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Sample records for mineral fertiliser applied

  1. Aerodynamic properties of six organo-mineral fertiliser particles

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    Marcello Biocca

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural fertilisers are generally applied by means of centrifugal disk spreaders. The machinery, the working conditions and the physical characteristics of fertilizers (including the aerodynamic characteristics of particles may affect the behaviour of particles after the discarding from the spreader. We investigated the aerodynamic properties of organo-mineral fertilisers (a class of slow release fertilisers that are less investigated since they are relatively new in the market using a vertical wind tunnel similar to an elutriator. In the same time, the morphological characteristics of individual fertilizer particles were measured by means of an image analysis procedure. In the study we compare six different fertilisers and we discuss the suitability of the employed methods. The results provide the terminal velocity – Vt – (the velocity value that overcome the gravity force of the particles of the particles, ranging from 8.60 to 9.55 m s-1, and the relationships between Vt and some physical properties (mass, shape, dimensions of the fertilizers. Moreover, the results of field distribution trials show the behaviour of the tested fertilizers during practical use. Such data can contribute to enhance the quality of application of these products in field.

  2. The weed seed bank assessment in two soil depths under various mineral fertilising

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    Elena Hunková

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The field trial at the experimental station of Slovak Agricultural University in Nitra - Kolíňany (Slovak Republic, maize growing region, Haplic Luvisol and Stagni-Haplic Luvisol in 1997 year was established. Experiments were based on 14 ha area (424 x 432.2 m by long strips method. The impact of different mineral fertilisers on six model crops was observed: winter wheat, spring barley, sunflower, winter oilseed rape, maize and sugar beet. Weed infestation of winter wheat, spring barley, maize and sugar beet as well as weed seed bank composition since 2000 year till 2002 year were detected. Three variants of mineral fertilisation were applied: variant 1 – without fertilisers, variant 2 – N-P-K fertilisation, steady state soil nutrients balance, variant 3 – high doses of N-P-K fertilisers (positive soil nutrients balance. Soil weed seed bank was analysed once per year before crop germination (on February from depths 0–0.05 m and 0.20–0.25 m in five replicates. From the depth 0–0.05 m 26 weed species were found, from the depth 0.20–0.25 m 23 weed species, from late spring group mainly. Chenopodium album, Stellaria media and Amaranthus spp. (77.57 % from intact seeds in total were the most occurred weeds in both depths. The year, depth of soil sampling and fertilisation did not have statistically significant impact on weed seeds number in the soil.

  3. Biogas and mineral fertiliser production from plant residues of phytoremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Thi Thu Ha

    2011-07-01

    for the subsequent utilization of digestates as mineral fertilisers that supply the essential nutrients for crops like wheat, barley and oat. Another used method for attempt to produce mineral fertiliser from plant residues is thermal treatment. The process of burning at 1050 C reduced majority load of biomass. The contents of bottom ash from 5-29 % of different parts of plant residues were measured. Nutrients in bottom ash were rich due to the high proportions of nutritional elements such as potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, sulphur were transferred from the input plant materials into bottom ash. However, the concentrations of heavy metals, in particular cadmium and zinc, in ash were also high that exceeded the allowed limitation values and the possibility of fertiliser production was hard to perform by combustion. (orig.)

  4. EFFECTS OF THE APPLICATION OF A MINERAL-AND-ORGANIC FERTILISER PRODUCED FROM BROWN COAL ON THE OCCURRENCE AND INFECTIOUS POTENTIAL OF ENTOMOPATHOGENIC FUNGI IN SOIL

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    Anna Majchrowska-Safaryan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the species composition and rate of entomopathogenic fungi occurrence in cultivable soil following the application of a mineral-and-organic fertiliser produced from brown coal. The material for testing consisted of soil samples collected in the second year of the experiment on two dates in 2015 (spring and autumn. The experiment was carried out on the following plots: control plot (no fertilisation; a plot fertilised with mineral fertilisers NPK presowing + N60 for top dressing; a plot fertilised with NPK presowing + manure; a plot fertilised with a fertiliser produced from brown coal at a dose of 1 t/ha NPK presowing + N20 for top dressing; and a plot fertilised with a fertiliser produced from brown coal at a dose of 5 t/ha NPK presowing + N40 for top dressing. Entomopathogenic fungi were isolated from soil of particular fertilisation experiment plots using insect traps (Galleria mellonella larvae as well as a selective medium. Three species of entomopathogenic fungi, i.e. Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae s.l. and Isaria fumosorosea, were isolated using two methods, from the soil samples collected from particular fertilisation experiment plots on two dates, i.e. spring and autumn. Fungus M. anisopliae s.l. proved to be the predominant species in the tested soil samples. The addition of the mineral-and-organic fertiliser, produced based on brown coal, to the soil at both applied doses contributed to an increase in the number of infectious units (CFUs of entomopathogenic fungi formed in relation to the control plot.

  5. Digestate from Biogas Plants is an Attractive Alternative to Mineral Fertilisation of Kohlrabi

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    Tomas Losak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the potential for the use of digestate from biogas plants for the fertilisation of kohlrabi. Kohlrabi was grown in two pot experiments in consecutive years using digestate, mineral fertiliser (urea with a nitrogen (N content equivalent to that in the digestate, mineral fertiliser with N, phosphate (P, potassium (K and magnesium (Mg contents equivalent to the digestate, and an unfertilised control. At harvest, the soil receiving the digestate application had higher P, K and Mg contents than the control and the urea treatment. The soil Nmin content was balanced in all fertilised treatments. Soil pH was unaffected by all treatments. Kohlrabi bulbs from the unfertilised control had the lowest weight, nitrate content and ascorbic acid content. Digestate and NPKMg fertiliser treatments increased bulb weight compared with the N-only urea treatment. Ascorbic acid content did not differ between fertilised treatments. There were no differences in bulb nitrate content between the mineral fertiliser treatments, but digestate application gave a low nitrate content. Bulb macroelement contents varied irregularly among treatments.

  6. Comparing heavy metal contents in crops receiving mineral fertilisers and animal manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bent Tolstrup; Elsgaard, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Spring barley (grain, straw), grass-clover (two cuts), winter wheat (grain, straw) and silage maize grown in the Askov long-term experiment with different levels (0, ½, 1, 1½, 2) of mineral fertiliser (NPK) and animal manure (AM) had concentrations of As, Pb, Cd and Hg below the EC maximum permis...... of NPK and AM does not pose a threat in terms of feed quality. However, the long-term accumulation of heavy metals added with mineral fertilisers and animal manure is essentially irreversible and may threaten soil quality....... in the analysed metal contents between crops grown with NPK and AM. Crop contents of uranium and thallium were below the analytical detection limits regardless of nutrient source and addition rate. Thus in a farming context similar to that of the Askov experiment, the long-term application of standard rates...

  7. Agronomic potential of mineral concentrate from processed manure as fertiliser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthof, G.L.; Hoeksma, P.; Schröder, J.J.; Middelkoop, van J.C.; Geel, van W.C.A.; Ehlert, P.A.I.; Holshof, G.; Klop, G.; Lesschen, J.P.

    2012-01-01

    Processing of manure intends to increase the use efficiency of nutrients. A concentrated solution of nitrogen (N) and potassium (K) (‘mineral concentrate’) is one of the possible products resulting from manure processing. A study is carried out in the Netherlands to determine the agronomic and

  8. The surprisingly small but increasing role of international agricultural trade on the European Union’s dependence on mineral phosphorus fertiliser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesme, Thomas; Roques, Solène; Metson, Geneviève S.; Bennett, Elena M.

    2016-02-01

    Phosphorus (P) is subject to global management challenges due to its importance to both food security and water quality. The European Union (EU) has promoted policies to limit fertiliser over-application and protect water quality for more than 20 years, helping to reduce European P use. Over this time period, the EU has, however, become more reliant on imported agricultural products. These imported products require fertiliser to be used in distant countries to grow crops that will ultimately feed European people and livestock. As such, these imports represent a displacement of European P demand, possibly allowing Europe to decrease its apparent P footprint by moving P use to locations outside the EU. We investigated the effect of EU imports on the European P fertiliser footprint to better understand whether the EU’s decrease in fertiliser use over time resulted from P demand being ‘outsourced’ to other countries or whether it truly represented a decline in P demand. To do this, we quantified the ‘virtual P flow’ defined as the amount of mineral P fertiliser applied to agricultural soils in non-EU countries to support agricultural product imports to the EU. We found that the EU imported a virtual P flow of 0.55 Tg P/yr in 1995 that, surprisingly, decreased to 0.50 Tg P/yr in 2009. These results were contrary to our hypothesis that trade increases would be used to help the EU reduce its domestic P fertiliser use by outsourcing its P footprint abroad. Still, the contribution of virtual P flows to the total P footprint of the EU has increased by 40% from 1995 to 2009 due to a dramatic decrease in domestic P fertiliser use in Europe: in 1995, virtual P was equivalent to 32% of the P used as fertiliser domestically to support domestic consumption but jumped to 53% in 2009. Soybean and palm tree products from South America and South East Asia contributed most to the virtual P flow. These results demonstrate that, although policies in the EU have successfully

  9. Response Of Guava Trees (Psidium Guajava To Soil Applications Of Mineral And Organic Fertilisers And Biofertilisers Under Conditions Of Low Fertile Soil

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    Shukla Sushil Kumar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to assess the influence of different organic fertilisers - vermicompost, mulching, Azotobacter, phosphate solubilising microbes (PSM and Trichoderma harzianum added each year to mineral fertilisers containing NPK and to farmyard manure (FYM on leaf nutrient status, tree growth, fruit yield and quality of guava grown in low fertile soil. The results revealed that vermicompost, bio-fertilisers and organic mulching resulted in yield and fruit quality boosters, as compared to application of NPK and FYM as the only organic fertiliser. Significant differences in plant height, canopy spread and stem girth of guava plants were obtained in combination, where Azotobacter, T. harzianum, PSM and organic mulching were applied. The leaf nutrient contents (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Mn and Zn were within sufficient ranges. Fruit yields and quality were highest in combination, where vermicompost, Azotobacter, T. harzianum, PSM and organic mulching was applied. Fruit quality parameters viz. soluble solid concentration, titratable acidity, total sugars and ascorbic acid showed positive correlation with the available macro- and micronutrients in the soil.

  10. The interactive effects of various nitrogen fertiliser formulations applied to urine patches on nitrous oxide emissions in grassland

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    Krol D.J.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Pasture-based livestock agriculture is a major source of greenhouse gas (GHG nitrous oxide (N2O. Although a body of research is available on the effect of urine patch N or fertiliser N on N2O emissions, limited data is available on the effect of fertiliser N applied to patches of urinary N, which can cover up to a fifth of the yearly grazed area. This study investigated whether the sum of N2O emissions from urine and a range of N fertilisers, calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN or urea ± urease inhibitor ± nitrification inhibitor, applied alone (disaggregated and re-aggregated approximated the N2O emission of urine and fertiliser N applied together (aggregated. Application of fertiliser to urine patches did not significantly increase either the cumulative yearly N2O emissions or the N2O emission factor in comparison to urine and fertiliser applied separately with the emissions re-aggregated. However, there was a consistent trend for approximately 20% underestimation of N2O loss generated from fertiliser and urine applied separately when compared to figures generated when urine and fertiliser were applied together. N2O emission factors from fertilisers were 0.02%, 0.06%, 0.17% and 0.25% from urea ± dicyandiamide (DCD, urea + N-(n-butyl thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT + DCD, urea + NBPT and urea, respectively, while the emission factor for urine alone was 0.33%. Calcium ammonium nitrate and urea did not interact differently with urine even when the urea included DCD. N2O losses could be reduced by switching from CAN to urea-based fertilisers.

  11. Pelleted organo-mineral fertilisers from composted pig slurry solids, animal wastes and spent mushroom compost for amenity grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Juluri R; Watabe, Miyuki; Stewart, T Andrew; Millar, B Cherie; Moore, John E

    2007-01-01

    In Ireland, conversion of biodegradable farm wastes such as pig manure spent mushroom compost and poultry litter wastes to pelletised fertilisers is a desirable option for farmers. In this paper, results obtained from the composting of pig waste solids (20% w/w) blended with other locally available biodegradable wastes comprising poultry litter (26% w/w), spent mushroom compost (26% w/w), cocoa husks (18% w/w) and moistened shredded paper (10% w/w) are presented. The resulting 6-mo old 'mature' composts had a nutrient content of 2.3% total N, 1.6% P and 3.1% K, too 'low' for direct use as an agricultural fertiliser. Formulations incorporating dried blood or feather meal amendments enriched the organic N-content, reduced the moisture in mature compost mixtures and aided the granulation process. Inclusion of mineral supplements viz., sulphate of ammonia, rock phosphate and sulphate of potash, yielded slow release fertilisers with nutrient N:P:K ratios of 10:3:6 and 3:5:10 that were suited for amenity grasslands such as golf courses for spring or summer application and autumn dressing, respectively. Rigorous microbiological tests carried out throughout the composting, processing and pelletising phases indicated that the formulated organo-mineral fertilisers were free of vegetative bacterial pathogens.

  12. Nitric oxide and nitrous oxide emissions from cattle-slurry and mineral fertiliser treated with nitrification inhibitor to an agricultural soil: A laboratory approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, J.; Coutinho, J.; Fangueiro, D.; Trindade, H.

    2015-07-01

    The application of organic and mineral fertilisers to soil can result in increased gaseous emissions to the atmosphere such as nitric oxide (NO) and nitrous oxide (N2O) gases. The aim of this study was to evaluate under laboratory conditions the effects on mineral N dynamics and NO and N2O emissions of application to soil of cattle slurry derived liquid fraction (LF) obtained by screw press and mineral fertiliser (MF), both treated with or without the nitrification inhibitor 3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP). An aerobic laboratory incubation was performed over 93 days with a Dystric Cambisol amended with mechanically separated LF or mineral fertiliser ammonium sulphate only or combined with DMPP. Two additional treatments were included: soil only and soil amended with DMPP. Nitrogen immobilisation was the dominant process with MF amendment, whereas N mineralisation has been observed with LF. The application of LF reduced significantly NO emissions by 80% relative to mineral but no differences were observed with N2O emissions. The addition of DMPP to MF induced a decrease of 18 and 29% in NO and N2O emissions whereas DMPP combined with LF reduced (numerically but not statistically) these emissions in 20 and 10%, respectively. Results obtained in our study suggest that N (NO + N2O) losses can be mitigated by adding DMPP to mineral fertilisers or replacing mineral fertiliser by LF. (Author)

  13. Meat bone meal as fertiliser for barley and oat

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    L. CHEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The traditional production of mineral N and P fertilisers is unsustainable due its reliance on fossil fuels in the case of N, and on limited mineral resource stocks in the case of P. The use of alternative or complementary fertilisers that originate from organic waste materials is gaining interest. Organic farms, especially arable organic farms without livestock, need usable sources of plant nutrients. Meat bone meal (MBM, a potential organic fertiliser for agricultural crops, contains considerable amounts of nutrients (on average 8% N, 5% P, 1% K and 10% Ca. In EU countries, Commission regulation (EC No 181/2006 authorised the use of MBM as an organic fertiliser. In this study, MBM was compared to conventional mineral NPK fertiliser. Two randomised complete block split-plot field experiments were conducted: one with spring barley (Hordeum vulgare in two years; and another with oat (Avena sativa for three years, including a fourth year of testing for residual effect. Compared to mineral fertiliser (20% N, 3% P and 9% K, MBM was applied at three N levels: 60, 90 and 120 kg N ha-1. The grain yield of both cereal species supported by MBM, did not differ from the yield obtained with the mineral fertiliser at any N level. At 120 kg N ha-1, the grain yield level with either type was ca. 4500 kg ha-1 of barley and 5000 kg ha-1 of oat, representing fair averages for Finnish conditions. Moreover, MBM and mineral fertilisation showed no differences in quality in terms of 1000-grain weight, test-weight, protein content and protein yield. Since MBM has a low N/P ratio, P was applied in surplus to attain comparable N levels. Therefore MBM fertilisation should be fitted for crop rotation and for meeting environmental requirements.;

  14. Amelioration of bauxite residue sand by intermittent additions of nitrogen fertiliser and leaching fractions: The effect on growth of kikuyu grass and fate of applied nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Navjot; Phillips, Ian; Fey, Martin V

    2016-04-15

    Bauxite residue, a waste product of aluminium processing operations is characterised by high pH, salinity and exchangeable sodium which hinders sustainable plant growth. The aim of this study was to investigate the uptake form, optimum application rate and timing of nitrogen fertiliser to improve bauxite residue characteristics for plant growth. Kikuyu grass was grown in plastic columns filled with residue sand/carbonated residue mud mixture (20:1) previously amended with gypsum, phosphoric acid and basal nutrients. The experiment was set up as a 4×4 factorial design comprising four levels of applied nitrogen (N) fertiliser (0, 3, 6 and 12mgNkg(-1) residue) and four frequencies of leaching (16, 8 and 4day intervals). We hypothesised that the use of ammonium sulfate fertiliser would increase retention of N within the rhizosphere thereby encouraging more efficient fertiliser use. We found that N uptake by kikuyu grass was enhanced due to leaching of excess salts and alkalinity from the residue profile. It was also concluded that biomass production and associated N uptake by kikuyu grass grown in residue is dependent on the type of fertiliser used. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Surface analytical techniques applied to minerals processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smart, R.St.C.

    1991-01-01

    An understanding of the chemical and physical forms of the chemically altered layers on the surfaces of base metal sulphides, particularly in the form of hydroxides, oxyhydroxides and oxides, and the changes that occur in them during minerals processing lies at the core of a complete description of flotation chemistry. This paper reviews the application of a variety of surface-sensitive techniques and methodologies applied to the study of surface layers on single minerals, mixed minerals, synthetic ores and real ores. Evidence from combined XPS/SAM/SEM studies have provided images and analyses of three forms of oxide, oxyhydroxide and hydroxide products on the surfaces of single sulphide minerals, mineral mixtures and complex sulphide ores. 4 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs

  16. Effects of rice straw, biochar and mineral fertiliser on methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from rice (Oryza sativa L.) grown in a rain-fed lowland rice soil of Cambodia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ly, Proyuth; Duong, Quynh Vu; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2015-01-01

    -control, rice straw (RS) and biochar (BC). Compound fertiliser was applied to all treatments. Rice was grown in columns packed with a paddy soil from Cambodia. Results revealed faster mineralisation of organic carbon (RS and BC) when applied in water-saturated conditions lasting for 2 weeks instead of flooding...

  17. Changes in nitrogen mineralization, tissue nutrient concentrations and biomass compartmentation after cessation of fertiliser application to mown grassland.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olff, H.; Berendse, F.; Visser, de W.

    1994-01-01

    1 Nitrogen mineralization was studied in four grasslands (fields A-D), which had not been fertilized for 2, 6, 19 and 45 years, respectively, thereby forming a chrono-sequence. Fertilizer application was stopped in these fields in order to restore former species-rich communities characteristic of

  18. Soil and pasture P concentration in a Fraxinus excelsior L. silvopastoral system fertilised with different types of sewage sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreiro-Domínguez, Nuria; Nair, Vimala; Rigueiro-Rodríguez, Antonio; Rosa Mosquera-Losada, María

    2015-04-01

    In Europe, sewage sludge should be stabilised before using as fertiliser in agriculture. Depending on the stabilisation process that is used, sewage sludge has different characteristics, nutrient contents and soil nutrient incorporation rates. Sewage sludge is usually applied on a plant-available N or total metal concentration basic, and therefore, P concentrations can be well above crop needs. Leaching of excess P can threaten surface and ground waters with eutrophication. In this context, recent studies have demonstrated that the implementation of agroforestry systems could reduce the P leaching risk compared with conventional agricultural systems due to the different localisation of tree and crop roots which enhance nutrient uptake. The aim of this study was to evaluate during three consecutive years the effect of municipal sewage sludge stabilised by anaerobic digestion, composting, and pelletisation on concentration of P in soil and pasture compared to control treatments (mineral and no fertilisation) in a silvopastoral system established under Fraxinus excelsior L. in Galicia (Spain). The results showed that at the beginning of the study, the fertilisation with mineral increased more the total and available P in soil than the fertilisation with sewage sludge probably because the sludge nutrient release rate is slower than those from mineral fertilisers. The increment of soil available P caused by the mineral fertiliser implied an improvement of the P concentration in the pasture. However, in the last year of the experiment it was observed a positive effect of the fertilisation with pelletised sludge on the concentration of P in pasture compared with the composted sludge and the mineral fertiliser probably due to the annual application of this type of sludge. Therefore, the establishment of silvopastoral systems and their fertilisation with pelletized sludge should be recommended because the pelletized sludge increases the concentration of P in the pasture and

  19. Biomass production and nutrient accumulation in Sparganium emersum Rehm. after sediment treatment with mineral and organic fertilisers in three mesocosm experiments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ságová-Marečková, M.; Petrusek, A.; Květ, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 4 (2009), s. 903-913 ISSN 1386-2588 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : nutrient uptake * growth parameters * biomass * NPK fertiliser * organic waste Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.549, year: 2009

  20. Minerals Policy Monitoring Programme : : results for 2006 on water quality and fertilisation practices : within the framework of the derogation monitoring network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fraters, B.; Reijs, J.W.; Leeuwen, van T.C.; Bouwmans, L.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    This report provides an overview of fertilisation practices and water quality in 2006 on grassland farms using more animal manure than the limit set in European legislation. Water quality measured in 2006 is related to agricultural practices in previous years, and the reported values do not reveal

  1. Effects of organic fertilisation on sweet orange bearing trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roccuzzo, Giancarlo; Torrisi, Biagio; Canali, Stefano; Intrigliolo, Francesco

    2010-05-01

    In a study realised over a five year period (2001-2006) on orange bearing trees [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] cv. ‘Valencia late', grafted on sour orange (C. aurantium L.), four fertiliser treatments were applied: citrus by-products compost (CB), poultry manure (PM), livestock waste compost (LW) and mineral fertiliser (MF), as control. The trees, with the exception of MF treatment, were organically grown since 1994 in the experimental farm of CRA-ACM in Lentini, Sicily, and received the same N input every year. The research objectives were to evaluate the effect of long term repeated organic fertilisers application on i) soil fertility; ii) citrus bearing trees nutritional status by means of leaf analysis and iii) yield and fruit quality, determining parameters currently utilized to evaluate sweet orange production either for fresh consumption and processing. The CB treatment showed significantly higher values of Corg in soil than MF treatment (about 30%). Corg in PM and LW treatments was higher than MF treatment (13% and 20%, respectively), but these differences were not statistically significant either from the control treatment nor from the soil fertilised with CB. Similar trend was showed by the humic and fulvic C being the values of the CB treatment significantly higher than the control. PM and LW treatments had intermediate values, without statistical significance. The long term addition to soil of a quality compost (CB) with high C/N ratio increased the level of nutrients wich usually show low availability for citrus plants (P, Fe, Zn, Mn), as demonstrated by leaf analysis. No significant difference was noticed as far as yield was concerned, whereas CB treatment enhanced some fruit quality parameters.

  2. Acceleration of biomimetic mineralization to apply in bone regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayasuriya, A Champa; Shah, Chiragkumar; Ebraheim, Nabil A; Jayatissa, Ahalapitiya H

    2008-01-01

    The delivery of growth factors and therapeutic drugs into bone defects is a major clinical challenge. Biomimetically prepared bone-like mineral (BLM) containing a carbonated apatite layer can be used to deliver growth factors and drugs in a controlled manner. In the conventional biomimetic process, BLM can be deposited on the biodegradable polymer surfaces by soaking them in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 16 days or more. The aim of this study was to accelerate the biomimetic process of depositing BML in the polymer surfaces. We accelerated the deposition of mineral on 3D poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) porous scaffolds to 36-48 h by modifying the biomimetic process parameters and applying surface treatments to PLGA scaffolds. The BLM was coated on scaffolds after surface treatments followed by incubation at 37 0 C in 15 ml of 5x SBF. We characterized the BLM created using the accelerated biomineralization process with wide angle x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The FTIR and XRD analyses of mineralized scaffolds show similarities between biomimetically prepared BLM, and bone bioapatite and carbonated apatite. We also found that the BLM layer on the surface of scaffolds was stable even after 21 days immersed in Tris buffered saline and cell culture media. This study suggests that BLM was stable for at least 3 weeks in both media, and therefore, BLM has a potential for use as a carrier for biological molecules for localized release applications as well as bone tissue engineering applications

  3. 75 FR 7571 - Notice of Intent To Grant Exclusive Patent License; Applied Minerals, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-22

    ...; Applied Minerals, Inc. AGENCY: Department of the Navy, DoD. ACTION: Notice; correction. SUMMARY: The... to grant to Applied Minerals, Inc., a revocable, nonassignable, exclusive license. The original... of Intent to Grant Co-Exclusive Patent License; Applied Minerals, Inc.; Correction'' 2. In the first...

  4. Organic fertilisers and nitrogen availability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, C.; Streminska, M.; Vermeulen, T.; Klein, P.

    2017-01-01

    Liquid organic fertilisers allow growers to abandon the use of conventional de novo (mined or synthesised) fertilisers without the need for major technological adaptions in the greenhouse. It was decided to run a cultivation experiment to find practical information for producers and growers when

  5. Can δ(15)N in lettuce tissues reveal the use of synthetic nitrogen fertiliser in organic production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Martina; Kacjan-Maršić, Nina; Lojen, Sonja

    2011-01-30

    The nitrogen isotopic fingerprint (δ(15)N) is reported to be a promising indicator for differentiating between organically and conventionally grown vegetables. However, the effect on plant δ(15)N of split nitrogen fertilisation, which could enable farmers to cover up the use of synthetic fertiliser, is not well studied. In this study the use of δ(15)N in lettuce as a potential marker for identifying the use of synthetic nitrogen fertiliser was tested on pot-grown lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) treated with synthetic and organic nitrogen fertilisers (single or split application). The effect of combined usage of synthetic and organic fertilisers on δ(15)N was also investigated. The δ(15)N values of whole plants treated with different fertilisers differed significantly when the fertiliser was applied in a single treatment. However, additional fertilisation (with isotopically the same or different fertiliser) did not cause a significant alteration of plant δ(15)N. The findings of the study suggest that the δ(15)N value of lettuce tissues could be used as a rough marker to reveal the history of nitrogen fertilisation, but only in the case of single fertiliser application. However, if the difference in δ(15)N between the applied synthetic and organic nitrogen fertilisers was > 9.1 ‰, the detection of split and combined usage of the fertilisers would have greater discriminatory power. 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Effects of bioremediation agents on oil degradation in mineral and sandy salt marsh sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Q.; Mendelssohn, I.A.; Henry, C.B. Jr.; Roberts, P.O.; Walsh, M.M.; Overton, E.B.; Portier, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    Although bioremediation for oil spill cleanup has received considerable attention in recent years, its satisfactory use in the cleanup of oil spills in the wetland environment is still generally untested. A study of the often most used bioremediation agents, fertiliser, microbial product and soil oxidation, as a means of enhancing oil biodegradation in coastal mineral and sandy marsh substrates was conducted in controlled greenhouse conditions. Artificially weathered south Louisiana crude oil was applied to sods of marsh (soil and intact vegetation) at the rate of 2 l m -2 . Fertiliser application enhanced marsh plant growth, soil microbial populations, and oil biodegradation rate. The live aboveground biomass of Spartina alterniflora with fertiliser application was higher than that without fertiliser. The application of fertiliser significantly increased soil microbial respiration rates, indicating the potential for enhancing oil biodegradation. Bioremediation with fertiliser application significantly reduced the total targeted normal hydrocarbons (TTNH) and total targeted aromatic hydrocarbons (TTAH) remaining in the soil, by 81% and 17%, respectively, compared to those of the oil controls. TTNH/hopane and TTAAH/hopane ratios showed a more consistent reduction, further suggesting an enhancement of oil biodegradation by fertilisation. Furthermore, soil type affected oil bioremediation; the extent of fertiliser-enhanced oil biodegradation was greater for sandy (13% TTNH remaining in the treatments with fertiliser compared to the control) than for mineral soils (26% of the control), suggesting that fertiliser application was more effective in enhancing TTNH degradation in the former. Application of microbial product and soil oxidant had no positive effects on the variables mentioned above under the present experimental conditions, suggesting that microbial degraders are not limiting biodegradation in this soil. Thus, the high cost of microbial amendments during

  7. Nitrous oxide emissions and soil mineral nitrogen status following application of hog slurry and inorganic fertilisers to acidic soils under forage grass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mkhabela, M.S.; Gordon, R.; Madani, A.; Burton, D.; Hart, W.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examined the influence of hog slurry and inorganic fertilizers on nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emissions and soil inorganic nitrogen (N) composition. Factors controlling N 2 O production were also identified. The study was comprised of 3 field experiments conducted during the summer months of 2005 on 2 acidic soils seeded with forage grass at a site in Nova Scotia. Treatments included hog slurry; ammonium sulphate; potassium nitrate; and an unamended control site. Emissions were measured using vented polyvinyl chloride static chambers. Gas fluxes and NO 2 measurements were analyzed using gas chromatography. Data were then subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA). N 2 O flux and soil mineral N data from each sampling day were analyzed separately. Cumulative N 2 O losses were also calculated. Results demonstrated that the addition of hog slurry resulted in lower N 2 O emissions than the samples containing potassium nitrate fertilizer. The study also demonstrated that nitrate (NO 3 ) production drives NO 2 production in acidic soils. It was concluded that further research is needed to verify results obtained during the study. 29 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs

  8. 75 FR 5290 - Notice of Intent To Grant Exclusive Patent License; Applied Minerals, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Navy Notice of Intent To Grant Exclusive Patent License; Applied Minerals, Inc. AGENCY: Department of the Navy, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of the Navy hereby gives notice of its intent to grant to Applied Minerals, Inc., a revocable, nonassignable...

  9. Effects of fertilisation and irrigation practices on yield, maturity and storability of onions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. SUOJALA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to establish whether a high onion yield and good storage performance could be obtained with low fertilisation rates if irrigation was applied when necessary. Two-year experiments investigated the effects of three NPK fertiliser levels (N 50, 100, 125/150 kg/ha, with and without irrigation, on yield, advancement of maturity, storage losses and shelf life. High fertilisation advanced maturity but irrigation had no effect. High fertilisation increased yield only in 1996 (5B7%, but irrigation increased the yield noticeably: by 33.5% in 1995 and 8.5% in 1996. There was no interaction between fertilisation and irrigation. The low fertilisation optimum is attributed to the mineralisation of soil nitrogen, as the soil was rich in organic matter. At the low fertilisation level, plants took up twice as much nitrogen as present in the fertiliser, and with increased fertilisation the nitrogen uptake increased markedly. The foliage nitrogen content was low, evidently as a result of late harvesting. Treatments had only a minor effect on the storage performance and shelf life of onions. The results suggest that fertilisation rates could be reduced in onion production. Irrigation during warm and dry periods is essential to achieve the maximum yield potential and does not impair the storage quality of onions.;

  10. Applied mineral exploration with special reference to uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, R.V.; Childers, M.O.

    1977-01-01

    An explanation of the fundamentals of organizing, operating, and concluding an exploration program, particularly uranium exploration, is presented. Discussion of many exploration practices currently being used in the industry and a review of some new developments or research projects which are being studied or which show promise are included. The material is presented in 13 chapters entitled: the Mineral Explorationist and the Role He Plays; Types of Uranium Deposits; Development of Idea and Preliminary Investigation: Uranium; a Review of Mining Law as it Pertains to Mineral Exploration and Development in the United States; Land Ownership and Leasing; Continuing Detailed Geologic Work; the Decision to Make a Play; Selling a Deal; Legal and Accounting Aspects; the Drilling Program; Using Geology in Planning and Executing Drilling; Transition from Exploration to Development; and a Forward Look

  11. Applying satellite technology to energy and mineral exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, William D.; Rowan, Lawrence C.

    1978-01-01

    IGCP Project 143 ("Remote Sensing and Mineral Exploration"), is a worldwide research project designed to make satellite data an operational geological tool along with the geologic pick, hand lens, topographic map, aerial photo and geophysical instruments and data that comprise the exploration package. While remote sensing data will not replace field exploration and mapping, careful study of such data prior to field work should make the effort more efficient.

  12. Active Learning Techniques Applied to an Interdisciplinary Mineral Resources Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aird, H. M.

    2015-12-01

    An interdisciplinary active learning course was introduced at the University of Puget Sound entitled 'Mineral Resources and the Environment'. Various formative assessment and active learning techniques that have been effective in other courses were adapted and implemented to improve student learning, increase retention and broaden knowledge and understanding of course material. This was an elective course targeted towards upper-level undergraduate geology and environmental majors. The course provided an introduction to the mineral resources industry, discussing geological, environmental, societal and economic aspects, legislation and the processes involved in exploration, extraction, processing, reclamation/remediation and recycling of products. Lectures and associated weekly labs were linked in subject matter; relevant readings from the recent scientific literature were assigned and discussed in the second lecture of the week. Peer-based learning was facilitated through weekly reading assignments with peer-led discussions and through group research projects, in addition to in-class exercises such as debates. Writing and research skills were developed through student groups designing, carrying out and reporting on their own semester-long research projects around the lasting effects of the historical Ruston Smelter on the biology and water systems of Tacoma. The writing of their mini grant proposals and final project reports was carried out in stages to allow for feedback before the deadline. Speakers from industry were invited to share their specialist knowledge as guest lecturers, and students were encouraged to interact with them, with a view to employment opportunities. Formative assessment techniques included jigsaw exercises, gallery walks, placemat surveys, think pair share and take-home point summaries. Summative assessment included discussion leadership, exams, homeworks, group projects, in-class exercises, field trips, and pre-discussion reading exercises

  13. The Private Lives of Minerals: Social Network Analysis Applied to Mineralogy and Petrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazen, R. M.; Morrison, S. M.; Fox, P. A.; Golden, J. J.; Downs, R. T.; Eleish, A.; Prabhu, A.; Li, C.; Liu, C.

    2016-12-01

    Comprehensive databases of mineral species (rruff.info/ima) and their geographic localities and co-existing mineral assemblages (mindat.org) reveal patterns of mineral association and distribution that mimic social networks, as commonly applied to such varied topics as social media interactions, the spread of disease, terrorism networks, and research collaborations. Applying social network analysis (SNA) to common assemblages of rock-forming igneous and regional metamorphic mineral species, we find patterns of cohesion, segregation, density, and cliques that are similar to those of human social networks. These patterns highlight classic trends in lithologic evolution and are illustrated with sociograms, in which mineral species are the "nodes" and co-existing species form "links." Filters based on chemistry, age, structural group, and other parameters highlight visually both familiar and new aspects of mineralogy and petrology. We quantify sociograms with SNA metrics, including connectivity (based on the frequency of co-occurrence of mineral pairs), homophily (the extent to which co-existing mineral species share compositional and other characteristics), network closure (based on the degree of network interconnectivity), and segmentation (as revealed by isolated "cliques" of mineral species). Exploitation of large and growing mineral data resources with SNA offers promising avenues for discovering previously hidden trends in mineral diversity-distribution systematics, as well as providing new pedagogical approaches to teaching mineralogy and petrology.

  14. Cultivation of Hylocerus sp. focusing on vegetative propagation, shading and mineral fertiliser=Cultivo de Hylocereus sp. com enfoque na propagação vegetativa, sombreamento e adubação mineral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmilson Igor Bernardo Almeida

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The red pitahaya is a semi-epiphytic cactaceous plant, whose cultivation has attracted great interest in recent years as a result of the growing demand for the fruit, characterised by an exotic appearance and the significant price acquired in the market. However, studies and information on this crop are still rare, especially for the conditions of soil and climate found in Brazil. Currently there are areas in Brazil for the commercial cultivation of red pitahaya, which are based on information adapted from such countries as Colombia, Israel, Mexico and Vietnam, pioneers with greater experience in the cultivation of this fruit. Information generated in the state of São Paulo is also used for other producing regions of Brazil; however it is basic and insufficient for achieving maximum potential productivity. Basic information regarding vegetative propagation, shading and mineral nutrition has not been scientifically defined, and acts as a limitation to crop development and production in the country, particularly in the Northeast. The aim therefore, was to make a brief presentation of the red pitahaya crop and gather relevant scientific results, so that they can contribute to improve exploitation of the crop in Brazil. Studies of Hylocereus sp. in the state of Ceará and other producing regions of Brazil point to the excellent adaptation of this species to environmental conditions in Brazil, and indicate its high productive potential. Some characteristics, such as the easy rooting of cuttings, acclimatisation to cultivation in full sunlight, positive response to mineral fertilizer, and precocity, make Hylocereus sp. a potential option for the diversification of irrigated fruit production in Brazil. = A pitaia vermelha é uma cactácea semi-epífita, cujo cultivo vem despertando grande interesse nos últimos anos em função da crescente demanda pelos seus frutos, caracterizados pela aparência exótica e pelos preços expressivos que adquirem no

  15. Sewage sludge fertiliser use: implications for soil and plant copper evolution in forest and agronomic soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreiro-Domínguez, Nuria; Rigueiro-Rodríguez, Antonio; Mosquera-Losada, M Rosa

    2012-05-01

    Fertilisation with sewage sludge may lead to crop toxicity and environmental degradation. This study aims to evaluate the effects of two types of soils (forest and agronomic), two types of vegetation (unsown (coming from soil seed bank) and sown), and two types of fertilisation (sludge fertilisation and mineral fertilisation, with a no fertiliser control) in afforested and treeless swards and in sown and unsown forestlands on the total and available Cu concentration in soil, the leaching of this element and the Cu levels in plant. The experimental design was completely randomised with nine treatments and three replicates. Fertilisation with sewage sludge increased the concentration of Cu in soil and plant, but the soil values never exceeded the maximum set by Spanish regulations. Sewage sludge inputs increased both the total and Mehlich 3 Cu concentrations in agronomic soils and the Cu levels in plant developed in agronomic and forest soils, with this effect pronounced in the unsown swards of forest soils. Therefore, the use of high quality sewage sludge as fertiliser may improve the global productivity of forest, agronomic and silvopastoral systems without creating environmental hazards. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minerals are important for your body to stay healthy. Your body uses minerals for many different jobs, including keeping your bones, muscles, heart, and brain working properly. Minerals are also important for making enzymes and hormones. ...

  17. Mortality of nitrate fertiliser workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dabbagh, S; Forman, D; Bryson, D; Stratton, I; Doll, R

    1986-01-01

    An epidemiological cohort study was conducted to investigate the mortality patterns among a group of workers engaged in the production of nitrate based fertilisers. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that individuals exposed to high concentrations of nitrates might be at increased risk of developing cancers, particularly gastric cancer. A total of 1327 male workers who had been employed in the production of fertilisers between 1946 and 1981 and who had been occupationally exposed to nitrates for at least one year were followed up until 1 March 1981. In total, 304 deaths were observed in this group and these were compared with expected numbers calculated from mortality rates in the northern region of England, where the factory was located. Analysis was also carried out separately for a subgroup of the cohort who had been heavily exposed to nitrates--that is, working in an environment likely to contain more than 10 mg nitrate/m3 for a year or longer. In neither the entire cohort nor the subgroup was any significant excess observed for all causes of mortality or for mortality from any of five broad categories of cause or from four specific types of cancer. A small excess of lung cancer was noted more than 20 years after first exposure in men heavily exposed for more than 10 years. That men were exposed to high concentrations of nitrate was confirmed by comparing concentrations of nitrates in the saliva of a sample of currently employed men with control men, employed at the same factory but not in fertiliser production. The men exposed to nitrate had substantially raised concentrations of nitrate in their saliva compared with both controls within the industry and with men in the general population and resident nearby. The results of this study therefore weight against the idea that exposure to nitrates in the environment leads to the formation in vivo of material amounts of carcinogens. PMID:3015194

  18. Production of 15N-Labelled Liquid Organic Fertilisers Based on Manure and Crop Residue for Use in Fertigation Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén Martínez-Alcántara

    Full Text Available Large quantities of crop residue and animal manure from agricultural and livestock activities are annually produced worldwide. With proper management, these residues are potentially valuable sources of plant nutrients, mainly N. Recycling such subproducts in sustainably-based agricultural systems can minimise the use of mineral fertilisers, and hence reduce the potential risk of surface and groundwater pollution. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to obtain (small scale two liquid labelled-organic fertilisers, an animal- and a vegetal-based organic (AO and VO, respectively fertiliser, to be used as organic N sources in subsequent fertigation studies. Forage maize (Zea mays L. grown under 15N-labelled fertiliser supply was used as raw material for VO fertiliser production, and also as 15N-labelled sheep feed to obtain 15N-labelled manure. The labelled faeces fraction was used as raw material for the AO fertiliser. The VO fertiliser was obtained after an acidic and an enzyme-driven hydrolysis. The AO fertiliser was obtained after acidic hydrolysis. The VO liquid fertiliser presented an N concentration of 330 mg·L-1, 85% of total N was organic, while ammonium and nitrate N accounted for 55% and 45% of the mineral nitrogen fraction, respectively. This fertiliser also exhibited high K, Ca and S concentrations and notable values for the remaining macro- and micronutrients. The AO liquid fertiliser had a similar total N concentration (496 mg·L-1, 82% of total N in an organic form to that of VO, but its mineral N fraction significantly differed, which came in a predominantly (95% ammonia form. It also had a high content of N, P, K and other macronutrients, and sufficient Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu and B levels, which suggests its suitability as a potential fertiliser. The percentage of 15N enrichment in both VO and AO liquid fertilisers exceeded 2% 15N atom excess, which enabled their use in subsequent assays run to assess nitrogen uptake efficiency.

  19. Frost related dieback in Estonian energy plantations of willows in relation to fertilisation and pathogenic bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cambours, M.A.; Nejad, P. [Department of Forest Mycology and Pathology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 7026, 750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Heinsoo, K. [Institute of Zoology and Botany, Estonian Agricultural University, Riia 181, 51014 Tartu (Estonia); Granhall, U. [Department of Microbiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 7025, 750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2006-03-15

    Two 9-year old Estonian Salix plantations suffering from dieback were studied: one situated on poor mineral soil and divided into fertilised and unfertilised plots (Saare plantation) and another growing on a well-decomposed and nitrogen-rich organic soil, without fertiliser application (Kambja plantation). Bacteria from internal tissues of visually damaged shoots from seven clones were isolated in spring and autumn. The strains were subsequently biochemically characterised and tested for ice nucleation activity and pathogenicity on Salix. Some strains were also analysed with 16S rRNA. High numbers of culturable bacteria were found, belonging mainly to Erwinia, Sphingomonas, Pseudomonas and Xanthomonas spp. Fertilised plots were significantly more colonised by bacteria than unfertilised plots and also more extensively damaged, showing a lower density of living plants after 7 years of culture. More ice nucleation active (INA) strains were found in Saare fertilised plots and at Kambja than in Saare unfertilised plots. Likewise, most pathogenic strains were isolated from Saare fertilised plots and from Kambja. For some of the willow clones studied, dieback appeared to be related to both clonal frost sensitivity and abundance of INA and pathogenic bacteria. The plantations probably suffered from the presence of high amounts of pathogens and from frost related injuries aggravated by INA bacteria. Most probably the fertilisation at Saare and the nitrogen-rich soil at Kambja created a favourable environment for bacterial development and led to high dieback levels after the first harvest. (author)

  20. Radioisotopes labelled agrochemicals for fertiliser development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherian, S.; Subramanian, T.K.; Aachari, P.S.; Murthy, T.S.

    1979-01-01

    Chemical fertilisers like superphosphate, urea, ammonium phosphate, etc., are extensively used in agriculture for improving yields of various crops. Agrochemicals labelled with radioisotopes help in evaluating the fertiliser uptake and the role of essential nutrients like phosphorus, nitrogen and calcium in different types of soils. Such studies help the industry considerably in preparing fertilisers suitable for various crops and soil conditions. Methods have been developed for the large scale preparation of labelled fertilisers like superphosphate- 32 P, nitric phosphate- 32 P with varying water solubilities. An account of the experimental investigations carried out and the finalised procedures for the preparation of labelled agrochemicals are given. The chemical methods developed would be suitable for production of fertilisers using raw materials indigenously available. (auth.)

  1. herbage mineral nutrition indexed as tools for rapid mineral status

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    mineral indices were calculated from chemical analysis with a view to generate relevant fertilisation recommenda- tions. Although the dry .... P, and K established in temperate climate (Blanfort ..... like rotational grazing rhythms or stocking rates.

  2. Elaboration of new ceramic microfiltration membranes from mineral coal fly ash applied to waste water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedidi, Ilyes; Saïdi, Sami; Khemakhem, Sabeur; Larbot, André; Elloumi-Ammar, Najwa; Fourati, Amine; Charfi, Aboulhassan; Salah, Abdelhamid Ben; Amar, Raja Ben

    2009-12-15

    This work aims to develop a new mineral porous tubular membrane based on mineral coal fly ash. Finely ground mineral coal powder was calcinated at 700 degrees C for about 3 h. The elaboration of the mesoporous layer was performed by the slip-casting method using a suspension made of the mixture of fly-ash powder, water and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). The obtained membrane was submitted to a thermal treatment which consists in drying at room temperature for 24 h then a sintering at 800 degrees C. SEM photographs indicated that the membrane surface was homogeneous and did not present any macrodefects (cracks, etc...). The average pore diameter of the active layer was 0.25 microm and the thickness was around 20 microm. The membrane permeability was 475 l/h m(2) bar. This membrane was applied to the treatment of the dying effluents generated by the washing baths in the textile industry. The performances in term of permeate flux and efficiency were determined and compared to those obtained using a commercial alumina microfiltration membrane. Almost the same stabilised permeate flux was obtained (about 100 l h(-1)m(-2)). The quality of permeate was almost the same with the two membranes: the COD and color removal was 75% and 90% respectively.

  3. Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Aren't minerals something you find in the earth, like iron and quartz? Well, yes, but small ... canned salmon and sardines with bones leafy green vegetables, such as broccoli calcium-fortified foods — from orange ...

  4. Simultaneous phosphorous and nitrogen recovery from source-separated urine: A novel application for fertiliser drawn forward osmosis

    KAUST Repository

    Volpin, Federico

    2018-03-30

    Re-thinking our approach to dealing with wastes is one of the major challenges in achieving a more sustainable society. However, it could also generate numerous opportunities. Specifically, in the context of wastewater, nutrients, energy and water could be mined from it. Because of its exceptionally high nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) concentration, human urine is particularly suitable to be processed for fertiliser production. In the present study, forward osmosis (FO) was employed to mine the P and N from human urine. Two Mg2+-fertilisers, i.e. MgSO4 and Mg(NO3)2 were selected as draw solution (DS) to dewater synthetic non-hydrolysed urine. In this process, the Mg2+ reverse salt flux (RSF) were used to recover P as struvite. Simultaneously, the urea was recovered in the DS as it is poorly rejected by the FO membrane. The results showed that, after 60% urine concentration, about 40% of the P and 50% of the N were recovered. XRD and SEM – EDX analysis confirmed that P was precipitated as mineral struvite. If successfully tested on real urine, this process could be applied to treat the urine collected in urban areas e.g., high-rise building. After the filtration, the solid struvite could be sold for inland applications whereas the diluted fertiliser used for direct fertigation of green walls, parks or for urban farming. Finally, reduction in the load of N, P to the downstream wastewater treatment plant would also ensure a more sustainable urban water cycle.

  5. Simultaneous phosphorous and nitrogen recovery from source-separated urine: A novel application for fertiliser drawn forward osmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpin, Federico; Chekli, Laura; Phuntsho, Sherub; Cho, Jaeweon; Ghaffour, Noreddine; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S; Kyong Shon, Ho

    2018-07-01

    Re-thinking our approach to dealing with waste is one of the major challenges in achieving a more sustainable society. However, it could also generate numerous opportunities. Specifically, in the context of wastewater, nutrients, energy and water could be mined from it. Because of its exceptionally high nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) concentration, human urine is particularly suitable to be processed for fertiliser production. In the present study, forward osmosis (FO) was employed to mine the P and N from human urine. Two Mg 2+ -fertilisers, i.e. MgSO 4 and Mg(NO 3 ) 2 were selected as draw solution (DS) to dewater synthetic non-hydrolysed urine. In this process, the Mg 2+ reverse salt flux (RSF) were used to recover P as struvite. Simultaneously, the urea was recovered in the DS as it is poorly rejected by the FO membrane. The results showed that, after concentrating the urine by 60%, about 40% of the P and 50% of the N were recovered. XRD and SEM - EDX analysis confirmed that P was precipitated as mineral struvite. If successfully tested on real urine, this process could be applied to treat the urine collected in urban areas e.g., high-rise building. After the filtration, the solid struvite could be sold for inland applications whereas the diluted fertiliser used for direct fertigation of green walls, parks or for urban farming. Finally, reduction in the load of N, P to the downstream wastewater treatment plant would also ensure a more sustainable urban water cycle. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. 3&4D Geomodeling Applied to Mineral Resources Exploration - A New Tool for Targeting Deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, Jean-Jacques; Mejia, Pablo; Caumon, Guillaume; Collon-Drouaillet, Pauline

    2013-04-01

    3 & 4D geomodeling, a computer method for reconstituting the past deformation history of geological formations, has been used in oil and gas exploration for more than a decade for reconstituting fluid migration. It begins nowadays to be applied for exploring with new eyes old mature mining fields and new prospects. We describe shortly the 3&4D geomodeling basic notions, concepts, and methodology when applied to mineral resources assessment and modeling ore deposits, pointing out the advantages, recommendations and limitations, together with new challenges they rise. Several 3D GeoModels of mining explorations selected across Europe will be presented as illustrative case studies which have been achieved during the EU FP7 ProMine research project. It includes: (i) the Cu-Au porphyry deposits in the Hellenic Belt (Greece); (ii) the VMS in the Iberian Pyrite Belt including the Neves Corvo deposit (Portugal) and (iii) the sediment-hosted polymetallic Cu-Ag (Au, PGE) Kupferschiefer ore deposit in the Foresudetic Belt (Poland). In each case full 3D models using surfaces and regular grid (Sgrid) were built from all dataset available from exploration and exploitation including geological primary maps, 2D seismic cross-sections, and boreholes. The level of knowledge may differ from one site to another however those 3D resulting models were used to pilot additional field and exploration works. In the case of the Kupferschiefer, a sequential restoration-decompaction (4D geomodeling) from the Upper Permian to Cenozoic was conducted in the Lubin- Sieroszowice district of Poland. The results help in better understanding the various superimposed mineralization events which occurred through time in this copper deposit. A hydro-fracturing index was then calculated from the estimated overpressures during a Late Cretaceous-Early Paleocene up-lifting, and seems to correlate with the copper content distribution in the ore-series. These results are in agreement with an Early Paleocene

  7. Australian mineral industry annual review. Preliminary summaries 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    Salient statistics and a general industry overview are presented. Special attention is given to the following mineral commodities: aluminium, black coal, copper, fertiliser minerals, gemstones, gold, iron, lead, manganese, nickel, tin, titanium, tungsten, uranium, zinc and zirconium.

  8. Minerals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaquero, M. P.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available The possible changes in the mineral composition of food during frying could be the consequence of losses by leaching, or changes in concentrations caused by exchanges between the food and culinary fat of other compounds. The net result depends on the type of food, the frying fat used and the frying process. Moreover, the modifications that frying produces in other nutrients could indirectly affect the availability of dietary minerals. The most outstanding ones are those that can take place in the fat or in the protein. With respect to the interactions between frying oils and minerals, we have recent knowledge concerning the effects of consuming vegetable oils used in repeated fryings of potatoes without turnover, on the nutritive utilization of dietary minerals. The experiments have been carried out in pregnant and growing rats, which consumed diets containing, as a sole source of fat, the testing frying oils or unused oils. It seems that the consumption of various frying oils, with a polar compound content lower or close to the maximum limit of 25% accepted for human consumption, does not alter the absorption and metabolism of calcium, phosphorous, iron or copper. Magnesium absorption from diets containing frying oils tends to increase but the urinary excretion of this element increases, resulting imperceptible the variations in the magnesium balance. The urinary excretion of Zn also increased although its balance remained unchanged. Different studies referring to the effects of consuming fried fatty fish on mineral bioavailability will also be presented. On one hand, frying can cause structural changes in fish protein, which are associated with an increase in iron absorption and a decrease in body zinc retention. The nutritive utilization of other elements such as magnesium, calcium and copper seems to be unaffected. On the other hand; it has been described that an excess of fish fatty acids in the diet produces iron depletion, but when fatty

  9. Utilisation of cattle manure and inorganic fertiliser for food production in central Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Innocent Muhereza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fertiliser use in small-holder peri-urban crop-livestock farms in Uganda was investigated by conducting a socio-economic survey of 40 farms in the central districts of Wakiso and Kampala where cattle manure is commonly applied to address the issue of declining crop yields. The major benefits obtained from cattle manure application were increased yields and low cost, while negative effects were poor hygienic conditions and bad odour. The challenges associated with the use of cattle manure included its weight and bulkiness, lack of labour, insufficient quantities, high transportation and application costs, lack of storage facilities to maintain quality attributes of manure and the incidence of chaffer grubs and worms; a nuisance during application which affected crop growth. The survey indicated that of the farmers using cattle manure, only 5% also supplemented with inorganic fertilisers. Other animal manures applied included poultry, pig, goat and rabbit where available. The nutrient content of cattle manure was generally low, as a result of livestock diet and storage. There was little education available to farmers as to optimum strategies and rates of fertiliser (including both inorganic and organic fertilisers to improve crop yield and this needed addressing to improve food security and economic development in Uganda. Keywords: cattle manure; fertiliser; urea

  10. New environment-friendly and cost-saving fertiliser recommendation system for supporting sustainable agriculture in Hungary and beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nándor FODOR

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In the current economic situation the former, intensive fertiliser recommendation system is unfit to help Hungarian farmers in their fertilising practice. The aim of the new system has been to apply the lowest possible NPK rates required to achieve safe and high yields as well as allowing minimal agricultural NP losses to surface and subsurface waters. The new system was developed by using the correlations revealed by analyzing the results of long-term fertilisation experiments set up in Hungary between 1960 and 2000. Several field experiments as well as comparative analyses confirmed the correctness of the basic principles as well as of the methods of calculating fertiliser rates of the new system. An estimated amount of 3,200,000 € was saved for the Hungarian farmers in 2007 alone by giving recommendations for more than 160,000 ha arable land applying the new system.

  11. Response of a two-year sugar beet-sweet sorghum rotation to an agronomic management approach diversified by soil tillage and nitrogen fertilisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Domenico Palumbo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Conservative agriculture and nitrogen fertilisation have been evaluated for the purpose of assessing their impact on the sustainability of a cropping system based on a two-year rotation with two crops considered for the bio-ethanol supply chain: sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. subsp. vulgaris and sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench. The experimental activity started in 2009 in Foggia (Apulia, southern Italy. We discuss the results obtained in the 2010-2011 period. Soil minimum tillage (MT vs no tillage (NT combined with two doses of nitrogen fertilisation (75 and 150 kg ha–1 of mineral nitrogen as ammonium nitrate were compared. The experimental system, which is still operational (soil tillage plus nitrogen fertilisation, was arranged with a split-plot design with three replicates. Treatments were applied on the same plots every year with both crops present at the same time. At the first harvest in 2010, no difference was observed. As to the second year, the comparison between NT vs MT treatments showed that sugar beet had lower total yield (35 vs 42 t ha–1, dry biomass (10 vs 14 t ha–1, and sucrose yield (6.7 vs 8.2 t ha–1. Total soluble solids, on average 19%, were not influenced by the experimental treatments. Nitrogen (N control was less productive than the fertilised treatments (average between N75 and N150 in terms of total fresh root yield (32 vs 42 t ha–1, dry biomass (10 vs 14 t ha–1, and sucrose yield (6.0 vs 8.1 t ha–1. As with sugar beet, during the second year, also sweet sorghum sown in NT vs MT plots had a reduced yield, although the difference was more marked for fresh biomass (–35% than for dry biomass (–20%. No interaction in terms of soil tillage nitrogen fertilisation occurred. In summary, in the first two-year period (2010-2011 of the experimental trial, no tillage soil management showed decreased yields of both crops. Sugar beet displayed a higher sensitivity to the lack of nitrogen supply than sweet

  12. Sustainable nitrogen fertilisation in sweet pepper: assessing growth and fruit quality and the potential nitrate pollution from different organic manures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-López, María D; del Amor, Francisco M

    2013-03-30

    The use of organic cultivation with manures does not avoid the risk of high nitrate concentrations if nutrient management is inefficient. So we studied the influence of three organic manures combined or not with additional chemical fertilisers on growth and yield of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.), and on the soil and plant N concentrations. After 3 years of organic cultivation, poultry manure caused the highest soil pollution. The evolution of nitrate and organic matter in soil showed a pattern close to that of plant growth. The addition of mineral fertiliser increased vegetative growth and yield, and a cumulative season effect was observed. In treatments with no additional mineral fertiliser N translocation from leaves to fruits happened. A cumulative effect of seasons on fruit quality and a reduction near to 30% was observed in the first fruit quality category after 3 years. The fruit vitamin C content was reduced by increasing N fertilisation. The effects of organic fertiliser on soil and plant growth and yield depended on the type of manure used, its rate, and consecutive crop seasons. Horse manure gave the best combination of agricultural and environmental characteristics and could be used without additional fertigation. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. The effect of mineral radon water applied in the form of full baths on blood pressure in patients with hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amila Kapetanović

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Due to patients’ safety, increased blood pressure often restricts wider use of mineral water for therapeutic purposes in rehabilitation practice. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of radon mineral water applied in the form of full baths on blood pressure in people with hypertension.Methods: A total of 27 patients, average age 58.10 years with hypertension were included in the study. Balneotherapy was applied in the form of full baths with mineral radon water of neutral temperature. Values of systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured before and after twenty minutes therapy on the first and fifth day of treatment.Results: On the first day of treatment there was no significant change in blood pressure after the application of full baths with mineral radon water of neutral temperature (systolic pressure t = 0.697, not significant; diastolic pressure t = 0.505, not significant. On the fi fth day of treatment there was no significant changes in blood pressure after the application of medical baths with mineral radon water of neutral temperature (systolic pressure t = 1.372, not significant; diastolic pressure t = 1.372, not significant.Conclusion: The significant increase of blood pressure in patients with mild and moderate hypertension is not expected when Fojnica water (radioactive mineral water is being used in the form of full baths of neutral temperature, which allows a broader application of this balneo procedure in rehabilitation practice.

  14. Wheat Nitrogen Fertilisation Effects on the Performance of the Cereal Aphid Metopolophium dirhodum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan F. J. Gash

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The effects of five rates of nitrogen fertiliser applications on the performance of the cereal aphid Metopolophium dirhodum on winter wheat, within the range of rates recommended for UK crops, were investigated over two seasons in field-grown crops and also on plants grown in the glasshouse. Longevity was unaffected by the level of fertilisation, but aphid intrinsic rate of increase and fecundity increased with each level applied. In the second field season, when a higher upper limit was used, many of these increases were significant. A previously unreported finding for this species was that there was a significant decrease in fecundity for the highest rate of fertilisation. Results for the glasshouse-reared aphids followed a similar pattern to those in the field, and overall they underline recent reports in the literature of the negative effects of high nutrient concentrations on the performance of herbivorous insects. The underlying reasons for these are discussed.

  15. Fertiliser value of human manure from pilot urine-diversion toilets

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mnkeni, PNS

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available and good practice in ecological sanitation. Treatments were arranged in a randomised complete block design with 4 replications and consisted of a control, 100 kg N.ha-1 as goat manure, and 4 non-zero rates of human manure and NPK fertiliser applied...

  16. Use of ash in the fertilisation of peatland forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moilanen, M.; Korpilahti, A.

    2000-01-01

    About 100,000 tonnes of bark and other wood-based ash are produced annually by the forest industries and heating plants in Finland. This amount would be sufficient for fertilising about 25,000 hectares of forest. When applied to peatland forests, this would produce extra forest growth of about 75,000 m 3 per a year. When considering the objectives of forestry, the practical benefits and economic profitability of ash fertilisation are at their peak on peatlands rich in nitrogen. Wood ash induces added tree growth (measured in terms of stemwood) in pine stands on herb- and sedge-rich parklands within 2-3 years of application. On nitrogen-deficient dwarf-shrub and Sphagnum-rich peatlands this growth reaction manifests itself only after 7-8 years have passed and even then at a considerably lower level. The application of mere ash does not result in notable increases in tree growth on upland forest sites. However, ash does change the growth conditions by reducing the acidity of the soil and by accelerating microbial decomposition. The phosphorus contained in ash has not been observed to have been leached into drainage waters on drained sites, at least not during the first two years after application, provided that care has been practised when spreading ash. However, the movement of readily-soluble nutrients has been observed and more so on nutrient-poor sites than on nutrient-rich sites. Although the suitability of ash as fertiliser in peatland forests has been recognised on the basis of long-term ash trials established at the Finnish Forest Research Institute, ash fertilisation has not been carried out made on a practical scale mainly because of the dust problem when spreading it. The purpose of pretreatment with ash is first and foremost to transform the ash into sufficiently dust-free form to enable it to be spread readily. An added advantage is that pelletised ash causes a lesser pH shock to plank than ash in dust form. (orig.)

  17. Fertiliser characterisation: Major, trace and rare earth elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otero, N.; Vitoria, L.; Soler, A.; Canals, A.

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing concern regarding the chemical impact of agricultural activities on the environment so it is necessary to identify contaminants, and/or characterise the sources of contamination. In this study, a comprehensive chemical characterisation of 27 fertilisers of different types used in Spain has been conducted; major, minor and trace elements were determined, including rare earth elements. Results show that compound fertilisers used for fertigation or foliar application have low content of heavy metals, whereas fertilisers used for basal and top dressing have the highest content of both REE and other heavy metals. REE patterns of fertilisers have been determined in order for them to be used as tracers of fertilisers in future environmental studies. Furthermore in this work REE patterns of fertilisers are used as tracers of the source of phosphate in compound fertilisers, distinguishing between phosphorite and carbonatite derived fertilisers. Fertilisers from carbonatites have higher contents of REE, Sr, Ba and Th whereas fertilisers from phosphorites have higher contents of metals of environmental concern, such as Cd, U and As; and the sum of the heavy metals is higher. Some of the analysed fertilisers have Cd concentrations that exceed maximum values established in some countries and can be expected to produce long-term soil accumulation. Furthermore, other elements such as U, As and Cr are 10-50 times higher in concentration than those of Cd, but there is no legislation regarding them, therefore it is necessary to regulate fertiliser compositions in order to achieve environmental protection of soils and waters

  18. Sensitivity study of a semiautomatic supervised classifier applied to minerals from x-ray mapping images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Flesche, Harald

    2000-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of assessing the robustness with respect to change in parameters of an integrated training and classification routine for minerals commonly encountered in siliciclastic or carbonate rocks. Twelve chemical elements are mapped from thin sections by energy dispersive...

  19. Redistribution of mineral elements in wheat grain when applying the complex enzyme preparations based on phytase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Kuznetsova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic minerals play an important role in the whole human nutrition, but they are included in the grain of the phytates that reduces their bioavailability. Whole wheat bread is generally considered a healthy food, but the presence of mineral elements in it is insignificant, because of weak phytate degradation. From all sources of exogenous phytase the most productive are microscopic fungi. To accelerate the process of transition hard mineral elements are mobilized to implement integrated cellulolytic enzyme preparation based on the actions of phytase (producer is Penicillium canescens. Phytase activity was assessed indirectly by the rate of release of phosphate from the substrate. It has been established that the release rate of the phosphoric acid substrate is dependent on the composition of the drug and the enzyme complex is determined by the presence of xylanase. The presented experimental data shows that a cellulase treatment of the grain in conjunction with the β-glucanase or xylanase leading to an increase in phytase activity could be 1.4 - 2.3 times as compared with the individual enzymes. As a result of concerted action of enzymes complex preparation varies topography grain, increase the pore sizes in seed and fruit shells that facilitate the penetration of the enzyme phytase in the aleurone layer to the site of phytin hydrolysis and leads to an increase in phytase activity. In terms of rational parameters of enzymatic hydrolysis, the distribution of mineral elements in the anatomical parts of the grain after processing complex enzyme preparation with the help of X-ray detector EMF miniCup system in a scanning electron microscope JEOL JSM 6390 were investigated. When processing enzyme preparation wheat trend in the distribution of mineral elements, characteristic of grain - the proportion of these elements in the aleurone layer decreases, and in the endosperm increases. Because dietary fiber and phytate found together in the

  20. Revisiting fertilisers and fertilisation strategies for improved nutrient uptake by plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bindraban, P.S.; Dimkpa, Christian; Nagarajan, Latha; Roy, Amit; Rabbinge, Rudy

    2015-01-01

    Meeting human needs within the ecological limits of our planet calls for continuous reflection on, and redesigning of, agricultural technologies and practices. Such technologies include fertilisers, the discovery and use of which have been one of the key factors for increasing crop yield,

  1. Applying a health action model to predict and improve healthy behaviors in coal miners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahedian-Shahroodi, Mohammad; Tehrani, Hadi; Mohammadi, Faeze; Gholian-Aval, Mahdi; Peyman, Nooshin

    2018-05-01

    One of the most important ways to prevent work-related diseases in occupations such as mining is to promote healthy behaviors among miners. This study aimed to predict and promote healthy behaviors among coal miners by using a health action model (HAM). The study was conducted on 200 coal miners in Iran in two steps. In the first step, a descriptive study was implemented to determine predictive constructs and effectiveness of HAM on behavioral intention. The second step involved a quasi-experimental study to determine the effect of an HAM-based education intervention. This intervention was implemented by the researcher and the head of the safety unit based on the predictive construct specified in the first step over 12 sessions of 60 min. The data was collected using an HAM questionnaire and a checklist of healthy behavior. The results of the first step of the study showed that attitude, belief, and normative constructs were meaningful predictors of behavioral intention. Also, the results of the second step revealed that the mean score of attitude and behavioral intention increased significantly after conducting the intervention in the experimental group, while the mean score of these constructs decreased significantly in the control group. The findings of this study showed that HAM-based educational intervention could improve the healthy behaviors of mine workers. Therefore, it is recommended to extend the application of this model to other working groups to improve healthy behaviors.

  2. Impact of Use of Chemical Fertiliser on Farm Households' Risk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper explored the impact of chemical fertiliser on smallholder farmers' risk behaviour and food security. The findings show that the severity of food security is lower for farmers who adopted chemical fertiliser (15%) than those who didn't adopt (27%). Risk taking behaviour is predominantly associated with farmers who ...

  3. Maximising net returns to fertiliser use by financially constrained

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2013, National Agricultural Research Organisation ... for typical fertiliser use costs and grain prices in Uganda was greatest for a ... to maximise net returns to fertiliser use for finance-limited crop management in ... maximum profit ha-1 where the additional ... Potassium effects were not significant for cereal crops and bean.

  4. Remote sensing applied to the mineral extraction monitoring in urban areas: the pros and cons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morisson Valeriano, D. de.

    1989-06-01

    Within the economic activities that are directly related to the exploration of natural resources, quarrying is one of those that are able to cause great environmental disturbances. Due to its inherent periodicity, space borne remote sensing is potentially a fundamental tool to the execution of such monitoring. Nevertheless, due to the operational peculiarities of the activities and to the variability of materials evolved in the mineral extraction, the application of remote sensing to its monitoring requires methodological attentions that are specific to each type of quarrying. These methodological aspects are discussed through the analysis of a cases study; the coal mining in Southeastern Santa Catarina State. (author)

  5. Digestate and ash as alternatives to conventional fertilisers: Benefits and threats to soil biota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Rachel; Lag-Brotons, Alfonso J.; Herbert, Ben; Hurst, Lois; Ostle, Nick; Dodd, Ian C.; Quinton, John; Surridge, Ben; Aiouache, Farid; Semple, Kirk T.

    2017-04-01

    will be discussed in the context of microbial community change in response to the amendments. At the macro-fauna scale, effects of amendments on earthworm (Eisenia fetida and Lumbricus terrestris) health were assessed using 14 day toxicity assays (4 application rates between 85-340 kgN.ha-1) and with 48 hour avoidance tests. In general, the addition of digestate-based fertilisers resulted in no observable toxic effects and earthworms did not significantly avoid these materials when compared to a conventional fertiliser. However, earthworms mortality was observed with one of the ash-digestate blends applied at 340 kgN.ha-1, potentially linked to changes in soil pH and elements speciation .It is therefore crucial that the effects of the amendments on soil properties, and the implications this has for soil communities at all scales, is understood to ensure sustainable soil management in agriculture.

  6. Characterisation of Organomineral Fertilisers Derived from Nutrient-Enriched Biosolids Granules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogenes L. Antille

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Organomineral fertilisers (OMFs were produced by coating biosolids granules with urea and potash. Two OMF formulations with N : P2O5 : K2O compositions: 10 : 4 : 4 (OMF10 and 15 : 4 : 4 (OMF15 were developed for application in grassland and arable crops. Routine fertiliser analyses were conducted on four batches of OMF and biosolids granules and compared with a sample of urea to determine key physical and chemical properties of the materials which affect handling and spreading, soil behaviour, and fertiliser value. Bulk and particle densities were in the range of 608 to 618 kg m−3, and 1297 to 1357 kg m−3, respectively. Compression tests showed that OMF particles undergo deformation followed by multiple failures without disintegration of the granules when vertical load was applied. Static particle strength was between 1.18 and 4.33 N mm−2 depending on the particle diameter. The use of a model for fertiliser particle distribution studies showed that OMF granules should be between 1.10 and 5.50 mm in diameter with about 80% of the particles in the range of 2.25 to 4.40 mm to enable application at 18 m tramline spacing. This research utilises novel technology to improve the fertiliser value of biosolids, reduce disposal costs, and deliver a range of environmental benefits associated with recycling.

  7. Mineral nutrition of cocoa : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van J.A.; Slingerland, M.A.; Giller, K.E.

    2015-01-01

    This literature review on mineral nutrition of cocoa was commissioned by the Scientific Committee of the Cocoa Fertiliser Initiative to address the following questions: What knowledge is currently available about mineral nutrition of cocoa? What are the current knowledge gaps? What are the key areas

  8. Applying ethnic-specific bone mineral density T-scores to Chinese women in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, J C; Kim, S; Chandra, M; Ettinger, B

    2016-12-01

    Caucasian reference data are used to classify bone mineral density in US women of all races. However, use of Chinese American reference data yields lower osteoporosis prevalence in Chinese women. The reduction in osteoporosis labeling may be relevant for younger Chinese women at low fracture risk. Caucasian reference data are used for osteoporosis classification in US postmenopausal women regardless of race, including Asians who tend to have lower bone mineral density (BMD) than women of white race. This study examines BMD classification by ethnic T-scores for Chinese women. Using BMD data in a Northern California healthcare population, Chinese women aged 50-79 years were compared to age-matched white women (1:5 ratio), with femoral neck (FN), total hip (TH), and lumbar spine (LS) T-scores calculated using Caucasian versus Chinese American reference data. Comparing 4039 Chinese and 20,195 white women (44.8 % age 50-59 years, 37.5 % age 60-69 years, 17.7 % age 70-79 years), Chinese women had lower BMD T-scores at the FN, TH, and LS (median T-score 0.29-0.72 units lower across age groups, p age 50-64 years and 43.2 to 21.0 % for age 65-79 years). Use of Chinese American BMD reference data yields higher (ethnic) T-scores by 0.4-0.5 units, with a large proportion of Chinese women reclassified from osteoporosis to osteopenia. The reduction in osteoporosis labeling with ethnic T-scores may be relevant for younger Chinese women at low fracture risk.

  9. Mobility of fertiliser-derived uranium in arable soils and its contribution to uranium concentrations in groundwater and tap water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smidt, Geerd Ahlrich

    2011-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) mineral fertilisers are found to contain high concentrations of uranium (U) (up to 206 mg U kg -1 ) and other trace elements (TE), such as Cd, Pb, Ni, Cu, Zn, Th, Nb, Sr, V, and rare earth elements. The content of U and other trace elements is depended on the sedimentary of igneous origin of the rock phosphate. In this study, the production of P fertilisers has been shown to contaminate top soil horizons with U and other trace elements in the close vicinity of a factory located in Southern Brazil. In contrast to this point source, agricultural P fertilisation leads to a diffuse contamination of the agro-ecosystem with U and other fertiliser-derived trace elements on a large scale. Top soil horizons of arable land accumulate fertiliser-derived U. According to the geochemical behaviour of U(VI) species under oxidising conditions, the mobilisation capacity for U in top soil horizons is considered to be high, contrary to other fertiliser-derived heavy metals (e.g. Cd). Hence, it is assumed that U can be leached to shallow groundwater and can reach fresh water resources potentially used for drinking water supply. The aims of this study were to investigate the concentration of U and other contaminants in P fertilisers, to identify geochemical processes of fertiliser-derived U mobility and mobilisation from arable top soil horizons to the groundwater, and to evaluate the origin of U in German groundwater and tap water. This study presents the broadest recent data set on regional distribution of U concentrations in German tap water to which 76 % of the German population has access. The mean U concentration was 0.68 μg L -1 , the median 0.50 μg L -1 . 1.3 % or 1 million of the 80.6 million inhabitants in Germany are exposed to U concentrations in tap water which are higher than the German drinking water threshold limit of 10 μg L -1 . The regional distribution of U concentrations largely agrees with the geological setting reported for mineral waters

  10. Mobility of fertiliser-derived uranium in arable soils and its contribution to uranium concentrations in groundwater and tap water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smidt, Geerd Ahlrich

    2011-12-20

    Phosphorus (P) mineral fertilisers are found to contain high concentrations of uranium (U) (up to 206 mg U kg{sup -1}) and other trace elements (TE), such as Cd, Pb, Ni, Cu, Zn, Th, Nb, Sr, V, and rare earth elements. The content of U and other trace elements is depended on the sedimentary of igneous origin of the rock phosphate. In this study, the production of P fertilisers has been shown to contaminate top soil horizons with U and other trace elements in the close vicinity of a factory located in Southern Brazil. In contrast to this point source, agricultural P fertilisation leads to a diffuse contamination of the agro-ecosystem with U and other fertiliser-derived trace elements on a large scale. Top soil horizons of arable land accumulate fertiliser-derived U. According to the geochemical behaviour of U(VI) species under oxidising conditions, the mobilisation capacity for U in top soil horizons is considered to be high, contrary to other fertiliser-derived heavy metals (e.g. Cd). Hence, it is assumed that U can be leached to shallow groundwater and can reach fresh water resources potentially used for drinking water supply. The aims of this study were to investigate the concentration of U and other contaminants in P fertilisers, to identify geochemical processes of fertiliser-derived U mobility and mobilisation from arable top soil horizons to the groundwater, and to evaluate the origin of U in German groundwater and tap water. This study presents the broadest recent data set on regional distribution of U concentrations in German tap water to which 76 % of the German population has access. The mean U concentration was 0.68 μg L{sup -1}, the median 0.50 μg L{sup -1}. 1.3 % or 1 million of the 80.6 million inhabitants in Germany are exposed to U concentrations in tap water which are higher than the German drinking water threshold limit of 10 μg L{sup -1}. The regional distribution of U concentrations largely agrees with the geological setting reported for

  11. Effect of fertilising with pig slurry and chicken manure on GHG emissions from Mediterranean paddies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maris, S.C., E-mail: stefania@macs.udl.cat [Environment and Soil Science Department, University of Lleida, Av. Alcalde Rovira Roure 191, E-25198 Lleida (Spain); Teira-Esmatges, M.R.; Bosch-Serra, A.D. [Environment and Soil Science Department, University of Lleida, Av. Alcalde Rovira Roure 191, E-25198 Lleida (Spain); Moreno-García, B. [Soils and Irrigation Department, Agrifood Research and Technology Centre of Aragon (CITA), Av. Montañana 930, E-50059 Zaragoza (Spain); Català, M.M. [Ebre Field Station, Institute of Agrifood Research and Technology (IRTA), Ctra. de Balada, km 1, E-43870 Amposta (Spain)

    2016-11-01

    Soil fertilisation affects greenhouse gas emissions. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of different fertilisation strategies on N{sub 2}O, CH{sub 4} emissions and on ecosystem respiration (CO{sub 2} emissions), during different periods of rice cultivation (rice crop, postharvest period, and seedling) under Mediterranean climate. Emissions were quantified weekly by the photoacoustic technique at two sites. At Site 1 (2011 and 2012), background treatments were 2 doses of chicken manure (CM): 90 and 170 kg NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N ha{sup −} {sup 1} (CM-90, CM-170), urea (U, 150 kg N ha{sup −} {sup 1}) and no-N (control). Fifty kilogram N ha{sup −} {sup 1} ammonium sulphate (AS) were topdress applied to all of them. At Site 2 (2012), background treatments were 2 doses of pig slurry (PS): 91 and 152 kg NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N ha{sup −} {sup 1} (PS-91, PS-152) and ammonium sulphate (AS) at 120 kg NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N ha{sup −} {sup 1} and no-N (control). Sixty kilogram NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N ha{sup −} {sup 1} as AS were topdress applied to AS and PS-91. During seedling, global warming potential (GWP) was ~ 3.5–17% of that of the whole rice crop for the CM treatments. The postharvest period was a net sink for CH{sub 4}, and CO{sub 2} emissions only increased for the CM-170 treatment (up to 2 Mg CO{sub 2} ha{sup −} {sup 1}). The GWP of the entire rice crop reached 17 Mg CO{sub 2}-eq ha{sup −} {sup 1} for U, and was 14 for CM-170, and 37 for CM-90. The application of PS at agronomic doses (~ 170 kg N ha{sup −} {sup 1}) allowed high yields (~ 7.4 Mg ha{sup −} {sup 1}), the control of GWP (~ 6.5 Mg CO{sub 2}-eq ha{sup −} {sup 1}), and a 13% reduction in greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) to 0.89 kg CO{sub 2}-eq kg{sup −} {sup 1} when compared to AS (1.02 kg CO{sub 2}-eq kg{sup −} {sup 1}). - Highlights: • Pig slurry (~ 170 kg N ha{sup −} {sup 1}; low C/N) allows high rice yields without increasing GWP. • Chicken manure (~ 170 kg N ha{sup

  12. Dual photon absorptiometry using a gadolinium-153 source applied to measure equine bone mineral content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moure, Alessandro [National Scientific and Technological Development Council, Ministry of Science and Technology, SEPN 509, Bloco A, Sala 204, 70750-901 BrasIlia, DF (Brazil); Reichmann, Peter [Department of Veterinary Clinical Medicine, Agricultural Science Centre/Londrina State University, CP 6001, 86051-990 Londrina, PR (Brazil); Gamba, Humberto Remigio [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica do Parana, Post-Graduate Programme in Electrical Engineering and Applied Computer Science, Av. 7 de setembro 3165, 80230-901 Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2003-12-07

    The application of the dual photon absorptiometry (DPA) technique, using gadolinium-153 as the photon source, to evaluate the bone mineral density (BMD) of the third metacarpal bone of horses is presented. The radiation detector was implemented with a NaI(TI) scintillator coupled to a 14 stage photomultiplier. A modular mechanical system allows the position of the prototype to be adjusted in relation to the animal. A moveable carrier makes it possible to scan the third metacarpal with a velocity adjustable between 1 and 12 mm s{sup -1}, in steps of 1 mm s{sup -1}, for a total distance of 250 mm. The prototype was evaluated with a phantom of the third metacarpal bone made of perspex and aluminium, and in vitro with a transverse slice of the third metacarpal bone of a horse. The tests showed that the prototype has an accuracy and precision of, approximately, 10% and 6%, respectively, for a 6 s acquisition time. Preliminary studies carried out in three foals from birth to one year of age indicated that the prototype is well suited to in vivo and in situ analysis of the BMD of the third metacarpal bones of horses, making it possible to evaluate the changes of BMD levels on a monthly basis. Also, results indicated an exponential behaviour of the BMD curve during the first year of life of the studied horses.

  13. Dosimetric properties of bio minerals applied to high-dose dosimetry using the TSEE technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vila, G. B.; Caldas, L. V. E.

    2014-08-01

    The study of the dosimetric properties such as reproducibility, the residual signal, lower detection dose, dose-response curve and fading of the thermally stimulated emission exo electronic (TSEE) signal of Brazilian bio minerals has shown that these materials present a potential use as radiation dosimeters. The reproducibility within ± 10% for oyster shell, mother-of-pearl and coral reef samples showed that the signal dispersion is small when compared with the mean value of the measurements. The study showed that the residual signal can be eliminated with a thermal treatment at 300 grades C/1 h. The lower detection dose of 9.8 Gy determined for the oyster shell samples when exposed to beta radiation and 1.6 Gy for oyster shell and mother-of-pearl samples when exposed to gamma radiation can be considered good, taking into account the high doses of this study. The materials presented linearity at the dose response curves in some ranges, but the lack of linearity in other cases presents no problem since a good mathematical description is possible. The fading study showed that the loss of TSEE signal can be minimized if the samples are protected from interferences such as light, heat and humidity. Taking into account the useful linearity range as the main dosimetric characteristic, the tiger shell and oyster shell samples are the most suitable for high-dose dosimetry using the TSEE technique. (Author)

  14. Dosimetric properties of bio minerals applied to high-dose dosimetry using the TSEE technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vila, G. B.; Caldas, L. V. E., E-mail: gbvila@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares / CNEN, Av. Lineu Prestes 2242, Cidade Universitaria, 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    The study of the dosimetric properties such as reproducibility, the residual signal, lower detection dose, dose-response curve and fading of the thermally stimulated emission exo electronic (TSEE) signal of Brazilian bio minerals has shown that these materials present a potential use as radiation dosimeters. The reproducibility within ± 10% for oyster shell, mother-of-pearl and coral reef samples showed that the signal dispersion is small when compared with the mean value of the measurements. The study showed that the residual signal can be eliminated with a thermal treatment at 300 grades C/1 h. The lower detection dose of 9.8 Gy determined for the oyster shell samples when exposed to beta radiation and 1.6 Gy for oyster shell and mother-of-pearl samples when exposed to gamma radiation can be considered good, taking into account the high doses of this study. The materials presented linearity at the dose response curves in some ranges, but the lack of linearity in other cases presents no problem since a good mathematical description is possible. The fading study showed that the loss of TSEE signal can be minimized if the samples are protected from interferences such as light, heat and humidity. Taking into account the useful linearity range as the main dosimetric characteristic, the tiger shell and oyster shell samples are the most suitable for high-dose dosimetry using the TSEE technique. (Author)

  15. Rationing in practice: the case of in vitro fertilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmayne, S; Klein, R

    1993-06-05

    One of the few examples of explicit rationing in the National Health Service is provided by in vitro fertilisation. Of six purchasing authorities examined three have decided against buying in vitro fertilisation while three have decided in favour. The decisions reflect local factors such as the absence or presence of local providers and the views of the public and health professionals. But in vitro fertilisation also illustrates some of the wider issues involved in all decisions about purchasing: questions about what should be provided by the National Health Service, about what procedures should be compared when weighing up value for money, and whether equity demands national decisions about what to provide.

  16. Evaluation of LANDSAT-2 (ERTS) images applied to geologic structures and mineral resources of South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, W. D. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Work with the Image 100 clearly demonstrates that radiance values of LANDSAT data can be used for correlation of geologic formations across international boundaries. The Totora Formation of the Corocoro Group of Tertiary age was traced from known outcrops near Tiahuanaco, Bolivia, along the south side of Lake Titicaca westward into Peru where the same rocks are considered to be Cretaceous in age. This inconsistency suggests: (1) that a review of this formation is needed by joint geological surveys of both countries to determine similarities, differences, and the true age; (2) that recognition of the extension of the copper-bearing Totora Formation of Bolivia into Peru may provide Peru with a new target for exploration. Equal radiance maps made by use of the Image 100 system show as many as eight different units within salar deposits (salt flats) of the Bolivian Altiplano. Standard film processed images show them as nearly uniform areas of white because of lack of dynamic range in film products. The Image 100 system, therefore, appears to be of great assistance in subdividing the salt flats on the basis of moisture distribution, surface roughness, and distribution of windblown materials. Field work is needed to determine these relationships to mineral composition and distribution. Images representing seasonal changes should also improve the accuracy of such maps. Radiance values of alteration zones related to the occurrence of porphyry copper ores were measured at the San Juan del Abra deposit of northern Chile using the Image 100 system. The extent to which these same values may be used to detect similar alteration zones in other areas has not yet been tested.

  17. Developing a regional scale approach for modelling the impacts of fertiliser regime on N2O emissions in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Jesko; Jones, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Agriculture can be significant contributor to greenhouse gas emissions, this is especially prevalent in Ireland where the agricultural sector accounts for a third of total emissions. The high emissions are linked to both the importance of agriculture in the Irish economy and the focus on dairy and beef production. In order to reduce emissions three main categories are explored: (1) reduction of methane emissions from cattle, (2) reduction of nitrous oxide emissions from fertilisation, and (3) fostering the carbon sequestration potential of soils. The presented research focuses on the latter two categories, especially changes in fertiliser amount and composition. Soil properties and climate conditions measured at the four experimental sites (two silage and two spring barley) were used to parameterise four biogeochemical models (DayCent, ECOSSE, DNDC 9.4, and DNDC 9.5). All sites had a range of different fertiliser regimes applied. This included changes in amount (0 to 500 kg N/ha on grassland and 0 to 200 kg N/ha on arable fields), fertiliser type (calcium ammonium nitrate and urea), and added inhibitors (the nitrification inhibitor DCD, and the urease inhibitor Agrotain). Overall, 20 different treatments were applied to the grassland sites, and 17 to the arable sites. Nitrous oxide emissions, measured in 2013 and 2014 at all sites using closed chambers, were made available to validate model results for these emissions. To assess model performance for the daily measurements, the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) was compared to the measured 95% confidence interval of the measured data (RMSE95). Bias was tested comparing the relative error (RE) the 95 % confidence interval of the relative error (RE95). Preliminary results show mixed model performance, depending on the model, site, and the fertiliser regime. However, with the exception of urea fertilisation and added inhibitors, all scenarios were reproduced by at least one model with no statistically significant total

  18. Pattern recognition applied to mineral characterization of Brazilian coffees and sugar-cane spirits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Andrea P.; Santos, Mirian C.; Lemos, Sherlan G.; Ferreira, Marcia M.C.; Nogueira, Ana Rita A.; Nobrega, Joaquim A.

    2005-01-01

    Aluminium, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Pb, S, Se, Si, Sn, Sr, and Zn were determined in coffee and sugar-cane spirit (cachaca) samples by axial viewing inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES). Pattern recognition techniques such as principal component analysis and cluster analysis were applied to data sets in order to characterize samples with relation to their geographical origin and production mode (industrial or homemade and organically or conventionally produced). Attempts to correlate metal ion content with the geographical origin of coffee and the production mode (organic or conventional) of cachaca were not successful. Some differentiation was suggested for the geographical origin of cachaca of three regions (Northeast, Central, and South), and for coffee samples, related to the production mode. Clear separations were only obtained for differentiation between industrial and homemade cachacas, and between instant soluble and roasted coffees

  19. Effect of sulphur fertilisation on yield and quality of white mustard seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Ryant

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to estimate the effect of different forms of sulphur on yields and qualitative parameters of white mustard seeds. This topic was studied in 2004 in the form of a pot trial in a vegetation hall and linked up with an identical experiment with spring wheat conducted in 2003. Besides the control variant not fertilised with sulphur (1 we fertilised the soil with elemental sulphur (2, ammonium sulphate (3 and gypsum (4 and applied foliar dressing of elemental sulphur with bentonite (5. For all variants the nitrogen dose was 0.9 g per pot (0.15 g . kg−1 of soil and for va­riants 2 to 4 it was 1 g of sulphur per pot (0.17 g. kg−1 of soil. Foliar dressing of elemental sulphur (S0 was not applied until the stage of six true leaves in a dose of 10 kg per ha (0.032 g per pot.Significantly higher yields of white mustard seeds were achieved after foliar application of S0 which can be also due to its fungicide action. The variants where gypsum was applied showed the highest average number of branches and pods and also straw yields. After gypsum fertilisation or foliar application of S0 the oil content in the mustard seeds exceeded 25%; this is the minimal content required for the production of good quality mustard. The 1000-seed weight was significantly higher after foliar application of S0. The proportion of seeds greyish on the surface, a sign of mildew, significantly decreased after fertilisation with all forms of sulphur, but most of all after foliar application of S0.Fertilisation with ammonium sulphate reduced the exchangeable soil reaction after harvest. On the other hand gypsum alkalised the soil environment and increased the content of available calcium and water-soluble sulphur. The soil of the variant where foliar dressing of S0 was applied had a higher content of available calcium after harvest. The least amount of available sulphur and phosphorus in the soil was seen after foliar

  20. Sewage sludge stabilisation and fertiliser value in a silvopastoral system developed with Eucalyptus nitens Maiden in Lugo (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquera-Losada, M R; Ferreiro-Domínguez, N; Daboussi, S; Rigueiro-Rodríguez, A

    2016-10-01

    Copper (Cu) is one of the heavy metals with highest proportion in sewage sludge. In Europe, sewage sludge should be stabilised before using it as a fertiliser in agriculture. Depending on the stabilisation process, sewage sludge has different Cu contents, and soil Cu incorporation rates. This study was undertaken to examine the effect of fertilisation with different types of sewage sludge (anaerobic, composted, and pelletised) on the concentration of total and available Cu in the soil, the tree growth, the pasture production, and the concentration of Cu in the pasture when compared with control treatments (i.e. no fertilisation and mineral fertilisation) in a silvopastoral system under Eucalyptus nitens Maiden. The results of this experiment show that an improvement of the soil pH increased the incorporation and the mineralisation of the sewage sludge and litter, and therefore, the release of Cu from the soil. Moreover, the concentration of Cu in the pasture and the levels of Cu extracted by the pasture improved when the soil organic matter decreased because the high levels of organic matter in the soil could have formed Cu complex. The composted sewage sludge (COM) increased a) the soil variables studied (pH, total Cu, and available Cu) and b) the Cu extracted by the pasture, both probably due to the higher inputs of cations made with it. In any case, the levels of Cu found in the soil never exceeded the maximums as set by Spanish regulations and did not cause harmful effects on the plants and animals. Therefore, the use of COM as an organic fertiliser should be promoted in silvopastoral systems established in edaphoclimatic conditions similar to this study because COM enhanced the productivity of the system from a viewpoint of the soil and the pasture, without causing any environmental damage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. From wastewater to fertilisers--Technical overview and critical review of European legislation governing phosphorus recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hukari, Sirja; Hermann, Ludwig; Nättorp, Anders

    2016-01-15

    The present paper is based on an analysis of the EU legislation regulating phosphorus recovery and recycling from wastewater stream, in particular as fertiliser. To recover phosphorus, operators need to deal with market regulations, health and environment protection laws. Often, several permits and lengthy authorisation processes for both installation (e.g. environmental impact assessment) and the recovered phosphorus (e.g. End-of-Waste, REACH) are required. Exemptions to certain registration processes for recoverers are in place but rarely applied. National solutions are often needed. Emerging recovery and recycling sectors are affected by legislation in different ways: Wastewater treatment plants are obliged to remove phosphorus but may also recover it in low quantities for operational reasons. Permit processes allowing recovery and recycling operations next to water purification should thus be rationalised. In contrast, the fertiliser industry relies on legal quality requirements, ensuring their market reputation. For start-ups, raw-material sourcing and related legislation will be the key. Phosphorus recycling is governed by fragmented decision-making in regional administrations. Active regulatory support, such as recycling obligation or subsidies, is lacking. Legislation harmonisation, inclusion of recycled phosphorus in existing fertiliser regulations and support of new operators would speed up market penetration of novel technologies, reduce phosphorus losses and safeguard European quality standards.

  2. Changes in SOM composition and stability to microbial degradation over time in response to wood chip ash fertilisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette; Saarsalmi, Anna; Peltre, Clement

    2016-01-01

    spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS) analysis of bulk soil samples. Ash fertilisation of forest soils affected SOM composition in the O-horizon, but not in the top 5 cm of the mineral soil. The pH and biodegradability of SOM were increased in the O-horizon. The changes in SOM composition consisted of enrichment of Fe...... in Denmark, where ash had been spread at different times. Changes in SOM biodegradability were estimated based on an incubation experiment, expressed as percentage of initial carbon. Changes in SOM composition were characterised using thermal analysis and Fourier transform mid-infrared photoacoustic......- and Al-oxides/hydroxides, depletion of carboxylic and aromatic groups and lower thermal stability in soils with older and greater ash application. Ash fertilisation increased soil pH, either right after ash application or through a buffering effect of the ash on acidification caused by decomposing...

  3. On realistic size equivalence and shape of spheroidal Saharan mineral dust particles applied in solar and thermal radiative transfer calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Otto

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Realistic size equivalence and shape of Saharan mineral dust particles are derived from in-situ particle, lidar and sun photometer measurements during SAMUM-1 in Morocco (19 May 2006, dealing with measured size- and altitude-resolved axis ratio distributions of assumed spheroidal model particles. The data were applied in optical property, radiative effect, forcing and heating effect simulations to quantify the realistic impact of particle non-sphericity. It turned out that volume-to-surface equivalent spheroids with prolate shape are most realistic: particle non-sphericity only slightly affects single scattering albedo and asymmetry parameter but may enhance extinction coefficient by up to 10 %. At the bottom of the atmosphere (BOA the Saharan mineral dust always leads to a loss of solar radiation, while the sign of the forcing at the top of the atmosphere (TOA depends on surface albedo: solar cooling/warming over a mean ocean/land surface. In the thermal spectral range the dust inhibits the emission of radiation to space and warms the BOA. The most realistic case of particle non-sphericity causes changes of total (solar plus thermal forcing by 55/5 % at the TOA over ocean/land and 15 % at the BOA over both land and ocean and enhances total radiative heating within the dust plume by up to 20 %. Large dust particles significantly contribute to all the radiative effects reported. They strongly enhance the absorbing properties and forward scattering in the solar and increase predominantly, e.g., the total TOA forcing of the dust over land.

  4. The effect of urea fertiliser formulations on gross nitrogen transformations in a permanent grassland soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harty, Mary; Mueller, Christoph; Laughlin, Ronnie; Watson, Catherine; Richards, Karl; Lanigan, Gary; Forrestal, Patrick; McGeough, Karen

    2015-04-01

    Introduction By 2050, the current food production rate will need to increase by 70 % in order to meet the needs of the projected world population (FAO, 2014). Under the climate change response bill, Ireland has a target to reduce GHG emissions by 20% by 2020. Agriculture was responsible for almost one third of Ireland's overall Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions in 2012, with 39% of these emissions arising from chemical/organic fertilisers in the form of nitrous oxide (N2O). N2O losses represent environmental damage through ozone depletion and global warming as well as acidification, eutrophication, surface and groundwater contamination and it also represents financial loss to the farmer (Cameron 2013). The contradictory aims of increasing food production while reducing GHG emissions will require an adjustment to the current system of agricultural production. As part of a larger study evaluating the switching of nitrogen (N) fertiliser formulation to minimise N2O emissions, (from calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN) to urea based formulations), this experiment examined the effect of urea based fertiliser formulations on gross N transformations in a permanent pasture soil at Hillsborough, Co. Down, Northern Ireland. Study Design/Methodology A laboratory incubation study was undertaken, to examine the effect of urea in various combinations with two types of inhibitors on soil N dynamics and N2O and N2 emissions. The inhibitors examined were the urease inhibitor N-(butyl) thiophosphoric triamide (nBTPT) and the nitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide (DCD). The fertiliser products were labelled with 15N and the soil was incubated at 15 ° C at a water filled pore space of 65%. Soil mineral N (urea, NH4+, NO2- and NO3-) concentrations, gaseous losses (N2O and N2) and the 15N enrichments of NH4+, NO2-, NO3-, N2O and N2were analysed on 8 separate occasions over 25 days. An adapted numerical 15N tracing model (Müller et al., 2007) was used to quantify the effect of the inhibitors on

  5. Nematode assemblages in the rhizosphere of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) depended on fertilisation and plant growth phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mette Vestergård

    2004-01-01

    rhizosphere; nitrogen and phosphorus fertilisation; nematode assemblages; plant parasites; barley......rhizosphere; nitrogen and phosphorus fertilisation; nematode assemblages; plant parasites; barley...

  6. ORGANOFINERY: FROM GREEN CROPS TO PROTEINS, ENERGY AND FERTILISER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salces, Beatriz Molinuevo; Fernandez, Maria Santamaria; Kiel, P.

    Difficulties with the supply of organic protein feed; low crop yields and low value of leguminous forage crops and a lack of organic fertilisers are nowadays some of the major challenges faced in organic farming with monogastric animals. Thus, organic farmers are forced to import feed and manure ...... from conventional farms. In order to overcome these challenges, the OrganoFinery project targets to develop a green biorefinery concept where organic crops are utilised for animal feed, fertiliser and energy production by producing biogas....

  7. Volcanic ash as fertiliser for the surface ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Langmann

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Iron is a key limiting micro-nutrient for marine primary productivity. It can be supplied to the ocean by atmospheric dust deposition. Volcanic ash deposition into the ocean represents another external and so far largely neglected source of iron. This study demonstrates strong evidence for natural fertilisation in the iron-limited oceanic area of the NE Pacific, induced by volcanic ash from the eruption of Kasatochi volcano in August 2008. Atmospheric and oceanic conditions were favourable to generate a massive phytoplankton bloom in the NE Pacific Ocean which for the first time strongly suggests a connection between oceanic iron-fertilisation and volcanic ash supply.

  8. Study of the effects of proline, phenylalanine, and urea foliar application to Tempranillo vineyards on grape amino acid content. Comparison with commercial nitrogen fertilisers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garde-Cerdán, T; López, R; Portu, J; González-Arenzana, L; López-Alfaro, I; Santamaría, P

    2014-11-15

    The aim of this work was to study the influence of foliar application of different nitrogen sources on grape amino acid content. The nitrogen sources applied to Tempranillo grapevines were proline, phenylalanine, urea, and two commercial nitrogen fertilisers, both without and with amino acids in their formulations. All treatments were applied at veraison and one week later. Proline treatment did not affect the must nitrogen composition. However, phenylalanine and urea foliar application enhanced the plants' synthesis of most of the amino acids, producing similar effects. In addition, the spray of commercial nitrogen fertilisers over leaves also induced a rise in grape amino acid concentrations regardless of the presence or absence of amino acids in their formulation. The most effective treatments were phenylalanine and urea followed by nitrogen fertilisers. This finding is of oenological interest for improved must nitrogen composition, ensuring better fermentation kinetics and most likely enhancing wine quality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Natural cycle in vitro fertilisation (IVF) for subfertile couples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allersma, Thomas; Farquhar, Cindy; Cantineau, Astrid E. P.

    2013-01-01

    Background Subfertility affects 15% to 20% of couples trying to conceive. In vitro fertilisation (IVF) is one of the assisted reproduction techniques developed to improve chances of achieving pregnancy. In the standard IVF method with controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH), growth and development

  10. In vitro fertilisation when normal sperm morphology is less than ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The outcome of in vitro fertilisation and embryo transfer in 90 couples where the husband's normal sperm morphology was less than 15% were analysed. Based on the percentage of morphologically normal spermatozoa the patients were divided into three groups: group A - normal morphological features 0 - 5%; group B - 6 ...

  11. Productivity gains by fertilisation in Eucalyptus urophylla clonal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Productivity gains by fertilisation in Eucalyptus urophylla clonal plantations across gradients in site and stand conditions. ... The control plot may typically be a permanent plot of an inventory network, providing representative information for a company's decisionmaking. The paired twin-plot receives intensive management ...

  12. Radioisotope aided micronutrient research for increasing fertiliser use efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deb, D.L.; Gupta, G.N.; Meisheri, M.B.; Rattan, R.K.; Sarkar, A.K.

    1986-01-01

    Results of fundamental studies involving the use of radioisotopes of micronutrients especially of Zn, Fe, Mn, Cu and Cl to find out the effect of soi l characteristics on the diffusion coefficient of these ions and the availability of micronutrient fertilisers to the crops have been reported for a large number of soils. The usefulness of mathematical models for evolving rational basis of micronutrient fertiliser recommendation for crops from soil factors such as intensity, capacity and rate factors of a nutrient in a given soil and plant characteristics such as root morphology and nutrient demand of a crop have been studied. Results showed good agreement between observed and predicted uptake of fertiliser Zn by wheat roots. Results of fundamental studies on severa l soils strongly suggest that the diffusion coefficient to Zn to plant root in a soil can be increased by appropriate manipulation of soil characters even without the application of fertiliser Zn. The effects of various sources, methods and rate of application of fertilizer Zn on the grain yield and fertiliz er Zn use efficiency in rice under water-logged conditions have been studied in alluvial and black soils of Delhi and Hyderabad, respectively. The fate of fe rtilizer Zn in these soils has been studied and the results are reported. (author). 5 figs., 9 tabs., 25 refs

  13. Radioisotope aided micronutrient research for increasing fertiliser use efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deb, D L; Gupta, G N; Meisheri, M B; Rattan, R K; Sarkar, A K

    1986-02-01

    Results of fundamental studies involving the use of radioisotopes of micronutrients especially of Zn, Fe, Mn, Cu and Cl to find out the effect of soi l characteristics on the diffusion coefficient of these ions and the availability of micronutrient fertilisers to the crops have been reported for a large number of soils. The usefulness of mathematical models for evolving rational basis of micronutrient fertiliser recommendation for crops from soil factors such as intensity, capacity and rate factors of a nutrient in a given soil and plant characteristics such as root morphology and nutrient demand of a crop have been studied. Results showed good agreement between observed and predicted uptake of fertiliser Zn by wheat roots. Results of fundamental studies on severa l soils strongly suggest that the diffusion coefficient to Zn to plant root in a soil can be increased by appropriate manipulation of soil characters even without the application of fertiliser Zn. The effects of various sources, methods and rate of application of fertilizer Zn on the grain yield and fertiliz er Zn use efficiency in rice under water-logged conditions have been studied in alluvial and black soils of Delhi and Hyderabad, respectively. The fate of fe rtilizer Zn in these soils has been studied and the results are reported. (author). 5 figs., 9 tabs., 25 refs.

  14. green manure and inorganic fertiliser as management strategies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Weed infestation, especially the Witchweed (Striga asiatica) is a serious problem in fertility-depleted soils of. Tanzania. The use of urea fertiliser is known to control weed but resource-poor farmers cannot afford this technology due to high costs involved. To alleviate the problem of Striga and soil fertility, green-manure.

  15. Effect of organic fertiliser residues from rice production on nitrogen fixation of soya (Glycine max L. Merrill, Chiang Mai 60 variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nattida Luangmaka

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A field study was undertaken on the residual effect of organic fertilisers applied to the preceding rice cropping on nitrogen fixation of soya in a rice-soya cropping system. The experiment was conducted on a farmer’s lowland paddy in Mae Rim district, Chiang Mai province, Thailand. Organic fertiliser treatments assigned were: 1 control (no fertiliser, 2 animal manure of cattle (AM, 3 compost (CP, 4 azolla (AZ, 5 AM + CP, 6 AM + AZ, 7 CP + AZ and 8 AM + CP + AZ. Soya seeds were planted without rhizobial inoculation in December 2011, four months after the application of organic fertilisers. Nodule weight, total shoot nitrogen accumulation and relative ureide index at various growth stages were recorded as the indices of nitrogen fixation. Results of the study demonstrate that the residues from the application the organic fertilisers of narrow C/N ratios during the land preparation for rice cropping four months before soya cultivation promoted nitrogen fixation by native rhizobia.

  16. Effect of long-term fertilisation on the weed community of a winter wheat field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Min; Liu, Tao; Huang, Niansheng; Shen, Xinping; Shen, Mingxing; Dai, Qigen

    2018-03-05

    Effects of fertilisation and other management techniques on a weed community were evaluated during wheat growth in a rice-wheat cropping system. Fertiliser treatments were C0 (C means chemical, C0 means zero chemical fertiliser.), CN (N fertiliser), CNK (N plus K fertiliser), CNPK (N plus P and K fertiliser), CNP (N plus P fertiliser), and CPK (P plus K fertiliser). Weed density, biomass, and bio-diversity were determined. Redundancy analysis (RDA) was used to investigate the relationship between fertiliser management, weed species, and weed density. The overall weed densities in the C0 and CPK treatments were the greatest during wheat seeding and ripening periods and were significantly greater than densities in the other treatments. N, P and organic matter in soil were highly correlated with weed species and density, whereas K in soil was not significantly correlated with weed species and weed density. N fertiliser significantly reduced weed density. Balanced fertilisation maintained weed species richness and resulting in a high yield of wheat. CNPK application reduced weed damage and improved the productivity and stability of the farmland ecosystem.

  17. Effect of fertiliser on functional properties of flour from four rice varieties grown in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunaratne, Anil; Sirisena, Nihal; Ratnayaka, Upul Kumari; Ratnayaka, Jennet; Kong, Xiangli; Vidhana Arachchi, Lal Peruma; Corke, Harold

    2011-05-01

    Fertiliser is an essential agro-chemical input in modern rice farming. Fertiliser affects the grain quality and yield of rice. Although much research has been carried out to investigate the influence of fertiliser (recommended NPK addition) on yield and quality of rice grain, little is known about the effect of fertiliser on thermal, pasting, gelling and retrogradation properties of rice flour. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of recommended fertilisation on functional properties of rice flour from four popular high yielding rice varieties grown in Sri Lanka. Fertiliser (recommended NPK addition) increased the protein content but reduced the apparent amylose content in rice flour except in BG 357. Swelling power and amylose leaching were decreased by fertilizer. [corrected] Pasting onset temperature, cold paste viscosity and setback were increased but peak viscosity and granular breakdown decreased. In response to the fertiliser application, gelatinisation peak temperature was reduced in all varieties except BG 300. However, compared to pasting properties, gelatinisation parameters were not much affected by fertilisation. The extent of amylopectin retrogradation was decreased by fertiliser in BG 305 and BG 352 but unchanged in the other two varieties. Except in BG 305, fertiliser reduced the gel hardness of rice flour but increased the gel cohesiveness. It is apparent that the increased protein and reduced amylose content caused by fertiliser affect the functional properties of rice flour. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Liming and fertilisation in Pinus taeda plantations with severe nutrient deficiency in savanna soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araína Hulmann Batista

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Soils with high acidity and low exchangeable bases may be responsible for low yields of Pinus taeda in a forest plantation at Jaguariaíva, Paraná State, Brazil. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of liming and fertilisation, applied over litter, on two selected areas with Pinus taeda plantations. Soil, litter and pine needles were evaluated for K, Ca and Mg concentrations and soil acidity parameters. Seven treatments were applied: (i complete (N, P, K, Zn, Cu, B, Mo, and lime; (ii without N, P, and K; (iii without Zn, Cu, B, and Mo; (iv without K; (v without Zn; (vi without lime; and (vii control (without nutrients and lime. Soil samples were collected at five soil depths (0-5, 5-10, 10-20, 20-40 and 40-60 cm simultaneously with litter samples. Needles were also collected from the first and second pine flushes. Liming induced soil pH, Ca2+, and Mg2+ increases, and the opposite was observed for Al3+ and Al saturation. Fertilisation increased soil exchangeable K+ concentrations and needle and litter K concentrations. The low Ca and Mg concentrations found in the plant needles might be attributable to their low mobility.

  19. Arsenic and selenium mobilisation from organic matter treated mine spoil with and without inorganic fertilisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno-Jiménez, Eduardo; Clemente, Rafael; Mestrot, Adrien; Meharg, Andrew A.

    2013-01-01

    Organic matter amendments are applied to contaminated soil to provide a better habitat for re-vegetation and remediation, and olive mill waste compost (OMWC) has been described as a promising material for this aim. We report here the results of an incubation experiment carried out in flooded conditions to study its influence in As and metal solubility in a trace elements contaminated soil. NPK fertilisation and especially organic amendment application resulted in increased As, Se and Cu concentrations in pore water. Independent of the amendment, dimethylarsenic acid (DMA) was the most abundant As species in solution. The application of OMWC increased pore water dissolved organic-carbon (DOC) concentrations, which may explain the observed mobilisation of As, Cu and Se; phosphate added in NPK could also be in part responsible of the mobilisation caused in As. Therefore, the application of soil amendments in mine soils may be particularly problematic in flooded systems. Highlights: ► Organic and inorganic amendments were added to a mine soil in flooding conditions. ► Olive mill waste compost (OMWC) provoked As, Se and Cu solubilisation. ► Dimethylarsenic acid (DMA) was the predominant As species in pore water. ► Selenium volatilisation from soils was intense. - The addition of organic amendment and/or inorganic fertiliser to a trace element contaminated soil in flooded conditions led to As, Cu and Se solubilisation.

  20. Evaluation of electrical conductivity of the fertiliser solution on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of three fertiliser solutions (20:20:20, 15:5:25 and 12:30:10 NPK) with electrical conductivity (EC) of 1, 1.5 or 2 mS cm-1 on growth and flowering of Cymbidium 'Sleeping Nymph' were investigated over three years. One-year-old tissue-cultured propagules of 'Sleeping Nymph' were planted singly in plastic pots in ...

  1. Nitrogen fertilisation of durum wheat: a case study in Mediterranean area during transition to conservation agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Galieni

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N nutrition plays a key role for high yields and quality in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum (Desf. Husn; in Mediterranean environments, data regarding N fertilisation management during the transition phase to conservation agriculture (CA are limited. The aim of this work was to study the effects of N fertiliser forms and rates on yield and some quality traits of durum wheat, during the transition period to CA in Mediterranean areas; moreover, indication on the recommendable N form/rate combinations have been given. Field trials were carried out in south of Italy, during the first two years of transition to CA (from 2010 to 2012 in a durum wheat-based rotation. Following a split-plot design arranged on a randomised complete blocks with three replications, two N forms (main plots - urea and calcium nitrate - and four N rates (sub-plots - 50, 100, 150 and 200 kg N ha–1 - plus an un-fertilised Control, were compared. The following parameters were analysed: grain yield, N-input efficiency, grains protein concentration (GPC, total gluten, gluten fractions and minerals concentration in kernels. Calcium nitrate gave the highest yield (4.48 t ha–1, as predicted by the quadratic model, at 146 kg N ha–1, on average. This was particularly noticeable in 2012, when the distribution of rainfall and temperatures regimes as well as residues’ status could have favoured such N-form. These results were confirmed by the observed higher values of all indices describing N-input efficiency. High GPC values (14.8% were predicted at slightly higher N-rates (173 kg N ha–1, averaging both N forms. In particular, gluten proteins and glutenin/gliadin ratio accrued as the N doses increased, reaching the highest values at 150 kg N ha–1, also positively affecting the quality of durum wheat flour. Iron and zinc concentrations were noticeably increased (38% and 37% on average by N supply, probably due to the enhanced water use efficiency under

  2. Novel chelating agents for iron, manganese, zinc, and copper mixed fertilisation in high pH soil-less cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Rayo, Sandra; Nadal, Paloma; Lucena, Juan J

    2016-03-15

    Studies about simultaneous fertilisation with several micronutrients have increased in recent years, as Fe, Mn and Zn deficiencies may appear in the same culture conditions. In fertigation, the replacement of sulfates by synthetic chelates is essential in areas with high pH irrigation water and substrates. Ethylenediamine-N-(2-hydroxyphenylacetic acid)-N'-(4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid) (o,p-EDDHA) and ethylenediamine disuccinic acid (EDDS) are novel chelating agents whose efficacy in simultaneous fertilisation of Zn, Mn and Cu is unknown. This work evaluates the effectiveness of both ligands compared to traditional ligands (EDTA, HEEDTA and DTPA) applied as micronutrient chelate mixtures to soybean and navy bean plants grown in soil-less cultures at high pH by analysing the SPAD and micronutrient nutritional status, including the Composition Nutritional Diagnosis (CND) analysis tool. The application of micronutrients using o,p-EDDHA was more effective in providing Mn and Zn than traditional ligands or sulfates. The application using EDDS increased the Zn nutrition. The results are well correlated with the chemical stability of the formulations. The combined application of Mn and Zn as o,p-EDDHA chelates can represent a more effective source than traditional chelates in micronutrient fertiliser mixtures in soil-less cultures at a high pH. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Quality of white cabbage yield and potential risk of ground water nitrogen pollution, as affected by nitrogen fertilisation and irrigation practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maršić, Nina Kacjan; Sturm, Martina; Zupanc, Vesna; Lojen, Sonja; Pintar, Marina

    2012-01-15

    The effect of different fertilisation (broadcast solid NPK application and fertigation with water-soluble fertiliser) and irrigation practices (sprinkler and drip irrigation) on yield, the nitrate content in cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) and the cabbage N uptake was detected, in order to assess the potential risk for N losses, by cultivation on sandy-loam soil. The N rate applied on the plots was 200 kg N ha(-1). The highest yield (93 t ha(-1)) and nitrate content (1256 mg kg(-1) DW) were found with treatments using broadcast fertilisation and sprinkler irrigation. On those plots the negative N balance (-30 kg N ha(-1)) was recorded, which comes mainly from the highest crop N uptake (234 kg N ha(-1)) indicating the lowest potential for N losses. In terms of yield quality and the potential risk for N losses, broadcast fertilisation combined with sprinkler irrigation proved to be the most effective combination among the tested practices under the given experimental conditions. The importance of adequate irrigation is also evident, namely in plots on which 50% drip irrigation was applied, the lowest yield was detected and according to the positive N balance, a higher potential for N losses is expected. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. An Evaluation of fertiliser Recommendations Obtained From Experimental Settings a Case of smallholder Maize Fertiliser Recommendations in Western Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mugunieri, G.L.; Nyangito, H.O.; Mose, L.O.

    1999-01-01

    This study was undertaken to compare maize yield in Kisii and Trans-Nzoia Districts of Western Kenya. Separate yield response functions were established for experimental and farm data and used to undertake an economic analysis of fertiliser used on maize on smallholder farms. For Kisii District, the optimal values obtained in the field management practices between farmers and researchers. Further, based on the farm data results from this district, farmers on average use fertiliser optimally. Therefore as long as these farmers are constrained by their resources such that they can not improve on their management practices, using of Nzoia district, the experimental and farm data optimal levels were not significantly different. this was attributed to the fact that maize production in this region is commercial activity and the level of field management tend to approximate the level at the research station. Therefore farmers in this region can gain from increased use of fertilizers at there current levels of field management. The study concluded that fertiliser rates obtained from experimental data are not suitable for all regions in Kenya

  5. Environmental prospects of uranium from mineral phosphates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnug, Ewald; Haneklaus, Nils

    2012-01-01

    Uranium (U) is a natural resource that is found in rock phosphates (P). Each year farmers apply unwittingly 167 t/yr U to their soils by P fertilisation. If extracted and used for electricity generation with state of the art nuclear power plants this amount of U could cover the energy demand of 2.4 x 10 6 average German households. Otherwise this finite resource is wasted. U from P fertilisers is an uncommon contribution of agriculture to climate protection. Using the key to calculate the CO 2 depending German car tax band, 1 kilogram P would be valued with 1.8 Euro. More than that the extraction of U from rock phosphates is an efficient measure to avoid U entering the food chain. In particular translocation processes in soils of fertiliser-applied U by run-off and leaching which result in the contamination of surface waters and finally drinking water can be impeded efficiently. (orig.)

  6. Relationships between rabbit semen characteristics and fertilising ability after insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theau-Clément, M; Ailloud, E; Sanchez, A; Saleil, G; Brun, J M

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to analyse the relationship between rabbit semen characteristics and semen fertilising ability after insemination, which is generally found to be weak. Our hypothesis was that using high semen dilutions (1 : 19), non-oestrus-stimulated does, and homospermic inseminations would make it easier to predict semen fertilising ability. Semen characteristics were evaluated on 275 ejaculates of 128 INRA1001 bucks, distributed into five successive batches. A total of 1970 inseminations were performed. The continuous semen variables were subdivided into three classes of similar size to account for any non-linear relationship between semen characteristics and fertilising ability. Mass motility was divided into two classes according to the presence or absence of waves under microscope observation. Libido, the presence or absence of gel, volume, percentage of progressive sperms, curvilinear velocity, beat frequency of the flagellum, and straightness and linearity of sperm movement did not affect fertility, prolificacy or productivity. It was confirmed that mass motility, estimated by visual observation under the microscope, significantly influenced fertility as well as the percentage of motile and of rapid sperms, and the amplitude of lateral head displacement, estimated by a computer-assisted semen analysis system. To a lesser extent, the percentage of motile cells and of rapid cells significantly influenced prolificacy. Consequently, mass motility and the percentage of motile cells significantly influenced rabbit doe productivity (+1 live births/AI when the semen showed at least a beginning of wave movement, or when the percentage of motile cells was >84%). Interestingly, a gain of 1.5 rabbits was observed when the percentage of rapid cells changed from 64% to 79%, whereas productivity significantly dropped beyond 83% of rapid cells, reflecting a non-linear relationship.

  7. Agronomic and environmental consequences of using liquid mineral concentrateds on arable farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schils, R.L.M.; Postma, R.; Rotterdam, D.; Zwart, K.B.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND n regions with intensive livestock systems, the processing of manure into liquid mineral concentrates is seen as an option to increase the nutrient use efficiency of manures. The agricultural sector anticipates that these products may in future be regarded as regular mineral fertilisers.

  8. Timing of 15N fertiliser application, partitioning to reproductive and vegetative tissue, and nutrient removal by field-grown low-chill peaches in the subtropics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huett, D.O.; Stewart, G. R.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of timing of nitrogen (N) application as 15 N-enriched ammonium sulfate (50 kg N/ha) on the growth response and N uptake by vegetative and reproductive tissues was investigated in the low-chill peach cv. Flordagem growing on a krasnozem soil at Alstonville. Nitrogen was applied in late August, late September, late October, mid February, and early May. Tree parts were sampled for 15 N at 4 and 8 weeks after application and after fruit harvest in December the following season. After fruit yield was measured, trees were excavated and divided into parts for dry weight and nutrient concentration determinations, and fertiliser N recovery and to estimate tree nutrient removal. Nitrogen enrichment was detected in all plant parts within 4 weeks of N application, irrespective of timing, and was greatest in rapidly growing tissues such as laterals, leaves, and fruit. The most rapid (P 15 N enrichment in vegetative tissues resulted from September, October, and February N applications and for fruit from a September application. The level of enrichment 4 weeks after fertiliser N application was similar for vegetative and reproductive tissues. The timing of N application in the first season had no effect on fruit yield and vegetative growth the following season. At tree removal, the recovery of fertiliser N in most tree parts increased (P < 0.05) as fertiliser N application was delayed from October to May the previous season. Maximum contribution of absorbed N to whole tree N was 10-11% for laterals, leaf, and fruit. Data from this study indicate that vegetative and reproductive growth have similar demand for absorbed N, and that uptake of fertiliser N is most rapid when an application precedes a period of rapid growth. Over 2 seasons, recovery of applied fertiliser N was 14.9-18.0% in the tree, confirming that stored N and the soil N pool are the dominant sources of tree N. The recovery of fertiliser N from the May application was 18% even though uptake in all tree

  9. Field studies with radioactive sulphur-labelled gypsum fertiliser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goh, K.M.; Gregg, P.E.H.

    1982-01-01

    Quantitative estimates of the sizes of different sulphur (S) cycling pools in the soil-pasture system have been determined in soils belonging to the recent and yellow-brown earth soil groups. Several field trials were conducted, involving applications of 35 S-labelled gypsum fertiliser. An equilibrium was attained in the specific activity of the pasture herbage at about 240 days after fertiliser application. This was used to estimate pool sizes. At all sites, the amount of S involved in cycling ranged from 105 to 292 kg S/ha, which was sufficiently large to sustain active plant growth if cycled rapidly. However, most of the S was in the inert fraction (80-90% of total soil S) which appeared not to enter the active S cycling pool. At 3 of the sites studied, the major contributor to the cycling S pool was the residues pool of plant residues and soil organisms. No relationship was found between the size of the cycling S pool and topdressing responses of pastures. The significance of the results obtained is discussed in relation to the availability of S to pasture plants. (auth)

  10. Transport-in vitro-fertilisation/intracytoplasmatisk sperminjektion i Danmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergård, Marianne Louise Vang; Børlum, Karl-Gerhardt; Fedder, Jens

    2002-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This study describes the results obtained with a small IVF/ICSI-transport programme carried out between a private specialist clinic and a public IVF-clinic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All women treated in the specialist clinic over a three and a half years period were entered. Ovarian...... stimulation cycles were performed with 68% IVF, 19% ICSI, and 13% cycles with cryopreserved oocytes (FER). The material comprises 259 oocyte aspirations with a total of 1969 oocytes, 1229 were fertilised. Oocyte and transfer-data are given in Table 2. The pregnancy rate was 29% for IVF and 27.1% for ICSI......, but only 12.2% in FER. DISCUSSION: These results are consistent with that of other private and public IVF treatments in Denmark, where differences in population and oocyte handling are comparable (Table 3). As reported from the Netherlands, the UK, and Argentina (Table 4) transportation of oocytes does...

  11. Soybean growth influenced by nitrogen fertilisation of the crop, grazing pressure and dessication times of Urochloa ruziziensis = Crescimento da soja influenciado pela adubação nitrogenada na cultura, pressão de pastejo e épocas de dessecação de Urochloa ruziziensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cezar Franchini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The integrated crop-livestock system is one of the main alternatives in the diversification of production systems. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect on the growth and accumulation of N in soybean plants, of grazing pressure and period of desiccation of U. ruziziensis in relation to planting the soybean and fertilising the crop with nitrogen (N. Three grazing heights were studied for a pasture of U. ruziziensis, under continuous grazing for six months (15, 35 and 50 cm and under no grazing, giving four experiments. A randomised complete block design was used, with split lots and three replications. The lots comprised the four periods for desiccation of the pasture (35, 28, 20 and 8 days before sowing the soybean, and the sub-lots comprised the nitrogen fertilisation of the soybean (no fertilisation and 30 kg N ha-1 in the form of ammonium sulphate, broadcast when sowing. Grazing pressure had little effect on growth and the accumulation of N in the soybean shoot. Increases in the interval between desiccation of the pasture and sowing the soybean gave greater growth and accumulation of N in the crop at the beginning of the growth cycle, but by the full-flowering stage, such differences were not significant. Fertilisation of the soybean with mineral N gave greater growth and accumulation of N only at the beginning of the growth cycle, but by the full-flowering stage, there was no difference between applying the nitrogen fertiliser or not. = O sistema integração lavoura-pecuária é uma das principais alternativas para a diversificação de sistemas de produção. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de pressões de pastejo em Urochloa ruziziensis, de épocas de dessecação desta, em relação à semeadura da soja e da adubação na cultura com nitrogênio (N, sobre o crescimento e acúmulo de N pelas plantas de soja. Foram estudadas três alturas de manutenção da pastagem de U. ruziziensis, pastejada de forma contínua por

  12. Private initiatives, public support, and war practices: development of fertilisers in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elina, Olga Y

    2011-03-01

    The scarcity of experiments with fertilisers, the poor domestic industry, and high prices for imported products made Russia lag far behind the leading agrarian countries in the research and use of fertilisers. The first experiments on fertilisers were connected mostly with the private estates of Russian nobility. Things began to change slowly by the turn of the twentieth century, when the Ministry of Agriculture launched a policy of agricultural science promotion, including the development of agricultural chemistry. It was the outbreak of World War I that created a powerful stimulus for fertiliser research in Russia. A specific Russian "symbiosis" emerged between military industry and agricultural chemistry. The numerous factories of explosives set up ad hoc produced vast amounts of waste products; modified, they could serve as fertilisers. In 1915, the Public Committee for Support of Fertilisers was organised. Eventually, this committee gave birth to the Institute of Fertilisers, the first institute founded by the Bolshevik government. Thus, the project of "chemicalisation of agriculture," usually described as a revolutionary endeavour, was firmly rooted in World War I.

  13. Fertiliser management effects on dissolved inorganic nitrogen in runoff from Australian sugarcane farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Grant; Rohde, Ken; Silburn, Mark

    2017-08-01

    Dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) movement from Australian sugarcane farms is believed to be a major cause of crown-of-thorns starfish outbreaks which have reduced the Great Barrier Reef coral cover by ~21% (1985-2012). We develop a daily model of DIN concentration in runoff based on >200 field monitored runoff events. Runoff DIN concentrations were related to nitrogen fertiliser application rates and decreased after application with time and cumulative rainfall. Runoff after liquid fertiliser applications had higher initial DIN concentrations, though these concentrations diminished more rapidly in comparison to granular fertiliser applications. The model was validated using an independent field dataset and provided reasonable estimates of runoff DIN concentrations based on a number of modelling efficiency score results. The runoff DIN concentration model was combined with a water balance cropping model to investigate temporal aspects of sugarcane fertiliser management. Nitrogen fertiliser application in December (start of wet season) had the highest risk of DIN movement, and this was further exacerbated in years with a climate forecast for 'wet' seasonal conditions. The potential utility of a climate forecasting system to predict forthcoming wet months and hence DIN loss risk is demonstrated. Earlier fertiliser application or reducing fertiliser application rates in seasons with a wet climate forecast may markedly reduce runoff DIN loads; however, it is recommended that these findings be tested at a broader scale.

  14. Genetic parameters of rabbit semen traits and male fertilising ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, J M; Sanchez, A; Ailloud, E; Saleil, G; Theau-Clément, M

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to estimate genetic parameters for rabbit semen production, semen characteristics and fertilising ability following artificial insemination. It involved five successive batches of 30-36 bucks each, 22 weeks of semen collection, and 11 weeks of semen recording per batch. Semen analyses were based on 2312 ejaculates. A total of 2019 inseminations were performed on 674 females with semen from 236 ejaculates from 128 bucks. Heritability estimates of semen traits ranged from 0.05 to 0.18. At approximately 0.05-0.06 for pH, volume and mass motility, they were higher for concentration (0.10) and the total number of sperms per ejaculate (0.12), and even higher for motility traits based on computer-assisted semen analysis. The percentage of motile sperms had the highest heritability (0.18) and appeared to be a good candidate criterion to select for both sperm number and motility. The heritability estimates were close to zero for all three criteria of fertilising ability: fertility (F), prolificacy (live births, LB) and their product (LB per insemination). A permanent environmental effect of the male seemed to be higher for LB (0.04) than for F (0.01). The rabbit does accounted for approximately 10% of the variance of the three criteria. With respect to the female, the male contribution was negligible for fertility and in a ratio of 4-10 for the number of live births. In our experimental conditions, prolificacy would thus be more highly influenced by the buck than fertility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Manufacture of phosphatic fertilisers and recovery of byproduct uranium - a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ring, R.J.

    1975-11-01

    The processes used in the production of phosphatic fertilisers are reviewed and those in which uranium can be extracted as a byproduct are described in detail. The current status of the world and Australian phosphate rock and fertiliser industries is described and production figures and marketing information for these industries are also presented. Techniques for the recovery of byproduct uranium during the processing of phosphate rock to fertilisers are also examined in detail. Recovery from wet-process phosphoric acid by solvent extraction is the most promising approach. (author)

  16. The influence of lime and nitrogen fertilisers on spore counts of Pithomyces chartarum in pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuttance, E L; Laven, R A; Mason, W A; Stevenson, M

    2016-11-01

    To determine whether the application of lime or nitrogen to pasture affected the spore counts of Pithomyces chartarum. The lime application studies were undertaken on a spring-calving, pasture-based, commercial dairy farm near Te Awamutu, New Zealand. On 6 November 2012, five randomly selected paddocks were split into three equal sections. In two of the sections, lime was applied at either 1.5 or 2.5 t/ha, and the central section was left as an untreated control. Each section was sampled for spore counting weekly from 16 January to 15 May 2013. Starting in January 2013, five other randomly selected paddocks were monitored for spore counts. On 20 March 2013 the average spore counts in three paddocks were >100,000 spores/g of pasture. These paddocks were then divided into three equal sections and lime was applied as described above. Spore counting in each section continued weekly until 15 May 2013. The nitrogen application study was carried out on three commercial dairy farms near Te Awamutu, New Zealand. Two randomly selected paddocks on each farm were divided into three equal sections and, on 20 December 2012, nitrogen in the form of urea was applied at either 50 or 80 kg urea/ha to two of the sections; the central section remained as an untreated control. Each section was sampled for spore counting weekly from 16 January to 15 May 2013. Following pre-summer lime application, treatment at 1.5 or 2.5 t/ha did not affect spore counts over time compared with the control section (p>0.26). Similarly following autumn lime application, treatment at 1.5 or 2.5 t/ha did not affect spore counts over time compared with the control section (p>0.11). Following nitrogen application median spore counts remained 0.49). This study found that application of lime before the risk period for facial eczema, in November, application of lime after a spore count rise, in March, or urea application in December did not affect changes in number of spores produced by P. chartarum. This

  17. The influence of fertiliser and pesticide emissions model on life cycle assessment of agricultural products: The case of Danish and Italian barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rivera, Ximena C. Schmidt; Bacenetti, Jacopo; Fusi, Alessandra

    2017-01-01

    and the use of resources in food production and distribution systems. However, especially in agriculture, difficulties are encountered when emissions from fertilisers and pesticides need to be modelled, due to a variety of modelling options and their dependency on the availability of site-specific information......Barley is an ancient crop and a great source of nutrients. It is the third largest agricultural commodity produced in Denmark and represents a relevant crop in Italy too. Due to the increasing customers awareness of sustainability issues, it has become essential to evaluate the environmental impact...... in Denmark and Italy. Two models for fertilisers and pesticides' emissions have been applied; these differ on the extent of data requirements and complexity of calculation algorithms, which might increase the results accuracy and robustness. The results show that the modelling options do affect...

  18. Determinants of inorganic fertiliser use in the mixed crop-livestock

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    ecology and manure use influenced both the likelihood of adoption and intensity of inorganic fertiliser use. Continued .... problem and past use of alternative soil fertility management .... used is zero in the Tobit model could be specified as:.

  19. Effect of NPK fertiliser on growth, flowering and yield of fonio (Digitaria exilis) in a coastal agro-ecological environment of Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amekli, Yayra

    2013-07-01

    Fonio (Digitaria spp) is neglected and underutilised crop traditionally grown in the Sahelian savannah agro-ecological zone of Ghana for its grain which is rich in crude protein, fibre and has medicinal properties. Decline in the production of the crop is attributed to poor agronomic and yield characteristics and changing agro-climatic conditions as a result of clobal warming which has rendered traditional growing areas too dry to surport cultivation of the crop. There is the need to explore the possibility of growing the crop in new agro-ecologies to sustain the production. The study was therefore conducted in Kwabenya-Atomic area which is located in the coastal savannah agro-ecological zone of Ghana, to evaluate the adaptability of three fonio landraces (Yadema, Nomber and Nvoni) to the coastal zone, their growth and response to NPK 15:15:15 fertiliser treatment, apparent fertiliser nitrogen recovery (AFNR) as well as presence basic elements in the grains. Field experiments were conducted in 2012 during the major cropping season, using three fonio landraces grown at a planting distance of 0.05m x 0.45m. The experiment design used was the split plot in three replicates. Plants were sampled every two weeks throughout the growing season. Grain yield (GY) and its associated apparent fertiliser nitrogen recovery were significantly different (P≤ 0.05) among the fonio landraces during the cropping season with the landrace Nvoni producing the highest grain yield of 96 kg ha - 1 at NPK fertiliser rate of 60 kg ha - 1 and with a AFNR of 33.1%. The study also establised a positive correlation between biomass accumulation and grain yield. The efficiency of grain production per unit of fertiliser nitrogen (FN) increased, but at a diminishing rate with each traditional unit of FN. Additionally, ten essentials mineral elements (Na,Mg, K, Ca, I, CI, Cu, AI, Mn, and V) were detected among the grain of the three fonio landrace using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA

  20. Saviour Siblings and the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Acts 1990 and 2008 

    OpenAIRE

    Thorp, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    In 2003, the case of R (on the Application of Quintavalle) v Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority1 dramatically brought into light the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990 as outdated and inconsistent. Authorisations for saviour sibling treatment appeared futile as cases were decided illogically, leaving some patients having to seek treatment elsewhere. The procedure of pre-implantation genetic diagnosis alongside tissue typing embryos has been a huge breakthrough in treating c...

  1. Extrapolation of Nitrogen Fertiliser Recommendation Zones for Maize in Kisii District Using Geographical Information Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okoth, P.F.; Wamae, D.K.

    1999-01-01

    A GIS database was established for fertiliser recommendation domains in Kisii District by using FURP fertiliser trial results, KSS soils data and MDBP climatic data. These are manipulated in ESRI's (Personal Computer Environmental Systems Research Institute) ARCINFO and ARCVIEW softwares. The extrapolations were only done for the long rains season (March- August) with three to four years data. GIS technology was used to cluster fertiliser recommendation domains as a geographical area expressed in terms of variation over space and not limited to the site of experiment where a certain agronomic or economic fertiliser recommendation was made. The extrapolation over space was found to be more representative for any recommendation, the result being digital maps describing each area in the geographical space. From the results of the extrapolations, approximately 38,255 ha of the district require zero Nitrogen (N) fertilisation while 94,330 ha requires 75 kg ha -1 Nitrogen fertilisation during the (March-August) long rains. The extrapolation was made difficult since no direct relationships could be established to occur between the available-N, % Carbon (C) or any of the other soil properties with the obtained yields. Decision rules were however developed based on % C which was the soil variable with values closest to the obtained yields. 3% organic carbon was found to be the boundary between 0 application and 75 kg-N application. GIS techniques made it possible to model and extrapolates the results using the available data. The extrapolations still need to be verified with more ground data from fertiliser trials. Data gaps in the soil map left some soil mapping units with no recommendations. Elevation was observed to influence yields and it should be included in future extrapolation by clustering digital elevation models with rainfall data in a spatial model at the district scale

  2. Substitution of peat, fertiliser and manure by compost in hobby gardening: user surveys and case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Jacob K; Christensen, Thomas H; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2010-12-01

    Four user surveys were performed at recycle centres (RCs) in the Municipalities of Aarhus and Copenhagen, Denmark, to get general information on compost use and to examine the substitution of peat, fertiliser and manure by compost in hobby gardening. The average driving distance between the users' households and the RCs was found to be 4.3 km and the average amount of compost picked up was estimated at 800 kg per compost user per year. The application layer of the compost varied (between 1 and 50 cm) depending on the type of use. The estimated substitution (given as a fraction of the compost users that substitute peat, fertiliser and manure with compost) was 22% for peat, 12% for fertiliser and 7% for manure (41% in total) from the survey in Aarhus (n=74). The estimate from the survey in Copenhagen (n=1832) was 19% for peat, 24% for fertiliser and 15% for manure (58% in total). This is the first time, to the authors' knowledge, that the substitution of peat, fertiliser and manure with compost has been assessed for application in hobby gardening. Six case studies were performed as home visits in addition to the Aarhus surveys. From the user surveys and the case studies it was obvious that the total substitution of peat, fertiliser and manure was not 100%, as is often assumed when assigning environmental credits to compost. It was more likely around 50% and thus there is great potential for improvement. It was indicated that compost was used for a lot of purposes in hobby gardening. Apart from substitution of peat, fertiliser and manure, compost was used to improve soil quality and as a filling material (as a substitute for soil). Benefits from these types of application are, however, difficult to assess and thereby quantify. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Hyperspectral remote sensing applied to mineral exploration in southern Peru: A multiple data integration approach in the Chapi Chiara gold prospect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrino, Thais Andressa; Crósta, Alvaro Penteado; Toledo, Catarina Labouré Bemfica; Silva, Adalene Moreira

    2018-02-01

    Remote sensing is a strategic key tool for mineral exploration, due to its capacity of detecting hydrothermal alteration minerals or alteration mineral zones associated with different types of mineralization systems. A case study of an epithermal system located in southern Peru is presented, aimed at the characterization of mineral assemblies for discriminating potential high sulfidation epithermal targets, using hyperspectral imagery integrated with petrography, XRD and magnetic data. HyMap images were processed using the Mixture Tuned Matched Filtering (MTMF) technique for producing alteration map in the Chapi Chiara epithermal gold prospect. Extensive areas marked by advanced argillic alteration (alunite-kaolinite-dickite ± topaz) were mapped in detail, as well as limited argillic (illite-smectite) and propylitic (chlorite spectral domain) alteration. The magmatic-hydrothermal processes responsible for the formation of hypogene minerals were also related to the destruction of ferrimagnetic minerals (e.g., magnetite) of host rocks such as andesite, and the remobilization/formation of paramagnetic Fe-Ti oxides (e.g., rutile, anatase). The large alteration zones of advanced argillic alteration are controlled by structures related to a regional NW-SE trend, and also by local NE-SW and ENE-WSW ones.

  4. Health-promoting compounds of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) plants as affected by nitrogen fertilisation in projected future climatic change environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghdoud, Chokri; Carvajal, Micaela; Moreno, Diego A; Ferchichi, Ali; Del Carmen Martínez-Ballesta, María

    2016-01-30

    The complex interactions between CO2 increase and salinity were investigated in relation to decreased N supply, in order to determine the nutritional quality of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) plants under these conditions. Three different decreased N fertilisation regimes (NO3(-)/NH4(+) ratios of 100:0, 50:50 and 0:100 respectively) were combined with ambient (380 ppm) and elevated (800 ppm) [CO2 ] under non-saline (0 mmol L(-1) NaCl) and saline (80 mmol L(-1) NaCl) conditions. Nutrients (minerals, soluble protein and total amino acids) and natural antioxidants (glucosinolates, phenolic acids, flavonoids and vitamin C) were determined. In NH4(+) -fed broccoli plants, a marked growth reduction was shown and a redistribution of amino acids to cope with NH4(+) toxicity resulted in higher levels of indolic glucosinolate and total phenolic compounds. However, the positive effect of the higher [CO2] - ameliorating adverse effects of salinity--was only observed when N was supplied as NO3(-). Under reduced N fertilisation, the total glucosinolates were increased by a decreased NO3(-)/NH4 (+) ratio and elevated [CO2] but were unaffected by salinity. Under future climatic challenges, such as increased salinity and elevated [CO2], a clear genotypic dependence of S metabolism was observed in broccoli plants. In addition, an influence of the form in which N was supplied on plant nutritional quality was observed; a combined NO3(-)/NH4(+) (50:50) supply allowed broccoli plants not only to deal with NH4(+) toxicity but also to modify their glucosinolate content and profile. Thus, for different modes of N fertilisation, the interaction with climatic factors must be considered in the search for an optimal balance between yield and nutritional quality. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. BfR recommends the establishment of a European maximum level for uranium in drinking and mineral water

    OpenAIRE

    German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment

    2007-01-01

    Uranium is a widespread, radioactive heavy metal on earth. It is to be found in varying concentrations and states in various rocks and minerals as well as in water, soil and air. Uranium may also reach the environment anthropogenically for instance in mineral phosphate fertilisers. Because of its widespread presence traces of uranium can also be detected in foods like drinking and mineral water. Uranium is not essential for humans. The ongoing intake of higher uranium concentration...

  6. Effect of Nitrogen Fertilizer on Variations in Composition in Protein and Non-Protein Compounds in the Aerial Parts of Dactylis Glomerata L; Influence de la Fertilisation Azotee sur les Variations de la Composition en Composes Proteiques et Non Proteiques des Parties Aeriennes de Dactylis Glomerata L.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefebvre, J. M. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Station d' Agronomie, Dijon (France)

    1968-07-01

    A knowledge of the effects of nitrogen fertilizer on plant quality would appear to be of prime importance in the study of plant-animal relations. Th e author examined, at a test facility in the east-central part of France, variations in the composition of the aerial parts of ''Floreal'' cocksfoot treated with nitrogen fertilizer at different supply rates. Enrichment in soluble organic nitrogen, amino acids, amides, simple peptides and protein compounds is fairly proportional to the nitrogen dose supplied at different vegetative cycles. Free mineral nitrogen, consisting almost exclusively of nitrates, shows elevated values, particularly during the first vegetative cycles which take place at a time when low temperatures are not favourable to a rapid reduction. The values found increase with the amounts of nitrogen supplied to the plants. If the fertilizer is applied to the grass 15 days after ablation of the aerial parts and not immediately, as in common farming practice, a complete modification of the various phenomena accompanying protein synthesis will be noted. In this case nitrate production is very swift and metabolization into soluble organic compounds and condensates is extensive. As a result, temporarily large accumulations of nitrates are not observed in the summer and autumn vegetative cycles. In addition, and of great importance for the nutritional quality of the harvested produce, the gross protein contents are much higher (around 50%) at the end of the cycle for an equal quantity of nitrogen supplied during fertilization. Soluble organic nitrogen compounds, amino acids and amides, are also found in greater quantities. (author) [French] La connaissance des repercussions de la fertilisation azotee sur la qualite vegetale semble primordiale dans l'etude des liaisons plante-animal. L'auteur a examine sur un dispositif experimental situe dans le Centre-Est de la France les variations de la composition des parties aeriennes d'un Dactyle Floreal soumis a des

  7. ASSESSMENT OF THE USE FOR FERTILISATION PURPOSES INCINERATION ASH PELLETS USING GASIFICATION BURNER LESTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Gibczyńska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of biomass in system energetics for the purpose of increasing the share of renewable energy sources in the overall energy mix by biomass and coal co-combustion is not an optimal solution in the light of previous experience in Poland. It is appropriate to develop local biomass market for energy purposes as a basis for future distributed energy generation based on biomass. This solution facilitates the use of ash from biomass combustion for plant fertilisation. The present paper concerns the assessment of the use of ash from combustion of pellets in an innovative gasifying pellet burner – LESTER type, for soil fertilisation. The paper presents the analysis of the content of macro- and microelements in ash against the chemical composition of pellets in relation to permissible contents in fertilisers. The content of phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium in bottom and fly ash from combustion of wood pellet and rye straw in LESTER gasifying burner validates the use of this material for soil fertilisation purposes. However, due to low nitrogen content – comparable to that found in soil, the material is not to be considered as fertiliser supplying this macroelement to soil. The analysed bottom ash used for fertilisation meets the conditions set out in the Regulation of the Minister of Environment of 9 September 2002. However, fly ash should be used with considerable caution due to high content of iron, zinc and nickel. The yield of bottom ash is several times higher than that of fly ash, therefore the possibility of its use in the form of mixtures in adequate proportions should be considered.

  8. Effects of nitrogen fertilisation rate and maturity of grass silage on methane emission by lactating dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warner, D.; Hatew, B.; Podesta, S.C.; Klop, G.; Gastelen, van S.; Laar, van H.; Dijkstra, J.; Bannink, A.

    2016-01-01

    Grass silage is typically fed to dairy cows in temperate regions. However, in vivo information on methane (CH4) emission from grass silage of varying quality is limited. We evaluated the effect of two rates of nitrogen (N) fertilisation of grassland (low fertilisation (LF), 65 kg of N/ha; and high

  9. The fate of received sperm in the reproductive tract of a hermaphroditic snail and its implications for fertilisation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koene, J.M.; Montagne-Wajer, K; Roelofs, D.; ter Maat, A.

    2009-01-01

    Multiple mating, sperm storage and internal fertilisation enhance sperm competition. The great pond snail can use stored sperm for over three months, and frequently mates with different partners. This hermaphrodite, Lymnaea stagnalis, can also self-fertilise and often produces egg masses containing

  10. Intrusion-Related Gold Deposits: New insights from gravity and hydrothermal integrated 3D modeling applied to the Tighza gold mineralization (Central Morocco)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldursi, Khalifa; Branquet, Yannick; Guillou-Frottier, Laurent; Martelet, Guillaume; Calcagno, Philippe

    2018-04-01

    The Tighza (or Jebel Aouam) district is one of the most important polymetallic districts in Morocco. It belongs to the Variscan Belt of Central Meseta, and includes W-Au, Pb-Zn-Ag, and Sb-Ba mineralization types that are spatially related to late-Carboniferous granitic stocks. One of the proposed hypotheses suggests that these granitic stocks are connected to a large intrusive body lying beneath them and that W-Au mineralization is directly related to this magmatism during a 287-285 Ma time span. A more recent model argues for a disconnection between the older barren outcropping magmatic stocks and a younger hidden magmatic complex responsible for the W-Au mineralization. Independently of the magmatic scenario, the W-Au mineralization is consensually recognized as of intrusion-related gold deposit (IRGD) type, W-rich. In addition to discrepancies between magmatic sceneries, the IRGD model does not account for published older age corresponding to a high-temperature hydrothermal event at ca. 291 Ma. Our study is based on gravity data inversion and hydro-thermal modeling, and aims to test this model of IRGD and its related magmatic geometries, with respect to subsurface geometries, favorable physical conditions for deposition and time record of hydrothermal processes. Combined inversion of geology and gravity data suggests that an intrusive body is rooted mainly at the Tighza fault in the north and that it spreads horizontally toward the south during a trans-tensional event (D2). Based on the numerical results, two types of mineralization can be distinguished: 1) the "Pre-Main" type appears during the emplacement of the magmatic body, and 2) the "Main" type appears during magma crystallization and the cooling phase. The time-lag between the two mineralization types depends on the cooling rate of magma. Although our numerical model of thermally-driven fluid flow around the Tighza pluton is simplified, as it does not take into account the chemical and deformation

  11. Environmental prospects of uranium from mineral phosphates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnug, Ewald [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Faculty 2 - Life Sciences; Haneklaus, Nils [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernenergetik und Energiesysteme

    2012-12-15

    Uranium (U) is a natural resource that is found in rock phosphates (P). Each year farmers apply unwittingly 167 t/yr U to their soils by P fertilisation. If extracted and used for electricity generation with state of the art nuclear power plants this amount of U could cover the energy demand of 2.4 x 10{sup 6} average German households. Otherwise this finite resource is wasted. U from P fertilisers is an uncommon contribution of agriculture to climate protection. Using the key to calculate the CO{sub 2} depending German car tax band, 1 kilogram P would be valued with 1.8 Euro. More than that the extraction of U from rock phosphates is an efficient measure to avoid U entering the food chain. In particular translocation processes in soils of fertiliser-applied U by run-off and leaching which result in the contamination of surface waters and finally drinking water can be impeded efficiently. (orig.)

  12. Growth and Yield Stimulation of Winter Oilseed Rape (Brasssica Napus L. by Mg-Titanit Fertiliser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kováčik Peter

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The effort to achieve higher yields at the required qualitative level has led to the intensive studying the problems of the rational usage of the titanium containing fertilisers by the agricultural research in the course the previous thirty years. Therefore, the objective of the experiment was to evaluate the impact of two doses of Mg-Titanit (0.2 l/ha and 0.4 l/ha on the formation of the aboveground and underground phytomass, also on the total chlorophyll in leaves, on the titanium and nitrogen content in the seeds and straw, on the quantity and quality of winter rape yield. The doses were applied two or three times on the leaves of winter rape (BBCH 50-52, BBCH 59, BBCH 66-67. The experiment was realized on the Haplic Chernozem (48°42´ N, 17°70´ E - Western Slovakia during two farming years (2009/2010 and 2010/2011. The results showed that all three applications of Mg-Titanit in both doses stimulated the formation of aboveground and underground phytomass of winter rape. The highest growth of phytomass was detected after the second application. The application of Mg-Titanit in the growth phases BBCH 50-52 and BBCH 59 increased the contents of both chlorophylls (a and b, where the growth of chlorophyll b content was more considerable than the growth of chlorophyll a content. The third spraying by Mg-Titanit decreased the content of the total chlorophyll. The application of Mg-Titanit had the positive impact on the yield of seeds, straw and fat content in the winter oilseed rape seeds.

  13. Effect of nitrogen fertiliser rates and plant density on grain yield of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low soil fertility has constrained maize production in Sidama district in the Southern region of Ethiopia. The effects of four levels of nitrogen fertiliser (0, 46, 92, 138 kg N ha-1) and four plant populations (44000, 53000, 67000 and 89000 plants ha-1) on grain yield of maize were evaluated over four years (1995-98) at Awassa ...

  14. Long-term after-effects of fertilisation on restoration of calcareous grasslands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, N.A.C.; Bobbink, R.; Willems, J.H.

    2008-01-01

    Question: What are the long-term implications of former fertilisation for the ecological restoration of calcareous grasslands? Location: Gerendal, Limburg, The Netherlands. Methods: In 1970, ten permanent plots were established in just abandoned agricultural calcareous grassland under a regime of

  15. Inhalation dose assessment inside various storage godowns of a phosphatic fertiliser plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, V.K.; Eapen, C.D.; Mishra, U.C.

    1995-01-01

    The paper presents the assessment of inhalation dose from 222 Rn daughters received by the persons working inside various godowns, meant for storing rock phosphate and different types of phosphatic fertilisers produced by a plant at Bombay. The dose assessment was made by measuring the respirable airborne concentrations of 222 Rn daughters inside the godowns. Rock phosphate is the base material for the production of phosphatic fertilisers and it contains significant quantities of 226 Ra. 226 Ra activity in rock phosphate from different places is ranging between 5 (Udaipur, India) to 1480 Bq/kg (Florida, USA) and its range in NP: 20-20-0 and NPK: 15-15-15 type fertilisers is 254 to 272 Bq/kg and 127 to 208 Bq/kg respectively. 226 Ra is the source of emanation of 222 Rn inside the godowns. It was observed that though the specific activity of 218 Po, 214 Pb and 214 Bi in the total airborne particulate matter was higher inside the rock phosphate godown but the specific activity of the aforementioned radionuclides in the respirable fractions inside the phosphatic fertilisers' godown were more. The reasons for these observations are discussed in the paper. (author). 7 refs., 2 tabs

  16. δ15N in soil leachate: Incubation experiments with different fertilisers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lojen, S.; Pintar, M.; Lobnik, F.

    1999-01-01

    Groundwater in agriculturally intensive areas is exposed to heavy pollution by nutrients and phytopharmaceutical agents. A laboratory soil column incubation experiment was set up to investigate the influence of different fertilisers in two soil types on the concentration and isotopic composition of dissolved nitrate in the leachate

  17. Egg fertilisation in a freshwater mussel: effects of distance, flow and male density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler L. Mosley; Wendell R. Haag; James A. Stoeckel

    2014-01-01

    1. Small or sparse populations can experience Allee effects if egg fertilisation is reduced because of a shortage of sperm. 2. Freshwater mussels are spermcasters that often occur as sparse, patchy populations. Previous studies suggested that sperm shortage limits these populations unless facultative hermaphroditism and selffertilisation occur at low density...

  18. Effect of nitrogen fertilisation on the overall quality of minimally processed globe artichoke heads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Sara; Restuccia, Cristina; Muratore, Giuseppe; Barbagallo, Riccardo N; Licciardello, Fabio; Pandino, Gaetano; Scifò, Giovanna O; Mazzaglia, Agata; Ragonese, Francesca; Mauromicale, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    Although nitrogen (N) fertilisation is essential for promoting crop yield, it may also affect the produce quality. Here, the influence of three N fertiliser rates (0 kg ha -1 as a control, 200 kg ha -1 and 400 kg ha -1 referred to as N 0 , N 200 and N 400 , respectively) on the overall quality of minimally processed globe artichoke heads was investigated during refrigerated storage for 12 days. Throughout the storage time, N fertilised samples had higher inulin contents than those unfertilised. In addition, the respiratory quotient of N 200 and N 400 samples was 2-fold and 2.5-fold lower than N 0 ones, whose values were close to the normal range for vegetables. All the samples reported good microbiological standards, although N 200 and N 400 achieved lower mesophilic and psychotropic counts than N 0 throughout the storage time. After 8 and 12 days of refrigerated storage, the N 200 samples showed the highest scores of positive sensory descriptors. A fertiliser level of 200 kg N ha -1 is suitable for obtaining minimally processed globe artichoke heads with good nutritional, sensory and microbiological quality, characterised by low endogenous oxidase activities. Proper packaging systems and procedures are, however, crucial for extending the product shelf-life and, thus, promoting its exportation on a wider scale. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Dimorphic sperm and the unlikely route to fertilisation in the yellow seahorse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Look, Katrien J W; Dzyuba, Borys; Cliffe, Alex; Koldewey, Heather J; Holt, William V

    2007-02-01

    Uniquely among vertebrates, seahorses and pipefishes (Family Syngnathidae) incubate their eggs within a male brood pouch. This has contributed to a widespread, but poorly founded belief, that the eggs are fertilised using spermatozoa that are deposited directly into the brood pouch via an internal sperm duct. Anatomical dissections showed, however, not only that direct sperm deposition into the pouch is physically impossible, but that spermatozoa must somehow travel a significant distance (>4 mm) outside the body of the male, to reach and fertilise eggs in the pouch. Observations of courtship and mating behaviour also revealed that the pouch closes immediately after mating, and that sperm transfer must occur within a time window of no more than 6 s. In addition to this, the yellow seahorse produces extraordinarily low quantities of dimorphic spermatozoa, but is nevertheless highly fertile and can produce broods that exceed 100 embryos. The entire fertilisation process in seahorses is therefore uniquely efficient among vertebrates, yet paradoxically involves several steps that would seem to complicate, and even appear to prevent, the interaction of the gametes. Although we are still unable to describe the exact fertilisation mechanism, we speculate that spermatozoa are ejaculated into a mixture of ovarian fluid and eggs, while the male and female are in close contact. Thereafter, this mixture must enter the pouch, whereupon the spermatozoa encounter seawater. These observations also support the view, indirectly inferred in previous publications, that sperm competition in seahorses is not only non-existent but impossible.

  20. Cropping systems sustainability: Inoculation and fertilisation effect on sulla performances in a new cultivation area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Sulas

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available To assess the feasibility of the sulla [Sulla coronaria (L. Medik] forage legume in a new agroecosystem, its host-specific symbiotic interaction needs to be taken into account. This study aimed to investigate the effects of inoculation and nitrogen (N fertiliser on productive performances and N-fixation ability of sulla established in a new habitat within a Mediterranean agropastoral area. Sulla plants, previously inoculated (with peat-based, liquid inoculants, and using soil from an existing sulla field and unfertilised or N fertilised were evaluated in Sardinia (Italy. During 2013-2014, sulla plants were sampled at four growing stages, from vegetative stage to seed set, and shoot length, shoot dry matter (DM yield and N content were monitored. Moreover, atom% 15N isotopic excess, proportion of N derived from the atmosphere and fixed N of sulla shoots were quantified. Inoculation and N fertilisation both affected growth, DM and N yields, and N-fixation of sulla. Compared to the best inoculated treatment, the DM yield and fixed N of the control only represented 10 to 22% and 2 to 11%, respectively. Nitrogen fertilisation caused temporary decreases in the N fixing ability of sulla. Results pointed out that rhizobial inoculation is essential for the exploitation of sulla outside its traditional cropping area.

  1. Effect of bioeffectors and recycled P-fertiliser products on the growth of spring wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lekfeldt, Jonas Duus Stevens; Rex, Martin; Mercl, Filip

    2016-01-01

    investigated the effect of a range of different recycled fertilisers on the growth and P uptake of wheat in pot experiments conducted at three different locations in Europe. Furthermore, investigations were undertaken as to whether the addition of a range of bioeffectors could significantly enhance P...

  2. The effects of mid- and late-rotation fertiliser application on tree ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern Forests: a Journal of Forest Science ... Various criteria are used to identify biologically responsive sites and stands that will provide an economic response to fertilisation; these include soil diagnosis and foliar nutrient analysis, site index, initial basal area and stocking levels, and leaf area index (LAI). While it ...

  3. Embryo developmental capacity of oocytes fertilised by sperm of mouse exposed to forced swimming stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghasem, S.; Majid, J.; Shiva, R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess developmental capacity of fertilised oocytes by sperm of mouse exposed to forced swimming stress. Methods: The experimental study was conducted at the Physiology Research Center of Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, from August 2011 to January 2012. It comprised 20 adult male and 10 female mice. The male mice were randomly divided into two equal groups (n=10): control and experimental. Animals of the experimental group were submitted to forced swimming stress. All male mice were euthanised and the cauda epididymis removed before contents were squeezed out. A pre-incubated capacitated sperm was gently added to the freshly collected ova of the two groups of study. The combined sperm-oocyte suspension was incubated for 4-6 hours under a condition of 5% Carbon dioxide and 37 degree C temperature. The ova were then washed through several changes of medium and finally incubated. Fertilisation was assessed by recording the number of 1-cell embryos 4-6 hours after insemination. The 1-cell embryos were allowed to further develop in vitro for about 120 hours. Development of embryos everyday and during 5 days of culture was observed by using inverted microscope. SPSS 13.0.1 was used for statistical analysis. Results: The percentage of oocytes fertilised was 75:96 (78.12+-4.8%) and 50:10 (49.5+-3.9%) in the control and experimental groups, respectively. The difference was significant (p 0.05) between the two groups in terms of speed and developmental capacity of blastocysts. Conclusions: Fertilisation capacity of male mice affected by forced swimming stress and also the developmental capacity of oocyte fertilised by sperm of mouse exposed to forced swimming stress decreased. (author)

  4. Embryo developmental capacity of oocytes fertilised by sperm of mouse exposed to forced swimming stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasem, Saki; Majid, Jasemi; Shiva, Razi

    2013-07-01

    To assess developmental capacity of fertilised oocytes by sperm of mouse exposed to forced swimming stress. The experimental study was conducted at the Physiology Research Center of Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, from August 2011 to January 2012. It comprised 20 adult male and 10 female mice. The male mice were randomly divided into two equal groups (n=10): control and experimental. Animals of the experimental group were submitted to forced swimming stress. All male mice were euthanised and the cauda epididymis removed before contents were squeezed out. A pre-incubated capacitated sperm was gently added to the freshly collected ova of the two groups of study. The combined sperm-oocyte suspension was incubated for 4-6 hours under a condition of 5% Carbon dioxide and 37 degreeC temperature. The ova were then washed through several changes of medium and finally incubated. Fertilisation was assessed by recording the number of 1-cell embryos 4-6 hours after insemination. The 1-cell embryos were allowed to further develop in vitro for about 120 hours. Development of embryos everyday and during 5 days of culture was observed by using inverted microscope. SPSS 13.0.1 was used for statistical analysis. The percentage of oocytes fertilised was 75:96 (78.12+/-4.8%) and 50:10 (49.5+/-3.9%) in the control and experimental groups, respectively. The difference was significant (p 0.05) between the two groups in terms of speed and developmental capacity of blastocysts. Fertilisation capacity of male mice affected by forced swimming stress and also the developmental capacity of oocyte fertilised by sperm of mouse exposed to forced swimming stress decreased.

  5. Natural cycle in vitro fertilisation (IVF) for subfertile couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allersma, Thomas; Farquhar, Cindy; Cantineau, Astrid E P

    2013-08-30

    Subfertility affects 15% to 20% of couples trying to conceive. In vitro fertilisation (IVF) is one of the assisted reproduction techniques developed to improve chances of achieving pregnancy. In the standard IVF method with controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH), growth and development of multiple follicles are stimulated by using gonadotrophins, often combined with a gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist or antagonist. Although it is an established method of conception for subfertile couples, the treatment is expensive and has a high risk of adverse effects. Studies have shown that IVF in a natural cycle (NC) or a modified natural cycle (MNC) might be a promising low risk and low cost alternative to the standard stimulated IVF treatment since the available dominant follicle of each cycle is used. In this review, we included available randomised controlled studies comparing natural cycle IVF (NC and MNC) with standard IVF. To compare the efficacy and safety of natural cycle IVF (including both NC-IVF and MNC-IVF) with controlled ovarian hyperstimulation IVF (COH-IVF) in subfertile couples. An extended search including of the Menstrual Disorders and Subfertility Group (MDSG) Specialised Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, ClinicalTrials.gov, conference abstracts in the Web of Knowledge, the World Health Organization International Trials Registry Platform search portal, LILACS database, PubMed and the OpenSIGLE database was conducted according to Cochrane guidelines. The last search was on 31st July 2013. All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing either natural cycle IVF or modified natural cycle IVF versus standard IVF in subfertile couples were included. Data selection and extraction and risk of bias assessment were carried out independently by two authors (TA and AC). The primary outcome measures were live birth rate and ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) rate per randomised woman. We

  6. Miners' welfare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, C

    1984-06-13

    The Miners' Welfare Committee (MWC) was formed in Britain in 1921 and initiated building programmes to provide welfare amenities for miners and families, using architecture to improve the quality of a miner's working and leisure time. The article reviews the MWC's work, and assesses the design and architecture at the Selby Coalfield. (7 refs.)

  7. [No arguments to support an age limit for men entering an in vitro fertilisation or intracytoplasmic sperm injection programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romkens, M.; Gordijn, B.; Verhaak, C.M.; Meuleman, E.J.H.; Braat, D.D.M.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify medical and psychosocial risks that could arise from allowing older men to father children through in vitro fertilisation (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). DESIGN: Literature review. METHOD: The databases Medline, Current Contents weekly, Current Contents

  8. Simultaneous phosphorous and nitrogen recovery from source-separated urine: A novel application for fertiliser drawn forward osmosis

    KAUST Repository

    Volpin, Federico; Chekli, Laura; Phuntsho, Sherub; Cho, Jaeweon; Ghaffour, NorEddine; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S.; Shon, H.K.

    2018-01-01

    fertiliser used for direct fertigation of green walls, parks or for urban farming. Finally, reduction in the load of N, P to the downstream wastewater treatment plant would also ensure a more sustainable urban water cycle.

  9. Effect of soil nutrients reserves and level of fertilisation on production parameters of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Škarpa

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of three different doses of basic fertilisers and a subsequent pre-sowing supplementary fertilisation on production parameters (yield of grain, number of spikes, and thousand grains weight was evaluated using experimental data obtained within the framework of a one-year pot experiment with spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L. established at the Department of Agrochemistry and Plant Nutrition, Faculty of Agronomy, Mendel University of Agriculture and Forestry Brno in 2003. Results of statistical analysis indicated that the yield of grain was significantly influenced by different doses of fertilisers especially on sandy soils. As compared with control, the second highest dose of fertilisers (i.e. 83 kg N, 31 kg P and 92 kg K.ha–1 increased the yield by 91.7 % and the third one (i.e. 113 kg N, 43 kg P and 125 kg K.ha–1 even by 124.8 %. This increase in the grain yield was positively affected above all by increasing doses of nitrogen fertilisers. A pre-sowing application of P, K and Mg showed also a positive effect on grain yield not only on sandy but above all on clay soils (as compared with non-fertilised control, this increase ranged from 40.6 to 50.2%. Fertilisation showed also a marked effect on the number of spikes. This factor showed a similar trend as the yield of grain. The thousand grains weight was not significantly influenced on both soil types. This value was increased (by 2.9% to 14.8% after the application of fertilisers prior to sowing but the difference was statistically non-significant.

  10. A hierarchy of needs? Embryo donation, in vitro fertilisation and the provision of infertility counselling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machin, Laura

    2011-11-01

    The aim of the paper is to examine how those working in, using and regulating assisted conception clinics discussed infertility counselling and its provision within the context of embryo donation and in vitro fertilisation. 35 participants were recruited for semi-structured, face-to-face interviews. All data were analysed using thematic analysis. The thematic analysis revealed recurring themes based upon the portrayals of infertility counselling, embryo donation and in vitro fertilisation. This paper suggests that an implicit hierarchy exists around those using assisted conception techniques and their infertility counselling requirements, which was dependent upon the assisted conception technique used. As a result, some people using assisted conception techniques felt that their needs had been overlooked due to this covert hierarchy. Those working in, using or regulating assisted conception clinics should not view infertility counselling as restricted to treatments involving donation, or solely for people within the clinical system. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Ammonium sulphate fertiliser increases larval populations of Anopheles arabiensis and culicine mosquitoes in rice fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mutero, C M; Ng'ang'a, P N; Wekoyela, P

    2004-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted in central Kenya, to study the effect of ammonium sulphate fertiliser ((NH(4))(2)SO(4)) on mosquito larval populations in rice fields. The experiments used a complete randomised block design having four blocks with two experimental ponds per block, and the fertili......Field experiments were conducted in central Kenya, to study the effect of ammonium sulphate fertiliser ((NH(4))(2)SO(4)) on mosquito larval populations in rice fields. The experiments used a complete randomised block design having four blocks with two experimental ponds per block...... populations of An. arabiensis (Pmosquitoes (P... in rice fields, thereby making them visually more attractive for egg-laying by An. arabiensis and culicine mosquitoes....

  12. Use of washery tailings as fertiliser. Los esteriles de carbon caminan hacia su reconversion como fertilizantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-08-01

    Over the next three years, the research programme investigating the use of washery tailings as soil for agriculture will follow four lines of enquiry, namely: as an improver for clayey soil; as a fertiliser for low-fertility soil; as a sub-soil for hydroponic use (using as a basis washery tailings and water with nutritional elements); and finally as a basic component for growing ornamental plants in containers with the aim of converting spoil tips into nurseries. 2 figs.

  13. Inhibition in fertilisation of coral gametes following exposure to nickel and copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gissi, Francesca; Stauber, Jenny; Reichelt-Brushett, Amanda; Harrison, Peter L; Jolley, Dianne F

    2017-11-01

    The mining and production of nickel in tropical regions have the potential to impact on ecologically valuable tropical marine ecosystems. Currently, few data exist to assess the risks of nickel exposure to tropical ecosystems and to derive ecologically relevant water quality guidelines. In particular, data are lacking for keystone species such as scleractinian corals, which create the complex structural reef habitats that support many other marine species. As part of a larger study developing risk assessment tools for nickel in the tropical Asia-Pacific region, we investigated the toxicity of nickel on fertilisation success in three species of scleractinian corals: Acropora aspera, Acropora digitifera and Platygyra daedalea. In the literature, more data are available on the effects of copper on coral fertilisation, so to allow for comparisons with past studies, the toxicity of copper to A. aspera and P. daedalea was also determined. Overall, copper was more toxic than nickel to the fertilisation success of the species tested. Acropora aspera was the most sensitive species to nickel (NOEC 4610µg Ni/L). Acropora aspera was also the more sensitive species to copper with an EC10 of 5.8µg Cu/L. The EC10 for P. daedalea was 16µg Cu/L, similar to previous studies. This is the first time that the toxicity of nickel on fertilisation success in Acropora species has been reported, and thus provides valuable data that can contribute to the development of reliable water quality guidelines for nickel in tropical marine waters. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Fertilisation du maïs (Zea mays L.) à base d'urines humaines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    maturité, les traitements à l'urine pour 90, 120 et 150 kg N/ha respectivement indiquent une production de biomasse sèche de 12 ... Mots clés : Toilette écologique, urine hygiénisée, fertilisation, biomasse sèche, rendement grain, maïs. Fertilization of the corn ...... and spring barley in organic farming. Skara series B Crops ...

  15. Activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in brands of fertilisers used in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jibiri, N. N.; Fasae, K. P.

    2012-01-01

    The activity concentration of naturally occurring radionuclides 40 K, 226 Ra and 232 Th have been measured in different brands of fertiliser samples sold to farmers in retail markets in six commercial cities in southwestern Nigeria. Gamma ray spectroscopy was employed in the measurements of these radionuclides. The results of measurements showed that the average activity concentration of 40 K in the nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilisers across the cities varied from 3972.0 ±416.9 to 5089.3 ±111.3 Bq kg -1 , 9.9 ±7.3 to 450.6 ±14.3 Bq kg -1 for 226 Ra, while for 232 Th it varied from less than lower limit of detection to 15.1 ±2.8 Bq kg -1 . The activity concentrations of 40 K, 226 Ra and 232 Th in single super phosphate (SSP) fertilisers and phosphate rocks were also determined. However, high activity concentrations of 226 Ra were obtained in the SSP fertiliser and phosphate rocks and in particular, two brands of fertilisers from ITL/TAK and F and C companies. The values of the activity concentration of the radionuclides in the brands of fertilisers used in Nigeria are within the range of values reported in several other countries except 40 K. (authors)

  16. Ilmenite Mineral's Recovery from Beach Sand Tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulaba-Bafubiandi, Antoine F.; Mukendi-Ngalula, David; Waanders, Frans B.

    2002-01-01

    The mineral ilmenite is the major source of rutile for industrial use and is of interest to paint and fertiliser industries. Enormous unutilised tailing dams lie on the eastern coast of the South Africa. Although covered by a simulation of the original indigenous vegetation, these tailings are still ilmenite bearing and of economic value. Tailings emanating from beach sand mineral slimes dams of the Kwazulu-Natal area (South Africa) have been processed. Screening, flotation, spiral concentration and magnetic separation methods were used either separately or successively. The present work sheds light on alternative routes for the extraction of the ilmenite, from these tailings. It moreover points out the usefulness of the Moessbauer spectroscopy in the mineral processing product monitoring. Tailings from the beach sands were used in the present study after the economic industrial minerals zirconia, ilmenite and rutile had been extracted in previous mining operations. About 61% natural ilmenite recovery was observed in the flotation concentrate of a Humphrey Spiral concentrate while a 62% recovery of hematite was found in the flotation tailings. The combination of screening, spiral concentration and magnetic separation, and flotation yielded a product with the highest ilmenite and hematite concentration being 71% and 19%, respectively. A natural ilmenite mineral, containing 87% ilmenite and 13% hematite, could be produced and extracted from the tailings of the flotation process, collected subsequently to the spiral concentration and the initial screening.

  17. Pasture establishment and fertiliser requirements on rehabilitated land after opencast coal mining in New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longhurst, R.D.; O`Connor, M.B.; Toxopeus, M.R.J. [Ruakura Agricultural Centre, Hamilton (New Zealand)

    1999-03-01

    Existing pasture establishment practices to rehabilitate land after opencast mining in the Waikato coal fields area of New Zealand were examined and compared with an alternative method involving different pasture mixtures, seeding rates, and lime and fertiliser requirements. Pasture establishment and production, botanical composition changes, and plant and soil nutrient status were measured during a 2-year field trial. Highly significant pasture responses were obtained to increased fertiliser inputs. An improved seed mixture, containing superior pasture cultivars, established more quickly and out-yielded the existing seed mixture by 58%. The two seed mixtures responded differently to sowing rates; the higher rate increased pasture yields of the improved pasture species but decreased the existing seed mix yields. Liming at 5 t ha{sup -1} significantly increased soil pH and clover content and reduced pasture manganese concentrations from possibly toxic levels. Nitrogen concentrations in pastures were below optimum throughout the trial and the strategic use of nitrogen fertiliser is recommended as a useful management option.

  18. Membrane scaling and flux decline during fertiliser-drawn forward osmosis desalination of brackish groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuntsho, Sherub; Lotfi, Fezeh; Hong, Seungkwan; Shaffer, Devin L; Elimelech, Menachem; Shon, Ho Kyong

    2014-06-15

    Fertiliser-drawn forward osmosis (FDFO) desalination has been recently studied as one feasible application of forward osmosis (FO) for irrigation. In this study, the potential of membrane scaling in the FDFO process has been investigated during the desalination of brackish groundwater (BGW). While most fertilisers containing monovalent ions did not result in any scaling when used as an FO draw solution (DS), diammonium phosphate (DAP or (NH4)2HPO4) resulted in significant scaling, which contributed to severe flux decline. Membrane autopsy using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis indicated that the reverse diffusion of DAP from the DS to the feed solution was primarily responsible for scale formation during the FDFO process. Physical cleaning of the membrane with deionised water at varying crossflow velocities was employed to evaluate the reversibility of membrane scaling and the extent of flux recovery. For the membrane scaled using DAP as DS, 80-90% of the original flux was recovered when the crossflow velocity for physical cleaning was the same as the crossflow velocity during FDFO desalination. However, when a higher crossflow velocity or Reynolds number was used, the flux was recovered almost completely, irrespective of the DS concentration used. This study underscores the importance of selecting a suitable fertiliser for FDFO desalination of brackish groundwater to avoid membrane scaling and severe flux decline. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Impact of humic substances and nitrogen fertilising on the fruit quality and yield of custard apple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo dos Santos Cunha

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The custard apple (Annona squamosa L., also known as the sugar apple, is a fruit species native to Brazil that has been poorly studied, especially in relation to the effect of humic substances on its fruit quality and yield. An experiment was conducted from December 2010 to November 2011 to evaluate the fruit quality and yield of the custard apple as a function of nitrogen fertilising and the use of humic substances. The experimental design consisted of randomised blocks, with treatments distributed in a factorial arrangement (4 x 2, using four nitrogen doses (0, 100, 175 and 250 g of N plant-1 and two humic substance applications (with and without humic substances, with four replications. The fruit yield and fruit characteristics, such as fruit mass, titratable acidity (TA, soluble solids (SS, pulp pH and SS/TA ratio, were recorded. The humic substances and the nitrogen levels significantly affected the soluble solids, titratable acidity and SS/TA ratio, while the pH pulp was only influenced by the humic substances. The humic substances promoted a quantitative increase in the fruit yield of 0.63 ton ha-1. The fruit quality and yield of the custard apple depend on the nitrogen fertiliser and the interaction of the humic substances. Nitrogen fertilising of 100 g per plant, associated with humic substances, could be recommended for use in the production of custard apples.

  20. The use of Rb-Sr and K-Ar dating methods as a stratigraphic tool applied to sedimentary rocks and minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonhomme, M.G.

    1982-01-01

    Rb-Sr and K-Ar methods can be used for direct numerical chronostratigraphy of sediments using the clay silicates they contain. The interpretation of the ages calculated depends on the satisfaction of the following requirements: (1) The series studied must include diagenetic clay sediments. Coarsely-detrital or slightly-metamorphic formations must be excluded. Studies in progress concerning decarbonatation may lead to the application of direct dating of sediments being extended to carbonate sediments. (2) Careful mineralogical study of the clay minerals must prove early diagenetic recrystallization or new formation. This part of the study must precede any isotopic work. (3) The isotopic study must involve the use of both Rb-Sr and K-Ar methods. The extreme sensibility of the K-Ar isotopic system to late diagenesis helps to choose between early or late diagenesis: a younger K-Ar age may generally be regarded as that of the late diagenesis, whereas the Rb-Sr age may be that of the early diagenesis. (4) The initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr isotopic ratio is not always a reliable criterion, owing to the effects of the dilution of the radiogenic 87 Sr by the great amounts of primary Sr contained in carbonates. (5) The regularly-decreasing succession of isotopic ages must follow the stratigraphic succession. When this condition is satisfied, there is a high probability that the calculated ages are indeed those of the deposition dates. (Auth.)

  1. Final report of the FAO/IAEA co-ordinated research project on the use of nuclear and related techniques for evaluating the agronomic effectiveness of phosphate fertilisers, in particular rock phosphates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapata, F.

    1999-02-01

    Soils in developing countries are often deficient in available P, and therefore require inputs of P fertiliser for optimum plant growth and production of food and fibre. Due to economic considerations, the cost of applying imported or locally produced water-soluble P fertilisers is often more expensive than utilising indigenous phosphate rock. Phosphate rocks show large differences in their suitability for direct application and several factors influence their capability to supply phosphorus to crops. Therefore, quantifying the P availability of soils amended with phosphate rocks in a variety of crop management and environmental conditions in developing countries is imperative for making recommendations on the best type and rate of P fertiliser sources for maximum agronomic and economic benefits. P-32 isotope techniques are very useful for such studies. The background situation of phosphate research and the topics to be investigated using isotope techniques were critically examined in a Consultants Meeting held at the IAEA Headquarters, Vienna, Austria, from 10 to 12 May 1993. For detailed information please refer to IAEA Report CT-1112. Based on the recommendations of this Consultants' Meeting, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture with the generous support of the French Government decided to implement the Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on 'The Use of Nuclear and Related Techniques for Evaluating the Agronomic Effectiveness of Phosphate Fertilisers, in particular Rock Phosphates'. This final report describes the Fourth and Final RCM of the CRP which was held in Vienna, 16-20 November 1998. It also contains a full description of the project and the conclusions and recommendations of the CRP. The programme of the meeting, list of participants, summaries submitted by the participants and list of publications are included as annexes

  2. Final report of the FAO/IAEA co-ordinated research project on the use of nuclear and related techniques for evaluating the agronomic effectiveness of phosphate fertilisers, in particular rock phosphates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapata, F

    1999-02-01

    Soils in developing countries are often deficient in available P, and therefore require inputs of P fertiliser for optimum plant growth and production of food and fibre. Due to economic considerations, the cost of applying imported or locally produced water-soluble P fertilisers is often more expensive than utilising indigenous phosphate rock. Phosphate rocks show large differences in their suitability for direct application and several factors influence their capability to supply phosphorus to crops. Therefore, quantifying the P availability of soils amended with phosphate rocks in a variety of crop management and environmental conditions in developing countries is imperative for making recommendations on the best type and rate of P fertiliser sources for maximum agronomic and economic benefits. P-32 isotope techniques are very useful for such studies. The background situation of phosphate research and the topics to be investigated using isotope techniques were critically examined in a Consultants Meeting held at the IAEA Headquarters, Vienna, Austria, from 10 to 12 May 1993. For detailed information please refer to IAEA Report CT-1112. Based on the recommendations of this Consultants' Meeting, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture with the generous support of the French Government decided to implement the Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on 'The Use of Nuclear and Related Techniques for Evaluating the Agronomic Effectiveness of Phosphate Fertilisers, in particular Rock Phosphates'. This final report describes the Fourth and Final RCM of the CRP which was held in Vienna, 16-20 November 1998. It also contains a full description of the project and the conclusions and recommendations of the CRP. The programme of the meeting, list of participants, summaries submitted by the participants and list of publications are included as annexes.

  3. Is whole body bone mineral density measured by the dual energy X-ray absorptiometry applied to evaluate risk of osteoporosis among Japanese adult females?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Yumiko; Koike, George; Numata, Makoto; Taneda, Kiyoshi; Jingu, Sumie

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to measure whole body fat accurately, the dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is widely utilized. Simultaneously, bone mineral density (BMD) of the whole body can also be measured. BMD is one of important information to diagnose osteoporosis. However, it is not established to use whole body BMD for this diagnosis. It is recommended that lumbar and/or hip BMD should be used for diagnosing osteoporosis by the guideline for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Although it is possible to measure whole body BMD and lumbar and/or hip BMD separately at the same visit, it is inevitable to expose patients to more X-ray. Therefore, an aim of this study is to elucidate the relationship between whole body BMD and lumbar BMD to find the cut off point of whole body BMD for screening of osteoporosis. Two hundred and thirty six Japanese adult females were ascertained to this study. Whole body BMD and lumbar BMD of each subject were measured with the use of Delphi W (Hologic, USA). One hundred and sixty five subjects were judged as possible osteoporosis (less than 80% of young adult mean (YAM) of lumbar BMD and/or definite fracture of lumbar vertebras). The cut off point of whole body BMD for screening possible osteoporosis was estimated by receiver operated characteristic (ROC) analysis. The cut off point of whole body BMD was 84% of YAM, equivalent to 80% of YAM of lumbar BMD, with the following sensitivity and specificity (0.84 and 0.79, respectively), indicating that whole body BMD could be used for screening osteoporosis. (author)

  4. Effect of nitrogen fertilisation on the amino acid digestibility of different triticale genotypes in caecectomised laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegert, Wolfgang; Boguhn, Jeannette; Maurer, Hans Peter; Weiss, Jochen; Zuber, Tobias; Möhring, Jens; Rodehutscord, Markus

    2017-01-01

    The influence of nitrogen fertilisation and genotype on the amino acid (AA) digestibility of triticale grain was investigated in caecectomised laying hens. Three genotypes, Grenado, EAW6002 and Lasko, were cultivated with and without nitrogen fertilisation at the end of the heading stage. The six triticale variants as well as a basal diet were each used to feed seven laying hens in a 7 × 7 Latin square design. Nitrogen fertilisation influenced the digestibility of Cys, Glu, Phe and Ser in some triticale genotypes and reduced Ala, Ile, Lys, Met and Val digestibility in all genotypes (P digestible AAs in the grains was increased for most AAs upon nitrogen fertilisation. Overall, Lys had the lowest digestibility, whereas that of Glu and Pro was the highest. For the triticale genotypes, the level of AA digestibility was highest for EAW6002 followed by Lasko and Grenado, with significant differences (P digestible AA supply for hen feeding might benefit from considering fertilisation and genotype-specific digestibility data in feed formulation. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Effect of fresh green waste and green waste compost on mineral nitrogen, nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide from a Vertisol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaughan, Sarah M.; Dalal, Ram C.; Harper, Stephen M.; Menzies, Neal W.

    2011-01-01

    Incorporation of organic waste amendments to a horticultural soil, prior to expected risk periods, could immobilise mineral N, ultimately reducing nitrogen (N) losses as nitrous oxide (N 2 O) and leaching. Two organic waste amendments were selected, a fresh green waste (FGW) and green waste compost (GWC) as they had suitable biochemical attributes to initiate N immobilisation into the microbial biomass and organic N forms. These characteristics include a high C:N ratio (FGW 44:1, GWC 35:1), low total N ( 14%). Both products were applied at 3 t C/ha to a high N (plus N fertiliser) or low N (no fertiliser addition) Vertisol soil in PVC columns. Cumulative N 2 O production over the 28 day incubation from the control soil was 1.5 mg/N 2 O/m 2 , and 11 mg/N 2 O/m 2 from the control + N. The N 2 O emission decreased with GWC addition (P 2 O emissions by 38% by the conclusion of the incubation. Analysis of mineral N concentrations at 7, 14 and 28 days identified that both FGW and GWC induced microbial immobilisation of N in the first 7 days of incubation regardless of whether the soil environment was initially high or low in N; with the FGW immobilising up to 30% of available N. It is likely that the reduced mineral N due to N immobilisation led to a reduced substrate for N 2 O production during the first week of the trial, when soil N 2 O emissions peaked. An additional finding was that FGW + N did not decrease cumulative N 2 O emissions compared to the control + N, potentially due to the fact that it stimulated microbial respiration resulting in anaerobic micro sites in the soil and ultimately N 2 O production via denitrification. Therefore, both materials could be used as post harvest amendments in horticulture to minimise N loss through nitrate-N leaching in the risk periods between crop rotations. The mature GWC has potential to reduce N 2 O, an important greenhouse gas.

  6. A delayed diagnosis of unsuspected retinoblastoma in an in vitro fertilisation infant with retinopathy of prematurity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Tian; Xun-Da Ji; Qi Zhang; Jie Peng; Pei-Quan Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Dear Editor,Iam Dr.Tian Tian,from the Department of Ophthalmology,Xin Hua Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine,Shanghai,China.I write to present a rare case report of a delayed diagnosis of unsuspected retinoblastoma(RB)in an in vitro fertilisation(IVF)infant with retinopathy of prematurity.The simultaneous presentation of RB and prematurity of retinopathy(ROP)in an IVF infant is very rare.The relationship between RB and IVF is still indeterminate and mechanisms that lead to ocular or systemic abnormalities

  7. Element budgets of forest biomass combustion and ash fertilisation - a Danish case-study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Morten; Skov, Simon; Sevel, Lisbeth

    2011-01-01

    Harvest of forest biomass for energy production may lead to a significant export of nutrients from the forest. Ash spreading and recycling of nutrients from wood chip combustion to the forest has come into focus as a means for counteracting the nutrient export. This study was carried out to examine...... the retention of various elements in the different ash fractions and utilise the nutrient recovery to evaluate the fertiliser quality of the examined ash. The mass and element flux of wood chips, bottom ash, cyclone fly ash and condensation sludge at Ebeltoft central heating plant was studied over a four day...

  8. Fertilisation et sensibilité des cultures de laitue et de tomate aux bioagresseurs

    OpenAIRE

    Julhia, L.; Nicot, Philippe C.

    2014-01-01

    Les producteurs de légumes sont confrontés à de nouveaux défis avec la réduction de l’usage des produits phytosanitaires. Limiter le recours aux moyens de lutte chimique conduit à revisiter les pratiques et à mettre en oeuvre des stratégies globales à moindre risque phytosanitaire. La fertilisation est examinée dans son action sur la santé des plantes et comme levier dans la gestion des bioagresseurs. L’étude porte sur deux cultures légumières majeures en France, en termes de surfaces, la lai...

  9. Aggregate and Mineral Resources - Minerals

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — This point occurrence data set represents the current mineral and selected energy resources of Utah. The data set coordinates were derived from USGS topographic maps...

  10. Revisión de los principales modelos para aplicar técnicas de Minería de Procesos (Review of models for applying process mining techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Orellana García

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Spanish abstract La minería de procesos constituye una alternativa novedosa para mejorar los procesos en una variedad de dominios de aplicación. Tiene como objetivo extraer información a partir de los datos almacenados en los registros de trazas de los sistemas de información, en busca de errores, inconsistencias, vulnerabilidades y variabilidad en los procesos que se ejecutan. Las técnicas de minería de procesos se utilizan en múltiples sectores, como la industria, los servicios web, la inteligencia de negocios y la salud. Sin embargo, para aplicar estas técnicas existen varios modelos a seguir y poca información sobre cual aplicar, al no contar con un análisis comparativo entre estos. La investigación se centró en recopilar información sobre los principales modelos propuestos por autores de referencia mundial en el tema de minería de procesos para aplicar técnicas en el descubrimiento, chequeo de conformidad y mejoramiento de los procesos. Se realiza un análisis de los mismos en función de seleccionar los elementos y características útiles para su aplicación en el entorno hospitalario. La actual investigación contribuye al desarrollo de un modelo para la detección y análisis de variabilidad en procesos hospitalarios utilizando técnicas de minería de procesos. Permite a los investigadores tener de forma centralizada, los criterios para decidir qué modelo utilizar, o qué fases emplear de uno o más modelos. English abstract Process mining is a novel alternative to improve processes in a variety of application domains. It aims to extract information from data stored in records of traces from information systems, looking for errors, inconsistencies, vulnerabilities and variability in processes that are executing. The process mining techniques are used in multiple sectors such as industry, web services, business intelligence and health. However, to apply these techniques there are several models and little information on

  11. An anti-mosquito mixture for domestic use, combining a fertiliser and a chemical or biological larvicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darriet, Frédéric

    2016-07-01

    Plant saucers are an important larval habitat for Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus in peridomestic situations. Because NPK fertilisers in plant containers tend to enhance the oviposition of these species, we investigated the effects of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis, spinosad, pyriproxyfen and diflubenzuron larvicides in combination with fertiliser on the adult emergence and fecundity of the mosquitoes coming from plant saucers in controlled greenhouse experiments. NPK + larvicide (NPK-LAV) treatments were tested on Ae. aegypti. Each treatment was compared with water and with fertiliser alone on a total of five houseplants and their saucers. The fertilising treatment was renewed every 30-45 days. With less than 5% imaginal emergence, the NPK + spinosad 0.5% treatment remained effective for 30 days. Both NPK + pyriproxyfen 0.1% and NPK + diflubenzuron 0.25% were effective for 45 days. The average number of eggs laid in the three treatments was similar to the NPK treatment, indicating that spinosad, pyriproxyfen and diflubenzuron did not alter the attraction effect of the fertiliser on egg laying. NPK + pyriproxyfen and NPK + diflubenzuron also had ovicidal activity and an important impact on the fecundity of the Ae. aegypti female imagos and the fertility of their eggs. The addition of NPK fertiliser to insecticides can increase larval control of Aedes mosquitoes. This innovative measure for personal protection, which is harmless for both humans and animals, would be an additional support for the community-based actions led by the institutional services for vector control. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Correlation analysis of the progesterone-induced sperm acrosome reaction rate and the fertilisation rate in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, T; Qin, Y; Ye, T; Wang, Y; Pan, J; Zhu, Y; Duan, L; Li, K; Teng, X

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate whether progesterone-induced acrosome reaction (AR) rate could be an indicator for fertilisation rate in vitro. Twenty-six couples with unexplained infertility and undergoing in vitro fertilisation (IVF) treatment were involved. On the oocytes retrieval day after routine IVF, residual sperm samples were collected to receive progesterone induction (progesterone group) or not (control group). AR rate was calculated and fertilisation rate was recorded. The correlation between progesterone-induced AR and fertilisation rate and between sperm normal morphology and 3PN (tripronuclear) were analysed using the Spearman correlation analysis. The AR rate of progesterone group was statistically higher than that of the control group (15.6 ± 5.88% versus 9.66 ± 5.771%, P rate (r = -0.053, P > 0.01) or rate of high-quality embryo development (r = -0.055, P > 0.01). Normal sperm morphology also showed no significant correlation with the amount of 3PN zygotes (r = 0.029, P > 0.01), rate of 3PN zygotes production (r = 0.20, P > 0.01), rate of 3PN embryo development (r = -0.406, P > 0.01), fertilisation rate (r = -0.148, P > 0.01) or progesterone-induced AR rate (r = 0.214, P > 0.01). Progesterone can induce AR in vitro significantly; however, the progesterone-induced AR may not be used to indicate fertilisation rate. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. The performance of a white clover-based dairy system in comparison with a grass/fertiliser-N system. II. Animal production, economics and environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schils, R.L.M.; Boxem, T.; Jagtenberg, C.J.; Verboom, M.C.

    2000-01-01

    The performance of a white clover based dairy system in comparison with a grass/fertiliser-N system was studied during three years. Both systems had 59 cows, plus young stock, on an area of 40.6 ha for grass/clover and 34.4 ha for grass/fertiliser-N. During the grazing season, the cows in both

  14. The effect of a multifaceted empowerment strategy on decision making about the number of embryos transferred in in vitro fertilisation: randomised controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peperstraten, A.M. van; Nelen, W.L.D.M.; Grol, R.P.T.M.; Zielhuis, G.A.; Adang, E.M.M.; Stalmeier, P.F.M.; Hermens, R.P.M.G.; Kremer, J.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of a multifaceted empowerment strategy on the actual use of single embryo transfer after in vitro fertilisation. DESIGN: Randomised controlled trial. SETTING: Five in vitro fertilisation clinics in the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: 308 couples (women aged <40) on the

  15. Effects of tillage, organic resources and nitrogen fertiliser on soil carbon dynamics and crop nitrogen uptake in semi-arid West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouédraogo, E.; Mando, A.; Stroosnijder, L.

    2006-01-01

    Tillage, organic resources and fertiliser effects on soil carbon (C) dynamics were investigated in 2000 and 2001 in Burkina Faso (West Africa). A split plot design with four replications was laid-out on a loamy-sand Ferric Lixisol with till and no-till as main treatments and fertiliser types as

  16. Simulation Modeling of Resilience Assessment in Indonesian Fertiliser Industry Supply Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utami, I. D.; Holt, R. J.; McKay, A.

    2018-01-01

    Supply network resilience is a significant aspect in the performance of the Indonesian fertiliser industry. Decision makers use risk assessment and port management reports to evaluate the availability of infrastructure. An opportunity was identified to incorporate both types of data into an approach for the measurement of resilience. A framework, based on a synthesis of literature and interviews with industry practitioners, covering both social and technical factors is introduced. A simulation model was then built to allow managers to explore implications for resilience and predict levels of risk in different scenarios. Result of interview with respondens from Indonesian fertiliser industry indicated that the simulation model could be valuable in the assessment. This paper provides details of the simulation model for decision makers to explore levels of risk in supply networks. For practitioners, the model could be used by government to assess the current condition of supply networks in Indonesian industries. On the other hand, for academia, the approach provides a new application of agent-based models in research on supply network resilience and presents a real example of how agent-based modeling could be used as to support the assessment approach.

  17. Fertiliser drawn forward osmosis process: Pilot-scale desalination of mine impaired water for fertigation

    KAUST Repository

    Phuntsho, Sherub; Kim, Jung Eun; Johir, Mohammad AH; Hong, Seungkwan; Li, Zhenyu; Ghaffour, NorEddine; Leiknes, TorOve; Shon, Ho Kyong

    2016-01-01

    The pilot-scale fertiliser driven forward osmosis (FDFO) and nanofiltration (NF) system was operated in the field for about six months for the desalination of saline groundwater from the coal mining activities. Long-term operation of the FDFO-NF system indicates that simple hydraulic cleaning could effectively restore the water flux with minimal chemical cleaning frequency. No fouling/scaling issues were encountered with the NF post-treatment process. The study indicates that, FDFO-NF desalination system can produce water quality that meets fertigation standard. This study also however shows that, the diffusion of solutes (both feed and draw) through the cellulose triacetate (CTA) FO membrane could be one of the major issues. The FO feed brine failed to meet the effluent discharge standard for NH4+ and SO42+ (reverse diffusion) and their concentrations are expected to further increase at higher feed recovery rates. Low rejection of feed salts (Na+, Cl−) by FO membrane may result in their gradual build-up in the fertiliser draw solution (DS) in a closed FDFO-NF system eventually affecting the final water quality unless it is balanced by adequate bleeding from the system through NF and re-reverse diffusion towards the FO feed brine. Therefore, FO membrane with higher reverse flux selectivity than the CTA-FO membrane used in this study is necessary for the application of the FDFO desalination process.

  18. PHYSIOLOGICAL MATURATION IN SEEDS OF SWEET SOGHUM FOR FOLIAR FERTILISATION WITH SILICATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRUNO FRANÇA DA TRINDADE LESSA

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate physiological quality in seeds of sweet sorghum grown under semi-arid conditions, and to determine the age of physiological maturity of the seeds as a function of the foliar application of potassium silicate. The experiment was carried out at the Curu Valley Experimental Farm, in Pentecoste in the state of Ceará, during the rainy seasons of 2014 and 2015. The BRS 506 and BRS 511 varieties were used, under foliar fertilisation with potassium silicate at doses of 500, 1000 and 1500 mL.ha -1, in addition to the control lots (with no application; harvesting was at four periods, 30, 37, 44 and 51 days after full bloom (DAB. The percentage and speed of germination were evaluated, together with the accelerated ageing test and seedling growth. The seeds presented greater than 90% germination from 37 DAB, reaching high seedling vigour at 51 DAB. Foliar fertilisation with potassium silicate under the conditions of the experiment resulted in an increase in the physiological quality of the seeds. The BRS 506 and BRS 511 cultivars displayed the highest physiological quality between 49 and 53 DAF.

  19. Desperately seeking donors: the 'saviour sibling' decision in Quintavalle v Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (UK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, Barbara Ann; Guy, Scott

    2005-08-01

    The recent House of Lords decision in Quintavalle v Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority has raised difficult and complex issues regarding the extent to which embryo selection and reproductive technology can be used as a means of rectifying genetic disorders and treating critically ill children. This comment outlines the facts of Quintavalle and explores how the House of Lords approached the legal, ethical and policy issues that arose out of the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority's (UK) decision to allow reproductive and embryo technology to be used to produce a 'saviour sibling' whose tissue could be used to save the life of a critically ill child. Particular attention will be given to the implications of the decision in Quintavalle for Australian family and medical law and policy. As part of this focus, the comment explores the current Australian legislative and policy framework regarding the use of genetic and reproductive technology as a mechanism through which to assist critically ill siblings. It is argued that the present Australian framework would appear to impose significant limits on the medical uses of genetic technology and, in this context, would seem to reflect many of the principles that were articulated by the House of Lords in Quintavalle.

  20. Fertiliser drawn forward osmosis process: Pilot-scale desalination of mine impaired water for fertigation

    KAUST Repository

    Phuntsho, Sherub

    2016-02-20

    The pilot-scale fertiliser driven forward osmosis (FDFO) and nanofiltration (NF) system was operated in the field for about six months for the desalination of saline groundwater from the coal mining activities. Long-term operation of the FDFO-NF system indicates that simple hydraulic cleaning could effectively restore the water flux with minimal chemical cleaning frequency. No fouling/scaling issues were encountered with the NF post-treatment process. The study indicates that, FDFO-NF desalination system can produce water quality that meets fertigation standard. This study also however shows that, the diffusion of solutes (both feed and draw) through the cellulose triacetate (CTA) FO membrane could be one of the major issues. The FO feed brine failed to meet the effluent discharge standard for NH4+ and SO42+ (reverse diffusion) and their concentrations are expected to further increase at higher feed recovery rates. Low rejection of feed salts (Na+, Cl−) by FO membrane may result in their gradual build-up in the fertiliser draw solution (DS) in a closed FDFO-NF system eventually affecting the final water quality unless it is balanced by adequate bleeding from the system through NF and re-reverse diffusion towards the FO feed brine. Therefore, FO membrane with higher reverse flux selectivity than the CTA-FO membrane used in this study is necessary for the application of the FDFO desalination process.

  1. Fumarolic minerals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balic Zunic, Tonci; Garavelli, Anna; Jakobsson, Sveinn Peter

    2016-01-01

    The fumarolic mineralogy of the Icelandic active volcanoes, the Tyrrhenian volcanic belt (Italy) and the Aegean active arc (Greece) is investigated, and literature data surveyed in order to define the characteristics of the European fumarolic systems. They show broad diversity of mineral...... associations, with Vesuvius and Vulcano being also among the world localities richest in mineral species. Volcanic systems, which show recession over a longer period, show fumarolic development from the hightemperature alkaline halide/sulphate, calcic sulphate or sulphidic parageneses, synchronous...... with or immediately following the eruptions, through mediumtemperature ammonium minerals, metal chlorides, or fluoride associations to the late low-temperature paragenesis dominated by sulphur, gypsum, alunogen, and other hydrous sulphates. The situation can be different in the systems that are not recessing but show...

  2. Mineral Commodity Summaries 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2009-01-01

    Each chapter of the 2009 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS) includes information on events, trends, and issues for each mineral commodity as well as discussions and tabular presentations on domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, 5-year salient statistics, and world production and resources. The MCS is the earliest comprehensive source of 2008 mineral production data for the world. More than 90 individual minerals and materials are covered by two-page synopses. For mineral commodities for which there is a Government stockpile, detailed information concerning the stockpile status is included in the two-page synopsis. Because specific information concerning committed inventory was no longer available from the Defense Logistics Agency, National Defense Stockpile Center, that information, which was included in earlier Mineral Commodity Summaries publications, has been deleted from Mineral Commodity Summaries 2009. National reserves and reserve base information for most mineral commodities found in this report, including those for the United States, are derived from a variety of sources. The ideal source of such information would be comprehensive evaluations that apply the same criteria to deposits in different geographic areas and report the results by country. In the absence of such evaluations, national reserves and reserve base estimates compiled by countries for selected mineral commodities are a primary source of national reserves and reserve base information. Lacking national assessment information by governments, sources such as academic articles, company reports, common business practice, presentations by company representatives, and trade journal articles, or a combination of these, serve as the basis for national reserves and reserve base information reported in the mineral commodity sections of this publication. A national estimate may be assembled from the following: historically reported

  3. Mineral sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents an outlook of the Australian mineral sand industry and covers the major operators. It is shown that conscious of an environmentally minded public, the Australian miners have led the way in the rehabilitation of mined areas. Moreover the advanced ceramic industry is generating exciting new perspectives for zircon producers and there is a noticeable growth in the electronic market for rare earths, but in long term the success may depend as much on environmental management and communication skills as on mining and processing skills

  4. Long-term effects of fertilisation regime on earthworm abundance in a semi-natural grassland area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, A.; Bos, D.; Ouwehand, J.; Goede, de R.G.M.

    2006-01-01

    Environmental protection organisations involved in farmland-bird conservation promote the use of organic fertilisers, especially farmyard manure, to enhance the availability of earthworms, which are an important prey for farmland-birds. We studied changes in earthworm numbers in a field experiment

  5. Multiple meiotic errors caused by predivision of chromatids in women of advanced maternal age undergoing in vitro fertilisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Handyside, Alan H.; Montag, Markus; Magli, M. Cristina; Repping, Sjoerd; Harper, Joyce; Schmutzler, Andreas; Vesela, Katerina; Gianaroli, Luca; Geraedts, Joep

    2012-01-01

    Chromosome aneuploidy is a major cause of pregnancy loss, abnormal pregnancy and live births following both natural conception and in vitro fertilisation (IVF) and increases exponentially with maternal age in the decade preceding the menopause. Molecular genetic analysis following natural conception

  6. Assessment of agro-ecological service crop managements combined with organic fertilisation strategies in organic melon crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela Diacono

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In organic horticultural systems, cover crops could provide several ecological services, therefore, they can be defined agroecological service crops (ASCs. The objective of this two-year research was to study the suitability on melon production of different ASC termination strategies, in combination with organic fertilisers application. In a split-block design, the main-plot was the ASC management, comparing: i green manure, in which the vetch was chopped and plowed into the soil; and ii roller-crimper (RC, in which the vetch was flattened by a roller-crimper; with iii fallow control, without vetch. The subplot consisted of offfarm organic inputs: i commercial humified fertiliser; ii anaerobic digestate fertiliser; iii composted municipal solid wastes; which were compared to iv unfertilised control (N0. At vetch termination, above soil biomass and nitrogen (N content were determined. At harvesting, crop yield performance and quality, N status and N efficiency were investigated. Also, main soil characteristics were assessed at the end of the trial. Among the ASC managements, the slightly reduced yield in the RC plots particularly in combination with N0 might have been the result of less N supplied by the vetch during the melon cycle. Anyway, no negative effects were observed for yield quality. The use of the RC showed a great potential in enhancing soil fertility. Our study suggests the suitability in organic farming of properly matching management of ASC and fertilisation strategies on melon crop.

  7. Nitrogen fertilisation increases biogenic amines and amino acid concentrations in Vitis vinifera var. Riesling musts and wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Inga; Pfliehinger, Marco; Binner, Antonie; Großmann, Manfred; Horst, Walter J; Löhnertz, Otmar

    2014-08-01

    Wines rich in biogenic amines can cause adverse health effects to the consumer. Being nitrogen-containing substances, the amount of amines in wines might be strongly influenced by the rate of nitrogen fertiliser application during grape production. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of nitrogen fertilisation in the vineyard on the formation of biogenic amines in musts and wines. In a field experiment which compared unfertilised and fertilised (60 and 150 kg N ha(-1)) vines over two separate years, the total amine concentrations in must and wine increased. The latter was due to an increase of individual amines such as ethylamine, histamine, isopentylamine, phenylethylamine and spermidine in the musts and wines with the nitrogen application. Furthermore, the fermentation process increased the concentration of histamine and ethylamine in most of the treatments, while spermidine, spermine and isopentylamine concentrations generally decreased. Throughout both vintages, the concentrations of tyramine and histamine of the investigated musts and wines never reached detrimental levels to the health of non-allergenic people. Nitrogen fertilisation has a significant effect on amines formation in musts and wines. Furthermore, during fermentation, ethylamine and histamine increased while other amines were presumably serving as N sources during fermentation. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Farmer perceptions and use of organic waste products as fertilisers – A survey study of potential benefits and barriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Case, S.D.C.; Oelofse, M.; Hou, Y.; Oenema, O.; Jensen, L.S.

    2017-01-01

    Processing of organic waste can improve its nutrient availability and content, and thereby increases the agricultural value of the waste when used as fertilisers, while contributing to a more bio-based, ‘circular’ economy. It is therefore important to guide future policies on waste management and

  9. Successful pregnancy after rituximab in a women with recurrent in vitro fertilisation failures and anti-phospholipid antibody positive.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ng, C T

    2012-02-01

    We report a case of successful pregnancy after rituximab in a patient with a history of in vitro fertilisation (IVF) failures and positive anti-cardiolipin antibody (ACA). Following a course of rituximab, her ACA became negative and she successfully conceived with IVF treatment. This is the first case in literature describing the use of rituximab therapy in this clinical scenario.

  10. Timing for a sustainable fertilisation of Glycine max by using HBED/Fe3+ and EDDHA/Fe3+ chelates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Fernández, Clara; López-Rayo, Sandra; Hernández-Apaolaza, Lourdes; Lucena, Juan J

    2017-07-01

    Efficient use of Fe chelates is crucial to avoid environmental risks and reduce economic losses. HBED/Fe 3+ has been recently approved by the European Union for soil fertilisation, but studies delving into the best timing for its application are necessary. In this work, a batch incubation experiment and two biological experiments were developed to determine the optimal physiological stage for a sustainable application of HBED/Fe 3+ in soil fertilisation compared with EDDHA/Fe 3+ fertilisers using 57 Fe. HBED/Fe 3+ demonstrated a high durability in soils and soil materials, maintaining more than 80% of Fe chelated after 70 days, and its application at an early physiological stage resulted in a high Fe accumulation in soybean and soil after 36 days. In contrast, the stability of EDDHA/Fe 3+ decreased because of the retention of its lowest stable isomers. The best timing for chelates application was confirmed in a 52 day experiment. The application of HBED/Fe 3+ at the early stage increased the Fe translocation to fruits; while o,o-EDDHA/Fe 3+ accumulated more Fe in fruits when added at the fructification stage. The high HBED/Fe 3+ stability in calcareous soil requires a differentiate application timing, and its addition at early physiological stages leads into the most efficient fertilisation. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Ectomycorrhizal fungi as an alternative to the use of chemical fertilisers in nursery production of Pinus pinaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Nadine R; Franco, Albina R; Oliveira, Rui S; Castro, Paula M L

    2012-03-01

    Addition of fertilisers is a common practice in nursery production of conifer seedlings. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi can be an alternative to the use of chemical fertilisers in the nursery production of Pinus pinaster. A greenhouse nursery experiment was conducted by inoculating seedlings obtained from seeds of P. pinaster plus trees with a range of compatible ECM fungi: (1) Thelephora terrestris, (2) Rhizopogon vulgaris, (3) a mixture of Pisolithus tinctorius and Scleroderma citrinum, and (4) a mixture of Suillus bovinus, Laccaria laccata and Lactarius deterrimus, using forest soil as substrate. Plant development was assessed at two levels of N-P-K fertiliser (0 or 600 mg/seedling). Inoculation with a mixture of mycelium from S. bovinus, L. laccata and L. deterrimus and with a mixture of spores of P. tinctorius and S. citrinum improved plant growth and nutrition, without the need of fertiliser. Results indicate that selected ECM fungi can be a beneficial biotechnological tool in nursery production of P. pinaster. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Proceedings of XXIV international mineral processing congress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Dianzuo; Sun Chuan Yao; Wang Fu Liang; Zhang Li Cheng; Han Long (eds.)

    2008-07-01

    Topics covered in volume 1 include applied mineralogy, comminution, classification, physical separation, flotation chemistry, sulphide flotation, non-sulphide flotation and reagent in mineral industry. Volume 2 covers processing of complex ores, processing of industrial minerals and coal, solid liquid separation, dispersion and aggregation, process simulation, expert systems and control of mineral processing, biohydrometallurgy, and mineral chemical processing. Volume 3 contains powder technology, mineral materials, treatment and recycling for solid wastes, waste water treatment, secondary resource recovery, soil remediation, concentrator engineering and process design, and application of mineral processing in related industry. It includes a CD-ROM of the proceedings.

  13. Hydrothermal minerals

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nath, B.N.

    flux. Circulation of seawater through the oceanic crust and upper mantle gives rise to a complex series of physical and chemical reactions that lead to the 1) formation of seafloor mineral deposits; 2) alteration of oceanic crust; 3) control... temperature in the high-temperature reaction zone near the heat source. Important parameters in determining the high- temperature fluid composition are • pressure, • temperature, • water/rock ratio, • rock composition, • recharge fluid...

  14. Occupational exposures in two industrial plants devoted to the production of ammonium phosphate fertilisers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolívar, J P; Mosqueda, F; Gázquez, M J; López-Coto, I; Vaca, F; García-Tenorio, R; Adame, J A

    2013-01-01

    In order to fill a gap in the open literature, occupational exposures and activity concentrations have been assessed in two NORM industrial plants, located in the south-west of Spain, devoted to the production of mono-ammonium phosphate (MAP) and di-ammonium phosphate (DAP) fertilisers. The annual effective doses received by the workers from these plants are clearly below 1 mSv yr −1 and the contribution due to external radiation is similar to that due to inhalation. The contribution to the maximum effective doses due to inhalation of particulate matter has been estimated to be about 0.12 mSv yr −1 , while the 222 Rn concentrations inside the plants are of no concern. Consequently, no additional actions or radiological protection measures need to be taken to decrease the natural radiation received by the workers in these facilities. (paper)

  15. Epiphytic lichen community dynamics in deciduous forests around a phosphorus fertiliser factory in Central Lithuania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motiejunaite, Jurga [Department of Mycology, Institute of Botany, LT-08406 Vilnius 21 (Lithuania)]. E-mail: mikojm@botanika.lt

    2007-03-15

    The detailed dynamics of epiphytic lichen communities were observed while studying permanent quadrats in the zone of influence of a phosphorus fertiliser factory in central Lithuania. The most significant changes were induced by several factors: changes in macroenvironment (increase of illumination), bark scaling, succession processes, individual growth characteristics of the community members, and influence of fungal infection and invertebrate grazing. None of these changes could be directly linked with air pollution. These observations have shown that in conditions of more or less stable pollution, epiphytic community dynamics should be evaluated with care, the best indicators of the characteristics of the communities being species richness and presence/absence and abundance of indicator (nitrophilous or acidophilous) species. - Biotic factors are important when evaluating dynamics of epiphytic communities in polluted areas.

  16. Phosphate fertilisers and management for sustainable crop production in tropical acid soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chien, S.H.; Friesen, D.K.

    2000-01-01

    Extensive research has been conducted over the past 25 years on the management of plant nutrients, especially N and P, for crop production on acidic infertile tropical soils. Under certain conditions, the use of indigenous phosphate rock (PR) and modified PR products, such as partially acidulated PR or compacted mixtures of PR with superphosphates, are attractive alternatives, both agronomically and economically, to the use of conventional water-soluble P fertilisers for increasing crop productivity on Oxisols and Ultisols. A combination of the effects of proper P and N management including biological N 2 fixation, judicious use of lime, and the use of acid-soil tolerant and/or P-efficient cultivars in cropping systems that enhance nutrient cycling and use efficiency, can provide an effective technology to sustainably increase crop productivity and production in tropical agro-ecosystems dominated by these acid soils. (author)

  17. Epiphytic lichen community dynamics in deciduous forests around a phosphorus fertiliser factory in Central Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motiejunaite, Jurga

    2007-01-01

    The detailed dynamics of epiphytic lichen communities were observed while studying permanent quadrats in the zone of influence of a phosphorus fertiliser factory in central Lithuania. The most significant changes were induced by several factors: changes in macroenvironment (increase of illumination), bark scaling, succession processes, individual growth characteristics of the community members, and influence of fungal infection and invertebrate grazing. None of these changes could be directly linked with air pollution. These observations have shown that in conditions of more or less stable pollution, epiphytic community dynamics should be evaluated with care, the best indicators of the characteristics of the communities being species richness and presence/absence and abundance of indicator (nitrophilous or acidophilous) species. - Biotic factors are important when evaluating dynamics of epiphytic communities in polluted areas

  18. Epiphytic lichen community dynamics in deciduous forests around a phosphorus fertiliser factory in Central Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motiejūnaite, Jurga

    2007-03-01

    The detailed dynamics of epiphytic lichen communities were observed while studying permanent quadrats in the zone of influence of a phosphorus fertiliser factory in central Lithuania. The most significant changes were induced by several factors: changes in macroenvironment (increase of illumination), bark scaling, succession processes, individual growth characteristics of the community members, and influence of fungal infection and invertebrate grazing. None of these changes could be directly linked with air pollution. These observations have shown that in conditions of more or less stable pollution, epiphytic community dynamics should be evaluated with care, the best indicators of the characteristics of the communities being species richness and presence/absence and abundance of indicator (nitrophilous or acidophilous) species.

  19. Hygiene versus fertiliser the use of human excreta in agriculture - a Vietnamese example

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Kjær Mackie; Phuc, Pham Duc; Knudsen, Line Gram

    2008-01-01

    The use of human excreta as fertiliser in agriculture is a common practice in parts of South East Asia benefiting production but at the same time a risk factor for increased helminth infections. This paper describes the hygienic handling of human excreta for use in agriculture in Central Vietnam...... from a practical farming perspective presenting the farmers perceived health risks and benefits of its use. Further, in the study findings are discussed relating to the new Vietnamese guidelines for the use of human excreta in agriculture to their implications on an on-farm context. A total of 471...... in production, which is short of the 6 months stipulated in the national guidelines. The community associated great benefits from using human excreta in agriculture, especially if composted, and did not associate risks with the use of composted excreta if it was dry and lacked odour. It is recommended...

  20. Multiple Mating, Paternity and Complex Fertilisation Patterns in the Chokka Squid Loligo reynaudii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Jose Naud

    Full Text Available Polyandry is widespread and influences patterns of sexual selection, with implications for sexual conflict over mating. Assessing sperm precedence patterns is a first step towards understanding sperm competition within a female and elucidating the roles of male- and female-controlled factors. In this study behavioural field data and genetic data were combined to investigate polyandry in the chokka squid Loligo reynaudii. Microsatellite DNA-based paternity analysis revealed multiple paternity to be the norm, with 79% of broods sired by at least two males. Genetic data also determined that the male who was guarding the female at the moment of sampling was a sire in 81% of the families tested, highlighting mate guarding as a successful male tactic with postcopulatory benefits linked to sperm deposition site giving privileged access to extruded egg strings. As females lay multiple eggs in capsules (egg strings wherein their position is not altered during maturation it is possible to describe the spatial / temporal sequence of fertilisation / sperm precedence There were four different patterns of fertilisation found among the tested egg strings: 1 unique sire; 2 dominant sire, with one or more rare sires; 3 randomly mixed paternity (two or more sires; and 4 a distinct switch in paternity occurring along the egg string. The latter pattern cannot be explained by a random use of stored sperm, and suggests postcopulatory female sperm choice. Collectively the data indicate multiple levels of male- and female-controlled influences on sperm precedence, and highlights squid as interesting models to study the interplay between sexual and natural selection.

  1. Long-term fertilisation causes excess supply and loss of phosphorus in purple paddy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue-Qiang; Wen, Ming-Xia; Li, Xue-Ping; Shi, Xiao-Jun

    2014-04-01

    Phosphorus (P) loss from cropland is accelerating the eutrophication of waters around the world such as the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) in China. We investigated whether purple paddy soil under long-term P applications was a major source of P efflux to the TGR. Substantial surplus P in the plough layer (0-20 cm) was evident after 15-year P applications. Available P (Olsen-P) in the plough layer ranged from 1.9 to 42.4 mg kg(-1) and some of which will exceed the threshold of 30 mg kg(-1) for environmental concern within 7 years of P application (inorganic NPK with or without organic fertiliser). Between 30 and 70% of Olsen-P was leached out of the 0-30 cm soil layer. Surplus P resulted in high P concentrations in the surface water during the rice cropping season, and these concentrations exceeded those in most waters of the TGR and exceeded the critical level for eutrophication (0.1 mg L(-1)) during the first 10 days after rice planting. Furthermore, total P in run-off due to rainfall events exceeded the level for eutrophication, with a total loss of 43.2-147.9 g P ha(-1) depending on the fertilisation. Current agronomic P management in purple paddy soil is environmentally unsustainable in terms of the adverse impact on surface water quality. Integrated P management practices are urgently required to optimise crop yield while minimising P loss in order to protect surface water quality in the TGR region. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. The impact of the time interval on in-vitro fertilisation success after failure of the first attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayoglu Tekin, Y; Ceyhan, S T; Kilic, S; Korkmaz, C

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the optimal time interval for in-vitro fertilisation that would increase treatment success after failure of the first attempt. This retrospective study evaluated 454 consecutive cycles of 227 infertile women who had two consecutive attempts within a 6-month period at an IVF centre. Data were collected on duration of stimulation, consumption of gonadotropin, numbers of retrieved oocytes, mature oocytes, fertilised eggs, good quality embryos on day 3/5 following oocyte retrieval and clinical and ongoing pregnancy. There were significant increases in clinical pregnancy rates at 2-, 3- and 4-month intervals. The maximum increase was after two menstrual cycles (p = 0.001). The highest rate of ongoing pregnancy was in women that had the second attempt after the next menstrual cycle following failure of IVF (27.2%). After IVF failure, initiating the next attempt within 2-4 months increases the clinical pregnancy rates.

  3. The effect of soil and foliar applications of magnesium fertilisers on yields and quality of vine (Vitis vinifera, L. grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Zatloukalová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A one-year field trial was established with the vine variety Ryzlink vlašský (Riesling italico to evaluate the effect of spring soil applications and 5x repeated foliar application of magnesium fertilisers on yields and quality of grapes. On light soil of the experimental locality Žabčice (ca 25 km south of Brno visual symptoms of Mg deficiency on vine leaves had been monitored in the past. The experiment involved 4 treatments: 1 unfertilised control; 2 spring soil application of Kieserite – 20 kg Mg.ha−1; 3 5x foliar application of a 5% solution of Epso Combitop – Mg, S, Mn, Zn; 11.8 kg Mg.ha−1; 4 5x foliar applications of a 5% solution of Epso Top – Mg, S; 14.8 kg Mg.ha−1.No significant differences among the treatments were detected in the contents of K (1.40–1.67% and Ca (1.63–1.91% in leaves sampled after the applications. After foliar applications the contents of Mg and S significantly increased in treatments 3–4 to 0.42–0.49% and 0.34–0.40 %, respectively compared to treatments 1–2 (0.29–0.30% and 0.22%, respectively. The content of Zn (173–380 mg.kg−1 and Mn (90–551 mg.kg−1 increased significantly in treatment 3 compared to the other treatments. The chlorophyll index did not differ among the treatments. Grape yields (t.ha−1 in treatments 1–4 were the following: 7.04–8.16–7.51–7.26 t.ha−1, respectively. Only the soil-applied treatment 2 differed significantly from the other treatments. The content of sugar (16.5–17.9 °NM, titratable acids (12.78–13.25 g.l−1 and the pH of must (3.02–3.11 did not differ among the treatments.

  4. Lost food, wasted resources: global food supply chain losses and their impacts on freshwater, cropland, and fertiliser use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummu, M; de Moel, H; Porkka, M; Siebert, S; Varis, O; Ward, P J

    2012-11-01

    Reducing food losses and waste is considered to be one of the most promising measures to improve food security in the coming decades. Food losses also affect our use of resources, such as freshwater, cropland, and fertilisers. In this paper we estimate the global food supply losses due to lost and wasted food crops, and the resources used to produce them. We also quantify the potential food supply and resource savings that could be made by reducing food losses and waste. We used publically available global databases to conduct the study at the country level. We found that around one quarter of the produced food supply (614 kcal/cap/day) is lost within the food supply chain (FSC). The production of these lost and wasted food crops accounts for 24% of total freshwater resources used in food crop production (27 m(3)/cap/yr), 23% of total global cropland area (31 × 10(-3)ha/cap/yr), and 23% of total global fertiliser use (4.3 kg/cap/yr). The per capita use of resources for food losses is largest in North Africa & West-Central Asia (freshwater and cropland) and North America & Oceania (fertilisers). The smallest per capita use of resources for food losses is found in Sub-Saharan Africa (freshwater and fertilisers) and in Industrialised Asia (cropland). Relative to total food production, the smallest food supply and resource losses occur in South & Southeast Asia. If the lowest loss and waste percentages achieved in any region in each step of the FSC could be reached globally, food supply losses could be halved. By doing this, there would be enough food for approximately one billion extra people. Reducing the food losses and waste would thus be an important step towards increased food security, and would also increase the efficiency of resource use in food production. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of Tithonia diversifolia, farmyard manure and urea, and phosphate fertiliser application methods on maize yields in western Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Asbon Opala

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Maize production in western Kenya is often limited by deficiencies of nitrogen and phosphorus. We assessed the effectiveness of Tithonia diversifolia green manure (tithonia, farmyard manure (FYM and urea as sources of nitrogen (N for maize when inorganic phosphorus (P fertiliser was either broadcast (BR or spot-placed in the planting hole (SP for two consecutive seasons; October to December of 1998 and April to August of 1999 at two sites; Nyabeda and Khwisero in western Kenya. A randomised complete block design with four replications was used. Maize yields were higher at Nyabeda and responded to P application better than at Khwisero. At the same N rate, tithonia and FYM were as effective as urea in increasing maize yields at both sites. There were no significant differences in maize yields when phosphate fertiliser was either BR or SP regardless of the N source used in the first season. However, in the second season, the residual yields for the BR treatments were consistently higher than those of the SP. Our results suggest that tithonia and FYM can substitute for urea as N sources and that fertiliser P should be broadcast and incorporated together with the organic materials at the time of planting to save on labour costs.

  6. IONIC EQUILIBRIUM IN MAIZE GRAIN DEPENDING ON THE FERTILISATION AND SOIL TYPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara MURAWSKA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was performed over 2004-2009 based on the two-factor micro-plot experiment located at Wierzchucinek. Maize grown for grain in monoculture constituted the test crop. The aim of the present paper was to determine the effect of a varied sulphur fertilisation and Basfoliar 36 Extra as well as the soil type on the yield size and the ionic equilibrium of ‘LG 2244’ cultivar maize grain. The mean contents of cations in grain varied considerably and could be classified as follows: Mg >K >Ca > Na. Consequently, those contents, in general resulted in the narrowing of the value of ratios K/(Ca+Mg, Ca/Mg and K/Mg, and widening of the value of ratios K/Ca and K/Na. The interaction of the factors investigated differentiated the value of ratio K:Mg; one of the essential ionic ratios determining the quality of crops allocated to animal feed.

  7. Seeking conception: experiences of urban Indian women with in vitro fertilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widge, Anjali

    2005-12-01

    This paper reports on a study of involuntarily childless Indian women/couples seeking in vitro fertilisation (IVF). The focus is on the social context of infertility and on women's perceptions of and experiences with IVF. Twenty-two childless women/couples who sought IVF. The sample was drawn from consenting clients of clinics in two major Indian cities, viz. New Delhi and Mumbai. In-depth interviews revealed that infertility is deeply feared, women's status and security are affected, and they experience stigmatisation and isolation. IVF was pursued after less intrusive avenues had been exhausted. Inadequate information/counselling is provided, success rates are low, IVF is commercialised and the process is physiologically, emotionally and financially stressful. In Indian society fertility defines womanhood and motherhood, and infertility is stigmatised. Women faced a lot of pressures to produce a biological child, and go through all kinds of treatments, including the expensive ARTs, to have a child. Integration of infertility services into the state's reproductive health programme and disseminate information on infertility and to offer other appropriate choices, such as adoption. Effective counselling on coping with psychosocial/sexual problems. Monitoring of the prevalence of sex preselection.

  8. Stopped-flow injection method for determination of phosphate in soils and fertilisers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroon Jakmunee

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available A stopped-flow injection system for the determination of phosphate has been developed. It involves the phosphate-molybdate-ascorbic acid reactions in the molybdenum blue method. The system is controlled by a semi-automatic stopped-FI analyser with a light emitting diode (LED-colorimeter for monitoring the absorbance change relating to the concentration of a reaction product formed during the stopping period while the injected zone of a standard or sample is being in the flow cell. The slope of the FIAgram obtained is linearly proportional to the reaction rate, which depends on the phosphate concentration. Effects of concentration of reagents, viz. sodium molybdate, ascorbic acid and nitric acid, on the slope of the FIAgram were studied. The suitable concentration is 0.02 M, 0.25 %w/v and 0.15 M, respectively. A linear calibration graph in the range of 0.3-6.0 mg P L-1 was employed for the determination of phosphate in soil and fertiliser samples. The results obtained agree well with those from a standard spectrophotometric method.

  9. Pre-treatment preferences and characteristics among patients seeking in vitro fertilisation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, Anthony Ph

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study sought to describe patient features before beginning fertility treatment, and to ascertain their perceptions relative to risk of twin pregnancy outcomes associated with such therapy. METHODS: Data on readiness for twin pregnancy outcome from in vitro fertilisation (IVF) was gathered from men and women before initiating fertility treatment by anonymous questionnaire. RESULTS: A total of 206 women and 204 men were sampled. Mean (+\\/- SD) age for women and men being 35.5 +\\/- 5 and 37.3 +\\/- 7 yrs, respectively. At least one IVF cycle had been attempted by 27.2% of patients and 33.9% of this subgroup had initiated >\\/=3 cycles, reflecting an increase in previous failed cycles over five years. Good agreement was noted between husbands and wives with respect to readiness for twins from IVF (77% agreement; Cohen\\'s K = 0.61; 95% CI 0.53 to 0.70). CONCLUSION: Most patients contemplating IVF already have ideas about particular outcomes even before treatment begins, and suggests that husbands & wives are in general agreement on their readiness for twin pregnancy from IVF. However, fertility patients now may represent a more refractory population and therefore carry a more guarded prognosis. Patient preferences identified before IVF remain important, but further studies comparing pre- and post-treatment perceptions are needed.

  10. Endurance with partnership: a preliminary conceptual framework for couples undergoing in vitro fertilisation treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Liying; Wu, Lai Har; Wu, Xiangli; Shu, Jing; Loke, Alice Yuen

    2018-04-01

    Infertility affects both women and men in the physical, emotional, existential, and interpersonal realms. When couples seek in vitro fertilisation (IVF) treatment, they further suffer from the difficulties of the treatment and the uncertainty of its outcome. The aim of this study was to develop a preliminary conceptual framework for couples undergoing IVF treatment to give health professionals a better understanding of the experiences of such couples, and to guide the development of an intervention. The process of identifying frameworks adopted in intervention studies confirmed that there is no established framework for infertile couples undergoing IVF treatment. A skeletal framework identified from previous studies provides an internal structure for the proposed framework for couples undergoing IVF treatment, filled out with concepts drawn from a concept analysis and a qualitative study, knitting the structure together. This preliminary framework is the Endurance with Partnership Conceptual Framework (P-EPCF). It consists of four domains: the impacts of infertility and stressors, dyadic mediators, dyadic moderators and dyadic outcomes. According to the P-EPCF, the impacts of infertility and IVF treatment can be mediated by the couples' partnership and dyadic coping. Improvements in the psychological well-being and marital functioning of IVF couples can then be expected. The P-EPCF would be potentially valuable in guiding the development of a complex, couple-based intervention, which could focus on enhancing the partnership of couples and their coping strategies.

  11. Automated mineralogy based on micro-energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence microscopy (µ-EDXRF) applied to plutonic rock thin sections in comparison to a mineral liberation analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikonow, Wilhelm; Rammlmair, Dieter

    2017-10-01

    Recent developments in the application of micro-energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry mapping (µ-EDXRF) have opened up new opportunities for fast geoscientific analyses. Acquiring spatially resolved spectral and chemical information non-destructively for large samples of up to 20 cm length provides valuable information for geoscientific interpretation. Using supervised classification of the spectral information, mineral distribution maps can be obtained. In this work, thin sections of plutonic rocks are analyzed by µ-EDXRF and classified using the supervised classification algorithm spectral angle mapper (SAM). Based on the mineral distribution maps, it is possible to obtain quantitative mineral information, i.e., to calculate the modal mineralogy, search and locate minerals of interest, and perform image analysis. The results are compared to automated mineralogy obtained from the mineral liberation analyzer (MLA) of a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and show good accordance, revealing variation resulting mostly from the limit of spatial resolution of the µ-EDXRF instrument. Taking into account the little time needed for sample preparation and measurement, this method seems suitable for fast sample overviews with valuable chemical, mineralogical and textural information. Additionally, it enables the researcher to make better and more targeted decisions for subsequent analyses.

  12. Towards an ecologically sustainable energy production based on forest biomass - Forest fertilisation with nutrient rich organic waste matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roegaard, Pia-Maria; Aakerback, Nina; Sahlen, Kenneth; Sundell, Markus [Swedish Polytechnic, Vasa (Finland)

    2006-07-15

    The project is a collaboration between Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Faculty of Forest Sciences in Umeaa, Swedish Polytechnic, Finland in Vaasa and the Finnish Forest Research Institute in Kannus. Today there are pronounced goals within the EU that lead towards an ecologically sustainable community and there is also a global goal to decrease net carbon dioxide emissions. These goals involve among other things efforts to increase the use of renewable biofuel as energy source. This will result in an enlarged demand for biomass for energy production. Therefore, the forest resources in the Nordic countries will be required for energy production to a far greater extent in the future. One way to meet this increased tree biomass demand is to increase forest tree growth through supply of nutrients, of which nitrogen is the most important. Organic nutrient rich waste matter from the society, such as sewage sludge and mink and fox manure compost from fur farms might be used as forest fertilizer. This would result in increased supply of renewable tree biomass, decreased net carbon dioxide emissions, increased forest ecosystem carbon sequestration, decreased methane emissions from sewage sludge landfill and decreased society costs for sludge landfill or incineration. Therefore, the purpose of this project is to develop methods for forest fertilisation with nutrient rich organic waste matter from municipal wastewater, sludge and manure from mink and fox farms. The project may be divided into three main parts. The first part is the chemical composition of the fertiliser with the objective to increase the nitrogen content in sludge-based fertilisers and in compost of mink and fox manure. The second part involves the technique and logistics for forest fertilisation i.e., to develop application equipment that may be integrated in existing forest technical systems. The third part consists of field fertilisation investigations and an environmental impact assessment

  13. Minerals Yearbook, volume I, Metals and Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2018-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industries and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Content of the individual Minerals Yearbook volumes follows:Volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters about virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. Chapters on survey methods, summary statistics for domestic nonfuel minerals, and trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries in the United States are also included.Volume II, Area Reports: Domestic, contains a chapter on the mineral industry of each of the 50 States and Puerto Rico and the Administered Islands. This volume also has chapters on survey methods and summary statistics of domestic nonfuel minerals.Volume III, Area Reports: International, is published as four separate reports. These regional reports contain the latest available minerals data on more than 180 foreign countries and discuss the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations and the United States. Each report begins with an overview of the region’s mineral industries during the year. It continues with individual country chapters that examine the mining, refining, processing, and use of minerals in each country of the region and how each country’s mineral industry relates to U.S. industry. Most chapters include production tables and industry structure tables, information about Government policies and programs that affect the country’s mineral industry, and an outlook section.The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the Minerals Yearbook are welcomed.

  14. Laboratory of minerals purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The laboratory of minerals purification was organized in 1962 where with application of modern physical and chemical methods were investigated the mechanism of flotation reagents interaction with minerals' surface, was elaborated technologies on rising complexity of using of republic's minerals

  15. South Africa's mineral industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-06-01

    The main aim of the Minerals Bureau in presenting this annual review is to provide an up-to-date reference document on the current state of the mineral industry in South Africa. This includes a brief look at the production, trade, economy, resources and deposits of precious metals and minerals, energy minerals, metallic minerals, and non-metallic minerals. One article discusses the production, trade, export, deposits and economy of uranium

  16. Twenty-Two Years of Warming, Fertilisation and Shading of Subarctic Heath Shrubs Promote Secondary Growth and Plasticity but Not Primary Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campioli, Matteo; Leblans, Niki; Michelsen, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Most manipulation experiments simulating global change in tundra were short-term or did not measure plant growth directly. Here, we assessed the growth of three shrubs (Cassiope tetragona, Empetrum hermaphroditum and Betula nana) at a subarctic heath in Abisko (Northern Sweden) after 22 years of warming (passive greenhouses), fertilisation (nutrients addition) and shading (hessian fabric), and compare this to observations from the first decade of treatment. We assessed the growth rate of current-year leaves and apical stem (primary growth) and cambial growth (secondary growth), and integrated growth rates with morphological measurements and species coverage. Primary- and total growth of Cassiope and Empetrum were unaffected by manipulations, whereas growth was substantially reduced under fertilisation and shading (but not warming) for Betula. Overall, shrub height and length tended to increase under fertilisation and warming, whereas branching increased mostly in shaded Cassiope. Morphological changes were coupled to increased secondary growth under fertilisation. The species coverage showed a remarkable increase in graminoids in fertilised plots. Shrub response to fertilisation was positive in the short-term but changed over time, likely because of an increased competition with graminoids. More erected postures and large, canopies (requiring enhanced secondary growth for stem reinforcement) likely compensated for the increased light competition in Empetrum and Cassiope but did not avoid growth reduction in the shade intolerant Betula. The impact of warming and shading on shrub growth was more conservative. The lack of growth enhancement under warming suggests the absence of long-term acclimation for processes limiting biomass production. The lack of negative effects of shading on Cassiope was linked to morphological changes increasing the photosynthetic surface. Overall, tundra shrubs showed developmental plasticity over the longer term. However, such plasticity

  17. Miscellaneous Industrial Mineral Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes miscellaneous industrial minerals operations in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team...

  18. The nitrogen, carbon and greenhouse gas budget of a grazed, cut and fertilised temperate grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Stephanie K.; Helfter, Carole; Anderson, Margaret; Coyle, Mhairi; Campbell, Claire; Famulari, Daniela; Di Marco, Chiara; van Dijk, Netty; Sim Tang, Y.; Topp, Cairistiona F. E.; Kiese, Ralf; Kindler, Reimo; Siemens, Jan; Schrumpf, Marion; Kaiser, Klaus; Nemitz, Eiko; Levy, Peter E.; Rees, Robert M.; Sutton, Mark A.; Skiba, Ute M.

    2017-04-01

    Intensively managed grazed grasslands in temperate climates are globally important environments for the exchange of the greenhouse gases (GHGs) carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4). We assessed the N and C budget of a mostly grazed and occasionally cut and fertilised grassland in SE Scotland by measuring or modelling all relevant imports and exports to the field as well as changes in soil C and N stocks over time. The N budget was dominated by import from inorganic and organic fertilisers (21.9 g N m-2 a-1) and losses from leaching (5.3 g N m-2 a-1), N2 emissions (2.9 g N m-2 a-1), and NOx and NH3 volatilisation (3.9 g N m-2 a-1), while N2O emission was only 0.6 g N m-2 a-1. The efficiency of N use by animal products (meat and wool) averaged 9.9 % of total N input over only-grazed years (2004-2010). On average over 9 years (2002-2010), the balance of N fluxes suggested that 6.0 ± 5.9 g N m-2 a-1 (mean ± confidence interval at p > 0.95) were stored in the soil. The largest component of the C budget was the net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (NEE), at an average uptake rate of 218 ± 155 g C m-2 a-1 over the 9 years. This sink strength was offset by carbon export from the field mainly as grass offtake for silage (48.9 g C m-2 a-1) and leaching (16.4 g C m-2 a-1). The other export terms, CH4 emissions from the soil, manure applications and enteric fermentation, were negligible and only contributed to 0.02-4.2 % of the total C losses. Only a small fraction of C was incorporated into the body of the grazing animals. Inclusion of these C losses in the budget resulted in a C sink strength of 163 ± 140 g C m-2 a-1. By contrast, soil stock measurements taken in May 2004 and May 2011 indicated that the grassland sequestered N in the 0-60 cm soil layer at 4.51 ± 2.64 g N m-2 a-1 and lost C at a rate of 29.08 ± 38.19 g C m-2 a-1. Potential reasons for the discrepancy between these estimates are probably an underestimation of C losses, especially from

  19. Problems of applied geochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovchinnikov, L N

    1983-01-01

    The concept of applied geochemistry was introduced for the first time by A. Ye. Fersman. He linked the branched and complicated questions of geochemistry with specific problems of developing the mineral and raw material base of our country. Geochemical prospecting and geochemistry of mineral raw materials are the most important sections of applied geochemistry. This now allows us the right to view applied geochemistry as a sector of science which applies geochemical methodology, set of geochemical methods of analysis, synthesis, geological interpretation of data based on laws governing theoretical geochemistry to the solution of different tasks of geology, petrology, tectonics, stratigraphy, science of minerals and other geological sciences, and also the technology of mineral raw materials, interrelationships of man and nature (ecogeochemistry, technogeochemistry, agrogeochemistry). The main problem of applied geochemistry, geochemistry of ore fields is the prehistory of ore formation. This is especially important for metallogenic and forecasting constructions, for an understanding of the reasons for the development of fields and the detection of laws governing their distribution, their genetic links with the general geological processes and the products of these processes.

  20. Quality of jackfruit seedlings under saline water stress and nitrogen fertilisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Ítalo Fernandes de Oliveira

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The lack of good quality water for agriculture purposes regarding salts and quantity in relation to demand for the plants has, for more than 30 years, been forcing the use of restrictive water because of salinity issues in agricultural production systems worldwide. In Brazil, the situation is no different, in the semi-arid areas, there are reports of losses of seed germination, initial growth of seedlings and yield of crops of commercial importance due to the salinity of the water used in irrigation systems. Therefore, an experiment was carried out from June to September/2014 in a protected environment, with a plastic film on the upper base and a thin screen against insects on the sides, to evaluate the effects of salinity interaction between water irrigation and nitrogen fertilisation sources on soil salinity, initial plant growth and the quality of the jackfruit seedlings. The treatments were distributed in randomised blocks, in the factorial scheme 5 × 3, reference irrigation water of 0.3, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0 dS m-1, in soil with and without ammonium sulfate and urea. An increase in the salinity of the irrigation water to 1.32 and 1.70 dS m-1 on the substrate without nitrogen stimulated an increase in the number of leaves and leaf area of the jackfruit seedlings. The ammonium sulfate was the nitrogen source that mainly contributed to the increase of soil salinity and to the reduction of the quality index of the seedlings. Despite the reduction of the Dickson quality index due to the salinity of the irrigation water and the nitrogen sources, the seedlings were suitable for cultivation.

  1. DNA methylation changes at infertility genes in newborn twins conceived by in vitro fertilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Fernandez, Juan E; Loke, Yuk Jing; Bass-Stringer, Sebastian; Gao, Fei; Xia, Yudong; Wu, Honglong; Lu, Hanlin; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Jun; Spector, Tim D; Saffery, Richard; Craig, Jeffrey M; Bell, Jordana T

    2017-03-24

    The association of in vitro fertilisation (IVF) and DNA methylation has been studied predominantly at regulatory regions of imprinted genes and at just thousands of the ~28 million CpG sites in the human genome. We investigated the links between IVF and DNA methylation patterns in whole cord blood cells (n = 98) and cord blood mononuclear cells (n = 82) from newborn twins using genome-wide methylated DNA immunoprecipitation coupled with deep sequencing. At a false discovery rate (FDR) of 5%, we identified one significant whole blood DNA methylation change linked to conception via IVF, which was located ~3 kb upstream of TNP1, a gene previously linked to male infertility. The 46 most strongly associated signals (FDR of 25%) included a second region in a gene also previously linked to infertility, C9orf3, suggesting that our findings may in part capture the effect of parental subfertility. Using twin modelling, we observed that individual-specific environmental factors appear to be the main overall contributors of methylation variability at the FDR 25% IVF-associated differentially methylated regions, although evidence for methylation heritability was also obtained at several of these regions. We replicated previous findings of differential methylation associated with IVF at the H19/IGF2 region in cord blood mononuclear cells, and we validated the signal at C9orf3 in monozygotic twins. We also explored the impact of intracytoplasmic sperm injection on the FDR 25% signals for potential effects specific to male or female infertility factors. To our knowledge, this is the most comprehensive study of DNA methylation profiles at birth and IVF conception to date, and our results show evidence for epigenetic modifications that may in part reflect parental subfertility.

  2. Evaluation of mitigation strategies to reduce ammonia losses from slurry fertilisation on arable lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carozzi, M., E-mail: marco.carozzi@unimi.it [University of Milan, Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, via Celoria 2, 20133 Milan (Italy); Ferrara, R.M.; Rana, G. [Consiglio per la Ricerca e sperimentazione in Agricoltura, Research Unit for Cropping Systems in Dry Environments, via C. Ulpiani, 5 – 70125 Bari (Italy); Acutis, M. [University of Milan, Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, via Celoria 2, 20133 Milan (Italy)

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate the best practices in reducing ammonia (NH{sub 3}) losses from fertilised arable lands, six field trials were carried out in three different locations in northern Italy. NH{sub 3} emissions from cattle slurry were estimated considering the spreading techniques and the field incorporation procedures. The measurements were performed using long term exposure samplers associated to the determination of the atmospheric turbulence and the use of the backward Lagrangian stochastic (bLS) model WindTrax. The results obtained indicate that the NH{sub 3} emission process was exhausted in the first 24–48 h after slurry spreading. The slurry incorporation technique was able to reduce the NH{sub 3} losses with respect to the surface spreading, where a contextual incorporation led to reductions up to 87%. However, the best abatement strategy for NH{sub 3} losses from slurry applications has proved to be the direct injection into the soil, with a reduction of about 95% with respect to the surface spreading. The results obtained highlight the strong dependence of the volatilisation phenomenon by soil and weather conditions. - Highlights: ► Ammonia emissions from land-application of slurry were quantified. ► We examined and compared six different agronomic treatments in three locations. ► The faster was the soil-incorporation of slurry, the lower was the ammonia loss. ► The direct injection of slurry was found to be the best abatement strategy. ► The environmental factors were able to strongly influence the ammonia emission.

  3. Minerals from Macedonia: XV. Sivec mineral assemble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boev, Blazho; Jovanovski, Gligor; Makreski, Petre; Bermanec, Vladimir

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents investigations carried out on the collected minerals from the Sivec deposit. It is situated in the vicinity of the town of Prilep, representing a rare occurrence of sugary white dolomite marbles. The application of suitable methods of exploitation of decorative-dimension stones makes possible to obtain large amounts of commercial blocks well known in the world. Despite the existence of dolomite marbles, a series of exotic minerals are typical in Sivec mineralization. Among them, the most significant are: calcite, fluorite, rutile, phlogopite, corundum, diaspore, almandine, kosmatite (clintonite or margarite), clinochlore, muscovite, quartz, pyrite, tourmaline and zoisite. An attempt to identify ten collected minerals using the FT IR spectroscopy is performed. The identification of the minerals was based on the comparison of the infrared spectra of our specimens with the corresponding literature data for the mineral species originating all over the world. The coloured pictures of all studied silicate minerals are presented as well. (Author)

  4. [Histochemical stains for minerals by hematoxylin-lake method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagawa, Makoto

    2013-04-01

    The present study was undertaken to establish the experimental animal model by histological staining methods for minerals. After intraperitoneal injections of minerals, precipitates deposited on the surface of the liver. Liver tissues were fixed in paraformaldehyde, embedded in paraffin and cut into thin sections which were used as minerals containing standard section. Several reagents for histological stains and spectrophotometry for minerals were applied in both test-tube experiments and stainings of tissue sections to test for minerals. Hematoxylin-lake was found of capable of staining minerals in tissue. A simple technique used was described for light microscopic detection of minerals.

  5. Applied gamma ray spectrometry and remote sensing in delineation of nepheline syenites in rift tectonic settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiwona, Annock Gabriel; Manning, David A. C.; Gaulton, Rachel; Cortes, Joaquin A.

    2017-04-01

    The United Nations (2016) observes that 'Neglected Development Minerals' including industrial minerals such as nepheline syenites have great potential for sustainable development, yet their exploitation has not been equally promoted like high value minerals. Nepheline syenites have great potential as alternative potassium (K) silicate fertiliser, as well as a source of Rare Earths. Demand for K fertiliser keeps rising by 3-3.5% annually (Jena et al., 2014) due to increased need to replace K removal from the soil (Sheldrick et al., 2002). The situation is most critical in Sub-Sahara Africa where nutrient loss due to intensive farming accounts to 22kg N, 2.5 kg P and 15 kg of K per hectare annually (Keeble, 2012). Ironically, Africa with 15% of global population, which is also expected to double by 2040 (Manning, 2015), uses only 1.5% of global K fertiliser. In this study, we use recently acquired countrywide airborne geophysical gamma ray data of Malawi (Bates & Mechennef, 2013) and satellite remote sensing data to identify nepheline syenites, suitable as sources of K silicate fertilizer, in rift tectonic settings. Initial focus was on the East African Rift System (EARS) starting with Malawi. Results from these two techniques are compared with X-ray fluorescence (XRF) geochemical analyses of sample collected from fieldwork in some potential areas of Malawi. With lessons from the Rochagem movement (Theodoro & Leonardos, 2006), identification of novel alternative potash sources in Africa will greatly benefit millions of farmers in developing countries, especially in Sub Sahara Africa where fertiliser costs are very high. Considering that high-resolution airborne geophysical data is not available in many African countries due to high costs associated with data acquisition campaigns, alternative and effective remote sensing approaches for delineating nepheline syenite rocks are necessary. References: [1] Bates M & Mechennef, F (2013) Data Acquisition Report, Sander

  6. Spectroscopic Evidence of the Improvement of Reactive Iron Mineral Content in Red Soil by Long-Term Application of Swine Manure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chichao Huang

    Full Text Available Mineral elements in soil solutions are thought to be the precursor of the formation of reactive minerals, which play an important role in global carbon (C cycling. However, information regarding the regulation of mineral elements release in soil is scarce. Here, we examined the long-term (i.e., 23 yrs effects of fertilisation practices on Fe minerals in a red soil in Southern China. The results from chemical analysis and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy showed that long-term swine manure (M treatment released greater amounts of minerals into soil solutions than chemical fertilisers (NPK treatment, and Fe played a dominant role in the preservation of dissolved organic C. Furthermore, Fe K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge fine structure spectroscopy demonstrated that reactive Fe minerals were mainly composed of less crystalline ferrihydrite in the M-treated soil and more crystalline goethite in the NPK-treated soil. In conclusion, this study reported spectroscopic evidence of the improvement of reactive Femineral content in the M-treated soil colloids when compared to NPK-treated soil colloids.

  7. How the use of nitrogen fertiliser may switch plant suitability for aphids: the case of Miscanthus, a promising biomass crop, and the aphid pest Rhopalosiphum maidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaert, Florent; Chesnais, Quentin; Catterou, Manuella; Rambaud, Caroline; Doury, Géraldine; Ameline, Arnaud

    2017-08-01

    The use of nitrogen fertiliser in agrosystems can alter plant nitrogen and consequently improve nutrient availability for herbivores, potentially leading to better performance for herbivores and higher pest pressure in the field. We compared, in laboratory conditions, the effects of nitrogen fertilisation on a promising biomass crop, Miscanthus × giganteus, and its parents M. sinensis and M. sacchariflorus. The plant-mediated effects were compared on the second trophic level, the green corn leaf aphid Rhopalosiphum maidis. Results showed that the biomass and leaf C:N ratio of M. sinensis plants treated with nitrogen fertiliser were significantly greater than those of non-treated plants. As regards M. × giganteus and M. sacchariflorus, the only reported change was a significantly smaller leaf C:N ratio for treated M. sacchariflorus compared with non-treated plants. Surprisingly, nitrogen fertilisation had opposite effects on plant-herbivore interactions. Following nitrogen treatments, M. sinensis was less suitable in terms of intrinsic rate of increase for R. maidis, the feeding behaviour of which was negatively affected, while M. sacchariflorus and M. × giganteus exhibited greater suitability in terms of aphid weight. Nitrogen fertilisation had contrasting effects on the three species of Miscanthus plants. These effects cascaded up to the second trophic level, R. maidis aphid pests, either through a modification of their weight or demographic parameters. The implications of these results were discussed in the context of agricultural sustainability and intensive production practices. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Spatiotemporal dynamics of phosphorus release, oxygen consumption and greenhouse gas emissions after localised soil amendment with organic fertilisers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christel, Wibke; Zhu, Kun; Hoefer, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    processes and fixation in the residue sphere, giving rise to distinct differences in nutrient availability, soil oxygen content and greenhouse gas (GHG) production. In this study we investigated the spatiotemporal dynamics of the reaction of manure solids and manure solids char with soil, focusing...... on their phosphorus (P) availability, as current emphasis on improving societal P efficiency through recycling waste or bio-based fertilisers necessitates a sound understanding of their behaviour. Soil layers amended at a constant P application rate with either pig manure solids or char made from pig manure solids...

  9. Spatiotemporal dynamics of phosphorus release, oxygen consumption and greenhouse gas emissions after localised soil amendment with organic fertilisers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christel, Wibke [Department for Plant and Environmental Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Thorvaldsensvej 40, 1871 Frederiksberg C (Denmark); Department of Commerce, Industry and Agriculture, Danish Environmental Protection Agency, 1401 Copenhagen C (Denmark); Zhu, Kun [Department for Plant and Environmental Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Thorvaldsensvej 40, 1871 Frederiksberg C (Denmark); College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Hoefer, Christoph [Rhizosphere Ecology and Biogeochemistry Group, Department of Forest and Soil Sciences, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Konrad-Lorenz-Strasse 24, 3430 Tulln (Austria); Kreuzeder, Andreas [Rhizosphere Ecology and Biogeochemistry Group, Department of Forest and Soil Sciences, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Konrad-Lorenz-Strasse 24, 3430 Tulln (Austria); Land Salzburg, Natur- und Umweltschutz, Gewerbe (Abteilung 5), Michael-Pacher-Straße 36, 5020 Salzburg (Austria); Santner, Jakob [Rhizosphere Ecology and Biogeochemistry Group, Department of Forest and Soil Sciences, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Konrad-Lorenz-Strasse 24, 3430 Tulln (Austria); Division of Agronomy, Department of Crop Sciences, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Konrad-Lorenz-Strasse 24, 3430 Tulln (Austria); Bruun, Sander; Magid, Jakob [Department for Plant and Environmental Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Thorvaldsensvej 40, 1871 Frederiksberg C (Denmark); Jensen, Lars Stoumann, E-mail: lsj@plen.ku.dk [Department for Plant and Environmental Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Thorvaldsensvej 40, 1871 Frederiksberg C (Denmark)

    2016-06-01

    Organic fertilisation inevitably leads to heterogeneous distribution of organic matter and nutrients in soil, i.e. due to uneven surface spreading or inhomogeneous incorporation. The resulting localised hotspots of nutrient application will induce various biotic and abiotic nutrient turnover processes and fixation in the residuesphere, giving rise to distinct differences in nutrient availability, soil oxygen content and greenhouse gas (GHG) production. In this study we investigated the spatiotemporal dynamics of the reaction of manure solids and manure solids char with soil, focusing on their phosphorus (P) availability, as current emphasis on improving societal P efficiency through recycling waste or bio-based fertilisers necessitates a sound understanding of their behaviour. Soil layers amended at a constant P application rate with either pig manure solids or char made from pig manure solids were incubated for three weeks between layers of non-amended, P-depleted soil. Spatial and temporal changes in and around the amendment layers were simultaneously investigated in this study using a sandwich sensor consisting of a planar oxygen optode and multi-element diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) gels, combined with GHG emission measurements. After three weeks of incubation, the soil containing a layer amended with manure solids had a lower overall O{sub 2} content and had emitted significantly more CO{sub 2} than the non-amended control or the char-amended soil. The P availability from manure solids was initially higher than that from the char, but decreased over time, whereas from the char-amended layer P availability increased in the same period. In both treatments, increases in P availability were confined to the amended soil layer and did not greatly affect P availability in the directly adjacent soil layers during the three-week incubation. These results highlight the importance of placing organic P fertilisers close to where the plant roots will grow in

  10. Spatiotemporal dynamics of phosphorus release, oxygen consumption and greenhouse gas emissions after localised soil amendment with organic fertilisers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christel, Wibke; Zhu, Kun; Hoefer, Christoph; Kreuzeder, Andreas; Santner, Jakob; Bruun, Sander; Magid, Jakob; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2016-01-01

    Organic fertilisation inevitably leads to heterogeneous distribution of organic matter and nutrients in soil, i.e. due to uneven surface spreading or inhomogeneous incorporation. The resulting localised hotspots of nutrient application will induce various biotic and abiotic nutrient turnover processes and fixation in the residuesphere, giving rise to distinct differences in nutrient availability, soil oxygen content and greenhouse gas (GHG) production. In this study we investigated the spatiotemporal dynamics of the reaction of manure solids and manure solids char with soil, focusing on their phosphorus (P) availability, as current emphasis on improving societal P efficiency through recycling waste or bio-based fertilisers necessitates a sound understanding of their behaviour. Soil layers amended at a constant P application rate with either pig manure solids or char made from pig manure solids were incubated for three weeks between layers of non-amended, P-depleted soil. Spatial and temporal changes in and around the amendment layers were simultaneously investigated in this study using a sandwich sensor consisting of a planar oxygen optode and multi-element diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) gels, combined with GHG emission measurements. After three weeks of incubation, the soil containing a layer amended with manure solids had a lower overall O_2 content and had emitted significantly more CO_2 than the non-amended control or the char-amended soil. The P availability from manure solids was initially higher than that from the char, but decreased over time, whereas from the char-amended layer P availability increased in the same period. In both treatments, increases in P availability were confined to the amended soil layer and did not greatly affect P availability in the directly adjacent soil layers during the three-week incubation. These results highlight the importance of placing organic P fertilisers close to where the plant roots will grow in order to

  11. Herbage mineral nutrition indexed as tools for rapid mineral status ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    on scientific data. Fertilisation is one of the potential options to improve pasture management as indicated by findings of this study. This is useful evidence-based information that could be incorporated in extension packages and resource materials for dissemination and subsequent adoption by livestock farming ...

  12. Effects of long-term fertilisation on aggregates and dynamics of soil organic carbon in a semi-arid agro-ecosystem in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaoyang Zhang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Long-term fertilisation has a large influence on soil physical and chemical properties in agro-ecosystems. The effects on the distribution of aggregates, however, are not fully understood. We determined the dynamic change of the distribution of aggregates and soil organic carbon (SOC content over time in a long-term field experiment established in 1998 on the Loess Plateau of China and illustrated the relationship between them. Methods We determined SOC content and the distribution of aggregates in nine fertiliser treatments: manure (M; nitrogen (N; phosphorus (P; M and N; M, N, and P; M and P; N and P; bare land; and an unfertilised control. These parameters were then used for a path analysis and to analyse the fractal dimension (Dv. Results The organic fertiliser increased SOC content. The proportions of 0.1–0.25 mm microaggregates and 0.25–0.5 mm macroaggregates were higher and the proportion of the 0.01–0.05 mm size class of the silt + clay fraction was lower in the treatments receiving organic fertiliser (M, MN, MNP, and MP than that in the control, indicating that the addition of organic fertiliser promoted aggregation. The distribution of aggregates characterised by their fractal dimension (Dv, however, did not differ among the treatments. Discussion Dv was strongly correlated with the proportion of the <0.002 mm size class of the silt + clay fraction that did not differ significantly among the treatments. The change in the distribution of aggregates was strongly correlated with SOC content, which could produce organic polymer binding agents to increase the proportion of larger particles. Long-term application of organic fertiliser is thus necessary for the improvement and maintenance of soil quality in semi-arid agricultural land when residues are removed.

  13. EFFECTIVENESS OF DOUBLE WASH SWIM-UP VERSUS DOUBLE DENSITY GRADIENT SWIM-UP TECHNIQUE OF SPERM PREPARATION IN IN VITRO FERTILISATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Sangisapu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Recovery of optimum number of good quality of spermatozoa is an important component of In Vitro Fertilisation (IVF. This is achieved by sperm preparation methods involving separation and recovery of capacitated sperms. Double Wash Swim-up (DWSU and Double Density Gradient Swim-up (DDGSU are two most accepted methods. Cochrane systematic review (2007 finds no clear benefit of one method over the other in Intrauterine Insemination (IUI. Systematic review on effectiveness of these preparations in IVF is lacking. Effectiveness is generally assessed in terms recovery rates of the sperms. Capability of successful fertilisation of good quality oocytes should ideally be the functional endpoint for evaluating effectiveness of sperm preparation methods. The aim of the study is to1. Compare the successful fertilisation rates of oocytes inseminated by semen preparation of Double Wash Swim-up (DWSU vis-a-vis by Double Density Gradient Swim-up (DDGSU method. 2. Evaluate the effectiveness of fertilisation of oocytes by Double Wash Swim-up method (DWSU vis-a-vis Double Density Gradient Swim-up (DDGSU method. MATERIALS AND METHODS A retrospective cohort study was conducted on infertile couples undergoing IVF from June 2014 to June 2017 at an ART Centre of a tertiary care hospital. The male partners were normozoospermic and female partners were normoresponsive to controlled ovarian stimulation and oocyte retrieval. RESULTS 70 male partners were subjected to double wash swim-up and 64 underwent double density gradient swim-up preparation. 1296 good quality oocytes were retrieved in their respective female partners. 452 (61% out of 742 oocytes were successfully fertilised after insemination by semen prepared by DWSU method. 378 (68% oocytes out of 554 were fertilised by insemination with semen prepared by DDGSU method. There seems to be strong association (RR=1.12 of fertilisation success with oocytes exposed to semen prepared by Double Density Gradient

  14. Optimised synthesis of ZnO-nano-fertiliser through green chemistry: boosted growth dynamics of economically important L. esculentum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabeen, Nyla; Maqbool, Qaisar; Bibi, Tahira; Nazar, Mudassar; Hussain, Syed Z; Hussain, Talib; Jan, Tariq; Ahmad, Ishaq; Maaza, Malik; Anwaar, Sadaf

    2018-06-01

    Mounting-up economic losses to annual crops yield due to micronutrient deficiency, fertiliser inefficiency and increasing microbial invasions (e.g. Xanthomonas cempestri attack on tomatoes) are needed to be solved via nano-biotechnology. So keeping this in view, the authors' current study presents the new horizon in the field of nano-fertiliser with highly nutritive and preservative effect of green fabricated zinc oxide-nanostructures (ZnO-NSs) during Lycopersicum esculentum (tomato) growth dynamics. ZnO-NS prepared via green chemistry possesses highly homogenous crystalline structures well-characterised through ultraviolet and visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope. The ZnO-NS average size was found as small as 18 nm having a crystallite size of 5 nm. L. esculentum were grown in different concentrations of ZnO-NS to examine the different morphological parameters includes time of seed germination, germination percentage, the number of plant leaves, the height of the plant, average number of branches, days count for flowering and fruiting time period along with fruit quantity. Promising results clearly predict that bio-fabricated ZnO-NS at optimum concentration resulted as growth booster and dramatically triggered the plant yield.

  15. United States mineral resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brobst, Donald A.; Pratt, Walden P.

    1973-01-01

    650 of the U.S. Bureau of Mines) ; indeed, we regard that book and the present volume as being complementary. In the examination of the geologic possibilities for finding new deposits-in many respects the principal innovative contributions of this volume-we asked the authors to frankly apply the limits of their ingenuity and not only to summarize current theories but also to express their own intuitive ideas, however speculative and unconventional they may seem, that have come from years of study devoted to the origin of mineral deposits. Readers will see that some authors have speculated more courageously than others. In any case, we believe readers will find all the chapters interesting, and many stimulating; and a few we believe can be frankly characterized as intellectually exciting. Most chapters include a section on prospecting techniques, and a summary of geologic or related problems on which the authors believe research might be most fruitful in the continuing efforts to find new resources. An integral part of the book is the bibliographic material cited at the conclusion of each chapter, in lieu of repetition of detailed descriptions already in print. Index and "spot" maps are not included in most chapters because they are available elsewhere, and in many cases with more detail than could possibly be included here. Maps showing the distribution of known deposits of many commodities in the United States are available in the Mineral Resource (MR) map series of the U.S. Geological Survey and in the National Atlas of the United States. The first three chapters deal not with resources of specific commodities but with general information that is pertinent to the study of mineral resources. In the introductory chapter we discuss the purposes of the book, the distinctions between reserves and various categories of resources, and some general conclusions drawn from our view of the book in its entirety. In the second chapter V. E. McKelvey discusses the problems of

  16. Assessment of soil phosphorus status and management of phosphatic fertilisers to optimise crop production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-02-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential plant nutrient, and its deficiency in soils severely restricts crop yields. Tropical and subtropical soils are predominantly acidic and often extremely deficient in phosphorus. Moreover most of these soils possess a high phosphate sorption capacity. Strongly sorbed or fixed phosphate is unavailable for plant uptake. Therefore, substantial P inputs are required for optimum plant growth and adequate food and fiber production. Manufactured water-soluble P fertilizers, like superphosphates, are the commonest P inputs. However, in most developing countries these P fertilizers are not produced locally but are imported, and their supplies to resource-poor farmers in rural areas are limited. Many phosphate-bearing mineral deposits exist worldwide. Several developing countries with P-deficient tropical acid soils have important phosphate rock deposits, that is the raw material for the production of P fertilizers. Thus, under certain soil and climatic conditions, direct application of phosphate rocks (PRs) is an agronomically and economically sound alternative to the use of expensive superphosphates. In spite of extensive research on the application of PR to acid soils in temperate regions, there is scant information on the potential of local PR sources in tropical and subtropical regions. Phosphate rocks vary widely in their mineralogical, chemical and physical properties and consequently in their reactivity and agronomic potential. It is, therefore, necessary to assess the relative agronomic effectiveness of the indigenous and imported PRs using the commercially available superphosphate as a reference. Also, changes in the soil available P when amended with PR products and water-soluble P fertilizers need to be properly monitored with suitable soil P testing methods for the provision of adequate P fertilizer recommendations. During the 1980's, some local PR sources were evaluated in the FAO Fertilizer Programme. The idea of a project on PR

  17. Assessment of soil phosphorus status and management of phosphatic fertilisers to optimise crop production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-02-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential plant nutrient, and its deficiency in soils severely restricts crop yields. Tropical and subtropical soils are predominantly acidic and often extremely deficient in phosphorus. Moreover most of these soils possess a high phosphate sorption capacity. Strongly sorbed or fixed phosphate is unavailable for plant uptake. Therefore, substantial P inputs are required for optimum plant growth and adequate food and fiber production. Manufactured water-soluble P fertilizers, like superphosphates, are the commonest P inputs. However, in most developing countries these P fertilizers are not produced locally but are imported, and their supplies to resource-poor farmers in rural areas are limited. Many phosphate-bearing mineral deposits exist worldwide. Several developing countries with P-deficient tropical acid soils have important phosphate rock deposits, that is the raw material for the production of P fertilizers. Thus, under certain soil and climatic conditions, direct application of phosphate rocks (PRs) is an agronomically and economically sound alternative to the use of expensive superphosphates. In spite of extensive research on the application of PR to acid soils in temperate regions, there is scant information on the potential of local PR sources in tropical and subtropical regions. Phosphate rocks vary widely in their mineralogical, chemical and physical properties and consequently in their reactivity and agronomic potential. It is, therefore, necessary to assess the relative agronomic effectiveness of the indigenous and imported PRs using the commercially available superphosphate as a reference. Also, changes in the soil available P when amended with PR products and water-soluble P fertilizers need to be properly monitored with suitable soil P testing methods for the provision of adequate P fertilizer recommendations. During the 1980's, some local PR sources were evaluated in the FAO Fertilizer Programme. The idea of a project on PR

  18. Efeito de fertilizantes minerais e orgânicos na produção de Azevém (Lolium multiflorum L.: produção de matéria seca e azoto aparentemente recuperado Effect of mineral and organic fertilizers in the ryegrass yield (Lolium multiflorum L.: Dry matter yield and apparent N recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Arrobas

    2009-01-01

    fertilizing materials were: chestnut fruit bark (CC, with 0.6% N, farmyard manure (EB, with 2.3% N, Beira Adubo (BA, a commercial organic amendment with 3% N; ammonium nitrate (NA, with 20.5% N; Entec (En, a fertiliser with a nitrification inhibitor, with 26% N; Fertigafsa (Fg a 4-16-12 compound fertiliser, and control (T without N fertilisation. All the fertilisers were applied at a rate equivalent to 200 mg N per kg of soil (< 2mm. A silt-loam soil with pH(H2O 5.2 and 27 g kg-1 of organic matter was used in the soil/fertiliser mixtures. A nutrient solution without N was added to all the pots. The crop was sown on the 1st October, 2004. After crop emergence, the plants were thinned to 50 plants per pot. Six harvests of ryegrass were taken between November 9, 2004 and August 4, 2005. Nitrogen uptake and apparent N recovery (NAR were also estimated after the determination of tissue N content. Total dry matter yields (6 cuts were significantly different between treatments. Extreme values ranged between 1.7 g/pot (T and 4.1 g/pot (NA. The higher N uptake was recorded in the NA treatment (167 mg N/pot, as well as the higher NAR (64%. Entec produced the lowest NAR (45% among the mineral fertilisers. The organic amendments BA and EB showed similar NAR, 24 and 22%, respectively. The N released from BA, EB and En during the growing season was very low. The results stress the difficulties in properly managing this kind of fertilisers in annual crops with short growing cycles, where a N shortage could occur during important phases of crop development.

  19. Construction Minerals Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes construction minerals operations in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team (MIT) of the...

  20. Agricultural Minerals Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes agricultural minerals operations in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team (MIT) of the...

  1. Mineral commodity summaries 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2015-01-01

    Each chapter of the 2015 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS) includes information on events, trends, and issues for each mineral commodity as well as discussions and tabular presentations on domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, 5-year salient statistics, and world production and resources. The MCS is the earliest comprehensive source of 2014 mineral production data for the world. More than 90 individual minerals and materials are covered by two-page synopses.

  2. Effets d'application sur le long terme de fertilisants organiques et ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les teneurs en C, N et P, les agrégats formés, le potentiel de respiration du sol, les activités de la chitinase et la longueur des hyphes fongiques ont été déterminés. ... English Title: Long-term effect of organic residues and mineral fertilizers on soil aggregation and microbial activities in a tropical sandy soil in Burkina Faso.

  3. Hormonal induction of gamete release, and in-vitro fertilisation, in the critically endangered Southern Corroboree Frog, Pseudophryne corroboree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silla Aimee J

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conservation Breeding Programs (CBP's are playing an important role in the protection of critically endangered anuran amphibians, but for many species recruitment is not successful enough to maintain captive populations, or provide individuals for release. In response, there has been an increasing focus on the use of Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART, including the administration of reproductive hormones to induce gamete release followed by in vitro fertilisation. The objective of this study was to test the efficacy of two exogenous hormones to induce gamete release, for the purpose of conducting in vitro fertilisation (IVF, in one of Australia's most critically endangered frog species, Pseudophryne corroboree. Methods Male frogs were administered a single dose of either human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG or luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRHa, while female frogs received both a priming and ovulatory dose of LHRHa. Spermiation responses were evaluated at 3, 7, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60 and 72 h post hormone administration (PA, and sperm number and viability were quantified using fluorescent microscopy. Ovulation responses were evaluated by stripping females every 12 h PA for 5 days. Once gametes were obtained, IVF was attempted by combining spermic urine with oocytes in a dilute solution of simplified amphibian ringer (SAR. Results Administration of both hCG and LHRHa induced approximately 80% of males to release sperm over 72 h. Peak sperm release occurred at 12 h PA for hCG treated males and 36 h PA for LHRHa treated males. On average, LHRHa treated males released a significantly higher total number of live sperm, and a higher concentration of sperm, over a longer period. In female frogs, administration of LHRHa induced approximately 30% of individuals to release eggs. On average, eggs were released between 24 and 48 h PA, with a peak in egg release at 36 h PA. IVF resulted in a moderate percentage (54.72% of eggs

  4. Greenhouse gas emissions and stocks of soil carbon and nitrogen from a 20-year fertilised wheat-maize intercropping system: A model approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xubo; Xu, Minggang; Liu, Jian; Sun, Nan; Wang, Boren; Wu, Lianhai

    2016-02-01

    Accurate modelling of agricultural management impacts on greenhouse gas emissions and the cycling of carbon and nitrogen is complicated due to interactions between various processes and the disturbance caused by field management. In this study, a process-based model, the Soil-Plant-Atmosphere Continuum System (SPACSYS), was used to simulate the effects of different fertilisation regimes on crop yields, the dynamics of soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (SN) stocks from 1990 to 2010, and soil CO2 (2007-2010) and N2O (2007-2008) emissions based on a long-term fertilisation experiment with a winter-wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.) and summer-maize (Zea mays L.) intercropping system in Eutric Cambisol (FAO) soil in southern China. Three fertilisation treatments were 1) unfertilised (Control), 2) chemical nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK), and 3) NPK plus pig manure (NPKM). Statistical analyses indicated that the SPACSYS model can reasonably simulate the yields of wheat and maize, the evolution of SOC and SN stocks and soil CO2 and N2O emissions. The simulations showed that the NPKM treatment had the highest values of crop yields, SOC and SN stocks, and soil CO2 and N2O emissions were the lowest from the Control treatment. Furthermore, the simulated results showed that manure amendment along with chemical fertiliser applications led to both C (1017 ± 470 kg C ha(-1) yr(-1)) and N gains (91.7 ± 15.1 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1)) in the plant-soil system, while the Control treatment caused a slight loss in C and N. In conclusion, the SPACSYS model can accurately simulate the processes of C and N as affected by various fertilisation treatments in the red soil. Furthermore, application of chemical fertilisers plus manure could be a suitable management for ensuring crop yield and sustaining soil fertility in the red soil region, but the ratio of chemical fertilisers to manure should be optimized to reduce C and N losses to the environment. Copyright © 2015

  5. Characteristics of differently stabilised soil organic carbon fractions in relation to long-term fertilisation in Brown Earth of Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiangru; Zhang, Wenju; Xu, Minggang; Li, Shuangyi; An, Tingting; Pei, Jiubo; Xiao, Jing; Xie, Hongtu; Wang, Jingkuan

    2016-12-01

    Long-term use of artificial fertiliser has a significant impact on soil organic carbon (SOC). We used physical-chemical fractionation methods to assess the impact of long-term (26years) fertilisation in a maize cropping system developed on Brown Earth in Northeast China. Plot treatments consisted of control (CK); nitrogen (N) fertiliser (N2); low-level organic manure combined with inorganic N and phosphorus (P) fertiliser (M1N1P1); medium-level organic manure combined with inorganic N fertiliser (M2N2); and high-level organic manure combined with inorganic N and P fertiliser (M4N2P1). Our objectives were to (1) determine the contents of and variations in the SOC fractions; (2) explore the relationship between total SOC and its fractions. In treatments involving organic manure (M1N1P1, M2N2, and M4N2P1), total SOC and physically protected microaggregate (μagg) and μagg occluded particulate organic carbon (iPOC) contents increased by 9.9-58.9%, 1.3-34.7%, 29.5-127.9% relative to control, respectively. But there no significant differences (P>0.05) were detected for the chemically, physically-chemically, and physically-biochemically protected fractions among the M1N1P1, M2N2, and M4N2P1 treatments. Regression analysis revealed that there was a linear positive correlation between SOC and the unprotected coarse particulate organic carbon (cPOC), physically protected μagg, and iPOC fractions (Pfractions responded negatively to SOC content. The highest rate of C accumulation among the SOC fractions occurred in the cPOC fraction, which accounted for as much as 32% of C accumulation as total SOC increased, suggesting that cPOC may be the most sensitive fraction to fertiliser application. We found that treatments had no effect on C levels in H-μsilt and NH-μsilt, indicating that the microaggregated silt C-fractions may have reached a steady state in terms of C saturation in the Brown Earth of Northeast China. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Fissure minerals, literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, S.Aa.

    1980-01-01

    This paper is a review of methods used for direct and indirect dating of tectonic events. Isotope geochemistry including stable isotopes as well as fission track- dating, fluid inclusion and thermoluminescens techniques have been considered. It has been concluded that an investigation of tectonic (and thermal) events should start with a detailed study of the mineral phases grown in seald fissures as well as minerals from fissure walls. This study should include phase identification, textures as well as mineral chemistry. The information from this study is fundamental for the decision of further investigations. Mineral chemistry including isotopes and fluid inclusion studies will give an essential knowledge about crystallization conditions for fissure minerals concerned. Direct dating using fission tracks as well as radioactive isotopes could be useful for some minerals. Application of thermoluminescens dating on fissure minerals is doubtful. (Auth.)

  7. Postmating-prezygotic isolation between two allopatric populations of Drosophila montana: fertilisation success differs under sperm competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ala-Honkola, Outi; Ritchie, Michael G; Veltsos, Paris

    2016-03-01

    Postmating but prezygotic (PMPZ) interactions are increasingly recognized as a potentially important early-stage barrier in the evolution of reproductive isolation. A recent study described a potential example between populations of the same species: single matings between Drosophila montana populations resulted in differential fertilisation success because of the inability of sperm from one population (Vancouver) to penetrate the eggs of the other population (Colorado). As the natural mating system of D. montana is polyandrous (females remate rapidly), we set up double matings of all possible crosses between the same populations to test whether competitive effects between ejaculates influence this PMPZ isolation. We measured premating isolation in no-choice tests, female fecundity, fertility and egg-to-adult viability after single and double matings as well as second-male paternity success (P2). Surprisingly, we found no PMPZ reproductive isolation between the two populations under a competitive setting, indicating no difficulty of sperm from Vancouver males to fertilize Colorado eggs after double matings. While there were subtle differences in how P2 changed over time, suggesting that Vancouver males' sperm are somewhat less competitive in a first-male role within Colorado females, these effects did not translate into differences in overall P2. Fertilisation success can thus differ dramatically between competitive and noncompetitive conditions, perhaps because the males that mate second produce higher quality ejaculates in response to sperm competition. We suggest that unlike in more divergent species comparisons, where sperm competition typically increases reproductive isolation, ejaculate tailoring can reduce the potential for PMPZ isolation when recently diverged populations interbreed.

  8. Grouping Minerals by Their Formulas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Bridget

    2018-01-01

    Minerals are commonly taught in ways that emphasize mineral identification for its own sake or maybe to help identify rocks. But how do minerals fit in with other science content taught? The author uses mineral formulas to help Earth science students wonder about the connection between elements, compounds, mixtures, minerals, and mineral formulas.…

  9. Uranyl adsorption at clay mineral surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roesch, N. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Fachgebiet Theoretische Chemie

    2016-11-01

    This first systematic survey of actinide adsorption at complex clay mineral surfaces, which provided new insights at the atomic level, is currently being extended to neptunyl NpO{sub 2}{sup +} and more complex minerals, like iron-substituted phyllosilicates. In this way we examine if the concepts developed so far can be applied more generally to support the interpretation of pertinent experiments. A further facet of these studies is to account also for the dynamic nature of the mineral/water interface by means of exemplary dynamic simulations.

  10. 43 CFR 19.8 - Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness. 19.8 Section 19.8 Public Lands: Interior... § 19.8 Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest... locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness are contained in parts...

  11. Radioactive mineral deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1948-01-01

    This publication was designed as a guide for uranium and thorium prospectors in Australia. Physical properties, such as color, streak, luster, hardness, fracture, and specific gravity of the uranium and thorium-bearing minerals are summarized and the various methods suitable for detecting radioactivity in minerals are described. Two colored plates show samples of pitchblende (uraninite), autunite, carnotite, monazite, and others of the most important minerals sources of uranium and thorium.

  12. Brazilian minerals annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Statistics of Brazilian mineral resources and production in 1977 are presented. Data included refer also to economic aspects, market, taxes, government incentives, manpower, exportation, importation, etc [pt

  13. Minerals industry survey, 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    This is the seventh edition of the statistical survey commissioned by the Australian Mining Industry Council. It represents the most comprehensive review of the financial position of the Australian minerals industry and provides timely financial data on the minerals industry. The tables of this survey have been prepared for AMIC by Coopers and Lybrand, Chartered Accountants, based on information supplied to them in confidence by the respondent companies. For the purpose of the survey, the minerals industry has been defined as including exploration for, and extraction and primary processing of, minerals in Australia. The oil and gas industry is not included.

  14. Reagan issues mineral policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Materials and Minerals Program plan and report that President Reagan sent to Congress on April 5 aims to ‘decrease America's minerals vulnerability’ while reducing future dependence on potentially unstable foreign sources of minerals. These goals would be accomplished by taking inventory of federal lands to determine mineral potential; by meeting the stockpile goals set by the Strategic and Critical Material Stockpiling Act; and by establishing a business and political climate that would encourage private-sector research and development on minerals.Now that the Administration has issued its plan, the Subcommittee on Mines and Mining of the House Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs will consider the National Minerals Security Act (NMSA), which was introduced 1 year ago by subcommittee chairman Jim Santini (D-Nev.) [Eos, May 19, 1981, p. 497]. The bill calls for establishing a three-member White-House-level council to coordinate the development of a national minerals policy; amending tax laws to assist the mining industry to make capital investments to locate and produce strategic materials; and creating a revolving fund for the sale and purchase of strategic minerals. In addition, the NMSA bill would allow the secretary of the interior to make previously withdrawn public lands available for mineral development. The subcommittee will hold a hearing on the Administration's plan on May 11. Interior Secretary James Watt has been invited to testify.

  15. International mineral economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gocht, W.R.; Eggert, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    International Mineral Economics provides an integrated overview of the important concepts. The treatment is interdisciplinary, drawing on the fields of economics, geology, business, and mining engineering. Part I examines the technical concepts important for understanding the geology of ore deposits, the methods of exploration and deposit evaluation, and the activities of mining and mineral processing. Part II focuses on the economic and related concepts important for understanding mineral development, the evaluation of exploration and mining projects, and mineral markets and market models. Finally, Part III reviews and traces the historical development of the policies of international organizations, the industrialized countries, and the developing countries. (orig.)

  16. Mineral statistics yearbook 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    A summary of mineral production in Saskatchewan was compiled and presented as a reference manual. Statistical information on fuel minerals such as crude oil, natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas and coal, and of industrial and metallic minerals, such as potash, sodium sulphate, salt and uranium, was provided in all conceivable variety of tables. Production statistics, disposition and value of sales of industrial and metallic minerals were also made available. Statistical data on drilling of oil and gas reservoirs and crown land disposition were also included. figs., tabs

  17. Marine Mineral Exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    in EEZ areas are fairly unknown; many areas need detailed mapping and mineral exploration, and the majority of coastal or island states with large EEZ areas have little experience in exploration for marine hard minerals. This book describes the systematic steps in marine mineral exploration....... Such exploration requires knowledge of mineral deposits and models of their formation, of geophysical and geochemical exploration methods, and of data evaluation and interpretation methods. These topics are described in detail by an international group of authors. A short description is also given of marine...

  18. Microprobe to closely examine minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The University of South Australia will develop synchrotron-based technology that can determine the structure and chemical composition of mineral samples at microscopic levels. The planned multi-analysis synchrotron X-ray facility Beam-line 11 is for implementing on the Australian Synchrotron. UniSA's Applied Centre for Structural and Synchrotron Studies (ACeSSS) will use Beamline 11 to shed new light on factors that constrain recoveries of copper and gold from typical copper ores. ACeSSS director Professor Andrea Gerson is working with an international team and the Australian Synchrotron on the design of Beamline 11. According to Gerson, there is scope to improve processing and/or increase recoveries in copper, gold and valueless pyrite either through separation, smelting, leaching or electro-processing. Using synchrotron technology, researchers will determine the structure and chemical composition of mineral samples to understand the fundamental behaviour of these materials in order to identify process and : environmental benefits. Three different strategies will be employed: tracing the movement of gold through the mineral processing chain to optimise and increase gold recovery; examining the surface layers formed when copper is leached from the mineral, chalcopyrite, to enhance the understanding of this surface layer formation and ultimately maximise cop-per recovery; and improving environmental remediation by understanding the mineralisation process during acid-rock drainage. ACeSSS will work with the minerals and environmental remediation sectors, building on the I establishment of the Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment, and cementing close collaboration with UniSA's Ian Wark Research Institute. Contributions from the SA Premier's Science and Research Fund, BHP Billiton and Rio Tinto, synchrotron partners Advanced Light Source (USA) and the Canadian Light Source Funding totalling $1.38m are available for

  19. Fertilisers production from ashes after sewage sludge combustion - A strategy towards sustainable development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorazda, Katarzyna; Tarko, Barbara; Wzorek, Zbigniew; Kominko, Halyna; Nowak, Anna K; Kulczycka, Joanna; Henclik, Anna; Smol, Marzena

    2017-04-01

    Sustainable development and circular economy rules force the global fertilizer industry to develop new phosphorous recovery methods from alternative sources. In this paper a phosphorus recovery technology from Polish industrial Sewage Sludge Ashes was investigated (PolFerAsh - Polish Fertilizers form Ash). A wet method with the use of mineral acid and neutralization was proposed. Detailed characteristic of SSA from largest mono-combustion plans were given and compared to raw materials used on the market. The technological factors associated with such materials were discussed. The composition of the extracts was compared to typical industrial phosphoric acid and standard values characterizing suspension fertilizers. The most favorable conditions for selective precipitation of phosphorus compounds were revealed. The fertilizers obtained also meet EU regulations in the case of the newly discussed Cd content. The process was scaled up and a flow mass diagram was defined. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Mineral oil industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brasser, L.J.; Suess, M.J.; Grefen, K.; Reinisch, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    In this chapter a general picture is presented of the air pollution aspects in the mineral oil industry. The complete field is covered, starting from drilling operations and the well head up to the delivery of the products to the consumer. A large field of activities as is given by the mineral oil

  1. Vitamins, Minerals, and Mood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Bonnie J.; Crawford, Susan G.; Field, Catherine J.; Simpson, J. Steven A.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors explore the breadth and depth of published research linking dietary vitamins and minerals (micronutrients) to mood. Since the 1920s, there have been many studies on individual vitamins (especially B vitamins and Vitamins C, D, and E), minerals (calcium, chromium, iron, magnesium, zinc, and selenium), and vitamin-like…

  2. Mineral commodity summaries 2018

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ober, Joyce A.

    2018-01-31

    This report is the earliest Government publication to furnish estimates covering 2017 nonfuel mineral industry data. Data sheets contain information on the domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, and 5-year salient statistics for more than 90 individual minerals and materials.

  3. Indochina area mineral prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-05

    Prospects for commercial mining of various minerals are considered for Kampuchea (Cambodia), Laos, Vietnam, Myanmar (Burma) and Thailand. Mineral production is much below its geologic potential for economic and political reasons. Resource potential is limited to tin, tungsten, lead and zinc, barytes and gemstones, and coal. 1 fig.

  4. The analysis of soil characteristics near the animal feed and fertiliser mill using the Bartington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhari, Adinda Syifa; Agustine, Eleonora; Fitriani, Dini

    2017-07-01

    Industrial activities have the potential to make pollution in agricultural land, the waste contains poisonous material and it is dangerous for the environment. In general, waste from factory is dumped directly into the river, but in the current study an object that is going to be conscientious is soil on around mill. There are three sampling sites are around fertilizer plants, feed mills and original uncontaminated soil. This research has been conducted to assess the impact of pollution resulting from the two mills for the environment. Physical parameter that used is magnetic susceptibility. Sampling was conducted using the method of magnetic susceptibility of rock to see the value of low frequency (lf) and shows Frequency Dependent (fd%) using the MS2B Bartington. The results from this study is at a location close to the fertilizer plant at a depth of 0-5 cm has a value susceptibility low frequency ( lf)=187.1 - 494.8, fd (%)=1.37 - 2:46, at a depth of 6-10 cm susceptibility value of low frequency (lf)=211 - 832.7,fd (%)=1.04 - 5.37. Results in the area of animal feed mill at a depth of 0-5 cm value susceptibility low frequency (lf)=111.9 - 325.7, fd (%)=0.8 - 3.57, at a depth of 6-10 cm value susceptibility low frequency (lf)=189.2 to 386.8,fd (%)=0.33 - 3.7. Results in the original soil at a depth of 0-5 cm susceptibility value of low frequency (lf)=1188.7 - 2237.8,fd (%)=2.75 - 4.65, at a depth of 6-10 cm value susceptibility low frequency (lf)=977.7 - 2134.7,fd (%)=3.06 - 6.21. The highest value was in the arealf original, shows the area has a high mineral content andlf lows were in the area near the factory fodder it is caused by high pollution, resulting in lower mineral content in the soil.

  5. Taxation of unmined minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bremberg, B.P.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on the Kentucky Revenue Cabinet which began implementing its controversial unmined minerals tax program. The Revenue Cabinet should complete its first annual assessment under this program in December, 1989. The Revenue Cabinet's initial efforts to collect basic data concerning the Commonwealth's coal bearing lands has yielded data coverage for 5 million of Kentucky's 10 million acres of coal lands. Approximately 1000 detailed information returns have been filed. The returns will be used to help create an undeveloped mineral reserves inventory, determine mineral ownership, and value mineral reserves. This new program is run by the Revenue Cabinet's Mineral Valuation Section, under the Division of Technical Support, Department of Property Taxation. It has been in business since September of 1988

  6. Mineral industry in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parbo, S.A.

    1982-01-01

    The paper reviews the history and growth of the mineral industry in Australia and its significance to the nation's economic growth and overseas trade, particularly over the last twenty years during which time production of coal, iron ore, manganese and mineral sands has increased greatly and new discoveries of petroleum, bauxite and nickel have given rise to major new industries. Australia ranks fourteenths in the value of world trade and is among the world's largest exporters of alumina, iron ore, mineral sands, coal, lead, zinc and nickel. Some details of production, processing and exports of the major minerals are given. Comment is made on the policies and roles of the six State Governments and the Federal Government in respect of ownership and control of the mining, processing and exporting of both energy and non-energy minerals. (orig.) [de

  7. Heavy mineral concentration from oil sand tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chachula, F.; Erasmus, N. [Titanium Corp. Inc., Regina, SK (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    This presentation described a unique technique to recover heavy minerals contained in the froth treatment tailings produced by oil sand mining extraction operations in Fort McMurray, Alberta. In an effort to process waste material into valuable products, Titanium Corporation is developing technology to recover heavy minerals, primarily zircon, and a portion of bitumen contained in the final stage of bitumen processing. The process technology is being developed to apply to all mined oil sands operations in the Fort McMurray region. In 2004, Titanium Corporation commissioned a pilot research facility at the Saskatchewan Research Council to test dry oil sands tailings. In 2005, a bulk sampling pilot plant was connected to the fresh oil sands tailings pipeline on-site in Fort McMurray, where washed sands containing heavy minerals were processed at a pilot facility. The mineral content in both deposited tailings and fresh pipeline tailings was assessed. Analysis of fresh tailings on a daily basis identified a constant proportion of zircon and higher levels of associated bitumen compared with the material in the deposited tailings. The process flow sheet design was then modified to remove bitumen from the heavy minerals and concentrate the minerals. A newly modified flotation process was shown to be a viable processing route to recover the heavy minerals from froth treatment tailings. 8 refs., 9 tabs., 12 figs.

  8. On Mineral Retrosynthesis of a Complex Biogenic Scaffold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashit Rao

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Synergistic relations between organic molecules and mineral precursors regulate biogenic mineralization. Given the remarkable material properties of the egg shell as a biogenic ceramic, it serves as an important model to elucidate biomineral growth. With established roles of complex anionic biopolymers and a heterogeneous organic scaffold in egg shell mineralization, the present study explores the regulation over mineralization attained by applying synthetic polymeric counterparts (polyethylene glycol, poly(acrylic acid, poly(aspartic acid and poly(4-styrenesulfonic acid-co-maleic acid as additives during remineralization of decalcified eggshell membranes. By applying Mg2+ ions as a co-additive species, mineral retrosynthesis is achieved in a manner that modulates the polymorph and structure of mineral products. Notable features of the mineralization process include distinct local wettability of the biogenic organic scaffold by mineral precursors and mineralization-induced membrane actuation. Overall, the form, structure and polymorph of the mineralization products are synergistically affected by the additive and the content of Mg2+ ions. We also revisit the physicochemical nature of the biomineral scaffold and demonstrate the distinct spatial distribution of anionic biomolecules associated with the scaffold-mineral interface, as well as highlight the hydrogel-like properties of mammillae-associated macromolecules.

  9. Applied physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    The Physics Division research program that is dedicated primarily to applied research goals involves the interaction of energetic particles with solids. This applied research is carried out in conjunction with the basic research studies from which it evolved

  10. Statistical models for optimizing mineral exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wignall, T.K.; DeGeoffroy, J.

    1987-01-01

    The primary purpose of mineral exploration is to discover ore deposits. The emphasis of this volume is on the mathematical and computational aspects of optimizing mineral exploration. The seven chapters that make up the main body of the book are devoted to the description and application of various types of computerized geomathematical models. These chapters include: (1) the optimal selection of ore deposit types and regions of search, as well as prospecting selected areas, (2) designing airborne and ground field programs for the optimal coverage of prospecting areas, and (3) delineating and evaluating exploration targets within prospecting areas by means of statistical modeling. Many of these statistical programs are innovative and are designed to be useful for mineral exploration modeling. Examples of geomathematical models are applied to exploring for six main types of base and precious metal deposits, as well as other mineral resources (such as bauxite and uranium)

  11. EFFECTIVENESS OF DOUBLE WASH SWIM-UP VERSUS DOUBLE DENSITY GRADIENT SWIM-UP TECHNIQUE OF SPERM PREPARATION IN IN VITRO FERTILISATION

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivas Sangisapu; Sandeep Karunakaran; Ashok Kumar Pillai

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Recovery of optimum number of good quality of spermatozoa is an important component of In Vitro Fertilisation (IVF). This is achieved by sperm preparation methods involving separation and recovery of capacitated sperms. Double Wash Swim-up (DWSU) and Double Density Gradient Swim-up (DDGSU) are two most accepted methods. Cochrane systematic review (2007) finds no clear benefit of one method over the other in Intrauterine Insemination (IUI). Systematic review on effective...

  12. Influence of forest biomass grown in fertilised soils on combustion and gasification processes as well as on the environment with integrated bioenergy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaanu, K; Orjala, M [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland). Fuel Production

    1997-12-01

    This presentation describes research carried out by VTT Energy and METLA during 1996, as part of the collaborative EU project involving Finland, Portugal and Spain. The main objectives of this project are to carry out experimental studies of both combustion and gasification under atmospheric (Portugal and Spain) and pressurised conditions (Finland) using biomass from different countries, namely Finland, Portugal and Spain. This was to determine the influence of biomass fertilising conditions on the process itself and the impact on the integrated energy production facilities, such as gas turbines. The aim of the research was carried out during 1996: (1) To complete the biomass collection, analyses and selection of the samples for combustion and gasification tests. This task has been carried out in co-operation with VTT and METLA, (2) To start the combustion and gasification tests under pressurised and atmospheric conditions. The combustion research in Finland is being performed in pressurised entrained flow reactor at VTT in Jyvaeskylae and the gasification research is being conducted at VTT in Espoo. The collection of biomass samples has been completed. The analyses of the samples show that for instance potassium and phosphorus content will be increased by about 30-50 % due to fertilisation. In the ash fusion tests, the ash from fertilised bark and branches and needles may start to soften already at 900 deg C under reducing conditions depending on the composition of the ash. In oxidising atmospheres the ash softening seems to occur at higher temperatures. Preliminary results indicate that the fertilisation may have an influence on the combustion process

  13. Assessing the impact of diclofenac, ibuprofen and sildenafil citrate (Viagra®) on the fertilisation biology of broadcast spawning marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Zanuri, Norlaila Binti; Bentley, Matthew G; Caldwell, Gary S

    2017-06-01

    Exposure to synthetic chemicals is a key environmental challenge faced by aquatic organisms. The time and dose effects of the pharmaceuticals diclofenac, ibuprofen, and sildenafil citrate on sperm motility and successful fertilisation are studied using the echinoderms, Asterias rubens and Psammechinus miliaris, and the polychaete worm Arenicola marina, all important components of the marine benthos. Motility was reduced for all species when exposed to diclofenac concentrations ≥0.1 μg/L. Exposure to ≥1.0 μg/L of ibuprofen affected only P. miliaris gametes and fertilisation success of A. marina. A. rubens and P. miliaris sperm increased in both percentage motility and swimming velocity when exposed to sildenafil citrate at concentrations ≥18 and ≥ 50 ng/L, respectively. Pre-incubation of sperm with sildenafil citrate significantly increased fertilisation success in A. rubens and P. miliaris but not in A. marina. Pre-incubated A. rubens oocytes fertilised successfully in ibuprofen. According to EU Directive 93/67/EEC, diclofenac is classified as a very toxic substance to gametes of A. rubens, P. miliaris, and A. marina (EC 50  = 100-1000 μg/L) while ibuprofen is classified as very toxic to gametes of P. miliaris but non-toxic to gametes of A. marina (EC 50  > 10,000 μg/L). The present study indicates that diclofenac exposure may have negative impacts on invertebrate reproductive success, whereas ibuprofen potentially may compromise P. miliaris reproduction. This study provides a valuable insight into the mechanisms that allow marine invertebrates to survive and reproduce in contaminated and changing habitats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Chemical dissolution of sulfide minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, T.T.; Sanzolone, R.F.

    1977-01-01

    Chemical dissolution treatments involving the use of aqua regia, 4 N HNO3, H2O2-ascorbic acid, oxalic acid, KClO3+HCl, and KClO3+HCl followed by 4 N HNO3 were applied to specimens of nine common sulfide minerals (galena, chalcopyrite, cinnabar, molybdenite, orpiment, pyrite, stibnite, sphalerite, and tetrahedrite) mixed individually with a clay loam soil. The resultant decrease in the total sulfur content of the mixture, as determined by using the Leco induction furnace, was used to evaluate the effectiveness of each chemical treatment. A combination of KClO3+HCl followed by 4 N HNO3 boiling gently for 20 min has been shown to be very effective in dissolving all the sulfide minerals. This treatment is recommended to dissolve metals residing in sulfide minerals admixed with secondary weathering products, as one step in a fractionation scheme whereby metals in soluble and adsorbed forms, and those associated with organic materials and secondary oxides, are first removed by other chemical extractants.

  15. Changes in the spore numbers of AM fungi and in AM colonisation of roots of clovers and grasses on a peat-muck soil with respect to mineral fertilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalska, T. K.; Kwiatkowaska, E.

    2016-01-01

    A 4-year plot experiment was conducted to determine the dynamics of changes in the spore density of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and of the degree of endomycorrhizal colonisation of roots of clovers and meadow grasses on an organic peat-muck soil in a post-marshy habitat, taking into account the effect of mineral fertilisation (NPK). The experimental object comprised four plots that represented the fertilisation treatments, sown with white clover (Trifolium repens L.), red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), smooth meadow-grass (Poa pratensis L.), and a mix of grasses composed of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis Huds.), smooth meadow-grass (Poa pratensis L.), and cocksfoot (Dactylis glomerata L.). Analogous sowing was performed on control (non-fertilised) plots. It was found that spores of AMF occurred in 100 percent of the samples of the soil studied, and the average total number of AMF spores isolated from soil under the particular plant combinations was high and amounted to 1858 spores (range from 1392 to 2443) in 100 g of air-dried soil. The percentage share of the clover and grass roots colonised by indigenous endomycorrhizal fungi was very low and varied from 0 to 46 (average from 4.1 percent to 12.2 percent). No correlation was found between the spore numbers of AMF in the soil and the degree of mycorrhized roots of the clovers and grasses. Mineral fertilisation stimulated the sporulation of AM fungi but had no effect on root colonisation by these fungi. (author)

  16. Mineral facilities of Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almanzar, Francisco; Baker, Michael S.; Elias, Nurudeen; Guzman, Eric

    2010-01-01

    This map displays over 1,700 records of mineral facilities within the countries of Europe and western Eurasia. Each record represents one commodity and one facility type at a single geographic location. Facility types include mines, oil and gas fields, and plants, such as refineries, smelters, and mills. Common commodities of interest include aluminum, cement, coal, copper, gold, iron and steel, lead, nickel, petroleum, salt, silver, and zinc. Records include attributes, such as commodity, country, location, company name, facility type and capacity (if applicable), and latitude and longitude geographical coordinates (in both degrees-minutes-seconds and decimal degrees). The data shown on this map and in table 1 were compiled from multiple sources, including (1) the most recently available data from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook (Europe and Central Eurasia volume), (2) mineral statistics and information from the USGS Minerals Information Web site (http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/europe.html), and (3) data collected by the USGS minerals information country specialists from sources, such as statistical publications of individual countries, annual reports and press releases of operating companies, and trade journals. Data reflect the most recently published table of industry structure for each country at the time of this publication. Additional information is available from the country specialists listed in table 2.

  17. The Effect of Organic and Inorganic Sources of Fertiliser on Growth and Yield of Brassica Oleraceae var. Acephala D.C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onyango, M.O.A.; Onyango, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    Kale (Brassica oleraceae var. Acephala D.C.) cultivar, collard green was planted in the field between October 1997 and March 1998 in the experimental plots at Maseno University college in Western Kenya. The experiment was set up to study the effect of organic and inorganic sources of fertiliser on growth and yield of kale. The kale seedlings were first raised in a nursery and transplanted 8 weeks after sowing. The treatments included farm yard manure (150 kg N.ha -1 , 8kgP.ha -1 ), Tithonia Diversifolia (Tithonia) Leaf biomass incorporated in combination with Diammonium phosphate (DAP) (150kgN.ha -1 and 30kgP.ha -1 ), TSithonia leaf biomass incorporated, DAP in combination with Urea, DAP in combination with calcium Ammonium nitrate (CAN) at the rate of 150kgP.ha -1 and the control. Non-destructive measurements on plant height, leaf number and stem thickness were taken regularly commencing 6 weeks after transplanting. Leaf yield was assessed by both cumulative leaf weight per given area and leaf number per plant. Both organic and inorganic sources of fertiliser significantly increased growth and leaf yield of kale. In all parameters measured farm yard manure gave the best response. Tithonia leaf biomass incorporated in the soil either on its own or in combination with DAP gave leaf yields comparable increasing, organic sources which are locally available to the farmer can be alternative sources of fertiliser without compromising the yields

  18. Fertilisation rate obtained with frozen-thawed boar semen supplemented with rosmarinic acid using a single insemination timed according to vulvar skin temperature changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luño, Victoria; Gil, Lydia; Olaciregui, Maite; Grandía, Juan; Ansó, Trinidad; De Blas, Ignacio

    2015-03-01

    Artificial insemination (AI) of sows with frozen-thawed semen usually results in lower pregnancy rates and litter sizes than the use of liquid preserved semen. The present study evaluated the effectiveness of vulvar skin temperature changes as a predictor of ovulation in sows and determined the fertility rates obtained after AI with frozen-thawed semen supplemented with rosmarinic acid (RA). Semen was collected from mature boars and cryopreserved in experimental extenders supplemented with or without 105 μM of RA. Multiparous sows were inseminated with a single dose of semen when vulvar skin temperature decreased to a value below 35 °C. Intrauterine insemination was performed using 1.5 × 109 spermatozoa. The sows were slaughtered 48 h after AI and the embryos and oocytes were recovered from the oviducts. Total and progressive motility, viability and acrosome integrity were significantly (P semen samples compared with the control. Fertilisation occurred in all sows inseminated in the study, although there were no significant differences between the experimental groups. Sows inseminated with RA-supplemented semen showed a slight increase in the number of embryos recovered as compared to sows inseminated with control semen. In conclusion, insemination according to vulvar skin temperature changes resulted in successful fertilisation in all sows, although supplementation of the freezing media with RA did not improve the fertilising ability of frozen-thawed boar sperm.

  19. Exposure to pastures fertilised with sewage sludge disrupts bone tissue homeostasis in sheep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lind, P. Monica [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden)], E-mail: Monica.Lind@ki.se; Gustafsson, Magnus [Department of Environmental Toxicology, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Hermsen, Sanne A.B. [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Larsson, Sune [Department of Orthopaedics, University of Uppsala, Uppsala (Sweden); Kyle, Carol E. [Macaulay Institute, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen AB15 8QH (United Kingdom); Orberg, Jan [Department of Environmental Toxicology, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Rhind, Stewart M. [Macaulay Institute, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen AB15 8QH (United Kingdom)

    2009-03-15

    The femurs of male and female sheep (Ovis aries), aged 18 months, bred on pastures fertilized twice annually with sewage sludge (2.25 tonnes dry matter/ha; Treated; T)) or on pastures treated with inorganic fertilizer (Control; C) were studied, using peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography (pQCT) and the three-point bending test. Males were maintained on the respective treatments from conception to weaning and then maintained on control pastures while the females were maintained on the respective treatments until slaughter. T rams exhibited increased total bone mineral density (BMD) at the metaphyseal part of femur (+ 10.5%, p < 0.01) compared with C rams but had a reduced total cross sectional area (CSA, - 11.5%, p < 0.001), trabecular CSA (- 17.1%, p < 0.01) and periosteal circumference (- 5.7%, p < 0.001). In the mid-diaphyseal part, T rams had an increased total BMD (+ 13.8%, p < 0.0001) and stiffness (+ 6.4%, p < 0.01) but reduced total CSA (- 12.1%, p < 0.0001) and marrow cavity (- 25.8%, p < 0.0001), relative to C rams. In ewes although pQCT analysis of neither the metaphyseal nor the mid-diaphyseal part of the female femur bones showed any significant differences with treatment, the biomechanical method revealed a reduction in load at failure (- 17.3%, p < 0.01) and stiffness (- 10.7%, p < 0.05) amongst T ewes. It is concluded that exposure to pollutants present in sewage sludge can perturb bone tissue homeostasis in sheep, but particularly in males.

  20. Exposure to pastures fertilised with sewage sludge disrupts bone tissue homeostasis in sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lind, P. Monica; Gustafsson, Magnus; Hermsen, Sanne A.B.; Larsson, Sune; Kyle, Carol E.; Orberg, Jan; Rhind, Stewart M.

    2009-01-01

    The femurs of male and female sheep (Ovis aries), aged 18 months, bred on pastures fertilized twice annually with sewage sludge (2.25 tonnes dry matter/ha; Treated; T)) or on pastures treated with inorganic fertilizer (Control; C) were studied, using peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography (pQCT) and the three-point bending test. Males were maintained on the respective treatments from conception to weaning and then maintained on control pastures while the females were maintained on the respective treatments until slaughter. T rams exhibited increased total bone mineral density (BMD) at the metaphyseal part of femur (+ 10.5%, p < 0.01) compared with C rams but had a reduced total cross sectional area (CSA, - 11.5%, p < 0.001), trabecular CSA (- 17.1%, p < 0.01) and periosteal circumference (- 5.7%, p < 0.001). In the mid-diaphyseal part, T rams had an increased total BMD (+ 13.8%, p < 0.0001) and stiffness (+ 6.4%, p < 0.01) but reduced total CSA (- 12.1%, p < 0.0001) and marrow cavity (- 25.8%, p < 0.0001), relative to C rams. In ewes although pQCT analysis of neither the metaphyseal nor the mid-diaphyseal part of the female femur bones showed any significant differences with treatment, the biomechanical method revealed a reduction in load at failure (- 17.3%, p < 0.01) and stiffness (- 10.7%, p < 0.05) amongst T ewes. It is concluded that exposure to pollutants present in sewage sludge can perturb bone tissue homeostasis in sheep, but particularly in males

  1. Definitions of Health Terms: Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/definitions/mineralsdefinitions.html Definitions of Health Terms : Minerals To use the sharing features on this page, ... National Institutes of Health, Office of Dietary Supplements Minerals Minerals are those elements on the earth and ...

  2. Minerals industry survey 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    This is the eleventh Minerals Industry Survey produced by the Australian Mining Industry Council. It represents an invaluable time series on the minerals industry's financial performance, as well as an up to date description of the industry for the latest financial year. The survey has been conceived as a supplement to and expansion of the various Australian Bureau of Statistics and Bureau of Mineral Resources, Geology and Geophysics publications which describe the exploration, mining and smelting and refining industries in Australia. The tables in this survey have been prepared by Coopers and Lybrand, Chartered Accountants, based on information supplied to them in confidence by the respondent companies.

  3. Characterization of clay minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz N, C.; Olguin, M.T.; Solache R, M.; Alarcon H, T.; Aguilar E, A.

    2002-01-01

    The natural clays are the more abundant minerals on the crust. They are used for making diverse industrial products. Due to the adsorption and ion exchange properties of these, a great interest for developing research directed toward the use of natural clays for the waste water treatment has been aroused. As part of such researches it is very important to carry out previously the characterization of the interest materials. In this work the results of the mineral and elemental chemical composition are presented as well as the morphological characteristics of clay minerals from different regions of the Mexican Republic. (Author)

  4. The long path to pregnancy: early experience with dual anonymous gamete donation in a European in vitro fertilisation referral centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sills Eric

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This investigation describes features of patients undergoing in vitro fertilisation (IVF and embryo transfer (ET where both gametes were obtained from anonymous donors. Methods Gamete unsuitability or loss was confirmed in both members of seven otherwise healthy couples presenting for reproductive endocrinology consultation over a 12-month interval in Ireland. IVF was undertaken with fresh oocytes provided by anonymous donors in Ukraine; frozen sperm (anonymous donor was obtained from a licensed tissue establishment. For recipients, saline-enhanced sonography was used to assess intrauterine contour with endometrial preparation via transdermal estrogen. Results Among commissioning couples, mean±SD female and male age was 41.9 ± 3.7 and 44.6 ± 3.5 yrs, respectively. During this period, female age for non dual anonymous gamete donation IVF patients was 37.9 ± 3 yrs (p Conclusions Mean age of females undergoing dual anonymous donor gamete donation with IVF is significantly higher than the background IVF patient population. Even when neither partner is able to contribute any gametes for IVF, the clinical pregnancy rate per transfer can be satisfactory if both anonymous egg and sperm donation are used concurrently. Our report emphasises the role of pre-treatment counselling in dual anonymous gamete donation, and presents a coordinated screening and treatment approach in IVF where this option may be contemplated.

  5. Assessment of basic seminal characteristics, sperm cryopreservation and heterologous in vitro fertilisation in the fishing cat (Prionailurus viverrinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiangtum, Khongsak; Swanson, William F; Howard, JoGayle; Tunwattana, Wanchai; Tongthainan, Dakara; Wichasilpa, Wisid; Patumrattanathan, Pornchai; Pinyopoommintr, Tanu

    2006-01-01

    Conservation of the fishing cat, a threatened south-east Asian felid, could benefit from effective ex situ genetic management and breeding programmes, including the use of assisted reproduction. The aims of the present study were to: (1) characterise basal seminal traits of fishing cats in Thailand zoos; and (2) investigate the effect of cryopreservation on sperm motility, acrosomal integrity and in vitro function. Seminal traits were evaluated in electroejaculates collected from eight males. Spermatozoa were diluted in n-tris(hydroxymethyl)-methyl-2-aminoethanesulfonic acid Tris (TEST)-yolk buffer (TYB) without glycerol, then diluted further with TYB with glycerol (4% final concentration) at either 25 degrees C or after slow cooling to 5 degrees C and frozen in straws over liquid nitrogen vapour. After thawing, sperm function was assessed by insemination of viable domestic cat oocytes. Fishing cat ejaculates averaged (+/- s.e.m.) 43.6 +/- 14.2 x 10(6) motile spermatozoa with 33.5 +/- 6.8% normal sperm morphology. Semen processing had a negligible effect (P > 0.05) on sperm motility and acrosomal integrity, but values were reduced (P cat oocytes, with 62.1% (36/58) of mature oocytes cleaving. Glycerol addition at 5 degrees C resulted in higher (P fishing cats and their spermatozoa exhibit adequate function after cryopreservation for in vitro fertilisation procedures.

  6. The sustainability of changes in agricultural technology: The carbon, economic and labour implications of mechanisation and synthetic fertiliser use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gathorne-Hardy, Alfred

    2016-12-01

    New agricultural technologies bring multiple impacts which are hard to predict. Two changes taking place in Indian agriculture are a transition from bullocks to tractors and an associated replacement of manure with synthetic fertilisers. This paper uses primary data to model social, environmental and economic impacts of these transitions in South India. It compares ploughing by bullocks or tractors and the provision of nitrogen from manure or synthetic urea for irrigated rice from the greenhouse gas (GHG), economic and labour perspective. Tractors plough nine times faster than bullocks, use substantially less labour, with no significant difference in GHG emissions. Tractors are twice as costly as bullocks yet remain more popular to hire. The GHG emissions from manure-N paddy are 30 % higher than for urea-N, largely due to the organic matter in manure driving methane emissions. Labour use is significantly higher for manure, and the gender balance is more equal. Manure is substantially more expensive as a source of nutrients compared to synthetic nutrients, yet remains popular when available. This paper demonstrates the need to take a broad approach to analysing the sustainability impacts of new technologies, as trade-offs between different metrics are common.

  7. Altered Preconception Fatty Acid Intake Is Associated with Improved Pregnancy Rates in Overweight and Obese Women Undertaking in Vitro Fertilisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa J. Moran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Maternal preconception diet is proposed to affect fertility. Prior research assessing the effect of altering the fatty acid profile on female fertility is conflicting. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of preconception maternal diet, specifically fatty acid profile, on pregnancies and live births following in vitro fertilisation (IVF. Forty-six overweight and obese women undergoing IVF were randomised to a diet and physical activity intervention (intervention or standard care (control. Outcome measures included pregnancy, live birth and pre-study dietary intake from food frequency questionnaire. Twenty pregnancies (n = 12/18 vs. n = 8/20, p = 0.12 and 12 live births (n = 7/18 vs. n = 5/20, p = 0.48 occurred following the intervention with no differences between the treatment groups. On analysis adjusted for BMI and smoking status, women who became pregnant had higher levels of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA intake (p = 0.03, specifically omega-6 PUFA and linoleic acid (LA (p = 0.045 with a trend for an elevated intake of omega-3 PUFA (p = 0.06. There were no dietary differences for women who did or did not have a live birth. Maternal preconception PUFA, and specifically omega-6 and LA intake, are associated with improved pregnancy rates in overweight and obese women undergoing IVF. This has implications for optimising fertility through preconception nutrition.

  8. Reintroduction of salt marsh vegetation and phosphorus fertilisation improve plant colonisation on seawater-contaminated cutover bogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Emond

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Coastal bogs that are used for peat extraction are prone to contamination by seawater during storm events. Once contaminated, they remain mostly bare because of the combination of high salinity, low pH, high water table and low nutrient availability. The goal of this research was to investigate how plant colonisation at salt-contaminated bogs can be accelerated, in order to prevent erosion and fluvial export of the peat. At two seawater-contaminated bogs, we tested the application of rock phosphate and dolomitic lime in combination with five plant introduction treatments: transplantation of Carex paleacea; transplantation of Spartina pectinata; transfer of salt marsh diaspores in July; transfer of salt marsh diaspores in August; and no treatment (control. The effects of different doses of lime on the growth of C. paleacea and S. pectinata were also investigated in a greenhouse experiment. In the field, phosphorus fertilisation improved plant growth. Transplantation of C. paleacea resulted in the highest plant colonisation, whereas salt marsh diaspore transfer led to the highest species diversity. Lime applications did not improve plant establishment in either the field or the greenhouse. To promote revegetation of seawater-contaminated cutover bogs, adding P is an asset, Carex paleacea is a good species to transplant, and the transfer of salt marsh diaspores improves plant diversity.

  9. Stakeholders' views on ethical issues in the practice of in-vitro fertilisation and embryo transfer in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, R A; Dibosa-Osadolor, O J

    2011-09-01

    The provision of IVF for the specialized treatment of infertility has grown very rapidly in Nigeria in recent times, especially within the private sector. The objective of this study was to document the views of key stakeholders regarding salient ethical issues relating to the practice of in-vitro fertilisation (IVF) in Nigeria. A think-tank session was convened with participants drawn from different backgrounds and disciplines to deliberate on ethical issues in IVF. Ten key issues were discussed at this inaugural session. It was unanimously agreed that there are no right or wrong answers when considering the ethics and morality of IVF as these are principally dependent on choice and circumstances. However within the legal and socio-cultural dictates of the Nigerian society, right and wrong may be clearly determined on some issues. With the expansion of the IVF industry and technology in Nigeria, the need to address related ethical issues have become paramount. The forum recommended that it is important that regulatory guidelines are put in place to regulate the practice of IVF in Nigeria and to protect patients' rights and safety.

  10. Altered Preconception Fatty Acid Intake Is Associated with Improved Pregnancy Rates in Overweight and Obese Women Undertaking in Vitro Fertilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Lisa J; Tsagareli, Victoria; Noakes, Manny; Norman, Robert

    2016-01-04

    Maternal preconception diet is proposed to affect fertility. Prior research assessing the effect of altering the fatty acid profile on female fertility is conflicting. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of preconception maternal diet, specifically fatty acid profile, on pregnancies and live births following in vitro fertilisation (IVF). Forty-six overweight and obese women undergoing IVF were randomised to a diet and physical activity intervention (intervention) or standard care (control). Outcome measures included pregnancy, live birth and pre-study dietary intake from food frequency questionnaire. Twenty pregnancies (n = 12/18 vs. n = 8/20, p = 0.12) and 12 live births (n = 7/18 vs. n = 5/20, p = 0.48) occurred following the intervention with no differences between the treatment groups. On analysis adjusted for BMI and smoking status, women who became pregnant had higher levels of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake (p = 0.03), specifically omega-6 PUFA and linoleic acid (LA) (p = 0.045) with a trend for an elevated intake of omega-3 PUFA (p = 0.06). There were no dietary differences for women who did or did not have a live birth. Maternal preconception PUFA, and specifically omega-6 and LA intake, are associated with improved pregnancy rates in overweight and obese women undergoing IVF. This has implications for optimising fertility through preconception nutrition.

  11. Differential Survival among Batches of Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua L. from Fertilisation through to Post-Metamorphosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra E Petersen

    Full Text Available Aquaculture production of cod has decreased from over 20,000 tonnes in 2009 to less than 2,000 tonnes in 2014 and the industry faces many challenges, one of which is high and unpredictably variable mortality rates in the early life stages. Hence, full-cycle farming with hatchery produced juveniles is still considered unprofitable compared to fisheries and on-growing of wild cod. In the present study, potential batch differences in progeny survival of wild-caught, hatchery-spawned Faroe Bank cod (Gadus morhua L. were investigated at two defined periods during early life history; i the embryo stage (60 day degrees post fertilisation and ii the fry stage (110 days post hatch, post metamorphosis. The fry stage experiment was conducted in three replicates (N = 300 per replicate, and a panel of three polymorphic microsatellite markers was used for parental analysis. Mean survival rate at the embryo stage was 69% (± 20% SD. Survival was positively associated with egg diameter (P < 0.01, explaining 90% of the variation in egg survival rates. The data were too scarce to conclude either way concerning a possible correlation between survival rates between the two periods (P < 0.10. Offspring from three batches (from a total of eight dominated in the fry stage, contributing over 90% of the progeny, and results were consistent over all three replicate tanks. The skewed batch representation observed may be of relevance to the effective management of selective breeding programmes for cod.

  12. Law of radioactive minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Legal device done in order to standardize and promote the exploration and explotation of radioactive minerals by peruvian and foreign investors. This device include the whole process, since the prospection until the development, after previous auction given by IPEN

  13. sequenceMiner algorithm

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Detecting and describing anomalies in large repositories of discrete symbol sequences. sequenceMiner has been open-sourced! Download the file below to try it out....

  14. Mineral industry statistics 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    Production, consumption and marketing statistics are given for solid fuels (coal, peat), liquid fuels and gases (oil, natural gas), iron ore, bauxite and other minerals quarried in France, in 1975. Also accident statistics are included. Production statistics are presented of the Overseas Departments and territories (French Guiana, New Caledonia, New Hebrides). An account of modifications in the mining field in 1975 is given. Concessions, exploitation permits, and permits solely for prospecting for mineral products are discussed. (In French)

  15. Coastal placer minerals

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Iyer, S.D.; Gujar, A.R.

    to be processed and purified to extract the metal either by sulphate or chloride route. The economical aspects of placer mining would involve the cost to benefit ratio, which would encompass the money Selective sorting has resulted in two distinct sediments... or mineral at the national and international levels. Interestingly, though gold is the most sought metal and the prices per gram keep rising, there are others that are much more costly such as diamond and rare earth metals. Uses of Heavy Minerals...

  16. [Pneumoconiosis in bauxite miners].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinini, R; Pesola, M; Digennaro, M A; Carino, M; Nuzzaco, A; Coviello, F

    1985-01-01

    The authors examined a group of 40 miners who were being working at an Apulian bauxite mine, presently inactive. Radiographic findings of pulmonary micronodulation without significant reduction of lung functions were showed in 15 miners. Mineralogical analysis of mine dust samples excluded any presence of more than 1% free silica. As a result of this study hypotheses have been formulated about pathogenesis of this moderated and non-invasive pneumoconiosis, showed in long exposed subjects to low silica content dusts.

  17. Mineral commodity summaries 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2013-01-01

    Each chapter of the 2013 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS) includes information on events, trends, and issues for each mineral commodity as well as discussions and tabular presentations on domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, 5-year salient statistics, and world production and resources. The MCS is the earliest comprehensive source of 2012 mineral production data for the world. More than 90 individual minerals and materials are covered by two-page synopses. For mineral commodities for which there is a Government stockpile, detailed information concerning the stockpile status is included in the two-page synopsis. Abbreviations and units of measure, and definitions of selected terms used in the report, are in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively. “Appendix C—Reserves and Resources” includes “Part A—Resource/Reserve Classification for Minerals” and “Part B—Sources of Reserves Data.” A directory of USGS minerals information country specialists and their responsibilities is Appendix D. The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the MCS 2013 are welcomed.

  18. Mineral commodity summaries 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2014-01-01

    Each chapter of the 2014 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS) includes information on events, trends, and issues for each mineral commodity as well as discussions and tabular presentations on domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, 5-year salient statistics, and world production and resources. The MCS is the earliest comprehensive source of 2013 mineral production data for the world. More than 90 individual minerals and materials are covered by two-page synopses. For mineral commodities for which there is a Government stockpile, detailed information concerning the stockpile status is included in the two-page synopsis. Abbreviations and units of measure, and definitions of selected terms used in the report, are in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively. “Appendix C—Reserves and Resources” includes “Part A—Resource/Reserve Classification for Minerals” and “Part B—Sources of Reserves Data.” A directory of USGS minerals information country specialists and their responsibilities is Appendix D. The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the MCS 2014 are welcomed.

  19. Applied Electromagnetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, H; Marinova, I; Cingoski, V [eds.

    2002-07-01

    These proceedings contain papers relating to the 3rd Japanese-Bulgarian-Macedonian Joint Seminar on Applied Electromagnetics. Included are the following groups: Numerical Methods I; Electrical and Mechanical System Analysis and Simulations; Inverse Problems and Optimizations; Software Methodology; Numerical Methods II; Applied Electromagnetics.

  20. Applied Electromagnetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, H.; Marinova, I.; Cingoski, V.

    2002-01-01

    These proceedings contain papers relating to the 3rd Japanese-Bulgarian-Macedonian Joint Seminar on Applied Electromagnetics. Included are the following groups: Numerical Methods I; Electrical and Mechanical System Analysis and Simulations; Inverse Problems and Optimizations; Software Methodology; Numerical Methods II; Applied Electromagnetics

  1. Phosphite fertilisers as inhibitors of Hymenoscyphus fraxineus (anamorph Chalara fraxinea growth in tests in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tkaczyk Miłosz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study is designed to test the potential for reducing the growth of the mycelium of the fungus Hymenoscyphus fraxineus (anamorph Chalara fraxinea by using phosphite preparations at various concentrations in vitro. The study shows that adding pure phosphite to potato dextrose agar media inhibits the development of the fungus, but if the preparation is applied in the form of ammonium phosphite (Actifos, the growth of fungus will be accelerated. Probably the addition of nitrogen contained in the product Actifos has positive effect on the mycelial growth, but pure phosphite restricts its development. These studies are preliminary and only show the potential use of phosphite to reduce the development of H. fraxineus; however, to completely confirm its operation, further research is needed in this area.

  2. Effect of fertilisation on biomass yield, ash and element uptake in SRC willow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ugilt Larsen, Søren; Jørgensen, Uffe; Kjeldsen, Jens Bonderup

    2016-01-01

    +0, 2) NPK120+0, 3) Slurry180+0, 4) NPK120+120, 5) NPK240+0, 6) Slurry360+0. Fertilization affected biomass yield significantly but interacted with rotation and clone. In first rotation, fertilization increased dry matter (DM) yield across clones significantly from 3.7 Mg ha−1 y−1 for Control0+0 to 6.......5, 6.4 and 5.6 for Slurry360+0, NPK120+120 and NPK240+0, respectively. In second rotation, yield increased from 6.2 Mg ha−1 y−1 to 8.8, 8.2, 7.8 and 7.4 for Slurry360+0, NPK240+0, Slurry180+0 and NPK120+120, respectively. Biomass dry matter yield per ha increased linearly at 15 kg kg−1 of applied total...

  3. FERTILISATION IMPACT ON THE CONTENT OF SELECTED BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS IN CAULIFLOWER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton UHER

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen and sulphur fertilization positively affected on crop yields and bioactive compounds (vitamin C, E1 and -carotene content in cauliflower edible heads. Applying fertilization doses of 250 kg N.ha-1 and 60 kg S.ha-1 compared to the control improved cauliflower harvest by 15,2 t.ha-1. Increased fertilization doses of nitrogen and sulphur significantly increased vitamin C and -carotene content in the cauliflower. High significant difference in vitamin C level was found comparing the control variant and variant of nitrogen fertilization at the level of 200 kg N.ha-1. In percentage terms this is an increase in vitamin C level by 22,4%. Fertilization with increased doses of nitrogen and sulphur affected significantly the amount of -carotene compared to unfertilized variant. Increased doses of N and S did not respond adequately to vitamin E1 content in cauliflower.

  4. Short-rotation Willow Biomass Plantations Irrigated and Fertilised with Wastewaters. Results from a 4-year multidisciplinary field project in Sweden, France, Northern Ireland and Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Stig [Svaloef Weibull AB, Svaloef (Sweden); Cuingnet, Christian; Clause, Pierre [Association pour le Developpement des Culture Energetiques, Lille (France); Jakobsson, Ingvar [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden); Dawson, Malcolm [Queens Univ., Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Backlund, Arne [A and B Backlund ApS, Charlottenlund (Denmark); Mavrogianopoulus, George [Agricultural Univ. of Athens (Greece)

    2003-01-01

    This report summarises results and experiences gathered from field trials with recycling of pre-treated wastewater, diverted human urine mixed with water, and municipal sludge, within plantations of willow species specifically selected for biomass production. Experimental sites were established in Sweden (Roma), France (Orchies), Northern Ireland (Culmore) and Greece (Larissa). The project was carried out during a 4-year period with financial support from the EU FAIR Programme. The experimental sites were supplied with primary effluent from municipal treatment plants (Culmore and Larissa), stored industrial effluent from a chicory processing plant (Orchies), biologically treated and stored municipal wastewater (Roma) and human urine mixture from diverting low-flush toilets mixed with water (Roma). Application rates of the wastewaters or the urine mixture were equivalent to the calculated evapotranspiration rate at each site. Wastewaters were also applied up to three times this value to evaluate any possible negative effects. Estimations and evaluations were carried out mainly concerning: biomass growth, potential biological attacks of the plantations, plant water requirements, fertilisation effects of the wastewater, plant uptake of nutrients and heavy metals from applied wastewater, possible soil or groundwater impact, sanitary aspects, and potentials for removal in the soil-plant filter of nutrients and biodegradable organic material from applied wastewater. The results clearly indicated that biomass production in young willow plantations could be enhanced substantially after recycling of wastewater resources. The impact on soil and groundwater of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) and heavy metals (copper, zinc, lead and cadmium) was limited, even when the application of water and nutrients exceeded the plant requirements. Also, the soil-plant system seemed to function as a natural treatment filter for pre-treated (primary settled) wastewater, with a treatment

  5. The mineral economy of Brazil--Economia mineral do Brasil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurmendi, Alfredo C.; Barboza, Frederico Lopes; Thorman, Charles H.

    1999-01-01

    This study depicts the Brazilian government structure, mineral legislation and investment policy, taxation, foreign investment policies, environmental laws and regulations, and conditions in which the mineral industry operates. The report underlines Brazil's large and diversified mineral endowment. A total of 37 mineral commodities, or groups of closely related commodities, is discussed. An overview of the geologic setting of the major mineral deposits is presented. This report is presented in English and Portuguese in pdf format.

  6. Applied superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Newhouse, Vernon L

    1975-01-01

    Applied Superconductivity, Volume II, is part of a two-volume series on applied superconductivity. The first volume dealt with electronic applications and radiation detection, and contains a chapter on liquid helium refrigeration. The present volume discusses magnets, electromechanical applications, accelerators, and microwave and rf devices. The book opens with a chapter on high-field superconducting magnets, covering applications and magnet design. Subsequent chapters discuss superconductive machinery such as superconductive bearings and motors; rf superconducting devices; and future prospec

  7. The long path to pregnancy: early experience with dual anonymous gamete donation in a European in vitro fertilisation referral centre

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sills, Eric Scott

    2010-08-11

    Abstract Background This investigation describes features of patients undergoing in vitro fertilisation (IVF) and embryo transfer (ET) where both gametes were obtained from anonymous donors. Methods Gamete unsuitability or loss was confirmed in both members of seven otherwise healthy couples presenting for reproductive endocrinology consultation over a 12-month interval in Ireland. IVF was undertaken with fresh oocytes provided by anonymous donors in Ukraine; frozen sperm (anonymous donor) was obtained from a licensed tissue establishment. For recipients, saline-enhanced sonography was used to assess intrauterine contour with endometrial preparation via transdermal estrogen. Results Among commissioning couples, mean±SD female and male age was 41.9 ± 3.7 and 44.6 ± 3.5 yrs, respectively. During this period, female age for non dual anonymous gamete donation IVF patients was 37.9 ± 3 yrs (p < 0.001). Infertility duration was ≥3 yrs for couples enrolling in dual gamete donation, and each had ≥2 prior failed fertility treatments using native oocytes. All seven recipient couples proceeded to embryo transfer, although one patient had two transfers. Clinical pregnancy was achieved for 5\\/7 (71.4%) patients. Non-transferred cryopreserved embryos were available for all seven couples. Conclusions Mean age of females undergoing dual anonymous donor gamete donation with IVF is significantly higher than the background IVF patient population. Even when neither partner is able to contribute any gametes for IVF, the clinical pregnancy rate per transfer can be satisfactory if both anonymous egg and sperm donation are used concurrently. Our report emphasises the role of pre-treatment counselling in dual anonymous gamete donation, and presents a coordinated screening and treatment approach in IVF where this option may be contemplated.

  8. Building resilience: A preliminary exploration of women's perceptions of the use of acupuncture as an adjunct to In Vitro Fertilisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paterson Charlotte

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Vitro Fertilisation (IVF is now an accepted and effective treatment for infertility, however IVF is acknowledged as contributing to, rather than lessening, the overall psychosocial effects of infertility. Psychological and counselling interventions have previously been widely recommended in parallel with infertility treatments but whilst in many jurisdictions counselling is recommended or mandatory, it may not be widely used. Acupuncture is increasingly used as an adjunct to IVF, in this preliminary study we sought to investigate the experience of infertile women who had used acupuncture to improve their fertility. Methods A sample of 20 women was drawn from a cohort of women who had attended for a minimum of four acupuncture sessions in the practices of two acupuncturists in South Australia. Eight women were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. Six had sought acupuncture during IVF treatment and two had begun acupuncture to enhance their fertility and had later progressed to IVF. Descriptive content analysis was employed to analyse the data. Results Four major categories of perceptions about acupuncture in relation to reproductive health were identified: (a Awareness of, and perceived benefits of acupuncture; (b perceptions of the body and the impact of acupuncture upon it; (c perceptions of stress and the impact of acupuncture on resilience; and (d perceptions of the intersection of medical treatment and acupuncture. Conclusion This preliminary exploration, whilst confined to a small sample of women, confirms that acupuncture is indeed perceived by infertile women to have an impact to their health. All findings outlined here are reported cautiously because they are limited by the size of the sample. They suggest that further studies of acupuncture as an adjunct to IVF should systematically explore the issues of wellbeing, anxiety, personal and social resilience and women's identity in relation to sexuality

  9. Essure(®) for management of hydrosalpinx prior to in vitro fertilisation-a systematic review and pooled analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, P; Arora, R S; Cahill, D

    2014-04-01

    Hydrosalpinges in infertile women reduce the success of in vitro fertilisation (IVF) by 50%. Surgical management of hydrosalpinges before IVF improves outcome but these procedures are often contraindicated in women with dense pelvic adhesions. Tubal occlusion achieved by Essure(®) via hysteroscopy provides an alternative. To conduct a systematic review on the efficacy and safety of Essure(®) in the management of hydrosalpinx before IVF. We searched MEDLINE (January 1950 to July 2013), EMBASE (January 1980 to July 2013) and Web of Science (1899 to July 2013). We also searched reference lists of relevant articles and proceedings of relevant international conferences (2000-2013). All types of studies where women with suspected infertility and presence of hydrosalpinx had hysteroscopic tubal occlusion with Essure(®) before IVF. Two authors independently selected studies and extracted data. Where necessary, study authors were contacted for further data. In all, 115 women in 11 studies received Essure(®) , mainly in the outpatient setting where local anaesthesia by paracervical block and/or intravenous sedation was used. Successful placement of Essure(®) was achieved in 96.5% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 91.1-98.9%) of women and tubal occlusion in 98.1% (95% CI 93.1-99.9%). Subsequent IVF resulted in 38.6% pregnancy rate (95% CI 30.9-46.8%), 27.9% live birth rate (95% CI 21.1-35.8%) and 28.6% combined ongoing pregnancy and live birth rate (95% CI 21.7-36.6%) per embryo transfer. Essure(®) appears to be an effective option for management of hydrosalpinx in women before IVF although evidence from a randomised controlled clinical trial is lacking. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  10. Fertilisation continue des Oxisols acides non humifères du

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nzabonihankuye G.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Crop rotation system of maize and beans, established at Rubona (Rwanda from 1984 to 1992, was used to evaluate different types and rates of fertilizers in improving the productivity of acid Oxisols. Continuous cropping of maize followed by beans for a period of 8 years gave no yield in control plots. Asingle application of 2 t per ha of lime increased significantly (p = .01 the soil pH, Ca2+ content, cationic exchange capacity, and decreased the level of the exchangeable aluminium. This quantity of lime when applied every two years for a period of eight years led to overliming. The application of more than 8 t per ha of fresh farmyard manure (annually, combined to 300 kg per ha of NPK 17:17:17 (every six months significantly improved soil organic C and crop production at Rubona. The high rate (35 t per ha of fresh manure or the combination of “lime, manure and NPK fertilizers” gave the best crop performance. Ten tons of farmyard manure (dry matter per ha and per year seems to be the minimum acceptable amount which can effectively substitute for inorganic fertilizers.

  11. The Impact of Organo-Mineral Complexation on Mineral Weathering in the Soil Zone under Unsaturated Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, H. A.; Tan, F.; Yoo, K.; Imhoff, P. T.

    2017-12-01

    While organo-mineral complexes can protect organic matter (OM) from biodegradation, their impact on soil mineral weathering is not clear. Previous bench-scale experiments that focused on specific OM and minerals showed that the adsorption of OM to mineral surfaces accelerates the dissolution of some minerals. However, the impact of natural organo-mineral complexes on mineral dissolution under unsaturated conditions is not well known. In this study, soil samples prepared from an undisturbed forest site were used to determine mineral weathering rates under differing conditions of OM sorption to minerals. Two types of soil samples were generated: 1) soil with OM (C horizon soil from 84-100cm depth), and 2) soil without OM (the same soil as in 1) but with OM removed by heating to 350°for 24 h). Soil samples were column-packed and subjected to intermittent infiltration and drainage to mimic natural rainfall events. Each soil sample type was run in duplicate. The unsaturated condition was created by applying gas pressure to the column, and the unsaturated chemical weathering rates during each cycle were calculated from the effluent concentrations. During a single cycle, when applying the same gas pressure, soils with OM retained more moisture than OM-removed media, indicating increased water retention capacity under the impact of OM. This is consistent with the water retention data measured by evaporation experiments (HYPROP) and the dew point method (WP4C Potential Meter). Correspondingly, silicon (Si) denudation rates indicated that dissolution of silicate minerals was 2-4 times higher in OM soils, suggesting that organo-mineral complexes accelerate mineral dissolution under unsaturated conditions. When combining data from all cycles, the results showed that Si denudation rates were positively related to soil water content: denundation rate increased with increasing water content. Therefore, natural mineral chemical weathering under unsaturated conditions, while

  12. Microbially mediated mineral carbonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, I. M.; Wilson, S. A.; Dipple, G. M.; Southam, G.

    2010-12-01

    Mineral carbonation involves silicate dissolution and carbonate precipitation, which are both natural processes that microorganisms are able to mediate in near surface environments (Ferris et al., 1994; Eq. 1). (Ca,Mg)SiO3 + 2H2CO3 + H2O → (Ca,Mg)CO3 + H2O + H4SiO4 + O2 (1) Cyanobacteria are photoautotrophs with cell surface characteristics and metabolic processes involving inorganic carbon that can induce carbonate precipitation. This occurs partly by concentrating cations within their net-negative cell envelope and through the alkalinization of their microenvironment (Thompson & Ferris, 1990). Regions with mafic and ultramafic bedrock, such as near Atlin, British Columbia, Canada, represent the best potential sources of feedstocks for mineral carbonation. The hydromagnesite playas near Atlin are a natural biogeochemical model for the carbonation of magnesium silicate minerals (Power et al., 2009). Field-based studies at Atlin and corroborating laboratory experiments demonstrate the ability of a microbial consortium dominated by filamentous cyanobacteria to induce the precipitation of carbonate minerals. Phototrophic microbes, such as cyanobacteria, have been proposed as a means for producing biodiesel and other value added products because of their efficiency as solar collectors and low requirement for valuable, cultivable land in comparison to crops (Dismukes et al., 2008). Carbonate precipitation and biomass production could be facilitated using specifically designed ponds to collect waters rich in dissolved cations (e.g., Mg2+ and Ca2+), which would allow for evapoconcentration and provide an appropriate environment for growth of cyanobacteria. Microbially mediated carbonate precipitation does not require large quantities of energy or chemicals needed for industrial systems that have been proposed for rapid carbon capture and storage via mineral carbonation (e.g., Lackner et al., 1995). Therefore, this biogeochemical approach may represent a readily

  13. Espresso beverages of pure origin coffee: mineral characterization, contribution for mineral intake and geographical discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Marta; Ramos, Sandra; Delerue-Matos, Cristina; Morais, Simone

    2015-06-15

    Espresso coffee beverages prepared from pure origin roasted ground coffees from the major world growing regions (Brazil, Ethiopia, Colombia, India, Mexico, Honduras, Guatemala, Papua New Guinea, Kenya, Cuba, Timor, Mussulo and China) were characterized and compared in terms of their mineral content. Regular consumption of one cup of espresso contributes to a daily mineral intake varying from 0.002% (sodium; Central America) to 8.73% (potassium; Asia). The mineral profiles of the espresso beverages revealed significant inter- and intra-continental differences. South American pure origin coffees are on average richer in the analyzed elements except for calcium, while samples from Central America have generally lower mineral amounts (except for manganese). Manganese displayed significant differences (pworld coffee producers were achieved by applying canonical discriminant analysis. Manganese and calcium were found to be the best chemical descriptors for origin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Applied mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Logan, J David

    2013-01-01

    Praise for the Third Edition"Future mathematicians, scientists, and engineers should find the book to be an excellent introductory text for coursework or self-study as well as worth its shelf space for reference." -MAA Reviews Applied Mathematics, Fourth Edition is a thoroughly updated and revised edition on the applications of modeling and analyzing natural, social, and technological processes. The book covers a wide range of key topics in mathematical methods and modeling and highlights the connections between mathematics and the applied and nat

  15. Influence of Integrated Use of Inorganic fertiliser and Organic manures on Bacterial Wilt Incidence (WI) and Tuber Yield in Potato Production Systems in Southern Slopes of Mt. Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mriithi, L.M.

    2002-01-01

    Bacterial wilt (BW) caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is one of the most damaging of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) in Kenya and worldwide. In Kenya Potato tuber yield losses due to BW infection are estimated at 50-100%. Low soil fertility is also one of the most important constraints limiting potato production in central Kenya highlands. Farmers tackle this problem through use of inorganic fertilisers and organic manures, both of which amend the soil environment to influence bacterial wilt development. Undecomposed organic manures can also introduce the pathogen into a clean field. Between short rains 1999 and 2000, 10 on-farm researcher/farmer-designed and farmer-managed trials were done at Kianjuki catchment in Embu District. The objective was to use farmers' participatory research approach and select the most suitable organic and inorganic fertiliser combination(s) with lowest BWI and acceptable usable tuber yields. And also demonstrate use of some components of integrated disease management methods in reduction of disease incidence and spread. Seven treatments were proposed, presented to the farmers for discussion and the most relevant four were selected for evaluation . A newly released potato variety 'Asante' was planted during the short-rains 1999 and long rains 2000. BWI didn't;t result in significant differences between treatments but the tuber yields were significantly different in short-rains 1999 and 2000. During short-rains 2000, both BWI and tuber yields and unusable tubers differed significantly between treatments. The results confirmed that use of well-decomposed manures or manures from pathogen-free areas can be used in combination with inorganic fertilisers to improve soil fertility and potato tuber yields in smallholder farm without influencing BWI. Use of certified seed tubers in pathogen free fields and following recommendation field sanitation measures, resulted in apparently bacterial wilt free crop

  16. The influence of nitrogen fertiliser rate and crop rotation on soil methane flux in rain-fed potato fields in Wuchuan County, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Liwei; Pan, Zhihua; Xu, Hui; Wang, Cheng; Gao, Lin; Zhao, Peiyi; Dong, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Jingting; Cui, Guohui; Wang, Sen; Han, Guolin; Zhao, Hui

    2015-01-01

    As one of the important greenhouse gases, the characteristics and principles of methane exchange characteristics in cultivated lands have become hot topics in current climate change research. This study examines the influences of nitrogen fertilisation, temperature and soil water content on methane exchange characteristic and methane exchange functional gene-pmoA gene abundance based on experimental observations of methane exchange fluxes using the static chamber–gas chromatographic method and measurements of methanotroph gene copy numbers in three growing periods by real-time PCR in rain-fed potato fields. The results indicate that the rain-fed potato fields were a CH_4 sink with an average annual methane absorption (negative emission) of 940.8 ± 103.2 g CH_4-C/ha/year. The cumulative methane absorption first exhibited flat and subsequently increasing trend with the increase of nitrogen fertilisation from 0 ~ 135 kg N·ha"−"1. Methane cumulative absorption significantly increased with the increase of temperature when temperatures were below 19.6 °C. Methane oxidation capacity (methanotroph pmoA gene copy numbers) showed an increasing and subsequently decreasing trend with the increase of soil moisture. Crop rotation was observed to increase the methane absorption in rain-fed potato fields and nearly one time higher than that under continuous cropping. A mechanism concept model of the methane exchange in rain-fed potato fields was advanced in this paper. - Highlights: • Rain-fed potato fields were a CH_4 sink. • Increased nitrogen fertilisation and temperature led to higher CH_4 absorption. • CH_4 oxidation capacity showed a parabolic trend with soil moisture increased. • Crop rotation increased CH_4 absorption one time higher than continuous cropping. • A mechanism concept model of the CH_4 exchange in potato fields was advanced.

  17. Chemometric perspectives on plankton community responses to natural iron fertilisation over and downstream of the Kerguelen Plateau in the Southern Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trull, T. W.; Davies, D. M.; Dehairs, F.; Cavagna, A.-J.; Lasbleiz, M.; Laurenceau-Cornec, E. C.; d'Ovidio, F.; Planchon, F.; Leblanc, K.; Quéguiner, B.; Blain, S.

    2015-02-01

    We examined phytoplankton community responses to natural iron fertilisation at 32 sites over and downstream from the Kerguelen Plateau in the Southern Ocean during the austral spring bloom in October-November 2011. The community structure was estimated from chemical and isotopic measurements (particulate organic carbon - POC; 13C-POC; particulate nitrogen - PN; 15N-PN; and biogenic silica - BSi) on size-fractionated samples from surface waters (300, 210, 50, 20, 5, and 1 μm fractions). Higher values of 13C-POC (vs. co-located 13C values for dissolved inorganic carbon - DIC) were taken as indicative of faster growth rates and higher values of 15N-PN (vs. co-located 15N-NO3 source values) as indicative of greater nitrate use (rather than ammonium use, i.e. higher f ratios). Community responses varied in relation to both regional circulation and the advance of the bloom. Iron-fertilised waters over the plateau developed dominance by very large diatoms (50-210 μm) with high BSi / POC ratios, high growth rates, and significant ammonium recycling (lower f ratios) as biomass built up. In contrast, downstream polar frontal waters with a similar or higher iron supply were dominated by smaller diatoms (20-50 μm) and exhibited greater ammonium recycling. Stations in a deep-water bathymetrically trapped recirculation south of the polar front with lower iron levels showed the large-cell dominance observed on the plateau but much less biomass. Comparison of these communities to surface water nitrate (and silicate) depletions as a proxy for export shows that the low-biomass recirculation feature had exported similar amounts of nitrogen to the high-biomass blooms over the plateau and north of the polar front. This suggests that early spring trophodynamic and export responses differed between regions with persistent low levels vs. intermittent high levels of iron fertilisation.

  18. The influence of nitrogen fertiliser rate and crop rotation on soil methane flux in rain-fed potato fields in Wuchuan County, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Liwei [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); College of Agronomy, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang 110866 (China); Wuchuan Scientific Observing and Experimental Station of Agro-Environment, Ministry of Agriculture Wuchuan 011700 (China); Pan, Zhihua, E-mail: panzhihua@cau.edu.cn [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Wuchuan Scientific Observing and Experimental Station of Agro-Environment, Ministry of Agriculture Wuchuan 011700 (China); Xu, Hui [Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Wang, Cheng [College of Agricultural and Biotechnology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Gao, Lin [School of Resources and Environmental, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036 (China); Zhao, Peiyi [Institute of Resources Environmental and Detection Technology, Inner Mongolia Academy of Agricultural and Animal Husbandry Sciences, Huhhot 010031 (China); Wuchuan Scientific Observing and Experimental Station of Agro-Environment, Ministry of Agriculture Wuchuan 011700 (China); Dong, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Jingting; Cui, Guohui; Wang, Sen; Han, Guolin; Zhao, Hui [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Wuchuan Scientific Observing and Experimental Station of Agro-Environment, Ministry of Agriculture Wuchuan 011700 (China)

    2015-12-15

    As one of the important greenhouse gases, the characteristics and principles of methane exchange characteristics in cultivated lands have become hot topics in current climate change research. This study examines the influences of nitrogen fertilisation, temperature and soil water content on methane exchange characteristic and methane exchange functional gene-pmoA gene abundance based on experimental observations of methane exchange fluxes using the static chamber–gas chromatographic method and measurements of methanotroph gene copy numbers in three growing periods by real-time PCR in rain-fed potato fields. The results indicate that the rain-fed potato fields were a CH{sub 4} sink with an average annual methane absorption (negative emission) of 940.8 ± 103.2 g CH{sub 4}-C/ha/year. The cumulative methane absorption first exhibited flat and subsequently increasing trend with the increase of nitrogen fertilisation from 0 ~ 135 kg N·ha{sup −1}. Methane cumulative absorption significantly increased with the increase of temperature when temperatures were below 19.6 °C. Methane oxidation capacity (methanotroph pmoA gene copy numbers) showed an increasing and subsequently decreasing trend with the increase of soil moisture. Crop rotation was observed to increase the methane absorption in rain-fed potato fields and nearly one time higher than that under continuous cropping. A mechanism concept model of the methane exchange in rain-fed potato fields was advanced in this paper. - Highlights: • Rain-fed potato fields were a CH{sub 4} sink. • Increased nitrogen fertilisation and temperature led to higher CH{sub 4} absorption. • CH{sub 4} oxidation capacity showed a parabolic trend with soil moisture increased. • Crop rotation increased CH{sub 4} absorption one time higher than continuous cropping. • A mechanism concept model of the CH{sub 4} exchange in potato fields was advanced.

  19. Applied Enzymology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoharan, Asha; Dreisbach, Joseph H.

    1988-01-01

    Describes some examples of chemical and industrial applications of enzymes. Includes a background, a discussion of structure and reactivity, enzymes as therapeutic agents, enzyme replacement, enzymes used in diagnosis, industrial applications of enzymes, and immobilizing enzymes. Concludes that applied enzymology is an important factor in…

  20. Minerals in deserts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.I.

    1982-01-01

    Almost any kind of mineral deposit can occur in desert areas, and the lack of vegetation and soil cover makes finding them easier. Some kinds of deposits, though, are more likely to occur in deserts than elsewhere. Some of these result from processes genetically related to the present desert climate that improved lower grade deposits of ore. One such process, termed secondary enrichment, is most effective in areas with deep water tables, and many low-grade copper, silver, and uranium deposits have been converted into mineable ore by the downward migration and redeposition of soluble metals. In a desert terrane, placer processes are effective whenever running water flowing over steep slopes erodes outcropping ore bodies and transports and concentrates the heavier ore minerals at lower levels, thus converting low-grade or hard-to-mine bedrock deposits into economically workable concentrations. Other kinds of deposits are better preserved in deserts because the lower rainfall at the surface, and the lower volume of flow and the greater depths to groundwater, result in less destruction of soluble ores; deposits of salines and phosphates are the most notable ores affected by these factors. Still other ore deposits are created as a consequence of the arid climate, mostly because the high evaporation rates operating on standing bodies of water produce brines that can lead directly to concentrations of salts and indirectly to secondary minerals, such as zeolites, that are produced by reaction of silicate minerals with saline waters

  1. Carbonizing bituminous minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1921-05-01

    A process for carbonizing bituminous minerals, like oil-shale, in a furnace with addition of air in the presence of heat-receiving material is characterized by the fact that to the feed such solid or liquid material (with the exception of oil) is added, which, through vaporization or heat-binding decomposition or conversion, hinders the establishment of excessive temperatures.

  2. Uruguay minerals fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goso, H.

    1967-01-01

    In this report the bases for the development of the necessary works of prospection are exposed on mineral fuels of Uruguay. We have taken the set from: coal, lutitas bituminous, uranium, petroleum and disturbs. In all the cases we have talked about to the present state of the knowledge and to the works that we considered necessary to develop in each case

  3. Annual effects of different organic fertilisers in a baby leaf crops system under tunnel in Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Morra

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In a farm devoted to the production of fresh-cut leafy vegetables located in Eboli (Salerno, it was carried out a trial to compare the effects on crops and soil organic carbon (SOC of biowaste compost, olive pomace compost, buffalo manure applied to soil in two doses (15 and 30 t ha−1 fresh weight. The amendments were tested in order to start in defining a feasible strategy for the recovery/maintenance of soils in degradation due to the organic matter depletion triggered by the intensive soil tillage and the lack of organic matter returned to soil. In the year following the soil amendment, it was studied the crop sequence: rocket-basil-rocket. Analysis of nitrates concentration in leaves of rocket was carried out on samples of all the treatments picked up in the two cycles of rocket. Along the year, we observed that the higher yields promoted in the first six months (May-September from the dose 15 t ha−1, were obtained with the dose 30 t ha−1 in the successive six months (November-May. This was due, probably, to the larger stock of total N supplied with dose 30 and its release in time. Buffalo manure amendment showed a higher quickness than composts in the supplying mineral nitrogen to the first crops. On the other hand, nitrates in leaves of rocket exceeded, more frequently, the limits fixed in EU Regulation n. 1258/2011 in the plots amended with buffalo manure. Instead, the treatments with olive pomace compost showed to exceed rarely the EU limits. Under tunnel, the intensive management based on 4-5 crop cycles per year and as much soil tillage, appeared the first cause to explain the lack of significant variation in SOC of plots treated with organic improvers after one year from their distribution. This result let us to suppose the need to study some modifications of the standard farm management in order to reduce the number of soil tillage in a year and, as a consequence, the main stress causing the high carbon mineralisation rate in

  4. Mineral nutrition of plants: a short history of plant physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennazio, Sergio

    2005-01-01

    The development of the knowledge on the mineral nutrition of plants begins between the 17th and 18th centuries when some European naturalists gave the first experimental evidences of what had been empirically known for about two millennia. The works of Hales and Ingenhousz were of absolute importance in relation to the transport of water and solutes, and assimilation of "fixed air" (carbon dioxide), respectively. The early chemistry introduced by Lavoisier benefited the first physiologists Senebier and De Saussure to reject the "theory of humus", which imposed the soil as the unique source of carbon. During the first half of the 19th century, Sprengel and Liebig investigated on the problems related to some indispensable mineral salts, while Boussingault and Ville attempted to prove the nitrogen fixation from air without giving any convincing evidence. Liebig was the pioneer of the agricultural chemistry: he epitomised the knowledge of that period by imposing the so-called "law of the minima", already acknowledged by Sprengel, and patronised the use of mineral fertilisers in Europe by devising several formulas of mineral manure. He, however, did not recognise the needs of external supplies of nitrogen salts for the crops, in open dispute with the English school of Lawes and Gilbert, who were instead convinced assertors of such needs. At the end of the 19th century Hellriegel showed that leguminous plants presenting peculiar nodules on their roots could really fix the gaseous nitrogen. From these nodules Beijerinck and Prazmowski isolated for the first time some bacteria which were recognised as the real agents fixing nitrogen. This discovery was of fundamental importance for plant nutrition, only second to the discovery of photosynthesis. Another basic contribution came from early research of Sachs on plants grown on aqueous solutions: these techniques allowed to impose the concept of "essential elements", which was fixed as a principle by Arnon and Stout in 1939

  5. Aggregate and Mineral Resources - Industrial Mineral Mining Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — An Industrial Mineral Mining Operation is a DEP primary facility type related to the Industrial Mineral Mining Program. The sub-facility types are listed below:Deep...

  6. Applied dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Schiehlen, Werner

    2014-01-01

    Applied Dynamics is an important branch of engineering mechanics widely applied to mechanical and automotive engineering, aerospace and biomechanics as well as control engineering and mechatronics. The computational methods presented are based on common fundamentals. For this purpose analytical mechanics turns out to be very useful where D’Alembert’s principle in the Lagrangian formulation proves to be most efficient. The method of multibody systems, finite element systems and continuous systems are treated consistently. Thus, students get a much better understanding of dynamical phenomena, and engineers in design and development departments using computer codes may check the results more easily by choosing models of different complexity for vibration and stress analysis.

  7. Applied optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orszag, A.; Antonetti, A.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report, of the Applied Optics laboratory, of the (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. The optical fiber activities are focused on the development of an optical gyrometer, containing a resonance cavity. The following domains are included, in the research program: the infrared laser physics, the laser sources, the semiconductor physics, the multiple-photon ionization and the nonlinear optics. Investigations on the biomedical, the biological and biophysical domains are carried out. The published papers and the congress communications are listed [fr

  8. External validation and calibration of IVFpredict: a national prospective cohort study of 130,960 in vitro fertilisation cycles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D A C Smith

    Full Text Available Accurately predicting the probability of a live birth after in vitro fertilisation (IVF is important for patients, healthcare providers and policy makers. Two prediction models (Templeton and IVFpredict have been previously developed from UK data and are widely used internationally. The more recent of these, IVFpredict, was shown to have greater predictive power in the development dataset. The aim of this study was external validation of the two models and comparison of their predictive ability.130,960 IVF cycles undertaken in the UK in 2008-2010 were used to validate and compare the Templeton and IVFpredict models. Discriminatory power was calculated using the area under the receiver-operator curve and calibration assessed using a calibration plot and Hosmer-Lemeshow statistic. The scaled modified Brier score, with measures of reliability and resolution, were calculated to assess overall accuracy. Both models were compared after updating for current live birth rates to ensure that the average observed and predicted live birth rates were equal. The discriminative power of both methods was comparable: the area under the receiver-operator curve was 0.628 (95% confidence interval (CI: 0.625-0.631 for IVFpredict and 0.616 (95% CI: 0.613-0.620 for the Templeton model. IVFpredict had markedly better calibration and higher diagnostic accuracy, with calibration plot intercept of 0.040 (95% CI: 0.017-0.063 and slope of 0.932 (95% CI: 0.839-1.025 compared with 0.080 (95% CI: 0.044-0.117 and 1.419 (95% CI: 1.149-1.690 for the Templeton model. Both models underestimated the live birth rate, but this was particularly marked in the Templeton model. Updating the models to reflect improvements in live birth rates since the models were developed enhanced their performance, but IVFpredict remained superior.External validation in a large population cohort confirms IVFpredict has superior discrimination and calibration for informing patients, clinicians and

  9. Oxygen Extraction from Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscatello, Tony

    2017-01-01

    Oxygen, whether used as part of rocket bipropellant or for astronaut life support, is a key consumable for space exploration and commercialization. In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) has been proposed many times as a method for making space exploration more cost effective and sustainable. On planetary and asteroid surfaces the presence of minerals in the regolith that contain oxygen is very common, making them a potential oxygen resource. The majority of research and development for oxygen extraction from minerals has been for lunar regolith although this work would generally be applicable to regolith at other locations in space. This presentation will briefly survey the major methods investigated for oxygen extraction from regolith with a focus on the current status of those methods and possible future development pathways. The major oxygen production methods are (1) extraction from lunar ilmenite (FeTiO3) with either hydrogen or carbon monoxide, (2) carbothermal reduction of iron oxides and silicates with methane, and (3) molten regolith electrolysis (MRE) of silicates. Methods (1) and (2) have also been investigated in a two-step process using CO reduction and carbon deposition followed by carbothermal reduction. All three processes have byproducts that could also be used as resources. Hydrogen or carbon monoxide reduction produce iron metal in small amounts that could potentially be used as construction material. Carbothermal reduction also makes iron metal along with silicon metal and a glass with possible applications. MRE produces iron, silicon, aluminum, titanium, and glass, with higher silicon yields than carbothermal reduction. On Mars and possibly on some moons and asteroids, water is present in the form of mineral hydrates, hydroxyl (-OH) groups on minerals, andor water adsorbed on mineral surfaces. Heating of the minerals can liberate the water which can be electrolyzed to provide a source of oxygen as well. The chemistry of these processes, some key

  10. Indústria mineral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iran F. Machado

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available A INDÚSTRIA mineral brasileira é analisada, de modo sucinto, face aos desafios impostos pela globalização contemporânea. As mudanças profundas ocorridas no contexto internacional na última década, abrangendo as esferas política, econômica, social e institucional, exigem uma reflexão aprofundada sobre o papel a ser desempenhado pelo Brasil no comércio internacional de bens minerais. De um lado, as oportunidades de aproveitamento de jazidas de classe internacional, principalmente na Amazônia, são bastante promissoras. Por outro, não se deve ignorar que: a explotação dessas reservas terá de obedecer a critérios de sustentabilidade, seguindo paradigmas já adotados em países desenvolvidos; o Brasil terá de garantir a sua competitividade diante dos seus principais concorrentes (Austrália, CEI, China e Índia. A questão dos minerais estratégicos é também abordada, com ênfase nas preocupações demonstradas pelo Departamento de Estado dos EUA. Finalmente, são alinhados três cenários possíveis para o desempenho futuro da mineração brasileira, instando-se o governo a dedicar maior atenção ao destino do nosso subsolo.THE MINERAL industry of Brazil is briefly analysed vis-à-vis the challenges imposed by the cruenta globalization process. The profound changes that occurred in the international framework during the last decade, encompassing the political, economic, social, and institutional structures, demand a thorough appraisal about the role to be played by Brazil in the international market of mineral commodities. On one hand, the opportunities open for world class deposits, mainly in the Amazon, are very promising. On the other hand, it is mandatory to take into account that: the exploitation of these reserves shall comply with sound sustainability criteria, following guidelines already adopted by some developed countries; Brazil will have to demonstrate its competitiveness among the major competitors (Australia

  11. Mineral commodity profiles: nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Deborah A.

    2004-01-01

    Overview -- Nitrogen (N) is an essential element of life and a part of all animal and plant proteins. As a part of the DNA and RNA molecules, nitrogen is an essential constituent of each individual's genetic blueprint. As an essential element in the chlorophyll molecule, nitrogen is vital to a plant's ability to photosynthesize. Some crop plants, such as alfalfa, peas, peanuts, and soybeans, can convert atmospheric nitrogen into a usable form by a process referred to as 'fixation.' Most of the nitrogen that is available for crop production, however, comes from decomposing animal and plant waste or from commercially produced fertilizers. Commercial fertilizers contain nitrogen in the form of ammonium and/or nitrate or in a form that is quickly converted to the ammonium or nitrate form once the fertilizer is applied to the soil. Ammonia is generally the source of nitrogen in fertilizers. Anhydrous ammonia is commercially produced by reacting nitrogen with hydrogen under high temperatures and pressures. The source of nitrogen is the atmosphere, which is almost 80 percent nitrogen. Hydrogen is derived from a variety of raw materials, which include water, and crude oil, coal, and natural gas hydrocarbons. Nitrogen-based fertilizers are produced from ammonia feedstocks through a variety of chemical processes. Small quantities of nitrates are produced from mineral resources principally in Chile. In 2002, anhydrous ammonia and other nitrogen materials were produced in more than 70 countries. Global ammonia production was 108 million metric tons (Mt) of contained nitrogen. With 28 percent of this total, China was the largest producer of ammonia. Asia contributed 46 percent of total world ammonia production, and countries of the former U.S.S.R. represented 13 percent. North America also produced 13 percent of the total; Western Europe, 9 percent; the Middle East, 7 percent; Central America and South America, 5 percent; Eastern Europe, 3 percent; and Africa and Oceania

  12. CERN Library | Michael Dittmar presents "Extracted: How the Quest for Mineral Wealth Is Plundering the Planet" by Ugo Bardi (et al.) | 24 July

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    As we dig, drill and excavate to unearth the planet’s mineral bounty, the resources we exploit from ores, veins, seams and wells are gradually becoming exhausted. Mineral treasures that took millions, or even billions, of years to form are now being squandered in just centuries—or sometimes just decades.   Extracted: How the Quest for Mineral Wealth Is Plundering the Planet, by Ugo Bardi et al., Chelsea Green Publishing, 2014, ISBN 9781603585415. Will there come a time when we actually run out of minerals? Debates already soar over how we are going to obtain energy without oil, coal and gas. But what about the other mineral losses we face? Without metals, and semiconductors, how are we going to keep our industrial system running? Without mineral fertilisers and fuels, how are we going to produce the food we need? Ugo Bardi delivers a sweeping history of the mining industry, starting with its humble beginning when our early ancestors started digging underground to find the st...

  13. Outlook 96: Minerals and Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Papers discussing the future of Australia's minerals and energy are presented under the following headings: Australia in the global minerals and energy markets; minerals exploration; steelmaking raw materials; aluminium and alumina; gold; nickel; base metals; titanium minerals; energy for a sustainable future; electricity; electricity in Asia; crude oil; coal trade; natural gas in Australia and uranium. Relevant papers are individually indexed/abstracted. Tabs., figs., refs

  14. International availability of energy minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, N A [Norman White Associates, London (UK)

    1979-06-01

    Whereas the ultimate world supply of energy minerals - defined as fossil fuels and fissile minerals - is controlled by geological factors, the actual supply at any particular time is controlled by economic feasibility, technological innovations and/or political decisions. This paper identifies and discusses the principal uncertainties surrounding the international availability of energy minerals from now until the end of the century. A brief comparison is also made between energy and non-energy minerals.

  15. Aggregates from mineral wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baic Ireneusz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem concerning the growing demand for natural aggregates and the need to limit costs, including transportation from remote deposits, cause the increase in growth of interest in aggregates from mineral wastes as well as in technologies of their production and recovery. The paper presents the issue related to the group of aggregates other than natural. A common name is proposed for such material: “alternative aggregates”. The name seems to be fully justified due to adequacy of this term because of this raw materials origin and role, in comparison to the meaning of natural aggregates based on gravel and sand as well as crushed stones. The paper presents characteristics of the market and basic application of aggregates produced from mineral wastes, generated in the mining, power and metallurgical industries as well as material from demolished objects.

  16. The bismuth miners study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosche, B.; Kreuzer, M.; Kreisheimer, M.; Schnelzer, M.; Tschense, A.; Gottschalk, K.

    2005-01-01

    The Federal Radiation Protection Office carried out a retrospective cohort study on some 60,000 former employees of the SAG/SDAG Wismut. The purpose of the study was to validate the radon-related risk of acquiring lung cancer previously calculated from 11 jointly evaluated studies among miners on the basis of an independent, homogeneous data record of comparable size. A further goal was to study the risk of acquiring extrapulmonal tumours. This paper only briefly describes the sampling, design and methods used in the study, as these were already presented during the Radon Status Talks. The first follow-up on the cohort was completed in 2003. Around this time a job exposure matrix (JEM) suitable for scientific inquiries was made available by the professional miners' association and the roof organisation of professional trade associations (HVBG). This paper is the first to report on the outcome of the risk analysis in direct comparison with the results found by BEIR

  17. Iodine mineral waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iluta Alexandru

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Iodine mineral waters are found especially in sub-Carpathian region, also in regions with Salif deposits. Waters are currently used iodine in drinking cure for chaps and Basedow. Are also indicated in balneology. Iodine water containing at least 1 mg L, there is pure iodine is usually given the nature of other types of mineral waters further: sodium chlorinated water (Bazna (50-70 mg iodine / l, Baile Govora (50 - 70 mg / l, Bălţăteşti (4-5 mg / l, salted Monteoru (30 mg / l, mine water mixed alkaline chlorination, sulphate, which are indicated for crenoterapie (hypo or isotonic to the bathrooms Olăneşti or Călimăneşti-Căciulata.

  18. Rock and mineral magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    O’Reilly, W

    1984-01-01

    The past two decades have witnessed a revolution in the earth sciences. The quantitative, instrument-based measurements and physical models of. geophysics, together with advances in technology, have radically transformed the way in which the Earth, and especially its crust, is described. The study of the magnetism of the rocks of the Earth's crust has played a major part in this transformation. Rocks, or more specifically their constituent magnetic minerals, can be regarded as a measuring instrument provided by nature, which can be employed in the service of the earth sciences. Thus magnetic minerals are a recording magnetometer; a goniometer or protractor, recording the directions of flows, fields and forces; a clock; a recording thermometer; a position recorder; astrain gauge; an instrument for geo­ logical surveying; a tracer in climatology and hydrology; a tool in petrology. No instrument is linear, or free from noise and systematic errors, and the performance of nature's instrument must be assessed and ...

  19. The ocean response to volcanic iron fertilisation after the eruption of Kasatochi volcano: a regional-scale biogeochemical ocean model study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lindenthal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In high-nutrient–low-chlorophyll regions, phytoplankton growth is limited by the availability of water-soluble iron. The eruption of Kasatochi volcano in August 2008 led to ash deposition into the iron-limited NE Pacific Ocean. Volcanic ash released iron upon contact with seawater and generated a massive phytoplankton bloom. Here we investigate this event with a one-dimensional ocean biogeochemical column model to illuminate the ocean response to iron fertilisation by volcanic ash. The results indicate that the added iron triggered a phytoplankton bloom in the summer of 2008. Associated with this bloom, macronutrient concentrations such as nitrate and silicate decline and zooplankton biomass is enhanced in the ocean mixed layer. The simulated development of the drawdown of carbon dioxide and increase of pH in surface seawater is in good agreement with available observations. Sensitivity studies with different supply dates of iron to the ocean emphasise the favourable oceanic conditions in the NE Pacific to generate massive phytoplankton blooms in particular during July and August in comparison to other months. By varying the amount of volcanic ash and associated bio-available iron supplied to the ocean, model results demonstrate that the NE Pacific Ocean has higher, but limited capabilities to consume CO2 after iron fertilisation than those observed after the volcanic eruption of Kasatochi.

  20. Characterising willows for biomass and phytoremediation: growth, nitrogen and water use of 14 willow clones under different irrigation and fertilisation regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weih, Martin; Nordh, N.-E.

    2002-01-01

    Fourteen clones of willow (Salix spp.) were characterised in terms of growth, nitrogen and water-use efficiency under different irrigation and fertilisation treatments. Cuttings of willow clones, some commercially introduced and others new material, were pot-grown outdoors in Central Sweden under four experimental treatments in a full-factorial design. The experiment covered the period from bud-break until leaf abscission and the experimental conditions included two irrigation and two fertilisation regimes. The growth of the clones was evaluated in terms of relative growth rate and total biomass production of whole plants and shoots. Nitrogen (N) economy was studied by means of N productivity, N accumulation and N losses by leaf abscission. Water economy was analysed with respect to intrinsic water-use efficiency (foliar carbon isotope ratio; δ 13 C) and the capacity of leaves to retain water (relative water content). Significant differences between clones were found in nearly all parameters measured and the clones varied in the responses to the experimental treatments (clone x factor interaction effects). Thus, clone ranking often changed depending on the experimental treatment. The results are discussed with respect to clone selection for different willow applications such as biomass production and phytoremediation, and willow growth performance under different water and nutrient availabilities. The growth-physiological characterisation of young willows in the short term (several months) is regarded as a suitable approach for pre-selection of promising clones prior to extensive field evaluation

  1. The treatment of run-off from a fertiliser plant for nitrification, denitrification and phosphorus removal by use of constructed wetlands: a demonstration study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, P F; McBarnet, W; O'Donnell, D; McMahon, A; Houston, L; Brian, M

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes an evaluation carried out on demonstration scale to show that it was possible to use a Hybrid Reed Bed System comprising a Horizontal flow and a Vertical Flow Bed for treating the high strength run-off from a fertiliser packaging plant. The site is located close to an estuary which is sensitive to nutrients. The environmental regulators were therefore concerned that excessive mass flows of nitrate, ammoniacal nitrogen and phosphate, potentially arising from the site run-off, were not discharged into the estuary. The fertiliser manufacturing company required a simple, low maintenance system for removing nitrogen and phosphorus. A series of experimental runs were carried out to characterise the performance of the Hybrid System, establishing the effluent quality that could be achieved and the mass removal rate which was appropriate for acceptable treatment. These tests showed that it was possible to achieve a reduction of 79% in Total N whilst using molasses as a carbon source for denitrification. When using a 4:1 recycle ratio this produced an effluent with concentrations of 14 mg NH(4)-N/litre and 18 mg NO(3)-N/litre from treating site run-off containing concentrations in the order of 75 mg/litre of both NH(3)N and NO(3)-N. Chemical dosing with an iron salt brought the P concentration down to around 0.5 mg PO(4)-P/litre.

  2. The influence of nitrogen fertiliser rate and crop rotation on soil methane flux in rain-fed potato fields in Wuchuan County, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liwei; Pan, Zhihua; Xu, Hui; Wang, Cheng; Gao, Lin; Zhao, Peiyi; Dong, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Jingting; Cui, Guohui; Wang, Sen; Han, Guolin; Zhao, Hui

    2015-12-15

    As one of the important greenhouse gases, the characteristics and principles of methane exchange characteristics in cultivated lands have become hot topics in current climate change research. This study examines the influences of nitrogen fertilisation, temperature and soil water content on methane exchange characteristic and methane exchange functional gene-pmoA gene abundance based on experimental observations of methane exchange fluxes using the static chamber-gas chromatographic method and measurements of methanotroph gene copy numbers in three growing periods by real-time PCR in rain-fed potato fields. The results indicate that the rain-fed potato fields were a CH4 sink with an average annual methane absorption (negative emission) of 940.8±103.2 g CH4-C/ha/year. The cumulative methane absorption first exhibited flat and subsequently increasing trend with the increase of nitrogen fertilisation from 0~135 kg N·ha(-1). Methane cumulative absorption significantly increased with the increase of temperature when temperatures were below 19.6 °C. Methane oxidation capacity (methanotroph pmoA gene copy numbers) showed an increasing and subsequently decreasing trend with the increase of soil moisture. Crop rotation was observed to increase the methane absorption in rain-fed potato fields and nearly one time higher than that under continuous cropping. A mechanism concept model of the methane exchange in rain-fed potato fields was advanced in this paper. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Characterization lithium mineralized pegmatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, E.F.S.; Luz Ferreira, O. da; Cancado, R.Z.L.

    1986-01-01

    Lithium economic importance has increased in the last years. In Brazil its reserves, generally pegmatites bodies, are found in Itinga-Aracuai-MG. This study of characterization belongs to a global plan of lithium mineralized bodies research of 'Arqueana de Minerios e Metais Ltda', which purpose is to give subsidies for implementation of pegmatite unit, in order to make better use of them. (F.E.) [pt

  4. Petroleum and mineral resources of Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovar, Karel; Behrendt, John Charles

    1983-01-01

    No known petroleum or mineral resources occur in Antarctica. The data on these subjects have been collected, mainly since the IGY (International Geophysical Year), 1957-58, as a part of other research carried out by geologists and geophysicists from a number of countries. Specific resource-related studies have not been made. Wright and Williams (1974) summarized what was known of Antarctic mineral resources a decade ago.The U.S. Geological Survey has been actively pursuing various investigations in Antarctica since 194 7. In the course of this work and that of our colleagues elsewhere in the United States and in other countries, much information relevant to petroleum and mineral resources has been obtained. Since 1976, modern state-of-the-art multichannel seismic reflection and aeromagnetic surveys by several countries over the continental margin of Antarctica have indicated thick sedimentary basins. However, no offshore drilling beneath the continental shelf has taken place since the DSDP (Deep Sea Drilling Project) holes in the Ross Sea in 1973. Geologic field investigations begun at the turn of the twentieth century have been intensified in the past two decades; most rock outcrops have been visited and samples collected. Technology to exploit resources, particularly in the Arctic, has been developing at a rapid rate, and much of it could be applied to Antarctica. As a result of the petroleum price increases of the past decade, the attention of a number of countries has turned to Antarctica, but under the policy of "voluntary restraint" adopted by the Antarctic Treaty nations, no active petroleum or mineral exploration is taking place. The Antarctic treaty countries are in the process of negotiating an Antarctic mineral resources regime that is anticipated to be completed within the next several years. Therefore it seemed timely to us to readdress the question of petroleum and mineral resources. These reports review and summarize the available information. The

  5. 76 FR 6110 - Conflict Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ...-10] RIN 3235-AK84 Conflict Minerals AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule...'') and would require any such issuer for which conflict minerals are necessary to the functionality or... body of its annual report whether its conflict minerals originated in the Democratic Republic of the...

  6. Flotation of sulphide minerals 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forssberg, K S.E. [ed.; Luleaa University of Technology, Luleaa (Sweden). Division of Mineral Processing

    1991-01-01

    A total of 27 papers presented at the workshop on flotation of sulphide minerals, reprinted from the International Journal of Mineral Processing, vol. 33, nos. 1-4, are included in this book. They cover various aspects of flotation of such minerals as chalcopyrite, pyrrhotite, galena, malachite and pyrite.

  7. Digital mineral logging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, J.B.

    1980-01-01

    A digital mineral logging system acquires data from a mineral logging tool passing through a borehole and transmits the data uphole to an electronic digital signal processor. A predetermined combination of sensors, including a deviometer, is located in a logging tool for the acquisition of the desired data as the logging tool is raised from the borehole. Sensor data in analog format is converted in the logging tool to a digital format and periodically batch transmitted to the surface at a predetermined sampling rate. An identification code is provided for each mineral logging tool, and the code is transmitted to the surface along with the sensor data. The self-identifying tool code is transmitted to the digital signal processor to identify the code against a stored list of the range of numbers assigned to that type of tool. The data is transmitted up the d-c power lines of the tool by a frequency shift key transmission technique. At the surface, a frequency shift key demodulation unit transmits the decoupled data to an asynchronous receiver interfaced to the electronic digital signal processor. During a recording phase, the signals from the logging tool are read by the electronic digital signal processor and stored for later processing. During a calculating phase, the stored data is processed by the digital signal processor and the results are outputted to a printer or plotter, or both

  8. 30 CFR 260.111 - What conditions apply to the bidding systems that MMS uses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What conditions apply to the bidding systems that MMS uses? 260.111 Section 260.111 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... What conditions apply to the bidding systems that MMS uses? (a) For each of the bidding systems in...

  9. Views of coal miners in South Africa on sanctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puhe, H.; Schoeppner, K.P.

    1987-01-01

    Presents the results of a survey conducted during 1987, of the attitudes of a sample of black, male coal miners working in 6 export-orientated mines in Transvaal and 3 in Natal. Both mines and miners were selected at random and nearly 1,000 interviews were conducted. The most significant findings are as follows: South African coal miners are largely satisfied with their conditions of work, above all with social benefits, safety standards and the relations amongst the workers themselves. Regarding improvements in their working conditions miners attach by far the greatest importance to the question of wages. Next on the list are improvements in accomodation and the abolition of apartheid. The issue of 'sanctions' is not debated very widely. More than two-thirds of polled miners had not heard of sanctions previously. Nevertheless, after an explanation of what the term means, a large majority of South African coal miners (70%) rejects sanctions. Only one-fifth (21%) is for sanctions. Three-quarters of miners polled believe that sanctions would hit them hard. Above all they mentioned the risk of losing their jobs (79%), life at home (75%) and a decline in wages (74%). 34% of coal miners would support sanctions if they were ultimately to lead to the fall of the South African Government. 26% if sanctions were to lead to the fall of the South African Government, but also to a loss of their own jobs. Most of the miners polled felt that the trade unions were representing them well. However, South African coal miners are insufficiently informed on supposed positions adopted by the trade unions on separate issues and this applies to trade union policy on sanctions as well. 72% of miners polled seek a government that shares power equally between black and white. Moderate means are proposed to attain such a government. Only a minority, the hard core comprising about 25% of the South African miners, seeks violent confrontation.

  10. Radiological impact during the extraction, processing and use of phosphate minerals in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerquera, Juan T.; Prendes Alonso, Miguel; Ramos Biltres, Odalys

    2008-01-01

    The use of phosphates for the production of fertilisers is a practice broadly diffused in the world. Their wide use is associated to the contribution of this material to formulation of Nk fertilisers. It is known in turn that phosphates have in their composition appreciable quantities of radioactive elements of natural origin. For this reason the use of phosphates in the composition of fertilizers can cause a radiological impact to both workers and public during all the phases of extraction and processing of phosphates, as well as during the production and application of these fertilizers. Finally the transfer of radionuclides contained in the fertilizers to the products of human consumption (vegetables, milk, meat) can produce an additional radiological impact on population. In Cuba there exist six locations of phosphoric rocks, located in the counties of Pinar del Rio, Havana, Matanzas, Sancti-Spiritus and Holguin. From these deposits there were studied the two ones which are in exploitation: 'La Pimienta' deposit, located in the West part of the country and 'Trinidad de Guedes' deposit, located in the Centre-West of Cuba. Paper shows the results obtained by the Center for Radiation Protection and Hygiene (CPHR) in the determination of radionuclides concentrations in collected in the sites samples. Based on these results and taking into account both the features of routine works carried out in the sites and the later use of collected mineral as fertilizer, doses to mining workers and to members of the public were estimated. Estimated doses are in the range 0.3 - 2.70 mSv per year for workers and in the range 1.3 - 17 μSv per year. (author)

  11. Applied geodesy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, S.

    1987-01-01

    This volume is based on the proceedings of the CERN Accelerator School's course on Applied Geodesy for Particle Accelerators held in April 1986. The purpose was to record and disseminate the knowledge gained in recent years on the geodesy of accelerators and other large systems. The latest methods for positioning equipment to sub-millimetric accuracy in deep underground tunnels several tens of kilometers long are described, as well as such sophisticated techniques as the Navstar Global Positioning System and the Terrameter. Automation of better known instruments such as the gyroscope and Distinvar is also treated along with the highly evolved treatment of components in a modern accelerator. Use of the methods described can be of great benefit in many areas of research and industrial geodesy such as surveying, nautical and aeronautical engineering, astronomical radio-interferometry, metrology of large components, deformation studies, etc

  12. Applied mathematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedelec, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report of the Applied Mathematics center (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. The research fields of the Center are the scientific calculus, the probabilities and statistics and the video image synthesis. The research topics developed are: the analysis of numerical methods, the mathematical analysis of the physics and mechanics fundamental models, the numerical solution of complex models related to the industrial problems, the stochastic calculus and the brownian movement, the stochastic partial differential equations, the identification of the adaptive filtering parameters, the discrete element systems, statistics, the stochastic control and the development, the image synthesis techniques for education and research programs. The published papers, the congress communications and the thesis are listed [fr

  13. Accuracy in mineral identification: image spectral and spatial resolutions and mineral spectral properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Pompilio

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Problems related to airborne hyperspectral image data are reviewed and the requirements for data analysis applied to mineralogical (rocks and soils interpretation are discussed. The variability of mineral spectral features, including absorption position, shape and depth is considered and interpreted as due to chemical composition, grain size effects and mineral association. It is also shown how this variability can be related to well defined geologic processes. The influence of sensor noise and diffuse atmospheric radiance in classification accuracy is also analyzed.

  14. Applying radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallozzi, P.J.; Epstein, H.M.; Jung, R.G.; Applebaum, D.C.; Fairand, B.P.; Gallagher, W.J.; Uecker, R.L.; Muckerheide, M.C.

    1979-01-01

    The invention discloses a method and apparatus for applying radiation by producing X-rays of a selected spectrum and intensity and directing them to a desired location. Radiant energy is directed from a laser onto a target to produce such X-rays at the target, which is so positioned adjacent to the desired location as to emit the X-rays toward the desired location; or such X-rays are produced in a region away from the desired location, and are channeled to the desired location. The radiant energy directing means may be shaped (as with bends; adjustable, if desired) to circumvent any obstruction between the laser and the target. Similarly, the X-ray channeling means may be shaped (as with fixed or adjustable bends) to circumvent any obstruction between the region where the X-rays are produced and the desired location. For producing a radiograph in a living organism the X-rays are provided in a short pulse to avoid any blurring of the radiograph from movement of or in the organism. For altering tissue in a living organism the selected spectrum and intensity are such as to affect substantially the tissue in a preselected volume without injuring nearby tissue. Typically, the selected spectrum comprises the range of about 0.1 to 100 keV, and the intensity is selected to provide about 100 to 1000 rads at the desired location. The X-rays may be produced by stimulated emission thereof, typically in a single direction

  15. Nuclear minerals in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansoor, M.

    2005-01-01

    Strategic importance of Nuclear Minerals was recognized during early formative years of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission, and prospecting for uranium was started in Dera Ghazi Khan in collaboration with the Geological Survey of Pakistan (GSP) as early as 1961. Later, the responsibility for countrywide surveys and exploration was fully entrusted with PAEC and in this respect a Directorate of Nuclear Minerals(DNM) was established in 1966 at Lahore. Later, DNM was shifted to the Atomic Energy Centre (AEC), Lahore building and renamed as Atomic Energy Minerals Centre. It has state-of-the-art Chemistry, Mineralogy, Remote Sensing and Electronics Laboratories and an Ore Processing Pilot Plant. The Centre has Prospecting, Exploration, Geophysics, Geochemistry, Geo-tectonics, Mining and Drilling Sections. Regional Offices have been established to facilitate work at Karachi, Quetta and Peshawar. Siwaliks were recognized as a favorable geological formation of prime importance. Sandstone-shale sequence of Siwaliks Formation is exposed in all provinces of Pakistan and in Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK), broadly categorized into Rajanpur-Dera Ghazi Khan, Bannu Basin-Kohat Plateau and Potwar-AJK zones. Baghalchur, Nangar Nai and Taunsa uranium deposits have been discovered in the Rajanpur- D.G. Khan Zone. Qabul Khel and Shanawah Uranium deposits have been discovered in the Shanawah-Kohat Plateau Zone. Prospection and exploration is in progress. The first uranium mine was opened at Baghalchur, and uranium mill was established at D.G Khan in 1977-78 all by indigenous effort. The uranium mine was the most advanced and mechanized mine of that time in the country. Later, a second uranium mine was opened at Qabul Khel in 1992, which was based on a new and advanced in situ leach technology, developed to suit local geological and ore zone parameters. Mining of Nanganai and Taunsa Deposits was started respectively in 1996 and 2002, and is also based on in situ leach technology which is

  16. Minerals and rumen function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    The mechanisms are discussed of some clinical disorders, characteristic only of ruminants and related to the effects of abnormal mineral intake on rumen function. With particular attention to tropical conditions, consideration is given to: (a) the possible effects of phosphorus deficiency on rumen microbial activity; (b) the depression of rumen microbial synthesis in sulphur deficiency; (c) the inhibition of magnesium absorption from the forestomachs; and (d) the involvement of the rumen microorganisms in leading to copper and vitamin B 12 deficiencies as a result of low intakes of cobalt. (author)

  17. Reducing coal miner absenteeism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, R.H.; Clingan, M.R. (Bureau of Mines, PA (USA). Pittsburgh Research Center)

    1989-09-01

    High absenteeism at coal mines can seriously affect safety and hamper productivity. Several effective strategies for achieving high attendance which mine operators may not have considered are presented and a method is proposed for implementing programs for minimizing absenteeism among coal miners. The best strategies for improving attendance will vary according to the needs and circumstances of the particular mine, however, the process for establishing such a program is relatively invariant. A four-stage process is recommended; evaluate data from prior attendance records, communicate attendance goals and policy, develop and implement an attendance promotion program, and recycle. 12 refs., 5 figs.

  18. Refining mineral oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1946-07-05

    A process is described refining raw oils such as mineral oils, shale oils, tar, their fractions and derivatives, by extraction with a selected solvent or a mixture of solvents containing water, forming a solvent more favorable for the hydrocarbons poor in hydrogen than for hydrocarbons rich in hydrogen, this process is characterized by the addition of an aiding solvent for the water which can be mixed or dissolved in the water and the solvent or in the dissolving mixture and increasing in this way the solubility of the water in the solvent or the dissolving mixture.

  19. RELATIVE TRACE MINERAL BIOAVAILABILITY

    OpenAIRE

    Rchard D. Miles; Peter R. Henry

    2006-01-01

    Para determinar a eficiência de utilização de elementos minerais dietéticos, deve-se conhecer a biodisponibilidade relativa de cada elemento de um determinado ingrediente ou de uma ração completa. Análises químicas da dieta ou de um determinado ingrediente não indicam a efetividade biológica de um nutriente. Existem muitos fatores que influenciam a biodisponibilidade dos minerais, especialmente dos minerais-traço, tais como: nível de consumo do mineral, forma química, digestibilidade da dieta...

  20. Climate and N-Mineral Fertilization Changes on Triticale (XTriticosecale W.) Yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    László, Márton, ,, Dr.

    2010-05-01

    Ecological quality has a well established dependence on climate-rainfall changes because the water problems are pressing. There is, therefore, growing concern about the potentially wide ranging risks that climate change would have on these key industries as the nature and extent of anticipated changes have become more evident. It also includes changes in land use and in plant production and their management. These changes are unprecedented in terms of both their rate and their spatial extent. Changes in land use (agrotechnics, soil, cultivation, fertility, quality, protection etc.) and in plant production (plant nutrition-, rotation-, protection-, etc.) are currently the main manifestations. As an interdisciplinary problem it is necessary to study such a complex matter in terms of agricultural production. Generally among natural catastrophes, droughts and floods cause the greatest problems in field crop production. The droughts and the floods that were experienced in Hungary in the early 1980's have drawn renewed attention to the analyses of these problems. New research on climate change-soil-plant systems are focused on yield and yield quality. This paper reports the climate change (rainfall) x soil (acidic sandy brown forest) x mineral N-fertilisation x plant interactions on triticale yields in a long term field experiment set up at Nyírlugos in north-eastern Hungary under temperate climate conditions in 1962. The agrochemical parameters of the soil were as follows: pH (H2O) 5.9, pH (KCl) 4.7, hydrolytic acidity 8.4, hy1 0.3, humus 0.7%, CEC 5-10 mgeq 100*g-1, total N 34 mg*kg-1, AL-P2O5 43 mg*kg-1, AL-K2O 60 mg*kg-1. From 1962 to 1980 the experiment consisted of 2x16x4x4=512 plots and from 1980 of 32x4=128 plots in split-split plot and factorial random block design. The gross plot size was 10x5=50 m2. The average fertiliser rates in kg*ha-1*year-1 were nitrogen 45, phosphorus 24 (P2O5), potassium 40 (K2O), magnesium 7.5 (MgO) until 1980 and nitrogen 75

  1. Mineral supplementation for grazing ruminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDowell, L.R.; Conrad, J.H.; Ellis, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    Grazing ruminants to which concentrate feeds cannot be economically fed must rely on self-feeding of mineral supplements. A number of factors affect mineral consumption of free-choice mixtures. Livestock exhibit little nutritional wisdom and will select palatable mixtures in preference to mixtures designed to meet their requirements. Palatability and appetite stimulators are often used to achieve a more uniform herd-wide consumption. It is best to formulate free-choice mixtures on the basis of analyses or other available data. However, when no information on mineral status is known, a free-choice complete mineral supplement is warranted. A 'complete' mineral mixture usually includes salt, a low fluoride P source, Ca, Co, Cu, I, Mn and Zn. Selenium, Mg, K, S, Fe or additional elements can be incorporated into a mineral supplement as new information suggests a need. The detriment to ruminant production caused by providing Ca, Se and Cu in excess can be greater than any benefit derived by providing a mineral supplement. In regions where high forage Mo predominates, three to five times the Cu content in mineral mixtures is needed to counteract Mo toxicity. Supplemental minerals are most critical during the wet season, when cattle are gaining weight rapidly and energy and protein supplies are adequate. Economic return on mineral supplementation is high. (author)

  2. Mineralization of residual fertilizer nitrogen in soil after rice harvest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazarika, S.; Sarkar, M.C.

    1994-01-01

    Remineralization of immobilized 15 N labelled urea N applied to rice crop at the rate of 180 kg N/ha was determined. Mineral N increased rapidly up to 14 days of incubation and thereafter remained more or less constant. The recovery of fertilizer as mineral N varied between 0.7 and 3.1 μg/g soil. The percent mineralization of labelled organic N ranged between 3.1 and 9.5. (author). 5 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  3. Aggregate and Mineral Resources - MO 2014 Industrial Mineral Mines (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — This data set contains names, locations and additional data for active Industrial Mineral Mines permitted with the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, Division...

  4. Spectroscopic characterization of manganese minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi Reddy, S; Padma Suvarna, K; Udayabhaska Reddy, G; Endo, Tamio; Frost, R L

    2014-01-03

    Manganese minerals ardenite, alleghanyite and leucopoenicite originated from Madhya Pradesh, India, Nagano prefecture Japan, Sussex Country and Parker Shaft Franklin, Sussex Country, New Jersey respectively are used in the present work. In these minerals manganese is the major constituent and iron if present is in traces only. An EPR study of on all of the above samples confirms the presence of Mn(II) with g around 2.0. Optical absorption spectrum of the mineral alleghanyite indicates that Mn(II) is present in two different octahedral sites and in leucophoenicite Mn(II) is also in octahedral geometry. Ardenite mineral gives only a few Mn(II) bands. NIR results of the minerals ardenite, leucophoenicite and alleghanyite are due to hydroxyl and silicate anions which confirming the formulae of the minerals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Assessment and mitigation of the environmental burdens to air from land applied food-based digestate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwary, A.; Williams, I.D.; Pant, D.C.; Kishore, V.V.N.

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) of putrescible urban waste for energy recovery has seen rapid growth over recent years. In order to ascertain its systems scale sustainability, however, determination of the environmental fate of the large volume of digestate generated during the process is indispensable. This paper evaluates the environmental burdens to air associated with land applied food-based digestate in terms of primary pollutants (ammonia, nitrogen dioxide) and greenhouse gases (methane and nitrous oxide). The assessments have been made in two stages – first, the emissions from surface application of food-based digestate are quantified for the business as usual (BAU). In the next step, environmental burden minimisation potentials for the following three mitigation measures are estimated – mixed waste digestate (MWD), soil-incorporated digestate (SID), and post-methanated digestate (PMD). Overall, the mitigation scenarios demonstrated considerable NH 3 , CH 4 and N 2 O burden minimisation potentials, with positive implications for both climate change and urban pollution. - Highlights: • In situ air pollution assessment of land applied digestate is performed. • Environmental burden minimisation scenarios for digestate bio fertiliser presented. • Food-based digestate show high ammonia volatilisation potential. • Soil incorporated digestate effectively reduces NH 3 but elevates N 2 O emissions. • Managing digestate emissions mitigate both climate change and air pollution. - In situ monitoring and analyses demonstrate the role of post-processing in greenhouse gases and air pollution mitigation from food-based digestate use as bio fertiliser

  6. Arsenic adsorption and plant availability in an agricultural soil irrigated with As-rich water: Effects of Fe-rich amendments and organic and inorganic fertilisers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arco-Lázaro, Elena; Pardo, Tania; Clemente, Rafael; Bernal, Ma Pilar

    2018-03-01

    The use of As-rich water for irrigation in agricultural soils may result in As accumulation in soil and crops, with the consequent risk of its entry into the food chain. The effectiveness of three different Fe-based materials (a commercial iron oxide (Bayoxide ® ), lamination slag (a by-product of the hot rolling of steel) and a commercial red mud derivative (ViroBind™)) used as soil amendments to minimise the impact of irrigation with As-rich water in an agricultural soil-plant system was evaluated in a pot experiment. Simultaneously, the influence of organic and inorganic fertilisation (olive oil mill waste compost versus NPK fertiliser) on the effectiveness of iron oxide in As adsorption processes was also assessed. The As adsorption capacity of the amendments was determined in a preliminary batch experiment using sorption isotherms. Then, a pot experiment was carried out in a growth chamber using an agricultural soil (arenosol) from Segovia province (central Spain), amended with the different materials, in which Lactuca sativa (lettuce) was grown for two months. The As adsorption capacity was higher in the commercial iron oxide and in the red mud derivative, which fitted the Freundlich model (no saturation), than in the lamination slag, which fitted the Langmuir model (limited adsorption). All the materials decreased the pore water As concentration compared to the control (by 29-80%), but only iron oxide reduced As availability in the soil, and none of the amendments decreased the As concentration in plant leaves. The combination of iron oxide and compost did not significantly improve plant growth, but increased nutrients (N, K, Ca, Na and Mg) concentrations and availability in the soil and their concentration in the plants, relative to the other treatments and the control. Therefore, this seems to be a viable option to prevent As leaching and improve the plant nutritional status. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Clomiphene citrate versus high doses of gonadotropins for in vitro fertilisation in women with compromised ovarian reserve: a randomised controlled non-inferiority trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragni Guido

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the present randomised controlled non-inferiority trial is to test whether in women with compromised ovarian reserve requiring in vitro fertilisation, a protocol of ovarian stimulation using exclusively clomiphene citrate performs similarly to a regimen with high doses of gonadotropins. Methods Women with day 3 serum FSH > 12 IU/ml on at least two occasions or previous poor response to hyper-stimulation were recruited at four Italian infertility units. Selected women were allocated to clomiphene citrate 150 mg/day from day 3 to day 7 of the cycle (n=145 or to a short protocol with GnRH agonist 0.1 mg and recombinant FSH 450 IU daily (n=146. They were randomised by means of a computer-generated list into two groups. The study was not blinded. The main outcome of the study was the delivery rate per started cycle. Results The study was interrupted after the scheduled two years of recruitment before reaching the sample size. 148 women were allocated to clomiphene citrate and 156 to the short protocol with high doses of gonadotropins; 124 and 125 participants were analysed in the groups, respectively. Women allocated to high doses of gonadotropins retrieved more oocytes and had a higher probability to perform embryo-transfer. However, the chances of success were similar. The delivery rate per started cycle in women receiving clomiphene citrate and high-dose gonadotropins was 3% (n=5 and 5% (n=7, respectively (p=0.77. The mean estimated cost per delivery in the two groups was 81,294 and 113,107 Euros, respectively. No side-effects or adverse events were observed. Conclusions In women with compromised ovarian reserve selected for in vitro fertilisation, ovarian stimulation with clomiphene citrate or high-dose gonadotropins led to similar chances of pregnancy but the former is less expensive. Trial registration Trial registered on http://www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01389713

  8. Association analysis of genomic loci important for grain weight control in elite common wheat varieties cultivated with variable water and fertiliser supply.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunpu Zhang

    Full Text Available Grain weight, an essential yield component, is under strong genetic control and markedly influenced by the environment. Here, by genome-wide association analysis with a panel of 94 elite common wheat varieties, 37 loci were found significantly associated with thousand-grain weight (TGW in one or more environments differing in water and fertiliser levels. Five loci were stably associated with TGW under all 12 environments examined. Their elite alleles had positive effects on TGW. Four, two, three, and two loci were consistently associated with TGW in the irrigated and fertilised (IF, rainfed (RF, reduced nitrogen (RN, and reduced phosphorus (RP environments. The elite alleles of the IF-specific loci enhanced TGW under well-resourced conditions, whereas those of the RF-, RN-, or RP-specific loci conferred tolerance to the TGW decrease when irrigation, nitrogen, or phosphorus were reduced. Moreover, the elite alleles of the environment-independent and -specific loci often acted additively to enhance TGW. Four additional loci were found associated with TGW in specific locations, one of which was shown to contribute to the TGW difference between two experimental sites. Further analysis of 14 associated loci revealed that nine affected both grain length and width, whereas the remaining loci influenced either grain length or width, indicating that these loci control grain weight by regulating kernel size. Finally, the elite allele of Xpsp3152 frequently co-segregated with the larger grain haplotype of TaGW2-6A, suggesting probable genetic and functional linkages between Xpsp3152 and GW2 that are important for grain weight control in cereal plants. Our study provides new knowledge on TGW control in elite common wheat lines, which may aid the improvement of wheat grain weight trait in further research.

  9. Relationships between soil parameters and physiological status of Miscanthus x giganteus cultivated on soil contaminated with trace elements under NPK fertilisation vs. microbial inoculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogrzeba, Marta; Rusinowski, Szymon; Sitko, Krzysztof; Krzyżak, Jacek; Skalska, Aleksandra; Małkowski, Eugeniusz; Ciszek, Dorota; Werle, Sebastian; McCalmont, Jon Paul; Mos, Michal; Kalaji, Hazem M

    2017-06-01

    Crop growth and development can be influenced by a range of parameters, soil health, cultivation and nutrient status all play a major role. Nutrient status of plants can be enhanced both through chemical fertiliser additions (e.g. N, P, K supplementation) or microbial fixation and mobilisation of naturally occurring nutrients. With current EU priorities discouraging the production of biomass on high quality soils there is a need to investigate the potential of more marginal soils to produce these feedstocks and the impacts of soil amendments on crop yields within them. This study investigated the potential for Miscanthus x giganteus to be grown in trace element (TE)-contaminated soils, ideally offering a mechanism to (phyto)manage these contaminated lands. Comprehensive surveys are needed to understand plant-soil interactions under these conditions. Here we studied the impacts of two fertiliser treatments on soil physico-chemical properties under Miscanthus x giganteus cultivated on Pb, Cd and Zn contaminated arable land. Results covered a range of parameters, including soil rhizosphere activity, arbuscular mycorrhization (AM), as well as plant physiological parameters associated with photosynthesis, TE leaf concentrations and growth performance. Fertilization increased growth and gas exchange capacity, enhanced rhizosphere microbial activity and increased Zn, Mg and N leaf concentration. Fertilization reduced root colonisation by AMF and caused higher chlorophyll concentration in plant leaves. Microbial inoculation seems to be a promising alternative for chemical fertilizers, especially due to an insignificant influence on the mobility of toxic trace elements (particularly Cd and Zn). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Destructive textures around radioactive minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montel, J.M.; Seydoux-Guillaume, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    In most of the rocks, natural uranium and thorium are concentrated in some minerals which provide favourable crystallographic sites. These minerals are thus submitted to an intense auto-irradiation which may transform them. Using conventional investigation methods (petrographic or scanning electronic microscopy, electronic micro-probe) and less conventional ones (transmission electronic microscopy), the authors studied the interfaces between radioactive minerals and their host minerals. They comment the possible mechanical and structural aspects of this interaction by irradiation, and the influence of geological events

  11. Trace Mineral Losses in Sweat

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chinevere, Troy D; McClung, James P; Cheuvront, Samuel N

    2007-01-01

    Copper, iron and zinc are nutritionally essential trace minerals that confer vital biological roles including the maintenance of cell structure and integrity, regulation of metabolism, immune function...

  12. Accessory mineral records of tectonic environments? (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, C.; Marschall, H. R.; Enea, F.; Taylor, J.; Jennings, E. S.

    2010-12-01

    Accessory mineral research continues to gather momentum as we seek to unleash their full potential. It is now widely recognised that robust accessory minerals, such as zircon, rutile, titanite, allanite and monazite, are archives of important trace elements that can help deduce metamorphic reaction history in metapelites, metabasites and other rock types. Moreover, they are important carriers of certain trace elements and govern or influence the products of partial melting and of fluid-rock interaction (e.g. magmas and mineralisation) in settings like subduction zones and hydrothermal systems. Perhaps most importantly, they can often be dated using the U-Th-Pb system. More recently, radiogenic (Lu-Hf, Sm-Nd, Rb-Sr) and stable (O) isotope systems have been applied and have further pushed the utility of accessory mineral research. In this talk I will discuss some of these advances towards one particular aim: the use of detrital accessory minerals for fingerprinting tectonic environments. This is a particularly laudable aim in Precambrian rocks, for which the preservation potential of orogenic belts and fossil subduction zones and their diagnostic metamorphic rocks is low. The implication is that our understanding of plate tectonics, particularly in the Archaean, is biased by the preserved in-tact rock record. An analogy is that Jack Hills zircons record evidence of Earth’s crust some 400 Ma before the preserved rock record begins. I will focus on some recent advances and new data from rutile and also the mineral inclusion record within zircon, which shows great promise for petrologic interpretation.

  13. Silicoaluminous minerals analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puglisi, Celia; Fina, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    A group of silicoaluminous minerals of known composition have been analyzed by means of an energy dispersive electron microprobe. The analysis has been performed using a standarless semiquantitative method. The concentration was calculated using the program included in the software of the on-line computer, based on the ZAF correction. It is well known that it is difficult to analyze Si, Al and Na by this method because the absortion correction in the range of 0.9 to 2.0 KeV is not very accurate and the background substraction is also questionable. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the errors involved in these measurements and the best operation conditions. (Author) [es

  14. Protein- mediated enamel mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradian-Oldak, Janet

    2012-01-01

    Enamel is a hard nanocomposite bioceramic with significant resilience that protects the mammalian tooth from external physical and chemical damages. The remarkable mechanical properties of enamel are associated with its hierarchical structural organization and its thorough connection with underlying dentin. This dynamic mineralizing system offers scientists a wealth of information that allows the study of basic principals of organic matrix-mediated biomineralization and can potentially be utilized in the fields of material science and engineering for development and design of biomimetic materials. This chapter will provide a brief overview of enamel hierarchical structure and properties as well as the process and stages of amelogenesis. Particular emphasis is given to current knowledge of extracellular matrix protein and proteinases, and the structural chemistry of the matrix components and their putative functions. The chapter will conclude by discussing the potential of enamel for regrowth. PMID:22652761

  15. Bone mineral as an electrical energy reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Miho; Hiratai, Rumi; Yamashita, Kimihiro

    2012-05-01

    Mechanical stress in bone induces an electrical potential generated by piezoelectricity arising from displacement of collagen fibrils. Where and for how long the potential is stored in bone; however, are still poorly understood. We investigated the electrical properties of collagen fibrils and apatite minerals and found that bone, when polarized electrically by applying an external voltage, depolarizes by two mechanisms. Plots of thermally stimulated depolarization current show two significant peaks: one at 100°C, attributed to collagen fibrils because decalcified bone exhibits depolarization peak at 100°C, and the other at 500°C, attributed to apatite minerals because calcined bone exhibits depolarization peak at 500°C and has activation energy similar to that for synthesized apatite. The crystallographic c-axis orientation of calcined bone depends on the direction in which the bone is cut, either transverse or longitudinal, and strongly affects the polarization efficacy. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Mineral fibres and health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoskins, J.A.

    2001-01-01

    The use of inorganic fibrous materials is a comparatively new phenomenon and was uncommon before the Industrial Revolution. Humans evolved in a comparatively fibre-free environment and consequently never fully developed the defence mechanisms needed to deal with the consequences of inhaling fibres. However, the urban environment now has an airborne fibre concentration of around 1 f.l -1 , which is a tenfold increase on the natural background. Any sample of ambient air collected indoors or outdoors will probably contain some mineral fibres, but there is little evidence that these pose any risk to human health. They come from asbestos used in brakes, glass and mineral wools used as insulation and fire proofing of buildings, gypsum from plaster and a variety of types from many sources. Few of these have the potential to do any harm. Asbestos is the only fibre of note but urban levels are insignificant compared to occupational exposures. When the health of cohorts occupationally exposed to the several types of asbestos is studied the problem can be put into perspective. Studies of workers in the chrysotile industry exposed to much higher dust levels than in a factory today show no excess lung cancer or mesothelioma. By comparison those living near crocidolite mines, let alone working in them, may develop asbestos-related disease. As always, dose is the critical factor. Chrysotile is cleared from the lungs very efficiently, only the amphiboles are well retained. The only real health problem comes from the earlier use of asbestos products that may now be old, friable and damaged and made from amphibole or mixed fibre. If though, these are still in good condition, they do not pose a health problem. Asbestos-related diseases are very rare in those not occupationally exposed. Where they exist exposure has nearly always been to crocidolite. (author)

  17. Of minerals and men. [Discovery of new mineral species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Waal, S.W. (Council for Mineral Technology, Randburg (South Africa))

    1983-01-01

    The rate of discovery of new mineral species appears to be on the increase in Southern Africa and classification and nomenclature, once haphazard, are now subject to international scientific screening and rules. Earlier names entrenched in the literature provide a fascinating background to the minerals scene.

  18. Information system of mineral deposits in Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hribernik, K.; Rokavec, D.; Šinigioj, J.; Šolar, S.

    2010-03-01

    At the Geologic Survey of Slovenia the need for complex overview and control of the deposits of available non-metallic mineral raw materials and of their exploitations became urgent. In the framework of the Geologic Information System we established the Database of non-metallic mineral deposits comprising all important data of deposits and concessionars. Relational database is built with program package MS Access, but in year 2008 we plan to transfer it on SQL server. In the evidence there is 272 deposits and 200 concessionars. The mineral resources information system of Slovenia, which was started back in 2002, consists of two integrated parts, mentioned relational database of mineral deposits, which relates information in tabular way so that rules of relational algebra can be applied, and geographic information system (GIS), which relates spatial information of deposits. . The complex relationships between objects and the concepts of normalized data structures, lead to the practical informative and useful data model, transparent to the user and to better decision-making by allowing future scenarios to be developed and inspected. Computerized storage, and display system is as already said, developed and managed under the support of Geological Survey of Slovenia, which conducts research on the occurrence, quality, quantity, and availability of mineral resources in order to help the Nation make informed decisions using earth-science information. Information about deposit is stored in records in approximately hundred data fields. A numeric record number uniquely identifies each site. The data fields are grouped under principal categories. Each record comprise elementary data of deposit (name, type, location, prospect, rock), administrative data (concessionar, number of decree in official paper, object of decree, number of contract and its duration) and data of mineral resource produced amount and size of exploration area). The data can also be searched, sorted and

  19. Plant macro- and micronutrient minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    All plants must obtain a number of inorganic mineral elements from their environment to ensure successful growth and development of both vegetative and reproductive tissues. A total of fourteen mineral nutrients are considered to be essential. Several other elements have been shown to have beneficia...

  20. Radioisotopes in plant mineral nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Bhupinder

    2016-01-01

    Extensive investigations on mineral composition of different plant species growing on various soils, helped in realizing that neither the presence nor the concentration of a mineral element in a plant can be regarded as a criterion for essentially. Plants have a limited capability for selective uptake of those mineral elements which are essential for their growth. They also take up mineral element which are not necessary for growth and may even be toxic. The mineral composition of plants growing in soils cannot, therefore, be used to establish essentially of a mineral element. Once this fact was appreciated, both water and sand culture experiments were carried out in which particular mineral elements were omitted. Von Sach and Knop are credited with reintroduction of the solution culture method using which they demonstrated the absolute requirement of ten macronutrients. As evident, these techniques made possible a more precise characterization of essentially of mineral elements and led to a better understanding of their role in plant metabolism. By the beginning of 20"t"h century importance of micronutrients like B, Mn, Cu, Mo and CI was also established

  1. Miners' strike 1984-85

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, L; Salter, S [comps.

    1985-01-01

    References relating to the 1984-85 UK miners strike are listed under the following subject headings: events and analysis - a chronological record; short term effects - coal stocks and supplies, electricity supplies, financial, industrial and economic; the miners and their leadership; social aspects - civil liberties, media coverage, mining communities, picketing, policing, the future; pit closures. 240 references.

  2. Minerals From the Marine Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruickshank, Michael J.

    The current interest in minerals centering on, among other things, potential shortages, long-term needs, and deep seabed nodules, accentuates the usefulness and timeliness of this little book authored by a former chairman of the British National Environmental Research Council.In less than 100 pages, the author puts into perspective the potential for producing minerals from offshore areas of the world. After introducing the reader to the ocean environment and the extraordinary variety of the nature of the seabed, the author describes in some detail the variety of minerals found there. This is done in seven separate chapters entitled ‘Bulk and Non-Metallic Minerals From the Seas’ ‘Metals From the Shallow Seas’ ‘Metals From the Deep Oceans’ ‘Minerals From Solution’ ‘Oil and Gas from the Shallow Seas’ ‘Oil and Gas From Deep Waters’ and ‘Coal Beneath the Sea.’ The remaining chapters give a brief regional review of marine minerals distribution for eight areas of significant socioeconomic structure, and a short recapitulation of special problems of mineral recovery in the marine environment including such matters as the effect of water motion on mineral processing and of international law on investments. Glossaries of geological periods and technical terms, a short list of references, and an index complete the work.

  3. Ways to defuse miners' anger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    The violence and riots which often occur with mining personnel are considered. The emotions and feelings which miners often experience because of their work environment are dealth with. From recognizing the pressures, the article then works to present methods to help defuse the miners' hostility and anger

  4. 77 FR 56273 - Conflict Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ... auditor and to certify the audit. In addition, Section 13(p) requires the report to include a description.... Auditor Independence iii. Audit Objective 4. Recycled and Scrap Minerals a. Proposed Rules b. Comments on... Minerals Report must also identify the independent private sector auditor \\23\\ and certify the independent...

  5. Sulfide Mineral Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosso, Kevin M.; Vaughan, David J.

    2006-01-01

    The past twenty years or so have seen dramatic development of the experimental and theoretical tools available to study the surfaces of solids at the molecular (?atomic resolution?) scale. On the experimental side, two areas of development well illustrate these advances. The first concerns the high intensity photon sources associated with synchrotron radiation; these have both greatly improved the surface sensitivity and spatial resolution of already established surface spectroscopic and diffraction methods, and enabled the development of new methods for studying surfaces. The second centers on the scanning probe microscopy (SPM) techniques initially developed in the 1980's with the first scanning tunneling microscope (STM) and atomic force microscope (AFM) experiments. The direct 'observation' of individual atoms at surfaces made possible with these methods has truly revolutionized surface science. On the theoretical side, the availability of high performance computers coupled with advances in computational modeling has provided powerful new tools to complement the advances in experiment. Particularly important have been the quantum mechanics based computational approaches such as density functional theory (DFT), which can now be easily used to calculate the equilibrium crystal structures of solids and surfaces from first principles, and to provide insights into their electronic structure. In this chapter, we review current knowledge of sulfide mineral surfaces, beginning with an overview of the principles relevant to the study of the surfaces of all crystalline solids. This includes the thermodynamics of surfaces, the atomic structure of surfaces (surface crystallography and structural stability, adjustments of atoms at the surface through relaxation or reconstruction, surface defects) and the electronic structure of surfaces. We then discuss examples where specific crystal surfaces have been studied, with the main sulfide minerals organized by structure type

  6. Sulfide Mineral Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosso, Kevin M.; Vaughan, David J.

    2006-08-01

    The past twenty years or so have seen dramatic development of the experimental and theoretical tools available to study the surfaces of solids at the molecular (?atomic resolution?) scale. On the experimental side, two areas of development well illustrate these advances. The first concerns the high intensity photon sources associated with synchrotron radiation; these have both greatly improved the surface sensitivity and spatial resolution of already established surface spectroscopic and diffraction methods, and enabled the development of new methods for studying surfaces. The second centers on the scanning probe microscopy (SPM) techniques initially developed in the 1980's with the first scanning tunneling microscope (STM) and atomic force microscope (AFM) experiments. The direct 'observation' of individual atoms at surfaces made possible with these methods has truly revolutionized surface science. On the theoretical side, the availability of high performance computers coupled with advances in computational modeling has provided powerful new tools to complement the advances in experiment. Particularly important have been the quantum mechanics based computational approaches such as density functional theory (DFT), which can now be easily used to calculate the equilibrium crystal structures of solids and surfaces from first principles, and to provide insights into their electronic structure. In this chapter, we review current knowledge of sulfide mineral surfaces, beginning with an overview of the principles relevant to the study of the surfaces of all crystalline solids. This includes the thermodynamics of surfaces, the atomic structure of surfaces (surface crystallography and structural stability, adjustments of atoms at the surface through relaxation or reconstruction, surface defects) and the electronic structure of surfaces. We then discuss examples where specific crystal surfaces have been studied, with the main sulfide minerals organized by

  7. Rock geochemistry related to mineralization processes in geothermal areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kausar, A. Al; Indarto, S.; Setiawan, I.

    2018-02-01

    Abundant geothermal systems in Indonesia suggest high heat and mass transfer associated with recent or paleovolcanic arcs. In the active geothermal system, the upflow of mixed fluid between late stage hydrothermal and meteoric water might contain mass of minerals associated with epithermal mineralisation process as exemplified at Lihir gold mine in Papua New Guinea. In Indonesia, there is a lack of study related to the precious metals occurrence within active geothermal area. Therefore, in this paper, we investigate the possibility of mineralization process in active geothermal area of Guci, Central Java by using geochemical analysis. There are a lot of conducted geochemical analysis of water, soil and gas by mapping the temperature, pH, Hg and CO2 distribution, and estimating subsurface temperature based on geothermometry approach. Then we also apply rock geochemistry to find minerals that indicate the presence of mineralization. The result from selected geothermal area shows the presence of pyrite and chalcopyrite minerals on the laharic breccias at Kali Putih, Sudikampir. Mineralization is formed within host rock and the veins are associated with gold polymetallic mineralization.

  8. Characterization and modelling of the mechanical properties of mineral wool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chapelle, Lucie

    2016-01-01

    and as a consequence focus on the mechanical properties of mineral wool has intensified. Also understanding the deformation mechanisms during compression of low density mineral wool is crucial since better thickness recovery after compression will result in significant savings on transport costs. The mechanical...... properties of mineral wool relate closely to the arrangement and characteristics of the fibres inside the material. Because of the complex architecture of mineral wool, the characterization and the understanding of the mechanism of deformations require a new methodology. In this PhD thesis, a methodology...... of the structure on mechanical properties can be explored. The size of the representative volume elements for the prediction of the elastic properties is determined for two types of applied boundary conditions. For sufficiently large volumes, the predicted elastic properties are consistent with results from...

  9. Maximizing percentage depletion in solid minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripp, J.; Grove, H.D.; McGrath, M.

    1982-01-01

    This article develops a strategy for maximizing percentage depletion deductions when extracting uranium or other solid minerals. The goal is to avoid losing percentage depletion deductions by staying below the 50% limitation on taxable income from the property. The article is divided into two major sections. The first section is comprised of depletion calculations that illustrate the problem and corresponding solutions. The last section deals with the feasibility of applying the strategy and complying with the Internal Revenue Code and appropriate regulations. Three separate strategies or appropriate situations are developed and illustrated. 13 references, 3 figures, 7 tables

  10. Transmission Electron Microscopy of Minerals and Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaren, Alex C.

    1991-04-01

    Of the many techniques that have been applied to the study of crystal defects, none has contributed more to our understanding of their nature and influence on the physical and chemical properties of crystalline materials than transmission electron microscopy (TEM). TEM is now used extensively by an increasing number of earth scientists for direct observation of defect microstructures in minerals and rocks. Transmission Electron Microscopy of Rocks and Minerals is an introduction to the principles of the technique and is the only book to date on the subject written specifically for geologists and mineralogists. The first part of the book deals with the essential physics of the transmission electron microscope and presents the basic theoretical background required for the interpretation of images and electron diffraction patterns. The final chapters are concerned with specific applications of TEM in mineralogy and deal with such topics as planar defects, intergrowths, radiation-induced defects, dislocations and deformation-induced microstructures. The examples cover a wide range of rock-forming minerals from crustal rocks to those in the lower mantle, and also take into account the role of defects in important mineralogical and geological processes.

  11. Economic drivers of mineral supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Lorie A.; Sullivan, Daniel E.; Sznopek, John L.

    2003-01-01

    The debate over the adequacy of future supplies of mineral resources continues in light of the growing use of mineral-based materials in the United States. According to the U.S. Geological Survey, the quantity of new materials utilized each year has dramatically increased from 161 million tons2 in 1900 to 3.2 billion tons in 2000. Of all the materials used during the 20th century in the United States, more than half were used in the last 25 years. With the Earth?s endowment of natural resources remaining constant, and increased demand for resources, economic theory states that as depletion approaches, prices rise. This study shows that many economic drivers (conditions that create an economic incentive for producers to act in a particular way) such as the impact of globalization, technological improvements, productivity increases, and efficient materials usage are at work simultaneously to impact minerals markets and supply. As a result of these economic drivers, the historical price trend of mineral prices3 in constant dollars has declined as demand has risen. When price is measured by the cost in human effort, the price trend also has been almost steadily downward. Although the United States economy continues its increasing mineral consumption trend, the supply of minerals has been able to keep pace. This study shows that in general supply has grown faster than demand, causing a declining trend in mineral prices.

  12. Glycine Polymerization on Oxide Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitadai, Norio; Oonishi, Hiroyuki; Umemoto, Koichiro; Usui, Tomohiro; Fukushi, Keisuke; Nakashima, Satoru

    2017-06-01

    It has long been suggested that mineral surfaces played an important role in peptide bond formation on the primitive Earth. However, it remains unclear which mineral species was key to the prebiotic processes. This is because great discrepancies exist among the reported catalytic efficiencies of minerals for amino acid polymerizations, owing to mutually different experimental conditions. This study examined polymerization of glycine (Gly) on nine oxide minerals (amorphous silica, quartz, α-alumina and γ-alumina, anatase, rutile, hematite, magnetite, and forsterite) using identical preparation, heating, and analytical procedures. Results showed that a rutile surface is the most effective site for Gly polymerization in terms of both amounts and lengths of Gly polymers synthesized. The catalytic efficiency decreased as rutile > anatase > γ-alumina > forsterite > α- alumina > magnetite > hematite > quartz > amorphous silica. Based on reported molecular-level information for adsorption of Gly on these minerals, polymerization activation was inferred to have arisen from deprotonation of the NH3 + group of adsorbed Gly to the nucleophilic NH2 group, and from withdrawal of electron density from the carboxyl carbon to the surface metal ions. The orientation of adsorbed Gly on minerals is also a factor influencing the Gly reactivity. The examination of Gly-mineral interactions under identical experimental conditions has enabled the direct comparison of various minerals' catalytic efficiencies and has made discussion of polymerization mechanisms and their relative influences possible Further systematic investigations using the approach reported herein (which are expected to be fruitful) combined with future microscopic surface analyses will elucidate the role of minerals in the process of abiotic peptide bond formation.

  13. Glycine Polymerization on Oxide Minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitadai, Norio; Oonishi, Hiroyuki; Umemoto, Koichiro; Usui, Tomohiro; Fukushi, Keisuke; Nakashima, Satoru

    2017-06-01

    It has long been suggested that mineral surfaces played an important role in peptide bond formation on the primitive Earth. However, it remains unclear which mineral species was key to the prebiotic processes. This is because great discrepancies exist among the reported catalytic efficiencies of minerals for amino acid polymerizations, owing to mutually different experimental conditions. This study examined polymerization of glycine (Gly) on nine oxide minerals (amorphous silica, quartz, α-alumina and γ-alumina, anatase, rutile, hematite, magnetite, and forsterite) using identical preparation, heating, and analytical procedures. Results showed that a rutile surface is the most effective site for Gly polymerization in terms of both amounts and lengths of Gly polymers synthesized. The catalytic efficiency decreased as rutile > anatase > γ-alumina > forsterite > α- alumina > magnetite > hematite > quartz > amorphous silica. Based on reported molecular-level information for adsorption of Gly on these minerals, polymerization activation was inferred to have arisen from deprotonation of the NH 3 + group of adsorbed Gly to the nucleophilic NH 2 group, and from withdrawal of electron density from the carboxyl carbon to the surface metal ions. The orientation of adsorbed Gly on minerals is also a factor influencing the Gly reactivity. The examination of Gly-mineral interactions under identical experimental conditions has enabled the direct comparison of various minerals' catalytic efficiencies and has made discussion of polymerization mechanisms and their relative influences possible Further systematic investigations using the approach reported herein (which are expected to be fruitful) combined with future microscopic surface analyses will elucidate the role of minerals in the process of abiotic peptide bond formation.

  14. Mineral mining machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mc Gaw, B H

    1984-01-01

    A machine for mining minerals is patented. It is a cutter loader with a drum actuating element of the worm type equipped with a multitude of cutting teeth reinforced with tungsten carbide. A feature of the patented machine is that all of the cutting teeth and holders on the drum have the identical design. This is achieved through selecting a slant angle for the cutting teeth which is the mean between the slant angle of the conventional radial teeth and the slant angle of the advance teeth. This, in turn, is provided thanks to the corresponding slant of the holders relative to the drum and (or) the slant of the cutting part of the teeth relative to their stems. Thus, the advance teeth projecting beyond the surface of the drum on the face side and providing upper and lateral clearances have the same angle of attack as the radial teeth, that is, from 20 to 35 degrees. A series of modifications of the cutting teeth is patented. One of the designs allows the cutting tooth to occupy a varying position relative to the drum, from the conventional vertical to an inverted, axially projecting position. In the last case the tooth in the extraction process provides the upper and lateral clearances for the drum on the face side. Among the different modifications of the cutting teeth, a design is proposed which provides for the presence of a stem which is shaped like a truncated cone. This particular stem is designed for use jointly with a wedge which unfastens the teeth and is placed in a holder. The latter is completed in a transverse slot thanks to which the rear end of the stem is compressed, which simplifies replacement of a tooth. Channels are provided in the patented machine for feeding water to the worm spiral, the holders and the cutting teeth themselves in order to deal with dust.

  15. Vitamins and Minerals in Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Donate A to Z Health Guide Vitamins and Minerals in Kidney Disease Tweet Share Print Email Are ... you need to know. What are vitamins and minerals? Vitamins and minerals are substances your body needs ...

  16. 76 FR 44892 - Information Collection; Locatable Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Information Collection; Locatable Minerals AGENCY: Forest... on the extension of a currently approved information collection, Locatable Minerals-36 CFR part 228...: Comments concerning this notice should be addressed to: USDA, Forest Service, Minerals and Geology...

  17. Isotope analysis of closely adjacent minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.P.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes a method of determining an indicator of at least one of hydrocarbon formation, migration, and accumulation during mineral development. It comprises: searching for a class of minerals in a mineral specimen comprising more than one class of minerals; identifying in the mineral specimen a target sample of the thus searched for class; directing thermally pyrolyzing laser beam radiation onto surface mineral substance of the target sample in the mineral specimen releasing surface mineral substance pyrolysate gases therefrom; and determining isotope composition essentially of the surface mineral substance from analyzing the pyrolysate gases released from the thus pyrolyzed target sample, the isotope composition including isotope(s) selected from the group consisting of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen isotopes; determining an indicator of at least one of hydrocarbon formation, migration, and accumulation during mineral development of the target mineral from thus determined isotope composition of surface mineral substance pyrolysate

  18. [Vitamins and Minerals in Oncology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holch, Julian Walter; Michl, Marlies; Heinemann, Volker; Erickson, Nicole

    2017-06-01

    The use of vitamins and minerals to prevent cancer as well as their supportive use in oncological patients is widespread and often occurs without the knowledge of the treating physician. Beyond general recommendations with regard to a balanced and healthy diet, no evidence exists supporting the use of vitamins and minerals in the prevention of cancer. Furthermore, the diet of oncological patients should contain vitamins and minerals of the same quantity as for healthy individuals. In particular, there is currently no rationale for a high-dosage administration of antioxidants. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. The fate of uranium contaminants of phosphate fertiliser: chemical partitioning of uranium in two New Zealand soils of volcanic origin and the effect on partitioning of amending one of those soils with uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, M.D.

    1998-01-01

    This study assessed the chemical partitioning of U isotopes in Horomanga Sandy Loam and Te Kowhai silt loam, two agricultural soils derived from rhyolitic ash and receiving low level contamination from U impurities in phosphate fertiliser. To simulate future U additions, a sub-sample of the Horomanga soil was amended with 2.259 μg U g -1 soil before sequential extraction. The hypothesis that U additions will be strongly held on to the soil and are not available for leaching or plant uptake was tested. After extraction U was purified and determined by alpha spectrometry. Results were corrected for tailing, background, for losses in the purification process (using 232 U), and for soil moisture. It is concluded that only a small proportion of U in the two type of soils examined was derived from fertiliser and that very little U would be available to plants or to leaching

  20. Predicting live birth, preterm delivery, and low birth weight in infants born from in vitro fertilisation: a prospective study of 144,018 treatment cycles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott M Nelson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The extent to which baseline couple characteristics affect the probability of live birth and adverse perinatal outcomes after assisted conception is unknown.We utilised the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority database to examine the predictors of live birth in all in vitro fertilisation (IVF cycles undertaken in the UK between 2003 and 2007 (n = 144,018. We examined the potential clinical utility of a validated model that pre-dated the introduction of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI as compared to a novel model. For those treatment cycles that resulted in a live singleton birth (n = 24,226, we determined the associates of potential risk factors with preterm birth, low birth weight, and macrosomia. The overall rate of at least one live birth was 23.4 per 100 cycles (95% confidence interval [CI] 23.2-23.7. In multivariable models the odds of at least one live birth decreased with increasing maternal age, increasing duration of infertility, a greater number of previously unsuccessful IVF treatments, use of own oocytes, necessity for a second or third treatment cycle, or if it was not unexplained infertility. The association of own versus donor oocyte with reduced odds of live birth strengthened with increasing age of the mother. A previous IVF live birth increased the odds of future success (OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.46-1.71 more than that of a previous spontaneous live birth (OR 1.19, 95% CI 0.99-1.24; p-value for difference in estimate <0.001. Use of ICSI increased the odds of live birth, and male causes of infertility were associated with reduced odds of live birth only in couples who had not received ICSI. Prediction of live birth was feasible with moderate discrimination and excellent calibration; calibration was markedly improved in the novel compared to the established model. Preterm birth and low birth weight were increased if oocyte donation was required and ICSI was not used. Risk of macrosomia increased with advancing

  1. Refractory, Abrasive and Other Industrial Mineral Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes refractory, abrasive, and other industrial minerals operations in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals...

  2. Effect of pH on Pulp Potential and Sulphide Mineral Flotation

    OpenAIRE

    GÖKTEPE, Ferihan

    2014-01-01

    Control of pH is one of the most widely applied methods for the modulation of mineral flotation. In this study the effect of pH on potential in solution and sulphur minerals flotation is discussed with various electrodes. The electrodes were platinum, gold, chalcopyrite, pyrite and galena. In solution, potentials were linearly dependent on pH with a different slope for each electrode. Chalcopyrite, pyrite, sphalerite and galena minerals flotation tests were performed in a microflot...

  3. BET measurements: Outgassing of minerals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Liselotte; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2000-01-01

    Outgassing minerals at elevated temperatures prior to BET measurements can lead to phase changes, especially in the case of amorphous and poorly crystalline materials. In order to evaluate the applicability of the BET method when low outgassing temperatures are required, selected aquifer minerals...... were outgassed at different temperatures and for different times. The studied minerals are 2-line ferrihydrite, goethite, lepidocrocite, quartz, calcite, ®-alumina, and kaolinite. The results demonstrate that measured specific surface areas of iron oxides are strongly dependent on outgassing conditions...... because the surface area increased by 170% with increasing temperature. In the poorly crystalline minerals, phase changes caused by heating were observed at temperatures lower than 100±C. Therefore low outgassing temperatures are preferable for minimizing phase changes. As demonstrated in this study...

  4. GHGRP Minerals Sector Industrial Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program periodically produces detailed profiles of the various industries that report under the program. The profiles available for download below contain detailed analyses for the Minerals industry.

  5. Infrared spectra of mineral species

    CERN Document Server

    Chukanov, Nikita V

    2014-01-01

    This book details more than 3,000 IR spectra of more than 2,000 mineral species collected during last 30 years. It features full descriptions and analytical data of each sample for which IR spectrum was obtained.

  6. (MEPE) mineralization ability in vitro

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    matrix proteins and is associated with bone and teeth mineralization. We developed .... acetic acid) and bands were visualized by dynamic integrated exposure using .... approximate agreement with the expected molecular size. Purification of.

  7. Mineral exploration in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.J.; Clark, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    The chapter provides an overview and comparisons of mineral exploration in Botswana and Papua New Guinea, including selection comparisons with Australia and Canada. It describes the history of exploration in Botswana and PNG. The concluding section summarizes the findings

  8. Hydrometalurgical processes for mineral complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barskij, L.A.; Danil'chenko, L.M.

    1977-01-01

    Requirements for the technology of the processing of ores including uranium ores and principal stages of the working out of technological schemes are described in brief. There are reference data on commercial minerals and ores including uranium-thorium ores, their classification with due regard for physical, chemical and superficial properties which form the basis for ore-concentrating processes. There are also presented the classification of minerals including uranium minerals by their flotation ability, flotation regimes of minerals, structural-textural characteristics of ores, genetic types of ore formations and their concentrating ability, algorithmization of the apriori evaluation of the concentration and technological diagnostics of the processing of ores. The classification of ore concentration technique is suggested

  9. VT Mineral Resources - MRDS Extract

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) MRDSVT is an extract from the Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS) covering the State of Vermont only. MRDS database contains the records provided...

  10. Mineral resources potential of Antarctica

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Splettstoesser, John F; Dreschhoff, Gisela A. M

    1990-01-01

    .... This volume of the Antarctic Research Series results from an attempt to assemble a summary of current factual knowledge and scientific data related to issues of mineral resources in Antarctica...

  11. Hydrokinesitherapy in thermal mineral water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rendulić-Slivar Senka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of clients in health spa resorts entails various forms of hydrotherapy. Due to specific properties of water, especially thermal mineral waters, hydrokinesitherapy has a positive effect on the locomotor system, aerobic capabilities of organism and overall quality of human life. The effects of use of water in movement therapy are related to the physical and chemical properties of water. The application of hydrotherapy entails precautionary measures, with an individual approach in assessment and prescription. The benefits of treatment in thermal mineral water should be emphasized and protected, as all thermal mineral waters differ in composition. All physical properties of water are more pronounced in thermal mineral waters due to its mineralisation, hence its therapeutical efficiency is greater, as well.

  12. BLM Colorado Federal Mineral Estate

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — Shapefile Format –This Federal Mineral Estate (Subsurface) dataset is a result of combining data sets that were collected at each BLM Colorado Field Office and using...

  13. Mineral resources of Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kušnír Imrich

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Vietnam je bohatý na nerastné suroviny, ktoré sa nachádzajú prevažne na severe krajiny. Ložiská bauxitov, fosfátov, vzácnych zemín (REE, majú svetový význam. Ale i zásoby celého radu ïalších surovín (ropy, uhlia, zlata, železných rúd, chromitu, cínu, ilmenitu, medi, grafitu, atï. sú významné, ekonomicky ažite¾né a ich potenciál je obrovský. Za uvedené nerastné bohatstvo je „zodpovednᓠrozmanitá geologická stavba krajiny. Taktiež i morfológia a klíma (vlhká, tropická prispeli ku vytvoreniu niektorých ložísk (bauxity v krasových priehlbniach, atï.. Súèasná produkcia, okrem ropy (3,5 Mt/rok, zahròuje: 10,7 Mt uhlia, 3,5 Mt chromitu, asi 1 000 kg zlata, grafitu, kaolínu a mnohé iné minerály. Napriek tomu, je banícky priemysel v porovnaní so surovinovou základòou slabo vyvinutý. K jeho rozvoju urèite prispeje i úèas zahranièných spoloèností, odnedávna prítomných pri prieskume a ažbe surovín urèených pre export. Okrem struèného úvodu do geológie krajiny, obsahuje tento èlánok krátky popis nerastného bohatstva Vietnamu.

  14. Quantifying the contributions of sediment, sediment-P and fertiliser-P from forested, cultivated and pasture areas at the landuse and catchment scale using fallout radionuclides and geochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallbrink, P.J.; Martin, C.E.; Wilson, C.J.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we use a combination of fallout nuclides and geochemistry to determine the contributions of sediment and sediment bound phosphorus (sed-P) from the major diffuse sources in the Bundella Creek catchment (8700 ha), NSW, Australia. Sources include surface erosion from cultivated, pasture and steep forested land as well as subsoil erosion from channels and gullies. We determine these contributions to the <10 μm fraction of deposited sediments. Concentrations of P were higher in the surface soils of each landuse than the underlying subsoils, and erosion from these contributed more to offsite sediment-P (∼60%) than did subsoil erosion at the individual landuse scale. At the catchment outlet, the amount of surface sediment eroded from cultivated lands was a factor of ∼84 higher than from pastures; the steep forested lands contributed ∼9 times more than pastures. Sed-P eroded from cultivated land was ∼42 times higher than from pasturelands; the forests were ∼8 times greater than from pastures. At the catchment outlet the largest contribution of sediment (∼70%) and sed-P (∼62%) was from subsoil erosion of gullies and channels within and between the different landuse areas. There was little contribution of sediment or sed-P at the catchment scale from surface erosion of pastures. Concentrations of P were highest in 'storm event' suspended sediment samples taken from the pasture and cultivated areas without gullies. In a suite of samples selected for their high P contents, fertiliser P was detected in two storm event suspended sediment samples and one deposited sediment sample, using the ratio of Nd/P. This suggests fertiliser P may be transported-off land surfaces with sediments and contribute to offsite sediment-P concentrations in some situations. However, the fertiliser contributions were episodic and variable; and probably influenced by particle size selectivity as well as timing of fertiliser application with respect to size and occurrence

  15. Inhalation hazards to underground miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckman, R.T.

    1988-01-01

    Massive radon-daughter exposures to miners have caused lung cancer for centuries. Exposures in US uranium mines have been regulated for 15 years and, during this time, relatively few miners have been exposed to over 4 WLM year. Present trends are toward lower annual exposures and shorter working lives. The net effect has been to hold cumulative lifetime exposures well below the level at which statistically significant excess risk has been shown

  16. Yield trends in the long-term crop rotation with organic and inorganic fertilisers on Alisols in Mata (Rwanda)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutunga, V.; Neel, H.

    2006-01-01

    A crop rotation system with various species was established on Alisols at Mata grassland site, oriental side of Zaire-Nile Watershed Divide (CZN), Rwanda. Inorganic and organic fertilizers were applied in various plots under randomized complete blocs with three replicates. Crop yield data for each

  17. An overview of vertebrate mineralization with emphasis on collagen-mineral interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, W. J.

    1999-01-01

    The nucleation, growth, and development of mineral crystals through their interaction principally with collagen in normal bone and calcifying tendon have been elaborated by applying a number of different techniques for analysis of the inorganic and organic constituents of these tissues. The methods have included conventional and high voltage electron microscopy, electron diffraction, microscopic tomography and 3D image reconstruction, and atomic force microscopy. This summary presents results of these studies that have now characterized the size, shape, and aspects of the chemical nature of the crystals as well as their orientation, alignment, location, and distribution with respect to collagen. These data have provided the means for understanding more completely the formation and strength of the collagen-mineral composite present in most vertebrate calcifying tissues and, from that information, a basis for the adaptation of such tissues under mechanical constraints. In the context of the latter point, other data are given showing effects on collagen in bone cell cultures subjected to the unloading parameters of spaceflight. Implications of these results may be particularly relevant to explaining loss of bone by humans and other vertebrate animals during missions in space, during situations of extended fracture healing, long-term bedrest, physical immobilization, and related conditions. In a broader sense, the data speak to the response of bone and mineralized vertebrate tissues to changes in gravitational loading and applied mechanical forces in general.

  18. Ore minerals textural characterization by hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifazi, Giuseppe; Picone, Nicoletta; Serranti, Silvia

    2013-02-01

    The utilization of hyperspectral detection devices, for natural resources mapping/exploitation through remote sensing techniques, dates back to the early 1970s. From the first devices utilizing a one-dimensional profile spectrometer, HyperSpectral Imaging (HSI) devices have been developed. Thus, from specific-customized devices, originally developed by Governmental Agencies (e.g. NASA, specialized research labs, etc.), a lot of HSI based equipment are today available at commercial level. Parallel to this huge increase of hyperspectral systems development/manufacturing, addressed to airborne application, a strong increase also occurred in developing HSI based devices for "ground" utilization that is sensing units able to play inside a laboratory, a processing plant and/or in an open field. Thanks to this diffusion more and more applications have been developed and tested in this last years also in the materials sectors. Such an approach, when successful, is quite challenging being usually reliable, robust and characterised by lower costs if compared with those usually associated to commonly applied analytical off- and/or on-line analytical approaches. In this paper such an approach is presented with reference to ore minerals characterization. According to the different phases and stages of ore minerals and products characterization, and starting from the analyses of the detected hyperspectral firms, it is possible to derive useful information about mineral flow stream properties and their physical-chemical attributes. This last aspect can be utilized to define innovative process mineralogy strategies and to implement on-line procedures at processing level. The present study discusses the effects related to the adoption of different hardware configurations, the utilization of different logics to perform the analysis and the selection of different algorithms according to the different characterization, inspection and quality control actions to apply.

  19. Lung Cancer in uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Chundi; Fan Jixiong; Wang Liuhu; Huang Yiehan; Nie Guanghua

    1987-01-01

    This paper analyese the clinical data of 39 uranium miners with lung cancer and of 20 patients with lung cancer who have not been exposed to uranium as control. The age of uranium miners with lung cancer was 36∼61 with an average of 48.8, nine years earlier than that of the control group (57.3). In the uranium miner patients the right lung was more susceptible to cancer than the left, the ratio being 2.5:1. However, in the control group the right lung had an equal incidence of cancer as the left lung. The relative frequency of small cell anaplastic carcinoma in uranium miner was higher than that in the control group. In the miner patients the mean occupation history was 11.1 ± 5.2 years; the exposure dose to radon and its daughters in 50% patients was 0.504J(120 WLM). The etiologic factor of lung cancer in uranium miners is strongly attributed, in addition to smoking, to the exposure to radon and its daughters in uranium mines

  20. Nitrogen availability and indirect measurements of greenhouse gas emissions from aerobic and anaerobic biowaste digestates applied to agricultural soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigby, H.; Smith, S.R., E-mail: s.r.smith@imperial.ac.uk

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Nitrogen release in digestate-amended soil depends on the digestate type. • Overall N release is modulated by digestate mineral and mineralisable N contents. • Microbial immobilisation does not influence overall release of digestate N in soil. • Digestate physical properties and soil type interact to affect overall N recovery. • High labile C inputs in digestate may promote denitrification in fine-textured soil. - Abstract: Recycling biowaste digestates on agricultural land diverts biodegradable waste from landfill disposal and represents a sustainable source of nutrients and organic matter (OM) to improve soil for crop production. However, the dynamics of nitrogen (N) release from these organic N sources must be determined to optimise their fertiliser value and management. This laboratory incubation experiment examined the effects of digestate type (aerobic and anaerobic), waste type (industrial, agricultural and municipal solid waste or sewage sludge) and soil type (sandy loam, sandy silt loam and silty clay) on N availability in digestate-amended soils and also quantified the extent and significance of the immobilisation of N within the soil microbial biomass, as a possible regulatory mechanism of N release. The digestate types examined included: dewatered, anaerobically digested biosolids (DMAD); dewatered, anaerobic mesophilic digestate from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (DMADMSW); liquid, anaerobic co-digestate of food and animal slurry (LcoMAD) and liquid, thermophilic aerobic digestate of food waste (LTAD). Ammonium chloride (NH{sub 4}Cl) was included as a reference treatment for mineral N. After 48 days, the final, maximum net recoveries of mineral N relative to the total N (TN) addition in the different digestates and unamended control treatments were in the decreasing order: LcoMAD, 68%; LTAD, 37%, DMAD, 20%; and DMADMSW, 11%. A transient increase in microbial biomass N (MBN) was observed with LTAD application

  1. Nitrogen availability and indirect measurements of greenhouse gas emissions from aerobic and anaerobic biowaste digestates applied to agricultural soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigby, H.; Smith, S.R.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Nitrogen release in digestate-amended soil depends on the digestate type. • Overall N release is modulated by digestate mineral and mineralisable N contents. • Microbial immobilisation does not influence overall release of digestate N in soil. • Digestate physical properties and soil type interact to affect overall N recovery. • High labile C inputs in digestate may promote denitrification in fine-textured soil. - Abstract: Recycling biowaste digestates on agricultural land diverts biodegradable waste from landfill disposal and represents a sustainable source of nutrients and organic matter (OM) to improve soil for crop production. However, the dynamics of nitrogen (N) release from these organic N sources must be determined to optimise their fertiliser value and management. This laboratory incubation experiment examined the effects of digestate type (aerobic and anaerobic), waste type (industrial, agricultural and municipal solid waste or sewage sludge) and soil type (sandy loam, sandy silt loam and silty clay) on N availability in digestate-amended soils and also quantified the extent and significance of the immobilisation of N within the soil microbial biomass, as a possible regulatory mechanism of N release. The digestate types examined included: dewatered, anaerobically digested biosolids (DMAD); dewatered, anaerobic mesophilic digestate from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (DMADMSW); liquid, anaerobic co-digestate of food and animal slurry (LcoMAD) and liquid, thermophilic aerobic digestate of food waste (LTAD). Ammonium chloride (NH 4 Cl) was included as a reference treatment for mineral N. After 48 days, the final, maximum net recoveries of mineral N relative to the total N (TN) addition in the different digestates and unamended control treatments were in the decreasing order: LcoMAD, 68%; LTAD, 37%, DMAD, 20%; and DMADMSW, 11%. A transient increase in microbial biomass N (MBN) was observed with LTAD application

  2. Facility certification program for coal miners pneumoconiosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trout, E.D.; Kelley, J.P.; Larson, V.L.; Herbert, G.L.

    1976-01-01

    Public Law 91-173, often referred to as the Black Lung Law, called for a chest radiograph of all active coal miners at stated intervals. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health was responsible for carrying out the provisions of the law. Among other requirements was a provision for certification of radiological facilities where radiological examinations would be provide. A test object to be radiographed by each such facility was designed and sent to those facilities applying for certification. To date, 284 facilities have applied for certification of which 215 have been approved. A record has been kept of the number of times any approved facility submitted radiographs before approval. A complete listing of the types of equipment used, personnel qualifications and other pertinent data will be reported

  3. A Dictionary of Mining, Mineral and Related Terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrush, Paul W., Comp.

    This dictionary contains about 55,000 terms with approximately 150,000 definitions. These terms are of both a technical and local nature and apply to metal mining, coal mining, quarrying, geology, metallurgy, ceramics and clays, glassmaking, minerals and mineralogy, and general terminology. Petroleum, natural gas, and legal mining terminology,…

  4. Mineralization of nitrogen by protozoan activity in soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuikman, P.

    1990-01-01

    In general, more than 95% of the nitrogen in soils is present in organic forms. This nitrogen is not directly available to plants unless microbial decomposition takes place with the release of mineral nitrogen. In modern agriculture, nitrogen is often applied to arable soils as a fertilizer

  5. Study on mineral processing technology for abrasive minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Seong Woong; Yang, Jung Il; Hwang, Seon Kook; Choi, Yeon Ho; Cho, Ken Joon; Shin, Hee Young [Korea Inst. of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    Buyeo Materials in Buyeogun, Choongnam province is a company producing feldspar concentrate, but does not yet utilize the garnet as abrasive material and other useful heavy minerals wasted out from the process of feldspar ore. The purpose of this study is to develop technology and process for the recovery of garnet concentrate. As results, the garnet is defined as ferro manganese garnet. The optimum process for recovery of garnet concentrate is to primarily concentrate heavy minerals from tailings of feldspar processing. And secondly the heavy minerals concentrated is dried and separated garnet concentrate from other heavy minerals. At this time, the garnet concentrate is yield by 0.176%wt from 0.31%wt of heavy minerals in head ore. The garnet concentrate contains 33.35% SiO{sub 2}, 12.20% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 28.47% Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 11.96% MnO. As for utilization of abrasive materials, a fundamental data was established on technology of grinding and classification. (author). 13 refs., 47 figs., 24 tabs.

  6. Mixed effects of elevated pCO2 on fertilisation, larval and juvenile development and adult responses in the mobile subtidal scallop Mimachlamys asperrima (Lamarck, 1819.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliot Scanes

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification is predicted to have severe consequences for calcifying marine organisms especially molluscs. Recent studies, however, have found that molluscs in marine environments with naturally elevated or fluctuating CO2 or with an active, high metabolic rate lifestyle may have a capacity to acclimate and be resilient to exposures of elevated environmental pCO2. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of near future concentrations of elevated pCO2 on the larval and adult stages of the mobile doughboy scallop, Mimachlamys asperrima from a subtidal and stable physio-chemical environment. It was found that fertilisation and the shell length of early larval stages of M. asperrima decreased as pCO2 increased, however, there were less pronounced effects of elevated pCO2 on the shell length of later larval stages, with high pCO2 enhancing growth in some instances. Byssal attachment and condition index of adult M. asperrima decreased with elevated pCO2, while in contrast there was no effect on standard metabolic rate or pHe. The responses of larval and adult M. asperrima to elevated pCO2 measured in this study were more moderate than responses previously reported for intertidal oysters and mussels. Even this more moderate set of responses are still likely to reduce the abundance of M. asperrima and potentially other scallop species in the world's oceans at predicted future pCO2 levels.

  7. Methylprednisolone for prevention of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome in patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome undergoing in-vitro fertilisation: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi Yeganeh, Ladan; Moini, Ashraf; Shiva, Marzieh; Mirghavam, Naimeh; Bagheri Lankarani, Narges

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of methylprednisolone on prevention of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) in polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) patients undergoing in-vitro fertilisation (IVF). This randomised controlled trial was carried out between November 2009 and December 2013. A total of 219 eligible patients were randomly allocated for treatment (n = 108) or control groups (n = 111). The treatment group received oral methylprednisolone starting from the first day of stimulation. These patients also received an intravenous dose of methylprednisolone on the days of egg collection and embryo transfer. The control group received no glucocorticoid treatment to prevent OHSS. Nineteen percent of patients (18/93) who received methylprednisolone developed OHSS compared with 16.5% (15/91) in the control group and no significant difference was found (p = .61). There were no significant differences between treatment and control groups in the rates of implantation (10% versus 11%, p = .77) and clinical pregnancy (23.2% versus 17.7%, p = .46). Methylprednisolone did not reduce the incidence and severity of OHSS in PCOS patients undergoing IVF and no improvement in clinical outcomes was observed. Impact statement No significant differences were found in OHSS incidence and clinical outcomes between women who received methylprednisolone and control group. There seems to be no benefit for the routine use of glucocorticoids in IVF/ICSI treatments.

  8. Maturation, fertilisation and culture of bovine oocytes and embryos in an individually identifiable manner: a tool for studying oocyte developmental competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matoba, Satoko; Fair, Trudee; Lonergan, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    The ability to successfully culture oocytes and embryos individually would facilitate the study of the relationship between follicle parameters and oocyte developmental competence, in order to identify markers of competent oocytes, as well as the ability to use small numbers of oocytes from an individual donor such as when ovum pick-up is carried out. Using a total of 3118 oocytes, the aim of the present study was to develop a system capable of supporting the development of immature bovine oocytes to the blastocyst stage in an individually identifiable manner. Initially, post-fertilisation embryo culture in the Well-of-the-Well (WOW) system, on the cell adhesive Cell-Tak or in polyester mesh was tested and shown to result in similar development to embryos cultured in standard group culture. The results demonstrate that it is possible to culture bovine oocytes to the blastocyst stage in an individually identifiable manner in all three culture systems with comparable success rates. This permits the localisation and identification of individual embryos throughout preimplantation development in vitro while retaining the developmental benefits of group culture. In terms of ease of preparation and use, culture in isolation within the strands of a polyester mesh is preferable.

  9. Identification of new members of Fertilisation Independent Seed Polycomb Group pathway involved in the control of seed development in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guitton, Anne-Elisabeth; Page, Damian R; Chambrier, Pierre; Lionnet, Claire; Faure, Jean-Emmanuel; Grossniklaus, Ueli; Berger, Frédéric

    2004-06-01

    In higher plants, double fertilisation initiates seed development. One sperm cell fuses with the egg cell and gives rise to the embryo, the second sperm cell fuses with the central cell and gives rise to the endosperm. The endosperm develops as a syncytium with the gradual organisation of domains along an anteroposterior axis defined by the position of the embryo at the anterior pole and by the attachment to the placenta at the posterior pole. We report that ontogenesis of the posterior pole in Arabidopsis thaliana involves oriented migration of nuclei in the syncytium. We show that this migration is impaired in mutants of the three founding members of the FERTILIZATION INDEPENDENT SEED (FIS) class, MEDEA (MEA), FIS2 and FERTILIZATION INDEPENDENT ENDOSPERM (FIE). A screen based on a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter line allowed us to identify two new loci in the FIS pathway, medicis and borgia. We have cloned the MEDICIS gene and show that it encodes the Arabidopsis homologue of the yeast WD40 domain protein MULTICOPY SUPRESSOR OF IRA (MSI1). The mutations at the new fis loci cause the same cellular defects in endosperm development as other fis mutations, including parthenogenetic development, absence of cellularisation, ectopic development of posterior structures and overexpression of the GFP marker.

  10. Evaluation of swine fertilisation medium (SFM) efficiency in preserving spermatozoa quality during long-term storage in comparison to four commercial swine extenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantinati, P; Zannoni, A; Bernardini, C; Forni, M; Tattini, A; Seren, E; Bacci, M L

    2009-02-01

    In pig production, artificial insemination is widely carried out and the use of fresh diluted semen is predominant. For this reason, there are increasing interests in developing new extenders and in establishing the optimal storage conditions for diluted spermatozoa. In the last few decades, we utilised a homemade diluent (swine fertilisation medium (SFM)) for spermatozoa manipulation and biotechnological application as the production of transgenic pigs utilising the sperm-mediated gene transfer technique. The purpose of the present study is therefore to analyse the ability of SFM, in comparison to four commercial extenders, in preserving the quality of diluted boar semen stored at 16.5°C till 15 days. We utilised some of the main predictive tests as objectively measured motility, acrosome and sperm membrane integrity, high mitochondrial membrane potential and pH. Based on our in vitro study, SFM could be declared as a good long-term extender, able to preserve spermatozoa quality as well as Androhep Enduraguard for up to 6 to 9 days and more.

  11. [Mineral water as a cure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocco, Priska Binz

    2008-01-01

    The treatment of diseases with mineral spring water belongs to the oldest medical therapies. The "remedy" mineral water is therefore of importance also within the pharmacy. The present pharmacy historical work examines the impact of the use of mineral waters, as well as of their dried components, as therapeutic agents in the 19th and early 20th centuries, i.e. from approx. 1810 to 1930, as well as the contributions given by pharmacists in the development and analysis of mineral water springs. Beside these aspects, the aim here is also to describe the role played by pharmacists in the production of artificial mineral water as well as in the sale and wholesale of natural and artificial mineral water. In the first part of this work the situation in Switzerland and its surrounding countries, such as Germany, France, Italy and Austria, is discussed. The second part contains a case-study of the particular situation in the Canton Tessin. It is known from the scientific literature published at that time that information on mineral water was frequently reported. Starting from the beginning of the 19th century the number of such publications increased tremendously. The major part of them were publications in scientific journals or contributions to medical and pharmaceutical manuals and reference books. In particular the spa-related literature, such as spa-guides, was of growing interest to a broad public. The inclusion of monographs into the Swiss, the Cantonal as well the foreign pharmacopoeias granted a legal frame for the mineral waters and their dried components. These works are of major importance from a pharmacy historical standpoint and represent a unique proof of historical evidence of the old medicinal drug heritage. The most frequently used therapies based on mineral waters were drinking and bath cures. Several diseases, particularly those of a chronic character, were treated with mineral waters. The positive influence of these cures on the recovery of the patients

  12. SYNERGIES ENTRE RECUPERATION DES EAUX DE RUISSELLEMENT ET FERTILISATIONS MINERALES DANS LES PAYS SAHELIENS, POUR ACCROITRE LA SECURITE ALIMENTAIRE, FAIRE FACE A LA CROISSANCE DEMOGRAPHIQUE, S’ADAPTER AUX CHANGEMENTS CLIMATIQUES ET LIMITER LES EMISSIONS DE GES.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoulaye DIARRA

    2017-05-01

    fertilizer and compost (table 2. For maize, it decreased from 0.2 ha to 0.07 ha at Yatenga (table 3. Despite fertilizer input, energy and GHG budgets were positive in 1992 with zaïs, and during 2012-2014 with maize getting fertilizer and complementary irrigation. And rainfall efficiency increased from 0.16 kg .m-3 to 0.44 kg .m-3. Possible improvements are suggested, and policies and measures to increase land use efficiency by promoting crop production, with both reservoirs and increased mineral fertilisation (Fig. 6, are discussed.

  13. Seasonal variation in mineralization rates (C-N-P-Si) of mussel Mytilus edulis biodeposits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, H.M.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Smaal, A.C.

    2012-01-01

    To determine seasonal variability in mineralization dynamics of mussel biodeposits, we applied a multiple-element approach measuring mineralization rates of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and silicate (Si) during three periods (March, August and November). The results of this study showed

  14. Biochar effect on the mineralization of soil organic matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sander Bruun

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to verify whether the addition of biochar to the soil affects the degradation of litter and of soil organic matter (SOM. In order to investigate the effect of biochar on the mineralization of barley straw, soil was incubated with 14C-labelled barley straw with or without unlabelled biochar. To investigate the effect of straw on the mineralization of biochar, soil was incubated with 14C-labelled biochar with or without straw. In addition, to investigate the effect of biochar on old SOM, a soil labelled by applying labelled straw 40 years ago was incubated with different levels of biochar. All experiments had a control treatment, without any soil amendment. The effect of biochar on the straw mineralization was small and nonsignificant. Without biochar, 48±0.2% of the straw carbon was mineralized within the 451 days of the experiment. In comparison, 45±1.6% of C was mineralized after biochar addition of 1.5 g kg-1. In the SOM-labelled soil, the organic matter mineralized more slowly with the increasing doses of biochar. Biochar addition at 7.7 g kg-1 reduced SOM mineralization from 6.6 to 6.3%, during the experimental period. The addition of 15.5 g kg-1 of biochar reduced the mineralized SOM to 5.7%. There is no evidence of increased degradation of either litter or SOM due to biochar addition; consequently, there is no evidence of decreased stability of SOM.

  15. Minerals yearbook: The mineral industry of Brazil. 1988 international review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ensminger, H.R.

    1988-01-01

    Brazil's gross domestic product (GDP) grew only slightly in 1988 to $277 billion at current prices. The growth rate was the smallest registered since 1983, when the rate was minus 2.8%. The economy's performance was strongly influenced by a 2% to 3% decrease in industrial production and civil construction. The mineral industry, however, countered the downward trend in the industrial sector and grew a modest 1.4%. Topics discussed in the report include the following: Government policies and programs; Production; Trade; Commodity review--Metals (Aluminum, Aluminia, and Bauxite, Columbium, Copper, Gold, Iron and Steel, Manganese, Tin, Titanium); Industrial Minerals (Gem stones, Phosphate rock, Quartz); Mineral fuels (Coal, Natural gas, Petroleum, Nuclear power); Nonmineral energy sources (Alcohol, Hydroelectric)

  16. 21 CFR 573.680 - Mineral oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mineral oil. 573.680 Section 573.680 Food and... Listing § 573.680 Mineral oil. Mineral oil may be safely used in animal feed, subject to the provisions of this section. (a) Mineral oil, for the purpose of this section, is that complying with the definition...

  17. Hyperspectral analysis of clay minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janaki Rama Suresh, G.; Sreenivas, K.; Sivasamy, R.

    2014-11-01

    A study was carried out by collecting soil samples from parts of Gwalior and Shivpuri district, Madhya Pradesh in order to assess the dominant clay mineral of these soils using hyperspectral data, as 0.4 to 2.5 μm spectral range provides abundant and unique information about many important earth-surface minerals. Understanding the spectral response along with the soil chemical properties can provide important clues for retrieval of mineralogical soil properties. The soil samples were collected based on stratified random sampling approach and dominant clay minerals were identified through XRD analysis. The absorption feature parameters like depth, width, area and asymmetry of the absorption peaks were derived from spectral profile of soil samples through DISPEC tool. The derived absorption feature parameters were used as inputs for modelling the dominant soil clay mineral present in the unknown samples using Random forest approach which resulted in kappa accuracy of 0.795. Besides, an attempt was made to classify the Hyperion data using Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) algorithm with an overall accuracy of 68.43 %. Results showed that kaolinite was the dominant mineral present in the soils followed by montmorillonite in the study area.

  18. Mineral matter reactions in cokes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. French; R. Sakurovs; M. Grigore [CSIRO Energy Technology (Australia)

    2009-07-15

    Some cokes appear to be particularly susceptible to weakening in the blast furnace. A mechanism which has been postulated to explain this is silica reduction by coke. Thus this project was initiated to ascertain the behaviour of quartz and silicates in coke with an emphasis on the role of the clay minerals. It is now possible to obtain quantitative mineralogical data and, the case of coal, to also obtain quantitative data on mineral grain size, shape and association through the use of automated electron beam image analysis techniques. This new ability can allow relationships between the amount of minerals in a coke and its reactivity to be established for the first time. Samples of five Australian coking coals were selected based upon quartz and clay mineral contents, mineral grain size and association. Samples were also provided by BlueScope Steel of coal, feed coke, and tuyere coke samples from the bosh, deadman and raceway regions of the blast furnace. The analytical work program conducted was as follows: Preparation of cokes by CSIRO; Petrography of starting coals and cokes; QEMSCAN of coals; LTA and XRD of starting coals and cokes; Coke reactivity tests (NSC and small scale); Petrography, LTA and XRD of reacted cokes; Petrographic and XRD examination of heat treated cokes. This study indicates that the NSC reactivity test does not adequately reflect the behaviour of coke in the lower part of the blast furnace. Further investigation of the behaviour of coke in the lower part of the blast furnace is required.

  19. Annual effects of different organic fertilisers in a baby leaf crops system under tunnel in Southern Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Luigi Morra; Maurizio Bilotto; Salvatore Baiano; Giovanni Saviello; Domenico Cerrato

    2015-01-01

    In a farm devoted to the production of fresh-cut leafy vegetables located in Eboli (Salerno), it was carried out a trial to compare the effects on crops and soil organic carbon (SOC) of biowaste compost, olive pomace compost, buffalo manure applied to soil in two doses (15 and 30 t ha−1 fresh weight). The amendments were tested in order to start in defining a feasible strategy for the recovery/maintenance of soils in degradation due to the organic matter depletion triggered by the intensive s...

  20. The infrared stage Linkam FTIR 600 for microthermometric studies in dark and opaque minerals associated to uranium mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Tatiana Aparecida Fernandes de; Rios, Francisco Javier; Fuzikawa, Kazuo; Oliveira, Lucilia A. Ramos de; Oliveira, Elizabeth Kerpe; Neves, Jose Marques Correia; Prates, Sonia Pinto

    2009-01-01

    Fluid composition studies, throughout fluid inclusions (FI), contribute to improve the understanding of mineral deposits. FI correspond to small portions of fluids trapped in minerals by many processes that preserve relevant information related to fluid composition which forms ore deposits. Microscopy and microthermometry techniques applied to fluid inclusions studies of opaque and/or dark minerals use infrared light (IR). A specific stage heating/cooling that allows working in the near infrared (NIR). Thus, the infrared stage model FTIR600 Linkam coupled the IR OLYMPUS BX51, with the automatic controllers LNP 94/2 and TMS 94, and software Linksys 32 - Linkam installed in computer was implemented and tested. An infrared QUICAM fast 1394 QIMAGING TM camera with the program QCAPTURE SUITE was acquisition for images capture and adapted the new system. This infrared stage Linkam FTIR600 reach temperatures between -196 deg C to +600 deg C, with the differential of working in the NIR; it is all automated, obtaining computerized data, graphics in real time of analysis and storage the data. It also controls the speed of the experiment (up to 130 deg C/min); it runs consecutively heating and cooling with a small N 2 (l) consuming; besides greater results repeatability, obtaining accurate and precise temperatures. Actually the Linkam stage FTIR600 is operating in the Metallogenesis and Fluid Inclusions Laboratory (LIFM) at CDTN/CNEN. Uranium ore and/or others mineralization studies which shows dark or opaque mineral have been developed. The uranium mineralization in the Lagoa Real Uraniferous Province, Bahia, Brazil, shows several rock-forming minerals together with the dark and opaque minerals (garnet, magnetite, pyroxene) emphasized in the present work. (author)

  1. Sewage sludge and wastewater fertilisation of Short Rotation Coppice (SRC) for increased bioenergy production - Biological and economic potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitriou, I.; Rosenqvist, H.

    2011-01-01

    Application of municipal residues, e.g. wastewater or sewage sludge, to Short Rotation Coppice (SRC) is among the most attractive methods for attaining environmental and energy goals set for Europe. At current woodchip prices in Sweden, the gross margin for SRC cultivation is positive only if biomass production is >9 t DM/ha yr. The gross profit margin increases (by 39 and 199 EUR/GJ, respectively) if sewage sludge and wastewater are applied to SRC. Application of residues to SRC has proved to be an acceptable alternative treatment method, and the farmer's profit can be markedly increased if compensation is paid for waste treatment. If all available sludge and wastewater were applied to SRC plantations, they could be grown on large agricultural areas in Europe, and c. 6000 PJ of renewable energy could be produced annually. However, a more economical landuse strategy, e.g. the use of more P-rich residues, appears more rational, and is biologically justifiable. (author)

  2. The annual ammonia budget of fertilised cut grassland – Part 1: Micrometeorological flux measurements and emissions after slurry application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Spirig

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Two commercial ammonia (NH3 analysers were customised to allow continuous measurements of vertical concentration gradients. The gradients were used to derive ammonia exchange fluxes above a managed grassland site at Oensingen (Switzerland by application of the aerodynamic gradient method. The measurements from July 2006 to October 2007 covered five complete growth-cut cycles and included six applications of liquid cattle slurry. The average accuracy of the flux measurements during unstable and near-neutral conditions was 20% and the detection limit was 10 ng NH3 m−2 s−1. Hence the flux measurements are considered sufficiently accurate for studying typical NH3 deposition rates over growing vegetation. Quantifying the overall emissions after slurry applications required the application of elaborate interpolations because of difficulties capturing the initial emissions during broadspreading of liquid manure. The emissions were also calculated with a mass balance method yielding similar fluxes. NH3 losses after slurry application expressed as percentage of emitted nitrogen versus applied total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN varied between 4 and 19%, which is roughly a factor of three lower than the values for broadspreading of liquid manure in emission inventories. The comparatively low emission factors appear to be a consequence of the low dry matter content of the applied slurry and soil properties favouring ammonium adsorption.

  3. TOTAL AND FRACTIONAL CONTENTS OF PROTEINS IN BEAN SEEDS UNDER THE CONDITIONS OF VARIED FERTILISATION WITH MICROELEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech KOZERA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Over 2003-2005 at the Experiment Station at Wierzchucinek at the University of Technology and Life Sciences in Bydgoszcz, there was performed a strict one-factor micro-plot experiment in split-splot design. The factor tested was a type of microelements [n=5: Cu, Zn, Mn, Mo, B]. The microelements were foliar sprayed in a chelated form, as the series of Symfonia fertilizers. The study aimed at comparing the effect of five agricultural-engineering basic microelements on the contents and protein composition of the seeds of Aura cultivar. The fertilization applied, boron and manganese in particular, showed an effect on the increase in the contents of total protein in bean seeds. It also modified the fractional composition of the bean seed protein. There was observed a clear increase in the fraction of albumins and globulins in seeds as a result of the microelements applied, except for boron. The fertilization with molybdenum, boron, copper and zinc reduced the content of glutelins, and the sum of glulelins and prolamines in the bean seeds.

  4. Sewage sludge and wastewater fertilisation of Short Rotation Coppice (SRC) for increased bioenergy production - Biological and economic potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimitriou, I. [Department of Crop Production Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7043, SE 750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Rosenqvist, H. [Department of Agriculture-Farming Systems, Technology and Product Quality, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 17, SE-261 21 Billeberga (Sweden)

    2011-02-15

    Application of municipal residues, e.g. wastewater or sewage sludge, to Short Rotation Coppice (SRC) is among the most attractive methods for attaining environmental and energy goals set for Europe. At current woodchip prices in Sweden, the gross margin for SRC cultivation is positive only if biomass production is >9 t DM/ha yr. The gross profit margin increases (by 39 and 199 EUR/GJ, respectively) if sewage sludge and wastewater are applied to SRC. Application of residues to SRC has proved to be an acceptable alternative treatment method, and the farmer's profit can be markedly increased if compensation is paid for waste treatment. If all available sludge and wastewater were applied to SRC plantations, they could be grown on large agricultural areas in Europe, and c. 6000 PJ of renewable energy could be produced annually. However, a more economical landuse strategy, e.g. the use of more P-rich residues, appears more rational, and is biologically justifiable. (author)

  5. The determination of phosphorus in uranium minerals and resulting solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrement Eguiluz, J. C.; Parellada Bellod, R.; Fernandez Cellini, R.

    1964-01-01

    Interferences of several elements present in Spanish uranium minerals in the phosphorus determination by the spectrophotometrical method of the molibdovanada te phosphoric acid are studied. A method is described with a previous separation of these element by a cationic resin. This method is successfully applied to the phosphorus determination in acid or alkaline lixiviation solutions of uranium minerals, as well as in the evaluates of ion exchange resins used used technically for the concentration of solutions with a low uranium content. (Author) 11 refs

  6. Minerals ontology: application in the environmental field to silicates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galan Saulnier, A.; Garcia Gimenez, R.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the application of an ontology, or up-to-date computerized tool, developed in the field of artificial intelligence and in particular of knowledge engineering, to inert elements, in this case the silicate class, which are minerals of scientific, technical and economic interest. The importance of applying ontology to minerals lies in the fact that these substances are capable of causing negative environmental impacts upon other variables in the natural environment, such as the atmosphere and the hydrosphere, and possible subsequent effects on human health. (Author) 37 refs.

  7. Experiments and results of nuclear mineral dressing in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochulsky, M.; Finkesltein, B.; Andres, R.

    1992-01-01

    This contribution has the purpose to resume the studies and specifics activities of the Physical Processing Division, which deals with the separation of valueless mineral or of those of commercial value, present in Uranium ores. Some general present in Uranium ores. Some general conclusions on the physical techniques of mineral dressing and examples of their application and results obtained by applying several techniques, are shown. The solution of hygroscopicity problems posed by certain chemicals used for the production of potassium fluoro zirconate were also considered. (author)

  8. Proton induced luminescence of minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvo del Castillo, H.; Millan, A.; Calderon, T. [Depto. Geologia y Geoquimica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Ctra. Colmenar, km. 15, 28049, Madrid (Spain); Beneitez, P. [Departamento Quimica Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain); Ruvalcaba S, J.L. [lFUNAM, Circuito de la lnvestigacion Cientifica s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents a summary of Ionoluminescence (IL) for several minerals commonly found in jewellery pieces and/or artefacts of historical interest. Samples including silicates and non-silicates (native elements, halide, oxide, carbonate and phosphate groups) have been excited with a 1.8 MeV proton beam, and IL spectra in the range of 200- 900 nm have been collected for each one using a fiber optic coupled spectrometer. Light emissions have been related to Cr{sup 3+}, Mn{sup 2+} and Pr{sup 3+} ions, as well as intrinsic defects in these minerals. Results show the potential of IL for impurity characterization with high detection limits, local symmetry studies, and the study of the origin of minerals. (Author)

  9. Preparation of synthetic standard minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrick, C.C.; Bustamante, S.J.; Charls, R.W.; Cowan, R.E.; Hakkila, E.A.; Hull, D.E.; Olinger, B.W.; Roof, R.B.; Sheinberg, H.; Herrick, G.C.

    1978-01-01

    A number of techniques for synthetic mineral preparations have been examined. These techniques include hot-pressing in graphite dies at moderate pressures, high-pressure, high-temperature synthesis in a piston and cylinder apparatus, isostatic pressing under helium gas pressures, hydrous mineral preparations using water as the pressure medium, explosion-generated shock waves, and radiofrequency heating. Minerals suitable for equation-of-state studies (three-inch, high-density discs), for thermodynamic property determinations (low-density powders) and for microprobe standards (fusion-cast microbeads) have been prepared. Mechanical stress-strain calculations in the piston-cylinder apparatus have been initiated and their integration with thermal stress calculations is currently under investigation

  10. New french uranium mineral species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branche, G.; Chervet, J.; Guillemin, C.

    1952-01-01

    In this work, the authors study the french new uranium minerals: parsonsite and renardite, hydrated phosphates of lead and uranium; kasolite: silicate hydrated of uranium and lead uranopilite: sulphate of uranium hydrated; bayleyite: carbonate of uranium and of hydrated magnesium; β uranolite: silicate of uranium and of calcium hydrated. For all these minerals, the authors give the crystallographic, optic characters, and the quantitative chemical analyses. On the other hand, the following species, very rare in the french lodgings, didn't permit to do quantitative analyses. These are: the lanthinite: hydrated uranate oxide; the α uranotile: silicate of uranium and of calcium hydrated; the bassetite: uranium phosphate and of hydrated iron; the hosphuranylite: hydrated uranium phosphate; the becquerelite: hydrated uranium oxide; the curite: oxide of uranium and lead hydrated. Finally, the authors present at the end of this survey a primary mineral: the brannerite, complex of uranium titanate. (author) [fr

  11. KeyPathwayMinerWeb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    List, Markus; Alcaraz, Nicolas; Dissing-Hansen, Martin

    2016-01-01

    , for instance), KeyPathwayMiner extracts connected sub-networks containing a high number of active or differentially regulated genes (proteins, metabolites) in the molecular profiles. The web interface at (http://keypathwayminer.compbio.sdu.dk) implements all core functionalities of the KeyPathwayMiner tool set......We present KeyPathwayMinerWeb, the first online platform for de novo pathway enrichment analysis directly in the browser. Given a biological interaction network (e.g. protein-protein interactions) and a series of molecular profiles derived from one or multiple OMICS studies (gene expression...... such as data integration, input of background knowledge, batch runs for parameter optimization and visualization of extracted pathways. In addition to an intuitive web interface, we also implemented a RESTful API that now enables other online developers to integrate network enrichment as a web service...

  12. In situ evidence of mineral physical protection and carbon stabilization revealed by nanoscale 3-D tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Yi-Tse; Wang, Chun-Chieh; Chiang, Cheng-Cheng; Tsai, Heng; Song, Yen-Fang; Huang, Shiuh-Tsuen; Liang, Biqing

    2018-05-01

    An approach for nanoscale 3-D tomography of organic carbon (OC) and associated mineral nanoparticles was developed to illustrate their spatial distribution and boundary interplay, using synchrotron-based transmission X-ray microscopy (TXM). The proposed 3-D tomography technique was first applied to in situ observation of a laboratory-made consortium of black carbon (BC) and nanomineral (TiO2, 15 nm), and its performance was evaluated using dual-scan (absorption contrast and phase contrast) modes. This novel tool was then successfully applied to a natural OC-mineral consortium from mountain soil at a spatial resolution of 60 nm, showing the fine structure and boundary of OC, the distribution of abundant nano-sized minerals, and the 3-D organo-mineral association in situ. The stabilization of 3500-year-old natural OC was mainly attributed to the physical protection of nano-sized iron (Fe)-containing minerals (Fe oxyhydroxides including ferrihydrite, goethite, and lepidocrocite), and the strong organo-mineral complexation. In situ evidence revealed an abundance of mineral nanoparticles, in dense thin layers or nano-aggregates/clusters, instead of crystalline clay-sized minerals on or near OC surfaces. The key working minerals for C stabilization were reactive short-range-order (SRO) mineral nanoparticles and poorly crystalline submicron-sized clay minerals. Spectroscopic analyses demonstrated that the studied OC was not merely in crisscross co-localization with reactive SRO minerals; there could be a significant degree of binding between OC and the minerals. The ubiquity and abundance of mineral nanoparticles on the OC surface, and their heterogeneity in the natural environment may have been severely underestimated by traditional research approaches. Our in situ description of organo-mineral interplay at the nanoscale provides direct evidence to substantiate the importance of mineral physical protection for the long-term stabilization of OC. This high-resolution 3-D

  13. Radon risk in ore miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beno, M.

    1997-01-01

    Underground workers are exposed to various clastogenic agents. One of these agents, radon, attracts attention of recent research as it causes lung cancer in the population occupationally exposed to its various concentrations especially in mine air of uranium mines or ore mines. This paper is a pilot study in which the numbers of chromosomal aberrations (CA) in lymphocytes of ore mines (Nizna Slana-iron ore, Hnusta-talc ore) located in east central Slovakia were followed and related to the lifetime underground radon exposure and to lifetime smoking. Seventy miners volunteering after an informed consent served as donors of venous blood. Twenty healthy pro-bands, age matched with the miners, which never worked underground (mostly clerks) served as donors of control blood samples. The exposure to radon and smoking has been estimated according to working-records and personal anamnesis. The findings unequivocally showed a small but statistically significant clastogenic effect of the exposure to underground environment of the mines concerned. This study has shown also a small but significant influence of smoking, which in the subgroup of miners working underground less than 1500 shifts may have acted synergically with the underground exposure. It was concluded tat: (1) Significantly higher counts of chromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes of 70 miners than in an age matched control group of 20 white-collar workers were found; (2) The higher counts of chromosomal aberrations could be ascribed to underground exposure of miners and to smoking; (3) The positive dependence of the number of chromosomal aberrations from the exposure to smoking was loose and it was expressed by significantly higher chromosomal aberrations counts in the group of miners working less than 1500 shifts underground; (4) A dependence of chromosomal aberrations counts from the exposure to radon could not be assessed. At relatively low numbers of pro-bands in subgroups it was not ruled out the confounding

  14. International availability of energy minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, N A

    1978-09-01

    Whereas the ultimate world supply of energy minerals--defined as fossil fuels and fissile materials--is controlled by geological factors, the actual supply at any particular time is controlled by economic feasibility, technological innovations and/or political decisions. This paper identifies and discusses the principal uncertainties surrounding the international availability of energy minerals from now until the end of the century. Genuine shortages of energy minerals are now of a very long-term nature, whereas artificial ones may occur at any time and have a serious effect on the world economy due to the dependence of most OECD countries on imports of energy minerals. This paper argues that events over the last decade will progressively lead to a major, long-lasting transformation of the energy scene worldwide. This transformation will encompass demand, in terms of conservation and efficiency, the supply mix of the various energy minerals, the supply system and the structure of the different energy industries. It is already affecting the role of governments and reaching into the question of national sovereignty, thereby making energy minerals a key area of international relations. In all these respects, this paper concludes that we have entered an era that is quite different from those we have experienced in the past. As well as requiring many new technological innovations, more importantly, attention must be focused on the development of new approaches to meeting the energy industries' capital requirements in the decades ahead--first, because of the changing character of the energy industries and the magnitude of their financial requirements; secondly, because of the nature of the uncertainties with which they are faced; and thirdly, because of the constantly shifting and increasingly complex world capital market conditions.

  15. Economical characteristics of base types of minerals. 1. Metallic minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khasanov, A.Kh.

    1990-01-01

    Metallic minerals is raw materials base of black and colour metallurgy. In this article of book author describes the group of black metals (iron, manganese, chromium), group of tempers (titanium, vanadium, nickel, cobalt, molybdenum, tungsten), colour metals (copper, lead, zinc, aluminium, tin, mercury, antimony, bismuth) and etc.

  16. Fault rocks and uranium mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong Hangshou.

    1991-01-01

    The types of fault rocks, microstructural characteristics of fault tectonite and their relationship with uranium mineralization in the uranium-productive granite area are discussed. According to the synthetic analysis on nature of stress, extent of crack and microstructural characteristics of fault rocks, they can be classified into five groups and sixteen subgroups. The author especially emphasizes the control of cataclasite group and fault breccia group over uranium mineralization in the uranium-productive granite area. It is considered that more effective study should be made on the macrostructure and microstructure of fault rocks. It is of an important practical significance in uranium exploration

  17. Platinum-group element mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruenewaldt, G.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to determine the geological processes responsible for the abnormal enrichment of the platinum-group elements (PGE) in the mineralized layers of the Bushveld Complex. Questions asked are: what processes caused enrichment of the Bushveld magma in the PGE ; by what processes were these PGE concentrated in the mineralized layers ; was contamination of the Bushveld magma from external sources important in the formation of the PGE enriched layers ; what are the effects of fractional crystallization on the PGE ratios

  18. Mineral mapping in the western Kunlun Mountains using Tiangong-1 hyperspectral imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, W.; Cheng, Q.; Jing, L.; Chen, Y.; Guo, X.; Ding, H.; Liu, Q.

    2016-04-01

    The unmanned Chinese space module Tiangong-1 was launched in September 2011 with a hyperspectral sensor on board. The sensor combines high spatial and spectral resolution suitable for mineral mapping. In this study, Tiangong-1 hyperspectral data were employed for mineral mapping in the western Kunlun Mountains, an important metallogenic belt in China. A Spectral Hourglass Wizard method was applied to detect common minerals from the Tiangong- 1 shortwave infrared data with reference to a set of spectral libraries. Spectral information on minerals, such as zoisite, mica, quartz, sodalite, dolomite, and actinolite, was extracted from the data. The resulting mineral interpretation maps were highly correlated with the reference geological maps and information from ASTER satellite imagery, suggesting that the hyperspectral data are suitable for mineral mapping.

  19. Quantitative aspects of radon daughter exposure and lung cancer in underground miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edling, C.; Axelson, O.

    1983-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown an excessive incidence of lung cancer in miners with exposure to radon daughters. The various risk estimates have ranged from six to 47 excess cases per 10 6 person years and working level month, but the effect of smoking has not been fully evaluated. A group of iron ore miners was studied in an attempt to obtain quantitative information about the risk of lung cancer due to radon and its daughters among smoking and non-smoking miners. The results show a considerable risk for miners to develop lung cancer; even non-smoking miners seem to be at a rather high risk. An additive effect of smoking and exposure to radon daughters is indicated and an estimate of about 30-40 excess cases per 10 6 person years and working level month seems to apply on a life time basis to both smoking and non-smoking miners aged over 50. (author)

  20. Rendimento e concentração de nutrientes em alface, em função das adubações orgânica e mineral Yield and nutrient concentration in lettuce as a function of organic and mineral manuring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Talarico Rodrigues

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available O rendimento e a concentração de nutrientes na alface, cultivar Babá, foram quantificados em função das adubações orgânica e mineral, em solo distrófico. Utilizou-se o sistema de transplante de mudas em vasos de polietileno de 5 dm³, em casa de vegetação e o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado com três repetições. Os tratamentos foram dispostos no arranjo fatorial 4 x 3, com quatro doses de composto orgânico (0; 0,9; 1,8 e 2,7 dm³, equivalentes a 0, 33, 66 e 99 t/ha, na base seca e três níveis de adubação mineral (0, 1 e 2. O nível 2 veiculou as doses de macro e micronutrientes apropriadas e o nível 1 consistiu de metade do nível 2. As produtividades máximas foram estimadas em 119,5, 119,4 e 153,9 g/planta, com as doses de 37,7, 18,9 e 13 t/ha de composto, nos níveis 0, 1 e 2 de adubo mineral, respectivamente. As doses de composto orgânico promoveram aumentos menos acentuados que a adubação mineral nas concentrações foliares de N, elevaram as concentrações de P, K e Na e diminuíram as de Ca, demonstrando que doses altas de adubos orgânicos provocam excesso de cátions monovalentes, prejudicando a absorção do Ca.Nutrient accumulation in lettuce plants, cv. Babá, was quantified as a function of organic and mineral fertilisers, in a low fertility soil. The experiment was established by transplanting seedlings to 5 dm³ capacity pots in a greenhouse. The experiment was laid out in a complete randomised block design with three replications ordered in factorial arrangement (4 x 3 of four doses of organic compost (0, 0.9, 1.8 and 2.7 dm³; equivalent to 0, 33, 66, and 99 t/ha, in drought basis and three mineral fertiliser levels (0, 1 and 2. Level two carried doses of macro and micronutrients normally recommended for the culture, with level one carrying half the dose of level two. The maximum estimated yields were 119.5, 119.4 and 153.9 g/plant with 37.7, 18.9 and 13 t/ha compost doses, for levels 0

  1. COMPOSITION OF MINERAL PHASES OF THE GHIDIRIM DIATOMITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Rusu

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies of the mineralogical composition of diatomite from the Ghidirim location of RM, as well as of the extracted clay phase are presented. The mineral phase of the diatomite contains a number of clay minerals, like montmorillonite (in a mixture with insignificant quantities of slightly chloritized montmorillonite, illite and kaolinite. Diatomite contains also non-clay components as fine-dispersed quartz and amorphous material, the more probable sources of which are opal, amorphous alumosilicates, aluminum and iron hydroxides. The applied procedure for separation of clay fractions by sizing settling in liquid media proves to be very useful, enabling possibilities for more accurate identification of the clay constituents of diatomic material. Procedure allows to separate very clean clay fraction especially rich in montmorillonite, which can be utilized itself as mineral adsorbent for practical purposes.

  2. Synthesis of magnetite nanoparticles from mineral waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Rohit [CSIR – Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology, Bhubaneswar 751 013 (India); Sakthivel, R., E-mail: velsak_r@yahoo.com [CSIR – Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology, Bhubaneswar 751 013 (India); Behura, Reshma; Mishra, B.K. [CSIR – Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology, Bhubaneswar 751 013 (India); Das, D. [UGC-DAE Consortium, Kolkata (India)

    2015-10-05

    Highlights: • Mineral waste becomes a valuable source for the synthesis of magnetite. • Milling helps uniform mixing of reductant with iron ore tailings. • Magnetite nanoparticles exhibit saturation magnetization of 60 emu/g. • Ag coating induces antibacterial activity of magnetite. - Abstract: Magnetite nanoparticles were synthesized from iron ore tailings – a mineral waste collected from the iron ore processing plant. Mechanical milling followed by chemical route is employed to obtain the magnetite nanoparticles from the waste. The magnetite nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffractometer, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer and Vibrating Sample Magnetometer. X-ray diffraction pattern confirms the existence of a magnetite phase. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopic (FE-SEM) pictures reveal that the particle size is below 100 nm. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrum shows a band at 570 cm{sup −1} for the Fe–O bond vibration. Vibrating Sample Magnetometric (VSM) study shows high saturation magnetization value of 60 emu/g at low applied magnetic field. Silver coated magnetite nanoparticles exhibits antibacterial property whereas bare magnetite does not.

  3. Electrochemical degradation and mineralization of glyphosate herbicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Nam; Drogui, Patrick; Doan, Tuan Linh; Le, Thanh Son; Nguyen, Hoai Chau

    2017-12-01

    The presence of herbicide is a concern for both human and ecological health. Glyphosate is occasionally detected as water contaminants in agriculture areas where the herbicide is used extensively. The removal of glyphosate in synthetic solution using advanced oxidation process is a possible approach for remediation of contaminated waters. The ability of electrochemical oxidation for the degradation and mineralization of glyphosate herbicide was investigated using Ti/PbO 2 anode. The current intensity, treatment time, initial concentration and pH of solution are the influent parameters on the degradation efficiency. An experimental design methodology was applied to determine the optimal condition (in terms of cost/effectiveness) based on response surface methodology. Glyphosate concentration (C 0  = 16.9 mg L -1 ) decreased up to 0.6 mg L -1 when the optimal conditions were imposed (current intensity of 4.77 A and treatment time of 173 min). The removal efficiencies of glyphosate and total organic carbon were 95 ± 16% and 90.31%, respectively. This work demonstrates that electrochemical oxidation is a promising process for degradation and mineralization of glyphosate.

  4. Treating bituminous minerals. [use of superheated steam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacIvor, G

    1880-12-21

    In this new procedure, the superheated steam is the agent by which the heat is directly applied to the rock; the superheated steam is made to pass between the rocks and into the vessel or retort in which the rock is contained and where the extraction of the bitumen or the distillation of the mineral oils is carried out. The temperature of the heating apparatus in which the steam is superheated, is easily regulated at will in accord with the desired result. When one wishes to extract only bitumen, the temperature of the steam is raised to a point sufficiently high to loosen and separate the bitumen without permitting any condensation of water inside the retort. When it is desired to produce a mineral oil, the temperature is increased in such a way that all the volatile products are distilled from the rock and come into the condenser. By means of this process, any temperature up to a full red heat, can be maintained in the retort, making possible many variations in the kind of products obtainable from the rock.

  5. A randomised controlled trial of intra-uterine insemination versus in vitro fertilisation in patients with idiopathic or mild male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzeiny, Hossam; Garrett, Claire; Toledo, Manuela; Stern, Kate; McBain, John; Baker, Hugh William Gordon

    2014-04-01

    The cause of infertility is unexplained or poorly explained in 30-40% of couples undergoing standard investigations, and treatment ranges from expectant management to IUI and IVF. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical pregnancy rates and costs of intra-uterine insemination (IUI) and in vitro fertilisation (IVF) in women where the same ovarian stimulation led to the development of two or three mature follicles. A randomised controlled clinical trial compared the efficacy of IUI and IVF in a tertiary fertility centre (ISRCTN28780587). Primary outcome measures were fetal heart positive pregnancy rate and cost per live birth. The selection criteria were age: females 18-42 years and males 18-60 years, infertility for one year or more, no IVF or IUI for 12 months prior to the trial, and no coital, tubal or ovulatory disorders, oligospermia, untreated endometriosis or contraindication for multiple pregnancy. All women (n = 102) had the same dose FSH stimulation protocol. Those who developed two or three preovulatory follicles were randomised 3:1 to IUI (n = 33) or IVF (n = 10). IUI or IVF was performed 36 h after hCG administration with single or double embryo transfer on day two. Clinical pregnancy rates (40% vs 12%, P = 0.04) and live birth rate (40% vs 6%, P = 0.01) were higher for IVF than IUI. The cost per live birth was AU$8735 for IVF compared with $42,487 for IUI. This study provides evidence that IVF is more successful and cost-effective than IUI using the same doses of FSH. Further confirmatory studies are required. © 2014 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  6. In vitro fertilisation with recombinant follicle stimulating hormone requires less IU usage compared with highly purified human menopausal gonadotrophin: results from a European retrospective observational chart review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blackmore Stuart

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have reported conflicting results for the comparative doses of recombinant follicle stimulating hormone (rFSH and highly purified human menopausal gonadotrophin (hMG-HP required per cycle of in vitro fertilisation (IVF; the aim of this study was to determine the average total usage of rFSH versus hMG-HP in a 'real-world' setting using routine clinical practice. Methods This retrospective chart review of databases from four European countries investigated gonadotrophin usage, oocyte and embryo yield, and pregnancy outcomes in IVF cycles (± intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection using rFSH or hMG-HP alone. Included patients met the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE guideline criteria for IVF and received either rFSH or hMG-HP. Statistical tests were conducted at 5% significance using Chi-square or t-tests. Results Of 30,630 IVF cycles included in this review, 74% used rFSH and 26% used hMG-HP. A significantly lower drug usage per cycle for rFSH than hMG-HP (2072.53 +/- 76.73 IU vs. 2540.14 +/- 883.08 IU, 22.6% higher for hMG-HP; p Conclusions Based on these results, IVF treatment cycles with rFSH yield statistically more oocytes (and more mature oocytes, using significantly less IU per cycle, versus hMG-HP. The incidence of all OHSS and hospitalisations due to OHSS was significantly higher in the rFSH cycles compared to the hMG-HP cycles. However, the absolute incidence of hospitalisations due to OHSS was similar to that reported previously. These results suggest that the perceived required dosage with rFSH is currently over-estimated, and the higher unit cost of rFSH may be offset by a lower required dosage compared with hMG-HP.

  7. Cumulative live-birth rate in women with polycystic ovary syndrome or isolated polycystic ovaries undergoing in-vitro fertilisation treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hang Wun Raymond; Lee, Vivian Chi Yan; Lau, Estella Yee Lan; Yeung, William Shu Biu; Ho, Pak Chung; Ng, Ernest Hung Yu

    2014-02-01

    This retrospective cohort study evaluated the cumulative live birth rate in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and isolated polycystic ovaries (PCO) undergoing in-vitro fertilisation (IVF) treatment. We studied 104 women with PCOS, 184 with PCO and 576 age-matched controls undergoing the first IVF treatment cycle between 2002 and 2009. The main outcome measure was cumulative live birth in the fresh plus all the frozen embryo transfers combined after the same stimulation cycle. Women in both the PCOS (n = 104) and isolated PCO groups (n = 184) had higher ovarian response parameters compared to age-matched controls (n = 576), and higher rates of withholding fresh embryo transfer for risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). The actual incidence of moderate to severe OHSS was significantly higher in the PCOS (11.5 %) but not the isolated PCO group (8.2%) compared to controls (4.9%). The live birth rates in the fresh cycle were comparable among the 3 groups, but the PCOS group had a significantly higher miscarriage rate compared to the other 2 groups. Cumulative live birth rate was significantly higher in the isolated PCO group (60.3%), but not the PCOS group (50.0%), compared to controls (47.5%). Women in the isolated PCO group, but not the PCOS group, had a significantly higher cumulative live birth rate compared to controls. This could be explained by the quantitative effect of the higher number of transferable embryos obtained per stimulation cycle, which is uncompromised by the unfavourable embryo competence otherwise observed in PCOS.

  8. Carbon and nitrogen partitioning during the post-anthesis period is conditioned by N fertilisation and sink strength in three cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranjuelo, I; Cabrera-Bosquet, L; Araus, J L; Nogués, S

    2013-01-01

    Further knowledge of the processes conditioning nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) is of great relevance to crop productivity. The aim of this paper was characterise C and N partitioning during grain filling and their implications for NUE. Cereals such as bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv Califa sur), triticale (× Triticosecale Wittmack cv. Imperioso) and tritordeum (× Tritordeum Asch. & Graebn line HT 621) were grown under low (LN, 5 mm NH(4) NO(3)) and high (HN, 15 mm NH(4)NO(3)) N conditions. We conducted simultaneous double labelling ((12)CO(2) and (15)NH(4) (15)NO(3)) in order to characterise C and N partitioning during grain filling. Although triticale plants showed the largest total and ear dry matter values in HN conditions, the large investment in shoot and root biomass negatively affected ear NUE. Tritordeum was the only genotype that increased NUE in both N treatments (NUE(total)), whereas in wheat, no significant effect was detected. N labelling revealed that N fertilisation during post-anthesis was more relevant for wheat and tritordeum grain filling than for triticale. The study also revealed that the investments of C and N in flag leaves and shoots, together with the 'waste' of photoassimilates in respiration, conditioned the NUE of plants, and especially under LN. These results suggest that C and N use by these plants needs to be improved in order to increase ear C and N sinks, especially under LN. It is also remarkable that even though tritordeum shows the largest increase in NUE, the low yield of this cereal limits its agronomic value. © 2012 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  9. MINERAL WATERS IN RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BORGES, TIAGO

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is an autoimmune disorder affecting nearly 1% of adult population. First-line therapies include disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, but creno-balneotherapyis often prescribed in rheumatic disorders and RA is no exception. Objectives: To know the efficacy of creno-balneotherapy in RA. Methods: A Medline based search was made using MeSH terms “balneology” and “rheumatoid arthritis”. Articles concerning the use of mineral waters in RA treatment were included. Results: In RA, two traditional ways of employing mineral waters are commonly used: immersion and peliotherapy. Each owns their benefits to non-specific or hydrotherapeutic effects and specific or crenotherapeutic effects. Mineral waters must be regarded as an adjuvant therapy in quiescent, stable or non-progressive RA. Significant benefits have been accomplished with radonenriched and sulphurous waters. Isothermal or hyperthermal waters should be preferred. Conclusions: Although there is a global lack of evidence, mineral waters are a safe and effective therapy to be considered in RA.

  10. Marine minerals: The Indian perspective

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gujar, A.R.; Nath, B.N.; Banerjee, R.

    the Konkan Coast, Maharashtra. The future demand for economic minerals and metals for the year 2000 vis-a-vis the production of material in the last twelve years has been calculated, and in light of the above, the importance and chances of offshore...

  11. Oceans: Geochemistry and mineral resources

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joao, H.M.; Paropkari, A.L.

    , Indian became the first country to have been allocated exclusive rights of exploration in the pioneer area in the Central Indian Ocean Basin. Presently world wide some of the near-shore deposits are being exploited. However, the mining for other mineral...

  12. Mineral evolution and Earth history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Dwight C.

    2015-01-01

    The field of mineral evolution—a merger of mineralogy and Earth history—coalesced in 2008 with the first of several global syntheses by Robert Hazen and coworkers in the American Mineralogist. They showed that the cumulative abundance of mineral species has a stepwise trend with first appearances tied to various transitions in Earth history such as the end of planetary accretion at ca. 4.55 Ga and the onset of bio-mediated mineralogy at ca. >2.5 Ga. A global age distribution is best established for zircon. Observed abundance of zircon fluctuates through more than an order of magnitude during successive supercontinent cycles. The pulse of the Earth is also recorded, albeit imperfectly, by the 87Sr/86Sr composition of marine biogenic calcite; the Sr-isotopic ratio of this mineral reflects the balance of inputs of primitive strontium at mid-ocean ridges and evolved strontium that drains off the continents. A global mineral evolution database, currently in the works, will greatly facilitate the compilation and analysis of extant data and the expansion of research in mineralogy outside its traditional bounds and into more interdisciplinary realms.

  13. Lagoa Real design - Mineral engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forman, J.M.A.

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents the works realized, in course and to realize of Lagoa Real Design, including the works for implantation of Mineral-Industrial complex with the production capacity of 1.000 ton of U sub(3) O sub(8) per year from 1988. (author)

  14. Impact of mineral resource depletion

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Brent, AC

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available In a letter to the editor, the authors comment on BA Steen's article on "Abiotic Resource Depletion: different perceptions of the problem with mineral deposits" published in the special issue of the International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment...

  15. Minerals Industry' 97. Survey report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this annual survey is to provide timely and accurate financial data such as production, price movements, profitability, distribution of assets by activity, employment and labour cost and taxation on the Australian minerals industry. It aims to facilitate more informed debate on the industry's role and importance in the economy. The report also includes information on the safety and health performance and overseas exploration expenditure of the minerals industry. This twenty-first survey relates to the year ended 30 June 1997. The proportion of activity covered in this year's survey is comparable with the 1996 survey. The mineral industry is defined as including exploration for, extraction and primary processing of minerals in Australia. The oil, gas, iron and steel industries are excluded. As for the uranium industry, increased mine capacity over the medium term saw a switch away from spot market purchases to long term contracts for uranium in 1996. This, coupled with announced releases from the US stockpile, saw downward pressure on spot market prices for uranium during 1996/97. The average spot market price for U 3 O 8 fell by an average of 6 percent during 1996/97 and was approximately 16 percent lower than three years ago. General uncertainty over the future profitability of coal industry is compounded by the likely softness of future coal prices

  16. 21st application of computers and operations research in the mineral industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, A [ed.

    1989-01-01

    Papers are presented under the following session headings, each session preceded by an introductory review: organization of data processing: the corporate perspective; computing in the executive suite; decision making in mineral exploration; computer-based analysis of geoscience data; geostatistics for the mineral industry; mine development planning; mine planning and scheduling applications; current developments in automatic mine scheduling and operations; computer graphics applied to mine planning and design; computer graphics applied to mineral resources and mapping; equipment selection and utilization; mine systems analysis and design; investment and project evaluation; plant design, operation and production; expert systems; and automation and robotics in mining.

  17. Evaluation of mineral kaolinite present in portuguese clays for use in porcelain stoneware; Avaliacao do mineral caulinita presente em argilas portuguesas para uso em gres porcelanato

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luna da Silveira, G.C. [Instituto Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (IFRN), RN (Brazil); Acchar, W.; Gomes, U.U.; Luna da Silveira, R.V. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grnde do Norte (UFRN), RN (Brazil); Labrincha, A.; Miranda, C.M.P., E-mail: glebacoelli@hotmail.com [Universidade de Aveiro (Portugal)

    2016-07-01

    Kaolinite is a mineral from the kaolin, product resulting from transformation in depth of alumino silicate mineral type, such as feldspars, plagioclase and feldspars contained in the rocks. Clays are raw materials that have as main characteristic the plasticity property, which gives the product, after applying a certain pressure, a defined shape and an increase in the mechanical resistance when they become from green to dry and then to sintered. Given these characteristics, this paper analyzes the presence of the existing mineral kaolinite in two portuguese clays who are used in the preparation of formulations of porcelain stoneware tiles. The analyzes of the two clays were made by fluorescence x-ray diffraction of x-rays, thermal analysis, particle size and scanning electron microscopy, to better use of this mineral in the formulations. In both clays were found aluminum oxide, as well as mineral quartz, kaolinite and illite. (author)

  18. Radiological hazards to uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-05-01

    The purpose of the present document is to review and assess the occupational hazards to uranium miners in Canada. Amendments to regulations set the maximum permissible dose to uranium miners at 50 mSv per year. Uranium miners are exposed to radon and thoron progeny, external gamma radiation and long-lived alpha-emitting radionuclides in dust. The best estimate for the lifetime risk of inhaled radon progeny is about 3 x 10 -4 lung cancers per WLM for the average miner, with a range of uncertainty from about 1 -6 x 10 -4 per WLM. This central value is nearly twice as high as that recommended by the ICRP in 1981. The probability of serious biological consequences following exposure to external gamma rays is currently under review but is expected to be in the range of 3 - 6 x 10 -2 Sv -1 . Dosimetric calculations indicate that the stochastic risks per WLM of thoron progeny are about one-third of those for radon progeny. The annual limits on intake of inhaled ore dusts recommended by the ICRP are probably too low by at least a factor of two for the type of ore and dust normally encountered in underground uranium mines in Ontario; this is due in part to the fact that the average diameter of these dusts is five times greater than the value used by the ICRP. Radiological exposures of uranium miners in Canada were reviewed. The biological impact of these exposures were compared with those of conventional accidents on the basis of the years of normal life expectancy that are lost or seriously impaired due to occupational hazards. The objectives in considering all occupational risks are to reduce the total risk from all causes and to use funds spent for health protection as effectively as possible

  19. Carbon K-edge spectra of carbonate minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandes, Jay A; Wirick, Sue; Jacobsen, Chris

    2010-09-01

    Carbon K-edge X-ray spectroscopy has been applied to the study of a wide range of organic samples, from polymers and coals to interstellar dust particles. Identification of carbonaceous materials within these samples is accomplished by the pattern of resonances in the 280-320 eV energy region. Carbonate minerals are often encountered in the study of natural samples, and have been identified by a distinctive resonance at 290.3 eV. Here C K-edge and Ca L-edge spectra from a range of carbonate minerals are presented. Although all carbonates exhibit a sharp 290 eV resonance, both the precise position of this resonance and the positions of other resonances vary among minerals. The relative strengths of the different carbonate resonances also vary with crystal orientation to the linearly polarized X-ray beam. Intriguingly, several carbonate minerals also exhibit a strong 288.6 eV resonance, consistent with the position of a carbonyl resonance rather than carbonate. Calcite and aragonite, although indistinguishable spectrally at the C K-edge, exhibited significantly different spectra at the Ca L-edge. The distinctive spectral fingerprints of carbonates provide an identification tool, allowing for the examination of such processes as carbon sequestration in minerals, Mn substitution in marine calcium carbonates (dolomitization) and serpentinization of basalts.

  20. Carbon K-edge Spectra of Carbonate Minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandes, J.; Wirick, S; Jacobsen, C

    2010-01-01

    Carbon K-edge X-ray spectroscopy has been applied to the study of a wide range of organic samples, from polymers and coals to interstellar dust particles. Identification of carbonaceous materials within these samples is accomplished by the pattern of resonances in the 280-320 eV energy region. Carbonate minerals are often encountered in the study of natural samples, and have been identified by a distinctive resonance at 290.3 eV. Here C K-edge and Ca L-edge spectra from a range of carbonate minerals are presented. Although all carbonates exhibit a sharp 290 eV resonance, both the precise position of this resonance and the positions of other resonances vary among minerals. The relative strengths of the different carbonate resonances also vary with crystal orientation to the linearly polarized X-ray beam. Intriguingly, several carbonate minerals also exhibit a strong 288.6 eV resonance, consistent with the position of a carbonyl resonance rather than carbonate. Calcite and aragonite, although indistinguishable spectrally at the C K-edge, exhibited significantly different spectra at the Ca L-edge. The distinctive spectral fingerprints of carbonates provide an identification tool, allowing for the examination of such processes as carbon sequestration in minerals, Mn substitution in marine calcium carbonates (dolomitization) and serpentinization of basalts.

  1. U.S. Geological Survey Mineral Resources Program—Mineral resource science supporting informed decisionmaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Aleeza M.; Doebrich, Jeff L.

    2016-09-19

    The USGS Mineral Resources Program (MRP) delivers unbiased science and information to increase understanding of mineral resource potential, production, and consumption, and how mineral resources interact with the environment. The MRP is the Federal Government’s sole source for this mineral resource science and information. Program goals are to (1) increase understanding of mineral resource formation, (2) provide mineral resource inventories and assessments, (3) broaden knowledge of the effects of mineral resources on the environment and society, and (4) provide analysis on the availability and reliability of mineral supplies.

  2. Application of Natural Mineral Additives in Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linek, Malgorzata; Nita, Piotr; Wolka, Paweł; Zebrowski, Wojciech

    2017-12-01

    The article concerns the idea of using selected mineral additives in the pavement quality concrete composition. The basis of the research paper was the modification of cement concrete intended for airfield pavements. The application of the additives: metakaolonite and natural zeolite was suggested. Analyses included the assessment of basic physical properties of modifiers. Screening analysis, assessment of micro structure and chemical microanalysis were conducted in case of these materials. The influence of the applied additives on the change of concrete mix parameters was also presented. The impact of zeolite and metakaolinite on the mix density, oxygen content and consistency class was analysed. The influence of modifiers on physical and mechanical changes of the hardened cement concrete was discussed (concrete density, compressive strength and bending strength during fracturing) in diversified research periods. The impact of the applied additives on the changes of internal structure of cement concrete was discussed. Observation of concrete micro structure was conducted using the scanning electron microscope. According to the obtained lab test results, parameters of the applied modifiers and their influence on changes of internal structure of cement concrete are reflected in the increase of mechanical properties of pavement quality concrete. The increase of compressive and bending strength in case of all analysed research periods was proved.

  3. Considérations sur la recherche agronomique en matière de fertilisation en conditions tropicales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouters, J.

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available Considerations in agricultural research with special reference to the use of fertilizers under tropical conditions. Although since long known by African fishermen it is only in the last 40 years that Tilapia has been recognized as one of the most promising groups of fish species for culture. The initial successes for culture in Central Africa were followed by several failures mainly because of excessive breeding and early sexual maturity in shallow waterbodies as ponds. From the present knowledge it appears that tilapia has a great future for increasing the productivity in unmanaged environments as man-made lakes and reservoirs primarily destined for the production of hydro-electricity. Careful stocking of paddies and irrigation canals can solve a number of biological problems associated with them and provide an additional though valuable high-protein food source. Great future offers also the culture of tilapia in traditional pond culture especially in polyculture with members of the carp family, mullets and waterfowl in areas of the tropical and subtropical belt. In coastal ponds T, mossambica is a valuable species for sanitary reasons. The culture of tilapia in small farm ponds often meets with failure owing to excessive breeding and stunting unless the all-male technique can be applied through government input and encouragement. As a rule this type of production will be the least attractive. Although Tilapia spp. do not achieve the largest individu al growth their tolerance towards adverse conditions and their acceptance of a wide variety of foodstuffs, primarily waste products from agriculture, their resistance to diseases and (at least in some species their tolerance of crowded environments make them suitable subject for cultures in raceways, circular tanks and cages. Through heavy inputs of water and pelletized feeds nearly incredible annual yields as 2 000 tonnes per ha of water surface (1 and more were realized. This means that this type

  4. Can observed ecosystem responses to elevated CO2 and N fertilisation be explained by optimal plant C allocation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocker, Benjamin; Prentice, I. Colin

    2016-04-01

    The degree to which nitrogen availability limits the terrestrial C sink under rising CO2 is a key uncertainty in carbon cycle and climate change projections. Results from ecosystem manipulation studies and meta-analyses suggest that plant C allocation to roots adjusts dynamically under varying degrees of nitrogen availability and other soil fertility parameters. In addition, the ratio of biomass production to GPP appears to decline under nutrient scarcity. This reflects increasing plant C export into the soil and to symbionts (Cex) with decreasing nutrient availability. Cex is consumed by an array of soil organisms and may imply an improvement of nutrient availability to the plant. These concepts are left unaccounted for in Earth system models. We present a model for the coupled cycles of C and N in grassland ecosystems to explore optimal plant C allocation under rising CO2 and its implications for the ecosystem C balance. The model follows a balanced growth approach, accounting for the trade-offs between leaf versus root growth and Cex in balancing C fixation and N uptake. We further model a plant-controlled rate of biological N fixation (BNF) by assuming that Cex is consumed by N2-fixing processes if the ratio of Nup:Cex falls below the inverse of the C cost of N2-fixation. The model is applied at two temperate grassland sites (SwissFACE and BioCON), subjected to factorial treatments of elevated CO2 (FACE) and N fertilization. Preliminary simulation results indicate initially increased N limitation, evident by increased relative allocation to roots and Cex. Depending on the initial state of N availability, this implies a varying degree of aboveground growth enhancement, generally consistent with observed responses. On a longer time scale, ecosystems are progressively released from N limitation due tighter N cycling. Allowing for plant-controlled BNF implies a quicker release from N limitation and an adjustment to more open N cycling. In both cases, optimal plant

  5. Mineral crystal alignment in mineralized fracture callus determined by 3D small-angle X-ray scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Yifei; Manjubala, Inderchand; Fratzl, Peter [Department of Biomaterials, Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, 14424 Potsdam (Germany); Roschger, Paul [4th Medical Department, Ludwig Boltzmann Institute of Osteology at Hanusch Hospital of WGKK and AUVA Trauma Centre Meidling, 1140 Vienna (Austria); Schell, Hanna; Duda, Georg N, E-mail: fratzl@mpikg.mpg.d [Julius Wolff Institut and Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery, Charite- University Medicine Berlin, Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353 Berlin (Germany)

    2010-10-01

    Callus tissue formed during bone fracture healing is a mixture of different tissue types as revealed by histological analysis. But the structural characteristics of mineral crystals within the healing callus are not well known. Since two-dimensional (2D) scanning small-angle X-ray scattering (sSAXS) patterns showed that the size and orientation of callus crystals vary both spatially and temporally [1] and 2D electron microscopic analysis implies an anisotropic property of the callus morphology, the mineral crystals within the callus are also expected to vary in size and orientation in 3D. Three-dimensional small-angle X-ray scattering (3D SAXS), which combines 2D SAXS patterns collected at different angles of sample tilting, has been previously applied to investigate bone minerals in horse radius [2] and oim/oim mouse femur/tibia [3]. We implement a similar 3D SAXS method but with a different way of data analysis to gather information on the mineral alignment in fracture callus. With the proposed accurate yet fast assessment of 3D SAXS information, it was shown that the plate shaped mineral particles in the healing callus were aligned in groups with their predominant orientations occurring as a fiber texture.

  6. Mineral crystal alignment in mineralized fracture callus determined by 3D small-angle X-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yifei; Manjubala, Inderchand; Fratzl, Peter; Roschger, Paul; Schell, Hanna; Duda, Georg N

    2010-01-01

    Callus tissue formed during bone fracture healing is a mixture of different tissue types as revealed by histological analysis. But the structural characteristics of mineral crystals within the healing callus are not well known. Since two-dimensional (2D) scanning small-angle X-ray scattering (sSAXS) patterns showed that the size and orientation of callus crystals vary both spatially and temporally [1] and 2D electron microscopic analysis implies an anisotropic property of the callus morphology, the mineral crystals within the callus are also expected to vary in size and orientation in 3D. Three-dimensional small-angle X-ray scattering (3D SAXS), which combines 2D SAXS patterns collected at different angles of sample tilting, has been previously applied to investigate bone minerals in horse radius [2] and oim/oim mouse femur/tibia [3]. We implement a similar 3D SAXS method but with a different way of data analysis to gather information on the mineral alignment in fracture callus. With the proposed accurate yet fast assessment of 3D SAXS information, it was shown that the plate shaped mineral particles in the healing callus were aligned in groups with their predominant orientations occurring as a fiber texture.

  7. Australian mineral industry annual review for 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    The Australian mineral industry annual review records the activities and development of the Australian mineral industry and reports production, consumption, treatment, trade, prices, new developments, exploration and resources for mineral commodities including fuels, and summarises equivalent developments abroad. The present volume reviews activities and developments in 1982. Part 1 (General Review) - after briefly surveying the world mineral industry, summarises developments in the Australian mineral industry as a whole, under the headings: the industry in the national economy; important recent developments; production; overseas trade; prices; exploration expenditure; investment; income tax; royalties; structural data; wages and salaries; industrial disputes; and government assistance, legislation and controls. Part 2 (Commodity Review) - covers industrial mineral commodities, from abrasives to zirconium. Part 3 (Mining Census) - tabulates statistics extracted from the mining census, together with some mineral processing statistics from the manufacturing census. Part 4 (Miscellaneous) - tabulates quantum and value data on mineral output provided by State departments of mines and their equivalents.

  8. Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... website Submit Search NIH Office of Dietary Supplements Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets Search the list ... Supplements: Background Information Botanical Dietary Supplements: Background Information Vitamin and Mineral Fact Sheets Botanical Supplement Fact Sheets ...

  9. Studies of mineralization in South African rivers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hall, GC

    1978-03-01

    Full Text Available Several South African rivers are polluted by mineral salts of diffuse source. This pollution can be related to geological phenomena and to irrigation practices. Mineralization is problematic in that it can render surface waters unsuitable...

  10. Abundance estimation of spectrally similar minerals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates a spectral unmixing method for estimating the partial abundance of spectrally similar minerals in complex mixtures. The method requires formulation of a linear function of individual spectra of individual minerals. The first...

  11. Multifaceted role of clay minerals in pharmaceuticals

    OpenAIRE

    Khurana, Inderpreet Singh; Kaur, Satvinder; Kaur, Harpreet; Khurana, Rajneet Kaur

    2015-01-01

    The desirable physical and physiochemical properties of clay minerals have led them to play a substantial role in pharmaceutical formulations. Clay minerals like kaolin, smectite and palygorskite-sepiolite are among the world's most valuable industrial minerals and of considerable importance. The elemental features of clay minerals which caused them to be used in pharmaceutical formulations are high specific area, sorption capacity, favorable rheological properties, chemical inertness, swelli...

  12. Radiogenic cancer in underground miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radford, E.P.

    1984-01-01

    Multiple studies have yielded remarkably consistent results relating radon daughter exposure to lung cancer risk in underground mining populations. The U.S. uranium miner study appears to be at variance with the other results. The primary reason is that the doses in the U.S. miner study were systematically overestimated, resulting in a risk coefficient that is lower than all the others. The significance of these findings for radiogenic lung cancer goes well beyond mining populations, because one is now aware of the implications of radon daughters detected in homes. The highest cumulative levels from radon exposures within homes have been found in Sweden, evidently because of their unusual geology with uranium-bearing ores near the surface. The Swedish authorities view this as a major public health problem that needs to be addressed

  13. Inhalation hazards to uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, F.T.

    1987-01-01

    Using both large and small experimental animals, this project is investigating levels of uranium-mine air contaminants that produce respiratory system disease in miners. Lung cancer incidence and deaths from degenerative lung disease are significantly elevated among uranium miners, but the cause-effect relationships for these diseases are based on inadequate epidemiological data. This project identifies agents or combinations of agents (both chemical and radiological), and their exposure levels, that produce respiratory tract lesions, including respiratory epithelial carcinoma, pneumoconiosis, and emphysema. Histopathological data for 100-working-level (WL) exposure rates show a significant increase in lung tumor risk over 1000-WL exposure rates for comparable cumulative radon-daughter exposures. Exposure of rats to radon daughters and other contaminants continues; the exposure of beagle dogs to uranium ore dust alone was terminated. Renal function and hematology data on ore-dust-exposed dogs are reported. 1 figure, 5 tables

  14. Inhalation hazards to uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, F.T.

    1983-01-01

    This project is investigating levels or uranium mine air contaminants, using both large and small experimental animals to model human respiratory system disease. Lung cancer and deaths by degenerative lung disease have reached epidemic proportions among uranium miners, but the cause-effect relationships for these diseases are based on inadequate epidemiological data. This project identifies agents or combinations of agents (both chemical and radiological), and their exposure levels, that produce respiratory tract lesions, including respiratory epithelial carcinoma, pneumoconiosis, and emphysema

  15. Inhalation hazards to uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, F.T.

    1982-01-01

    This project is investigating levels of uranium mine air contaminants, using both large and small experimental animals to model human respiratory system disease. Lung cancer and deaths by degenerative lung disease have reached epidemic proportions among uranium miners, but the cause-effect relationships for these diseases are based on inadequate epidemiological data. This project identifies agents or combinations of agents (both chemical and radiological) and their exposure levels that produce respiratory tract lesions, including respiratory epithelial carcinoma, pneumonconiosis and emphysema

  16. Cancer of lung in miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolenic, J.; Jurgova, T.; Volckova, A.; Zimacek, J.

    1995-01-01

    In the period of 1983-1994 was registered at Clinic of occupational diseases 87 cases of professional cancer of lung. Mostly /85/ of cases was related to miners, by whom act as risk factor alpha ionisation from radon. Average age group was 60.2 y, average time of exposition was 21.6 y. Epidermoid carcinoma was the most frequent type of tumor /46.5 %/ of cases/. Smoking plays a supportive role. (authors)

  17. Exogenic and endogenic Europa minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard-Casely, H. E.; Brand, H. E. A.; Wilson, S. A.

    2016-12-01

    The Galileo Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) identified a significant `non-ice' component upon the surface of Jupiter's moon Europa. Current explanations invoke both endogenic and exogenic origins for this material. It has long been suggested that magnesium and sodium sulfate minerals could have leached from the rock below a putative ocean (endogenic) 1 and that sulfuric acid hydrate minerals could have been radiologically produced from ionised sulfur originally from Io's volcanoes (exogenic) 2. However, a more recent theory proposes that the `non-ice' component could be radiation damaged NaCl leached from Europa's speculative ocean 3. What if the minerals are actually from combination of both endogenic and exogenic sources? To investigate this possibility we have focused on discovering new minerals that might form in the combination of the latter two cases, that is a mixture of leached sulfates hydrates with radiologically produced sulfuric acid. To this end we have explored a number of solutions in the MgSO4-H2SO4-H2O and Na2SO4-H2SO4-H2O systems, between 80 and 280 K with synchrotron x-ray powder diffraction. We report a number of new materials formed in this these ternary systems. This suggests that it should be considered that the `non-ice' component of the Europa's surface could be a material derived from endogenic and exogenic components. 1 Kargel, J. S. Brine volcanism and the interior structures of asteroids and icy satellites. Icarus 94, 368-390 (1991). 2 Carlson, R. W., Anderson, M. S., Mehlman, R. & Johnson, R. E. Distribution of hydrate on Europa: Further evidence for sulfuric acid hydrate. Icarus 177, 461-471, doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2005.03.026 (2005). 3 Hand, K. P. & Carlson, R. W. Europa's surface color suggests an ocean rich with sodium chloride. Geophysical Research Letters, 2015GL063559, doi:10.1002/2015gl063559 (2015).

  18. Minor sources of miner exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strong, J.C.; Green, N.; Brown, K.; O'Riordan, M.C.

    1983-01-01

    The sources of radiation exposure to miners in non-coal mines in addition to radon daughters are thoron daughters in mine air, long-lived radionuclides in mine dust and gamma radiation from the local rocks. A crude estimate of the total annual effective dose equivalent from these minor sources is 2 - 5 mSv which is of secondary importance compared to the dose from radon daughters. (UK)

  19. Epidemiological studies of Czech miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomasek, L.

    1995-01-01

    Lung cancer risk from radon was analysed in three cohorts of uranium (N=4320+5628) and burnt clay (N=915) miners. The follow-up of miners was extended up to 1990. Most of the cases (708) have been observed in the oldest (S) cohort followed since 1952. The other two cohorts, 18 years younger in average with substantially lower exposures, contributed 72 cases. Therefore, the main analyses of risk from radon were based on the S cohort. The data of the S cohort were subjected to checks both as for the individual exposures of the miners and the completeness of follow-up. The present mortality analyses from other causes suggest the follow-up is correct. The general patterns of mortality from violent deaths and diseases other than lung cancer show similar features in all the three cohorts, i.e. decreasing trend with time since first exposure in the first case, and increasing trend in the second one, confirming thus the healthy worker effect, in the first 20 years. A raised mortality was observed in later periods in respiratory and circulatory diseases and also in cancers other than lung cancer, suggesting that smoking habits among miners might be more frequent than in the general population. The estimates of lung cancer risk from radon exposure were based on relative linear models, where cumulative exposures were lagged by 5 years. The linear effect of cumulative exposure was substantially modified by time since exposure, exposure rate, and age at exposure. From the estimated intercept, it can be deduced that in the absence of exposure to radon, the estimated mortality from lung cancer in the cohort is about 1.5 times higher than in the general population. (orig.) [de

  20. Exergoecology Assessment of Mineral Exports from Latin America: Beyond a Tonnage Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose-Luis Palacios

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Latin America has traditionally been a raw material supplier since colonial times. In this paper, we analyze mineral exports from an exergoecology perspective from twenty countries in Latin American (LA-20. We apply material flow analysis (MFA principles along with the concept of the exergy replacement cost (ERC, which considers both quantity and thermodynamic quality of minerals, reflecting their scarcity in the crust. ERC determines the energy that would be required to recover minerals to their original conditions in the mines once they have been totally dispersed into the Earth’s crust, with prevailing technology. Using ERC has helped us identify the importance of certain traded minerals that could be overlooked in a traditional MFA based on a mass basis only. Our method has enabled us to determine mineral balance, both in mass (tonnes and in ERC terms (Mtoe. Using indicators, both in mass and ERC, we have assessed the self-sufficiency and dependency of the region. We have also analyzed the mineral exports flows from Latin America for 2013. Results show that half of the mineral production from LA-20 was mainly exported. High-quality minerals, such as, gold, silver, and aluminum were largely exported to China and the United States. Extraction of high-quality minerals also implies higher losses of natural stock and environmental overburdens in the region.