Sample records for mineral fiber manufacture

  1. Radiation shielding fiber and its manufacturing method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Koji; Ono, Hiroshi.


    Purpose: To manufacture radiation shielding fibers of excellent shielding effects. Method: Fibers containing more than 1 mmol/g of carboxyl groups are bonded with heavy metals, or they are impregnated with an aqueous solution containing water-soluble heavy metal salts dissolved therein. Fibers as the substrate may be any of forms such as short fibers, long fibers, fiber tows, webs, threads, knitting or woven products, non-woven fabrics, etc. It is however necessary that fibers contain more than 1 mmol/g, preferably, from 2 to 7 mmol/g of carboxylic groups. Since heavy metals having radiation shielding performance are bonded to the outer layer of the fibers and the inherent performance of the fibers per se is possessed, excellent radiation shielding performance can be obtained, as well as they can be applied with spinning, knitting or weaving, stitching, etc. thus can be used for secondary fiber products such as clothings, caps, masks, curtains, carpets, cloths, etc. for use in radiation shieldings. (Kamimura, M.).

  2. Carbon fiber manufacturing via plasma technology (United States)

    Paulauskas, Felix L.; Yarborough, Kenneth D.; Meek, Thomas T.


    The disclosed invention introduces a novel method of manufacturing carbon and/or graphite fibers that avoids the high costs associated with conventional carbonization processes. The method of the present invention avoids these costs by utilizing plasma technology in connection with electromagnetic radiation to produce carbon and/or graphite fibers from fully or partially stabilized carbon fiber precursors. In general, the stabilized or partially stabilized carbon fiber precursors are placed under slight tension, in an oxygen-free atmosphere, and carbonized using a plasma and electromagnetic radiation having a power input which is increased as the fibers become more carbonized and progress towards a final carbon or graphite product. In an additional step, the final carbon or graphite product may be surface treated with an oxygen-plasma treatment to enhance adhesion to matrix materials.

  3. Manufacturing of Nanocomposite Carbon Fibers and Composite Cylinders (United States)

    Tan, Seng; Zhou, Jian-guo


    Pitch-based nanocomposite carbon fibers were prepared with various percentages of carbon nanofibers (CNFs), and the fibers were used for manufacturing composite structures. Experimental results show that these nanocomposite carbon fibers exhibit improved structural and electrical conductivity properties as compared to unreinforced carbon fibers. Composite panels fabricated from these nanocomposite carbon fibers and an epoxy system also show the same properties transformed from the fibers. Single-fiber testing per ASTM C1557 standard indicates that the nanocomposite carbon fiber has a tensile modulus of 110% higher, and a tensile strength 17.7% times higher, than the conventional carbon fiber manufactured from pitch. Also, the electrical resistance of the carbon fiber carbonized at 900 C was reduced from 4.8 to 2.2 ohm/cm. The manufacturing of the nanocomposite carbon fiber was based on an extrusion, non-solvent process. The precursor fibers were then carbonized and graphitized. The resultant fibers are continuous.

  4. Applications of Fiber-Reinforced Polymers in Additive Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofstätter, Thomas; Pedersen, David Bue; Tosello, Guido


    Additive manufacturing technologies are these years entering the market of functional final parts. Initial research has been performed targeting the integration of fibers into additive manufactured plastic composites. Major advantages, among others, are for example increased tensile strength...... and Young's modulus. Key challenges in the field, as of now, are proper fiber placement, fiber seizing, an increased knowledge in the used materials and how they are applied into engineering solutions through proper control of the additive manufacturing process. The aim of this research is the improved...... understanding of fiber-reinforcement in additive manufacturing in terms of production and application. Vat polymerization and material extrusion techniques for composite additive manufacturing were investigated with respect of increasing adhesion between the matrix material and the fibers. Process optimization...

  5. Carbon Fiber Manufacturing Facility Siting and Policy Considerations: International Comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Jeffrey J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Booth, Samuel [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    Carbon fiber is increasingly used in a wide variety of applications due largely to its superior material properties such as high strength-to-weight ratio. The current global carbon fiber manufacturing industry is predominately located in China, Europe, Japan, and the United States. The carbon fiber market is expected to expand significantly through 2024 and to require additional manufacturing capacity to meet demand. Carbon fiber manufacturing facilities can offer significant economic development and employment opportunities as exemplified by the $1 billion investment and 500 jobs expected at a new Toray plant in Moore, South Carolina. Though the market is expected to expand, it is unclear where new manufacturing facilities will locate to meet demand. This uncertainty stems from the lack of research evaluating how different nations with significant carbon fiber manufacturing capacity compare as it relates to certain manufacturing facility siting factors such as costs of labor and energy as well as policy directed at supporting carbon fiber development, domestic deployment, and exports. This report fills these gaps by evaluating the top carbon fiber manufacturing countries, including China, European Union countries, Japan, Mexico, South Korea, Taiwan, and the United States. The report documents how the United States compares to these countries based on a range of manufacturing siting considerations and existing policies related to carbon fiber. It concludes with a discussion of various policy options the United States could adopt to both (1) increase the competitiveness of the United States as it relates to attracting new carbon fiber manufacturing and (2) foster broader end-use markets for deployment.

  6. Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center. 2015 Research Highlights -- Carbon Fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Sujit [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    CEMAC has conducted four major studies on the manufacturing of clean energy technologies. Three of these focused on the end product: solar photovoltaic modules, wind turbines, and automotive lithium-ion batteries. The fourth area focused on a key material for manufacturing clean energy technologies, carbon fiber.

  7. A new approach for high performance fiber manufacturing via simultaneous fiber spinning and UV initiated polymerization (United States)

    Ellison, Chris

    Synthetic fibers have been manufactured for decades using solvents or heat to reduce the viscosity of pre-formed polymers and promote drawing. However, nature has engineered spiders and silkworms with benign ways of making silk fibers with high strength and toughness. Conceptually, their approach of chemically linking small functional units (i.e., proteins) into long chain molecules and solid fibrillar structures ``on-demand'' is fundamentally different from current synthetic fiber manufacturing methods. Drawing inspiration from nature, a method will be described that uses light to trigger a thiol-ene photopolymerization to rapidly transform reactive liquid mixtures into solid thread-like structures as they are forced out of a capillary at high speeds. Besides being manufactured without using solvents/volatile components or heat, these fibers are mechanically robust and have excellent chemical and thermal stability due to their crosslinked nature. During processing, the balance between curing kinetics, fiber flight time, and monomer mixture viscoelasticity is essential for the formation of defect free fibers. This work focuses on developing a universal operating diagram to show how the intricate interplay of gel time, flight time, and fluid relaxation time leads to the formation of uniform fibers and other undesirable fiber morphologies such as beads-on-string, fused fibers, non-uniform fibers, and droplets. This predictive capability enables adaptation of this spinning concept to all existing fiber spinning platforms, and customization of monomer formulations to target desired properties.

  8. Effect of epoxy coatings on carbon fibers during manufacture of carbon fiber reinforced resin matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Hui; Huang, Yudong; Liu, Li; Shi, Xiaohua


    The changes in oxygen and nitrogen during manufacture of the carbon fiber reinforced resin matrix composites were measured using the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy method. The effects of the change in oxygen and nitrogen on the strength of the carbon fibers were investigated and the results revealed that the change of the tensile strength with increasing heat curing temperature was attributed to the change in the surface flaws of the carbon fibers because the carbon fibers are sensitive to the surface flaws. The effect of the surface energy that was calculated using Kaelble's method on the strength of the carbon fibers was investigated. Furthermore, the surface roughness of the carbon fibers was measured using atom force microscopy. The change trend of roughness was reverse to that of the strength, which was because of the brittle fracture of the carbon fibers.

  9. Fiber-reinforced composites materials, manufacturing, and design

    CERN Document Server

    Mallick, P K


    The newly expanded and revised edition of Fiber-Reinforced Composites: Materials, Manufacturing, and Design presents the most up-to-date resource available on state-of-the-art composite materials. This book is unique in that it not only offers a current analysis of mechanics and properties, but also examines the latest advances in test methods, applications, manufacturing processes, and design aspects involving composites. This third edition presents thorough coverage of newly developed materials including nanocomposites. It also adds more emphasis on underlying theories, practical methods, and problem-solving skills employed in real-world applications of composite materials. Each chapter contains new examples drawn from diverse applications and additional problems to reinforce the practical relevance of key concepts. New in The Third Edition: Contains new sections on material substitution, cost analysis, nano- and natural fibers, fiber architecture, and carbon-carbon composites Provides a new chapter on poly...

  10. Molecular analysis of manufactured gas plant soils for naphthalene mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanseverino, J.; Werner, C.; Fleming, J.; Applegate, B.M.; King, J.M.H.; Sayler, G.S.; Blackburn, J.


    New molecular tools are being developed and tested to ascertain the biodegradability of hazardous wastes by soil bacterial population. The potential for manufactured gas plant (MGP) soil bacterial populations to degrade naphthalene, as a component mixture of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, was evaluated by the detection of a naphthalene biodegradative genotype by DNA probe hybridization with DNA extracts and colonies of cultured bacteria of the MGP soils. The activity of the naphthalene-degrading populations was evaluated by mineralization assays, 14 CO 2 production from 14 C-naphthalene. Direct messenger RNA (mRNA) extraction from MGP soil was evaluated as an instantaneous measure of naphthalene catabolic gene expression in MGP soil. The bioavailability of naphthalene for bacterial degradation within the MGP soils was assessed by measuring the bioluminescent response of a naphthalene-lux catabolic reporter strain Pseudomonas fluorescens HK44 (pUTK21). DNA extracted from 5 MGP soils and 1 creosote-contaminated soil and hybridized with a nahA gene probe indicated that the naphthalene degradative genes were present in all samples in the range of 0.06 to 0.95 ng/100 μl DNA extract which was calculated to represent 3.58 x 10 8 to 1.05 x 10 10 nahA positive cells/g soil. Phenanthrene, anthracene, and benzo(a)pyrene were mineralized also by some of the soils. NAH7 homologous messenger RNA transcripts were detectable in one MGP soil and in the creosote-contaminated soil

  11. Assessment of different dietary fibers (tomato fiber, beet root fiber, and inulin) for the manufacture of chopped cooked chicken products. (United States)

    Cava, Ramón; Ladero, Luis; Cantero, V; Rosario Ramírez, M


    Three dietary fibers (tomato fiber [TF], beet root fiber [BRF], and inulin) at 3 levels of addition (1%, 2%, and 3%) were assessed for the manufacture of chopped, cooked chicken products and compared with a control product without fiber added. The effect of fiber incorporation on (i) batters, (ii) cooked (30 min at 70 °C), and (iii) cooked and stored (for 10 d at 4 °C) chicken products were studied. The addition of the fiber to chicken meat products reduced the pH of chicken batters in proportional to the level of fiber addition. Fiber incorporation increased water-holding capacity but only the addition of TF reduced cook losses. The color of batters and cooked products was significantly modified by the type and level of fiber added. These changes were more noticeable when TF was added. Texture parameters were affected by the incorporation of TF and BRF; they increased the hardness in proportional to the level of addition. The addition of tomato and BRF to chicken meat products reduced lipid oxidation processes. These changes were dependent on the level of fiber added. The reduction of lipid oxidation processes was more marked in TF meat products than in products with other types of fibers. In contrast, the addition level of inulin increased TBA-RS numbers in chicken meat products. Although the addition of TF increased the redness of the meat products, the use of this fiber was more suitable as it reduced the extent of lipid oxidation processes. INDUSTRIAL APPLICATION: Nowadays, the reduction of fat and the increase of fiber content in meat products is one of the main goals of meat industry. Numerous sources of fiber can be added to the meat products; however, before that it is necessary to study their technological effect on raw and cooked meat products in order to evaluate their suitability for meat products manufacture. In addition, some of them could have beneficial effect on meat products conservation that could also increase their shelf life. © 2012

  12. The manufacturing engineering of a hermetic cast fiber calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coan, T.; Higby, D.; Sulak, L.; Worstell, W.; Winn, D.; Ayer, F.; Elder, C.; Sullivan, D.


    The authors have made the first pass at designing and engineering a cast lead calorimeter with a rapidity coverage to η = 5.5. The design preserves detector hermeticity. Plastic scintillating fibers provide a fast, hadronically compensated, high-resolution device. A lead-eutectic, which melts below the softening point of the plastic, provides an easily manufactured high Z absorber. This calorimeter, designed with the TEXAS SSC detector as a baseline, is easily scaled in size and in segmentation without major design changes

  13. Use of solar power for the production of basalt-based mineral fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulamova, D. D.; Shevchenko, V. P.; Tokunov, S. G.; Kim, R. B.


    The possibility of obtaining basalt mineral fibers using concentrating solar power and melt-quench technique is shown. The microstructure and physicochemical properties of basalt fibers are analyzed. (author)

  14. Precision laser processing for micro electronics and fiber optic manufacturing (United States)

    Webb, Andrew; Osborne, Mike; Foster-Turner, Gideon; Dinkel, Duane W.


    The application of laser based materials processing for precision micro scale manufacturing in the electronics and fiber optic industry is becoming increasingly widespread and accepted. This presentation will review latest laser technologies available and discuss the issues to be considered in choosing the most appropriate laser and processing parameters. High repetition rate, short duration pulsed lasers have improved rapidly in recent years in terms of both performance and reliability enabling flexible, cost effective processing of many material types including metal, silicon, plastic, ceramic and glass. Demonstrating the relevance of laser micromachining, application examples where laser processing is in use for production will be presented, including miniaturization of surface mount capacitors by applying a laser technique for demetalization of tracks in the capacitor manufacturing process and high quality laser machining of fiber optics including stripping, cleaving and lensing, resulting in optical quality finishes without the need for traditional polishing. Applications include telecoms, biomedical and sensing. OpTek Systems was formed in 2000 and provide fully integrated systems and sub contract services for laser processes. They are headquartered in the UK and are establishing a presence in North America through a laser processing facility in South Carolina and sales office in the North East.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solov'ev Vitaliy Nikolaevich


    Full Text Available Subject: the effectiveness of using compositions with the use of basalt fibers is proven, but the composition must be selected depending on the binder and additives chosen. Research objectives: we examine the possibility of waste recycling of basalt fiber production during manufacturing of modified gypsum composite material with improved characteristics. Materials and methods: as a raw material, a gypsum binder of Samara production was used. As a reinforcement additive, a disperse waste of basalt fiber production of Tver region was used. Studying characteristics of the gypsum binder and modified mixture, and also comparative analysis of these characteristics by average density, total porosity, strength in compression and flexure of the gypsum composite were carried out using standard techniques. Results: dependence of physical and mechanical properties of the modified gypsum material on the content of the basalt fiber additive is established. It was found that an increase in concentration of the additive requires an increased water content or additional use of plasticizer. Conclusions: modification of gypsum stone with a mineral basalt additive will increase the strength, density and durability of thin-walled gypsum products, and, consequently, the demand for products due to ensuring their high quality in transportation and installation.

  16. Effect of Manufacturing Method to Tensile Properties of Hybrid Composite Reinforced by Natural (Agel Leaf Fiber) and Glass Fibers (United States)

    Nugroho, A.; Abdurohman, K.; Kusmono; Hestiawan, H.; Jamasri


    This paper described the effect of different type of manufacturing method to tensile properties of hybrid composite woven agel leaf fiber and glass fiber as an alternative of LSU structure material. The research was done by using 3 ply of woven agel leaf fiber (ALF) and 3 ply of glass fiber (wr200) while the matrix was using unsaturated polyester. Composite manufacturing method used hand lay-up and vacuum bagging. Tensile test conducted with Tensilon universal testing machine, specimen shape and size according to standard size ASTM D 638. Based on tensile test result showed that the tensile strength of agel leaf fiber composite with unsaturated polyester matrix is 54.5 MPa by hand lay-up and 84.6 MPa with vacuum bagging method. From result of tensile test, hybrid fiber agel composite and glass fiber with unsaturated polyester matrix have potential as LSU structure.

  17. the effect of cooking time on the vitamin c, dietary fiber and mineral

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    (Sandra, 1995). Several methods of processing the vegetables are being use without considering the effect on the vitamin C, dietary fiber and minerals components. This study is designed to determine the effect of cooking time on the Vitamin C, dietary fiber. & mineral constituents of T. occidentalis (FP), V. amygdalina (BL),.

  18. Carbon Nanotube Chopped Fiber for Enhanced Properties in Additive Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menchhofer, Paul A [ORNL; Lindahl, John M [ORNL; JohnsonPhD, DR Joseph E. [Nanocomp Technologies, Inc.


    Nanocomp Technologies, Inc. is working with Oak Ridge National Laboratory to develop carbon nanotube (CNT) composite materials and evaluate their use in additive manufacturing (3D printing). The first phase demonstrated feasibility and improvements for carbon nanotube (CNT)- acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) composite filaments use in additive manufacturing, with potential future work centering on further improvements. By focusing the initial phase on standard processing methods (developed mainly for the incorporation of carbon fibers in ABS) and characterization techniques, a basis of knowledge for the incorporation of CNTs in ABS was learned. The ability to understand the various processing variables is critical to the successful development of these composites. From the degradation effects on ABS (caused by excessive temperatures), to the length of time the ABS is in the melt state, to the order of addition of constituents, and also to the many possible mixing approaches, a workable flow sequence that addresses each processing step is critical to the final material properties. Although this initial phase could not deal with each of these variables in-depth, a future study is recommended that will build on the lessons learned for this effort.

  19. Prevention of cancer risk of workers of glass fibers manufacture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.F. Mukhammadieva


    Full Text Available In the process of producing of continuous glass fiber workers are exposed to complex impact of carcinogenic chemicals released into the air of the working area (including formaldehyde, epichlorohydrin, ethane acids, aerosol of mineral oil. The penetrating effect of harmful substances through the skin is enhanced by the fine glass dust, which has a traumatic and irritating effect. Aggravating factors of the impact of lubricants on the body of the operators is the increased temperature and the excess of heat radiation. A risk factor is also the unfavorable climate of the workplace. Among the professional patients (71 person of 170 examined employees most of persons aged 50–59 years. The average age of the patients at the time of detection of hyperkeratosis was 51,9 ± 0,9 years, skin cancer – 57,3 ± 1,7 years. Professional skin neoplasms were diagnosed mainly in workers who have been working for more than 10 years (average period of 12.6 ± 2.4 years. The period of transformation of limited hyperkeratosis to the skin cancer was on average 5–8 years. It was found that the molecular-genetic factors predisposing to the development of professional skin lesions are polymorphic variants of the gene suppressor of tumor growth TP53 (Ex4 + 119G>C, IVS3 16 bp Del/Ins and IVS6+62A>G. It has been shown that the development of preventive measures aimed at reducing the risk of occupational diseases is relevant and should include the interaction of administration, engineering and technical staff of the enterprise, labor protection service, Rospotrebnadzor specialists, doctors specialized in occupational diseases and the workers themselves. The complex of measures of primary and secondary prevention of health problems is suggested. The necessity of including the continuous glass fiber production to the list of carcinogen production processes, presented in national normative documents.

  20. Monitoring techniques for the manufacture of tapered optical fibers. (United States)

    Mullaney, Kevin; Correia, Ricardo; Staines, Stephen E; James, Stephen W; Tatam, Ralph P


    The use of a range of optical techniques to monitor the process of fabricating optical fiber tapers is investigated. Thermal imaging was used to optimize the alignment of the optical system; the transmission spectrum of the fiber was monitored to confirm that the tapers had the required optical properties and the strain induced in the fiber during tapering was monitored using in-line optical fiber Bragg gratings. Tapers were fabricated with diameters down to 5 μm and with waist lengths of 20 mm using single-mode SMF-28 fiber.

  1. New Manufacturing Method for Paper Filler and Fiber Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doelle, Klaus [SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry


    The use of fillers in printing and writing papers has become a prerequisite for competing in a global market to reduce the cost of materials. Use of calcium carbonates (ranging from 18% to 30%) as filler is a common practice in the paper industry but the choices of fillers for each type of papers vary widely according to its use. The market for uncoated digital printing paper is one that continues to introduce exciting growth projections. and it is important to understand the effect that new manufacturing methods of calcium carbonates have on the energy efficiency and paper production. Research conducted under this award showed that the new fiber filler composite material has the potential to increase the paper filler content by up to 5% without losing mechanical properties. Benefits of the technology can be summarized as follows for a 1% filler increase per metric ton of paper produced: (i) production cost savings over $12, (ii) Energy savings of 100,900 btu, (iii) CO{sub 2} emission savings of 33 lbs, and additional savings for wood preparation, pulping, recovery of 203593 btu with a 46lbs of CO{sub 2} emission savings per 1% filler increase. In addition the technology has the potential to save: (i) additional $3 per ton of bleached pulp produced, (ii) bleaching energy savings of 170,000 btu, (iii) bleaching CO{sub 2} emission savings of 39 lbs, and (iv) additional savings for replacing conventional bleaching chemicals with a sustainable bleaching chemical is estimated to be 900,000 btu with a 205 lbs of CO{sub 2} emission savings per ton of bleached pulp produced. All the above translates to a estimated annual savings for a 12% filler increase of 296 trillion buts or 51 million barrel of oil equivalent (BOE) or 13.7% of the industries energy demand. This can lead to a increase of renewable energy usage from 56% to close to 70% for the industry sector. CO{sub 2} emission of the industry at a 12% filler increase could be lowered by over 39 million tons annually

  2. 16 CFR 303.33 - Country where textile fiber products are processed or manufactured. (United States)


    ... [Foreign Country]”. (ii) When the U.S. Customs Service requires an origin label on the unfinished product... manufactured. Further work or material added to the textile fiber product in another country must effect a...

  3. State-of-the-art of fiber-reinforced polymers in additive manufacturing technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofstätter, Thomas; Pedersen, David Bue; Tosello, Guido


    Additive manufacturing technologies have received a lot of attention in recent years for their use in multiple materials such as metals, ceramics, and polymers. The aim of this review article is to analyze the technology of fiber-reinforced polymers and its implementation with additive...... manufacturing. This article reviews recent developments, ideas, and state-of-the-art technologies in this field. Moreover, it gives an overview of the materials currently available for fiber-reinforced material technology....

  4. Effects of different levels of coconut fiber on blood glucose, serum insulin and minerals in rats. (United States)

    Sindurani, J A; Rajamohan, T


    The effect of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) from coconut kernel (Cocos nucifera L) in rats fed 5%, 15% and 30% level on the concentration of blood glucose, serum insulin and excretion of minerals was studied. Increase in the intake of fiber resulted in significant decrease in the level of blood glucose and serum insulin. Faecal excretion of Cu, Cr, Mn, Mg, Zn and Ca was found to increase in rats fed different levels of coconut fiber when compared to fiber free group. The result of the present investigation suggest that inclusion of coconut fiber in the diet results in significant hypoglycemic action.

  5. Airflow Resistance of Loose-Fill Mineral Fiber Insulations in Retrofit Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, C. J. [Building Science Laboratories, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Fox, M. J. [Building Science Laboratories, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Lstiburek, J. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States)


    This report expands on Building America Report 1109 by applying the experimental apparatus and test method to dense-pack retrofit applications using mineral fiber insulation materials. Three fiber glass insulation materials and one stone wool insulation material were tested, and the results compared to the cellulose results from the previous study.

  6. Airflow Resistance of Loose-Fill Mineral Fiber Insulations in Retrofit Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, C. J. [Building Science Labs., Waterloo, ON (Canada); Fox, M. J. [Building Science Labs., Waterloo, ON (Canada); Lstiburek, J. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States)


    This report expands on Building America Report 1109 by applying the experimental apparatus and test method to dense-pack retrofit applications using mineral fiber insulation materials. Three (3) fiber glass insulation materials and one (1) stone wool insulation material were tested, and the results compared to the cellulose results from the previous study.

  7. Cryogenic Fiber Optic Assemblies for Spaceflight Environments: Design, Manufacturing, Testing, and Integration (United States)

    Thomes, W. Joe; Ott, Melanie N.; Chuska, Richard; Switzer, Robert; Onuma, Eleanya; Blair, Diana; Frese, Erich; Matyseck, Marc


    Fiber optic assemblies have been used on spaceflight missions for many years as an enabling technology for routing, transmitting, and detecting optical signals. Due to the overwhelming success of NASA in implementing fiber optic assemblies on spaceflight science-based instruments, system scientists increasingly request fibers that perform in extreme environments while still maintaining very high optical transmission, stability, and reliability. Many new applications require fiber optic assemblies that will operate down to cryogenic temperatures as low as 20 Kelvin. In order for the fiber assemblies to operate with little loss in optical throughput at these extreme temperatures requires a system level approach all the way from how the fiber assembly is manufactured to how it is held, routed, and integrated. The NASA Goddard Code 562 Photonics Group has been designing, manufacturing, testing, and integrating fiber optics for spaceflight and other high reliability applications for nearly 20 years. Design techniques and lessons learned over the years are consistently applied to developing new fiber optic assemblies that meet these demanding environments. System level trades, fiber assembly design methods, manufacturing, testing, and integration will be discussed. Specific recent examples of ground support equipment for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST); the Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite-2 (ICESat-2); and others will be included.

  8. Surface hydrophilicity of PLGA fibers governs in vitro mineralization and osteogenic differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Minnah; Arora, Aditya; Katti, Dhirendra S., E-mail:


    Interfacial properties of biomaterials play an important role in governing their interaction with biological microenvironments. This work investigates the role of surface hydrophilicity of electrospun poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) fibers in determining their biological response. For this, PLGA is blended with varying amounts of Pluronic®F-108 and electrospun to fabricate microfibers with varying surface hydrophilicity. The results of mineralization study in simulated body fluid (SBF) demonstrate a significant enhancement in mineralization with an increase in surface hydrophilicity. While presence of serum proteins in SBF reduces absolute mineral content, mineralization continues to be higher on samples with higher surface hydrophilicity. The results from in vitro cell culture studies demonstrate a marked improvement in mesenchymal stem cell —adhesion, elongation, proliferation, infiltration, osteogenic differentiation and matrix mineralization on hydrophilized fibers. Therefore, hydrophilized PLGA fibers are advantageous both in terms of mineralization and elicitation of favorable cell response. Since most of the polymeric materials being used in orthopedics are hydrophobic in nature, the results from this study have strong implications in the future design of interfaces of such hydrophobic materials. In addition, the work proposes a facile method for the modification of electrospun fibers of hydrophobic polymers by blending with a poloxamer for improved bone tissue regeneration. - Highlights: • Surface hydrophilicity of PLGA modulated by blending with Pluronic F-108. • Hydrophilized fibers support better in vitro mineralization. • Mineralization trends retained in the presence of adsorbed serum proteins. • Hydrophilized fibers promote better cell adhesion and proliferation. • Hydrophilized fibers also enable better osteogenic differentiation.

  9. Life Cycle Assessment of Fiber-Reinforced Additive Manufacturing for Injection Molding Insert Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofstätter, Thomas; Stotz, Philippe Maurice; Bey, Niki


    Additively manufactured (AM) injection molding (IM) inserts have proved to be capable to substitute conventionally manufactured metal inserts with polymer-based insert enforced with short, virgin, unseized carbon fibers (CFs). It has been shown that the implementation of AM technology resulted......, this contribution provides a comparison of environmental performance of conventionally vs. additively manufactured inserts in a full life cycle perspective indicated in Figure 1, including materials, production, use and end-of-life (EoL) stages....

  10. Flame-resistant kapok fiber manufactured using gamma ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Byung Yeoup; Hyeong, Min Ho; An, Byung Chull; Lee, Eun Mi; Lee, Seung Sik; Kim, Jin-Hong; Kim, Jae-Sung; Kim, Tae-Hoon; Cho, Jae-Young


    Owing to homogeneous hollow tube shape and hydrophobicity of kapok fiber, the usages of this fiber are various such as fiberfill in pillows, quilts, non-woven fabric for oil spill cleanup and plastic green house. Even though kapok fiber is able to apply various industrial usages, it has a serious disadvantage which is the extreme sensitivity to spark or flame. Therefore, we try to make flame-resistant kapok fiber using gamma ray. The radiation caused loss of hydrophobic compounds in kapok fiber and no morphological change, especially fine hollow tube shape, was observed. The lignin contents were negligible changed after gamma irradiation. However, the building units of lignin polymer such as coniferyl alcohol, and sinapyl alcohol were significantly changed that is, functional group as a methoxyl group from lignin polymer was cleaved by gamma irradiation. Based on the results of removal of hydrophobic compounds and cleavage of methoxyl group from lignin polymer, kapok fiber can be converted into a flame-resistant fiber by gamma ray treatment.

  11. 78 FR 55057 - Authority To Manufacture Carbon Fiber for the U.S. Market Not Approved; Foreign-Trade Subzone... (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [Order No. 1914] Authority To Manufacture Carbon... behalf of Toho Tenax America, Inc. (TTA), to manufacture carbon fiber under zone procedures for the U.S... approve the application requesting authority to manufacture carbon fiber for the U.S. market under zone...

  12. Biomimetic fiber assembled gradient hydrogel to engineer glycosaminoglycan enriched and mineralized cartilage: An in vitro study. (United States)

    Mohan, Neethu; Wilson, Jijo; Joseph, Dexy; Vaikkath, Dhanesh; Nair, Prabha D


    The study investigated the potential of electrospun fiber assembled hydrogel, with physical gradients of chondroitin sulfate (CS) and sol-gel-derived bioactive glass (BG), to engineer hyaline and mineralized cartilage in a single 3D system. Electrospun poly(caprolactone) (PCL) fibers incorporated with 0.1% w/w of CS (CSL) and 0.5% w/w of CS (CSH), 2.4% w/w of BG (BGL) and 12.5% w/w of BG (BGH) were fabricated. The CS showed a sustained release up to 3 days from CSL and 14 days from CSH fibers. Chondrocytes secreted hyaline like matrix with higher sulfated glycosaminoglycans (sGAG), collagen type II and aggrecan on CSL and CSH fibers. Mineralization was observed on BGL and BGH fibers when incubated in simulated body fluid for 14 days. Chondrocytes cultured on these fibers secreted a mineralized matrix that consisted of sGAG, hypertrophic proteins, collagen type X, and osteocalcin. The CS and BG incorporated PCL fiber mats were assembled in an agarose-gelatin hydrogel to generate a 3D hybrid scaffold. The signals in the fibers diffused and generated continuous opposing gradients of CS (chondrogenic signal) and BG (mineralization) in the hydrogel. The chondrocytes were encapsulated in hybrid scaffolds; live dead assay at 48 h showed viable cells. Cells maintained their phenotype and secreted specific extracellular matrix (ECM) in response to signals within the hydrogel. Continuous opposing gradients of sGAG enriched and mineralized ECM were observed surrounding each cell clusters on gradient hydrogel after 14 days of culture in response to the physical gradients of raw materials CS and BG. A construct with gradient mineralization might accelerate integration to subchondral bone during in vivo regeneration. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Basalt fiber manufacturing technology and the possibility of its use in dentistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karavaeva, E; Rogozhnikov, A; Nikitin, V; Cherepennikov, Yu; Lysakov, A


    The article touches upon the technology of basalt fiber manufacturing and prospects of its use in dental practice. Two kinds of construction using basalt fiber have been proposed. The first one is a splinting construction for mobile teeth and the second one is the reinforced base for removable plate-denture. The work presents the results of the investigation of physical and mechanical properties of the constructions based on basalt fiber. It also describes the aspects of biomechanical modeling of such constructions in the ANSYS software package. The results of the investigation have proved that applying constructions using basalt fiber is highly promising for prosthetic dentistry practice. (paper)

  14. Basalt fiber manufacturing technology and the possibility of its use in dentistry (United States)

    Karavaeva, E.; Rogozhnikov, A.; Nikitin, V.; Cherepennikov, Yu; Lysakov, A.


    The article touches upon the technology of basalt fiber manufacturing and prospects of its use in dental practice. Two kinds of construction using basalt fiber have been proposed. The first one is a splinting construction for mobile teeth and the second one is the reinforced base for removable plate-denture. The work presents the results of the investigation of physical and mechanical properties of the constructions based on basalt fiber. It also describes the aspects of biomechanical modeling of such constructions in the ANSYS software package. The results of the investigation have proved that applying constructions using basalt fiber is highly promising for prosthetic dentistry practice.

  15. Sustainability of fiber reinforced laminate and honeycomb composites in manufacturing industries (United States)

    Asmatulu, Eylem; Alonayni, Abdullah; Alamir, Mohammed; Rahman, Muhammad M.


    Fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composites provide a lot of benefits, including strength-to-weight ratio / light weight, superior mechanical properties, low maintenance, prolonged service life, as well as corrosion, fatigue and creep resistance. However, sustainability of the FRP composites have not been studied in detail in terms of long term productions in various industries, such as aerospace, wind energy, automotive and defense. Carbon fibers are relatively expensive because of the energy intensive production systems, and lack of easy production options, which forces many companies to recycle and reuse the FRP composites in the same or different manufacturing industries. This study mainly deals with two important issues, including the disposal of composite wastes generated during the manufacturing of composite parts, and the disposal of the products at the end of their useful life. It is believed that the carbon fibers in the used composites will have still high mechanical strengths to use in different composite manufacturing after its end of life. The major manufacturing costs come from the labor and raw materials, so using the recycled carbon fibers will make sustainable composite productions in other industries. This paper presents the current status and outlook of the FRP composite recycling and re-manufacturing techniques in the same or different industries. A future vision of the FRP composites will be investigated with sustainability point of views. This study will also mention about the sustainability issues in laminate and honeycomb composites, new product design and developments and potential applications in different manufacturing industries.

  16. Flow Characteristics of a Thermoset Fiber Composite Photopolymer Resin in a Vat Polymerization Additive Manufacturing Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofstätter, Thomas; Spangenberg, Jon; Pedersen, David B.

    Additive manufacturing vat polymerization has become a leading technology and gained a massive amount of attention in industrial applications such as injection molding inserts. By the use of the thermoset polymerization process inserts have increased their market share. For most industrial...... applications, strength and stiffness are crucial factors to a successful implementation of cured photopolymer thermosets. Hence, fiber-reinforced polymers have recently been introduced. The behavior and especially orientation of fibers during the vat photopolymerization process has yet not been fully...

  17. Primary Manufacturing Processes for Fiber Reinforced Composites: History, Development & Future Research Trends (United States)

    Tapan Bhatt, Alpa; Gohil, Piyush P.; Chaudhary, Vijaykumar


    Composite Materials are becoming more popular gradually replacing traditional material with extra strength, lighter weight and superior property. The world is exploring use of fiber reinforced composites in all application which includes air, land and water transport, construction industry, toys, instrumentation, medicine and the list is endless. Based on application and reinforcement used, there are many ways to manufactures parts with fiber reinforced composites. In this paper various manufacturing processes have been discussed at length, to make fiber reinforced composites components. The authors have endeavored to include all the processes available recently in composite industry. Paper first highlights history of fiber reinforced composites manufacturing, and then the comparison of different manufacturing process to build composites have been discussed, to give clear understanding on, which process should be selected, based on reinforcement, matrix and application. All though, there are several advantages to use such fiber reinforcement composites, still industries have not grown at par and there is a lot of scope to improve these industries. At last, where India stands today, what are the challenges in market has been highlighted and future market and research trend of exploring such composite industries have been discussed. This work is carried out as a part of research project sanctioned by GUJCOST, Gandhinagar.

  18. The Secretory Response of Rat Peritoneal Mast Cells on Exposure to Mineral Fibers. (United States)

    Borelli, Violetta; Trevisan, Elisa; Francesca, Vita; Zabucchi, Giuliano


    Exposure to mineral fibers is of substantial relevance to human health. A key event in exposure is the interaction with inflammatory cells and the subsequent generation of pro-inflammatory factors. Mast cells (MCs) have been shown to interact with titanium oxide (TiO₂) and asbestos fibers. In this study, we compared the response of rat peritoneal MCs challenged with the asbestos crocidolite and nanowires of TiO₂ to that induced by wollastonite employed as a control fiber. Rat peritoneal MCs (RPMCs), isolated from peritoneal lavage, were incubated in the presence of mineral fibers. The quantities of secreted enzymes were evaluated together with the activity of fiber-associated enzymes. The ultrastructural morphology of fiber-interacting RPMCs was analyzed with electron microscopy. Asbestos and TiO₂ stimulate MC secretion. Secreted enzymes bind to fibers and exhibit higher activity. TiO₂ and wollastonite bind and improve enzyme activity, but to a lesser degree than crocidolite. (1) Mineral fibers are able to stimulate the mast cell secretory process by both active (during membrane interaction) and/or passive (during membrane penetration) interaction; (2) fibers can be found to be associated with secreted enzymes-this process appears to create long-lasting pro-inflammatory environments and may represent the active contribution of MCs in maintaining the inflammatory process; (3) MCs and their enzymes should be considered as a therapeutic target in the pathogenesis of asbestos-induced lung inflammation; and (4) MCs can contribute to the inflammatory effect associated with selected engineered nanomaterials, such as TiO₂ nanoparticles.

  19. Measure Guideline: Three High Performance Mineral Fiber Insulation Board Retrofit Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuhauser, Ken [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States)


    This Measure Guideline describes a high performance enclosure retrofit package that uses mineral fiber insulation board. The Measure Guideline describes retrofit assembly and details for wood frame roof and walls and for cast concrete foundations. This Measure Guideline is intended to serve contractors and designers seeking guidance for non-foam exterior insulation retrofit.

  20. Measure Guideline: Three High Performance Mineral Fiber Insulation Board Retrofit Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuhauser, K. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States)


    This Measure Guideline describes a high performance enclosure retrofit package that uses mineral fiber insulation board, and is intended to serve contractors and designers seeking guidance for non-foam exterior insulation retrofit processes. The guideline describes retrofit assembly and details for wood frame roof and walls and for cast concrete foundations.

  1. Resin Viscosity Influence on Fiber Compaction in Tapered Resin Injection Pultrusion Manufacturing (United States)

    Masuram, N. B.; Roux, J. A.; Jeswani, A. L.


    Viscosity of the liquid resin effects the chemical and mechanical properties of the pultruded composite. In resin injection pultrusion manufacturing the liquid resin is injected into a specially designed tapered injection chamber through the injection slots present on top and bottom of the chamber. The resin is injected at a pressure so as to completely wetout the fiber reinforcements inside the tapered injection chamber. As the resin penetrates through the fibers, the resin also pushes the fibers away from the wall towards the center of chamber causing compaction of the fiber reinforcements. The fibers are squeezed together due to compaction, making resin penetration more difficult; thus higher resin injection pressures are required to efficaciously penetrate through the compacted fibers and achieve complete wetout. The impact of resin viscosity on resin flow, fiber compaction, wetout and on the final product is further discussed. Injection chamber design predominantly effects the resin flow inside the chamber and the minimum injection pressure required to completely wet the fibers. Therefore, a desirable injection chamber design is such that wetout occurs at lower injection pressures and at low internal pressures inside the injection chamber.

  2. Studies in Finishing Effects of Clay Mineral in Polymers and Synthetic Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faheem Uddin


    Full Text Available The use of clay mineral in modifying the properties of polymeric material is improved in application. The current interest in modifying the polymeric materials, particularly polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene, and nylon using clay mineral for improved flame retardancy, thermal stability, peak heat release rate, fracture, and strength properties generated significant research literature. This paper aims to review some of the important recent modification achieved in the performance of polymeric materials using organoclay mineral. Degradation of clay mineral-polymer (nm composite is discussed with appropriate known examples. Clay mineral (nm loading of 5 wt.% to 7 wt.% that was significantly smaller than the percent loading of conventional fillers in polymeric materials introduced significant improvement in terms of thermal and physical stability. An attempt is made to emphasize flammability and thermal stability and to indicate the areas that are relatively little explored in modification of fiber-forming polymers to enhance further research interest.

  3. Manufacture of mineral-insulated conductor for ITER prototype ELM and VS coil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Feng, E-mail: [Institute of Plasma Physics of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Wu, Yu; Jin, Huan; Yu, Min; Han, Qiyang; Ling, Feng [Institute of Plasma Physics of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Kalish, Michael [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, PO Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States)


    Highlights: • Compaction method is successfully developed for MIC manufacture. • Manufactured MICs show well controlled outer diameter and good electrical properties. • Insulation resistance of all the MICs is higher than 100 GΩ@DC 2500 V. - Abstract: An ITER Organization (IO) Task Agreement (TA) “Final Design and Prototyping of the ITER In-Vessel Coils (IVC) and Feeders” is almost finished by Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (ASIPP). ITER IVCs consist of edge-localized mode (ELM) and vertical stabilization (VS) coils. One prototype Mid-ELM coil complete with 19 brackets brazed with the conductors and one prototype 120° section of upper VS coil with structural components brazed to the conductors have been fabricated. Compaction method is developed successfully for the mineral-insulated conductor (MIC) manufacture. Approximate 110 m Inconel 625 jacket MICs for Mid-ELM prototype coil and 80 m stainless steel 316L jacket MICs for VS prototype coil were manufactured. Most of the copper tubes used for the MICs fabrication failed the ultrasonic testing (UT), but the jacket tubes have good passing rate. Manufacture processes and inspection for the MICs are presented in this paper.

  4. Manufacture of mineral-insulated conductor for ITER prototype ELM and VS coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, Feng; Wu, Yu; Jin, Huan; Yu, Min; Han, Qiyang; Ling, Feng; Kalish, Michael


    Highlights: • Compaction method is successfully developed for MIC manufacture. • Manufactured MICs show well controlled outer diameter and good electrical properties. • Insulation resistance of all the MICs is higher than 100 GΩ@DC 2500 V. - Abstract: An ITER Organization (IO) Task Agreement (TA) “Final Design and Prototyping of the ITER In-Vessel Coils (IVC) and Feeders” is almost finished by Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (ASIPP). ITER IVCs consist of edge-localized mode (ELM) and vertical stabilization (VS) coils. One prototype Mid-ELM coil complete with 19 brackets brazed with the conductors and one prototype 120° section of upper VS coil with structural components brazed to the conductors have been fabricated. Compaction method is developed successfully for the mineral-insulated conductor (MIC) manufacture. Approximate 110 m Inconel 625 jacket MICs for Mid-ELM prototype coil and 80 m stainless steel 316L jacket MICs for VS prototype coil were manufactured. Most of the copper tubes used for the MICs fabrication failed the ultrasonic testing (UT), but the jacket tubes have good passing rate. Manufacture processes and inspection for the MICs are presented in this paper

  5. Internal Fiber Structure of a High-Performing, Additively Manufactured Injection Molding Insert

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofstätter, Thomas; Baier, Sina; Trinderup, Camilla H.

    A standard mold is equipped with additively manufactured inserts in a rectangular shape produced with vat photo polymerization. While the lifetime compared to conventional materials such as brass, steel, and aluminum is reduced, the prototyping and design phase can be shortened significantly...... by using flexible and cost-effective additive manufacturing technologies. Higher production volumes still exceed the capability of additively manufactured inserts, which are overruled by the stronger performance of less-flexible but mechanically advanced materials. In this contribution, the internal...... structure of a high-performing, fiber-reinforced injection molding insert has been analyzed. The insert reached a statistically proven and reproducible lifetime of 4,500 shots, which significantly outperforms any other previously published additively manufactured inserts. Computer tomography, tensile tests...

  6. Integrating Fiber Optic Strain Sensors into Metal Using Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing (United States)

    Hehr, Adam; Norfolk, Mark; Wenning, Justin; Sheridan, John; Leser, Paul; Leser, Patrick; Newman, John A.


    Ultrasonic additive manufacturing, a rather new three-dimensional (3D) printing technology, uses ultrasonic energy to produce metallurgical bonds between layers of metal foils near room temperature. This low temperature attribute of the process enables integration of temperature sensitive components, such as fiber optic strain sensors, directly into metal structures. This may be an enabling technology for Digital Twin applications, i.e., virtual model interaction and feedback with live load data. This study evaluates the consolidation quality, interface robustness, and load sensing limits of commercially available fiber optic strain sensors embedded into aluminum alloy 6061. Lastly, an outlook on the technology and its applications is described.

  7. Manufacturing and Structural Feasibility of Natural Fiber Reinforced Polymeric Structural Insulated Panels for Panelized Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasim Uddin


    Full Text Available Natural fibers are emerging in the fields of automobile and aerospace industries to replace the parts such as body panels, seats, and other parts subjected to higher bending strength. In the construction industries, they have the potential to replace the wood and oriented strand boards (OSB laminates in the structural insulated panels (SIPs. They possess numerous advantages over traditional OSB SIPs such as being environmental friendly, recyclable, energy efficient, inherently flood resistant, and having higher strength and wind resistance. This paper mainly focuses on the manufacturing feasibility and structural characterization of natural fiber reinforced structural insulated panels (NSIPs using natural fiber reinforced polymeric (NFRP laminates as skin. To account for the use of natural fibers, the pretreatments are required on natural fibers prior to use in NFRP laminates, and, to address this issue properly, the natural fibers were given bleaching pretreatments. To this end, flexure test and low-velocity impact (LVI tests were carried out on NSIPs in order to evaluate the response of NSIPs under sudden impact loading and uniform bending conditions typical of residential construction. The paper also includes a comparison of mechanical properties of NSIPs with OSB SIPs and G/PP SIPs. The results showed significant increase in the mechanical properties of resulting NSIP panels mainly a 53% increase in load-carrying capacity compared to OSB SIPs. The bending modulus of NSIPs is 190% higher than OSB SIPs and 70% weight reduction compared to OSB SIPs.

  8. A low-cost, manufacturable method for fabricating capillary and optical fiber interconnects for microfluidic devices. (United States)

    Hartmann, Daniel M; Nevill, J Tanner; Pettigrew, Kenneth I; Votaw, Gregory; Kung, Pang-Jen; Crenshaw, Hugh C


    Microfluidic chips require connections to larger macroscopic components, such as light sources, light detectors, and reagent reservoirs. In this article, we present novel methods for integrating capillaries, optical fibers, and wires with the channels of microfluidic chips. The method consists of forming planar interconnect channels in microfluidic chips and inserting capillaries, optical fibers, or wires into these channels. UV light is manually directed onto the ends of the interconnects using a microscope. UV-curable glue is then allowed to wick to the end of the capillaries, fibers, or wires, where it is cured to form rigid, liquid-tight connections. In a variant of this technique, used with light-guiding capillaries and optical fibers, the UV light is directed into the capillaries or fibers, and the UV-glue is cured by the cone of light emerging from the end of each capillary or fiber. This technique is fully self-aligned, greatly improves both the quality and the manufacturability of the interconnects, and has the potential to enable the fabrication of interconnects in a fully automated fashion. Using these methods, including a semi-automated implementation of the second technique, over 10,000 interconnects have been formed in almost 2000 microfluidic chips made of a variety of rigid materials. The resulting interconnects withstand pressures up to at least 800psi, have unswept volumes estimated to be less than 10 femtoliters, and have dead volumes defined only by the length of the capillary.

  9. Design, Manufacturing and Experimental Validation of Optical Fiber Sensors Based Devices for Structural Health Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The use of optical fiber sensors is a promising and rising technique used for Structural Health Monitoring (SHM, because permit to monitor continuously the strain and the temperature of the structure where they are applied. In the present paper three different types of smart devices, that are composite materials with an optical fiber sensor embedded inside them during the manufacturing process, are described: Smart Patch, Smart Rebar and Smart Textile, which are respectively a plate for local exterior intervention, a rod for shear and flexural interior reinforcement and a textile for an external whole application. In addition to the monitoring aim, the possible additional function of these devices could be the reinforcement of the structures where they are applied. In the present work, after technology manufacturing description, the experimental laboratory characterization of each device is discussed. At last, smart devices application on medium scale masonry walls and their validation by mechanical tests is described.

  10. Basalt fiber insulating material with a mineral binding agent for industrial use (United States)

    Drozdyuk, T.; Aizenshtadt, A.; Tutygin, A.; Frolova, M.


    The paper considers a possibility of using mining industry waste as a binding agent for heat insulating material on the basis of basalt fiber. The main objective of the research is to produce a heat-insulating material to be applied in machine building in high-temperature environments. After synthetic binder having been replaced by a mineral one, an environmentally sound thermal insulating material having desirable heat-protecting ability and not failing when exposed to high temperatures was obtained.

  11. Femtosecond fiber laser additive manufacturing and welding for 3D manufacturing (United States)

    Huang, Huan; Nie, Bai; Wan, Peng; Yang, Lih-Mei; Bai, Shuang; Liu, Jian


    Due to the unique ultra-short pulse duration and high peak power, femtosecond (fs) laser has emerged as a powerful tool for many applications but has rarely been studied for 3D printing. In this paper, welding of both bulk and powder materials is demonstrated for the first time by using high energy and high repetition rate fs fiber lasers. It opens up new scenarios and opportunities for 3D printing with the following advantages - greater range of materials especially with high melting temperature, greater-than-ever level of precision (sub-micron) and less heat-affected-zone (HAZ). Mechanical properties (strength and hardness) and micro-structures (grain size) of the fabricated parts are investigated. For dissimilar materials bulk welding, good welding quality with over 210 MPa tensile strength is obtained. Also full melting of the micron-sized refractory powders with high melting temperature (above 3000 degree C) is achieved for the first time. 3D parts with shapes like ring and cube are fabricated. Not only does this study explore the feasibility of melting dissimilar and high melting temperature materials using fs lasers, but it also lays out a solid foundation for 3D printing of complex structure with designed compositions, microstructures and properties. This can greatly benefit the applications in automobile, aerospace and biomedical industries, by producing parts like nozzles, engines and miniaturized biomedical devices.

  12. Flow Characteristics of a Thermoset Fiber Composite Photopolymer Resin in a Vat Polymerization Additive Manufacturing Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofstätter, Thomas; Spangenberg, Jon; Pedersen, David B.

    Additive manufacturing vat polymerization has become a leading technology and gained a massive amount of attention in industrial applications such as injection molding inserts. By the use of the thermoset polymerization process inserts have increased their market share. For most industrial...... understood. Research indicates an orientation within the manufacturing layer and efforts have been made to achieve a more uniform orientation within the part. A vat polymerization machine consisting of a resin vat and a moving build plate has been simulated using the fluid flow module of Comsol Multiphysics...... photopolymer resin. The prediction can be used to identify potential clusters or misalignment of fibers and in the future allow for optimization of the machine design and manufacturing process....

  13. Investigation of Electrospun Poly Vinyl Alcohol Fibers Towards the Development of Manufacturable Wound Dressings (United States)

    Vora, Asad

    Polymers such as polyvinyl alcohol, chitosan, and starch have excellent bio-compatible and bio-degradable properties. Their applications in drug delivery, wound dressings, artificial cartilage materials have increased dramatically due to their much sought-after renewable and biological properties. Hence, polyvinyl alcohol has been chosen for this study to test the feasibility of polyvinyl alcohol nanofibers towards the manufacturable wound dressings. Polyvinyl alcohol nanofibers are prepared via electrospinning technique, where different wt% polyvinyl alcohol solutions are prepared. The fibers were optimized by varying important electrospninning parameters which include voltage applied, the collector-needle distance and flow rate. Morphology and structure of the electrospun fibers are analysed using scanning electron microscopy and fourier transform infrared respectively. The diameter of fibers obtained was found to be in the range of 100 nm-160 nm. Thermal stability was examined using DSC and TGA characterization technique and fibers are found to be stable up to 220oC. Finally, each weight sample of PVA fibers are analysed by goniometer for wettability and is found to be hydrophilic.

  14. Circular Economy: Questions for Responsible Minerals, Additive Manufacturing and Recycling of Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien Giurco


    Full Text Available The concept of the circular economy proposes new patterns of production, consumption and use, based on circular flows of resources. Under a scenario where there is a global shift towards the circular economy, this paper discusses the advent of two parallel and yet-to-be-connected trends for Australia, namely: (i responsible minerals supply chains and (ii additive manufacturing, also known as 3D production systems. Acknowledging the current context for waste management, the paper explores future interlinked questions which arise in the circular economy for responsible supply chains, additive manufacturing, and metals recycling. For example, where do mined and recycled resources fit in responsible supply chains as inputs to responsible production? What is required to ensure 3D production systems are resource efficient? How could more distributed models of production, enabled by additive manufacturing, change the geographical scale at which it is economic or desirable to close the loop? Examples are given to highlight the need for an integrated research agenda to address these questions and to foster Australian opportunities in the circular economy.

  15. Dietary fiber, organic acids and minerals in selected wild edible fruits of Mozambique. (United States)

    Magaia, Telma; Uamusse, Amália; Sjöholm, Ingegerd; Skog, Kerstin


    The harvesting, utilization and marketing of indigenous fruits and nuts have been central to the livelihoods of the majority of rural communities in African countries. In this study we report on the content of dietary fiber, minerals and selected organic acids in the pulps and kernels of the wild fruits most commonly consumed in southern Mozambique. The content of soluble fiber in the pulps ranged from 4.3 to 65.6 g/100 g and insoluble fiber from 2.6 to 45.8 g/100 g. In the kernels the content of soluble fiber ranged from 8.4 to 42.6 g/100 g and insoluble fiber from 14.7 to 20.9 g/100 g. Citric acid was found in all fruits up to 25.7 g/kg. The kernels of Adansonia digitata and Sclerocarya birrea were shown to be rich in calcium, iron, magnesium and zinc. The data may be useful in selecting wild fruit species appropriate for incorporation into diets.

  16. Current man-made mineral fibers (MMMF) exposures among ontario construction workers. (United States)

    Verma, Dave K; Sahai, Dru; Kurtz, Lawrence A; Finkelstein, Murray M


    Current occupational exposures to man-made mineral fibers (MMMF), including refractory ceramic fibers (RCF), were measured as part of an exposure assessment program for an epidemiological study pertaining to cancer and mortality patterns of Ontario construction workers. The assessments were carried out at commercial and residential sites. A total of 130 MMMF samples (104 personal and 26 area) was collected and included 21 RCF (16 personal and 5 area). The samples were analyzed by the World Health Organization method in which both respirable and nonrespirable airborne fibers are counted. The results show that Ontario construction workers' full-shift exposure to MMMF (excluding RCF) is generally lower than the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists' (ACGIH) recommended threshold limit value-time-weighted average (TLV-TWA) of 1 fibers/cc and thus should not present any significant hazard. However, approximately 40% of the occupational exposures to RCF are higher than ACGIH's TLV-TWA of 0.2 fibers/cc and present a significant potential hazard. Workers generally wore adequate approved respiratory protection, especially while performing particularly dusty tasks such as blowing, spraying, and cutting, so the actual exposure received by workers was lower than the reported values. Adequate control measures such as ventilation and respiratory protection should always be used when work involves RCF.

  17. Occupational exposure to natural radioactivity in the zirconium mineral manufacturing industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballesteros, L.; Zarza, I.; Ortiz, J.; Serradell, V.


    The spanish 'Real Decatur 783/2001', published as result of the adaptation of the European Council directive 96/29/EURATOM (B.S.S. directive), regulates in Spain the use of natural radioactive substances. This decree establishes the need to study and control those activities in which significant increases of the exposure of workers or members of the public could take place. One of these natural radioactive substances are zirconium minerals. They are widely employed in some industrial activities, such as the production of zirconia and zirconium chemicals, glazed ceramic products manufacture, refractories, foundry sands (including investment casting) and zirconium mineral manufacturing. Its major end uses are fine ceramics where it acts as an opacifier in glazes and enamels and also as an additive in special glass (i.e. TV glass). This paper provides a description of a measurement campaign carried out to estimate the risk of occupational exposure to natural radioactivity in the zirconium mineral manufacturing industries. Zirconium raw sands have generally a granular size of 100 to 200 μm, which may be reduced to around 2 μm for use in ceramics and paint applications by milling to flour. These sands contain varying concentrations of natural radionuclides: 232 Th, 235 U, and mostly 238 U, together with their progenies. The first part of the study is to identify situations and areas where worker s are exposed to radiation. Five pathways of exposure were found: inhalation of dust, ingestion of dust, inhalation of radon, skin contamination and external irradiation. Samples from raw materials and from the environment at the work areas are performed; both where the zircon sands are unloaded and stored and at the milling area. Secondly, collected samples are analysed to evaluate activities on those natural radionuclides. Gamma spectrometry analysis is performed for the whole of the samples. For this purpose, a Ge-HP detector (high purity Ge detectors) is used. Dust samples

  18. A Pilot-Scale System for Carbon Molecular Sieve Hollow Fiber Membrane Manufacturing

    KAUST Repository

    Karvan, O.


    Carbon molecular sieve (CMS) membranes offer advantages over traditional polymeric membrane materials, but scale-up of manufacturing systems has not received much attention. In the recent decade, there has been a dramatic increase in fundamental research on these materials with a variety of applications being studied. The results from a pilot-scale CMS production system are presented. This system was designed based on extensive laboratory research, and hollow fiber membranes produced in this system show similar performance compared to membranes produced using a smaller bench-scale system. After optimizing the system design, a 93% recovery of the precursor fibers for use in membrane module preparation were obtained. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Dietary fibers from mushroom sclerotia. 4. In vivo mineral absorption using ovariectomized rat model. (United States)

    Wong, Ka-Hing; Katsumata, Shin-Ichi; Masuyama, Ritsuko; Uehara, Mariko; Suzuki, Kazuharu; Cheung, Peter C K


    The effect of three novel dietary fibers (DFs) prepared from mushroom sclerotia, namely, Pleurotus tuber-regium, Polyporus rhinocerus, and Wolfiporia cocos, on calcium and magnesium absorption was evaluated in ovariectomized (OVX) rats fed with sclerotial DF based and low Ca (0.3%) diets for 14 days. The animals in the W. cocos DF diet group possessed significantly (p cocos DF group were also significantly (p cocos DF could improve the overall Ca and Mg absorptions of the OVX rats fed a low Ca diet. The potential use of sclerotial DFs as a functional food ingredient for enhancing mineral absorption is also discussed.

  20. Environmental exposure to mineral fibers in New Caledonia: an ecological study (United States)

    Baumann, F.; Ambrosi, J.


    Inhalation of asbestos and other fibrous minerals causes lung cancer and other malignancies, specifically malignant mesothelioma (MM). MM is an aggressive pleural tumor that presents with a median latency period of 30-40 years from initial fiber exposure. Due to occupational exposure, MM incidence is 4-8 times higher in men as compared to women. In New Caledonia (NC), very high incidences of MM and lung cancer were observed in both men and women, suggesting an environmental origin of exposure. Although nickel mining and the traditional use of tremolite-containing whitewash were suspected causes of MM, numerous MM cases have been observed in areas lacking these risk factors. We carried out an ecological study of MM incidence in NC and identified a study area that included those counties having the highest MM incidences as well as counties lacking MM. We conducted epidemiological and environmental investigations for each of the 100 tribes living within this area. Residential history was assessed for each MM case, and samples of each quarry, road, and whitewash were analyzed to determine the nature of any mineral fibers. We analyzed the environmental determinants of MM, including geology, mineralogy, plant cover, land shape and human activities as well as use of whitewash, by using two univariate and multivariate statistical methods: 1) a logistic regression to compare tribes with and without MM cases and calculate the odds ratios, (OR) 2) the Poisson regression to calculate incidence rate ratios (IRR) for each factor. While most MM cases among Caucasians were observed in men with a mean age of 72, indicating occupational exposure, Melanesians exhibited elevated MM incidence in both men and women at a mean age of 60. A sex ratio close to 1 compounded with the relatively young ages of MM cases confirmed environmental causation within the Melanesian population. We found one significant and two secondary spatial clusters of MM in tribal areas. No temporal cluster was

  1. Advanced treatment of acrylic fiber manufacturing wastewater with a combined microbubble-ozonation/ultraviolet irradiation process

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Tianlong; Zhang, Tao; Wang, Qunhui; Tian, Yanli; Shi, Zhining; Smale, Nicholas; Xu, Banghua


    This work investigated the effectiveness of a combination of microbubble-ozonation and ultraviolet (UV) irradiation for the treatment of secondary wastewater effluent of a wet-spun acrylic fiber manufacturing plant. Under reactor condition (ozone dosage of 48 mg L-1, UV fluence rate of 90 mW cm-2, initial pH of 8.0, and reaction time of 120 min), the biodegradability (represented as BOD5/CODcr) of the wastewater improved from 0.18 to 0.47. This improvement in biodegradability is related to the degradation of alkanes, aromatic compounds, and other bio-refractory organic compounds. The combination of microbubble-ozonation and UV irradiation synergistically improved treatment efficiencies by 228%, 29%, and 142% for CODcr, UV254 removal and BOD5/CODcr respectively after 120 min reaction time, as compared with the sum efficiency of microbubble-ozonation alone and UV irradiation alone. Hydroxyl radical production in the microbubble-ozonation/UV process was about 1.8 times higher than the sum production in microbubble-ozonation alone and UV irradiation alone. The ozone decomposition rate in the combined process was about 4.1 times higher than that in microbubble-ozonation alone. The microbubble-ozonation/UV process could be a promising technique for the treatment of bio-refractory organics in the acrylic fiber manufacturing industry. © 2015 Royal Society of Chemistry.

  2. Enhanced electro-Fenton Mineralization of Acid Orange 7 Using a Carbon Nanotube Fiber Based Cathode (United States)

    Huong Le, Thi Xuan; Alemán, Belén; Vilatela, Juan J.; Bechelany, Mikhael; Cretin, Marc


    A new cathodic material for electro-Fenton (EF) process was prepared based on a macroscopic fiber (CNTF) made of mm long carbon nanotubes directly spun from the gas phase by floating catalyst CVD, on a carbon fiber (CF) substrate. CNTF@CF electrode is a highly graphitic material combining a high surface area ( 260 m2/g) with high electrical conductivity and electrochemical stability . One kind of azo dye, acid orange 7 (AO7), was used as model bio-refractory pollutant to be treated at CNTF@CF cathode in acidic aqueous medium (pH 3.0). The experimental results pointed out that AO7 and its organic intermediate compounds were totally mineralized by hydroxyl radical generated from Fenton reaction. In fact, 96.7 % of the initial TOC was eliminated in 8h of electrolysis by applying a current of -25 mA and ferrous ions as catalyst at concentration of 0.2 mM. At the same electrolysis time, only 23.7 % of TOC removal found on CF support which proved the high mineralization efficiency of new material thanks to CNTs deposition. The CNTF@CF cathode maintained stable its activity during five experimental cycles of EF set-up. The results indicated that CNTF@CF material could be a potential choice for wastewater treatment containing bio-refractory by electrochemical advanced oxidation processes (EAOPs).

  3. Minerals (United States)

    Minerals are important for your body to stay healthy. Your body uses minerals for many different jobs, including keeping your bones, muscles, heart, and brain working properly. Minerals are also important for making enzymes and hormones. ...

  4. Microbubble enhanced ozonation process for advanced treatment of wastewater produced in acrylic fiber manufacturing industry

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Tianlong


    This work investigated microbubble-ozonation for the treatment of a refractory wet-spun acrylic fiber wastewater in comparison to macrobubble-ozonation. CODcr, NH3-N, and UV254 of the wastewater were removed by 42%, 21%, and 42%, respectively in the microbubble-ozonation, being 25%, 9%, and 35% higher than the removal rates achieved by macrobubble-ozonation at the same ozone dose. The microbubbles (with average diameter of 45μm) had a high concentration of 3.9×105 counts/mL at a gas flow rate of 0.5L/min. The gas holdup, total ozone mass-transfer coefficient, and average ozone utilization efficiency in the microbubble-ozonation were 6.6, 2.2, and 1.5 times higher than those of the macrobubble-ozonation. Greater generation of hydroxyl radicals and a higher zeta potential of the bubbles were also observed in the microbubble ozonation process. The biodegradability of the wastewater was also significantly improved by microbubble-ozonation, which was ascribed to the enhanced degradation of alkanes, aromatic compounds, and the many other bio-refractory organic compounds in the wastewater. Microbubble-ozonation can thus be a more effective treatment process than traditional macrobubble-ozonation for refractory wastewater produced by the acrylic fiber manufacturing industry.

  5. High performance, rapid thermal/UV curing epoxy resin for additive manufacturing of short and continuous carbon fiber epoxy composites (United States)

    Lewicki, James


    An additive manufacturing resin system including an additive manufacturing print head; a continuous carbon fiber or short carbon fibers operatively connected to the additive manufacturing print head; and a tailored resin operatively connected to the print head, wherein the tailored resin has a resin mass and wherein the tailored resin includes an epoxy component, a filler component, a catalyst component, and a chain extender component; wherein the epoxy component is 70-95% of the resin mass, wherein the filler component is 1-20% of the resin mass, wherein the catalyst component is 0.1-10% of the resin mass, and wherein the chain extender component is 0-50% of the resin mass.

  6. Evolution of Surface Texture and Cracks During Injection Molding of Fiber-Reinforced, Additively-Manufactured, Injection Molding Inserts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofstätter, Thomas; Mischkot, Michael; Pedersen, David Bue


    This paper investigates the lifetime and surfacedeterioration of additively-manufactured, injection-moulding inserts. The inserts were produced using digital light processing and were reinforcedwith oriented short carbon fibers. Theinserts were used during injection molding oflow-density polyethy......This paper investigates the lifetime and surfacedeterioration of additively-manufactured, injection-moulding inserts. The inserts were produced using digital light processing and were reinforcedwith oriented short carbon fibers. Theinserts were used during injection molding oflow......-density polyethylene until their failure. The molded products were used to analyse the development of the surface roughness and wear. By enhancing the lifetime of injection-molding inserts,this work contributes to the establishment of additively manufactured inserts in pilot production....

  7. Metal matrix coated fiber composites and the methods of manufacturing such composites (United States)

    Weeks, J.K. Jr.; Gensse, C.


    A fiber coating which allows ceramic or metal fibers to be wetted by molten metals is disclosed. The coating inhibits degradation of the physical properties caused by chemical reaction between the fiber and the coating itself or between the fiber and the metal matrix. The fiber coating preferably includes at least a wetting layer, and in some applications, a wetting layer and a barrier layer between the fiber and the wetting layer. The wetting layer promotes fiber wetting by the metal matrix. The barrier layer inhibits fiber degradation. The fiber coating permits the fibers to be infiltrated with the metal matrix resulting in composites having unique properties not obtainable in pure materials. 8 figures.

  8. All fiber cladding mode stripper with uniform heat distribution and high cladding light loss manufactured by CO2 laser ablation (United States)

    Jebali, M. A.; Basso, E. T.


    Cladding mode strippers are primarily used at the end of a fiber laser cavity to remove high-power excess cladding light without inducing core loss and beam quality degradation. Conventional manufacturing methods of cladding mode strippers include acid etching, abrasive blasting or laser ablation. Manufacturing of cladding mode strippers using laser ablation consist of removing parts of the cladding by fused silica ablation with a controlled penetration and shape. We present and characterize an optimized cladding mode stripper design that increases the cladding light loss with a minimal device length and manufacturing time. This design reduces the localized heat generation by improving the heat distribution along the device. We demonstrate a cladding mode stripper written on a 400um fiber with cladding light loss of 20dB, with less than 0.02dB loss in the core and minimal heating of the fiber and coating. The manufacturing process of the designed component is fully automated and takes less than 3 minutes with a very high throughput yield.

  9. Mass-manufacturable polymer microfluidic device for dual fiber optical trapping. (United States)

    De Coster, Diane; Ottevaere, Heidi; Vervaeke, Michael; Van Erps, Jürgen; Callewaert, Manly; Wuytens, Pieter; Simpson, Stephen H; Hanna, Simon; De Malsche, Wim; Thienpont, Hugo


    We present a microfluidic chip in Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) for optical trapping of particles in an 80µm wide microchannel using two counterpropagating single-mode beams. The trapping fibers are separated from the sample fluid by 70µm thick polymer walls. We calculate the optical forces that act on particles flowing in the microchannel using wave optics in combination with non-sequential ray-tracing and further mathematical processing. Our results are compared with a theoretical model and the Mie theory. We use a novel fabrication process that consists of a premilling step and ultraprecision diamond tooling for the manufacturing of the molds and double-sided hot embossing for replication, resulting in a robust microfluidic chip for optical trapping. In a proof-of-concept demonstration, we show the trapping capabilities of the hot embossed chip by trapping spherical beads with a diameter of 6µm, 8µm and 10µm and use the power spectrum analysis of the trapped particle displacements to characterize the trap strength.

  10. [Use of algarrobo (Prosopis chilensis (Mol) Stuntz) flour as protein and dietary fiber source in cookies and fried chips manufacture]. (United States)

    Escobar, Berta; Estévez, Ana María; Fuentes, Carolina; Venegas, Daniela


    Limiting amino acids of the protein from chilean "algarrobo" are isoleucine, theronine and methionine/cyteine. Cereals and legume blends allow to improve the amino acid balance, since legume have more lysine, and cereals are richer in sulphur amino acids. Due to the nutritional interest of "algarrobo" cotyledons, the use of "algarrobo cotyledon" flour (ACF) in sweet and salty snack manufacture was evaluated. Cookies and fried salty chips with 0%, 10% and 20% ACF were prepared. Flours were analyzed for color, particle size, moisture, proximate composition, available lysine, and soluble, insoluble and total dietary fiber. Cookies and chips were analyzed for the same characteristics (except for particle size); besides there were determined water activity, weight and size of the units, and also, the caloric value was computed. Sensory quality and acceptance of both products were evaluated. It is noticeable the high amount of protein, lipids, ash, crude fiber (63.6; 10.2; 4.3 and 4.2 g/100 g dmb, respectively), available lysine (62.4 mg/g protein) and total dietary fiber (24.2 g/100 g dmb) of ACF. Both, cookies and chips with ACF, showed a significant increase in the amount of protein, lipids, ash, crude fiber and, available lysine (from 15.5 to 19,3 and from 20.3 a 29.6 mg lisina/g protein, respectively), and total dietary fiber (from 1.39 to 2.80 and from 1.60 a 5.60 g/100 g dmb, respectively). All of the cookies trials were well accepted ("I like it very much"); chips with 10% of AFC showed the highest acceptance ("I like it"). It can be concluded that the use of ACF in cookies and chips manufacture increases the contribution of available lysine; their protein and dietary fiber content, improving the soluble/insoluble fiber ratio, without affect neither their physical nor their sensory acceptance.

  11. Dry Process for Manufacturing Hybridized Boron Fiber/Carbon Fiber Thermoplastic Composite Materials from a Solution Coated Precursor (United States)

    Belvin, Harry L. (Inventor); Cano, Roberto J. (Inventor)


    An apparatus for producing a hybrid boron reinforced polymer matrix composite from precursor tape and a linear array of boron fibers. The boron fibers are applied onto the precursor tapes and the precursor tape processed within a processing component having an impregnation bar assembly. After passing through variable-dimension forming nip-rollers, the precursor tape with the boron fibers becomes a hybrid boron reinforced polymer matrix composite. A driving mechanism is used to pulled the precursor tape through the method and a take-up spool is used to collect the formed hybrid boron reinforced polymer matrix composite.

  12. Integration of Fiber-Reinforced Polymers in a Life Cycle Assessment of Injection Molding Process Chains with Additive Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofstätter, Thomas; Bey, Niki; Mischkot, Michael


    Additive manufacturing technologies applied to injection molding process chain have acquired an increasingly important role in the context of tool inserts production, especially by vat polymerization. Despite the decreased lifetime during their use in the injection molding process, the inserts come...... with improvements in terms of production time, costs, exibility, as well as potentially improved environmental performance as compared to conventional materials in a life cycle perspective.This contribution supports the development of additively manufactured injection molding inserts with the use of fiber...

  13. Prediction of the Fiber Orientation State and the Resulting Structural and Thermal Properties of Fiber Reinforced Additive Manufactured Composites Fabricated Using the Big Area Additive Manufacturing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Russell


    Full Text Available Recent advances in Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF include large material deposition rates and the addition of chopped carbon fibers to the filament feedstock. During processing, the flow field within the polymer melt orients the fiber suspension, which is important to quantify as the underlying fiber orientation influences the mechanical and thermal properties. This paper investigates the correlation between processing conditions and the resulting locally varying thermal-structural properties that dictate both the final part performance and part dimensionality. The flow domain includes both the confined and unconfined flow indicative of the extruder nozzle within the FFF deposition process. The resulting orientation is obtained through two different isotropic rotary diffusion models, the model by Folgar and Tucker and that of Wang et al., and a comparison is made to demonstrate the sensitivity of the deposited bead’s spatially varying orientation as well as the final processed part’s thermal-structural performance. The results indicate the sensitivity of the final part behavior is quite sensitive to the choice of the slowness parameter in the Wang et al. model. Results also show the need, albeit less than that of the choice of fiber interaction model, to include the extrudate swell and deposition within the flow domain.

  14. Minerals (United States)

    ... Aren't minerals something you find in the earth, like iron and quartz? Well, yes, but small ... canned salmon and sardines with bones leafy green vegetables, such as broccoli calcium-fortified foods — from orange ...

  15. Combination of microsized mineral particles and rosin as a basis for converting cellulosic fibers into "sticky" superhydrophobic paper. (United States)

    Yu, Xiaoyan; Bian, Peiwen; Xue, Yang; Qian, Xueren; Yu, Haipeng; Chen, Wenshuai; Hu, Xiaohai; Wang, Peng; Wu, Dong; Duan, Qinghui; Li, Limei; Shen, Jing; Ni, Yonghao


    The unique features of cellulosic paper including flexibility, biodegradability, and low cost enables it as a versatile, sustainable biomaterial for promising applications. In the paper industry, microsized mineral particles are widely used in the production of printing/writing paper grades, while rosin derived from trees is the earliest internal sizing agent for paper hydrophobication. On the basis of existing commercial practices associated with the use of mineral particles and rosin in paper production, we present a process concept of converting cellulosic fibers (paper-grade pulp) into "sticky" superhydrophobic paper involving the use of microsized mineral particles and rosin (a tree-derived natural product, mainly a mixture of resin acids, especially abietic acid with chemical formula of C 19 H 29 COOH). Internal filling of cellulosic networks with mineral particles was basically used to hold out the mineral particles added at the surface, and the delicate integration of wet-end/surface applications of mineral particles with paper surface engineering with rosin/alum led to the development of "sticky" superhydrophobicity, i.e., ultrahigh water-repellency and strong adhesion to water. This proposed concept may provide valuable implications for expanding the use of paper-based products to unconventional applications, e.g., ultrahigh-performance ink jet printing paper for mitigating the "coffee-ring effect" and paper-based microfluidic devices for biomedical testing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Development Manufacturing Method of Highly Functional Kapok Fiber Absorbent Using Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Byung Yeoup; Kim, Jae Sung; Nho, Young Chang; Kang, Phil Hyun; Baek, Myung Hwa


    The hydrophobic characteristic of kapok fibers was changed to hydrophilic property after NaClO2, treatments which is able to break all phenolic units especially lignin. After NaClO2 treatment, NaIO4, applied to kapok fibers for opening hexagonal polysaccharide structure, this step led to produce carbonyl groups(>C=O) on kapok fibers. In the final step, NaClO2, treatments were performed again to provide carboxyl groups(-COOH) on kapok fibers. In addition, kapok fibers after all chemical treatments were retained hollow structure which was observed by scanning electron microscopy(SEM). Kapok fibers which were obtained after chemical treatments would be a good heavy metal absorbent when these fibers applied less than in 10 mg/L standard solution. Moreover, these fibers were not detached heavy metals even added physical forces and used kapok fibers are able to reuse after detached heavy metals under pH 2-3. The degree of grafting increased as the irradiation dose increased, and are in the range 32% to 250% when the concentration of glycidyl methacrylate monomer was 50 vol. %. Based on this result, various functional groups are possible to be attached on kapok fibers used by radiation grafting technique


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subyakto Subyakto


    Full Text Available Sisal (Agave sisalana as a perennial tropical plant grows abundantly in Indonesia. Its fibers can be used as the reinforcement agent of biocomposite products. Utilization of sisal as natural fiber has some notable benefits compared to synthetic fibers, such as renewable, light in weight, and low in cost. Manufacture of biocomposite requires the use of matrix such as thermoplastic polymer, e.g. polypropylene (PP and polylactic acid (PLA to bond together with the reinforcement agent (e.g. sisal fibers. In relevant, experiment was conducted on biocomposites manufacture that comprised sisal fibers and PP as well as PLA. Sisal fibers were converted into pulp, then refined to micro-size fibrillated fibers such that their diameter reduced to about 10 μm, and dried in an oven. The dry microfibrillated sisal pulp fibers cellulose (MSFC were thoroughly mixed with either PP or PLA with varying ratios of MSFC/PP as well as MSFC/PLA, and then shaped into the mat (i.e. MSFC-PP and MSFC-PLA biocomposites. Two kinds of shaping was employed, i.e. hot-press molding and injection molding. In the hot-press molding, the ratio of  MSFC/PP as well as MSFC/PLA ranged about 30/70-50/50. Meanwhile in the injection (employed only on assembling the MSFC-PLA biocomposite, the ratio of MSFC/PLA varied about 10/90-30/70. The resulting shaped MSFC-PP and MSFC-PLA biocomposites were then tested of its physical and mechanical properties. With the hot-press molding device, the physical and mechanical (strength properties of MSFC-PLA biocomposite were higher than those of  MSFC-PP biocomposite. The optimum ratio of  MSFC/PP as well as MSFC/PLA reached concurrently at 40/60. The strengths of MSFC-PP as well as MSFC-PLA biocomposites were greater than those of individual polymer (PP and PLA. With the injection molding device, only the MSFC-PLA  biocomposite  was formed  and its strengths  reached  maximum  at 30/70  ratio.  The particular strengths (MOR and MOE of MSFC

  18. Cryogenic fiber optic temperature sensor and method of manufacturing the same (United States)

    Kochergin, Vladimir (Inventor)


    This invention teaches the fiber optic sensors temperature sensors for cryogenic temperature range with improved sensitivity and resolution, and method of making said sensors. In more detail, the present invention is related to enhancement of temperature sensitivity of fiber optic temperature sensors at cryogenic temperatures by utilizing nanomaterials with a thermal expansion coefficient that is smaller than the thermal expansion coefficient of the optical fiber but larger in absolute value than the thermal expansion coefficient of the optical fiber at least over a range of temperatures.

  19. Minerals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaquero, M. P.


    Full Text Available The possible changes in the mineral composition of food during frying could be the consequence of losses by leaching, or changes in concentrations caused by exchanges between the food and culinary fat of other compounds. The net result depends on the type of food, the frying fat used and the frying process. Moreover, the modifications that frying produces in other nutrients could indirectly affect the availability of dietary minerals. The most outstanding ones are those that can take place in the fat or in the protein. With respect to the interactions between frying oils and minerals, we have recent knowledge concerning the effects of consuming vegetable oils used in repeated fryings of potatoes without turnover, on the nutritive utilization of dietary minerals. The experiments have been carried out in pregnant and growing rats, which consumed diets containing, as a sole source of fat, the testing frying oils or unused oils. It seems that the consumption of various frying oils, with a polar compound content lower or close to the maximum limit of 25% accepted for human consumption, does not alter the absorption and metabolism of calcium, phosphorous, iron or copper. Magnesium absorption from diets containing frying oils tends to increase but the urinary excretion of this element increases, resulting imperceptible the variations in the magnesium balance. The urinary excretion of Zn also increased although its balance remained unchanged. Different studies referring to the effects of consuming fried fatty fish on mineral bioavailability will also be presented. On one hand, frying can cause structural changes in fish protein, which are associated with an increase in iron absorption and a decrease in body zinc retention. The nutritive utilization of other elements such as magnesium, calcium and copper seems to be unaffected. On the other hand; it has been described that an excess of fish fatty acids in the diet produces iron depletion, but when fatty

  20. Design of a Carbon Fiber Composite Grid Structure for the GLAST Spacecraft Using a Novel Manufacturing Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hicks, M


    The Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope is an orbital observatory being planned as a joint DOE/NASA mission. The primary support of the instrument requires a grid structure which is very stiff, strong, light-weight, and thermally conductive. A carbon fiber composite grid design using a novel manufacture technique is proposed which meets or exceeds an aluminum design in all performance criteria and is economically competitive as well. Finite element analysis, confirmed by testing of a sample grid, is used to examine trade-offs for the materials and layups. Based on these analyses, recommendations are given for a viable design.

  1. A Pilot-Scale System for Carbon Molecular Sieve Hollow Fiber Membrane Manufacturing

    KAUST Repository

    Karvan, O.; Johnson, J. R.; Williams, P. J.; Koros, W. J.


    research on these materials with a variety of applications being studied. The results from a pilot-scale CMS production system are presented. This system was designed based on extensive laboratory research, and hollow fiber membranes produced in this system

  2. Properties of SBS and sisal fiber composites: ecological material for shoe manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Krause de Verney


    Full Text Available The worldwide trend toward using cheap, atoxic and durable materials from renewable resources contributes to sustainable development. Thus, the investigation of the potential use of vegetal fibers as reinforcing agent in polymeric composites has gained new significance. Sisal fiber has emerged as a reinforcing material for polymers used in automobile, footwear and civil industries. In this work, properties such as hardness, tensile strength and tear strength of polymer composites composed by block copolymer styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS and 5, 10 and 20% by weight of sisal fiber were evaluated. The influence of conventional polymer processing techniques such as single-screw and double-screw extrusion, as well as the addition of coupling agent on the composite mechanical performance was investigated. Also, the morphology and thermal stability of the composites were analyzed. The addition of 2 wt. (% maleic anhydride as coupling agent between sisal fiber and SBS has improved the composite mechanical performance and the processing in a double-screw extruder has favored the sisal fiber distribution in the SBS matrix.

  3. Reuse of ultrafine mineral wool production waste in the manufacture of refractory concrete. (United States)

    Stonys, R; Kuznetsov, D; Krasnikovs, A; Škamat, J; Baltakys, K; Antonovič, V; Černašėjus, O


    The paper deals with the mineral wool production waste (cupola dust - CD), presents CD characterization and aims to reuse CD in production of refractory concrete with calcium aluminate cement. The study of CD covers its chemical, phase and thermal analyses along with the morphological study and determination of particles size distribution. Zeta-potential, electrical conductivity and pH values of CD suspension are presented in the paper as well. Commercial microsilica additive in refractory concrete has been replaced with cupola dust. Compositions of refractory concrete have been prepared by incorporating 1%, 2% and 3% of CD. The bulk density, ultrasonic wave velocity, cold crushing strength and thermal shock resistance of the created refractory concrete have been determined. Based on experimental results, it has been found that cupola dust may be used for the production of refractory concrete. The environmental impact related to the CD reuse in refractory concrete production has been evaluated as well. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Study on evaluation of starch, dietary fiber and mineral composition of cookies developed from 12 sorghum cultivars. (United States)

    Rao, B Dayakar; Kulkarni, Dhanashri B; C, Kavitha


    The study aimed to identify best cultivars suitable for sorghum cookies accordingly nutrient and mineral compositions were evaluated. Protein and fat content of cookies were ranged from 5.89±0.04 to 8.27±0.21% and 21.03±0.01 to 23.08±0.03% respectively. The starch content of cookie ranged between 47.06±0.01 and 42.15±0.03% and dietary fiber was reported highest in CSH14 (9.27±0.01%). The highest Mg (56.24±0.03mg/100g) P (255.54±0.03mg/100g), and K (124.26±0.02mg/100g) content were found in C43 cultivar. CSV18R was reported highest iron content (1.23±0.01mg/100g). The sensory scores for overall acceptability of cookies were highest in CSH23, CSH13R and CSV18R cultivars which are rich in dietary fiber and minerals. Normally the hybrids are high yielders and the grain price/qt is 20% lower than varieties. It is implied the raw material costs of two identified cultivars (CSH23 & CSH13R) would help the industry to reduce overall cost of production and offer a better profit margins over the varieties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Enhanced Electro-Fenton Mineralization of Acid Orange 7 Using a Carbon Nanotube Fiber-Based Cathode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi Xuan Huong Le


    Full Text Available A new cathodic material for electro-Fenton (EF process was prepared based on a macroscopic fiber (CNTF made of mm-long carbon nanotubes directly spun from the gas phase by floating catalyst CVD, on a carbon fiber (CF substrate. CNTF@CF electrode is a highly graphitic material combining a high surface area (~260 m2/g with high electrical conductivity and electrochemical stability. One kind of azo dye, acid orange 7 (AO7, was used as model bio-refractory pollutant to be treated at CNTF@CF cathode in acidic aqueous medium (pH 3.0. The experimental results pointed out that AO7 and its organic intermediate compounds were totally mineralized by hydroxyl radical generated from Fenton reaction. In fact, 96.7% of the initial total organic carbon (TOC was eliminated in 8 h of electrolysis by applying a current of −25 mA and ferrous ions as catalyst at concentration of 0.2 mM. At the same electrolysis time, only 23.7% of TOC removal found on CF support which proved the high mineralization efficiency of new material thanks to CNTF deposition. The CNTF@CF cathode maintained stable its activity during five experimental cycles of EF setup. The results indicated that CNTF@CF material could be a potential choice for wastewater treatment containing bio-refractory by electrochemical advanced oxidation processes.

  6. Green insulation: hemp fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Indian hemp (Cannabis indica) is known for its psychotropic values and it is banned in most countries. However, industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa) is known for its tough fibers. Several manufactures in Europe including, small niche players, have been marketing hemp insulation products for several years. Hemp is a low environmental impact material. Neither herbicide nor pesticide is used during the growth of hemp. The fibers are extracted in a waste-free and chemical-free mechanical process. Hemp can consume CO2 during its growth. In addition, hemp fiber can be disposed of harmlessly by composting or incineration at the end of its life. Hemp fibers are processed and treated only minimally to resist rot and fungal activity. There is little health risk when producing and installing the insulation, thanks to the absence of toxic additive. Its thermal resistance is comparable to mineral wool. But the development and marketing of hemp fibers may be restricted in North America.

  7. Application of silicone based elastomers for manufacturing of Green Fiber Bottle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saxena, Prateek; Bissacco, Giuliano


    -stageprocess, where the wood fibers are first thermoformed in the desired shape followed by drying of theformed geometry [2]. To ensure the robustness of the bottle and to avoid shrinkage of cellulose fibers,the wet-formed bottle is pressurized using a silicone core. The core is inserted inside the drying tooland......). To simulate the inflation action of the core, Yeoh’s model is used for modelling of W. Thestrength of the GFB is correlated with the pressure the bottle can hold and the cut off burst pressurefrom experiments is also reported in this work....

  8. Panels Manufactured from Vegetable Fibers: An Alternative Approach for Controlling Noises in Indoor Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leopoldo Pacheco Bastos


    Full Text Available Noise control devices such as panels and barriers, when of high efficiency, generally are of difficult acquisition due to high costs turning in many cases their use impracticable, mainly for limited budget small-sized companies. There is a huge requirement for new acoustic materials that have satisfactory performance, not only under acoustic aspect but also other relevant ones and are of low cost. Vegetable fibers are an alternative solution when used as panels since they promise satisfactory acoustic absorption, according to previous researches, exist in abundance, and derive from renewable sources. This paper, therefore, reports on the development of panels made from vegetable fibers (coconut, palm, sisal, and açaí, assesses their applicability by various experimental (flammability, odor, fungal growth, and ageing tests, and characterize them acoustically in terms of their sound absorption coefficients on a scale model reverberant chamber. Acoustic results point out that the aforementioned fiber panels play pretty well the role of a noise control device since they have compatible, and in some cases, higher performance when compared to commercially available conventional materials.

  9. Development of a Fiber Laser Welding Equipment for the LVDT Manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. S.; Lee, C. Y.; Park, S. J.; Shin, Y. T.; Cho, M. S.; Choo, K. N.; Kim, B. G.; Kang, Y. H.


    The instrumented fuel irradiation test at a research reactor is needed to evaluate the performance of the developed nuclear fuel. A LVDT(Linear Variable Differential Transformer) can be designed to measure the pressure level and elongation during the irradiation test by using various metals and MI cables. LVDT's parts were composed of MI cables and Inconel 600 materials. Laser welding technology is widely used to fabricate some products of nuclear fuel in the nuclear industry. Especially, micro-welding using Fiber laser is one of the key technologies to be developed to fabricate precise products of fuel irradiation test. We also have to secure micro-welding technology to perform various instrumentations for fuel irradiation test. Micro-welding technology was adopted to seal between seal tubes and MI cables with thickness of 0.15 mm. The soundness of welding area has to be confirmed to prevent fission gas of the fuel from leaking out of the fuel rods during the fuel irradiation test. In this report, fundamental data for welding technology using Fiber laser was proposed to seal Inconel 600 sheaths of LVDT instrumented capsules for the irradiation test. Moreover, It is expected that the use of fuel irradiation tests will be revitalized by the self-development of LVDT's parts using the Fiber laser welding technology

  10. 75 FR 7284 - NIOSH Current Intelligence Bulletin-Asbestos Fibers and Other Elongate Mineral Particles: State... (United States)


    ... areas of controversy and to recommend a research framework that can serve as a guide for the development... occupational health issues identified and the framework for research. The drafts are summarized below. In... Elongate Mineral Particles,'' can be found at: . The January...

  11. Process for the manufacture of seamless metal-clad fiber-reinforced organic matrix composite structures (United States)

    Bluck, Raymond M. (Inventor); Bush, Harold G. (Inventor); Johnson, Robert R. (Inventor)


    A process for producing seamless metal-clad composite structures includes providing a hollow, metallic inner member and an outer sleeve to surround the inner member and define an inner space therebetween. A plurality of continuous reinforcing fibers is attached to the distal end of the outside diameter of the inner member, and the inner member is then introduced, distal end first, into one end of the outer sleeve. The inner member is then moved, distal end first, into the outer sleeve until the inner member is completely enveloped by the outer sleeve. A liquid matrix material is then injected into the space containing the reinforcing fibers between the inner member and the outer sleeve. Next a pressurized heat transfer medium is passed through the inner member to cure the liquid matrix material. Finally, the wall thickness of both the inner member and the outer sleeve are reduced to desired dimensions by chemical etching, which adjusts the thermal expansion coefficient of the metal-clad composite structure to a desired value.

  12. Exposure to dust mixtures containing free crystalline silica and mineral fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wozniak, H.; Wiecek, E.; Bielichowska-Cybula, G.


    Exposure to dust mixture containing at the same time respirable mineral fibres and free crystalline silica may occur in Poland in mines and in the Lower Silesia plants processing mineral raw materials as well as in all plants which use asbestos products and MMMF. Workposts where thermal insulation is exchange with possible phase transformations during operations under conditions of high temperature, expose particularly complex problems. In the work environment of this kind, dust concentration of free crystalline silica becomes important but not sufficient criterion for evaluating working conditions and it may be misleading. A range of studies indispensable for the proper evaluation of exposure to dust, covering together with measurement of dust and SiO 2 concentrations, determination of the mineral composition of dust, was developed. It was also found that the acceptable level of risk for neoplastic disease, namely 10(-3) can be attained in the work environment only if the concentration ranges from 0.05 to 0.1 f/cm 3 , that is equal to 20% of MAC value which is now binding in Poland. Cancer risk (lung cancer and mesothelioma jointly) during a 20-year exposure to concentrations equal to present MAC values should be estimated as about 10(-2) what indicates that risk is too high and it is necessary to diminish MAC values for asbestos dust. (author). 17 refs, 3 tabs

  13. Manufacture and impact analysis of bmx helmet made from polymeric foam composite strengthened by oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber (United States)



    Helmets are protective head gears wear by bicycle riders for protection against injury in case of the accident. Helmet standards require helmets to be tested with a simple drop test onto an anvil. The purpose of research is to know toughness of bicycle helmet made from polymeric foam composite strengthened by oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber. This research contains report result manufacture and impacts analysis of bicycle helmet made from polymeric foam composite materials strengthened by oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber (EFB). The geometric helmet structure consists of shell and liner; both layers have sandwich structure. The shell uses matrix unsaturated Polyester BQTN-157EX material, chopped strand mat 300 glass fiber reinforce and methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (MEKPO) catalyst with the weight composition of 100 gr, 15 gr, and 5 gr. The liner uses matrix unsaturated Polyester BQTN-157 EX material, EFB fiber reinforces, Polyurethane blowing agent, and MEKPO catalyst with the composition of 275 gr (50%), 27.5 gr (5%), 247 gr (45%), and 27.5 gr (5%). Layers of the helmet made by using hand lay-up method and gravity casting method. Mechanical properties of polymeric foam were the tensile strength (ơt) 1.17 Mpa, compressive strength (ơc) 0.51 MPa, bending strength (ơb) 3.94 MPa, elasticity modulus (E) 37.97 Mpa, density (ρ) 193 (kg/m3). M4A model helmet is the most ergonomic with the thickness 10 mm and the amount of air channel 11. Free fall impact test was done in 9 samples with the thickness of 10 mm with the height of 1.5 m. The result of the impact test was impacted force (Fi) 241.55 N, Impulse (I) 6.28 Ns, impact Strength (ơi) 2.02 Mpa and impact Energy (Ei) 283.77 Joule. The properties of bicycle helmet model BMX-M4A type was 264 mm length, 184 mm width, 154 mm height, 10 mm thick, 580 mm head circle, 331 g mass and 11 wind channels.

  14. Embedding of MEMS pressure and temperature sensors in carbon fiber composites: a manufacturing approach (United States)

    Javidinejad, Amir; Joshi, Shiv P.


    In this paper embedding of surface mount pressure and temperature sensors in the Carbon fiber composites are described. A commercially available surface mount pressure and temperature sensor are used for embedding in a composite lay- up of IM6/HST-7, IM6/3501 and AS4/E7T1-2 prepregs. The fabrication techniques developed here are the focus of this paper and provide for a successful embedding procedure of pressure sensors in fibrous composites. The techniques for positioning and insulating, the sensor and the lead wires, from the conductive carbon prepregs are described and illustrated. Procedural techniques are developed and discussed for isolating the sensor's flow-opening, from the exposure to the prepreg epoxy flow and exposure to the fibrous particles, during the autoclave curing of the composite laminate. The effects of the autoclave cycle (if any) on the operation of the embedded pressure sensor are discussed.

  15. Malignant pleural mesothelioma due to environmental mineral fiber exposure in Turkey. Analysis of 135 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selcuk, Z.T.; Coeplue, L.Em.; Emri, S.; Kalyoncu, A.F.; Sahin, A.A.; Baris, Y.I. (Department of Chest Diseases, Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey))


    We reviewed data from 135 patients with environment-associated malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) from the Central Anatolian region of Turkey. The most significant factors suggesting the diagnosis of MPM were the village where the patient resided and the typical presenting symptoms and signs of unilateral exudative pleural effusion associated with nonpleuritic chest pain. Computed tomography and ultrasonography were very useful for evaluating the extension of the tumor in the thoracic and abdominal cavities and chest wall. The tissue diagnosis was established by either thoracoscopy (39 percent) or pleural biopsy (39 percent) in the majority of the cases. The median survival after diagnosis was 13.52 months for erionite-associated MPM and 21.56 months for asbestos-associated MPM. The actuarial survival curves for the fibrous minerals were significantly different for survival computed both from onset of the symptoms and after diagnosis. Medical or surgical treatment or both did not change the outcome of the disease.

  16. Manufacture of Green-Composite Sandwich Structures with Basalt Fiber and Bioepoxy Resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Torres


    Full Text Available Nowadays, there is a growing interest for the use and development of materials synthesized from renewable sources in the polymer composites manufacturing industry; this applies for both matrix and reinforcement components. In the present research, a novel basalt fibre reinforced (BFR bioepoxy green composite is proposed as an environmentally friendly alternative to traditional petroleum-derived composites. In addition, this material system was combined with cork as core material for the fabrication of fibre composite sandwich structures. Mechanical properties of both skin and core materials were assessed through flexural and tensile tests. Finite element (FEM simulations for the mechanical stress analysis of the sandwich material were carried out, and a maximum allowable shear stress for material failure under bending loads was established. Permeability measurements of the basalt fabrics were carried out in order to perform numerical simulations of liquid composite moulding (LCM processes on the PAM-RTM software. The proposed green-composite sandwich material was used for the fabrication of a longboard as a case study for a sports equipment application. Numerical simulations of the mould filling stage allowed the determination of an optimal mould filling strategy. Finally, the load-bearing capacity of the board was studied by means of FEM simulations, and the presented design proved to be acceptable for service.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Jardelino Dias


    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito dos componentes dos substratos em diferentes misturas submetidos à adubação fosfatada sobre a composição mineral de mudas de mangabeira. Este experimento foi executado no Centro de Ciências Agrárias, UFPB, localizado no município de Areia-PB. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com 17 tratamentos, três repetições, e unidade experimental constando de quatro mudas. Os substratos testados foram acondicionados em sacos de polietileno preto, composto de fibra de coco, com valores variando de 0 a 40 %, esterco bovino de 0 a 25,5 %, terra vegetal de 25 a 70 %, 15 % de areia e superfosfato triplo, nas doses de 0,0; 5,5 e 11,0 g L-1. Foi avaliada a composição mineral dos sistemas radiculares e na parte aérea das mudas aos 150 dias após a germinação das sementes, para os teores de macronutrientes e cobre. Aadição de esterco bovino e de superfosfato triplo provocaram o incremento dos teores de macronutrientes no sistema radicular e na parte aérea das mudas de mangabeira, ao contrário do efeito da adição de terra vegetal e fibra de coco. O teor de cobre na parte aérea das mudas aumentou com o incremento da concentração de terra vegetal e da fibra de coco no substrato. Recomenda-se a utilização das concentrações de 24 % de esterco, 51 % de terra vegetal, 10 % de fibra de coco, 15 % de areia e 8 g dm- 3 de superfosfato triplo, para obtenção dos máximos teores estimados de macronutrientes e de cobre no sistema radicular e na parte aérea de mudas de mangabeira.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanben Du


    Full Text Available Binderless fiberboards from enzymatic hydrolysis lignin (EHL and cotton stalk fibers were prepared under various manufacturing conditions, and their physico-mechanical properties were evaluated. Full factorial experimental design was used to assess the effect of fiber moisture content and pressing temperature on boards’ properties. In addition, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC was used to obtain the glass transition temperature (Tg of EHL. We found that both fiber moisture content and pressing temperature had significant effects on binderless fiberboards’ properties. High fiber moisture content and pressing temperature are suggested to contribute to the self-bonding improvement among fibers with lignin-rich surface mainly by thermal softening enzymatic hydrolysis lignin. In this experiment, the optimized pressing temperature applied in binderless fiberboard production should be as high as 190°C in accordance with the EHL Tg value of 189.4°C, and the fiber moisture content should be limited to less than 20% with a higher board density of 950 kg/m3 to avoid the delamination of boards during hot pressing.

  19. Fiber (United States)

    ... meals instead of white rice. Add beans (kidney, black, navy, and pinto) to rice dishes for even more fiber. Spice up salads with berries and almonds, chickpeas, cooked artichokes, and beans (kidney, black, navy, or pinto). Use whole-grain (corn or ...

  20. Reducing the nonconforming products by using the Six Sigma method: A case study of a polyes-ter short cut fiber manufacturing in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oky Syafwiratama


    Full Text Available Polyester short cut fiber is a textile industry which is rarely explored or researched. This research explains the necessary steps of improvement using Six Sigma method to reduce the nonconform-ing products in a polyester short cut fiber manufacturing in Indonesia. An increased noncon-forming products in the shortcut fiber production process created some quality problems from January to May, 2015. Define, measure, analysis, improve, control (DMAIC steps were im-plemented to determine root cause of the problems and to improve production process using sta-tistical approach. The results of Six Sigma improvement has indicated that the process capability was increased from 2.2 to 3.1 sigma, savings $18,394.2 USD per-month.

  1. Manufacturing a Long-Period Grating with Periodic Thermal Diffusion Technology on High-NA Fiber and Its Application as a High-Temperature Sensor. (United States)

    Shen, Xiang; Dai, Bin; Xing, Yingbin; Yang, Luyun; Li, Haiqing; Li, Jinyan; Peng, Jingang


    We demonstrated a kind of long-period fiber grating (LPFG), which is manufactured with a thermal diffusion treatment. The LPFG was inscribed on an ultrahigh-numerical-aperture (UHNA) fiber, highly doped with Ge and P, which was able to easily diffuse at high temperatures within a few seconds. We analyzed how the elements diffused at a high temperature over 1300 °C in the UHNA fiber. Then we developed a periodically heated technology with a CO₂ laser, which was able to cause the diffusion of the elements to constitute the modulations of an LPFG. With this technology, there is little damage to the outer structure of the fiber, which is different from the traditional LPFG, as it is periodically tapered. Since the LPFG itself was manufactured under high temperature, it can withstand higher temperatures than traditional LPFGs. Furthermore, the LPFG presents a higher sensitivity to high temperature due to the large amount of Ge doping, which is approximately 100 pm/°C. In addition, the LPFG shows insensitivity to the changing of the environment’s refractive index and strain.

  2. The Effect of Tow Shearing on Reinforcement Positional Fidelity in the Manufacture of a Continuous Fiber Reinforced Thermoplastic Matrix Composite via Pultrusion-Like Processing of Commingled Feedstock (United States)

    Warlick, Kent M.

    While the addition of short fiber to 3D printed articles has increased structural performance, ultimate gains will only be realized through the introduction of continuous reinforcement placed along pre-planned load paths. Most additive manufacturing research focusing on the addition of continuous reinforcement has revolved around utilization of a prefrabricated composite filament or a fiber and matrix mixed within a hot end prior to deposition on a printing surface such that conventional extrusion based FDM can be applied. Although stronger 3D printed parts can be made in this manner, high quality homogenous composites are not possible due to fiber dominated regions, matrix dominated regions, and voids present between adjacent filaments. Conventional composite manufacturing processes are much better at creating homogeneous composites; however, the layer by layer approach in which they are made is inhibiting the alignment of reinforcement with loads. Automated Fiber Placement techniques utilize in plane bending deformation of the tow to facilitate tow steering. Due to buckling fibers on the inner radius of curves, manufacturers recommend a minimum curvature for path placement with this technique. A method called continuous tow shearing has shown promise to enable the placement of tows in complex patterns without tow buckling, spreading, and separation inherent in conventional forms of automated reinforcement positioning. The current work employs fused deposition modeling hardware and the continuous tow shearing technique to manufacture high quality fiber reinforced composites with high positional fidelity, varying continuous reinforcement orientations within a layer, and plastic elements incorporated enabling the ultimate gains in structural performance possible. A mechanical system combining concepts of additive manufacturing with fiber placement via filament winding was developed. Paths with and without tension inherent in filament winding were analyzed through

  3. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry characterization of aging effects on the mineral fibers treated with aminopropylsilane and quaternary ammonium compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zafar, Ashar; Schjødt-Thomsen, Jan; Sodhi, R.


    (PCA) was applied to the time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry spectra, and an increase in the intensities of APS characteristic peaks were observed after aging. The observed increase in the signals of APS originates from underlying silanized fibers after the removal of the surfactant......X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry were used to investigate the aging effects on the aminopropylsilane (APS) and quaternary ammonium surfactant-treated mineral fibers. APS-coated mineral fiber samples were treated with cationic surfactant...

  4. Occupational exposures to styrene vapor in a manufacturing plant for fiber-reinforced composite wind turbine blades. (United States)

    Hammond, Duane; Garcia, Alberto; Feng, H Amy


    A utility-scale wind turbine blade manufacturing plant requested assistance from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in controlling worker exposures to styrene at a plant that produced 37 and 42 m long fiber-reinforced wind turbine blades. The plant requested NIOSH assistance because previous air sampling conducted by the company indicated concerns about peak styrene concentrations when workers entered the confined space inside of the wind turbine blade. NIOSH researchers conducted two site visits and collected personal breathing zone and area air samples while workers performed the wind turbine blade manufacturing tasks of vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM), gelcoating, glue wiping, and installing the safety platform. All samples were collected during the course of normal employee work activities and analyzed for styrene using NIOSH Method 1501. All sampling was task based since full-shift sampling from a prior Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) compliance inspection did not show any exposures to styrene above the OSHA permissible exposure limit. During the initial NIOSH site visit, 67 personal breathing zone and 18 area air samples were collected while workers performed tasks of VARTM, gelcoating, glue wipe, and installation of a safety platform. After the initial site visit, the company made changes to the glue wipe task that eliminated the need for workers to enter the confined space inside of the wind turbine blade. During the follow-up site visit, 12 personal breathing zone and 8 area air samples were collected from workers performing the modified glue wipe task. During the initial site visit, the geometric means of the personal breathing zone styrene air samples were 1.8 p.p.m. (n = 21) for workers performing the VARTM task, 68 p.p.m. (n = 5) for workers installing a safety platform, and 340 p.p.m. (n = 14) for workers performing the glue wipe task, where n is the number of workers sampled for a

  5. Seed Yield of Long Fiber Flax (Linum usitatissimum L. Plants Depending on Rates of Sawing of Seed and Mineral Fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М. Ф. Рибак


    Full Text Available Impact of rates of sawing of seed and fertilization on seed productivity of Kameniar and Irma Long Fiber Flax in the conditions of Ukrainian Woodlands are highlighted. A trustworthy proportion is established of factors influence, in particular, of the sawing and fertilization rates, on Long Fiber Flax yield formation.

  6. Effect of paddy straw plus nonforage fiber sources based complete rations with different levels of neutral detergent fiber on hemato-biochemical and mineral profile of lactating dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biju Chacko


    Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted to assess the effect of feeding paddy straw plus nonforage fiber sources based complete rations with different levels of neutral detergent fiber (NDF on hemato-biochemical and mineral parameters of lactating dairy cows. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted for 6 months in 18 lactating dairy cows, divided into three groups of six each, by feeding them on paddy straw plus nonforage fiber sources based complete rations containing different levels of NDF, in two phases of 3 months (90 days each, being the early and mid lactation phases, respectively. Three isonitrogenous and isocaloric complete rations, T1, T2 and T3 with 25%, 30% and 35% NDF, respectively, were fed to the experimental animals. Blood samples were collected at the beginning and the end of each of the two phases to estimate the different hematological, plasma protein, and mineral parameters to know the overall health status of the animals and standard methods were followed to analyze the samples. Results: There was no significant difference (p>0.05 in various hematological parameters such as hemoglobin, glucose, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN in blood; plasma protein parameters such as total protein, albumin, globulin and albumin: globulin ratio and mineral parameters such as plasma calcium and phosphorus levels at the beginning and end of Phase I (1st day and 90th day and Phase II (91st day and 180th day as well as between the three dietary treatments, with all the values being in the normal range for lactating dairy cows. Even though nonsignificant (p>0.05, the BUN values of animals fed on ration T1, both at the beginning and end of Phase I, were higher than that of animals fed on rations T2 and T3 because the diet T1 with lowest NDF and the highest soluble carbohydrate content underwent rapid fermentation in the rumen, produced more energy, which was utilized by the rumen microbes to degrade the protein in the feed to ammonia, the excess

  7. Mineralization of elastic fibers and alterations of extracellular matrix in pseudoxanthoma elasticum. Ultrastructure, immunocytochemistry, and X-ray analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, E.R.; Frederickson, R.G.; Mayes, M.D.


    Histologic paraffin sections of pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE)-involved skin of forearm and axilla were used for histochemistry and immunohistochemical and analytical electron microscopy to study the progressive mineralization in the dermis of patients with PXE. The von Kossa technique identified mineral deposits throughout the reticular PXE dermis. X-ray analysis revealed patterns of calcium and phosphorus deposition in the von Kossa-positive areas, and the immunohistochemical staining using monoclonal antibodies identified increased chondroitin-6-sulfate in these areas when compared with normal skin. Scanning transmission electron microscopy observation combined with X-ray dot mapping show calcium and phosphorus to be codistributed within the mineralized area. This study confirms by new methods the increase in chondroitin-6-sulfate, alterations in elastin and collagen, and a high calcium and phosphorus elemental distribution matching the mineralized area in the PXE dermis

  8. Dietary fibers from mushroom Sclerotia: 2. In vitro mineral binding capacity under sequential simulated physiological conditions of the human gastrointestinal tract. (United States)

    Wong, Ka-Hing; Cheung, Peter C K


    The in vitro mineral binding capacity of three novel dietary fibers (DFs) prepared from mushroom sclerotia, namely, Pleurotus tuber-regium, Polyporous rhinocerus, and Wolfiporia cocos, to Ca, Mg, Cu, Fe, and Zn under sequential simulated physiological conditions of the human stomach, small intestine, and colon was investigated and compared. Apart from releasing most of their endogenous Ca (ranged from 96.9 to 97.9% removal) and Mg (ranged from 95.9 to 96.7% removal), simulated physiological conditions of the stomach also attenuated the possible adverse binding effect of the three sclerotial DFs to the exogenous minerals by lowering their cation-exchange capacity (ranged from 20.8 to 32.3%) and removing a substantial amount of their potential mineral chelators including protein (ranged from 16.2 to 37.8%) and phytate (ranged from 58.5 to 64.2%). The in vitro mineral binding capacity of the three sclerotial DF under simulated physiological conditions of small intestine was found to be low, especially for Ca (ranged from 4.79 to 5.91% binding) and Mg (ranged from 3.16 to 4.18% binding), and was highly correlated (r > 0.97) with their residual protein contents. Under simulated physiological conditions of the colon with slightly acidic pH (5.80), only bound Ca was readily released (ranged from 34.2 to 72.3% releasing) from the three sclerotial DFs, and their potential enhancing effect on passive Ca absorption in the human large intestine was also discussed.

  9. [Survey of carbon fiber reinforced plastic orthoses and occupational and medical problems based on a questionnaire administered to companies involved in the manufacture of prosthetics and orthotics]. (United States)

    Kaneshiro, Yuko; Furuta, Nami; Makino, Kenichiro; Wada, Futoshi; Hachisuka, Kenji


    We surveyed carbon fiber reinforced plastic orthoses (carbon orthoses) and their associated occupational and medical problems based on a questionnaire sent to 310 companies which were members of the Japan Orthotics and Prosthetics Association. Of all the companies, 232 responded: 77 of the 232 companies dealt with ready-made carbon orthoses, 52 dealt with fabricated custom-made orthoses, and 155 did not dealt with carbon orthoses. Although the total number of custom-made carbon ortheses in Japan was 829/ 5 years, there was a difference by region, and one company fabricated only 12 (per 5 years) custom-made carbon orthoses on average. The advantages of the carbon orthosis were the fact that it was "light weight", "well-fitted", had a "good appearance", and "excellent durability", while the disadvantages were that it was "expensive", "high cost of production", of "black color", and required a "longer time for completion", and "higher fabrication techniques". From the standpoint of industrial medicine, "scattering of fine fragments of carbon fibers", "itching on the skin" and "health hazards" were indicated in companies that manufacture the orthosis. In order to make the carbon orthosis more popular, it is necessary to develop a new carbon material that is easier to fabricate at a lower cost, to improve the fabrication technique, and to resolve the occupational and medical problems.

  10. The use of banquettes of Posidonia oceanica as a source of fiber and minerals in ruminant nutrition. An observational study. (United States)

    Castillo, C; Mantecón, A R; Sotillo, J; Benedito, J L; Abuelo, A; Gutiérrez, C; Hernández, J


    In the search for new food sources that contribute to the optimization of livestock production this paper discusses the possibility of using waste (called banquettes) of a marine plant commonly found on the Mediterranean coasts: Posidonia oceanica. The idea stems from the use of a waste that in summertime generates large costs because it is considered bothersome on the beaches. Thus, tons and tons of residues are collected each year from the beach, being destined for incineration. However, alternative uses for these residues are suggested, such as forage that is particularly relevant for the Mediterranean coast, where the weather does not support abundant grass growth. With this purpose, samples of banquettes of P. oceanica from six different points of a touristic place located in the Murcia Region (S.E. of Spain) were collected in April 2012 on the same day directly from the beach above the water line, washed with distilled water and sun-dried for 48 h. Approximately 500 g of each sample of plant material was chopped and two subsamples of 200 g each were placed in airtight plastic containers and sent to the laboratory for mineral and chemical analysis. This report provides data on the nutritional composition of P. oceanica such as mineral contents (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) and chemical composition (ash, CP, ether extract (EE), NDF and ADF, respectively) and ADL. Finally, the in sacco rumen disappearance of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), CP and NDF were studied. Our results showed that minerals, except for Fe, where within the range of values reported for P. oceanica in other parts of the Mediterranean region. Given the high Fe content further studies assessing the antagonic Fe-Cu interaction and its effect on animal health should be addressed. In relation to chemical composition, it is clear that this seagrass is a poor protein source and has levels of DM degradability at 24 h, similar to those obtained for cereal straw. The information

  11. Characterization of Lignin Precipitated From The Soda Black Liquor of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fibers by Various Mineral Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.N Mohamad Ibrahim


    Full Text Available Soda lignin from oil palm empty fruit bunch was directly isolated by various mineral acids i.e. sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, phosphoric acid and nitric acid at three levels of concentration (20% v/v, 60%v/v and concentrated. A comparison study was performed through physicochemical properties and structural features using FT-IR, UV, 13C-NMR and nitrobenzene oxidation. The FT-IR results showed that there is no significant difference between the main structures of the lignin isolated by various acids. However, low concentration of phosphoric acid is preferable because of its highest yield. The S: V: H ratio of 7-15:6-11:1 as evaluated by the nitrobenzene oxidation procedure suggests that soda lignin can be classified as belonging to either the cereal straw on grass type. The UV results indicate that phosphoric acid consistently gave the highest absorbance value among the four acids tested in this study regardless of its concentration level. The C13-FTNMR spectra, suggest that the lignin structure is independent of the type of acid used for precipitation.

  12. Study of alteration in the mechanical properties in hybrid nanocomposite of polypropylene/sisal fibers/mineral clay irradiated with gamma rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Nilson C.; Terence, Mauro C.; Miranda, Leila F., E-mail: [Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia. Curso de Engenharia de Materiais


    A new material class formed with reinforced filler, hybrid of organic and inorganic materials provides the technological development of materials with modified properties. And among great numbers of properties that can be modified by presence of hybrid filler to stand out the tension resistance. Polymer shows behavior of tensions and deformation that are not related of simple form. The answer of this material at mechanicals solicitations depends of structural factors and externals variables. As structural factors can be, for example, molecular weight, ramifications and crosslink. As external variables can be, for example, temperature, time or velocity of deformation, kind of solicitation and others. This work was possible to verify as nanostructures materials behavior, mechanically, after were submitted gamma radiation. This work utilized as polymeric matrix, recycled polypropylene, and as hybrid filler, a mixture of montimorillonite mineral clay with natural sisal fibers. It is known that form to magnify the tensile resistance is increase the number of crosslink of principal chain for gamma radiation. After irradiation the polypropylene was crosslinked structures that are result recombination of radicals formed during process of irradiation. It.s known that radicals formed occur preferentially in the amorphous region of polymer. Considering that polymeric matrix polypropylene, without addition fillers suffer strong structural influence when irradiated, was possible verify change in the extension, tensile strength and also maxim tensile in rupture, when this matrix was incorporated with fillers hybrids. (author)

  13. Study of alteration in the mechanical properties in hybrid nanocomposite of polypropylene/sisal fibers/mineral clay irradiated with gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Nilson C.; Terence, Mauro C.; Miranda, Leila F.


    A new material class formed with reinforced filler, hybrid of organic and inorganic materials provides the technological development of materials with modified properties. And among great numbers of properties that can be modified by presence of hybrid filler to stand out the tension resistance. Polymer shows behavior of tensions and deformation that are not related of simple form. The answer of this material at mechanicals solicitations depends of structural factors and externals variables. As structural factors can be, for example, molecular weight, ramifications and crosslink. As external variables can be, for example, temperature, time or velocity of deformation, kind of solicitation and others. This work was possible to verify as nanostructures materials behavior, mechanically, after were submitted gamma radiation. This work utilized as polymeric matrix, recycled polypropylene, and as hybrid filler, a mixture of montimorillonite mineral clay with natural sisal fibers. It is known that form to magnify the tensile resistance is increase the number of crosslink of principal chain for gamma radiation. After irradiation the polypropylene was crosslinked structures that are result recombination of radicals formed during process of irradiation. It.s known that radicals formed occur preferentially in the amorphous region of polymer. Considering that polymeric matrix polypropylene, without addition fillers suffer strong structural influence when irradiated, was possible verify change in the extension, tensile strength and also maxim tensile in rupture, when this matrix was incorporated with fillers hybrids. (author)

  14. Fiber Singular Optics


    A. V. Volyar


    The present review is devoted to the optical vortex behavior both in free space and optical fibers. The processes of the vortex transformations in perturbed optical fibers are analyzed on the base of the operator of the spin – orbit interaction in order to forecast the possible ways of manufacturing the vortex preserving fibers and their applications in supersensitive optical devices.

  15. Using combined optimization, GC-MS and analytical technique to analyze the germination effect on phenolics, dietary fibers, minerals and GABA contents of Kodo millet (Paspalum scrobiculatum). (United States)

    Sharma, Seema; Saxena, Dharmesh C; Riar, Charanjit S


    A central composite rotatable design was applied to study the effects of soaking time, germination time and temperature on the responses; total phenolics, total flavonoids and antioxidant activity for the biochemical enhancement of bioactive components of Kodo millet. The optimum conditions for producing germinated Kodo millet flour of highest TPC (83.01mgGAE/100g), TFC (87.53mgRUE/g) and AoxA (91.34%), were soaking time (13.81h), germination temperature (38.75°C) and germination time (35.82h). Protein increased significantly form, 6.7 to 7.9%, dietary fibers from 35.30 to 38.34g/100g, minerals from 232.82 to 251.73mg/100g, GABA contents from 9.36 to 47.43mg/100g, whereas phytates and tannins decreased from 1.344 to 0.997mol/kg and 1.603 to 0.234mg/100g respectively, in optimized germinated Kodo millet sample. Six new bioactive compounds [n-propyl-9,12,15-octadecatrienoate (0.86%), pregan,20-one-2hydroxy,5,6,epox-15-methyl (3.45%), hexa-decanoicacid (8.19%), 9,O-ctadecenoicacid (5.00%), butyl-6,9,12,15-octadecatetraenoate (4.03%), hexadecanoicacid-methylester (1.43%)], synthesized as a result of germination under optimum conditions in the Kodo millet depicted the germination potential of millets as a source of valuable bioactive compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Optimization of process parameters for extrusion cooking of low amylose rice flour blended with seeded banana and carambola pomace for development of minerals and fiber rich breakfast cereal. (United States)

    Borah, Anjan; Lata Mahanta, Charu; Kalita, Dipankar


    The low-amylose rice flour, seeded banana (Musa balbisiana, ABB) and carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.) pomace blends were extruded to prepare ready to eat breakfast cereal in a single-screw extruder. Response surface methodology using a central composite design was used to evaluate effect of independent variables, namely blend ratio (80:10:10 - 60:30:10 of low-amylose rice flour, seeded banana and carambola pomace), screw speed (200 - 400 rpm), barrel temperature (90 - 130 (°)C) and feed moisture content (9 - 21 g/100 g, wet basis) on product responses. Quadratic polynomial equations were also obtained by multiple regression analysis. The predicted models were adequate based on lack-of-fit test and coefficient of determination obtained. The feed moisture content had critical effect on all response variables. The compromised optimal conditions obtained by numerical integration for development of extrudates were: screw speed of 350 rpm, barrel temperature of 120 (°)C, feed moisture content of 12 g/100 g and 65:25:10 of blend ratio of feed. In the optimized condition low-amylose rice blend is found to have better physicochemical properties (water absorption index of 481.79 g/100 g; water solubility index of 44.13 g/100 g) and dietary fiber content of 21.35 g/100 g respectively. The developed breakfast cereal showed considerable amount of minerals (Mg and K) and overall acceptability was found to be 7.8.

  17. Application of manufactured products (United States)

    Sastri, Sankar; Duke, Michael B.


    A wide range of products can be manufactured from the following materials: (1) lunar regolith or basalt; (2) regolith or rock beneficiated to concentrate plagioclase or other minerals; (3) iron, extracted from lunar soil or rocks by various means; (4) naturally occurring or easily obtained materials that have cementitious properties; and (5) byproducts of the above materials. Among the products that can be produced from these materials are the following: beams; plates and sheets; transparent plates (windows); bricks and blocks; pipes and tubes; low-density materials (foams); fiber, wire, and cables; foils and reflective coatings; hermetic seals (coatings); and formed objects. In addition to oxygen, which can be obtained by several processes, either from unbeneficiated regolith or by reduction of concentrated ilmenite, these materials make the simplest requirements of the lunar resource extraction system. A thorough analysis of the impact of these simplest products on the economics of space operations is not possible at this point. Research is necessary both to define optimum techniques and adapt them to space and to determine the probable market for the products so that the priority of various processes can be assessed. Discussions of the following products are presented: aerobraking heat shields; pressurized habitats; lunar photovoltaic farms; and agricultural systems.

  18. Genome Regions Associated with Functional Performance of Soybean Stem Fibers in Polypropylene Thermoplastic Composites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yarmilla Reinprecht

    Full Text Available Plant fibers can be used to produce composite materials for automobile parts, thus reducing plastic used in their manufacture, overall vehicle weight and fuel consumption when they replace mineral fillers and glass fibers. Soybean stem residues are, potentially, significant sources of inexpensive, renewable and biodegradable natural fibers, but are not curretly used for biocomposite production due to the functional properties of their fibers in composites being unknown. The current study was initiated to investigate the effects of plant genotype on the performance characteristics of soybean stem fibers when incorporated into a polypropylene (PP matrix using a selective phenotyping approach. Fibers from 50 lines of a recombinant inbred line population (169 RILs grown in different environments were incorporated into PP at 20% (wt/wt by extrusion. Test samples were injection molded and characterized for their mechanical properties. The performance of stem fibers in the composites was significantly affected by genotype and environment. Fibers from different genotypes had significantly different chemical compositions, thus composites prepared with these fibers displayed different physical properties. This study demonstrates that thermoplastic composites with soybean stem-derived fibers have mechanical properties that are equivalent or better than wheat straw fiber composites currently being used for manufacturing interior automotive parts. The addition of soybean stem residues improved flexural, tensile and impact properties of the composites. Furthermore, by linkage and in silico mapping we identified genomic regions to which quantitative trait loci (QTL for compositional and functional properties of soybean stem fibers in thermoplastic composites, as well as genes for cell wall synthesis, were co-localized. These results may lead to the development of high value uses for soybean stem residue.

  19. Optical fibers for FTTH application (United States)

    Guzowski, Bartlomiej; Tosik, Grzegorz; Lisik, Zbigniew; Bedyk, Michal; Kubiak, Andrzej


    In this paper the specifics of FTTH (Fiber To The Home) networks in terms of requirements for optical fibers has been presented. Optical fiber samples used in FTTH applications acquired from the worldwide leading manufacturers were subjected to small diameter mandrel wraps tests. The detailed procedures of performed tests and the measurement results has been presented.

  20. Fiber Supplements: Are They Safe to Take Every Day? (United States)

    ... function and preventing constipation. It's best to get fiber from food, because supplements don't provide the vitamins, minerals and other nutrients that fiber-rich foods do. But fiber supplements can contribute to the ...

  1. Airclad fiber laser technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim P.; Olausson, Christina Bjarnal Thulin; Broeng, Jes


    High-power fiber lasers and amplifiers have gained tremendous momentum in the last 5 years. Many of the traditional manufacturers of gas and solid-state lasers are now pursuing the fiber-based systems, which are displacing the conventional technology in many areas. High-power fiber laser systems...... require reliable fibers with large cores, stable mode quality, and good power handling capabilities-requirements that are all met by the airclad fiber technology. In the present paper we go through many of the building blocks needed to build high-power systems and we show an example of a complete airclad...... laser system. We present the latest advancements within airclad fiber technology including a new 100 m single-mode polarization-maintaining rod-type fiber capable of amplifying to megawatt power levels. Furthermore, we describe the novel airclad-based pump combiners and their use in a completely...

  2. Airclad fiber laser technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim P.; Olausson, Christina Bjarnal Thulin; Broeng, Jes


    High-power fiber lasers and amplifiers have gained tremendous momentum in the last five years, and many of the traditional manufactures of gas and solid-state lasers are pursuing the attractive fiber-based systems, which are now displacing the old technology in many areas. High-power fiber laser...... systems require specially designed fibers with large cores and good power handling capabilities - requirements that are all met by the airclad fiber technology. In the present paper we go through many of the building blocks needed to build high-power systems and we show an example of a complete airclad...... laser system. We present the latest advancements within airclad fiber technology including a new 70 μm single-mode polarization-maintaining rod-type fiber capable of amplifying to MW power levels. Furthermore we describe the novel airclad based pump combiners and their use in a completely monolithic 350...

  3. Nanocellulose in spun continuous fibers: A review and future outlook (United States)

    Craig Clemons


    Continuous fibers are commonly manufactured for a wide variety of uses such as filters, textiles, and composites. For example, most fibrous reinforcements (e.g., carbon fiber, glass fiber) for advanced composites are continuous fibers or yarns, fabrics, and preforms made from them. This allows broad flexibility in design and manufacturing approaches by controlling...

  4. Optical fiber communication — An overview

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fabrication of single mode fibers is very difficult and so the fiber is .... of waveguide dispersion depends on the fiber design like core radius, since the .... production reducing the water content in the fiber to below 10 parts per billion. 5. ..... Connectors of the same type must be compatible from one manufacturer to another. 3.

  5. Manufacturing Initiative (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT) Project supports multiple activities within the Administration's National Manufacturing Initiative. A key component of...

  6. Social manufacturing


    Hamalainen, Markko; Karjalainen, Jesse


    New business models harnessing the power of individuals have already revolutionized service industries and digital content production. In this study, we investigate whether a similar phenomenon is taking place in manufacturing industries. We start by conceptually defining two distinct forms of firm-individual collaboration in manufacturing industries: (1) social cloud manufacturing, in which firms outsource manufacturing to individuals, and (2) social platform manufacturing, in which firms pr...

  7. Northwest Manufacturing Initiative (United States)


    biodegradable wipes, and bags. The gStyle clothing line consists of various types of stylish clothes for babies. All gDiapers are plastic free...offers recycling services for industrial plastics and non-serviceable containers. Industrial plastics include pails, buckets, pallets, plastic film, and...manufacturer, now recycle used soda bottles, unusable second quality fabrics and worn out garments into polyester fibers to produce many of their clothes

  8. Effect of Fibers on Mixture Design of Stone Matrix Asphalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanping Sheng


    Full Text Available Lignin fibers typically influence the mixture performance of stone matrix asphalt (SMA, such as strength, stability, durability, noise level, rutting resistance, fatigue life, and water sensitivity. However, limited studies were conducted to analyze the influence of fibers on the percent voids in mineral aggregate in bituminous mixture (VMA during the mixture design. This study analyzed the effect of different fibers and fiber contents on the VMA in SMA mixture design. A surface-dry condition method test and Marshall Stability test were applied on the SMA mixture with four different fibers (i.e., flocculent lignin fiber, mineral fiber, polyester fiber, blended fiber. The test results indicated that the bulk specific gravity of SMA mixtures and asphalt saturation decreased with the increasing fiber content, whilst the percent air voids in bituminous mixtures (VV, Marshall Stability and VMA increased. Mineral fiber had the most obvious impact on the bulk specific gravity of bituminous mixtures, while flocculent lignin fiber had a minimal impact. The mixture with mineral fiber and polyester fiber had significant effects on the volumetric properties, and, consequently, exhibited better VMA over the conventional SMA mixture with lignin fiber. Modified fiber content range was also provided, which will widen the utilization of mineral fiber and polyester fiber in the applications of SMA mixtures. The mixture evaluation suggested no statistically significant difference between lignin fiber and polyester fiber on the stability. The mineral fiber required a much larger fiber content to improve the mixture performance than other fibers. Overall, the results can be a reference to guide SMA mixture design.

  9. Integrated Design and Analysis Tools for Reduced Weight, Affordable Fiber Steered Composites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hale, Richard


    This report describes geometric design tools which encompass the overall process flow for fiber placed and fiber steered structures, to allow parallel considerations for manufacturability and mechanical performance...

  10. Damage Evaluation and Analysis of Composite Pressure Vessels Using Fiber Bragg Gratings to Determine Structural Health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kunzler, Marley; Udd, Eric; Kreger, Stephen; Johnson, Mont; Henrie, Vaughn


    .... Using fiber Bragg gratings embedded into the weave structure of carbon fiber epoxy composites allow the capability to monitor these composites during manufacture, cure, general aging, and damage...

  11. Fiscal 2000 achievement report on the venture business assisting type regional consortium - Core industry creation type. Development of technology for manufacturing large-size, optionally shapable, totally oxide type continuous fiber ceramic composite; 2000 nendo chiiki consortium kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. All oxide ogata nin'i keijo renzoku sen'i kyoka ceramics no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This research and development endeavor is based on Tokyo University's technical seeds and aims to put on the market Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} based CFCC (continuous fiber ceramic composite) materials. They do not break down and are shapable into large or complicate forms as required, which features are not to be expected from a single ceramic material, and are usable in a high temperature oxidizing atmosphere. High purity alumina fiber and alumina-silica fiber containing 70% of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} were selected, and woven. The resultant cloth was baked at a low temperature for burning away organic impurities. The cloth was then immersed in a zirconia sol containing 30wt% of the stock solution, and was allowed to dry at 105 degrees C. An alumina slurry was prepared containing a dispersant and a binder, and was applied to the zirconia-soaked cloth until it was as thick as desired. The cloth was kept at 800 degrees C for 1 hour for degreasing, and was baked at a low temperature where no heat caused degradation of the ceramic fiber would occur. Specimens stand long use when the temperature is 1,300 degrees or lower for high purity fiber and approximately 1,150 degrees or lower for alumina-silica fiber. They withstand 30-100MPa, dependent on the manufacturing conditions and the kind of fiber used. (NEDO)

  12. Brillouin lasing in single-mode tapered optical fiber with inscribed fiber Bragg grating array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Popov


    Full Text Available A tapered optical fiber has been manufactured with an array of fiber Bragg gratings (FBG inscribed during the drawing process. The total fiber peak reflectivity is 5% and the reflection bandwidth is ∼3.5 nm. A coherent frequency domain reflectometry has been applied for precise profiling of the fiber core diameter and grating reflectivity both distributed along the whole fiber length. These measurements are in a good agreement with the specific features of Brillouin lasing achieved in the semi-open fiber cavity configuration. Keywords: Tapered optical fibers, Fiber Bragg gratings, Random lasers

  13. Fiber webs (United States)

    Roger M. Rowell; James S. Han; Von L. Byrd


    Wood fibers can be used to produce a wide variety of low-density three-dimensional webs, mats, and fiber-molded products. Short wood fibers blended with long fibers can be formed into flexible fiber mats, which can be made by physical entanglement, nonwoven needling, or thermoplastic fiber melt matrix technologies. The most common types of flexible mats are carded, air...

  14. Agave Americana Leaf Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Hulle


    Full Text Available The growing environmental problems, the problem of waste disposal and the depletion of non-renewable resources have stimulated the use of green materials compatible with the environment to reduce environmental impacts. Therefore, there is a need to design products by using natural resources. Natural fibers seem to be a good alternative since they are abundantly available and there are a number of possibilities to use all the components of a fiber-yielding crop; one such fiber-yielding plant is Agave Americana. The leaves of this plant yield fibers and all the parts of this plant can be utilized in many applications. The “zero-waste” utilization of the plant would enable its production and processing to be translated into a viable and sustainable industry. Agave Americana fibers are characterized by low density, high tenacity and high moisture absorbency in comparison with other leaf fibers. These fibers are long and biodegradable. Therefore, we can look this fiber as a sustainable resource for manufacturing and technical applications. Detailed discussion is carried out on extraction, characterization and applications of Agave Americana fiber in this paper.

  15. Green fiber bottle: Towards a sustainable package

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Didone, Mattia; Tosello, Guido; Howard, Thomas J.

    The Green Fiber Bottle is a fully biodegradable bottle made from molded paper pulp.Its development depends on the establishment of the manufacturing technology. Impulse drying, an innovative way of drying, has the potential to improve significantly the manufacturing process of the Green Fiber Bot...... Bottle, towards a sustainable packaging...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Nowak


    Full Text Available In this study presents the environmental aspects of the use, management and disposal of mineral wool. Fiber structure makes that wool products have many unique properties enabling them to be versatile. With all the advantages of mineral wool is one very significant drawback - does not decompose. From the point of view of slowing (retardation transformation of environmental resources, the introduction of mineral wool to crops under glass, in a very much reduced use of peatlands, which for reasons of natural resources are extremely important. On the other hand, problems of rational use of mineral wool already postconsumer caused among others formation of "wild dumps" and thus transforming the landscape, and, due to their characteristics (respirable fibers, the risk to health. Manufacture of asbestiform can cause ecological consequences within almost all elements of the environment. Therefore, the overall assessment of the impact in this case, mineral wool on the environment would need to be so. "Life cycle assessment" - called the method of LCA (Life Cycle Assessmentwhich is commonly called the "cradle to grave" - that is, from extraction of raw materials, through processing, exploitation, to the storage of waste. Therefore, the responsibility for the redevelopment of the post-production of mineral wool should lie with the producer of wool. These issues are the subject of discussion in this study.

  17. Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-loaded activated carbon fiber/polymer materials and their photocatalytic activity for methylene blue mineralization by combined heterogeneous-homogeneous photocatalytic processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadirova, Zukhra C., E-mail: [Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Uzbekistan Academy of Sciences, Mirzo Ulugbek Street 77a, Tashkent 100170 (Uzbekistan); Materials and Structures Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Hojamberdiev, Mirabbos, E-mail: [Department of Natural and Mathematic Sciences, Turin Polytechnic University in Tashkent, Kichik Halqa Yo’li 17, Tashkent 100095 (Uzbekistan); Katsumata, Ken-Ichi [Materials and Structures Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Isobe, Toshihiro [Department of Metallurgy and Ceramics Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan); Matsushita, Nobuhiro [Materials and Structures Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Nakajima, Akira [Department of Metallurgy and Ceramics Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan); Okada, Kiyoshi [Materials and Structures Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan)


    Highlights: • Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-activated carbon felts was prepared for adsorption-photodegradation of dyes. • Simultaneous mineralization of MB and oxalic acid occurred under UV-irradiation. • Methylene blue adsorption was better fitted to the Langmuir model. • Increasing amount of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} decreased the S{sub BET} and methylene blue adsorption capacity. • Photodegraded amount of MB was increased with increasing the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} content. - Abstract: Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-supported activated carbon felts (Fe-ACFTs) were prepared by impregnating the felts consisted of activated carbon fibers (ACFs) with either polyester fibers (PS-A20) or polyethylene pulp (PE-W15) in Fe(III) nitrate solution and calcination at 250 °C for 1 h. The prepared Fe-ACFTs with 31–35 wt% Fe were characterized by N{sub 2}-adsorption, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The Fe-ACFT(PS-A20) samples with 5–31 wt% Fe were microporous with specific surface areas (S{sub BET}) ranging from 750 to 150 m{sup 2}/g, whereas the Fe-ACFT(PE-W15) samples with 2–35 wt% Fe were mesoporous with S{sub BET} ranging from 830 to 320 m{sup 2}/g. The deposition of iron oxide resulted in a decrease in the S{sub BET} and methylene blue (MB) adsorption capacity while increasing the photodegradation of MB. The optimum MB degradation conditions included 0.98 mM oxalic acid, pH = 3, 0.02–0.05 mM MB, and 100 mg/L photocatalyst. The negative impact of MB desorption during the photodegradation reaction was more pronounced for mesoporous PE-W15 samples and can be neglected by adding oxalic acid in cyclic experiments. Almost complete and simultaneous mineralization of oxalate and MB was achieved by the combined heterogeneous-homogeneous photocatalytic processes. The leached Fe ions in aqueous solution [Fe{sup 3+}]{sub f} were measured after 60 min for every cycle and found to be about 2 ppm in all four successive cycles. The developed photocatalytic materials have shown good

  18. Colloidal-based additive manufacturing of bio-inspired composites (United States)

    Studart, Andre R.

    Composite materials in nature exhibit heterogeneous architectures that are tuned to fulfill the functional demands of the surrounding environment. Examples range from the cellulose-based organic structure of plants to highly mineralized collagen-based skeletal parts like bone and teeth. Because they are often utilized to combine opposing properties such as strength and low-density or stiffness and wear resistance, the heterogeneous architecture of natural materials can potentially address several of the technical limitations of artificial homogeneous composites. However, current man-made manufacturing technologies do not allow for the level of composition and fiber orientation control found in natural heterogeneous systems. In this talk, I will present two additive manufacturing technologies recently developed in our group to build composites with exquisite architectures only rivaled by structures made by living organisms in nature. Since the proposed techniques utilize colloidal suspensions as feedstock, understanding the physics underlying the stability, assembly and rheology of the printing inks is key to predict and control the architecture of manufactured parts. Our results will show that additive manufacturing routes offer a new exciting pathway for the fabrication of biologically-inspired composite materials with unprecedented architectures and functionalities.

  19. Precision manufacturing

    CERN Document Server

    Dornfeld, David


    Today there is a high demand for high-precision products. The manufacturing processes are now highly sophisticated and derive from a specialized genre called precision engineering. Precision Manufacturing provides an introduction to precision engineering and manufacturing with an emphasis on the design and performance of precision machines and machine tools, metrology, tooling elements, machine structures, sources of error, precision machining processes and precision process planning. As well as discussing the critical role precision machine design for manufacturing has had in technological developments over the last few hundred years. In addition, the influence of sustainable manufacturing requirements in precision processes is introduced. Drawing upon years of practical experience and using numerous examples and illustrative applications, David Dornfeld and Dae-Eun Lee cover precision manufacturing as it applies to: The importance of measurement and metrology in the context of Precision Manufacturing. Th...

  20. Miners' welfare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, C


    The Miners' Welfare Committee (MWC) was formed in Britain in 1921 and initiated building programmes to provide welfare amenities for miners and families, using architecture to improve the quality of a miner's working and leisure time. The article reviews the MWC's work, and assesses the design and architecture at the Selby Coalfield. (7 refs.)

  1. Additive manufacturing. (United States)

    Mumith, A; Thomas, M; Shah, Z; Coathup, M; Blunn, G


    Increasing innovation in rapid prototyping (RP) and additive manufacturing (AM), also known as 3D printing, is bringing about major changes in translational surgical research. This review describes the current position in the use of additive manufacturing in orthopaedic surgery. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2018;100-B:455-60.

  2. Manufacturing technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Manufacturing Technologies Center is an integral part of Sandia National Laboratories, a multiprogram engineering and science laboratory, operated for the Department of Energy (DOE) with major facilities at Albuquerque, New Mexico, and Livermore, California. Our Center is at the core of Sandia`s Advanced Manufacturing effort which spans the entire product realization process.

  3. Photorefractive Fibers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kuzyk, Mark G


    ... scope of the project. In addition to our work in optical limiting fibers, spillover results included making fiber-based light-sources, writing holograms in fibers, and developing the theory of the limits of the nonlinear...

  4. Preliminary characterization of glass fiber sizing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Helga Nørgaard; Kusano, Yukihiro; Brøndsted, Povl


    Glass fiber surfaces are treated with sizing during manufacturing. Sizing consists of several components, including a film former and a silane coupling agent that is important for adhesion between glass fibers and a matrix. Although the sizing highly affects the composite interface and thus...... the strength of the composites, little is known about the structure and chemistry of the sizing. A part of sizing was extracted by soxhlet extraction. The fibers were subsequently burned and some fibers were merely burned for analysis of glass fiber and sizing. The results showed that the analyzed fibers had...

  5. Micro Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Nørgaard


    Manufacturing deals with systems that include products, processes, materials and production systems. These systems have functional requirements, constraints, design parameters and process variables. They must be decomposed in a systematic manner to achieve the best possible system performance....... If a micro manufacturing system isn’t designed rationally and correctly, it will be high-cost, unreliable, and not robust. For micro products and systems it is a continuously increasing challenge to create the operational basis for an industrial production. As the products through product development...... processes are made applicable to a large number of customers, the pressure in regard to developing production technologies that make it possible to produce the products at a reasonable price and in large numbers is growing. The micro/nano manufacturing programme at the Department of Manufacturing...

  6. Smart Manufacturing. (United States)

    Davis, Jim; Edgar, Thomas; Graybill, Robert; Korambath, Prakashan; Schott, Brian; Swink, Denise; Wang, Jianwu; Wetzel, Jim


    Historic manufacturing enterprises based on vertically optimized companies, practices, market share, and competitiveness are giving way to enterprises that are responsive across an entire value chain to demand dynamic markets and customized product value adds; increased expectations for environmental sustainability, reduced energy usage, and zero incidents; and faster technology and product adoption. Agile innovation and manufacturing combined with radically increased productivity become engines for competitiveness and reinvestment, not simply for decreased cost. A focus on agility, productivity, energy, and environmental sustainability produces opportunities that are far beyond reducing market volatility. Agility directly impacts innovation, time-to-market, and faster, broader exploration of the trade space. These changes, the forces driving them, and new network-based information technologies offering unprecedented insights and analysis are motivating the advent of smart manufacturing and new information technology infrastructure for manufacturing.

  7. Block copolymer/homopolymer dual-layer hollow fiber membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Hilke, Roland; Neelakanda, Pradeep; Behzad, Ali Reza; Nunes, Suzana Pereira; Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor


    We manufactured the first time block copolymer dual-layer hollow fiber membranes and dual layer flat sheet membranes manufactured by double solution casting and phase inversion in water. The support porous layer was based on polystyrene

  8. Fiber dielectrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipowicz, P.J.; Yeh, H.C.


    Dielectrophoresis is the motion of uncharged particles in nonuniform electric fields. We find that the theoretical dielectrophoretic velocity of a conducting fiber in an insulating medium is proportional to the square of the fiber length, and is virtually independent of fiber diameter. This prediction has been verified experimentally. The results point to the development of a fiber length classifier based on dielectrophoresis. (author)

  9. Mineral resource of the month: potash (United States)

    Jasinski, Stephen M.


    The article offers basic information about the mineral resource potash. According to the author, potash is the generic term for a variety of mined and manufactured salts that contain the mineral potassium in a water-soluble form. The author adds that potash is used in fertilizers, soaps and detergents, glass and ceramics, and alkaline batteries.

  10. Mineral Oils: Untreated and Mildly Treated (United States)

    Learn about mineral oils, which can raise the risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer, particularly of the scrotum. Workers in a variety of manufacturing industries are most commonly exposed to mineral oils, as are workers in engine repair, copper mining, and commercial printing.

  11. Australian mineral industry annual review for 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The Australian mineral industry annual review records the activities and development of the Australian mineral industry and reports production, consumption, treatment, trade, prices, new developments, exploration and resources for mineral commodities including fuels, and summarises equivalent developments abroad. The present volume reviews activities and developments in 1982. Part 1 (General Review) - after briefly surveying the world mineral industry, summarises developments in the Australian mineral industry as a whole, under the headings: the industry in the national economy; important recent developments; production; overseas trade; prices; exploration expenditure; investment; income tax; royalties; structural data; wages and salaries; industrial disputes; and government assistance, legislation and controls. Part 2 (Commodity Review) - covers industrial mineral commodities, from abrasives to zirconium. Part 3 (Mining Census) - tabulates statistics extracted from the mining census, together with some mineral processing statistics from the manufacturing census. Part 4 (Miscellaneous) - tabulates quantum and value data on mineral output provided by State departments of mines and their equivalents.

  12. Fiber Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rottwitt, Karsten


    The chapter provides a discussion of optical fiber amplifiers and through three sections provides a detailed treatment of three types of optical fiber amplifiers, erbium doped fiber amplifiers (EDFA), Raman amplifiers, and parametric amplifiers. Each section comprises the fundamentals including...... the basic physics and relevant in-depth theoretical modeling, amplifiers characteristics and performance data as a function of specific operation parameters. Typical applications in fiber optic communication systems and the improvement achievable through the use of fiber amplifiers are illustrated....

  13. Brillouin lasing in single-mode tapered optical fiber with inscribed fiber Bragg grating array (United States)

    Popov, S. M.; Butov, O. V.; Chamorovskiy, Y. K.; Isaev, V. A.; Kolosovskiy, A. O.; Voloshin, V. V.; Vorob'ev, I. L.; Vyatkin, M. Yu.; Mégret, P.; Odnoblyudov, M.; Korobko, D. A.; Zolotovskii, I. O.; Fotiadi, A. A.


    A tapered optical fiber has been manufactured with an array of fiber Bragg gratings (FBG) inscribed during the drawing process. The total fiber peak reflectivity is 5% and the reflection bandwidth is ∼3.5 nm. A coherent frequency domain reflectometry has been applied for precise profiling of the fiber core diameter and grating reflectivity both distributed along the whole fiber length. These measurements are in a good agreement with the specific features of Brillouin lasing achieved in the semi-open fiber cavity configuration.

  14. Aggregate and Mineral Resources - Minerals (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — This point occurrence data set represents the current mineral and selected energy resources of Utah. The data set coordinates were derived from USGS topographic maps...

  15. LEAN Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilberg, Arne

    . The mission with the strategy is to obtain competitive production in Denmark and in Western Europe based on the right combination of manufacturing principles, motivated and trained employees, level of automation, and cooperation with suppliers and customers worldwide. The strategy has resulted in technical...

  16. Templated Biomineralization on Self-Assembled Protein Fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subburaman,K.; Pernodet, N.; Kwak, S.; DiMasi, E.; Ge, S.; Zaitsev, V.; Ba, X.; Yang, N.; Rafailovich, M.


    Biological mineralization of tissues in living organisms relies on proteins that preferentially nucleate minerals and control their growth. This process is often referred to as 'templating', but this term has become generic, denoting various proposed mineral-organic interactions including both chemical and structural affinities. Here, we present an approach using self-assembled networks of elastin and fibronectin fibers, similar to the extracellular matrix. When induced onto negatively charged sulfonated polystyrene surfaces, these proteins form fiber networks of {approx}10-{mu}m spacing, leaving open regions of disorganized protein between them. We introduce an atomic force microscopy-based technique to measure the elastic modulus of both structured and disorganized protein before and during calcium carbonate mineralization. Mineral-induced thickening and stiffening of the protein fibers during early stages of mineralization is clearly demonstrated, well before discrete mineral crystals are large enough to image by atomic force microscopy. Calcium carbonate stiffens the protein fibers selectively without affecting the regions between them, emphasizing interactions between the mineral and the organized protein fibers. Late-stage observations by optical microscopy and secondary ion mass spectroscopy reveal that Ca is concentrated along the protein fibers and that crystals form preferentially on the fiber crossings. We demonstrate that organized versus unstructured proteins can be assembled mere nanometers apart and probed in identical environments, where mineralization is proved to require the structural organization imposed by fibrillogenesis of the extracellular matrix.

  17. Additive manufacturing of short and mixed fibre-reinforced polymer (United States)

    Lewicki, James; Duoss, Eric B.; Rodriguez, Jennifer Nicole; Worsley, Marcus A.; King, Michael J.


    Additive manufacturing of a fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) product using an additive manufacturing print head; a reservoir in the additive manufacturing print head; short carbon fibers in the reservoir, wherein the short carbon fibers are randomly aligned in the reservoir; an acrylate, methacrylate, epoxy, cyanate ester or isocyanate resin in the reservoir, wherein the short carbon fibers are dispersed in the acrylate, methacrylate, epoxy, cyanate ester or isocyanate resin; a tapered nozzle in the additive manufacturing print head operatively connected to the reservoir, the tapered nozzle produces an extruded material that forms the fiber-reinforced polymer product; baffles in the tapered nozzle that receive the acrylate, methacrylate, epoxy, cyanate ester or isocyanate resin with the short carbon fibers dispersed in the acrylate, methacrylate, epoxy, cyanate ester or isocyanate resin; and a system for driving the acrylate, methacrylate, epoxy, cyanate ester or isocyanate resin with the short carbon fibers dispersed in the acrylate, methacrylate, epoxy, cyanate ester or isocyanate resin from the reservoir through the tapered nozzle wherein the randomly aligned short carbon fibers in the acrylate, methacrylate, epoxy, cyanate ester or isocyanate resin are aligned by the baffles and wherein the extruded material has the short carbon fibers aligned in the acrylate, methacrylate, epoxy, cyanate ester or isocyanate resin that forms the fiber-reinforced polymer product.

  18. Fumarolic minerals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balic Zunic, Tonci; Garavelli, Anna; Jakobsson, Sveinn Peter


    The fumarolic mineralogy of the Icelandic active volcanoes, the Tyrrhenian volcanic belt (Italy) and the Aegean active arc (Greece) is investigated, and literature data surveyed in order to define the characteristics of the European fumarolic systems. They show broad diversity of mineral...... associations, with Vesuvius and Vulcano being also among the world localities richest in mineral species. Volcanic systems, which show recession over a longer period, show fumarolic development from the hightemperature alkaline halide/sulphate, calcic sulphate or sulphidic parageneses, synchronous...... with or immediately following the eruptions, through mediumtemperature ammonium minerals, metal chlorides, or fluoride associations to the late low-temperature paragenesis dominated by sulphur, gypsum, alunogen, and other hydrous sulphates. The situation can be different in the systems that are not recessing but show...

  19. Additive manufacturing with polypropylene microfibers. (United States)

    Haigh, Jodie N; Dargaville, Tim R; Dalton, Paul D


    The additive manufacturing of small diameter polypropylene microfibers is described, achieved using a technique termed melt electrospinning writing. Sequential fiber layering, which is important for accurate three-dimensional fabrication, was achieved with the smallest fiber diameter of 16.4±0.2μm obtained. The collector speed, temperature and melt flow rate to the nozzle were optimized for quality and minimal fiber pulsing. Of particular importance to the success of this method is appropriate heating of the collector plate, so that the electrostatically drawn filament adheres during the direct-writing process. By demonstrating the direct-writing of polypropylene, new applications exploiting the favorable mechanical, stability and biocompatible properties of this polymer are envisaged. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Carbon fiber reinforced asphalt concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahromi, Saeed G.


    Fibers are often used in the manufacture of other materials. For many years, they have been utilized extensively in numerous applications in civil engineering. Fiber-reinforcement refers to incorporating materials with desired properties within some other materials lacking those properties. Use of fibers is not a new phenomenon, as the technique of fiber-reinforced bitumen began early as 1950. In all industrialized countries today, nearly all concretes used in construction are reinforced. A multitude of fibers and fiber materials are being introduced in the market regularly. The present paper presents characteristics and properties of carbon fiber-reinforced asphalt mixtures, which improve the performance of pavements. To evaluate the effect of fiber contents on bituminous mixtures, laboratory investigations were carried out on the samples with and without fibers. During the course of this study, various tests were undertaken, applying Marshall Test indirect tensile test, creep test and resistance to fatigue cracking by using repeated load indirect tensile test. Carbon fiber exhibited consistency in results and as such it was observed that the addition of fiber does affect the properties of bituminous mixtures, i.e. an increase in its stability and decrease in the flow value as well as an increase in voids in the mix. Results indicate that fibers have the potential to resist structural distress in pavement, in the wake of growing traffic loads and thus improve fatigue by increasing resistance to cracks or permanent deformation. On the whole, the results show that the addition of carbon fiber will improve some of the mechanical properties like fatigue and deformation in the flexible pavement. (author)

  1. Mineral sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    This paper presents an outlook of the Australian mineral sand industry and covers the major operators. It is shown that conscious of an environmentally minded public, the Australian miners have led the way in the rehabilitation of mined areas. Moreover the advanced ceramic industry is generating exciting new perspectives for zircon producers and there is a noticeable growth in the electronic market for rare earths, but in long term the success may depend as much on environmental management and communication skills as on mining and processing skills

  2. Semiconductor Manufacturing equipment introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Im, Jong Sun


    This book deals with semiconductor manufacturing equipment. It is comprised of nine chapters, which are manufacturing process of semiconductor device, history of semiconductor manufacturing equipment, kinds and role of semiconductor manufacturing equipment, construction and method of semiconductor manufacturing equipment, introduction of various semiconductor manufacturing equipment, spots of semiconductor manufacturing, technical elements of semiconductor manufacturing equipment, road map of technology of semiconductor manufacturing equipment and semiconductor manufacturing equipment in the 21st century.

  3. Australian mineral industry annual review for 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This volume of the Australian Mineral Industry Annual Review records the development and performance of the industry during the calendar year 1986. It reports production, consumption, treatment, trade, prices, new developments, exploration, and resources for mineral commodities including fuels, and summarises equivalent developments abroad. Part 1, 'General Review', after briefly surveying the world mineral industry, summarises developments in the Australian mineral industry as a whole. Part 2, 'Commodity Review', covers individual mineral commodities and commodity groups including brown coal, black coal and peat. Part 3, 'Mining Census', tabulates statistics extracted from the Mining Census, together with some mineral processing statistics from the Manufacturing Census. Part 4, tabulates quantity and value data on mineral output provided by the State departments of mines and their equivalents. The commodity review of black coal has been abstracted separately.

  4. Efficiency of fiber reinforced concrete application in structures subjected to dynamic effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morozov Valeriy Ivanovich


    Full Text Available Fiber reinforced concretes possess high strength under dynamic loadings, which include impact loads, thanks to their high structural viscosity. This is the reason for using them in difficult operating conditions, where increasing the performance characteristics and the structure durability is of prime importance, and the issues of the cost become less significant. Applying methods of disperse reinforcement is most challenging in case of subtle high-porous materials on mineral binders, for example foamed concrete. At the same time, the experiments conducted in Russia and abroad show, that also in other cases the concrete strength resistance several times increases as a result of disperse reinforcement. This doesn't depend on average density of the concrete and type of fiber used. In the article the fibre reinforced concrete impact resistance is analysed. Recommendations are given in regard to fibre concrete application in manufacture of monolithic floor units for industrial buildings and precast piles.

  5. Green Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patten, John


    Green Manufacturing Initiative (GMI): The initiative provides a conduit between the university and industry to facilitate cooperative research programs of mutual interest to support green (sustainable) goals and efforts. In addition to the operational savings that greener practices can bring, emerging market demands and governmental regulations are making the move to sustainable manufacturing a necessity for success. The funding supports collaborative activities among universities such as the University of Michigan, Michigan State University and Purdue University and among 40 companies to enhance economic and workforce development and provide the potential of technology transfer. WMU participants in the GMI activities included 20 faculty, over 25 students and many staff from across the College of Engineering and Applied Sciences; the College of Arts and Sciences' departments of Chemistry, Physics, Biology and Geology; the College of Business; the Environmental Research Institute; and the Environmental Studies Program. Many outside organizations also contribute to the GMI's success, including Southwest Michigan First; The Right Place of Grand Rapids, MI; Michigan Department of Environmental Quality; the Michigan Department of Energy, Labor and Economic Growth; and the Michigan Manufacturers Technical Center.

  6. Proton induced luminescence of minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvo del Castillo, H.; Millan, A.; Calderon, T. [Depto. Geologia y Geoquimica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Ctra. Colmenar, km. 15, 28049, Madrid (Spain); Beneitez, P. [Departamento Quimica Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain); Ruvalcaba S, J.L. [lFUNAM, Circuito de la lnvestigacion Cientifica s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)


    This paper presents a summary of Ionoluminescence (IL) for several minerals commonly found in jewellery pieces and/or artefacts of historical interest. Samples including silicates and non-silicates (native elements, halide, oxide, carbonate and phosphate groups) have been excited with a 1.8 MeV proton beam, and IL spectra in the range of 200- 900 nm have been collected for each one using a fiber optic coupled spectrometer. Light emissions have been related to Cr{sup 3+}, Mn{sup 2+} and Pr{sup 3+} ions, as well as intrinsic defects in these minerals. Results show the potential of IL for impurity characterization with high detection limits, local symmetry studies, and the study of the origin of minerals. (Author)

  7. Hydrothermal minerals

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nath, B.N.

    flux. Circulation of seawater through the oceanic crust and upper mantle gives rise to a complex series of physical and chemical reactions that lead to the 1) formation of seafloor mineral deposits; 2) alteration of oceanic crust; 3) control... temperature in the high-temperature reaction zone near the heat source. Important parameters in determining the high- temperature fluid composition are • pressure, • temperature, • water/rock ratio, • rock composition, • recharge fluid...

  8. Hybrid fiber and nanopowder reinforced composites for wind turbine blades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikoloz M. Chikhradze


    Full Text Available The results of an investigation into the production of wind turbine blades manufactured using polymer composites reinforced by hybrid (carbon, basalt, glass fibers and strengthened by various nanopowders (oxides, carbides, borides are presented. The hybrid fiber-reinforced composites (HFRC were manufactured with prepreg technology by molding pre-saturated epoxy-strengthened matrix-reinforced fabric. Performance of the manufactured composites was estimated with values of the coefficient of operating condition (COC at a moderate and elevated temperature.

  9. Effects on the Physical and Mechanical Properties of Porous Concrete for Plant Growth of Blast Furnace Slag, Natural Jute Fiber, and Styrene Butadiene Latex Using a Dry Mixing Manufacturing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwang-Hee Kim


    Full Text Available To evaluate the effects of industrial by-products materials on the performance of porous concrete for plant growth, this study investigated the physical, strength, and freeze/thaw resistances of porous concrete for plant growth, prepared by replacing cement with blast furnace slag powder at 60% by weight, and replacing natural stone aggregates with coarse blast furnace slag aggregates at rates of 0%, 20%, 40%, 60% and 100% by weight. In addition, the effects of adding natural jute fiber and styrene butadiene (SB latex to these concrete mixtures were evaluated. The void ratio, compressive strength, and freeze/thaw resistance of the samples were measured. With increasing replacement rate of blast furnace aggregates, addition of latex, and mixing of natural jute fiber the void ratio of the concrete was increased. Compressive strength decreased as the replacement rate of blast-furnace slag aggregates increased. The compressive strength decreased after 100 freeze/thaw cycles, regardless of the replacement rate of blast furnace slag aggregates or of the addition of natural jute fiber and latex. The addition of natural jute fiber and latex decreased the compressive strength after 100 freeze/thaw cycles. The test results indicate that the control mixture satisfied the target compressive strength of 10 MPa and the target void ratio of 25% at replacement rates of 0% and 20% for blast furnace aggregates, and that the mixtures containing latex satisfied the criteria up to an aggregate replacement rate of 60%. However, the mixtures containing natural jute fiber did not satisfy these criteria. The relationship between void ratio and residual compressive strength after 100 freeze/thaw cycles indicates that the control mixture and the mixtures containing jute fiber at aggregate replacement rates of 20% and 40% satisfied the target void ratio of 25% and the target residual compressive strength of over 80% after 100 freeze/thaw cycles. The mixtures containing

  10. Effects on the Physical and Mechanical Properties of Porous Concrete for Plant Growth of Blast Furnace Slag, Natural Jute Fiber, and Styrene Butadiene Latex Using a Dry Mixing Manufacturing Process. (United States)

    Kim, Hwang-Hee; Kim, Chun-Soo; Jeon, Ji-Hong; Park, Chan-Gi


    To evaluate the effects of industrial by-products materials on the performance of porous concrete for plant growth, this study investigated the physical, strength, and freeze/thaw resistances of porous concrete for plant growth, prepared by replacing cement with blast furnace slag powder at 60% by weight, and replacing natural stone aggregates with coarse blast furnace slag aggregates at rates of 0%, 20%, 40%, 60% and 100% by weight. In addition, the effects of adding natural jute fiber and styrene butadiene ( SB) latex to these concrete mixtures were evaluated. The void ratio, compressive strength, and freeze/thaw resistance of the samples were measured. With increasing replacement rate of blast furnace aggregates, addition of latex, and mixing of natural jute fiber the void ratio of the concrete was increased. Compressive strength decreased as the replacement rate of blast-furnace slag aggregates increased. The compressive strength decreased after 100 freeze/thaw cycles, regardless of the replacement rate of blast furnace slag aggregates or of the addition of natural jute fiber and latex. The addition of natural jute fiber and latex decreased the compressive strength after 100 freeze/thaw cycles. The test results indicate that the control mixture satisfied the target compressive strength of 10 MPa and the target void ratio of 25% at replacement rates of 0% and 20% for blast furnace aggregates, and that the mixtures containing latex satisfied the criteria up to an aggregate replacement rate of 60%. However, the mixtures containing natural jute fiber did not satisfy these criteria. The relationship between void ratio and residual compressive strength after 100 freeze/thaw cycles indicates that the control mixture and the mixtures containing jute fiber at aggregate replacement rates of 20% and 40% satisfied the target void ratio of 25% and the target residual compressive strength of over 80% after 100 freeze/thaw cycles. The mixtures containing latex and aggregate

  11. Mode conversion in hybrid optical fiber coupler (United States)

    Stasiewicz, Karol A.; Marc, P.; Jaroszewicz, Leszek R.


    Designing of all in-line fiber optic systems with a supercontinuum light source gives some issues. The use of a standard single mode fiber (SMF) as an input do not secure single mode transmission in full wavelength range. In the paper, the experimental results of the tested hybrid fiber optic coupler were presented. It was manufactured by fusing a standard single mode fiber (SMF28) and a photonic crystal fiber (PCF). The fabrication process is based on the standard fused biconical taper technique. Two types of large mode area fibers (LMA8 and LAM10 NKT Photonics) with different air holes arrangements were used as the photonic crystal fiber. Spectral characteristics within the range of 800 nm - 1700 nm were presented. All process was optimized to obtain a mode conversion between SMF and PCF and to reach a single mode transmission in the PCF output of the coupler.

  12. Australian mineral industry annual review for 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This volume of the Australian Mineral Industry Annual Review records development and performance of the Australian mineral industry during the calendar year 1984. It reports production, consumption, treatment, trade, prices, new developments, exploration, and resources for mineral commodities including fuels, and summarises equivalent developments abroad. Part 1. 'general review' after briefly surveying the world mineral industry, summarises developments in the Australian mineral industry as a whole, under the headings: the industry in the national economy, prices, exploration expenditure, investment, income tax, royalties, structural data, wages and salaries, industrial disputes, and government assistance, legislation, and controls. Part 2. 'commodity review' covers individual mineral commodity groups, from abrasives to zirconium. Part 3, 'mining census', tabulates statistics extracted from the mining census, together with some mineral processing statistics from the manufacturing census. Part 4 tabulates quantity and value data on mineral output provided by state departments of mines and their equivalents. Listed in appendices are: principal mineral producers; ore buyers and mineral dealers; government mining services; analytical laboratories; state mines departments and equivalents; industry, professional and development organisations and associations, etc; summary of mineral royalties payable in the states and territories; and summary of income tax provisions and federal government levies.

  13. Carbon Fiber Biocompatibility for Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Petersen


    Full Text Available Carbon fibers have multiple potential advantages in developing high-strength biomaterials with a density close to bone for better stress transfer and electrical properties that enhance tissue formation. As a breakthrough example in biomaterials, a 1.5 mm diameter bisphenol-epoxy/carbon-fiber-reinforced composite rod was compared for two weeks in a rat tibia model with a similar 1.5 mm diameter titanium-6-4 alloy screw manufactured to retain bone implants. Results showed that carbon-fiber-reinforced composite stimulated osseointegration inside the tibia bone marrow measured as percent bone area (PBA to a great extent when compared to the titanium-6-4 alloy at statistically significant levels. PBA increased significantly with the carbon-fiber composite over the titanium-6-4 alloy for distances from the implant surfaces of 0.1 mm at 77.7% vs. 19.3% (p < 10−8 and 0.8 mm at 41.6% vs. 19.5% (p < 10−4, respectively. The review focuses on carbon fiber properties that increased PBA for enhanced implant osseointegration. Carbon fibers acting as polymer coated electrically conducting micro-biocircuits appear to provide a biocompatible semi-antioxidant property to remove damaging electron free radicals from the surrounding implant surface. Further, carbon fibers by removing excess electrons produced from the cellular mitochondrial electron transport chain during periods of hypoxia perhaps stimulate bone cell recruitment by free-radical chemotactic influences. In addition, well-studied bioorganic cell actin carbon fiber growth would appear to interface in close contact with the carbon-fiber-reinforced composite implant. Resulting subsequent actin carbon fiber/implant carbon fiber contacts then could help in discharging the electron biological overloads through electrochemical gradients to lower negative charges and lower concentration.

  14. Pretreatment of hemp fibers for utilization in strong biocomposite materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Ming

    Hemp is the common name for Cannabis sativa cultivated for industrial use. Compared to synthetic fibers (e.g. glass fiber), hemp fibers have many advantages such as low cost, low density (1.5 g/cm3) and high specific strength and stiffness. As a result of increasing environmental awareness......, interest in hemp fiber reinforced composites is increasing because of a high potential of manufacturing hemp fiber reinforced polymer composites with acceptable mechanical properties at low cost. In order to expedite the application of natural fibers in polymer composites, hemp fibers need to be treated...... before being incorporated in matrix polymers to optimize the properties of fibers and fiber reinforced composites. The overall objective of this study was therefore to focus on understanding the correlation between chemical composition and morphology of hemp fibers and mechanical properties of hemp...

  15. Emerging Materials Technologies That Matter to Manufacturers (United States)

    Misra, Ajay K.


    A brief overview of emerging materials technologies. Exploring the weight reduction benefit of replacing Carbon Fiber with Carbon Nanotube (CNT) in Polymer Composites. Review of the benign purification method developed for CNT sheets. The future of manufacturing will include the integration of computational material design and big data analytics, along with Nanomaterials as building blocks.

  16. The use of lasers in manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    This book contains the proceedings of a conference on the use of lasers in manufacturing, topics covered include: An introduction to industrial lasers; Production laser hardening for aerospace; The role of fiber optics in laser material processing; and Light-material interactions in laser material processing

  17. Optical Fiber Protection (United States)


    F&S Inc. developed and commercialized fiber optic and microelectromechanical systems- (MEMS) based instrumentation for harsh environments encountered in the aerospace industry. The NASA SBIR programs have provided F&S the funds and the technology to develop ruggedized coatings and coating techniques that are applied during the optical fiber draw process. The F&S optical fiber fabrication facility and developed coating methods enable F&S to manufacture specialty optical fiber with custom designed refractive index profiles and protective or active coatings. F&S has demonstrated sputtered coatings using metals and ceramics and combinations of each, and has also developed techniques to apply thin coatings of specialized polyimides formulated at NASA Langley Research Center. With these capabilities, F&S has produced cost-effective, reliable instrumentation and sensors capable of withstanding temperatures up to 800? C and continues building commercial sales with corporate partners and private funding. More recently, F&S has adapted the same sensing platforms to provide the rapid detection and identification of chemical and biological agents

  18. Mechanical Properties of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fiber (United States)

    Gunawan, Fergyanto E.; Homma, Hiroomi; Brodjonegoro, Satryo S.; Hudin, Afzer Bin Baseri; Zainuddin, Aryanti Binti

    In tropical countries such as Indonesia and Malaysia, the empty fruit bunches are wastes of the oil palm industry. The wastes are abundantly available and has reached a level that severely threats the environment. Therefore, it is a great need to find useful applications of those waste materials; but firstly, the mechanical properties of the EFB fiber should be quantified. In this work, a small tensile test machine is manufactured, and the tensile test is performed on the EFB fibers. The results show that the strength of the EFB fiber is strongly affected by the fiber diameter; however, the fiber strength is relatively low in comparison to other natural fibers.

  19. Scintillating optical fibers for fine-grained hodoscopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borenstein, S.R.; Strand, R.C.


    Fast detectors with fine spatial resolution will be needed to exploit high event rates at ISABELLE. Scintillating optical fibers for fine grained hodoscopes have been developed by the authors. A commercial manufacturer of optical fibers has drawn and clad PVT scintillator. Detection efficiencies greater than 99% have been achieved for a 1 mm fiber with a PMT over lengths up to 60 cm. Small diameter PMT's and avalanche photodiodes have been tested with the fibers. Further improvements are sought for the fiber and for the APD's sensitivity and coupling efficiency with the fiber

  20. The Economics of Big Area Addtiive Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Post, Brian [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Lloyd, Peter D [ORNL; Lindahl, John [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Lind, Randall F [ORNL; Love, Lonnie J [ORNL; Kunc, Vlastimil [ORNL


    Case studies on the economics of Additive Manufacturing (AM) suggest that processing time is the dominant cost in manufacturing. Most additive processes have similar performance metrics: small part sizes, low production rates and expensive feedstocks. Big Area Additive Manufacturing is based on transitioning polymer extrusion technology from a wire to a pellet feedstock. Utilizing pellets significantly increases deposition speed and lowers material cost by utilizing low cost injection molding feedstock. The use of carbon fiber reinforced polymers eliminates the need for a heated chamber, significantly reducing machine power requirements and size constraints. We hypothesize that the increase in productivity coupled with decrease in feedstock and energy costs will enable AM to become more competitive with conventional manufacturing processes for many applications. As a test case, we compare the cost of using traditional fused deposition modeling (FDM) with BAAM for additively manufacturing composite tooling.

  1. V1.6 Development of Advanced Manufacturing Technologies for Low Cost Hydrogen Storage Vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leavitt, Mark; Lam, Patrick; Nelson, Karl M.; johnson, Brice A.; Johnson, Kenneth I.; Alvine, Kyle J.; Ruiz, Antonio; Adams, Jesse


    The goal of this project is to develop an innovative manufacturing process for Type IV high-pressure hydrogen storage vessels, with the intent to significantly lower manufacturing costs. Part of the development is to integrate the features of high precision AFP and commercial FW. Evaluation of an alternative fiber to replace a portion of the baseline fiber will help to reduce costs further.

  2. Manufactured volvulus. (United States)

    Zweifel, Noemi; Meuli, Martin; Subotic, Ulrike; Moehrlen, Ueli; Mazzone, Luca; Arlettaz, Romaine


    Malrotation with a common mesentery is the classical pathology allowing midgut volvulus to occur. There are only a few reports of small bowel volvulus without malrotation or other pathology triggering volvulation. We describe three cases of small bowel volvulus in very premature newborns with a perfectly normal intra-abdominal anatomy and focus on the question, what might have set off volvulation. In 2005 to 2008, three patients developed small bowel volvulus without any underlying pathology. Retrospective patient chart review was performed with special focus on clinical presentation, preoperative management, intraoperative findings, and potential causative explanations. Mean follow-up period was 46 months. All patients were born between 27 and 31 weeks (mean 28 weeks) with a birth weight between 800 and 1,000 g (mean 887 g). They presented with an almost identical pattern of symptoms including sudden abdominal distension, abdominal tenderness, erythema of the abdominal wall, high gastric residuals, and radiographic signs of ileus. All of them were treated with intensive abdominal massage or pelvic rotation to improve bowel movement before becoming symptomatic. Properistaltic maneuvers including abdominal massage and pelvic rotation may cause what we term a "manufactured" volvulus in very premature newborns. Thus, this practice was stopped. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Two Fiber Optical Fiber Thermometry (United States)

    Jones, Mathew R.; Farmer, Jeffery T.; Breeding, Shawn P.


    An optical fiber thermometer consists of an optical fiber whose sensing tip is given a metallic coating. The sensing tip of the fiber is essentially an isothermal cavity, so the emission from this cavity will be approximately equal to the emission from a blackbody. Temperature readings are obtained by measuring the spectral radiative heat flux at the end of the fiber at two wavelengths. The ratio of these measurements and Planck's Law are used to infer the temperature at the sensing tip. Optical fiber thermometers have high accuracy, excellent long-term stability and are immune to electromagnetic interference. In addition, they can be operated for extended periods without requiring re-calibration. For these reasons. it is desirable to use optical fiber thermometers in environments such as the International Space Station. However, it has recently been shown that temperature readings are corrupted by emission from the fiber when extended portions of the probe are exposed to elevated temperatures. This paper will describe several ways in which the reading from a second fiber can be used to correct the corrupted temperature measurements. The accuracy and sensitivity to measurement uncertainty will be presented for each method.

  4. Status of fiber lasers study of on ytterbium doped fiber laser and laser spectroscopy of doped fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magne, S.


    This work shows all the advantages and drawbacks of the rare-earth-doped fiber lasers and fiber optical amplifiers, pointing out their potential use for instrumentation and optical fiber sensor technology. The theory of light propagation in optical fibers is presented in order to understand the manufacturing methods. A comparative study of preform surface and concentration analysis is performed. The gain behaviour is also thoroughly examined. A synthesis of all technological parameters of the fiber laser is then established and all technologies of the constituting integrated components are reviewed and compared. The experimental techniques mainly involve: site selective excitation tunability, cooperative luminescence, oxidation state changes induced by gamma irradiation, ytterbium-doped mono-mode continuous wave tunable three-level fiber laser. (TEC). 622 refs., 176 figs

  5. Influence of fiber type, fiber mat orientation, and process time on the properties of a wood fiber/polymer composite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plackett, David; Torgilsson, R.; Løgstrup Andersen, T.


    involved pre-compression, contact heating to the process temperature under vacuum and then rapid transfer to the press for consolidation and cooling. Composites were tested to determine response to water or water vapor, porosity, fiber volume fraction and tensile properties. The composites absorbed water......A rapid press consolidation technique was used to produce composites from two types of air-laid wood fiber mat, incorporating either mechanically refined or bleached chemi-thermomechanically refined Norway Spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst] and a bicomponent polymer fiber. The manufacturing technique...... rapidly and showed changes in thickness with fluctuations in relative humidity. Porosity was higher in composites containing mechanically refined (MDF) fibers than in composites containing bleached chemi-thermomechanically refined (CTMP) fibers. Tensile test results suggessted that fiber wetting...

  6. The impact of fit manufacturing on green manufacturing: A review (United States)

    Qi, Ang Nian; Sin, Tan Chan; Fathullah, M.; Lee, C. C.


    Fit manufacturing and Green manufacturing are a new trend principle and concept. They are getting popular in industrial. This paper is identifying the impact between Fit manufacturing and Green manufacturing. Besides Fit manufacturing, Lean manufacturing, Agile manufacturing and Sustainable manufacturing gives big impacts to Green Manufacturing. On top of that, this paper also discuss the benefits of applying Fit manufacturing and Green manufacturing in industrial as well as environment. Hence, applications of Fit manufacturing and Green Manufacturing are increasing year by year.

  7. Prepreg effects on honeycomb composite manufacturing (United States)

    Martin, Cary Joseph

    Fiber reinforced composites offer many advantages over traditional materials and are widely utilized in aerospace applications. Advantages include a high stiffness to weight ratio and excellent fatigue resistance. However, the pace of new implementation is slow. The manufacturing processes used to transform composite intermediates into final products are poorly understood and are a source of much variability. This limits new implementation and increases the manufacturing costs of existing designs. One such problem is honeycomb core crush, in which a core-stiffened structure collapses during autoclave manufacture, making the structure unusable and increasing the overall manufacturing cost through increased scrap rates. Consequently, the major goal of this research was to investigate the scaling of core crush from prepreg process-structure-property relations to commercial composite manufacture. The material dependent nature of this defect was of particular interest. A methodology and apparatus were developed to measure the frictional resistance of prepreg materials under typical processing conditions. Through a characterization of commercial and experimental prepregs, it was found that core crush behavior was the result of differences in prepreg frictional resistance. This frictional resistance was related to prepreg morphology and matrix rheology and elasticity. Resin composition and prepreg manufacturing conditions were also found to affect manufacturing behavior. Mechanical and dimensional models were developed and demonstrated utility for predicting this crushing behavior. Collectively, this work explored and identified the process-structure-property relations as they relate to the manufacture of composite materials and suggested several avenues by which manufacturing-robust materials may be developed.

  8. Controlled biomineralization of electrospun poly(ε-caprolactone) fibers to enhance their mechanical properties. (United States)

    Xie, Jingwei; Zhong, Shaoping; Ma, Bing; Shuler, Franklin D; Lim, Chwee Teck


    Electrospun polymeric fibers have been investigated as scaffolding materials for bone tissue engineering. However, their mechanical properties, and in particular stiffness and ultimate tensile strength, cannot match those of natural bones. The objective of the study was to develop novel composite nanofiber scaffolds by attaching minerals to polymeric fibers using an adhesive material - the mussel-inspired protein polydopamine - as a "superglue". Herein, we report for the first time the use of dopamine to regulate mineralization of electrospun poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) fibers to enhance their mechanical properties. We examined the mineralization of the PCL fibers by adjusting the concentration of HCO(3)(-) and dopamine in the mineralized solution, the reaction time and the surface composition of the fibers. We also examined mineralization on the surface of polydopamine-coated PCL fibers. We demonstrated the control of morphology, grain size and thickness of minerals deposited on the surface of electrospun fibers. The obtained mineral coatings render electrospun fibers with much higher stiffness, ultimate tensile strength and toughness, which could be closer to the mechanical properties of natural bone. Such great enhancement of mechanical properties for electrospun fibers through mussel protein-mediated mineralization has not been seen previously. This study could also be extended to the fabrication of other composite materials to better bridge the interfaces between organic and inorganic phases. Copyright © 2012 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Preliminary characterization of glass fiber sizing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noergaard Petersen, H.; Almdal, K. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Nanotech, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Kusano, Y.; Broendsted, P. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Wind Energy, Risoe Campus, Roskilde (Denmark)


    Glass fiber surfaces are treated with sizing during manufacturing. Sizing consists of several components, including a film former and a silane coupling agent that is important for adhesion between glass fibers and a matrix. Although the sizing highly affects the composite interface and thus the strength of the composites, little is known about the structure and chemistry of the sizing. A part of sizing was extracted by soxhlet extraction. The fibers were subsequently burned and some fibers were merely burned for analysis of glass fiber and sizing. The results showed that the analyzed fibers had amounts of bonded and physisorbed sizing similar to what has been presented in literature. An estimated sizing thickness was found to be approximately 100 nm. It is indicated that an epoxy-resin containing film former and a polyethylene oxide lubricant are present, yet no silanes or other sizing components were identified in the extractant. (Author)

  10. Single-mode annular chirally-coupled core fibers for fiber lasers (United States)

    Zhang, Haitao; Hao, He; He, Linlu; Gong, Mali


    Chirally-coupled core (CCC) fiber can transmit single fundamental mode and effectively suppresses higher-order mode (HOM) propagation, thus improve the beam quality. However, the manufacture of CCC fiber is complicated due to its small side core. To decrease the manufacture difficulty in China, a novel fiber structure is presented, defined as annular chirally-coupled core (ACCC) fiber, replacing the small side core by a larger side annulus. In this paper, we designed the fiber parameters of this new structure, and demonstrated that the new structure has a similar property of single mode with traditional CCC fiber. Helical coordinate system was introduced into the finite element method (FEM) to analyze the mode field in the fiber, and the beam propagation method (BPM) was employed to analyze the influence of the fiber parameters on the mode loss. Based on the result above, the fiber structure was optimized for efficient single-mode transmission, in which the core diameter is 35 μm with beam quality M2 value of 1.04 and an optical to optical conversion efficiency of 84%. In this fiber, fundamental mode propagates in an acceptable loss, while the HOMs decay rapidly.

  11. Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (United States)

    Fikes, John


    Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT) is developing and maturing innovative and advanced manufacturing technologies that will enable more capable and lower-cost spacecraft, launch vehicles and infrastructure to enable exploration missions. The technologies will utilize cutting edge materials and emerging capabilities including metallic processes, additive manufacturing, composites, and digital manufacturing. The AMT project supports the National Manufacturing Initiative involving collaboration with other government agencies.

  12. Safety concerns in composite manufacturing and machining (United States)

    Asmatulu, Eylem; Alonayni, Abdullah; Alamir, Mohammed


    Because of the superior properties, composites have been used in many industrial applications, including aerospace, wind turbines, ships, cars, fishing rods, storage tanks, swimming pool panels, and baseball bats. Each application may require different combinations of reinforcements and matrices, which make the manufacturing safety even more challenging while working on these substances. In this study, safety issues in composite manufacturing and machining were investigated in detail, and latest developments were provided for workers. The materials most frequently used in composite manufacturing, such as matrix (polyester, vinylester, phenolic, epoxies, methyl ethyl ketone peroxide, benzoil peroxide, hardeners, and solvents), and reinforcement materials (carbon, glass and Kevlar fibers, honeycomb and foams) can be highly toxic to human body. These materials can also be very toxic to the environment when dumped out uncontrollably, creating major future health and environmental concerns. Throughout the manufacturing process, workers inhale vapors of the liquid matrix, hardeners and solvents / thinners, as well as reinforcement materials (chopped fibers and particles) in airborne. Milling, cutting and machining of the composites can further increase the toxic inhalations of airborne composite particles, resulting in major rashes, irritation, skin disorders, coughing, severe eye and lung injury and other serious illnesses. The major portions of these hazardous materials can be controlled using appropriate personal protective equipment for the chemicals and materials used in composite manufacturing and machining. This study provides best possible safety practices utilized in composite manufacturing facilities for workers, engineers and other participants.

  13. A call to expand regulation to all carcinogenic fibrous minerals (United States)

    Baumann, F.; Steele, I.; Ambrosi, J.; Carbone, M.


    The regulatory term "asbestos" groups only the six fibrous minerals that were commercially used among approximately 400. The carcinogenicity of these six regulated minerals has been largely demonstrated and is related to fiber structure, fiber length/diameter ratio, and bio-persistence. From a public perception, the generic term "asbestos" refers to the fibrous minerals that cause asbestosis, mesothelioma and other cancers. However, other non-regulated fibrous minerals are potentially as dangerous as the regulatory asbestos because they share similar physical and chemical properties, epidemiological studies have demonstrated their relationship with asbestos-related diseases, and both in vitro and in vivo experiments have established the toxicity of these minerals. For example, the non-regulated asbestiform winchite and richterite minerals that contaminated the vermiculite mined from Libby, Montana, (USA) were associated with mesothelioma, lung cancer and asbestosis observed among the area's residents and miners. Many other examples of non-regulated carcinogenic fibrous minerals include, but are not limited to, antigorite, arfvedsonite, balangeroite, carlosturanite, erionite, fluoro-edenite, hornblende, mordenite, palygorskite, and sepiolite. To propose a regulatory definition that would provide protection from all carcinogenic fibers, we have conducted an interdisciplinary literature review to compare the characteristics of "asbestos" and of non-regulated mineral fibers that relate to carcinogenicity. We specifically studied two non-regulated fibrous minerals that are associated with asbestos-related diseases: the serpentine antigorite and the zeolite erionite. Both examples underscore the problem of regulation based on commercial, rather than scientific principles: 1) the occurrence of fibrous antigorite in materials used to pave roads has been correlated with high mesothelioma rates in New Caledonia. Antigorite was also the cause of asbestosis in Poland, and in

  14. Tribology in Manufacturing Technology

    CERN Document Server


    The present book aims to provide research advances on tribology in manufacturing technology for modern industry. This book can be used as a research book for final undergraduate engineering course (for example, mechanical, manufacturing, materials, etc) or as a subject on manufacturing at the postgraduate level. Also, this book can serve as a useful reference for academics, manufacturing and tribology researchers, mechanical, mechanical, manufacturing and materials engineers, professionals in related industries with manufacturing and tribology.

  15. Effect of fiber content on the properties of glass fiber-phenolic matrix composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaki, M.Y.; Shahid, M.R.; Subhani, T.; Sharif, M.N.


    Glass fiber-Phenolic matrix composite is used for the manufacturing of parts /components related to electronic and aerospace industry due to its high strength, dimensional stability and excellent electrical insulation properties. The evaluation of this composite material is necessary prior to make parts/components of new designs. In the present research, thermosetting phenolic plastic was reinforced with E-glass fiber in different fiber-to-resin ratios to produce composites of different compositions. Mechanical and electrical properties of these composite materials were evaluated with reference to the effect of fiber content variation in phenolic resin. (author)

  16. Assessment of fiber optic pressure sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashemian, H.M.; Black, C.L.; Farmer, J.P.


    This report presents the results of a six-month Phase 1 study to establish the state-of-the-art in fiber optic pressure sensing and describes the design and principle of operation of various fiber optic pressure sensors. This study involved a literature review, contact with experts in the field, an industrial survey, a site visit to a fiber optic sensor manufacturer, and laboratory testing of a fiber optic pressure sensor. The laboratory work involved both static and dynamic performance tests. In addition, current requirements for environmental and seismic qualification of sensors for nuclear power plants were reviewed to determine the extent of the qualification tests that fiber optic pressure sensors may have to meet before they can be used in nuclear power plants. This project has concluded that fiber optic pressure sensors are still in the research and development stage and only a few manufacturers exist in the US and abroad which supply suitable fiber optic pressure sensors for industrial applications. Presently, fiber optic pressure sensors are mostly used in special applications for which conventional sensors are not able to meet the requirements

  17. Detection of mineral impurities in diatomite ores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guatame Garcia, L.A.; Buxton, M.W.N.; Fiore, Saverio


    Diatomaceous Earth (DE) is commonly used in the industry for the manufacturing of filters, where diatomite is preferred due to its low chemical reactivity and high porosity. Diatomite deposits with major amounts of mineral impurities, such as carbonates, present a problem in the production DE. In

  18. Minerals Yearbook, volume I, Metals and Minerals (United States)



    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industries and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Content of the individual Minerals Yearbook volumes follows:Volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters about virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. Chapters on survey methods, summary statistics for domestic nonfuel minerals, and trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries in the United States are also included.Volume II, Area Reports: Domestic, contains a chapter on the mineral industry of each of the 50 States and Puerto Rico and the Administered Islands. This volume also has chapters on survey methods and summary statistics of domestic nonfuel minerals.Volume III, Area Reports: International, is published as four separate reports. These regional reports contain the latest available minerals data on more than 180 foreign countries and discuss the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations and the United States. Each report begins with an overview of the region’s mineral industries during the year. It continues with individual country chapters that examine the mining, refining, processing, and use of minerals in each country of the region and how each country’s mineral industry relates to U.S. industry. Most chapters include production tables and industry structure tables, information about Government policies and programs that affect the country’s mineral industry, and an outlook section.The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the Minerals Yearbook are welcomed.

  19. Laboratory of minerals purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The laboratory of minerals purification was organized in 1962 where with application of modern physical and chemical methods were investigated the mechanism of flotation reagents interaction with minerals' surface, was elaborated technologies on rising complexity of using of republic's minerals

  20. Ultrasonic NDE Simulation for Composite Manufacturing Defects (United States)

    Leckey, Cara A. C.; Juarez, Peter D.


    The increased use of composites in aerospace components is expected to continue into the future. The large scale use of composites in aerospace necessitates the development of composite-appropriate nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods to quantitatively characterize defects in as-manufactured parts and damage incurred during or post manufacturing. Ultrasonic techniques are one of the most common approaches for defect/damage detection in composite materials. One key technical challenge area included in NASA's Advanced Composite's Project is to develop optimized rapid inspection methods for composite materials. Common manufacturing defects in carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites include fiber waviness (in-plane and out-of-plane), porosity, and disbonds; among others. This paper is an overview of ongoing work to develop ultrasonic wavefield based methods for characterizing manufacturing waviness defects. The paper describes the development and implementation of a custom ultrasound simulation tool that is used to model ultrasonic wave interaction with in-plane fiber waviness (also known as marcelling). Wavefield data processing methods are applied to the simulation data to explore possible routes for quantitative defect characterization.

  1. South Africa's mineral industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The main aim of the Minerals Bureau in presenting this annual review is to provide an up-to-date reference document on the current state of the mineral industry in South Africa. This includes a brief look at the production, trade, economy, resources and deposits of precious metals and minerals, energy minerals, metallic minerals, and non-metallic minerals. One article discusses the production, trade, export, deposits and economy of uranium

  2. Magnetically sensitive nanodiamond-doped tellurite glass fibers. (United States)

    Ruan, Yinlan; Simpson, David A; Jeske, Jan; Ebendorff-Heidepriem, Heike; Lau, Desmond W M; Ji, Hong; Johnson, Brett C; Ohshima, Takeshi; Afshar V, Shahraam; Hollenberg, Lloyd; Greentree, Andrew D; Monro, Tanya M; Gibson, Brant C


    Traditional optical fibers are insensitive to magnetic fields, however many applications would benefit from fiber-based magnetometry devices. In this work, we demonstrate a magnetically sensitive optical fiber by doping nanodiamonds containing nitrogen vacancy centers into tellurite glass fibers. The fabrication process provides a robust and isolated sensing platform as the magnetic sensors are fixed in the tellurite glass matrix. Using optically detected magnetic resonance from the doped nanodiamonds, we demonstrate detection of local magnetic fields via side excitation and longitudinal collection. This is a first step towards intrinsically magneto-sensitive fiber devices with future applications in medical magneto-endoscopy and remote mineral exploration sensing.

  3. Miscellaneous Industrial Mineral Operations (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes miscellaneous industrial minerals operations in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team...

  4. Influence of cellulose fibers on structure and properties of fiber reinforced foam concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedorov Valeriy


    Full Text Available One of the promising means of foamed concrete quality improvement is micro-reinforcement by adding synthetic and mineral fibers to the base mix. This research is the first to investigate peculiarities of using recycled cellulose fiber extracted from waste paper for obtaining fiber reinforced foam concrete. The paper presents results of experimental research on the influence of cellulose fibers on structure and properties of fiber reinforced foam concrete by using methods of chemical analysis and scanning electron microscopy. The research determines peculiarities of new formations appearance and densification of binder hydration products in the contact zone between fiber and cement matrix, which boost mechanical strength of fiber reinforced foam concrete. Physico-mechanical properties of fiber reinforced foam concrete were defined depending on the amount of recycled cellulose fiber added to the base mix. It was found that the use of recycled cellulose fibers allows obtaining structural thermal insulating fiber reinforced foam concretes of non-autoclaved hardening of brand D600 with regard to mean density with the following improved properties: compressive strength increased by 35% compared to basic samples, higher stability of foamed concrete mix and decreased shrinkage deformation.

  5. Chemical Modification Effect on the Mechanical Properties of Coir Fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia Sultana Mir


    Full Text Available Natural fiber has a vital role as a reinforcing agent due to its renewable, low cost, biodegradable, less abrasive and eco-friendly nature. Whereas synthetic fibers like glass, boron, carbon, metallic, ceramic and inorganic fibers are expensive and not eco-friendly. Coir is one of the natural fibers easily available in Bangladesh and cheap. It is derived from the husk of the coconut (Cocos nucifera. Coir has one of the highest concentrations of lignin, which makes it stronger. In recent years, wide range of research has been carried out on fiber reinforced polymer composites [4-13].The aim of the present research is to characterize brown single coir fiber for manufacturing polymer composites reinforced with characterized fibers. Adhesion between the fiber and polymer is one of factors affecting the strength of manufactured composites. In order to increase the adhesion, the coir fiber was chemically treated separately in single stage (with Cr2(SO43•12(H2O and double stages (with CrSO4 and NaHCO3. Both the raw and treated fibers were characterized by tensile testing, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopic analysis, scanning electron microscopic analysis. The result showed that the Young’s modulus increased, while tensile strength and strain to failure decreased with increase in span length. Tensile properties of chemically treated coir fiber was found higher than raw coir fiber, while the double stage treated coir fiber had better mechanical properties compared to the single stage treated coir fiber. Scanning electron micrographs showed rougher surface in case of the raw coir fiber. The surface was found clean and smooth in case of the treated coir fiber. Thus the performance of coir fiber composites in industrial application can be improved by chemical treatment.

  6. Minerals from Macedonia: XV. Sivec mineral assemble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boev, Blazho; Jovanovski, Gligor; Makreski, Petre; Bermanec, Vladimir


    The paper presents investigations carried out on the collected minerals from the Sivec deposit. It is situated in the vicinity of the town of Prilep, representing a rare occurrence of sugary white dolomite marbles. The application of suitable methods of exploitation of decorative-dimension stones makes possible to obtain large amounts of commercial blocks well known in the world. Despite the existence of dolomite marbles, a series of exotic minerals are typical in Sivec mineralization. Among them, the most significant are: calcite, fluorite, rutile, phlogopite, corundum, diaspore, almandine, kosmatite (clintonite or margarite), clinochlore, muscovite, quartz, pyrite, tourmaline and zoisite. An attempt to identify ten collected minerals using the FT IR spectroscopy is performed. The identification of the minerals was based on the comparison of the infrared spectra of our specimens with the corresponding literature data for the mineral species originating all over the world. The coloured pictures of all studied silicate minerals are presented as well. (Author)

  7. 21 CFR 177.2800 - Textiles and textile fibers. (United States)


    ... lauryl sulfate Sodium 2-mercaptobenzothiazole Do. Sodium pentachlorophenate Do. Styrene-butadiene... hydroquinone Dimethylpolysiloxane Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, sodium salt 4-Ethyl-4-hexadecyl morpholinium ethyl sulfate For use only as a lubricant in the manufacture of polyethylene terephthalate fibers...

  8. Integrated lunar materials manufacturing process (United States)

    Gibson, Michael A. (Inventor); Knudsen, Christian W. (Inventor)


    A manufacturing plant and process for production of oxygen on the moon uses lunar minerals as feed and a minimum of earth-imported, process materials. Lunar feed stocks are hydrogen-reducible minerals, ilmenite and lunar agglutinates occurring in numerous, explored locations mixed with other minerals in the pulverized surface layer of lunar soil known as regolith. Ilmenite (FeTiO.sub.3) and agglutinates contain ferrous (Fe.sup.+2) iron reducible by hydrogen to yield H.sub.2 O and metallic Fe at about, C. The H.sub.2 O is electrolyzed in gas phase to yield H.sub.2 for recycle and O.sub.2 for storage and use. Hydrogen losses to lunar vacuum are minimized, with no net hydrogen (or any other earth-derived reagent) consumption except for small leaks. Feed minerals are surface-mined by front shovels and transported in trucks to the processing area. The machines are manned or robotic. Ilmenite and agglutinates occur mixed with silicate minerals which are not hydrogen-reducible at, C. and consequently are separated and concentrated before feeding to the oxygen generation process. Solids rejected from the separation step and reduced solids from the oxygen process are returned to the mine area. The plant is powered by nuclear or solar power generators. Vapor-phase water electrolysis, a staged, countercurrent, fluidized bed reduction reactor and a radio-frequency-driven ceramic gas heater are used to improve thermal efficiency.

  9. Low-fiber diet (United States)

    ... residue; Low-fiber diet; Fiber restricted diet; Crohn disease - low fiber diet; Ulcerative colitis - low fiber diet; ... them if they do not contain seeds or pulp: Yellow squash (without seeds) Spinach Pumpkin Eggplant Potatoes, ...

  10. Optical sensors from electrohydrodynamic jetted polymer fiber resonators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laye, Fabrice; Kraemmer, Sarah; Castillo, Alejandro


    Electrohydrodynamic jetting is used to manufacture dye-doped polymer fiber resonators. We present comb-like laser emission from different polymer/dye combinations and report the use of these structures as sensitive detection of ethanol and methanol.......Electrohydrodynamic jetting is used to manufacture dye-doped polymer fiber resonators. We present comb-like laser emission from different polymer/dye combinations and report the use of these structures as sensitive detection of ethanol and methanol....

  11. Manufacturing network evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Cheng; Farooq, Sami; Johansen, John


    Purpose – This paper examines the effect of changes at the manufacturing plant level on other plants in the manufacturing network and also investigates the role of manufacturing plants on the evolution of a manufacturing network. Design/methodology/approach –The research questions are developed...... different manufacturing plants in the network and their impact on network transformation. Findings – The paper highlights the dominant role of manufacturing plants in the continuously changing shape of a manufacturing network. The paper demonstrates that a product or process change at one manufacturing...... by identifying the gaps in the reviewed literature. The paper is based on three case studies undertaken in Danish manufacturing companies to explore in detail their manufacturing plants and networks. The cases provide a sound basis for developing the research questions and explaining the interaction between...

  12. Radiation resistivity of quartz core fiber, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gozen, Toshikazu; Suzuki, Toshiya; Hayashi, Tokuji; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Okamoto, Shinichi.


    Radiation resistance characteristics were evaluated for a multi-mode quartz core fiber in low temperature region together with photobleaching effect depending on the incident light power and dependency on the wavelength of measuring rays. This report describes the results of the abovementioned items and the next step study of trial manufacturing of a pure-quartz single-mode fiber for the employment of longer wavelength rays and greater capacity in light transmission communication system. Quartz core fiber specimens were irradiated by 60 Co γ-ray source at -55 deg C to 80 deg C in a constant temperature bath and light transmission loss was determined under irradiation conditions. Low temperature characteristics were superior in an MRT (modified rod-in tube) pure quartz fiber prepared by the plasma method as compared to VAD quartz and Ge-GI fibers. The MRT fiber showed better quality than the Ge-GI fiber also in the photobleaching effect examination. As for the wavelength dependency, light transmission loss of the MRT fiber was less than that of the Ge-GI fiber. The MRT fiber also showed a superior quality in the wide range of irradiation temperatures. Based on the above-mentioned understandings, a pure-quartz single-mode fiber of both BF 3 -doped and F-doped cladding types were developed for longer wavelengths uses. The fibers could attain low light transmission loss of less than 1.0 dB/km at 1.30 μm of wavelength. At the standpoint of radiation resistivity, the BF 3 -doped fiber was found superior. (Takagi, S.)

  13. Photovoltaic fibers (United States)

    Gaudiana, Russell; Eckert, Robert; Cardone, John; Ryan, James; Montello, Alan


    It was realized early in the history of Konarka that the ability to produce fibers that generate power from solar energy could be applied to a wide variety of applications where fabrics are utilized currently. These applications include personal items such as jackets, shirts and hats, to architectural uses such as awnings, tents, large covers for cars, trucks and even doomed stadiums, to indoor furnishings such as window blinds, shades and drapes. They may also be used as small fabric patches or fiber bundles for powering or recharging batteries in small sensors. Power generating fabrics for clothing is of particular interest to the military where they would be used in uniforms and body armor where portable power is vital to field operations. In strong sunlight these power generating fabrics could be used as a primary source of energy, or they can be used in either direct sunlight or low light conditions to recharge batteries. Early in 2002, Konarka performed a series of proof-of-concept experiments to demonstrate the feasibility of building a photovoltaic cell using dye-sensitized titania and electrolyte on a metal wire core. The approach taken was based on the sequential coating processes used in making fiber optics, namely, a fiber core, e.g., a metal wire serving as the primary electrode, is passed through a series of vertically aligned coating cups. Each of the cups contains a coating fluid that has a specific function in the photocell. A second wire, used as the counter electrode, is brought into the process prior to entering the final coating cup. The latter contains a photopolymerizable, transparent cladding which hardens when passed through a UV chamber. Upon exiting the UV chamber, the finished PV fiber is spooled. Two hundred of foot lengths of PV fiber have been made using this process. When the fiber is exposed to visible radiation, it generates electrical power. The best efficiency exhibited by these fibers is 6% with an average value in the 4

  14. Curved Piezoelectric Actuators for Stretching Optical Fibers (United States)

    Allison, Sidney G.; Shams, Qamar A.; Fox, Robert L.


    Assemblies containing curved piezoceramic fiber composite actuators have been invented as means of stretching optical fibers by amounts that depend on applied drive voltages. Piezoceramic fiber composite actuators are conventionally manufactured as sheets or ribbons that are flat and flexible, but can be made curved to obtain load-carrying ability and displacement greater than those obtainable from the flat versions. In the primary embodiment of this invention, piezoceramic fibers are oriented parallel to the direction of longitudinal displacement of the actuators so that application of drive voltage causes the actuator to flatten, producing maximum motion. Actuator motion can be transmitted to the optical fiber by use of hinges and clamp blocks. In the original application of this invention, the optical fiber contains a Bragg grating and the purpose of the controlled stretching of the fiber is to tune the grating as part of a small, lightweight, mode-hop-free, rapidly tunable laser for demodulating strain in Bragg-grating strain-measurement optical fibers attached to structures. The invention could also be used to apply controllable tensile force or displacement to an object other than an optical fiber.

  15. Fiber Optics Technician. Curriculum Research Project. Final Report. (United States)

    Whittington, Herschel K.

    A study examined the role of technicians in the fiber optics industry and determined those elements that should be included in a comprehensive curriculum to prepare fiber optics technicians for employment in the Texas labor market. First the current literature, including the ERIC database and equipment manufacturers' journals were reviewed. After…

  16. Femtosecond laser additive manufacturing of YSZ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jian; Bai, Shuang [PolarOnyx, Inc., San Jose, CA (United States)


    Laser additive manufacturing (LAM) of Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) is investigated using femtosecond (fs) fiber lasers. Various processing conditions are studied, which leads to desired characteristics in terms of morphology, porosity, hardness, microstructural and mechanical properties of the processed components. High-density (>99%) YSZ part with refined grain and increased hardness was obtained. Microstructure features of fabricated specimens were studied with SEM, EDX, the measured micro hardness is achieved as high as 18.84 GPa. (orig.)

  17. Lightweight, high-opacity Bible paper by fiber loading (United States)

    Klaus Doelle; Oliver Heise; John H. Klungness; Said M. AbuBakr


    This paper has been prepared in order to discuss Fiber Loading™ for lightweight, high-opacity bible paper. Incorporating fillers within pulp fibers has been subject to research since 1960 (Green et al. 1962, Scallan et al. 1985, Allen et al. 1992). Fiber Loading™ is a method for manufacturing precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC) directly within the pulp processing...

  18. Fiber Scrambling for High Precision Spectrographs (United States)

    Kaplan, Zachary; Spronck, J. F. P.; Fischer, D.


    The detection of Earth-like exoplanets with the radial velocity method requires extreme Doppler precision and long-term stability in order to measure tiny reflex velocities in the host star. Recent planet searches have led to the detection of so called "super-Earths” (up to a few Earth masses) that induce radial velocity changes of about 1 m/s. However, the detection of true Earth analogs requires a precision of 10 cm/s. One of the largest factors limiting Doppler precision is variation in the Point Spread Function (PSF) from observation to observation due to changes in the illumination of the slit and spectrograph optics. Thus, this stability has become a focus of current instrumentation work. Fiber optics have been used since the 1980's to couple telescopes to high-precision spectrographs, initially for simpler mechanical design and control. However, fiber optics are also naturally efficient scramblers. Scrambling refers to a fiber's ability to produce an output beam independent of input. Our research is focused on characterizing the scrambling properties of several types of fibers, including circular, square and octagonal fibers. By measuring the intensity distribution after the fiber as a function of input beam position, we can simulate guiding errors that occur at an observatory. Through this, we can determine which fibers produce the most uniform outputs for the severest guiding errors, improving the PSF and allowing sub-m/s precision. However, extensive testing of fibers of supposedly identical core diameter, length and shape from the same manufacturer has revealed the "personality” of individual fibers. Personality describes differing intensity patterns for supposedly duplicate fibers illuminated identically. Here, we present our results on scrambling characterization as a function of fiber type, while studying individual fiber personality.

  19. Green Fiber Bottle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Didone, Mattia; Tosello, Guido

    has to have an inner coating barrier. The most reliable solution proposed is to coat the inner walls with silicon dioxide, which is not biodegradable but rather environmentally inert. To enhance the environmental footprint and sustainability of the bottle, and to be competitive with the existing...... technologies, the manufacturing technology for the production of the bottle has to offer the possibility of significant energy savings. Molded pulp products are made from wood fibers dispersed in water, and then they are formed, drained and dried. A relatively large quantity of resources (i.e. energy and time......) is consumed during the drying process. It is in this process stage that an innovative way of drying the products can be exploited by using the concept of impulse drying. Impulse drying is an advance drying technique in which water is removed from a wet paper pulp by the combination of mechanical pressure...

  20. Fabrication of Mineralized Collagen from Bovine Waste Materials by Hydrothermal Method as Promised Biomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sheikh, Faheem A.; Kanjwal, Muzafar Ahmed; Macossay, Javier


    In the present study, we aimed to produce mineralized-collagen by hydrothermal process. A simple method not depending on additional foreign chemicals has been employed to isolate the mineralized-collagen fibers from bovine waste. The process of extraction involves the use of hydrothermal method...... mineral content in the individual fibers. The X-ray diffraction showed the crystalline feature of the obtained nano-compounds. The thermo gravimetric analysis was used to differentiate between the collagen and mineral parts of obtained product. Overall, the results generously indicated production of well...

  1. Carbon Fiber from Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milbrandt, Anelia [Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center, Godlen, CO (United States); Booth, Samuel [Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center, Godlen, CO (United States)


    Carbon fiber (CF), known also as graphite fiber, is a lightweight, strong, and flexible material used in both structural (load-bearing) and non-structural applications (e.g., thermal insulation). The high cost of precursors (the starting material used to make CF, which comes predominately from fossil sources) and manufacturing have kept CF a niche market with applications limited mostly to high-performance structural materials (e.g., aerospace). Alternative precursors to reduce CF cost and dependence on fossil sources have been investigated over the years, including biomass-derived precursors such as rayon, lignin, glycerol, and lignocellulosic sugars. The purpose of this study is to provide a comprehensive overview of CF precursors from biomass and their market potential. We examine the potential CF production from these precursors, the state of technology and applications, and the production cost (when data are available). We discuss their advantages and limitations. We also discuss the physical properties of biomass-based CF, and we compare them to those of polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-based CF. We also discuss manufacturing and end-product considerations for bio-based CF, as well as considerations for plant siting and biomass feedstock logistics, feedstock competition, and risk mitigation strategies. The main contribution of this study is that it provides detailed technical and market information about each bio-based CF precursor in one document while other studies focus on one precursor at a time or a particular topic (e.g., processing). Thus, this publication allows for a comprehensive view of the CF potential from all biomass sources and serves as a reference for both novice and experienced professionals interested in CF production from alternative sources.

  2. Application Specific Optical Fibers


    Pal, Bishnu P.


    In this chapter we have attempted to provide a unified summary description of the most important propagation characteristics of an optical fiber followed by discussion on several variety of special fibers for realizing fiber amplifiers, dispersion compensating fibers, microstructured optical fibers, and so on. Even though huge progress has been made on development of optical fibers for telecom application, a need for developing special fibers, not necessarily for telecom alone, has arisen. Th...

  3. Appraising manufacturing location

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, H.J.; de Bruijn, E.J.


    International location of manufacturing activities is an issue for managers of manufacturing companies as well as public policy makers. For managers, the issue is relevant because international locations offer opportunities for lowering costs due to productivity improvements. For governments the

  4. Manufacturing engineering and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Kalpakjian, Serope; Vijai Sekar, K S


    For courses in manufacturing processes at two- or four-year schools. An up-to-date text that provides a solid background in manufacturing processes. Manufacturing Engineering and Technology, SI Edition, 7e, presents a mostly qualitative description of the science, technology, and practice of manufacturing. This includes detailed descriptions of manufacturing processes and the manufacturing enterprise that will help introduce students to important concepts. With a total of 120 examples and case studies, up-to-date and comprehensive coverage of all topics, and superior two-color graphics, this text provides a solid background for manufacturing students and serves as a valuable reference text for professionals. Teaching and Learning Experience To provide a better teaching and learning experience, for both instructors and students, this program will: * Apply Theory and/or Research: An excellent overview of manufacturing conceptswith a balance of relevant fundamentals and real-world practices. * Engage Students: E...

  5. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection (United States)

    Gaddy, Darrell; Nettles, Mindy


    The Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection Task started the development of a real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record for the additive manufacturing process using infrared camera imaging and processing techniques. This project will benefit additive manufacturing by providing real-time inspection of internal geometry that is not currently possible and reduce the time and cost of additive manufactured parts with automated real-time dimensional inspections which deletes post-production inspections.

  6. [Fusion implants of carbon fiber reinforced plastic]. (United States)

    Früh, H J; Liebetrau, A; Bertagnoli, R


    Carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) are used in the medical field when high mechanical strength, innovative design, and radiolucency (see spinal fusion implants) are needed. During the manufacturing process of the material CFRP carbon fibers are embedded into a resin matrix. This resin material could be thermoset (e.g., epoxy resin EPN/DDS) or thermoplastic (e.g., PEAK). CFRP is biocompatible, radiolucent, and has higher mechanical capabilities compared to other implant materials. This publication demonstrates the manufacturing process of fusion implants made of a thermoset matrix system using a fiber winding process. The material has been used clinically since 1994 for fusion implants of the cervical and lumbar spine. The results of the fusion systems CORNERSTONE-SR C (cervical) and UNION (lumbar) showed no implant-related complications. New implant systems made of this CFRP material are under investigation and are presented.

  7. Gamma ray irradiation characteristics of SM fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Ryuichi; Okano, Hiroaki; Hashiba, Keichi; Nakai, Hisanori


    1.3 μm range single mode (SM) optical fibers have been used for wide application of mainly long distance communication. At present, in order to realize the larger capacity and longer distance between relay points, the development of 1.5 μm range SM fibers of low dispersion and small loss has been actively promoted. As for the radiation withstanding property of SM fibers, report is scarce. The authors reported on the gamma ray irradiation characteristics of 1.3 μm range SM fibers, but since 1.5 μm range SM fibers are designed with the different structure from that of 1.3 μm fibers, it is necessary to evaluate from new viewpoint. In this report, mainly on the structure having triangular distribution, the effect that the manufacturing condition and the structural defects of glass exert on the gamma ray irradiation characteristics is described. The specimens were mainly dispersion shift type fibers (DSF), and for comparison, single window, double window and 1.3 μm SM fibers were examined. Co-60 gamma ray was irradiated, and the optical loss and electron spin resonance were measured. By low temperature and low speed drawing, the good result in the optical loss was obtained. The presence of oxygen at the time of sintering materials had no effect. The dependence of the ESR on the drawing condition was not very remarkable. (Kako, I.)

  8. Construction Minerals Operations (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes construction minerals operations in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team (MIT) of the...

  9. Agricultural Minerals Operations (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes agricultural minerals operations in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team (MIT) of the...

  10. Report on achievements in fiscal 1999 on research and development of the glycocluster controlled biological molecule synthesizing under the industrial and scientific technology research and development theme [university collaborated type]. Bio-fiber manufacturing technology of glycocluster utilizing type; 1999 nendo glycocluster seigyo seitai bunshi gosei gijutsu seika hokokusho (glycocluster riyogata bio sen'i seizo gijutsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This paper describes the achievements in fiscal 1999 on development of the technology to manufacture glycocluster controlled biological molecules, particularly bio-fibers. It was made clear for the first time that the method for synthesizing glycoside and sugar chain using solid ultra-strong acid can be a new method for polysaccharide synthesis (polycondensation reaction) which is extremely simple and versatile as a result of using the solid ultra-strong acid. It can also be applied to general glycoside synthesis. In glycopeptide synthesis of the regular sequence type using high-functional condensation reaction, such a condensation agent as diphenyl phosphoryl azide was found effective in polymerization reaction without protection of glycopeptide, which has been impossible conventionally, and was found to have high versatility as a method for synthesizing mucin glycoproteins widely distributed naturally. In simplified synthesis of physiologically active glycopeptide, notice was given to tyrosine which is not glycosylated in the natural world, even though having hydroxyl groups in side chains as in serine and threonine. A method was established to introduce sugar chains into this hydroxyl group. This method exhibits power also in the synthesis of physiologically active glycopeptide of non-natural type. The paper describes also the comprehensive survey. (NEDO)

  11. Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center (CEMAC) 2015 Research Highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodhouse, Michael; Mone, Christopher; Chung, Donald; Elgqvist, Emma; Das, Sujit; Mann, Margaret; Gossett, Scott


    CEMAC has conducted four major studies on the manufacturing of clean energy technologies. Three of these focused on the end product: solar photovoltaic modules, wind turbines, and automotive lithium-ion batteries. The fourth area focused on a key material for manufacturing clean energy technologies, carbon fiber. This booklet summarizes key findings of CEMAC work to date, describes CEMAC's research methodology, and describes work to come.

  12. Evaluation of Additive Manufacturing for Composite Part Molds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duty, Chad E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Springfield, Robert M. [Tru Design, LLC, Knoxville, TN (United States)


    The ORNL Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) collaborated with Tru-Design to test the quality and durability of molds used for making fiber reinforced composites using additive manufacturing. The partners developed surface treatment techniques including epoxy coatings and machining to improve the quality of the surface finish. Test samples made using the printed and surface finished molds demonstrated life spans suitable for one-of-a-kind and low-volume applications, meeting the project objective.

  13. Mineral commodity summaries 2015 (United States)



    Each chapter of the 2015 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS) includes information on events, trends, and issues for each mineral commodity as well as discussions and tabular presentations on domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, 5-year salient statistics, and world production and resources. The MCS is the earliest comprehensive source of 2014 mineral production data for the world. More than 90 individual minerals and materials are covered by two-page synopses.

  14. Permeability characterization of stitched carbon fiber preforms by fiber optic sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Antonucci


    Full Text Available The in-plane and through thickness permeability of unidirectional stitched carbon fiber preforms have been determined through vacuum infusion tests. The impregnation of various dry preforms with different stitching characteristics has been monitored by fiber optic sensors that have been stitched together with the dry tow to manufacture the dry preform. The experimental infusion times have been fitted by a numerical procedure based on Finite Element (FE processing simulations. A good agreement between the numerical and experimental infusion times has been found demonstrating the potentiality of the fiber sensor system as suitable tool to evaluate impregnation times and permeability characteristics.

  15. ACE - Manufacturer Identification Code (MID) (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The ACE Manufacturer Identification Code (MID) application is used to track and control identifications codes for manufacturers. A manufacturer is identified on an...

  16. The development of nonwoven fabric and agricultural bed soil using kapok fiber for industrial usages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Byung Yeoup; Kim, Jin Hong; Lee, Seung Sik


    The purpose of this project is the development of nonwoven fabric using natural kapok fiber and synthetic fiber for industrial usages and the development of manufacturing techniques for nursery bed soil using kapok fiber. Research scopes include the development of agricultural bed soil using kapok fiber and nonwoven fabric using kapok fiber. Main results are as follow; the physico-chemical characterization of kapok fiber (water holding capacity, bulk density, water retention curve, viscoelastic measurement, oil adsorption capacity, analysis of essential elements, measurement of anion and cation); the physico-chemical characterization of kapok bed soil; the evidence experiment of kapok bed soil; the optimum content of kapok fiber and synthetic fiber for nonwoven fabric; establishment of the optimum radiation dose for manufacturing kapok nonwoven fabric

  17. Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer with Shredded Fibers: Quasi-Isotropic Material Properties and Antenna Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Artner


    Full Text Available A carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP laminate, with the top layer consisting of shredded fibers, is proposed and manufactured. The shredded fibers are aligned randomly on the surface to achieve a more isotropic conductivity, as is desired in antenna applications. Moreover, fiber shreds can be recycled from carbon fiber composites. Conductivity, permittivity, and permeability are obtained with the Nicolson-Ross-Weir method from material samples measured inside rectangular waveguides in the frequency range of 4 to 6 GHz. The decrease in material anisotropy results in negligible influence on antennas. This is shown by measuring the proposed CFRP as ground plane material for both a narrowband wire monopole antenna for 5.9 GHz and an ultrawideband conical monopole antenna for 1–10 GHz. For comparison, all measurements are repeated with a twill-weave CFRP.

  18. High pumping-power fiber combiner for double-cladding fiber lasers and amplifiers (United States)

    Zheng, Jinkun; Zhao, Wei; Zhao, Baoyin; Li, Zhe; Chang, Chang; Li, Gang; Gao, Qi; Ju, Pei; Gao, Wei; She, Shengfei; Wu, Peng; Hou, Chaoqi; Li, Weinan


    A high pumping-power fiber combiner for backward pumping configurations is fabricated and demonstrated by manufacturing process refinement. The pump power handling capability of every pump fiber can extend to 600 W, corresponding to the average pump coupling efficiency of 94.83%. Totally, 2.67-kW output power with the beam quality factor M2 of 1.41 was obtained, using this combiner in the fiber amplifier experimental setup. In addition, the temperature of the splicing region was less than 50.0°C in the designed combiner under the action of circulating cooling water. The experimental results prove that the designed combiner is a promising integrated all-fiber device for multikilowatt continuous-wave fiber laser with excellent beam quality.

  19. Advanced stabilization of PAN fibers for fabrication of carbon fibers by e-beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeun, Joon Pyo; Kim, Du Young; Shin, Hye Kyoung; Kang, Phil Hyun; Park, Jung Ki


    In recent years, the carbon fiber industry has been growing rapidly to meet the demand from efferent industries such as aerospace, military, turbine blades, light weight cylinders and pressure vessels. Generally, carbon fibers are manufactured by a controlled pyrolysis of stabilized precursor fiber such as polyacrylonitrile (PAN). In the stabilization step, the linear PAN molecules are first converted to cyclic structure. However, cyclization is a very complicated process and there are still differences of opinion on the reaction mechanisms. Photo-induced crosslinking and stabilization of PAN via ion beam, X-ray, gamma ray and UV irradiation has been reported in the literature. However, the process required a long stabilization time. In this work, a new and highly effective method of pretreatment PAN precursor fiber was described. The effect of the e-beam on the stabilization process of the fibers was investigated using differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement

  20. Ply-based Optimization of Laminated Composite Shell Structures under Manufacturing Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Rene; Lund, Erik


    This work concerns a new ply-based parameterization for performing simultaneous material selection and topology optimization of fiber reinforced laminated composite structures while ensuring that a series of different manufacturing constraints are fulfilled. The material selection can either...

  1. Optofluidic in-fiber interferometer based on hollow optical fiber with two cores. (United States)

    Yuan, Tingting; Yang, Xinghua; Liu, Zhihai; Yang, Jun; Li, Song; Kong, Depeng; Qi, Xiuxiu; Yu, Wenting; Long, Qunlong; Yuan, Libo


    We demonstrate a novel integrated optical fiber interferometer for in-fiber optofluidic detection. It is composed of a specially designed hollow optical fiber with a micro-channel and two cores. One core on the inner surface of the micro-channel is served as sensing arm and the other core in the annular cladding is served as reference arm. Fusion-and-tapering method is employed to couple light from a single mode fiber to the hollow optical fiber in this device. Sampling is realized by side opening a microhole on the surface of the hollow optical fiber. Under differential pressure between the end of the hollow fiber and the microhole, the liquids can form steady microflows in the micro-channel. Simultaneously, the interference spectrum of the interferometer device shifts with the variation of the concentration of the microfluid in the channel. The optofluidic in-fiber interferometer has a sensitivity of refractive index around 2508 nm/RIU for NaCl. For medicine concentration detection, its sensitivity is 0.076 nm/mmolL -1 for ascorbic acid. Significantly, this work presents a compact microfluidic in-fiber interferometer with a micro-channel which can be integrated with chip devices without spatial optical coupling and without complex manufacturing procedure of the waveguide on the chips.

  2. Development of eddy current probe for fiber orientation assessment in carbon fiber composites (United States)

    Wincheski, Russell A.; Zhao, Selina


    Measurement of the fiber orientation in a carbon fiber composite material is crucial in understanding the load carrying capability of the structure. As manufacturing conditions including resin flow and molding pressures can alter fiber orientation, verification of the as-designed fiber layup is necessary to ensure optimal performance of the structure. In this work, the development of an eddy current probe and data processing technique for analysis of fiber orientation in carbon fiber composites is presented. A proposed directional eddy current probe is modeled and its response to an anisotropic multi-layer conductor simulated. The modeling results are then used to finalize specifications of the eddy current probe. Experimental testing of the fabricated probe is presented for several samples including a truncated pyramid part with complex fiber orientation draped to the geometry for resin transfer molding. The inductively coupled single sided measurement enables fiber orientation characterization through the thickness of the part. The fast and cost-effective technique can be applied as a spot check or as a surface map of the fiber orientations across the structure. This paper will detail the results of the probe design, computer simulations, and experimental results.

  3. Detection of mineral impurities in diatomite ores


    Guatame Garcia, L.A.; Buxton, M.W.N.; Fiore, Saverio


    Diatomaceous Earth (DE) is commonly used in the industry for the manufacturing of filters, where diatomite is preferred due to its low chemical reactivity and high porosity. Diatomite deposits with major amounts of mineral impurities, such as carbonates, present a problem in the production DE. In this study, samples from a diatomite deposit with known presence of carbonate were analysed. With the aim of estimating the carbonate content, the samples were analysed with infrared (IR) spectroscop...

  4. Analysis of Capillary Coating Die Flow in an Optical Fiber Coating Applicator


    Kyoungjin Kim


    Viscous heating becomes significant in the high speed resin coating process of glass fibers for optical fiber manufacturing. This study focuses on the coating resin flows inside the capillary coating die of optical fiber coating applicator and they are numerically simulated to examine the effects of viscous heating and subsequent temperature increase in coating resin. Resin flows are driven by fast moving glass fiber and the pressurization at the coating die inlet, while ...

  5. Fiber optics physics and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Mitschke, Fedor


    This book tells you all you want to know about optical fibers: Their structure, their light-guiding mechanism, their material and manufacture, their use. It began with telephone, then came telefax and email. Today we use search engines, music downloads and internet videos, all of which require shuffling of bits and bytes by the zillions. The key to all this is the conduit: the line which is designed to carry massive amounts of data at breakneck speed. In their data carrying capacity optical fiber lines beat all other technologies (copper cable, microwave beacons, satellite links) hands down, at least in the long haul; wireless devices rely on fibers, too. Several effects tend to degrade the signal as it travels down the fiber: they are spelled out in detail. Nonlinear processes are given due consideration for a twofold reason: On the one hand they are fundamentally different from the more familiar processes in electrical cable. On the other hand, they form the basis of particularly interesting and innovative ...

  6. Fissure minerals, literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, S.Aa.


    This paper is a review of methods used for direct and indirect dating of tectonic events. Isotope geochemistry including stable isotopes as well as fission track- dating, fluid inclusion and thermoluminescens techniques have been considered. It has been concluded that an investigation of tectonic (and thermal) events should start with a detailed study of the mineral phases grown in seald fissures as well as minerals from fissure walls. This study should include phase identification, textures as well as mineral chemistry. The information from this study is fundamental for the decision of further investigations. Mineral chemistry including isotopes and fluid inclusion studies will give an essential knowledge about crystallization conditions for fissure minerals concerned. Direct dating using fission tracks as well as radioactive isotopes could be useful for some minerals. Application of thermoluminescens dating on fissure minerals is doubtful. (Auth.)

  7. Physical and thermal behavior of cement composites reinforced with recycled waste paper fibers (United States)

    Hospodarova, Viola; Stevulova, Nadezda; Vaclavik, Vojtech; Dvorsky, Tomas


    In this study, three types of recycled waste paper fibers were used to manufacture cement composites reinforced with recycled cellulosic fibers. Waste cellulosic fibers in quantity of 0.2, 0.3, and 0.5 wt.% were added to cement mixtures. Physical properties such as density, water capillarity, water absorbability and thermal conductivity of fiber cement composites were studied after 28 days of hardening. However, durability of composites was tested after their water storage up to 90 days. Final results of tested properties of fiber cement composites were compared with cement reference sample without cellulosic fibers.

  8. Fiber Orientation Effects in Fused Filament Fabrication of Air-Cooled Heat Exchangers (United States)

    Mulholland, T.; Goris, S.; Boxleitner, J.; Osswald, T. A.; Rudolph, N.


    Fused filament fabrication (FFF) is a type of additive manufacturing based on material extrusion that has long been considered a prototyping technology. However, the right application of material, process, and product can be used for manufacturing of end-use products, such as air-cooled heat exchangers made by adding fillers to the base polymer, enhancing the thermal conductivity. Fiber fillers lead to anisotropic thermal conductivity, which is governed by the process-induced fiber orientation. This article presents an experimental study on the microstructure-property relationship for carbon fiber-filled polyamide used in FFF. The fiber orientation is measured by micro-computed tomography, and the thermal conductivity of manufactured samples is measured. Although the thermal conductivity is raised by more than three times in the fiber orientation direction at a load of only 12 vol.%, the enhancement is low in the other directions, and this anisotropy, along with certain manufacturing restrictions, influences the final part performance.

  9. Measuring Manufacturing Innovativeness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blichfeldt, Henrik; Knudsen, Mette Præst


    Globalization and customization increases the pressure on manufacturing companies, and the ability to provide innovativeness is a potential source of competitive advantage. This paper positions the manufacturing entity in the innovation process, and investigates the relation between innovation vers...... technology and organizational concepts. Based on Danish survey data from the European Manufacturing Survey (EMS-2015) this paper finds that there is a relation between innovative companies, and their level of technology and use of organizational concepts. Technology and organizational concepts act...... as manufacturing levers to support the manufacturing and production system to provide innovativeness. The managerial implication lies in building manufacturing capabilities to support the innovative process, by standardization, optimization and creating stability in combination with automation and advanced...

  10. Studies on the preparation of value-added products for industrial minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report consists of 2 subjects. 1) Studies on the preparation of value-added products for limestone: This study has investigated to raise to high grade by economical processes with low grade of domestic limestone. We investigated the status of application utilize and related industries with the domestic limestone, and then being consideration with condition selected the adequate sample from Andong, Jungsun and Kumsan area. Magnetic materials were involved in impurities of sample, so magnetic separation method was applied in elimination of the ferro- and para-magnetic materials, such as chlorite, muscovite, quartz, dolomite, magnetite, feldspar and so on. Investigation of flotation was undertaken to eliminate impurities from limestone crude ore and the tests were performed to get a optimum condition adding oleic acid as a promoter, sodium silicate and sodium carbonate as a conditioning agents and MIBC as a frother, while to float the sulfide minerals added amyl xanthate as a promoter, and sulfuric acid as a pH regulator. Selective crushing and classification methods were performed to eliminate impurities depends on the mineral properties and should be the selective crushing methods are very useful at the manufacturing factory of heavy calcium carbonate with the dry milling system. 2) A study on development of value added technology of pyrophyllite and dickite: Pyrophyllite and dickite have being utilized as refractories, ceramics, cement, fiber glass, paper, rubber, paints etc. However, there are not any domestic companies to produce fillers of pyrophyllite and dickite for plastic and rubber. Moreover, several kinds of fillers are imported every year with expensive price for plastic and rubber filler. This study has purpose to develop manufacturing technologies to produce fillers for plastic and rubber of pyrophyllite and dickite. The chemical and mineralogical properties of samples, the optimum grinding condition and device for producing plastic fillers and

  11. Laser polishing of additive manufactured Ti alloys (United States)

    Ma, C. P.; Guan, Y. C.; Zhou, W.


    Laser-based additive manufacturing has attracted much attention as a promising 3D printing method for metallic components in recent years. However, surface roughness of additive manufactured components has been considered as a challenge to achieve high performance. In this work, we demonstrate the capability of fiber laser in polishing rough surface of additive manufactured Ti-based alloys as Ti-6Al-4V and TC11. Both as-received surface and laser-polished surfaces as well as cross-section subsurfaces were analyzed carefully by White-Light Interference, Confocal Microscope, Focus Ion Beam, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive Spectrometer, and X-ray Diffraction. Results revealed that as-received Ti-based alloys with surface roughness more than 5 μm could be reduce to less than 1 μm through laser polishing process. Moreover, microstructure, microhardness and wear resistance of laser-polished zone was investigated in order to examine the thermal effect of laser polishing processing on the substrate of additive manufactured Ti alloys. This proof-of-concept process has the potential to effectively improve the surface roughness of additive manufactured metallic alloy by local polishing method without damage to the substrate.

  12. Grouping Minerals by Their Formulas (United States)

    Mulvey, Bridget


    Minerals are commonly taught in ways that emphasize mineral identification for its own sake or maybe to help identify rocks. But how do minerals fit in with other science content taught? The author uses mineral formulas to help Earth science students wonder about the connection between elements, compounds, mixtures, minerals, and mineral formulas.…

  13. Structural characterization and mechanical properties of polypropylene reinforced natural fibers (United States)

    Karim, M. A. A.; Zaman, I.; Rozlan, S. A. M.; Berhanuddin, N. I. C.; Manshoor, B.; Mustapha, M. S.; Khalid, A.; Chan, S. W.


    Recently the development of natural fiber composite instead of synthetics fiber has lead to eco-friendly product manufacturing to meet various applications in the field of automotive, construction and manufacturing. The use of natural fibers offer an alternative to the reinforcing fibers because of their good mechanical properties, low density, renewability, and biodegradability. In this present research, the effects of maleic anhydride polypropylene (MAPP) on the mechanical properties and material characterization behaviour of kenaf fiber and coir fiber reinforced polypropylene were investigated. Different fractions of composites with 10wt%, 20wt% and 30wt% fiber content were prepared by using brabender mixer at 190°C. The 3wt% MAPP was added during the mixing. The composites were subsequently molded with injection molding to prepare the test specimens. The mechanical properties of the samples were investigated according to ISO 527 to determine the tensile strength and modulus. These results were also confirmed by the SEM machine observations of fracture surface of composites and FTIR analysis of the chemical structure. As the results, the presence of MAPP helps increasing the mechanical properties of both fibers and 30wt% kenaf fiber with 3wt% MAPP gives the best result compare to others.

  14. Proximate composition and mineral profile of eight different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... eight different sun dried date varieties; (1) Daki, (2) Aseel, (3) Coconut, (4) Khuzravi, (5) Halavi, (6) Zahidi, (7) Deglet Noor and (8) Barkavi were examined to determine their proximate composition and mineral profile. All the date varieties were found to be rich in proteins, fiber, carbohydrates and net gross energy (352.329 ...

  15. Minerals and trace elements in domesticated Namibian Ganoderma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The minerals and trace elements in domesticated Namibian Ganoderma mushroom species were determined. The results show that fiber content was found highest with 45 g/100 g of dry weight, followed by calcium with 23 g/100 g, carbohydrate with 23 g/100 g, protein with 18.2 g/100 g, iron with 6.41 g/100 g, copper with ...

  16. Fabrication and characterization of special microstructured fibers (United States)

    Kobelke, J.; Schuster, K.; Schwuchow, A.; Litzkendorf, D.; Spittel, R.; Kirchhof, J.; Bartelt, H.


    Microstructured optical fibers (MOFs) as a novel type of light guiding media typically combine structural elements with very different chemical and optical behavior, e.g. silica - air, silica - high refractive index glasses. The applicative potential is very manifold: devices for telecommunication, nonlinear optics, sensing devices, fiber based gas lasers, etc. We report about preparation and characterization of selected total internal reflection (TIR) guiding MOFs: Air Clad Fiber, Suspended Core Fiber and heavy metal oxide (HMO) glass core MOFs. We fabricated Air Clad Fibers with extreme air fraction. The bridge width of about 0.13 μm corresponds to a numerical aperture (NA) of about 0.6. Suspended core fibers for evanescent sensing were prepared by pressurized drawing of arrangements of three and four capillaries. By inflating the cavities the NA was increased up to 0.68. Material combined MOFs were prepared for nonlinear application (e.g. supercontinuum generation) with lanthanum aluminum silicate glass core. Thermochemical and optical behaviors of high nonlinear core glass candidates were investigated for alumina concentration up to 20 mol% and lanthanum oxide concentration up to 24 mol% in silica matrix. The manufactured HMO glass core MOF with a La2O3 concentration of 10 mol% shows a similar background loss level like the unstructured HMO glass fiber about 1 dB/m.

  17. Manufacturing ontology through templates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diciuc Vlad


    Full Text Available The manufacturing industry contains a high volume of knowhow and of high value, much of it being held by key persons in the company. The passing of this know-how is the basis of manufacturing ontology. Among other methods like advanced filtering and algorithm based decision making, one way of handling the manufacturing ontology is via templates. The current paper tackles this approach and highlights the advantages concluding with some recommendations.

  18. Manufacturing knowledge management strategy


    Shaw , Duncan; Edwards , John


    Abstract The study sought to understand the components of knowledge management strategy from the perspective of staff in UK manufacturing organisations. To analyse this topic we took an empirical approach and collaborated with two manufacturing organisations. Our main finding centres on the key components of a knowledge management strategy, and the relationships between it and manufacturing strategy and corporate strategy. Other findings include: the nature of knowledge in manufact...

  19. Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering | Classification | College of (United States)

    Electrical Engineering Instructional Laboratories Student Resources Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Academic Programs Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Major Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Minor Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering

  20. Strategic Roles of Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Cheng

    with the trend of globalisation, how do industrial companies develop their global manufacturing networks? These two questions are actually interlinked. On the one hand, facing increasing offshoring and outsourcing of production activities, industrial companies have to understand how to develop their global...... manufacturing networks. On the other hand, ongoing globalisation also brings tremendous impacts to post-industrial economies (e.g. Denmark). A dilemma therefore arises, i.e. whether it is still necessary to keep manufacturing in these post-industrial economies; if yes, what kinds of roles manufacturing should...

  1. Composite Structures Manufacturing Facility (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Composite Structures Manufacturing Facility specializes in the design, analysis, fabrication and testing of advanced composite structures and materials for both...

  2. Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The U.S. Department of Energy Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) provides a collaborative, shared infrastructure to...

  3. Advanced Manufacturing Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Advanced Manufacturing Laboratory at the University of Maryland provides the state of the art facilities for realizing next generation products and educating the...

  4. Pretreatment process for mineral analysis in FFH using INAA-method and evaluation of mineral intakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ok Hee; Youn, Kyung Jin; Lee, Ji Bum; Kim, Mi Jin


    This study were aimed to set up the pre-treatment process for FFH and analyse Pretreatment processes for the analysis of food mineral contents by INAA were established according to FFH state using freeze-drying and homogenization. The Se contents showed higher precision with INAA-method than ICP-method. The content of Ca, Na, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Cr, Co in FFH measured using INAA-method showed that the mineral contents in the amount of recommended intakes by manufacturer were not significantly different according to FFH type. The average Ca contents was the highest in Yousanguns > nutritional supplement> glucosamines. The average K content of FFH with one serving size were the highest in glucosamines>aloes> nutritional supplements. I content among FFH was the highest in nutritional supplements. The average Mg contents were highest in Chlorella-Spirurina and Aloes. The average Cu content of FFH was the highest in Yeasts. The contents of Fe, Zn and Se were the highest in nutritional supplements. The mineral contents in recommended intake amounts by manufacturer were over the maximum contents regulated by Korean FDA in some imported FFH products. their mineral contents of FFH using NAA-method and to assess the mineral intakes by FFH

  5. Pretreatment process for mineral analysis in FFH using INAA-method and evaluation of mineral intakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ok Hee; Youn, Kyung Jin; Lee, Ji Bum; Kim, Mi Jin [Yongin University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)


    This study were aimed to set up the pre-treatment process for FFH and analyse Pretreatment processes for the analysis of food mineral contents by INAA were established according to FFH state using freeze-drying and homogenization. The Se contents showed higher precision with INAA-method than ICP-method. The content of Ca, Na, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Cr, Co in FFH measured using INAA-method showed that the mineral contents in the amount of recommended intakes by manufacturer were not significantly different according to FFH type. The average Ca contents was the highest in Yousanguns > nutritional supplement> glucosamines. The average K content of FFH with one serving size were the highest in glucosamines>aloes> nutritional supplements. I content among FFH was the highest in nutritional supplements. The average Mg contents were highest in Chlorella-Spirurina and Aloes. The average Cu content of FFH was the highest in Yeasts. The contents of Fe, Zn and Se were the highest in nutritional supplements. The mineral contents in recommended intake amounts by manufacturer were over the maximum contents regulated by Korean FDA in some imported FFH products. their mineral contents of FFH using NAA-method and to assess the mineral intakes by FFH

  6. Highly phosphorescent hollow fibers inner-coated with tungstate nanocrystals (United States)

    Ng, Pui Fai; Bai, Gongxun; Si, Liping; Lee, Ka I.; Hao, Jianhua; Xin, John H.; Fei, Bin


    In order to develop luminescent microtubes from natural fibers, a facile biomimetic mineralization method was designed to introduce the CaWO4-based nanocrystals into kapok lumens. The structure, composition, and luminescence properties of resultant fibers were investigated with microscopes, x-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, and fluorescence spectrometry. The yield of tungstate crystals inside kapok was significantly promoted with a process at high temperature and pressure—the hydrothermal treatment. The tungstate crystals grown on the inner wall of kapok fibers showed the same crystal structure with those naked powders, but smaller in crystal size. The resultant fiber assemblies demonstrated reduced phosphorescence intensity in comparison to the naked tungstate powders. However, the fibers gave more stable luminescence than the naked powders in wet condition. This approach explored the possibility of decorating natural fibers with high load of nanocrystals, hinting potential applications in anti-counterfeit labels, security textiles, and even flexible and soft optical devices.

  7. A Pathway to Reduce Energy Consumption in the Thermal Stabilization Process of Carbon Fiber Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Nunna


    Full Text Available Process parameters, especially in the thermal stabilization of polyacrylonitrile (PAN fibers, play a critical role in controlling the cost and properties of the resultant carbon fibers. This study aimed to efficiently handle the energy expense areas during carbon fiber manufacturing without reducing the quality of carbon fibers. We introduced a new parameter (recirculation fan frequency in the stabilization stage and studied its influence on the evolution of the structure and properties of fibers. Initially, the progress of the cyclization reaction in the fiber cross-sections with respect to fan frequencies (35, 45, and 60 Hz during stabilization was analyzed using the Australian Synchrotron-high resolution infrared imaging technique. A parabolic trend in the evolution of cyclic structures was observed in the fiber cross-sections during the initial stages of stabilization; however, it was transformed to a uniform trend at the end of stabilization for all fan frequencies. Simultaneously, the microstructure and property variations at each stage of manufacturing were assessed. We identified nominal structural variations with respect to fan frequencies in the intermediate stages of thermal stabilization, which were reduced during the carbonization process. No statistically significant variations were observed between the tensile properties of fibers. These observations suggested that, when using a lower fan frequency (35 Hz, it was possible to manufacture carbon fibers with a similar performance to those produced using a higher fan frequency (60 Hz. As a result, this study provided an opportunity to reduce the energy consumption during carbon fiber manufacturing.

  8. 43 CFR 19.8 - Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest... (United States)


    ... patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness. 19.8 Section 19.8 Public Lands: Interior... § 19.8 Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest... locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness are contained in parts...

  9. Durability of pulp fiber-cement composites (United States)

    Mohr, Benjamin J.

    Wood pulp fibers are a unique reinforcing material as they are non-hazardous, renewable, and readily available at relatively low cost compared to other commercially available fibers. Today, pulp fiber-cement composites can be found in products such as extruded non-pressure pipes and non-structural building materials, mainly thin-sheet products. Although natural fibers have been used historically to reinforce various building materials, little scientific effort has been devoted to the examination of natural fibers to reinforce engineering materials until recently. The need for this type of fundamental research has been emphasized by widespread awareness of moisture-related failures of some engineered materials; these failures have led to the filing of national- and state-level class action lawsuits against several manufacturers. Thus, if pulp fiber-cement composites are to be used for exterior structural applications, the effects of cyclical wet/dry (rain/heat) exposure on performance must be known. Pulp fiber-cement composites have been tested in flexure to examine the progression of strength and toughness degradation. Based on scanning electron microscopy (SEM), environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), a three-part model describing the mechanisms of progressive degradation has been proposed: (1) initial fiber-cement/fiber interlayer debonding, (2) reprecipitation of crystalline and amorphous ettringite within the void space at the former fiber-cement interface, and (3) fiber embrittlement due to reprecipitation of calcium hydroxide filling the spaces within the fiber cell wall structure. Finally, as a means to mitigate kraft pulp fiber-cement composite degradation, the effects of partial portland cement replacement with various supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) has been investigated for their effect on mitigating kraft pulp fiber-cement composite mechanical property degradation (i.e., strength and toughness

  10. Radioactive mineral deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This publication was designed as a guide for uranium and thorium prospectors in Australia. Physical properties, such as color, streak, luster, hardness, fracture, and specific gravity of the uranium and thorium-bearing minerals are summarized and the various methods suitable for detecting radioactivity in minerals are described. Two colored plates show samples of pitchblende (uraninite), autunite, carnotite, monazite, and others of the most important minerals sources of uranium and thorium.

  11. Additive Manufacturing of Ultem Polymers and Composites (United States)

    Chuang, Kathy C.; Grady, Joseph E.; Draper, Robert D.; Shin, Euy-Sik E.; Patterson, Clark; Santelle, Thomas D.


    The objective of this project was to conduct additive manufacturing to produce aircraft engine components by Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM), using commercially available polyetherimdes Ultem 9085 and experimental Ultem 1000 filled with 10 chopped carbon fiber. A property comparison between FDM-printed and injection molded coupons for Ultem 9085, Ultem 1000 resin and the fiber-filled composite Ultem 1000 was carried out. Furthermore, an acoustic liner was printed from Ultem 9085 simulating conventional honeycomb structured liners and tested in a wind tunnel. Composite compressor inlet guide vanes were also printed using fiber-filled Ultem 1000 filaments and tested in a cascade rig. The fiber-filled Ultem 1000 filaments and composite vanes were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and acid digestion to determine the porosity of FDM-printed articles which ranged from 25-31. Coupons of Ultem 9085, experimental Ultem 1000 composites and XH6050 resin were tested at room temperature and 400F to evaluate their corresponding mechanical properties.

  12. Method of manufacturing neutron protecting materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakibana, Hidetake; Okamoto, Masazane; Fujii, Yasuhiko; Koguchi, Noboru; Takesute, Morihito; Miyamatsu, Tokuhisa


    Purpose: To manufacture neutron protecting materials which are highly flexible and can be shaped with ease at a good workability. Method: In this invention, natural lithium, natural boron such as Li-6 or B-10 or enriched isotope thereof with a great neutron absorption cross section is fixed to fibers. As a specific example, lumps of copolymer fibers are fabricated into weave sheets in a carding machine and applied with needle punching to prepare felt-like products. They are conditioned to OH or H type, which are respectively immersed in saturated aqueous boric acid or 1M-aqueous solution of lithium hydroxide and then dewatered and dried. As a result, boric acid type anion exchange fibers and lithium type cation exchange fibers can be obtained from the former and the latter respectively. In this way, blankets or cloths which are light in weight, flexible and have high neutron absorbing performance can be shaped. They are also in good fitting contact to a human body. (Kamimura, M.).

  13. Brazilian minerals annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Statistics of Brazilian mineral resources and production in 1977 are presented. Data included refer also to economic aspects, market, taxes, government incentives, manpower, exportation, importation, etc [pt

  14. Minerals industry survey, 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This is the seventh edition of the statistical survey commissioned by the Australian Mining Industry Council. It represents the most comprehensive review of the financial position of the Australian minerals industry and provides timely financial data on the minerals industry. The tables of this survey have been prepared for AMIC by Coopers and Lybrand, Chartered Accountants, based on information supplied to them in confidence by the respondent companies. For the purpose of the survey, the minerals industry has been defined as including exploration for, and extraction and primary processing of, minerals in Australia. The oil and gas industry is not included.

  15. Reagan issues mineral policy (United States)

    The National Materials and Minerals Program plan and report that President Reagan sent to Congress on April 5 aims to ‘decrease America's minerals vulnerability’ while reducing future dependence on potentially unstable foreign sources of minerals. These goals would be accomplished by taking inventory of federal lands to determine mineral potential; by meeting the stockpile goals set by the Strategic and Critical Material Stockpiling Act; and by establishing a business and political climate that would encourage private-sector research and development on minerals.Now that the Administration has issued its plan, the Subcommittee on Mines and Mining of the House Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs will consider the National Minerals Security Act (NMSA), which was introduced 1 year ago by subcommittee chairman Jim Santini (D-Nev.) [Eos, May 19, 1981, p. 497]. The bill calls for establishing a three-member White-House-level council to coordinate the development of a national minerals policy; amending tax laws to assist the mining industry to make capital investments to locate and produce strategic materials; and creating a revolving fund for the sale and purchase of strategic minerals. In addition, the NMSA bill would allow the secretary of the interior to make previously withdrawn public lands available for mineral development. The subcommittee will hold a hearing on the Administration's plan on May 11. Interior Secretary James Watt has been invited to testify.

  16. International mineral economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gocht, W.R.; Eggert, R.G.


    International Mineral Economics provides an integrated overview of the important concepts. The treatment is interdisciplinary, drawing on the fields of economics, geology, business, and mining engineering. Part I examines the technical concepts important for understanding the geology of ore deposits, the methods of exploration and deposit evaluation, and the activities of mining and mineral processing. Part II focuses on the economic and related concepts important for understanding mineral development, the evaluation of exploration and mining projects, and mineral markets and market models. Finally, Part III reviews and traces the historical development of the policies of international organizations, the industrialized countries, and the developing countries. (orig.)

  17. Mineral statistics yearbook 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    A summary of mineral production in Saskatchewan was compiled and presented as a reference manual. Statistical information on fuel minerals such as crude oil, natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas and coal, and of industrial and metallic minerals, such as potash, sodium sulphate, salt and uranium, was provided in all conceivable variety of tables. Production statistics, disposition and value of sales of industrial and metallic minerals were also made available. Statistical data on drilling of oil and gas reservoirs and crown land disposition were also included. figs., tabs

  18. Marine Mineral Exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    in EEZ areas are fairly unknown; many areas need detailed mapping and mineral exploration, and the majority of coastal or island states with large EEZ areas have little experience in exploration for marine hard minerals. This book describes the systematic steps in marine mineral exploration....... Such exploration requires knowledge of mineral deposits and models of their formation, of geophysical and geochemical exploration methods, and of data evaluation and interpretation methods. These topics are described in detail by an international group of authors. A short description is also given of marine...

  19. Feasibility of using Big Area Additive Manufacturing to Directly Manufacture Boat Molds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Post, Brian K. [ORNL; Chesser, Phillip C. [ORNL; Lind, Randall F. [ORNL; Sallas, Matthew R. [ORNL; Love, Lonnie J. [ORNL


    The goal of this project was to explore the feasibility of using Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) to directly manufacture a boat mold without the need for coatings. All prior tooling projects with BAAM required the use to thick coatings to overcome the surface finish limitations of the BAAM process. While the BAAM process significantly lowers the cost of building the mold, the high cost element rapidly became the coatings (cost of the material, labor on coating, and finishing). As an example, the time and cost to manufacture the molds for the Wind Turbine project with TPI Composites Inc. and the molds for the submarine project with Carderock Naval Warfare Systems was a fraction of the time and cost of the coatings. For this project, a catamaran boat hull mold was designed, manufactured, and assembled with an additional 0.15” thickness of material on all mold surfaces. After printing, the mold was immediately machined and assembled. Alliance MG, LLC (AMG), the industry partner of this project, experimented with mold release agents on the carbon-fiber reinforced acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (CF ABS) to verify that the material can be directly used as a mold (rather than needing a coating). In addition, for large molds (such as the wind turbine mold with TPI Composites Inc.), the mold only provided the target surface. A steel subframe had to be manufactured to provide structural integrity. If successful, this will significantly reduce the time and cost necessary for manufacturing large resin infusion molds using the BAAM process.

  20. Reduced toxicity polyester resins and microvascular pre-preg tapes for advanced composites manufacturing (United States)

    Poillucci, Richard

    Advanced composites manufacturing broadly encapsulates topics ranging from matrix chemistries to automated machines that lay-up fiber-reinforced materials. Environmental regulations are stimulating research to reduce matrix resin formulation toxicity. At present, composites fabricated with polyester resins expose workers to the risk of contact with and inhalation of styrene monomer, which is a potential carcinogen, neurotoxin, and respiratory irritant. The first primary goal of this thesis is to reduce the toxicity associated with polyester resins by: (1) identification of potential monomers to replace styrene, (2) determination of monomer solubility within the polyester, and (3) investigation of approaches to rapidly screen a large resin composition parameter space. Monomers are identified based on their ability to react with polyester and their toxicity as determined by the Globally Harmonized System (GHS) and a green screen method. Solubilities were determined by the Hoftyzer -- Van Krevelen method, Hansen solubility parameter database, and experimental mixing of monomers. A combinatorial microfluidic mixing device is designed and tested to obtain distinct resin compositions from two input chemistries. The push for safer materials is complemented by a thrust for multifunctional composites. The second primary goal of this thesis is to design and implement the manufacture of sacrificial fiber materials suitable for use in automated fiber placement of microvascaular multifunctional composites. Two key advancements are required to achieve this goal: (1) development of a roll-to-roll method to place sacrificial fibers onto carbon fiber pre-preg tape; and (2) demonstration of feasible manufacture of microvascular carbon fiber plates with automated fiber placement. An automated method for placing sacrificial fibers onto carbon fiber tapes is designed and a prototype implemented. Carbon fiber tows with manual placement of sacrificial fibers is implemented within an

  1. Fibered F-Algebra


    Kleyn, Aleks


    The concept of F-algebra and its representation can be extended to an arbitrary bundle. We define operations of fibered F-algebra in fiber. The paper presents the representation theory of of fibered F-algebra as well as a comparison of representation of F-algebra and of representation of fibered F-algebra.

  2. Photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægsgaard, Jesper; Hansen, K P; Nielsen, M D


    Photonic crystal fibers having a complex microstructure in the transverse plane constitute a new and promising class of optical fibers. Such fibers can either guide light through total internal reflection or the photonic bandgap effect, In this paper, we review the different types and applications...... of photonic crystal fibers with particular emphasis on recent advances in the field....

  3. Photonic crystal fibers -

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Libori, Stig E. Barkou


    . Such micro-structured fibers are the ones most often trated in literature concerning micro-structured fibers. These micro-structured fibers offer a whole range of novel wave guiding characteristics, including the possibility of fibers that guide only one mode irrespective of the frequency of light...

  4. Improving Project Manufacturing Coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korpivaara Ville


    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to develop firms’ project manufacturing coordination. The development will be made by centralizing the manufacturing information flows in one system. To be able to centralize information, a deep user need assessment is required. After user needs have been identified, the existing system will be developed to match these needs. The theoretical background is achieved through exploring the literature of project manufacturing, development project success factors and different frameworks and tools for development project execution. The focus of this research is rather in customer need assessment than in system’s technical expertise. To ensure the deep understanding of customer needs this study is executed by action research method. As a result of this research the information system for project manufacturing coordination was developed to respond revealed needs of the stakeholders. The new system improves the quality of the manufacturing information, eliminates waste in manufacturing coordination processes and offers a better visibility to the project manufacturing. Hence it provides a solid base for the further development of project manufacturing.

  5. Modern manufacturing engineering

    CERN Document Server


    This book covers recent research and trends in Manufacturing Engineering. The chapters emphasize different aspects of the transformation from materials to products. It provides the reader with fundamental materials treatments and the integration of processes. Concepts such as green and lean manufacturing are also covered in this book.

  6. Optimized manufacturable porous materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Erik; Andreasen, Casper Schousboe; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard

    Topology optimization has been used to design two-dimensional material structures with specific elastic properties, but optimized designs of three-dimensional material structures are more scarsely seen. Partly because it requires more computational power, and partly because it is a major challenge...... to include manufacturing constraints in the optimization. This work focuses on incorporating the manufacturability into the optimization procedure, allowing the resulting material structure to be manufactured directly using rapid manufacturing techniques, such as selective laser melting/sintering (SLM....../S). The available manufacturing methods are best suited for porous materials (one constituent and void), but the optimization procedure can easily include more constituents. The elasticity tensor is found from one unit cell using the homogenization method together with a standard finite element (FE) discretization...

  7. Fiber optic connector (United States)

    Rajic, Slobodan; Muhs, Jeffrey D.


    A fiber optic connector and method for connecting composite materials within which optical fibers are imbedded. The fiber optic connector includes a capillary tube for receiving optical fibers at opposing ends. The method involves inserting a first optical fiber into the capillary tube and imbedding the unit in the end of a softened composite material. The capillary tube is injected with a coupling medium which subsequently solidifies. The composite material is machined to a desired configuration. An external optical fiber is then inserted into the capillary tube after fluidizing the coupling medium, whereby the optical fibers are coupled.

  8. Fabricating continuous electroconductive polyacrylonitrile fibers with thermosensitive property via wet-spinning (United States)

    Liu, Wanwan; Jin, Yang; Wang, Yangyi; Ge, Mingqiao; Gao, Qiang


    In this work, conductive polyacrylonitrile (PAN) composite fiber with thermosensitive property was successfully prepared via wet-spinning. Thermochromic pigment (TCP) microsphere capsules were applied to manufacture color-changing fibers. Meanwhile, light-colored conductive whiskers (ATO@TiO2) were employed to endow polyacrylonitrile fibers with conductivity without prejudicing their thermosensitive property. Interestingly, unlike other conductive fibers in dark color, this kind of conductive composite fiber can be dyed by thermosensitive pigment. The obtained composite fiber containing 20 vol% ATO@TiO2 whiskers shows a resistivity of 105 Ω · cm and could generate heat by Joule heating when being applied under a certain voltage. The composite fiber shows a red color at room temperature, while the color of the composite fiber fades gradually and finally becomes white as temperature rise. This simple and cost-effective approach is expected to inspire more research into the applications of multifunctional conductive fibers.

  9. Development of self-sensing BFRP bars with distributed optic fiber sensors (United States)

    Tang, Yongsheng; Wu, Zhishen; Yang, Caiqian; Shen, Sheng; Wu, Gang; Hong, Wan


    In this paper, a new type of self-sensing basalt fiber reinforced polymer (BFRP) bars is developed with using the Brillouin scattering-based distributed optic fiber sensing technique. During the fabrication, optic fiber without buffer and sheath as a core is firstly reinforced through braiding around mechanically dry continuous basalt fiber sheath in order to survive the pulling-shoving process of manufacturing the BFRP bars. The optic fiber with dry basalt fiber sheath as a core embedded further in the BFRP bars will be impregnated well with epoxy resin during the pulling-shoving process. The bond between the optic fiber and the basalt fiber sheath as well as between the basalt fiber sheath and the FRP bar can be controlled and ensured. Therefore, the measuring error due to the slippage between the optic fiber core and the coating can be improved. Moreover, epoxy resin of the segments, where the connection of optic fibers will be performed, is uncured by isolating heat from these parts of the bar during the manufacture. Consequently, the optic fiber in these segments of the bar can be easily taken out, and the connection between optic fibers can be smoothly carried out. Finally, a series of experiments are performed to study the sensing and mechanical properties of the propose BFRP bars. The experimental results show that the self-sensing BFRP bar is characterized by not only excellent accuracy, repeatability and linearity for strain measuring but also good mechanical property.

  10. Osteogenesis of human adipose-derived stem cells on hydroxyapatite-mineralized poly(lactic acid) nanofiber sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kung, Fu-Chen [Department of Health Developing and Health Marketing, Kainan University, Taiwan (China); Lin, Chi-Chang, E-mail: [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Tunghai University, Taiwan (China); Lai, Wen-Fu T., E-mail: [Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taiwan (China)


    Electrospun fiber sheets with various orientations (random, partially aligned, and aligned) and smooth and roughened casted membranes were prepared. Hydroxyapatite (HA) crystals were in situ formed on these material surfaces via immersion in 10 × simulated body fluid solution. The size and morphology of the resulting fibers were examined using scanning electron microscopy. The average diameter of the fibers ranged from 225 ± 25 to 1050 ± 150 nm depending on the electrospinning parameters. Biological experiment results show that human adipose-derived stem cells exhibit different adhesion and osteogenic differentiation on the three types of fiber. The cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation were best on the aligned fibers. Similar results were found for phosphorylated focal adhesion kinase expression. Electrospun poly(lactic acid) aligned fibers mineralized with HA crystals provide a good environment for cell growth and osteogenic differentiation and thus have great potential in the tissue engineering field. - Highlights: • hADSCs show higher adhesion and proliferation on HA-precipitate electrospun fiber sheets than those of the control membranes. • HA-mineralized fiber groups greatly improve cell growth and increase FAK and p-FAK expressions. • HA-precipitate electrospun fiber sheets present higher ALP and OC activity through the study periods. • Electrospun PLA fiber mineralized with HA provides a good environment for cell growth and osteogenic differentiation. • A simple immersion of electrospun fibers in 10 × SBF are a potential matrix for bone tissue engineering.

  11. Review of refractory ceramic fiber (RCF) toxicity, epidemiology and occupational exposure. (United States)

    Maxim, L Daniel; Utell, Mark J


    This literature review on refractory ceramic fibers (RCF) summarizes relevant information on manufacturing, processing, applications, occupational exposure, toxicology and epidemiology studies. Rodent toxicology studies conducted in the 1980s showed that RCF caused fibrosis, lung cancer and mesothelioma. Interpretation of these studies was difficult for various reasons (e.g. overload in chronic inhalation bioassays), but spurred the development of a comprehensive product stewardship program under EPA and later OSHA oversight. Epidemiology studies (both morbidity and mortality) were undertaken to learn more about possible health effects resulting from occupational exposure. No chronic animal bioassay studies on RCF have been conducted since the 1980s. The results of the ongoing epidemiology studies confirm that occupational exposure to RCF is associated with the development of pleural plaques and minor decrements in lung function, but no interstitial fibrosis or incremental lung cancer. Evidence supporting a finding that urinary tumors are associated with RCF exposure remains, but is weaker. One reported, but unconfirmed, mesothelioma was found in an individual with prior occupational asbestos exposure. An elevated SMR for leukemia was found, but was absent in the highly exposed group and has not been observed in studies of other mineral fibers. The industry will continue the product stewardship program including the mortality study.

  12. Mineral raw materials used in the archaeological artifacts in Guayacas - Dayman - Paysandu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capdepont, I.; Del Puerto, L.; Castineira, C.; Pineiro, G.


    The purpose of this work is about the election, exploitation and modes of supply mineral raw resources used in the manufacturing of lithic and ceramic archaeological artifacts in Guayacas - Dayman - Paysandu

  13. Mineral oil industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brasser, L.J.; Suess, M.J.; Grefen, K.; Reinisch, D.W.


    In this chapter a general picture is presented of the air pollution aspects in the mineral oil industry. The complete field is covered, starting from drilling operations and the well head up to the delivery of the products to the consumer. A large field of activities as is given by the mineral oil

  14. Vitamins, Minerals, and Mood (United States)

    Kaplan, Bonnie J.; Crawford, Susan G.; Field, Catherine J.; Simpson, J. Steven A.


    In this article, the authors explore the breadth and depth of published research linking dietary vitamins and minerals (micronutrients) to mood. Since the 1920s, there have been many studies on individual vitamins (especially B vitamins and Vitamins C, D, and E), minerals (calcium, chromium, iron, magnesium, zinc, and selenium), and vitamin-like…

  15. Mineral commodity summaries 2018 (United States)

    Ober, Joyce A.


    This report is the earliest Government publication to furnish estimates covering 2017 nonfuel mineral industry data. Data sheets contain information on the domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, and 5-year salient statistics for more than 90 individual minerals and materials.

  16. Indochina area mineral prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Prospects for commercial mining of various minerals are considered for Kampuchea (Cambodia), Laos, Vietnam, Myanmar (Burma) and Thailand. Mineral production is much below its geologic potential for economic and political reasons. Resource potential is limited to tin, tungsten, lead and zinc, barytes and gemstones, and coal. 1 fig.

  17. Taxation of unmined minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bremberg, B.P.


    This paper reports on the Kentucky Revenue Cabinet which began implementing its controversial unmined minerals tax program. The Revenue Cabinet should complete its first annual assessment under this program in December, 1989. The Revenue Cabinet's initial efforts to collect basic data concerning the Commonwealth's coal bearing lands has yielded data coverage for 5 million of Kentucky's 10 million acres of coal lands. Approximately 1000 detailed information returns have been filed. The returns will be used to help create an undeveloped mineral reserves inventory, determine mineral ownership, and value mineral reserves. This new program is run by the Revenue Cabinet's Mineral Valuation Section, under the Division of Technical Support, Department of Property Taxation. It has been in business since September of 1988

  18. Mineral industry in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parbo, S.A.


    The paper reviews the history and growth of the mineral industry in Australia and its significance to the nation's economic growth and overseas trade, particularly over the last twenty years during which time production of coal, iron ore, manganese and mineral sands has increased greatly and new discoveries of petroleum, bauxite and nickel have given rise to major new industries. Australia ranks fourteenths in the value of world trade and is among the world's largest exporters of alumina, iron ore, mineral sands, coal, lead, zinc and nickel. Some details of production, processing and exports of the major minerals are given. Comment is made on the policies and roles of the six State Governments and the Federal Government in respect of ownership and control of the mining, processing and exporting of both energy and non-energy minerals. (orig.) [de

  19. Manufacture of disposal canisters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolvi, L.


    The report summarizes the development work carried out in the manufacturing of disposal canister components, and present status, in readiness for manufacturing, of the components for use in assembly of spent nuclear fuel disposal canister. The disposal canister consist of two major components: the nodular graphite cast iron insert and overpack of oxygen-free copper. The manufacturing process for copper components begins with a cylindrical cast copper billet. Three different manufacturing processes i.e. pierce and draw, extrusion and forging are being developed, which produce a seamless copper tube or a tube with an integrated bottom. The pierce and draw process, Posiva's reference method, makes an integrated bottom possible and only the lid requires welding. Inserts for BWR-element are cast with 12 square channels and inserts for VVER 440-element with 12 round channels. Inserts for EPR-elements have four square channels. Casting of BWR insert type has been studied so far. Experience of casting inserts for PWR, which is similar to the EPR-type, has been got in co-operation with SKB. The report describes the processes being developed for manufacture of disposal canister components and some results of the manufacturing experiments are presented. Quality assurance and quality control in manufacture of canister component is described. (orig.)

  20. Multiscale Design and Manufacturing of Hybrid DWCNT-Polymer Fibers (United States)


    materials, especially “ brick and mortar ” like structures, is the lateral interactions between adjacent reinforcement constituents. Critical overlap... brick -and- mortar structure of a hierarchical staggered composite. In our previous study, the classical shear lag model was used to describe the optimal

  1. Characterization of fiber optic cables under large tensile loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogle, J.W.; Looney, L.D.; Peterson, R.T.


    Fiber optic cables designed for the Nevada Test Site (NTS) have to withstand an unusually harsh environment. Cables have been manufactured under a 6 year old DOE specification that has been slightly modified as the cable requirements are better understood. In order to better understand the cable properties a unique capability has been established at the NTS. Instrumentation has been developed to characterize the transmission properties of 1 km of fiber optic cable placed under a controlled tensile load up to 1500 lbs. The properties measured are cable tension, cable elongation, induced attenuation, attenuation vs. location, fiber strain, bandwidth, and ambient temperature. Preforming these measurements on cables from the two qualified NTS fiber optic cable manufacturers, Siecor and Andrew Corp., led to a new set of specifications

  2. Micro/Nano manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido


    Micro- and nano-scale manufacturing has been the subject of an increasing amount of interest and research effort worldwide in both academia and industry over the past 10 years.Traditional (MEMS) manufacturing, but also precision manufacturing technologies have been developed to cover micro......-scale dimensions and accuracies. Furthermore, these fundamentally different technology ecosystems are currently combined in order to exploit strengths of both platforms. One example is the use of lithography-based technologies to establish nanostructures that are subsequently transferred to 3D geometries via...

  3. Additive Manufacturing of Composites and Complex Materials (United States)

    Spowart, Jonathan E.; Gupta, Nikhil; Lehmhus, Dirk


    Advanced composite materials form an important class of high-performance industrial materials used in weight-sensitive applications such as aerospace structures, automotive structures and sports equipment. In many of these applications, parts are made in small production runs, are highly customized and involve long process development times. Developments in additive manufacturing (AM) methods have helped in overcoming many of these limitations. The special topic of Additive Manufacturing of Composites and Complex Materials captures the state of the art in this area by collecting nine papers that present much novel advancement in this field. The studies under this topic show advancement in the area of AM of carbon fiber and graphene-reinforced composites with high thermal and electrical conductivities, development of new hollow glass particle-filled syntactic foam filaments for printing lightweight structures and integration of sensors or actuators during AM of metallic parts. Some of the studies are focused on process optimization or modification to increase the manufacturing speed or tuning manufacturing techniques to enable AM of new materials.

  4. Fiber Optics Physics and Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Mitschke, Fedor


    Telephone, telefax, email and internet -- the key ingredient of the inner workings is the conduit: the line which is designed to carry massive amounts of data at breakneck speed. In their data-carrying capacity optical fiber lines beat other technologies (copper cable, microwave beacons, satellite links) hands down, at least in the long haul. This book tells you all you want to know about optical fibers: Their structure, their light-guiding mechanism, their material and manufacture, their use. Several effects tend to degrade the signal as it travels down the fiber: they are spelled out in detail. Nonlinear processes are given due consideration for a twofold reason: On the one hand they are fundamentally different from the more familiar processes in electrical cable. On the other hand, they form the basis of particularly interesting and innovative applications, provided they are understood well enough. A case in point is the use of so-called solitons, i.e. special pulses of light which have the wonderful prope...

  5. Nonlinear Photonic Crystal Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Per


    Despite the general recession in the global economy and the collapse of the optical telecommunication market, research within specialty fibers is thriving. This is, more than anything else, due to the technology transition from standard all-glass fibers to photonic crystal fibers, which, instead....... The freedom to design the dispersion profile of the fibers is much larger and it is possible to create fibers, which support only a single spatial mode, regardless of wavelength. In comparison, the standard dispersion-shifted fibers are limited by a much lower index-contrast between the core and the cladding...... in 1996, and are today on their way to become the dominating technology within the specialty fiber field. Whether they will replace the standard fiber in the more traditional areas like telecommunication transmission, is not yet clear, but the nonlinear photonic crystal fibers are here to stay....

  6. Optical Fiber Fusion Splicing

    CERN Document Server

    Yablon, Andrew D


    This book is an up-to-date treatment of optical fiber fusion splicing incorporating all the recent innovations in the field. It provides a toolbox of general strategies and specific techniques that the reader can apply when optimizing fusion splices between novel fibers. It specifically addresses considerations important for fusion splicing of contemporary specialty fibers including dispersion compensating fiber, erbium-doped gain fiber, polarization maintaining fiber, and microstructured fiber. Finally, it discusses the future of optical fiber fusion splicing including silica and non-silica based optical fibers as well as the trend toward increasing automation. Whilst serving as a self-contained reference work, abundant citations from the technical literature will enable readers to readily locate primary sources.

  7. In vitro cytotoxicity of Manville Code 100 glass fibers: Effect of fiber length on human alveolar macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones William


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Synthetic vitreous fibers (SVFs are inorganic noncrystalline materials widely used in residential and industrial settings for insulation, filtration, and reinforcement purposes. SVFs conventionally include three major categories: fibrous glass, rock/slag/stone (mineral wool, and ceramic fibers. Previous in vitro studies from our laboratory demonstrated length-dependent cytotoxic effects of glass fibers on rat alveolar macrophages which were possibly associated with incomplete phagocytosis of fibers ≥ 17 μm in length. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of fiber length on primary human alveolar macrophages, which are larger in diameter than rat macrophages, using length-classified Manville Code 100 glass fibers (8, 10, 16, and 20 μm. It was hypothesized that complete engulfment of fibers by human alveolar macrophages could decrease fiber cytotoxicity; i.e. shorter fibers that can be completely engulfed might not be as cytotoxic as longer fibers. Human alveolar macrophages, obtained by segmental bronchoalveolar lavage of healthy, non-smoking volunteers, were treated with three different concentrations (determined by fiber number of the sized fibers in vitro. Cytotoxicity was assessed by monitoring cytosolic lactate dehydrogenase release and loss of function as indicated by a decrease in zymosan-stimulated chemiluminescence. Results Microscopic analysis indicated that human alveolar macrophages completely engulfed glass fibers of the 20 μm length. All fiber length fractions tested exhibited equal cytotoxicity on a per fiber basis, i.e. increasing lactate dehydrogenase and decreasing chemiluminescence in the same concentration-dependent fashion. Conclusion The data suggest that due to the larger diameter of human alveolar macrophages, compared to rat alveolar macrophages, complete phagocytosis of longer fibers can occur with the human cells. Neither incomplete phagocytosis nor length-dependent toxicity was

  8. Mineral Resource of the Month: Talc (United States)

    Virta, Robert L.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.


    When people think of talc, they often think of talcum and baby powder. However, these uses of talc are minor compared to its use in industrial manufacturing. The leading use of talc in the United States is in the production of ceramics, where it is a source of magnesium oxide, serves as a flux to reduce firing temperatures, and improves thermal shock characteristics of the final product. Worldwide, the major use of talc is as a paper constituent, where it fills the interstices between cellulose paper fibers, reduces paper transparency, improves ink receptivity, and absorbs undesirable tree sap residues that can generate blemishes in the paper.

  9. Clad fiber capacitor and method of making same (United States)

    Tuncer, Enis


    A clad capacitor and method of manufacture includes assembling a preform comprising a ductile, electrically conductive fiber; a ductile, electrically insulating cladding positioned on the fiber; and a ductile, electrically conductive sleeve positioned over the cladding. One or more preforms are then bundled, heated and drawn along a longitudinal axis to decrease the diameter of the ductile components of the preform and fuse the preform into a unitized strand.

  10. Characterization of a Material Based on Short Natural Fique Fibers


    Navacerrada Saturio, Maria Angeles; Diaz Sanchidrian, Cesar; Fernández, Patricia


    Fique is a biodegradable natural fiber derived from the Colombian Agavaceae family, originating in tropical America and traditionally used for the manufacture of packaging and cordages. Today, however, new uses are being developed. To meet the need for new good-quality, sustainable, low-cost construction materials for social housing, construction materials have been produced that combine different kinds of natural fibers, including fique, to improve their strength and physical properties. To ...

  11. Business as usual? Results of Global Continuous Miner and Bolter Miner Census 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayer, Arne K. [RWTH Aachen (DE). Excavation and Mining Equipment Group (BGMR); E.ON Kraftwerke GmbH, Hannover (Germany); Nienhaus, Karl; Dangela, Manuel [RWTH Aachen (DE). Excavation and Mining Equipment Group (BGMR)


    The Global Continuous Miner and Bolter Miner Census 2008 conducted by the Excavation and Mining Equipment Group (BGMR), RWTH Aachen, identified globally the 1,400 CM production units and about 200 Bolter Miners are mainly employed in coal mining operations. The study identified a number of relevant trends of interest to both mining companies as well as original equipment manufacturers (OEM). E.g. new markets like China, India or Russia are not developing as quickly as expected, the large CM and BM nations like US, South Africa and Australia will remain saturated and the annual replacement rate of new machines will stabilize at some 160 units. Other key findings highlight the growing importance of after sales services and a stronger focus on automation, as well as, aspects of Health, Safety and Environment (HSE). (orig.)

  12. Manufacturing tolerant topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigmund, Ole


    In this paper we present an extension of the topology optimization method to include uncertainties during the fabrication of macro, micro and nano structures. More specifically, we consider devices that are manufactured using processes which may result in (uniformly) too thin (eroded) or too thick...... (dilated) structures compared to the intended topology. Examples are MEMS devices manufactured using etching processes, nano-devices manufactured using e-beam lithography or laser micro-machining and macro structures manufactured using milling processes. In the suggested robust topology optimization...... approach, under- and over-etching is modelled by image processing-based "erode" and "dilate" operators and the optimization problem is formulated as a worst case design problem. Applications of the method to the design of macro structures for minimum compliance and micro compliant mechanisms show...

  13. Manufacturing parabolic mirrors

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab


    The photo shows the construction of a vertical centrifuge mounted on an air cushion, with a precision of 1/10000 during rotation, used for the manufacture of very high=precision parabolic mirrors. (See Annual Report 1974.)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosma Sorin Cosmin


    Full Text Available The purpose of these studies was to improve the design and manufacturing process by selective laser melting, of new medical implants. After manufacturing process, the implants were measured, microscopically and mechanical analyzed. Implants manufactured by AM can be an attractive option for surface coatings to improve the osseointegration process. The main advantages of customized implants made by AM process are: the precise adaptation to the region of implantation, better cosmesis, reduced surgical times and better performance over their generic counterparts. These medical manufacturing changes the way that the surgeons are planning surgeries and engineers are designing custom implant. AM process has eliminated the constraints of shape, size, internal structure and mechanical properties making it possible for fabrication of implants that conform to the physical and mechanical requirements of implantation according to CT images. This article will review some custom implants fabricated in DME using biocompatible titanium.

  15. Manufacturing Enterprise in Asia

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    Dec 13, 2017 ... 53 Designing Financial Systems in East Asia and Japan ..... 5.3 Weights for the industrial production index (%) ..... The demand for manufactured goods for this low level of consumption per capita also tends to be very low.

  16. Mineral facilities of Europe (United States)

    Almanzar, Francisco; Baker, Michael S.; Elias, Nurudeen; Guzman, Eric


    This map displays over 1,700 records of mineral facilities within the countries of Europe and western Eurasia. Each record represents one commodity and one facility type at a single geographic location. Facility types include mines, oil and gas fields, and plants, such as refineries, smelters, and mills. Common commodities of interest include aluminum, cement, coal, copper, gold, iron and steel, lead, nickel, petroleum, salt, silver, and zinc. Records include attributes, such as commodity, country, location, company name, facility type and capacity (if applicable), and latitude and longitude geographical coordinates (in both degrees-minutes-seconds and decimal degrees). The data shown on this map and in table 1 were compiled from multiple sources, including (1) the most recently available data from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook (Europe and Central Eurasia volume), (2) mineral statistics and information from the USGS Minerals Information Web site (, and (3) data collected by the USGS minerals information country specialists from sources, such as statistical publications of individual countries, annual reports and press releases of operating companies, and trade journals. Data reflect the most recently published table of industry structure for each country at the time of this publication. Additional information is available from the country specialists listed in table 2.

  17. Chalcogenide glass hollow core microstructured optical fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir S. eShiryaev


    Full Text Available The recent developments on chalcogenide glass hollow core microstructured optical fibers (HC-MOFs are presented. The comparative analysis of simulated optical properties for chalcogenide HC-MOFs of negative-curvature with different size and number of capillaries is given. The technique for the manufacture of microstructured chalcogenide preforms, which includes the assembly of the substrate glass tube and 8-10 capillaries, is described. Further trends to improve the optical transmission in chalcogenide NCHCFs are considered.

  18. Manufacturing of Porous Ceramic Preforms Based on Halloysite Nanotubes (Hnts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kujawa M.


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the influence of manufacturing conditions on the structure and properties of porous halloysite preforms, which during pressure infiltration were soaked with a liquid alloy to obtain a metal matrix composite reinforced by ceramic, and also to find innovative possibilities for the application of mineral nanotubes obtained from halloysite. The method of manufacturing porous ceramic preforms (based on halloysite nanotubes as semi-finished products that are applicable to modern infiltrated metal matrix composites was shown. The ceramic preforms were manufactured by sintering of halloysite nanotubes (HNT, Natural Nano Company (USA, with the addition of pores and canals forming agent in the form of carbon fibres (Sigrafil C10 M250 UNS SGL Group, the Carbon Company. The resulting porous ceramic skeletons, suggest innovative application capabilities mineral nanotubes obtained from halloysite.

  19. Amplitude-modulated fiber-ring laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caputo, J. G.; Clausen, Carl A. Balslev; Sørensen, Mads Peter


    Soliton pulses generated by a fiber-ring laser are investigated by numerical simulation and perturbation methods. The mathematical modeling is based on the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with perturbative terms. We show that active mode locking with an amplitude modulator leads to a self......-starting of stable solitonic pulses from small random noise, provided the modulation depth is small. The perturbative analysis leads to a nonlinear coupled return map for the amplitude, phase, and position of the soliton pulses circulating in the fiber-ring laser. We established the validity of this approach...

  20. Additive manufactured serialization (United States)

    Bobbitt, III, John T.


    Methods for forming an identifying mark in a structure are described. The method is used in conjunction with an additive manufacturing method and includes the alteration of a process parameter during the manufacturing process. The method can form in a unique identifying mark within or on the surface of a structure that is virtually impossible to be replicated. Methods can provide a high level of confidence that the identifying mark will remain unaltered on the formed structure.

  1. 21 CFR 172.878 - White mineral oil. (United States)


    ... yeast contamination during fermentation In an amount not to exceed good manufacturing practice. 4. As a... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true White mineral oil. 172.878 Section 172.878 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN...

  2. Definitions of Health Terms: Minerals (United States)

    ... gov/definitions/mineralsdefinitions.html Definitions of Health Terms : Minerals To use the sharing features on this page, ... National Institutes of Health, Office of Dietary Supplements Minerals Minerals are those elements on the earth and ...

  3. Minerals industry survey 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This is the eleventh Minerals Industry Survey produced by the Australian Mining Industry Council. It represents an invaluable time series on the minerals industry's financial performance, as well as an up to date description of the industry for the latest financial year. The survey has been conceived as a supplement to and expansion of the various Australian Bureau of Statistics and Bureau of Mineral Resources, Geology and Geophysics publications which describe the exploration, mining and smelting and refining industries in Australia. The tables in this survey have been prepared by Coopers and Lybrand, Chartered Accountants, based on information supplied to them in confidence by the respondent companies.

  4. Characterization of clay minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz N, C.; Olguin, M.T.; Solache R, M.; Alarcon H, T.; Aguilar E, A.


    The natural clays are the more abundant minerals on the crust. They are used for making diverse industrial products. Due to the adsorption and ion exchange properties of these, a great interest for developing research directed toward the use of natural clays for the waste water treatment has been aroused. As part of such researches it is very important to carry out previously the characterization of the interest materials. In this work the results of the mineral and elemental chemical composition are presented as well as the morphological characteristics of clay minerals from different regions of the Mexican Republic. (Author)

  5. Process for the manufacture of whey products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanie, P


    Whey is subjected to ultrafiltration to retain about 10% of the T5, whilst the permeate is demineralized to 7% or less ash in the final product and dried to 3% moisture. The product, containing (in DM) 75% or more lactose, 6% or less protein and 8% or less minerals, is hydrolysed, e.g. with beta-galactosidase. It may be used for replacing sucrose, in the manufacture of a range of foods. Applications include chewing gum, fondants, nougats, chocolate, bakery and confectionery products as well as cream and yoghurt.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Charles David [ORNL; Das, Sujit [ORNL; Jeon, Dr. Saeil [Volvo Trucks North America


    Vehicle lightweighting represents one of several design approaches that automotive and heavy truck manufacturers are currently evaluating to improve fuel economy, lower emissions, and improve freight efficiency (tons-miles per gallon of fuel). With changes in fuel efficiency and environmental regulations in the area of transportation, the next decade will likely see considerable vehicle lightweighting throughout the ground transportation industry. Greater use of carbon fiber composites and light metals is a key component of that strategy. This paper examines the competition between candidate materials for lightweighting of heavy vehicles and passenger cars. A 53-component, 25 % mass reduction, body-in-white cost analysis is presented for each material class, highlighting the potential cost penalty for each kilogram of mass reduction and then comparing the various material options. Lastly, as the cost of carbon fiber is a major component of the elevated cost of carbon fiber composites, a brief look at the factors that influence that cost is presented.

  7. Optimal design of variable-stiffness fiber-reinforced composites using cellular automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Setoodeh, S.


    Growing number of applications of composites materials in aerospace and naval structures along with advancements in manufacturing technologies demand continuous innovations in design of composite structures. In the traditional design of composite laminates, fiber orientation angles are constant for

  8. Low Cost Resin for Self-Healing High Temperature Fiber Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composites, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Over the past few decades, the manufacturing processes and our knowledge base for predicting the bulk mechanical response of fiber reinforced composite materials has...

  9. An exploration in mineral supply chain mapping using tantalum as an example (United States)

    Soto-Viruet, Yadira; Menzie, W. David; Papp, John F.; Yager, Thomas R.


    This report uses the supply chain of tantalum (Ta) to investigate the complexity of mineral and metal supply chains in general and show how they can be mapped. A supply chain is made up of all the manufacturers, suppliers, information networks, and so forth, that provide the materials and parts that go into making up a final product. The mineral portion of the supply chain begins with mineral material in the ground (the ore deposit); extends through a series of processes that include mining, beneficiation, processing (smelting and refining), semimanufacture, and manufacture; and continues through transformation of the mineral ore into concentrates, refined mineral commodities, intermediate forms (such as metals and alloys), component parts, and, finally, complex products. This study analyses the supply chain of tantalum beginning with minerals in the ground to many of the final goods that contain tantalum.

  10. Effect of source of trace minerals in either forage- or by-product-based diets fed to dairy cows: 2. Apparent absorption and retention of minerals. (United States)

    Faulkner, M J; St-Pierre, N R; Weiss, W P


    Eighteen multiparous cows were used in a split-plot replicated Latin square with two 28-d periods to evaluate the effects of source of supplemental Cu, Zn, and Mn (sulfates or hydroxy) on apparent absorption of minerals when fed in either a forage- or by-product-based diet. The by-product diets were formulated to have greater concentrations of NDF and lesser concentrations of starch, and specific ingredients were chosen because they were good sources of soluble fiber and β-glucans, which bind trace minerals in nonruminants. We hypothesized that hydroxy trace minerals would interact less with digesta and have greater apparent absorption compared with sulfate minerals, and the difference in apparent absorption would be greater for the by-product diet compared with the forage-based diet. During the 56-d experiment, cows remained on the same fiber treatment but source of supplemental trace mineral was different for each 28-d period; thus, all cows were exposed to both mineral treatments. During each period cows were fed no supplemental Cu, Zn, or Mn for 16 d, followed by 12 d of feeding supplemental minerals from either sulfate or hydroxy sources. Supplemental minerals for each of the mineral sources fed provided approximately 10, 35, and 32 mg/kg of supplemental Cu, Zn, and Mn, respectively, for both fiber treatments. Total Cu, Zn, and Mn dietary concentrations, respectively, were approximately 19, 65, and 70 mg/kg for the forage diets and 21, 85, and 79 for the by-product diets. Treatment had no effect on dry matter intake (24.2 kg/d) or milk production (34.9 kg/d). Cows consuming the by-product diets had greater Zn (1,863 vs. 1,453 mg/d) and Mn (1,790 vs. 1,588 mg/d) intake compared with cows fed forage diets, but apparent Zn absorption was similar between treatments. Manganese apparent absorption was greater for the by-product diets compared with the forage diets (16 vs. 11%). A fiber by mineral interaction was observed for Cu apparent absorption, as cows fed

  11. Fibers as carriers of microbial particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał L. Górny


    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the study was to assess the ability of natural, synthetic and semi-synthetic fibers to transport microbial particles. Material and Methods: The simultaneously settled dust and aerosol sampling was carried out in 3 industrial facilities processing natural (cotton, silk, flax, hemp, synthetic (polyamide, polyester, polyacrylonitrile, polypropylene and semi-synthetic (viscose fibrous materials; 2 stables where horses and sheep were bred; 4 homes where dogs or cats were kept and 1 zoo lion pavilion. All samples were laboratory analyzed for their microbiological purity. The isolated strains were qualitatively identified. To identify the structure and arrangement of fibers that may support transport of microbial particles, a scanning electron microscopy analysis was performed. Results: Both settled and airborne fibers transported analogous microorganisms. All synthetic, semi-synthetic and silk fibers, present as separated threads with smooth surface, were free from microbial contamination. Natural fibers with loose packing and rough surface (e.g., wool, horse hair, sheaf packing and septated surface (e.g., flax, hemp or present as twisted ribbons with corrugated surface (cotton were able to carry up to 9×105 cfu/g aerobic bacteria, 3.4×104 cfu/g anaerobic bacteria and 6.3×104 cfu/g of fungi, including pathogenic strains classified by Directive 2000/54/EC in hazard group 2. Conclusions: As plant and animal fibers are contaminated with a significant number of microorganisms, including pathogens, all of them should be mechanically eliminated from the environment. In factories, if the manufacturing process allows, they should be replaced by synthetic or semi-synthetic fibers. To avoid unwanted exposure to harmful microbial agents on fibers, the containment measures that efficiently limit their presence and dissemination in both occupational and non-occupational environments should be introduced. Med Pr 2015;66(4:511–523

  12. [Fibers as carriers of microbial particles]. (United States)

    Górny, Rafał L; Ławniczek-Wałczyk, Anna; Stobnicka, Agata; Gołofit-Szymczak, Małgorzata; Cyprowski, Marcin


    The aim of the study was to assess the ability of natural, synthetic and semi-synthetic fibers to transport microbial particles. The simultaneously settled dust and aerosol sampling was carried out in 3 industrial facilities processing natural (cotton, silk, flax, hemp), synthetic (polyamide, polyester, polyacrylonitrile, polypropylene) and semi-synthetic (viscose) fibrous materials; 2 stables where horses and sheep were bred; 4 homes where dogs or cats were kept and 1 zoo lion pavilion. All samples were laboratory analyzed for their microbiological purity. The isolated strains were qualitatively identified. To identify the structure and arrangement of fibers that may support transport of microbial particles, a scanning electron microscopy analysis was performed. Both settled and airborne fibers transported analogous microorganisms. All synthetic, semi-synthetic and silk fibers, present as separated threads with smooth surface, were free from microbial contamination. Natural fibers with loose packing and rough surface (e.g., wool, horse hair), sheaf packing and septated surface (e.g., flax, hemp) or present as twisted ribbons with corrugated surface (cotton) were able to carry up to 9×10(5) cfu/g aerobic bacteria, 3.4×10(4) cfu/g anaerobic bacteria and 6.3×10(4) cfu/g of fungi, including pathogenic strains classified by Directive 2000/54/EC in hazard group 2. As plant and animal fibers are contaminated with a significant number of microorganisms, including pathogens, all of them should be mechanically eliminated from the environment. In factories, if the manufacturing process allows, they should be replaced by synthetic or semi-synthetic fibers. To avoid unwanted exposure to harmful microbial agents on fibers, the containment measures that efficiently limit their presence and dissemination in both occupational and non-occupational environments should be introduced. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  13. Carbon fiber on polyimide ultra-microelectrodes (United States)

    Gillis, Winthrop F.; Lissandrello, Charles A.; Shen, Jun; Pearre, Ben W.; Mertiri, Alket; Deku, Felix; Cogan, Stuart; Holinski, Bradley J.; Chew, Daniel J.; White, Alice E.; Otchy, Timothy M.; Gardner, Timothy J.


    Objective. Most preparations for making neural recordings degrade over time and eventually fail due to insertion trauma and reactive tissue response. The magnitudes of these responses are thought to be related to the electrode size (specifically, the cross-sectional area), the relative stiffness of the electrode, and the degree of tissue tolerance for the material. Flexible carbon fiber ultra-microelectrodes have a much smaller cross-section than traditional electrodes and low tissue reactivity, and thus may enable improved longevity of neural recordings in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Only two carbon fiber array designs have been described previously, each with limited channel densities due to limitations of the fabrication processes or interconnect strategies. Here, we describe a method for assembling carbon fiber electrodes on a flexible polyimide substrate that is expected to facilitate the construction of high-density recording and stimulating arrays. Approach. Individual carbon fibers were aligned using an alignment tool that was 3D-printed with sub-micron resolution using direct laser writing. Indium deposition on the carbon fibers, followed by low-temperature microsoldering, provided a robust and reliable method of electrical connection to the polyimide interconnect. Main results. Spontaneous multiunit activity and stimulation-evoked compound responses with SNR  >10 and  >120, respectively, were recorded from a small (125 µm) peripheral nerve. We also improved the typically poor charge injection capacity of small diameter carbon fibers by electrodepositing 100 nm-thick iridium oxide films, making the carbon fiber arrays usable for electrical stimulation as well as recording. Significance. Our innovations in fabrication technique pave the way for further miniaturization of carbon fiber ultra-microelectrode arrays. We believe these advances to be key steps to enable a shift from labor intensive, manual assembly to a more automated

  14. Life cycle assessment of regional brick manufacture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López-Aguilar, H. A.


    Full Text Available This document presents a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA study to quantify the environmental cradle-to-gate impact of the manufacture of brick for the construction industry, produced with material of igneous source. Its mineral composition and thermal isolation properties were characterized for use in real estate construction. The LCA results for brick manufacture using this material identified the greatest environmental impact to be associated with material extraction and its proportional cement content. Additionally, this document presents an evaluation of the environmental impact of the manufacturing process by comparing traditional fired clay brick and brick of the material under study. In conclusion, the studied material shows thermal insulation qualities and suitability for the manufacture of bricks with low incorporated energy.Este trabajo presenta un estudio de Análisis de Ciclo de Vida (ACV para cuantificar los impactos ambientales de la cuna a la puerta de la manufactura de ladrillos para la industria de la construcción, fabricados de un material de origen ígneo. Se caracterizó su composición mineralógica y propiedades de aislamiento térmico para ser usado en la construcción de inmuebles. Los resultados ACV de la fabricación de ladrillos de este material, identificaron la mayor contribución a los impactos ambientales asociados a la extracción del material y la cantidad proporcional de cemento. Adicionalmente, se presenta una evaluación comparativa del impacto ambiental entre la manufactura de un ladrillo tradicional de arcilla cocido y de un ladrillo del material en estudio. En conclusión el material estudiado muestra cualidades de aislamiento térmico y es adecuado para la fabricación de ladrillos con baja energía incorporada.

  15. Energetics Manufacturing Technology Center (EMTC) (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Energetics Manufacturing Technology Center (EMTC), established in 1994 by the Office of Naval Research (ONR) Manufacturing Technology (ManTech) Program, is Navy...

  16. Distribution and Orientation of Carbon Fibers in Polylactic Acid Parts Produced by Fused Deposition Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofstätter, Thomas; W. Gutmann, Ingomar; Koch, Thomas


    The aim of this paper is the understanding of the fiber orientation by investigations in respect to the inner configuration of a polylactic acid matrix reinforced with short carbon fibers after a fused deposition modeling extrusion process. The final parts were analyzed by X-ray, tomography......, and magnetic resonance imaging allowing a resolved orientation of the fibers and distribution within the part. The research contributes to the understanding of the fiber orientation and fiber reinforcement of fused deposition modeling parts in additive manufacturing....

  17. Methods and optical fibers that decrease pulse degradation resulting from random chromatic dispersion (United States)

    Chertkov, Michael; Gabitov, Ildar


    The present invention provides methods and optical fibers for periodically pinning an actual (random) accumulated chromatic dispersion of an optical fiber to a predicted accumulated dispersion of the fiber through relatively simple modifications of fiber-optic manufacturing methods or retrofitting of existing fibers. If the pinning occurs with sufficient frequency (at a distance less than or are equal to a correlation scale), pulse degradation resulting from random chromatic dispersion is minimized. Alternatively, pinning may occur quasi-periodically, i.e., the pinning distance is distributed between approximately zero and approximately two to three times the correlation scale.

  18. Mineral-Ground Micro-Fibrillated Cellulose Reinforcement for Polymer Compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phipps, Jon [Fiberlean Technologies; Ireland, Sean [Fiberlean Technologies; Skuse, David [Imerys; Edwards, Martha [Imerys; Mclain, Leslie [Imerys; Tekinalp, Halil L [ORNL; Love, Lonnie J [ORNL; Kunc, Vlastimil [ORNL; Ozcan, Soydan [ORNL


    ORNL worked with Imerys to demonstrate reinforcement of additive manufacturing feedstock materials using mineral-ground microfibrillated cellulose (MFC). Properly prepared/dried mineral-ground cellulose microfibrils significantly improved mechanical properties of both ABS and PLA resins. While tensile strength increases up to ~40% were observed, elastic modulus of the both resins doubled with the addition of 30% MFC.

  19. Ceramic fiber reinforced filter (United States)

    Stinton, David P.; McLaughlin, Jerry C.; Lowden, Richard A.


    A filter for removing particulate matter from high temperature flowing fluids, and in particular gases, that is reinforced with ceramic fibers. The filter has a ceramic base fiber material in the form of a fabric, felt, paper of the like, with the refractory fibers thereof coated with a thin layer of a protective and bonding refractory applied by chemical vapor deposition techniques. This coating causes each fiber to be physically joined to adjoining fibers so as to prevent movement of the fibers during use and to increase the strength and toughness of the composite filter. Further, the coating can be selected to minimize any reactions between the constituents of the fluids and the fibers. A description is given of the formation of a composite filter using a felt preform of commercial silicon carbide fibers together with the coating of these fibers with pure silicon carbide. Filter efficiency approaching 100% has been demonstrated with these filters. The fiber base material is alternately made from aluminosilicate fibers, zirconia fibers and alumina fibers. Coating with Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 is also described. Advanced configurations for the composite filter are suggested.

  20. Steel fiber reinforced concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baloch, S.U.


    Steel-Fiber Reinforced Concrete is constructed by adding short fibers of small cross-sectional size .to the fresh concrete. These fibers reinforce the concrete in all directions, as they are randomly oriented. The improved mechanical properties of concrete include ductility, impact-resistance, compressive, tensile and flexural strength and abrasion-resistance. These uniqlte properties of the fiber- reinforcement can be exploited to great advantage in concrete structural members containing both conventional bar-reinforcement and steel fibers. The improvements in mechanical properties of cementitious materials resulting from steel-fiber reinforcement depend on the type, geometry, volume fraction and material-properties of fibers, the matrix mix proportions and the fiber-matrix interfacial bond characteristics. Effects of steel fibers on the mechanical properties of concrete have been investigated in this paper through a comprehensive testing-programme, by varying the fiber volume fraction and the aspect-ratio (Lid) of fibers. Significant improvements are observed in compressive, tensile, flexural strength and impact-resistance of concrete, accompanied by marked improvement in ductility. optimum fiber-volume fraction and aspect-ratio of steel fibers is identified. Test results are analyzed in details and relevant conclusions drawn. The research is finally concluded with future research needs. (author)

  1. Durability of Cement Composites Reinforced with Sisal Fiber (United States)

    Wei, Jianqiang

    This dissertation focuses mainly on investigating the aging mechanisms and degradation kinetics of sisal fiber, as well as the approaches to mitigate its degradation in the matrix of cement composites. In contrast to previous works reported in the literature, a novel approach is proposed in this study to directly determine the fiber's degradation rate by separately studying the composition changes, mechanical and physical properties of the embedded sisal fibers. Cement hydration is presented to be a crucial factor in understanding fiber degradation behavior. The degradation mechanisms of natural fiber consist of mineralization of cell walls, alkali hydrolysis of lignin and hemicellulose, as well as the cellulose decomposition which includes stripping of cellulose microfibrils and alkaline hydrolysis of amorphous regions in cellulose chains. Two mineralization mechanisms, CH-mineralization and self-mineralization, are proposed. The degradation kinetics of sisal fiber in the cement matrix are also analyzed and a model to predict the degradation rate of cellulose for natural fiber embedded in cement is outlined. The results indicate that the time needed to completely degrade the cellulose in the matrix with cement replacement by 30wt.% metakaolin is 13 times longer than that in pure cement. A novel and scientific method is presented to determine accelerated aging conditions, and to evaluating sisal fiber's degradation rate and durability of natural fiber-reinforced cement composites. Among the static aggressive environments, the most effective approach for accelerating the degradation of natural fiber in cement composites is to soak the samples or change the humidity at 70 °C and higher temperature. However, the dynamic wetting and drying cycling treatment has a more accelerating effect on the alkali hydrolysis of fiber's amorphous components evidenced by the highest crystallinity indices, minimum content of holocellulose, and lowest tensile strength. Based on the

  2. Effect of the Volume Fraction of Jute Fiber on the Interlaminar Shear Stress and Tensile Behavior Characteristics of Hybrid Glass/Jute Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composite Bar for Concrete Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan-Gi Park


    Full Text Available Hybrid glass/jute fiber reinforced polymer (HGJFRP composite bars were manufactured for concrete structures, and their interlaminar shear stress and tensile performance were evaluated. HGJFRP composite bars were manufactured using a combination of pultrusion and braiding processes. Jute fiber was surface-treated with a silane coupling agent. The mixing ratio of the fiber to the vinyl ester used in the HGJFRP composite bars was 7 : 3. Jute fiber was used to replace glass fiber in proportions of 0, 30, 50, 70, and 100%. The interlaminar shear stress decreased as the proportion of jute fiber increased. Fractures appeared due to delamination between the surface-treated component and the main part of the HGJFRP composite bar. Tensile load-strain curves with 50% jute fiber exhibited linear behavior. With a jute fiber volume fraction of 70%, some plastic deformation occurred. A jute fiber mixing ratio of 100% resulted in a display of linear elastic brittle behavior from the fiber; however, when the surface of the fiber was coated with poly(vinyl acetate, following failure, the jute fiber exhibited partial load resistance. The tensile strength decreased as the jute fiber content increased; however, the tensile strength did not vary linearly with jute fiber content.

  3. Law of radioactive minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Legal device done in order to standardize and promote the exploration and explotation of radioactive minerals by peruvian and foreign investors. This device include the whole process, since the prospection until the development, after previous auction given by IPEN

  4. Mineral Commodity Summaries 2009 (United States)



    Each chapter of the 2009 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS) includes information on events, trends, and issues for each mineral commodity as well as discussions and tabular presentations on domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, 5-year salient statistics, and world production and resources. The MCS is the earliest comprehensive source of 2008 mineral production data for the world. More than 90 individual minerals and materials are covered by two-page synopses. For mineral commodities for which there is a Government stockpile, detailed information concerning the stockpile status is included in the two-page synopsis. Because specific information concerning committed inventory was no longer available from the Defense Logistics Agency, National Defense Stockpile Center, that information, which was included in earlier Mineral Commodity Summaries publications, has been deleted from Mineral Commodity Summaries 2009. National reserves and reserve base information for most mineral commodities found in this report, including those for the United States, are derived from a variety of sources. The ideal source of such information would be comprehensive evaluations that apply the same criteria to deposits in different geographic areas and report the results by country. In the absence of such evaluations, national reserves and reserve base estimates compiled by countries for selected mineral commodities are a primary source of national reserves and reserve base information. Lacking national assessment information by governments, sources such as academic articles, company reports, common business practice, presentations by company representatives, and trade journal articles, or a combination of these, serve as the basis for national reserves and reserve base information reported in the mineral commodity sections of this publication. A national estimate may be assembled from the following: historically reported

  5. sequenceMiner algorithm (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Detecting and describing anomalies in large repositories of discrete symbol sequences. sequenceMiner has been open-sourced! Download the file below to try it out....

  6. Fiber optics in adverse environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyous, P.B.


    Radiation effects in optical fibers are considered, taking into account recent progress in the investigation of radiation resistant optical fibers, radiation damage in optical fibers, radiation-induced transient absorption in optical fibers, X-ray-induced transient attenuation at low temperatures in polymer clad silica (PCS) fibers, optical fiber composition and radiation hardness, the response of irradiated optical waveguides at low temperatures, and the effect of ionizing radiation on fiber-optic waveguides. Other topics explored are related to environmental effects on components of fiber optic systems, and radiation detection systems using optical fibers. Fiber optic systems in adverse environments are also discussed, giving attention to the survivability of Army fiber optics systems, space application of fiber optics systems, fiber optic wavelength multiplexing for civil aviation applications, a new fiber optic data bus topology, fiber optics for aircraft engine/inlet control, and application of fiber optics in high voltage substations

  7. Performance and safety of holmium: YAG laser optical fibers. (United States)

    Knudsen, Bodo E; Glickman, Randolph D; Stallman, Kenneth J; Maswadi, Saher; Chew, Ben H; Beiko, Darren T; Denstedt, John D; Teichman, Joel M H


    Lower-pole ureteronephroscopy requires transmission of holmium:YAG energy along a deflected fiber. Current ureteroscopes are capable of high degrees of deflection, which may stress laser fibers beyond safe limits during lower-pole use. We hypothesized that optical fiber and safety measures differ among manufacturers. Small (200-273-microm) and medium-diameter (300-400-microm) Ho:YAG fibers were tested in a straight and 180 degrees bent configuration. Energy transmission was measured by an energy detector. Fiber durability was assessed by firing the laser in sequentially tighter bending diameters. The fibers were bent to 180 degrees with a diameter of 6 cm and run at 200- to 4000-mJ pulse energy to determine the minimum energy required to fracture the fiber. The bending diameter was decreased by 1-cm increments and testing repeated until a bending diameter of 1 cm was reached. The maximum deflection of the ACMI DUR-8E ureteroscope with each fiber in the working channel was recorded. The flow rate through the working channel of the DUR-8E was measured for each fiber. The mean energy transmission differed among fibers (P < 0.001). The Lumenis SL 200 and the InnovaQuartz 400 were the best small and medium-diameter fibers, respectively, in resisting thermal breakdown (P < 0.01). The Dornier Lightguide Super 200 fractured repeatedly at a bend diameter of 2 cm and with the lowest energy (200 mJ). The other small fibers fractured only at a bend diameter of 1 cm. The Sharplan 200 and InnovaQuartz Sureflex 273T were the most flexible fibers, the Lumenis SL 365 the least. The flow rate was inversely proportional to four times the power of the diameter of the fiber. Optical performance and safety differ among fibers. Fibers transmit various amounts of energy to their cladding when bent. During lower-pole nephroscopy with the fiber deflected, there is a risk of fiber fracture from thermal breakdown and laser-energy transmission to the endoscope. Some available laser fibers

  8. Mineral industry statistics 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Production, consumption and marketing statistics are given for solid fuels (coal, peat), liquid fuels and gases (oil, natural gas), iron ore, bauxite and other minerals quarried in France, in 1975. Also accident statistics are included. Production statistics are presented of the Overseas Departments and territories (French Guiana, New Caledonia, New Hebrides). An account of modifications in the mining field in 1975 is given. Concessions, exploitation permits, and permits solely for prospecting for mineral products are discussed. (In French)

  9. Coastal placer minerals

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Iyer, S.D.; Gujar, A.R.

    to be processed and purified to extract the metal either by sulphate or chloride route. The economical aspects of placer mining would involve the cost to benefit ratio, which would encompass the money Selective sorting has resulted in two distinct sediments... or mineral at the national and international levels. Interestingly, though gold is the most sought metal and the prices per gram keep rising, there are others that are much more costly such as diamond and rare earth metals. Uses of Heavy Minerals...

  10. [Pneumoconiosis in bauxite miners]. (United States)

    Molinini, R; Pesola, M; Digennaro, M A; Carino, M; Nuzzaco, A; Coviello, F


    The authors examined a group of 40 miners who were being working at an Apulian bauxite mine, presently inactive. Radiographic findings of pulmonary micronodulation without significant reduction of lung functions were showed in 15 miners. Mineralogical analysis of mine dust samples excluded any presence of more than 1% free silica. As a result of this study hypotheses have been formulated about pathogenesis of this moderated and non-invasive pneumoconiosis, showed in long exposed subjects to low silica content dusts.

  11. Additive Manufacturing for Highly Efficient Window Inserts CRADA Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roschli, Alex C. [ORNL; Chesser, Phillip C. [ORNL; Love, Lonnie J. [ORNL


    ORNL partnered with the Mackinac Technology Company to demonstrate how additive manufacturing can be used to create highly energy efficient window inserts for retrofit in pre-existing buildings. Many early iterations of the window inserts were fabricated using carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastics and polycarbonate films as a stand in for the low-e coated films produced by the Mackinac Technology Company. After demonstration of the proof of concept, i.e. custom window inserts with tensioned film, the materials used for the manufacture of the frames was more closely examined. Hollow particle-filled syntactic foam and low-density polymer composites formed by expandable microspheres were explored as the materials used to additively manufacture the frames of the inserts. It was concluded that low-cost retrofit window inserts in custom sizes could be easily fabricated using large scale additive manufacturing. Furthermore, the syntactic and expanded foams developed and tested satisfy the mechanical performance requirements for the application.

  12. Fiber Optics Technology. (United States)

    Burns, William E.


    Discusses various applications of fiber optics technology: information systems, industrial robots, medicine, television, transportation, and training. Types of jobs that will be available with fiber optics training (such as electricians and telephone cable installers and splicers) are examined. (CT)

  13. Fiber Optics Instrumentation Development (United States)

    Chan, Patrick Hon Man; Parker, Allen R., Jr.; Richards, W. Lance


    This is a general presentation of fiber optics instrumentation development work being conducted at NASA Dryden for the past 10 years and recent achievements in the field of fiber optics strain sensors.

  14. Shaped fiber composites (United States)

    Kinnan, Mark K.; Roach, Dennis P.


    A composite article is disclosed that has non-circular fibers embedded in a polymer matrix. The composite article has improved damage tolerance, toughness, bending, and impact resistance compared to composites having traditional round fibers.

  15. Advances in Fiber Lasers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morse, T


    Most of the time of this contract has been devoted toward improvements in optical fiber lasers and toward gathering experience to improve our program in high power, cladding pumped optical fiber lasers...

  16. Mineral commodity summaries 2013 (United States)



    Each chapter of the 2013 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS) includes information on events, trends, and issues for each mineral commodity as well as discussions and tabular presentations on domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, 5-year salient statistics, and world production and resources. The MCS is the earliest comprehensive source of 2012 mineral production data for the world. More than 90 individual minerals and materials are covered by two-page synopses. For mineral commodities for which there is a Government stockpile, detailed information concerning the stockpile status is included in the two-page synopsis. Abbreviations and units of measure, and definitions of selected terms used in the report, are in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively. “Appendix C—Reserves and Resources” includes “Part A—Resource/Reserve Classification for Minerals” and “Part B—Sources of Reserves Data.” A directory of USGS minerals information country specialists and their responsibilities is Appendix D. The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the MCS 2013 are welcomed.

  17. Mineral commodity summaries 2014 (United States)



    Each chapter of the 2014 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS) includes information on events, trends, and issues for each mineral commodity as well as discussions and tabular presentations on domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, 5-year salient statistics, and world production and resources. The MCS is the earliest comprehensive source of 2013 mineral production data for the world. More than 90 individual minerals and materials are covered by two-page synopses. For mineral commodities for which there is a Government stockpile, detailed information concerning the stockpile status is included in the two-page synopsis. Abbreviations and units of measure, and definitions of selected terms used in the report, are in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively. “Appendix C—Reserves and Resources” includes “Part A—Resource/Reserve Classification for Minerals” and “Part B—Sources of Reserves Data.” A directory of USGS minerals information country specialists and their responsibilities is Appendix D. The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the MCS 2014 are welcomed.

  18. Scintillator manufacture at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellott, K.; Bross, A.; Pla-Dalmau, A.


    A decade of research into plastic scintillation materials at Fermilab is reviewed. Early work with plastic optical fiber fabrication is revisited and recent experiments with large-scale commercial methods for production of bulk scintillator are discussed. Costs for various forms of scintillator are examined and new development goals including cost reduction methods and quality improvement techniques are suggested.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perfilov Vladimir Aleksandrovich


    Full Text Available Creating an effective insulation envelope of the building is possible only using high-quality materials, preserving their characteristics both in the early stages of operation, and for the whole billing period. It is an important opportunity to assess the thermal insulation properties and predict its changes over time directly in the conditions of the construction site. The products based on mineral fibers (rock and glass wool, basalt fiber are the most widely used type of insulating materials in the domestic construction. Therefore, the operational stability valuation methods must be primarily created for this group of products. The methodology for assessing the thermal insulation properties includes two main components: testing equipment and methodology for assessing the operational stability. The authors tested the methodology of the accelerated testing and prediction of durability for mineral wool products of laminated, corrugated and volume-oriented structures. The test results give good convergence with the methods recommended by the building regulations. Application of thermal insulation materials are an effective way to form the thermal envelope of the building, reducing energy costs and increasing the durability of building structures. The material properties are determined by their structure, which is formed during the technological impacts.

  20. Hierarchically Structured Electrospun Fibers (United States)


    in the natural lotus and silver ragwort leaves. Figure 4. Examples of electrospun bio-mimics of natural hierarchical structures. (A) Lotus leaf...B) pillared poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) electrospun fiber mimic; (C) silver ragwort leaf; (D) electrospun fiber mimic made from nylon 6 containing the protein in the surrounding EVA fibers [115]. A wide variety of core-shell fibers have been generated, including PCL/ gelatin

  1. Superlattice Microstructured Optical Fiber (United States)

    Tse, Ming-Leung Vincent; Liu, Zhengyong; Cho, Lok-Hin; Lu, Chao; Wai, Ping-Kong Alex; Tam, Hwa-Yaw


    A generic three-stage stack-and-draw method is demonstrated for the fabrication of complex-microstructured optical fibers. We report the fabrication and characterization of a silica superlattice microstructured fiber with more than 800 rhomboidally arranged air-holes. A polarization-maintaining fiber with a birefringence of 8.5 × 10−4 is demonstrated. The birefringent property of the fiber is found to be highly insensitive to external environmental effects, such as pressure. PMID:28788693

  2. NASA's National Center for Advanced Manufacturing (United States)

    Vickers, John


    NASA has designated the Principal Center Assignment to the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) for implementation of the National Center for Advanced Manufacturing (NCAM). NCAM is NASA s leading resource for the aerospace manufacturing research, development, and innovation needs that are critical to the goals of the Agency. Through this initiative NCAM s people work together with government, industry, and academia to ensure the technology base and national infrastructure are available to develop innovative manufacturing technologies with broad application to NASA Enterprise programs, and U.S. industry. Educational enhancements are ever-present within the NCAM focus to promote research, to inspire participation and to support education and training in manufacturing. Many important accomplishments took place during 2002. Through NCAM, NASA was among five federal agencies involved in manufacturing research and development (R&D) to launch a major effort to exchange information and cooperate directly to enhance the payoffs from federal investments. The Government Agencies Technology Exchange in Manufacturing (GATE-M) is the only active effort to specifically and comprehensively address manufacturing R&D across the federal government. Participating agencies include the departments of Commerce (represented by the National Institute of Standards and Technology), Defense, and Energy, as well as the National Science Foundation and NASA. MSFC s ongoing partnership with the State of Louisiana, the University of New Orleans, and Lockheed Martin Corporation at the Michoud Assembly Facility (MAF) progressed significantly. Major capital investments were initiated for world-class equipment additions including a universal friction stir welding system, composite fiber placement machine, five-axis machining center, and ten-axis laser ultrasonic nondestructive test system. The NCAM consortium of five universities led by University of New Orleans with Mississippi State University

  3. Structurally integrated fiber optic damage assessment system for composite materials. (United States)

    Measures, R M; Glossop, N D; Lymer, J; Leblanc, M; West, J; Dubois, S; Tsaw, W; Tennyson, R C


    Progress toward the development of a fiber optic damage assessment system for composite materials is reported. This system, based on the fracture of embedded optical fibers, has been characterized with respect to the orientation and location of the optical fibers in the composite. Together with a special treatment, these parameters have been tailored to yield a system capable of detecting the threshold of damage for various impacted Kevlar/epoxy panels. The technique has been extended to measure the growth of a damage region which could arise from either impact, manufacturing flaws, or static overloading. The mechanism of optical fiber fracture has also been investigated. In addition, the influence of embedded optical fibers on the tensile and compressive strength of the composite material has been studied. Image enhanced backlighting has been shown to be a powerful and convenient method of assessing internal damage to translucent composite materials.

  4. Experimental study of optical fibers influence on composite (United States)

    Liu, Rong-Mei; Liang, Da-Kai


    Bending strength and elasticity modulus of composite, with and without embedded optical fibers, were experimentally studied. Two kinds of laminates, which were denoted as group 1 and group 2, were fabricated from an orthogonal woven glass/epoxy prepreg. Since the normal stress value becomes the biggest at the surface of a beam, the optical fibers were embedded at the outmost layer and were all along the loading direction. Four types of materials, using each kind of laminated prepreg respectively, were manufactured. The embedded optical fibers for the 4 material types were 0, 10, 30 and 50 respectively. Three-point bending tests were carried out on the produced specimens to study the influence of embedded optical fiber on host composite. The experimental results indicated that the materials in group 2 were more sensitive to the embedded optical fibers.

  5. Utilization of Faraday Mirror in Fiber Optic Current Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Fiala


    Full Text Available Fiber optic sensors dispose of some advantages in the field of electrical current and magnetic field measurement, like large bandwidth, linearity, light transmission possibilities. Unfortunately, they suffer from some parasitic phenomena. The crucial issue is the presence of induced and latent linear birefringence, which is imposed by the fiber manufacture imperfections as well as mechanical stress by fiber bending. In order to the linear birefringence compensation a promising method was chosen for pulsed current sensor design. The method employs orthogonal polarization conjugation by the back direction propagation of the light wave in the fiber. The Jones calculus analysis presents its propriety. An experimental fiber optic current sensor has been designed and realized. The advantage of the proposed method was proved considering to the sensitivity improvement.

  6. High-temperature properties of mineral wool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Augustesen, Maria; Ståhl, Kenny

    Thermal stability and thereby fire safety is an essential property of fibrous insulating materials for buildings. At the same time the viscosity is an important manufacturing property that may impair the thermal stability. This project aims at investigating the thermal stability of some mineral...... behaviour. Figure 1. Isothermal X-ray powder diffraction patterns collected at beamline 711, MAXLAB, Lund, using a Huber G670 Guinier camera. The sample was contained in a 0.5 mm quartz capillary, data were accumulated for 5 min per pattern at T = 1100 K and lambda = 1.2724 Å. Preliminary results show...

  7. High-fiber foods (United States)

    ... page: // High-fiber foods To use the sharing features on this page, ... Read food labels carefully to see how much fiber they have. Choose foods that have higher amounts of fiber, such as ...

  8. Resonant filtered fiber amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Laurila, Marko; Olausson, Christina Bjarnal Thulin


    In this paper we present our recent result on utilizing resonant/bandgap fiber designs to achieve high performance ytterbium doped fiber amplifers for achieving diffraction limited beam quality in large mode area fibers, robust bending performance and gain shaping for long wavelength operation...

  9. Computational imaging through a fiber-optic bundle (United States)

    Lodhi, Muhammad A.; Dumas, John Paul; Pierce, Mark C.; Bajwa, Waheed U.


    Compressive sensing (CS) has proven to be a viable method for reconstructing high-resolution signals using low-resolution measurements. Integrating CS principles into an optical system allows for higher-resolution imaging using lower-resolution sensor arrays. In contrast to prior works on CS-based imaging, our focus in this paper is on imaging through fiber-optic bundles, in which manufacturing constraints limit individual fiber spacing to around 2 μm. This limitation essentially renders fiber-optic bundles as low-resolution sensors with relatively few resolvable points per unit area. These fiber bundles are often used in minimally invasive medical instruments for viewing tissue at macro and microscopic levels. While the compact nature and flexibility of fiber bundles allow for excellent tissue access in-vivo, imaging through fiber bundles does not provide the fine details of tissue features that is demanded in some medical situations. Our hypothesis is that adapting existing CS principles to fiber bundle-based optical systems will overcome the resolution limitation inherent in fiber-bundle imaging. In a previous paper we examined the practical challenges involved in implementing a highly parallel version of the single-pixel camera while focusing on synthetic objects. This paper extends the same architecture for fiber-bundle imaging under incoherent illumination and addresses some practical issues associated with imaging physical objects. Additionally, we model the optical non-idealities in the system to get lower modelling errors.

  10. Microfluidic Fabrication Solutions for Tailor-Designed Fiber Suspensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene Berthet


    Full Text Available Fibers are widely used in different industrial processes, for example in paper manufacturing or lost circulation problems in the oil industry. Recently, interest towards the use of fibers at the microscale has grown, driven by research in bio-medical applications or drug delivery systems. Microfluidic systems are not only directly relevant for lab-on-chip applications, but have also proven to be good model systems to tackle fundamental questions about the flow of fiber suspensions. It has therefore become necessary to provide fiber-like particles with an excellent control of their properties. We present here two complementary in situ methods to fabricate controlled micro-fibers allowing for an embedded fabrication and flow-on-a-chip platform. The first one, based on a photo-lithography principle, can be used to make isolated fibers and dilute fiber suspensions at specific locations of interest inside a microchannel. The self-assembly property of super-paramagnetic colloids is the principle of the second fabrication method, which enables the fabrication of concentrated suspensions of more flexible fibers. We propose a flow gallery with several examples of fiber flow illustrating the two methods’ capabilities and a range of recent laminar flow results.

  11. Wettability of nano-epoxies to UHMWPE fibers. (United States)

    Neema, S; Salehi-Khojin, A; Zhamu, A; Zhong, W H; Jana, S; Gan, Y X


    Ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fibers have a unique combination of outstanding mechanical, physical, and chemical properties. However, as reinforcements for manufacturing high performance composite materials, UHMWPE fibers have poor wettability with most polymers. As a result, the interfacial bonding strength between the fibers and polymer matrices is very low. Recently, developing so-called nano-matrices containing reactive graphitic nanofibers (r-GNFs) has been proposed to promote the wetting of such matrices to certain types of fiber reinforcements. In this work, the wettability of UHMWPE fibers with different epoxy matrices including a nano-epoxy, and a pure epoxy was investigated. Systematic experimental work was conducted to determine the viscosity of the epoxies, the contact angle between the epoxies and the fibers. Also obtained are the surface energy of the fibers and the epoxies. The experimental results show that the wettability of the UHMWPE fibers with the nano-epoxy is much better than that of the UHMWPE fibers with the pure epoxy.

  12. Evaluation of Minerals Content of Drinking Water in Malaysia (United States)

    Azlan, Azrina; Khoo, Hock Eng; Idris, Mohd Aizat; Ismail, Amin; Razman, Muhammad Rizal


    The drinking and mineral water samples obtained from different geographical locations had concentrations of the selected minerals lower than the standard limits, except for manganese, arsenic, and fluoride. The concentrations of manganese and arsenic in two mineral water samples were slightly higher than the standard international recommended limits. One mineral water sample had a fluoride concentration higher than the standard limits, whereas manganese was not detected in nine drinking and mineral water samples. Most of the selected minerals found in the tap water samples were below the international standard limits, except for iron and manganese. The concentrations of iron and manganese in the tap water samples were higher than the standard limits, which were obtained from one and three of the studied locations, respectively. The potable water obtained from various manufacturers and locations in Peninsular Malaysia is safe for consumption, as the minerals concentrations were below the standard limits prescribed by the Malaysian Food Regulations of 1985. The data obtained may also provide important information related to daily intake of these minerals from drinking water. PMID:22649292

  13. Evaluation of Minerals Content of Drinking Water in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azrina Azlan


    Full Text Available The drinking and mineral water samples obtained from different geographical locations had concentrations of the selected minerals lower than the standard limits, except for manganese, arsenic, and fluoride. The concentrations of manganese and arsenic in two mineral water samples were slightly higher than the standard international recommended limits. One mineral water sample had a fluoride concentration higher than the standard limits, whereas manganese was not detected in nine drinking and mineral water samples. Most of the selected minerals found in the tap water samples were below the international standard limits, except for iron and manganese. The concentrations of iron and manganese in the tap water samples were higher than the standard limits, which were obtained from one and three of the studied locations, respectively. The potable water obtained from various manufacturers and locations in Peninsular Malaysia is safe for consumption, as the minerals concentrations were below the standard limits prescribed by the Malaysian Food Regulations of 1985. The data obtained may also provide important information related to daily intake of these minerals from drinking water.

  14. Evaluation of minerals content of drinking water in Malaysia. (United States)

    Azlan, Azrina; Khoo, Hock Eng; Idris, Mohd Aizat; Ismail, Amin; Razman, Muhammad Rizal


    The drinking and mineral water samples obtained from different geographical locations had concentrations of the selected minerals lower than the standard limits, except for manganese, arsenic, and fluoride. The concentrations of manganese and arsenic in two mineral water samples were slightly higher than the standard international recommended limits. One mineral water sample had a fluoride concentration higher than the standard limits, whereas manganese was not detected in nine drinking and mineral water samples. Most of the selected minerals found in the tap water samples were below the international standard limits, except for iron and manganese. The concentrations of iron and manganese in the tap water samples were higher than the standard limits, which were obtained from one and three of the studied locations, respectively. The potable water obtained from various manufacturers and locations in Peninsular Malaysia is safe for consumption, as the minerals concentrations were below the standard limits prescribed by the Malaysian Food Regulations of 1985. The data obtained may also provide important information related to daily intake of these minerals from drinking water.

  15. Implementation of hierarchical design for manufacture rules in manufacturing processes


    Parvez, Masud


    In order to shorten the product development cycle time, minimise overall cost and smooth transition into production, early consideration of manufacturing processes is important. Design for Manufacture (DFM) is the practice of designing products with manufacturing issues using an intelligent system, which translates 3D solid models into manufacturable features. Many existing and potential applications, particularly in the field of manufacturing, require various aspects of features technology. ...

  16. Jute fiber reinforced polypropylene produced by continuous extrusion compounding. Part 1. Processing and ageing properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oever, van den M.J.A.; Snijder, M.H.B.


    This article addresses the processing and ageing properties of jute fiber reinforced polypropylene (PP) composites. The composite has been manufactured by a continuous extrusion process and results in free flowing composite granules, comprising up to 50 weight percent (wt %) jute fiber in PP. These

  17. Robust Manufacturing Control

    CERN Document Server


    This contributed volume collects research papers, presented at the CIRP Sponsored Conference Robust Manufacturing Control: Innovative and Interdisciplinary Approaches for Global Networks (RoMaC 2012, Jacobs University, Bremen, Germany, June 18th-20th 2012). These research papers present the latest developments and new ideas focusing on robust manufacturing control for global networks. Today, Global Production Networks (i.e. the nexus of interconnected material and information flows through which products and services are manufactured, assembled and distributed) are confronted with and expected to adapt to: sudden and unpredictable large-scale changes of important parameters which are occurring more and more frequently, event propagation in networks with high degree of interconnectivity which leads to unforeseen fluctuations, and non-equilibrium states which increasingly characterize daily business. These multi-scale changes deeply influence logistic target achievement and call for robust planning and control ...

  18. Evaluation of environmental degradation effects in morphology of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vivas, Viviane; Zylberberg, Marcel P.; Cardoso, Andre Luis V.; Pereira, Iaci M.; Weber, Ricardo P.; Suarez, Joao C. Miguez


    This study aims to evaluate changes in the morphology of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene fiber (UHMWPE), before and after exposure to environmental agents. Fibers produced by two different manufacturers were analyzed. To characterize the morphology, we used the technique of small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS). The results demonstrate that the original morphology of the fibers was UHMWPE affected by the defects caused by exposure to environmental agents. (author)

  19. Characterization and treatment of sisal fiber residues for cement-based composite application


    Lima,Paulo R. L.; Santos,Rogério J.; Ferreira,Saulo R.; Toledo Filho,Romildo D.


    Sisal fiber is an important agricultural product used in the manufacture of ropes, rugs and also as a reinforcement of polymeric or cement-based composites. However, during the fiber production process a large amount of residues is generated which currently have a low potential for commercial use. The aim of this study is to characterize the agricultural residues by the production and improvement of sisal fiber, called field bush and refugo and verify the potentiality of their use in the rein...

  20. Flexibility in fuel manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reparaz, A.; Stavig, W.E.; McLees, R.B.


    From its inception Exxon Nuclear has produced both BWR and PWR fuels. This is reflected in a product line that, to date, includes over 20 fuel designs. These range from 6x6 design at one end of the spectrum to the recently introduced 17x17 design. The benefits offered include close tailoring of the fuel design to match the customer's requirements, and the ability to rapidly introduce product changes, such as the axial blanket design, with a minimal impact on manufacturing. This flexibility places a number of demands on the manufacturing organization. Close interfaces must be established, and maintained, between the marketing, product design, manufacturing, purchasing and quality organizations, and the information flows must be immediate and accurate. Production schedules must be well planned and must be maintained or revised to reflect changing circumstances. Finally, the manufacturing facilities must be designed to allow rapid switchover between product designs with minor tooling changes and/or rerouting of product flows to alternate work stations. Among the tools used to manage the flow of information and to maintain the tight integration necessary between the various manufacturing, engineering and quality organizations is a commercially available, computerized planning and tracking system, AMAPS. A real-time production data collection system has been designed which gathers data from each production work station for use by the shop floor control module of AMAPS. Accuracy of input to the system is improved through extensive use of bar codes to gather information on the product as it moves through and between work stations. This computerized preparation of material tracing has an impact on direct manufacturing records, quality control records, nuclear material records and accounting and inventory records. This is of benefit to both Exxon Nuclear and its customers

  1. The mineral economy of Brazil--Economia mineral do Brasil (United States)

    Gurmendi, Alfredo C.; Barboza, Frederico Lopes; Thorman, Charles H.


    This study depicts the Brazilian government structure, mineral legislation and investment policy, taxation, foreign investment policies, environmental laws and regulations, and conditions in which the mineral industry operates. The report underlines Brazil's large and diversified mineral endowment. A total of 37 mineral commodities, or groups of closely related commodities, is discussed. An overview of the geologic setting of the major mineral deposits is presented. This report is presented in English and Portuguese in pdf format.

  2. A pilot-scale nonwoven roll goods manufacturing process reduces microbial burden to pharmacopeia acceptance levels for nonsterile hygiene applications (United States)

    A total of seven source fiber types were selected for use in the manufacturing of nonwoven roll goods: polyester; polypropylene; rayon; greige cotton from two sources; mechanically cleaned greige cotton; and scoured and bleached cotton. The microbial burden of each source fiber was measured as a pr...

  3. A fiber optic temperature sensor based on multi-core microstructured fiber with coupled cores for a high temperature environment (United States)

    Makowska, A.; Markiewicz, K.; Szostkiewicz, L.; Kolakowska, A.; Fidelus, J.; Stanczyk, T.; Wysokinski, K.; Budnicki, D.; Ostrowski, L.; Szymanski, M.; Makara, M.; Poturaj, K.; Tenderenda, T.; Mergo, P.; Nasilowski, T.


    Sensors based on fiber optics are irreplaceable wherever immunity to strong electro-magnetic fields or safe operation in explosive atmospheres is needed. Furthermore, it is often essential to be able to monitor high temperatures of over 500°C in such environments (e.g. in cooling systems or equipment monitoring in power plants). In order to meet this demand, we have designed and manufactured a fiber optic sensor with which temperatures up to 900°C can be measured. The sensor utilizes multi-core fibers which are recognized as the dedicated medium for telecommunication or shape sensing, but as we show may be also deployed advantageously in new types of fiber optic temperature sensors. The sensor presented in this paper is based on a dual-core microstructured fiber Michelson interferometer. The fiber is characterized by strongly coupled cores, hence it acts as an all-fiber coupler, but with an outer diameter significantly wider than a standard fused biconical taper coupler, which significantly increases the coupling region's mechanical reliability. Owing to the proposed interferometer imbalance, effective operation and high-sensitivity can be achieved. The presented sensor is designed to be used at high temperatures as a result of the developed low temperature chemical process of metal (copper or gold) coating. The hermetic metal coating can be applied directly to the silica cladding of the fiber or the fiber component. This operation significantly reduces the degradation of sensors due to hydrolysis in uncontrolled atmospheres and high temperatures.

  4. Diccionario Lean Manufacturing


    Muñoz Ellner, Sarah María


    El Diccionario Bilingüe de Lean Manufacturing pretende ser un instrumento de apoyo a todo aquel que tenga la responsabilidad de planear, ejecutar o simplemente algún interés con las actividades de Lean Manufacturing, aportando así también conceptos claros tanto en castellano como en inglés, con el fin de entender de forma integral el alcance mismo que puede llegar a tener dicha filosofía, al igual que se proporcionara una serie de siglas y herramientas para la implementación del Lean Manufact...

  5. Developments in fuel manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, T.


    BNFL has a long tradition of willingness to embrace technological challenge and a dedication to quality. This paper describes advances in the overall manufacturing philosophy at BNFL's Fuel Business Group and then covers how some new technologies are currently being employed in BNFL Fuel Business Group's flagship oxide complex (OFC), which is currently in its final stages of commissioning. This plant represents a total investment of some Pound 200 million. This paper also describes how these technologies are also being deployed in BNFL's MOX plant now being built at Sellafield and, finally, covers some new processes being developed for advanced fuel manufacture. (author)

  6. Recent Developments in Fiber Optics Humidity Sensors. (United States)

    Ascorbe, Joaquin; Corres, Jesus M; Arregui, Francisco J; Matias, Ignacio R


    A wide range of applications such as health, human comfort, agriculture, food processing and storage, and electronic manufacturing, among others, require fast and accurate measurement of humidity. Sensors based on optical fibers present several advantages over electronic sensors and great research efforts have been made in recent years in this field. The present paper reports the current trends of optical fiber humidity sensors. The evolution of optical structures developed towards humidity sensing, as well as the novel materials used for this purpose, will be analyzed. Well-known optical structures, such as long-period fiber gratings or fiber Bragg gratings, are still being studied towards an enhancement of their sensitivity. Sensors based on lossy mode resonances constitute a platform that combines high sensitivity with low complexity, both in terms of their fabrication process and the equipment required. Novel structures, such as resonators, are being studied in order to improve the resolution of humidity sensors. Moreover, recent research on polymer optical fibers suggests that the sensitivity of this kind of sensor has not yet reached its limit. Therefore, there is still room for improvement in terms of sensitivity and resolution.

  7. Superconducting tin core fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homa, Daniel; Liang, Yongxuan; Hill, Cary; Kaur, Gurbinder; Pickrell, Gary


    In this study, we demonstrated superconductivity in a fiber with a tin core and fused silica cladding. The fibers were fabricated via a modified melt-draw technique and maintained core diameters ranging from 50-300 microns and overall diameters of 125-800 microns. Superconductivity of this fiber design was validated via the traditional four-probe test method in a bath of liquid helium at temperatures on the order of 3.8 K. The synthesis route and fiber design are perquisites to ongoing research dedicated all-fiber optoelectronics and the relationships between superconductivity and the material structures, as well as corresponding fabrication techniques. (orig.)

  8. Mineral resources of parts of the Departments of Antioquia and Caldas, Zone II, Colombia (United States)

    Hall, R.B.; Feininger, Tomas; Barrero, L.; Dario, Rico H.; ,; Alvarez, A.


    The mineral resources of an area of 40,000 sq km, principally in the Department of Antioquia, but including small parts of the Departments of Caldas, C6rdoba, Risaralda, and Tolima, were investigated during the period 1964-68. The area is designated Zone II by the Colombian Inventario Minero Nacional(lMN). The geology of approximately 45 percent of this area, or 18,000 sq km, has been mapped by IMN. Zone II has been a gold producer for centuries, and still produces 75 percent of Colombia's gold. Silver is recovered as a byproduct. Ferruginous laterites have been investigated as potential sources of iron ore but are not commercially exploitable. Nickeliferous laterite on serpentinite near Ure in the extreme northwest corner of the Zone is potentially exploitable, although less promising than similar laterites at Cerro Matoso, north of the Zone boundary. Known deposits of mercury, chromium, manganese, and copper are small and have limited economic potentia1. Cement raw materials are important among nonmetallic resources, and four companies are engaged in the manufacture of portland cement. The eastern half of Zone II contains large carbonate rock reserves, but poor accessibility is a handicap to greater development at present. Dolomite near Amalfi is quarried for the glass-making and other industries. Clay saprolite is abundant and widely used in making brick and tiles in backyard kilns. Kaolin of good quality near La Union is used by the ceramic industry. Subbituminous coal beds of Tertiary are an important resource in the western part of the zone and have good potential for greater development. Aggregate materials for construction are varied and abundant. Deposits of sodic feldspar, talc, decorative stone, and silica are exploited on a small scale. Chrysotils asbestos deposits north of Campamento are being developed to supply fiber for Colombia's thriving asbestos-cement industry, which is presently dependent upon imported fiber. Wollastonite and andalusite are

  9. A Taxonomy of Manufacturing Strategies


    Jeffrey G. Miller; Aleda V. Roth


    This paper describes the development and analysis of a numerical taxonomy of manufacturing strategies. The taxonomy was developed with standard methods of cluster analysis, and is based on the relative importance attached to eleven competitive capabilities defining the manufacturing task of 164 large American manufacturing business units. Three distinct clusters of manufacturing strategy groups were observed. Though there is an industry effect, all three manufacturing strategy types are obser...

  10. Nanofiber Manufacture, Properties, and Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, T.; Lukas, D.; Bhat, G.S.


    Nano fibers have shown many unique characteristics and enormous application potential in widely diverse areas. While considerable research has been conducted on exploring the properties and applications of nano fibers over the decade, the technology development for large-scale production of nano fibers has been hampered, which slows down the wide applications of nano fibers in practice. This special issue focuses on the recent progress in emerging nano fiber production techniques, such as needle less electro spinning, and novel properties and applications of nano fibers. It also covers unusual methods to process natural materials into nano fibrous materials. The special issue consists of four review articles and eighteen research papers. One review paper presents an overview of the recent developments in needle less electro spinning and the influences of needle less spinnerets on electro spinning process, nano fiber quality and productivity. The review also points out the challenges remaining for further research in this area. Other three reviews separately summarize the preparation, characterization and applications of ZnO nano wires and the applications of carbon nano fibers for neural electrical/chemical interfaces and for cement reinforcement. The research articles report new results of needle less electro spinning techniques, and novel methods to make bi component nano fibers, porous nano fibers, nano fiber hydrogel and chitin nan ofibrils. As Guest Editors for this special issue, we are pleased to see the progress in the applications of nano fibers, especially for sound absorption and for protective clothing, as well as the antibacterial properties of titanate nano fibers. We hope this special issue will promote further development of large-scale economically feasible nano fiber-making technologies, and also contribute to the wide use of nano fibers. We also hope that the articles collected in this special issue are well-received by the reader.

  11. Design and Manufacture of Conical Shell Structures Using Prepreg Laminates (United States)

    Khakimova, Regina; Burau, Florian; Degenhardt, Richard; Siebert, Mark; Castro, Saullo G. P.


    The design and manufacture of unstiffened composite conical structures is very challenging, as the variation of the fiber orientations, lay-up and the geometry of the ply pieces have a significant influence on the thickness imperfections and ply angle deviations imprinted to the final part. This paper deals with the manufacture of laminated composite cones through the prepeg/autoclave process. The cones are designed to undergo repetitive buckling tests without accumulating permanent damage. The aim is to define a process that allows the control of fiber angle deviations and the removal of thickness imperfections generated from gaps and overlaps between ply pieces. Ultrasonic scan measurements are used to proof the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  12. Wood quality changes caused by mineral fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Sette Jr


    Full Text Available The diverse and important use of wood from fast growth eucalyptus plantations requires the analysis of the effect of mineral fertilizers on wood quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the anatomical characteristics and wood density from Eucalyptus grandis trees (3 m x 2 m spacing fertilized with potassium and sodium (at planting, 6 th and 12th month. Fifteen (15 6 years old eucalyptus trees were selected (5 trees/treatment, cut and wood samples at DBH (1,3 m were taken for anatomical characteristics (fiber and vessels and wood density analysis. Results showed that eucalyptus trees treated with mineral fertilizers did not show significant alteration in average wood density, with radial profile model common to all three treatments, characterized by a values increase in the region next to the pith, toward to bark. Mineral fertilization influenced wood anatomical characteristics: treatment with sodium was characterized by thinner walls and lumen larger diameter; in treatment with potassium, larger vessels were detected.

  13. Transfer of manufacturing units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Skov; Riis, Jens Ove; Sørensen, Brian Vejrum


    The ongoing and unfolding relocation of activities is one of the major trends, that calls for attention in the domain of operations management. In particular, prescriptive models outlining: stages of the process, where to locate, and how to establish the new facilities have been studied, while...... and dilemmas to be addressed when transferring manufacturing units....

  14. Reusing Old Manufacturing Buildings (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.


    This article presents an interesting design challenge for students, one that will certainly let them integrate subject matter and get a sense of pride for doing something useful in their own community. The author would be willing to bet that the average town or city has some old red brick manufacturing building(s) that have seen much better days.…

  15. Virtual manufacturing in reality (United States)

    Papstel, Jyri; Saks, Alo


    SMEs play an important role in manufacturing industry. But from time to time there is a shortage in resources to complete the particular order in time. Number of systems is introduced to produce digital information in order to support product and process development activities. Main problem is lack of opportunity for direct data transition within design system modules when needed temporary extension of design capacity (virtuality) or to implement integrated concurrent product development principles. The planning experience in the field is weakly used as well. The concept of virtual manufacturing is a supporting idea to solve this problem. At the same time a number of practical problems should be solved like information conformity, data transfer, unified technological concepts acceptation etc. In the present paper the proposed ways to solve the practical problems of virtual manufacturing are described. General objective is to introduce the knowledge-based CAPP system as missing module for Virtual Manufacturing in the selected product domain. Surface-centered planning concept based on STEP- based modeling principles, and knowledge-based process planning methodology will be used to gain the objectives. As a result the planning module supplied by design data with direct access, and supporting advising environment is expected. Mould producing SME would be as test basis.

  16. Tolerances in micro manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Zhang, Yang; Islam, Aminul

    This paper describes a method for analysis of tolerances in micro manufacturing. It proposes a mapping oftolerances to dimensions and compares this with current available international standards. The analysisdocuments that tolerances are not scaled down as the absolute dimension. In practice...

  17. Cladding tube manufacturing technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, R.; Jeong, Y. H.; Baek, B. J.; Kim, K. H.; Kim, S. J.; Choi, B. K.; Kim, J. M.


    This report gives an overview of the manufacturing routine of PWR cladding tubes. The routine essentially consists of a series of deformation and annealing processes which are necessary to transform the ingot geometry to tube dimensions. By changing shape, microstructure and structure-related properties are altered simultaneously. First, a short overview of the basics of that part of deformation geometry is given which is related to tube reducing operations. Then those processes of the manufacturing routine which change the microstructure are depicted, and the influence of certain process parameters on microstructure and material properties are shown. The influence of the resulting microstructure on material properties is not discussed in detail, since it is described in my previous report A lloy Development for High Burnup Cladding . Because of their paramount importance still up to now, and because manufacturing data and their influence on properties for other alloys are not so well established or published, the descriptions are mostly related to Zry4 tube manufacturing, and are only in short for other alloys. (author). 9 refs., 46 figs

  18. Nuclear fuel manufacture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costello, J.M.


    The technologies used to manufacture nuclear fuel from uranium ore are outlined, with particular reference to the light water reactor fuel cycle. Capital and operating cost estimates for the processing stages are given, and the relevance to a developing uranium industry in Australia is discussed

  19. Manufacturing and Merchandising Careers (United States)

    Ryan, Peter J.; And Others


    Anyone with a flair for business, product development, or promotion might consider a manufacturing or merchandising occupation. The music industry offers many career opportunities for administrators, salespersons, marketing specialists--the record industry offers positions from promotion manager to rack jobber. Describes instrument company…

  20. Manufacturing in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Johannes; Boer, Henrike Engele Elisabeth; Boer, Harry

    This report compares the manufacturing strategies, practices, performances and improvement activities of 39 companies that are representative for the Danish assembly industry with those of 804 companies from 19 other countries. The data supporting this report were collected in 2013 and concern...

  1. Competitive Manufacturing Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rymaszewska, Anna; Christensen, Irene; Karlsson, Christer

    to constantly improve this process in terms of time to volume, according to predefined cost and quality measures. The importance of the success of this process can lead to a significant creation of competitive advantage. This paper addresses the challenges of the manufacturing ramp-up process in the context...

  2. Cladding tube manufacturing technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, R. [Kraftwerk Union AG, Mulheim (Germany); Jeong, Y.H.; Baek, B.J.; Kim, K.H.; Kim, S.J.; Choi, B.K.; Kim, J.M. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    This report gives an overview of the manufacturing routine of PWR cladding tubes. The routine essentially consists of a series of deformation and annealing processes which are necessary to transform the ingot geometry to tube dimensions. By changing shape, microstructure and structure-related properties are altered simultaneously. First, a short overview of the basics of that part of deformation geometry is given which is related to tube reducing operations. Then those processes of the manufacturing routine which change the microstructure are depicted, and the influence of certain process parameters on microstructure and material properties are shown. The influence of the resulting microstructure on material properties is not discussed in detail, since it is described in my previous report 'Alloy Development for High Burnup Cladding.' Because of their paramount importance still up to now, and because manufacturing data and their influence on properties for other alloys are not so well established or published, the descriptions are mostly related to Zry4 tube manufacturing, and are only in short for other alloys. (author). 9 refs., 46 figs.

  3. Turbine airfoil manufacturing technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kortovich, C. [PCC Airfoils, Inc., Beachwood, OH (United States)


    The specific goal of this program is to define manufacturing methods that will allow single crystal technology to be applied to complex-cored airfoils components for power generation applications. Tasks addressed include: alloy melt practice to reduce the sulfur content; improvement of casting process; core materials design; and grain orientation control.

  4. Drug development and manufacturing (United States)

    Warner, Benjamin P.; McCleskey, T. Mark; Burrell, Anthony K.


    X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry has been used for detecting binding events and measuring binding selectivities between chemicals and receptors. XRF may also be used for estimating the therapeutic index of a chemical, for estimating the binding selectivity of a chemical versus chemical analogs, for measuring post-translational modifications of proteins, and for drug manufacturing.

  5. 7 CFR 1755.200 - RUS standard for splicing copper and fiber optic cables. (United States)


    ... instructions concerning pulling tension and bending radius shall be observed. Unless the cable manufacturer's... will have to be replaced; (ii) The cable manufacturer's recommendations concerning pulling tension shall be observed. The maximum pulling tension for most fiber optic cable is 2669 newtons (600 pound...

  6. Microbially mediated mineral carbonation (United States)

    Power, I. M.; Wilson, S. A.; Dipple, G. M.; Southam, G.


    Mineral carbonation involves silicate dissolution and carbonate precipitation, which are both natural processes that microorganisms are able to mediate in near surface environments (Ferris et al., 1994; Eq. 1). (Ca,Mg)SiO3 + 2H2CO3 + H2O → (Ca,Mg)CO3 + H2O + H4SiO4 + O2 (1) Cyanobacteria are photoautotrophs with cell surface characteristics and metabolic processes involving inorganic carbon that can induce carbonate precipitation. This occurs partly by concentrating cations within their net-negative cell envelope and through the alkalinization of their microenvironment (Thompson & Ferris, 1990). Regions with mafic and ultramafic bedrock, such as near Atlin, British Columbia, Canada, represent the best potential sources of feedstocks for mineral carbonation. The hydromagnesite playas near Atlin are a natural biogeochemical model for the carbonation of magnesium silicate minerals (Power et al., 2009). Field-based studies at Atlin and corroborating laboratory experiments demonstrate the ability of a microbial consortium dominated by filamentous cyanobacteria to induce the precipitation of carbonate minerals. Phototrophic microbes, such as cyanobacteria, have been proposed as a means for producing biodiesel and other value added products because of their efficiency as solar collectors and low requirement for valuable, cultivable land in comparison to crops (Dismukes et al., 2008). Carbonate precipitation and biomass production could be facilitated using specifically designed ponds to collect waters rich in dissolved cations (e.g., Mg2+ and Ca2+), which would allow for evapoconcentration and provide an appropriate environment for growth of cyanobacteria. Microbially mediated carbonate precipitation does not require large quantities of energy or chemicals needed for industrial systems that have been proposed for rapid carbon capture and storage via mineral carbonation (e.g., Lackner et al., 1995). Therefore, this biogeochemical approach may represent a readily

  7. Production of mineral ash-wool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micevic, Z.; Djekic, S.


    The project entitled 'Production of Mineral Ash-Wool' presents a new technology of possible use of the fly ash, generated as a waste product from the fossil fueled power plants, as a basic raw material for manufacturing of different products from a new mineral ash-wool. The wide area of mineral ash-wool application (civil engineering, industry, power generation, etc.) and the advantages of this new technology (important raw material obtained free of charge, substitution of expensive silicate stone, use of electric energy for melting instead for coke, vicinity of factory location close to the fossil fueled power plant, lower product price, reduction of environmental pollution, etc.) have resulted in the performance of the bench scale tests. Positive results have been obtained, as a good initial base for the realization of this project. The named study as an detailed analysis has been carried out for the assessment of: supply and sales market, analysis of possible and selection of an optimal location of the factory in the frame of fossil fueled power plant 'Kosovo', selection of the production capacity and alternative preliminary technical designs of the factory for the mineral ash-wool production. For the studied alternatives, specifications and capital investments evaluations for equipment and works (mechanical, civil engineering and electromechanical part) have been made as well as assessments of production costs. Based on the performed economical and financial analyses, as well as the sensitivity analyses one could be concluded that the investments in the factory for the mineral ash-wool production is highly economically acceptable. (author). 1 fig., 1 tab., 3 refs

  8. From space qualified fiber optic gyroscope to generic fiber optic solutions available for space application (United States)

    Buret, Thomas; Ramecourt, David; Napolitano, Fabien


    The aim of this article is to present how the qualification of the Fiber Optic Gyroscope technology from IXSEA has been achieved through the qualification of a large range of optical devices and related manufacturing processes. These qualified optical devices and processes, that are now fully mastered by IXSEA through vertical integration of the technology, can be used for other space optical sensors. The example of the SWARM project will be discussed.

  9. Ballistic properties of bidirectional fiber/resin composites


    Dimeski, Dimko; Spaseska, Dijana


    The aim of the research was to make evaulation of the ballistic strenth of four different composites intended to be used in manufacturing of ballistic items for personal protection. Research has been performed on glass, ntlon, HPPE and aramide fibers...... Key words. aramid, ballistic, V50

  10. Photonic crystal fibers: fundamental properties and applications within sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Bo Damm; Riishede, Jesper; Broeng, Jes


    a large variety of novel optical properties and improvements compared to standard optical fibers. The stack-and-pull procedure used to manufacture PCFs is a highly flexible method offering a large degree of freedom in the fabrication of PCFs with specific characteristics. A few of the remarkable optical...

  11. Tooling for Production of the Green Fiber Bottle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saxena, Prateek; Bissacco, Giuliano; Bedka, Filip J.


    Ever since the invention of plastics, packaging has become extremely cheap and efficient. In recent times, the demand for more ecological packaging is increasing leading back to the roots of using naturally available resources, which are biodegradable. The manufacturing process of the Green Fiber...

  12. Effects of Dietary Fiber and Its Components on Metabolic Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark D. Haub


    Full Text Available Dietary fiber and whole grains contain a unique blend of bioactive components including resistant starches, vitamins, minerals, phytochemicals and antioxidants. As a result, research regarding their potential health benefits has received considerable attention in the last several decades. Epidemiological and clinical studies demonstrate that intake of dietary fiber and whole grain is inversely related to obesity, type two diabetes, cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD. Defining dietary fiber is a divergent process and is dependent on both nutrition and analytical concepts. The most common and accepted definition is based on nutritional physiology. Generally speaking, dietary fiber is the edible parts of plants, or similar carbohydrates, that are resistant to digestion and absorption in the small intestine. Dietary fiber can be separated into many different fractions. Recent research has begun to isolate these components and determine if increasing their levels in a diet is beneficial to human health. These fractions include arabinoxylan, inulin, pectin, bran, cellulose, β-glucan and resistant starch. The study of these components may give us a better understanding of how and why dietary fiber may decrease the risk for certain diseases. The mechanisms behind the reported effects of dietary fiber on metabolic health are not well established. It is speculated to be a result of changes in intestinal viscosity, nutrient absorption, rate of passage, production of short chain fatty acids and production of gut hormones. Given the inconsistencies reported between studies this review will examine the most up to date data concerning dietary fiber and its effects on metabolic health.

  13. Hierarchically Structured Electrospun Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole E. Zander


    Full Text Available Traditional electrospun nanofibers have a myriad of applications ranging from scaffolds for tissue engineering to components of biosensors and energy harvesting devices. The generally smooth one-dimensional structure of the fibers has stood as a limitation to several interesting novel applications. Control of fiber diameter, porosity and collector geometry will be briefly discussed, as will more traditional methods for controlling fiber morphology and fiber mat architecture. The remainder of the review will focus on new techniques to prepare hierarchically structured fibers. Fibers with hierarchical primary structures—including helical, buckled, and beads-on-a-string fibers, as well as fibers with secondary structures, such as nanopores, nanopillars, nanorods, and internally structured fibers and their applications—will be discussed. These new materials with helical/buckled morphology are expected to possess unique optical and mechanical properties with possible applications for negative refractive index materials, highly stretchable/high-tensile-strength materials, and components in microelectromechanical devices. Core-shell type fibers enable a much wider variety of materials to be electrospun and are expected to be widely applied in the sensing, drug delivery/controlled release fields, and in the encapsulation of live cells for biological applications. Materials with a hierarchical secondary structure are expected to provide new superhydrophobic and self-cleaning materials.

  14. Functional grading of mineral and collagen in the attachment of tendon to bone. (United States)

    Genin, Guy M; Kent, Alistair; Birman, Victor; Wopenka, Brigitte; Pasteris, Jill D; Marquez, Pablo J; Thomopoulos, Stavros


    Attachment of dissimilar materials is a major challenge because high levels of localized stress may develop at their interfaces. An effective biologic solution to this problem exists at one of nature's most extreme interfaces: the attachment of tendon (a compliant, structural "soft tissue") to bone (a stiff, structural "hard tissue"). The goal of our study was to develop biomechanical models to describe how the tendon-to-bone insertion derives its mechanical properties. We examined the tendon-to-bone insertion and found two factors that give the tendon-to-bone transition a unique grading in mechanical properties: 1), a gradation in mineral concentration, measured by Raman spectroscopy; and 2), a gradation in collagen fiber orientation, measured by polarized light microscopy. Our measurements motivate a new physiological picture of the tissue that achieves this transition, the tendon-to-bone insertion, as a continuous, functionally graded material. Our biomechanical model suggests that the experimentally observed increase in mineral accumulation within collagen fibers can provide significant stiffening of the partially mineralized fibers, but only for concentrations of mineral above a "percolation threshold" corresponding to formation of a mechanically continuous mineral network within each collagen fiber (e.g., the case of mineral connectivity extending from one end of the fiber to the other). Increasing dispersion in the orientation distribution of collagen fibers from tendon to bone is a second major determinant of tissue stiffness. The combination of these two factors may explain the nonmonotonic variation of stiffness over the length of the tendon-to-bone insertion reported previously. Our models explain how tendon-to-bone attachment is achieved through a functionally graded material composition, and provide targets for tissue engineered surgical interventions and biomimetic material interfaces.

  15. Comparison of Composites Properties Manufactured by Vacuum Process and Autoclave Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Rufei


    Full Text Available Two kinds of prepregs ZT7G/LT-03A(unidirectional carbon fiber prepreg and ZT7G3198P/LT-03A(plain carbon fabric prepreg were used to manufacture three Bateches of composites by vacuum process and autoclave process respectively. The physical properties of the prepregs and mechanical properties of composite were tested. The performance, fiber volume content and porosity of composites manufactured by vacuum cure and autoclave process show that the physical property retention rates of vacuum cured composites are all over 75%, some even more than 100%. Interlaminar shear strength keeps the lowest retention rate and warp tensile strength keeps the highest retention in unidirectional carbon fiber composites. For fabric composite material, compression strength keeps the lowest and warp tensile strength keeps the highest retention. Vacuum cured composites perform lower fiber volume content and higher porosity, which are the main reasons of the lower performance.

  16. Puncture-Healing Thermoplastic Resin Carbon-Fiber-Reinforced Composites (United States)

    Gordon, Keith L. (Inventor); Siochi, Emilie J. (Inventor); Grimsley, Brian W. (Inventor); Cano, Roberto J. (Inventor); Czabaj, Michael W. (Inventor)


    A composite comprising a combination of a self-healing polymer matrix and a carbon fiber reinforcement is described. In one embodiment, the matrix is a polybutadiene graft copolymer matrix, such as polybutadiene graft copolymer comprising poly(butadiene)-graft-poly(methyl acrylate-co-acrylonitrile). A method of fabricating the composite is also described, comprising the steps of manufacturing a pre-impregnated unidirectional carbon fiber preform by wetting a plurality of carbon fibers with a solution, the solution comprising a self-healing polymer and a solvent, and curing the preform. A method of repairing a structure made from the composite of the invention is described. A novel prepreg material used to manufacture the composite of the invention is described.

  17. Thermographic Non-Destructive Evaluation for Natural Fiber-Reinforced Composite Laminates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Zhang


    Full Text Available Natural fibers, including mineral and plant fibers, are increasingly used for polymer composite materials due to their low environmental impact. In this paper, thermographic non-destructive inspection techniques were used to evaluate and characterize basalt, jute/hemp and bagasse fibers composite panels. Different defects were analyzed in terms of impact damage, delaminations and resin abnormalities. Of particular interest, homogeneous particleboards of sugarcane bagasse, a new plant fiber material, were studied. Pulsed phase thermography and principal component thermography were used as the post-processing methods. In addition, ultrasonic C-scan and continuous wave terahertz imaging were also carried out on the mineral fiber laminates for comparative purposes. Finally, an analytical comparison of different methods was given.

  18. Energy Absorption in Chopped Carbon Fiber Compression Molded Composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starbuck, J.M.


    In passenger vehicles the ability to absorb energy due to impact and be survivable for the occupant is called the ''crashworthiness'' of the structure. To identify and quantify the energy absorbing mechanisms in candidate automotive composite materials, test methodologies were developed for conducting progressive crush tests on composite plate specimens. The test method development and experimental set-up focused on isolating the damage modes associated with the frond formation that occurs in dynamic testing of composite tubes. Quasi-static progressive crush tests were performed on composite plates manufactured from chopped carbon fiber with an epoxy resin system using compression molding techniques. The carbon fiber was Toray T700 and the epoxy resin was YLA RS-35. The effect of various material and test parameters on energy absorption was evaluated by varying the following parameters during testing: fiber volume fraction, fiber length, fiber tow size, specimen width, profile radius, and profile constraint condition. It was demonstrated during testing that the use of a roller constraint directed the crushing process and the load deflection curves were similar to progressive crushing of tubes. Of all the parameters evaluated, the fiber length appeared to be the most critical material parameter, with shorter fibers having a higher specific energy absorption than longer fibers. The combination of material parameters that yielded the highest energy absorbing material was identified

  19. [INVITED] Tilted fiber grating mechanical and biochemical sensors (United States)

    Guo, Tuan; Liu, Fu; Guan, Bai-Ou; Albert, Jacques


    The tilted fiber Bragg grating (TFBG) is a new kind of fiber-optic sensor that possesses all the advantages of well-established Bragg grating technology in addition to being able to excite cladding modes resonantly. This device opens up a multitude of opportunities for single-point sensing in hard-to-reach spaces with very controllable cross-sensitivities, absolute and relative measurements of various parameters, and an extreme sensitivity to materials external to the fiber without requiring the fiber to be etched or tapered. Over the past five years, our research group has been developing multimodal fiber-optic sensors based on TFBG in various shapes and forms, always keeping the device itself simple to fabricate and compatible with low-cost manufacturing. This paper presents a brief review of the principle, fabrication, characterization, and implementation of TFBGs, followed by our progress in TFBG sensors for mechanical and biochemical applications, including one-dimensional TFBG vibroscopes, accelerometers and micro-displacement sensors; two-dimensional TFBG vector vibroscopes and vector rotation sensors; reflective TFBG refractometers with in-fiber and fiber-to-fiber configurations; polarimetric and plasmonic TFBG biochemical sensors for in-situ detection of cell, protein and glucose.

  20. Minerals in deserts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.I.


    Almost any kind of mineral deposit can occur in desert areas, and the lack of vegetation and soil cover makes finding them easier. Some kinds of deposits, though, are more likely to occur in deserts than elsewhere. Some of these result from processes genetically related to the present desert climate that improved lower grade deposits of ore. One such process, termed secondary enrichment, is most effective in areas with deep water tables, and many low-grade copper, silver, and uranium deposits have been converted into mineable ore by the downward migration and redeposition of soluble metals. In a desert terrane, placer processes are effective whenever running water flowing over steep slopes erodes outcropping ore bodies and transports and concentrates the heavier ore minerals at lower levels, thus converting low-grade or hard-to-mine bedrock deposits into economically workable concentrations. Other kinds of deposits are better preserved in deserts because the lower rainfall at the surface, and the lower volume of flow and the greater depths to groundwater, result in less destruction of soluble ores; deposits of salines and phosphates are the most notable ores affected by these factors. Still other ore deposits are created as a consequence of the arid climate, mostly because the high evaporation rates operating on standing bodies of water produce brines that can lead directly to concentrations of salts and indirectly to secondary minerals, such as zeolites, that are produced by reaction of silicate minerals with saline waters

  1. Carbonizing bituminous minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    A process for carbonizing bituminous minerals, like oil-shale, in a furnace with addition of air in the presence of heat-receiving material is characterized by the fact that to the feed such solid or liquid material (with the exception of oil) is added, which, through vaporization or heat-binding decomposition or conversion, hinders the establishment of excessive temperatures.

  2. Uruguay minerals fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goso, H.


    In this report the bases for the development of the necessary works of prospection are exposed on mineral fuels of Uruguay. We have taken the set from: coal, lutitas bituminous, uranium, petroleum and disturbs. In all the cases we have talked about to the present state of the knowledge and to the works that we considered necessary to develop in each case

  3. Micro-manufacturing: design and manufacturing of micro-products

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Koç, Muammer; Özel, Tuğrul


    .... After addressing the fundamentals and non-metallic-based micro-manufacturing processes in the semiconductor industry, it goes on to address specific metallic-based micro-manufacturing processes...

  4. Reconfigurable manufacturing system for agile mass customization manufacturing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Xing, B


    Full Text Available Manufacturing companies are facing three challenges: low cost production of product, high quality standard and rapid responsiveness to customer requirements. These three goals are equally important for the manufacturing companies who want...

  5. Three-Axis Distributed Fiber Optic Strain Measurement in 3D Woven Composite Structures (United States)

    Castellucci, Matt; Klute, Sandra; Lally, Evan M.; Froggatt, Mark E.; Lowry, David


    Recent advancements in composite materials technologies have broken further from traditional designs and require advanced instrumentation and analysis capabilities. Success or failure is highly dependent on design analysis and manufacturing processes. By monitoring smart structures throughout manufacturing and service life, residual and operational stresses can be assessed and structural integrity maintained. Composite smart structures can be manufactured by integrating fiber optic sensors into existing composite materials processes such as ply layup, filament winding and three-dimensional weaving. In this work optical fiber was integrated into 3D woven composite parts at a commercial woven products manufacturing facility. The fiber was then used to monitor the structures during a VARTM manufacturing process, and subsequent static and dynamic testing. Low cost telecommunications-grade optical fiber acts as the sensor using a high resolution commercial Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometer (OFDR) system providing distributed strain measurement at spatial resolutions as low as 2mm. Strain measurements using the optical fiber sensors are correlated to resistive strain gage measurements during static structural loading. Keywords: fiber optic, distributed strain sensing, Rayleigh scatter, optical frequency domain reflectometry

  6. Design and application of reconfigurable manufacturing systems in agile mass customization manufacturing environment.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Xing, B


    Full Text Available processes. Many manufacturing techniques are based on the principles of Flexible Manufacturing and Dedicated Manufacturing for mass production. Reconfigurable Manufacturing System, (RMS), is a manufacturing system that can provide for Agile Manufacturing...

  7. 3D Representative Volume Element Reconstruction of Fiber Composites via Orientation Tensor and Substructure Features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yi; Chen, Wei; Xu, Hongyi; Jin, Xuejun


    To provide a seamless integration of manufacturing processing simulation and fiber microstructure modeling, two new stochastic 3D microstructure reconstruction methods are proposed for two types of random fiber composites: random short fiber composites, and Sheet Molding Compounds (SMC) chopped fiber composites. A Random Sequential Adsorption (RSA) algorithm is first developed to embed statistical orientation information into 3D RVE reconstruction of random short fiber composites. For the SMC composites, an optimized Voronoi diagram based approach is developed for capturing the substructure features of SMC chopped fiber composites. The proposed methods are distinguished from other reconstruction works by providing a way of integrating statistical information (fiber orientation tensor) obtained from material processing simulation, as well as capturing the multiscale substructures of the SMC composites.

  8. High efficient and continuous surface modification of carbon fibers with improved tensile strength and interfacial adhesion (United States)

    Sun, Jingfeng; Zhao, Feng; Yao, Yue; Jin, Zhen; Liu, Xu; Huang, Yudong


    Most of the surface modification technologies for carbon fibers, no matter in laboratory scale or for commercial manufacture, are accompanied by a simultaneous decrease in tensile strength. In this paper, a feasible and high efficient strategy for carbon fiber treatment which could obviously improve both tensile strength and interfacial adhesion was proposed. Continuously moving carbon fibers were treated with atmospheric helium plasma for 1 min, followed by a 5 min pyrolytic carbon deposition using ethanol as precursor at 800 °C. The effects of the new approach were characterized by SEM, AFM, nanoindentation, XPS, Raman, wettability analysis, single fiber tensile strength testing and single fiber pull-out testing. After modification, pyrolytic carbon coating was deposited on the fiber surface uniformly, and the roughness and surface energy increased significantly. The single fiber tensile testing results indicate that the resulting fiber strength increased 15.7%, rising from 3.13 to 3.62 GPa. Meanwhile, the interfacial shear strength of its epoxy composites increased from 65.3 to 83.5 MPa. The comparative studies of carbon fibers modified with commercial anodic oxidation and sizing were also carried out. The results demonstrate that the new method can be utilized in the carbon fiber manufacture process and is more efficient than the traditional approaches.

  9. Robot skills for manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mikkel Rath; Nalpantidis, Lazaros; Andersen, Rasmus Skovgaard


    -asserting robot skills for manufacturing. We show how a relatively small set of skills are derived from current factory worker instructions, and how these can be transferred to industrial mobile manipulators. General robot skills can not only be implemented on these robots, but also be intuitively concatenated...... products are introduced by manufacturers. In order to compete on global markets, the factories of tomorrow need complete production lines, including automation technologies that can effortlessly be reconfigured or repurposed, when the need arises. In this paper we present the concept of general, self...... in running production facilities at an industrial partner. It follows from these experiments that the use of robot skills, and associated task-level programming framework, is a viable solution to introducing robots that can intuitively and on the fly be programmed to perform new tasks by factory workers....

  10. Additive manufacturing of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzog, Dirk; Seyda, Vanessa; Wycisk, Eric; Emmelmann, Claus


    Additive Manufacturing (AM), the layer-by layer build-up of parts, has lately become an option for serial production. Today, several metallic materials including the important engineering materials steel, aluminium and titanium may be processed to full dense parts with outstanding properties. In this context, the present overview article describes the complex relationship between AM processes, microstructure and resulting properties for metals. It explains the fundamentals of Laser Beam Melting, Electron Beam Melting and Laser Metal Deposition, and introduces the commercially available materials for the different processes. Thereafter, typical microstructures for additively manufactured steel, aluminium and titanium are presented. Special attention is paid to AM specific grain structures, resulting from the complex thermal cycle and high cooling rates. The properties evolving as a consequence of the microstructure are elaborated under static and dynamic loading. According to these properties, typical applications are presented for the materials and methods for conclusion.

  11. Manufacture of heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, J.E.; Tombs, R.W.T.


    A tube bundle for use in a heat exchanger has a series of spaced parallel tubes supported by tube plates and is manufactured by depositing welding material around the end of each tube, machining the deposited material to form an annular flange around the end of the tube and welding the flange into apertures in the tube plate. Preferably the tubes have a length which is slightly less than the distance between the outer surfaces of the tube plates and the deposited material is deposited so that it overlaps and protects the end surfaces of the tubes. A plug may be inserted in the bore of the tubes during the welding material deposition which, as described, is effected by manual metal arc welding. One use of heat exchangers incorporating a tube bundle manufactured as above is in apparatus for reducing the volume of, and recovering nitric acid from, radioactive effluents from a nuclear reprocessing plant. (author)

  12. The manufacturers' viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, D.A.


    This paper describes the approach by six separate manufacturers to the problem of availability from their particular view point. This presentation demonstrates basic strategy: attention to high reliability at the design phase, based on positive and detailed feedback from existing plant; quality assurance at the production stage which has been planned into the production process in the form of a Q.A. manual in design; sophisticated test procedures and facilities; simplicity of design with high accuracy in production; provision of a clear operational maintenance manual, etc. The manufacturers agreed on the need to make a conscious commitment to design for high availability, taking into account both initial and ongoing operating costs in life cycle cost assessment. Predictability, reliability, maintainability, efficiency, market acceptability and maintenance support based on high quality feedback between operator and supplier were all stressed on the grounds that prevention is always better than cure

  13. A Fully Nonmetallic Gas Turbine Engine Enabled by Additive Manufacturing, Part II: Additive Manufacturing and Characterization of Polymer Composites (United States)

    Chuang, Kathy C.; Grady, Joseph E.; Arnold, Steven M.; Draper, Robert D.; Shin, Eugene; Patterson, Clark; Santelle, Tom; Lao, Chao; Rhein, Morgan; Mehl, Jeremy


    This publication is the second part of the three part report of the project entitled "A Fully Nonmetallic Gas Turbine Engine Enabled by Additive Manufacturing" funded by NASA Aeronautics Research Institute (NARI). The objective of this project was to conduct additive manufacturing to produce aircraft engine components by Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM), using commercially available polyetherimides-Ultem 9085 and experimental Ultem 1000 mixed with 10% chopped carbon fiber. A property comparison between FDM-printed and injection molded coupons for Ultem 9085, Ultem 1000 resin and the fiber-filled composite Ultem 1000 was carried out. Furthermore, an acoustic liner was printed from Ultem 9085 simulating conventional honeycomb structured liners and tested in a wind tunnel. Composite compressor inlet guide vanes were also printed using fiber-filled Ultem 1000 filaments and tested in a cascade rig. The fiber-filled Ultem 1000 filaments and composite vanes were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and acid digestion to determine the porosity of FDM-printed articles which ranged from 25 to 31%. Coupons of Ultem 9085, experimental Ultem 1000 composites and XH6050 resin were tested at room temperature and 400F to evaluate their corresponding mechanical properties. A preliminary modeling was also initiated to predict the mechanical properties of FDM-printed Ultem 9085 coupons in relation to varied raster angles and void contents, using the GRC-developed MAC/GMC program.

  14. Rapid manufacturing for microfluidics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Land, K


    Full Text Available for microfluidics K. LAND, S. HUGO, M MBANJWA, L FOURIE CSIR Materials Science and Manufacturing P O Box 395, Pretoria 0001, SOUTH AFRICA Email: INTRODUCTION Microfluidics refers to the manipulation of very small volumes of fluid.... Microfluidics is at the forefront of developing solutions for drug discovery, diagnostics (from glucose tests to malaria and TB testing) and environmental diagnostics (E-coli monitoring of drinking water). In order to quickly implement new designs, a rapid...

  15. Northwest Manufacturing Initiative (United States)


    Kadali R. Talla R. Hugo T. Russell A. Thoreson E. Porgharibshahishahrebabak Dae-wook Kim Ellen A. Fuller J. Rick Evans 5d. PROJECT NUMBER...Manufacturing (CIM) Cell .................................................................................. 8 Hurricane 130W Laser Cutter/Engraver (48” X 36...Miniature Prototype Warehouse Application using Imaging Source and RoboRealm® 3. Hurricane 130W Laser Cutter/Engraver (48” X 36”) a. Rapid

  16. Technology for Manufacturing Efficiency (United States)


    The Ground Processing Scheduling System (GPSS) was developed by Ames Research Center, Kennedy Space Center and divisions of the Lockheed Company to maintain the scheduling for preparing a Space Shuttle Orbiter for a mission. Red Pepper Software Company, now part of PeopleSoft, Inc., commercialized the software as their ResponseAgent product line. The software enables users to monitor manufacturing variables, report issues and develop solutions to existing problems.

  17. Advances in Additive Manufacturing (United States)


    with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS...Hamilton • Beth Bimber Air Force Research Laboratory, Metals Branch • Eddie Schwalbach • Mike Groeber • Benjamin Leever • James Hardin...conducting more in-field, or point-of-need, manufacturing than ever before. Other areas of concentration include man- machine interface, capabilities

  18. Development of Improved Design and 3D Printing Manufacture of Cross-Flow Fan Rotor (United States)


    printer was used to print components of a carbon-fiber composite cross-flow fan rotor . These pieces were assembled and the thrust, power, and thrust...variables. A MarkForged Mark One 3D printer was used to print components of a carbon-fiber composite cross-flow fan rotor . These pieces were assembled... composite parts to be 3D printed. This technology showed promise in rapidly manufacturing complicated blade and rotor geometries. The objective of

  19. Aggregate and Mineral Resources - Industrial Mineral Mining Operations (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — An Industrial Mineral Mining Operation is a DEP primary facility type related to the Industrial Mineral Mining Program. The sub-facility types are listed below:Deep...

  20. Fiber bundle probes for interconnecting miniaturized medical imaging devices (United States)

    Zamora, Vanessa; Hofmann, Jens; Marx, Sebastian; Herter, Jonas; Nguyen, Dennis; Arndt-Staufenbiel, Norbert; Schröder, Henning


    Miniaturization of medical imaging devices will significantly improve the workflow of physicians in hospitals. Photonic integrated circuit (PIC) technologies offer a high level of miniaturization. However, they need fiber optic interconnection solutions for their functional integration. As part of European funded project (InSPECT) we investigate fiber bundle probes (FBPs) to be used as multi-mode (MM) to single-mode (SM) interconnections for PIC modules. The FBP consists of a set of four or seven SM fibers hexagonally distributed and assembled into a holder that defines a multicore connection. Such a connection can be used to connect MM fibers, while each SM fiber is attached to the PIC module. The manufacturing of these probes is explored by using well-established fiber fusion, epoxy adhesive, innovative adhesive and polishing techniques in order to achieve reliable, low-cost and reproducible samples. An innovative hydrofluoric acid-free fiber etching technology has been recently investigated. The preliminary results show that the reduction of the fiber diameter shows a linear behavior as a function of etching time. Different etch rate values from 0.55 μm/min to 2.3 μm/min were found. Several FBPs with three different type of fibers have been optically interrogated at wavelengths of 630nm and 1550nm. Optical losses are found of approx. 35dB at 1550nm for FBPs composed by 80μm fibers. Although FBPs present moderate optical losses, they might be integrated using different optical fibers, covering a broad spectral range required for imaging applications. Finally, we show the use of FBPs as promising MM-to-SM interconnects for real-world interfacing to PIC's.

  1. Advanced manufacturing: Technology diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tesar, A.


    In this paper we examine how manufacturing technology diffuses rom the developers of technology across national borders to those who do not have the capability or resources to develop advanced technology on their own. None of the wide variety of technology diffusion mechanisms discussed in this paper are new, yet the opportunities to apply these mechanisms are growing. A dramatic increase in technology diffusion occurred over the last decade. The two major trends which probably drive this increase are a worldwide inclination towards ``freer`` markets and diminishing isolation. Technology is most rapidly diffusing from the US In fact, the US is supplying technology for the rest of the world. The value of the technology supplied by the US more than doubled from 1985 to 1992 (see the Introduction for details). History shows us that technology diffusion is inevitable. It is the rates at which technologies diffuse to other countries which can vary considerably. Manufacturers in these countries are increasingly able to absorb technology. Their manufacturing efficiency is expected to progress as technology becomes increasingly available and utilized.

  2. Fuel manufacturing and utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The efficient utilisation of nuclear fuel requires manufacturing facilities capable of making advanced fuel types, with appropriate quality control. Once made, the use of such fuels requires a proper understanding of their behaviour in the reactor environment, so that safe operation for the design life can be achieved. The International Atomic Energy Agency supports Member States to improve in-pile fuel performance and management of materials; and to develop advanced fuel technologies for ensuring reliability and economic efficiency of the nuclear fuel cycle. It provides assistance to Member States to support fuel-manufacturing capability, including quality assurance techniques, optimization of manufacturing parameters and radiation protection. The IAEA supports the development fuel modelling expertise in Member States, covering both normal operation and postulated and severe accident conditions. It provides information and support for the operation of Nuclear Power Plant to ensure that the environment and water chemistry is appropriate for fuel operation. The IAEA supports fuel failure investigations, including equipment for failed fuel detection and for post-irradiation examination and inspection, as well as fuel repair, it provides information and support research into the basic properties of fuel materials, including UO 2 , MOX and zirconium alloys. It further offers guidance on the relationship with back-end requirement (interim storage, transport, reprocessing, disposal), fuel utilization and management, MOX fuels, alternative fuels and advanced fuel technology

  3. Fiber optics in SHIVA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severyn, J.; Parker, J.


    SHIVA is a twenty arm laser which is controlled with a network of fifty computers, interconnected with digital fiber optic links. Three different fiber optic systems employed on the Shiva laser will be described. Two of the systems are for digital communications, one at 9600 baud and the other at 1 megabaud. The third system uses fiber optics to distribute diagnostic triggers with subnanosecond jitter

  4. Continuous Fiber Ceramic Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fareed, Ali [Honeywell Advanced Composites Inc. (HACI), Newark, DE (United States); Craig, Phillip A. [Honeywell Advanced Composites Inc. (HACI), Newark, DE (United States)


    Fiber-reinforced ceramic composites demonstrate the high-temperature stability of ceramics--with an increased fracture toughness resulting from the fiber reinforcement of the composite. The material optimization performed under the continuous fiber ceramic composites (CFCC) included a series of systematic optimizations. The overall goals were to define the processing window, to increase the robustinous of the process, to increase process yield while reducing costs, and to define the complexity of parts that could be fabricated.

  5. Development mineral insulated cables for nuclear instrumentation of reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvo, W.A.P.; Hess Junior, A.; Brito Maciel, R. de


    In-core and out-of-core neutron detectors for reactor and safety control systems are usually connected by means of mineral insulated cables. The electrical signal, either a pulse or a current, is transmitted along the cable at high temperature, pressure and radiation and should not be influenced by electromagnetic interfereces from the environment. In this paper it is presented the result of the analysis of the mechanical and electrical properties of several types of mineral insulated cables and also the design, manufacture, sealing, cable ends and their applications to nuclear detectors of various types. (author) [pt

  6. Applications research in ultrasonic testing of carbon fiber composite based on an optical fiber F-p sensor (United States)

    Shan, Ning


    Carbon fiber composite is widely applied to the field of aerospace engineering because of its excellent performance. But it will be able to form more defects in the process of manufacturing inevitably on account of unique manufacturing process. Meanwhile it has sophisticated structure and services in the bad environment long time. The existence of defects will be able to cause the sharp decline in component's performance when the defect accumulates to a certain degree. So the reliability and safety test demand of carbon fiber composite is higher and higher. Ultrasonic testing technology is the important means used for characteristics of component inspection of composite materials. Ultrasonic information detection uses acoustic transducer generally. It need coupling agent and is higher demand for the surface of sample. It has narrow frequency band and low test precision. The extrinsic type optical fiber F-P interference cavity structure is designed to this problem. Its optical interference model is studied. The initial length of F-P cavity is designed. The realtime online detection system of carbon fiber composite is established based on optical fiber F-P Ultrasound sensing technology. Finally, the testing experiment study is conducted. The results show that the system can realize real-time online detection of carbon fiber composite's defect effectively. It operates simply and realizes easily. It has low cost and is easy to practical engineering.

  7. Nanostructured Mineral Coatings Stabilize Proteins for Therapeutic Delivery. (United States)

    Yu, Xiaohua; Biedrzycki, Adam H; Khalil, Andrew S; Hess, Dalton; Umhoefer, Jennifer M; Markel, Mark D; Murphy, William L


    Proteins tend to lose their biological activity due to their fragile structural conformation during formulation, storage, and delivery. Thus, the inability to stabilize proteins in controlled-release systems represents a major obstacle in drug delivery. Here, a bone mineral inspired protein stabilization strategy is presented, which uses nanostructured mineral coatings on medical devices. Proteins bound within the nanostructured coatings demonstrate enhanced stability against extreme external stressors, including organic solvents, proteases, and ethylene oxide gas sterilization. The protein stabilization effect is attributed to the maintenance of protein conformational structure, which is closely related to the nanoscale feature sizes of the mineral coatings. Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) released from a nanostructured mineral coating maintains its biological activity for weeks during release, while it maintains activity for less than 7 d during release from commonly used polymeric microspheres. Delivery of the growth factors bFGF and vascular endothelial growth factor using a mineral coated surgical suture significantly improves functional Achilles tendon healing in a rabbit model, resulting in increased vascularization, more mature collagen fiber organization, and a two fold improvement in mechanical properties. The findings of this study demonstrate that biomimetic interactions between proteins and nanostructured minerals provide a new, broadly applicable mechanism to stabilize proteins in the context of drug delivery and regenerative medicine. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Transistor and integrated circuit manufacture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colman, D.


    This invention relates to the manufacture of transistors and integrated circuits by ion bombardment techniques and is particularly, but not exclusively, of value in the manufacture of so-called integrated injection logic circuitry. (author)

  9. 77 FR 2275 - Manufacturing Council (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Manufacturing Council AGENCY... candidate's proven experience in promoting, developing and marketing programs in support of manufacturing... participating in Council meetings and events are responsible for their travel, living and other personal...

  10. 76 FR 33244 - Manufacturing Council (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Manufacturing Council AGENCY... experience in promoting, developing and marketing programs in support of manufacturing industries, in job... Council meetings and events are responsible for their travel, living and other personal expenses. Meetings...

  11. Manufacturing mobility in global operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, H.J.; de Bruijn, E.J.


    The globalization trend inevitably affects the organization of manufacturing by enterprises. It offers opportunities to examine manufacturing from a global perspective and consequently to produce where it is most appropriate. However, globalization has also led to an increase in competitive

  12. Green Manufacturing Fundamentals and Applications

    CERN Document Server


    Green Manufacturing: Fundamentals and Applications introduces the basic definitions and issues surrounding green manufacturing at the process, machine and system (including supply chain) levels. It also shows, by way of several examples from different industry sectors, the potential for substantial improvement and the paths to achieve the improvement. Additionally, this book discusses regulatory and government motivations for green manufacturing and outlines the path for making manufacturing more green as well as making production more sustainable. This book also: • Discusses new engineering approaches for manufacturing and provides a path from traditional manufacturing to green manufacturing • Addresses regulatory and economic issues surrounding green manufacturing • Details new supply chains that need to be in place before going green • Includes state-of-the-art case studies in the areas of automotive, semiconductor and medical areas as well as in the supply chain and packaging areas Green Manufactu...

  13. 75 FR 80040 - Manufacturing Council (United States)


    ..., developing and marketing programs in support of manufacturing industries, job creation in the manufacturing... relevant contact information such as mailing address, fax, e-mail, fixed and mobile phone numbers and...

  14. Transistor and integrated circuit manufacture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colman, D


    This invention relates to the manufacture of transistors and integrated circuits by ion bombardment techniques and is particularly, but not exclusively, of value in the manufacture of so-called integrated injection logic circuitry.

  15. Bond characteristics of steel fiber and deformed reinforcing steel bar embedded in steel fiber reinforced self-compacting concrete (SFRSCC) (United States)

    Aslani, Farhad; Nejadi, Shami


    Steel fiber reinforced self-compacting concrete (SFRSCC) is a relatively new composite material which congregates the benefits of the self-compacting concrete (SCC) technology with the profits derived from the fiber addition to a brittle cementitious matrix. Steel fibers improve many of the properties of SCC elements including tensile strength, ductility, toughness, energy absorption capacity, fracture toughness and cracking. Although the available research regarding the influence of steel fibers on the properties of SFRSCC is limited, this paper investigates the bond characteristics between steel fiber and SCC firstly. Based on the available experimental results, the current analytical steel fiber pullout model (Dubey 1999) is modified by considering the different SCC properties and different fiber types (smooth, hooked) and inclination. In order to take into account the effect of fiber inclination in the pullout model, apparent shear strengths ( τ ( app)) and slip coefficient ( β) are incorporated to express the variation of pullout peak load and the augmentation of peak slip as the inclined angle increases. These variables are expressed as functions of the inclined angle ( ϕ). Furthurmore, steel-concrete composite floors, reinforced concrete floors supported by columns or walls and floors on an elastic foundations belong to the category of structural elements in which the conventional steel reinforcement can be partially replaced by the use of steel fibers. When discussing deformation capacity of structural elements or civil engineering structures manufactured using SFRSCC, one must be able to describe thoroughly both the behavior of the concrete matrix reinforced with steel fibers and the interaction between this composite matrix and discrete steel reinforcement of the conventional type. However, even though the knowledge on bond behavior is essential for evaluating the overall behavior of structural components containing reinforcement and steel fibers

  16. Properties of discontinuous S2-glass fiber-particulate-reinforced resin composites with two different fiber length distributions. (United States)

    Huang, Qiting; Garoushi, Sufyan; Lin, Zhengmei; He, Jingwei; Qin, Wei; Liu, Fang; Vallittu, Pekka Kalevi; Lassila, Lippo Veli Juhana


    To investigate the reinforcing efficiency and light curing properties of discontinuous S2-glass fiber-particulate reinforced resin composite and to examine length distribution of discontinuous S2-glass fibers after a mixing process into resin composite. Experimental S2-glass fiber-particulate reinforced resin composites were prepared by mixing 10wt% of discontinuous S2-glass fibers, which had been manually cut into two different lengths (1.5 and 3.0mm), with various weight ratios of dimethacrylate based resin matrix and silaned BaAlSiO 2 filler particulates. The resin composite made with 25wt% of UDMA/SR833s resin system and 75wt% of silaned BaAlSiO 2 filler particulates was used as control composite which had similar composition as the commonly used resin composites. Flexural strength (FS), flexural modulus (FM) and work of fracture (WOF) were measured. Fractured specimens were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Double bond conversion (DC) and fiber length distribution were also studied. Reinforcement of resin composites with discontinuous S2-glass fibers can significantly increase the FS, FM and WOF of resin composites over the control. The fibers from the mixed resin composites showed great variation in final fiber length. The mean aspect ratio of experimental composites containing 62.5wt% of particulate fillers and 10wt% of 1.5 or 3.0mm cutting S2-glass fibers was 70 and 132, respectively. No difference was found in DC between resin composites containing S2-glass fibers with two different cutting lengths. Discontinuous S2-glass fibers can effectively reinforce the particulate-filled resin composite and thus may be potential to manufacture resin composites for high-stress bearing application. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Oxygen Extraction from Minerals (United States)

    Muscatello, Tony


    Oxygen, whether used as part of rocket bipropellant or for astronaut life support, is a key consumable for space exploration and commercialization. In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) has been proposed many times as a method for making space exploration more cost effective and sustainable. On planetary and asteroid surfaces the presence of minerals in the regolith that contain oxygen is very common, making them a potential oxygen resource. The majority of research and development for oxygen extraction from minerals has been for lunar regolith although this work would generally be applicable to regolith at other locations in space. This presentation will briefly survey the major methods investigated for oxygen extraction from regolith with a focus on the current status of those methods and possible future development pathways. The major oxygen production methods are (1) extraction from lunar ilmenite (FeTiO3) with either hydrogen or carbon monoxide, (2) carbothermal reduction of iron oxides and silicates with methane, and (3) molten regolith electrolysis (MRE) of silicates. Methods (1) and (2) have also been investigated in a two-step process using CO reduction and carbon deposition followed by carbothermal reduction. All three processes have byproducts that could also be used as resources. Hydrogen or carbon monoxide reduction produce iron metal in small amounts that could potentially be used as construction material. Carbothermal reduction also makes iron metal along with silicon metal and a glass with possible applications. MRE produces iron, silicon, aluminum, titanium, and glass, with higher silicon yields than carbothermal reduction. On Mars and possibly on some moons and asteroids, water is present in the form of mineral hydrates, hydroxyl (-OH) groups on minerals, andor water adsorbed on mineral surfaces. Heating of the minerals can liberate the water which can be electrolyzed to provide a source of oxygen as well. The chemistry of these processes, some key

  18. Indústria mineral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iran F. Machado


    Full Text Available A INDÚSTRIA mineral brasileira é analisada, de modo sucinto, face aos desafios impostos pela globalização contemporânea. As mudanças profundas ocorridas no contexto internacional na última década, abrangendo as esferas política, econômica, social e institucional, exigem uma reflexão aprofundada sobre o papel a ser desempenhado pelo Brasil no comércio internacional de bens minerais. De um lado, as oportunidades de aproveitamento de jazidas de classe internacional, principalmente na Amazônia, são bastante promissoras. Por outro, não se deve ignorar que: a explotação dessas reservas terá de obedecer a critérios de sustentabilidade, seguindo paradigmas já adotados em países desenvolvidos; o Brasil terá de garantir a sua competitividade diante dos seus principais concorrentes (Austrália, CEI, China e Índia. A questão dos minerais estratégicos é também abordada, com ênfase nas preocupações demonstradas pelo Departamento de Estado dos EUA. Finalmente, são alinhados três cenários possíveis para o desempenho futuro da mineração brasileira, instando-se o governo a dedicar maior atenção ao destino do nosso subsolo.THE MINERAL industry of Brazil is briefly analysed vis-à-vis the challenges imposed by the cruenta globalization process. The profound changes that occurred in the international framework during the last decade, encompassing the political, economic, social, and institutional structures, demand a thorough appraisal about the role to be played by Brazil in the international market of mineral commodities. On one hand, the opportunities open for world class deposits, mainly in the Amazon, are very promising. On the other hand, it is mandatory to take into account that: the exploitation of these reserves shall comply with sound sustainability criteria, following guidelines already adopted by some developed countries; Brazil will have to demonstrate its competitiveness among the major competitors (Australia

  19. Design of control system for optical fiber drawing machine driven by double motor (United States)

    Yu, Yue Chen; Bo, Yu Ming; Wang, Jun


    Micro channel Plate (MCP) is a kind of large-area array electron multiplier with high two-dimensional spatial resolution, used as high-performance night vision intensifier. The high precision control of the fiber is the key technology of the micro channel plate manufacturing process, and it was achieved by the control of optical fiber drawing machine driven by dual-motor in this paper. First of all, utilizing STM32 chip, the servo motor drive and control circuit was designed to realize the dual motor synchronization. Secondly, neural network PID control algorithm was designed for controlling the fiber diameter fabricated in high precision; Finally, the hexagonal fiber was manufactured by this system and it shows that multifilament diameter accuracy of the fiber is +/- 1.5μm.

  20. Environmental Aspects of Use of Recycled Carbon Fiber Composites in Automotive Applications. (United States)

    Meng, Fanran; McKechnie, Jon; Turner, Thomas; Wong, Kok H; Pickering, Stephen J


    The high cost and energy intensity of virgin carbon fiber manufacture provides an opportunity to recover substantial value from carbon fiber reinforced plastic wastes. In this study, we assess the life cycle environmental implications of recovering carbon fiber and producing composite materials as substitutes for conventional and proposed lightweight materials in automotive applications (e.g., steel, aluminum, virgin carbon fiber). Key parameters for the recycled carbon fiber materials, including fiber volume fraction and fiber alignment, are investigated to identify beneficial uses of recycled carbon fiber in the automotive sector. Recycled carbon fiber components can achieve the lowest life cycle environmental impacts of all materials considered, although the actual impact is highly dependent on the design criteria (λ value) of the specific component. Low production impacts associated with recycled carbon fiber components are observed relative to lightweight competitor materials (e.g., aluminum, virgin carbon fiber reinforced plastic). In addition, recycled carbon fiber components have low in-use energy use due to mass reductions and associated reduction in mass-induced fuel consumption. The results demonstrate environmental feasibility of the CFRP recycling materials, supporting the emerging commercialization of CF recycling technologies and identifying significant potential market opportunities in the automotive sector.

  1. Composites Manufacturing Education and Technology Facility Expedites Manufacturing Innovation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The Composites Manufacturing Education and Technology facility (CoMET) at the National Wind Technology Center at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) paves the way for innovative wind turbine components and accelerated manufacturing. Available for use by industry partners and university researchers, the 10,000-square-foot facility expands NREL's composite manufacturing research capabilities by enabling researchers to design, prototype, and test composite wind turbine blades and other components -- and then manufacture them onsite. Designed to work in conjunction with NREL's design, analysis, and structural testing capabilities, the CoMET facility expedites manufacturing innovation.

  2. Carbon Fiber Composite Materials for Automotive Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norris, Jr., Robert E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mainka, Hendrik [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    Volkswagen (VW) is internationally recognized for quantity and quality of world-wide vehicle production and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is internationally recognized in materials research and development. With automotive production ramping up in the recently constructed VW Group of America facility in Chattanooga, Tennessee, ORNL and VW initiated discussions in 2012 concerning opportunities for collaboration around ORNL’s carbon fiber and composites programs. ORNL is conducting an internationally recognized program to develop and implement lower cost carbon fibers and composites for automotive and other “energy missions” for the US Department of Energy. Significant effort is ongoing in selecting, developing, and evaluating alternative precursors, developing and demonstrating advanced conversion techniques, and developing and tailoring surface treatment, sizings, and formatting fiber for specific composite matrices and end-use applications. ORNL already had North America’s most comprehensive suite of tools for carbon fiber research and development and established a semiproduction demonstration line referred to as the Carbon Fiber Technology Facility (CFTF) to facilitate implementation of low cost carbon fiber (LCCF) approaches in early 2013. ORNL and VW agreed to collaborate in a formal Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (NFE-12-03992) specifically focused on evaluating applicability of low cost carbon fiber products for potential vehicle components. The goal of the work outlined in this report was to develop and qualify uses for carbon fiber-reinforced structures in connection with civilian ground transportation. Significant progress was achieved in evaluating and understanding lignin-based precursor materials; however, availability of carbon fiber converted from lignin precursor combined with logistical issues associated with the Visa limitations for the VW participant resulted in significantly shortening of the collaboration

  3. A Review on the Mechanical Modeling of Composite Manufacturing Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baran, Ismet; Cinar, Kenan; Ersoy, Nuri


    The increased usage of fiber reinforced polymer composites in load bearing applications requires a detailed understanding of the process induced residual stresses and their effect on the shape distortions. This is utmost necessary in order to have more reliable composite manufacturing since...... the residual stresses alter the internal stress level of the composite part during the service life and the residual shape distortions may lead to not meeting the desired geometrical tolerances. The occurrence of residual stresses during the manufacturing process inherently contains diverse interactions...... between the involved physical phenomena mainly related to material flow, heat transfer and polymerization or crystallization. Development of numerical process models is required for virtual design and optimization of the composite manufacturing process which avoids the expensive trial-and-error based...

  4. Large-scale additive manufacturing with bioinspired cellulosic materials. (United States)

    Sanandiya, Naresh D; Vijay, Yadunund; Dimopoulou, Marina; Dritsas, Stylianos; Fernandez, Javier G


    Cellulose is the most abundant and broadly distributed organic compound and industrial by-product on Earth. However, despite decades of extensive research, the bottom-up use of cellulose to fabricate 3D objects is still plagued with problems that restrict its practical applications: derivatives with vast polluting effects, use in combination with plastics, lack of scalability and high production cost. Here we demonstrate the general use of cellulose to manufacture large 3D objects. Our approach diverges from the common association of cellulose with green plants and it is inspired by the wall of the fungus-like oomycetes, which is reproduced introducing small amounts of chitin between cellulose fibers. The resulting fungal-like adhesive material(s) (FLAM) are strong, lightweight and inexpensive, and can be molded or processed using woodworking techniques. We believe this first large-scale additive manufacture with ubiquitous biological polymers will be the catalyst for the transition to environmentally benign and circular manufacturing models.

  5. Exploring manufacturing solutions for SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radziwon, Agnieszka; Blichfeldt, Henrik; Bilberg, Arne

    This exploratory study provides an overview over current state of manufacturing solutions in small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) in region of Southern Denmark. Building on manufacturing paradigms, this paper reveals relevant aspects for the development and implementation of improving SMEs...... of manufacturing solutions, which are required to increase their competitiveness and assure sustainable growth....

  6. 78 FR 67117 - Manufacturing Council (United States)


    ... preeminent destination for investment in manufacturing throughout the world'' as provided for in Section 4 of... the viewpoint of those stakeholders on current and emerging issues in the manufacturing sector. In... the U.S. manufacturing industry in terms of industry sectors, geographic locations, demographics, and...

  7. 2001 Industry Studies: Advanced Manufacturing (United States)


    oriented, 19 and manufacturers are employing the Internet and associated information technologies to better integrate supply chains and form extended...ways to compete in world markets . As part of this ongoing transformation, the broad implementation of advanced manufacturing technologies , processes...competitive advantages and better performance in world markets . Importantly, advanced manufacturing involves the innovative integration of new technology

  8. Bragg Grating Based Sensors in Microstructured Polymer Optical Fibers: Accelerometers and Microphones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefani, Alessio

    With the growing interest towards fiber Bragg grating sensors and the growing ability in manufacturing polymer optical fibers, the development of polymer fiber Bragg sensors has catched the attention of industries with the goal of developing high performance sensors. This thesis presents...... and in microstructured fibers made of PMMA and TOPAS is reported. The gratings have been written at both 1550 nm, to take advantage of components made for telecommunications, and 850 nm, to exploit the lower loss of polymers and the fast acquisition electronics at this wavelength. A technique for writing multiplexed...

  9. All-fiber, long-active-length Fabry-Perot strain sensor. (United States)

    Pevec, Simon; Donlagic, Denis


    This paper presents a high-sensitivity, all-silica, all-fiber Fabry-Perot strain-sensor. The proposed sensor provides a long active length, arbitrary length of Fabry-Perot cavity, and low intrinsic temperature sensitivity. The sensor was micro-machined from purposely-developed sensor-forming fiber that is etched and directly spliced to the lead-in fiber. This manufacturing process has good potential for cost-effective, high-volume production. Its measurement range of over 3000 µε, and strain-resolution better than 1 µε were demonstrated by the application of a commercial, multimode fiber-based signal processor.

  10. Outlook 96: Minerals and Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Papers discussing the future of Australia's minerals and energy are presented under the following headings: Australia in the global minerals and energy markets; minerals exploration; steelmaking raw materials; aluminium and alumina; gold; nickel; base metals; titanium minerals; energy for a sustainable future; electricity; electricity in Asia; crude oil; coal trade; natural gas in Australia and uranium. Relevant papers are individually indexed/abstracted. Tabs., figs., refs

  11. International availability of energy minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, N A [Norman White Associates, London (UK)


    Whereas the ultimate world supply of energy minerals - defined as fossil fuels and fissile minerals - is controlled by geological factors, the actual supply at any particular time is controlled by economic feasibility, technological innovations and/or political decisions. This paper identifies and discusses the principal uncertainties surrounding the international availability of energy minerals from now until the end of the century. A brief comparison is also made between energy and non-energy minerals.

  12. Aggregates from mineral wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baic Ireneusz


    Full Text Available The problem concerning the growing demand for natural aggregates and the need to limit costs, including transportation from remote deposits, cause the increase in growth of interest in aggregates from mineral wastes as well as in technologies of their production and recovery. The paper presents the issue related to the group of aggregates other than natural. A common name is proposed for such material: “alternative aggregates”. The name seems to be fully justified due to adequacy of this term because of this raw materials origin and role, in comparison to the meaning of natural aggregates based on gravel and sand as well as crushed stones. The paper presents characteristics of the market and basic application of aggregates produced from mineral wastes, generated in the mining, power and metallurgical industries as well as material from demolished objects.

  13. The bismuth miners study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosche, B.; Kreuzer, M.; Kreisheimer, M.; Schnelzer, M.; Tschense, A.; Gottschalk, K.


    The Federal Radiation Protection Office carried out a retrospective cohort study on some 60,000 former employees of the SAG/SDAG Wismut. The purpose of the study was to validate the radon-related risk of acquiring lung cancer previously calculated from 11 jointly evaluated studies among miners on the basis of an independent, homogeneous data record of comparable size. A further goal was to study the risk of acquiring extrapulmonal tumours. This paper only briefly describes the sampling, design and methods used in the study, as these were already presented during the Radon Status Talks. The first follow-up on the cohort was completed in 2003. Around this time a job exposure matrix (JEM) suitable for scientific inquiries was made available by the professional miners' association and the roof organisation of professional trade associations (HVBG). This paper is the first to report on the outcome of the risk analysis in direct comparison with the results found by BEIR

  14. Iodine mineral waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iluta Alexandru


    Full Text Available Iodine mineral waters are found especially in sub-Carpathian region, also in regions with Salif deposits. Waters are currently used iodine in drinking cure for chaps and Basedow. Are also indicated in balneology. Iodine water containing at least 1 mg L, there is pure iodine is usually given the nature of other types of mineral waters further: sodium chlorinated water (Bazna (50-70 mg iodine / l, Baile Govora (50 - 70 mg / l, Bălţăteşti (4-5 mg / l, salted Monteoru (30 mg / l, mine water mixed alkaline chlorination, sulphate, which are indicated for crenoterapie (hypo or isotonic to the bathrooms Olăneşti or Călimăneşti-Căciulata.

  15. Rock and mineral magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    O’Reilly, W


    The past two decades have witnessed a revolution in the earth sciences. The quantitative, instrument-based measurements and physical models of. geophysics, together with advances in technology, have radically transformed the way in which the Earth, and especially its crust, is described. The study of the magnetism of the rocks of the Earth's crust has played a major part in this transformation. Rocks, or more specifically their constituent magnetic minerals, can be regarded as a measuring instrument provided by nature, which can be employed in the service of the earth sciences. Thus magnetic minerals are a recording magnetometer; a goniometer or protractor, recording the directions of flows, fields and forces; a clock; a recording thermometer; a position recorder; astrain gauge; an instrument for geo­ logical surveying; a tracer in climatology and hydrology; a tool in petrology. No instrument is linear, or free from noise and systematic errors, and the performance of nature's instrument must be assessed and ...

  16. USDA Flax fiber utilization research (United States)

    The United States is pursuing natural fibers as sustainable, environmentally friendly sources for a variety of industrial applications. Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) fiber offers many possibilities towards this goal. Research on flax fiber production, processing, and standards development is urgen...

  17. Ultrafine PBI fibers and yarns (United States)

    Leal, J. R.; Tan, M.


    Gentle precisely controlled process is used to draw polybenzimidazole (PBI) fibers to denier as low as 0.17 per fiber. Yarns of lightweight fibers could be useful in applications where lightweight textiles must withstand high temperatures, corrosion, or radiation.

  18. Global Carbon Fiber Composites Supply Chain Competitiveness Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Sujit [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Warren, Josh [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); West, Devin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Schexnayder, Susan M. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)


    This study identifies key opportunities in the carbon fiber supply chain where the United States Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy resources and investments can help the United States achieve or maintain a competitive advantage. The report focuses on four application areas--wind energy, aerospace, automotive, and pressure vessels--that top the list of industries using carbon fiber and carbon fiber reinforced polymers and are also particularly relevant to EERE's mission. For each of the four application areas, the report addresses the supply and demand trends within that sector, supply chain, and costs of carbon fiber and components, all contributing to a competitiveness assessment that addresses the United States' role in future industry growth. This report was prepared by researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the University of Tennessee for the Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center.

  19. [In vivo evaluation of carbon fiber posts]. (United States)

    Lai, V; Lugliè, P F; Chessa, G


    The use of carbon fiber posts allows morpho-functional restoration of endodontically treated teeth with an assembly of materials of a modulus of elasticity similar to that of dentin. The study clinically evaluated the percentage of survival of dental elements treated and reconstructed with endocanal carbon fiber posts. At the Dentistry Clinic of the University of Sassari 60 dental elements were selected from 46 subjects. The teeth, which had been treated endodontically with success for at least six months, were classified by parameters taken from the international literature and reconstructed using Tech 2000 carbon fiber posts and adhesive resinous systems recommended by the post manufacturer. The success rate was 98.4%. Almost half (49%) of the samples were single-rooted elements, 37.4% of the posts were 1.2 mm in diameter; in 78.3% the opposing contact was with a natural tooth; 100% of the elements had a type A dental structure. Third generation posts are a valid alternative to metallic posts and improve the prognosis of the treated element. The carbon fiber posts fixed with the composite, forming a single unit with the dental element, thus improving mid-term RESULTS. The technique is easy to use under clinical conditions and can be performed in a single session. So far, the method has provided promising clinical results, as this study demonstrated.

  20. Manufacturing a 9-Meter Thermoplastic Composite Wind Turbine Blade: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, Robynne [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Snowberg, David R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Berry, Derek S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Beach, Ryan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Rooney, Samantha A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Swan, Dana [Arkema Inc.


    Currently, wind turbine blades are manufactured from a combination of glass and/or carbon fiber composite materials with a thermoset resin such as epoxy, which requires energy-intensive and expensive heating processes to cure. Newly developed in-situ polymerizing thermoplastic resin systems for composite wind turbine blades polymerize at room temperature, eliminating the heating process and significantly reducing the blade manufacturing cycle time and embodied energy, which in turn reduces costs. Thermoplastic materials can also be thermally welded, eliminating the need for adhesive bonds between blade components and increasing the overall strength and reliability of the blades. As well, thermoplastic materials enable end-of-life blade recycling by reheating and decomposing the materials, which is a limitation of existing blade technology. This paper presents a manufacturing demonstration for a 9-m-long thermoplastic composite wind turbine blade. This blade was constructed in the Composites Manufacturing Education and Technology facility at the National Wind Technology Center at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) using a vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding process. Johns Manville fiberglass and an Arkema thermoplastic resin called Elium were used. Additional materials included Armacell-recycled polyethylene terephthalate foam from Creative Foam and low-cost carbon- fiber pultruded spar caps (manufactured in collaboration with NREL, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Huntsman, Strongwell, and Chomarat). This paper highlights the development of the thermoplastic resin formulations, including an additive designed to control the peak exothermic temperatures. Infusion and cure times of less than 3 hours are also demonstrated, highlighting the efficiency and energy savings associated with manufacturing thermoplastic composite blades.

  1. Characterization lithium mineralized pegmatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, E.F.S.; Luz Ferreira, O. da; Cancado, R.Z.L.


    Lithium economic importance has increased in the last years. In Brazil its reserves, generally pegmatites bodies, are found in Itinga-Aracuai-MG. This study of characterization belongs to a global plan of lithium mineralized bodies research of 'Arqueana de Minerios e Metais Ltda', which purpose is to give subsidies for implementation of pegmatite unit, in order to make better use of them. (F.E.) [pt

  2. In Situ Hybridization of Pulp Fibers Using Mg-Al Layered Double Hydroxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl-Erik Lange


    Full Text Available Inorganic Mg2+ and Al3+ containing layered double hydroxide (LDH particles were synthesised in situ from aqueous solution onto chemical pulp fibers of pine (Pinus sylvestris. High super saturated (hss solution with sodium carbonate produced LDH particles with an average diameter of 100–200 nm. Nano-size (70 nm LDH particles were found from fibers external surface and, to a lesser degree, from the S2 cell wall after synthesis via low super saturated (lss route. The synthesis via slow urea hydrolysis (Uhyd yielded micron and clay sized LDH (2–5 μm and enabled efficient fiber densification via mineralization of S2 fiber wall layer as indicated by TEM and compliance analysis. The Uhyd method decreased fiber compliance up to 50%. Reduction in the polymerisation degree of cellulose was observed with capillary viscometry. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that the hybridization with LDH reduced the exothermic heat, indicating, that this material can be incorporated in flame retardant applications. Fiber charge was assessed by Fibers 2015, 3 104 adsorption expermients with methylene blue (MB and metanil yellow (MY. Synthesis via lss route retained most of the fibres original charge and provided the highest capacity (10 μmol/g for anionic MY, indicating cationic character of hybrid fibers. Our results suggested that mineralized fibers can be potentially used in advanced applications such as biocomposites and adsorbent materials.

  3. 76 FR 6110 - Conflict Minerals (United States)


    ...-10] RIN 3235-AK84 Conflict Minerals AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule...'') and would require any such issuer for which conflict minerals are necessary to the functionality or... body of its annual report whether its conflict minerals originated in the Democratic Republic of the...

  4. Flotation of sulphide minerals 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forssberg, K S.E. [ed.; Luleaa University of Technology, Luleaa (Sweden). Division of Mineral Processing


    A total of 27 papers presented at the workshop on flotation of sulphide minerals, reprinted from the International Journal of Mineral Processing, vol. 33, nos. 1-4, are included in this book. They cover various aspects of flotation of such minerals as chalcopyrite, pyrrhotite, galena, malachite and pyrite.

  5. Digital mineral logging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, J.B.


    A digital mineral logging system acquires data from a mineral logging tool passing through a borehole and transmits the data uphole to an electronic digital signal processor. A predetermined combination of sensors, including a deviometer, is located in a logging tool for the acquisition of the desired data as the logging tool is raised from the borehole. Sensor data in analog format is converted in the logging tool to a digital format and periodically batch transmitted to the surface at a predetermined sampling rate. An identification code is provided for each mineral logging tool, and the code is transmitted to the surface along with the sensor data. The self-identifying tool code is transmitted to the digital signal processor to identify the code against a stored list of the range of numbers assigned to that type of tool. The data is transmitted up the d-c power lines of the tool by a frequency shift key transmission technique. At the surface, a frequency shift key demodulation unit transmits the decoupled data to an asynchronous receiver interfaced to the electronic digital signal processor. During a recording phase, the signals from the logging tool are read by the electronic digital signal processor and stored for later processing. During a calculating phase, the stored data is processed by the digital signal processor and the results are outputted to a printer or plotter, or both

  6. Durable fiber reinforced self-compacting concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corinaldesi, V.; Moriconi, G.


    In order to produce thin precast elements, a self-compacting concrete was prepared. When manufacturing these elements, homogenously dispersed steel fibers instead of ordinary steel-reinforcing mesh were added to the concrete mixture at a dosage of 10% by mass of cement. An adequate concrete strength class was achieved with a water to cement ratio of 0.40. Compression and flexure tests were carried out to assess the safety of these thin concrete elements. Moreover, serviceability aspects were taken into consideration. Firstly, drying shrinkage tests were carried out in order to evaluate the contribution of steel fibers in counteracting the high concrete strains due to a low aggregate-cement ratio. Secondly, the resistance to freezing and thawing cycles was investigated on concrete specimens in some cases superficially treated with a hydrophobic agent. Lastly, both carbonation and chloride penetration tests were carried out to assess durability behavior of this concrete mixture

  7. Applications of nonlinear fiber optics

    CERN Document Server

    Agrawal, Govind


    * The only book describing applications of nonlinear fiber optics * Two new chapters on the latest developments: highly nonlinear fibers and quantum applications* Coverage of biomedical applications* Problems provided at the end of each chapterThe development of new highly nonlinear fibers - referred to as microstructured fibers, holey fibers and photonic crystal fibers - is the next generation technology for all-optical signal processing and biomedical applications. This new edition has been thoroughly updated to incorporate these key technology developments.The bo

  8. Natural Kenaf Fiber Reinforced Composites as Engineered Structural Materials (United States)

    Dittenber, David B.

    The objective of this work was to provide a comprehensive evaluation of natural fiber reinforced polymer (NFRP)'s ability to act as a structural material. As a chemical treatment, aligned kenaf fibers were treated with sodium hydroxide (alkalization) in different concentrations and durations and then manufactured into kenaf fiber / vinyl ester composite plates. Single fiber tensile properties and composite flexural properties, both in dry and saturated environments, were assessed. Based on ASTM standard testing, a comparison of flexural, tensile, compressive, and shear mechanical properties was also made between an untreated kenaf fiber reinforced composite, a chemically treated kenaf fiber reinforced composite, a glass fiber reinforced composite, and oriented strand board (OSB). The mechanical properties were evaluated for dry samples, samples immersed in water for 50 hours, and samples immersed in water until saturation (~2700 hours). Since NFRPs are more vulnerable to environmental effects than synthetic fiber composites, a series of weathering and environmental tests were conducted on the kenaf fiber composites. The environmental conditions studied include real-time outdoor weathering, elevated temperatures, immersion in different pH solutions, and UV exposure. In all of these tests, degradation was found to be more pronounced in the NFRPs than in the glass FRPs; however, in nearly every case the degradation was less than 50% of the flexural strength or stiffness. Using a method of overlapping and meshing discontinuous fiber ends, large mats of fiber bundles were manufactured into composite facesheets for structural insulated panels (SIPs). The polyisocyanurate foam cores proved to be poorly matched to the strength and stiffness of the NFRP facesheets, leading to premature core shear or delamination failures in both flexure and compressive testing. The NFRPs were found to match well with the theoretical stiffness prediction methods of classical lamination

  9. A Critical Look at Prebiotics Within the Dietary Fiber Concept. (United States)

    Verspreet, Joran; Damen, Bram; Broekaert, Willem F; Verbeke, Kristin; Delcour, Jan A; Courtin, Christophe M


    This article reviews the current knowledge of the health effects of dietary fiber and prebiotics and establishes the position of prebiotics within the broader context of dietary fiber. Although the positive health effects of specific fibers on defecation, reduction of postprandial glycemic response, and maintenance of normal blood cholesterol levels are generally accepted, other presumed health benefits of dietary fibers are still debated. There is evidence that specific dietary fibers improve the integrity of the epithelial layer of the intestines, increase the resistance against pathogenic colonization, reduce the risk of developing colorectal cancer, increase mineral absorption, and have a positive impact on the immune system, but these effects are neither generally acknowledged nor completely understood. Many of the latter effects are thought to be particularly elicited by prebiotics. Although the prebiotic concept evolved significantly during the past two decades, the line between prebiotics and nonprebiotic dietary fiber remains vague. Nevertheless, scientific evidence demonstrating the health-promoting potential of prebiotics continues to accumulate and suggests that prebiotic fibers have their rightful place in a healthy diet.

  10. Good manufacturing practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlyer, D.J.


    In this presentation author deals with the Implementation of good manufacturing practice for radiopharmaceuticals. The presentation is divided into next parts: Batch size; Expiration date; QC Testing; Environmental concerns; Personnel aspects; Radiation concerns; Theoretical yields; Sterilizing filters; Control and reconciliation of materials and components; Product strength; In process sampling and testing; Holding and distribution; Drug product inspection; Buildings and facilities; Renovations at BNL for GMP; Aseptic processing and sterility assurance; Process validation and control; Quality control and drug product stability; Documentation and other GMP topics; Building design considerations; Equipment; and Summary

  11. Multimode optical fiber (United States)

    Bigot-Astruc, Marianne; Molin, Denis; Sillard, Pierre


    A depressed graded-index multimode optical fiber includes a central core, an inner depressed cladding, a depressed trench, an outer depressed cladding, and an outer cladding. The central core has an alpha-index profile. The depressed claddings limit the impact of leaky modes on optical-fiber performance characteristics (e.g., bandwidth, core size, and/or numerical aperture).

  12. Fiber Lasers V

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim P.; Olausson, Christina Bjarnal Thulin; Broeng, Jes


    laser system. We present the latest advancements within airclad fiber technology including a new 70 μm single-mode polarization-maintaining rod-type fiber capable of amplifying to MW power levels. Furthermore we describe the novel airclad based pump combiners and their use in a completely monolithic 350...

  13. Fiber Sensor Technology Today (United States)

    Hotate, Kazuo


    Fiber sensor technologies are overviewed. Since the early 1970s, this field has been developed, on the basis of the same devices and photonic principles as fiber communication technologies. Besides simple configurations, in which the fiber acts only as a data transmission line, sophisticated configurations have also been developed, in which the fiber is used as a device to realize unique sensing mechanisms. The fiber optic gyroscope (FOG) is a good example, and has been developed as an absolute rotation sensor used, for example, for navigation and/or attitude control applications. Compared with traditional spinning-mass gyroscopes, the FOG has advantages, such as a short warming-up time, a light weight, and easy handling. A Japanese satellite, which was launched in August 2005 with a mission to observe the aurora, is controlled with a FOG. The FOG has also been used in consumer applications, such as the camera stabilizer, radio-controlled (RC) helicopter navigation, and the control of humanoid robots. Recently, distributed and multiplexed sensing schemes, in particular, have been studied and developed, in which a long fiber acts like a “nerve” for feeling the strain and/or the temperature distribution along the fiber. Performances of artificial nerve systems have markedly improved within the last couple of years, in spatial resolution and measurement speed. By embedding the “fiber-optic nerve system” in aircraft wings, bridges and tall buildings, these materials and structures can sense damage to prevent disasters.

  14. Ways to Boost Fiber (United States)

    ... can help to lower cholesterol. Third, it helps prevent constipation and diverticulosis. And fourth, adequate fiber from food ... is similar to a new sponge; it needs water to plump up pass smoothly. If you ... or constipation. Before you reach for the fiber supplements, consider ...

  15. Quartz fiber calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akchurin, N.; Doulas, S.; Ganel, O.; Gershtein, Y.; Gavrilov, V.; Kolosov, V.; Kuleshov, S.; Litvinsev, D.; Merlo, J.-P.; Onel, Y.; Osborne, D.; Rosowsky, A.; Stolin, V.; Sulak, L.; Sullivan, J.; Ulyanov, A.; Wigmans, R.; Winn, D.


    A calorimeter with optical quartz fibers embedded into an absorber matrix was proposed for the small angle region of the CMS detector at LHC (CERN). This type of calorimeter is expected to be radiation hard and to produce extremely fast signal. Some results from beam tests of the quartz fiber calorimeter prototype are presented. (orig.)

  16. High-density multicore fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takenaga, K.; Matsuo, S.; Saitoh, K.


    High-density single-mode multicore fibers were designed and fabricated. A heterogeneous 30-core fiber realized a low crosstalk of −55 dB. A quasi-single-mode homogeneous 31-core fiber attained the highest core count as a single-mode multicore fiber.......High-density single-mode multicore fibers were designed and fabricated. A heterogeneous 30-core fiber realized a low crosstalk of −55 dB. A quasi-single-mode homogeneous 31-core fiber attained the highest core count as a single-mode multicore fiber....

  17. Raman fiber lasers

    CERN Document Server


    This book serves as a comprehensive, up-to-date reference about this cutting-edge laser technology and its many new and interesting developments. Various aspects and trends of Raman fiber lasers are described in detail by experts in their fields. Raman fiber lasers have progressed quickly in the past decade, and have emerged as a versatile laser technology for generating high power light sources covering a spectral range from visible to mid-infrared. The technology is already being applied in the fields of telecommunication, astronomy, cold atom physics, laser spectroscopy, environmental sensing, and laser medicine. This book covers various topics relating to Raman fiber laser research, including power scaling, cladding and diode pumping, cascade Raman shifting, single frequency operation and power amplification, mid-infrared laser generation, specialty optical fibers, and random distributed feedback Raman fiber lasers. The book will appeal to scientists, students, and technicians seeking to understand the re...

  18. Birefringent hollow core fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, John


    Hollow core photonic crystal fiber (HC-PCF), fabricated according to a nominally non-birefringent design, shows a degree of un-controlled birefringence or polarization mode dispersion far in excess of conventional non polarization maintaining fibers. This can degrade the output pulse in many...... applications, and places emphasis on the development of polarization maintaining (PM) HC-PCF. The polarization cross-coupling characteristics of PM HC-PCF are very different from those of conventional PM fibers. The former fibers have the advantage of suffering far less from stress-field fluctuations...... and an increased overlap between the polarization modes at the glass interfaces. The interplay between these effects leads to a wavelength for optimum polarization maintenance, lambda(PM), which is detuned from the wavelength of highest birefringence. By a suitable fiber design involving antiresonance of the core...

  19. Fiber optic hydrophone (United States)

    Kuzmenko, Paul J.; Davis, Donald T.


    A miniature fiber optic hydrophone based on the principles of a Fabry-Perot interferometer. The hydrophone, in one embodiment, includes a body having a shaped flexible bladder at one end which defines a volume containing air or suitable gas, and including a membrane disposed adjacent a vent. An optic fiber extends into the body with one end terminating in spaced relation to the membrane. Acoustic waves in the water that impinge on the bladder cause the pressure of the volume therein to vary causing the membrane to deflect and modulate the reflectivity of the Fabry-Perot cavity formed by the membrane surface and the cleaved end of the optical fiber disposed adjacent to the membrane. When the light is transmitted down the optical fiber, the reflected signal is amplitude modulated by the incident acoustic wave. Another embodiment utilizes a fluid filled volume within which the fiber optic extends.

  20. Laser Cutting of Carbon Fiber Fabrics (United States)

    Fuchs, A. N.; Schoeberl, M.; Tremmer, J.; Zaeh, M. F.

    Due to their high weight-specific mechanical stiffness and strength, parts made from carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP) are increasingly used as structural components in the aircraft and automotive industry. However, the cutting of preforms, as with most automated manufacturing processes for CFRP components, has not yet been fully optimized. This paper discusses laser cutting, an alternative method to the mechanical cutting of preforms. Experiments with remote laser cutting and gas assisted laser cutting were carried out in order to identify achievable machining speeds. The advantages of the two different processes as well as their fitness for use in mass production are discussed.