sediment composition do not have a link to manganese nodule growth. Biogenous components (radiolarians, organogenic barite and apatite) increase towards the equatorial high-productivity zone. Authigenous clay minerals (nontronite as well as montmorillonite with high Fe +3 incorporation on positions of ochtaedral Al) increase with distance from the continent. The assessment of environmental impacts will have to take into account the regional differences in sediment composition and the small-scale variability of manganese nodules.

  12. Internal features, mineralogy and geochemistry of ferromanganese nodules from the Gulf of Cadiz: The role of the Mediterranean Outflow Water undercurrent

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, F. J.; Somoza, L.; Lunar, R.; Martínez-Frías, J.; Rubí, J. A. Martín; Torres, T.; Ortiz, J. E.; Díaz-del-Río, V.

    2010-03-01

    low contents of trace metals and REEs compared to the average content of deep-seabed polymetallic nodules from other oceanic areas. The Mn/Fe ratio ranges from 0.07 to 0.25. The studied nodules hold hydrocarbons ( n-alkanes) derived from marine bacterial activity in their oxide layers, with the presence of aromatic hydrocarbons as phenanthrene as well, characteristic of mature petroleum. The structure, mineralogy and chemical composition in the studied nodules are more similar to those of diagenetic-hydrogenetic continental margin nodules rather than deep-sea nodules. We suggest that the formation of this type of nodule could respond to a combined diagenetic-hydrogenetic growth process, where the fluid venting from deep-seated hydrocarbon reservoirs, the bio-mineralization processes and the bottom currents erosion and chemistry could have played an important role.

  13. [Thyroid nodule].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerc, Jérôme

    2005-01-31

    The thyroid nodule is a frequent, most often benign, chronic, multifocal and slowly progressive disease. The first line strategy is to diagnose cancerous nodules (thyroid nodules is controversial since the prognosis of thyroid cancer is excellent for lesions measuring less than 20 mm. Though imaging accuracy is quite limited in assessing the diagnosis of thyroid cancer, both ultrasounds (US) and thyroid scan are helpful to enhance nodular identification (>30%), to sort the nodules relevant for cytological sampling and to optimize the follow-up, the major source of health costs. Suspicious and non contributive FNAs must have a control FNA within 6 months. Nodules with a non suspicious FNA (>85%) require long term follow-up. This follow-up is mainly morphological. New or evolutive nodules, as assessed by palpation or US, will require iterative FNAs or should be considered for surgery. In patients with hyperfunctioning nodules on the scan (10 to 20%), a yearly evaluation of the TSH level is sufficient. These nodules account either for autonomously functioning ones, which slowly develop towards thyrotoxicosis, or for hyperplastic nodules frequently disclosing a lymphocytic thyroiditis. Morbidity due to thyroid autonomy is still underestimated especially in aging patients with TSH levels thyroid nodule is suggested.

  14. The seabed - an important mineral resource of Slovakia in the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Blišťan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1987, Slovakia bought part of the ocean bottom with the occurrence of mineral resources future - polymetallic nodules. The polymetallic nodule is a geological term for naming natural features consisting of more than 40 metals and other chemical elements. These special services originated in the ocean for two to three million years and nowadays, they are of main interest for countries whose mineral wealth is little or no available. Nodules contain about 30 % manganese, 1.2 % copper, 1.2 % nickel, 0.2 % cobalt, rare earth elements, etc. The existence of submarine nodules was found by the British ship HMS "Challenger" by oceanographic research in 1872 - 1876. Research and the subsequent mining of nodules were particularly points of interest for Western countries as well as the USSR. Rules for the use of mineral resources of the seabed beyond the limits of national jurisdiction were codified in the Convention on the Law of 1982, which came into force on 16.11.1994, and in the Slovakia on 21.7.1996. The seabed is one of the international space next to the high seas, Antarctica, outer space and celestial bodies, which are not subject to the sovereignty of any state authority.

  15. Effect of exogenous application of rhizopine on lucerne root nodulation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rhizopine, 3-0 -methyl scyllo-inosamine was applied to the roots of luceme seedling inoculated with either rhizopine synthesizing Sinorhizobium meliloti strain L530 or the non-rhizopine synthesizing strain Rm 1021 . There was an initial delay in nodule formation. A significant increase in the number of nodules formed in ...

  16. Uranium mineralization in the Mesoproterozoic Banganapalle formation near Nagayapalle, Cuddapah Basin, Andhra Pradesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, Himadri; Harikrishnan, T.; Hanumanthappa, D.; Rengarajan, M.; Saravanan, B.; Bhagat, Sangeeta; Mahendra Kumar

    2008-01-01

    Cuddapah Basin is the hub of uranium exploration for years together in India. Initial efforts were for quartz-pebble-conglomerate type mineralization. However, the emphasis later shifted towards dolostone-hosted mineralization and finally to unconformity-associated uranium mineralization. The recent finding of uranium mineralization associated with the Banganapalle Formation near Nagayapalle is the outcome of continuous exploration input in the Cuddapah Basin over years. Uranium mineralization (up to 0.278% U 3 O 8 ) associated with the Mesoproterozoic Banganapalle Formation near Nagayapalle is represented by pitchblende and autunite. Pitchblende occurs as tiny grains in the intergranular spaces and along grain boundaries; and also at places replaces pyrite and covellite grains. The geological set-up indicates that the geodomain is favourable for uranium mineralization. (author)

  17. cell- and tissue-specific transcriptome analyses of Medicago truncatula root nodules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Limpens

    Full Text Available Legumes have the unique ability to host nitrogen-fixing Rhizobium bacteria as symbiosomes inside root nodule cells. To get insight into this key process, which forms the heart of the endosymbiosis, we isolated specific cells/tissues at different stages of symbiosome formation from nodules of the model legume Medicago truncatula using laser-capture microdissection. Next, we determined their associated expression profiles using Affymetrix Medicago GeneChips. Cells were collected from the nodule infection zone divided into a distal (where symbiosome formation and division occur and proximal region (where symbiosomes are mainly differentiating, as well as infected cells from the fixation zone containing mature nitrogen fixing symbiosomes. As non-infected cells/tissue we included nodule meristem cells and uninfected cells from the fixation zone. Here, we present a comprehensive gene expression map of an indeterminate Medicago nodule and selected genes that show specific enriched expression in the different cells or tissues. Validation of the obtained expression profiles, by comparison to published gene expression profiles and experimental verification, indicates that the data can be used as digital "in situ". This digital "in situ" offers a genome-wide insight into genes specifically associated with subsequent stages of symbiosome and nodule cell development, and can serve to guide future functional studies.

  18. Nodules size: An important factor in nodule mining?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Valsangkar, A.B.

    A study of about 850 different sized nodules from 234 sites in the Central Indian Basin (CIB) showed a clear inverse relationship between size and grade of nodules. Among the different sized nodules, only the small (less than 2 cm) and medium (2...

  19. Thyroid nodule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenney, J.F.

    1975-01-01

    A palpable mass or nodule may represent any one of a large and diverse group of conditions that involve the thyroid. Whether the patient is euthyroid, hypothyroid, or hyperthyroid can be assessed, and the cause of hypofunction or hyperfunction can usually be determined. Scintiscanning provides important information on the anatomic structure of thyroid nodules. A hot nodule should be ablated by either radioiodine or surgery. A warm nodule usually responds to suppression therapy; if regression does not occur, the problem should be reevaluated. A cold nodule should be surgically excised, as microscopic study of such a lesion is mandatory

  20. The detection of magnetotactic bacteria in deep sea sediments from the east Pacific Manganese Nodule Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yi; Li, Jinhua; Zhang, Wuchang; Zhang, Wenyan; Zhao, Yuan; Xiao, Tian; Wu, Long-Fei; Pan, Hongmiao

    2016-04-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are distributed ubiquitously in sediments from coastal environments to the deep sea. The Pacific Manganese Nodule Province contains numerous polymetallic nodules mainly composed of manganese, iron, cobalt, copper and nickel. In the present study we used Illumina MiSeq sequencing technology to assess the communities of putative MTB in deep sea surface sediments at nine stations in the east Pacific Manganese Nodule Province. A total of 402 sequence reads from MTB were classified into six operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Among these, OTU113 and OTU759 were affiliated with the genus Magnetospira, OTU2224 and OTU2794 were affiliated with the genus Magnetococcus and Magnetovibrio, respectively, OTU3017 had no known genus affiliation, and OTU2556 was most similar to Candidatus Magnetananas. Interestingly, OTU759 was widely distributed, occurring at all study sites. Magnetism measurements revealed that all sediments were dominated by low coercivity, non-interacting single domain magnetic minerals. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed that the magnetic minerals were magnetosomes. Our data suggest that diverse putative MTB are widely distributed in deep sea surface sediments from the east Pacific Manganese Nodule Province. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Proteome reference maps of the Lotus japonicus nodule and root

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Svend Secher; Dyrlund, Thomas F.; Ussatjuk, Anna

    2014-01-01

    formation mutant (snf1) was determined. From nodules and roots, 780 and 790 protein spots from 2D gels were identified and approximately 45% of the corresponding unique gene accessions were common. Including a previous proteomics set from Lotus pod and seed, the common gene accessions were decreased to 7...... stress level at this developmental stage. In contrast, protein spots corresponding to nodulins such as leghemoglobin, asparagine synthetase, sucrose synthase, and glutamine synthetase were prevalent in red nodules. The distinct biochemical state of nodules was further highlighted by the conspicuous...

  2. Radiostratigraphy and heavy mineral content of the Weches Formation (Eocene), Nacogdoches County, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jobe, K.; Ledger, E.B.; Sharp, P.; Crocker, M.C.

    1993-01-01

    The Weches Formation of eastern Texas is a mudstone containing green sand-size clay aggregates. A vertical sequence of 43 samples was analyzed along an excavated cliff to determine radionuclide content. Samples average 5 ppm uranium and range from 2 to about 7 ppm. Thorium averages 20 ppm and ranges from 13 to almost 36 ppm. the gamma-ray spectrometer employed exhibits a certainty of about ±10% (one standard deviation) at the levels measured. Heavy mineral studies of mudstones are few, so one sample of the Weches mudstone was selected for heavy mineral separation and point counting of grain mounts. A total of 2606 grains were counted giving mineral percentages of zircon (28.8%), garnet (17.9%), tourmaline (10.5%), titanite (8.7%), apatite (7.6%), staurolite (6.4%), green hornblende (5.2%), epidote (5.1%), sillimanite (2.8%), monatite (2.2%), kyanite (1.9%), basaltic hornblende (1.5%), and biotite (1.3%). In addition, actinolite, spinel, rutile, and collophane were observed but not counted. Previous studies found a similar heavy mineral suite in the underlying Queen City Formation, but in different proportions. Differences in heavy mineral percentages probably reflect different water-flow regimes at the time of deposition. Heavy minerals in the Weches and Queen City formations are from the same general source area Measured radionuclide ratios are similar to granitic ratios and suggest that detrital heavy minerals, particularly zircon and monazite, are the main site of uranium and thorium and their decay products in the Weches Formation

  3. Early nodulins in root nodule development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheres, B.

    1990-01-01

    The symbiotic interaction between bacteria of the genus Rhizobium and leguminous plants leads to the formation of root nodules, which are specific nitrogen-fixing organs on the roots of plants. Bacteria enter the root by infection threads, and concomitantly cell

  4. Proteomic insights into intra- and intercellular plant-bacteria symbiotic association during root nodule formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin eSalavati

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Over the last several decades, there have been a large number of studies done on the all aspects of legumes and bacteria which participate in nitrogen-fixing symbiosis. The analysis of legume-bacteria interaction is not just a matter of numerical complexity in terms of variants of gene products that can arise from a single gene. Bacteria regulate their quorum-sensing genes to enhance their ability to induce conjugation of plasmids and symbiotic islands, and various protein secretion mechanisms; that can stimulate a collection of chain reactions including species-specific combinations of plant-secretion isoflavonoids, complicated calcium signaling pathways and autoregulation of nodulation mechanisms. Quorum-sensing systems are introduced by the intra- and intercellular organization of gene products lead to protein–protein interactions or targeting of proteins to specific cellular structures. In this study, an attempt has been made to review significant contributions related to nodule formation and development and their impacts on cell proteome for better understanding of plant-bacterium interaction mechanism at protein level. This review would not only provide new insights into the plant-bacteria symbiosis response mechanisms but would also highlights the importance of studying changes in protein abundance inside and outside of cells in response to symbiosis. Furthermore, the application to agriculture programe of plant-bacteria interaction will be discussed.

  5. Heavy minerals and provenance of the paleozoic suffi formation, Western desert, iraq.

    OpenAIRE

    Al Juboury, Ali I. [علي الجبوري; Hassan, Zeki M.

    1996-01-01

    Heavy minerals analyses were carried out on 10 samples from the clastic Suffi Formation (the Ordovician-Carboniferous unit in the western Iraqi desert). The suite of minerals consists mainly of opaque minerals including pyrite, ilmenite, magnetite and hematite and the non-opaques is represented by zircon, tourmaline, cutile, garnet, epidote, kyanite, staurolite, leucoxene, chlorite and biotite. The nature and occurrence of the above heavy minerals association reflect a source area of the crys...

  6. Uranium mineralization in tertiary volcanic rocks of the Los Frailes formation (Bolivia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aparicio, A.

    1981-01-01

    The Los Frailes Formation, a 9000 km 2 area of Miocene-Pliocene age, contains uranium mineralization in acid tuffs, ignimbrites and lavas. Uranium also occurs in sedimentary rocks of various types and ages which outcrop in adjacent areas. So far the most extensive mineralization seems to be confined in volcanic pyroclastic rocks. Although the surface mineralization varies in grade from 0.01% to more than 2.5%, the average grade in the only deposit being mined (Cotaje) is 0.05% of U 3 O 8 . On the basis of the available data it is believed that certain leaching processes, during the last erosion cycle (Pliocene-Pleistocene) and under very humid conditions, brought about the mobilization of the uranium from the volcanic rocks in aqueous alkaline and calco-alkaline solutions circulating on the surface and underground. Uranium minerals were deposited, generally by chemical reduction, in tectonic zones and/or zones of high porosity. The common metallogenetic model in the western area, defined as the 'Sevaruyo uraniferous district', is exogenic and is characterized by epigenetic uranium occurrences and deposits formed by supergene enrichment. On the basis of their mechanism of formation, control of mineralization and mineral associations, these deposits are classified according to: those with strictly tectonic control, those with sedimentary control and those of mixed genetics. Recent discoveries in the eastern area of the volcanic complex give evidence of epigenetic mineralization, apparently linked with hypogene hydrothermal processes, in addition to exogenic mineralizations contained in rocks stratigraphically subjacent to the Los Frailes Formation. There is no intention of making an evaluation of the recently discovered resources since the studies and exploration are still at too early a stage to warrant prediction of their real potential. (author)

  7. Automated lung nodule classification following automated nodule detection on CT: A serial approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armato, Samuel G. III; Altman, Michael B.; Wilkie, Joel; Sone, Shusuke; Li, Feng; Doi, Kunio; Roy, Arunabha S.

    2003-01-01

    We have evaluated the performance of an automated classifier applied to the task of differentiating malignant and benign lung nodules in low-dose helical computed tomography (CT) scans acquired as part of a lung cancer screening program. The nodules classified in this manner were initially identified by our automated lung nodule detection method, so that the output of automated lung nodule detection was used as input to automated lung nodule classification. This study begins to narrow the distinction between the 'detection task' and the 'classification task'. Automated lung nodule detection is based on two- and three-dimensional analyses of the CT image data. Gray-level-thresholding techniques are used to identify initial lung nodule candidates, for which morphological and gray-level features are computed. A rule-based approach is applied to reduce the number of nodule candidates that correspond to non-nodules, and the features of remaining candidates are merged through linear discriminant analysis to obtain final detection results. Automated lung nodule classification merges the features of the lung nodule candidates identified by the detection algorithm that correspond to actual nodules through another linear discriminant classifier to distinguish between malignant and benign nodules. The automated classification method was applied to the computerized detection results obtained from a database of 393 low-dose thoracic CT scans containing 470 confirmed lung nodules (69 malignant and 401 benign nodules). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to evaluate the ability of the classifier to differentiate between nodule candidates that correspond to malignant nodules and nodule candidates that correspond to benign lesions. The area under the ROC curve for this classification task attained a value of 0.79 during a leave-one-out evaluation

  8. Early nodule senescence is activated in symbiotic mutants of pea (Pisum sativum L.) forming ineffective nodules blocked at different nodule developmental stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serova, Tatiana A; Tsyganova, Anna V; Tsyganov, Viktor E

    2018-04-03

    Plant symbiotic mutants are useful tool to uncover the molecular-genetic mechanisms of nodule senescence. The pea (Pisum sativum L.) mutants SGEFix - -1 (sym40), SGEFix - -3 (sym26), and SGEFix - -7 (sym27) display an early nodule senescence phenotype, whereas the mutant SGEFix - -2 (sym33) does not show premature degradation of symbiotic structures, but its nodules show an enhanced immune response. The nodules of these mutants were compared with each other and with those of the wild-type SGE line using seven marker genes that are known to be activated during nodule senescence. In wild-type SGE nodules, transcript levels of all of the senescence-associated genes were highest at 6 weeks after inoculation (WAI). The senescence-associated genes showed higher transcript abundance in mutant nodules than in wild-type nodules at 2 WAI and attained maximum levels in the mutant nodules at 4 WAI. Immunolocalization analyses showed that the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate accumulated earlier in the mutant nodules than in wild-type nodules. Together, these results showed that nodule senescence was activated in ineffective nodules blocked at different developmental stages in pea lines that harbor mutations in four symbiotic genes.

  9. Competitive Advantage Provided by Bacterial Motility in the Formation of Nodules by Rhizobium meliloti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Peter; Bergman, Kostia

    1981-01-01

    The effect of motility on the competitive success of Rhizobium meliloti in nodule production was investigated. A motile strain formed more nodules than expected when mixed at various unfavorable ratios with either flagellated or nonflagellated nonmotile derivatives. We conclude that motility confers a selective advantage on rhizobia when competing with nonmotile strains. PMID:7298580

  10. Parasitic thyroid nodule in a patient with Hashimoto's chronic thyroiditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Vitorino Modesto dos; Lima, Marcus Aurelho de; Marinho, Euripedes Oliveira; Marinho, Marco Aurelio de Oliveira; Santos, Lister Arruda Modesto dos; Raphael, Cristiane Mendes

    2000-01-01

    A case of parasitic thyroid nodule is presented. The patient was a non symptomatic 53-year-old white woman, on irregular course of L-thyroxine to treat hypothyroidism due to Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Without a history of thyroid trauma or surgery, she presented a 1.6 x 0.7 x 0.5 cm right pre-laryngeal lymph node-like mass which, on ultrasonography, appeared distinct from the gland. TSH, thyroid peroxidase antibody and thyroglobulin antibody serum levels were elevated and T4-free level was normal. Thyroid and total body 99m Tc isonitrile scintiscan showed a topic thyroid without radionuclide uptake in the nodule. Fine-needle aspiration of the nodule showed epithelial cells with nuclear atypia and oncocitic changes plus intense lymphoid infiltration and germinative center formation, simulating lymph node metastasis of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Conventional biopsy revealed a parasitic thyroid nodule with Hashimoto's chronic thyroiditis. Parasitic thyroid nodule must always be remembered so that unnecessary surgical assessment and undesirable sequels may be avoided. (author)

  11. What do we really know about the role of microorganisms in iron sulfide mineral formation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, Aude A.; Gartman, Amy; Girguis, Peter R.

    2016-01-01

    Iron sulfide mineralization in low-temperature systems is a result of biotic and abiotic processes, though the delineation between these two modes of formation is not always straightforward. Here we review the role of microorganisms in the precipitation of extracellular iron sulfide minerals. We summarize the evidence that links sulfur-metabolizing microorganisms and sulfide minerals in nature and we present a critical overview of laboratory-based studies of the nucleation and growth of iron sulfide minerals in microbial cultures. We discuss whether biologically derived minerals are distinguishable from abiotic minerals, possessing attributes that are uniquely diagnostic of biomineralization. These inquiries have revealed the need for additional thorough, mechanistic and high-resolution studies to understand microbially mediated formation of a variety of sulfide minerals across a range of natural environments.

  12. Diffuse Anterior Retinoblastoma with Sarcoidosis-Like Nodule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Kitazawa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Retinoblastomas account for 4% of malignancies in children, 1-2% of which are diffuse infiltrating retinoblastomas. Diffuse anterior retinoblastoma is rare and does not involve the retina. Here, we report on a diffuse anterior retinoblastoma with large sarcoidosis-like nodules on the iris that were responsive to anti-inflammatory therapy. Case: We present a 6-year-old girl who had anterior uveitis with white nodules on the iris and posterior surface of the cornea in her right eye. The nodules initially responded well to anti-inflammatory treatment. However, anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT showed that the nodules gradually grew, shrinking the iris. We then collected the aqueous humor for diagnosis. A biopsy revealed clusters of small cells with a high nuclear-to-cytoplasm ratio with partial rosette formation. Therefore, we diagnosed diffuse anterior retinoblastoma without retinal involvement and performed enucleation of the right eye. The histopathology demonstrated undifferentiated cells similar to those seen on the biopsy, and tumor cells invaded the iris stroma, posterior surface of the cornea, ciliary body, and sclera. After the enucleation, she underwent chemotherapy and remains alive. Conclusion: A differential diagnosis of retinoblastoma should be considered when white nodules refractory to anti-inflammatory therapy occur in the eye, even in the absence of obvious retinal masses. AS-OCT findings are useful in assessing retinoblastoma.

  13. Formation and development of theoretical principles for mineral resources logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Б. К. Плоткин

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Market transformations in Russia became foundations for formation and development of a new scientific and practical field in economics – logistics. Out of more than 30 existing definitions of logistics the authors according to their opinion have chosen the most appropriate. Logistics of mineral resources should be attributed to production (industrial logistics. It is a proven fact that processes of supply chain management in mining industry and its infrastructure in the framework of mineral resources chain have some fundamental distinctions. Importance of material resources recycling in theory and practice of mineral resources logistics has been highlighted. Special features of merchandise assortment and classifications in the mining industry have been examined in conjunction with substantial contents of material flow. Special consideration has been given to relevant issues in the field of price formation for mining produce, in the view of specific relations between its costs and logistic procurement of the industry. Moreover, questions of inventory control in the mining industry, activity of commodity exchanges, management of mining logistics system have been addressed.

  14. Maghemite Formation via Organics and the Prospect for Maghemite as a Biomarker Mineral on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Janice; Mancinelli, R. L.; Madsen, M. B.; Zent, A. P.

    2000-01-01

    One of the major questions on Mars is the origin of the magnetic component in the surface material. Our work on maghemite formation suggests that alteration of femhydrite in the presence of organics would provide a plausible formation scenario for this magnetic soil component and further suggests that maghemite might be an important biomarker mineral on Mars. Identification of biomarker minerals is an important aspect of Astrobiology . The iron oxide mineral maghemite is thought to be one of the magnetic components in the Martian surface material; however, it is a rare mineral on the Earth and requires a reducing agent for synthesis. Organic material serves as a reductant in maghemite formation during forest fires on Earth and may play an important role in maghemite formation on Mars through low-temperature heating (e.g., volcanism, impacts). This study involves analysis of magnetite, maghemite and hematite formation under Martian environmental conditions from femhydrite in the presence and absence of organics. A dehydrated version of the mineral femhydrite is thought to be present in Martian soil/dust grains and could have formed at an earlier time on Mars when water was present. Our work indicates that low-temperature alteration of femhydrite in the presence of organic material could be an important mechanism on Mars.

  15. Deep learning aided decision support for pulmonary nodules diagnosing: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yixin; Feng, Xiaoyi; Chi, Wenhao; Li, Zhengyang; Duan, Wenzhe; Liu, Haiping; Liang, Wenhua; Wang, Wei; Chen, Ping; He, Jianxing; Liu, Bo

    2018-04-01

    Deep learning techniques have recently emerged as promising decision supporting approaches to automatically analyze medical images for different clinical diagnosing purposes. Diagnosing of pulmonary nodules by using computer-assisted diagnosing has received considerable theoretical, computational, and empirical research work, and considerable methods have been developed for detection and classification of pulmonary nodules on different formats of images including chest radiographs, computed tomography (CT), and positron emission tomography in the past five decades. The recent remarkable and significant progress in deep learning for pulmonary nodules achieved in both academia and the industry has demonstrated that deep learning techniques seem to be promising alternative decision support schemes to effectively tackle the central issues in pulmonary nodules diagnosing, including feature extraction, nodule detection, false-positive reduction, and benign-malignant classification for the huge volume of chest scan data. The main goal of this investigation is to provide a comprehensive state-of-the-art review of the deep learning aided decision support for pulmonary nodules diagnosing. As far as the authors know, this is the first time that a review is devoted exclusively to deep learning techniques for pulmonary nodules diagnosing.

  16. Root nodule symbiosis in Lotus japonicus drives the establishment of distinctive rhizosphere, root, and nodule bacterial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zgadzaj, Rafal; Garrido-Oter, Ruben; Jensen, Dorthe Bodker; Koprivova, Anna; Schulze-Lefert, Paul; Radutoiu, Simona

    2016-12-06

    Lotus japonicus has been used for decades as a model legume to study the establishment of binary symbiotic relationships with nitrogen-fixing rhizobia that trigger root nodule organogenesis for bacterial accommodation. Using community profiling of 16S rRNA gene amplicons, we reveal that in Lotus, distinctive nodule- and root-inhabiting communities are established by parallel, rather than consecutive, selection of bacteria from the rhizosphere and root compartments. Comparative analyses of wild-type (WT) and symbiotic mutants in Nod factor receptor5 (nfr5), Nodule inception (nin) and Lotus histidine kinase1 (lhk1) genes identified a previously unsuspected role of the nodulation pathway in the establishment of different bacterial assemblages in the root and rhizosphere. We found that the loss of nitrogen-fixing symbiosis dramatically alters community structure in the latter two compartments, affecting at least 14 bacterial orders. The differential plant growth phenotypes seen between WT and the symbiotic mutants in nonsupplemented soil were retained under nitrogen-supplemented conditions that blocked the formation of functional nodules in WT, whereas the symbiosis-impaired mutants maintain an altered community structure in the nitrogen-supplemented soil. This finding provides strong evidence that the root-associated community shift in the symbiotic mutants is a direct consequence of the disabled symbiosis pathway rather than an indirect effect resulting from abolished symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Our findings imply a role of the legume host in selecting a broad taxonomic range of root-associated bacteria that, in addition to rhizobia, likely contribute to plant growth and ecological performance.

  17. The relationship between sucrose hydrolysis, sorbitol formation and mineral ion concentration during bioethanol formation using Zymomonas mobilis 2716

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doelle, M.B.; Doelle, H.W. (Queensland Univ., St. Lucia (Australia). Dept. of Microbiology); Greenfield, P.F. (Queensland Univ., St. Lucia (Australia). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1990-11-01

    Investigations into the relationship between sucrose hydrolysis, sorbitol formation and mineral ion concentration during bioethanol formation by Zymomonas mobilis 2716 revealed two distinct phenomena responsible for carbon flow diversion, a 'sucrose effect' and a 'salt effect'. Neither of the two phenomena affects sucrose hydrolysis, but they divert carbon flow of the fructose monomer leading to its own accumulation, sorbitol or oligosaccharide formation. Sucrose concentrations in excess of 15% (w/v) led to sorbitol formation, the level of which may exceed 2% (w/v) depending upon glucose accumulation during sucrose hydrolysis. Increasing mineral ion concentrations led initially to carbon losses and finally to fructose accumulation instead of sorbitol formation. This carbon loss can be corrected by the addition of invertase, which in turn leads to an increase in sorbitol, fructose and ethanol. Potassium and chloride are the dominant ions responsible for suppression of sorbitol formation and fructose uptake, encouraging oligosaccharide formation. These fructooligosaccharides must be of a type which can be converted to fructose, sorbitol and ethanol through the action of invertase. The requirement of invertase addition to prevent fructooligosaccharide formation is indirect evidence that Z. mobilis 2716 does not produce invertase. (orig.).

  18. Computer-aided detection of pulmonary nodules: influence of nodule characteristics on detection performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marten, K.; Engelke, C.; Seyfarth, T.; Grillhoesl, A.; Obenauer, S.; Rummeny, E.J.

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate prospectively the influence of pulmonary nodule characteristics on detection performances of a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) tool and experienced chest radiologists using multislice CT (MSCT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: MSCT scans of 20 consecutive patients were evaluated by a CAD system and two independent chest radiologists for presence of pulmonary nodules. Nodule size, position, margin, matrix characteristics, vascular and pleural attachments and reader confidence were recorded and data compared with an independent standard of reference. Statistical analysis for predictors influencing nodule detection or reader performance included chi-squared, retrograde stepwise conditional logistic regression with odds ratios and nodule detection proportion estimates (DPE), and ROC analysis. RESULTS: For 135 nodules, detection rates for CAD and readers were 76.3, 52.6 and 52.6%, respectively; false-positive rates were 0.55, 0.25 and 0.15 per examination, respectively. In consensus with CAD the reader detection rate increased to 93.3%, and the false-positive rate dropped to 0.1/scan. DPEs for nodules ≤5 mm were significantly higher for ICAD than for the readers (p<0.05). Absence of vascular attachment was the only significant predictor of nodule detection by CAD (p=0.0006-0.008). There were no predictors of nodule detection for reader consensus with CAD. In contrast, vascular attachment predicted nodule detection by the readers (p=0.0001-0.003). Reader sensitivity was higher for nodules with vascular attachment than for unattached nodules (sensitivities 0.768 and 0.369; 95% confidence intervals=0.651-0.861 and 0.253-0.498, respectively). CONCLUSION: CAD increases nodule detection rates, decreases false-positive rates and compensates for deficient reader performance in detection of smallest lesions and of nodules without vascular attachment

  19. Prediction of Gibbs energies of formation and stability constants of some secondary uranium minerals containing the uranyl group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genderen, A.C.G. van; Weijden, C.H. van der

    1984-01-01

    For a group of minerals containing a common anion there exists a linear relationship between two parameters called ΔO and ΔF.ΔO is defined as the difference between the Gibbs energy of formation of a solid oxide and the Gibbs energy of formation of its aqueous cation, while ΔF is defined as the Gibbs energy of reaction of the formation of a mineral from the constituting oxide(s) and the acid. Using the Gibbs energies of formation of a number of known minerals the corresponding ΔO's and ΔF's were calculated and with the resulting regression equation it is possible to predict values for the Gibbs energies of formation of other minerals containing the same anion. This was done for 29 minerals containing the uranyl-ion together with phosphate, vanadate, arsenate or carbonate. (orig.)

  20. 3-D Analysis of Graphite Nodules in Ductile Cast Iron Using FIB-SEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Angelo, Luca; Jespersen, Freja N.; MacDonald, A. Nicole

    Ductile cast iron samples were analysed in a Focused Ion Beam Scanning Electron Microscope, FIB-SEM. The focussed ion beam was used to carefully remove layers of the graphite nodules to reveal internal structures in the nodules. The sample preparation and milling procedure for sectioning graphite...... inside the nodules, their orientation in relation to the graphite and the chemistry of the inclusions is analysed and described. Formation of the structures during solidification and subsequent cooling to room temperature is discussed....

  1. Uranium in minerals of gold-bearing formations of the North-Eastern part of the USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagruzina, I.A.; Pinsky, E.M.

    1979-01-01

    Uranium concentration in 2190 mineral grains from 23 gold-bearing veins of different age deposits in the North-Eastern part of the USSR have been determined using f-radiography. The deposits studied are referred to two formation types: gold-silver epithermal and gold-quartz mesothermal. Differences in physico-chemical conditions of deposite formation of the above formation types are emphasized by the differences in uranium concentration in the vein minerals: 1.0-1.4 g/tU in the first type and 0.4 g/tU in the second one. Uranium content in minerals of gold-bearing veins as compared to minerals of other deposits is characterized by the lowest concentrations. In all gold-bearing veins hydrooxides of iron and hydromica are the main concentrators of uranium. Hypergene stage plays dominating role in uranium accumulation

  2. Uranium mineralization in the Molteno and Elliot Formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Roux, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    To date very little has been published on the uranium deposits of the Molteno and Elliot Formations. Two selected deposits from these formations are described and compared to the uranium occurrences of the Beaufort Group. Whereas the latter are generally confined to channel zones due to the fine grain size and impermeable nature of the host sandstones, uranium in the Molteno and Elliot Formations seems to be concentrated in the less permeable 'island' areas. An apparent association with dolerite sills and dykes also suggests that the host sandstones were still sufficiently permeable after intrusion of the dolorite so that ground waters could remobilize the uranium. This agrees with recently published isotopic ages for the mineralization. There is a distinct possibility that roll-type uranium deposits may be present in the Molteno and Elliot Formations, and any future exploration should bear this in mind. 9 figs., 1 tab., 16 refs

  3. Towards an understanding of the role of clay minerals in crude oil formation, migration and accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lin Mei; Zhou, Chun Hui; Keeling, John; Tong, Dong Shen; Yu, Wei Hua

    2012-12-01

    This article reviews progress in the understanding of the role of clay minerals in crude oil formation, migration and accumulation. Clay minerals are involved in the formation of kerogen, catalytic cracking of kerogen into petroleum hydrocarbon, the migration of crude oil, and the continued change to hydrocarbon composition in underground petroleum reservoirs. In kerogen formation, clay minerals act as catalysts and sorbents to immobilize organic matter through ligand exchange, hydrophobic interactions and cation bridges by the mechanisms of Maillard reactions, polyphenol theory, selective preservation and sorptive protection. Clay minerals also serve as catalysts in acid-catalyzed cracking of kerogen into petroleum hydrocarbon through Lewis and Brønsted acid sites on the clay surface. The amount and type of clay mineral affect the composition of the petroleum. Brønsted acidity of clay minerals is affected by the presence and state of interlayer water, and displacement of this water is a probable driver in crude oil migration from source rocks. During crude oil migration and accumulation in reservoirs, the composition of petroleum is continually modified by interaction with clay minerals. The clays continue to function as sorbents and catalysts even while they are being transformed by diagenetic processes. The detail of chemical interactions and reaction mechanisms between clay minerals and crude oil formation remains to be fully explained but promises to provide insights with broader application, including catalytic conversion of biomass as a source of sustainable energy into the future.

  4. A comparison of microbial communities in deep-sea polymetallic nodules and the surrounding sediments in the Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yue-Hong; Liao, Li; Wang, Chun-Sheng; Ma, Wei-Lin; Meng, Fan-Xu; Wu, Min; Xu, Xue-Wei

    2013-09-01

    Deep-sea polymetallic nodules, rich in metals such as Fe, Mn, and Ni, are potential resources for future exploitation. Early culturing and microscopy studies suggest that polymetallic nodules are at least partially biogenic. To understand the microbial communities in this environment, we compared microbial community composition and diversity inside nodules and in the surrounding sediments. Three sampling sites in the Pacific Ocean containing polymetallic nodules were used for culture-independent investigations of microbial diversity. A total of 1013 near full-length bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences and 640 archaeal 16S rRNA gene sequences with ~650 bp from nodules and the surrounding sediments were analyzed. Bacteria showed higher diversity than archaea. Interestingly, sediments contained more diverse bacterial communities than nodules, while the opposite was detected for archaea. Bacterial communities tend to be mostly unique to sediments or nodules, with only 13.3% of sequences shared. The most abundant bacterial groups detected only in nodules were Pseudoalteromonas and Alteromonas, which were predicted to play a role in building matrix outside cells to induce or control mineralization. However, archaeal communities were mostly shared between sediments and nodules, including the most abundant OTU containing 290 sequences from marine group I Thaumarchaeota. PcoA analysis indicated that microhabitat (i.e., nodule or sediment) seemed to be a major factor influencing microbial community composition, rather than sampling locations or distances between locations.

  5. Medicago truncatula Zinc-Iron Permease6 provides zinc to rhizobia-infected nodule cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Isidro; Saéz, Ángela; Castro-Rodríguez, Rosario; Escudero, Viviana; Rodríguez-Haas, Benjamín; Senovilla, Marta; Larue, Camille; Grolimund, Daniel; Tejada-Jiménez, Manuel; Imperial, Juan; González-Guerrero, Manuel

    2017-11-01

    Zinc is a micronutrient required for symbiotic nitrogen fixation. It has been proposed that in model legume Medicago truncatula, zinc is delivered by the root vasculature into the nodule and released in the infection/differentiation zone. There, transporters must introduce this element into rhizobia-infected cells to metallate the apoproteins that use zinc as a cofactor. MtZIP6 (Medtr4g083570) is an M. truncatula Zinc-Iron Permease (ZIP) that is expressed only in roots and nodules, with the highest expression levels in the infection/differentiation zone. Immunolocalization studies indicate that it is located in the plasma membrane of nodule rhizobia-infected cells. Down-regulating MtZIP6 expression levels with RNAi does not result in any strong phenotype when plants are fed mineral nitrogen. However, these plants displayed severe growth defects when they depended on nitrogen fixed by their nodules, losing of 80% of their nitrogenase activity. The reduction of this activity was likely an indirect effect of zinc being retained in the infection/differentiation zone and not reaching the cytosol of rhizobia-infected cells. These data are consistent with a model in which MtZIP6 would be responsible for zinc uptake by rhizobia-infected nodule cells in the infection/differentiation zone. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Digital tomosynthesis for evaluating metastatic lung nodules: nodule visibility, learning curves, and reading times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Hee; Goo, Jin Mo; Lee, Sang Min; Park, Chang Min; Bahn, Young Eun; Kim, Hyungjin; Song, Yong Sub; Hwang, Eui Jin

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate nodule visibility, learning curves, and reading times for digital tomosynthesis (DT). We included 80 patients who underwent computed tomography (CT) and DT before pulmonary metastasectomy. One experienced chest radiologist annotated all visible nodules on thin-section CT scans using computer-aided detection software. Two radiologists used CT as the reference standard and retrospectively graded the visibility of nodules on DT. Nodule detection performance was evaluated in four sessions of 20 cases each by six readers. After each session, readers were unblinded to the DT images by revealing the true-positive markings and were instructed to self-analyze their own misreads. Receiver-operating-characteristic curves were determined. Among 414 nodules on CT, 53.3% (221/414) were visible on DT. The main reason for not seeing a nodule on DT was small size (93.3%, ≤ 5 mm). DT revealed a substantial number of malignant nodules (84.1%, 143/170). The proportion of malignant nodules among visible nodules on DT was significantly higher (64.7%, 143/221) than that on CT (41.1%, 170/414) (p 0.8, and the average detection rate for malignant nodules was 85% (210/246). The inter-session analysis of the AUC showed no significant differences among the readers, and the detection rate for malignant nodules did not differ across sessions. A slight improvement in reading times was observed. Most malignant nodules > 5 mm were visible on DT. As nodule detection performance was high from the initial session, DT may be readily applicable for radiology residents and board-certified radiologists.

  7. Endophytic and epiphytic hydrocarbon-utilizing bacteria associated with root nodules of legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dashti, N.; Khanafer, M.; Radwan, S.S.

    2005-01-01

    nodulated roots than from water supporting disinfected roots from which nodules had been removed. It was concluded that nodule-associated bacteria appear to play a direct role in hydrocarbon attenuation in oily soils. The nodule-associated oil utilizing bacteria are active in situ. Nitrogen fixed by rhizobium cells in the nodule is a source for compound nitrogen needed for mineralizing hydrocarbons by the nodule associated bacteria, including epiphytes. Legume crops appear to be excellent tools for phytoremediating oily sand that is naturally poor in nitrogenous compounds. 16 refs., 9 figs

  8. Interstitial laser photocoagulation for benign thyroid nodules: time to treat large nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amabile, Gerardo; Rotondi, Mario; Pirali, Barbara; Dionisio, Rosa; Agozzino, Lucio; Lanza, Michele; Buonanno, Luciano; Di Filippo, Bruno; Fonte, Rodolfo; Chiovato, Luca

    2011-09-01

    Interstitial laser photocoagulation (ILP) is a new therapeutic option for the ablation of non-functioning and hyper-functioning benign thyroid nodules. Amelioration of the ablation procedure currently allows treating large nodules. Aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of ILP, performed according to a modified protocol of ablation, in patients with large functioning and non-functioning thyroid nodules and to identify the best parameters for predicting successful outcome in hyperthyroid patients. Fifty-one patients with non-functioning thyroid nodules (group 1) and 26 patients with hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules (group 2) were enrolled. All patients had a nodular volume ≥40 ml. Patients were addressed to 1-3 cycles of ILP. A cycle consisted of three ILP sessions, each lasting 5-10 minutes repeated at an interval of 1 month. After each cycle of ILP patients underwent thyroid evaluation. A nodule volume reduction, expressed as percentage of the basal volume, significantly occurred in both groups (F = 190.4; P nodule volume; (iii) total amount of energy delivered expressed in Joule. ROC curves identified the percentage of volume reduction as the best parameter predicting a normalized serum TSH (area under the curve 0.962; P thyroid nodules, both in terms of nodule size reduction and cure of hyperthyroidism (87% of cured patients after the last ILP cycle). ILP should not be limited to patients refusing or being ineligible for surgery and/or radioiodine. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Digital tomosynthesis for evaluating metastatic lung nodules: Nodule visibility, learning curves, and reading times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyung Hee; Goo, Jin Mo; Lee, Sang Min; Park, Chang Min; Bahn, Young Eun; Kim, Hyung Jin; Song, Yong Sub; Hwang, Eui Jin

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate nodule visibility, learning curves, and reading times for digital tomosynthesis (DT). We included 80 patients who underwent computed tomography (CT) and DT before pulmonary metastasectomy. One experienced chest radiologist annotated all visible nodules on thin-section CT scans using computer-aided detection software. Two radiologists used CT as the reference standard and retrospectively graded the visibility of nodules on DT. Nodule detection performance was evaluated in four sessions of 20 cases each by six readers. After each session, readers were unblinded to the DT images by revealing the true-positive markings and were instructed to self-analyze their own misreads. Receiver-operating-characteristic curves were determined. Among 414 nodules on CT, 53.3% (221/414) were visible on DT. The main reason for not seeing a nodule on DT was small size (93.3%, < or = 5 mm). DT revealed a substantial number of malignant nodules (84.1%, 143/170). The proportion of malignant nodules among visible nodules on DT was significantly higher (64.7%, 143/221) than that on CT (41.1%, 170/414) (p < 0.001). Area under the curve (AUC) values at the initial session were > 0.8, and the average detection rate for malignant nodules was 85% (210/246). The inter-session analysis of the AUC showed no significant differences among the readers, and the detection rate for malignant nodules did not differ across sessions. A slight improvement in reading times was observed. Most malignant nodules > 5 mm were visible on DT. As nodule detection performance was high from the initial session, DT may be readily applicable for radiology residents and board-certified radiologists.

  10. Digital tomosynthesis for evaluating metastatic lung nodules: Nodule visibility, learning curves, and reading times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyung Hee; Goo, Jin Mo; Lee, Sang Min; Park, Chang Min; Bahn, Young Eun; Kim, Hyung Jin; Song, Yong Sub; Hwang, Eui Jin [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, and Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    To evaluate nodule visibility, learning curves, and reading times for digital tomosynthesis (DT). We included 80 patients who underwent computed tomography (CT) and DT before pulmonary metastasectomy. One experienced chest radiologist annotated all visible nodules on thin-section CT scans using computer-aided detection software. Two radiologists used CT as the reference standard and retrospectively graded the visibility of nodules on DT. Nodule detection performance was evaluated in four sessions of 20 cases each by six readers. After each session, readers were unblinded to the DT images by revealing the true-positive markings and were instructed to self-analyze their own misreads. Receiver-operating-characteristic curves were determined. Among 414 nodules on CT, 53.3% (221/414) were visible on DT. The main reason for not seeing a nodule on DT was small size (93.3%, < or = 5 mm). DT revealed a substantial number of malignant nodules (84.1%, 143/170). The proportion of malignant nodules among visible nodules on DT was significantly higher (64.7%, 143/221) than that on CT (41.1%, 170/414) (p < 0.001). Area under the curve (AUC) values at the initial session were > 0.8, and the average detection rate for malignant nodules was 85% (210/246). The inter-session analysis of the AUC showed no significant differences among the readers, and the detection rate for malignant nodules did not differ across sessions. A slight improvement in reading times was observed. Most malignant nodules > 5 mm were visible on DT. As nodule detection performance was high from the initial session, DT may be readily applicable for radiology residents and board-certified radiologists.

  11. Potential function of added minerals as nucleation sites and effect of humic substances on mineral formation by the nitrate-reducing Fe(II)-oxidizer Acidovorax sp. BoFeN1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dippon, Urs; Pantke, Claudia; Porsch, Katharina; Larese-Casanova, Phil; Kappler, Andreas

    2012-06-19

    The mobility of toxic metals and the transformation of organic pollutants in the environment are influenced and in many cases even controlled by iron minerals. Therefore knowing the factors influencing iron mineral formation and transformation by Fe(II)-oxidizing and Fe(III)-reducing bacteria is crucial for understanding the fate of contaminants and for the development of remediation technologies. In this study we followed mineral formation by the nitrate-reducing Fe(II)-oxidizing strain Acidovorax sp. BoFeN1 in the presence of the crystalline Fe(III) (oxyhydr)oxides goethite, magnetite and hematite added as potential nucleation sites. Mössbauer spectroscopy analysis of minerals precipitated by BoFeN1 in (57)Fe(II)-spiked microbial growth medium showed that goethite was formed in the absence of mineral additions as well as in the presence of goethite or hematite. The presence of magnetite minerals during Fe(II) oxidation induced the formation of magnetite in addition to goethite, while the addition of humic substances along with magnetite also led to goethite but no magnetite. This study showed that mineral formation not only depends on the aqueous geochemical conditions but can also be affected by the presence of mineral nucleation sites that initiate precipitation of the same underlying mineral phases.

  12. Mineral formation and organo-mineral controls on the bioavailability of carbon at the terrestrial-aquatic interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rod, K. A.; Smith, A. P.; Renslow, R.

    2016-12-01

    Recent evidence highlights the importance of organo-mineral interactions in regulating the source or sink capacity of soil. High surface area soils, such as allophane-rich or clay-rich soils, retain organic matter (OM) via sorption to mineral surfaces which can also contribute physical isolation in interlayer spaces. Despite the direct correlation between mineral surfaces and OM accumulation, the pedogenic processes controlling the abundance of reactive surface areas and their distribution in the mineral matrix remains unclear. As global soil temperatures rise, the dissolution of primary minerals and formation of new secondary minerals may be thermodynamically favored as part of soil weathering process. Newly formed minerals can supply surfaces for organo-metallic bonding and may, therefore, stabilize OM by surface bonding and physical exclusion. This is especially relevant in environments that intersect terrestrial and aquatic systems, such as the capillary fringe zone in riparian ecosystems. To test the mechanisms of mineral surface area protection of OM, we facilitated secondary precipitation of alumino-silicates in the presence of OM held at two different temperatures in natural Nisqually River sediments (Mt Rainier, WA). This was a three month reaction intended to simulate early pedogenesis. To tease out the influence of mineral surface area increase during pedogenesis, we incubated the sediments at two different soil moisture contents to induce biodegradation. We measured OM desorption, biodegradation, and the molecular composition of mineral-associated OM both prior to and following the temperature manipulation. To simulate the saturation of capillary fringe sediment and associated transport and reaction of OM, column experiments were conducted using the reacted sediments. More co-precipitation was observed in the 20°C solution compared to the 4°C reacted solution suggesting that warming trends alter mineral development and may remove more OM from solution

  13. Role of baseline nodule density and changes in density and nodule features in the discrimination between benign and malignant solid indeterminate pulmonary nodules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, D.M.; van Klaveren, R.J.; de Bock, G.H.; Leusveld, A.L.M.; Dorrius, M.D.; Zhao, Y.; Wang, Y.; de Koning, H.J.; Scholten, E.T.; Verschakelen, J.; Prokop, M.; Oudkerk, M.

    Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate whether baseline nodule density or changes in density or nodule features could be used to discriminate between benign and malignant solid indeterminate nodules. Materials and methods: Solid indeterminate nodules between 50 and 500 mm(3) (4.6-9.8 mm) were assessed

  14. Mineral formation on metallic copper in a `future repository site environment`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amcoff, Oe; Holenyi, K

    1996-04-01

    Since reducing conditions are expected much effort has been concentrated on Cu-sulfides and CuFe-sulfides. However, oxidizing conditions are also discussed. A list of copper minerals are included. It is concluded that mineral formation and mineral transitions on the copper canister surface will be governed by kinetics and metastabilities rather than by stability relations. The sulfides formed are less likely to form a passivating layer, and the rate of sulfide growth will probably be governed by the rate of transport of reacting species to the canister surface. A series of tests are recommended, in an environment resembling the initial repository site conditions. 82 refs, 8 figs.

  15. Mineral formation on metallic copper in a 'future repository site environment'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amcoff, Oe.; Holenyi, K.

    1996-04-01

    Since reducing conditions are expected much effort has been concentrated on Cu-sulfides and CuFe-sulfides. However, oxidizing conditions are also discussed. A list of copper minerals are included. It is concluded that mineral formation and mineral transitions on the copper canister surface will be governed by kinetics and metastabilities rather than by stability relations. The sulfides formed are less likely to form a passivating layer, and the rate of sulfide growth will probably be governed by the rate of transport of reacting species to the canister surface. A series of tests are recommended, in an environment resembling the initial repository site conditions. 82 refs, 8 figs

  16. Hypervascular hyperplastic nodules appearing in chronic alcoholic liver disease: benign intrahepatic nodules mimicking hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Won Kyu; Chang, Jay Chun; Kim, Jae Woon

    2006-01-01

    Hypervascular hyperplastic nodules in those patients with chronic alcoholic liver disease and who are hepatitis B and C negative have recently been reported on. The purpose of this study was to correlate the radiologic and pathologic findings with the clinical significance of these hypervascular hyperplastic nodules in chronic alcoholic liver disease. The study included eight hypervascular nodules of seven patients with chronic alcoholic liver disease, and these patients abused alcohol for more than 20 years. Eight hypervascular nodules were seen on the arterial phase of dynamic CT scans, but the possibility of HCC was excluded pathologically (n=4) or clinically. The radiologic and pathologic findings, and the changes of these nodules on follow up CT scans were retrospectively analyzed. All nodules showed good enhancement on the arterial phase. The tissue equilibrium phase of the dynamic CT scans showed isodensity in seven patients and low density in one patient. Ultrasound scans revealed hypoechoic findings for three nodules, isoechoic findings for two nodules, hyperechoic findings for one nodules, and two nodules were not detected. Angiograms (n=6) showed late incremental tumor staining, and all the nodules were well seen on the sinusoidal phase. CT during hepatic angiography (n=4) showed well stained tumor. CT during arterial portography (n=4) showed no defect in three nodules and nodular defect in on nodule. The MR images (n=3) showed low signal intensity in two nodules and iso-signal intensity in one nodule on T2WI. Five of six cases for which follow up CT scans were performed showed decrease in size and one was disappeared. Radiologically, it is often difficult to differentiate the hypervascular hyperplastic nodules seen in the chronic alcoholic liver disease from hepatocellular carcinoma, and histological confirmation is needed for excluded hepatocellular carcinoma. However, late tumor staining during the sinusoidal phase without any blood supply by feeding

  17. Hypervascular hyperplastic nodules appearing in chronic alcoholic liver disease: benign intrahepatic nodules mimicking hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Won Kyu; Chang, Jay Chun; Kim, Jae Woon [College of Medicine, Yeungnam University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2006-02-15

    Hypervascular hyperplastic nodules in those patients with chronic alcoholic liver disease and who are hepatitis B and C negative have recently been reported on. The purpose of this study was to correlate the radiologic and pathologic findings with the clinical significance of these hypervascular hyperplastic nodules in chronic alcoholic liver disease. The study included eight hypervascular nodules of seven patients with chronic alcoholic liver disease, and these patients abused alcohol for more than 20 years. Eight hypervascular nodules were seen on the arterial phase of dynamic CT scans, but the possibility of HCC was excluded pathologically (n=4) or clinically. The radiologic and pathologic findings, and the changes of these nodules on follow up CT scans were retrospectively analyzed. All nodules showed good enhancement on the arterial phase. The tissue equilibrium phase of the dynamic CT scans showed isodensity in seven patients and low density in one patient. Ultrasound scans revealed hypoechoic findings for three nodules, isoechoic findings for two nodules, hyperechoic findings for one nodules, and two nodules were not detected. Angiograms (n=6) showed late incremental tumor staining, and all the nodules were well seen on the sinusoidal phase. CT during hepatic angiography (n=4) showed well stained tumor. CT during arterial portography (n=4) showed no defect in three nodules and nodular defect in on nodule. The MR images (n=3) showed low signal intensity in two nodules and iso-signal intensity in one nodule on T2WI. Five of six cases for which follow up CT scans were performed showed decrease in size and one was disappeared. Radiologically, it is often difficult to differentiate the hypervascular hyperplastic nodules seen in the chronic alcoholic liver disease from hepatocellular carcinoma, and histological confirmation is needed for excluded hepatocellular carcinoma. However, late tumor staining during the sinusoidal phase without any blood supply by feeding

  18. A higher yielding mutant of black gram with improved nodule formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, R.K.; Raghuvanshi, S.S.

    1987-01-01

    Dry seeds of black gram (Vigna mungo (L) Hopper) var. T 9 with 12.2% moisture content were irradiated at 10, 20 and 30 krad of gamma rays. This was followed by combined treatment of one set in each dose with freshly prepared 0. 25% EMS in phosphate buffer at 7.0 pH at 30± deg. C for 6 hours. In M 2 population of 20 krad two mutants with pentafoliate instead of trifoliate leaves were found. This character was true breeding in M 3 M 6 generation. Crosses revealed monogenic recessive inheritance of this character. The proposed gene symbol is p5. This mutant has normal maturity period and the plant height is the same as T 9 (ca. 50 cm). Preliminary yield trials indicate superiority of the mutant line over control. The mutant line also shows a significant improvement in number and weight of root nodules, potentially improving green manuring value. Improvement of root nodulation in mungbean mutants was reported before by others

  19. Rare-earth elements and uranium in phosphatic nodules from the continental margins of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nath, B.N.; Rao, B.R.; Rao, K.M.; Rao, Ch.M.

    of Pleistocene age. They are less than 1-5 cm in size, have carbonate flourapatite (CFA) as a single authigenic mineral phase, are free of detrital inclusions, and have very high P sub(2) O sub(5) contents (> 30%). In addition, soft and hard phosphatic nodules...

  20. Emplacement of Xenolith Nodules in the Kaupulehu Lava Flow, Hualalai Volcano, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guest, J. E.; Spudis, P. D.; Greeley, R.; Taylor, G. J.; Baloga, S. M.

    1995-01-01

    The basaltic Kaupulehu 1800-1801 lava flow of Hualalai Volcano, Hawaii contains abundant ultramafic xenoliths. Many of these xenoliths occur as bedded layers of semi-rounded nodules, each thinly coated with a veneer (typically 1 mm thick) of lava. The nodule beds are analogous to cobble deposits of fluvial sedimentary systems. Although several mechanisms have been proposed for the formation of the nodule beds, it was found that, at more than one locality, the nodule beds are overbank levee deposits. The geological occurrence of the nodules, certain diagnostic aspects of the flow morphology and consideration of the inferred emplacement process indicate that the Kaupulehu flow had an exceptionally low viscosity on eruption and that the flow of the lava stream was extremely rapid, with flow velocities of at least 10 m/s (more than 40 km/h. This flow is the youngest on Hualalai Volcano and future eruptions of a similar type would pose considerable hazard to life as well as property.

  1. Wall-rock alteration and uranium mineralization in parts of Thomas Range Mining District, San Juan County, Utah, and its significance in mineral exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad, H.

    1985-01-01

    Several important uranium deposits associated with fluorspar and beryllium are located in parts of Thomas Range area. the mineralization is found in dolomites and dolomitic limestones of Paleozoic age and sandstones, tuffs, and rhyolites belonging to the Tertiary Spor Mountain and Topaz Mountain Formations. The pipes, veins, and nodules of fluorspar are replaced by uranium. Veins and disseminations of radioactive fluorspar and opal and overgrowths of secondary minerals are found in rhyolites, tuffs, carbonate rocks, and breccias. The radioactivity in sandstones and conglomerates emanates from weeksite, beta-uranophane, zircon, gummite, and zircon. It also occurs as highly oxidized rare aphanitic grains disseminated in a few ore deposits. The results of the present investigations may influence the initiation of future exploration programs in the Thomas Range mining district. Hydrothermal fluids of deep-seated magmatic origin rich in U, V, Th, Be, and F reacted with the country rocks. The nature and sequence of wall-rock alteration and its paragenetic relationship with the ores have been determined. The mineralization is confined to the altered zones. The ore bodies in the sedimentary rocks and the breccias are located in the fault zones. More than 1000 faults are present in the area, greatly complicating mineral prospecting. The wall-rock alteration is very conspicuous and can be used as a valuable tool in mineral exploration

  2. Formation mechanism of uranium minerals at sandstone-type uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shengfu; Zhang Yun

    2004-01-01

    By analyzing the behavior and existence form of uranium in different geochemical environments, existence form of uranium and uranium minerals species, this paper expounds the formation mechanism of main commercial uranium mineral--pitchblende: (1) uranium is a valence-changeable element. It is reactivated and migrates in oxidized environment, and is reduced and precipitated in reducing environment; (2) [UO 2 (CO 3 ) 3 ] 4- , [UO 2 (CO 3 ) 2 ] 2- coming from oxidized environment react with reductants such as organic matter, sulfide and low-valence iron at the redox front to form simple uranium oxide--pitchblende; (3)the adsorption of uranium by organic matter and clay minerals accelerates the reduction and the concentration of uranium. Therefore, it is considered, that the reduction of SO 4 2- by organic matter to form H 2 S, and the reduction of UO 2 2+ by H 2 S are the main reasons for the formation of pitchblende. This reaction is extensively and universally available in neutral and weakly alkaline carbonate solution. The existense of reductants such as H 2 S is the basic factor leading to the decrease of Eh in environments and the oversaturation of UO 2 2+ at the redox front in groundwater, thus accelerating the adsorption and the precipitation of uranium

  3. Search for Nodulation and Nodule Development-related cystatin genes in the genome of Soybean (Glycine max

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songli Yuan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Nodulation, nodule development and senescence directly affects nitrogen fixation efficiency, and previous studies have shown that inhibition of some cysteine proteases delay nodule senescence, so their nature inhibitors, cystatin genes, are very important in nodulation, nodule development and senescence. Although several cystatins are actively transcribed in soybean nodules, their exact roles and functional diversities in legume have not been well explored in genome-wide survey studies. In this report, we performed a genome-wide survey of cystatin family genes to explore their relationship to nodulation and nodule development in soybean and identified 20 cystatin genes that encode peptides with 97~245 amino acid residues, different isoelectric points (pI and structure characteristics, and various putative plant regulatory elements in 3000 bp putative promoter fragments upstream of the 20 soybean cystatins in response to different abiotic/biotic stresses, hormone signals and symbiosis signals. The expression profiles of these cystatin genes in soybean symbiosis with rhizobium strain Bradyrhizobium japonicum strain 113-2 revealed that 7 cystatin family genes play different roles in nodulation as well as nodule development and senescence. However, these genes were not root nodule symbiosis (RNS - specific and did not encode special clade cystatin protein with structures related to nodulation and nodule development. Besides, only two of these soybean cystatins were not upregulated in symbiosis after ABA treatment. The functional analysis showed that a candidate gene Glyma.15G227500 (GmCYS16 was likely to play a positive role in soybean nodulation. Besides, evolutionary relationships analysis divided the cystatin genes from Arabidopsis thaliana, Nicotiana tabacum, rice, barley and four legume plants into three groups. Interestingly, Group A cystatins are special in legume plants, but only include one of the above-mentioned 7 cystatin genes related to

  4. Auxin transport, metabolism, and signalling during nodule initiation: indeterminate and determinate nodules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kohlen, W.; Ng, Jason Liang Pin; Deinum, E.E.; Mathesius, Ulrike

    2018-01-01

    Most legumes can form a unique type of lateral organ on their roots: root nodules. These structures host symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria called rhizobia. Several different types of nodules can be found in nature, but the two best-studied types are called indeterminate and determinate nodules.

  5. Computed tomography of pulmonary nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakata, Hajime; Honda, Hiroshi; Nakayama, Chikashi; Kimoto, Tatsuya; Nakayama, Takashi

    1983-01-01

    We have evaluated the value of computed tomography (CT) in distinguishing benign and malignant pulmonary nodules. CT was performed on 30 cases of solitary pulmonary nodules consisting of 17 primary lung cancers, 3 metastatic tumors and 10 benign nodules. The CT number was calculated for each lesion. Three benign nodules showed CT numbers well above the range of malignant nodules, and only in one of them was calcification visible on conventional tomography. In 6 benign nodules, the CT numbers overlapped those of malignant lesion and could not be differentiated. Thus the measurement of CT number can be useful to confirm the benign nature of certain nodules when calcification is unclear or not visible on conventional tomography. As for the morphological observation of the nodule, CT was not superior to conventional tomography and its value seems to be limited. (author)

  6. Stimulation of nodulation in field peas (Pisum sativum) by low concentrations of ammonium in hydroponic culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterer, J. G.; Vessey, J. K.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Raper CD, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    Although the inhibitory effects of high concentrations of mineral N (> 1.0 mM) on nodule development and function have often been studied, the effects of low, static concentrations of NH4+ (hydroponic culture on nodule establishment and nitrogenase activity in field peas [Pisum sativum L. cv. Express (Svalof AB)] for the initial 28 days after planting (DAP). Peas grown in the presence of low concentrations of NH4+ had significantly greater nodule numbers (up to 4-fold) than plants grown without NH4+. Nodule dry weight per plant was significantly higher at 14, 21 and 28 DAP in plants grown in the presence of NH4+, but individual nodule mass was lower than in plants grown without NH4+. The nodulation pattern of the plants supplied with NH4+ was similar to that often reported for supernodulating mutants, however the plants did not express other growth habits associated with supernodulation. Estimates of N2 fixation indicate that the plus-NH4+ peas fixed as much or more N2 than the plants supplied with minus-NH4+ nutrient solution. There were no significant differences in nodule numbers, nodule mass or NH4+ uptake between the plants grown at the two concentrations of NH4+. Nodulation appeared to autoregulate by 14 DAP in the minus-NH4+ treatment. Plant growth and N accumulation in the minus-NH4+ plants lagged behind those of the plus-NH4+ treatments prior to N2 fixation becoming well established in the final week of the experiment. The plus-NH4+ treatments appeared not to elicit autoregulation and plants continued to initiate nodules throughout the experiment.

  7. Mineralogical and geochemical studies of phosphorite nodules in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mineralogical and geochemical studies of phosphorite nodules in the Dange Formation Sokoto Basin, Northwestern Niveria. OA Adekeye, SO Akande. Abstract. No Abstract Available Journal of Mining and Geology Vol.40(2) 2004: 101-106. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ...

  8. Geochemistry of Calcretes (Calcic Palaeosols and Hardpan), Coimbatore, Southern India: Formation and Paleoenvironment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achyuthan, Hema; Shankar, Navin; Braida, Martina; Ahmed, S. Masood

    2010-12-01

    This paper deals with the late Quaternary calcic nodules formed within vertisols in the foot-hill regions, and hardpan calcretes (greater than 200 ka) formed over the Precambrian substrate that occur as duricrust horizons in the plains around Coimbatore region, Tamil Nadu, India. The bulk chemistry of calcic nodules and the hardpan calcretes show very little variability in CaO, SiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 and Fe 2 O 3 content. The trend of trace metal content in calcic nodules and in the hardpan calcrete is Mn>Zn>Ni>Cr>Pb>Co>Cu and Zn>Mn>Ni>Co>Pb>Cu>Cr respectively. PAAS- normalised REE data of the calcretes (calcic nodules and the hardpan) demonstrate a positive Eu anomaly. This could be attributed to feldspar, apatite mineral alteration and soil digenetic processes, differential weathering leaving behind plagioclase phenocrysts and apatite grains which are enriched in Eu. The stable isotope values of the calcic nodules do not exhibit a wide range (δ 18 O -3.39 to -5.84 per mille and δ 13 C -3.01 to -6.64 per mille), compared to the hardpan calcretes (δ 18 O -2.91 to -12.98 per mille ) and δ 13 C (-0.05 to -7.4 per mille). The palaeoenvironment during the formation of the calcretes nodules was dominated by the C 4 plants with sparse vegetation cover and that the parent material/bedrock supported a thin veneer of soil column as present day. Calcic nodule accumulations in the soils has resulted from differential weathering and chemical histories within the soil profiles while the hardpan calcretes formed by complex pedogenic and chemical - groundwater processes in arid - semi arid conditions over a long geological period. During the late MIS3 to the LGM period the south west monsoon was weak with mean annual rainfall (MAR) between 300- 500 mm/yr., the sea level was low and the rainfall at the time of carbonate formation would have remained damp enough to allow silicate weathering of the soil sediments. (author)

  9. Micromonospora is a normal occupant of actinorhizal nodules

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Supplementary table 1. Number of isolates per nodule. Nodule Colonies Average Nodule Colonies Average. AV1 Nodule 1 2 13 EEM Nodule 1 17 9.4. Nodule 2 O Nodule 2 13. Nodule 3 2 Nodule 3 9. AV2 Nodule 1 19 16.1 Nodule 4 7. Nodule 2 25 Nodule 5 18. Nodule 3 38 Nodule 6 4. AV4 Nodule 1 8 14.0 Nodule 7 12.

  10. Toxic effects of low concentrations of Cu on nodulation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopittke, Peter M.; Dart, Peter J.; Menzies, Neal W.

    2007-01-01

    Although Cu is phytotoxic at Cu 2+ activities as low as 1-2 μM, the effect of Cu 2+ on the nodulation of legumes has received little attention. The effect of Cu 2+ on nodulation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. cv. Caloona) was examined in a dilute solution culture system utilising a cation exchange resin to buffer solution Cu 2+ . The nodulation process was more sensitive to increasing Cu 2+ activities than both shoot and root growth; whilst a Cu 2+ activity of 1.0 μM corresponded to a 10% reduction in the relative yield of the shoots and roots, a Cu 2+ activity of 0.2 μM corresponded to a 10% reduction in nodulation. This reduction in nodulation with increasing Cu 2+ activity was associated with an inhibition of root hair formation in treatments containing ≥0.77 μM Cu 2+ , rather than to a reduction in the size of the Rhizobium population. - The nodulation process was more sensitive to increasing Cu 2+ activities than either shoot or root growth

  11. Structural basis for regulation of rhizobial nodulation and symbiosis gene expression by the regulatory NolR

    Science.gov (United States)

    The symbiosis between rhizobial microbes and host plants involves the coordinated expression of multiple genes, which leads to nodule formation and nitrogen fixation. As part of the transcriptional machinery for nodulation and symbiosis across a range of Rhizobium, NolR serves as a global regulatory...

  12. Hydrogen-isotopic composition of some hydrous manganese minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hariya, Y.; Tsutsumi, M.

    1981-01-01

    Initial data on the hydrogen-isotopic compositions in hydrous Mn minerals from various occurrences fall in a wide range from -298 to -84per thousand, relative to SMOW. deltaD-values of todorokite and cryptomelane from Tertiary deposits show -89 and -150per thousand. 10 A-manganite and delta-MnO 2 from deep-sea nodules have relatively restricted deltaD-values ranging from -96 to -84per thousand. The deltaD-values for manganese bog ores from recent hot springs show almost -105per thousand. It is recognized that the isotopic values obtained for the deep-sea nodules and recent bog ores are slightly different ranged. Manganite and groutite are unique in their hydrogen-isotopic compositions, having the most depleted deltaD-values ranging from -298 to -236per thousand. MnO(OH) minerals are more deuterium-depleted hydrous minerals than any other hydrothermal minerals from various ore deposits. Hydrogen-isotope fractionation factors between manganite and water were experimentally determined to be 0.7894, 0.7958 and 0.8078 at 150 0 , 200 0 and 250 0 C respectively. The present experimental results indicate that if manganites were formed at temperatures below 250 0 C, under isotopic equilibrium conditions most of the manganite mineralization in the Tertiary manganese deposits must have precipitated from meteoric hydrothermal solutions. (Auth.)

  13. Desmoid tumor of bone with enchondromatous nodules, mistaken for chondrosarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahk, Won-Jong [Musculoskeletal Oncology Study Group, Catholic University of Korea (Korea); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Uijongbu St. Mary' s Hospital, 65-1 Geumohdong, Uijongbu, Gyunggido, 480-130 (Korea); Kang, Yong-Koo; Lee, An-Hee [Musculoskeletal Oncology Study Group, Catholic University of Korea (Korea); Mirra, Joseph M. [Orthpaedic Oncology, Orthopaedic Hospital, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2003-04-01

    Desmoid tumor of bone, also termed desmoplastic fibroma or aggressive fibromatosis, is a rare, locally aggressive fibroblastic tumor. We present a 16-year-old male with a huge desmoid tumor involving the iliac wing. It was associated with enchondromatous nodules mimicking malignancy. The tumor in this patient was mistaken for chondrosarcoma and hemipelvectomy was performed. To our knowledge, such a case has not previously been documented fully in the English literature. The radiographic and pathologic findings and a possible mechanism of enchondromatous nodule formation in fibrous bone tumors are discussed. (orig.)

  14. A higher yielding mutant of black gram with improved nodule formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, R K; Raghuvanshi, S S [Plant Genetic Unit, Department of Botany, University of Lucknow (India)

    1987-07-01

    Dry seeds of black gram (Vigna mungo (L) Hopper) var. T{sub 9} with 12.2% moisture content were irradiated at 10, 20 and 30 krad of gamma rays. This was followed by combined treatment of one set in each dose with freshly prepared 0. 25% EMS in phosphate buffer at 7.0 pH at 30{+-} deg. C for 6 hours. In M{sub 2} population of 20 krad two mutants with pentafoliate instead of trifoliate leaves were found. This character was true breeding in M{sub 3} M{sub 6} generation. Crosses revealed monogenic recessive inheritance of this character. The proposed gene symbol is p5. This mutant has normal maturity period and the plant height is the same as T{sub 9} (ca. 50 cm). Preliminary yield trials indicate superiority of the mutant line over control. The mutant line also shows a significant improvement in number and weight of root nodules, potentially improving green manuring value. Improvement of root nodulation in mungbean mutants was reported before by others.

  15. Pyrite formation and mineral transformation pathways upon sulfidation of ferric hydroxides depend on mineral type and sulfide concentration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peiffer, Stefan; Behrends, Thilo; Hellige, Katrin; Larese-Casanova, Philip; Wan, Moli; Pollok, Kilian

    2015-01-01

    The reaction of ferric (hydr)oxides with dissolved sulfide does not lead to the instantaneous production of thermodynamically stable products but can induce a variety of mineral transformations including the formation of metastable intermediates. The importance of the various transformation pathways

  16. Effect of radiopaque Portland cement on mineralization in human dental pulp cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Kyung-San; Lee, Sang-Im; Lee, Yoon; Kim, Eun-Cheol

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether radiopaque Portland cement (RPC) facilitates the mineralization process in human dental pulp cells (HDPCs) compared with pure Portland cement (PC). Under a scanning electron microscope (SEM), cellular morphology was evaluated. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was analyzed, and nodule formation was assessed by performing Alizarin Red S staining. In addition, the mRNA expressions of mineralization-related proteins were evaluated by performing a real-time polymerase chain reaction. On SEM evaluation, healthy HDPCs were found adhering to the surfaces of PC and RPC. The ALP activity increased in the PC and RPC groups compared with the control group at 1 day. Alizarin Red stain increased in the PC and RPC groups compared with the control group at 2 and 3 weeks. The mRNA expression of dentin sialophosphoprotein increased at 14 days in the PC and RPC groups. These results show that PC and RPC have similar effects in terms of mineralization and suggest that RPC also has the potential to be used as a clinically suitable pulp-capping material.

  17. Clay mineral formation under oxidized conditions and implications for paleoenvironments and organic preservation on Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainey, Seth R; Hausrath, Elisabeth M; Adcock, Christopher T; Tschauner, Oliver; Hurowitz, Joel A; Ehlmann, Bethany L; Xiao, Yuming; Bartlett, Courtney L

    2017-11-01

    Clay mineral-bearing locations have been targeted for martian exploration as potentially habitable environments and as possible repositories for the preservation of organic matter. Although organic matter has been detected at Gale Crater, Mars, its concentrations are lower than expected from meteoritic and indigenous igneous and hydrothermal reduced carbon. We conducted synthesis experiments motivated by the hypothesis that some clay mineral formation may have occurred under oxidized conditions conducive to the destruction of organics. Previous work has suggested that anoxic and/or reducing conditions are needed to synthesize the Fe-rich clay mineral nontronite at low temperatures. In contrast, our experiments demonstrated the rapid formation of Fe-rich clay minerals of variable crystallinity from aqueous Fe 3+ with small amounts of aqueous Mg 2+ . Our results suggest that Fe-rich clay minerals such as nontronite can form rapidly under oxidized conditions, which could help explain low concentrations of organics within some smectite-containing rocks or sediments on Mars.

  18. Clay mineral formation under oxidized conditions and implications for paleoenvironments and organic preservation on Mars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gainey, Seth R.; Hausrath, Elisabeth M.; Adcock, Christopher T.; Tschauner, Oliver; Hurowitz, Joel A.; Ehlmann, Bethany L.; Xiao, Yuming; Bartlett, Courtney L. (CIW); (UNLV); (CIT); (SBU)

    2017-11-01

    Clay mineral-bearing locations have been targeted for martian exploration as potentially habitable environments and as possible repositories for the preservation of organic matter. Although organic matter has been detected at Gale Crater, Mars, its concentrations are lower than expected from meteoritic and indigenous igneous and hydrothermal reduced carbon. We conducted synthesis experiments motivated by the hypothesis that some clay mineral formation may have occurred under oxidized conditions conducive to the destruction of organics. Previous work has suggested that anoxic and/or reducing conditions are needed to synthesize the Fe-rich clay mineral nontronite at low temperatures. In contrast, our experiments demonstrated the rapid formation of Fe-rich clay minerals of variable crystallinity from aqueous Fe3+ with small amounts of aqueous Mg2+. Our results suggest that Fe-rich clay minerals such as nontronite can form rapidly under oxidized conditions, which could help explain low concentrations of organics within some smectite-containing rocks or sediments on Mars.

  19. Hydrous mineral dehydration around heat-generating nuclear waste in bedded salt formations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Amy B; Boukhalfa, Hakim; Caporuscio, Florie A; Robinson, Bruce A; Stauffer, Philip H

    2015-06-02

    Heat-generating nuclear waste disposal in bedded salt during the first two years after waste emplacement is explored using numerical simulations tied to experiments of hydrous mineral dehydration. Heating impure salt samples to temperatures of 265 °C can release over 20% by mass of hydrous minerals as water. Three steps in a series of dehydration reactions are measured (65, 110, and 265 °C), and water loss associated with each step is averaged from experimental data into a water source model. Simulations using this dehydration model are used to predict temperature, moisture, and porosity after heating by 750-W waste canisters, assuming hydrous mineral mass fractions from 0 to 10%. The formation of a three-phase heat pipe (with counter-circulation of vapor and brine) occurs as water vapor is driven away from the heat source, condenses, and flows back toward the heat source, leading to changes in porosity, permeability, temperature, saturation, and thermal conductivity of the backfill salt surrounding the waste canisters. Heat pipe formation depends on temperature, moisture availability, and mobility. In certain cases, dehydration of hydrous minerals provides sufficient extra moisture to push the system into a sustained heat pipe, where simulations neglecting this process do not.

  20. Parasitic thyroid nodule in a patient with Hashimoto's chronic thyroiditis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Vitorino Modesto dos; Lima, Marcus Aurelho de; Marinho, Euripedes Oliveira; Marinho, Marco Aurelio de Oliveira; Santos, Lister Arruda Modesto dos; Raphael, Cristiane Mendes [Universidade do Triangulo Mineiro, Uberlandia, MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Clinica Medica

    2000-04-01

    A case of parasitic thyroid nodule is presented. The patient was a non symptomatic 53-year-old white woman, on irregular course of L-thyroxine to treat hypothyroidism due to Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Without a history of thyroid trauma or surgery, she presented a 1.6 x 0.7 x 0.5 cm right pre-laryngeal lymph node-like mass which, on ultrasonography, appeared distinct from the gland. TSH, thyroid peroxidase antibody and thyroglobulin antibody serum levels were elevated and T4-free level was normal. Thyroid and total body {sup 99m} Tc isonitrile scintiscan showed a topic thyroid without radionuclide uptake in the nodule. Fine-needle aspiration of the nodule showed epithelial cells with nuclear atypia and oncocitic changes plus intense lymphoid infiltration and germinative center formation, simulating lymph node metastasis of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Conventional biopsy revealed a parasitic thyroid nodule with Hashimoto's chronic thyroiditis. Parasitic thyroid nodule must always be remembered so that unnecessary surgical assessment and undesirable sequels may be avoided. (author)

  1. Role of Duplex Power Doppler Ultrasound in Differentiation between Malignant and Benign Thyroid Nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algin, Oktay; Algin, Efnan; Gokalp, Gokhan; Ocakog, Gokhan; Erdog an, Cuneyt; Saraydaroglu, Ozlem; Ercan Tuncel, Prof

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the usage of duplex power Doppler ultrasound (PDUS) for the differentiation of benign and malignant thyroid nodules. We prospectively examined 77 thyroid nodules in 60 patients undergoing ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB). Each nodule was described according to size, inner structure, borders, parenchymal echogenicity, peripheral halo formation, and the presence of calcification (Bmode ultrasound findings). Vascularity as determined by PDUS imaging was defined as non-vascular, peripheral, central, or of mixed type. For each nodule, the pulsatility index (PI) and resistive index (RI) values were obtained. Results of FNAB and surgical pathological examination (if available) were used as a proof of final diagnosis to categorize all nodules as benign or malignant. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to establish cut-off, sensitivity, and specificity values associated with RI-PI values. A significant relationship was observed between malignancy and irregular margins, microcalcifications, and hypoechogenicity on ultrasound examination (p 0.05). The central, peripheral, and mean RI-PI values were higher in malignant nodules when compared to the other cytologies (p < 0.05). Vascularity is not a useful parameter for distinguishing malignant from benign thyroid nodules. However, RI and PI values are useful in distinguishing malignant from benign thyroid nodules

  2. Antiosteoporotic Activity of Dioscorea alata L. cv. Phyto through Driving Mesenchymal Stem Cells Differentiation for Bone Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang-Yung Peng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an ethanol extract of the rhizomes of Dioscorea alata L. cv. Phyto, Dispo85E, on bone formation and to investigate the mechanisms involved. Our results showed that Dispo85E increased the activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP and bone nodule formation in primary bone marrow cultures. In addition, Dispo85E stimulated pluripotent C3H10T1/2 stem cells to differentiate into osteoblasts rather than adipocytes. Our in vivo data indicated that Dispo85E promotes osteoblastogenesis by increasing ALP activity and bone nodule formation in both intact and ovariectomized (OVX mice. Microcomputed tomography (μCT analysis also showed that Dispo85E ameliorates the deterioration of trabecular bone mineral density (tBMD, trabecular bone volume/total volume (BV/TV, and trabecular bone number (Tb.N in OVX mice. Our results suggested that Dispo85E is a botanical drug with a novel mechanism that drives the lineage-specific differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells and is a candidate drug for osteoporosis therapy.

  3. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) stimulates mineralization of MC3T3-E1 cells through calcium and phosphate uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassinary, João Alberto Fioravante; Lunardelli, Adroaldo; Basso, Bruno de Souza; Dias, Henrique Bregolin; Catarina, Anderson Velasque; Stülp, Simone; Haute, Gabriela Viegas; Martha, Bianca Andrade; Melo, Denizar Alberto da Silva; Nunes, Fernanda Bordignon; Donadio, Márcio Vinícius Fagundes; Oliveira, Jarbas Rodrigues de

    2018-03-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) on pre-osteoblast mineralization using in vitro bioassays. Pre-osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells were exposed to LIPUS at 1 MHz frequency, 0.2 W/cm 2 intensity and 20% duty cycle for 30 min. The analyses were carried out up to 336 h (14 days) after exposure. The concentration of collagen, phosphate, alkaline phosphatase, calcium and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) in cell supernatant and the presence of calcium deposits in the cells were analyzed. Our results showed that LIPUS promotes mineralized nodules formation. Collagen, phosphate, and calcium levels were decreased in cell supernatant at 192 h after LIPUS exposure. However, alkaline phosphatase and TGF-β1 concentrations remained unchanged. Therapeutic pulsed ultrasound is capable of stimulating differentiation and mineralization of pre-osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells by calcium and phosphate uptake with consequent hydroxyapatite formation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Solitary pulmonary nodule

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Adenocarcinoma - chest x-ray Pulmonary nodule - front view chest x-ray Pulmonary nodule, solitary - CT scan Respiratory system References Gotway MB, Panse PM, Gruden JF, Elicker BM. Thoracic radiology: noninvasive diagnostic imaging. In: Broaddus VC, Mason RJ, ...

  5. Recent advances in non-vascular interventional diagnosis and treatment of thyroid nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Liming; Zhou Weisheng

    2009-01-01

    Non-vascular interventional diagnostic methods of thyroid nodules include ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology (USgFNAC) and ultrasonography-guided core-needle biopsy (USgCNB). USgFNAC is a practical method used to select and to guide the treatment of various thyroid nodules, however, it is difficult to make a differentiation between benign and malignant lesions simply to rely on the findings of a small number of cells. USgCNB has the advantage of being able to obtain satisfactory specimen enough for making a histological diagnosis, although this procedure is contraindicated in some patients. Non-vascular interventional treatments of thyroid nodules include percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) and ultrasonography-guided interstitial laser photocoagulation (USgILP). Both PEI and USgILP have fine effect on the benign thyroid nodules. Compared with PEI, laser-induced necrosis can be well controlled, thus, the adverse reactions, such as the formation of fibrosis adjacent to the nodule, vocal cord paralysis, etc. can be avoided.Non-vascular interventional treatments may cause some untoward effects. For the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid nodules, the non-vascular interventional procedure is simple, safe, effective and economic with less complications, therefore, this technique is worth being popularized in clinical practice. (authors)

  6. Toxic effects of low concentrations of Cu on nodulation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopittke, Peter M. [School of Land and Food Sciences, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld 4072 (Australia)]. E-mail: p.kopittke@uq.edu.au; Dart, Peter J. [School of Land and Food Sciences, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld 4072 (Australia); Menzies, Neal W. [School of Land and Food Sciences, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld 4072 (Australia)

    2007-01-15

    Although Cu is phytotoxic at Cu{sup 2+} activities as low as 1-2 {mu}M, the effect of Cu{sup 2+} on the nodulation of legumes has received little attention. The effect of Cu{sup 2+} on nodulation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. cv. Caloona) was examined in a dilute solution culture system utilising a cation exchange resin to buffer solution Cu{sup 2+}. The nodulation process was more sensitive to increasing Cu{sup 2+} activities than both shoot and root growth; whilst a Cu{sup 2+} activity of 1.0 {mu}M corresponded to a 10% reduction in the relative yield of the shoots and roots, a Cu{sup 2+} activity of 0.2 {mu}M corresponded to a 10% reduction in nodulation. This reduction in nodulation with increasing Cu{sup 2+} activity was associated with an inhibition of root hair formation in treatments containing {>=}0.77 {mu}M Cu{sup 2+}, rather than to a reduction in the size of the Rhizobium population. - The nodulation process was more sensitive to increasing Cu{sup 2+} activities than either shoot or root growth.

  7. Characteristic CT Findings After Percutaneous Cryoablation Treatment of Malignant Lung Nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Ammar; Grechushkin, Vadim; Hoshmand, Mahsa; Kim, Choo Won; Pena, Andres; Huston, Brett; Chaya, Yair; Bilfinger, Thomas; Moore, William

    2015-10-01

    subsequent gradual decrease in the surface area. Decreased nodule density (Hounsfield units) at each interval follow-up is associated with complete ablation of the lung cancer whereas increasing nodule density was suggestive of recurrence. Cavity formation within the region of the ablated nodule, most of which typically resolved within the first 3 to 6 months. Nodule enhancement is difficult to assess because of the limited data sets that are available.

  8. Development of lucerne (Medicago sativa L.) treated with mineral fertilizer and manure at optimal and water deficit conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasileva, V; Kostov, O; Vasilev, E

    2006-01-01

    A study on the effect of different rates of mineral fertilizer and manure on yield parameters of lucerne under optimal and water deficit conditions was carried out. Leached chernozem soil and lucerne cultivar Victoria were used. The soil was treated with ammonium nitrate and fully matured cattle manure. The plants were grown under optimum moisture content of 80% and 40% of field capacity. The water deficit stress decreased top and root biomass by 11-75% and 3-29% at mineral and organic fertilization, respectively. The applied mineral and organic N strongly depressed nodules development. Both mineral fertilizer and organic manure at dose of 210 mg N kg(-1) soil completely inhibited the appearance of nodules. Next to nitrogen, water deficit stress further inhibited the development of nodules. Nitrogen fertilization increased seed productivity in the two experimental moisture conditions. The water deficit stress decreased seed productivity by 18 to 33% as compared to optimum conditions. The plant treatments with manure were much more resistant to water deficit and recovering ability of plants was faster as compared to treatments with mineral fertilizer. The application of manure stimulates development of drought-stress tolerance in lucerne. However, the results obtained can be considered for the soil type and experimental conditions used.

  9. Can Lung Nodules Be Cancerous?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lung nodules be cancerous? Answers from Eric J. Olson, M.D. Yes, lung nodules can be cancerous, ... to determine if it's cancerous. With Eric J. Olson, M.D. AskMayoExpert. Pulmonary nodules. Rochester, Minn.: Mayo ...

  10. 57Fe Moessbauer spectroscopic characterisation of a ferromanganese nodule from the Central Indian Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, R.K.; Chakravortty, V.

    1997-01-01

    The iron bearing phases present in a ferromanganese nodule from the Central Indian Ocean have been determined using 57 Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy. The Moessbauer results have been corroborated by XRD, IR and TG-DTA studies. The Moessbauer spectrum of a ferromanganese nodule shows a broad line width which indicates the presence of more than one iron bearing paramagnetic oxide or oxyhydroxide phases where iron is present as Fe 3+ . γ-FeOOH has been distinctly characterised as one of the iron bearing phases in the nodule. Other oxyhydroxide and oxide phases of iron in the nodule have been ruled out. A typical paramagnetic doublet persists even at very high temperature which has been proposed to be due to iron(III)phosphate. Formation of solid solution of Mn 2 O 3 -Fe 2 O 3 has been observed in the heat treated nodule at 1073 K, which has been characterised by the Moessbauer technique. (author)

  11. Structural basis for regulation of rhizobial nodulation and symbiosis gene expression by the regulatory protein NolR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soon Goo; Krishnan, Hari B; Jez, Joseph M

    2014-04-29

    The symbiosis between rhizobial microbes and host plants involves the coordinated expression of multiple genes, which leads to nodule formation and nitrogen fixation. As part of the transcriptional machinery for nodulation and symbiosis across a range of Rhizobium, NolR serves as a global regulatory protein. Here, we present the X-ray crystal structures of NolR in the unliganded form and complexed with two different 22-base pair (bp) double-stranded operator sequences (oligos AT and AA). Structural and biochemical analysis of NolR reveals protein-DNA interactions with an asymmetric operator site and defines a mechanism for conformational switching of a key residue (Gln56) to accommodate variation in target DNA sequences from diverse rhizobial genes for nodulation and symbiosis. This conformational switching alters the energetic contributions to DNA binding without changes in affinity for the target sequence. Two possible models for the role of NolR in the regulation of different nodulation and symbiosis genes are proposed. To our knowledge, these studies provide the first structural insight on the regulation of genes involved in the agriculturally and ecologically important symbiosis of microbes and plants that leads to nodule formation and nitrogen fixation.

  12. Barite-polymetallic mineralization of Zmeinogorsk ore district and some genetic aspects of its formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bestemianova, K. V.; Grinev, O. M.

    2017-12-01

    Zmeinogorsky ore district is located in the northwest part of Ore Altai megatrough, which has long-lasting history of its development and complicated geological structure. Within the ore district, which is the northwest part of the devonian Zmeinogorsk-Bystrushinsky trough, ore mineralization is associated with the system of northwest border faults and cross branch faults. There were four main stages and five phases of minerogenesis. The first stage is the stage of oregenesis beginning and quartz-chlorite-sericite wall-rock alteration rocks formation. Ore deposition and intense tectonics took place during the second stage. The third stage is the most longstanding and productive ore formation stage. There are five distinct minerogenesis phases within this stage. The fourth stage expressed in erosion development and supergene alteration of already formed ore bodies with oxidation zone formation. Main ore minerals are pyrite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite and galena. Minor minerals are tetrahedrite, bornite, tennantite and chalcocite. Precious metals minerals are acanthite, gold, electrum, gold and silver amalgams. Barren minerals are barite, quartz, calcite, gypsum. According to obtained data average isotopic composition of third stage sulphides is: pyrite -0,2‰, chalcopyrite 0‰, galena +0,5‰, sphalerite -1,2‰ for the first complex; chalcopyrite -1,9‰, galena -3,4‰, sphalerite -2,3‰, tetrahedrite -3,7‰ for the second complex; tennantite -12,8‰, bornite -8,9‰ for the third complex. Sulfur isotopic compoisiton variations indicate source inhomogeneity. Thus, there was dominant source change from mantle one in the beginning to crustal one in the end. Main oregenesis stages took place in the range of temperatures between 170 and 210°С and in the mineral-forming solutions salinity range between 3 and 10 wt % NaCl equiv.

  13. Benthic communities associated with ferromanganese nodules from the Central Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ingole, B.S.; Pavithran, S.; Goltekar, R.

    for grazers, shelter for burrowers and sessile organisms as well as protection for mobile fauna. It is concluded that benthic organisms like nematodes, polychaetes and foraminiferas may have strong influence on nodule formation and growth....

  14. Management of Pulmonary Nodules

    OpenAIRE

    Arvin Aryan

    2010-01-01

    Pulmonary nodule characterization is currently being redefined as new clinical, radiological and pathological data are reported, necessitating a reevaluation of the clinical management."nIn approach to an incidentally detected pulmonary nodule, we should consider that there are different risk situations, different lesion morphologies, and different sizes with various management options."nIn this session we will review the different risk situations for patients with pulmonary nodules...

  15. Manganese toxicity effects on nodulation and nitrogen fixation of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. ), in acid soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doebereiner, J

    1966-02-01

    Three greenhouse experiments were conducted to study manganese toxicity effects on the nitrogen fixing symbiosis of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). Addition of 40 ppm of manganese to two acid soils affected nodulation and nitrogen fixation. Dependent on the Rhizobion strain either nodule numbers or efficiency in nitrogen fixation were reduced; the efficiency of one Rhizobium-host combination was more affected than another. Under less severe conditions of manganese toxicity, reduction of nodule numbers or of efficiency in nitrogen fixation could be compensated by an increase of nodule size. In the absence of manganese toxicity nodulation and nitrogen fixation of beans were abundant in a soil with pH 4.4. Naturally occurring manganese toxicity in a gray hydromorphic soil was eliminated by liming. The total nitrogen content of bean plants which were dependent on symbiotic nitrogen fixation decreased linearly with the logarithm of the manganese concentration in the plants. This did not happen when the plants were grown with mineral nitrogen. The role of manganese toxicity in the well known sensitivity to acid soil conditions of certain legumes and the importance of selection of manganese tolerant Rhizobium strains for the inoculation of beans in acid tropical soils, are discussed. 25 references, 1 figure, 6 tables.

  16. Two negative regulatory systems of root nodule symbiosis - how are symbiotic benefits and costs balanced?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Hanna; Suzaki, Takuya

    2018-05-30

    Root nodule symbiosis is one of the best-characterized mutualistic relationships between plants-microbes symbiosis, where mainly leguminous species can obtain nitrogen sources fixed by nitrogen-fixing rhizobia through the formation of symbiotic organs root nodules. In order to drive this symbiotic process, plants need to provide carbon sources that should be used for their growth. Therefore, a balance between the benefits of obtaining nitrogen sources and the costs of losing carbon sources needs to be maintained during root nodule symbiosis. Plants have developed at least two negative regulatory systems of root nodule symbiosis. One strategy involves the regulation of nodule number in response to rhizobial infection. For this regulation, a systemic long-range signaling between roots and shoots called autoregulation of nodulation has a pivotal role. Another strategy involves the regulation of root nodule symbiosis in response to nitrate, the most abundant form of nitrogen nutrients in the soil. Recent studies indicate that a long-distance signaling is shared between the two strategies, where NIN and NRSYM1, two paralogous RWP-RK transcription factors, can activate the production of nodulation-related CLE peptides in response to different inputs. Here, we give an overview of such progress in our understanding of molecular mechanisms relevant to the control of the symbiotic balance, including their biological significance.

  17. Stratigraphy of the Kapalga Formation north of Pine Creek and its relationship to base metal mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goulevitch, J.

    1980-01-01

    The lithology, stratigraphy and mineralization of the Kapalga Formation (South Alligator Group) is described from the Margaret Syncline in the Pine Creek area of the Northern Territory of Australia. An interdigitation of carbonaceous siltstones and mudstones, chert, ashstones and tuffaceous chert, greywacke, siltstone, mudstone and minor banded iron formation (b.i.f.) characterises the Formation. These rocks define a vertical facies transition between low energy sediments of the underlying Koolpin Formation, and high energy sediments of the overlying Burrell Creek Formation. This transition is interlayered with numerous ashstone-tuffaceous chert horizons which were deposited during the waning stage of Gerowie Tuff sedimentation. The boundary between the Kapalga Formation of the South Alligator Group and the Burrell Creek Formation of the Finniss River Group is strictly conformable in this part of the Pine Creek 'Geosyncline'. Relict devitrified shards have been recognised in the Gerowie Tuff in the Margaret Syncline and these observations along with whole-rock chemical analyses conclusively support claims by previous investigators that these rocks are volcanic derivatives. Base metal mineralization at Iron Blow and Mt. Bonnie occurs as massive, stratiform, sulphide-silicate-carbonate lodes. The deposits are at the same stratigraphic level towards the base of the Kapalga Formation and minor stratification parallel with bedding has been observed. These features, and the association of the lodes with mud-flow breccias, lead to the conclusion that the lodes are syngenetic in origin. Thermochemical consideration of the sulphide assemblages together with the temporal relationship between the mineralization and Gerowie Tuff point to diagenetic devitrification of the underlying tuffaceous rocks as the source of the mineralization. Recent publications of experimental data from reaction of seawater and volcanic glass provide information which supports this thesis, and

  18. Buried and Surface Polymetallic Nodule Distribution in the Eastern CLARION-CLIPPERTON Zone: Main Distinctions and Similarities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotlinski, R.; Stoyanova, V.

    The distribution pattern, abundance variations, morphology, chemical and mineralogical composition of buried polymetallic nodules in the eastern Clarion-Clipperton Zone (CCZ) are presented. Our observations are based on data collected from 59 boxcore stations, which comprise about 22.6% of all sampled stations in the Interoceanmetal exploration area site B2 in the eastern CCZ, with recorded buried and surface polymetallic nodules. The majority of stations with buried nodules (>90%) is below 4300 m water depth and is associated mainly with seafloor hills and slopes of ridges and depressions. Buried nodules lie completely beneath the active sediment-water boundary layer (with thickness range from 0 to 15 cm), and they are vertically recorded down to the 45 cm in sediment cores. Abundance of buried nodules varies from 0.2 to 22.1 kg/m2, averaging 3.2 kg/m2. By comparison, surface nodules are more abundant, varying from 0 to 20.2 kg/m2, averaging 10.3 kg/m2. As a general rule the size of buried nodules is larger than surface nodules, and >27% of recovered buried nodules exceed 10 cm in diameter. It is assumed that more than 90% of analyzed buried nodules have a diagenetic origin; however, the identification of factors and conditions responsible for their formation still remains unknown.

  19. Short-term molecular acclimation processes of legume nodules to increased external oxygen concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike eAvenhaus

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogenase is an oxygen labile enzyme. Microaerobic conditions within the infected zone of nodules are maintained primarily by an oxygen diffusion barrier located in the nodule cortex. Flexibility of the oxygen diffusion barrier is important for the acclimation processes of nodules in response to changes in external oxygen concentration. The hypothesis of the present study was that there are additional molecular mechanisms involved. Nodule activity of Medicago truncatula plants were continuously monitored during a change from 21 to 25 or 30 % oxygen around root nodules by measuring nodule H2 evolution. Within about two minutes of the increase in oxygen concentration, a steep decline in nitrogenase activity occurred. A quick recovery commenced about eight minutes later. A qPCR-based analysis of the expression of genes for nitrogenase components showed a tendency towards upregulation during the recovery. The recovery resulted in a new constant activity after about 30 minutes, corresponding to approximately 90 % of the pre-treatment level. An RNAseq-based comparative transcriptome profiling of nodules at that point in time revealed that genes for nodule-specific cysteine-rich (NCR peptides, defensins, leghaemoglobin and chalcone and stilbene synthase were significantly upregulated when considered as a gene family. A gene for a nicotianamine synthase-like protein (Medtr1g084050 showed a strong increase in count number. The gene appears to be of importance for nodule functioning, as evidenced by its consistently high expression in nodules and a strong reaction to various environmental cues that influence nodule activity. A Tnt1-mutant that carries an insert in the coding sequence (cds of that gene showed reduced nitrogen fixation and less efficient acclimation to an increased external oxygen concentration. It was concluded that sudden increases in oxygen concentration around nodules destroy nitrogenase, which is quickly counteracted by an increased

  20. Characterization of bacterial diversity associated with deep sea ferromanganese nodules from the South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, De-Chao; Liu, Yan-Xia; Li, Xin-Zheng

    2015-09-01

    Deep sea ferromanganese (FeMn) nodules contain metallic mineral resources and have great economic potential. In this study, a combination of culture-dependent and culture-independent (16S rRNA genes clone library and pyrosequencing) methods was used to investigate the bacterial diversity in FeMn nodules from Jiaolong Seamount, the South China Sea. Eleven bacterial strains including some moderate thermophiles were isolated. The majority of strains belonged to the phylum Proteobacteria; one isolate belonged to the phylum Firmicutes. A total of 259 near full-length bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences in a clone library and 67,079 valid reads obtained using pyrosequencing indicated that members of the Gammaproteobacteria dominated, with the most abundant bacterial genera being Pseudomonas and Alteromonas. Sequence analysis indicated the presence of many organisms whose closest relatives are known manganese oxidizers, iron reducers, hydrogen-oxidizing bacteria and methylotrophs. This is the first reported investigation of bacterial diversity associated with deep sea FeMn nodules from the South China Sea.

  1. Medicago truncatula ENOD40-1 and ENOD40-2 are both involved in nodule initiation and bacteroid development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wan, X.; Hontelez, J.; Lillo, A.; Guarnerio, C.; Peut, van de D.; Fedorova, E.; Bisseling, T.; Franssen, H.

    2007-01-01

    The establishment of a nitrogen-fixing root nodule on legumes requires the induction of mitotic activity of cortical cells leading to the formation of the nodule primordium and the infection process by which the bacteria enter this primordium. Several genes are up-regulated during these processes,

  2. Fe-Ca-phosphate, Fe-silicate, and Mn-oxide minerals in concretions from the Monterey Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medrano, M.D.; Piper, D.Z.

    1997-01-01

    Concentrically zoned phosphatic-enriched concretions were collected at three sites from the Monterey Formation. The following minerals were identified: vivianite, lipscombite, rockbridgeite, leucophosphite, mitridatite, carbonate fluorapatite, nontronite, todorokite, and barite. The mineralogy of the concretions was slightly different at each of the three collection sites. None of the concretions contains all of the minerals, but the spatial distribution of minerals in individual concretions, overlapping mineralogies between different concretions, and the geochemical properties of the separate minerals suggest a paragenesis represented by the above order. Eh increased from the precipitation of vivianite to that of rockbridgeite/lipscombite. The precipitation of leucophosphite, then mitridatite, carbonate fluorapatite and todorokite/Fe-oxide indicates increasing pH. Concretion growth culminated with the precipitation of todorokite, a Mn oxide, and minor amounts of barite along microfractures. Conspicuously absent are Fe-sulfide and Mn-phosphate minerals. The concretions are hosted by finely laminated diatomite. The laminations exhibit little to no deformation around the concretions, requiring that the concretions formed after compaction. We interpret this sediment feature and the paragenesis as recording the evolving pore-water chemistry as the formation was uplifted into the fresh-ground-water zone.

  3. Comparison of muscle-to-nodule and parenchyma-to-nodule strain ratios in the differentiation of benign and malignant thyroid nodules: Which one should we use?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aydin, Ramazan, E-mail: raydin1984@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Samsun Education and Research Hospital, Samsun (Turkey); Elmali, Muzaffer, E-mail: muzafel@yahoo.com.tr [Department of Radiology, Ondokuz Mayis University, Faculty of Medicine, Samsun (Turkey); Polat, Ahmet Veysel, E-mail: veyselp@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Ondokuz Mayis University, Faculty of Medicine, Samsun (Turkey); Danaci, Murat, E-mail: danacim55@yahoo.com [Department of Radiology, Ondokuz Mayis University, Faculty of Medicine, Samsun (Turkey); Akpolat, Ilkser, E-mail: ilkserakpolat@yahoo.com [Department of Pathology, Ondokuz Mayis University, Faculty of Medicine, Samsun (Turkey)

    2014-03-15

    Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of muscle-to-nodule strain ratio (MNSR) in the differentiation of benign and malignant thyroid nodules and to see if there was a difference between MNSR and parenchyma-to-nodule strain ratios (PNSR) in diagnosis. Methods: A total of 106 consecutive patients (88 women and 18 men; age range 19–79 years) with thyroid nodules were prospectively examined using ultrasound and sonoelastography before the fine-needle aspiration biopsy. The mean MNSR and PNSR were calculated for each nodule and the elasticity score was determined according to four-point scoring system. Results: According to the four-point scoring system, 44 of the 83 benign nodules had a score of one or two while 22 of the 23 malignant nodules had a score of three or four (p < 0.001). Using ROC analysis, the best cutoff point for MNSR 1.85 and for PNSR 3.14 was calculated. The sensitivity and specificity for the MNSR were 95.6%, 92.8%, respectively; for the PNSR were 95.6%, 93.4%, respectively, when the best cutoff points were used (p < 0.001). The κ value for the PNSR and MNSR methods was 0.87, which indicated an almost perfect agreement (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Sonoelastography has a high diagnostic accuracy in the differentiation of benign and malignant thyroid nodules. There was no significant difference between MNSR and PNSR in the differentiation of benign and malignant thyroid nodules. Therefore, we think that MNSR could safely be used in situations where PNSR could not be used.

  4. Recent metalliferous sediment in the North Pacific manganese nodule area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, J.L.; Rosenbauer, R.J.

    1977-01-01

    Quaternary sediments cored in the northeast Pacific nodule area (DOMES site C, 14??N, 126??W) contain a significant amount of hydrothermal metalliferous mud. Water content, color, mineralogy, and chemical composition are analogous to metalliferous sediments of the subequatorial East Pacific Rise. Correction for contribution of pelagic clay indicates the metalliferous fraction to be about 40% of the sediment. SiO2 and Mg are major components in the corrected composition, as they are for other metalliferous sediments similarly corrected from a variety of East Pacific Rise and DSDP metalliferous sediments. A correlation between Mg and SiO2 for these corrected sediments could indicate a hydrothermal origin for a significant portion of the SiO2. Results from DSDP in the nodule area suggest that metalliferous globules are a ubiquitous minor component of the Clipperton Oceanic Formation, which underlies much of the Pacific ferromanganese nodule belt. This indicates that deposition of hydrothermal precipitates is not confined to spreading centers. ?? 1977.

  5. Compact-Morphology-based poly-metallic Nodule Delineation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoening, Timm; Jones, Daniel O B; Greinert, Jens

    2017-10-17

    Poly-metallic nodules are a marine resource considered for deep sea mining. Assessing nodule abundance is of interest for mining companies and to monitor potential environmental impact. Optical seafloor imaging allows quantifying poly-metallic nodule abundance at spatial scales from centimetres to square kilometres. Towed cameras and diving robots acquire high-resolution imagery that allow detecting individual nodules and measure their sizes. Spatial abundance statistics can be computed from these size measurements, providing e.g. seafloor coverage in percent and the nodule size distribution. Detecting nodules requires segmentation of nodule pixels from pixels showing sediment background. Semi-supervised pattern recognition has been proposed to automate this task. Existing nodule segmentation algorithms employ machine learning that trains a classifier to segment the nodules in a high-dimensional feature space. Here, a rapid nodule segmentation algorithm is presented. It omits computation-intense feature-based classification and employs image processing only. It exploits a nodule compactness heuristic to delineate individual nodules. Complex machine learning methods are avoided to keep the algorithm simple and fast. The algorithm has successfully been applied to different image datasets. These data sets were acquired by different cameras, camera platforms and in varying illumination conditions. Their successful analysis shows the broad applicability of the proposed method.

  6. U-Pb ages of uraniferous opals and implications for the history of beryllium, fluorine, and uranium mineralization at Spor Mountain, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, K. R.; Lindsey, D.A.; Zielinski, R.A.; Simmons, K.R.

    1980-01-01

    The U-Pb isotope systematics of uraniferous opals from Spor Mountain, Utah, were investigated to determine the suitability of such material for geochronologic purposes, and to estimate the timing of uranium and associated beryllium and fluorine mineralization. The results indicate that uraniferous opals can approximate a closed system for uranium and uranium daughters, so that dating samples as young as ???1 m.y. should be possible. In addition, the expected lack of initial 230Th and 231Pa in opals permits valuable information on the initial 234U/238U to be obtained on suitable samples of ???10 m.y. age. The oldest 207Pb/235U apparent age observed, 20.8 ?? 1 m.y., was that of the opal-fluorite core of a nodule from a beryllium deposit in the Spor Mountain Formation. This age is indistinguishable from that of fission-track and K-Ar ages from the host rhyolite, and links the mineralization to the first episode of alkali rhyolite magmatism and related hydrothermal activity at Spor Mountain. Successively younger ages of 13 m.y. and 8-9 m.y. on concentric outer zones of the same nodule indicate that opal formed either episodically or continuously for over 10 m.y. Several samples of both fracture-filling and massive-nodule opal associated with beryllium deposits gave 207Pb/235U apparent ages of 13-16 m.y., which may reflect a restricted period of mineralization or perhaps an averaging of 21- and <13-m.y. periods of opal growth. Several samples of fracture-filling opal in volcanic rocks as young as 6 m.y. gave 207Pb/235U ages of 3.4-4.8 m.y. These ages may reflect hot-spring activity after the last major eruption of alkali rhyolite. ?? 1980.

  7. Quantification of the Volume and Surface Area of Symbiosomes and Vacuoles of Infected Cells in Root Nodules of Medicago truncatula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gavrin, A.Y.; Fedorova, E.

    2015-01-01

    Legumes are able to form endosymbiotic interactions with nitrogen-fixing rhizobia. Endosymbiosis takes shape in formation of a symbiotic organ, the root nodule. Medicago truncatula (M. truncatula) nodules contain several zones representing subsequent stages of development. The apical part of the

  8. Waterlogging tolerance, tissue nitrogen and oxygen transport in the forage legume Melilotus siculus: a comparison of nodulated and nitrate-fed plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konnerup, Dennis; Toro, Guillermo; Pedersen, Ole; Colmer, Timothy David

    2018-03-14

    Soil waterlogging adversely impacts most plants. Melilotus siculus is a waterlogging-tolerant annual forage legume, but data were lacking for the effects of root-zone hypoxia on nodulated plants reliant on N2 fixation. The aim was to compare the waterlogging tolerance and physiology of M. siculus reliant on N2 fixation or with access to NO3-. A factorial experiment imposed treatments of water level (drained or waterlogged), rhizobia (nil or inoculated) and mineral N supply (nil or 11 mm NO3-) for 21 d on plants in pots of vermiculite in a glasshouse. Nodulation, shoot and root growth and tissue N were determined. Porosity (gas volume per unit tissue volume) and respiration rates of root tissues and nodules, and O2 microelectrode profiling across nodules, were measured in a second experiment. Plants inoculated with the appropriate rhizobia, Ensifer (syn. Sinorhizobium) medicae, formed nodules. Nodulated plants grew as well as plants fed NO3-, both in drained and waterlogged conditions. The growth and total N content of nodulated plants (without any NO3- supplied) indicated N2 fixation. Respiration rates (mass basis) were highest in nodules and root tips and lowest in basal root tissues. Secondary aerenchyma (phellem) formed along basal root parts and a thin layer of this porous tissue also covered nodules, which together enhanced gas-phase diffusion of O2 to the nodules; O2 was below detection within the infected zone of the nodule interior. Melilotus siculus reliant on N2 fixation grew well both in drained and waterlogged conditions, and had similar tissue N concentrations. In waterlogged conditions the relatively high respiration rates of nodules must rely on O2 movement via the aerenchymatous phellem in hypocotyl, roots and the outer tissue layers of nodules.

  9. Book review: Economic geology: Principles and practice: Metals, minerals, coal and hydrocarbons—Introduction to formation and sustainable exploitation of mineral deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Eric

    2013-01-01

    This volume, available in both hardcover and paperback, is an English translation of the fifth edition of the German language text Mineralische und Energie-Rohstoffe. The book provides an extensive overview of natural resources and societal issues associated with extracting raw materials. The comprehensive list of raw materials discussed includes metals, industrial minerals, coal, and hydrocarbons. The book is divided into four parts: (1) “Metalliferous ore deposits,” (2) “Nonmetallic minerals and rocks,” (3) “Practice of economic geology,” and (4) “Fossil energy raw materials—coal, oil, and gas.” These sections are bound by a brief introduction and an extensive list of up-to-date references as well as an index. Each chapter begins with a concise synopsis and concludes with a summary that contains useful suggestions for additional reading. All figures are grayscale images and line drawings; however, several have been grouped together and reproduced as color plates. Also included is a companion website (www.wiley.com/go/pohl/geology) that contains additional resources, such as digital copies of figures, tables, and an expanded index, all available for download in easy-to-use formats.Economic Geology: Principles and Practice: Metals, Minerals, Coal and Hydrocarbons—Introduction to Formation and Sustainable Exploitation of Mineral Deposits. Walter l. Pohl. 2011. Wiley-Blackwell. Pp. 663. ISBN 978-1-4443-3663-4 (paperback).

  10. Bacterial and iron oxide aggregates mediate secondary iron mineral formation: green rust versus magnetite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegeye, A; Mustin, C; Jorand, F

    2010-06-01

    In the presence of methanoate as electron donor, Shewanella putrefaciens, a Gram-negative, facultative anaerobe, is able to transform lepidocrocite (gamma-FeOOH) to secondary Fe (II-III) minerals such as carbonated green rust (GR1) and magnetite. When bacterial cells were added to a gamma-FeOOH suspension, aggregates were produced consisting of both bacteria and gamma-FeOOH particles. Recently, we showed that the production of secondary minerals (GR1 vs. magnetite) was dependent on bacterial cell density and not only on iron reduction rates. Thus, gamma-FeOOH and S. putrefaciens aggregation pattern was suggested as the main mechanism driving mineralization. In this study, lepidocrocite bioreduction experiments, in the presence of anthraquinone disulfonate, were conducted by varying the [cell]/[lepidocrocite] ratio in order to determine whether different types of aggregate are formed, which may facilitate precipitation of GR1 as opposed to magnetite. Confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to analyze the relative cell surface area and lepidocrocite concentration within the aggregates and captured images were characterized by statistical methods for spatial data (i.e. variograms). These results suggest that the [cell]/[lepidocrocite] ratio influenced both the aggregate structure and the nature of the secondary iron mineral formed. Subsequently, a [cell]/[lepidocrocite] ratio above 1 x 10(7) cells mmol(-1) leads to densely packed aggregates and to the formation of GR1. Below this ratio, looser aggregates are formed and magnetite was systematically produced. The data presented in this study bring us closer to a more comprehensive understanding of the parameters governing the formation of minerals in dense bacterial suspensions and suggest that screening mineral-bacteria aggregate structure is critical to understanding (bio)mineralization pathways.

  11. Surveying Clay Mineral Diversity in the Murray Formation, Gale Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristow, T.F.; Blake, D. F..; Vaniman, D. T.; Chipera, S. J.; Rampe, E. B.; Grotzinger, J. P.; McAdam, A. C.; Ming, D. W..; Morrison, S. M.; Yen, A. S.; hide

    2017-01-01

    The CheMin XRD instrument aboard Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) has documented clay minerals in various drill samples during its traverse of Gale Crater's floor and ascent of Mt. Sharp. The most recent samples, named Marimba, Quela and Sebina were acquired from the Murray Formation in the Murray Buttes region of lower Mt. Sharp. Marimba and Quela come from a approx. 30 m package of finely laminated lacustrine mudstones. Sebina comes from an overlying package of heterolithic mudstone-sandstones. Clay minerals make up approx.15-25 wt.% of the bulk rock with similar contributions to XRD patterns in all three samples. Broad basal reflections at approx. 10deg 2(theta) CoK(alpha) indicate the presence of 2:1 group clay minerals. The 02(lambda) clay mineral band lies at approx. 22.9deg 2(theta), a region typically occupied by Fe-bearing dioctahedral 2:1 clay minerals like nontronite or Fe-illite. The low humidity within the CheMin instrument, which is open to the martian atmosphere, promotes loss of interlayer H2O and collapse of smectite interlayers making them difficult to distinguish from illites. However, based on the low K content of the bulk samples, it appears that smectitic clay minerals are dominant. Peak dehydroxylation of the Marimba sample measured by the SAM instrument on MSL occurred at 610C and 780C. Fe-bearing smectites are not consistent with these dehydroxylation temperatures. Thus, we suggest that a mixture of dioctahedral and trioctahedral smectite phases are present giving the appearance of intermediate octahedral occupancy in XRD. Dioctahedral smectites have not previously been reported in Gale Crater by MSL. Earlier in the mission, relatively clay mineral rich samples (approx. 20 wt.%) from lacustrine mudstones in Yellowknife Bay (YKB) were found to contain ferrian saponites. It is proposed that YKB saponites formed via isochemical aqueous alteration of detrital olivine close to the time of sediment deposition, under anoxic to poorly oxidizing

  12. Homology of genes for exopolysaccharide synthesis in Rhizobium leguminosarum and effect of cloned exo genes on nodule formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skorupska, A.; Derylo, M.

    1993-01-01

    A 5.4 kb BamHI fragment of Rhizobium leguminosarum (R.l.) bv. trifolii TA1 was found to carry genes involved in exopolysaccharide synthesis (exo genes). This fragment was strongly hybridized to the total DNA from DNA from R.l. bv. viciae and bv. phaseoli digested with EcoRI. No homology was found with total DNA of R. melilotic and Rhizobium sp. NGR 234. The exo genes R.l. bv. trifolii TA1 conjugally introduced into R.l. bv. viciae 1302 considerably affected the symbiosis: the nodules induced on vetch were abortive and did not fix nitrogen. On the other hand, Phaseolus beans infected with R.l. bv. trifolii exo genes formed the nitrogen-fixing nodules. It can be conduced that additional copies of exo genes introduced into wild type R.l. strains can disturb the synthesis of acidic exopolysaccharides and affect symbiosis of the plants forming indeterminate nodules, but do not affect symbiosis of the plants forming the determinate nodules. (author). 29 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  13. Do manganese nodules grow or dissolve after burial? Results from the Central Indian Ocean Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattan, J. N.; Parthiban, G.

    2007-07-01

    Fifty buried manganese nodules at different depth intervals were recovered in 12 sediment cores from the Central Indian Ocean Basin (CIOB). A maximum of 15 buried nodules were encountered in one sediment core (AAS-22/GC-07) and the deepest nodule was recovered at 5.50 m below seafloor in core AAS-04/GC-5A. Approximately 80% of the buried nodules are small in size (˜2 cm diameter) in contrast to the Atlantic Ocean and Peru Basin (Pacific Ocean) where the majority of the buried nodules are large, ˜8 cm and >6 cm, respectively. Buried nodule size decreases with core depth and this distribution appears to be similar to the phenomenon of "Brazil Nut Effect". Buried nodules exhibit both smooth and rough surface textures and are ellipsoidal, elongated, rounded, sub rounded, irregular and polynucleated. Buried nodules from siliceous ooze are enriched in Mn, Cu, Ni, Zn, Mo, Ga, V and Rb whereas those from red clay are enriched in Fe, Co, Ti, U, Th, Y, Cr, Nb and Rare Earth Elements (REE). Buried nodules from siliceous ooze suggest their formation under hydrogenetic, early digenetic and diagenetic processes whereas those from red clay are of hydrogenetic origin. REE are enriched more than 1.5 times in buried nodules from red clay compared to siliceous ooze. However, the mode of incorporation of REE into buried nodules from both sedimentary environments is by a single authigenic phase consisting of Fe-Ti-P. Shale-normalized REE patterns and Ce anomalies suggest that nodules from siliceous ooze formed under more oxidizing conditions than those from red clay. Nodules buried at depths between 1.5 and 2.5 m are diagenetic (Mn/Fe ratio 10-15), formed in highly oxic environments (large positive Ce anomalies) and record aeolian dust (high Eu anomalies). Chemical composition, surface texture and morphology of buried nodules are similar to those of surface nodules from the same basin. Furthermore, buried nodule compositions do not exhibit any distinct patterns within the core depth

  14. Critical metals in manganese nodules from the Cook Islands EEZ, abundances and distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, James R.; Spinardi, Francesca; Okamoto, Nobuyuki; Mizell, Kira; Thorburn, Darryl; Tawake, Akuila

    2015-01-01

    The Cook Islands (CIs) Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) encompasses 1,977,000 km2 and includes the Penrhyn and Samoa basins abyssal plains where manganese nodules flourish due to the availability of prolific nucleus material, slow sedimentation rates, and strong bottom currents. A group of CIs nodules was analyzed for mineralogical and chemical composition, which include many critical metals not before analyzed for CIs nodules. These nodules have varying sizes and nuclei material; however all are composed predominantly of δ-MnO2 and X-ray amorphous iron oxyhydroxide. The mineralogy, Fe/Mn ratios, rare earth element contents, and slow growth rates (mean 1.9 mm/106 years) reflect formation primarily by hydrogenetic precipitation. The paucity of diagenetic input can be explained by low primary productivity at the surface and resultant low organic matter content in seafloor sediment, producing oxic seafloor and sub-seafloor environments. The nodules contain high mean contents of Co (0.41%), Ni (0.38%), Ti (1.20%), and total rare earth elements plus yttrium (REY; 0.167%), and also high contents of Mo, Nb, V, W, and Zr.

  15. Effects of mineral additives on biochar formation: carbon retention, stability, and properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feiyue; Cao, Xinde; Zhao, Ling; Wang, Jianfei; Ding, Zhenliang

    2014-10-07

    Biochar is being recognized as a promising tool for long-term carbon sequestration, and biochar with high carbon retention and strong stability is supposed to be explored for that purpose. In this study, three minerals, including kaolin, calcite (CaCO3), and calcium dihydrogen phosphate [Ca(H2PO4)2], were added to rice straw feedstock at the ratio of 20% (w/w) for biochar formation through pyrolysis treatment, aiming to improve carbon retention and stabilization in biochar. Kaolin and CaCO3 had little effect on the carbon retention, whereas Ca(H2PO4)2 increased the carbon retention by up to 29% compared to untreated biochar. Although the carbon loss from the kaolin-modified biochar with hydrogen peroxide oxidation was enhanced, CaCO3 and Ca(H2PO4)2 modification reduced the carbon loss by 18.6 and 58.5%, respectively. Moreover, all three minerals reduced carbon loss of biochar with potassium dichromate oxidation from 0.3 to 38.8%. The microbial mineralization as CO2 emission in all three modified biochars was reduced by 22.2-88.7% under aerobic incubation and 5-61% under anaerobic incubation. Enhanced carbon retention and stability of biochar with mineral treatment might be caused by the enhanced formation of aromatic C, which was evidenced by cross-polarization magic angle spinning (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectra and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis. Our results indicated that the three minerals, especially Ca(H2PO4)2, were effective in increasing carbon retention and strengthening biochar stabilization, which provided a novel idea that people could explore and produce the designated biochar with high carbon sequestration capacity and stability.

  16. Thyroid Nodule Imaging. Status and Limitations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durre Sabih

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid nodules are common, occurring in almost two-thirds of some populations; among these only about 7% are malignant. The most important question with any new discovered thyroid nodule is, “is this malignant?” The main arbiter of malignancy or benignity remains fine needle aspiration and the mainstay of treatment surgery. But given the resources involved, doing an FNAC or surgery in every discovered nodule would be prohibitive to impossible. The clinician must decide which nodule to investigate and which to watch in the hope that this will never turn out to be malignant. FNACs are used basically to decide which nodule to operate upon (or more importantly which to not operate upon and clinical and imaging features are used to decide which nodule to investigate by FNAC and which to leave alone. This paper describes the various imaging options for looking at thyroid nodules and briefly discusses the advantages and disadvantages with each.

  17. Deep-sea polymetallic nodule mining: Challenges ahead for technologists and environmentalists

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Valsangkar, A.B.

    occur beyond 4800m water depths. For over 30 years, deep-sea polymetallic nodule mining has been a subject of interest to many research groups in the world because of its identified potential for the economic recovery of large reserves of minerals... PolymetallicnoduleswerefirstdiscoveredduringthevoyagesofH.M.S.Challengerin 1873–76, (Murray and Renard 1891) but their economic value as potential ores of Ni, Cu,andCobaltwasnotrealizeduntilthelate1950s(Mero1958).Thenodulesarealso valuable for other applications such as a sorbent in gas purification...

  18. Minerals From the Marine Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruickshank, Michael J.

    The current interest in minerals centering on, among other things, potential shortages, long-term needs, and deep seabed nodules, accentuates the usefulness and timeliness of this little book authored by a former chairman of the British National Environmental Research Council.In less than 100 pages, the author puts into perspective the potential for producing minerals from offshore areas of the world. After introducing the reader to the ocean environment and the extraordinary variety of the nature of the seabed, the author describes in some detail the variety of minerals found there. This is done in seven separate chapters entitled ‘Bulk and Non-Metallic Minerals From the Seas’ ‘Metals From the Shallow Seas’ ‘Metals From the Deep Oceans’ ‘Minerals From Solution’ ‘Oil and Gas from the Shallow Seas’ ‘Oil and Gas From Deep Waters’ and ‘Coal Beneath the Sea.’ The remaining chapters give a brief regional review of marine minerals distribution for eight areas of significant socioeconomic structure, and a short recapitulation of special problems of mineral recovery in the marine environment including such matters as the effect of water motion on mineral processing and of international law on investments. Glossaries of geological periods and technical terms, a short list of references, and an index complete the work.

  19. Mineral formation on metallic copper in a `Future repository site environment`: Textural considerations based on natural analogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amcoff, Oe. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Inst. of Earth Sciences

    1998-01-01

    Copper mineral formation in the Swedish `repository site environment` is discussed. Special attention is given to ore mineral textures (=the spatial relation among minerals), with examples given from nature. It is concluded: By analogy with observations from natural occurrences, an initial coating of Cu-oxide on the canister surface (because of entrapped air during construction) will probably not hinder a later sulphidation process. Early formation of Cu-sulphides on the canister surface may be accompanied by formation of CuFe-sulphides. The latter phase(s) may form through replacement of the Cu-sulphides or, alternatively, by means of reaction between dissolved copper and fine-grained iron sulphide (pyrite) in the surrounding bentonite. Should for some reason the bentonite barrier fail and the conditions become strongly oxidizing, we can expect crustifications and rhythmic growths of Cu(II)-phases, like malachite (Cu{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}CO{sub 3}). A presence of Fe{sup 2} in the clay minerals making up the bentonite might prove to have an adverse effect on the canister stability, since, in this case, the bentonite might be expected to act as a sink for dissolved copper. The mode of mineral growth along the copper - bentonite interface remains an open question.

  20. Mineral formation on metallic copper in a 'Future repository site environment': Textural considerations based on natural analogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amcoff, Oe.

    1998-01-01

    Copper mineral formation in the Swedish 'repository site environment' is discussed. Special attention is given to ore mineral textures (=the spatial relation among minerals), with examples given from nature. It is concluded: By analogy with observations from natural occurrences, an initial coating of Cu-oxide on the canister surface (because of entrapped air during construction) will probably not hinder a later sulphidation process. Early formation of Cu-sulphides on the canister surface may be accompanied by formation of CuFe-sulphides. The latter phase(s) may form through replacement of the Cu-sulphides or, alternatively, by means of reaction between dissolved copper and fine-grained iron sulphide (pyrite) in the surrounding bentonite. Should for some reason the bentonite barrier fail and the conditions become strongly oxidizing, we can expect crustifications and rhythmic growths of Cu(II)-phases, like malachite (Cu 2 (OH) 2 CO 3 ). A presence of Fe 2 in the clay minerals making up the bentonite might prove to have an adverse effect on the canister stability, since, in this case, the bentonite might be expected to act as a sink for dissolved copper. The mode of mineral growth along the copper - bentonite interface remains an open question

  1. Differential Regulation of the Nodulation Zone by Silver Ions, L--(2-Amino-Ethoxyvinyl-Glycine, and the skl Mutation in Medicago truncatula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOKO PRAYITNO

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Nodule formation in Rhizobium-legume symbiosis is negatively regulated by ethylene. Ethylene inhibitors such as L--(2-amino-ethoxyvinyl-glycine (AVG and silver ions (Ag+, the ethylene-insensitive sickle mutant, and transgenic plants were used to study ethylene-mediated responses in nodulation. The mode of action of ethylene inhibitors AVG and Ag+, and the skl mutation occur at different steps in ethylene biosynthesis and perception. Their effects on root growth and nodulation phenotypes, in particular nodule distribution along the primary root, were compared in this study. Ag+ and AVG treatments showed similar root growth responses to skl mutant. However, nodule distribution in the hypernodulating skl mutant is different from that of wild-type plants grown on either AVG or Ag+. AVG increased nodule numbers and widened the nodulation zone, while the skl mutant had an increased number of nodules within the susceptible zone of nodulation. Ag+ reduced nodule numbers, restricted the nodulation zone, and restored the nodulation phenotype of skl to that of the wild type.

  2. Management of an incidentally discovered pulmonary nodule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beigelman-Aubry, Catherine; Hill, Catherine; Grenier, Philippe A.

    2007-01-01

    The incidental finding of a pulmonary nodule on computed tomography (CT) is becoming an increasingly frequent event. The discovery of such a nodule should evoke the possibility of a small bronchogenic carcinoma, for which excision is indicated without delay. However, invasive diagnostic procedures should be avoided in the case of a benign lesion. The objectives of this review article are: (1) to analyze the CT criteria defining benign nodules, nodules of high suspicion of malignancy and indeterminate nodules, (2) to analyze the diagnostic performances and limitations of complementary investigations requested to characterize indeterminate lung nodules, (3) to review the criteria permitting to assess the probability of malignancy of indeterminate nodules and (4) to report on the new guidelines provided by the Fleischner Society for the management of small indeterminate pulmonary nodules, according to their prior probability of malignancy. (orig.)

  3. Expression of nodule-specific genes in alfalfa root nodules blocked at an early stage of development.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickstein, R.; Bisseling, T.; Reinhold, V.N.; Ausubel, F.M.

    1988-01-01

    To help dissect the molecular basis of the Rhizobium-legume symbiosis, we used in vitro translation and Northern blot analysis of nodule RNA to examine alfalfa-specific genes (nodulins) expressed in two types of developmentally defective root nodules elicited by Rhizobium meliloti. Fix- nodules were

  4. Geochemistry, factor analysis and clay mineral distribution of the sediments and relationship with the associated ferromanganese nodules from the SW Carlsberg ridge

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Valsangkar, A.B.; Karisiddaiah, S.M.; Ambre, N.V.

    . Geochemical data indicate the Cu and Ni have resulted from biogenic processes, whereas Fe, Zn and Co are from hydrothermal source. The Mn/Fe ratios (0.08-0.36 for sediments; 0.90-1.48 for nodules) and relationship of Mn with Cu, Ni and Zn for nodules...

  5. Distinct patterns of notochord mineralization in zebrafish coincide with the localization of Osteocalcin isoform 1 during early vertebral centra formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bensimon-Brito Anabela

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In chondrichthyans, basal osteichthyans and tetrapods, vertebral bodies have cartilaginous anlagen that subsequently mineralize (chondrichthyans or ossify (osteichthyans. Chondrocytes that form the vertebral centra derive from somites. In teleost fish, vertebral centrum formation starts in the absence of cartilage, through direct mineralization of the notochord sheath. In a second step, the notochord is surrounded by somite-derived intramembranous bone. In several small teleost species, including zebrafish (Danio rerio, even haemal and neural arches form directly as intramembranous bone and only modified caudalmost arches remain cartilaginous. This study compares initial patterns of mineralization in different regions of the vertebral column in zebrafish. We ask if the absence or presence of cartilaginous arches influences the pattern of notochord sheath mineralization. Results To reveal which cells are involved in mineralization of the notochord sheath we identify proliferating cells, we trace mineralization on the histological level and we analyze cell ultrastructure by TEM. Moreover, we localize proteins and genes that are typically expressed by skeletogenic cells such as Collagen type II, Alkaline phosphatase (ALP and Osteocalcin (Oc. Mineralization of abdominal and caudal vertebrae starts with a complete ring within the notochord sheath and prior to the formation of the bony arches. In contrast, notochord mineralization of caudal fin centra starts with a broad ventral mineral deposition, associated with the bases of the modified cartilaginous arches. Similar, arch-related, patterns of mineralization occur in teleosts that maintain cartilaginous arches throughout the spine. Throughout the entire vertebral column, we were able to co-localize ALP-positive signal with chordacentrum mineralization sites, as well as Collagen II and Oc protein accumulation in the mineralizing notochord sheath. In the caudal fin region, ALP and

  6. Distinct patterns of notochord mineralization in zebrafish coincide with the localization of Osteocalcin isoform 1 during early vertebral centra formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensimon-Brito, Anabela; Cardeira, João; Cancela, Maria Leonor; Huysseune, Ann; Witten, Paul Eckhard

    2012-10-09

    In chondrichthyans, basal osteichthyans and tetrapods, vertebral bodies have cartilaginous anlagen that subsequently mineralize (chondrichthyans) or ossify (osteichthyans). Chondrocytes that form the vertebral centra derive from somites. In teleost fish, vertebral centrum formation starts in the absence of cartilage, through direct mineralization of the notochord sheath. In a second step, the notochord is surrounded by somite-derived intramembranous bone. In several small teleost species, including zebrafish (Danio rerio), even haemal and neural arches form directly as intramembranous bone and only modified caudalmost arches remain cartilaginous. This study compares initial patterns of mineralization in different regions of the vertebral column in zebrafish. We ask if the absence or presence of cartilaginous arches influences the pattern of notochord sheath mineralization. To reveal which cells are involved in mineralization of the notochord sheath we identify proliferating cells, we trace mineralization on the histological level and we analyze cell ultrastructure by TEM. Moreover, we localize proteins and genes that are typically expressed by skeletogenic cells such as Collagen type II, Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and Osteocalcin (Oc). Mineralization of abdominal and caudal vertebrae starts with a complete ring within the notochord sheath and prior to the formation of the bony arches. In contrast, notochord mineralization of caudal fin centra starts with a broad ventral mineral deposition, associated with the bases of the modified cartilaginous arches. Similar, arch-related, patterns of mineralization occur in teleosts that maintain cartilaginous arches throughout the spine.Throughout the entire vertebral column, we were able to co-localize ALP-positive signal with chordacentrum mineralization sites, as well as Collagen II and Oc protein accumulation in the mineralizing notochord sheath. In the caudal fin region, ALP and Oc signals were clearly produced both by the

  7. Image analysis of seafloor photographs for estimation of deep-sea minerals

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sharma, R.; Jaisankar, S.; Samanta, S.; Sardar, A.A.; Gracias, D.G.

    of these minerals, necessitating the involvement of a user input. A method has been developed whereby spectral signatures of different features are identified using a software ‘trained’ by a user, and the images are digitized for coverage estimation of nodules...

  8. The MicroRNA390/TAS3 Pathway Mediates Symbiotic Nodulation and Lateral Root Growth1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustos-Sanmamed, Pilar; Mysore, Kirankumar S.

    2017-01-01

    Legume roots form two types of postembryonic organs, lateral roots and symbiotic nodules. Nodule formation is the result of the interaction of legumes with rhizobia and requires the mitotic activation and differentiation of root cells as well as an independent, but coordinated, program that allows infection by rhizobia. MicroRNA390 (miR390) is an evolutionarily conserved microRNA that targets the Trans-Acting Short Interference RNA3 (TAS3) transcript. Cleavage of TAS3 by ARGONAUTE7 results in the production of trans-acting small interference RNAs, which target mRNAs encoding AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR2 (ARF2), ARF3, and ARF4. Here, we show that activation of the miR390/TAS3 regulatory module by overexpression of miR390 in Medicago truncatula promotes lateral root growth but prevents nodule organogenesis, rhizobial infection, and the induction of two key nodulation genes, Nodulation Signaling Pathway1 (NSP1) and NSP2. Accordingly, inactivation of the miR390/TAS3 module, either by expression of a miR390 target mimicry construct or mutations in ARGONAUTE7, enhances nodulation and rhizobial infection, alters the spatial distribution of the nodules, and increases the percentage of nodules with multiple meristems. Our results revealed a key role of the miR390/TAS3 pathway in legumes as a modulator of lateral root organs, playing opposite roles in lateral root and nodule development. PMID:28663332

  9. Effects of irradiation on TGF-β1 mRNA expression and calcific nodule formation in MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Ju Seop; Kim, Kyoung A; Koh, Kwang Joon

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the effects of irradiation on transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β 1 ) mRNA expression and calcific nodule formation in MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cell line. Cells were cultured in alpha-minimum essential medium (α-MEM) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum and antibiotics. When the cells reached the level of 70-80% confluence, culture media were changed with α-MEM supplemented with 10% FBS, 5 mM β-glycerol phosphate, and 50 μg/mL ascorbic acid. Thereafter the cells were irradiated with a single dose of 2, 4, 6, 8 Gy at a dose rate of 1.5 Gy/min. The expression pattern of TGF-β 1 mRNA, calcium content and calcific nodule formation were examined on day 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, respectively, after the irradiation. The amount of TGF-β 1 mRNA expression decreased significantly on day 7 after irradiation of 4, 6, 8 Gy. It also decreased on day 14 after irradiation of 6, 8 Gy, and decreased on day 21 after irradiation of 8 Gy. The amount of calcium deposition decreased significantly on day 7 after irradiation of 4, 8 Gy (P 1 mRNA expression that was associated with proliferation and the production of extracellular matrix in MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cell line

  10. Geology and potential of the formation of sandstone type uranium mineralization at Hatapang region, North Sumatera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngadenin

    2013-01-01

    The Study based on geological setting of Hatapang region, North Sumatera, identified as a favourable area to the formation of sandstone type uranium mineralization. This characterized by the occurred of anomalous radioactivity, uranium contents of the upper cretaceous granite intrusions and radioactivity anomalous of tertiary sedimentary rocks deposited in terrestrial environments. The study is objective to find out the potential formation of sandstone type-uranium mineralization within tertiary sedimentary rocks based on data’s studies of geological, geochemical, mineralogy, radioactivity of rocks. Stratigraphy of Hatapang area of the oldest to youngest are quartz units (permian-carboniferous), sandstone units (upper Triassic), granite (upper cretaceous), conglomerate units (Lower –middle Miocene) and tuff units (Pleistocene). Hatapang’s granite is S type granite which is not only potential as source of radioactive minerals, particularly placer type monazite, but also potential as source rocks of sandstone type-uranium mineralization on lighter sedimentary rocks. Sedimentary rock of conglomerate units has potential as host rock, even though uranium did not accumulated in its rocks since the lack number of carbon as precipitant material and dissolved U"+"6 in water did not reduced into U"+"4 caused the uranium mineralization did not deposited. (author)

  11. A comprehensive view of manganese nodules and volcanics of the Central Indian Ocean Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jauhari, P.; Iyer, S.D.

    the seafloor. Various theories have been proposed to explain the enigma of heavier nodules resting on lighter sediments especially when the rate of sediment accumu- lation is higher than the growth of the nodules. Glasby and Read (1976) observed that due... silicic erup- tion and pumice formation. Moreover, it has been reported that hot pumice sinks faster, due to a greater capacity to absorb water and being nearer to the source as compared to colder pumice (Whitham and Sparks, 1986). We presume...

  12. Primary uranium mineralization in paleochannels of the Um Bogma formation at Allouga Southwestern Sinai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisher, A. H.

    2012-12-01

    The Um Bogama formation in the Allouga area is within a major Graben trending NNW-SSE. The formation is composed mainly of sandy dolostone. Lactomicin marl, siltstone and carbonaceous shale with a high content of organic matter. The black carbonaceous shale represents the redox-front (reduced facies) at which hexavalent uranium can reduce to the presence state, resulting in the redeposition of uranium mineral. The presence of uranium minerals are increased with an increasing amount of carbonaceous matter in the paleochannels of the Allouga area. Small-scale fault planes also show an increase in the uranium content. The present study reveals the presence of the primary uranium contents, uranium, pitch blends and coffinite, which are recorded for the first time in the area. (Author)

  13. Relation between nodule size and 18F-FDG-PET SUV for malignant and benign pulmonary nodules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao Yiping

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The most common semiquantitative method of evaluation of pulmonary lesions using 18F-FDG PET is FDG standardized uptake value (SUV. An SUV cutoff of 2.5 or greater has been used to differentiate between benign and malignant nodules. The goal of our study was to investigate the correlation between the size of pulmonary nodules and the SUV for benign as well as for malignant nodules. Methods Retrospectively, 173 patients were selected from 420 referrals for evaluation of pulmonary lesions. All patients selected had a positive CT and PET scans and histopathology biopsy. A linear regression equation was fitted to a scatter plot of size and SUVmax for malignant and benign nodules together. A dot diagram was created to calculate the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy using an SUVmax cutoff of 2.5. Results The linear regression equations and (R2s as well as the trendlines for malignant and benign nodules demonstrated that the slope of the regression line is greater for malignant than for benign nodules. Twenty-eight nodules of group one (≤ 1.0 cm are plotted in a dot diagram using an SUVmax cutoff of 2.5. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were calculated to be 85%, 36% and 54% respectively. Similarly, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were calculated for an SUVmax cutoff of 2.5 and found to be 91%, 47%, and 79% respectively for group 2 (1.1–2.0 cm; 94%, 23%, and 76%, respectively for group 3 (2.1–3.0 cm; and 100%, 17%, and 82%,, respectively for group 4 (> 3.0 cm. The previous results of the dot diagram indicating that the sensitivity and the accuracy of the test using an SUVmax cutoff of 2.5 are increased with an increase in the diameter of pulmonary nodules. Conclusion The slope of the regression line is greater for malignant than for benign nodules. Although, the SUVmax cutoff of 2.5 is a useful tool in the evaluation of large pulmonary nodules (> 1.0 cm, it has no or minimal value in the evaluation of small

  14. Performance of computer-aided detection of pulmonary nodules in low-dose CT: comparison with double reading by nodule volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Yingru; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Wang, Ying; Ooijen, Peter M.A. van; Oudkerk, Matthijs [University of Groningen/University Medical Center Groningen, Center for Medical Imaging - North East Netherlands, Department of Radiology, P.O. Box 30.001, Groningen (Netherlands); Bock, Geertruida H. de [University of Groningen/University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Epidemiology, P.O. Box 30.001, Groningen (Netherlands); Klaveren, Rob J. van [Lievensberg Hospital, Department of Pulmonology, P.O. Box 135, Bergen op Zoom (Netherlands); Bogoni, Luca [CAD Group, Siemens Medical Solutions USA, Inc., Malvern, PA (United States); Jong, Pim A. de; Mali, Willem P. [University of Utrecht, Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, P.O. Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2012-10-15

    To evaluate performance of computer-aided detection (CAD) beyond double reading for pulmonary nodules on low-dose computed tomography (CT) by nodule volume. A total of 400 low-dose chest CT examinations were randomly selected from the NELSON lung cancer screening trial. CTs were evaluated by two independent readers and processed by CAD. A total of 1,667 findings marked by readers and/or CAD were evaluated by a consensus panel of expert chest radiologists. Performance was evaluated by calculating sensitivity of pulmonary nodule detection and number of false positives, by nodule characteristics and volume. According to the screening protocol, 90.9 % of the findings could be excluded from further evaluation, 49.2 % being small nodules (less than 50 mm{sup 3}). Excluding small nodules reduced false-positive detections by CAD from 3.7 to 1.9 per examination. Of 151 findings that needed further evaluation, 33 (21.9 %) were detected by CAD only, one of them being diagnosed as lung cancer the following year. The sensitivity of nodule detection was 78.1 % for double reading and 96.7 % for CAD. A total of 69.7 % of nodules undetected by readers were attached nodules of which 78.3 % were vessel-attached. CAD is valuable in lung cancer screening to improve sensitivity of pulmonary nodule detection beyond double reading, at a low false-positive rate when excluding small nodules. circle Computer-aided detection (CAD) has known advantages for computed tomography (CT). (orig.)

  15. Performance of computer-aided detection of pulmonary nodules in low-dose CT: comparison with double reading by nodule volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Yingru; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Wang, Ying; Ooijen, Peter M.A. van; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Bock, Geertruida H. de; Klaveren, Rob J. van; Bogoni, Luca; Jong, Pim A. de; Mali, Willem P.

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate performance of computer-aided detection (CAD) beyond double reading for pulmonary nodules on low-dose computed tomography (CT) by nodule volume. A total of 400 low-dose chest CT examinations were randomly selected from the NELSON lung cancer screening trial. CTs were evaluated by two independent readers and processed by CAD. A total of 1,667 findings marked by readers and/or CAD were evaluated by a consensus panel of expert chest radiologists. Performance was evaluated by calculating sensitivity of pulmonary nodule detection and number of false positives, by nodule characteristics and volume. According to the screening protocol, 90.9 % of the findings could be excluded from further evaluation, 49.2 % being small nodules (less than 50 mm 3 ). Excluding small nodules reduced false-positive detections by CAD from 3.7 to 1.9 per examination. Of 151 findings that needed further evaluation, 33 (21.9 %) were detected by CAD only, one of them being diagnosed as lung cancer the following year. The sensitivity of nodule detection was 78.1 % for double reading and 96.7 % for CAD. A total of 69.7 % of nodules undetected by readers were attached nodules of which 78.3 % were vessel-attached. CAD is valuable in lung cancer screening to improve sensitivity of pulmonary nodule detection beyond double reading, at a low false-positive rate when excluding small nodules. circle Computer-aided detection (CAD) has known advantages for computed tomography (CT). (orig.)

  16. Diagnosis and management of solitary pulmonary nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Yeon Joo; Lee, Kyung Soo; Kwon, O Jung

    2008-12-01

    The advent of computed tomography (CT) screening with or without the help of computer-aided detection systems has increased the detection rate of solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs), including that of early peripheral lung cancer. Helical dynamic (HD)CT, providing the information on morphologic and hemodynamic characteristics with high specificity and reasonably high accuracy, can be used for the initial assessment of SPNs. (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT is more sensitive at detecting malignancy than HDCT. Therefore, PET/CT may be selectively performed to characterize SPNs when HDCT gives an inconclusive diagnosis. Serial volume measurements are currently the most reliable methods for the tissue characterization of subcentimeter nodules. When malignant nodule is highly suspected for subcentimeter nodules, video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery nodule removal after nodule localization using the pulmonary nodule-marker system may be performed for diagnosis and treatment.

  17. Comparison of the nodule vs. root transcriptome of the actinorhizal plant Datisca glomerata: actinorhizal nodules contain a specific class of defensins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina V Demina

    Full Text Available Actinorhizal root nodule symbioses are very diverse, and the symbiosis of Datisca glomerata has previously been shown to have many unusual aspects. In order to gain molecular information on the infection mechanism, nodule development and nodule metabolism, we compared the transcriptomes of D. glomerata roots and nodules. Root and nodule libraries representing the 3'-ends of cDNAs were subjected to high-throughput parallel 454 sequencing. To identify the corresponding genes and to improve the assembly, Illumina sequencing of the nodule transcriptome was performed as well. The evaluation revealed 406 differentially regulated genes, 295 of which (72.7% could be assigned a function based on homology. Analysis of the nodule transcriptome showed that genes encoding components of the common symbiosis signaling pathway were present in nodules of D. glomerata, which in combination with the previously established function of SymRK in D. glomerata nodulation suggests that this pathway is also active in actinorhizal Cucurbitales. Furthermore, comparison of the D. glomerata nodule transcriptome with nodule transcriptomes from actinorhizal Fagales revealed a new subgroup of nodule-specific defensins that might play a role specific to actinorhizal symbioses. The D. glomerata members of this defensin subgroup contain an acidic C-terminal domain that was never found in plant defensins before.

  18. Hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, K; Konno, M; Sato, T; Matsuura, N

    1980-10-01

    We studied two cases of hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules in children. A 9-year-old girl and an 11-year-old girl had thyroid masses in otherwise nonpalpable thyroid glands. Scintiscan showed hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules. The former patient had elevated values for T4 and T3, and plasma thyrotropin (TSH) level failed to respond to stimulation with thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH), whereas the latter patient had normal values for T4, and T3 and plasma TSH response to TRH was normal. After the surgical removal of nodules, scintiscan exhibited radioactivity in the contralateral lobe of the thyroid gland in the former and in the ectopic thyroid tissue in the latter. Results of microscopic examinations of thyroid nodules were consistent with adenomatous goiter.

  19. Root nodule structure in Chamaecytisus podolicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Skawińska

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available By means of microscopic analyses, it was shown that root nodules formed by Chamaecytisus podolicus exhibited all structural features typical for indeterminate nodules of temperate genistean shrubs: (i apical nodule meristem composed of infected and non-infected domains, (ii parenchymatous bacteroid-containing tissue with infected cells only resulting from mitotic activity of infected meristematic cells, (iii absence of infection threads, and (iv convoluted bacteroids singly enclosed in a symbiosome membrane. For the first time, it was shown that the nodule meristem is organized into longitudinal files of sister cells.

  20. Detection of pulmonary nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanzulli, A.; Zanello, A.; DelMaschio, M.; Paesano, P.; Panizza, P.; DelMaschio, A.

    1989-01-01

    The authors have prospectively studied 203 pulmonary nodules in 91 patients, selected by CT (gold standard), with both subtraction digital radiography (SDR) and conventional plain film. Subtracted images were obtained by using copper filter inserted between two photostimulable imaging plates. Five radiologists randomly analyzed all conventional and subtracted images. The authors calculated sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for both conventional radiography and SDR. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves were calculated by plotting the number of nodules detected with different degrees of confidence. SDR detected 12% more nodules than conventional radiography. ROC curves demonstrated that the level of confidence was better for SDR (P <.05)

  1. Nodule-Enriched GRETCHEN HAGEN 3 Enzymes Have Distinct Substrate Specificities and Are Important for Proper Soybean Nodule Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Damodaran

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Legume root nodules develop as a result of a symbiotic relationship between the plant and nitrogen-fixing rhizobia bacteria in soil. Auxin activity is detected in different cell types at different stages of nodule development; as well as an enhanced sensitivity to auxin inhibits, which could affect nodule development. While some transport and signaling mechanisms that achieve precise spatiotemporal auxin output are known, the role of auxin metabolism during nodule development is unclear. Using a soybean root lateral organ transcriptome data set, we identified distinct nodule enrichment of three genes encoding auxin-deactivating GRETCHEN HAGEN 3 (GH3 indole-3-acetic acid (IAA amido transferase enzymes: GmGH3-11/12, GmGH3-14 and GmGH3-15. In vitro enzymatic assays showed that each of these GH3 proteins preferred IAA and aspartate as acyl and amino acid substrates, respectively. GmGH3-15 showed a broad substrate preference, especially with different forms of auxin. Promoter:GUS expression analysis indicated that GmGH3-14 acts primarily in the root epidermis and the nodule primordium where as GmGH3-15 might act in the vasculature. Silencing the expression of these GH3 genes in soybean composite plants led to altered nodule numbers, maturity, and size. Our results indicate that these GH3s are needed for proper nodule maturation in soybean, but the precise mechanism by which they regulate nodule development remains to be explained.

  2. The occurrence and origin of celestite in the Abolfares region, Iran: Implications for Sr-mineralization in Zagros fold belt (ZFB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourkaseb, Houshang; Zarasvandi, Alireza; Rezaei, Mohsen; Mahdavi, Reyhaneh; Ghanavati, Fatemeh

    2017-10-01

    The major celestite deposits in Zagros Fold belt are associated with coastal marine carbonate and evaporate sediments of Oligo-Miocene Asmari and Lower Miocene Ghachsaran Formations. In the Abolfares region, celestite mineralization is extended in the western limb of Bangestan anticline in the carbonates of Early Miocene (middle part of Asmari Formation), underlying by dolomitic carbonates of Burdigalian. From bottom to top three main types of mineralization can be distinguished in the study area: (1) layer texture resulting from replacement of algal limestone by celestite minerals with some parts showing idiomorphic crystals (geodes) along the walls of the cavities, (2) celestite occurrence as irregular massive shape interconnected small crystals and nodules, and (3) celestite mineralization associated with steeply dipping veins and open space fracture fillings, resulting from late-stage epigenetic processes. Highlightly, the ore-hosting carbonate rocks were deposited in an intertidal - supratidal protected setting with hypersaline conditions, in accordance with other celestite deposits of the Zagros Fold belt. The abundance of diagenetic crystallization rhythmites, carbonate and anhydrite inclusions as confirmed by Laser Raman spectroscopy analysis, high Sr/Ba values (average; 8726.1) and strong negative correlations between SO3 vs CaO (R2 = 0.98), SrO vs CaO (R2 = 0.96) with positive correlations between Ba vs SrO (R2 = 0.54) and SO3 vs SrO (R2 = 0.98) highlight the role of high Sr late-diagenetic brines in replacement of carbonates with celestite minerals. It seems that the inception of compressional folding during or soon after the deposition of the Asmari Formation in the carbonate platform at the margin of NW-trending basin in the foreland of the Zagros orogenic belt lead to the upward refluxing of penetrated high-Sr diagenetic brines and celestite mineralization.

  3. Pulmonary nodule registration in serial CT scans based on rib anatomy and nodule template matching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Jiazheng; Sahiner, Berkman; Chan, H.-P.; Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Zhou, C.; Cascade, Philip N.; Bogot, Naama; Kazerooni, Ella A.; Wu, Y.-T.; Wei, J.

    2007-01-01

    An automated method is being developed in order to identify corresponding nodules in serial thoracic CT scans for interval change analysis. The method uses the rib centerlines as the reference for initial nodule registration. A spatially adaptive rib segmentation method first locates the regions where the ribs join the spine, which define the starting locations for rib tracking. Each rib is tracked and locally segmented by expectation-maximization. The ribs are automatically labeled, and the centerlines are estimated using skeletonization. For a given nodule in the source scan, the closest three ribs are identified. A three-dimensional (3D) rigid affine transformation guided by simplex optimization aligns the centerlines of each of the three rib pairs in the source and target CT volumes. Automatically defined control points along the centerlines of the three ribs in the source scan and the registered ribs in the target scan are used to guide an initial registration using a second 3D rigid affine transformation. A search volume of interest (VOI) is then located in the target scan. Nodule candidate locations within the search VOI are identified as regions with high Hessian responses. The initial registration is refined by searching for the maximum cross-correlation between the nodule template from the source scan and the candidate locations. The method was evaluated on 48 CT scans from 20 patients. Experienced radiologists identified 101 pairs of corresponding nodules. Three metrics were used for performance evaluation. The first metric was the Euclidean distance between the nodule centers identified by the radiologist and the computer registration, the second metric was a volume overlap measure between the nodule VOIs identified by the radiologist and the computer registration, and the third metric was the hit rate, which measures the fraction of nodules whose centroid computed by the computer registration in the target scan falls within the VOI identified by the

  4. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of thyroid nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozgeyik, Zulkif; Coskun, Sonay; Ogur, Erkin; Dagli, A.F.; Ozkan, Yusuf; Sahpaz, Fatih

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to determine the diagnostic role of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in the differentiating of malignant and benign thyroid nodules by using fine needle aspiration biopsy cytology criteria as a reference standard. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of the normal-looking thyroid parenchyma were also evaluated both in normal patients and in patients with nodules. Between March 2007 and February 2008, 76 consecutive patients with ultrasound-diagnosed thyroid nodules and 20 healthy subjects underwent diffusion-weighted MR imaging by using single-shot spin echo, echo planar imaging. A total of 93 nodules were included in the study using the following b factors 100, 200, and 300 mm 2 /s. ADC values of thyroid nodules and normal area in all subjects were calculated and compared using suitable statistical analysis. Mean ADC values for malignant and benign nodules were 0.96±0.65 x 10 -3 and 3.06±0.71 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s. for b-300 factor, 0.56±0.43 x 10 -3 and 1.80±0.60 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s for b-200, and 0.30±0.20 x 10 -3 and 1.15±0.43 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s, for b-300, respectively. Mean ADC values of malignant nodules were lower than benign nodules. There were significant differences in ADC values between benign and malignant nodules. ADC values among normal-appearing thyroid parenchyma of patients and normal-appearing thyroid parenchyma of healthy subjects were insignificant at all b factors. Benign nodules have higher ADC values than malignant ones. DWI may be helpful in differentiating malign and benign thyroid nodules. (orig.)

  5. Management of thyroid nodules in children and adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersinga, Wilmar M.

    2007-01-01

    Thyroid nodules in childhood and adolescence are less prevalent but more often malignant than in adulthood. Malignant nodules are predominantly papillary cancers; benign nodules are mostly solid colloid nodules/adenomas, but can be cystic or due lymphocytic thyroiditis. Previous neck irradiation

  6. US Diagnosis for Thyroid Nodules with an Indeterminate Cytology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Jong Geun; Kim, Dong Wook [Busan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Tae Woo [Saegyaero Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    We wanted to assess the diagnostic efficacy of thyroid ultrasound (US) for evaluating thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytology. Among 1865 nodules in 1278 patients who received a prospective US diagnosis of their thyroid nodule(s) and who subsequently underwent US-guided fine-needle aspiration, 130 nodules with indeterminate cytology were enrolled in the study. Each thyroid nodule was prospectively classified by a single radiologist into 1 of 5 diagnostic categories: 'benign', 'probably benign', 'indeterminate', 'suspicious for malignancy' and 'malignant.' The solid nodules were classified using all 5 categories and the partially cystic nodules classified using 4 categories ('indeterminate' was omitted). We calculated the diagnostic efficacy of thyroid US by comparing the US diagnoses with the pathology results. Of 130 nodules with indeterminate cytology (130/1865, 7.0%), 62 nodules were surgically removed. Nineteen nodules were assigned to the indeterminate category on US. The malignantly rate of the US-indeterminate category was 56.5% (35/62). The sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values were 81.0%, 81.8%, 81.0%, 81.8% and 81.4%, respectively, when US-indeterminate nodules were excluded. There was no significant difference of diagnostic efficacy when these nodules were reclassified as malignant, but there was a significant difference of diagnostic efficacy when these nodules were reclassified as benign. Our US classification may be a feasible method for managing thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytology

  7. FLUID EVOLUTION AND MINERAL REACTIONS DURING SHEAR ZONE FORMATION AT NUSFJORD, LOFOTEN, NORWAY (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullerud, K.

    2009-12-01

    the contact to the shear zones indicate a more complicated involvement of fluids during shear zone formation than described above. Apparently, fluids have been transported laterally from the outer parts of the shear zones into the gabbro-anorthosite along thin recrystallized zones of plagioclase. The fluid that infiltrated the undeformed host rock of the shear zones resulted in formation of Cl-free amphibole and garnet between the primary mafic minerals and plagioclase. A working hypothesis is that narrow fractures formed within the host rock, outside the sheared rock during shear zone formation. During shear zone formation, the central parts of the shear zones were completely hydrated by an externally derived Cl-bearing hydrous fluid. Some of the fluid migrated to the marginal parts of the shear zones and evolved to a highly saline solution. However, during desiccation of the fluid along the marginal parts of the shear zones, some of the fluid escaped along narrow fractures into the host rock of the shear zones. The Cl-free amphibole that formed from this fluid suggests that the narrow pathways of the fluid provided a path for water transport, but acted as a filter for the much larger ions of Cl.

  8. Persistent pulmonary subsolid nodules: model-based iterative reconstruction for nodule classification and measurement variability on low-dose CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyungjin; Kim, Seong Ho; Lee, Sang Min; Lee, Kyung Hee; Park, Chang Min; Park, Sang Joon; Goo, Jin Mo

    2014-01-01

    To compare the pulmonary subsolid nodule (SSN) classification agreement and measurement variability between filtered back projection (FBP) and model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR). Low-dose CTs were reconstructed using FBP and MBIR for 47 patients with 47 SSNs. Two readers independently classified SSNs into pure or part-solid ground-glass nodules, and measured the size of the whole nodule and solid portion twice on both reconstruction algorithms. Nodule classification agreement was analyzed using Cohen's kappa and compared between reconstruction algorithms using McNemar's test. Measurement variability was investigated using Bland-Altman analysis and compared with the paired t-test. Cohen's kappa for inter-reader SSN classification agreement was 0.541-0.662 on FBP and 0.778-0.866 on MBIR. Between the two readers, nodule classification was consistent in 79.8 % (75/94) with FBP and 91.5 % (86/94) with MBIR (p = 0.027). Inter-reader measurement variability range was -5.0-2.1 mm on FBP and -3.3-1.8 mm on MBIR for whole nodule size, and was -6.5-0.9 mm on FBP and -5.5-1.5 mm on MBIR for solid portion size. Inter-reader measurement differences were significantly smaller on MBIR (p = 0.027, whole nodule; p = 0.011, solid portion). MBIR significantly improved SSN classification agreement and reduced measurement variability of both whole nodules and solid portions between readers. (orig.)

  9. A facile in vitro model to study rapid mineralization in bone tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, Anthony J; Aydin, Halil M; Hu, Bin; Konduru, Sandeep; Kuiper, Jan Herman; Yang, Ying

    2014-09-16

    Mineralization in bone tissue involves stepwise cell-cell and cell-ECM interaction. Regulation of osteoblast culture microenvironments can tailor osteoblast proliferation and mineralization rate, and the quality and/or quantity of the final calcified tissue. An in vitro model to investigate the influencing factors is highly required. We developed a facile in vitro model in which an osteoblast cell line and aggregate culture (through the modification of culture well surfaces) were used to mimic intramembranous bone mineralization. The effect of culture environments including culture duration (up to 72 hours for rapid mineralization study) and aggregates size (monolayer culture as control) on mineralization rate and mineral quantity/quality were examined by osteogenic gene expression (PCR) and mineral markers (histological staining, SEM-EDX and micro-CT). Two size aggregates (on average, large aggregates were 745 μm and small 79 μm) were obtained by the facile technique with high yield. Cells in aggregate culture generated visible and quantifiable mineralized matrix within 24 hours, whereas cells in monolayer failed to do so by 72 hours. The gene expression of important ECM molecules for bone formation including collagen type I, alkaline phosphatase, osteopontin and osteocalcin, varied temporally, differed between monolayer and aggregate cultures, and depended on aggregate size. Monolayer specimens stayed in a proliferation phase for the first 24 hours, and remained in matrix synthesis up to 72 hours; whereas the small aggregates were in the maturation phase for the first 24 and 48 hour cultures and then jumped to a mineralization phase at 72 hours. Large aggregates were in a mineralization phase at all these three time points and produced 36% larger bone nodules with a higher calcium content than those in the small aggregates after just 72 hours in culture. This study confirms that aggregate culture is sufficient to induce rapid mineralization and that aggregate

  10. Nitrogen assimilation in soybean nodules, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohyama, Takuji; Kumazawa, Kikuo

    1980-01-01

    In order to elucidate the pathways to assimilate the ammonia produced by N 2 -fixation in soybean nodules, 15 N-labeled compounds were administered to intact nodules or nodule slices pretreated with various inhibitors of nitrogen assimilation. After exposure to 15 N 2 , 15 N-incorporation into various nitrogenous compounds was investigated in attached nodules injected with methionine sulfoximine (MSX) or azaserine (AS). MSX treatment increased the 15 N content of ammonia more than 6 times, however, depressed 15 N content of most of amides and amino acids. AS treatment enhanced 15 N content of amido-N of glutamine as well as ammonia, but decreased amino-N of glutamine and most of amino acids. Experiments with nodule slices pretreated with MSX or AS solution and then fed with 15 N-labeled ammonia or amido- 15 N of glutamine showed the same trends. Aminooxyacetate inhibited nitrogen flow from glutamic acid to other amino acids. These results strongly indicate that the ammonia produced by N 2 -fixation is assimilated by GS/GOGAT system to glutamic acid and then transaminated to various amino acids in situ. 15 N-incorporation patterns in nodule slices fed with 15 N-labeled ammonia, hydroxylamine, nitrite were similar, but nitrate seemed to be reduced in a definite compartment and assimilated similarly as in intact nodules fed with 15 N 2 (author)

  11. Complexity of clay mineral formation during 120,000 years of soil development along the Franz Josef chronosequence, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietel, J.; Dohrmann, R.; Guggenberger, G.; Meyer-Stueve, S.; Turner, S.; Schippers, A.; Kaufhold, S.; Butz-Braun, R.; Condron, L.M.; Mikutta, R.

    2017-01-01

    Weathering of primary silicates to secondary clay minerals over time affects multiple soil functions such as the accumulation of organic matter and nutrient cations. However, the extent of clay mineral (trans)formation as a function of soil development is poorly understood. In this study, the degree of weathering of sediments along a 120 kyr soil formation gradient was investigated using X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. Irrespective of site age, mica and chlorite were the dominant clay minerals. During weathering, a remarkable suite of transitional phases such as vermiculite and several interstratifications with vermiculitic, smectitic, chloritic and micaceous layers developed. The degree of weathering was correlated with soil pH and depletion of K, Ca, Na, Fe and Al, regarding both soil depth and site age. Kaolinite occurred especially at the 120 kyr site, indicating slow formation via transitional phases. The findings of this study revealed that long-term soil development caused complex clay mineral assemblages, both temporally and spatially, and linking this variability to soil functioning warrants further research. (author).

  12. The mineralization and mechanism of the endogenetic mineral deposit in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Yonghong

    2010-01-01

    In the process of mineralization, due to the difference in rank, scale and order of structures orebody, mine colomn or rich ore bag are often produced in the specific structural parts. Obviously, it is controlled by favourite structure. The important and direct control of the structure to metal endogenetic mineralization evolution are representative on the affect of pulse action of structure to the multi-stage of mineralization evolution. According to the formation environment of the mineralization, it can be classified as collision orogeny mineralization, release(extension)mineralization, slide draw-division basin mineralization and shear zone extension mineralization. Throng the discuss of endogenetic deposit in the geological evolution, structure and formation machenism, the metallogenic model was preliminary established,and the criteria for delineating favourable metallogenic area was identified. (authors)

  13. Formation of secondary minerals and uptake of various anions under naturally-occurring hyper-alkaline conditions in Oman - 16344

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anraku, Sohtaro; Sato, Tsutomu; Yoneda, Tetsuro; Morimoto, Kazuya

    2009-01-01

    In Japanese transuranic (TRU) waste disposal facilities, 129 I is the most important key nuclide for the long-term safety assessment. Thus, the K d values of I to natural minerals are important factor in the safety assessment. However, the degradation of cement materials in the repositories can produce high pH pore fluid which can affect the anion transport behavior. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the behavior of anions such as I- under the hyper-alkaline conditions. The natural hyper-alkaline spring water (pH>11) in the Oman ophiolite is known to be generated from the partly serpentinized peridotites. The spring water is characteristically hyper-alkaline, reducing, low-Mg, Si and HCO 3 - , and high-Ca, while the river water is moderately alkaline, oxidizing, high-Mg and HCO 3 - . The mixing of these spring and river water resulted in the formation of secondary minerals. In the present study, the naturally occurring hyper-alkaline conditions near the springs in Oman were used as natural analogue for the interaction between cement pore fluid and natural Mg-HCO 3 - groundwater. The present aim of this paper is to examine the conditions of secondary mineral formation and the anion uptake capacity of these mineral in this system. Water and precipitate samples were collected from the different locations around the spring vent to identify the effect of mixing ratios between spring and river water on mineral composition and water-mineral distribution coefficient of various anions. On-site synthesis was also carried out to support these data quantitatively. Aragonite was observed in all precipitates, while calcite, brucite and Mg-Al hydrotalcite-like compounds (HTlc) were also determined in some samples. Calcite was observed only closed to the springs. At locations far from the springs, calcite formation was inhibited due to high-Mg fluid from river water. Brucite was observed from the springs with relatively low-Al concentration and HTlc was the opposite. During

  14. Persistent pulmonary subsolid nodules: model-based iterative reconstruction for nodule classification and measurement variability on low-dose CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyungjin; Park, Chang Min; Kim, Seong Ho; Lee, Sang Min; Park, Sang Joon; Lee, Kyung Hee; Goo, Jin Mo

    2014-11-01

    To compare the pulmonary subsolid nodule (SSN) classification agreement and measurement variability between filtered back projection (FBP) and model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR). Low-dose CTs were reconstructed using FBP and MBIR for 47 patients with 47 SSNs. Two readers independently classified SSNs into pure or part-solid ground-glass nodules, and measured the size of the whole nodule and solid portion twice on both reconstruction algorithms. Nodule classification agreement was analyzed using Cohen's kappa and compared between reconstruction algorithms using McNemar's test. Measurement variability was investigated using Bland-Altman analysis and compared with the paired t-test. Cohen's kappa for inter-reader SSN classification agreement was 0.541-0.662 on FBP and 0.778-0.866 on MBIR. Between the two readers, nodule classification was consistent in 79.8 % (75/94) with FBP and 91.5 % (86/94) with MBIR (p = 0.027). Inter-reader measurement variability range was -5.0-2.1 mm on FBP and -3.3-1.8 mm on MBIR for whole nodule size, and was -6.5-0.9 mm on FBP and -5.5-1.5 mm on MBIR for solid portion size. Inter-reader measurement differences were significantly smaller on MBIR (p = 0.027, whole nodule; p = 0.011, solid portion). MBIR significantly improved SSN classification agreement and reduced measurement variability of both whole nodules and solid portions between readers. • Low-dose CT using MBIR algorithm improves reproducibility in the classification of SSNs. • MBIR would enable more confident clinical planning according to the SSN type. • Reduced measurement variability on MBIR allows earlier detection of potentially malignant nodules.

  15. Subsolid pulmonary nodules: imaging evaluation and strategic management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, Myrna C B; Sabloff, Bradley; Naidich, David P

    2012-07-01

    Given the higher rate of malignancy of subsolid pulmonary nodules and the considerably lower growth rate of ground-glass nodules (GGNs), dedicated standardized guidelines for management of these nodules have been proposed, including long-term low-dose computed tomography (CT) follow-up (≥3 years). Physicians must be familiar with the strategic management of subsolid pulmonary nodules, and should be able to identify imaging features that suggest invasive adenocarcinoma requiring a more aggressive management. Low-dose CT screening studies for early detection of lung cancer have increased our knowledge of pulmonary nodules, and in particular our understanding of the strong although imperfect correlation of the subsolid pulmonary nodules, including pure GGNs and part-solid nodules, with the spectrum of preinvasive to invasive lung adenocarcinoma. Serial CT imaging has shown stepwise progression in a subset of these nodules, characterized by increase in size and density of pure GGNs and development of a solid component, the latter usually indicating invasive adenocarcinoma. There is close correlation between the CT features of subsolid nodules (SSNs) and the spectrum of lung adenocarcinoma. Standardized guidelines are suggested for management of SSNs.

  16. Improved pulmonary nodule classification utilizing quantitative lung parenchyma features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilger, Samantha K N; Uthoff, Johanna; Judisch, Alexandra; Hammond, Emily; Mott, Sarah L; Smith, Brian J; Newell, John D; Hoffman, Eric A; Sieren, Jessica C

    2015-10-01

    Current computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) models for determining pulmonary nodule malignancy characterize nodule shape, density, and border in computed tomography (CT) data. Analyzing the lung parenchyma surrounding the nodule has been minimally explored. We hypothesize that improved nodule classification is achievable by including features quantified from the surrounding lung tissue. To explore this hypothesis, we have developed expanded quantitative CT feature extraction techniques, including volumetric Laws texture energy measures for the parenchyma and nodule, border descriptors using ray-casting and rubber-band straightening, histogram features characterizing densities, and global lung measurements. Using stepwise forward selection and leave-one-case-out cross-validation, a neural network was used for classification. When applied to 50 nodules (22 malignant and 28 benign) from high-resolution CT scans, 52 features (8 nodule, 39 parenchymal, and 5 global) were statistically significant. Nodule-only features yielded an area under the ROC curve of 0.918 (including nodule size) and 0.872 (excluding nodule size). Performance was improved through inclusion of parenchymal (0.938) and global features (0.932). These results show a trend toward increased performance when the parenchyma is included, coupled with the large number of significant parenchymal features that support our hypothesis: the pulmonary parenchyma is influenced differentially by malignant versus benign nodules, assisting CAD-based nodule characterizations.

  17. Possible role of glutamine synthetase in the NO signaling response in root nodules by contributing to the antioxidant defenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Santos Silva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is emerging as an important regulatory player in the Rhizobium-legume symbiosis. The occurrence of NO during several steps of the symbiotic interaction suggests an important, but yet unknown, signaling role of this molecule for root nodule formation and functioning. The identification of the molecular targets of NO is key for the assembly of the signal transduction cascade that will ultimately help to unravel NO function. We have recently shown that the key nitrogen assimilatory enzyme Glutamine Synthetase (GS is a molecular target of NO in root nodules of Medicago truncatula, being post-translationally regulated by tyrosine nitration in relation to nitrogen fixation. In functional nodules of M. truncatula NO formation has been located in the bacteroid containing cells of the fixation zone, where the ammonium generated by bacterial nitrogenase is released to the plant cytosol and assimilated into the organic pools by plant GS. We propose that the NO-mediated GS post-translational inactivation is connected to nitrogenase inhibition induced by NO and is related to metabolite channeling to boost the nodule antioxidant defenses. Glutamate, a substrate for GS activity is also the precursor for the synthesis of glutathione (GSH, which is highly abundant in root nodules of several plant species and known to play a major role in the antioxidant defense participating in the ascorbate/GSH cycle. Existing evidence suggests that upon NO-mediated GS inhibition, glutamate could be channeled for the synthesis of GSH. According to this hypothesis, GS would be involved in the NO-signaling responses in root nodules and the NO-signaling events would meet the nodule metabolic pathways to provide an adaptive response to the inhibition of symbiotic nitrogen fixation by reactive nitrogen species (RNS.

  18. Evolution of multi-mineral formation evaluation using LWD data in complex carbonates offshore Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferraris, Paolo; Borovskaya, Irina [Schlumberger, Houston, TX (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Petrophysical Formation Evaluation using Logging While Drilling (LWD) measurements is a new requisite when drilling in carbonates reservoirs offshore Brazil. These reservoirs are difficult to characterize due to an unusual mixture of the minerals constituting the matrix and affecting rock texture. As wells are getting deeper and more expensive, an early identification of the drilled targets potential is necessary for valuable decisions. Brazil operators have been especially demanding towards service providers, pushing for development of suitable services able to positively identify and quantify not only the presence of hydrocarbons but also their flowing capability. In addition to the standard gamma ray / resistivity / porosity and density measurements, three new measurements have proven to be critical to evaluate complex carbonate formations: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), Spectroscopy and Capture Cross-Section (sigma). Under appropriate logging conditions, NMR data provides lithology independent porosity, bound and free fluids fractions, reservoir texture and permeability. Capture Spectroscopy allows assessment of mineral composition in terms of calcite, dolomite, quartz and clay fractions, and in addition highlights presence of other heavier minerals. Finally, sigma allows performing a volumetric formation evaluation without requiring custom optimization of the classical exponents used in all forms of resistivity saturation equations. All these new measurements are inherently statistical and if provided by wireline after drilling the well they may result in significant usage of rig time. When acquired simultaneously while drilling they have three very clear advantages: 1) no extra rig time, 2) improved statistics due to long formation exposure (drilling these carbonates is a slow process and rate of penetration (ROP) rarely exceeds 10 m/hr), 3) less invasion effect and better hole condition. This paper describes the development of two LWD tools performing the

  19. Partially Cystic Thyroid Nodules: Ultrasound Findings of Malignancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jang Mi; Choi, Yoon Jung; Kwag, Hyon Joo [Dept. of Radiology, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    To seek for the ultrasound (US) findings of partially cystic thyroid nodules that are associated with malignancy. We reviewed the US characteristics of 22 surgically confirmed partially cystic papillary carcinomas, and compared them with those of 80 benign partially cystic nodules. The review cases were selected in a random order from a total of 1029 partially cystic nodules that were diagnosed with an US-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy over a period of 8 years (June 2003 to October 2010) at our institution. In partially cystic thyroid nodules, a taller-than-wide shape (100%, p<0.001) and spiculated or microlobulated margin (58.3%, p 0.003) were significantly associated with malignancy. In terms of internal solid portion of the nodule, eccentric configuration (68.0%, p<0.001), non-smooth margin (81.3%, p<0.001), hypoechogenecity (30.0%, p<0.042), and microcalcification (89.5%, p<0.001) were more frequently demonstrated in malignant nodules than benign ones. In partially cystic thyroid nodules, understanding the characteristics of US findings is important to make a precise diagnosis of malignant nodules.

  20. Significance of size in occurrence, distribution, morphological characteristics, abundance, and resource evaluation of polymetallic nodules

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Valsangkar, A.B.; Rebello, J.M.S.

    p i bi (8) R f el p bi (5) R p bi (3) - b bl p bi (4) R b bl bi (4) - - ( ): Total number of nodule types present Texture: r-rough, g- gritty, s- smooth Shape: R- rounded, ep-ellipsoidal/ elliptical, ds-discoidal, b- botryoidal, bl...; Valsngkar and Karisiddaiah 1993; Vineesh et al. 2009; Mukhopadhyay and Gosh 2010). It therefore appears that not only one but combination of all these parameters are responsible for the formation of the CIB nodules. The main objective of the present study...

  1. Current status of fine needle aspiration for thyroid nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogilvie, Jennifer B; Piatigorsky, Eli J; Clark, Orlo H

    2006-01-01

    When not to perform fine needle aspiration of a thyroid nodule In summary, FNA of thyroid nodules has become one of the most useful, safe, and accurate tools in the diagnosis of thyroid pathology. Thyroid nodules that should be considered for FNA include any firm, palpable, solitary nodule or nodule associated with worrisome clinical features (rapid growth, attachment to adjacent tissues, new hoarseness, or palpable lymphadenopathy). FNA should also be performed on nodules with suspicious ultrasonographic features (microcalcifications, rounded shape, predominantly solid composition); dominant or atypical nodules in multinodular goiter; complex or recurrent cystic nodules; or any nodule associated with palpable or ultrasonographically abnormal cervical lymph nodes. Finally, FNA should be performed on any abnormal-appearing or palpable cervical lymph nodes. The management of thyroid nodules based on FNA findings is summarized in Table 2. It can be argued that in certain circumstances the results of thyroid FNA do not change the surgical management of a thyroid nodule, and thus preoperative FNA may be unnecessary. These cases include solitary nodules in patients who have a strong family history of thyroid cancer, multiple endocrine neoplasia type II, or radiation to the head and neck. These patients when they have thyroid nodules have at least a 40% risk for thyroid cancer and frequent multifocal or bilateral disease and should undergo total thyroidectomy with or without central neck lymph node dissection. Patients who have multinodular goiter and compressive symptoms, patients who have Graves disease and a thyroid nodule, or patients who have large (greater than 4 cm) or symptomatic unilateral thyroid nodules could also be considered for total thyroidectomy or lobectomy as indicated without preoperative FNA. Finally, patients who have a solitary hyperfunctioning nodule on radioiodine scan and a suppressed TSH have an extremely low incidence of malignancy and may be

  2. Ultrasound stratification of the FDG-avid thyroid nodule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beech, P.; Lavender, I.; Jong, I.; Soo, G.; Ramdave, S.; Chong, A.; Nandurkar, D.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To determine whether the malignancy risk in an 2-["1"8F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG)-avid thyroid nodule can be stratified according to the presence or absence of suspicious ultrasound features and thereby identify which nodules require further cytological assessment. Materials and methods: A retrospective review of FDG-positron-emission tomography (PET) combined with computed tomography (CT) studies with FDG-avid thyroid nodules (defined as FDG uptake greater than blood pool) that were further assessed with ultrasound and fine-needle aspiration cytology or surgery was performed. FDG-avid thyroid nodules were classified as having either suspicious ultrasound features (marked hypo-echogenicity, irregular margins, microcalcifications, marked hypervascularity, or nodules that were taller than they were wide) or no suspicious ultrasound features and these findings were correlated with the subsequent cytological results. Results: Forty-eight FDG-avid thyroid nodules were assessed. On cytological assessment five nodules were malignant (10.4%), nine were indeterminate (18.75%), and 34 were benign (70.8%). On ultrasound, 24 (50%) had no suspicious features and 24 (50%) had one or more suspicious features. Of the nodules with no suspicious features, 22 (91.6%) were benign, two (8.3%) were indeterminate, and none were malignant. Of the nodules with suspicious features, five (20.8%) were malignant, seven (29.1%) were indeterminate, and 12 (50%) were benign. The absence of suspicious ultrasound features demonstrated a strong association with benign cytology (p=0.009). Out of the suspicious sonographic features, marked hypoechoic appearance (p=0.02), irregular margins (p=0.009), and taller than wide morphology (p=0.04) were statistically most significantly associated with malignancy. Conclusion: The rate of malignancy in FDG-avid thyroid nodules is low in the absence of specific suspicious ultrasound features. The SUV values are non-discriminatory to differentiate

  3. Ecological and Economic Prerequisites for the Extraction of Solid Minerals from the Bottom of the Arctic Seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myaskov Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The world ocean has huge reserves of minerals that are contained directly in the water, as well as on the surface of its bottom and in its subsoils. The deposits of solid minerals on the surface of the bottom of the World Ocean are considered the most promising for industrial extraction. The deposits of ferromanganese nodules, cobalt-manganese crusts and polymetallic sulphides are considered as an object of extracting more often than others. There are the largest deposits of ferromanganese nodules in the central and southern parts of the Pacific Ocean, in the central part of the Indian Ocean, and in the seas of the Arctic Ocean near Russia. The deposits of ferromanganese nodules are a serious alternative to deposits of manganese ore on land. However, there are many factors influencing the efficiency of the development of ferromanganese deposits, the most significant are: the content of the useful component in the ore, the depth of the bottom and the distance from the seaports. It is also necessary to take into account the possible environmental consequences of underwater mining.

  4. Beneath the Minerals, a Layer of Round Lipid Particles Was Identified to Mediate Collagen Calcification in Compact Bone Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Shaohua; Yu, Jianqing J.

    2006-01-01

    Astronauts lose 1–2% of their bone minerals per month during space flights. A systematic search for a countermeasure relies on a good understanding of the mechanism of bone formation at the molecular level. How collagen fibers, the dominant matrix protein in bones, are mineralized remains mysterious. Atomic force microscopy was carried out, in combination with immunostaining and Western blotting, on bovine tibia to identify unrecognized building blocks involved in bone formation and for an el...

  5. Synergistic reaction between SO2 and NO2 on mineral oxides: a potential formation pathway of sulfate aerosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang; Ma, Qingxin; Liu, Yongchun; Ma, Jinzhu; He, Hong

    2012-02-07

    Sulfate is one of the most important aerosols in the atmosphere. A new sulfate formation pathway via synergistic reactions between SO(2) and NO(2) on mineral oxides was proposed. The heterogeneous reactions of SO(2) and NO(2) on CaO, α-Fe(2)O(3), ZnO, MgO, α-Al(2)O(3), TiO(2), and SiO(2) were investigated by in situ Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (in situ DRIFTS) at ambient temperature. Formation of sulfate from adsorbed SO(2) was promoted by the coexisting NO(2), while surface N(2)O(4) was observed as the crucial oxidant for the oxidation of surface sulfite. This process was significantly promoted by the presence of O(2). The synergistic effect between SO(2) and NO(2) was not observed on other mineral particles (such as CaCO(3) and CaSO(4)) probably due to the lack of the surface reactive oxygen sites. The synergistic reaction between SO(2) and NO(2) on mineral oxides resulted in the formation of internal mixtures of sulfate, nitrate, and mineral oxides. The change of mixture state will affect the physicochemical properties of atmospheric particles and therefore further influence their environmental and climate effects.

  6. Ultrasound-Guided Fine-Needle Aspiration Biopsy of Multiple Thyroid Nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ji Dae; Bae, Il Hun; Lee, Seung Young; Han, Gi Seok; Cha, Sang Hun; Kim, Sung Jin; Park, Kil Sun; Koong, Sung Soo; Lee, Ok Jun

    2006-01-01

    To standardize the number of nodules which necessitates ultrasound-guided, fine-needle, aspiration biopsy in patients who have multiple thyroid nodules with the same sonographic characteristics as each other. From February, 2002 to March, 2004, among patients whose diagnosis was confirmed by ultrasound-guided, fine-needle, aspiration biopsy, 545 nodules of 203 patients were found in sonography with more than two thyroid nodules. Each thyroid gland nodule was classified on a score from 0 to 2 points on the basis of the following 5 characteristics: internal content, margin, echogenicity, shape and calcification in sonography. When the score of all characteristics was the same, by deciding on nodules with the same sonographic characteristics and with the score of at least one characteristic being different, we divided the nodules with different sonographic characteristics in a patient. By methods such as given in the preceding descriptions, patients with multiple thyroid nodules were separated into two groups: one in which all nodules had the same sonographic characteristics and another in which nodules have at least one different sonographic characteristic. Then, each pathologic result was searched for the same case and different case in each patient group. Among the 203 patients who were diagnosed with multiple thyroid nodules in ultrasonography, 79 patients (38.9%) had nodules with the same ultrasonographic characteristics and 124 patients (61.1%) had nodules with at least one different ultrasonographic characteristic. All 79 patient's nodules with the same ultrasonographic characteristics in each patient showed the same pathologic result in all cases (100.0%) and there was no case showing a different pathologic result. Otherwise, among the 124 patient's nodules with different ultrasonographic characteristics, each patient showed the same pathologic result in 111 (89.5%) and different pathologic result in 13 (10.5%). In patients who have multiple thyroid nodules

  7. The Kongsberg silver deposits, Norway: Ag-Hg-Sb mineralization and constraints for the formation of the deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotková, Jana; Kullerud, Kåre; Šrein, Vladimír; Drábek, Milan; Škoda, Radek

    2018-04-01

    The Kongsberg silver district has been investigated by microscopy and electron microprobe analysis, focusing primarily on the Ag-Hg-Sb mineralization within the context of the updated mineral paragenesis. The earliest mineralization stage is represented by sulfides, including acanthite, and sulfosalts. Native silver formed initially through breakdown of early Ag-bearing phases and later through influx of additional Ag-bearing fluids and silver remobilization. The first two generations of native silver were separated in time by the formation of Ni-Co-Fe sulfarsenides and the monoarsenide niccolite along rims of silver crystals. The presence of As-free sulfosalts and the absence of di- and tri-arsenides suggest a lower arsenic/sulfur activity ratio for the Kongsberg deposits compared to other five-element deposits. Native silver shows binary Ag-Hg and Ag-Sb solid solutions, in contrast to the ternary Ag-Hg-Sb compositions typical for other deposits of similar type. Antimonial silver together with allargentum, dyscrasite, and pyrargyrite was documented exclusively from the northern area of the district. Elsewhere, the only Sb-bearing minerals are polybasite and tetrahedrite/freibergite. Hg-rich silver (up to 21 wt% Hg) has been documented only in the central-western area. Myrmekite of freibergite and chalcopyrite reflects exsolution from an original Ag-poor tetrahedrite upon cooling, while myrmekite of pyrite and silver, forming through breakdown of low-temperature phases (argentopyrite or lenaite) upon heating, characterizes the Kongsberg silver district. Based on the stabilities of minerals and mineral assemblages, the formation of the silver mineralization can be constrained to temperatures between 180 and 250 °C.

  8. Formation of accessory mineral bed layers during erosion of bentonite buffer material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schatz, Timothy; Kanerva, Noora

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. dilute groundwater at a transmissive fracture interface, accessory phases within bentonite, such as quartz, feldspar, etc., might remain behind and form a filter bed or cake. As more and more montmorillonite is lost, the thickness of the accessory mineral bed increases and the continued transport of montmorillonite slows and possibly stops if the porosity of the filter bed is sufficiently compressed. Alternatively or concurrently, as the accessory mineral filter bed retains montmorillonite colloids, a filter cake composed of montmorillonite itself may be formed. Ultimately, depending on their extent, properties, and durability, such processes may provide the bentonite buffer system with an inherent, self-filtration mechanism which serves to limit the effects of colloidal erosion. A conceptual view of bentonite buffer extrusion and erosion in an intersecting fracture with formation of an accessory mineral filter bed and montmorillonite filter cake is presented in Figure 1. Due to the swelling pressure of the bentonite buffer, the situation described in Figure 1 may be analogous to that of the case of pressure filtration where a filter cake is formed by pressing a suspension through a filter medium and, by a mechanism known as expression, the filter cake is compressed by direct contact with a solid surface resulting in a reduction of its porosity. In order to examine whether the erosion of bentonite material through contact with dilute groundwater at a transmissive fracture interface could intrinsically result in 1) the formation of an accessory mineral filter bed and cake and/or 2) filter caking of montmorillonite itself, a series of laboratory tests were performed in a flow-through, horizontal, 1 mm aperture, artificial fracture system. Bentonite buffer material was simulated by using mixtures (75/25 weight percent ratio) of purified sodium montmorillonite and various additives serving as accessory mineral proxies

  9. Evaluation for dinitrogen fixation of induced wheat nodules by 15N isotope dilution method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Yunyin; Zhen Ming; Chang Xizhong

    1993-11-01

    The results in pot experiments showed that the treating of 2,4-D and Azorhizobium caulinodans (2,4-D+A) could induce para-nodule formation on wheat roots. Plants treated grew normally. The plant height and dry weight are significantly higher than reference plants which are treated with 2,4-D+azorhizobium sterilized (2,4-D+AS). The nitrogenase activity is detected by ARA method. The N yield of most treated plants, especially in root systems, is higher than reference group that is measured by Kjeldahl method. The atom % 15 N excess in leaf and stem of treated plants measured by 15 N isotope dilution method is lower than that of reference group. Through four years experiments, it shows that para-nodules of wheat treated with 2,4-D+A could fix N 2 from air, but the ability of nitrogen fixation is lower and unstable. Although the nodulation efficiency could reach 100%, not each para-nodule induced can present activity of dinitrogen fixation. The amount of N fixed is 0.05∼18.1 mg/pot (0.01∼3.87 mg/plant). The net %Ndfa is 2.32%∼18.07%. The free-living N 2 fixing activity of azorhizobium is detected by 15 N isotope dilution method. The calculation of %Ndfa of nodulated wheat accurately is also discussed

  10. Host range, symbiotic effectiveness and nodulation competitiveness ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ERIC-PCR DNA fingerprinting patterns were used to identify the isolates occupying nodules. All the isolates nodulated cowpea, groundnut (Arachis hypogeae) and mungbean (Vigna radiata), but only AII-2-1, AII-3-4 and BIII-2-2 nodulated soybean (Glycine max). Apart from cowpea where all the isolates were effective, there ...

  11. Distribution of nodules and associated features in the Central Indian Basin: observations from seabed photogarphs

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sharma, R.

    in standard format (SPHINCS) developed for photography data in dBASE III+. The photographic observations have helped in classifying the seafloor, as nodule dominant, sediment dominant and rock dominant, based on the coverage and abundance data; which...

  12. The mineral economy of Brazil--Economia mineral do Brasil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurmendi, Alfredo C.; Barboza, Frederico Lopes; Thorman, Charles H.

    1999-01-01

    This study depicts the Brazilian government structure, mineral legislation and investment policy, taxation, foreign investment policies, environmental laws and regulations, and conditions in which the mineral industry operates. The report underlines Brazil's large and diversified mineral endowment. A total of 37 mineral commodities, or groups of closely related commodities, is discussed. An overview of the geologic setting of the major mineral deposits is presented. This report is presented in English and Portuguese in pdf format.

  13. South African Papilionoid Legumes Are Nodulated by Diverse Burkholderia with Unique Nodulation and Nitrogen-Fixation Loci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beukes, Chrizelle W.; Venter, Stephanus N.; Law, Ian J.; Phalane, Francina L.; Steenkamp, Emma T.

    2013-01-01

    The root-nodule bacteria of legumes endemic to the Cape Floristic Region are largely understudied, even though recent reports suggest the occurrence of nodulating Burkholderia species unique to the region. In this study, we considered the diversity and evolution of nodulating Burkholderia associated with the endemic papilionoid tribes Hypocalypteae and Podalyrieae. We identified distinct groups from verified rhizobial isolates by phylogenetic analyses of the 16S rRNA and recA housekeeping gene regions. In order to gain insight into the evolution of the nodulation and diazotrophy of these rhizobia we analysed the genes encoding NifH and NodA. The majority of these 69 isolates appeared to be unique, potentially representing novel species. Evidence of horizontal gene transfer determining the symbiotic ability of these Cape Floristic Region isolates indicate evolutionary origins distinct from those of nodulating Burkholderia from elsewhere in the world. Overall, our findings suggest that Burkholderia species associated with fynbos legumes are highly diverse and their symbiotic abilities have unique ancestries. It is therefore possible that the evolution of these bacteria is closely linked to the diversification and establishment of legumes characteristic of the Cape Floristic Region. PMID:23874611

  14. Qualitative elastography can replace thyroid nodule fine-needle aspiration in patients with soft thyroid nodules. A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nell, Sjoerd; Kist, Jakob W. [Department of Surgery, University Medical Center Utrecht (Netherlands); Debray, Thomas P.A. [Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care Utrecht (Netherlands); Keizer, Bart de [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Utrecht (Netherlands); Oostenbrugge, Timotheus J. van; Borel Rinkes, Inne H.M. [Department of Surgery, University Medical Center Utrecht (Netherlands); Valk, Gerlof D. [Department of Endocrinology, University Medical Center Utrecht (Netherlands); Vriens, Menno R., E-mail: mvriens@umcutrecht.nl [Department of Surgery, University Medical Center Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2015-04-15

    Context: Only a minority of thyroid nodules is malignant; nevertheless, many invasive diagnostic procedures are performed to distinguish between benign and malignant nodules. Qualitative ultrasound elastography is a non-invasive technique to evaluate thyroid nodules. Objective: To investigate the diagnostic value of qualitative elastography in distinguishing benign from malignant thyroid nodules in patients referred for fine-needle aspiration (FNA). Data sources: A systematic literature search (PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library) was performed. Study selection: Included studies reported thyroid nodule elastography color scores and the related cytologic or histologic findings in patients with a thyroid nodule referred for FNA. Data extraction: Two independent reviewers extracted study data and assessed study quality. Pooled sensitivities and specificities of different populations were calculated using a bivariate Bayesian framework. Data Synthesis: Twenty studies including thyroid nodules were analyzed. Pooled results of elastography indicate a summary sensitivity of 85% (95% confidence interval [CI], 79–90%) and specificity of 80% (95% CI, 73–86%). The respective pooled negative predictive and positive predictive values were 97% (95% CI, 94–98%) and 40% (95% CI, 34–48%). The pretest probability of a benign nodule was 82%. Only 3.7% of the false-negative nodules was a follicular thyroid carcinoma. A pooled negative predictive value of 99% (95% CI, 97–100%) was found when only complete soft nodules (Asteria elastography 1) were classified as benign, which included 14% of the studied population. Conclusions: Elastography has a fair specificity and sensitivity for diagnostic accuracy. Its major strength entails the detection of benignity, especially when only completely soft nodules are qualified as benign. The outcomes of our analysis show that FNA could safely be omitted in patients referred for analysis of their thyroid nodule when elastography shows it

  15. Molecular aspects of the nitrogen fixing system in pea root nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisseling, T.

    1980-01-01

    The author considers symbiotic nitrogen fixation of Pisum sativum and Rhizobium leguminosarum. Some general aspects of nodule formation and the regulation of the proteins nitrogenase and leghemoglobin (Lb) have been studied. Synthesis of these proteins was studied by 35 SO 4 labelling of intact pea plants. The sequence of appearance of the proteins was determined with specific radioimmunoassays for each protein. (Auth.)

  16. Isolate pulmonary nodule. CT-guided biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruneton, J.N.; Ettore, F.; Rogopoulos, A.; Geoffray, A.; Balu-Maestro, C.; Le Houcq, M.

    1989-01-01

    Transparietal CT-guided biopsy location can be successfully performed for isolate pulmonary nodules, defined as lesions with a maximal diameter of 3 cm, without any other parenchymal or mediastinal abnormality. A 21 G needle has been used according to an identical protocole in 64 cases (10 benign, 54 malignant). The biopsy was successful in 77.7% of the malignant cases. In relation to the diameter of the nodules, biopsy was successful in 66.7% of the nodules smaller than 2 cm and in 76% of the nodules ranging from 2 to 3 cm. The complications observed were rare (1 case of pneumothorax requiring drainage, 9 cases of pneumothorax without clinical signs and simply followed up, 4 cases of minor hemoptysis requiring no treatment and 5 cases of hematomas smaller than 5 cm on CT) [fr

  17. Pulmonary nodule: new concepts of an Old Problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diederich, S.; Wormanns, D.

    2003-01-01

    In the past, a pulmonary nodule was considered malignant until proven otherwise, usually histologically, which frequently required invasive diagnostic procedures. The nodule was mostly detected on conventional chest radiographs and usually larger than 10 mm. Recently, modern (multi-slice) helical CT detects an increasing number of very small (≤ 10 mm) nodules, which are benign in > 95%. Consequently, the exclusion of malignancy demands different diagnostic procedures, which should be predominantly non-invasive. This article presents the current data as well as imaging techniques for the determination of the nature of pulmonary nodules and suggests concepts for the diagnostic approach to small pulmonary nodules. (orig.) [de

  18. Methodology for determination of trace elements in mineral phases of iron banded formation by LA-ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa, Denise V.M. de; Nalini Junior, Herminio A.; Sampaio, Geraldo M.S.; Abreu, Adriana T. de; Lana, Cristiano de C.

    2015-01-01

    The study of the chemical composition of mineral phases of iron formation (FF), especially of trace elements, is an important tool in the understanding of the genesis of these rocks and the contribution of the phases in the composition of whole rock. Low mass fraction of such elements in the mineral phases present in this rock type requires a suitable analytical procedure. The laser ablation technique coupled with ICP-MS (LA-ICP-MS) has been widely used for determination of trace elements in geological samples. Thus, the aim of this study is to develop calibration curves for determination of trace elements (Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb and Lu) in mineral phases of banded iron formations by LA-ICP-MS. Several certified reference materials (CRM) were used for calibrate the equipment. The analytical conditions were checked by CRM NIST SRM 614. The results were satisfactory, since the curves showed good linearity coefficients, good accuracy and precision of results. (author)

  19. Ground-based hyperspectral imaging and terrestrial laser scanning for fracture characterization in the Mississippian Boone Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lei; Khan, Shuhab D.; Sarmiento, Sergio; Lakshmikantha, M. R.; Zhou, Huawei

    2017-12-01

    Petroleum geoscientists have been using cores and well logs to study source rocks and reservoirs, however, the inherent discontinuous nature of these data cannot account for horizontal heterogeneities. Modern exploitation requires better understanding of important source rocks and reservoirs at outcrop scale. Remote sensing of outcrops is becoming a first order tool for reservoir analog studies including horizontal heterogeneities. This work used ground-based hyperspectral imaging, terrestrial laser scanning (TLS), and high-resolution photography to study a roadcut of the Boone Formation at Bella Vista, northwest Arkansas, and developed an outcrop model for reservoir analog analyses. The petroliferous Boone Formation consists of fossiliferous limestones interbedded with chert of early Mississippian age. We used remote sensing techniques to identify rock types and to collect 3D geometrical data. Mixture tuned matched filtering classification of hyperspectral data show that the outcrop is mostly limestones with interbedded chert nodules. 1315 fractures were classified according to their strata-bounding relationships, among these, larger fractures are dominantly striking in ENE - WSW directions. Fracture extraction data show that chert holds more fractures than limestones, and both vertical and horizontal heterogeneities exist in chert nodule distribution. Utilizing ground-based remote sensing, we have assembled a virtual outcrop model to extract mineral composition as well as fracture data from the model. We inferred anisotropy in vertical fracture permeability based on the dominancy of fracture orientations, the preferential distribution of fractures and distribution of chert nodules. These data are beneficial in reservoir analogs to study rock mechanics and fluid flow, and to improve well performances.

  20. Interactions Between Snow-Adapted Organisms, Minerals and Snow in a Mars-Analog Environment, and Implications for the Possible Formation of Mineral Biosignatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausrath, E.; Bartlett, C. L.; Garcia, A. H.; Tschauner, O. D.; Murray, A. E.; Raymond, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that icy environments on bodies such as Mars, Europa, and Enceladus may be important potential habitats in our solar system. Life in icy environments faces many challenges, including water limitation, temperature extremes, and nutrient limitation. Understanding how life has adapted to withstand these challenges on Earth may help understand potential life on other icy worlds, and understanding the interactions of such life with minerals may help shed light on the detection of possible mineral biosignatures. Snow environments, being particularly nutrient limited, may require specific adaptations by the microbiota living there. Previous observations have suggested that associated minerals and microorganisms play an important role in snow algae micronutrient acquisition. Here, in order to interpret micronutrient uptake by snow algae, and potential formation of mineral biosignatures, we present observations of interactions between snow algae and associated microorganisms and minerals in both natural, Mars-analog environments, and laboratory experiments. Samples of snow, dust, snow algae, and microorganisms were collected from Mount Anderson Ridge, CA. Some samples were DAPI-stained and analyzed by epifluorescent microscopy, and others were freeze-dried and examined by scanning electron microscopy, synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD) and synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (XRF). Xenic cultures of the snow alga Chloromonas brevispina were also grown under Fe-limiting conditions with and without the Fe-containing mineral nontronite to determine impacts of the mineral on algal growth. Observations from epifluorescent microscopy show bacteria closely associated with the snow algae, consistent with a potential role in micronutrient acquisition. Particles are also present on the algal cell walls, and synchrotron-XRD and XRF observations indicate that they are Fe-rich, and may therefore be a micronutrient source. Laboratory experiments indicated

  1. Management of a solitary thyroid nodule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, R.S.

    1999-01-01

    Solitary nodule in the thyroid is a common clinical entity. A careful clinical assessment is the crucial first step in deciding the modality of treatment. The only worthwhile investigation is FNAC. Other investigations are done merely for the sake of a complete academic work up and can usually be dispensed with in most of the cases. Not every solitary nodule requires surgery. The optimum surgery for a solitary nodule is a total lobectomy. The specimen should be subjected to histological examination before recommending further treatment

  2. Effect of mineral nitrogen fertilization on growth characteristics of lucerne under induced water deficiency stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasileva, V.; Vasilev, E.; Athar, M.

    2011-01-01

    Utility of lucerne crop fertilization with nitrogen fertilizer has been discussed in literature with controversy. In this study experiment was conducted to determine the effect of mineral nitrogen at the doses of 40, 80, 120 and 160 mg N/kg on some characteristics of lucerne under induced water deficiency stress at the stage of budding in a pot trial. It was found that mineral nitrogen at the doses of 120 and 160 mg N/kg soil increased the productivity of dry top mass by 17 and 23% in conditions of optimum moisture, and by 9% in conditions of water deficiency stress at the dose of 80 mg N/kg soil. Application of mineral nitrogen at the dose of 120 and 160 mg N/kg soil increased the quantity of dry root mass by 43 and 38% for the conditions of optimum moisture, and by 54-56% for conditions of water deficiency stress. Mineral nitrogen fertilizing at the dose of 40 mg N/kg soil had the lowest suppressive effect on the nodulation (11%). The dose of 160 mg N/kg soil was found to be toxic to nodulation. The dose of 80 mg N/kg soil, at which the crop had the lowest sensitivity to water deficiency stress, was optimal for lucerne development. (author)

  3. Isolation and Characterization of Alfalfa-Nodulating Rhizobia Present in Acidic Soils of Central Argentina and Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Papa, María F.; Balagué, Laura J.; Sowinski, Susana Castro; Wegener, Caren; Segundo, Eduardo; Abarca, Francisco Martínez; Toro, Nicolás; Niehaus, Karsten; Pühler, Alfred; Aguilar, O. Mario; Martínez-Drets, Gloria; Lagares, Antonio

    1999-01-01

    We describe the isolation and characterization of alfalfa-nodulating rhizobia from acid soils of different locations in Central Argentina and Uruguay. A collection of 465 isolates was assembled, and the rhizobia were characterized for acid tolerance. Growth tests revealed the existence of 15 acid-tolerant (AT) isolates which were able to grow at pH 5.0 and formed nodules in alfalfa with a low rate of nitrogen fixation. Analysis of those isolates, including partial sequencing of the genes encoding 16S rRNA and genomic PCR-fingerprinting with MBOREP1 and BOXC1 primers, demonstrated that the new isolates share a genetic background closely related to that of the previously reported Rhizobium sp. Or191 recovered from an acid soil in Oregon (B. D. Eardly, J. P. Young, and R. K. Selander, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 58:1809–1815, 1992). Growth curves, melanin production, temperature tolerance, and megaplasmid profiles of the AT isolates were all coincident with these characteristics in strain Or191. In addition to the ability of all of these strains to nodulate alfalfa (Medicago sativa) inefficiently, the AT isolates also nodulated the common bean and Leucaena leucocephala, showing an extended host range for nodulation of legumes. In alfalfa, the time course of nodule formation by the AT isolate LPU 83 showed a continued nodulation restricted to the emerging secondary roots, which was probably related to the low rate of nitrogen fixation by the largely ineffective nodules. Results demonstrate the complexity of the rhizobial populations present in the acidic soils represented by a main group of N2-fixing rhizobia and a second group of ineffective and less-predominant isolates related to the AT strain Or191. PMID:10103231

  4. Impact of overexpression of cytosolic isoform of O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase on soybean nodulation and nodule metabolome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrogen-fixing nodules, which are also major sites of sulfur assimilation, contribute significantly to the sulfur needs of the whole soybean plants. Nodules are the predominant sites for cysteine accumulation and the activity of O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase (OASS; also known as O-acetylserine(thio...

  5. Thyroid nodules with nondiagnostic results on repeat fine-needle aspiration biopsy: which nodules should be considered for repeat biopsy or surgery rather than follow-up?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eun, Na Lae; Chang, Hang Seok; Gweon, Hye Mi; Kim, Jeong Ah; Youk, Ji Hyun; Son, Eun Jun [Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Mi Ri [Dept. of Radiology, Dongjak Kyunghee Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Ah Young [Dept. of Radiology, Korea University Ansan Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Ansan (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Hee Jung [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    The goal of this study was to assess the clinicopathologic and ultrasonographic features of thyroid nodules with nondiagnostic results on repeat ultrasonography (US)-guided fineneedle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) according to size and the number of suspicious findings and to determine the proper management of nodules with consecutive nondiagnostic results. This retrospective study included 297 nodules with nondiagnostic results on repeat FNAB that were evaluated by US over the course of at least 12 months of follow-up, a follow-up biopsy, or an operation. We compared clinical and US variables between benign and malignant nodules in thyroid nodules with repeat nondiagnostic results. The comparison of benign and malignant nodules with repeat nondiagnostic results revealed that age, marked hypoechogenicity, irregular or microlobulated margins, microcalcifications, and nonparallel shape were significantly associated with malignancy. Multivariate logistic regression analysis in malignant nodules revealed that microcalcifications and irregular or microlobulated margins were independently associated with malignancy. Among them, only irregular or microlobulated margins were independently significant as a predictor of malignancy in repeatedly nondiagnostic nodules measuring >10 mm. Using receiver operating characteristic analysis, the best cutoff value for the “number of suspicious findings” between benign and malignant nodules was three in nodules of all sizes, three in nodules measuring ≤10 mm, and two in nodules measuring >10 mm. Irregular or microlobulated margins may be the most frequent US features in repeatedly nondiagnostic nodules >10 mm. The presence of “two or more suspicious findings” can be used as the cutoff for distinguishing benign and malignant nodules.

  6. Segmentation of nodules on chest computed tomography for growth assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullally, William; Betke, Margrit; Wang Jingbin; Ko, Jane P.

    2004-01-01

    Several segmentation methods to evaluate growth of small isolated pulmonary nodules on chest computed tomography (CT) are presented. The segmentation methods are based on adaptively thresholding attenuation levels and use measures of nodule shape. The segmentation methods were first tested on a realistic chest phantom to evaluate their performance with respect to specific nodule characteristics. The segmentation methods were also tested on sequential CT scans of patients. The methods' estimation of nodule growth were compared to the volume change calculated by a chest radiologist. The best method segmented nodules on average 43% smaller or larger than the actual nodule when errors were computed across all nodule variations on the phantom. Some methods achieved smaller errors when examined with respect to certain nodule properties. In particular, on the phantom individual methods segmented solid nodules to within 23% of their actual size and nodules with 60.7 mm3 volumes to within 14%. On the clinical data, none of the methods examined showed a statistically significant difference in growth estimation from the radiologist

  7. Use of lead isotopic composition in sulfides for the mineral-formation geochronology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ordynets, G.E.

    1977-01-01

    A study of the isotopic composition of lead in pyrites and galenites of a hydrothermal uranium deposit makes it possible to determine the time of ore formation. A few types of lead ores are distinguished. Each type corresponds to a definite period of mineralization and is characterized by a specific isotopic composition. The Cimmerian age of carbonate-sulphide veins has been established, the deposit being formed over a period of 150-200 million years

  8. Assessing the distribution and abundance of seabed minerals from seafloor photographic data in the Central Indian Ocean Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sharma, R.; Khadge, N.H.; JaiSankar, S.

    Distribution characteristics of deep-sea mineral resources such as polymetallic nodules and ferromanganese crusts are often influenced by local seafloor features such as the topographic undulations and sediment thickness. Qualitative as well as semi...

  9. Vasculature surrounding a nodule: A novel lung cancer biomarker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohua; Leader, Joseph K; Wang, Renwei; Wilson, David; Herman, James; Yuan, Jian-Min; Pu, Jiantao

    2017-12-01

    To investigate whether the vessels surrounding a nodule depicted on non-contrast, low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) can discriminate benign and malignant screen detected nodules. We collected a dataset consisting of LDCT scans acquired on 100 subjects from the Pittsburgh Lung Screening study (PLuSS). Fifty subjects were diagnosed with lung cancer and 50 subjects had suspicious nodules later proven benign. For the lung cancer cases, the location of the malignant nodule in the LDCT scans was known; while for the benign cases, the largest nodule in the LDCT scan was used in the analysis. A computer algorithm was developed to identify surrounding vessels and quantify the number and volume of vessels that were connected or near the nodule. A nonparametric receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed based on a single nodule per subject to assess the discriminability of the surrounding vessels to provide a lung cancer diagnosis. Odds ratio (OR) were computed to determine the probability of a nodule being lung cancer based on the vessel features. The areas under the ROC curves (AUCs) for vessel count and vessel volume were 0.722 (95% CI=0.616-0.811, plung cancer group 9.7 (±9.6) compared to the non-lung cancer group 4.0 (±4.3) CONCLUSION: Our preliminary results showed that malignant nodules are often surrounded by more vessels compared to benign nodules, suggesting that the surrounding vessel characteristics could serve as lung cancer biomarker for indeterminate nodules detected during LDCT lung cancer screening using only the information collected during the initial visit. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Proton MR spectroscopy in solitary pulmonary nodules: a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Chunshan; Xiao Xiangsheng; Li Huimin; Liu Shiyuan; Li Chengzhou; Li Shenjiang

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the characteristics and the regularities of the metabolites in solitary pulmonary nodules with proton MR spectroscopy, and to investigate the clinical value of MR spectroscopy in differentiating benign from malignant pulmonary nodules. Methods: Sixty-nine patients with solitary pulmonary nodules underwent routine MRI and single-voxel MR spectroscopy using Siemens Vision 1.5 T MR system. MR spectroscopy characteristics and parameters of the metabolites were observed and recorded. Ten pathologic specimens were examined with single-voxel MR spectroscopy. The MR spectroscopy results of the pathologic specimens were compared with those of the solitary pulmonary nodules in vivo. Results: The Cho peak (2.86 ± 1.89) of the malignant nodules was higher than that of the inflammatory (0.87 ± 0.74), tuberculous nodules (0.97 ± 1.09), and hamartoma (0.42 ± 0.53) (P 0.05). Conclusion: MR spectroscopy is reliable in evaluating pulmonary nodules in vivo. The Cho peak, Cho/Cr, and Lac peak of the malignant nodules were higher than those of inflammatory, tuberculous nodules, and hamartoma. MR spectroscopy is helpful in differentiating benign from malignant pulmonary nodules. (authors)

  11. Post-depositional formation of vivianite-type minerals alters sediment phosphorus records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Dijkstra

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus (P concentrations in sediments are frequently used to reconstruct past environmental conditions in freshwater and marine systems, with high values thought to be indicative of a high biological productivity. Recent studies suggest that the post-depositional formation of vivianite, an iron(II-phosphate mineral, might significantly alter trends in P with sediment depth. To assess its importance, we investigate a sediment record from the Bornholm Basin that was retrieved during the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP Baltic Sea Paleoenvironment Expedition 347 in 2013, consisting of lake sediments overlain by brackish–marine deposits. Combining bulk sediment geochemistry with microanalysis using scanning electron microscope energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS and synchrotron-based X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS, we demonstrate that vivianite-type minerals rich in manganese and magnesium are present in the lake deposits just below the transition to the brackish–marine sediments (at 11.5 to 12 m sediment depth. In this depth interval, phosphate that diffuses down from the organic-rich, brackish–marine sediments meets porewaters rich in dissolved iron in the lake sediments, resulting in the precipitation of iron(II phosphate. Results from a reactive transport model suggest that the peak in iron(II phosphate originally occurred at the lake–marine transition (9 to 10 m and moved downwards due to changes in the depth of a sulfidization front. However, its current position relative to the lake–marine transition is stable as the vivianite-type minerals and active sulfidization fronts have been spatially separated over time. Experiments in which vivianite was subjected to sulfidic conditions demonstrate that incorporation of manganese or magnesium in vivianite does not affect its susceptibility to sulfide-induced dissolution. Our work highlights that post-depositional formation of iron(II phosphates such as vivianite has

  12. Post-depositional formation of vivianite-type minerals alters sediment phosphorus records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Nikki; Hagens, Mathilde; Egger, Matthias; Slomp, Caroline P.

    2018-02-01

    Phosphorus (P) concentrations in sediments are frequently used to reconstruct past environmental conditions in freshwater and marine systems, with high values thought to be indicative of a high biological productivity. Recent studies suggest that the post-depositional formation of vivianite, an iron(II)-phosphate mineral, might significantly alter trends in P with sediment depth. To assess its importance, we investigate a sediment record from the Bornholm Basin that was retrieved during the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Baltic Sea Paleoenvironment Expedition 347 in 2013, consisting of lake sediments overlain by brackish-marine deposits. Combining bulk sediment geochemistry with microanalysis using scanning electron microscope energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and synchrotron-based X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), we demonstrate that vivianite-type minerals rich in manganese and magnesium are present in the lake deposits just below the transition to the brackish-marine sediments (at 11.5 to 12 m sediment depth). In this depth interval, phosphate that diffuses down from the organic-rich, brackish-marine sediments meets porewaters rich in dissolved iron in the lake sediments, resulting in the precipitation of iron(II) phosphate. Results from a reactive transport model suggest that the peak in iron(II) phosphate originally occurred at the lake-marine transition (9 to 10 m) and moved downwards due to changes in the depth of a sulfidization front. However, its current position relative to the lake-marine transition is stable as the vivianite-type minerals and active sulfidization fronts have been spatially separated over time. Experiments in which vivianite was subjected to sulfidic conditions demonstrate that incorporation of manganese or magnesium in vivianite does not affect its susceptibility to sulfide-induced dissolution. Our work highlights that post-depositional formation of iron(II) phosphates such as vivianite has the potential to strongly

  13. Role of clay minerals in the formation of atmospheric aggregates of Saharan dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadros, Javier; Diaz-Hernandez, José L.; Sanchez-Navas, Antonio; Garcia-Casco, Antonio

    2015-11-01

    Saharan dust can travel long distances in different directions across the Atlantic and Europe, sometimes in episodes of high dust concentration. In recent years it has been discovered that Saharan dust aerosols can aggregate into large, approximately spherical particles of up to 100 μm generated within raindrops that then evaporate, so that the aggregate deposition takes place most times in dry conditions. These aerosol aggregates are an interesting phenomenon resulting from the interaction of mineral aerosols and atmospheric conditions. They have been termed "iberulites" due to their discovery and description from aerosol deposits in the Iberian Peninsula. Here, these aggregates are further investigated, in particular the role of the clay minerals in the aggregation process of aerosol particles. Iberulites, and common aerosol particles for reference, were studied from the following periods or single dust events and locations: June 1998 in Tenerife, Canary Islands; June 2001 to August 2002, Granada, Spain; 13-20 August 2012, Granada; and 1-6 June 2014, Granada. Their mineralogy, chemistry and texture were analysed using X-ray diffraction, electron microprobe analysis, SEM and TEM. The mineral composition and structure of the iberulites consists of quartz, carbonate and feldspar grains surrounded by a matrix of clay minerals (illite, smectite and kaolinite) that also surrounds the entire aggregate. Minor phases, also distributed homogenously within the iberulites, are sulfates and Fe oxides. Clays are apparently more abundant in the iberulites than in the total aerosol deposit, suggesting that iberulite formation concentrates clays. Details of the structure and composition of iberulites differ from descriptions of previous samples, which indicates dependence on dust sources and atmospheric conditions, possibly including anthropic activity. Iberulites are formed by coalescence of aerosol mineral particles captured by precursor water droplets. The concentration of

  14. TIRADS for sonographic assessment of hypofunctioning and indifferent thyroid nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenke, Simone; Rink, T; Zimny, M

    2015-01-01

    To test the feasibility of the Thyroid Imaging Reporting And Data System (TIRADS) according to Horvath and Kwak for the assessment of thyroid nodules. Retrospective analysis of patients with thyroid nodules applying the following inclusion criteria: B-mode-ultrasound, surgery and histological results. Thyroid nodules were classified as TIRADS 2, 3, 4A, 4B, 4C, 5 and 6. A total of 172 patients were included (133 women, 48 ± 13 years, 39 men, 49 ± 11 years) with 222 thyroid nodules (24.9 ± 11.5 mm). Final histological diagnosis revealed 203 benign nodules (91%) and 19 malignant nodules (9%; 18 papillary thyroid carcinoma, PTC, and one medullary thyroid carcinoma, MTC). One hundred and sixty thyroid nodules were hypofunctioning in 99mTc-pertechnetate-scintigraphy, 14 nodules were hyperfunctioning and 46 nodules were classified as indifferent. In two cases with small carcinoma nodules (39%) were not clearly classifiable, including 3 carcinoma (4.1%). According to Kwak, the prevalence of malignancy was 6.9% in TIRADS 2, 0% in 3, 2% in 4A, 4.1% in 4B, 23.1% in 4C, and 100% in 5 and 6, respectively. Notably, in the subgroup of hot nodules, 11 (79%) were graded as TIRADS 4A or higher, and thus advisable for fine-needle aspiration biopsy in both TIRADS. The TIRADS described by Horvath is not practicable due to numerous unclassifiable nodules. The revised TIRADS published by Kwak is feasible and suitable to assess the prevalence of malignancy, but it cannot replace scintigraphic imaging. Fine-needle-biopsy is not necessary in nodules categorized as (K)TIRADS 3, 4A and 5.

  15. Osteoclasts secrete non-bone derived signals that induce bone formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsdal, Morten A; Neutzsky-Wulff, Anita V; Dziegiel, Morten Hanefeld

    2008-01-01

    Bone turnover is a highly regulated process, where bone resorption in the normal healthy individual always is followed by bone formation in a manner referred to as coupling. Patients with osteopetrosis caused by defective acidification of the resorption lacuna have severely decreased resorption......) from human osteoclasts cultured on either bone or plastic, and tested their effects on bone nodule formation by osteoblasts. Both types of CM were shown to dose-dependently induce bone nodule formation, whereas non-conditioned osteoclast culture medium had no effects. These data show that osteoclasts...

  16. From the Surface to the Deep-Sea: Bacterial Distributions across Polymetallic Nodule Fields in the Clarion-Clipperton Zone of the Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindh, Markus V; Maillot, Brianne M; Shulse, Christine N; Gooday, Andrew J; Amon, Diva J; Smith, Craig R; Church, Matthew J

    2017-01-01

    Marine bacteria regulate fluxes of matter and energy essential for pelagic and benthic organisms and may also be involved in the formation and maintenance of commercially valuable abyssal polymetallic nodules. Future mining of these nodule fields is predicted to have substantial effects on biodiversity and physicochemical conditions in mined areas. Yet, the identity and distributions of bacterial populations in deep-sea sediments and associated polymetallic nodules has received relatively little attention. We examined bacterial communities using high-throughput sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA gene fragments from samples collected in the water column, sediment, and polymetallic nodules in the Pacific Ocean (bottom depth ≥4,000 m) in the eastern Clarion-Clipperton Zone. Operational taxonomic units (OTUs; defined at 99% 16S rRNA gene identity) affiliated with JTB255 (Gammaproteobacteria) and Rhodospirillaceae (Alphaproteobacteria) had higher relative abundances in the nodule and sediment habitats compared to the water column. Rhodobiaceae family and Vibrio OTUs had higher relative abundance in nodule samples, but were less abundant in sediment and water column samples. Bacterial communities in sediments and associated with nodules were generally similar; however, 5,861 and 6,827 OTUs found in the water column were retrieved from sediment and nodule habitats, respectively. Cyanobacterial OTUs clustering among Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus were detected in both sediments and nodules, with greater representation among nodule samples. Such results suggest that vertical export of typically abundant photic-zone microbes may be an important process in delivery of water column microorganisms to abyssal habitats, potentially influencing the structure and function of communities in polymetallic nodule fields.

  17. [Nodules on localized scleroderma or morphea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayle, P; Bazex, J; Marguery, M-C; Lamant, L

    2005-02-01

    Localized scleroderma or morphea usually appears as flat or depressed lesions. We report 3 cases of morphea with atypical appearance, alternating pigmented and depigmented patches with nodules or sclerous bands, occurring in adult men. The occurrence of nodular elements on generalized or localized scleroderma, although rare, was first reported in the literature by Addisson in 1884. These nodules usually appear during evolution. These scleroderma are then described as being keloidal or nodular. We report 3 cases of nodules on localized scleroderma which appeared at the beginning of the dermatosis and where the scleroderma had a similar unusual irregularly pigmented appearance.

  18. Evaluation of thyroid nodules by 123I thyroid scintigraphy and computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, Yoshiko; Imanishi, Yoshimasa; Ehara, Norishige

    1991-01-01

    We have already reported that computed tomography (CT) could be used to quantify iodine concentration in the thyroid. Correlation between CT value and iodine concentration in thyroid tissues was represented by the following formula (n=31, r=0.96): iodine concentration=(CT value-65)/104 (mg/g). In this study, we evaluated thyroid nodules by 123 I thyroid scintigraphy and histograms of CT values in the nodules. Radioiodine accumulation and the histograms on CT of the thyroid nodules were correlated with the histopathology of 35 thyroid nodules (22 benign nodules, 13 malignant nodules) of 27 patients. Results showed no definite correlation between radioiodine accumulation in the thyroid nodule and the pattern on CT reflecting iodine concentration in the nodule. Some nodules with little radioiodine accumulation had considerable iodine concentration. Benign thyroid nodules tended to have lower iodine concentration than malignant nodules. Fifteen (94%) of 16 nodules showing only minimal iodine concentration were benign. We conclude that the function and/or differentiation of tumor cells in the thyroid nodule must be evaluated not only radioiodine accumulation in the nodule but also by iodine concentration in the nodule and that thyroid nodules with only minimal iodine concentration are most likely benign. (author)

  19. Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation for benign nodules of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Jung Hwan; Jeong, Hyun Jo; Kim, Yoon Suk; Kwak, Min Sook; Chang, Sun Hee; Rhim, Hyun Chul

    2005-01-01

    We wanted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of using ultrasound guided percutaneous radiofrequency ablation for the benign nodules of the thyroid gland. We studied 148 patients with benign thyroid nodules (200 total nodules) that were confirmed histopathologically, and we performed ultrasound guided radiofrequency ablation. The radiofrequency ablation was done 1 to 5 times per one nodule, and follow-up ultrasonography was performed one to nineteen months after the ablation procedures. The physical changes and the decrease of volume of the nodules were evaluated, and the complications related to radiofrequency ablation were observed. The mean initial nodule volume was 0.01-95.61 ml (mean; 6.83 ± SD of 10.63 ml) and the nodule volume after radiofrequency ablation was decreased to 0.00-46.56 ml (mean; 1.83 ± SD of 4.69 ml). The mean volume reduction rate was 73.2%. Reduction of more than 50% was noted in 90% of all cases. For 180 nodules (90%), the decrease was 50% or more, in 20 nodules (10%), the decrease was 49% or less. On gray-scale ultrasonogram obtained after ablation, the echogenicity of the nodules changed to darker, and on the doppler-sonogram, the vascular flow within the nodules disappeared in all cases. Most patients complained pain during or right after the procedure, but the pain was transient and subsided after medication. Two patients developed hoarseness that was improved in 1 week and 2 months, respectively. Sonoguided percutaneous radiofrequency ablation can be one of the treatments for benign nodules of the thyroid gland

  20. The thyroid nodule. Thyrotropin and peripheral thyroid hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimny, M.

    2008-01-01

    Thyrotropin, free triodothyronine and thyroxine represent the standard serological parameters for the diagnostic work-up of the thyroid but only a minority of thyroid nodules present with subclinical or overt thyroid disorders. Besides a review of the regulation and principle of function of thyroid hormones as well as the effects of subclinical or overt hyperthyroidism, the significant role of these parameters beyond the assessment of hyperthyroidism in thyroid nodules is discussed. There is evidence that the level of thyrotropin within the normal range is predictive for the relevance of autonomous functioning nodules and the risk of malignancy of non-functioning thyroid nodules. Furthermore, the ratio of triodothyronine and thyroxine indicates the etiology of hyperthyroidism. Thyrotropin represents the main parameter to determine the adequate dose of thyroid hormone therapy of thyroid nodules. (orig.)

  1. Thyroid nodule classification using ultrasound elastography via linear discriminant analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Si; Kim, Eung-Hun; Dighe, Manjiri; Kim, Yongmin

    2011-05-01

    The non-surgical diagnosis of thyroid nodules is currently made via a fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy. It is estimated that somewhere between 250,000 and 300,000 thyroid FNA biopsies are performed in the United States annually. However, a large percentage (approximately 70%) of these biopsies turn out to be benign. Since the aggressive FNA management of thyroid nodules is costly, quantitative risk assessment and stratification of a nodule's malignancy is of value in triage and more appropriate healthcare resources utilization. In this paper, we introduce a new method for classifying the thyroid nodules based on the ultrasound (US) elastography features. Unlike approaches to assess the stiffness of a thyroid nodule by visually inspecting the pseudo-color pattern in the strain image, we use a classification algorithm to stratify the nodule by using the power spectrum of strain rate waveform extracted from the US elastography image sequence. Pulsation from the carotid artery was used to compress the thyroid nodules. Ultrasound data previously acquired from 98 thyroid nodules were used in this retrospective study to evaluate our classification algorithm. A classifier was developed based on the linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and used to differentiate the thyroid nodules into two types: (I) no FNA (observation-only) and (II) FNA. Using our method, 62 nodules were classified as type I, all of which were benign, while 36 nodules were classified as Type-II, 16 malignant and 20 benign, resulting in a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 75.6% in detecting malignant thyroid nodules. This indicates that our triage method based on US elastography has the potential to substantially reduce the number of FNA biopsies (63.3%) by detecting benign nodules and managing them via follow-up observations rather than an FNA biopsy. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Three-dimensional local residual stress and orientation gradients near graphite nodules in ductile cast iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yubin; Andriollo, Tito; Fæster, Søren

    2016-01-01

    strains are measured with a maximum strain of ∼6.5–8 × 10−4 near the graphite nodules extending into the matrix about 20 μm, where the elastic strain is near zero. The experimental data are compared with a strain gradient calculated by a finite element model, and good accord has been found...... but with a significant overprediction of the maximum strain. This is discussed in terms of stress relaxation during cooling or during storage by plastic deformation of the nodule, the matrix or both. Relaxation by plastic deformation of the ferrite is demonstrated by the formation of low energy dislocation cell...

  3. Are phloem-derived amino acids the origin of the elevated malate concentration in the xylem sap following mineral N starvation in soybean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitor, Simone C; do Amarante, Luciano; Sodek, Ladaslav

    2018-05-16

    A substantial increase in malate in the xylem sap of soybean subjected to mineral N starvation originates mainly from aspartate, a prominent amino acid of the phloem. A substantial increase in xylem malate was found when non-nodulated soybean plants were transferred to a N-free medium. Nodulated plants growing in the absence of mineral N and, therefore, dependent on symbiotic N 2 fixation also contained elevated concentrations of malate in the xylem sap. When either nitrate or ammonium was supplied, malate concentrations in the xylem sap were low, both for nodulated and non-nodulated plants. Evidence was obtained that the elevated malate concentration of the xylem was derived from amino acids supplied by the phloem. Aspartate was a prominent component of the phloem sap amino acids and, therefore, a potential source of malate. Supplying the roots of intact plants with 13 C-aspartate revealed that malate of the xylem sap was readily labelled under N starvation. A hypothetical scheme is proposed whereby aspartate supplied by the phloem is metabolised in the roots and the products of this metabolism cycled back to the shoot. Under N starvation, aspartate metabolism is diverted from asparagine synthesis to supply N for the synthesis of other amino acids via transaminase activity. The by-product of aspartate transaminase activity, oxaloacetate, is transformed to malate and its export accounts for much of the elevated concentration of malate found in the xylem sap. This mechanism represents a new additional role for malate during mineral N starvation of soybean, beyond that of charge balance.

  4. Use of Volumetry for Lung Nodule Management: Theory and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaraj, Anand; van Ginneken, Bram; Nair, Arjun; Baldwin, David

    2017-09-01

    A consistent feature of many lung nodule management guidelines is the recommendation to evaluate nodule size by using diameter measurements and electronic calipers. Traditionally, the use of nodule volumetry applications has primarily been reserved for certain lung cancer screening trials rather than clinical practice. However, even before the first nodule management guidelines were published more than a decade ago, research has been ongoing into the use of nodule volumetry as a means of measuring nodule size, and this research has accelerated in recent years. This article aims to provide radiologists with an up-to-date review of the most recent literature on volumetry and volume doubling times in lung nodule management, outlining their benefits and drawbacks. A brief technical review of typical volumetry applications is also provided. © RSNA, 2017.

  5. Bean nodulation patterns in soils of different texture at Morogoro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thus, nodulation success by the inoculum was total in the clay but only dismal in the sandy soil. The unexpected discrepancy between inoculum success on the one hand and nodulation plus plant growth response on the other, is discussed. Keywords: Bean nodulation, ELISA typing of nodules, phaseolus vulgaris

  6. System for automatic detection of lung nodules exhibiting growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Carol L.; Shen, Hong; Odry, Benjamin L.; Ko, Jane P.; Naidich, David P.

    2004-05-01

    Lung nodules that exhibit growth over time are considered highly suspicious for malignancy. We present a completely automated system for detection of growing lung nodules, using initial and follow-up multi-slice CT studies. The system begins with automatic detection of lung nodules in the later CT study, generating a preliminary list of candidate nodules. Next an automatic system for registering locations in two studies matches each candidate in the later study to its corresponding position in the earlier study. Then a method for automatic segmentation of lung nodules is applied to each candidate and its matching location, and the computed volumes are compared. The output of the system is a list of nodule candidates that are new or have exhibited volumetric growth since the previous scan. In a preliminary test of 10 patients examined by two radiologists, the automatic system identified 18 candidates as growing nodules. 7 (39%) of these corresponded to validated nodules or other focal abnormalities that exhibited growth. 4 of the 7 true detections had not been identified by either of the radiologists during their initial examinations of the studies. This technique represents a powerful method of surveillance that may reduce the probability of missing subtle or early malignant disease.

  7. Vocal nodules in a colombian teachers group with dysphonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Felipe Alvarado Díaz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study determined the prevalence of vocal nodules associated with dysphonia in teachers aged from 35 to 65 years, taking into consideration both individual and occupational variables. Methodology: Descriptive study that included the information contained in 262 medical records of teachers diagnosed with dysphonia in occupational health consultations at the institutions that provide health services in Bogotá, Colombia from March 2009 to March 2012. The presence of laryngeal nodules was based on the findings of a nasofibrolaryngoscopy procedure. Results: Nodules were found in 67 teachers, which corresponded to a rate of 25.5%, being apparently (highest observed rates associated primarily with the following variables: females, ages from 45 to 54 years, bilateral nodules, and teaching position (preschool and physical education. Of the teachers with nodules, 76.1% had fewer than five doctor's appointments, and 75% had more than 90 days of sick leave. Conclusion: A high percentage of teachers have vocal nodules associated with dysphonia. This may be apparently related to different variables such as sex, type of nodule, area and teaching position. Was observed only a statistically significant association among presence of nodules and age (p=0.018. In addition this disorder generates a large number of incapacities and employee absenteeism.

  8. Evaluation of diffuse thyroid diseases and thyroid nodules by CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Kyoko; Imanishi, Yoshimasa; Nakaji, Shunsuke; Shinagawa, Toshihito

    2007-01-01

    Imanishi et al. have previously reported that the changes in CT values reveal not only the change in iodine concentration in thyroid follicles, but also represent secondary changes in follicular content and follicular cells and/or interstitial structures. Thus, we performed thyroid CT without contrast material in 138 controls, 417 cases with diffuse thyroid diseases, and 279 cases with thyroid nodules, and evaluated the CT images based on the relation between the change in CT values and pathological changes. In 89% of the controls and 43% of patients with diffuse thyroid diseases, the thyroid CT revealed diffuse high density. In contrast, the 94% of thyroids that demonstrated diffuse low density were from patients with diffuse thyroid diseases. Eighty-four percent of malignant nodules and 64% of benign nodules had inhomogeneous densities, and only 26% of benign thyroid nodules had homogeneous density. However, 71% of nodules that showed high and low densities with regular and clear borders, and 82% of nodules that showed papillary proliferation in a cyst pattern were benign. Although only 58% of nodules with calcification were malignant, 66% of nodules with calcification in the central portion, and 86% of nodules with calcification of a disseminated and convergent pattern in distribution were malignant. Sixty-two percent of thyroids that surrounded nodules had chronic thyroiditis, hypoplasia and/or adenomatous goiter. Thus, unclear borders between a nodule and the surrounding thyroid tissue did not increase the possibility of malignancy. However, the unclear and/or lobulated border between a nodule and extra thyroid tissue increased the possibility of malignancy. We concluded that thyroid CT without contrast material is useful for the diagnosis of thyroid diseases. (author)

  9. Graphite nodule count and size distribution in thin-walled ductile cast iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl Martin; Tiedje, Niels Skat

    2008-01-01

    Graphite nodule count and size distribution have been analysed in thin walled ductile cast iron. The 2D nodule counts have been converted into 3D nodule count by using Finite Difference Method (FDM). Particles having a diameter smaller than 5 µm should be neglected in the nodule count as these ar......Graphite nodule count and size distribution have been analysed in thin walled ductile cast iron. The 2D nodule counts have been converted into 3D nodule count by using Finite Difference Method (FDM). Particles having a diameter smaller than 5 µm should be neglected in the nodule count...... as these are inclusions and micro porosities that do not influence the solidification morphology. If there are many small graphite nodules as in thin walled castings only 3D nodule count calculated by FDM will give reliable results. 2D nodule count and 3D nodule count calculated by simple equations will give too low...

  10. Laryngeal ultrasound and pediatric vocal fold nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongkasuwan, Julina; Devore, Danielle; Hollas, Sarah; Jones, Jeremy; Tran, Brandon

    2017-03-01

    The term vocal fold nodules refers to bilateral thickening of the membranous folds with minimal impairment of the vibratory properties of the mucosa. Nodules are thought to be related to repetitive mechanical stress, associated with voice use patterns. Diagnosis is typically made in the office via either rigid or flexible laryngeal stroboscopy. Depending on the individual child, obtaining an optimal view of the larynx can be difficult if not impossible. Recent advances in high-frequency ultrasonography allows for transcervical examination of laryngeal structures. The goal of this project was to determine if laryngeal ultrasound (LUS) can be used to identify vocal fold nodules in dysphonic children. Prospective case-control study in which the patient acted as his or her own control. Forty-six pediatric patients were recruited for participation in this study; the mean age was 4.8 years. Twenty-three did not have any vocal fold lesions and 23 had a diagnosis of vocal fold nodules on laryngeal stroboscopy. Recorded LUSs were reviewed by two pediatric radiologists who were blinded to the nodule status. There was substantial inter-rater agreement (κ = 0.70, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.50-0.89) between the two radiologists regarding the presence of nodules. There was also substantial agreement (κ = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.72-1) between LUS and laryngeal stroboscopy. Sensitivity of LUS was 100% (95% CI: 85%-100%) and specificity was 87% (95% CI: 66%-97%). LUS can be used to identify vocal fold nodules in children with substantial agreement with laryngeal stroboscopy. 3b Laryngoscope, 127:676-678, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  11. Sonographically guided fine-needle biopsy of thyroid nodules: the effects of nodule characteristics, sampling technique, and needle size on the adequacy of cytological material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degirmenci, B.; Haktanir, A.; Albayrak, R.; Acar, M.; Sahin, D.A.; Sahin, O.; Yucel, A.; Caliskan, G.

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the effects of sonographic characteristics of thyroid nodules, the diameter of needle used for sampling, and sampling technique on obtaining sufficient cytological material (SCM). Materials and methods: We performed sonography-guided fine-needle biopsy (FNB) in 232 solid thyroid nodules. Size-, echogenicity, vascularity, and localization of all nodules were evaluated by Doppler sonography before the biopsy. Needles of size 20, 22, and 24 G were used for biopsy. The biopsy specimen was acquired using two different methods after localisation. In first method, the needle tip was advanced into the nodule in various positions using a to-and-fro motion whilst in the nodule, along with concurrent aspiration. In the second method, the needle was advanced vigorously using a to-and-fro motion within the nodule whilst being rotated on its axis (capillary-action technique). Results: The mean nodule size was 2.1 ± 1.3 cm (range 0.4-7.2 cm). SCM was acquired from 154 (66.4%) nodules by sonography-guided FNB. In 78 (33.6%) nodules, SCM could not be collected. There was no significant difference between nodules with different echogenicity and vascularity for SCM. Regarding the needle size, the lowest rate of SCM was obtained using 20 G needles (56.6%) and the highest rate of adequate material was obtained using 24 G needles (82.5%; p = 0.001). The SCM rate was 76.9% with the capillary-action technique versus 49.4% with the aspiration technique (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Selecting finer needles (24-25 G) for sonography-guided FNB of thyroid nodules and using the capillary-action technique decreased the rate of inadequate material in cytological examination

  12. Autonomous nodule of the thyroid: correlation of patient age, nodule size, and functional status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, M.; Shenkman, L.; Hollander, C.S.

    1975-01-01

    In light of new techniques for measuring circulating thyroid hormones and for studying the thyroid gland, we present our experience with 35 patients with solitary autonomous nodules of the thyroid to define more precisely the clinical course of patients with this disorder. The patients ranged in age from 19 to 80 years and 31 of the 35 were female. Younger patients were generally euthyroid and sought attention because of a thyroid mass; virtually all older patients were hyperthyroid. Eighteen had obvious clinical features of hyperthyroidism and 5 over age 70 had apathetic hyperthyroidism; all 5 of the elderly and 13 of the 18 under age 70 had elevated thyroxine (T 4 ) and triiodothyronine (T 3 ) levels. Isolated elevation of T 3 and elevated basal metabolic rate were observed in 5 previously untreated clinically hyperthyroid young patients. In each of these, thyroid uptake of 131 I was not suppressible with exogenous T 3 and BMR was elevated in those tested. Two elderly patients, who had previously been treated for conventional hyperthyroidism with radioactive iodine, had T 3 toxicosis when hyperthyroidism recurred. There was a strong positive correlation between the age of the patient, the size of the nodule and the thyroid functional state. The mean area of the nodules projected on 131 I rectilinear scan for euthyroid patients was 5.1 cm 2 . The mean area of the nodules in hyperthyroid subjects was significantly higher, 13.4 cm 2 in patients with T 3 toxicosis and 19.3 cm 2 in subjects with conventional hyperthyroidism. Progression from a euthyroid state to hyperthyroidism was observed in four patients. One of these became thyrotoxic within days after an injection of iodinated contrast medium. Spontaneous resolution of nodules occurred in two patients

  13. Relationship between Mineral and Organic Matter in Shales: The Case of Shahejie Formation, Dongying Sag, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Zeng

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Types of organic matter and mineral associations and microstructures of shales can reflect the depositional mechanism and sedimentary environment. Therefore, analysis of organic matter and mineral associations is a prerequisite for research on fine-grained sedimentary rocks. Shales from the Eocene Shahejie Formation in the Dongying Sag of China were selected to classify their lithofacies and to investigate the characteristics of their organic matter and mineral associations. This analysis identified six lithofacies (e.g., laminated shales and massive mudstones; in all the lithofacies, clay minerals exhibit a positive correlation with detrital minerals, thus indicating that they were derived from the same source. The comprehensive analysis of mineral and organic matter associations reveals that detrital minerals were deposited with low-hydrogen index (HI OM. The deposition of detrital minerals was mainly a physical process. Clay minerals can undergo deposition in one of two ways due to their surface charge: they can either aggregate with high-HI OM via chemical deposition, thus forming organic-rich laminae, or they can be deposited together with low-HI OM via physical deposition, thus forming clay-rich laminae or a massive matrix. Carbonate minerals, which often coexist with high-HI OM, are biological sediments. The analysis of the sedimentary characteristics of these organic matter and mineral associations indicates that the sedimentary processes differ between various lithofacies: e.g., the discontinuous laminated shale represents the product of biophysical processes. Differences in depositional mechanisms are also present in each sub-member. Therefore, it is important to analyze the properties of minerals and organic matter, as well as their associations, to more deeply understand the classification of lithofacies and the depositional processes of shales and mudstones.

  14. From the Surface to the Deep-Sea: Bacterial Distributions across Polymetallic Nodule Fields in the Clarion-Clipperton Zone of the Pacific Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus V. Lindh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Marine bacteria regulate fluxes of matter and energy essential for pelagic and benthic organisms and may also be involved in the formation and maintenance of commercially valuable abyssal polymetallic nodules. Future mining of these nodule fields is predicted to have substantial effects on biodiversity and physicochemical conditions in mined areas. Yet, the identity and distributions of bacterial populations in deep-sea sediments and associated polymetallic nodules has received relatively little attention. We examined bacterial communities using high-throughput sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA gene fragments from samples collected in the water column, sediment, and polymetallic nodules in the Pacific Ocean (bottom depth ≥4,000 m in the eastern Clarion-Clipperton Zone. Operational taxonomic units (OTUs; defined at 99% 16S rRNA gene identity affiliated with JTB255 (Gammaproteobacteria and Rhodospirillaceae (Alphaproteobacteria had higher relative abundances in the nodule and sediment habitats compared to the water column. Rhodobiaceae family and Vibrio OTUs had higher relative abundance in nodule samples, but were less abundant in sediment and water column samples. Bacterial communities in sediments and associated with nodules were generally similar; however, 5,861 and 6,827 OTUs found in the water column were retrieved from sediment and nodule habitats, respectively. Cyanobacterial OTUs clustering among Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus were detected in both sediments and nodules, with greater representation among nodule samples. Such results suggest that vertical export of typically abundant photic-zone microbes may be an important process in delivery of water column microorganisms to abyssal habitats, potentially influencing the structure and function of communities in polymetallic nodule fields.

  15. Development of a clinical decision model for thyroid nodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eberhardt John

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thyroid nodules represent a common problem brought to medical attention. Four to seven percent of the United States adult population (10–18 million people has a palpable thyroid nodule, however the majority (>95% of thyroid nodules are benign. While, fine needle aspiration remains the most cost effective and accurate diagnostic tool for thyroid nodules in current practice, over 20% of patients undergoing FNA of a thyroid nodule have indeterminate cytology (follicular neoplasm with associated malignancy risk prevalence of 20–30%. These patients require thyroid lobectomy/isthmusectomy purely for the purpose of attaining a definitive diagnosis. Given that the majority (70–80% of these patients have benign surgical pathology, thyroidectomy in these patients is conducted principally with diagnostic intent. Clinical models predictive of malignancy risk are needed to support treatment decisions in patients with thyroid nodules in order to reduce morbidity associated with unnecessary diagnostic surgery. Methods Data were analyzed from a completed prospective cohort trial conducted over a 4-year period involving 216 patients with thyroid nodules undergoing ultrasound (US, electrical impedance scanning (EIS and fine needle aspiration cytology (FNA prior to thyroidectomy. A Bayesian model was designed to predict malignancy in thyroid nodules based on multivariate dependence relationships between independent covariates. Ten-fold cross-validation was performed to estimate classifier error wherein the data set was randomized into ten separate and unique train and test sets consisting of a training set (90% of records and a test set (10% of records. A receiver-operating-characteristics (ROC curve of these predictions and area under the curve (AUC were calculated to determine model robustness for predicting malignancy in thyroid nodules. Results Thyroid nodule size, FNA cytology, US and EIS characteristics were highly predictive of

  16. Root developmental programs shape the Medicago truncatula nodule meristem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franssen, H.; Xiao, T.T.; Kulikova, O.; Wan, X.; Bisseling, T.; Scheres, B.; Heidstra, R.

    2015-01-01

    Nodules on the roots of legume plants host nitrogen-fixing Rhizobium bacteria. Several lines of evidence indicate that nodules are evolutionarily related to roots. We determined whether developmental control of the Medicago truncatula nodule meristem bears resemblance to that in root meristems

  17. VATS intraoperative tattooing to facilitate solitary pulmonary nodule resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boutros Cherif

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS has become routine and widely accepted for the removal of solitary pulmonary nodules of unknown etiology. Thoracosopic techniques continue to evolve with better instruments, robotic applications, and increased patient acceptance and awareness. Several techniques have been described to localize peripheral pulmonary nodules, including pre-operative CT-guided tattooing with methylene blue, CT scan guided spiral/hook wire placement, and transthoracic ultrasound. As pulmonary surgeons well know, the lung and visceral pleura may appear featureless on top of a pulmonary nodule. Case description This paper presents a rapid, direct and inexpensive approach to peripheral lung lesion resection by marking the lung parenchyma on top of the nodule using direct methylene blue injection. Methods In two patients with peripherally located lung nodules (n = 3 scheduled for VATS, we used direct methylene blue injection for intraoperative localization of the pulmonary nodule. Our technique was the following: After finger palpation of the lung, a spinal 25 gauge needle was inserted through an existing port and 0.1 ml of methylene blue was used to tattoo the pleura perpendicular to the localized nodule. The methylene blue tattoo immediately marks the lung surface over the nodule. The surgeon avoids repeated finger palpation, while lining up stapler, graspers and camera, because of the visible tattoo. Our technique eliminates regrasping and repalpating the lung once again to identify a non marked lesion. Results Three lung nodules were resected in two patients. Once each lesion was palpated it was marked, and the area was resected with security of accurate localization. All lung nodules were resected in totality with normal lung parenchymal margins. Our technique added about one minute to the operative time. The two patients were discharged home on the second postoperative day, with no morbidity. Conclusion

  18. Long-term follow-up sonography of benign cystic thyroid nodules after a percutaneous ethanol injection: the incidence of malignancy-mimicking nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ji Sung; Kim, Dong Wook; Eun, Choong Ki; Choi, Seok Jin; Rho, Myung Ho

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the incidence of malignancy-mimicking sclerosed thyroid nodules, from long-term follow-up ultrasonography (US) after an US-guided percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI). We examined 86 benign cystic thyroid nodules from 80 patients. The nodules were classified into two groups based on whether an aspiration (Group A, n = 26) or non-aspiration (Group B, n 60) of infused ethanol was performed. The final follow-up US over 12 months was performed in all patients. Of the 86 nodules, the cystic portion of 82 (95.3%) cases, from 76 patients, completely disappeared subsequent to the first follow-up US (Group A, n = 24, Group B, n = 58) (Chi-square test, ρ > 0.05). Moreover, 46 sclerosed thyroid nodules showed two or more of the 'five sonographic criteria' upon a follow-up US (Group A, n = 13, 50.0%, Group B, n = 32, 53.3%). A higher ratio of the cystic portion of the nodules was associated with a higher incidence of the 'five sonographic criteria' for malignancies detected via a follow-up US (ρ < 0.01; Student's t-test). For the long-term follow-up US, the 'five sonographic criteria' were observed in half the patients who received US-guided PEI. Also, by acknowledging the possibility that sonographic findings mimic a malignancy, since the sclerosed thyroid nodule, patients may avoid an unnecessary biopsy

  19. Botulinum toxin in the treatment of vocal fold nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jacqui E; Belafsky, Peter C

    2009-12-01

    Promising new techniques in the management of vocal fold nodules have been developed in the past 2 years. Simultaneously, the therapeutic use of botulinum toxin has rapidly expanded. This review explores the use of botulinum toxin in treatment of vocal nodules and summarizes current therapeutic concepts. New microsurgical instruments and techniques, refinements in laser technology, radiosurgical excision and steroid intralesional injections are all promising new techniques in the management of vocal nodules. Botulinum toxin-induced 'voice rest' is a new technique we have employed in patients with recalcitrant nodules. Successful resolution of nodules is possible with this technique, without the risk of vocal fold scarring inherent in dissection/excision techniques. Botulinum toxin usage is exponentially increasing, and large-scale, long-term studies demonstrate its safety profile. Targeted vocal fold temporary paralysis induced by botulinum toxin injection is a new, well tolerated and efficacious treatment in patients with persistent vocal fold nodules.

  20. Evaluation of percutaneous ethanol injections in benign thyroid nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Camila Luhm Silva; Fighera, Tayane Muniz; Miasaki, Fabiola; Mesa Junior, Cleo Otaviano; Paz Filho, Gilberto Jorge da; Graf, Hans; Carvalho, Gisah Amaral de

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) in the treatment of benign thyroid nodules. We evaluated 120 patients with benign thyroid nodules. Patients underwent evaluation of serum TSH and free T4, cervical ultrasound, and thyroid scintigraphy (in those with suppressed TSH levels). The application of sterile ethanol 99% was guided by ultrasound, with the injected volume amounting to one-third of the nodule volume. Response was considered complete (reduction of 90%); partial (reduction between 50 and 90%); or none (reduction of nodules were evaluated for normalization of TSH levels. Among the nodules studied, 30.8% were solid, 56.7% were mixed, 12.5% were cystic, and 21.6% were hyperfunctioning. The initial volume of the treated nodules ranged from 0.9 to 74.8 mL (mean 13.1 ± 12.4 mL). We performed 1-8 sessions of PEI, applying an average of 6.2 mL of ethanol for patient. After 2 years of follow-up, 17% of patients achieved a complete response (94% reduction); 53%, a partial response (70% reduction); and 30%, no response. A reduction in the volume of autonomous nodules was noted in 70% of cases, and 54% had a normalized value of TSH. The main side effect is local pain, lasting less than 24 hours in most cases. This study showed that PEI is a safe and effective procedure for treatment of benign, solid or mixed thyroid nodules. Most cases resulted in significant reduction in nodule volume, with normalization of thyroid function.

  1. The Effect of Gamma Radiation on Mars Mineral Matrices: Implications for Perchlorate Formation on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, A. C.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Pavlov, A.; Lewis, J.

    2017-12-01

    Observations by the Phoenix Wet Chemistry Lab of the Martian surface indicate the presence of perchlorate in high concentrations. Additional observations by the Sample Analysis at Mars and the Viking Landers indirectly support the presence of perchlorate at other localities on Mars. The evidence for perchlorate at several localities on Mars coupled with its detection in Martian meteorite EETA79001 suggests that perchlorate is present globally on Mars. The presence of perchlorate on Mars further complicates the search for organic molecules indicative of past life. While perchlorate is kinetically limited in Martian conditions, the intermediate species associated with its formation or decomposition, such as chlorate or chlorite, could oxidize Martian organic species. As a result, it is vital to understand the mechanism of perchlorate formation on Mars in order to determine its role in the degradation of organics. Here, we explore an alternate mechanism of formation of perchlorate by bombarding Cl-salts and Mars-relevant mineral mixtures with gamma radiation both with and without the presence of liquid water, under vacuum. Previous work has shown that OClO can form from both UV radiation and energetic electrons bombardment of Cl-ices or Cl-salts, which then reacts with either OH- or O-radicals to produce perchlorate. Past research has suggested that liquid water or ice is the source of these hydroxyl and oxygen radicals, which limits the location of perchlorate formation on Mars. We demonstrate that trace amounts of perchlorate are potentially formed in samples containing silica dioxide or iron oxide and Cl-salts both with and without liquid water. Perchlorate was also detected in a portion of samples that were not irradiated, suggesting possible contamination. We did not detect perchlorate in samples that contained sulfate minerals. If perchlorate was formed without liquid water, it is possible that oxide minerals could be a potential source of oxygen radicals

  2. On the computed tomographic diagnosis of pulmonary nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashi, Yuuichirou

    1988-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) was used to examine 53 pulmonary nodules which were considered not definitely calcified on plain radiographs or conventional tomograms. An average CT number was calculate for each lesion. For the primary lung cancers, the average CT number was 36 HU with a standard deviation of 6.6 HU, while the benign lesions had the mean CT number of 69 HU, with a standard deviation of 42.8 HU. The mean CT number separating lung malignancies from benign lesions was 78.8 HU. To evaluate the attenuation values within each nodule, iso-CT value map was obtained by using Siemens therapy planning system, MEVAPLAN. Nodules were classified into five categories, Type I to V. All of three nodules classified as Type IV were benign. Iso-CT value map was effective in establishing the benignancy of nodules. The quantitative computed tomographic analysis of pulmonary nodules was evaluated by dual-energy CT. Dual-energy CT has the potential to eliminate the effect of spectral hardening by use of monoenergic images derived from dual-kV data and to separate high CT numbers due to calcium from those due to high density organic material. (author)

  3. Direct detection of radicals in intact soybean nodules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathieu, C; Moreau, S; Frendo, P

    1998-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy has been employed to examine the nature of the metal ions and radicals present in intact root nodules of soybean plants grown in the absence of nitrate. The spectra obtained from nodules of different ages using this non-invasive technique show dramatic...... differences, suggesting that there are both qualitative and quantitative changes in the metal ion and radical species present. A major component of the spectra obtained from young nodules is assigned to a complex (Lb-NO) of nitric oxide (NO.) with the heme protein leghemoglobin (Lb). This Lb-NO species, which...... has not been previously detected in intact root nodules of plants grown in the absence of nitrate, is thought to be formed by reaction of nitric oxide with iron(II) leghemoglobin. The nitric oxide may be generated from arginine via a nitric oxide synthase-like activity present in the nodules...

  4. On the possibility of occurrence of uranium mineralization in some sedimentary formations of the Sudety Mts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miecznik, J.B.; Strzelecki, R.

    1979-01-01

    The Sudety Mts represent a part of the Bohemian Massif which is one of the richest uranium-bearing regions in Europe. The possibilities of occurrence of uranium in most interesting sedimentary formations of the Sudety Mts are analysed. The sedimentary formations which originated during the platform stage of evolution of these Mountains, after formation of Variscan endogenic mineralization, were recognized as perspective here. Sandstone-type uranium deposits and uraniferous black shales were assumed to be the most important in that area. Sandstone-type uranium deposits are related to continental uppermost Carboniferous (Glinik Beds - Westphalian C-D and, possibly, lowermost Stephanian) of the Central Sudety (Intra-Sudetic Depression). They closely resemble uranium deposits known from continental clastic Permo-Carboniferous sections of several parts of Europe. Westphalian D and Stephanian rocks developed in similar lithofacies in the western Sudety Mts (North-Sudetic Depression) may be also characterized by increased content of uranium. Attention is also paid to the possibilities of occurrence of uranium mineralization in shallow-marine sandstones and continental deposits of the Cenomanian as uranium deposits are known from similarly developed Cenomanian in the North Czech Upper Cretaceous Table area, i.e. in the direct neighbourhood of the Sudety Mts. Traces of uranium mineralization were found in black shales of the Lower Silurian section in the Kaczawa Mts (western Sudety Mts) and Bardo Mts (Central Sudety). The recorded concentrations (up to several hundred ppm) may be compared with uranium occurrences known from Lower Silurian sections of the Barrandian (CSSR) and Thuringia (GDR). (author)

  5. Ultrasound assistance in differentiating malignant thyroid nodules from benign ones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahir, S.T.; Sefidrokh, S.; Heidari, F.; Vakili, M.; Ghaneei, A.

    2017-01-01

    The search is ongoing for simple, effective ways to identify and differentiate thyroid nodules in order to avoid invasive procedures. This study aims to perform an ultrasound assessment of clinically suspected patients with malignant nodules, to perform a fine needle biopsy on them, and to compare the results obtained. Methods: In total, 135 patients with thyroid nodules suspected to be malignant in the ultrasound underwent ultrasound-guided fine needle biopsies. The patients' gender, age, ultrasound views (echogenicity, shape, and calcification type), nodule size, number of nodules, and needle biopsy results were retrospectively evaluated. Results: Of the 135 patients, 117 (86.7 percent) were female and 18 (13.3 percent) were male. In terms of age, 67 (49.16 percent) were younger than 40 and the rest were older. According to the Chi-square test, a significant relationship was found between the type of nodule and calcification found in the ultrasound views (p=0.001). The nodule type was not significantly related to gender (p=0.563) or to the number of nodules (p=0.128); however, there was a significant relationship between nodule size and type (p=0.001). Ultrasound specificity, sensitivity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy for differentiating benign from malignant nodules were 93.2 percent, 93.8 percent, 81.1 percent, 98 percent, and 93.3 percent, respectively. Conclusions: Ultrasound views (comet tail artefact and linear echogenic foci) were better predictors of benign nodules than of malignant ones, while round, echogenic foci, brighter and larger than typical micro-calcifications without any visible echoes and multiple punctuate round echogenic foci were better predicted malignancy. (author)

  6. Iron-titanium oxide minerals and magnetic susceptibility anomalies in the Mariano Lake-Lake Valley cores - Constraints on conditions of uranium mineralization in the Morrison Formation, San Juan Basin, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, R.L.; Fishman, N.S.; Scott, J.H.; Hudson, M.R.

    1986-01-01

    Petrographic study of the Mariano Lake-Lake Valley cores reveals three distinct zones of postdepositional alteration of detrital Fe-Ti (iron-titanium) oxide minerals in the Westwater Canyon Member of the Upper Jurassic Morrisson Formation. In the uranium-bearing and adjacent portions of the Westwater Canyon, these detrital Fe-Ti oxide minerals have been thoroughly altered by leaching of iron. Stratigraphically lower parts of the Westwater Canyon and the underlying Recapture Member are characterized by preservation of Fe-Ti oxide grains, primarily magnetite and ilmenite, and of hematite, and by an absence or uranium concentrations. Partly destroyed Fe-Ti oxide minerals occupy an interval between the zones of destruction and preservation. Alteration patterns of the Fe-Ti oxide minerals are reflected in bore-hole magnetic susceptibility logs. Magnetic susceptibility response in the upper parts of the Westwater Canyon Member is flat and uniformly <500 μSI units, but at greater depths it fluctuates sharply, from <1,000 to nearly 8,000 μSI units. The boundary between uniformly low and high magnetic susceptibility response corresponds closely to the interval that divides the zone of completely altered from the zone of preserved detrital Fe-Ti oxide minerals. The alteration pattern suggests that solutions responsible for destruction of the Fe-ti oxide minerals originated in the overlying Brushy Basin Member of the Morrison Formation. Previous studies indicate that these solutions were rich in soluble organic matter and perhaps in uranium. Uranium precipitation may have been controlled by a vertically fluctuation interface between organic-rich solutions and geochemically different fluids in which the detrital Fe-Ti oxide minerals were preserved

  7. Hyper-functioning Thyroid Nodule with Scintigraphic Owl's Eye Appearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Kordi, R.S.; Elgazzar, A.H.

    2006-01-01

    Hyper-functioning thyroid nodules may produce various scintigraphic appearances on thyroid scans. Autonomously hyper functioning thyroid nodules invariably demonstrate degenerative changes. These changes may give rise to central or less commonly peripheral photopenic areas on a thyroid scan within otherwise a hot nodule. In this report we present a case of hyper functioning autonomous nodule with peripheral degeneration and residual central functioning tissue giving the appearance of an owl's eye. Although rare, this pattern can be seen in a variety of benign and malignant thyroid conditions. (author)

  8. Isotope analysis of closely adjacent minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.P.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes a method of determining an indicator of at least one of hydrocarbon formation, migration, and accumulation during mineral development. It comprises: searching for a class of minerals in a mineral specimen comprising more than one class of minerals; identifying in the mineral specimen a target sample of the thus searched for class; directing thermally pyrolyzing laser beam radiation onto surface mineral substance of the target sample in the mineral specimen releasing surface mineral substance pyrolysate gases therefrom; and determining isotope composition essentially of the surface mineral substance from analyzing the pyrolysate gases released from the thus pyrolyzed target sample, the isotope composition including isotope(s) selected from the group consisting of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen isotopes; determining an indicator of at least one of hydrocarbon formation, migration, and accumulation during mineral development of the target mineral from thus determined isotope composition of surface mineral substance pyrolysate

  9. A Structural and Histochemical Study of Actinorhizal Nodules of Casuarina equisetifolia Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Athar

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Casuarina equisetifolia Linn. is an introduced actinorhizal plant grown as roadside ornamental tree and as forest plantation in Pakistan. Actinorhizal nodules are formed on the roots of C. equisetifolia as a response to infection by Frankia. Structure of C. equisetifolia nodules is described using histochemical methods to elucidate the nature of micro-symbiont within the nodules. C. equisetifolia nodules were similar to a root in general anatomical structure and resembled with Myrica-type nodules. The nodule consisted of a distinct periderm enclosing the cortex. The cortex showed patches of infected cells interspersed among uninfected ones. Inside the cortex there was a stele bounded by an endodermis, which contained tannins. The phloem-xylem relationship was amphicribral. A poorly defined meristem was also observed. Apart from simple nodules, dichotomously branched and coralloid nodules were also observed. The stele in simple and branched nodules reached up to the tip of the nodules. The micro-symbiont was observed in the nodule tissues in hyphal form only. The histochemical tests revealed absence of vacuoles and starch grains, and presence of tannins and lignin.

  10. Surgical and Pathological Changes after Radiofrequency Ablation of Thyroid Nodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Dobrinja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA has been recently advocated as an effective technique for the treatment of symptomatic benign thyroid nodules. It is not known to what extent it may affect any subsequent thyroid surgery and/or histological diagnosis. Materials and Methods. RFA was performed on 64 symptomatic Thy2 nodules (benign nodules and 6 symptomatic Thy3 nodules (follicular lesions/follicular neoplasms. Two Thy3 nodules regrew after the procedure, and these patients accepted to undergo a total thyroidectomy. Here we present how RFA has affected the operation and the final pathological features of the surgically removed nodules. Results and Conclusions. RFA is effective for the treatment of Thy2 nodules, but it should not be recommended as first-line therapy for the treatment of Thy3 nodules (irrespective of their mutational status, as it delays surgery in case of malignancy. Moreover, it is unknown whether RFA might promote residual tumor progression or neoplastic progression of Thy3 lesions. Nevertheless, here we show for the first time that one session of RFA does not affect subsequent thyroid surgery and/or histological diagnosis.

  11. Cold thyroid nodules show a marked increase in proliferation markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krohn, Knut; Stricker, Ingo; Emmrich, Peter; Paschke, Ralf

    2003-06-01

    Thyroid follicular adenomas and adenomatous thyroid nodules are a frequent finding in geographical areas with iodine deficiency. They occur as hypofunctioning (scintigraphically cold) or hyperfunctioning (scintigraphically hot) nodules. Their predominant clonal origin suggests that they result from clonal expansion of a single cell, which is very likely the result of a prolonged increase in proliferation compared with non-affected surrounding cells. To test whether increased cell proliferation is detectable in cold thyroid nodules, we studied paraffin-embedded tissue from 40 cold thyroid nodules and their surrounding normal thyroid tissue for the occurrence of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and Ki-67 (MIB-1 antibody) epitopes as markers for cell proliferation. All 40 thyroid nodules were histologically well characterized and have been studied for molecular characteristics before. The labeling index (number of labeled cells versus total cell number) for nodular and surrounding tissue was calculated. In 33 cold thyroid nodules a significant (p thyroid nodules a significant (p thyroid epithelial cell proliferation is a uniform feature common to most cold nodules. However, the increase of proliferation markers shows a heterogeneity that is not correlated with histopathologic, molecular, or clinical characteristics.

  12. Initial application of digital tomosynthesis for detection of pulmonary nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Zhiyuan; Su Hong; Zhao Yane; Ju Bing; Chang Shuanghui; Hu Qiuju; Lu Guangming

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the value of digital tomosynthesis for detection of pulmonary nodules. Methods: Thirty patients suspected of having pulmonary nodules underwent chest radiography, digital tomosynthesis and CT examination. Above image data were transferred to postprocessing work station and were reviewed by 2 radiologists with 3 years of chest-radiology diagnosis experience in a double-blind method. The number, location and size of nodules were recorded. Then, 2 radiologists reviewed the all images once more, and discuss in consensus. The sensitivities of chest radiography and digital tomosynthesis for detection of pulmonary nodules were respectively calculated according to the CT results. Chi-square test was used for radiography, digital tomosynthesis and CT examination. Results: Of 30 patients, 21 were detected having pulmonary nodules by X-ray radiography and 9 were negative, the total number of 40 nodules was detected, while 89 nodules in 26 patients were detected by digital tomosynthesis, and only 4 patients were negative. CT demonstrated 102 nodules in 27 patients, and 3 patients were negative. Taking CT as 'gold standard', the sensitivities of X-ray radiography and digital tomosynthesis were 27.4%(28/102)and 87.2%(89/102), X 2 =4.35, P<0.05, respectively. Conclusion: Digital tomosynthesis has a high sensitivity for detection of pulmonary nodules compared with X-ray radiography, and could be an excellent and necessary supplementary technique of X-ray radiography. (authors)

  13. Computerized detection of lung nodules in digital chest radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giger, M.L.; Doi, K.; MacMahon, H.

    1987-01-01

    Detection of cancerous lung nodules in chest radiographs is one of the more important tasks performed by a radiologist. In addition, the ''miss rate'' associated with the radiographic detection of lung nodules is approximately 30%. A computerized scheme that alerts the radiologist to possible locations of lung nodules should allow this number of false-negative diagnoses to be reduced. The authors are developing a computer-aided nodule detection scheme based on a difference image approach. They attempt to eliminate the camouflaging background structure of the normal lung anatomy by creating, from a single-projection chest image, two images: one in which the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the nodule is maximized and another in which that SNR is suppressed while the processed background remains essentially the same. Thus, the difference between these two processed images should consist of the nodule superimposed on a relatively uniform background in which the detection task may be simplified. This difference image approach is fundamentally different from conventional subtraction techniques (e.g., temporal or dual-energy subtraction) in that the two images which are subtracted arise from the same single-projection chest radiograph. Once the difference image is obtained, thresholding is performed along with tests for circularity, size and growth in order to extract the nodules. It should be noted that once an original chest image is input to the computer the nodule detection process is totally automated

  14. Evaluation of an improved method of simulating lung nodules in chest tomosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svalkvist, Angelica; Allansdotter Johnsson, Aase; Vikgren, Jenny

    2012-01-01

    Background Simulated pathology is a valuable complement to clinical images in studies aiming at evaluating an imaging technique. In order for a study using simulated pathology to be valid, it is important that the simulated pathology in a realistic way reflect the characteristics of real pathology. Purpose To perform a thorough evaluation of a nodule simulation method for chest tomosynthesis, comparing the detection rate and appearance of the artificial nodules with those of real nodules in an observer performance experiment. Material and Methods A cohort consisting of 64 patients, 38 patients with a total of 129 identified pulmonary nodules and 26 patients without identified pulmonary nodules, was used in the study. Simulated nodules, matching the real clinically found pulmonary nodules by size, attenuation, and location, were created and randomly inserted into the tomosynthesis section images of the patients. Three thoracic radiologists and one radiology resident reviewed the images in an observer performance study divided into two parts. The first part included nodule detection and the second part included rating of the visual appearance of the nodules. The results were evaluated using a modified receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Results The sensitivities for real and simulated nodules were comparable, as the area under the modified ROC curve (AUC) was close to 0.5 for all observers (range, 0.43-0.55). Even though the ratings of visual appearance for real and simulated nodules overlapped considerably, the statistical analysis revealed that the observers to were able to separate simulated nodules from real nodules (AUC values range 0.70-0.74). Conclusion The simulation method can be used to create artificial lung nodules that have similar detectability as real nodules in chest tomosynthesis, although experienced thoracic radiologists may be able to distinguish them from real nodules

  15. Thyroid nodules with minimal cystic changes have a low risk of malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Dong Gyu; Kim, Dae Sik; Kim, Soo Jin; Kim, Ji Hoon

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the risk of malignancy of thyroid nodules with minimal cystic changes. A total of consecutive 1,000 thyroid nodules (≥1 cm) with final diagnoses from two institutions were included in this study. The risk of malignancy of thyroid nodules was analyzed according to the internal content, which was categorized as purely solid, minimally cystic (cystic changes ≤10%), and partially cystic (cystic changes >10%). We also assessed the risk of malignancy of nodules with minimal cystic changes depending on echogenicity and presence of any suspicious ultrasonografic (US) features. The overall frequency of purely solid, minimally cystic, and partially cystic nodules was 730/1,000 (73%), 61/1,000 (6.1%), and 209/1,000 (20.9%), respectively, with risks of malignancy of 14.8% (108/730), 3.3% (2/61), and 3.3% (7/209), respectively. The risk of malignancy of nodules with minimal cystic changes was significantly lower than that of purely solid nodules (P=0.013). The risk of malignancy of nodules with minimal cystic changes was also lower than that of purely solid nodules in the group of hypoechoic nodules (P=0.063) and in the group of nodules with suspicious US features (P=0.028), but was not significantly different from that of partially cystic nodules regardless of echogenicity or the presence of suspicious US features (P≥0.652). Thyroid nodules with minimal cystic changes have a low risk of malignancy, similar to that of partially cystic nodules regardless of echogenicity or the presence of suspicious US features. The US lexicon could define solid nodules as nodules with purely solid internal content in order to enhance the accuracy of estimated risks of malignancy

  16. Benign and malignant thyroid nodules after neck irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fjaelling, M.T.; Tisell, L.E.; Carlsson, S.; Hansson, G.; Lundberg, L.M.; Oden, A.

    1986-01-01

    A total of 444 persons were examined for the presence of thyroid nodules on average of 43 years after having been treated with x-rays for cervical tuberculous adenitis. Of this total, 101 subjects had undergone surgery for thyroid nodules: 25 for carcinoma (6%) and 76 for benign nodules (17%). Carcinoma occurred with the same frequency in multinodular and uninodular glands. Because of the uneven age distribution in the current series, it could not be decided whether there was a higher susceptibility of the young thyroid to the induction of thyroid carcinoma or benign nodules. The dosage range for the whole series was 0.40 to 50.90 Gy (40-5090 rad). There was a positive correlation between the absorbed radiation dose and the probability of developing benign and malignant thyroid nodules, even after doses of 20 Gy or more. The risk of developing thyroid carcinoma was equal for men and women, while the female-to-male ratio for benign nodules was 2.9:1, indicating that risk factors associated with females are of less importance in irradiated than in nonirradiated populations. The median latency for carcinoma was 40 years, suggesting that the increased risk of thyroid carcinoma after irradiation remains for the rest of the patient's life

  17. Visualization of pulmonary nodules with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plathow, C.; Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum; Meinzer, H.-P.; Kauczor, H.-U.

    2006-01-01

    Visualization of pulmonary nodules using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays a minor role compared with computed tomography (CT). Technical developments made it possible to apply MRI more and more frequently in functional imaging. Imaging of the motion of pulmonary nodules during respiration, e.g., to optimize high precision therapy techniques, is a new field of research. This paper describes developments in analysis and visualization of pulmonary nodules during respiration using MRI. Besides actual 2D techniques new 3D techniques to quantify motion of pulmonary nodules during respiration are presented. (orig.) [de

  18. [Treatment of autonomous and cystic thyroid nodules with intranodular ethanol injection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga-Basaria, Milena; Trippia, Marcus Adriano; Stolf, Anderson Ravy; Mesa, Cléo; Graf, Hans

    2002-01-01

    Intranodular ethanol injection has been used for the past 10 years as an efficient modality for treating patients with thyroid nodules. Several studies have reported the success of this therapy in autonomous and cystic nodules and, more recently, in cold benign nodules. To evaluate the efficacy of this therapeutic modality on the treatment of autonomous and cystic thyroid nodules. 42 patients (26 with cystic and 16 with autonomous nodules) were treated with ultrasound guided intranodular 99% ethanol injection and followed for 6 months. No major complications were observed during or after treatment, however, most of the patients reported slight to moderate pain and/or discomfort after the injection. Most of the nodules showed reduction after the treatment. Autonomous nodules had a mean reduction of 50.3% and cystic nodules of 69.3%. No significant differences in pretreatment serum total T3, total T4 or TSH were observed among the patients in the cystic group. Patients in the autonomous group with hyperfunctioning nodules showed a decrease in serum total T3, total T4 and an increase in serum TSH levels, hence, proving the effectiveness of this therapy. Intranodular ethanol injection is a safe and efficient treatment for autonomous and cystic nodules of the thyroid.

  19. Pulmonary nodule characterization, including computer analysis and quantitative features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholmai, Brian J; Koo, Chi Wan; Johnson, Geoffrey B; White, Darin B; Raghunath, Sushravya M; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Moynagh, Michael R; Lindell, Rebecca M; Hartman, Thomas E

    2015-03-01

    Pulmonary nodules are commonly detected in computed tomography (CT) chest screening of a high-risk population. The specific visual or quantitative features on CT or other modalities can be used to characterize the likelihood that a nodule is benign or malignant. Visual features on CT such as size, attenuation, location, morphology, edge characteristics, and other distinctive "signs" can be highly suggestive of a specific diagnosis and, in general, be used to determine the probability that a specific nodule is benign or malignant. Change in size, attenuation, and morphology on serial follow-up CT, or features on other modalities such as nuclear medicine studies or MRI, can also contribute to the characterization of lung nodules. Imaging analytics can objectively and reproducibly quantify nodule features on CT, nuclear medicine, and magnetic resonance imaging. Some quantitative techniques show great promise in helping to differentiate benign from malignant lesions or to stratify the risk of aggressive versus indolent neoplasm. In this article, we (1) summarize the visual characteristics, descriptors, and signs that may be helpful in management of nodules identified on screening CT, (2) discuss current quantitative and multimodality techniques that aid in the differentiation of nodules, and (3) highlight the power, pitfalls, and limitations of these various techniques.

  20. Frequency of Thyroid Nodules among Patients with Colonic Polyps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cevdet Duran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Colonic polyps and thyroid nodules are common diseases and their frequency increases with age. In the literature, there is no study investigating the coexistence of colonic polyps and thyroid nodules. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate thyroid nodule prevalence in patients with colonic polyps. Material and Methods. Sixty-six patients with colonic polyps and 146 patients without colonic polyps enrolled into the study. Age and sex matched control group was composed from patients without colonic polyps. Colonoscopic examinations, thyroid ultrasonographies were performed in all patients, and TSH were measured. Results. Male/female ratio in polyp and control groups were 40/26 versus 68/78, respectively (P=0.058. Mean ages were similar in both groups (53.3±11.4 versus, 51.8±11.4, P=0.373. Thyroid nodule was detected in 44 (66.7% patients with polyps and in 61 (41.8% controls (P=0.001. Patients with adenomatous polyps had 5 or more thyroid nodules compared to patients with hyperplastic polyps (P=0.03. Thyroid nodules were more prevalent among patients aged 50 or older compared to 50 years or less (P=0.023. Conclusion. Thyroid nodules were detected more common in patients with colonic polyps. Further studies are needed to clarify this coexistence.

  1. U.S. Geological Survey Mineral Resources Program—Mineral resource science supporting informed decisionmaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Aleeza M.; Doebrich, Jeff L.

    2016-09-19

    The USGS Mineral Resources Program (MRP) delivers unbiased science and information to increase understanding of mineral resource potential, production, and consumption, and how mineral resources interact with the environment. The MRP is the Federal Government’s sole source for this mineral resource science and information. Program goals are to (1) increase understanding of mineral resource formation, (2) provide mineral resource inventories and assessments, (3) broaden knowledge of the effects of mineral resources on the environment and society, and (4) provide analysis on the availability and reliability of mineral supplies.

  2. Clay mineral association in the salt formation of the Transylvanian Basin and its paleoenvironmental significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Bican-Bris̡an

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The investigated clay fraction was separated from salt samples recovered from three boreholes located in the Praid salt deposit area. For comparison, samples collected from Turda deposit (Franz Josef adit, the Rudolf and Ghizele chambers and from the salt massif from Sărăţel were also analyzed. The qualitative investigations evidenced a clay minerals association dominated by illite and chlorite accompanied by subordinate amounts of kaolinite, smectite, fibrous clays (sepiolite, palygorskite, and in minor amounts, by 14/14 chlorite/vermiculite and chlorite/smectite interstratifications. A quantitative evaluation (% including a standard graphical representation was performed only for the borehole samples (Praid, according to the vertical distribution. The genetical interpretation of the identified clay minerals association took into account the influence of the sedimentation mechanisms and the climate control on the mineral phases. The environment of formation for the salt in the Transylvanian Basin was defined by the presence of specific climatic factors, also suggested by the palynological investigations.

  3. Transcription reprogramming during root nodule development in Medicago truncatula.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Moreau

    Full Text Available Many genes which are associated with root nodule development and activity in the model legume Medicago truncatula have been described. However information on precise stages of activation of these genes and their corresponding transcriptional regulators is often lacking. Whether these regulators are shared with other plant developmental programs also remains an open question. Here detailed microarray analyses have been used to study the transcriptome of root nodules induced by either wild type or mutant strains of Sinorhizobium meliloti. In this way we have defined eight major activation patterns in nodules and identified associated potential regulatory genes. We have shown that transcription reprogramming during consecutive stages of nodule differentiation occurs in four major phases, respectively associated with (i early signalling events and/or bacterial infection; plant cell differentiation that is either (ii independent or (iii dependent on bacteroid differentiation; (iv nitrogen fixation. Differential expression of several genes involved in cytokinin biosynthesis was observed in early symbiotic nodule zones, suggesting that cytokinin levels are actively controlled in this region. Taking advantage of databases recently developed for M. truncatula, we identified a small subset of gene expression regulators that were exclusively or predominantly expressed in nodules, whereas most other regulators were also activated under other conditions, and notably in response to abiotic or biotic stresses. We found evidence suggesting the activation of the jasmonate pathway in both wild type and mutant nodules, thus raising questions about the role of jasmonate during nodule development. Finally, quantitative RT-PCR was used to analyse the expression of a series of nodule regulator and marker genes at early symbiotic stages in roots and allowed us to distinguish several early stages of gene expression activation or repression.

  4. Advances in intelligent diagnosis methods for pulmonary ground-glass opacity nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Wang, Hailin; Geng, Chen; Dai, Yakang; Ji, Jiansong

    2018-02-07

    Pulmonary nodule is one of the important lesions of lung cancer, mainly divided into two categories of solid nodules and ground glass nodules. The improvement of diagnosis of lung cancer has significant clinical significance, which could be realized by machine learning techniques. At present, there have been a lot of researches focusing on solid nodules. But the research on ground glass nodules started late, and lacked research results. This paper summarizes the research progress of the method of intelligent diagnosis for pulmonary nodules since 2014. It is described in details from four aspects: nodular signs, data analysis methods, prediction models and system evaluation. This paper aims to provide the research material for researchers of the clinical diagnosis and intelligent analysis of lung cancer, and further improve the precision of pulmonary ground glass nodule diagnosis.

  5. Quantitative CT: technique dependence of volume estimation on pulmonary nodules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Baiyu; Barnhart, Huiman; Richard, Samuel; Colsher, James; Amurao, Maxwell; Samei, Ehsan

    2012-03-01

    Current estimation of lung nodule size typically relies on uni- or bi-dimensional techniques. While new three-dimensional volume estimation techniques using MDCT have improved size estimation of nodules with irregular shapes, the effect of acquisition and reconstruction parameters on accuracy (bias) and precision (variance) of the new techniques has not been fully investigated. To characterize the volume estimation performance dependence on these parameters, an anthropomorphic chest phantom containing synthetic nodules was scanned and reconstructed with protocols across various acquisition and reconstruction parameters. Nodule volumes were estimated by a clinical lung analysis software package, LungVCAR. Precision and accuracy of the volume assessment were calculated across the nodules and compared between protocols via a generalized estimating equation analysis. Results showed that the precision and accuracy of nodule volume quantifications were dependent on slice thickness, with different dependences for different nodule characteristics. Other parameters including kVp, pitch, and reconstruction kernel had lower impact. Determining these technique dependences enables better volume quantification via protocol optimization and highlights the importance of consistent imaging parameters in sequential examinations.

  6. A case of cyclist's nodule in a female patient

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    origin (Fig. 1). e nodule measured 12 mm × 7 mm × 15 mm and showed no flow on Doppler. A magnetic resonance image (MRI) of the pelvis was also performed and showed a poorly circumscribed nodule, isointense to muscle on all sequences, in the right perineum (Fig. 2). A diagnosis of a cyclist's nodule was made ...

  7. Microbial and Chemical Enhancement of In-Situ Carbon Mineralization in Geological Formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matter, J.; Chandran, K.

    2013-05-31

    Predictions of global energy usage suggest a continued increase in carbon emissions and rising concentrations of CO{sub 2} in the atmosphere unless major changes are made to the way energy is produced and used. Various carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies are currently being developed, but unfortunately little is known regarding the fundamental characteristics of CO{sub 2}-mineral reactions to allow a viable in-situ carbon mineralization that would provide the most permanent and safe storage of geologically-injected CO{sub 2}. The ultimate goal of this research project was to develop a microbial and chemical enhancement scheme for in-situ carbon mineralization in geologic formations in order to achieve long-term stability of injected CO{sub 2}. Thermodynamic and kinetic studies of CO{sub 2}-mineral-brine systems were systematically performed to develop the in-situ mineral carbonation process that utilizes organic acids produced by a microbial reactor. The major participants in the project are three faculty members and their graduate and undergraduate students at the School of Engineering and Applied Science and at the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory at Columbia University: Alissa Park in Earth and Environmental Engineering & Chemical Engineering (PI), Juerg Matter in Earth and Environmental Science (Co-PI), and Kartik Chandran in Earth and Environmental Engineering (Co-PI). Two graduate students, Huangjing Zhao and Edris Taher, were trained as a part of this project as well as a number of graduate students and undergraduate students who participated part-time. Edris Taher received his MS degree in 2012 and Huangjing Zhao will defend his PhD on Jan. 15th, 2014. The interdisciplinary training provided by this project was valuable to those students who are entering into the workforce in the United States. Furthermore, the findings from this study were and will be published in referred journals to disseminate the results. The list of the papers is given at

  8. The influence of inspiratory effort and emphysema on pulmonary nodule volumetry reproducibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, J B; Mak, S M; McNulty, W H; Padley, S; Nair, A; Shah, P L; Devaraj, A

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the impact of inspiratory effort and emphysema on reproducibility of pulmonary nodule volumetry. Eighty-eight nodules in 24 patients with emphysema were studied retrospectively. All patients had undergone volumetric inspiratory and end-expiratory thoracic computed tomography (CT) for consideration of bronchoscopic lung volume reduction. Inspiratory and expiratory nodule volumes were measured using commercially available software. Local emphysema extent was established by analysing a segmentation area extended circumferentially around each nodule (quantified as percent of lung with density of -950 HU or less). Lung volumes were established using the same software. Differences in inspiratory and expiratory nodule volumes were illustrated using the Bland-Altman test. The influences of percentage reduction in lung volume at expiration, local emphysema extent, and nodule size on nodule volume variability were tested with multiple linear regression. The majority of nodules (59/88 [67%]) showed an increased volume at expiration. Mean difference in nodule volume between expiration and inspiration was +7.5% (95% confidence interval: -24.1, 39.1%). No relationships were demonstrated between nodule volume variability and emphysema extent, degree of expiration, or nodule size. Expiration causes a modest increase in volumetry-derived nodule volumes; however, the effect is unpredictable. Local emphysema extent had no significant effect on volume variability in the present cohort. Copyright © 2017 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Use of Volumetry for Lung Nodule Management: Theory and Practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Devaraj, A.; Ginneken, B. van; Nair, A.; Baldwin, D.

    2017-01-01

    A consistent feature of many lung nodule management guidelines is the recommendation to evaluate nodule size by using diameter measurements and electronic calipers. Traditionally, the use of nodule volumetry applications has primarily been reserved for certain lung cancer screening trials rather

  10. Surgical resection of highly suspicious pulmonary nodules without a tissue diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heo, Eun-Young; Lee, Kyung-Won; Jheon, Sanghoon; Lee, Jae-Ho; Lee, Choon-Taek; Yoon, Ho-II

    2011-01-01

    The safety and efficacy of surgical resection of lung nodule without tissue diagnosis is controversial. We evaluated direct surgical resection of highly suspicious pulmonary nodules and the clinical and radiological predictors of malignancy. Retrospective analyses were performed on 113 patients who underwent surgical resection without prior tissue diagnosis for highly suspicious pulmonary nodules. Clinical and radiological characteristics were compared between histologically proven benign and malignant nodules after resection. Total costs, length of hospitalization and waiting time to surgery were compared with those of patients who had tissue diagnosis prior to surgery. Among 280 patients with pulmonary nodules suspicious for lung cancer, 113 (40.4%) underwent operation without prior tissue diagnosis. Lung nodules were diagnosed as malignant in 96 (85%) of the 113 patients. Except for forced expiratory volume in 1 s, clinical characteristics were not significantly different according to the pathologic results. Forty-five (90%) of 50 patients with ground-glass opacity nodules had a malignancy. Mixed ground-glass opacity, bubble lucency, irregular margin and larger size correlated with malignancy in ground-glass opacity nodules (P<0.05). Fifty-one (81%) of 67 patients with solid nodules had a malignancy. Spiculation, pre-contrast attenuation and contrast enhancement significantly correlated with malignancy in solid nodules (P<0.05). Surgical resection without tissue diagnosis significantly decreased total costs, hospital stay and waiting time (P<0.05). Direct surgical resection of highly suspicious pulmonary nodules can be a valid procedure. However, careful patient selection and further investigations are required to justify direct surgical resection. (author)

  11. Thallium 201 thyroid scan: differential diagnosis of benign and malignant nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Jong Sub; Kim, Byong Geun; Park, Byung Ran; Kim, Se Jong; Ko, Kang Seok; Kim, Min Joong; Ji, Joo Yun

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate useful findings and diagnostic value of TI-201 thyroid scan in differentiating benign from malignant nodules. We studied 77 cold thyroid nodules proven histologically(27 malignant and 50 benign). Early (5-15 min) and delayed images(3-5 hours) were obtained after intravenous injection of thallium 201. In these nodules, we retrospectively analyzed the degree of TI-201 uptake in early and delayed images, histopathologic type, size, and presence or absence of cystic change in the sonograms of 22 malignant nodules. Useful finding for diagnosis of malignant nodules was strong uptake of TI-201 in early and delayed images(specificity: 98%, sensitivity: 63%, positive predictive value: 94.4%). Useful finding for benign nodules was no uptake of TI-201 in delayed image(specificity: 88.9%, sensitivity: 68%, positive predictive value: 91.9%). The accuracy of TI-201 thyroid scan in differentiating benign from malignant nodules was 66.2%. The nodules with strong TI-201 uptake in early image and low TI-201 uptake in delayed image were malignant in 29.4%. Cystic changes were found in 40% of malignant nodules with atypical TI-201 uptake. TI-201 thyroid scan showed high specificity in follicular neoplasm and adenomatous goiter in which differentiation of benignancy and malignancy is difficult with only cytologic examination. We consider that TI-201 thyroid scan is valuable in differentiating benign from malignant nodules and when combined with fine needle aspiration and ultrasound examination, it will enable more accurate differential diagnosis between benign and malignant thyroid nodules

  12. Mineralization of Carbon Dioxide: Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanov, V; Soong, Y; Carney, C; Rush, G; Nielsen, B; O' Connor, W

    2015-01-01

    CCS research has been focused on CO2 storage in geologic formations, with many potential risks. An alternative to conventional geologic storage is carbon mineralization, where CO2 is reacted with metal cations to form carbonate minerals. Mineralization methods can be broadly divided into two categories: in situ and ex situ. In situ mineralization, or mineral trapping, is a component of underground geologic sequestration, in which a portion of the injected CO2 reacts with alkaline rock present in the target formation to form solid carbonate species. In ex situ mineralization, the carbonation reaction occurs above ground, within a separate reactor or industrial process. This literature review is meant to provide an update on the current status of research on CO2 mineralization. 2

  13. Uranium-throium isotopes and transition metal fluxes in two oriented manganese nodules from the Central Indian Basin: implications for nodule turnover

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Banakar, V.K.

    turnover. Mar. Geol., 95:71-76. Transition metal fluxes to the top and bottom of two oriented manganese nodules (SS-657 and SK-176) were deter- mined by combining radiochemical and geochemical analyses. Distinct differences in transition metal fluxes, 2a... of rotation of the nodule several times over time intervals which are smaller than the time resolution involved in U-Th isotope dating techniques. Introduction orientation of a nodule, the turnover exposing the accreting surfaces to different environ...

  14. Towards automatic pulmonary nodule management in lung cancer screening with deep learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciompi, Francesco; Chung, Kaman; van Riel, Sarah J; Setio, Arnaud Arindra Adiyoso; Gerke, Paul K; Jacobs, Colin; Scholten, Ernst Th; Schaefer-Prokop, Cornelia; Wille, Mathilde M W; Marchianò, Alfonso; Pastorino, Ugo; Prokop, Mathias; van Ginneken, Bram

    2017-04-19

    The introduction of lung cancer screening programs will produce an unprecedented amount of chest CT scans in the near future, which radiologists will have to read in order to decide on a patient follow-up strategy. According to the current guidelines, the workup of screen-detected nodules strongly relies on nodule size and nodule type. In this paper, we present a deep learning system based on multi-stream multi-scale convolutional networks, which automatically classifies all nodule types relevant for nodule workup. The system processes raw CT data containing a nodule without the need for any additional information such as nodule segmentation or nodule size and learns a representation of 3D data by analyzing an arbitrary number of 2D views of a given nodule. The deep learning system was trained with data from the Italian MILD screening trial and validated on an independent set of data from the Danish DLCST screening trial. We analyze the advantage of processing nodules at multiple scales with a multi-stream convolutional network architecture, and we show that the proposed deep learning system achieves performance at classifying nodule type that surpasses the one of classical machine learning approaches and is within the inter-observer variability among four experienced human observers.

  15. A solitary hyperfunctioning thyroid nodule harboring thyroid carcinoma: review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirfakhraee, Sasan; Mathews, Dana; Peng, Lan; Woodruff, Stacey; Zigman, Jeffrey M

    2013-05-04

    Hyperfunctioning nodules of the thyroid are thought to only rarely harbor thyroid cancer, and thus are infrequently biopsied. Here, we present the case of a patient with a hyperfunctioning thyroid nodule harboring thyroid carcinoma and, using MEDLINE literature searches, set out to determine the prevalence of and characteristics of malignant "hot" nodules as a group. Historical, biochemical and radiologic characteristics of the case subjects and their nodules were compared to those in cases of benign hyperfunctioning nodules. A literature review of surgical patients with solitary hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules managed by thyroid resection revealed an estimated 3.1% prevalence of malignancy. A separate literature search uncovered 76 cases of reported malignant hot thyroid nodules, besides the present case. Of these, 78% were female and mean age at time of diagnosis was 47 years. Mean nodule size was 4.13 ± 1.68 cm. Laboratory assessment revealed T3 elevation in 76.5%, T4 elevation in 51.9%, and subclinical hyperthyroidism in 13% of patients. Histological diagnosis was papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) in 57.1%, follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) in 36.4%, and Hurthle cell carcinoma in 7.8% of patients. Thus, hot thyroid nodules harbor a low but non-trivial rate of malignancy. Compared to individuals with benign hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules, those with malignant hyperfunctioning nodules are younger and more predominantly female. Also, FTC and Hurthle cell carcinoma are found more frequently in hot nodules than in general. We were unable to find any specific characteristics that could be used to distinguish between malignant and benign hot nodules.

  16. Competitive nodulation blocking of cv. Afghanistan pea is related to high levels of nodulation factors made by some strains of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogg, B.; Davies, A.E.; Wilson, K.E.; Bisseling, T.; Downie, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    Cultivar Afghanistan peas are resistant to nodulation by many strains of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae but are nodulated by strain TOM, which carries the host specificity gene nodX. Some strains that lack nodX can inhibit nodulation of cv. Afghanistan by strain TOM. We present evidence that

  17. Cooled microwave ablation of thyroid nodules: Initial experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korkusuz, Yücel [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Frankfurt (Germany); Mader, Oscar Maximilian, E-mail: info@dzta.de [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Frankfurt (Germany); Kromen, Wolfgang [Department of Neuro Radiology University Hospital (Germany); Happel, Christian [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Frankfurt (Germany); German Centre for Thermoablation of Thyroid Nodules, University Hospital, Frankfurt (Germany); Ahmad, Shadi [Department of General and Visceral Surgery, Agaplesion Elisabethenstift, Darmstadt (Germany); Gröner, Daniel; Koca, Mithat; Mader, Alexander [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Frankfurt (Germany); Grünwald, Frank; Korkusuz, Hüdayi [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Frankfurt (Germany); German Centre for Thermoablation of Thyroid Nodules, University Hospital, Frankfurt (Germany)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • cMWA is a safe and effective treatment for thyroid nodules. • Ultrasound imaging allows guidance during microwave ablation. • Pain level during cMWA treatment is reduced in comparison to RFA. - Abstract: Objective: To evaluate if internally cooled microwave ablation (cMWA) is a safe and effective method for treatment of benign and malign thyroid nodules. Methods: 9 patients with 11 symptomatic cold benign thyroid nodules and 1 recurrent thyroid carcinoma ranging in volume from 9.1 to 197 ml (mean size 52 ±  57 ml) were treated with cMWA. The mean age of the patients was 59 years. Pain during the treatment was measured on a 10-point scale. Side effects revealed by ultrasound or patients’ complaints were documented. Periablative efficacy was measured 24 h after cMWA as change (Δ) in serum thyreoglobulin (Tg). Nodule elasticity was measured on a 4-point scale, blood circulation and echogenicity on a 3-point scale. Results: All patients tolerated cMWA well. Median pain intensity averaged 2.1 ± 0.8 (range: 1–3). Postablative hematoma was observed in all cases. In no cases ablation led to hoarseness, superficial burns, nodule ruptures, vagal reactions or dysphagia. cMWA lead to a significant decrease of blood circulation, nodule echogenicity and a significant increase of elasticity (Δ  =  1.1  ±  0.33; 0.8  ±  0.4 and 1.1  ±  0.6 points)(p < 0.05). An average increase of 4495 ng/ml Tg was measured (p < 0.05). Conclusions: cMWA is an effective and secure method for treatment of thyroid nodules.

  18. Application of a kernel-based online learning algorithm to the classification of nodule candidates in computer-aided detection of CT lung nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, S.; Ohno, Y.; Takenaka, D.; Sugimura, K.; Yamagata, H.

    2007-01-01

    Classification of the nodule candidates in computer-aided detection (CAD) of lung nodules in CT images was addressed by constructing a nonlinear discriminant function using a kernel-based learning algorithm called the kernel recursive least-squares (KRLS) algorithm. Using the nodule candidates derived from the processing by a CAD scheme of 100 CT datasets containing 253 non-calcified nodules or 3 mm or larger as determined by the consensus of two thoracic radiologists, the following trial were carried out 100 times: by randomly selecting 50 datasets for training, a nonlinear discriminant function was obtained using the nodule candidates in the training datasets and tested with the remaining candidates; for comparison, a rule-based classification was tested in a similar manner. At the number of false positives per case of about 5, the nonlinear classification method showed an improved sensitivity of 80% (mean over the 100 trials) compared with 74% of the rule-based method. (orig.)

  19. Dissecting the Root Nodule Transcriptome of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Chandra; Pradhan, Seema; Bhatia, Sabhyata

    2016-01-01

    A hallmark trait of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), like other legumes, is the capability to convert atmospheric nitrogen (N2) into ammonia (NH3) in symbiotic association with Mesorhizobium ciceri. However, the complexity of molecular networks associated with the dynamics of nodule development in chickpea need to be analyzed in depth. Hence, in order to gain insights into the chickpea nodule development, the transcriptomes of nodules at early, middle and late stages of development were sequenced using the Roche 454 platform. This generated 490.84 Mb sequence data comprising 1,360,251 reads which were assembled into 83,405 unigenes. Transcripts were annotated using Gene Ontology (GO), Cluster of Orthologous Groups (COG) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) metabolic pathways analysis. Differential expression analysis revealed that a total of 3760 transcripts were differentially expressed in at least one of three stages, whereas 935, 117 and 2707 transcripts were found to be differentially expressed in the early, middle and late stages of nodule development respectively. MapMan analysis revealed enrichment of metabolic pathways such as transport, protein synthesis, signaling and carbohydrate metabolism during root nodulation. Transcription factors were predicted and analyzed for their differential expression during nodule development. Putative nodule specific transcripts were identified and enriched for GO categories using BiNGO which revealed many categories to be enriched during nodule development, including transcription regulators and transporters. Further, the assembled transcriptome was also used to mine for genic SSR markers. In conclusion, this study will help in enriching the transcriptomic resources implicated in understanding of root nodulation events in chickpea.

  20. Nonphotosynthetic CO2 fixation by alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) roots and nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.P.; Heichel, G.H.; Vance, C.P.

    1987-01-01

    The dependence of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) root and nodule nonphotosynthetic CO 2 fixation on the supply of currently produced photosynthate and nodule nitrogenase activity was examined a various times after phloem-girdling and exposure of nodules to Ar:O 2 . Phloem-girdling was effected 20 hours and exposure to Ar:O 2 was effected 2 to 3 hours before initiation of experiments. Nodule and root CO 2 fixation rates of phloem-girdled plants were reduced to 38 and 50%, respectively, of those of control plants. Exposure to Ar:O 2 decreased nodule CO 2 fixation rates to 45%, respiration rates to 55%, and nitrogenase activities to 51% of those of the controls. The products of nodule CO 2 fixation were exported through the xylem to the shoot mainly as amino acids within 30 to 60 minutes after exposure to 14 CO 2 . In contrast to nodules, roots exported very little radioactivity, and most of the 14 C was exported as organic acids. The nonphotosynthetic CO 2 fixation rate of roots and nodules averaged 26% of the gross respiration rate, i.e. the sum of net respiration and nonphotosynthetic CO 2 assimilation. Nodules fixed CO 2 at a rate 5.6 times that of roots, but since nodules comprised a small portion of root system mass, roots accounted for 76% of the nodulated roots system CO 2 fixation. The results indicate that nodule CO 2 fixation in alfalfa is associated with N assimilation

  1. Identification and Expression Analysis of Medicago truncatula Isopentenyl Transferase Genes (IPTs Involved in Local and Systemic Control of Nodulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahboobeh Azarakhsh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Cytokinins are essential for legume plants to establish a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with rhizobia. Recently, the expression level of cytokinin biosynthesis IPTs (ISOPENTENYLTRANSFERASES genes was shown to be increased in response to rhizobial inoculation in Lotus japonicus, Medicago truncatula and Pisum sativum. In addition to its well-established positive role in nodule primordium initiation in root cortex, cytokinin negatively regulates infection processes in the epidermis. Moreover, it was reported that shoot-derived cytokinin inhibits the subsequent nodule formation through AON (autoregulation of nodulation pathway. In L. japonicus, LjIPT3 gene was shown to be activated in the shoot phloem via the components of AON system, negatively affecting nodulation. However, in M. truncatula, the detailed analysis of MtIPTs expression, both in roots and shoots, in response to nodulation has not been performed yet, and the link between IPTs and AON has not been studied so far. In this study, we performed an extensive analysis of MtIPTs expression levels in different organs, focusing on the possible role of MtIPTs in nodule development. MtIPTs expression dynamics in inoculated roots suggest that besides its early established role in the nodule primordia development, cytokinin may be also important for later stages of nodulation. According to expression analysis, MtIPT3, MtIPT4, and MtIPT5 are activated in the shoots in response to inoculation. Among these genes, MtIPT3 is the only one the induction of which was not observed in leaves of the sunn-3 mutant defective in CLV1-like kinase, the key component of AON, suggesting that MtIPT3 is activated in the shoots in an AON-dependent manner. Taken together, our findings suggest that MtIPTs are involved in the nodule development at different stages, both locally in inoculated roots and systemically in shoots, where their expression can be activated in an AON-dependent manner.

  2. Physiology, Fe(II oxidation, and Fe mineral formation by a marine planktonic cyanobacterium grown under ferruginous conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth D. Swanner

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Evidence for Fe(II oxidation and deposition of Fe(III-bearing minerals from anoxic or redox-stratified Precambrian oceans has received support from decades of sedimentological and geochemical investigation of Banded Iron Formations (BIF. While the exact mechanisms of Fe(II oxidation remains equivocal, reaction with O2 in the marine water column, produced by cyanobacteria or early oxygenic phototrophs, was likely. In order to understand the role of cyanobacteria in the deposition of Fe(III minerals to BIF, we must first know how planktonic marine cyanobacteria respond to ferruginous (anoxic and Fe(II-rich waters in terms of growth, Fe uptake and homeostasis, and Fe mineral formation. We therefore grew the common marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus PCC 7002 in closed bottles that began anoxic, and contained Fe(II concentrations that span the range of possible concentrations in Precambrian seawater. These results, along with cell suspension experiments, indicate that Fe(II is likely oxidized by this strain via chemical oxidation with oxygen produced during photosynthesis, and not via any direct enzymatic or photosynthetic pathway. Imaging of the cell-mineral aggregates with scanning electron microscopy (SEM and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM are consistent with extracellular precipitation of Fe(III (oxyhydroxide minerals, but that >10% of Fe(III sorbs to cell surfaces rather than precipitating. Proteomic experiments support the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS in Fe(II toxicity to Synechococcus PCC 7002. The proteome expressed under low Fe conditions included multiple siderophore biosynthesis and siderophore and Fe transporter proteins, but most siderophores are not expressed during growth with Fe(II. These results provide a mechanistic and quantitative framework for evaluating the geochemical consequences of perhaps life’s greatest metabolic innovation, i.e. the evolution and activity of oxygenic photosynthesis, in ferruginous

  3. Nodulation outer proteins: double-edged swords of symbiotic rhizobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staehelin, Christian; Krishnan, Hari B

    2015-09-15

    Rhizobia are nitrogen-fixing bacteria that establish a nodule symbiosis with legumes. Nodule formation depends on signals and surface determinants produced by both symbiotic partners. Among them, rhizobial Nops (nodulation outer proteins) play a crucial symbiotic role in many strain-host combinations. Nops are defined as proteins secreted via a rhizobial T3SS (type III secretion system). Functional T3SSs have been characterized in many rhizobial strains. Nops have been identified using various genetic, biochemical, proteomic, genomic and experimental approaches. Certain Nops represent extracellular components of the T3SS, which are visible in electron micrographs as bacterial surface appendages called T3 (type III) pili. Other Nops are T3 effector proteins that can be translocated into plant cells. Rhizobial T3 effectors manipulate cellular processes in host cells to suppress plant defence responses against rhizobia and to promote symbiosis-related processes. Accordingly, mutant strains deficient in synthesis or secretion of T3 effectors show reduced symbiotic properties on certain host plants. On the other hand, direct or indirect recognition of T3 effectors by plant cells expressing specific R (resistance) proteins can result in effector triggered defence responses that negatively affect rhizobial infection. Hence Nops are double-edged swords that may promote establishment of symbiosis with one legume (symbiotic factors) and impair symbiotic processes when bacteria are inoculated on another legume species (asymbiotic factors). In the present review, we provide an overview of our current understanding of Nops. We summarize their symbiotic effects, their biochemical properties and their possible modes of action. Finally, we discuss future perspectives in the field of T3 effector research. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  4. Survey of management of solitary thyroid nodules in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietlein, M; Wegscheider, K; Vaupel, R; Schmidt, M; Schicha, H

    2008-01-01

    To compare the opinions of practitioners in primary care with those of thyroid specialists in Germany on the management of solitary thyroid nodules (Papillon 2005). Questionnaires were filled in by 2,191 practitioners and 297 thyroid specialists between June 1 and September 30, 2005. The test cases and their modifications described a solitary thyroid nodule of 2-3 cm with different levels of thyroid function and a hypoechogenic nodule of 1 cm in diameter. TSH determination and sonography were found to be standard procedures, followed by scintigraphy (selected by 84.7% of practitioners and 95.1% of specialists, p nodule calcitonin determination was advocated by 54.0% of endocrinologists and by 32.2% of nuclear medicine physicians (p thyroid nodule would be treated medically by 77.8% of practitioners and by 85.7% of specialists, the combination of levothyroxine and iodine being clearly preferred (60.9% of practitioners and 67.1% of specialists). For a hyperfunctioning nodule the preference of radioiodine therapy was significantly higher in the specialist group (88.8%) than among the practitioners (52.2%). The main differences of opinion between practitioners and specialists focused on calcitonin screening and referral to radioiodine therapy.

  5. Cowpea and peanut in southern Africa are nodulated by diverse Bradyrhizobium strains harboring nodulation genes that belong to the large pantropical clade common in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenkamp, Emma T; Stepkowski, Tomasz; Przymusiak, Anna; Botha, Wilhelm J; Law, Ian J

    2008-09-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and peanut (Arachis hypogaea) in southern Africa are nodulated by a genetically diverse group of Bradyrhizobium strains. To determine the identity of these bacteria, a collection of 22 isolates originating from the root nodules of both hosts in Botswana and South Africa was investigated using the combined sequences for the core genome genes rrs, recA, and glnII. These data separated the majority of the isolates into one of three unique lineages that most likely represent novel Bradyrhizobium species. Some isolates were also conspecific with B. yuanmingense and with B. elkanii, although none grouped with B. japonicum, B. canariense or B. liaoningense. To study the evolution of nodulation genes in these bacteria, the common nodulation gene, nodA, and host-specific nodulation genes, nodZ, noeE, and noeI, were analyzed. The nodA phylogeny showed that the cowpea and peanut Bradyrhizobium isolates represent various locally adapted groups or ecotypes that form part of Clade III of the seven known BradyrhizobiumnodA clades. This large and highly diverse clade comprises all strains from sub-Saharan Africa, as well as some originating from the Americas, Australia, Indonesia, China and Japan. Some similar groupings were supported by the other nodulation genes, although the overall phylogenies for the nodulation genes were incongruent with that inferred from the core genome genes, suggesting that horizontal gene transfer significantly influences the evolution of cowpea and peanut root-nodule bacteria. Furthermore, identification of the nodZ, noeI, and noeE genes in the isolates tested indicates that African Bradyrhizobium species may produce highly decorated nodulation factors, which potentially represent an important adaptation enabling nodulation of a great variety of legumes inhabiting the African continent.

  6. Crowdsourcing the nodulation gene network discovery environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yupeng; Jackson, Scott A

    2016-05-26

    The Legumes (Fabaceae) are an economically and ecologically important group of plant species with the conspicuous capacity for symbiotic nitrogen fixation in root nodules, specialized plant organs containing symbiotic microbes. With the aim of understanding the underlying molecular mechanisms leading to nodulation, many efforts are underway to identify nodulation-related genes and determine how these genes interact with each other. In order to accurately and efficiently reconstruct nodulation gene network, a crowdsourcing platform, CrowdNodNet, was created. The platform implements the jQuery and vis.js JavaScript libraries, so that users are able to interactively visualize and edit the gene network, and easily access the information about the network, e.g. gene lists, gene interactions and gene functional annotations. In addition, all the gene information is written on MediaWiki pages, enabling users to edit and contribute to the network curation. Utilizing the continuously updated, collaboratively written, and community-reviewed Wikipedia model, the platform could, in a short time, become a comprehensive knowledge base of nodulation-related pathways. The platform could also be used for other biological processes, and thus has great potential for integrating and advancing our understanding of the functional genomics and systems biology of any process for any species. The platform is available at http://crowd.bioops.info/ , and the source code can be openly accessed at https://github.com/bioops/crowdnodnet under MIT License.

  7. Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) of subsolid nodules: Evaluation of a commercial CAD system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benzakoun, Joseph; Bommart, Sébastien; Coste, Joël; Chassagnon, Guillaume; Lederlin, Mathieu; Boussouar, Samia

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • CAD sensitivity is still limited for automated detection of subsolid nodules. • CAD detection rate is higher for part-solid than for pure ground-glass nodules. • Part-solid nodule detection is not better for nodules with larger solid component. - Abstract: Objectives: To evaluate the performance of a commercially available CAD system for automated detection and measurement of subsolid nodules. Materials and methods: The CAD system was tested on 50 pure ground-glass and 50 part-solid nodules (median diameter: 17 mm) previously found on standard-dose CT scans in 100 different patients. True nodule detection and the total number of CAD marks were evaluated at different sensitivity settings. The influence of nodule and CT acquisition characteristics was analyzed with logistic regression. Software and manually measured diameters were compared with Spearman and Bland-Altman methods. Results: With sensitivity adjusted for 3-mm nodule detection, 50/100 (50%) subsolid nodules were detected, at the average cost of 17 CAD marks per CT. These figures were respectively 26/100 (26%) and 2 at the 5-mm setting. At the highest sensitivity setting (2-mm nodule detection), the average number of CAD marks per CT was 41 but the nodule detection rate only increased to 54%. Part–solid nodules were better detected than pure ground glass nodules: 36/50 (72%) versus 14/50 (28%) at the 3-mm setting (p < 0.0001), with no influence of the solid component size. Except for the type (i.e. part solid or pure ground glass), no other nodule characteristic influenced the detection rate. High-quality segmentation was obtained for 79 nodules, which for automated measurements correlated well with manual measurements (rho = 0.90[0.84–0.93]). All part-solid nodules had software-measured attenuation values above −671 Hounsfield units (HU). Conclusion: The detection rate of subsolid nodules by this CAD system was insufficient, but high-quality segmentation was obtained in 79% of

  8. Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) of subsolid nodules: Evaluation of a commercial CAD system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benzakoun, Joseph, E-mail: benzakoun.joseph@gmail.com [Hôpital Hôtel-Dieu, 1 parvis Notre-Dame, 75004 Paris (France); Université Paris Descartes, 12 rue de l’Ecole de Médecine, 75006 Paris (France); Bommart, Sébastien, E-mail: s-bommart@chu-montpellier.fr [CHU de Montpellier, 191 avenue du Doyen Gaston Giraud, 34000 Montpellier (France); INSERM U 1046, 371 avenue du Doyen G. Giraud, 34000 Montpellier (France); Coste, Joël, E-mail: joel.coste@htd.aphp.fr [Hôpital Hôtel-Dieu, 1 parvis Notre-Dame, 75004 Paris (France); Université Paris Descartes, 12 rue de l’Ecole de Médecine, 75006 Paris (France); Chassagnon, Guillaume, E-mail: gchassagnon@gmail.com [Université Paris Descartes, 12 rue de l’Ecole de Médecine, 75006 Paris (France); Hôpital Cochin, Radiologie, 27 rue du Faubourg Saint Jacques, 75014 Paris (France); Lederlin, Mathieu, E-mail: mathieu.lederlin@chu-rennes.fr [CHU de Rennes, Radiologie, 2 Rue Henri le Guilloux, 35000 Rennes (France); Université de Rennes 1, 9 Rue Jean Macé, 35000 Rennes (France); Boussouar, Samia, E-mail: samiaboussouar@gmail.com [Université Paris Descartes, 12 rue de l’Ecole de Médecine, 75006 Paris (France); Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou, 20 Rue Leblanc, 75015 Paris (France); and others

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • CAD sensitivity is still limited for automated detection of subsolid nodules. • CAD detection rate is higher for part-solid than for pure ground-glass nodules. • Part-solid nodule detection is not better for nodules with larger solid component. - Abstract: Objectives: To evaluate the performance of a commercially available CAD system for automated detection and measurement of subsolid nodules. Materials and methods: The CAD system was tested on 50 pure ground-glass and 50 part-solid nodules (median diameter: 17 mm) previously found on standard-dose CT scans in 100 different patients. True nodule detection and the total number of CAD marks were evaluated at different sensitivity settings. The influence of nodule and CT acquisition characteristics was analyzed with logistic regression. Software and manually measured diameters were compared with Spearman and Bland-Altman methods. Results: With sensitivity adjusted for 3-mm nodule detection, 50/100 (50%) subsolid nodules were detected, at the average cost of 17 CAD marks per CT. These figures were respectively 26/100 (26%) and 2 at the 5-mm setting. At the highest sensitivity setting (2-mm nodule detection), the average number of CAD marks per CT was 41 but the nodule detection rate only increased to 54%. Part–solid nodules were better detected than pure ground glass nodules: 36/50 (72%) versus 14/50 (28%) at the 3-mm setting (p < 0.0001), with no influence of the solid component size. Except for the type (i.e. part solid or pure ground glass), no other nodule characteristic influenced the detection rate. High-quality segmentation was obtained for 79 nodules, which for automated measurements correlated well with manual measurements (rho = 0.90[0.84–0.93]). All part-solid nodules had software-measured attenuation values above −671 Hounsfield units (HU). Conclusion: The detection rate of subsolid nodules by this CAD system was insufficient, but high-quality segmentation was obtained in 79% of

  9. Multimodal imaging of choroidal nodules in neurofibromatosis type-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Kumar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Choroidal nodules in neurofibromatosis type-1 are common and are best imaged with near-infrared reflectance (NIR imaging. The authors describe swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography (SSOCTA of choroidal nodules. These nodules are seen as hyperflow areas on SSOCTA and correlate well to bright patches on NIR imaging. The utility of multicolor scanning laser imaging in detecting these abnormalities is also described.

  10. Validation of a simple and fast method to quantify in vitro mineralization with fluorescent probes used in molecular imaging of bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moester, Martiene J.C.; Schoeman, Monique A.E.; Oudshoorn, Ineke B.; Beusekom, Mara M. van; Mol, Isabel M.; Kaijzel, Eric L.; Löwik, Clemens W.G.M.; Rooij, Karien E. de

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •We validate a simple and fast method of quantification of in vitro mineralization. •Fluorescently labeled agents can detect calcium deposits in the mineralized matrix of cell cultures. •Fluorescent signals of the probes correlated with Alizarin Red S staining. -- Abstract: Alizarin Red S staining is the standard method to indicate and quantify matrix mineralization during differentiation of osteoblast cultures. KS483 cells are multipotent mouse mesenchymal progenitor cells that can differentiate into chondrocytes, adipocytes and osteoblasts and are a well-characterized model for the study of bone formation. Matrix mineralization is the last step of differentiation of bone cells and is therefore a very important outcome measure in bone research. Fluorescently labelled calcium chelating agents, e.g. BoneTag and OsteoSense, are currently used for in vivo imaging of bone. The aim of the present study was to validate these probes for fast and simple detection and quantification of in vitro matrix mineralization by KS483 cells and thus enabling high-throughput screening experiments. KS483 cells were cultured under osteogenic conditions in the presence of compounds that either stimulate or inhibit osteoblast differentiation and thereby matrix mineralization. After 21 days of differentiation, fluorescence of stained cultures was quantified with a near-infrared imager and compared to Alizarin Red S quantification. Fluorescence of both probes closely correlated to Alizarin Red S staining in both inhibiting and stimulating conditions. In addition, both compounds displayed specificity for mineralized nodules. We therefore conclude that this method of quantification of bone mineralization using fluorescent compounds is a good alternative for the Alizarin Red S staining

  11. Validation of a simple and fast method to quantify in vitro mineralization with fluorescent probes used in molecular imaging of bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moester, Martiene J.C. [Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center (Netherlands); Schoeman, Monique A.E. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Leiden University Medical Center (Netherlands); Oudshoorn, Ineke B. [Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center (Netherlands); Percuros BV, Leiden (Netherlands); Beusekom, Mara M. van [Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center (Netherlands); Mol, Isabel M. [Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center (Netherlands); Percuros BV, Leiden (Netherlands); Kaijzel, Eric L.; Löwik, Clemens W.G.M. [Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center (Netherlands); Rooij, Karien E. de, E-mail: k.e.de_rooij@lumc.nl [Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center (Netherlands); Percuros BV, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2014-01-03

    Highlights: •We validate a simple and fast method of quantification of in vitro mineralization. •Fluorescently labeled agents can detect calcium deposits in the mineralized matrix of cell cultures. •Fluorescent signals of the probes correlated with Alizarin Red S staining. -- Abstract: Alizarin Red S staining is the standard method to indicate and quantify matrix mineralization during differentiation of osteoblast cultures. KS483 cells are multipotent mouse mesenchymal progenitor cells that can differentiate into chondrocytes, adipocytes and osteoblasts and are a well-characterized model for the study of bone formation. Matrix mineralization is the last step of differentiation of bone cells and is therefore a very important outcome measure in bone research. Fluorescently labelled calcium chelating agents, e.g. BoneTag and OsteoSense, are currently used for in vivo imaging of bone. The aim of the present study was to validate these probes for fast and simple detection and quantification of in vitro matrix mineralization by KS483 cells and thus enabling high-throughput screening experiments. KS483 cells were cultured under osteogenic conditions in the presence of compounds that either stimulate or inhibit osteoblast differentiation and thereby matrix mineralization. After 21 days of differentiation, fluorescence of stained cultures was quantified with a near-infrared imager and compared to Alizarin Red S quantification. Fluorescence of both probes closely correlated to Alizarin Red S staining in both inhibiting and stimulating conditions. In addition, both compounds displayed specificity for mineralized nodules. We therefore conclude that this method of quantification of bone mineralization using fluorescent compounds is a good alternative for the Alizarin Red S staining.

  12. Position of solitary thyroid nodules by gammagraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basteris M, J.; Gomez D, R.

    2007-01-01

    In this work it is presented which it is the position more frequent of the solitary thyroid nodules. It was used the method of retrospective longitudinal observational investigation in 125 patients that went to the laboratory for realization of detection of thyroid nodules in the years 2004 and 2005 through gammagraphy. (Author)

  13. Chinese herbal medicines for benign thyroid nodules in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenxun; Yin, Detao; Yang, Weimin; Kan, Quancheng; Liu, Zhangsuo; Ren, Xiaoyan; Zhai, Chenguang; Zhang, Shengjun

    2014-03-04

    A thyroid nodule is a discrete lesion within the thyroid gland that might be palpable and is ultrasonographically distinct from the surrounding thyroid parenchyma. Thyroid nodules are more common as age increases and occur more frequently in women. Benign thyroid nodules often cause pressure symptoms and cosmetic complaints. In China and many other countries, doctors use Chinese herbal medicines (CHM) to treat thyroid nodules. To assess the effects of Chinese herbal medicines in the treatment of benign thyroid nodules in adults. Review authors searched the following electronic databases: The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM), the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), VIP information (a Chinese database), WANFANG Data (a Chinese database), the Chinese Conference Papers Database and the Chinese Dissertation Database (all searched up to April 2013). Randomised controlled trials comparing CHM or CHM plus levothyroxine versus levothyroxine, placebo or no treatment in adults with benign thyroid nodules. Two review authors independently extracted data, assessed studies for risk of bias and evaluated overall study quality according to GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation), with differences resolved by consensus. We included one randomised trial involving 152 participants with a randomisation ratio of 2:1 (CHM vs no treatment). The trial applied adequate sequence generation; however, allocation concealment was unclear. Duration of treatment was three months, and follow-up six months. Our a priori defined outcomes of interest (i.e. nodule volume reduction ≥ 50%; pressure symptoms, cosmetic complaints or both; health-related quality of life; all-cause mortality; cancer occurrence; changes in number and size of thyroid nodules; changes in thyroid volume; and socioeconomic effects) were not investigated in the included study. Thyrotropin (TSH), thyroxine (T4) and tri

  14. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells differentiation and proliferation on the surface of coral implant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Salihi, K.A.; Samsudin, A.R.

    2004-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the ability of natural coral implant to provide an environment for marrow cells to differentiate into osteoblasts and function suitable for mineralized tissue formation. DNA content, alkaline phosptatase (ALP) activity, calcium (Ca) content and mineralized nodules, were measured at day 3, day 7 and day 14, in rat bone marrow stromal cells cultured with coral discs glass discs, while cells alone and coral disc alone cultured as control. DNA content, ALP activity, Ca content measurements showed no difference between coral, glass and cells groups at 3 day which were higher than control (coral disc alone), but there were higher asurement at day 7 and 14 in the cell cultured on coral than on glass discs, control cells and control coral discs. Mineralized nodules formation (both in area and number) was more predominant on the coral surface than in control groups. These results showed that natural coral implant provided excellent and favorable situation for marrow cell to differentiate to osteoblasts, lead to large amount of mineralized tissue formation on coral surface. This in vitro result could explain the rapid bone bonding of coral in vivo. (Author)

  15. Relation between grade and abundance of manganese nodules

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sudhakar, M.

    Data from more than 1000 locations in the Central Indian Ocean Basin (CIOB) where both bulk nodule chemistry and abundance were determined and utilized to study the relationship between grade and abundance of manganese nodule deposits. Grade...

  16. Gamma radiation induced and natural variability for nodulation in legumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maherchandani, N; Rana, O P.S. [Haryana Agricultural Univ., Hissar (India). Dept. of Genetics

    1977-09-01

    Gamma radiation induced variability for nodulation was studied in 112 M4 mutant lines of cowpea variety C-15-2. Ten lines superior in nodulation to the original variety have been identified. Natural variability for nodulation and plant growth was investigated in 75 genotypes of chickpea. A number of genotype were found to be superior to cultivated variety C-235 for nodulation characters. Nodule characters were found to be related to dry matter accumulation but not to grain yield. Another experiment on 10 varieties of chick pea conducted under aseptic conditions revealed that host genotypes showed specificity for Rhizobial strains and different Rhizobial strains differed in their effectiveness on different host genotypes. H 551 and H 355 were the most responsive varieties.

  17. Dissecting the Root Nodule Transcriptome of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Kant

    Full Text Available A hallmark trait of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L., like other legumes, is the capability to convert atmospheric nitrogen (N2 into ammonia (NH3 in symbiotic association with Mesorhizobium ciceri. However, the complexity of molecular networks associated with the dynamics of nodule development in chickpea need to be analyzed in depth. Hence, in order to gain insights into the chickpea nodule development, the transcriptomes of nodules at early, middle and late stages of development were sequenced using the Roche 454 platform. This generated 490.84 Mb sequence data comprising 1,360,251 reads which were assembled into 83,405 unigenes. Transcripts were annotated using Gene Ontology (GO, Cluster of Orthologous Groups (COG and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG metabolic pathways analysis. Differential expression analysis revealed that a total of 3760 transcripts were differentially expressed in at least one of three stages, whereas 935, 117 and 2707 transcripts were found to be differentially expressed in the early, middle and late stages of nodule development respectively. MapMan analysis revealed enrichment of metabolic pathways such as transport, protein synthesis, signaling and carbohydrate metabolism during root nodulation. Transcription factors were predicted and analyzed for their differential expression during nodule development. Putative nodule specific transcripts were identified and enriched for GO categories using BiNGO which revealed many categories to be enriched during nodule development, including transcription regulators and transporters. Further, the assembled transcriptome was also used to mine for genic SSR markers. In conclusion, this study will help in enriching the transcriptomic resources implicated in understanding of root nodulation events in chickpea.

  18. [Cellular composition of lymphoid nodules in the trachea wall in rats with different resistance to emotional stress in a model of hemorrhagic stroke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klyueva, L A

    2017-01-01

    To reveal regularities of changes in cellular composition of lymphoid nodules in the tracheal wall in male Wistar rats resistant and not resistant to emotional stress in a model of hemorrhagic stroke. Lymphoid formations of the tracheal wall (an area near the bifurcation of the organ) were investigated in 98 male Wistar rats using histological methods. Significant changes in the cellular composition of lymphoid nodules were found. The pattern of changes depends on the stress resistance of rats and the period of the experiment. The active cell destruction in lymphoid nodules was noted both in stress resistant and stress susceptible animals. The changes in the structure of lymphoid nodules found in the experimental hemorrhagic stroke suggest a decrease in the local immune resistance, which is most pronounced in rats not resistant to stress, that may contribute to the development of severe inflammatory complications of stroke such as pneumonia.

  19. Lung Nodule Detection via Deep Reinforcement Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issa Ali

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related death globally. As a preventive measure, the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF recommends annual screening of high risk individuals with low-dose computed tomography (CT. The resulting volume of CT scans from millions of people will pose a significant challenge for radiologists to interpret. To fill this gap, computer-aided detection (CAD algorithms may prove to be the most promising solution. A crucial first step in the analysis of lung cancer screening results using CAD is the detection of pulmonary nodules, which may represent early-stage lung cancer. The objective of this work is to develop and validate a reinforcement learning model based on deep artificial neural networks for early detection of lung nodules in thoracic CT images. Inspired by the AlphaGo system, our deep learning algorithm takes a raw CT image as input and views it as a collection of states, and output a classification of whether a nodule is present or not. The dataset used to train our model is the LIDC/IDRI database hosted by the lung nodule analysis (LUNA challenge. In total, there are 888 CT scans with annotations based on agreement from at least three out of four radiologists. As a result, there are 590 individuals having one or more nodules, and 298 having none. Our training results yielded an overall accuracy of 99.1% [sensitivity 99.2%, specificity 99.1%, positive predictive value (PPV 99.1%, negative predictive value (NPV 99.2%]. In our test, the results yielded an overall accuracy of 64.4% (sensitivity 58.9%, specificity 55.3%, PPV 54.2%, and NPV 60.0%. These early results show promise in solving the major issue of false positives in CT screening of lung nodules, and may help to save unnecessary follow-up tests and expenditures.

  20. Selenium hyperaccumulation by Astragalus (Fabaceae) does not inhibit root nodule symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alford, Elan R; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A H; Fakra, Sirine C; Paschke, Mark W

    2012-12-01

    A survey of the root-nodule symbiosis in Astragalus and its interaction with selenium (Se) has not been conducted before. Such studies can provide insight into how edaphic conditions modify symbiotic interactions and influence partner coevolution. In this paper plant-organ Se concentration ([Se]) was investigated to assess potential Se exposure to endophytes. • Selenium distribution and molecular speciation of root nodules from Se-hyperaccumulators Astragalus bisulcatus, A. praelongus, and A. racemosus was determined by Se K-edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy. A series of greenhouse experiments were conducted to characterize the response of root-nodule symbiosis in Se-hyperaccumulators and nonhyperaccumulators. • Nodules in three Se-hyperaccumulators (Astragalus crotalariae, A. praelongus, and A. preussii) are reported for the first time. Leaves, flowers, and fruits from Se-hyperaccumulators were routinely above the hyperaccumulator threshold (1,000 µg Se g(-1) DW), but root samples rarely contained that amount, and nodules never exceeded 110 µg Se g(-1) DW. Nodules from A. bisulcatus, A. praelongus, and A. racemosus had Se throughout, with a majority stored in C-Se-C form. Finally, an evaluation of nodulation in Se-hyperaccumulators and nonhyperaccumulators indicated that there was no nodulation inhibition because of plant Se tolerance. Rather, we found that in Se-hyperaccumulators higher levels of Se treatment (up to 100 µM Se) corresponded with higher nodule counts, indicating a potential role for dinitrogen fixation in Se-hyperaccumulation. The effect was not found in nonhyperaccumulators. • As the evolution of Se hyperaccumulation in Astragalus developed, root-nodule symbiosis may have played an integral role.

  1. Atypical Localized Rheumatoid Nodule: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KORHAN BARIS BAYRAM

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid nodules can be seen in about 30% of patiens with rheumatoid arthritis. They are occasionally localized subcutaneous, but they can rarely seen in visceral organs. Their appearance can be confused with many clinical conditions when they have atypical localizations. To exclude the presence of a malignancy, these lesions should always be investigated. We aimed to discuss a patient with rheumatoid nodule localized in close neighborhood of hyoid bone, presumed as malignancy.

  2. Treatment of hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules by percutaneous ethanol injection

    OpenAIRE

    Larijani, Bagher; Pajouhi, Mohammad; Ghanaati, Hossein; Bastanhagh, Mohammad-Hassan; Abbasvandi, Fereshteh; Firooznia, Kazem; Shirzad, Mahmood; Amini, Mohammad-Reza; Sarai, Maryam; Abbasvandi, Nasreen; Baradar-Jalili, Reza

    2002-01-01

    Abstract Background Autonomous thyroid nodules can be treated by a variety of methods. We assessed the efficacy of percutaneous ethanol injection in treating autonomous thyroid nodules. Methods 35 patients diagnosed by technetium-99 scanning with hyperfunctioning nodules and suppressed sensitive TSH (sTSH) were given sterile ethanol injections under ultrasound guidance. 29 patients had clinical and biochemical hyperthyroidism. The other 6 had sub-clinical hyperthyroidism with suppressed sTSH ...

  3. Radio-guided thoracoscopic surgery (RGTS) of small pulmonary nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrogi, Marcello Carlo; Melfi, Franca; Zirafa, Carmelina; Lucchi, Marco; De Liperi, Annalisa; Mariani, Giuliano; Fanucchi, Olivia; Mussi, Alfredo

    2012-04-01

    The demand for adequate tissue sampling to determine individual tumor behavior is increasing the number of lung nodule resections, even when the diagnosis is already recognized. Video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) is the procedure of choice for diagnosis and treatment of small pulmonary nodules. Difficulties in localizing smaller and deeper nodules have been approached with different techniques. Herein we report our 13-years' experience with radio-guided thoracoscopic resection. Patients with pulmonary nodules smaller than 1 cm and/or deeper than 1 cm, below the visceral pleura, underwent computed tomography (CT)-guided injection of a solution, composed of 0.2 ml (99)Tc-labeled human serum albumin microspheres and 0.1 ml nonionic contrast, into the nodule. During the VATS procedure, an 11-mm-diameter collimated probe connected to a gamma ray detector was introduced to scan the lung surface. The area of major radioactivity, which matched with the area of the nodule, was resected. From 1997 to 2009, 573 patients underwent thoracoscopic resection of small pulmonary nodules, 211 with the radio-guided technique. There were 159 men and 52 women, with an average age of 60.6 years (range = 12-83). The mean duration of the surgical procedure was 41 min (range = 20-100). The procedure was successful in 208/211 cases. Three patients (0.5%) required conversion to a minithoracotomy. The mean length of pleural drainage and hospital stay was 2.3 and 3.7 days, respectively. Histological examination showed 98 benign lesions and 113 malignant lesions (61 metastases and 52 primary lung cancers). This study confirms that radio-guided localization of small pulmonary nodules is a feasible, safe, and quick procedure, with a high rate of success. The spread of the sentinel lymph node technique has increased the availability of technology required for RGTS.

  4. Thyroid Nodules as a Late Effect of Exposure to Fallout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conard, R. A. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Sutow, W. W. [M.D. Anderson Hospital and Tumor Institute, Houston, TX (United States); Colcock, B. P. [Lahey Clinic, Boston, MA (United States); Dobyns, B. M. [Cleveland Metropolitan General Hospital, Cleveland, OH (United States); Paglia, D. E. [Center for the Health Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1969-11-15

    group with thyroid hormone appears to be enhancing growth in the children and reduced nodule formation in a few cases Hopefully such treatment will also reduce the risk for development of thyroid cancer since this group undoubtedly has a higher risk for such malignancy Results of a medical survey of these people carried out in March 1969 are also presented. (author)

  5. Follicular variant of papillary carcinoma presenting as a hyperfunctioning thyroid nodule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabalec, Filip; Svilias, Ioannis; Plasilova, Ivana; Hovorkova, Eva; Ryska, Aler; Horacek, Jiri

    2014-03-01

    In this study, we describe a case of papillary carcinoma in a 15-year-old girl who presented with a hyperfunctioning (hot) thyroid nodule and discuss it in the context of current management guidelines for patients with thyroid nodules. In adults, hot nodules rarely require cytologic or histologic evaluation, and hyperthyroidism is often treated with radioiodine (131I). However, in children and adolescents, the malignancy rate for nodules (both cold and hot) is higher and surgery is often necessary. Surgery may serve as a therapy, as well as a diagnostic tool, to treat hot nodules in children and adolescents.

  6. Charge state mapping of mixed valent iron and manganese mineral particles using Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy (STXM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pecher, K.; Nealson, K.; Kneedler, E.; Rothe, J.; Meigs, G.; Warwick, T.; Tonner, B.

    2000-01-01

    The interfaces between solid mineral particles and water play a crucial role in partitioning and chemical transformation of many inorganic as well as organic pollutants in environmental systems. Among environmentally significant minerals, mixed-valent oxides and hydroxides of iron (e.g. magnetite, green rusts) and manganese (hausmanite, birnessite) have been recognized as particularly strong sorbents for metal ions. In addition, minerals containing Fe(II) have recently been proven to be powerful reductants for a wide range of pollutants. Chemical properties of these minerals strongly depend on the distribution and availability of reactive sites and little is known quantitatively about the nature of these sites. We have investigated the bulk distribution of charge states of manganese (Mn (II, III, IV)) and iron (Fe(II, III)) in single particles of natural manganese nodules and synthetic green rusts using Scanning Transmission X-ray SpectroMicroscopy (STXM). Pixel resolved spectra (XANES) extracted from stacks of images taken at different wave lengths across the metal absorption edge were fitted to total electron yield (TEY) spectra of single valent reference compounds. Two dimensional maps of bulk charge state distributions clearly reveal domains of different oxidation states within single particles of Mn-nodules and green rust precipitates. Changes of oxidation states of iron were followed as a result of reductive transformation of an environmental contaminant (CCl 4 ) using green rust as the only reductant

  7. Nodule activity and allocation of photosynthate of soybean during recovery from water stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellows, R. J.; Patterson, R. P.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Harris, D.; Raper CD, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1987-01-01

    Nodulated soybean plants (Glycine max [L.] Merr. cv Ransom) in a growth-chamber study were subjected to a leaf water potential (psi w) of -2.0 megapascal during vegetative growth. Changes in nonstructural carbohydrate contents of leaves, stems, roots, and nodules, allocation of dry matter among plant parts, in situ specific nodule activity, and in situ canopy apparent photosynthetic rate were measured in stressed and nonstressed plants during a 7-day period following rewatering. Leaf and nodule psi w also were determined. At the time of maximum stress, concentration of nonstructural carbohydrates had declined in leaves of stressed, relative to nonstressed, plants, and the concentration of nonstructural carbohydrates had increased in stems, roots, and nodules. Sucrose concentrations in roots and nodules of stressed plants were 1.5 and 3 times greater, respectively, than those of nonstressed plants. Within 12 hours after rewatering, leaf and nodule psi w of stressed plants had returned to values of nonstressed plants. Canopy apparent photosynthesis and specific nodule activity of stressed plants recovered to levels for nonstressed plants within 2 days after rewatering. The elevated sucrose concentrations in roots and nodules of stressed plants also declined rapidly upon rehydration. The increase in sucrose concentration in nodules, as well as the increase of carbohydrates in roots and stems, during water stress and the rapid disappearance upon rewatering indicates that inhibition of carbohydrate utilization within the nodule may be associated with loss of nodule activity. Availability of carbohydrates within the nodules and from photosynthetic activity following rehydration of nodules may mediate the rate of recovery of N2-fixation activity.

  8. Promise and pitfalls of molecular markers of thyroid nodules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, S.; Lila, Anurag; Bandgar, Tushar; Shah, Nalini

    2012-01-01

    Thyroid nodules are common in the general population with a prevalence of 5-7% The initial evaluation of thyroid nodules commonly involves thyroid function tests, an ultrasound (USG) and fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB). The optimal management of patients with thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytology is plagued by the lack of highly sensitive and specific diagnostic modalities In this article we attempt to review the available literature on the molecular markers which are increasingly being studied for their diagnostic utility in assessing thyroid nodules. The various molecular markers consist of gene mutations, gene re arrangements, RNA based assays and immunohistochemical markers. The molecular markers definitely would help to optimise the management of such patients. PMID:23565369

  9. Promise and pitfalls of molecular markers of thyroid nodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Jadhav

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid nodules are common in the general population with a prevalence of 5-7% The initial evaluation of thyroid nodules commonly involves thyroid function tests, an ultrasound (USG and fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB. The optimal management of patients with thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytology is plagued by the lack of highly sensitive and specific diagnostic modalities In this article we attempt to review the available literature on the molecular markers which are increasingly being studied for their diagnostic utility in assessing thyroid nodules. The various molecular markers consist of gene mutations, gene re arrangements, RNA based assays and immunohistochemical markers. The molecular markers definitely would help to optimise the management of such patients.

  10. Marine Mineral Exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    in EEZ areas are fairly unknown; many areas need detailed mapping and mineral exploration, and the majority of coastal or island states with large EEZ areas have little experience in exploration for marine hard minerals. This book describes the systematic steps in marine mineral exploration....... Such exploration requires knowledge of mineral deposits and models of their formation, of geophysical and geochemical exploration methods, and of data evaluation and interpretation methods. These topics are described in detail by an international group of authors. A short description is also given of marine...

  11. Solitary necrotic nodules of the liver mimicking hepatic metastasis: report of two cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Kwon Ha; Yun, Ki Jung; Lee, Jung Min [Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chang Guhn [Chunbuk National University Medical School, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-09-01

    We present two cases of solitary necrotic nodules of the liver which on radiologic images mimicked hepatic metastasis. Solitary necrotic nodule of the liver is a rare but benign entity which histopathologically consists of an outer fibrotic capsule with inflammatory cells and a central core of amorphous necrotic material. The lesion was seen on contrast-enhanced CT as an ovoid-shaped hypoattenuating nodule; on CT during hepatic arteriography as enhancing nodule; on intraoperative US as a target-appearing hypoechoic nodule; on T2WI as a hyperintensity nodule, and on dynamic MR as a subtle peripheral enhancing nodule. Although the radiologic features are not specific, solitary necrotic nodule of the liver should be included in the differential diagnosis of hepatic metastasis.

  12. Prognosis of thyroid nodules in individuals living in the Zhitomir region of Ukraine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Hayashida

    Full Text Available After the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP, the incidence of thyroid cancer increased among children. Recently, a strong relationship between solid thyroid nodules and the incidence of thyroid cancer was shown in atomic bomb survivors. To assess the prognosis of benign thyroid nodules in individuals living in the Zhitomir region of Ukraine, around the CNPP, we conducted a follow-up investigation of screening data from 1991 to 2000 in the Ukraine.Participants of this study were 160 inhabitants with thyroid nodules (nodule group and 160 inhabitants without thyroid nodules (normal control group intially identified by ultrasonography from 1991 to 2000. All participants were aged 0 to 10 years old and lived in the same area at the time of the accident. We performed follow-up screening of participants and assessed thyroid nodules by fine needle aspiration biopsy.Among the nodule group participants, the number and size of nodules were significantly increased at the follow-up screening compared with the initial screening. No thyroid nodules were observed among the normal control group participants. The prevalence of thyroid abnormality, especially nodules that could be cancerous (malignant or suspicious by fine needle aspiration biopsy, was 7.5% in the nodule group and 0% in the normal control group (P<0.001.Our study indicated that a thyroid nodule in childhood is a prognostic factor associated with an increase in the number and size of nodules in individuals living in the Zhitomir region of Ukraine.

  13. Clinical significance of pulmonary nodules detected on abdominal CT in pediatric patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breen, Micheal; Lee, Edward Y.; Zurakowski, David

    2015-01-01

    The clinical significance of a pulmonary nodule that is detected incidentally on CT studies in children is unknown. In addition, there is limited information regarding the management of incidentally detected pulmonary nodules discovered on abdominal CT studies in children. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical significance of incidental pulmonary nodules detected on abdominal CT studies in children. This was a retrospective study performed following institutional review board approval. Abdominal CT reports in patients younger than 18 years of age from July 2004 to June 2011 were reviewed for the terms ''nodule,'' ''nodular'' or ''mass'' in reference to the lung bases. The study population included those pediatric patients in whom pulmonary nodules were initially detected on abdominal CT studies. The largest pulmonary nodules detected on CT studies were evaluated for their features (size, shape, margin, attenuation, location, and presence of calcification and cavitation). Follow-up CT studies and clinical records were reviewed for demographic information, history of underlying malignancies and the clinical outcome of the incidental pulmonary nodules. Comparison of malignant versus benign pulmonary nodules was performed with respect to the size of the nodule, imaging features on CT, and patient history of malignancy using the Student's t-test and Fisher exact test. Youden J-index in receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to determine the optimal cut-off size for suggesting a high risk of malignancy of incidentally detected pulmonary nodules. Pulmonary nodules meeting inclusion criteria were detected in 62 (1.2%) of 5,234 patients. The mean age of patients with nodules was 11.2 years (range: 5 months-18 years). Thirty-one patients (50%) had follow-up CT studies and two of these patients (6%) were subsequently found to have malignant pulmonary nodules. Both of these

  14. Clinical significance of pulmonary nodules detected on abdominal CT in pediatric patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breen, Micheal; Lee, Edward Y. [Boston Children' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Zurakowski, David [Boston Children' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Departments of Anesthesiology and Surgery, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-11-15

    The clinical significance of a pulmonary nodule that is detected incidentally on CT studies in children is unknown. In addition, there is limited information regarding the management of incidentally detected pulmonary nodules discovered on abdominal CT studies in children. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical significance of incidental pulmonary nodules detected on abdominal CT studies in children. This was a retrospective study performed following institutional review board approval. Abdominal CT reports in patients younger than 18 years of age from July 2004 to June 2011 were reviewed for the terms ''nodule,'' ''nodular'' or ''mass'' in reference to the lung bases. The study population included those pediatric patients in whom pulmonary nodules were initially detected on abdominal CT studies. The largest pulmonary nodules detected on CT studies were evaluated for their features (size, shape, margin, attenuation, location, and presence of calcification and cavitation). Follow-up CT studies and clinical records were reviewed for demographic information, history of underlying malignancies and the clinical outcome of the incidental pulmonary nodules. Comparison of malignant versus benign pulmonary nodules was performed with respect to the size of the nodule, imaging features on CT, and patient history of malignancy using the Student's t-test and Fisher exact test. Youden J-index in receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to determine the optimal cut-off size for suggesting a high risk of malignancy of incidentally detected pulmonary nodules. Pulmonary nodules meeting inclusion criteria were detected in 62 (1.2%) of 5,234 patients. The mean age of patients with nodules was 11.2 years (range: 5 months-18 years). Thirty-one patients (50%) had follow-up CT studies and two of these patients (6%) were subsequently found to have malignant pulmonary nodules. Both of these

  15. Hard-copy versus soft-copy with and without simple image manipulation for detection of pulmonary nodules and masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosuda, S.; Kaji, T.; Iwasaki, Y.; Kusano, S.; Kobayashi, H.; Watanabe, M.

    2000-01-01

    To compare interpretation performance on soft-copy presentations, with and without simple image manipulation, and on unmodified hard-copy presentations with regard to detection of pulmonary nodules and masses. Material and Methods: Fifty chest digital radiograph combinations of patients with a total of 60 nodules, 32 of which were 2.0 cm in diameter, were selected for the study. Three readers evaluated three separate image formats: unmodified hard- and soft-copies, and soft-copies with simple image manipulation of lung and mediastinum window settings, and zooming. The screen display was 1600x1200 pixels with 8 bits/pixel. Results: The sensitivity, accuracy, detectability, and Az value of the soft-copy systems were clearly inferior to hard-copy evaluation. The mean Az values were 0.921 for unmodified hard-copy, 0.820 for image-manipulated soft-copy, and 0.781 for unmodified soft-copy. Conclusion: Soft-copy interpretations were not as sensitive in detecting pulmonary nodules and masses as hard-copy evaluation

  16. Buried nodules from the central Indian Ocean basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pattan, J.N.; Parthiban, G.

    . Of these, 13 buried nodules are from two sediment cores in siliceous ooze and seven from two sediment cores in a red clay area. The morphology, size, surface texture and chemical composition of buried nodules from two different sediment type have been...

  17. Promise and pitfalls of molecular markers of thyroid nodules

    OpenAIRE

    Jadhav, S.; Lila, Anurag; Bandgar, Tushar; Shah, Nalini

    2012-01-01

    Thyroid nodules are common in the general population with a prevalence of 5-7% The initial evaluation of thyroid nodules commonly involves thyroid function tests, an ultrasound (USG) and fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB). The optimal management of patients with thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytology is plagued by the lack of highly sensitive and specific diagnostic modalities In this article we attempt to review the available literature on the molecular markers which are increasingly ...

  18. Thermal Ablation for Benign Thyroid Nodules: Radiofrequency and Laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Jung Hwan; Lee, Jeong Hyun [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Valcavi, Roberto [Endocrinology Division and Thyroid Disease Center, Arcispedale Santa Maria Nuova, Reggio Emilia (Italy); Pacella, Claudio M. [Diagnostic Imaging and Interventional Radiology Department, Ospedale Regina Apostolorum, Albano Laziale-Rome (IT); Rhim, Hyun Chul [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Na, Dong Kyu [Human Medical Imaging and Intervention Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    Although ethanol ablation has been successfully used to treat cystic thyroid nodules, this procedure is less effective when the thyroid nodules are solid. Radiofrequency (RF) ablation, a newer procedure used to treat malignant liver tumors, has been valuable in the treatment of benign thyroid nodules regardless of the extent of the solid component. This article reviews the basic physics, techniques, applications, results, and complications of thyroid RF ablation, in comparison to laser ablation.

  19. Rare earth element geochemistry of oceanic ferromanganese nodules and associated sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elderfield, H.; Hawkesworth, C. J.; Greaves, M. J.; Calvert, S. E.

    1981-04-01

    Analyses have been made of REE contents of a well-characterized suite of deep-sea (> 4000 m.) principally todorokite-bearing ferromanganese nodules and associated sediments from the Pacific Ocean. REE in nodules and their sediments are closely related: nodules with the largest positive Ce anomalies are found on sediments with the smallest negative Ce anomalies; in contrast, nodules with the highest contents of other rare earths (3 + REE) are found on sediments with the lowest 3 + REE contents and vice versa. 143Nd /144Nd ratios in the nodules (˜0.51244) point to an original seawater source but an identical ratio for sediments in combination with the REE patterns suggests that diagenetic reactions may transfer elements into the nodules. Analysis of biogenic phases shows that the direct contribution of plankton and carbonate and siliceous skeletal materials to REE contents of nodules and sediments is negligible. Inter-element relationships and leaching tests suggest that REE contents are controlled by a P-rich phase with a REE pattern similar to that for biogenous apatite and an Fe-rich phase with a pattern the mirror image of that for sea water. It is proposed that 3 + REE concentrations are controlled by the surface chemistry of these phases during diagenetic reactions which vary with sediment accumulation rate. Processes which favour the enrichment of transition metals in equatorial Pacific nodules favour the depletion of 3 + REE in nodules and enrichment of 3 + REE in associated sediments. In contrast, Ce appears to be added both to nodules and sediments directly from seawater and is not involved in diagenetic reactions.

  20. Laser, radiofrequency, and ethanol ablation for the management of thyroid nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papini, Enrico; Gugliemi, Rinaldo; Pacella, Claudio Maurizio

    2016-10-01

    The majority of benign thyroid nodules are nearly asymptomatic, remain stable in size, and do not require treatment. However, a minority of patients with growing nodules may complain of local symptoms or have cosmetic concerns, and thus seek surgical consultation. The timely use of ultrasound-guided minimally invasive procedures can change the natural history of benign enlarging thyroid nodules. The procedures produce persistent shrinkage of thyroid nodules and are associated with improvement of local symptoms. Among the various procedures, percutaneous ethanol injection represents the first-line treatment for relapsing thyroid cysts. In solid nonfunctioning nodules, laser and radiofrequency ablation produces a more than 50% reduction in nodular volume that remains persistent over several years. For hyperfunctioning nodules, thermal ablation techniques are not appropriate unless radioactive iodine is contraindicated or not accessible. MITs are best suited for the management of medium or large-sized nodules that are sonographically well visualized. Conversely, large nodules or nodular goiters that extend into the chest are difficult to treat. MITs are performed in outpatient clinics, are less expensive, and have a lower risk of complications, compared to surgery, and usually do not induce thyroid dysfunction. However, malignancy should be ruled out with a dedicated ultrasound neck assessment and repeat fine needle aspiration of the lesion before treatment.

  1. Heterogeneity of uranium host rocks in Zhiluo formation in Dongsheng area and its relation to uranium mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi Chao; Zheng Yunlong; Wang Mingtai

    2013-01-01

    Numbers of uranium deposits have be found in Dongsheng area. The major ore-bearing layer is the sub member of the lower member of the Zhiluo Formation, the heterogeneity of host rocks plays an important role during the process of uranium mineralization. This paper sorted and counted up the data of sand body and the impermeable bed in Dongsheng area to study the heterogeneity characteristic of host rock and its relationship to uranium mineralization in horizontal and vertical directions. The thickness of sand body in Dongsheng area decreases gradually from northwest to southeast. The uranium mineralization is mainly distributed in the place where the thickness of sand body changed from the thick to the thin. Statistics shows that the best uranium mineralization occurred in sand body thickness between 20 m to 40 m and the sand rate over 60% in the eastern part of Dongsheng area. And the best uranium mineralization in the western part occurred in area of sand body thickness between 60 m to 70 m and the sand rate over 70%. In vertical direction, the numbers and the thickness of the impermeable beds have negative relation to sand rate. Moreover, uranium deposits generally exist in the area of less number impermeable bed and small thickness. The uranium mineralization grade decreased with the increase of number and thickness of the impermeable beds. (authors)

  2. Inflammatory nodule mimicking a phrenic neoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannucci, Jacopo; Scarnecchia, Elisa; Del Sordo, Rachele; Cagini, Lucio; Puma, Francesco

    2016-05-01

    Isolated phrenic nerve nodule is usually a primitive tumour. Surgery is diagnostic and therapeutic at the same time. We report the case of a completely serum-negative Caucasian male with a right diaphragmatic relaxation associated to an isolated small nodule of the phrenic nerve. The patient was referred to our unit complaining shortness of breath and progressive fatigue. A standard chest X-ray showed right diaphragmatic palsy; chest scanning revealed a nodular lesion belonging to the right phrenic nerve. Positron emission tomography was negative for glucose uptake. The preoperative diagnosis of primitive neurogenic tumour was thus supposed, and the patient treated by the lesion's surgical resection along with diaphragmatic plication. Histopathological examination revealed an idiopathic inflammatory nodule of the phrenic nerve. Such condition has not previously been reported in the literature among the possible aetiology of a diaphragmatic relaxation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. The distribution of uranium in some Pacific manganese nodules and crusts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunzendorf, H.; Glasby, G.P.; Plueger, W.L.; Friedrich, G.H.

    1982-01-01

    A total of 1386 bulk samples of manganese nodules from several areas of the North and South Pacific were analysed for uranium; variations in the U contents of nodules within individual nodules and crusts have been documented on a local scale and on a regional scale. Uranium appears to be one of those elements not associated with the biogenic cycling of elements into nodules in the equatorial high-productivity zone. The principal factor controlling these variations appears to be the clear association of U with Fe in the nodules. Uranium is therefore most probably coprecipitated with Fe from seawater in an iron-rich ferromanganese oxide phase. This explains the higher U contents of nodules containing MnO 2 compared to 10A manganite as the principal manganese oxide phase. Data for a manganese crust from the equatorial North Pacific nodule belt suggest normal seawater deposition for uranium and other metals (Mn, Fe, Ni and Cu) superimposed on possibly basalt alteration as the principal growth mechanisms for the crust. (Auth.)

  4. Effects of heat-flow and hydrothermal fluids from volcanic intrusions on authigenic mineralization in sandstone formations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolela Ahmed

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Volcanic intrusions and hydrothermal activity have modified the diagenetic minerals. In the Ulster Basin, UK, most of the authigenic mineralization in the Permo-Triassic sandstones pre-dated tertiary volcanic intrusions. The hydrothermal fluids and heat-flow from the volcanic intrusions did not affect quartz and feldspar overgrowths. However, clay mineral-transformation, illite-smectite to illite and chlorite was documented near the volcanic intrusions. Abundant actinolite, illite, chlorite, albite and laumontite cementation of the sand grains were also documented near the volcanic intrusions. The abundance of these cementing minerals decreases away from the volcanic intrusions.In the Hartford Basin, USA, the emplacement of the volcanic intrusions took place simultaneous with sedimentation. The heat-flow from the volcanic intrusions and hydrothermal activity related to the volcanics modified the texture of authigenic minerals. Microcrystalline mosaic albite and quartz developed rather than overgrowths and crystals near the intrusions. Chlorite clumps and masses were also documented with microcrystalline mosaic albite and quartz. These features are localized near the basaltic intrusions. Laumontite is also documented near the volcanic intrusions. The reservoir characteristics of the studied sandstone formations are highly affected by the volcanic and hydrothermal fluids in the Hartford and the Ulster Basin. The porosity dropped from 27.4 to zero percent and permeability from 1350 mD to 1 mD.

  5. Effect of Particulate Matter Mineral Composition on Environmentally Persistent Free Radical (EPFR) Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feld-Cook, Elisabeth E; Bovenkamp-Langlois, Lisa; Lomnicki, Slawo M

    2017-09-19

    Environmentally Persistent Free Radicals (EPFRs) are newly discovered, long-lived surface bound radicals that form on particulate matter and combustion borne particulates, such as fly ash. Human exposure to such particulates lead to translocation into the lungs and heart resulting in cardio-vascular and respiratory disease through the production of reactive oxygen species. Analysis of some waste incinerator fly ashes revealed a significant difference between their EPFR contents. Although EPFR formation occurs on the metal domains, these differences were correlated with the altering concentration of calcium and sulfur. To analyze these phenomena, surrogate fly ashes were synthesized to mimic the presence of their major mineral components, including metal oxides, calcium, and sulfur. The results of this study led to the conclusion that the presence of sulfates limits formation of EPFRs due to inhibition or poisoning of the transition metal active sites necessary for their formation. These findings provide a pathway toward understanding differences in EPFR presence on particulate matter and uncover the possibility of remediating EPFRs from incineration and hazardous waste sites.

  6. Taxonomically Different Co-Microsymbionts of a Relict Legume, Oxytropis popoviana, Have Complementary Sets of Symbiotic Genes and Together Increase the Efficiency of Plant Nodulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safronova, Vera I; Belimov, Andrey A; Sazanova, Anna L; Chirak, Elizaveta R; Verkhozina, Alla V; Kuznetsova, Irina G; Andronov, Evgeny E; Puhalsky, Jan V; Tikhonovich, Igor A

    2018-06-20

    Ten rhizobial strains were isolated from root nodules of a relict legume Oxytropis popoviana Peschkova. For identification of the isolates, sequencing of rrs, the internal transcribed spacer region, and housekeeping genes recA, glnII, and rpoB was used. Nine fast-growing isolates were Mesorhizobium-related; eight strains were identified as M. japonicum and one isolate belonged to M. kowhaii. The only slow-growing isolate was identified as a Bradyrhizobium sp. Two strains, M. japonicum Opo-242 and Bradyrhizobium sp. strain Opo-243, were isolated from the same nodule. Symbiotic genes of these isolates were searched throughout the whole-genome sequences. The common nodABC genes and other symbiotic genes required for plant nodulation and nitrogen fixation were present in the isolate Opo-242. Strain Opo-243 did not contain the principal nod, nif, and fix genes; however, five genes (nodP, nodQ, nifL, nolK, and noeL) affecting the specificity of plant-rhizobia interactions but absent in isolate Opo-242 were detected. Strain Opo-243 could not induce nodules but significantly accelerated the root nodule formation after coinoculation with isolate Opo-242. Thus, we demonstrated that taxonomically different strains of the archaic symbiotic system can be co-microsymbionts infecting the same nodule and promoting the nodulation process due to complementary sets of symbiotic genes.

  7. Genetic variation in nodule size at different sites on the skins of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Apart from the limitations evident from these results, the objective measurement of nodules on ostrich skins is tedious when done manually, with little prospect for automation. The number of nodules per dm² (nodule density) was considered within skin sites as an indirect criterion for the improvement of nodule size. However ...

  8. Usefulness of the CAD System for Detecting Pulmonary Nodule in Real Clinical Practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Kyoung Doo; Chung, Myung Jin; Kim, Hee Cheol; Lee, Kyung Soo; Jeong, Sun Young

    2011-01-01

    We wanted to evaluate the usefulness of the computer-aided detection (CAD) system for detecting pulmonary nodules in real clinical practice by using the CT images. Our Institutional Review Board approved our retrospective study with a waiver of informed consent. This study included 166 CT examinations that were performed for the evaluation of pulmonary metastasis in 166 patients with colorectal cancer. All the CT examinations were interpreted by radiologists and they were also evaluated by the CAD system. All the nodules detected by the CAD system were evaluated with regard to whether or not they were true nodules, and they were classified into micro nodules (MN, diameter < 4 mm) and significant nodules (SN, 4 ≤ diameter ≤ 10 mm). The radiologic reports and CAD results were compared. The CAD system helped detect 426 nodules: 115 (27%) of the 426 nodules were classified as true nodules and 35 (30%) of the 115 nodules were SNs, and 83 (72%) of the 115 were not mentioned in the radiologists' reports and three (4%) of the 83 nodules were non-calcified SNs. One of three non-calcified SNs was confirmed as a metastatic nodule. According to the radiologists' reports, 60 true nodules were detected, and 28 of the 60 were not detected by the CAD system. Although the CAD system missed many SNs that are detected by radiologists, it helps detect additional nodules that are missed by the radiologists in real clinical practice. Therefore, the CAD system can be useful to support a radiologist's detection performance

  9. Indeterminate Pulmonary Nodules at Colorectal Cancer Staging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordholm-Carstensen, Andreas; Wille-Jørgensen, Peer A; Jorgensen, Lars N

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of indeterminate pulmonary nodules and specific radiological and clinical characteristics that predict malignancy of these at initial staging chest computed tomography (CT) in patients with colorectal cancer. A considerable number of indeterminate...... pulmonary nodules, which cannot readily be classified as either benign or malignant, are detected at initial staging chest CT in colorectal cancer patients....

  10. Formation of the Innovation Component of Marketing Technologies of Enterprises That Produce Mineral Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golodniuk Olena S.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers main marketing technologies of building competitive advantages by enterprises that produce Ukrainian mineral waters. It considers individual innovations of the conceptual (eco-marketing and applied (branding, benchmarking and competitive reconnaissance nature with consideration of their significance for participants of this market. It offers directions of increasing the innovation component of topical marketing technologies with the aim of implementation of their results into management of competitive advantages of enterprises. It draws a conclusion about a necessity of: reducing evident and growth of a number of latent competitive advantages, based on intellectual technologies, and also development and realisation of a conceptual model of providing marketing innovations in the system of managing competitive advantages of enterprises; and formation of the system of monitoring marketing innovations with the aim of development of additional services and means of building competitive advantages of enterprises that produce mineral waters.

  11. Radiochemical study of iron-manganese nodules of the pacific ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arslanov, K.A.; Kuznetsov, V.Yu.; Kulikov, A.N.

    1989-01-01

    In this study the possibility of the successful application of the technique of simultaneous determination of the isotopes 238 U, 234 U, 232 Th, and 230 Th present in a weighed sample of nodule material (five samples of IMN material were investigated), previously applied to the study of silicate materials, e.g., oceanic siliceous sediments, has been established. The possibility of using the ionium method or the alpha-radiographic method to determine the age and rate of growth of IMN's from three regions of the Pacific Ocean has been demonstrated. It has been shown that the ionium dating method in most cases is more accurate than the ionium-thorium method of dating IMN's. Differences observed in some cases between the growth rates of IMN's, calculated on the basis of the ionium method and by the method of determining the total alpha-radioactivity, can be explained by the positions of migration of 226 Ra in the nodules. Rates of formation of IMN's, obtained here, vary within the limits 2.5-12.0 mm/10 6 yr and are found to be in satisfactory agreement with the published data of other investigators

  12. Elevated CO2 concentration around alfalfa nodules increases N2 fixation

    OpenAIRE

    Fischinger, Stephanie A.; Hristozkova, Marieta; Mainassara, Zaman-Allah; Schulze, Joachim

    2009-01-01

    Nodule CO2 fixation via PEPC provides malate for bacteroids and oxaloacetate for N assimilation. The process is therefore of central importance for efficient nitrogen fixation. Nodule CO2 fixation is known to depend on external CO2 concentration. The hypothesis of the present paper was that nitrogen fixation in alfalfa plants is enhanced when the nodules are exposed to elevated CO2 concentrations. Therefore nodulated plants of alfalfa were grown in a hydroponic system that allowed separate ae...

  13. Scintigraphy of the functioning thyroid nodule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahlstedt, J.

    2008-01-01

    The evaluation of functioning thyroid nodules is achieved by use of several Iodine isotopes, while in clinical routine 99m Tc-Pertechnetate is dominating. For classification the terms hyperfunctional, isofunctional (normal) and hypofunctional are useful in comparison to the surrounding normally functioning thyroid tissue, which can be stimulated or suppressed. Therefore, autonomous functioning thyroid nodules can vary the scintigraphic appearance. For precise description the terms 'compensation' and 'decompensation' have to be used in relation to scintigraphy or thyroidal metabolism (regulation). (orig.)

  14. Ras mutations are rare in solitary cold and toxic thyroid nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krohn, K; Reske, A; Ackermann, F; Müller, A; Paschke, R

    2001-08-01

    Activation of ras proto-oncogenes as a result of point mutations is detectable in a significant percentage of most types of tumour. Similar to neoplasms of other organs, mutations of all three ras genes can be found in thyroid tumours. H-, K- and N-ras mutations have been detected in up to 20% of follicular adenomas and adenomatous nodules which were not functionally characterized. This raises the question as to whether ras mutations are specific for hypofunctional nodules and TSH receptor mutations for hyperfunctioning nodules. To investigate ras and TSH receptor mutations with respect to functional differentiation we studied 41 scintigraphically cold nodules and 47 toxic thyroid nodules. To address the likelihood of a somatic mutation we also studied the clonal origin of these tumours. Genomic DNA was extracted from nodular and surrounding tissue. Mutational hot spots in exons 1 and 2 of the H- and K-ras gene were PCR amplified and sequenced using big dye terminator chemistry. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) was used to verify sequencing results for the H-ras gene and to analyse the N-ras gene because its greater sensitivity in detecting somatic mutations. Clonality of nodular thyroid tissue was evaluated using X-Chromosome inactivation based on PCR amplification of the human androgen receptor locus. Monoclonal origin was detectable in 14 of 23 informative samples from cold thyroid nodules. In toxic thyroid nodules the frequency of clonal tissue was 20 in 30 informative cases. Only one point mutation could be found in the N-ras gene codon 61 (Gly to Arg) in a cold adenomatous nodule which was monoclonal. In toxic thyroid nodules no ras mutation was detectable. Our study suggests that ras mutations are rare in solitary cold and toxic thyroid nodules and that the frequent monoclonal origin of these tumours implies somatic mutations in genes other than H-, K- and N-ras.

  15. Evaluation of proliferation potential in thyroid normo-/hypofunctioning and hyperfunctioning nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornianu, Marioara; Stan, V; Lazăr, Elena; Dema, Alis; Golu, Ioana; Tăban, Sorina; Vlad, Mihaela; Faur, Alexandra; Vărcuş, F; Babău, F

    2011-01-01

    Thyroid follicular adenomas (FA) and adenomatous thyroid nodules (AN) - lesions that are frequently found in areas with iodine deficiency, can be normo-/hypofunctioning (scintigraphically cold - SCN) or hyperfunctioning (scintigraphically hot - SHN) nodules. Evaluation of proliferation potential in thyroid nodules on tissue samples obtained at surgery from euthyroid patients clinically diagnosed with SCN and from patients with thyroid hyperfunction and SHN. We investigated the proliferation activity estimated by assessing PCNA and Ki-67 proliferation markers in 20 SCN (eight FA and 12 AN) and 16 toxic nodules (six hyperfunctioning FA and 10 toxic multinodular goiters), on formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue samples, 4-5 μm thick; we used the immunohistochemical technique in LSAB system (DAB visualization) with anti-PCNA (PC10) and anti-Ki-67 (MIB-1) monoclonal antibodies. For each case, we calculated the proliferation index PI-PCNA and PI-Ki-67. The dates were statistically evaluated using the t-unpaired test. We observed a higher PI-PCNA in thyroid nodules than in the normal surrounding thyroid tissue, with statistically significant values for FA (14.3% vs. 3.8%; pnodules vs. surrounding thyroid tissue was 1.64% vs. 1.10% in FA (p0.05). We also noted: (1) significantly higher PI-PCNA values (p 0.05); (2) increased proliferation rate (pthyroid nodules with aspects of lymphocytic thyroiditis (LT) (PI-Ki-67 was 1.21%) as compared to nodules without LT (PI-Ki-67 was 0.12%); (3) a mean PI-PCNA of 8.5% and PI-Ki-67 of 4.61% in toxic thyroid nodules (TTN) vs. 3.01% and 1.5% in normal surrounding thyroid, respectively. The clinical expression of SCN is the consequence of increased thyrocyte proliferation in the nodules; the increased proliferative potential of TTN thyrocytes is a common feature of nodules, independent of their histopathological characteristics.

  16. Computerized detection of lung nodules by means of "virtual dual-energy" radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sheng; Suzuki, Kenji

    2013-02-01

    Major challenges in current computer-aided detection (CADe) schemes for nodule detection in chest radiographs (CXRs) are to detect nodules that overlap with ribs and/or clavicles and to reduce the frequent false positives (FPs) caused by ribs. Detection of such nodules by a CADe scheme is very important, because radiologists are likely to miss such subtle nodules. Our purpose in this study was to develop a CADe scheme with improved sensitivity and specificity by use of "virtual dual-energy" (VDE) CXRs where ribs and clavicles are suppressed with massive-training artificial neural networks (MTANNs). To reduce rib-induced FPs and detect nodules overlapping with ribs, we incorporated the VDE technology in our CADe scheme. The VDE technology suppressed rib and clavicle opacities in CXRs while maintaining soft-tissue opacity by use of the MTANN technique that had been trained with real dual-energy imaging. Our scheme detected nodule candidates on VDE images by use of a morphologic filtering technique. Sixty morphologic and gray-level-based features were extracted from each candidate from both original and VDE CXRs. A nonlinear support vector classifier was employed for classification of the nodule candidates. A publicly available database containing 140 nodules in 140 CXRs and 93 normal CXRs was used for testing our CADe scheme. All nodules were confirmed by computed tomography examinations, and the average size of the nodules was 17.8 mm. Thirty percent (42/140) of the nodules were rated "extremely subtle" or "very subtle" by a radiologist. The original scheme without VDE technology achieved a sensitivity of 78.6% (110/140) with 5 (1165/233) FPs per image. By use of the VDE technology, more nodules overlapping with ribs or clavicles were detected and the sensitivity was improved substantially to 85.0% (119/140) at the same FP rate in a leave-one-out cross-validation test, whereas the FP rate was reduced to 2.5 (583/233) per image at the same sensitivity level as the

  17. Lung nodule volumetry: segmentation algorithms within the same software package cannot be used interchangeably.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashraf, H.; Hoop, B.J. de; Shaker, S.B.; Dirksen, A.; Bach, K.S.; Hansen, H.; Prokop, M.; Pedersen, J.H.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We examined the reproducibility of lung nodule volumetry software that offers three different volumetry algorithms. METHODS: In a lung cancer screening trial, 188 baseline nodules >5 mm were identified. Including follow-ups, these nodules formed a study-set of 545 nodules. Nodules were

  18. Frequency and characteristics of pulmonary nodules in children at computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samim, Atia; Littooij, Annemieke S.; Wessels, Frank J.; Nievelstein, Rutger A.J.; Jong, Pim A. de [University Medical Centre Utrecht/Wilhelmina Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M. van den [Princess Maxima Centre for Pediatric Oncology, Department of Pediatric Oncology, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2017-12-15

    Normative data on pulmonary nodules in children without malignancy are limited. Knowledge of the frequency and characteristics of pulmonary nodules in healthy children can influence care decisions in children with malignant disease. To provide normative data concerning the frequency and characteristics of pulmonary nodules on computed tomography (CT) in young children. All children ages 1 year-12 years who underwent chest CT after high-energy trauma were retrospectively investigated. Exclusion criteria were a history of malignancy, thick image slices, motion artefacts and extensive post-traumatic pulmonary changes. Two radiologists were asked to independently identify all nodules and to characterize each nodule with respect to location, size, perifissural location and calcification. Discrepancies were adjudicated by a third reader, who set the reference standard in this study. Interobserver agreement in detection and characterization was assessed using the kappa coefficient (κ). Identified were 120 patients, of whom 72 (75% male; median age: 8.0 years [interquartile range: 4-11]) were included. A total of 59 pulmonary nodules were present in 27 patients (38%; 95% confidence interval: 26-49%; range: 1-5 nodules per patient, with a mean diameter of 3.2 mm [standard deviation: 0.9 mm]). For nodule detection, the per-patient interobserver agreement was substantial (κ=0.78) and per-lobe agreement was moderate (κ=0.40). For characterization, there was fair to substantial agreement (κ=0.36-0.74). Small pulmonary nodules on chest CT are a common finding in otherwise healthy children, but detection and characterization have only moderate interobserver agreement. (orig.)

  19. Frequency and characteristics of pulmonary nodules in children at computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samim, Atia; Littooij, Annemieke S.; Wessels, Frank J.; Nievelstein, Rutger A.J.; Jong, Pim A. de; Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M. van den

    2017-01-01

    Normative data on pulmonary nodules in children without malignancy are limited. Knowledge of the frequency and characteristics of pulmonary nodules in healthy children can influence care decisions in children with malignant disease. To provide normative data concerning the frequency and characteristics of pulmonary nodules on computed tomography (CT) in young children. All children ages 1 year-12 years who underwent chest CT after high-energy trauma were retrospectively investigated. Exclusion criteria were a history of malignancy, thick image slices, motion artefacts and extensive post-traumatic pulmonary changes. Two radiologists were asked to independently identify all nodules and to characterize each nodule with respect to location, size, perifissural location and calcification. Discrepancies were adjudicated by a third reader, who set the reference standard in this study. Interobserver agreement in detection and characterization was assessed using the kappa coefficient (κ). Identified were 120 patients, of whom 72 (75% male; median age: 8.0 years [interquartile range: 4-11]) were included. A total of 59 pulmonary nodules were present in 27 patients (38%; 95% confidence interval: 26-49%; range: 1-5 nodules per patient, with a mean diameter of 3.2 mm [standard deviation: 0.9 mm]). For nodule detection, the per-patient interobserver agreement was substantial (κ=0.78) and per-lobe agreement was moderate (κ=0.40). For characterization, there was fair to substantial agreement (κ=0.36-0.74). Small pulmonary nodules on chest CT are a common finding in otherwise healthy children, but detection and characterization have only moderate interobserver agreement. (orig.)

  20. Percutaneous ethanol injection of large autonomous hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarantino, L; Giorgio, A; Mariniello, N; de Stefano, G; Perrotta, A; Aloisio, V; Tamasi, S; Forestieri, M C; Esposito, F; Esposito, F; Finizia, L; Voza, A

    2000-01-01

    To verify the effectiveness of percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) in the treatment of large (>30-mL) hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules. Twelve patients (eight women, four men; age range, 26-76 years) with a large hyperfunctioning thyroid nodule (volume range, 33-90 mL; mean, 46.08 mL) underwent PEI treatment under ultrasonographic (US) guidance. US was used to calculate the volume of the nodules and to assess the diffusion of the ethanol in the lesions during the procedure. When incomplete necrosis of the nodule was depicted at scintigraphy performed 3 months after treatment, additional PEI sessions were performed. Four to 11 PEI sessions (mean, seven) were performed in each patient, with an injection of 3-14 mL of 99.8% ethanol per session (total amount of ethanol per patient, 30-108 mL; mean, 48.5 mL). At scintigraphy after treatment in all patients, recovery of extranodular uptake, absence of uptake in the nodule, and normalization of thyroid-stimulating hormone (thyrotropin) levels were observed. In all patients, US showed volume reductions of 30%-50% after 3 months and 40%-80% after 6-9 months. Side effects were self-limiting in all patients. During the 6-48-month follow-up, no recurrence was observed. PEI is an effective and safe technique for the treatment of large hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules.

  1. Effects of Different Reconstruction Parameters on CT Volumetric Measurement 
of Pulmonary Nodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongrong YANG

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective It has been proven that volumetric measurements could detect subtle changes in small pulmonary nodules in serial CT scans, and thus may play an important role in the follow-up of indeterminate pulmonary nodules and in differentiating malignant nodules from benign nodules. The current study aims to evaluate the effects of different reconstruction parameters on the volumetric measurements of pulmonary nodules in chest CT scans. Methods Thirty subjects who underwent chest CT scan because of indeterminate pulmonary nodules in General Hospital of Tianjin Medical University from December 2009 to August 2011 were retrospectively analyzed. A total of 52 pulmonary nodules were included, and all CT data were reconstructed using three reconstruction algorithms and three slice thicknesses. The volumetric measurements of the nodules were performed using the advanced lung analysis (ALA software. The effects of the reconstruction algorithms, slice thicknesses, and nodule diameters on the volumetric measurements were assessed using the multivariate analysis of variance for repeated measures, the correlation analysis, and the Bland-Altman method. Results The reconstruction algorithms (F=13.6, P<0.001 and slice thicknesses (F=4.4, P=0.02 had significant effects on the measured volume of pulmonary nodules. In addition, the coefficients of variation of nine measurements were inversely related with nodule diameter (r=-0.814, P<0.001. The volume measured at the 2.5 mm slice thickness had poor agreement with the volumes measured at 1.25 mm and 0.625 mm, respectively. Moreover, the best agreement was achieved between the slice thicknesses of 1.25 mm and 0.625 mm using the bone algorithm. Conclusion Reconstruction algorithms and slice thicknesses have significant impacts on the volumetric measurements of lung nodules, especially for the small nodules. Therefore, the reconstruction setting in serial CT scans should be consistent in the follow

  2. 10Be in manganese nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.; Parker, P.; Mangini, A.; Cochran, K.; Turekian, K.; Krishnaswami, S.; Sharma, P.

    1981-01-01

    10 Be (t/sub 1/2) = 1.5 MY) is(formed in the upper atmosphere by cosmic ray spallation on nitrogen and oxygen. It is transported to the earth's surface via precipitation. In the oceans it is eventually associated with solid phases depositing on the ocean floor such as manganese nodules and deep-sea sediments. One of the assumptions that is normally made in analysis of such processes is that 10 Be has been produced at a relatively uniform rate over the pat several million years. If we assume, in addition, that the initial specific concentration of 10 Be as it precipitates with a solid phase is invariant with time, then we would expect that the decrease of the 10 Be concentration as a function of depth in a deep-sea core or in a manganese nodule would provide a record of sediment accumulation rate in the former and of growth rate in the latter. The possibility of using cosmic-ray produced 10 Be for the dating of marine deposits had been proposed 25 years ago by Arnold and Goel et al. The method of analysis used by these investigators, and those subsequently pursuing the problem, was low-level β counting. Though the potential of using 10 Be for dating manganese nodules was explored more than a decade ago, only a few measurements of 10 Be in nodules exist in date. This is largely because of the 10 Be measurements in environmental samples have gained considerable momentum during the past 3 to 4 years, after the development of accelerator mass spectrometry for its determination

  3. Paediatric CT: the effects of increasing image noise on pulmonary nodule detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punwani, Shonit; Davies, Warren; Greenhalgh, Rebecca; Humphries, Paul; Zhang, Jie

    2008-01-01

    A radiation dose of any magnitude can produce a detrimental effect manifesting as an increased risk of cancer. Cancer development may be delayed for many years following radiation exposure. Minimizing radiation dose in children is particularly important. However, reducing the dose can reduce image quality and may, therefore, hinder lesion detection. We investigated the effects of reducing the image signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) on CT lung nodule detection for a range of nodule sizes. A simulated nodule was placed at the periphery of the lung on an axial CT slice using image editing software. Multiple copies of the manipulated image were saved with various levels of superimposed noise. The image creation process was repeated for a range of nodule sizes. For a given nodule size, output images were read independently by four Fellows of The Royal College of Radiologists. The overall sensitivities in detecting nodules for the SNR ranges 0.8-0.99, 1-1.49, and 1.5-2.35 were 40.5%, 77.3% and 90.3%, respectively, and the specificities were 47.9%, 73.3% and 75%, respectively. The sensitivity for detecting lung nodules increased with nodule size and increasing SNR. There was 100% sensitivity for the detection of nodules of 4-10 mm in diameter at SNRs greater than 1.5. Reducing medical radiation doses in children is of paramount importance. For chest CT examinations this may be counterbalanced by reduced sensitivity and specificity combined with an increased uncertainty of pulmonary nodule detection. This study demonstrates that pulmonary nodules of 4 mm and greater in diameter can be detected with 100% sensitivity provided that the perceived image SNR is greater than 1.5. (orig.)

  4. Nodulation and nitrogen uptake characteristics as selection indices for promiscuous soybean breeding in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ababio, R.C.; Sanginga, K.E.; Dashiell, K.E.

    2001-01-01

    Selection for atmospheric dinitrogen fixation in promiscuous soybeans by indigenous rhizobia populations is usually determined indirectly based on visual assessment of nodulation. As the method has been criticized extensively, we have examined this assay in relation to other N 2 fixation indices by evaluating growth of promiscuous soybeans in four ecological zones of Nigeria. Nodulation was affected considerably by rainfall indigenous, rhizobia populations and soil P. The N 2 fixation indices measured, nodule development, apparent effectiveness, total N accumulation and N derived from fixation, varied among soybean genotypes. The visual nodule assessment index correlated with nodule weight (r = 0.74; P = 0.01), but had no significant correlation (r = 0.13) with proportion of apparent effective nodules. All nodule parameters, however, correlated significantly (r = 0.16-0.71; P=0.05) with total N accumulation and seed yield. The percent apparent effectiveness of nodules was a superior index to nodule score and nodule number but inferior to nodule mass. Total N accumulation patterns in the genotypes indicated that N 2 fixation in some genotypes could be substantial during the reproductive growth phase and may serve as suitable criteria for selection. Therefore, in low N soils, percent nodule effectiveness and total N accumulation may be used to augment the visual scores particularly for genotypes, which seem to nodulate profusely with indigenous rhizohia populations (author)

  5. Ectopic bone formation and chondrodysplasia in transgenic mice carrying the rat C3(1)/T{sub AG} fusion gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, J.E.; Maroulakou, I.G.; Anver, M. [National Cancer Institute, Frederick, MD (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Transgenic mice expressing the SV40 large T-antigen (T{sup AG}) under the regultory control of the hormone-responsive rat C3(1) prostatein promoter develop unusual bone and cartilage lesions, as well as ectopic bone and cartilage formation. Two lines of transgenic animals have been propagated in which the expression of the transgene in chondrocytes results in a mild to moderate generalized disorganization of cartilage growth which appears to affect multiple tissues, including the trachea, ear pinna and articular cartilage. The epiphyseal plates are also affected with normal architecture of the zones of proliferation and maturation, but marked elongation of the zone of hypertrophy. Immunocytochemistry demonstrates that expression of T{sup AG} is limited to the zone of hypertropny in the epiphyseal plates, suggesting that the chondrocytes become hormone-responsive at this particular stage of differentiation. Normal mineralization and trabecular formation in long bone appears to occur. Ectopic bone and cartilage formation occurs in the foot pads of the fore- and hind- feet over the course of several months. This is preceded by proliferation of sweat gland epithelial cells followed by the appearance of nodules of cartilage and bone. The nodules are closely associated with proliferating epithelium but are not contiguous with bony structures normally found in the feet. The roles of BMP`s, growth factors, oncogenes and hormones in the development of these lesions will be presented. These transgenic animals may provide new insights into hormone-responsiveness of chondrocytes, as well as factors involved in the processes of bone and cartilage differentiation and growth. These transgenic animals may serve as a useful model for human heterotopic bone formation.

  6. Mineral nutrition of plants: a short history of plant physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennazio, Sergio

    2005-01-01

    The development of the knowledge on the mineral nutrition of plants begins between the 17th and 18th centuries when some European naturalists gave the first experimental evidences of what had been empirically known for about two millennia. The works of Hales and Ingenhousz were of absolute importance in relation to the transport of water and solutes, and assimilation of "fixed air" (carbon dioxide), respectively. The early chemistry introduced by Lavoisier benefited the first physiologists Senebier and De Saussure to reject the "theory of humus", which imposed the soil as the unique source of carbon. During the first half of the 19th century, Sprengel and Liebig investigated on the problems related to some indispensable mineral salts, while Boussingault and Ville attempted to prove the nitrogen fixation from air without giving any convincing evidence. Liebig was the pioneer of the agricultural chemistry: he epitomised the knowledge of that period by imposing the so-called "law of the minima", already acknowledged by Sprengel, and patronised the use of mineral fertilisers in Europe by devising several formulas of mineral manure. He, however, did not recognise the needs of external supplies of nitrogen salts for the crops, in open dispute with the English school of Lawes and Gilbert, who were instead convinced assertors of such needs. At the end of the 19th century Hellriegel showed that leguminous plants presenting peculiar nodules on their roots could really fix the gaseous nitrogen. From these nodules Beijerinck and Prazmowski isolated for the first time some bacteria which were recognised as the real agents fixing nitrogen. This discovery was of fundamental importance for plant nutrition, only second to the discovery of photosynthesis. Another basic contribution came from early research of Sachs on plants grown on aqueous solutions: these techniques allowed to impose the concept of "essential elements", which was fixed as a principle by Arnon and Stout in 1939

  7. Rates and time scales of clay-mineral formation by weathering in saprolitic regoliths of the southern Appalachians from geochemical mass balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason R. Price; Michael A. Velbel; Lina C. Patino

    2005-01-01

    Rates of clay formation in three watersheds located at the Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory, western North Carolina, have been determined from solute flux-based mass balance methods. A system of mass balance equations with enough equations and unknowns to allow calculation of secondary mineral formation rates as well as the more commonly determined primary-...

  8. Computer-aided detection of lung nodules in digital chest radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giger, M.L.; Doi, K.; MacMahon, H.M.

    1986-01-01

    The authors are developing an automated method to detect lung nodules by eliminating the ''camouflaging: effect of the lung background. In order to increase the conspicuity of the nodules, we created, from a single chest radiograph, two images: one in which the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of the nodule is maximized and another in which that S/N is suppressed. The difference between these two processed images was subjected to feature-extraction technique in order to isolate the nodules. The detection accuracy of the computer-aided detection scheme, as compared with unaided radiologists' performance, was determined using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis

  9. Development and comparison of projection and image space 3D nodule insertion techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, Marthony; Solomon, Justin; Sahbaee, Pooyan; Samei, Ehsan

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to develop and compare two methods of inserting computerized virtual lesions into CT datasets. 24 physical (synthetic) nodules of three sizes and four morphologies were inserted into an anthropomorphic chest phantom (LUNGMAN, KYOTO KAGAKU). The phantom was scanned (Somatom Definition Flash, Siemens Healthcare) with and without nodules present, and images were reconstructed with filtered back projection and iterative reconstruction (SAFIRE) at 0.6 mm slice thickness using a standard thoracic CT protocol at multiple dose settings. Virtual 3D CAD models based on the physical nodules were virtually inserted (accounting for the system MTF) into the nodule-free CT data using two techniques. These techniques include projection-based and image-based insertion. Nodule volumes were estimated using a commercial segmentation tool (iNtuition, TeraRecon, Inc.). Differences were tested using paired t-tests and R2 goodness of fit between the virtually and physically inserted nodules. Both insertion techniques resulted in nodule volumes very similar to the real nodules (values were all <0.97 for both insertion techniques. These data imply that these techniques can confidently be used as a means of inserting virtual nodules in CT datasets. These techniques can be instrumental in building hybrid CT datasets composed of patient images with virtually inserted nodules.

  10. Microstructures imply cataclasis and authigenic mineral formation control geomechanical properties of New Zealand's Alpine Fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuck, B.; Janssen, C.; Schleicher, A. M.; Toy, V. G.; Dresen, G.

    2018-05-01

    The Alpine Fault is capable of generating large (MW > 8) earthquakes and is the main geohazard on South Island, NZ, and late in its 250-291-year seismic cycle. To minimize its hazard potential, it is indispensable to identify and understand the processes influencing the geomechanical behavior and strength-evolution of the fault. High-resolution microstructural, mineralogical and geochemical analyses of the Alpine Fault's core demonstrate wall rock fragmentation, assisted by mineral dissolution, and cementation resulting in the formation of a fine-grained principal slip zone (PSZ). A complex network of anastomosing and mutually cross-cutting calcite veins implies that faulting occurred during episodes of dilation, slip and sealing. Fluid-assisted dilatancy leads to a significant volume increase accommodated by vein formation in the fault core. Undeformed euhedral chlorite crystals and calcite veins that have cut footwall gravels demonstrate that these processes occurred very close to the Earth's surface. Microstructural evidence indicates that cataclastic processes dominate the deformation and we suggest that powder lubrication and grain rolling, particularly influenced by abundant nanoparticles, play a key role in the fault core's velocity-weakening behavior rather than frictional sliding. This is further supported by the absence of smectite, which is reasonable given recently measured geothermal gradients of more than 120 °C km-1 and the impermeable nature of the PSZ, which both limit the growth of this phase and restrict its stability to shallow depths. Our observations demonstrate that high-temperature fluids can influence authigenic mineral formation and thus control the fault's geomechanical behavior and the cyclic evolution of its strength.

  11. Stages of ores formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khasanov, A.Kh.

    1988-01-01

    Deposit formation (especially endogenous) is the complicated, multi-stage and long process. Establishment of deposit formation succession, age-specific correlations of minerals and aggregates have a high importance at solving genetic questions. Studying of minerals correlations and mineral aggregates, succession of their crystallization and other observations let restore the history of deposit formation, pick up in it different on duration and physical and chemical conditions stages

  12. Carcinoma in hyperfunctioning thyroid nodule in recurrent hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoving, J.; Piers, D.A.; Vermey, A.; Oosterhuis, J.W.

    1981-01-01

    A patient with an invasive thyroid carcinoma located within a hot thyroid nodule is reported. Only four similar cases have been described in the literature. It is emphasized that a hot thyroid nodule per se should not be used as an argument against the diagnosis of thyroid carcinoma. (orig.) [de

  13. Return of the pulmonary nodule: the radiologist's key role in implementing the 2015 BTS guidelines on the investigation and management of pulmonary nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Richard N J; Baldwin, David R; Callister, Matthew E J; Gleeson, Fergus V

    2016-01-01

    The British Thoracic Society has published new comprehensive guidelines for the management of pulmonary nodules. These guidelines are significantly different from those previously published, as they use two malignancy prediction calculators to better characterize the risk of malignancy. There are recommendations for a higher nodule size threshold for follow-up (≥5 mm or ≥80 mm(3)) and a reduction of the follow-up period to 1 year for solid pulmonary nodules; both of these will reduce the number of follow-up CT scans. PET-CT plays a crucial role in characterization also, with an ordinal scale being recommended for reporting. Radiologists will be the key in implementing these guidelines, and routine use of volumetric image-analysis software will be required to manage patients with pulmonary nodules correctly.

  14. Fossil manganese nodules from Timor: geochemical and radiochemical evidence for deep-sea origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margolis, S.V.; Fein, C.D.; Glasby, G.P.; Audley-Charles, M.G.

    1978-01-01

    Fossil Mn nodules of Cretaceous age from western Timor exhibit chemical, structural and radioisotope compositions consistent with their being of deep-sea origin. These nodules show characteristics similar to nodules now found at depths of 3,500-5,000 m in the Pacific and Indian Oceans. Slight differences in the fine structure and chemistry of these nodules and modern deep-sea nodules are attributed to diagenetic alteration after uplift of enclosing sediments

  15. Controls on the composition and extraction of rare earth elements and yttrium (REY) in deep sea polymetallic nodules and sediments

    OpenAIRE

    Menendez Gamella, Amaya

    2017-01-01

    Rising demand for metals is driving a search for new mineral resources and mining of seafloor deposits is likely to commence in the next few years. These include polymetallic nodules and crusts that are highly enriched in Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Mo, Li and Te, and deep-sea clays that can contain high concentrations of the rare earth elements and yttrium (REY). The potential environmental impacts of mining these deposits are, however, poorly constrained and a better understanding of the processes that...

  16. Micro CT based truth estimation of nodule volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnard, L. M.; Gavrielides, M. A.; Myers, K. J.; Zeng, R.; Whiting, B.; Lin-Gibson, S.; Petrick, N.

    2010-03-01

    With the advent of high-resolution CT, three-dimensional (3D) methods for nodule volumetry have been introduced, with the hope that such methods will be more accurate and consistent than currently used planar measures of size. However, the error associated with volume estimation methods still needs to be quantified. Volume estimation error is multi-faceted in the sense that there is variability associated with the patient, the software tool and the CT system. A primary goal of our current research efforts is to quantify the various sources of measurement error and, when possible, minimize their effects. In order to assess the bias of an estimate, the actual value, or "truth," must be known. In this work we investigate the reliability of micro CT to determine the "true" volume of synthetic nodules. The advantage of micro CT over other truthing methods is that it can provide both absolute volume and shape information in a single measurement. In the current study we compare micro CT volume truth to weight-density truth for spherical, elliptical, spiculated and lobulated nodules with diameters from 5 to 40 mm, and densities of -630 and +100 HU. The percent differences between micro CT and weight-density volume for -630 HU nodules range from [-21.7%, -0.6%] (mean= -11.9%) and the differences for +100 HU nodules range from [-0.9%, 3.0%] (mean=1.7%).

  17. Intelligent Recognition of Lung Nodule Combining Rule-based and C-SVM Classifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Li

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Computer-aided detection(CAD system for lung nodules plays the important role in the diagnosis of lung cancer. In this paper, an improved intelligent recognition method of lung nodule in HRCT combing rule-based and cost-sensitive support vector machine(C-SVM classifiers is proposed for detecting both solid nodules and ground-glass opacity(GGO nodules(part solid and nonsolid. This method consists of several steps. Firstly, segmentation of regions of interest(ROIs, including pulmonary parenchyma and lung nodule candidates, is a difficult task. On one side, the presence of noise lowers the visibility of low-contrast objects. On the other side, different types of nodules, including small nodules, nodules connecting to vasculature or other structures, part-solid or nonsolid nodules, are complex, noisy, weak edge or difficult to define the boundary. In order to overcome the difficulties of obvious boundary-leak and slow evolvement speed problem in segmentatioin of weak edge, an overall segmentation method is proposed, they are: the lung parenchyma is extracted based on threshold and morphologic segmentation method; the image denoising and enhancing is realized by nonlinear anisotropic diffusion filtering(NADF method; candidate pulmonary nodules are segmented by the improved C-V level set method, in which the segmentation result of EM-based fuzzy threshold method is used as the initial contour of active contour model and a constrained energy term is added into the PDE of level set function. Then, lung nodules are classified by using the intelligent classifiers combining rules and C-SVM. Rule-based classification is first used to remove easily dismissible nonnodule objects, then C-SVM classification are used to further classify nodule candidates and reduce the number of false positive(FP objects. In order to increase the efficiency of SVM, an improved training method is used to train SVM, which uses the grid search method to search the optimal

  18. Intelligent Recognition of Lung Nodule Combining Rule-based and C-SVM Classifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Li

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Computer-aided detection(CAD system for lung nodules plays the important role in the diagnosis of lung cancer. In this paper, an improved intelligent recognition method of lung nodule in HRCT combing rule-based and costsensitive support vector machine(C-SVM classifiers is proposed for detecting both solid nodules and ground-glass opacity(GGO nodules(part solid and nonsolid. This method consists of several steps. Firstly, segmentation of regions of interest(ROIs, including pulmonary parenchyma and lung nodule candidates, is a difficult task. On one side, the presence of noise lowers the visibility of low-contrast objects. On the other side, different types of nodules, including small nodules, nodules connecting to vasculature or other structures, part-solid or nonsolid nodules, are complex, noisy, weak edge or difficult to define the boundary. In order to overcome the difficulties of obvious boundary-leak and slow evolvement speed problem in segmentatioin of weak edge, an overall segmentation method is proposed, they are: the lung parenchyma is extracted based on threshold and morphologic segmentation method; the image denoising and enhancing is realized by nonlinear anisotropic diffusion filtering(NADF method;candidate pulmonary nodules are segmented by the improved C-V level set method, in which the segmentation result of EM-based fuzzy threshold method is used as the initial contour of active contour model and a constrained energy term is added into the PDE of level set function. Then, lung nodules are classified by using the intelligent classifiers combining rules and C-SVM. Rule-based classification is first used to remove easily dismissible nonnodule objects, then C-SVM classification are used to further classify nodule candidates and reduce the number of false positive(FP objects. In order to increase the efficiency of SVM, an improved training method is used to train SVM, which uses the grid search method to search the optimal parameters

  19. Symbioses with nitrogen-fixing bacteria: nodulation and phylogenetic data across legume genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afkhami, Michelle E; Luke Mahler, D; Burns, Jean H; Weber, Marjorie G; Wojciechowski, Martin F; Sprent, Janet; Strauss, Sharon Y

    2018-02-01

    How species interactions shape global biodiversity and influence diversification is a central - but also data-hungry - question in evolutionary ecology. Microbially based mutualisms are widespread and could cause diversification by ameliorating stress and thus allowing organisms to colonize and adapt to otherwise unsuitable habitats. Yet the role of these interactions in generating species diversity has received limited attention, especially across large taxonomic groups. In the massive angiosperm family Leguminosae, plants often associate with root-nodulating bacteria that ameliorate nutrient stress by fixing atmospheric nitrogen. These symbioses are ecologically-important interactions, influencing community assembly, diversity, and succession, contributing ~100-290 million tons of N annually to natural ecosystems, and enhancing growth of agronomically-important forage and crop plants worldwide. In recent work attempting to determine whether mutualism with N-fixing bacteria led to increased diversification across legumes, we were unable to definitively resolve the relationship between diversification and nodulation. We did, however, succeed in compiling a very large searchable, analysis-ready database of nodulation data for 749 legume genera (98% of Leguminosae genera; LPWG 2017), which, along with associated phylogenetic information, will provide a valuable resource for future work addressing this question and others. For each legume genus, we provide information about the species richness, frequency of nodulation, subfamily association, and topological correspondence with an additional data set of 100 phylogenetic trees curated for database compatibility. We found 386 legume genera were confirmed nodulators (i.e., all species examined for nodulation nodulated), 116 were non-nodulating, four were variable (i.e., containing both confirmed nodulators and confirmed non-nodulators), and 243 had not been examined for nodulation in published studies. Interestingly

  20. Hyperfunction thyroid nodules: Their risk for becoming or being associated with thyroid cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun Sun; Kim, Ji Hoon; Na, Dong Gyu; Paeng, Jin Chul; Min, Hye Sook; Choi, Seung Hong; Sohn, Chul Ho; Chang, Ki Hyun

    2013-01-01

    To retrospectively evaluate the risk of thyroid cancer in patients with hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules through ultrasonographic-pathologic analysis. Institutional review board approval was obtained and informed consent was waived. From 2003 to 2007, 107 patients consecutively presented with hot spots on thyroid scans and low serum thyroid-stimulating hormone levels. Among them, 32 patients who had undergone thyroid ultrasonography were analyzed in this study. Thyroid nodules depicted on ultrasonography were classified based on size and categorized as benign, indeterminate, or suspicious malignant nodules according to ultrasonographic findings. The thyroid nodules were determined as either hyperfunctioning or coexisting nodules and were then correlated with pathologic results. In 32 patients, 42 hyperfunctioning nodules (mean number per patient, 1.31; range, 1-6) were observed on thyroid scans and 68 coexisting nodules (mean, 2.13; range, 0-7) were observed on ultrasonography. Twenty-five patients (78.1%) had at least one hyperfunctioning (n = 17, 53.1%) or coexisting (n = 16, 50.0%) nodule that showed a suspicious malignant feature larger than 5 mm (n = 8, 25.0%), or an indeterminate feature 1 cm or greater (n = 20, 62.5%) in diameter, which could have been indicated by using fine needle aspiration (FNA). Seven patients were proven to have 11 thyroid cancers in 3 hyperfunctioning and 8 coexisting nodules. All of these had at least one thyroid cancer, which could have been indicated by using FNA. The estimated minimal risk of thyroid cancer was 6.5% (7/107). Patients with hyperfunctioning nodules may not be safe from thyroid cancer because hyperfunctioning nodules can coexist with thyroid cancer nodules. To screen out these cancers, ultrasonography should be performed.

  1. Hyperfunction thyroid nodules: their risk for becoming or being associated with thyroid cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Sun; Kim, Ji-Hoon; Na, Dong Gyu; Paeng, Jin Chul; Min, Hye Sook; Choi, Seung Hong; Sohn, Chul Ho; Chang, Ki-Hyun

    2013-01-01

    To retrospectively evaluate the risk of thyroid cancer in patients with hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules through ultrasonographic-pathologic analysis. Institutional review board approval was obtained and informed consent was waived. From 2003 to 2007, 107 patients consecutively presented with hot spots on thyroid scans and low serum thyroid-stimulating hormone levels. Among them, 32 patients who had undergone thyroid ultrasonography were analyzed in this study. Thyroid nodules depicted on ultrasonography were classified based on size and categorized as benign, indeterminate, or suspicious malignant nodules according to ultrasonographic findings. The thyroid nodules were determined as either hyperfunctioning or coexisting nodules and were then correlated with pathologic results. In 32 patients, 42 hyperfunctioning nodules (mean number per patient, 1.31; range, 1-6) were observed on thyroid scans and 68 coexisting nodules (mean, 2.13; range, 0-7) were observed on ultrasonography. Twenty-five patients (78.1%) had at least one hyperfunctioning (n = 17, 53.1%) or coexisting (n = 16, 50.0%) nodule that showed a suspicious malignant feature larger than 5 mm (n = 8, 25.0%), or an indeterminate feature 1 cm or greater (n = 20, 62.5%) in diameter, which could have been indicated by using fine needle aspiration (FNA). Seven patients were proven to have 11 thyroid cancers in 3 hyperfunctioning and 8 coexisting nodules. All of these had at least one thyroid cancer, which could have been indicated by using FNA. The estimated minimal risk of thyroid cancer was 6.5% (7/107). Patients with hyperfunctioning nodules may not be safe from thyroid cancer because hyperfunctioning nodules can coexist with thyroid cancer nodules. To screen out these cancers, ultrasonography should be performed.

  2. Hyperfunction thyroid nodules: Their risk for becoming or being associated with thyroid cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Sun; Kim, Ji Hoon; Na, Dong Gyu; Paeng, Jin Chul; Min, Hye Sook; Choi, Seung Hong; Sohn, Chul Ho; Chang, Ki Hyun [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-15

    To retrospectively evaluate the risk of thyroid cancer in patients with hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules through ultrasonographic-pathologic analysis. Institutional review board approval was obtained and informed consent was waived. From 2003 to 2007, 107 patients consecutively presented with hot spots on thyroid scans and low serum thyroid-stimulating hormone levels. Among them, 32 patients who had undergone thyroid ultrasonography were analyzed in this study. Thyroid nodules depicted on ultrasonography were classified based on size and categorized as benign, indeterminate, or suspicious malignant nodules according to ultrasonographic findings. The thyroid nodules were determined as either hyperfunctioning or coexisting nodules and were then correlated with pathologic results. In 32 patients, 42 hyperfunctioning nodules (mean number per patient, 1.31; range, 1-6) were observed on thyroid scans and 68 coexisting nodules (mean, 2.13; range, 0-7) were observed on ultrasonography. Twenty-five patients (78.1%) had at least one hyperfunctioning (n = 17, 53.1%) or coexisting (n = 16, 50.0%) nodule that showed a suspicious malignant feature larger than 5 mm (n = 8, 25.0%), or an indeterminate feature 1 cm or greater (n = 20, 62.5%) in diameter, which could have been indicated by using fine needle aspiration (FNA). Seven patients were proven to have 11 thyroid cancers in 3 hyperfunctioning and 8 coexisting nodules. All of these had at least one thyroid cancer, which could have been indicated by using FNA. The estimated minimal risk of thyroid cancer was 6.5% (7/107). Patients with hyperfunctioning nodules may not be safe from thyroid cancer because hyperfunctioning nodules can coexist with thyroid cancer nodules. To screen out these cancers, ultrasonography should be performed.

  3. Treatment of hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules by percutaneous ethanol injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarai Maryam

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Autonomous thyroid nodules can be treated by a variety of methods. We assessed the efficacy of percutaneous ethanol injection in treating autonomous thyroid nodules. Methods 35 patients diagnosed by technetium-99 scanning with hyperfunctioning nodules and suppressed sensitive TSH (sTSH were given sterile ethanol injections under ultrasound guidance. 29 patients had clinical and biochemical hyperthyroidism. The other 6 had sub-clinical hyperthyroidism with suppressed sTSH levels (3, T4 and sTSH levels had returned to normal, or else injections could no longer be performed because significant side effects. Patients were followed up at 3, 6 and, in 15 patients, 24 months after the last injection. Results Average pre-treatment nodule volume [18.2 ± 12.7 ml] decreased to 5.7 ± 4.6 ml at 6 months follow-up [P 4 and sTSH did not change significantly between 6 months and 2 years [P > 0.05]. Ethanol injections were well tolerated by the patients, with only 2 cases of transient dysphonia. Conclusion Our findings indicate that ethanol injection is an alternative to surgery or radioactive iodine in the treatment of autonomous thyroid nodules.

  4. Rhizobial Nodulation Factors Stimulate Mycorrhizal Colonization of Nodulating and Nonnodulating Soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Z. P.; Staehelin, C.; Vierheilig, H.; Wiemken, A.; Jabbouri, S.; Broughton, W. J.; Vogeli-Lange, R.; Boller, T.

    1995-08-01

    Legumes form tripartite symbiotic associations with noduleinducing rhizobia and vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Co-inoculation of soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) roots with Bradyrhizobium japonicum 61-A-101 considerably enhanced colonization by the mycorrhizal fungus Glomus mosseae. A similar stimulatory effect on mycorrhizal colonization was also observed in nonnodulating soybean mutants when inoculated with Bradyrhizobium japonicum and in wild-type soybean plants when inoculated with ineffective rhizobial strains, indicating that a functional rhizobial symbiosis is not necessary for enhanced mycorrhiza formation. Inoculation with the mutant Rhizobium sp. NGR[delta]nodABC, unable to produce nodulation (Nod) factors, did not show any effect on mycorrhiza. Highly purified Nod factors also increased the degree of mycorrhizal colonization. Nod factors from Rhizobium sp. NGR234 differed in their potential to promote fungal colonization. The acetylated factor NodNGR-V (MeFuc, Ac), added at concentrations as low as 10-9 M, was active, whereas the sulfated factor, NodNGR-V (MeFuc, S), was inactive. Several soybean flavonoids known to accumulate in response to the acetylated Nod factor showed a similar promoting effect on mycorrhiza. These results suggest that plant flavonoids mediate the Nod factor-induced stimulation of mycorrhizal colonization in soybean roots.

  5. Climatic control on clay mineral formation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Many physico-chemical variables like rock-type,climate,topography and exposure age affect weathering environments.In the present study,an attempt is made to understand how the nature of clay minerals formed due to weathering differs in tropical regions receiving high and low rainfall. Clay mineralogy of weathering pro ...

  6. Microbial community analysis of field-grown soybeans with different nodulation phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Seishi; Rallos, Lynn Esther E; Okubo, Takashi; Eda, Shima; Inaba, Shoko; Mitsui, Hisayuki; Minamisawa, Kiwamu

    2008-09-01

    Microorganisms associated with the stems and roots of nonnodulated (Nod(-)), wild-type nodulated (Nod(+)), and hypernodulated (Nod(++)) soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merril] were analyzed by ribosomal intergenic transcribed spacer analysis (RISA) and automated RISA (ARISA). RISA of stem samples detected no bands specific to the nodulation phenotype, whereas RISA of root samples revealed differential bands for the nodulation phenotypes. Pseudomonas fluorescens was exclusively associated with Nod(+) soybean roots. Fusarium solani was stably associated with nodulated (Nod(+) and Nod(++)) roots and less abundant in Nod(-) soybeans, whereas the abundance of basidiomycetes was just the opposite. The phylogenetic analyses suggested that these basidiomycetous fungi might represent a root-associated group in the Auriculariales. Principal-component analysis of the ARISA results showed that there was no clear relationship between nodulation phenotype and bacterial community structure in the stem. In contrast, both the bacterial and fungal community structures in the roots were related to nodulation phenotype. The principal-component analysis further suggested that bacterial community structure in roots could be classified into three groups according to the nodulation phenotype (Nod(-), Nod(+), or Nod(++)). The analysis of root samples indicated that the microbial community in Nod(-) soybeans was more similar to that in Nod(++) soybeans than to that in Nod(+) soybeans.

  7. Microbial Community Analysis of Field-Grown Soybeans with Different Nodulation Phenotypes▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Seishi; Rallos, Lynn Esther E.; Okubo, Takashi; Eda, Shima; Inaba, Shoko; Mitsui, Hisayuki; Minamisawa, Kiwamu

    2008-01-01

    Microorganisms associated with the stems and roots of nonnodulated (Nod−), wild-type nodulated (Nod+), and hypernodulated (Nod++) soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merril] were analyzed by ribosomal intergenic transcribed spacer analysis (RISA) and automated RISA (ARISA). RISA of stem samples detected no bands specific to the nodulation phenotype, whereas RISA of root samples revealed differential bands for the nodulation phenotypes. Pseudomonas fluorescens was exclusively associated with Nod+ soybean roots. Fusarium solani was stably associated with nodulated (Nod+ and Nod++) roots and less abundant in Nod− soybeans, whereas the abundance of basidiomycetes was just the opposite. The phylogenetic analyses suggested that these basidiomycetous fungi might represent a root-associated group in the Auriculariales. Principal-component analysis of the ARISA results showed that there was no clear relationship between nodulation phenotype and bacterial community structure in the stem. In contrast, both the bacterial and fungal community structures in the roots were related to nodulation phenotype. The principal-component analysis further suggested that bacterial community structure in roots could be classified into three groups according to the nodulation phenotype (Nod−, Nod+, or Nod++). The analysis of root samples indicated that the microbial community in Nod− soybeans was more similar to that in Nod++ soybeans than to that in Nod+ soybeans. PMID:18658280

  8. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound in the diagnosis of nodules in liver cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Kyoung; Jang, Hyun-Jung

    2014-04-07

    Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) using microbubble contrast agents are useful for the diagnosis of the nodules in liver cirrhosis. CEUS can be used as a problem-solving method for indeterminate nodules on computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or as an initial diagnostic test for small newly detected liver nodules. CEUS has unique advantages over CT and MRI including no renal excretion of contrast, real-time imaging capability, and purely intravascular contrast. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is characterized by arterial-phase hypervascularity and later washout (negative enhancement). Benign nodules such as regenerative nodules or dysplastic nodules are usually isoechoic or slightly hypoechoic in the arterial phase and isoechoic in the late phase. However, there are occasional HCC lesions with atypical enhancement including hypovascular HCC and hypervascular HCC without washout. Cholangiocarcinomas are infrequently detected during HCC surveillance and mostly show rim-like or diffuse hypervascularity followed by rapid washout. Hemangiomas are often found at HCC surveillance and are easily diagnosed by CEUS. CEUS can be effectively used in the diagnostic work-up of small nodules detected at HCC surveillance. CEUS is also useful to differentiate malignant and benign venous thrombosis and to guide and monitor the local ablation therapy for HCC.

  9. Mineralization dynamics of metakaolin-based alkali-activated cements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gevaudan, Juan Pablo; Campbell, Kate M.; Kane, Tyler J.; Shoemaker, Richard K.; Srubar, Wil V.

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the early-age dynamics of mineral formation in metakaolin-based alkali-activated cements. The effects of silica availability and alkali content on mineral formation were investigated via X-ray diffraction and solid-state 29 Si magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 2, 7, 14, and 28 days. Silica availability was controlled by using either liquid- (immediate) or solid-based (gradual) sodium silicate supplements. Mineral (zeolitic) and amorphous microstructural characteristics were correlated with observed changes in bulk physical properties, namely shrinkage, density, and porosity. Results demonstrate that, while alkali content controls the mineralization in immediately available silica systems, alkali content controls the silica availability in gradually available silica systems. Immediate silica availability generally leads to a more favorable mineral formation as demonstrated by correlated improvements in bulk physical properties.

  10. Discriminative Localization in CNNs for Weakly-Supervised Segmentation of Pulmonary Nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xinyang; Yang, Jie; Laine, Andrew F; Angelini, Elsa D

    2017-09-01

    Automated detection and segmentation of pulmonary nodules on lung computed tomography (CT) scans can facilitate early lung cancer diagnosis. Existing supervised approaches for automated nodule segmentation on CT scans require voxel-based annotations for training, which are labor- and time-consuming to obtain. In this work, we propose a weakly-supervised method that generates accurate voxel-level nodule segmentation trained with image-level labels only. By adapting a convolutional neural network (CNN) trained for image classification, our proposed method learns discriminative regions from the activation maps of convolution units at different scales, and identifies the true nodule location with a novel candidate-screening framework. Experimental results on the public LIDC-IDRI dataset demonstrate that, our weakly-supervised nodule segmentation framework achieves competitive performance compared to a fully-supervised CNN-based segmentation method.

  11. Studies on zinc nodules electrodeposited from acid electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Rolfe [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Tobias, Charles W. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1984-12-01

    The development of morphology of electrodeposited zinc was investigated by studying the initial stages of deposition. Zinc was deposited galvanostatically from 1.0 M ZnCl2 electrolyte (0.7 < pH < 4.6) on rotating disc electrodes at current densities from 5 to 130 ma/cm2. Pine glassy carbon, Union Carbide pyrolytic graphite, Gould pyrolytic graphite, Exxon graphite loaded polymer, and platinum substrates were used. The number densities of nodules (diameter greater than 1 μm), typically encountered during incipient morphological development, were measured using scanning electron microscopy and image analysis. Nodule densities up to 7 x 104 nodules/mm2 were measured.

  12. Inflammatory Hepatic Nodules Associated with Urinary Tract Infection in Two Pediatric Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ye Lim; Kim, Kyeong Ah; Lee, Chang Hee; Choi, Jae Woong; Lee, Jong Mee; Park, Cheol Min

    2009-01-01

    Inflammatory nodule in the liver associated with acute urinary infection is an uncommon presentation. We recently experienced two pediatric patients, admitted for urinary tract infection, in whom a solitary hyperechoic nodule or multiple low echoic nodules in the liver were incidentally discovered. All patients complained of fever, and urine culture results were positive for Klebsiella, Streptococcus, and Escherichia coli. After receiving treatment with antibiotics, the hepatic nodules gradually decreased in size and completely disappeared

  13. A solitary hyperfunctioning thyroid nodule harboring thyroid carcinoma: review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Mirfakhraee, Sasan; Mathews, Dana; Peng, Lan; Woodruff, Stacey; Zigman, Jeffrey M

    2013-01-01

    Hyperfunctioning nodules of the thyroid are thought to only rarely harbor thyroid cancer, and thus are infrequently biopsied. Here, we present the case of a patient with a hyperfunctioning thyroid nodule harboring thyroid carcinoma and, using MEDLINE literature searches, set out to determine the prevalence of and characteristics of malignant ?hot? nodules as a group. Historical, biochemical and radiologic characteristics of the case subjects and their nodules were compared to those in cases o...

  14. Inflammatory Hepatic Nodules Associated with Urinary Tract Infection in Two Pediatric Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ye Lim; Kim, Kyeong Ah; Lee, Chang Hee; Choi, Jae Woong; Lee, Jong Mee; Park, Cheol Min [Korea University Guro Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    Inflammatory nodule in the liver associated with acute urinary infection is an uncommon presentation. We recently experienced two pediatric patients, admitted for urinary tract infection, in whom a solitary hyperechoic nodule or multiple low echoic nodules in the liver were incidentally discovered. All patients complained of fever, and urine culture results were positive for Klebsiella, Streptococcus, and Escherichia coli. After receiving treatment with antibiotics, the hepatic nodules gradually decreased in size and completely disappeared

  15. 2015 American Thyroid Association Management Guidelines for Adult Patients with Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer: The American Thyroid Association Guidelines Task Force on Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Erik K.; Bible, Keith C.; Doherty, Gerard M.; Mandel, Susan J.; Nikiforov, Yuri E.; Pacini, Furio; Randolph, Gregory W.; Sawka, Anna M.; Schlumberger, Martin; Schuff, Kathryn G.; Sherman, Steven I.; Sosa, Julie Ann; Steward, David L.; Tuttle, R. Michael; Wartofsky, Leonard

    2016-01-01

    Background: Thyroid nodules are a common clinical problem, and differentiated thyroid cancer is becoming increasingly prevalent. Since the American Thyroid Association's (ATA's) guidelines for the management of these disorders were revised in 2009, significant scientific advances have occurred in the field. The aim of these guidelines is to inform clinicians, patients, researchers, and health policy makers on published evidence relating to the diagnosis and management of thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer. Methods: The specific clinical questions addressed in these guidelines were based on prior versions of the guidelines, stakeholder input, and input of task force members. Task force panel members were educated on knowledge synthesis methods, including electronic database searching, review and selection of relevant citations, and critical appraisal of selected studies. Published English language articles on adults were eligible for inclusion. The American College of Physicians Guideline Grading System was used for critical appraisal of evidence and grading strength of recommendations for therapeutic interventions. We developed a similarly formatted system to appraise the quality of such studies and resultant recommendations. The guideline panel had complete editorial independence from the ATA. Competing interests of guideline task force members were regularly updated, managed, and communicated to the ATA and task force members. Results: The revised guidelines for the management of thyroid nodules include recommendations regarding initial evaluation, clinical and ultrasound criteria for fine-needle aspiration biopsy, interpretation of fine-needle aspiration biopsy results, use of molecular markers, and management of benign thyroid nodules. Recommendations regarding the initial management of thyroid cancer include those relating to screening for thyroid cancer, staging and risk assessment, surgical management, radioiodine remnant ablation and therapy

  16. On dynamics of uranium vein mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrosyan, R.V.

    1981-01-01

    The formation of urnaium vein deposits and the essence of consanguinity of the mineralization and wall metasomatites are considered. The formation of uranium mineralization is analysed from the positions of Korzhinsky D. S. : the formation of metasomatite aureole and associated vein ores take place as a result of the development of one solution flow while the formation of mineral vein associations occurs on the background of contineous filtration of the solution during metasomato is due to a repeated (pulse) half-opening of fractures and their filling with a part of filtrating solution. The analysis of the available information on the example of two different uranium manifestations permits to reveal certain relations both in the character of wall rock alterations and between the metasomatosis and the formation of ore minerals in veins. The conclusion is made that spatial-time correlations of vein formations with wall metasomatites attest that the pulse formation of ores in veinlets occurs on the background and in interrelation with a consecutive precipitation of components in the aureole volume. The analysis of element migration dynamics in wall aureole carried out from the positions of the Korzhinsky hypothesis of the advance wave of acid components that takes into account the interaction of continuous and pulse mechanisms of solution movement permits to avoid contradictions when interpreting the processes of wall rock alterations and vein ore-forming, and permits to make a common scheme of vein ore-genesis [ru

  17. Radiology reports for incidental thyroid nodules on CT and MRI: high variability across subspecialties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, A T; Sosa, J A; Tanpitukpongse, T P; Choudhury, K R; Gupta, R T; Hoang, J K

    2015-02-01

    Variability in radiologists' reporting styles and recommendations for incidental thyroid nodules can lead to confusion among clinicians and may contribute to inconsistent patient care. Our aim was to describe reporting practices of radiologists for incidental thyroid nodules seen on CT and MR imaging and to determine factors that influence reporting styles. This is a retrospective study of patients with incidental thyroid nodules reported on CT and MR imaging between January and December 2011, identified by text search for "thyroid nodule" in all CT and MR imaging reports. The studies included CT and MR imaging scans of the neck, spine, and chest. Radiology reports were divided into those that mentioned the incidental thyroid nodules only in the "Findings" section versus those that reported the incidental thyroid nodules in the "Impression" section as well, because this latter reporting style gives more emphasis to the finding. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify radiologist, patient, and nodule characteristics that influenced reporting styles. Three hundred seventy-five patients met the criterion of having incidental thyroid nodules. One hundred thirty-eight (37%) patients had incidental thyroid nodules reported in the "Impression" section. On multivariate analysis, only radiologists' divisions and nodule size were associated with reporting in "Impression." Chest radiologists and neuroradiologists were more likely to report incidental thyroid nodules in the "Impression" section than their abdominal imaging colleagues, and larger incidental thyroid nodules were more likely to be reported in "Impression" (P ≤ .03). Seventy-three percent of patients with incidental thyroid nodules of ≥20 mm were reported in the "Impression" section, but higher variability in reporting was seen for incidental thyroid nodules measuring 10-14 mm and 15-19 mm, which were reported in "Impression" for 61% and 50% of patients, respectively. Reporting

  18. The effects of computed tomography with iterative reconstruction on solid pulmonary nodule volume quantification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin J Willemink

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the influence of iterative reconstruction (IR on pulmonary nodule volumetry with chest computed tomography (CT. METHODS: Twenty patients (12 women and 8 men, mean age 61.9, range 32-87 underwent evaluation of pulmonary nodules with a 64-slice CT-scanner. Data were reconstructed using filtered back projection (FBP and IR (Philips Healthcare, iDose(4-levels 2, 4 and 6 at similar radiation dose. Volumetric nodule measurements were performed with semi-automatic software on thin slice reconstructions. Only solid pulmonary nodules were measured, no additional selection criteria were used for the nature of nodules. For intra-observer and inter-observer variability, measurements were performed once by one observer and twice by another observer. Algorithms were compared using the concordance correlation-coefficient (pc and Friedman-test, and post-hoc analysis with the Wilcoxon-signed ranks-test with Bonferroni-correction (significance-level p<0.017. RESULTS: Seventy-eight nodules were present including 56 small nodules (volume<200 mm(3, diameter<8 mm and 22 large nodules (volume≥200 mm(3, diameter≥8 mm. No significant differences in measured pulmonary nodule volumes between FBP, iDose(4-levels 2, 4 and 6 were found in both small nodules and large nodules. FBP and iDose(4-levels 2, 4 and 6 were correlated with pc-values of 0.98 or higher for both small and large nodules. Pc-values of intra-observer and inter-observer variability were 0.98 or higher. CONCLUSIONS: Measurements of solid pulmonary nodule volume measured with standard-FBP were comparable with IR, regardless of the IR-level and no significant differences between measured volumes of both small and large solid nodules were found.

  19. Bag of frequencies: a descriptor of pulmonary nodules in Computed Tomography images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciompi, F.; Jacobs, C.; Scholten, E.T.; Wille, M.M.W.; Jong, P.A. de; Prokop, M.; Ginneken, B. van

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel descriptor for the characterization of pulmonary nodules in computed tomography (CT) images. The descriptor encodes information on nodule morphology and has scale-invariant and rotation-invariant properties. Information on nodule morphology is captured by sampling intensity

  20. Malignancy risk estimation of pulmonary nodules in screening CTs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Riel, Sarah J; Ciompi, Francesco; Winkler Wille, Mathilde M

    2017-01-01

    model (PanCan) assigned a malignancy probability score to each nodule. Performances were expressed by area under the ROC curve (AUC). Performance differences were tested using the Dorfman, Berbaum and Metz method. Seven observers assessed morphological nodule characteristics using a predefined list...

  1. EZH2 Impairs Human Dental Pulp Cell Mineralization via the Wnt/β-Catenin Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, B; Yu, F; Wu, F; Hui, T; A, P; Liao, X; Yin, B; Wang, C; Ye, L

    2018-05-01

    The enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) is a catalytic subunit of PRC2 (polycomb repressor complex 2). It mediates gene silencing via methyltransferase activity and is involved in the determination of cell lineage. However, the function of EZH2 and the underlying mechanisms by which it affects the differentiation of human dental pulp cell (hDPC) have remained underexplored. In this research, we found that EZH2 expression decreased during the mineralization of hDPCs, with attenuated H3K27me3 (trimethylation on lysine 27 in histone H3). Overexpression of EZH2 impaired the odontogenic differentiation of hDPCs, while EZH2 without methyltransferase activity mutation (mutation of suppressed variegation of 3 to 9, enhancer of zeste and trithorax domain, EZH2ΔSET) did not display this phenotype. In addition, siRNA knockdown studies showed that EZH2 negatively modulated hDPC differentiation in vitro and inhibited mineralized nodule formation in transplanted β-tricalcium phosphate / hDPC composites. To further investigate the underlying mechanisms, we explored the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in view of the fact that previous research had documented the essential role that it plays during hDPC mineralization, as well as its links to EZH2 in other cells. We demonstrated for the first time that EZH2 depletion activated the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and enhanced the accumulation of β-catenin in hDPCs. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis suggested that these effects are attributable to the level of the EZH2-regulated H3K27me3 on the β-catenin promoter. We conclude that EZH2 plays a negative role during the odontogenic differentiation of hDPCs. Suppression of EZH2 could promote hDPC mineralization by epigenetically regulating the expression of β-catenin and activating the Wnt canonical signaling pathway.

  2. A mixed reality approach for stereo-tomographic quantification of lung nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mianyi; Kalra, Mannudeep K; Yun, Wenbing; Cong, Wenxiang; Yang, Qingsong; Nguyen, Terry; Wei, Biao; Wang, Ge

    2016-05-25

    To reduce the radiation dose and the equipment cost associated with lung CT screening, in this paper we propose a mixed reality based nodule measurement method with an active shutter stereo imaging system. Without involving hundreds of projection views and subsequent image reconstruction, we generated two projections of an iteratively placed ellipsoidal volume in the field of view and merging these synthetic projections with two original CT projections. We then demonstrated the feasibility of measuring the position and size of a nodule by observing whether projections of an ellipsoidal volume and the nodule are overlapped from a human observer's visual perception through the active shutter 3D vision glasses. The average errors of measured nodule parameters are less than 1 mm in the simulated experiment with 8 viewers. Hence, it could measure real nodules accurately in the experiments with physically measured projections.

  3. Ultrasonography-guided Fine-needle Aspiration for Solid Thyroid Nodules Less than 5 mm in the Largest Diameter: Comparison in Diagnostic Adequacy and Accuracy According to Nodule Size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jang Hee; Kim, Dong Wook; Baek, Seung Hun [Busan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    This study assessed the adequacy and accuracy of ultrasonography (US)-guided fine-needle aspiration (US-FNA) of solid thyroid nodules, less than 5 mm in maximum diameter. From January to December 2009, US-FNA was performed for small solid thyroid nodules in 201 patients. Each thyroid nodule was classified into group A and B according to the largest diameter (1 mm {<=} group A < 3 mm and 3 mm {<=} group B < 5 mm). The adequacy and accuracy of US-FNA in two groups were compared using the histopathological results as a reference standard. Of the 227 thyroid nodules in 201 patients, the inadequacy of US-FNA in group A and B was 24.3% (18/74) and 13.1% (20/153), respectively, showing a statistically significant difference between the two groups (p = 0.0333, chi-square test). Eighty nodules were removed surgically in 72 patients, from which papillary thyroid carcinoma (n = 52), follicular thyroid carcinoma (n = 1), nodular hyperplasia (n = 26), and pseudonodule related to thyroiditis (n = 1) were confirmed. Based on the histopathological results of the 80 surgical nodules, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of US-FNA in group A and B were 55.0% and 79.4%, 81.8% and 100%, 84.6% and 100%, 50% and 68.2%, and 64.5% and 85.7%, respectively. The adequacy and accuracy of US-FNA for solid thyroid nodules, {>=} 3 mm in the largest diameter, were higher than those of US-FNA for very small nodules, < 3 mm in the largest diameter

  4. The effect of sedimentation background of depression target stratum containing mineral in Erlian basin, Ulanqab to uranium mineralization type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang Shihu; Jiao Yangquan; Men Hong; Kuang Wenzhan

    2012-01-01

    The ore bearing stratum in depression of Ulanqab contains target stratum of lower cretaceous Saihan formation, upper cretaceous Erlian formation, paleogene system etc. The uranium mineralization type which have found by now contains sandstone type, mudstone type and coal petrography. The genetic type of mineral deposit contains paleovalley-type, reformed type after superposition with sedimentation and diagenesis by sedimentation. Uranium mineralization of both the natural type and genetic type have close relationship with its ore bearing stratum. Different geological background forms different sedimentary system combination, and different sedimentary system combination forms different uranium mineralization type. (authors)

  5. Non-invasive Characterization of the Histopathologic Features of Pulmonary Nodules of the Lung Adenocarcinoma Spectrum using Computer Aided Nodule Assessment and Risk Yield (CANARY) – a Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Fabien; Boland, Jennifer M.; Raghunath, Sushravya; Aubry, Marie Christine; Bartholmai, Brian J.; deAndrade, Mariza; Hartman, Thomas E.; Karwoski, Ronald A.; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Sykes, Anne-Marie; Yang, Ping; Yi, Eunhee S.; Robb, Richard A.; Peikert, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Pulmonary nodules of the adenocarcinoma spectrum are characterized by distinctive morphological and radiological features and variable prognosis. Non-invasive high-resolution computed-tomography (HRCT)-based risk stratification tools are needed to individualize their management. Methods Radiological measurements of histopathologic tissue invasion were developed in a training set of 54 pulmonary nodules of the adenocarcinoma spectrum and validated in 86 consecutively resected nodules. Nodules were isolated and characterized by computer-aided analysis and data were analyzed by Spearman correlation, sensitivity, specificity as well as the positive and negative predictive values. Results Computer Aided Nodule Assessment and Risk Yield (CANARY) can non-invasively characterize pulmonary nodules of the adenocarcinoma spectrum. Unsupervised clustering analysis of HRCT data identified 9 unique exemplars representing the basic radiologic building blocks of these lesions. The exemplar distribution within each nodule correlated well with the proportion of histologic tissue invasion, Spearman R=0.87,p < 0.0001 and 0.89,p < 0.0001 for the training and the validation set, respectively. Clustering of the exemplars in three-dimensional space corresponding to tissue invasion and lepidic growth was used to develop a CANARY decision algorithm, which successfully categorized these pulmonary nodules as “aggressive” (invasive adenocarcinoma) or “indolent” (adenocarcinoma in situ and minimally invasive adenocarcinoma). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of this approach for the detection of “aggressive” lesions were 95.4%, 96.8%, 95.4% and 96.8%, respectively in the training set and 98.7%, 63.6%, 94.9% and 87.5%, respectively in the validation set. Conclusion CANARY represents a promising tool to non-invasively risk stratify pulmonary nodules of the adenocarcinoma spectrum. PMID:23486265

  6. Mineralization dynamics of metakaolin-based alkali-activated cements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevaudan, Juan Pablo; Campbell, Kate M.; Kane, Tyler; Shoemaker, Richard K.; Srubar, Wil V.

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the early-age dynamics of mineral formation in metakaolin-based alkali-activated cements. The effects of silica availability and alkali content on mineral formation were investigated via X-ray diffraction and solid-state 29Si magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 2, 7, 14, and 28 days. Silica availability was controlled by using either liquid- (immediate) or solid-based (gradual) sodium silicate supplements. Mineral (zeolitic) and amorphous microstructural characteristics were correlated with observed changes in bulk physical properties, namely shrinkage, density, and porosity. Results demonstrate that, while alkali content controls the mineralization in immediately available silica systems, alkali content controls the silica availability in gradually available silica systems. Immediate silica availability generally leads to a more favorable mineral formation as demonstrated by correlated improvements in bulk physical properties.

  7. The monomeric GTPase RabA2 is required for progression and maintenance of membrane integrity of infection threads during root nodule symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Via, Virginia; Traubenik, Soledad; Rivero, Claudio; Aguilar, O Mario; Zanetti, María Eugenia; Blanco, Flavio Antonio

    2017-04-01

    Progression of the infection canal that conducts rhizobia to the nodule primordium requires a functional Rab GTPase located in Golgi/trans-Golgi that also participate in root hair polar growth. Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) symbiotically associates with its partner Rhizobium etli, resulting in the formation of root nitrogen-fixing nodules. Compatible bacteria can reach cortical cells in a tightly regulated infection process, in which the specific recognition of signal molecules is a key step to select the symbiotic partner. In this work, we show that RabA2, a monomeric GTPase from common bean, is required for the progression of the infection canal, referred to as the infection thread (IT), toward the cortical cells. Expression of miss-regulated mutant variants of RabA2 resulted in an increased number of abortive infection events, including bursting of ITs and a reduction in the number of nodules. Nodules formed in these plants were small and contained infected cells with disrupted symbiosome membranes, indicating either early senescence of these cells or defects in the formation of the symbiosome membrane during bacterial release. RabA2 localized to mobile vesicles around the IT, but mutations that affect GTP hydrolysis or GTP/GDP exchange modified this localization. Colocalization of RabA2 with ArfA1 and a Golgi marker indicates that RabA2 localizes in Golgi stacks and the trans-Golgi network. Our results suggest that RabA2 is part of the vesicle transport events required to maintain the integrity of the membrane during IT progression.

  8. 3D pulmonary nodules detection using fast marching segmentation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper proposes an automated computer aided diagnosis system for detection of pulmonary nodules based on three dimensional (3D) structures. Lung ... The proposed detection methodology can give the accuracy of 92%. Keywords: lung cancer; pulmonary nodule; fast marching; 3D features; random forest classifier.

  9. Treatment of hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules by percutaneous ethanol injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larijani, Bagher; Pajouhi, Mohammad; Ghanaati, Hossein; Bastanhagh, Mohammad-Hassan; Abbasvandi, Fereshteh; Firooznia, Kazem; Shirzad, Mahmood; Amini, Mohammad-Reza; Sarai, Maryam; Abbasvandi, Nasreen; Baradar-Jalili, Reza

    2002-12-06

    BACKGROUND: Autonomous thyroid nodules can be treated by a variety of methods. We assessed the efficacy of percutaneous ethanol injection in treating autonomous thyroid nodules. METHODS: 35 patients diagnosed by technetium-99 scanning with hyperfunctioning nodules and suppressed sensitive TSH (sTSH) were given sterile ethanol injections under ultrasound guidance. 29 patients had clinical and biochemical hyperthyroidism. The other 6 had sub-clinical hyperthyroidism with suppressed sTSH levels (thyroid hormone levels. Ethanol injections were performed once every 1-4 weeks. Ethanol injections were stopped when serum T3, T4 and sTSH levels had returned to normal, or else injections could no longer be performed because significant side effects. Patients were followed up at 3, 6 and, in 15 patients, 24 months after the last injection. RESULTS: Average pre-treatment nodule volume [18.2 PlusMinus; 12.7 ml] decreased to 5.7 PlusMinus; 4.6 ml at 6 months follow-up [P thyroid hormone levels at 3 and 6 months follow-up [P 0.05]. Ethanol injections were well tolerated by the patients, with only 2 cases of transient dysphonia. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that ethanol injection is an alternative to surgery or radioactive iodine in the treatment of autonomous thyroid nodules.

  10. Giant hepatic regenerative nodules in Alagille syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, Jordan B. [Lewis Katz School of Medicine at Temple University, Department of Radiology, Temple University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Bellah, Richard D.; Anupindi, Sudha A. [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); University of Pennsylvania, Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Maya, Carolina [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Pawel, Bruce R. [University of Pennsylvania, Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States); The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2017-02-15

    Children with Alagille syndrome undergo surveillance radiologic examinations as they are at risk for developing cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. There is limited literature on the imaging of liver masses in Alagille syndrome. We report the ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearances of incidental benign giant hepatic regenerative nodules in this population. To describe the imaging findings of giant regenerative nodules in patients with Alagille syndrome. A retrospective search of the hospital database was performed to find all cases of hepatic masses in patients with Alagille syndrome during a 10-year period. Imaging, clinical charts, laboratory data and available pathology were reviewed and analyzed and summarized for each patient. Twenty of 45 patients with confirmed Alagille syndrome had imaging studies. Of those, we identified six with giant focal liver masses. All six patients had large central hepatic masses that were remarkably similar on US and MRI, in addition to having features of cirrhosis. In each case, the mass was located in hepatic segment VIII and imaging showed the mass splaying the main portal venous branches at the hepatic hilum, as well as smaller portal and hepatic venous branches coursing through them. On MRI, signal intensity of the mass was isointense to liver on T1-weighted sequences in four of six patients, but hyperintense on T1 in two of six patients. In all six cases, the mass was hypointense on T2- weighted sequences. The mass post-contrast was isointense to adjacent liver in all phases in five the cases. Five out of six patients had pathological correlation demonstrating preserved ductal architecture confirming the final diagnosis of a regenerative nodule. Giant hepatic regenerative nodules with characteristic US and MR features can occur in patients with Alagille syndrome with underlying cirrhosis. Recognizing these lesions as benign giant hepatic regenerative nodules should, thereby, mitigate any need for

  11. Giant hepatic regenerative nodules in Alagille syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapp, Jordan B.; Bellah, Richard D.; Anupindi, Sudha A.; Maya, Carolina; Pawel, Bruce R.

    2017-01-01

    Children with Alagille syndrome undergo surveillance radiologic examinations as they are at risk for developing cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. There is limited literature on the imaging of liver masses in Alagille syndrome. We report the ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearances of incidental benign giant hepatic regenerative nodules in this population. To describe the imaging findings of giant regenerative nodules in patients with Alagille syndrome. A retrospective search of the hospital database was performed to find all cases of hepatic masses in patients with Alagille syndrome during a 10-year period. Imaging, clinical charts, laboratory data and available pathology were reviewed and analyzed and summarized for each patient. Twenty of 45 patients with confirmed Alagille syndrome had imaging studies. Of those, we identified six with giant focal liver masses. All six patients had large central hepatic masses that were remarkably similar on US and MRI, in addition to having features of cirrhosis. In each case, the mass was located in hepatic segment VIII and imaging showed the mass splaying the main portal venous branches at the hepatic hilum, as well as smaller portal and hepatic venous branches coursing through them. On MRI, signal intensity of the mass was isointense to liver on T1-weighted sequences in four of six patients, but hyperintense on T1 in two of six patients. In all six cases, the mass was hypointense on T2- weighted sequences. The mass post-contrast was isointense to adjacent liver in all phases in five the cases. Five out of six patients had pathological correlation demonstrating preserved ductal architecture confirming the final diagnosis of a regenerative nodule. Giant hepatic regenerative nodules with characteristic US and MR features can occur in patients with Alagille syndrome with underlying cirrhosis. Recognizing these lesions as benign giant hepatic regenerative nodules should, thereby, mitigate any need for

  12. Solitary pulmonary nodule: radiologic features and diagnostic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Cambronero, Luis Enrique

    2012-01-01

    A literature review is conducted on the solitary pulmonary nodule, to determine the diagnostic methods and specific characteristics. The diagnostic methods used have been: chest radiography, computed tomography, positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. The radiological features are defined: location, size, definition of contours or edges (margins), densitometric and attenuation characteristics, cavitation, air bronchogram, growth, doubling time, satellite nodules, nutrient vessels [es

  13. Medicago truncatula DNF2 is a PI-PLC-XD-containing protein required for bacteroid persistence and prevention of nodule early senescence and defense-like reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourcy, Marie; Brocard, Lysiane; Pislariu, Catalina I; Cosson, Viviane; Mergaert, Peter; Tadege, Millon; Mysore, Kirankumar S; Udvardi, Michael K; Gourion, Benjamin; Ratet, Pascal

    2013-03-01

    Medicago truncatula and Sinorhizobium meliloti form a symbiotic association resulting in the formation of nitrogen-fixing nodules. Nodule cells contain large numbers of bacteroids which are differentiated, nitrogen-fixing forms of the symbiotic bacteria. In the nodules, symbiotic plant cells home and maintain hundreds of viable bacteria. In order to better understand the molecular mechanism sustaining the phenomenon, we searched for new plant genes required for effective symbiosis. We used a combination of forward and reverse genetics approaches to identify a gene required for nitrogen fixation, and we used cell and molecular biology to characterize the mutant phenotype and to gain an insight into gene function. The symbiotic gene DNF2 encodes a putative phosphatidylinositol phospholipase C-like protein. Nodules formed by the mutant contain a zone of infected cells reduced to a few cell layers. In this zone, bacteria do not differentiate properly into bacteroids. Furthermore, mutant nodules senesce rapidly and exhibit defense-like reactions. This atypical phenotype amongst Fix(-) mutants unravels dnf2 as a new actor of bacteroid persistence inside symbiotic plant cells. © 2012 CNRS. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  14. Diagnostic Significance of Intracystic Nodules on MRI in Rathke’s Cleft Cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shou-sen Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose. To explore strategies for the diagnosis and treatment of Rathke’s cleft cyst (RCC. Methods. The medical records of 24 patients with sellar RCC were retrospectively reviewed. Two patients had concomitant pituitary adenoma, 2 underwent transcranial surgery, and 22 underwent transsphenoidal surgery. The clinical features, especially the findings of intracystic nodules on MRI, were evaluated and compared with the pathological findings. Results. Preoperatively, only 2 patients were diagnosed with RCC or suspected RCC. Pre- and postoperative MRI images revealed 10 intracystic nodules in 9 (37.5% patients. Two nodules had bull's eyelike changes. The signal intensity of the intracystic nodules varied on T1- and T2-weighted images. Not all nodules on T2-weighted images were visualized. Postoperative MRI revealed recurrence or residual lesion in 5 patients; none had new symptoms and a second surgery was not required. Conclusions. Identifying intracystic nodules is important in patients with sellar cystic lesions. Bull’s eyelike change in an intracystic nodule on MRI, which is reported here for the first time, potentially might have value for confirming the diagnosis.

  15. Effect of gamma radiation on plant growth, nodulation, nutritional status and yield of soybean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, F.A.; Hefni, E.H.; Maghraby, G.M.

    1988-01-01

    Field experiment was conducted under the conditions of a sandy clay-loam soil. Soybean seeds were exposed to gamma rays (0,5,10,20,40,80 and 160 Gry) before planting. Low-medium range of gamma rays (5-40 Gry), particularly at 20 Gry, considerably stimulated plant growth, nodules formation and development as well as the total uptake of N and Mn by plants. Significant increase in seed yield was obtained as a result of gamma rays ranged from 10 to 40 Gry, but the dose of 160 Gry, reduced it. The total contents of protein and oil in seeds were highly related to the produced yield, however their concentrations did not affect by the tested range of gamma rays. Generally, seed yield of soybean seemed to be positively related to the rate of plant growth, nodulation and nutritional status. Therefore, irradiation of seeds before planting with low gamma doses could be recommended to improve the productivity of soybean

  16. Nodulin gene expression during soybean (Glycine max) nodule development.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gloudemans, T.; Vries, de S.; Bussink, H.J.; Malik, N.S.A.; Franssen, H.; Louwerse, J.; Bisseling, T.

    1987-01-01

    In vitro translation products of total RNA isolated from soybean nodules at successive stages of nodule development were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. In that way the occurrence of over 20 mRNAs specifically transcribed from nodulin genes was detected. The nodulin genes could be

  17. FY 1992 Summary of research and development on manganese nodule collection system; Mangan dankai saiko system 1992 nendo kenkyu kaihatsu no gaiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-06-01

    This project is aimed at development of high-function, high-reliability, fluid dredging type systems for collecting manganese nodules on deep sea beds, in order to secure stable supply of the non-ferrous metal resources and improve marine development technologies. A total of 7 areas are investigated; (1) total experimental systems, (2) total experimental schedules, (3) mineral-collecting systems, (4) mineral-lifting systems, (5) instrumentation/control systems, (6) handling systems, and (7) gas lift systems. The item (1) includes analysis of tag boat, experimental vessel, lifter, lifting tube behaviors; and item (2) selection of test sea areas. The FY 1992 efforts are concentrated on the comprehensive marine experiments, including detailed designs and fabrication of the devices for the comprehensive marine experiments; coordination for and optimization of experiment implementation schedules and manuals; simulation and analysis of comprehensive marine experiments and mineral-collecting tube strength; surveys and selection of test sea areas; and investigations of and coordination for basic plans and investigations of economic viability of the mineral-collecting system as the production system. (NEDO)

  18. A computerized scheme for lung nodule detection in multiprojection chest radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Wei; Li Qiang; Boyce, Sarah J.; McAdams, H. Page; Shiraishi, Junji; Doi, Kunio; Samei, Ehsan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Our previous study indicated that multiprojection chest radiography could significantly improve radiologists' performance for lung nodule detection in clinical practice. In this study, the authors further verify that multiprojection chest radiography can greatly improve the performance of a computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) scheme. Methods: Our database consisted of 59 subjects, including 43 subjects with 45 nodules and 16 subjects without nodules. The 45 nodules included 7 real and 38 simulated ones. The authors developed a conventional CAD scheme and a new fusion CAD scheme to detect lung nodules. The conventional CAD scheme consisted of four steps for (1) identification of initial nodule candidates inside lungs, (2) nodule candidate segmentation based on dynamic programming, (3) extraction of 33 features from nodule candidates, and (4) false positive reduction using a piecewise linear classifier. The conventional CAD scheme processed each of the three projection images of a subject independently and discarded the correlation information between the three images. The fusion CAD scheme included the four steps in the conventional CAD scheme and two additional steps for (5) registration of all candidates in the three images of a subject, and (6) integration of correlation information between the registered candidates in the three images. The integration step retained all candidates detected at least twice in the three images of a subject and removed those detected only once in the three images as false positives. A leave-one-subject-out testing method was used for evaluation of the performance levels of the two CAD schemes. Results: At the sensitivities of 70%, 65%, and 60%, our conventional CAD scheme reported 14.7, 11.3, and 8.6 false positives per image, respectively, whereas our fusion CAD scheme reported 3.9, 1.9, and 1.2 false positives per image, and 5.5, 2.8, and 1.7 false positives per patient, respectively. The low performance of the conventional

  19. Small nodule detectability evaluation using a generalized scan-statistic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popescu, Lucretiu M; Lewitt, Robert M

    2006-01-01

    In this paper is investigated the use of the scan statistic for evaluating the detectability of small nodules in medical images. The scan-statistic method is often used in applications in which random fields must be searched for abnormal local features. Several results of the detection with localization theory are reviewed and a generalization is presented using the noise nodule distribution obtained by scanning arbitrary areas. One benefit of the noise nodule model is that it enables determination of the scan-statistic distribution by using only a few image samples in a way suitable both for simulation and experimental setups. Also, based on the noise nodule model, the case of multiple targets per image is addressed and an image abnormality test using the likelihood ratio and an alternative test using multiple decision thresholds are derived. The results obtained reveal that in the case of low contrast nodules or multiple nodules the usual test strategy based on a single decision threshold underperforms compared with the alternative tests. That is a consequence of the fact that not only the contrast or the size, but also the number of suspicious nodules is a clue indicating the image abnormality. In the case of the likelihood ratio test, the multiple clues are unified in a single decision variable. Other tests that process multiple clues differently do not necessarily produce a unique ROC curve, as shown in examples using a test involving two decision thresholds. We present examples with two-dimensional time-of-flight (TOF) and non-TOF PET image sets analysed using the scan statistic for different search areas, as well as the fixed position observer

  20. Recent advances in clay mineral-containing nanocomposite hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li Zhi; Zhou, Chun Hui; Wang, Jing; Tong, Dong Shen; Yu, Wei Hua; Wang, Hao

    2015-12-28

    Clay mineral-containing nanocomposite hydrogels have been proven to have exceptional composition, properties, and applications, and consequently have attracted a significant amount of research effort over the past few years. The objective of this paper is to summarize and evaluate scientific advances in clay mineral-containing nanocomposite hydrogels in terms of their specific preparation, formation mechanisms, properties, and applications, and to identify the prevailing challenges and future directions in the field. The state-of-the-art of existing technologies and insights into the exfoliation of layered clay minerals, in particular montmorillonite and LAPONITE®, are discussed first. The formation and structural characteristics of polymer/clay nanocomposite hydrogels made from in situ free radical polymerization, supramolecular assembly, and freezing-thawing cycles are then examined. Studies indicate that additional hydrogen bonding, electrostatic interactions, coordination bonds, hydrophobic interaction, and even covalent bonds could occur between the clay mineral nanoplatelets and polymer chains, thereby leading to the formation of unique three-dimensional networks. Accordingly, the hydrogels exhibit exceptional optical and mechanical properties, swelling-deswelling behavior, and stimuli-responsiveness, reflecting the remarkable effects of clay minerals. With the pivotal roles of clay minerals in clay mineral-containing nanocomposite hydrogels, the nanocomposite hydrogels possess great potential as superabsorbents, drug vehicles, tissue scaffolds, wound dressing, and biosensors. Future studies should lay emphasis on the formation mechanisms with in-depth insights into interfacial interactions, the tactical functionalization of clay minerals and polymers for desired properties, and expanding of their applications.

  1. Radiographic test phantom for computed tomographic lung nodule analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerhouni, E.A.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes a method for evaluating a computed tomograph scan of a nodule in a lung of a human or non-human animal. The method comprises generating a computer tomograph of a transverse section of the animal containing lung and nodule tissue, and generating a second computer tomograph of a test phantom comprising a device which simulates the transverse section of the animal. The tissue simulating portions of the device are constructed of materials having radiographic densities substantially identical to those of the corresponding tissue in the simulated transverse section of the animal and have voids therein which simulate, in size and shape, the lung cavities in the transverse section and which contain a test reference nodule constructed of a material of predetermined radiographic density which simulates in size, shape and position within a lung cavity void of the test phantom the nodule in the transverse section of the animal and comparing the respective tomographs

  2. Association of Pro-apoptotic Bad Gene Expression Changes with Benign Thyroid Nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gül, Nurdan; Temel, Berna; Ustek, Duran; Sirma-Ekmekçi, Sema; Kapran, Yersu; Tunca, Fatih; Giles-Şenyürek, Yasemin; Özbek, Uğur; Alagöl, Faruk

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the role of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in benign thyroid nodules. Paired samples of nodular and normal tissues were collected from 26 patients with nodular goiters undergoing thyroidectomy. Variable expression of Bcl-2, Bax and Bad genes were evaluated by quantitative PCR. Expression level of Bad gene in nodules was found to be significantly decreased compared to normal tissues (p=0.049). A positive correlation was observed between nodule size and Bad expression levels (correlation coefficient=0.563, p=0.004); and this correlation was stronger in hot nodules (n=18, correlation coefficient=0.689, p=0.003). No significant difference was observed between nodular and normal tissue expressions of Bax and Bcl-2. These results suggest that Bad expression correlates with the size of benign thyroid nodules and also its relatively lower expression in nodules, warrant further investigation. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  3. Correlation between the Quantifiable Parameters of Whole Solitary Pulmonary Nodules Perfusion Imaging Derived with Dynamic CT and Nodules Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiyuan LIU

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective The solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs is one of the most common findings on chest radiographs. The blood flow patterns of the biggest single SPNs level has been studied. This assessment may be only a limited sample of the entire region of interest (ROI and is unrepresentative of the SPNs as a volume. Ideally, SPNs volume perfusion should be measured. The aim of this study is to evaluate the correlation between the quantifiableparameters of SPNs volume perfusion imaging derived with 16-slice spiral CT and 64-slice spiral CT and nodules size. Methods Sixty-five patients with SPNs (diameter≤3 cm; 42 malignant; 12 active inflammatory; 11 benign underwent multi-location dynamic contrast material-enhanced serial CT scanning mode with stable table were performed; The mean values of valid sections were calculated, as the quantifiable parameters of volume SPNs perfusion imaging derived with16-slice spiral CT and 64-slice spiral CT. The correlation between the quantifiable parameters of SPNs volume perfusion imaging derived with 16-slice spiral CT and 64-slice spiral CT and nodules size were assessed by means of linear regression analysis. Results No significant correlations were found between the nodules size and each of the peak height (PHSPN (32.15 Hu±14.55 Hu,ratio of peak height of the SPN to that of the aorta (SPN-to-A ratio(13.20±6.18%, perfusion(PSPN (29.79±19.12 mLmin-1100 g-1 and mean transit time (12.95±6.53 s (r =0.081, P =0.419; r =0.089, P =0.487; r =0.167, P =0.077; r =0.023, P =0.880. Conclusion No significant correlations were found between the quantifiable parameters of SPNs volume perfusion imaging derived with 16-slice spiral CT and 64-slice spiral CT and nodules size.

  4. Intravesicular Phosphatase PHOSPHO1 Function in Enamel Mineralization and Prism Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirali Pandya

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The transport of mineral ions from the enamel organ-associated blood vessels to the developing enamel crystals involves complex cargo packaging and carriage mechanisms across several cell layers, including the ameloblast layer and the stratum intermedium. Previous studies have established PHOSPHO1 as a matrix vesicle membrane-associated phosphatase that interacts with matrix vesicles molecules phosphoethanolamine and phosphocholine to initiate apatite crystal formation inside of matrix vesicles in bone. In the present study, we sought to determine the function of Phospho1 during amelogenesis. PHOSPHO1 protein localization during amelogenesis was verified using immunohistochemistry, with positive signals in the enamel layer, ameloblast Tomes' processes, and in the walls of ameloblast secretory vesicles. These ameloblast secretory vesicle walls were also labeled for amelogenin and the exosomal protein marker HSP70 using immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, PHOSPHO1 presence in the enamel organ was confirmed by Western blot. Phospho1−/− mice lacked sharp incisal tips, featured a significant 25% increase in total enamel volume, and demonstrated a significant 2-fold reduction in silver grain density of von Kossa stained ground sections indicative of reduced mineralization in the enamel layer when compared to wild-type mice (p < 0.001. Scanning electron micrographs of Phospho1−/− mouse enamel revealed a loss of the prominent enamel prism “picket fence” structure, a loss of parallel crystal organization within prisms, and a 1.56-fold increase in enamel prism width (p < 0.0001. Finally, EDS elemental analysis demonstrated a significant decrease in phosphate incorporation in the enamel layer when compared to controls (p < 0.05. Together, these data establish that the matrix vesicle membrane-associated phosphatase PHOSPHO1 is essential for physiological enamel mineralization. Our findings also suggest that intracellular ameloblast secretory

  5. Qualitative ultrasound elastography assessment of benign thyroid nodules: Patterns and intra-observer acquisition variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacout, Alexis; Chevenet, Carole; Thariat, Juliette; Figl, Andrea; Marcy, Pierre-Yves

    2013-01-01

    To report and evaluate qualitative elastography patterns by using gray-scale and Doppler ultrasound (US) in patients presenting with benign thyroid nodules and to evaluate the reproducibility of US elastography examinations. Institutional review board approval was obtained, and all patients provided informed consent. Over a 3-month time period, all consecutive adult patients were referred to our institution to undergo a thyroid nodule fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) procedure. Patients presenting with benign cytology according to the Bethesda 2008 classification were prospectively enrolled in the study. Each thyroid nodule was assessed by using gray-scale, Doppler US, and elastography acquisitions by a single operator (A. L.). Multiple elastography acquisitions per thyroid nodule were performed and elastography scorings of the nodules were compared with each other. Nineteen patients (16 women and 3 men, mean age 58 years) with 22 thyroid nodules were included in the present study. Elastographic patterns 1, 2, and 3 were reported (23% nodules showed pattern 3). The elastography pattern showed a strong variability in 13 nodules (59%). The elastography acquisition result variability involved the “malignant” pattern 3 in 36% of cases. Almost one-third of benign thyroid nodules displayed pattern 3 on qualitative US elastography. The intra-observer variability of the benign thyroid elastography scoring is wide, thus limiting the thyroid nodule US examination accuracy. In FNAB-proven benign thyroid nodules, elastography pattern 3 is frequent and cannot be used as a strong indicator of thyroid malignancy

  6. Multidetector computed tomography analysis of benign and malignant nodules in patients with chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Caisong; Liu, Wei; Yang, Jun; Yang, Jing; Shao, Kangwei; Yuan, Lixin; Chen, Hairong; Lu, Wei; Zhu, Ying

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) features of benign and malignant nodules in patients with chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis (CLT). MDCT findings, including the size, solid percentage, calcification, margin, capsule, anteroposterior-transverse diameter ratio as well as the mode and the degree of enhancement of 137 thyroid nodules in 127 CLT cases were retrospectively analyzed. Furthermore, the correlation between MDCT findings and pathological results combined with the CT perfusion imaging was analyzed for the differences between benign and malignant nodules. A total of 77.5% (31/40) of malignant nodules were completely solid, and 33% (32/97) of benign nodules were predominantly cystic. Compared with the benign nodules, micro-calcification and internal calcification were more frequently observed in the malignant nodules (Pbenign and malignant nodules (P>0.05). MDCT features are useful in differentiating the benign and malignant nodules in CLT patients, and it may be essential for a radiologist to review the MDCT characteristics of nodules in the clinical practice.

  7. Robust semi-automatic segmentation of pulmonary subsolid nodules in chest computed tomography scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lassen, B C; Kuhnigk, J-M; Van Ginneken, B; Van Rikxoort, E M; Jacobs, C

    2015-01-01

    The malignancy of lung nodules is most often detected by analyzing changes of the nodule diameter in follow-up scans. A recent study showed that comparing the volume or the mass of a nodule over time is much more significant than comparing the diameter. Since the survival rate is higher when the disease is still in an early stage it is important to detect the growth rate as soon as possible. However manual segmentation of a volume is time-consuming. Whereas there are several well evaluated methods for the segmentation of solid nodules, less work is done on subsolid nodules which actually show a higher malignancy rate than solid nodules. In this work we present a fast, semi-automatic method for segmentation of subsolid nodules. As minimal user interaction the method expects a user-drawn stroke on the largest diameter of the nodule. First, a threshold-based region growing is performed based on intensity analysis of the nodule region and surrounding parenchyma. In the next step the chest wall is removed by a combination of a connected component analyses and convex hull calculation. Finally, attached vessels are detached by morphological operations. The method was evaluated on all nodules of the publicly available LIDC/IDRI database that were manually segmented and rated as non-solid or part-solid by four radiologists (Dataset 1) and three radiologists (Dataset 2). For these 59 nodules the Jaccard index for the agreement of the proposed method with the manual reference segmentations was 0.52/0.50 (Dataset 1/Dataset 2) compared to an inter-observer agreement of the manual segmentations of 0.54/0.58 (Dataset 1/Dataset 2). Furthermore, the inter-observer agreement using the proposed method (i.e. different input strokes) was analyzed and gave a Jaccard index of 0.74/0.74 (Dataset 1/Dataset 2). The presented method provides satisfactory segmentation results with minimal observer effort in minimal time and can reduce the inter-observer variability for segmentation of

  8. Robust semi-automatic segmentation of pulmonary subsolid nodules in chest computed tomography scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassen, B. C.; Jacobs, C.; Kuhnigk, J.-M.; van Ginneken, B.; van Rikxoort, E. M.

    2015-02-01

    The malignancy of lung nodules is most often detected by analyzing changes of the nodule diameter in follow-up scans. A recent study showed that comparing the volume or the mass of a nodule over time is much more significant than comparing the diameter. Since the survival rate is higher when the disease is still in an early stage it is important to detect the growth rate as soon as possible. However manual segmentation of a volume is time-consuming. Whereas there are several well evaluated methods for the segmentation of solid nodules, less work is done on subsolid nodules which actually show a higher malignancy rate than solid nodules. In this work we present a fast, semi-automatic method for segmentation of subsolid nodules. As minimal user interaction the method expects a user-drawn stroke on the largest diameter of the nodule. First, a threshold-based region growing is performed based on intensity analysis of the nodule region and surrounding parenchyma. In the next step the chest wall is removed by a combination of a connected component analyses and convex hull calculation. Finally, attached vessels are detached by morphological operations. The method was evaluated on all nodules of the publicly available LIDC/IDRI database that were manually segmented and rated as non-solid or part-solid by four radiologists (Dataset 1) and three radiologists (Dataset 2). For these 59 nodules the Jaccard index for the agreement of the proposed method with the manual reference segmentations was 0.52/0.50 (Dataset 1/Dataset 2) compared to an inter-observer agreement of the manual segmentations of 0.54/0.58 (Dataset 1/Dataset 2). Furthermore, the inter-observer agreement using the proposed method (i.e. different input strokes) was analyzed and gave a Jaccard index of 0.74/0.74 (Dataset 1/Dataset 2). The presented method provides satisfactory segmentation results with minimal observer effort in minimal time and can reduce the inter-observer variability for segmentation of

  9. Predictive factors for malignancy in incidental pulmonary nodules detected in breast cancer patients at baseline CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammer, Mark M.; Mortani Barbosa, Eduardo J. [University of Pennsylvania, Division of Cardiothoracic Imaging, Department of Radiology, Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2017-07-15

    Pulmonary nodules are commonly encountered at staging CTs in patients with extrathoracic malignancies, but their significance on a per-patient basis remains uncertain. We undertook a retrospective analysis of pulmonary nodules identified in patients with a diagnosis of breast cancer from 2010 - 2015, evaluating nodules present at a baseline CT (i.e. prevalent nodules). We reviewed 211 patients with 248 individual nodules. The rate of malignancy in prevalent nodules is low, approximately 13 %. Variables associated with metastasis include pleural studding, hilar lymphadenopathy and the presence of extrapulmonary metastasis, as well as number of nodules, nodule size and nodule shape. Using a combination of these factors, we have developed an evidence-based multivariate decision tree to predict which nodules are malignant in these patients, which is 91 % accurate and 100 % sensitive for metastasis. We propose a simplified clinical prediction algorithm to guide radiologists and oncologists in managing patients with breast cancer and incidental pulmonary nodules. (orig.)

  10. Microbial Community Analysis of Field-Grown Soybeans with Different Nodulation Phenotypes▿

    OpenAIRE

    Ikeda, Seishi; Rallos, Lynn Esther E.; Okubo, Takashi; Eda, Shima; Inaba, Shoko; Mitsui, Hisayuki; Minamisawa, Kiwamu

    2008-01-01

    Microorganisms associated with the stems and roots of nonnodulated (Nod−), wild-type nodulated (Nod+), and hypernodulated (Nod++) soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merril] were analyzed by ribosomal intergenic transcribed spacer analysis (RISA) and automated RISA (ARISA). RISA of stem samples detected no bands specific to the nodulation phenotype, whereas RISA of root samples revealed differential bands for the nodulation phenotypes. Pseudomonas fluorescens was exclusively associated with Nod+ soybe...

  11. Computerized Detection of Lung Nodules by Means of “Virtual Dual-Energy” Radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sheng; Suzuki, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    Major challenges in current computer-aided detection (CADe) schemes for nodule detection in chest radiographs (CXRs) are to detect nodules that overlap with ribs and/or clavicles and to reduce the frequent false positives (FPs) caused by ribs. Detection of such nodules by a CADe scheme is very important, because radiologists are likely to miss such subtle nodules. Our purpose in this study was to develop a CADe scheme with improved sensitivity and specificity by use of “virtual dual-energy” (VDE) CXRs where ribs and clavicles are suppressed with massive-training artificial neural networks (MTANNs). To reduce rib-induced FPs and detect nodules overlapping with ribs, we incorporated the VDE technology in our CADe scheme. The VDE technology suppressed rib and clavicle opacities in CXRs while maintaining soft-tissue opacity by use of the MTANN technique that had been trained with real dual-energy imaging. Our scheme detected nodule candidates on VDE images by use of a morphologic filtering technique. Sixty morphologic and gray-level-based features were extracted from each candidate from both original and VDE CXRs. A nonlinear support vector classifier was employed for classification of the nodule candidates. A publicly available database containing 140 nodules in 140 CXRs and 93 normal CXRs was used for testing our CADe scheme. All nodules were confirmed by computed tomography examinations, and the average size of the nodules was 17.8 mm. Thirty percent (42/140) of the nodules were rated “extremely subtle” or “very subtle” by a radiologist. The original scheme without VDE technology achieved a sensitivity of 78.6% (110/140) with 5 (1165/233) FPs per image. By use of the VDE technology, more nodules overlapping with ribs or clavicles were detected and the sensitivity was improved substantially to 85.0% (119/140) at the same FP rate in a leave-one-out cross-validation test, whereas the FP rate was reduced to 2.5 (583/233) per image at the same sensitivity

  12. Feasibility of Intravoxel Incoherent Motion for Differentiating Benign and Malignant Thyroid Nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hui; Chen, Jun; Zhao, Yi Ling; Liu, Jin Huan; Zhang, Liang; Liu, Chang Sheng; Huang, Dongjie

    2018-06-13

    This study aimed to preliminarily investigate the feasibility of intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) theory in the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant thyroid nodules. Forty-five patients with 56 confirmed thyroid nodules underwent preoperative routine magnetic resonance imaging and IVIM diffusion-weighted imaging. The histopathologic diagnosis was confirmed by surgery. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), perfusion fraction f, diffusivity D, and pseudo-diffusivity D* were quantified. Independent samples t test of IVIM-derived metrics were conducted between benign and malignant nodules. Receiver-operating characteristic analyses were performed to determine the optimal thresholds as well as the sensitivity and specificity for differentiating. Significant intergroup difference was observed in ADC, D, D*, and f (p < 0.001). Malignant tumors featured significantly lower ADC, D and D* values and a higher f value than that of benign nodules. The ADC, D, and D* could distinguish the benign from malignant thyroid nodules, and parameter f differentiate the malignant tumors from benign nodules. The values of the area under the curve for parameter ADC, D, and D* were 0.784 (p = 0.001), 0.795 (p = 0.001), and 0.850 (p < 0.001), separately, of which the area under the curve of f value was the maximum for identifying the malignant from benign nodules, which was 0.841 (p < 0.001). This study suggested that ADC and IVIM-derived metrics, including D, D*, and f, could potentially serve as noninvasive predictors for the preoperative differentiating of thyroid nodules, and f value performed best in identifying the malignant from benign nodules among these parameters. Copyright © 2018 Academic Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Subsurface water and clay mineral formation during the early history of Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlmann, Bethany L; Mustard, John F; Murchie, Scott L; Bibring, Jean-Pierre; Meunier, Alain; Fraeman, Abigail A; Langevin, Yves

    2011-11-02

    Clay minerals, recently discovered to be widespread in Mars's Noachian terrains, indicate long-duration interaction between water and rock over 3.7 billion years ago. Analysis of how they formed should indicate what environmental conditions prevailed on early Mars. If clays formed near the surface by weathering, as is common on Earth, their presence would indicate past surface conditions warmer and wetter than at present. However, available data instead indicate substantial Martian clay formation by hydrothermal groundwater circulation and a Noachian rock record dominated by evidence of subsurface waters. Cold, arid conditions with only transient surface water may have characterized Mars's surface for over 4 billion years, since the early-Noachian period, and the longest-duration aqueous, potentially habitable environments may have been in the subsurface.

  14. Marginal zinc deficiency in pregnant rats impairs bone matrix formation and bone mineralization in their neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Masashi; Kayanoma, Megumu; Takahashi, Takeshi; Kaneko, Tetsuo; Hara, Hiroshi

    2011-08-01

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency during pregnancy may result in a variety of defects in the offspring. We evaluated the influence of marginal Zn deficiency during pregnancy on neonatal bone status. Nine-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups and fed AIN-93G-based experimental diets containing 35 mg Zn/kg (Zn adequately supplied, N) or 7 mg Zn/kg (low level of Zn, L) from 14-day preconception to 20 days of gestation, that is, 1 day before normal delivery. Neonates were delivered by cesarean section. Litter size and neonate weight were not different between the two groups. However, in the L-diet-fed dam group, bone matrix formation in isolated neonatal calvaria culture was clearly impaired and was not recovered by the addition of Zn into the culture media. Additionally, serum concentration of osteocalcin, as a bone formation parameter, was lower in neonates from the L-diet-fed dam group. Impaired bone mineralization was observed with a significantly lower content of phosphorus in neonate femurs from L-diet-fed dams compared with those from N-diet-fed dams. Moreover, Zn content in the femur and calvaria of neonates from the L-diet group was lower than that of the N-diet-fed group. In the marginally Zn-deficient dams, femoral Zn content, serum concentrations of Zn, and osteocalcin were reduced when compared with control dams. We conclude that maternal Zn deficiency causes impairment of bone matrix formation and bone mineralization in neonates, implying the importance of Zn intake during pregnancy for proper bone development of offspring.

  15. Lung nodule volumetry: segmentation algorithms within the same software package cannot be used interchangeably

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashraf, H.; Bach, K.S.; Hansen, H. [Copenhagen University, Department of Radiology, Gentofte Hospital, Hellerup (Denmark); Hoop, B. de [University Medical Centre Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Shaker, S.B.; Dirksen, A. [Copenhagen University, Department of Respiratory Medicine, Gentofte Hospital, Hellerup (Denmark); Prokop, M. [University Medical Centre Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Radboud University Nijmegen, Department of Radiology, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Pedersen, J.H. [Copenhagen University, Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery RT, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2010-08-15

    We examined the reproducibility of lung nodule volumetry software that offers three different volumetry algorithms. In a lung cancer screening trial, 188 baseline nodules >5 mm were identified. Including follow-ups, these nodules formed a study-set of 545 nodules. Nodules were independently double read by two readers using commercially available volumetry software. The software offers readers three different analysing algorithms. We compared the inter-observer variability of nodule volumetry when the readers used the same and different algorithms. Both readers were able to correctly segment and measure 72% of nodules. In 80% of these cases, the readers chose the same algorithm. When readers used the same algorithm, exactly the same volume was measured in 50% of readings and a difference of >25% was observed in 4%. When the readers used different algorithms, 83% of measurements showed a difference of >25%. Modern volumetric software failed to correctly segment a high number of screen detected nodules. While choosing a different algorithm can yield better segmentation of a lung nodule, reproducibility of volumetric measurements deteriorates substantially when different algorithms were used. It is crucial even in the same software package to choose identical parameters for follow-up. (orig.)

  16. Lung nodule volumetry: segmentation algorithms within the same software package cannot be used interchangeably

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashraf, H.; Bach, K.S.; Hansen, H.; Hoop, B. de; Shaker, S.B.; Dirksen, A.; Prokop, M.; Pedersen, J.H.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the reproducibility of lung nodule volumetry software that offers three different volumetry algorithms. In a lung cancer screening trial, 188 baseline nodules >5 mm were identified. Including follow-ups, these nodules formed a study-set of 545 nodules. Nodules were independently double read by two readers using commercially available volumetry software. The software offers readers three different analysing algorithms. We compared the inter-observer variability of nodule volumetry when the readers used the same and different algorithms. Both readers were able to correctly segment and measure 72% of nodules. In 80% of these cases, the readers chose the same algorithm. When readers used the same algorithm, exactly the same volume was measured in 50% of readings and a difference of >25% was observed in 4%. When the readers used different algorithms, 83% of measurements showed a difference of >25%. Modern volumetric software failed to correctly segment a high number of screen detected nodules. While choosing a different algorithm can yield better segmentation of a lung nodule, reproducibility of volumetric measurements deteriorates substantially when different algorithms were used. It is crucial even in the same software package to choose identical parameters for follow-up. (orig.)

  17. Enzyme-assisted growth of nacreous CaCO3/polymer hybrid nanolaminates via the formation of mineral bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, Bongjun; Char, Kookheon

    2016-06-01

    Laminated nanostructures in nacre have been adopted as models in the fabrication of strong, tough synthetic nanocomposites. However, the utilization of CaCO3 biominerals in these composites is limited by the complexity of the synthesis method for nanosized biominerals. In this study, we use the enzymatic reaction of urease to generate a nanoscale CaCO3 thin film to prepare CaCO3/polymer hybrid nanolaminates. Additional layers of CaCO3 thin film are consecutively grown over the base CaCO3 layer with the intercalation of organic layers. The morphology and crystallinity of the added CaCO3 layers depend strongly on the thickness of the organic layer coated on the underlying CaCO3 layer. When the organic layer is less than 20 nm thick, the amorphous CaCO3 layer is spontaneously transformed into crystalline calcite layer during the growth process. We also observe crystalline continuity between adjacent CaCO3 layers through interconnecting mineral bridges. The formation of these mineral bridges is crucial to the epitaxial growth of CaCO3 layers, similar to the formation of natural nacre.

  18. TUCS/phosphate mineralization of actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, K.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1997-10-01

    This program has as its objective the development of a new technology that combines cation exchange and mineralization to reduce the concentration of heavy metals (in particular actinides) in groundwaters. The treatment regimen must be compatible with the groundwater and soil, potentially using groundwater/soil components to aid in the immobilization process. The delivery system (probably a water-soluble chelating agent) should first concentrate the radionuclides then release the precipitating anion, which forms thermodynamically stable mineral phases, either with the target metal ions alone or in combination with matrix cations. This approach should generate thermodynamically stable mineral phases resistant to weathering. The chelating agent should decompose spontaneously with time, release the mineralizing agent, and leave a residue that does not interfere with mineral formation. For the actinides, the ideal compound probably will release phosphate, as actinide phosphate mineral phases are among the least soluble species for these metals. The most promising means of delivering the precipitant would be to use a water-soluble, hydrolytically unstable complexant that functions in the initial stages as a cation exchanger to concentrate the metal ions. As it decomposes, the chelating agent releases phosphate to foster formation of crystalline mineral phases. Because it involves only the application of inexpensive reagents, the method of phosphate mineralization promises to be an economical alternative for in situ immobilization of radionuclides (actinides in particular). The method relies on the inherent (thermodynamic) stability of actinide mineral phases.

  19. Formation of crystalline Zn-Al layered double hydroxide precipitates on γ-alumina: the role of mineral dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Livi, Kenneth J T; Xu, Wenqian; Siebecker, Matthew G; Wang, Yujun; Phillips, Brian L; Sparks, Donald L

    2012-11-06

    To better understand the sequestration of toxic metals such as nickel (Ni), zinc (Zn), and cobalt (Co) as layered double hydroxide (LDH) phases in soils, we systematically examined the presence of Al and the role of mineral dissolution during Zn sorption/precipitation on γ-Al(2)O(3) (γ-alumina) at pH 7.5 using extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), synchrotron-radiation powder X-ray diffraction (SR-XRD), and (27)Al solid-state NMR. The EXAFS analysis indicates the formation of Zn-Al LDH precipitates at Zn concentration ≥0.4 mM, and both HR-TEM and SR-XRD reveal that these precipitates are crystalline. These precipitates yield a small shoulder at δ(Al-27) = +12.5 ppm in the (27)Al solid-state NMR spectra, consistent with the mixed octahedral Al/Zn chemical environment in typical Zn-Al LDHs. The NMR analysis provides direct evidence for the existence of Al in the precipitates and the migration from the dissolution of γ-alumina substrate. To further address this issue, we compared the Zn sorption mechanism on a series of Al (hydr)oxides with similar chemical composition but differing dissolubility using EXAFS and TEM. These results suggest that, under the same experimental conditions, Zn-Al LDH precipitates formed on γ-alumina and corundum but not on less soluble minerals such as bayerite, boehmite, and gibbsite, which point outs that substrate mineral surface dissolution plays an important role in the formation of Zn-Al LDH precipitates.

  20. Method for improving solution flow in solution mining of a mineral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, T.

    1980-01-01

    An improved method for the solution mining of a mineral from a subterranean formation containing same in which an injection and production well are drilled and completed within said formation, leach solution and an oxidant are injected through said injection well into said formation to dissolve said mineral, and said dissolved mineral is recovered via said production well, wherein the improvement comprises pretreating said formation with an acid gas to improve the permeabiltiy thereof

  1. Utilization of (15)NO3 (-) by nodulated soybean plants under conditions of root hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes Menolli Lanza, Luciana; Ferreira Lanza, Daniel Carlos; Sodek, Ladaslav

    2014-07-01

    Waterlogging of soils is common in nature. The low availability of oxygen under these conditions leads to hypoxia of the root system impairing the development and productivity of the plant. The presence of nitrate under flooding conditions is regarded as being beneficial towards tolerance to this stress. However, it is not known how nodulated soybean plants, cultivated in the absence of nitrate and therefore not metabolically adapted to this compound, would respond to nitrate under root hypoxia in comparison with non-nodulated plants grown on nitrate. A study was conducted with (15)N labelled nitrate supplied on waterlogging for a period of 48 h using both nodulated and non-nodulated plants of different physiological ages. Enrichment of N was found in roots and leaves with incorporation of the isotope in amino acids, although to a much smaller degree under hypoxia than normoxia. This demonstrates that nitrate is taken up under hypoxic conditions and assimilated into amino acids, although to a much lesser extent than for normoxia. The similar response obtained with nodulated and non-nodulated plants indicates the rapid metabolic adaptation of nodulated plants to the presence of nitrate under hypoxia. Enrichment of N in nodules was very much weaker with a distinct enrichment pattern of amino acids (especially asparagine) suggesting that labelling arose from a tissue source external to the nodule rather than through assimilation in the nodule itself.

  2. Automated nodule location and size estimation using a multi-scale Laplacian of Gaussian filtering approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirapatnakul, Artit C; Fotin, Sergei V; Reeves, Anthony P; Biancardi, Alberto M; Yankelevitz, David F; Henschke, Claudia I

    2009-01-01

    Estimation of nodule location and size is an important pre-processing step in some nodule segmentation algorithms to determine the size and location of the region of interest. Ideally, such estimation methods will consistently find the same nodule location regardless of where the the seed point (provided either manually or by a nodule detection algorithm) is placed relative to the "true" center of the nodule, and the size should be a reasonable estimate of the true nodule size. We developed a method that estimates nodule location and size using multi-scale Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) filtering. Nodule candidates near a given seed point are found by searching for blob-like regions with high filter response. The candidates are then pruned according to filter response and location, and the remaining candidates are sorted by size and the largest candidate selected. This method was compared to a previously published template-based method. The methods were evaluated on the basis of stability of the estimated nodule location to changes in the initial seed point and how well the size estimates agreed with volumes determined by a semi-automated nodule segmentation method. The LoG method exhibited better stability to changes in the seed point, with 93% of nodules having the same estimated location even when the seed point was altered, compared to only 52% of nodules for the template-based method. Both methods also showed good agreement with sizes determined by a nodule segmentation method, with an average relative size difference of 5% and -5% for the LoG and template-based methods respectively.

  3. CT SCAN EVALUATION OF PULMONARY NODULE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ravi Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Lung carcinomas are quite commonly diagnosed. Thanks to the ever increasing smokers’ population. Majority of the city dwellers are at a higher risk of having this disease when compared to the village counterparts. The stigma through which the person and the family have to undergo before confirming the diagnosis is enormous. So the radiographic methods of diagnosing the malignancies have to improve. Before confirming the diagnosis, the radiologists, the treating physicians should be somewhat confident about the diagnosis so as to prepare the patients and their relatives for the most probable diagnosis before the confirmatory report. The confirmatory procedures include the PET scan and the Histopathology. Both are time consuming procedures and in an economy like ours, finding a PET scanning centre is rather difficult. So the most probable diagnosis has to be thought of using minimal resource. This study puts in a sincere effort to understand and evaluate the pulmonary nodule when identified by a CT scan. This paper is intended to help the practicing radiologists and also make life easy for a practicing physician to identify correctly the lesions and also help the patients to prevent further progression of the disease. METHODS The study was a cross-sectional study. The sample size of the study consisted of thirty patients. CT scan was done in thirty patients who were identified to have lung nodules either by other mode of radiological studies or first time identified in a CT scan itself. The study was conducted in Fathima Institute of Medical Sciences, Kadapa. The study was conducted from 2014 to 2015. RESULT Non-solid nodules were more in number when compared to the solid nodules. All the non-solid nodules were confirmed to be adenomas. Eighty percent of the nodules which were more than 8 mm in size were confirmed to be malignant. One hundred percent of the spiculated border on CT was confirmed to be malignant. In the present study

  4. Neutron activation analysis of minerals from Cuddapah basin geological formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagendra Kumar, P.V.; Suresh Kumar, N.; Acharya, R.; Reddy, A.V.R.; Krishna Reddy, L.

    2014-01-01

    Green and yellow serpentines along with two associated minerals namely dolomite and intrusive rock dolerite obtained from the asbestos mines of Cuddapah basin, Andhra Pradesh, India were analyzed by k 0 -based neutron activation analysis (k 0 -NAA) method. Gold ( 197 Au) was used as the single comparator. Two reference materials namely USGS W-1 (geological) and IAEA Soil-7 (environmental) were analyzed as control samples to evaluate the accuracy of the method. A total of 21 elements present at major, minor and trace concentrations were determined in serpentines as well as associated minerals. The elemental concentrations were used for distinguishing and characterizing these minerals, and also to understand the extent of segregation of elements from the associated or host mineral rocks to serpentines. (author)

  5. Uranium in Pacific Deep-Sea Sediments and Manganese Nodules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kunzendorf, Helmar; Pluger, W. L.; Friedrich, G. H.

    1983-01-01

    A total of 1344 manganese nodules and 187 pelagic sediments from 9 areas in the North and the South Pacific were analyzed for U by the delayed-neutron counting technique. A strong positive correlation between U and Fe in nodules and sediments suggests a co-precipitative removal from sea water int...

  6. Online differentiation of mineral phase in aerosol particles by ion formation mechanism using a LAAP-TOF single-particle mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsden, Nicholas A.; Flynn, Michael J.; Allan, James D.; Coe, Hugh

    2018-01-01

    Mineralogy of silicate mineral dust has a strong influence on climate and ecosystems due to variation in physiochemical properties that result from differences in composition and crystal structure (mineral phase). Traditional offline methods of analysing mineral phase are labour intensive and the temporal resolution of the data is much longer than many atmospheric processes. Single-particle mass spectrometry (SPMS) is an established technique for the online size-resolved measurement of particle composition by laser desorption ionisation (LDI) followed by time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS). Although non-quantitative, the technique is able to identify the presence of silicate minerals in airborne dust particles from markers of alkali metals and silicate molecular ions in the mass spectra. However, the differentiation of mineral phase in silicate particles by traditional mass spectral peak area measurements is not possible. This is because instrument function and matrix effects in the ionisation process result in variations in instrument response that are greater than the differences in composition between common mineral phases.In this study, we introduce a novel technique that enables the differentiation of mineral phase in silicate mineral particles by ion formation mechanism measured from subtle changes in ion arrival times at the TOF-MS detector. Using a combination of peak area and peak centroid measurements, we show that the arrangement of the interstitial alkali metals in the crystal structure, an important property in silicate mineralogy, influences the ion arrival times of elemental and molecular ion species in the negative ion mass spectra. A classification scheme is presented that allowed for the differentiation of illite-smectite, kaolinite and feldspar minerals on a single-particle basis. Online analysis of mineral dust aerosol generated from clay mineral standards produced mineral fractions that are in agreement with bulk measurements reported by

  7. Grade distributions in manganese nodules of Central Indian Ocean Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sudhakar, M.

    Data concerning to geological setting physical characteristics and bulk chemical composition of the nodules sampled from CIOB were stored in the Computer Data Bank of this Institute. Bulk chemical composition of nodules, in which grade is expressed...

  8. Long-term evolution of radio-active waste storage in geological formations: analogy with the weathering of mineral deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantinolle, P.; Griffault, L.; Jebrak, M.

    1986-01-01

    The aim of this study was to select examples of mineral deposits and their weathering environment, showing the long-term behaviour, in geological time, measuring (area, volume) some constituent elements of radio-active waste storage subject to the hazards of hydrogeochemical weathering. Initially, a feasibility study was made to collate data available within the BRGM (mining group and public service) and from literature dealing with weathering of deposits. It was thus discovered that the analogy between radio-active waste storage and mineral deposits could be approached in two different yet complementary ways: - one approach is to observe the behaviour of a mineral deposit in relation to the country rocks. For this a bibliographic metallogenic study was made. The other approach is to observe the behaviour of chemical elements during deposition of a mineral deposit whose genesis is similar to the spatial and thermal environment of a deposit of radio-active waste in a geological formation. For this two sites were selected corresponding to hydrothermal systems showing strong analogies to those expected in the neighbourhood of the storage sites. These two sites, Langenberg in the Vosges and La Telhaie in Brittany, were the subject of complementary analytical work [fr

  9. Treatment of Benign Thyroid Nodules: Comparison of Surgery with Radiofrequency Ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Y; Jin, S; Shi, C; Wang, L; Zhang, X; Li, Y; Baek, J H

    2015-07-01

    Nodular goiter is one of the most common benign lesions in thyroid nodule. The main treatment of the disease is still the traditional surgical resection, however there are many problems such as general anesthesia, surgical scar, postoperative thyroid or parathyroid function abnormalities, and high nodules recurrence rate in residual gland. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness of 2 treatment methods, surgery and radiofrequency ablation, for the treatment of benign thyroid nodules. From May 2012 to September 2013, 200 patients with nodular goiters who underwent surgery (group A) and 200 patients treated by radiofrequency ablation (group B) were enrolled in this study. Inclusion criteria were the following: 1) cosmetic problem, 2) nodule-related symptoms, 3) hyperfunctioning nodules related to thyrotoxicosis, and 4) refusal of surgery (for group B). An internally cooled radiofrequency ablation system and an 18-ga internally cooled electrode were used. We compared the 2 groups in terms of efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness during a 1-year follow-up. After radiofrequency ablation, the nodule volume decreased significantly from 5.4 to 0.4 mL (P = .002) at the 12-month follow-up. The incidence of complications was significantly higher from surgery than from radiofrequency ablation (6.0% versus 1.0%, P = .002). Hypothyroidism was detected in 71.5% of patients after surgery but in none following radiofrequency ablation. The rate of residual nodules (11.9% versus 2.9%, P = .004) and hospitalization days was significantly greater after surgery (6.6 versus 2.1 days, P radiofrequency ablation are both effective treatments of nodular goiter. Compared with surgery, the advantages of radiofrequency ablation include fewer complications, preservation of thyroid function, and fewer hospitalization days. Therefore, radiofrequency ablation should be considered a first-line treatment for benign thyroid nodules. © 2015 by American

  10. Volumetric measurements of pulmonary nodules at multi-row detector CT: in vivo reproducibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wormanns, Dag; Marheine, Anke; Beyer, Florian; Heindel, Walter; Diederich, Stefan; Kohl, Gerhard; Klotz, Ernst

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the in vivo measurement precision of a software tool for volumetric analysis of pulmonary nodules from two consecutive low-dose multi-row detector CT scans. A total of 151 pulmonary nodules (diameter 2.2-20.5 mm, mean diameter 7.4±4.5 mm) in ten subjects with pulmonary metastases were examined with low-dose four-detector-row CT (120 kVp, 20 mAs (effective), collimation 4 x 1 mm, normalized pitch 1.75, slice thickness 1.25 mm, reconstruction increment 0.8 mm; Somatom VolumeZoom, Siemens). Two consecutive low-dose scans covering the whole lung were performed within 10 min. Nodule volume was determined for all pulmonary nodules visually detected in both scans using the volumetry tool included in the Siemens LungCare software. The 95% limits of agreement between nodule volume measurements on different scans were calculated using the Bland and Altman method for assessing measurement agreement. Intra- and interobserver agreement of volume measurement were determined using repetitive measurements of 50 randomly selected nodules at the same scan by the same and different observers. Taking into account all 151 nodules, 95% limits of agreement were -20.4 to 21.9% (standard error 1.5%); they were -19.3 to 20.4% (standard error 1.7%) for 105 nodules <10 mm. Limits of agreement were -3.9 to 5.7% for intraobserver and -5.5 to 6.6% for interobserver agreement. Precision of in vivo volumetric analysis of nodules with an automatic volumetry software tool was sufficiently high to allow for detection of clinically relevant growth in small pulmonary nodules. (orig.)

  11. A COMPREHENSIVE FRAMEWORK FOR AUTOMATIC DETECTION OF PULMONARY NODULES IN LUNG CT IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Alilou

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Solitary pulmonary nodules may indicate an early stage of lung cancer. Hence, the early detection of nodules is the most efficient way for saving the lives of patients. The aim of this paper is to present a comprehensive Computer Aided Diagnosis (CADx framework for detection of the lung nodules in computed tomography images. The four major components of the developed framework are lung segmentation, identification of candidate nodules, classification and visualization. The process starts with segmentation of lung regions from the thorax. Then, inside the segmented lung regions, candidate nodules are identified using an approach based on multiple thresholds followed by morphological opening and 3D region growing algorithm. Finally, a combination of a rule-based procedure and support vector machine classifier (SVM is utilized to classify the candidate nodules. The proposed CADx method was validated on CT images of 60 patients, containing the total of 211 nodules, selected from the publicly available Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC image dataset. Comparing to the other state of the art methods, the proposed framework demonstrated acceptable detection performance (Sensitivity: 0.80; Fp/Scan: 3.9. Furthermore, we visualize a range of anatomical structures including the 3D lung structure and the segmented nodules along with the Maximum Intensity Projection (MIP volume rendering method that will enable the radiologists to accurately and easily estimate the distance between the lung structures and the nodules which are frequently difficult at best to recognize from CT images.

  12. Maxi- and mini-ferritins: minerals and protein nanocages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevers, Loes E; Theil, Elizabeth C

    2011-01-01

    Ferritins synthesize ferric oxide biominerals and are central to all life for concentrating iron and protection against oxidative stress from the ferrous and oxidant chemistry. The ferritin protein nanocages and biomineral synthesis are discussed in terms of wide biological distribution of the maxi-ferritins (24 subunit ± heme) and mini-ferritins (Dps) (12 subunit), conservations of the iron/oxygen catalytic sites in the protein cages, mineral formation (step i. Fe(II) entry and binding, step ii. O(2) or H(2)O(2) binding and formation of transition intermediates, step iii. release of differric oxo mineral precursors from active sites, step iv. nucleation and mineralization) properties of the minerals, and protein control of mineral dissolution and release of Fe(II). Pores in ferritin protein cages control iron entry for mineralization and iron exit after mineral dissolution. The relationship between phosphate or the presence of catalytically inactive subunits (animal L subunits) and ferritin iron mineral disorder is developed based on new information about contributions of ferritin protein cage structure to nucleation in protein cage subunit channels that exit close enough to those of other subunits and exiting mineral nuclei to facilitate bulk mineral formation. How and where protons move in and out of the protein during mineral synthesis and dissolution, how ferritin cage assembly with 12 or 24 subunits is encoded in the widely divergent ferritin amino acid sequences, and what is the role of the protein in synthesis of the bulk mineral are all described as problems requiring new approaches in future investigations of ferritin biominerals.

  13. A Legume Genetic Framework Controls Infection of Nodules by Symbiotic and Endophytic Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zgadzaj, Rafal; James, Euan K.; Kelly, Simon; Kawaharada, Yasuyuki; de Jonge, Nadieh; Jensen, Dorthe B.; Madsen, Lene H.; Radutoiu, Simona

    2015-01-01

    Legumes have an intrinsic capacity to accommodate both symbiotic and endophytic bacteria within root nodules. For the symbionts, a complex genetic mechanism that allows mutual recognition and plant infection has emerged from genetic studies under axenic conditions. In contrast, little is known about the mechanisms controlling the endophytic infection. Here we investigate the contribution of both the host and the symbiotic microbe to endophyte infection and development of mixed colonised nodules in Lotus japonicus. We found that infection threads initiated by Mesorhizobium loti, the natural symbiont of Lotus, can selectively guide endophytic bacteria towards nodule primordia, where competent strains multiply and colonise the nodule together with the nitrogen-fixing symbiotic partner. Further co-inoculation studies with the competent coloniser, Rhizobium mesosinicum strain KAW12, show that endophytic nodule infection depends on functional and efficient M. loti-driven Nod factor signalling. KAW12 exopolysaccharide (EPS) enabled endophyte nodule infection whilst compatible M. loti EPS restricted it. Analysis of plant mutants that control different stages of the symbiotic infection showed that both symbiont and endophyte accommodation within nodules is under host genetic control. This demonstrates that when legume plants are exposed to complex communities they selectively regulate access and accommodation of bacteria occupying this specialized environmental niche, the root nodule. PMID:26042417

  14. Dermoscopic features and types of orf and milker’s nodule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhan Ayhan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Orf and milker’s nodule are zoonotic cutaneous diseases generated by parapoxviruses. Contribution of dermoscopy to the diagnosis of these diseases has not been studied in the medical literature as to our knowledge. Aim: To investigate whether dermoscopy is a valuable diagnostic tool in orf and milker’s nodule diagnosis or not. Material and methods: In this study, macroscopic and dermoscopic features have been evaluated by including 46 lesions of 32 patients who have orf and milker’s nodule. Results: 56.5% (26 of lesions were orf, while 43.5% (20 of lesions were milker’s nodule (MN. Non-vascular dermoscopic structures have been determined as follows: blue-gray area (23.1% of orf, 35% of MN, orange-yellow streaks (19.2% of orf, 19.2% of MN, grayish-whitish streaks (26.9% of orf, 55% of MN, central yellow-white area (26.9% of orf, 35% of MN, crust (46.2% of orf, 40% of MN, erosion-ulceration (69.2% of orf, 55% of MN, yellow-white globule (11.5% of orf, 15% of MN, and yellow-white ring (57.7% of orf, 35% of MN. Limitations: Lack of PCR analysis, based of patient anamnesis types of orf and milker’s nodule. Conclusions: No significant dermoscopic differences have been determined between orf and milker’s nodule patients’ lesions. In our opinion, dermoscopy may be a useful tool to develop diagnosis of these diseases.

  15. Role of BRAFV600E Mutation Analysis for Thyroid Nodules Classified as Indeterminate on Ultrasonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Sang Yu; Shin, Jung Hee; Han, Boo Kyung; Ko, Eun Young; Kang, Seok Seon; Hahn, Soo Yeon; Hwang, Ji Young; Nam, Mee Young; Kim, Jong Won; Chung, Jae Hoon

    2010-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate a possible role for BRAFV600E mutation analysis of aspiration specimens in the work up of thyroid nodules classified as indeterminate on US. A total of 122 nodules from 122 patients were prospectively classified as indeterminate nodules based on US findings. US-guided fine needle aspiration (FNA) was done for all 122 nodules. The presence of a BRAFV600E mutation in FNA specimens was determined by allele-specific PCR. US-indeterminate nodules were confirmed as malignant in 20.5% (25/122) of cases and benign in 76.2% (93/122) after FNA or surgery. A few (3.3% (4/122), remained indeterminate. A BRAFV600E mutation was identified in 14.8% (18/122) of US indeterminate nodules. Of those 18 nodules, three were benign and 13 were malignant after the initial FNA. One (0.8%, 1/122) with an initially benign cytology and a BRAFV600E mutation was confirmed to be malignant after surgery. The remaining two benign nodules with a mutation were not followed-up. All 9 initial FNA-nondiagnostic nodules were mutation negative but 2 (11.8%) of 17 indeterminate nodules on initial FNAs were mutation positive. BRAFV600E mutation analysis prevents false negative cytology for only 0.8% of cases and reduces ambiguous diagnoses for 1.6% of all US-indeterminate thyroid nodules. Therefore, adding BRAFV600E mutation analysis to FNA for US-indeterminate nodules is of limited usefulness

  16. Mineralized soft-tissue structure and chemistry in a mummified hadrosaur from the Hell Creek Formation, North Dakota (USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Phillip L; Morris, Peter M; McMahon, Adam; Jones, Emrys; Gize, Andy; Macquaker, Joe H S; Wolff, George; Thompson, Anu; Marshall, Jim; Taylor, Kevin G; Lyson, Tyler; Gaskell, Simon; Reamtong, Onrapak; Sellers, William I; van Dongen, Bart E; Buckley, Mike; Wogelius, Roy A

    2009-10-07

    An extremely well-preserved dinosaur (Cf. Edmontosaurus sp.) found in the Hell Creek Formation (Upper Cretaceous, North Dakota) retains soft-tissue replacement structures and associated organic compounds. Mineral cements precipitated in the skin apparently follow original cell boundaries, partially preserving epidermis microstructure. Infrared and electron microprobe images of ossified tendon clearly show preserved mineral zonation, with silica and trapped carbon dioxide forming thin linings on Haversian canals within apatite. Furthermore, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) of materials recovered from the skin and terminal ungual phalanx suggests the presence of compounds containing amide groups. Amino acid composition analyses of the mineralized skin envelope clearly differ from the surrounding matrix; however, intact proteins could not be obtained using protein mass spectrometry. The presence of endogenously derived organics from the skin was further demonstrated by pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry (Py-GCMS), indicating survival and presence of macromolecules that were in part aliphatic (see the electronic supplementary material).

  17. Discrimination method of large log-likelihood study in differential diagnosis of pulmonary diffuse mild micro-nodule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Budong; Ma Daqing; He Wen; Tang Hongqu; Qian Linxue; Zhou Ronglin

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To analyze HRCT and thin-slice CT scan findings in 150 patients with pulmonary diffuse mild micro-nodule, and to find the features with the purpose of identifying random micro-nodule, peri-lymphatic micro-nodule, and centrilobular micro-nodule. Methods: The useful features i 150 patients with pulmonary diffuse mild micro-nodule were translated into scores by means of discrimination method of large log-likelihood to identify the micro-nodular category. Results: The accuracy of diagnosis was 94.0% for random micro-nodule, 76.0% for peri-lymphatic micro-nodule, and 90.0% for centrilobular micro-nodule. Conclusion: HRCT and thin-slice CT scans were helpful in differential diagnosis of pulmonary diffuse mild micro-nodule. The discrimination method of large log-likelihood was propitious to diagnosis and differential diagnosis

  18. Malignancy estimation of Lung-RADS criteria for subsolid nodules on CT. Accuracy of low and high risk spectrum when using NLST nodules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Kaman; Jacobs, Colin; Scholten, Ernst T.; Dekker, Irma; Prokop, Mathias; Ginneken, Bram van [Radboud University Medical Centre, Diagnostic Image Analysis Group, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Mets, Onno M. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Schaefer-Prokop, Cornelia M. [Radboud University Medical Centre, Diagnostic Image Analysis Group, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Meander Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Amersfoort (Netherlands)

    2017-11-15

    Lung-RADS proposes malignancy probabilities for categories 2 (<1%) and 4B (>15%). The purpose of this study was to quantify and compare malignancy rates for Lung-RADS 2 and 4B subsolid nodules (SSNs) on a nodule base. We identified all baseline SSNs eligible for Lung-RADS 2 and 4B in the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) database. Solid cores and nodule locations were annotated using in-house software. Malignant SSNs were identified by an experienced radiologist using NLST information. Malignancy rates and percentages of persistence were calculated. Of the Lung-RADS 2SSNs, 94.3% (1790/1897) could be located on chest CTs. Likewise, 95.1% (331/348) of part-solid nodules ≥6 mm in diameter could be located. Of these, 120 had a solid core ≥8 mm, corresponding to category 4B. Category 2 SSNs showed a malignancy rate of 2.5%, exceeding slightly the proposed rate of <1%. Category 4B SSNs showed a malignancy rate of 23.9%. In both categories one third of benign lesions were transient. Malignancy probabilities for Lung-RADS 2 and 4B generally match malignancy rates in SSNs. An option to include also category 2 SSNs for upgrade to 4X designed for suspicious nodules might be useful in the future. Integration of short-term follow-up to confirm persistence would prevent unnecessary invasive work-up in 4B SSNs. (orig.)

  19. Consistent interactive segmentation of pulmonary ground glass nodules identified in CT studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Fang, Ming; Naidich, David P.; Novak, Carol L.

    2004-05-01

    Ground glass nodules (GGNs) have proved especially problematic in lung cancer diagnosis, as despite frequently being malignant they characteristically have extremely slow rates of growth. This problem is further magnified by the small size of many of these lesions now being routinely detected following the introduction of multislice CT scanners capable of acquiring contiguous high resolution 1 to 1.25 mm sections throughout the thorax in a single breathhold period. Although segmentation of solid nodules can be used clinically to determine volume doubling times quantitatively, reliable methods for segmentation of pure ground glass nodules have yet to be introduced. Our purpose is to evaluate a newly developed computer-based segmentation method for rapid and reproducible measurements of pure ground glass nodules. 23 pure or mixed ground glass nodules were identified in a total of 8 patients by a radiologist and subsequently segmented by our computer-based method using Markov random field and shape analysis. The computer-based segmentation was initialized by a click point. Methodological consistency was assessed using the overlap ratio between 3 segmentations initialized by 3 different click points for each nodule. The 95% confidence interval on the mean of the overlap ratios proved to be [0.984, 0.998]. The computer-based method failed on two nodules that were difficult to segment even manually either due to especially low contrast or markedly irregular margins. While achieving consistent manual segmentation of ground glass nodules has proven problematic most often due to indistinct boundaries and interobserver variability, our proposed method introduces a powerful new tool for obtaining reproducible quantitative measurements of these lesions. It is our intention to further document the value of this approach with a still larger set of ground glass nodules.

  20. Evaluation of subjectively assessed nodule traits of ostrich skins as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Schalk Cloete

    leather quality (Sales, 1999). No formal ... Both traits are clearly age-dependent, with nodule size increasing and nodule density decreasing with an increase in .... E stim ated ag e (m o n th s). Producers. Graders. Marketers. Agents. Managers.

  1. Diagnostic work-up of pulmonary nodules. Management of pulmonary nodules detected with low-dose CT screening; Abklaerung von Lungenrundherden. Management durch Frueherkennungsuntersuchungen detektierter pulmonaler Rundherde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wormanns, D. [Evangelische Lungenklinik Berlin, Berlin (Germany)

    2016-09-15

    Pulmonary nodules are the most frequent pathological finding in low-dose computed tomography (CT) scanning for early detection of lung cancer. Early stages of lung cancer are often manifested as pulmonary nodules; however, the very commonly occurring small nodules are predominantly benign. These benign nodules are responsible for the high percentage of false positive test results in screening studies. Appropriate diagnostic algorithms are necessary to reduce false positive screening results and to improve the specificity of lung cancer screening. Such algorithms are based on some of the basic principles comprehensively described in this article. Firstly, the diameter of nodules allows a differentiation between large (>8 mm) probably malignant and small (<8 mm) probably benign nodules. Secondly, some morphological features of pulmonary nodules in CT can prove their benign nature. Thirdly, growth of small nodules is the best non-invasive predictor of malignancy and is utilized as a trigger for further diagnostic work-up. Non-invasive testing using positron emission tomography (PET) and contrast enhancement as well as invasive diagnostic tests (e.g. various procedures for cytological and histological diagnostics) are briefly described in this article. Different nodule morphology using CT (e.g. solid and semisolid nodules) is associated with different biological behavior and different algorithms for follow-up are required. Currently, no obligatory algorithm is available in German-speaking countries for the management of pulmonary nodules, which reflects the current state of knowledge. The main features of some international and American recommendations are briefly presented in this article from which conclusions for the daily clinical use are derived. (orig.) [German] Lungenrundherde sind die haeufigsten pathologischen Befunde bei Untersuchungen mit der Niedrigdosis-CT zur Lungenkrebsfrueherkennung. Fruehstadien des Lungenkarzinoms manifestieren sich meist als Rundherd

  2. Subcentimeter Pulmonary Nodules Detected in Patients with Sarcoma<