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Sample records for mineral content urine

  1. Preliminary results on mineral content of some beef muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cignetti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Regarding the growing interest of consumers for nutritional aspect of food, little data are available on meat mineral content. Among the factors influencing minerals, muscle appears interesting: Doornenbal and Murray (1981 found that the concentrations of several minerals were influenced by muscle and sometimes by age, whereas sex and breed differences were less important. This research aimed to evaluate the mineral content in beef muscles.

  2. Urine acidification and mineral metabolism in growing pigs feddiets supplemented with dietary methionine and benzoic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jan Værum; Fernández, José Adalberto; Eriksen, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    Benzoic acid (BA) reduces pH of urine and thereby reduces the emission of ammonia and possibly also odorous sulphur-compounds from slurry. The effect of BA on mineral metabolism in growing pigs is not clear. The objective was therefore to study the effect of BA and methionine (Met) as a sulphur (S...... d adaptation period and a 7 d period with collection of faeces and urine. Benzoic acid was metabolized into hippuric acid which reduced urinary pH by 0.8 pH units (P ... apparent digestibility was not (P = 0.58) affected by BA, but on the 1% Met diets, S excretion into urine was reduced (P = 0.006) by BA. In conclusion, both BA and Met supplementation increased P and Ca apparent digestibility and decreased urinary pH. The increased acid load provided through dietary BA did...

  3. Influence of acidifying or alkalinizing diets on bone mineral density and urine relative supersaturation with calcium oxalate and struvite in healthy cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartges, Joseph W; Kirk, Claudia A; Cox, Sherry K; Moyers, Tamberlyn D

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the influence of acidifying or alkalinizing diets on bone mineral density and urine relative supersaturation (URSS) with calcium oxalate and struvite in healthy cats. 6 castrated male and 6 spayed female cats. 3 groups of 4 cats each were fed diets for 12 months that differed only in acidifying or alkalinizing properties (alkalinizing, neutral, and acidifying). Body composition was estimated by use of dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, and 48-hour urine samples were collected for URSS determination. Urine pH differed significantly among diet groups, with the lowest urine pH values in the acidifying diet group and the highest values in the alkalinizing diet group. Differences were not observed in other variables except urinary ammonia excretion, which was significantly higher in the neutral diet group. Calcium oxalate URSS was highest in the acidifying diet group and lowest in the alkalinizing diet group; struvite URSS was not different among groups. Diet was not significantly associated with bone mineral content or density. Urinary undersaturation with calcium oxalate was achieved by inducing alkaluria. Feeding an alkalinizing diet was not associated with URSS with struvite. Bone mineral density and calcium content were not adversely affected by diet; therefore, release of calcium from bone caused by feeding an acidifying diet may not occur in healthy cats.

  4. Astronaut Bones: Stable Calcium Isotopes in Urine as a Biomarker of Bone Mineral Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skulan, J.; Gordon, G. W.; Romaniello, S. J.; Anbar, A. D.; Smith, S. M.; Zwart, S.

    2016-12-01

    Bone loss is a common health concern, in conditions ranging from osteoporosis to cancer. Bone loss due to unloading is also an important health issue for astronauts. We demonstrate stable calcium isotopes, a tool developed in geochemistry, are capable of detecting real-time quantitative changes in net bone mineral balance (BMB) using serum and urine [1]. We validated this technique by comparing with DEXA and biomarker data in subjects during bed rest, a ground-based analog of space flight effects [2-4]. We now apply this tool to assess changes in astronauts' BMB before, during and after 4-6 month space missions. There is stable isotope fractionation asymmetry between bone formation and resorption. During bone formation there is a mass-dependent preference for "lighter" calcium isotopes to be removed from serum and incorporated into bone mineral. During bone resorption, there is no measurable isotopic discrimination between serum and bone. Hence, when bone formation rates exceed that of resorption, serum and urine become isotopically "heavy" due to the sequestration of "light" calcium in bone. Conversely, when bone resorption exceeds bone formation, serum and urine become isotopically "light" due to the release of the sequestered light calcium from bone. We measured Ca isotopes in urine of thirty International Space Station astronauts. Average Ca isotope values in astronauts' urine shift isotopically lighter during microgravity, consistent with negative net BMB. Within a month of return to Earth, astronauts returned to within error of their δ44Ca value prior to departure. Urine samples from astronauts testing bone loss countermeasures showed bisphosphonates provide a viable pharmacological countermeasure. Some, but not all, individuals appear able to resist bone loss through diet and intensive resistive exercise alone. This is a promising new technique for monitoring BMB in astronauts, and hopefully someday on the way to/from Mars, this also has important clinical

  5. Pulp antioxidant activities, mineral contents and juice nutritional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    enoh

    2012-03-01

    Mar 1, 2012 ... nutritional properties of Algerian Clementine Cultivars and Mandarin ... Lyophilized citrus pulps were analysed for mineral contents and bioactive compounds. ...... period under variable conditions on the chemical and physical.

  6. Gold Mining in Ecuador: A Cross-Sectional Assessment of Mercury in Urine and Medical Symptoms in Miners from Portovelo/Zaruma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Schutzmeier

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is a toxic metal and is used in small scale gold mining. In Portovelo, Ecuador, mercury has been an environmental and health problem for decades. The target of this study was to assess the mercury concentration in the urine of miners from Portovelo/Zaruma to establish a prevalence of high values. Eight hundred and sixty-five (865 urine samples were collected and analysed for their mercury content, using cold vapor atom absorption spectroscopy. The prevalence of high mercury values (>25 μg/L was estimated. Forty-four (44 miners with mercury levels >15 μg/L filled in a questionnaire for characteristics and possible confounders, and were examined for intoxication symptoms to establish the ten points medical score sum. The median urine value was 1.8 μg/L; 78.3% of miners were below 7 μg/L and were not at risk of an intoxication, whereas 5.9% of miners exceeded the limit of 25 μg/L and were probable to experience intoxication symptoms. The medical score sum had a range of 2 to 8 points with a median of 6. The low prevalence of high mercury concentrations shows that the politics and techniques to eliminate the use of mercury are being successfully implemented. Further studies are needed to identify factors enabling this process.

  7. Gold Mining in Ecuador: A Cross-Sectional Assessment of Mercury in Urine and Medical Symptoms in Miners from Portovelo/Zaruma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutzmeier, Paul; Berger, Ursula; Bose-O'Reilly, Stephan

    2016-12-30

    Mercury is a toxic metal and is used in small scale gold mining. In Portovelo, Ecuador, mercury has been an environmental and health problem for decades. The target of this study was to assess the mercury concentration in the urine of miners from Portovelo/Zaruma to establish a prevalence of high values. Eight hundred and sixty-five (865) urine samples were collected and analysed for their mercury content, using cold vapor atom absorption spectroscopy. The prevalence of high mercury values (>25 μg/L) was estimated. Forty-four (44) miners with mercury levels >15 μg/L filled in a questionnaire for characteristics and possible confounders, and were examined for intoxication symptoms to establish the ten points medical score sum. The median urine value was 1.8 μg/L; 78.3% of miners were below 7 μg/L and were not at risk of an intoxication, whereas 5.9% of miners exceeded the limit of 25 μg/L and were probable to experience intoxication symptoms. The medical score sum had a range of 2 to 8 points with a median of 6. The low prevalence of high mercury concentrations shows that the politics and techniques to eliminate the use of mercury are being successfully implemented. Further studies are needed to identify factors enabling this process.

  8. Mineral content of dairy products. I. Milk and milk products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, N P; LaCroix, D E; Alford, J A

    1978-03-01

    Sixteen kinds of dairy products were analyzed for five major minerals and four trace minerals. Commercial samples of fluid milk, cream, concentrated milks, cultured products, butter, and frozen desserts were also analyzed for fat, solids, protein, and minerals. Calcium, magnesium, sodium, and potassium were determined by atomic absorption, and phosphorus was determined colorimetrically. Flameless atomic absorption was used to determine iron, zinc, copper, and manganese. The data generally agreed with most recently published values. However, for the trace minerals, the data differed widely in some instances. Manufacturing practices and added ingredients produced considerable variations in mineral content of market samples. These variations, however, could be limited by selection of products, so that they would not preclude the use of dairy products in diets in which mineral composition must be controlled. The coefficients of variation, which indicate the variability that can be expected for each product, generally were high for sherbet and ice milk and low for low-fat milk and skim milk.

  9. Amino Acid Contents of Meteorite Mineral Separates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, E. L.; Burton, A. S; Locke, D.

    2017-01-01

    Indigenous amino acids have been found indigenous all 8 carbonaceous chondrite groups. However, the abundances, structural, enantiomeric and isotopic compositions of amino acids differ significantly among meteorites of different groups and petrologic types. This suggests that parent-body conditions (thermal or aqueous alteration), mineralogy, and the preservation of amino acids are linked. Previously, elucidating specific relationships between amino acids and mineralogy was not possible because the samples analyzed for amino acids were much larger than the scale at which petrologic heterogeneity is observed (sub mm-scale differences corresponding to sub-mg samples). Recent advances in amino acid measurements and application of techniques such as high resolution X-ray diffraction (HR-XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) for mineralogical characterizations allow us to perform coordinated analyses on the scale at which mineral heterogeneity is observed.

  10. Dichromatic absorptiometry of vertebral bone mineral content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C R; Madsen, M

    1977-01-01

    A dichromatic photon absorptiometric technique for the in vivo measurement of the bone mineral of the spine is discussed. A high purity, high activity 153Gd source which has photons of predominantly 44 and 100 keV was used as the transmission source. The transmission scans were performed on a modified Ohio Nuclear whole body rectillinear scanner. The precision of four measurements on three individuals and three measurements on one individual over a one month period was 2.3% (coefficient of variation). The accuracy determined by measurements of phantoms with known concentrations of dipotassium hydrogen phosphate solutions was 1.2% (standard error of estimate). This technique can be applied in most well equipped nuclear medicine departments.

  11. Some physico-chemical properties and mineral contents of sweet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-17

    Jun 17, 2009 ... 8.22, 10.00 and 8.33, respectively. The results of physical properties were fruit mass, 2.76 g; flesh/seed ... plums, apricots, peaches and almonds. Prunus avium L. ..... Oil stability, tocopherol content and some mineral contents.

  12. Mineral contents from some fabaceous plant species of Rajasthan desert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.B.S.Kapoor

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of mineral contents from three selected plant species of Fabaceae family growing in arid region of Rajasthan Desert was carried out. The roots, shoots and fruits of Clitoria ternatea, Sesbania bispinosa and Tephrosia purpurea collected from two different areas Chhatargarh area (Bikaner district and Ratangarh area (Churu district were analysed for mineral contents. The maximum Calcium (3.86%, Phosphorus (0.48%, Potassium (0.92% and Sodium (1.08% contents were found in roots and shoots of Grewia tenax collected from study area.

  13. Bone mineral content and bone metabolism in young adults with severe periodontitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wowern von, N.; Westergaard, J.; Kollerup, G.

    2001-01-01

    Bone loss, bone markers, bone metabolism, bone mineral content, osteoporosis, severe periodontitis......Bone loss, bone markers, bone metabolism, bone mineral content, osteoporosis, severe periodontitis...

  14. The content of selenium in some sulphide minerals of Karelia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vapirov Vladimir

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fluorimetric method was used to determine the content of selenium in various forms of pyrite and pyrrhotite in some iron- pyrite deposits of Karelia. In the studied deposits, the average content of selenium in all the sulfide minerals is 1,23•10-3 % ± 1,1•10-3 % and it is comparable with the data received in other pyrite deposits . In the natural conditions, environmental pollution from sulfide minerals is unlikely and possible only during field development.

  15. Mineral content of traditional leafy vegetables from western Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orech, F O; Christensen, D L; Larsen, Torben

    2007-01-01

    Socio-economic changes that have taken place in Africa have influenced people's eating habits in both rural and urban set-ups. Most people prefer introduced foods to traditional foods, including plant foods whose consumption is widely regarded as a primitive culture manifesting poor lifestyles....... However, recent studies on traditional plant foods have shown that some are highly nutritious; containing high levels of both vitamins and minerals. They also have potential as a remedy to counter food insecurity since most are well adapted to the local environment, enabling them to resist pests, drought...... and diseases. This paper describes the mineral (calcium, iron and zinc) contents in some 54 traditional vegetable species collected from Nyang'oma area of Bondo district, western Kenya. Atomic absorption spectroscopy was used to determine the mineral content. We found that most traditional leafy vegetables...

  16. Antioxidant capacity and mineral contents of edible wild Australian mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, X; Suwandi, J; Fuller, J; Doronila, A; Ng, K

    2012-08-01

    Five selected edible wild Australian mushrooms, Morchella elata, Suillus luteus, Pleurotus eryngii, Cyttaria gunnii, and Flammulina velutipes, were evaluated for their antioxidant capacity and mineral contents. The antioxidant capacities of the methanolic extracts of the dried caps of the mushrooms were determined using a number of different chemical reactions in evaluating multi-mechanistic antioxidant activities. These included the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, ferric ion reducing antioxidant power, and ferrous ion chelating activity. Mineral contents of the dried caps of the mushrooms were also determined by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy. The results indicated that these edible wild mushrooms have a high antioxidant capacity and all, except C. gunnii, have a high level of several essential micro-nutrients such as copper, magnesium, and zinc. It can be concluded that these edible wild mushrooms are good sources of nutritional antioxidants and a number of mineral elements.

  17. Proximate composition and mineral contents of Pebbly fish, Alestes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Lake Albert were analysed using standard procedures. The fish samples were ... The measurements of some ... method. This study determined the proximate composition and mineral contents of A. ... University for laboratory analysis. All ..... Nutritional implications and quality issues. ... Advances 8(1):183-189. Olagunju, A.

  18. Comparative estimation of use potentialities of salt-accumulating and salt-eliminating halophytes for inclusion of NaCl contained in human mineralized urine in BLSS's mass exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhomirova, Natalia; Ushakova, Sofya; Kudenko, Yurii; Griboskaya, Illiada; Shklavtsova, Ekaterina; Balnokin, Yurii; Popova, Larissa; Myasoedov, Nikolay; Gros, Jean-Bernard; Lasseur, Christophe

    Comparative potentialities of different halophytes' cultivation on a human mineralized urine containing NaCl with the aim of this salt inclusion into the intrasystem BLSS mass exchange were investigated. Two halophyte species were studied namely, salt-accumulating (Salicornia europaea) and salt-eliminating (Limonium gmelinii). During the first two vegetation weeks the plants had been grown on the Knop solution; then a daily norm of the human mineralized urine was gradually added in the experiment solutions. During vegetation the model solutions simulating the urine mineral composition were gradually added in the control solutions. The NaCl concentration in the experiment and control solutions of the first treatment was 9 g/l and that of the second treatment was 20 g/l. The mineralized human urine exposed some inhibitory action on Salicornia europaea and Limonium gmelinii plants. The experiment plants' productivity was lower in comparison with the control. As far as Limonium gmelinii appears to be a perennial plant the growth rate and productivity of this halophyte species was signifi- cantly lower in comparison with Salicornia europaea. Na content in Salicornia europaea plants was higher in comparison with sodium amount emitted by Limonium gmelinii. Consequently Salicornia europaea appears to be a more perspective halophyte for its further use in BLSS aiming at involvement of sodium chloride contained in human liquid wastes in intrasystem mass exchange.

  19. Morphine and Codeine Concentrations in Human Urine following Controlled Poppy Seeds Administration of Known Opiate Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael L.; Nichols, Daniel C.; Underwood, Paula; Fuller, Zachary; Moser, Matthew A.; LoDico, Charles; Gorelick, David A.; Newmeyer, Matthew N.; Concheiro, Marta; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2014-01-01

    Opiates are an important component for drug testing due to their high abuse potential. Proper urine opiate interpretation includes ruling out poppy seed ingestion; however, detailed elimination studies after controlled poppy seed administration with known morphine and codeine doses are not available. Therefore, we investigated urine opiate pharmacokinetics after controlled oral administration of uncooked poppy seeds with known morphine and codeine content. Participants were administered two 45g oral poppy seed doses 8h apart, each containing 15.7mg morphine and 3mg codeine. Urine was collected ad libitum up to 32h after the first dose. Specimens were analyzed with the Roche Opiates II immunoassay at 2,000 and 300μg/L cutoffs, and the ThermoFisher CEDIA® Heroin Metabolite (6-acetylmorphine, 6AM) and Lin-Zhi 6AM immunoassays with 10μg/L cutoffs to determine if poppy seed ingestion could produce positive results in these heroin marker assays. In addition, all specimens were quantified for morphine and codeine by GC/MS. Participants (N=22) provided 391 urine specimens over 32h following dosing; 26.6% and 83.4% were positive for morphine at 2,000 and 300μg/L GC/MS cutoffs, respectively. For the 19 subjects who completed the study, morphine concentrations ranged from <300 to 7,522μg/L with a median peak concentration of 5,239μg/L. The median first morphine-positive urine sample at 2,000μg/L cutoff concentration occurred at 6.6h (1.2-12.1), with the last positive from 2.6 to 18h after the second dose. No specimens were positive for codeine at a cutoff concentration of 2,000μg/L, but 20.2% exceeded 300μg/L, with peak concentrations of 658 μg/L (284-1540). The Roche Opiates II immunoassay had efficiencies greater than 96% for the 2000 and 300μg/L cutoffs. The CEDIA 6AM immunoassay had a specificity of 91%, while the Lin-Zhi assay had no false positive results. These data provide valuable information for interpreting urine opiate results. PMID:24887324

  20. Prebiotics, probiotics, and synbiotics affect mineral absorption, bone mineral content, and bone structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz-Ahrens, Katharina E; Ade, Peter; Marten, Berit; Weber, Petra; Timm, Wolfram; Açil, Yahya; Glüer, Claus-C; Schrezenmeir, Jürgen

    2007-03-01

    Several studies in animals and humans have shown positive effects of nondigestible oligosaccharides (NDO) on mineral absorption and metabolism and bone composition and architecture. These include inulin, oligofructose, fructooligosaccharides, galactooligosaccharides, soybean oligosaccharide, and also resistant starches, sugar alcohols, and difructose anhydride. A positive outcome of dietary prebiotics is promoted by a high dietary calcium content up to a threshold level and an optimum amount and composition of supplemented prebiotics. There might be an optimum composition of fructooligosaccharides with different chain lengths (synergy products). The efficacy of dietary prebiotics depends on chronological age, physiological age, menopausal status, and calcium absorption capacity. There is evidence for an independent probiotic effect on facilitating mineral absorption. Synbiotics, i.e., a combination of probiotics and prebiotics, can induce additional effects. Whether a low content of habitual NDO would augment the effect of dietary prebiotics or synbiotics remains to be studied. The underlying mechanisms are manifold: increased solubility of minerals because of increased bacterial production of short-chain fatty acids, which is promoted by the greater supply of substrate; an enlargement of the absorption surface by promoting proliferation of enterocytes mediated by bacterial fermentation products, predominantly lactate and butyrate; increased expression of calcium-binding proteins; improvement of gut health; degradation of mineral complexing phytic acid; release of bone-modulating factors such as phytoestrogens from foods; stabilization of the intestinal flora and ecology, also in the presence of antibiotics; stabilization of the intestinal mucus; and impact of modulating growth factors such as polyamines. In conclusion, prebiotics are the most promising but also best investigated substances with respect to a bone-health-promoting potential, compared with probiotics

  1. Total body and regional bone mineral content in hemodialysis patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagiwara, Satoshi; Aratani, Hideyui; Miki, Takami; Nishizawa, Yoshiki; Okamura, Terue; Koizumi, Yoshiko; Ochi, Hironobu; Morii, Hirotoshi (Osaka City Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1994-02-01

    Bone mineral content (BMC) in the total body and lumbar spine was evaluated in 126 hemodialysis patients (60 males, 66 females) by dual photon absorptiometry with the Norland DBD 2600. Measurements of: (1) total body BMC divided by lean body mass (BMC[sub TB]/LBM), (2) bone mineral density (BMD) of total body, (3) BMD of four regional sections (head, trunk, pelvis, and legs), and (4) BMD of lumbar spine, generally showed a significant decrease in the hemodialysis patients compared to the reference population. However, arm BMD did not show a significant difference between patients and control populations. The z-score of BMC[sub TB]/LBM declined significantly throughout the duration of hemodialysis, although that of the lumbar spine BMD did not. It should be noted that the degree of decrease in BMC was more prominent in the total body measurement than in the lumbar spine measurement. There was preferential osteopenia of the total body in the hemodialysis patients. Although the lumbar spine BMD showed a lower value than the control population, the lumbar spine is not the recommended region to monitor the BMD change in hemodialysis patients. (author).

  2. Influence of Water Content on the Mechanical Behaviour of Limestone: Role of the Clay Minerals Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherblanc, F.; Berthonneau, J.; Bromblet, P.; Huon, V.

    2016-06-01

    The mechanical characteristics of various sedimentary stones significantly depend on the water content, where 70 % loss of their mechanical strengths can be observed when saturated by water. Furthermore, the clay fraction has been shown to be a key factor of their hydro-mechanical behaviour since it governs for instance the hydric dilation. This work aims at investigating the correlations between the clay mineral content and the mechanical weakening experienced by limestones when interacting with water. The experimental characterization focuses on five different limestones that exhibit very different micro-structures. For each of them, we present the determination of clay mineral composition, the sorption isotherm curve and the dependences of tensile and compressive strengths on the water content. It emerges from these results that, first, the sorption behaviour is mainly governed by the amount of smectite layers which exhibit the larger specific area and, second, the rate of mechanical strength loss depends linearly on the sorption capacity. Indeed, the clay fraction plays the role of a retardation factor that delays the appearance of capillary bridges as well as the mechanical weakening of stones. However, no correlation was evidenced between the clay content and the amplitude of weakening. Since the mechanisms whereby the strength decreases with water content are not clearly established, these results would help to discriminate between various hypothesis proposed in the literature.

  3. Various intensity of Proteus mirabilis-induced crystallization resulting from the changes in the mineral composition of urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torzewska, Agnieszka; Różalski, Antoni

    2015-01-01

    Infectious urolithiasis is a result of recurrent and chronic urinary tract infections caused by urease-positive bacteria, especially Proteus mirabilis. The main role in the development of this kind of stones is played by bacterial factors such as urease and extracellular polysaccharides, but urinary tract environment also contributes to this process. We used an in vitro model to establish how the changes in the basic minerals concentrations affect the intensity of crystallization which occurs in urine. In each experiment crystallization was induced by an addition of P. mirabilis to artificial urine with a precisely defined chemical composition. Crystallization intensity was determined using the spectrophotometric microdilution method and the chemical composition of formed crystals was established by atomic absorption spectroscopy and colorimetric methods. Increasing the concentration of all crystals forming ions such as Mg(2+), Ca(2+) and phosphate strongly intensified the process of crystallization, whereas reducing the amount of these components below the proper physiological concentration did not affect its intensity. The inhibitory influence of citrate on calcium and magnesium phosphate crystallization and competitive actions of calcium and oxalate ions on struvite crystals formation were not confirmed. In the case of infectious stones the chemical composition of urine plays an important role, which creates a necessity to support the treatment by developing a model of proper diet.

  4. Use of a standard urine assay for measuring the phosphate content of beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindley, Elizabeth; Costelloe, Seán; Bosomworth, Mike; Fouque, Denis; Freeman, Julienne; Keane, David; Thompson, Douglas

    2014-11-01

    Hyperphosphatemia is strongly associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease. Phosphate in beverages is readily absorbed and could have a significant impact on serum phosphate levels. Patients are routinely warned about the phosphoric acid in colas, but information on the phosphate content of other beverages is difficult to find. We have shown that the phosphomolybdate method, which is used in the vast majority of hospital laboratories for measuring phosphate in urine, can give an accurate measurement of the phosphate content of beer, cider, wine, and soft drinks. No change to the standard assay protocol is required. There was considerable variation between different types of wine and beer, probably due to the methods of production. The information the assay provides could enable staff providing dietary advice to compare locally available beverages and help patients to avoid or limit their intake of those with high phosphate content. Copyright © 2014 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Mineral content of the dentine remaining after chemomechanical caries removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, H K; Beeley, J A; Stevenson, A G

    1995-01-01

    Although the dentine remaining after chemomechanical caries removal appears sound by normal clinical criteria, no definitive evidence has yet been obtained to confirm that the dentine surface is in fact mineralised. The aim of this study was to use backscattered electron (BSE) imaging and electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA) to ascertain the level of mineralisation of the dentine remaining in cavities prepared by this technique. Carious dentine was removed from carious lesions by means of N-monochloro-DL-2-aminobutyric acid (NMAB) or NMAB containing 2 mol/l urea. Sections of teeth in which caries removal was complete by normal clinical criteria were examined by EPMA and BSE. Dentine adjacent to the pulp was found to be less mineralised than the surrounding dentine. Although the superficial layer of dentine remaining on the cavity floors frequently appeared to have a slightly reduced mineral content, the results clearly indicated that there was no significant difference between this dentine and the underlying sound dentine.

  6. Mineral content prediction for unconventional oil and gas reservoirs based on logging data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maojin, Tan; Youlong, Zou; Guoyue

    2012-09-01

    Coal bed methane and shale oil &gas are both important unconventional oil and gas resources, whose reservoirs are typical non-linear with complex and various mineral components, and the logging data interpretation model are difficult to establish for calculate the mineral contents, and the empirical formula cannot be constructed due to various mineral. The radial basis function (RBF) network analysis is a new method developed in recent years; the technique can generate smooth continuous function of several variables to approximate the unknown forward model. Firstly, the basic principles of the RBF is discussed including net construct and base function, and the network training is given in detail the adjacent clustering algorithm specific process. Multi-mineral content for coal bed methane and shale oil &gas, using the RBF interpolation method to achieve a number of well logging data to predict the mineral component contents; then, for coal-bed methane reservoir parameters prediction, the RBF method is used to realized some mineral contents calculation such as ash, volatile matter, carbon content, which achieves a mapping from various logging data to multimineral. To shale gas reservoirs, the RBF method can be used to predict the clay content, quartz content, feldspar content, carbonate content and pyrite content. Various tests in coalbed and gas shale show the method is effective and applicable for mineral component contents prediction

  7. Effects of mineral content of bovine drinking water: does iron content affect milk quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, G R; Duncan, S E; Knowlton, K F; Dietrich, A D; O'Keefe, S F

    2013-01-01

    The composition of water given to dairy cattle is often ignored, yet water is a very important nutrient and plays a major role in milk synthesis. The objective of this study was to study effects of elevated levels of iron in bovine drinking water on milk quality. Ferrous lactate treatments corresponding to 0, 2, 5, and 12.5mg/kg drinking water concentrations were delivered through the abomasum at 10 L/d to 4 lactating dairy cows over 4 periods (1 wk infusion/period) in a Latin square design. On d 6 of infusion, milk was collected, processed (homogenized, pasteurized), and analyzed. Mineral content (Fe, Cu, P, Ca) was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Oxidative stability of whole processed milk was measured by the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay for malondialdehyde (MDA) and sensory analysis (triangle test) within 72 h of processing and after 7d of storage (4°C). Significant sensory differences between processed milks from cows receiving iron and the control infusion were observed. No differences in TBARS (1.46±0.04 mg of MDA/kg) or mineral content (0.22±0.01 mg/kg Fe) were observed. A 2-way interaction (iron treatment by cow) for Ca, Cu, and Fe concentrations was seen. While iron added directly to milk causes changes in oxidation of milk, high levels of iron given to cattle have subtle effects that initially may not be obvious.

  8. Evaluation of Minerals Content of Drinking Water in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azrina Azlan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The drinking and mineral water samples obtained from different geographical locations had concentrations of the selected minerals lower than the standard limits, except for manganese, arsenic, and fluoride. The concentrations of manganese and arsenic in two mineral water samples were slightly higher than the standard international recommended limits. One mineral water sample had a fluoride concentration higher than the standard limits, whereas manganese was not detected in nine drinking and mineral water samples. Most of the selected minerals found in the tap water samples were below the international standard limits, except for iron and manganese. The concentrations of iron and manganese in the tap water samples were higher than the standard limits, which were obtained from one and three of the studied locations, respectively. The potable water obtained from various manufacturers and locations in Peninsular Malaysia is safe for consumption, as the minerals concentrations were below the standard limits prescribed by the Malaysian Food Regulations of 1985. The data obtained may also provide important information related to daily intake of these minerals from drinking water.

  9. Evaluation of minerals content of drinking water in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azlan, Azrina; Khoo, Hock Eng; Idris, Mohd Aizat; Ismail, Amin; Razman, Muhammad Rizal

    2012-01-01

    The drinking and mineral water samples obtained from different geographical locations had concentrations of the selected minerals lower than the standard limits, except for manganese, arsenic, and fluoride. The concentrations of manganese and arsenic in two mineral water samples were slightly higher than the standard international recommended limits. One mineral water sample had a fluoride concentration higher than the standard limits, whereas manganese was not detected in nine drinking and mineral water samples. Most of the selected minerals found in the tap water samples were below the international standard limits, except for iron and manganese. The concentrations of iron and manganese in the tap water samples were higher than the standard limits, which were obtained from one and three of the studied locations, respectively. The potable water obtained from various manufacturers and locations in Peninsular Malaysia is safe for consumption, as the minerals concentrations were below the standard limits prescribed by the Malaysian Food Regulations of 1985. The data obtained may also provide important information related to daily intake of these minerals from drinking water.

  10. Effect of dietary mineral sources and oil content on calcium utilization and kidney calcification in female Fischer rats fed low-protein diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsuka, Shizuko; Aoyama, Yoshiko; Watanabe, Nobuhiro; Kajiwara, Tomoko; Azami, Shoji; Kitano, Takao

    2013-01-01

    We studied the effects of dietary mineral source and oil intake on kidney calcification in 4-wk-old female Fischer rats after consuming the AIN-76 purified diet (AIN-76). A modified AIN-76 mineral mixture was used, although the original calcium (Ca)/phosphorus (P) molar ratio remained unchanged. Rats were fed the modified diets for a period of 40 d before their kidneys were removed on the last day. Ca balance tests were performed on days 31 to 36 and biochemical analysis of urine was also studied. Kidney Ca, P, and magnesium (Mg) in the standard diet group (20% protein and 5% oil) were not affected by the mineral source. Kidney Ca, P, and Mg in the low-protein (10% protein) diet group, were found to be influenced by the dietary oil content and mineral source. In particular, the different mineral sources differentially increased kidney mineral accumulation. Pathological examination of the kidney showed that the degree of kidney calcification was proportional to the dietary oil content in the 10% dietary protein group, reflecting the calcium content of the kidney. The information gathered on mineral sources in this study will help future researchers studying the influence of dietary Ca/P molar ratios, and histological changes in the kidney.

  11. A REVIEW OF QUANTITATIVE METHODS FOR STUDIES OF MINERAL-CONTENT OF INTRAORAL INCIPIENT CARIES LESIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TENBOSCH, JJ; ANGMARMANSSON, B

    1991-01-01

    Modern prospective caries studies require the measurement of small changes in tooth mineral content. Quantitative measurements of changes in mineral content in a single caries lesion is desirable. Quantitative methods can be either destructive or non-destructive. The latter type permits longitudinal

  12. A REVIEW OF QUANTITATIVE METHODS FOR STUDIES OF MINERAL-CONTENT OF INTRAORAL INCIPIENT CARIES LESIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TENBOSCH, JJ; ANGMARMANSSON, B

    Modern prospective caries studies require the measurement of small changes in tooth mineral content. Quantitative measurements of changes in mineral content in a single caries lesion is desirable. Quantitative methods can be either destructive or non-destructive. The latter type permits longitudinal

  13. Measurement of bone mineral content by dual photon absorptiometry in patients with metabolic bone diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohtani, Masami; Hino, Megumu; Ikekubo, Katsuji (Kobe City General Hospital (Japan)) (and others)

    1991-12-01

    Dual photon absorptiometry was used to measure bone mineral content in 225 patients with metabolic bone diseases (84 males and 102 females) and 186 healthy subjects (25 males and 200 females). Mineral content of the lumbar vertebrae tended to rapidly decrease after the age of 40 in healthy female subjects. For males, gradual decrease in mineral content was associated with aging. Bone mineral content showed a correlation with the severity of osteoporosis as shown on X-ray films. Mineral content tended to be decreased in the lumbar vertebrae in patients with vertebral compression fracture, and in the femur in patients with vertebral or femoral fracture. For hyperthyroidism, mineral content of the lumbar vertebrae was decreased in some females, but was within normal limit in males. Hyperparathyroidism and hypoparathyroidism tended to be associated with decrease and increase in mineral content, respectively. Two each patients with osteomalacia or Cushing syndrome had a decreased mineral content. In these patients, it was increased after the treatment. (N.K.).

  14. Evaluation of mineral content in healthy permanent human enamel by Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkus, Asya; Roperto, Renato; Akkus, Ozan; Porto, Thiago; Teich, Sorin; Lang, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Background An understanding of tooth enamel mineral content using a clinically viable method is essential since variations in mineralization may serve as an early precursor of a dental health issues, and may predict progression and architecture of decay in addition to assessing the success and effectiveness of the remineralization strategies. Material and Methods Twenty two human incisor teeth were obtained in compliance with the NIH guidelines and site specifically imaged with Raman microscope. The front portion of the teeth was divided into apical, medium and cervical regions and subsequently imaged with Raman microscope in these three locations. Results Measured mineralization levels have varied substantially depending on the regions. It was also observed that, the cervical enamel is the least mineralization as a populational average. Conclusions Enamel mineralization is affected by a many factors such as are poor oral hygiene, alcohol consumption and high intake of dietary carbohydrates, however the net effect manifests as overall mineral content of the enamel. Thus an early identification of the individual with overall low mineral content of the enamel may be a valuable screening tool in determining a group with much higher than average caries risk, allowing intervention before development of caries. Clinically applicable non-invasive techniques that can quantify mineral content, such as Raman analysis, would help answer whether or not mineralization is associated with caries risk. Key words:Enamel, Raman spectroscopy, mineral content, dental caries. PMID:27957268

  15. [Analysis of changes in minerals contents during cider fermentation process by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Meng-qi; Yue, Tian-li; Gao, Zhen-peng; Yuan, Ya-hong; Nie, Gang

    2015-01-01

    The changes in mineral elements during cider fermentation process were determined using ICP-MS. The results showed that the main minerals in the fermentation liquor included K, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Sr and B. The content of K was the highest in both the apple juice and the cider, being 1 853. 83 and 1 654. 38 mg . L-1 respectively. The content of minerals was in dynamic changes along with the fermentation process. As a whole, during 72-120 h and 144-216 h, most of the minerals contents underwent great fluctuation. Especially when fermented for 192 h, the content of most of the minerals reached peak value or valley value. The content of Fe and Zn achieved their peak value, while the content of K, Na, Ca, Mg, Mn and B achieved valley value. But during the following 24 h, the content of minerals underwent a sharp reversal. After fermentation, the content of K, Mg, Cu, Zn and B decreased significantly, while the content of Na, Ca, Mn, Fe and Sr did not change significantly. The correlational analysis was conducted to evaluate the correlation between the mineral elements, and the result showed that the correlation between Ca and Mn was the most significant, with the correlation index reaching 0. 924. The information of this study will supply sufficient data for the fermentation process control and quality improvement of cider.

  16. Agave fructans: their effect on mineral absorption and bone mineral content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Vieyra, María Isabel; Del Real, Alicia; López, Mercedes G

    2014-11-01

    In this study we investigate the effect that Agave fructans as new prebiotics have on mineral absorption improvement. Forty-eight 12-week-old C57BL/6J mice were used in this study. Forty mice were ovariectomized and eight were sham-operated controls. Mice were fed standard diets or diets supplemented with 10% Agave fructans or 10% inulin fructans. Calcium and magnesium were evaluated as well as their excretion in feces. Osteocalcin levels were also measured; femur structure was studied by scanning electron microscopy. Other parameters, such as food intake, body weight, glucose, and short-chain fatty acid content, were recorded. Calcium in plasma and bone increased in Agave fructan groups (from 53.1 to 56 and 85 mg/L and from 0.402 to 0.474 and 0.478 g/g, respectively) and osteocalcin increased in all fructan groups (>50%). Scanning electron microscopy showed that fructans were able to mitigate bone loss. In conclusion, we demonstrated that supplementation with Agave fructans prevents bone loss and improves bone formation.

  17. N2O emission from urine in the soil in the beef production in Southeast Brazil: soil moisture content and temperature effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões Barneze, Arlete; Mancebo Mazzetto, Andre; Fernandes Zani, Caio; Siqueira Neto, Marcos; Clemente Cerri, Carlos

    2014-05-01

    .05 probability level. Nitrogen mineralization and nitri?cation were higher at the higher temperature and higher soil water content. Significant effects of urine application and moisture were found (P

  18. Evaluation of mineral elements and ascorbic acid contents in fruits of some wild plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eromosele, I C; Eromosele, C O; Kuzhkuzha, D M

    1991-04-01

    The fruits of some wild plants were examined for their contents of mineral elements and ascorbic acid. High levels of ascorbic acid were found in fruits of Sclerocarya birrea (403.3 mg/100 g) and Adansonia digitata (337 mg/100 g). In nine of the fruits examined, the mineral contents (Ca, P) were comparable with average values found in common fruits. The iron contents were however 2-5 times higher than the values for common fruits.

  19. Relationship between Major Mineral Nutrient Elements Contents and Flower Colors of Herbaceous Peony (Paeonia Lactiflora Pall.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengzhong Li

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Herbaceous peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall. is a famous ornamental plant with bright flowers and lush leaves. The flower petal can be used as a fragrant food additive. Understanding the mineral nutrient contents in P. lactiflora is necessary for guiding its cultivation practices as well as its use as a food additive. In this study, we investigated the mineral contents including Calcium (Ca, Potassium (K, Magnesium (Mg, Copper (Cu, iron (Fe and Zinc (Zn in petals and leaves of 20 selected herbaceous peony cultivars in four groups according to their flower colors and the relationship between major mineral nutrient elements contents and flower colors was assessed. In petals, the contents of minerals were in this order K>Ca>Mg>Fe>Zn>Cu; while in leaves were: Ca>K>Mg>Fe>Zn>Cu. Major element contents in petals and leaves among 4 cultivar groups were different at statistically significant levels. Petals in red or purple have higher amount of most major minerals than those in white or pink colors. The wide range of mineral element contents among cultivars is attributed to genotypic variations. The correlations of major mineral elements in the petals and leaves of herbaceous peony cultivars indicate that mineral ions compete for the same absorption sites. The results provided some scientific support for petal nutrition of herbaceous peony and selecting herbaceous peony flowers with dark colors for edible is feasible.

  20. Mineral content in teeth with Deciduous Molar Hypomineralisation (DMH)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elfrink, M.E.C.; ten Cate, J.M.; van Ruijven, L.J.; Veerkamp, J.S.J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives We report the mineral (hydroxyapatite) density of sound and opaque areas in DMH molars with sound parts of (carious) deciduous teeth serving as controls. Methods Twenty-nine extracted second primary molars obtained from 15 children were studied. Thirteen of these molars were DMH molars

  1. Determination of Mineral Contents in Unpolished Rice and Bean Samples by Neutron Activation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, J. H.; Kim, S. H.; Baek, S. Y.; Chung, Y. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    As scientists have focused their researches on the health impacts caused by mineral nutrient deficiencies and hazardous elements, public concern regarding mineral intake from dietary food is rising. In this reason, the dietary habits of Koreans have been shifted from white rice to more nutrient rice like unpolished rice and rice mixed with beans. It is known that unpolished rice and beans contain more protein, vitamin and mineral contents than white rice and are more beneficial to human health, even though they sometimes cause indigestion or allergy. The objectives of this study were to determine the mineral contents in unpolished rice and bean samples by a neutron activation analysis (NAA) and to compare the level of mineral contents between the samples

  2. Effect of processing and cooking on mineral and phytic acid content of buckwheat-enriched tagliatelle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jambrec Dubravka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Two types of buckwheat flour - non-treated (NBF and autoclaved (TBF were used for the enrichment of whole wheat tagliatelle (control sample at the level of 10-30% and the produced tagliatelle samples (dry and cooked were examined in terms of mineral and phytic acid (PA content. Both NBF and TBF possessed significantly higher (p < 0.05 content of all investigated minerals compared to whole wheat flour (WWF, but significantly lower (p < 0.05 PA content. Cooked NBF-containing tagliatelle possessed significantly higher (p < 0.05 content of Mg, Zn, Mn and Fe compared to the cooked control sample, while mineral content of cooked TBF-containing tagliatelle samples was not significantly different from the control. Autoclaving significantly reduced (p < 0.05 PA content of cooked TBF-containing tagliatelle samples compared to cooked NBF-containing tagliatelle samples and the control sample. The mineral bioavailability defined through molar ratio of mineral to phytate was slightly improved in buckwheat-containing tagliatelle samples, but it still remains at low level. Regarding all results, the enrichment of whole wheat tagliatelle with NBF at higher levels of substitution (20-30% resulted in significant increase in mineral content and bioavailability.

  3. Normal bone mineral content but unfavourable muscle/fat ratio in Klinefelter syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aksglaede, L.; Mølgaard, Christian; Skakkebaek, N.E.;

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate body composition and bone mineral content (BMC) in children and adolescents with Klinefelter syndrome (KS). DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional study. SETTING: Tertiary endocrine clinic at the University Hospital, Copenhagen. PATIENTS: Eighteen untreated boys with KS and ...

  4. Bone mineral content reduction in youth with surgical form of Schistosomiasis mansoni: factors involved in the pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandt Carlos Teixeira

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty two children and adolescents from 14 to 20 years of age, suffering from hepatosplenic schistosomiasis mansoni and bleeding esophageal varicose veins, were evaluated for bone mineral density (BMD, before undergoing medical and surgical treatment. The surgical protocol was splenectomy, autoimplantation of spleen tissue into a pouch of the major omentum and ligature of the left gastric vein. Follow up of these patients? ranges from one to ten years with a mean of five years. The BMD was measured at the lumbar spine (L2 - L4 through the dual energy absorptionmetry X-ray (DEXA, using a LUNAR DPX-L densitometer. The degree of Symmers´ fibrosis was assessed by semiautomatic hystomorphometry. In eleven patients, the serum magnesium was measured before an intravenous overload of this ion and subsequently after eight and twenty four hours. Urine was collected 24 hours before and 24 hours after the magnesium overload. Deficiency of magnesium was considered when the uptake of this ion was greater than 40%. There was a significant trend of association between the status of bone mineral content and the Symmers´ fibrosis degree (c² = 6.606 R = 0.01017. There was also a moderate agreement between the greater fibrosis densities ( > the mean percentage and bone mineral deficits. Although the normal bone mineral content was more found among the patients with better hepatic functional reserve, the results did not reach statistical significance. There was a marked magnesium retention (>95% in one patient who had severe osteoporosis and a slight depletion (<5% in another patient, who presented no bone mineral deficit. It was concluded that the patients included in this series, showed an important BMD deficit, specially among the females which has had a significant improvement after medical and surgical treatment. Bone mineral deficit was associated with the degree of Symmers´ fibrosis. Magnesium depletion was present in two out of eleven patients. It is

  5. Physico-Chemical Properties, Antioxidant Activity and Mineral Contents of Pineapple Genotypes Grown in China

    OpenAIRE

    Xin-Hua Lu; De-Quan Sun; Qing-Song Wu; Sheng-Hui Liu; Guang-Ming Sun

    2014-01-01

    The fruit physico-chemical properties, antioxidant activity and mineral contents of 26 pineapple [Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.] genotypes grown in China were measured. The results showed great quantitative differences in the composition of these pineapple genotypes. Sucrose was the dominant sugar in all 26 genotypes, while citric acid was the principal organic acid. Potassium, calcium and magnesium were the major mineral constituents. The ascorbic acid (AsA) content ranged from 5.08 to 33.57 mg/...

  6. Effect of purificatory measures through cow's urine and milk on strychnine and brucine content of Kupeelu (Strychnos nuxvomica Linn.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Swarnendu; Shukla, V J; Acharya, Rabinarayan

    2012-01-01

    Strychnos nux vomica Linn.(Loganaceae) commonly known as Nux vomica (Kupeelu), is a poisonous plant and its seeds are used widely in Ayurvedic system of medicine since time immemorial. Ayurveda advocates that nux vomica seeds are to be administered in therapeutics only after going through certain purificatory measures (Shodhana). There are more than six media: cow's urine (Go mutra), cow's milk (Go dugdha), cow's ghee (Go ghrita), Kanji (thin gruel), castor oil (Eranda taila) and fresh ginger juice (Ardraka swarasa) etc., which have been reported in different classical texts of Ayurveda for proper processing of nux vomica seeds. In this study, an attempt has been made to purify the seeds by using three different methods as described in ancient treatise by using cow's urine and cow's milk as media alone and together. This study revealed that all the methods studied reduced the toxicity of strychnine and brucine contents in comparison to the raw seeds as determined by HPTLC. Out of these three methods maximum reduction in strychnine and brucine contents was found when the seeds were purified by keeping them in cow's urine for seven days followed by boiling in cow's milk for three hrs.

  7. Influence of processing on total and extractable mineral content of products prepared from potato flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakra, Poonam; Sehgal, Salil

    2011-12-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum) flour developed was used for preparing doughnuts, sevian, cutlet, kofta and vadi along with defatted soy (Glycine max) flour and corn (Zea mays) flour. Frying and fermentation were the major processing techniques employed for the development of these products. Significant differences in protein, ash and fat contents of all the products were observed due to their compositional differences. Processing did not affect on total mineral content. Processing increased (p mineral availability. Processed products had lower amount of anti nutrients as compared to raw counterparts and thus, higher mineral availability.

  8. Mineral content of sorghum genotypes and the influence of water stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Caroline Liboreiro; Queiroz, Valéria Aparecida Vieira; Simeone, Maria Lúcia Ferreira; Schaffert, Robert Eugene; de Oliveira, Antônio Carlos; da Silva, Camila Santana

    2017-01-01

    Sorghum is a source of several minerals whose content may vary depending on the genotype and the production environment. The objective of this study was to screen sorghum genotypes for mineral content and to investigate the effect of water stress on it. A large variability was observed in the mineral content of 100 sorghum genotypes grown in environments without (WoWS) and with water stress (WthWS). The water stress decreased Mn, P, Mg and S contents in 100, 96, 93 and 56% of genotypes, respectively. The genotypes and other factors seemed to have more impact than water stress on K, Ca, Cu, Fe and Zn levels. In 100 sorghum genotypes, 2 were classified as excellent sources of Fe and 25 of Zn, in both environments. The best two genotypes to Fe content were SC21 and SC655 and to Zn were SC320 and SHAN-QUI-RED which showed great potential for use in biofortification.

  9. Low bone mineral density and bone mineral content are associated with low cobalamin status in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M.; Dusseldorp, M. van; Schneede, J.; Groot, L.C.P.G.M. de; Staveren, W.A. van

    2005-01-01

    Background: Cobalamin deficiency is prevalent in vegetarians and has been associated with increased risk of osteoporosis. Aim of the study: To examine the association between cobalamin status and bone mineral density in adolescents formerly fed a macrobiotic diet and in their counterparts. Methods:

  10. Low bone mineral density and bone mineral content are associated with low cobalamin status in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M.; Dusseldorp, M. van; Schneede, J.; Groot, L.C.P.G.M. de; Staveren, W.A. van

    2005-01-01

    Background: Cobalamin deficiency is prevalent in vegetarians and has been associated with increased risk of osteoporosis. Aim of the study: To examine the association between cobalamin status and bone mineral density in adolescents formerly fed a macrobiotic diet and in their counterparts. Methods:

  11. Low bone mineral density and bone mineral content are associated with low cobalamin status in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M.; Dusseldorp, van M.; Schneede, J.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2005-01-01

    Background Cobalamin deficiency is prevalent in vegetarians and has been associated with increased risk of osteoporosis. Aim of the study To examine the association between cobalamin status and bone mineral density in adolescents formerly fed a macrobiotic diet and in their counterparts. Methods In

  12. Bone mineral density, Bone mineral contents, MMP-8 and MMP-9 levels in Human Mandible and alveolar bone: Simulated microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Balwant; Kaur, Jasdeep; Catalina, Maria

    Exposure to microgravity has been associated with several physiological changes in astronauts and cosmonauts, including an osteoporosis-like loss of bone mass. It has been reported that head-down tilt bed-rest studies mimic many of the observations seen in flights. There is no study on the correlation on effects of mandibular bone and alveolar bone loss in both sex in simulating microgravity. This study was designed to determine the Bone mineral density and GCF MMP-8 MMP-9 in normal healthy subject of both sexes in simulated microgravity condition of -6 head-down-tilt (HDT) bed rest. The subjects of this investigation were 10 male and 10 female volunteers participated in three weeks 6 HDT bed-rest exposure. The Bone density and bone mineral contents were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry before and in simulated microgravity. The GCF MMP-8 MMP-8 were measured by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (Human Quantikine MMP-8,-9 ELISA kit). The bone mineral density and bone mineral contents levels were significantly decreased in simulated microgravity condition in both genders, although insignificantly loss was higher in females as compared to males. MMP-8 MMP-9 levels were significantly increased in simulated microgravity as compared to normal condition although insignificantly higher in females as compared to males. Further study is required on large samples size including all factors effecting in simulated microgravity and microgravity. Keys words-Simulated microgravity condition, head-down-tilt, Bone loss, MMP-8, MMP-9, Bone density, Bone mineral contents.

  13. Detection of serum Cys C and Hcy as well as urine mindin and NAG contents in patients with diabetic nephropathy and the value for early diagnosis of disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiang Wang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the serum Cys C and Hcy as well as urine mindin and NAG contents in patients with diabetic nephropathy and the value for early diagnosis of disease.Methods:Patients with diabetic nephropathy and patients with diabetes alone were selected for study, serum was collected to detect Cys C, Hcy, PGF-2α, MDA, AOPP, SOD, GSH-Px and VitE contents, and urine was collected to detect mindin, NAG, MST1, JNK, Foxos, Caspase-3 and Caspase-12 contents.Results:mindin, NAG, MST1, JNK, Foxos, Caspase-3 and Caspase-12 contents in urine as well as Cys C, Hcy, PGF-2α, MDA and AOPP contents in serum of patients with diabetic nephropathy were significantly higher than those of patients with diabetes alone, and SOD, GSH-Px and VitE contents in serum were significantly lower than those of patients with diabetes alone; the higher the CKD stage, the higher the mindin, NAG, MST1, JNK, Foxos, Caspase-3 and Caspase-12 contents in urine as well as Cys C, Hcy, PGF-2α, MDA and AOPP contents in serum, and the lower the SOD, GSH-Px and VitE contents in serum; mindin and NAG contents in urine were positively correlated with MST1, JNK, Foxos, Caspase-3 and Caspase-12 contents; Cys C and Hcy contents in serum were positively correlated with PGF-2α, MDA and AOPP contents, and negatively correlated with SOD, GSH-Px and VitE contents.Conclusion:Cys C and Hcy in serum as well as mindin and NAG in urine of patients with diabetic nephropathy begin to increase from CKD1 stage, are closely related to cell apoptosis and oxidative stress injury, and help early diagnosis of the disease.

  14. Large Deformation Mechanisms, Plasticity, and Failure of an Individual Collagen Fibril With Different Mineral Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depalle, Baptiste; Qin, Zhao; Shefelbine, Sandra J; Buehler, Markus J

    2016-02-01

    Mineralized collagen fibrils are composed of tropocollagen molecules and mineral crystals derived from hydroxyapatite to form a composite material that combines optimal properties of both constituents and exhibits incredible strength and toughness. Their complex hierarchical structure allows collagen fibrils to sustain large deformation without breaking. In this study, we report a mesoscale model of a single mineralized collagen fibril using a bottom-up approach. By conserving the three-dimensional structure and the entanglement of the molecules, we were able to construct finite-size fibril models that allowed us to explore the deformation mechanisms which govern their mechanical behavior under large deformation. We investigated the tensile behavior of a single collagen fibril with various intrafibrillar mineral content and found that a mineralized collagen fibril can present up to five different deformation mechanisms to dissipate energy. These mechanisms include molecular uncoiling, molecular stretching, mineral/collagen sliding, molecular slippage, and crystal dissociation. By multiplying its sources of energy dissipation and deformation mechanisms, a collagen fibril can reach impressive strength and toughness. Adding mineral into the collagen fibril can increase its strength up to 10 times and its toughness up to 35 times. Combining crosslinks with mineral makes the fibril stiffer but more brittle. We also found that a mineralized fibril reaches its maximum toughness to density and strength to density ratios for a mineral density of around 30%. This result, in good agreement with experimental observations, attests that bone tissue is optimized mechanically to remain lightweight but maintain strength and toughness.

  15. Adequacy of mineral contents of raw and plain sticky sauce of common and bush okra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moyib Oluwasayo Kehinde

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In Nigeria, common okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. and bush okra (Corchorus olitorius L. are popular mucilage vegetables used as sticky sauce for easy consumption of starchy staples.Both raw vegetables and sticky sauce of common as well as bush okra were estimated for their potential in the provision of daily dietary allowance of important minerals. Modified methods of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC were used to estimate the assessed minerals.The results showed that the raw and sticky sauce of assessed common and bush okra contained appreciable levels and essential minerals, but are not adequate to meet recommended dietary allowance, except for Fe and Cu. Comparatively, the two species of okra varied significantly in their mineral content of the raw and plain sauce. There was also a negative effect of cooking on the mineral contents, which reduced significantly to an average of 30% on a dry weight basis.Therefore, the two vegetables, either as a fresh or sticky sauce, require additional sources of P, K, Na, Mg, Ca, Mn, and Zn to meet recommended dietary allowance. Furthermore, dried mucilagesauce, though, could be an appreciable post harvest management and storage but not without a loss of about one-third mineral content in the process. However, the sauce of common okra andbush okra are good sources for any of the assessed mineral restricted diets.

  16. Physiochemical, Biochemical, Minerals Content Analysis, and Antioxidant Potential of National and International Honeys in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available 16 honey samples from Pakistan and two other countries were investigated for their physiochemical, biochemical, minerals, and antioxidant potential. Antioxidant activities of all honey samples were performed by using percentage inhibition of DPPH free radical, AEAC, and FRAP. 5-HMF and mineral contents were determined by HPLC and AAS, respectively. The obtained values of respective parameters, namely, pH, EC, TDS, total acidity, moisture, ash, color intensity, sugars, proline, and protein were in compliance with codex standard and recommendation of council directive by European Union. The total phenolics contents in acacia honey from Germany and jujube honey from Pakistan are similar to monofloral honey from Saudi Arabia and Yemen, respectively. The mineral contents in tested honey samples are comparable with honey from Brazil and Romania. Dark color honeys contained higher phenolic contents than light color ones and attributed to higher oxidation potential and have strong positive correlation with DPPH and FRAP.

  17. Determination of some mineral contents of prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica L.) seed flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Juhaimi, Fahad; Özcan, Mehmet Musa

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine some mineral contents of prickly pear (Opuntia fıcus-indica L.) seeds collected from different locations. The mineral contents of seeds were established by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. All the seeds contained Ca, K, Mg and P at high levels. Calcium content ranged between 268.5 (sample no. 11) and 674.8 ppm (sample no. 4). The level of K changed between 346.7 (sample no. 1) and 676.1 ppm (sample no. 13). Phosphorus content of seeds varied between 1,173.6 (sample no. 14) and 1,871.3 ppm (sample no. 1). It is apparent that seeds are good sources of the macro and micro minerals and can be consumed as a food ingredient to provide nutrition.

  18. Mineral content of market samples of fluid whole milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, J A; Wilson, D B; Young, B E; Johnson, R D; Vanderveen, J E

    1987-08-01

    Results from the Food and Drug Administration's Total Diet Study on the nutrient element content of fluid whole cow's milk are presented and compared with previously published values. Whole milk was collected and analyzed yearly from 1975 through 1985. Yearly and overall means were similar for all elements except iron and iodine. The iron content of milk was generally low, but several samples had high levels. The distribution of iodine in whole milk was quite wide (0.002 to 0.094 mg/100 gm). The iodine content of milk is affected by the level of iodine added to cattle feed and by the use of iodophor sanitizing solutions used by the dairy industry. Overall mean levels of the elements in milligrams per 100 gm whole milk were: sodium, 42; potassium, 134; calcium, 106; phosphorus, 83; magnesium, 9.8; iron, 0.07; zinc, 0.37; copper, 0.009; manganese, 0.004; iodine, 0.034; and selenium, 0.001. Coefficients of variation were high (67% to 117%) for iron, copper, manganese, selenium, and iodine but ranged from 18% to 26% for the other elements. An 8-fl oz serving of whole milk is an excellent source of iodine, calcium, phosphorus, and potassium. It also provides some sodium, magnesium, zinc, and selenium but is not a reliable source of iron, copper, or manganese.

  19. Minerals, haem and non-haem iron contents of rhea meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, A; Cabrera, M C; Del Puerto, M; Saadoun, A

    2009-01-01

    Mineral contents, haem and non-haem iron of rhea (Rhea americana) muscles Obturatorius medialis (OM), Iliotibialis lateralis (IL) and Iliofibularis (I) were determined. No differences between the three muscles were observed for calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and sodium. There is more potassium, zinc and copper in IL muscle than in OM and I muscles. For Manganese, OM and IL muscles show a higher content in comparison with I muscle. For selenium, IL and I muscles show the highest content compared to OM muscle. For total, haem and non-haem iron, the IL muscle shows the highest content respect to the other muscles. When compared to other meats, the minerals content of rhea meat show an elevated level in phosphorus, selenium and total and haem iron. The human health concern due to the deficient diet in selenium and iron, and their high contents in rhea meat will be of great importance in the promotion of this meat.

  20. Physiochemical, Biochemical, Minerals Content Analysis, and Antioxidant Potential of National and International Honeys in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmood Ahmed; Muhammad Imtiaz Shafiq; Anum Khaleeq; Rahila Huma; Muhammad Abdul Qadir; Ayesha Khalid; Amir Ali; Abdul Samad

    2016-01-01

    16 honey samples from Pakistan and two other countries were investigated for their physiochemical, biochemical, minerals, and antioxidant potential. Antioxidant activities of all honey samples were performed by using percentage inhibition of DPPH free radical, AEAC, and FRAP. 5-HMF and mineral contents were determined by HPLC and AAS, respectively. The obtained values of respective parameters, namely, pH, EC, TDS, total acidity, moisture, ash, color intensity, sugars, proline, and protein wer...

  1. Evaluation of the content and the potential bioavailability of minerals from gluten-free products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Suliburska

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Gluten-free products usually contain low amounts of protein and minerals. However, the information about their nutritional quality is limited. The objective of this study was to determine the content and release of minerals from selected gluten-free products. Material and methods. The content and release of Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn and Cu from selected gluten-free products was determined. The samples were subjected to enzymatic digestion under in vitro conditions. The content of minerals in samples before and after enzymatic digestion was determined by the fl ame atomic absorption spectrometry. Results. The content of minerals varied considerably among the types of foods. The amount of calcium in gluten-free products ranged (mg/100 g d.w. from 3 in corn porridge to 45 in peas puff, magnesium: from 13 in peas puff to 33 in corn porridge, iron: from 1.1 in bread to 2.6 in pasta, zinc: from 0.8 in biscuits to 6.3 peas puff and copper: from 0.07 in bread to 0.4 in pasta. Among analysed products the signifi cant higher release of calcium (~68% and zinc (~62% was found in corn porridge. The highest potential bioavailability for magnesium (~54% in peas puff, for iron (~58% in biscuits and for copper (~63% in bread was observed. The relative low bioavailability of minerals was found in pasta (from 7% for Ca to 27% for Fe. Conclusions. The content and amount of released minerals from gluten-free products are relatively low. The release of minerals from gluten-free products depends on the element and composition of the analysed product.

  2. [Quantitative analysis of content and spectrum of altered mineral in the oil and gas microseepage area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian-qian; Chen, Xiao-Mei; Liu, Xing; Ni, Guo-Qiang

    2013-12-01

    With the Yulin Prefecture in China as the research area and the mineral compositions and reflectance spectra of 119 samples collected in the research area as research data, the present paper analyzes the correlation between the carbonate content of surface altered minerals caused by oil and gas microseepage and such charactersitic parameters of depth, width of its spectral absorption peak, establishes and evaluates a method for determining carbonate content, and proposes a new method for characterizing the degree of oil and gas microseepage by using the carbonate content. Research results show that this method is not only suitable for characterizing the oil and gas microseepage degree of carbonates, but also suitable for studying the oil and gas micro-seepage degree of other types of altered minerals. Therefore, the method can provide reference for studying oil and gas exploration technology by using spectral information of hyperspectral remote sensing.

  3. Correlation between longitudinal, circumferential, and radial moduli in cortical bone: effect of mineral content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macione, J; Depaula, C A; Guzelsu, N; Kotha, S P

    2010-07-01

    Previous studies indicate that changes in the longitudinal elastic properties of bone due to changes in mineral content are related to the longitudinal strength of bone tissue. Changes in mineral content are expected to affect bone tissue mechanical properties along all directions, albeit to different extents. However, changes in tissue mechanical properties along the different directions are expected to be correlated to one another. In this study, we investigate if radial, circumferential, and longitudinal moduli are related in bone tissue with varying mineral content. Plexiform bovine femoral bone samples were treated in fluoride ion solutions for a period of 3 and 12 days to obtain bones with 20% and 32% lower effective mineral contents. Transmission ultrasound velocities were obtained in the radial, circumferential, and longitudinal axes of bone and combined with measured densities to obtain corresponding tensorial moduli. Results indicate that moduli decreased with fluoride ion treatments and were significantly correlated to one another (r(2) radial vs. longitudinal = 0.80, r(2) circumferential vs. longitudinal = 0.90, r(2) radial vs. circumferential = 0.85). Densities calculated from using ultrasound parameters, acoustic impedance and transmission velocities, were moderately correlated to those measured by the Archimedes principle (r(2)=0.54, p<0.01). These results suggest that radial and circumferential ultrasound measurements could be used to determine the longitudinal properties of bone and that ultrasound may not be able to predict in vitro densities of bones containing unbonded mineral. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Minerals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaquero, M. P.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available The possible changes in the mineral composition of food during frying could be the consequence of losses by leaching, or changes in concentrations caused by exchanges between the food and culinary fat of other compounds. The net result depends on the type of food, the frying fat used and the frying process. Moreover, the modifications that frying produces in other nutrients could indirectly affect the availability of dietary minerals. The most outstanding ones are those that can take place in the fat or in the protein. With respect to the interactions between frying oils and minerals, we have recent knowledge concerning the effects of consuming vegetable oils used in repeated fryings of potatoes without turnover, on the nutritive utilization of dietary minerals. The experiments have been carried out in pregnant and growing rats, which consumed diets containing, as a sole source of fat, the testing frying oils or unused oils. It seems that the consumption of various frying oils, with a polar compound content lower or close to the maximum limit of 25% accepted for human consumption, does not alter the absorption and metabolism of calcium, phosphorous, iron or copper. Magnesium absorption from diets containing frying oils tends to increase but the urinary excretion of this element increases, resulting imperceptible the variations in the magnesium balance. The urinary excretion of Zn also increased although its balance remained unchanged. Different studies referring to the effects of consuming fried fatty fish on mineral bioavailability will also be presented. On one hand, frying can cause structural changes in fish protein, which are associated with an increase in iron absorption and a decrease in body zinc retention. The nutritive utilization of other elements such as magnesium, calcium and copper seems to be unaffected. On the other hand; it has been described that an excess of fish fatty acids in the diet produces iron depletion, but when fatty

  5. Rheological properties and mineral content of buckwheat enriched wholegrain wheat pasta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedeljković Nataša

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Light buckwheat flour (LBF was used to substitute 20% of whole wheat flour (WWF in the formulation of wholegrain wheat pasta. Wholegrain wheat pasta (WWP and buckwheat enriched wholegrain wheat pasta (BWWP were produced on an industrial scale. Substitution level of buckwheat flour (20% was based on previously conducted rheological tests on LBF/WWF blends which were performed using 10, 20 and 30% of LBF. The obtained Mixolab profiles have indicated that wheat blend containing 20% LBF expressed the most similar rheological parameters to WWF. Proximate composition, cooking quality and mineral content of BWWP were analyzed and compared with those of WWP. The substitution of WWF with LBF in the pasta formulation resulted in significantly increased (P < 0.05 contents of P, Mg, K and Zn compared to WWP in dry pasta. The reduction in mineral content of BWWP during cooking was significantly higher (P < 0.05 compared to WWP. The content of P, Mg and K were at same level in both type of pasta after cooking. The obtained results suggest that enrichment of WWP with LBF at the level of 20% did not improve the mineral content of cooked pasta, although increase in minerals was observed in dry pasta. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31029

  6. Mineral Contents in Seeds of Soybean Cultivars Bred for Warm Region in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    赤木, 功; 西原, 基樹; 上田, 重英; 横山, 明敏; 佐伯, 雄一

    2009-01-01

    From 2003 to 2005, mineral contents in seeds of thirteen soybean (Glycine max) cultivars bred for warm region in Japan were analyzed. The potassium, phosphorus, magnesium and calcium contents (g kg-1) ranged from 11.0 to 19.5 from 5.30 to 8.63, from 2.39 to 3.53, and from 1.24 to 3.25, respectively. The iron, zinc, manganese and copper contents (mg kg-1) ranged from 65 to 125, from 32.3 to 56.8, from 29.0 to 42.9, and from 3.7 to 21.4, respectively. Analysis of valiance for mineral contents s...

  7. Sugar and inorganic anions content in mineral and spring water-based beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilek, Maciej; Matłok, Natalia; Kaniuczak, Janina; Gorzelany, Józef

    2014-01-01

    Carbonated and non-carbonated beverages manufactured based on mineral and spring waters have been present at the Polish market shortly, and their production and sales are regularly growing. The products have become commonly known as flavoured waters. The aim of the work was to identify and assess the content of carbohydrates used for sweetening mineral and spring water-based beverages and to estimate a concentration of inorganic anions. The study was undertaken for 15 mineral and spring water-based beverages subject to an analysis contents of fructose, glucose and sucrose with the high-performance liquid chromatography method with ELSD detection) and chlorides, nitrates and sulphates contents using the ion chromatography method. A chromatographic analysis has confirmed the total contents of sugar declared by the manufacturers. The carbohydrates identified included fructose, glucose and sucrose (added sugar). Chlorides and sulphates were found in the content of all the analysed beverages while nitrates were not determined in only one of the 15 examined beverages. Mass consumption of mineral and spring water-based beverages should be considered as an important source of sugar and their excessive consumption may be disadvantageous for human health. A consumer should be informed by a manufacturer about a daily dose of sugar in a portion of a drink in per cents, and the easiest way to do it is to provide GDA marks on the label. Mineral and spring water-based beverages do not pose threats to consumer health in terms of their contents of inorganic ions: chlorides, nitrates and sulphates.

  8. Effect of unilateral superior cervical ganglionectomy on bone mineral content and density of rat's mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladizesky, M G; Cutrera, R A; Boggio, V; Mautalen, C; Cardinali, D P

    2000-01-14

    To assess the effect of a local sympathectomy on bone metabolism, the effect of a unilateral superior cervical ganglionectomy (Gx) on growth and bone mineral content and density of the ipsi- and contralateral mandibles was examined in female rats. A significant increase in the hemi-mandibular bone ipsilateral to Gx was found as compared to the contralateral, sham-operated side 30 days, but not 15 days, after surgery. Bone mineral content of the hemi-mandibular bones was significantly lower in the side ipsilateral to Gx in the group of rats killed on the 30th day after surgery. Since no difference in areas between innervated and denervated hemi-mandibles was found, bone mineral density was also significantly lower in the hemi-mandible ipsilateral to Gx. The results further support that a regional sympathectomy causes qualitative alterations in bone modeling and remodeling, leading to bone resorption.

  9. MINERALS, MICROELEMENTS AND POLYPHENOLS CONTENT IN THE SOYBEAN VARIETIES GROWN IN DIFFERENT LOCALITIES OF SLOVAKIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Timoracká

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the grown locality on minerals and risky metal intake from the soil and on polyphenols formation in the soybean seeds. The research was realised in five localities of Slovakia using the seven soybean varieties. From the point of the soil hygiene, all determined values of heavy metals content in soils were lower than given hygienic limits, with the exception of Cd. Minerals and heavy metals contents in the soybean samples show significant differences between cultivars and localities. The values show imbalance between the potassium contents and other minerals. The order of the elements levels was determined as following: Fe > Zn > Mn > Cu > Ni > Pb > Cr ≈ Co > Cd. The risky elements contents, with exception of Cd, Cu, Pb and Ni content (only in some localities, did not exceed a limit for legumes by Food Codex SR. The total polyphenols content ranged from 817.6 to 1281.0 μg eq. tannic acid/g and suggest the variety dependence, but the locality influence was not significantly confirmed.

  10. [Content of mineral elements of Gastrodia elata by principal components analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin-ling; Zhao, Zhi; Liu, Hong-chang; Luo, Chun-li; Huang, Ming-jin; Luo, Fu-lai; Wang, Hua-lei

    2015-03-01

    To study the content of mineral elements and the principal components in Gastrodia elata. Mineral elements were determined by ICP and the data was analyzed by SPSS. K element has the highest content-and the average content was 15.31 g x kg(-1). The average content of N element was 8.99 g x kg(-1), followed by K element. The coefficient of variation of K and N was small, but the Mn was the biggest with 51.39%. The highly significant positive correlation was found among N, P and K . Three principal components were selected by principal components analysis to evaluate the quality of G. elata. P, B, N, K, Cu, Mn, Fe and Mg were the characteristic elements of G. elata. The content of K and N elements was higher and relatively stable. The variation of Mn content was biggest. The quality of G. elata in Guizhou and Yunnan was better from the perspective of mineral elements.

  11. A multicenter study of the influence of fat and lean mass on bone mineral content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hla, M M; Davis, J W; Ross, P D

    1996-01-01

    We examined the relative influence of fat and lean mass on bone mineral content (BMC) among 1600 early postmenopausal women aged 45-59 y from four geographical locations (Nottingham, United Kingdom; Portland, OR; Honolulu; and Copenhagen). Bone sites investigated included the major fracture sites...

  12. Yield and Nicotine Content of Flue-Cured Tobacco as Affected by Soil Nitrogen Mineralization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JU Xiao-Tang; CHAO Feng-Chun; LI Chun-Jian; JIANG Rong-Feng; P.CHRISTIE; ZHANG Fu-Suo

    2008-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) supply is the most important factor affecting yield and quality of flue-cured tobacco (FCT).A field experiment and an in situ incubation method were used to study the effects of soil N mineralization in the later stages of growth on yield and nicotine content of FCT in Fenggang and Jiusha,Guizhou Province.The yield and market value of FCT at Fenggang were much lower than those at Jinsha.However,the nicotine content of middle and upper leaves was much higher at Fenggang than at Jiusha when the same rate of fertilizer N was applied,which might be due to a higher N supply capacity at the Fenggang site.At later stages of growth (7-16 weeks after transplanting),the soil net N mineralization at Fenggang (56 kg N ha-1) was almost double that at Jiusha (30 kg N ha-1).While soil NHa-N and NO3-N were almost exhausted by the plants or leached 5 weeks after transplanting,the N taken up at the later growth stages at Fenggang were mainly derived from soil N mineralization,which contributed to a high nicotine content in the upper leaves.The order of soil N contribution to N buildup in different leaves was:upper leaves > middle leaves > lower leaves.Thus,soil N mineralization at late growth stages was an important factor affecting N accumulation and therefore the nicotine content in the upper leaves.

  13. Dietary carbohydrates and fat influence radiographic bone mineral content of growing foals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, R M; Lawrence, L A; Kronfeld, D S; Cooper, W L; Sklan, D J; Dascanio, J J; Harris, P A

    1999-12-01

    Hydrolyzable carbohydrate intake in horse diets may become excessive when rapidly growing pastures are supplemented with grain-based concentrates. The substitution of fat and fiber for hydrolyzable carbohydrate in concentrates has been explored in exercising horses but not in young, growing horses. Our objective was to compare bone development in foals that were fed pasture and concentrates rich in sugar and starch (corn, molasses) or fat and fiber (corn oil, beet pulp, soybean hulls, oat straw). Forty foals were examined, 20 each in 1994 and 1995. In each year, 10 mares and their foals were fed a corn and molasses supplement (SS) and 10 others were fed a corn oil and fiber supplement (FF). The concentrates were formulated to be isocaloric and isonitrogenous, and mineral content was balanced to complement the pastures and meet or exceed NRC requirements. Dorsopalmar radiographs were taken of the left third metacarpal monthly from birth to weaning and then every other month until 1 yr of age. Bone density was estimated using imaging software and an aluminum stepwedge. Radiographic examination indicated differences in medial, lateral, and central bone mineral content of the metacarpal III. Bone mineral content increased with age, and a plateau was observed during winter. Bone mineral content was lower in weanlings and yearlings fed the FF supplement than in those fed SS. Subjective clinical leg evaluations indicated differences in physitis, joint effusion, and angular and flexural limb deformities in response to age, and possibly to season. Regression analysis indicated positive relationships between bone mineral content and body weight, age, and body measurements. Nutrient and chemical interactions, such as the binding of calcium by fat and fiber, may alter the availability of elements necessary for bone development.

  14. Thorium and uranium contents in human urine: influence of age and residential area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jundi, J; Werner, E; Roth, P; Höllriegl, V; Wendler, I; Schramel, P

    2004-01-01

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) has been used for the determination of (232)Th and (238)U in urine of unexposed Jordanian subjects living in six cities. The range of (232)Th excretion in all subjects was found to be 1.4-640 microBq d(-1) with an average of 34.8 microBq d(-1) (geometric mean 15.8 microBq d(-1)). Results showed no statistically significant correlation with age and residential area. The average value obtained is in agreement with levels considered normal in some recent publications. The average value of (238)U in all samples was found to be 3955 microBq d(-1) (geometric mean 1107 microBq d(-1)), which is higher than reported figures from Germany and India, but in agreement with those figures given in ICRP publication, number 23. The mean values of the different groups were found to be proportional to age up to 60 years. A noticeable drop is observed for subjects greater than 60 years old.

  15. Some compositional properties and mineral contents of carob (Ceratonia siliqua) fruit, flour and syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, Mehmet Musa; Arslan, Derya; Gökçalik, Harun

    2007-12-01

    The approximate composition and mineral contents of carob fruit (Ceratonia siliqua), and the traditional foods produced from this fruit, carob flour and carob syrup, were studied. Protein, crude fiber and ash content and energy values of carob syrup were lower than the values of both carob fruit and carob flour. According to the results, the total sugar content, the most important constituents of carob products, were 48.35%, 41.55% and 63.88% for fruit, flour and syrup, respectively. These products contained high amounts of calcium, potassium, magnesium, sodium and phosphorus, which were the most abundant elements in carob fruits (P carob syrup, respectively. Carob flour also contained these elements in high amounts, with the addition of sodium. We extended the notion that carob fruit, flour and syrup were rich sources of carbohydrates, proteins and minerals.

  16. Mineral Content in Leaves of Tomato Plants Grafted on Solanum Rootstocks

    OpenAIRE

    松添, 直隆; 間, 浩美; 花田, 勝美; モハメド, アリ, エル, サイド, アリ; 大久保, 敬; 藤枝, 國光

    1995-01-01

    Nutrient uptake of tomato plants cv. Momotaro grafted on Solanum sisymbriifoliulm, S. torvum and S. toxicarium which are resistant to soil-born disease were compared with tomato grafted on its own root, a tomato/tomato, scion/rootstock combination. Mineral content in leaves of tomato/S. sisymbriifoliulm was nearly equal to that of tomato/tomato. In leaves of tomato/S. torvum, nitrogen content was higher, and magnesium content was lower than those of tomato/tomato. Furthermore, phosphorus and ...

  17. Application of short-wave infrared (SWIR) spectroscopy in quantitative estimation of clay mineral contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jinfeng; Xing, Lixin; Liang, Liheng; Pan, Jun; Meng, Tao

    2014-03-01

    Clay minerals are significant constituents of soil which are necessary for life. This paper studied three types of clay minerals, kaolinite, illite, and montmorillonite, for they are not only the most common soil forming materials, but also important indicators of soil expansion and shrinkage potential. These clay minerals showed diagnostic absorption bands resulting from vibrations of hydroxyl groups and structural water molecules in the SWIR wavelength region. The short-wave infrared reflectance spectra of the soil was obtained from a Portable Near Infrared Spectrometer (PNIS, spectrum range: 1300~2500 nm, interval: 2 nm). Due to the simplicity, quickness, and the non-destructiveness analysis, SWIR spectroscopy has been widely used in geological prospecting, chemical engineering and many other fields. The aim of this study was to use multiple linear regression (MLR) and partial least squares (PLS) regression to establish the optimizing quantitative estimation models of the kaolinite, illite and montmorillonite contents from soil reflectance spectra. Here, the soil reflectance spectra mainly refers to the spectral reflectivity of soil (SRS) corresponding to the absorption-band position (AP) of kaolinite, illite, and montmorillonite representative spectra from USGS spectral library, the SRS corresponding to the AP of soil spectral and soil overall spectrum reflectance values. The optimal estimation models of three kinds of clay mineral contents showed that the retrieval accuracy was satisfactory (Kaolinite content: a Root Mean Square Error of Calibration (RMSEC) of 1.671 with a coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.791; Illite content: a RMSEC of 1.126 with a R2 of 0.616; Montmorillonite content: a RMSEC of 1.814 with a R2 of 0.707). Thus, the reflectance spectra of soil obtained form PNIS could be used for quantitative estimation of kaolinite, illite and montmorillonite contents in soil.

  18. [Fluoride content of bottled natural mineral waters in Spain and prevention of dental caries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraver, Francisco; Vitoria, Isidro; Almerich-Silla, José Manuel; Armijo, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the concentration of fluoride in natural mineral waters marketed in Spain in order to prevent tooth decay without the risk of causing dental fluorosis Descriptive and cross-sectional study during 2012. Natural mineral waters marketed in Spain. Three bottles with different bottling dates of 109 natural mineral waters (97 Spanish and 12 imported brands). Determination of fluoride by ion chromatography Median fluoride concentrations of the natural mineral waters bottled in Spain was 0.22 (range 0.00-4.16; interquartile range:0.37). Most samples (61 brands, 62%) contained less than 0.3mg/L. There are 19 Spanish brands with more than 0.6 mg/L. The median level in imported brands was 0.35 (range 0.10-1.21; interquartile range: 0.23). Only 28 of the 109 brands examined (25.6%) specified the fluoride content on the label. Good correlation was observed between the concentrations indicated and those determined. Fluoride concentrations in natural mineral waters showed high variation. Given the growing consumption of natural mineral waters in Spain, this type of information is important to make proper use of fluoride in the primary prevention of dental caries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Vitamin B12 status is associated to bone mineral content and bone mineral density in frail elderly women, but not in men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M.; Lips, M.; Jong, N.; Chin A Paw, M.J.M.; Hiddink, G.J.; Dusseldorp, van M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2003-01-01

    Subclinical vitamin B-12 deficiency is common in the elderly. Encouraged by early indications, we investigated the plasma vitamin B-12 status in association with bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) in frail elderly people. Data of 194 free-living Dutch frail elderly (143 women

  20. Vitamin B12 status is associated to bone mineral content and bone mineral density in frail elderly women, but not in men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M.; Lips, M.; Jong, N.; Chin A Paw, M.J.M.; Hiddink, G.J.; Dusseldorp, van M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2003-01-01

    Subclinical vitamin B-12 deficiency is common in the elderly. Encouraged by early indications, we investigated the plasma vitamin B-12 status in association with bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) in frail elderly people. Data of 194 free-living Dutch frail elderly (143 women

  1. Pyrolysis of waste materials: Characterization and prediction of sorption potential across a wide range of mineral contents and pyrolysis temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kah, Melanie; Sun, Huichao; Sigmund, Gabriel; Hüffer, Thorsten; Hofmann, Thilo

    2016-08-01

    Sewage sludge (50% mineral), manure (29%) and wood (mineral contents. A commercial plant-derived biochar (41% mineral) was also considered. The materials were extensively characterized and tested for their sorption towards the model sorbates benzene, naphthalene and pyrene. Plant-derived materials, regardless of their mineral content, developed micropores causing size exclusion of pyrene. Changes in properties and sorption behavior upon pyrolysis were generally consistent for the manure and wood series. A single regression equation developed on our data (including the sorbate hydrophobicity and sorbent polarity) provided excellent prediction of previously reported changes in sorption upon pyrolysis across a wide range of mineral content (up to 500°C). The sewage sludge series, however, followed a particular behavior, possibly due to very high mineral content (up to 67%).

  2. Analysis on Mineral Element Contents in Associated with Varietal Type in Core Collection of Yunnan Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENGYa-wen; LIUJia-fu; WANGLu-xiang; SHENShi-quan; LIZi-chao; WANGXiangkun; WENGuo-song; YANGZhong-yi

    2004-01-01

    Eight-element contents of 653 unpolished rice samples harvested from Xingping experiment farm, Yunnan Province under thc same ecological conditions were analyzed by ICP-AES method. The mineral elements content were closely related to low diversity, high-yielding, and multi-resistance breeding; The K, Mg, Ca and Mn content in high-yielding and resistant varieties were high, and other nutrients such as P, Fe, Zn and Cu were low, which was connected with the heredity and physiological mechanism of mineral nutrients. There is zonal distribution of mineral elements content from Yunnan rice, especially for P, Fe, Zn and Cu co-related with the diversity center, paddy versus upland, glutinous and non-glutinous, glumc-hair versus nuda, rice color, rice flavor, soft rice versus non-soft rice, but it did not find any association with indica-japonica types. The results supported the ecological variety group view of 5-grade taxonomic system "species-subspecies-ccological groups-ecological variety groups - varietal types" .

  3. Effects of Purple Blotch Infection on the Proximate and Mineral Contents of Onion Leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Aliero

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of Alternaria porri Ell. ( Ciferri associated with purple blotch disease in onion on the proximate and mineral composition of onion leaves was investigated. Samples of both healthy and purple blotch - infected onion leaves were dried and analyzed for the nutritional components except moisture content. The mineral contents ( Na, K, Ca, P, Mg, Fe , Zn were determined by flame photometry and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The infected leaf showed a significant (p < 0.05 decrease in the quantity of the crudeprotein, fat, fibre and ash. The moisture content was. significantly (p < 0.05 lower in healthy onion leaves (88.0% than in the infected leaves (94.7%. Similarly, carbohydrate content was lower in diseased leaves than in healthy onion leaves. The levels of minerals were ignificantly (p < 0.05 lower in diseased leaves compared to the healthy (control leaves indicating that the infection of onion leaves by purple blotch pathogen (Alternaria porri had a significant impact in reducing the nutritional value of the onion leaves. It is important to avoid fungal contamination with a view to enhance nutrient bioavailability for human consumption.

  4. Mineral Composition, Total Phenol Content and Antioxidant Activity of a Macrolichen Everniastrum cirrhatum (Fr. Hale (Parmeliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. R. Prashith Kekuda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated for the first time mineral composition, total phenol content and antioxidant activity of a foliose macrolichen Everniastrum cirrhatum (Fr. Hale (Parmeliaceae from Bhadra wildlife sanctuary, Karnataka, India. Mineral content of the lichen was estimated by Atomic absorption spectrophotometer after acid digestion. The secondary metabolites were detected by thin layer chromatography (TLC and phytochemical assays. The lichen material was extracted with methanol in soxhlet apparatus. Total phenol content was estimated by folin ciocalteu method. Antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH, Ferric reducing and metal chelating assays. Among the principal elements, calcium was found in high concentration followed by magnesium, potassium and phosphorus. Among trace elements, iron was detected in high amount followed by zinc, manganese and copper. The DPPH radical scavenging activity was found to be dose dependent with an IC50 of 6.73 μg/mL. In ferric reducing assay, the absorbance increased with the concentration of extract suggesting reducing power. The extract exhibited good metal chelating activity with an IC50 value of 29.28 μg/mL. Total phenol content was 101.2 mg tannic acid equivalents per gram of extract. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins and terpenoids. TLC revealed atranorin, salazinic acid and protolichesterinic acid. The lichen can be consumed as a source of minerals required for the body as appreciable amount of minerals has been detected. The marked antioxidant activity may be attributed to the presence of phenol content in the extract. Further studies on isolation of metabolites and their bioactivities are under investigation.

  5. Vitamin D status is associated with bone mineral density and bone mineral content in preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazell, Tom J; Pham, Thu Trang; Jean-Philippe, Sonia; Finch, Sarah L; El Hayek, Jessy; Vanstone, Catherine A; Agellon, Sherry; Rodd, Celia J; Weiler, Hope A

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the associations between vitamin D status, bone mineral content (BMC), areal bone mineral density (aBMD), and markers of calcium homeostasis in preschool-aged children. Children (n=488; age range: 1.8-6.0 y) were randomly recruited from Montreal. The distal forearm was scanned using a peripheral dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanner (Lunar PIXI; GE Healthcare, Fairfield, CT). A subset (n=81) had clinical dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (cDXA) scans (Hologic 4500A Discovery Series) of lumbar spine (LS) 1-4, whole body, and ultradistal forearm. All were assessed for plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and parathyroid hormone concentrations (Liaison; Diasorin), ionized calcium (ABL80 FLEX; Radiometer Medical A/S), and dietary vitamin D and calcium intakes by survey. Age (p75 nmol/L positively associated with forearm and whole body BMC and aBMD (p<0.036). Sun index related to (p<0.029) cDXA forearm and LS 1-4 BMC and whole-body aBMD. Nutrient intakes did not relate to BMC or aBMD. In conclusion, higher vitamin D status is linked to higher BMC and aBMD of forearm and whole body in preschool-aged children.

  6. Mineral content and biochemical variables of Aloe vera L. under salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo-Amador, Bernardo; Córdoba-Matson, Miguel Víctor; Villegas-Espinoza, Jorge Arnoldo; Hernández-Montiel, Luis Guillermo; Troyo-Diéguez, Enrique; García-Hernández, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    Despite the proven economic importance of Aloe vera, studies of saline stress and its effects on the biochemistry and mineral content in tissues of this plant are scarce. The objective of this study was to grow Aloe under NaCl stress of 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 mM and compare: (1) proline, total protein, and enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEP-case) in chlorenchyma and parenchyma tissues, and (2) ion content (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cl, Fe, P. N, Zn, B, Mn, and Cu) in roots, stems, leaves and sprouts. Proline and PEP-case increased as salinity increased in both parenchyma and chlorenchyma, while total protein increased in parenchyma and decreased in chlorenchyma, although at similar salt concentrations total protein was always higher in chlorenchyma. As salinity increased Na and Cl ions increased in roots, stems, leaves, while K decreased only significantly in sprouts. Salinity increases typically caused mineral content in tissue to decrease, or not change significantly. In roots, as salinity increased Mg decreased, while all other minerals failed to show a specific trend. In stems, the mineral concentrations that changed were Fe and P which increased with salinity while Cu decreased. In leaves, Mg, Mn, N, and B decreased with salinity, while Cu increased. In sprouts, the minerals that decreased with increasing salinity were Mg, Mn, and Cu. Zinc did not exhibit a trend in any of the tissues. The increase in protein, proline and PEP-case activity, as well as the absorption and accumulation of cations under moderate NaCl stress caused osmotic adjustment which kept the plant healthy. These results suggest that Aloe may be a viable crop for soil irrigated with hard water or affected by salinity at least at concentrations used in the present study.

  7. Mineral Content and Biochemical Variables of Aloe vera L. under Salt Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo-Amador, Bernardo; Córdoba-Matson, Miguel Víctor; Villegas-Espinoza, Jorge Arnoldo; Hernández-Montiel, Luis Guillermo; Troyo-Diéguez, Enrique; García-Hernández, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    Despite the proven economic importance of Aloe vera, studies of saline stress and its effects on the biochemistry and mineral content in tissues of this plant are scarce. The objective of this study was to grow Aloe under NaCl stress of 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 mM and compare: (1) proline, total protein, and enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEP-case) in chlorenchyma and parenchyma tissues, and (2) ion content (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cl, Fe, P. N, Zn, B, Mn, and Cu) in roots, stems, leaves and sprouts. Proline and PEP-case increased as salinity increased in both parenchyma and chlorenchyma, while total protein increased in parenchyma and decreased in chlorenchyma, although at similar salt concentrations total protein was always higher in chlorenchyma. As salinity increased Na and Cl ions increased in roots, stems, leaves, while K decreased only significantly in sprouts. Salinity increases typically caused mineral content in tissue to decrease, or not change significantly. In roots, as salinity increased Mg decreased, while all other minerals failed to show a specific trend. In stems, the mineral concentrations that changed were Fe and P which increased with salinity while Cu decreased. In leaves, Mg, Mn, N, and B decreased with salinity, while Cu increased. In sprouts, the minerals that decreased with increasing salinity were Mg, Mn, and Cu. Zinc did not exhibit a trend in any of the tissues. The increase in protein, proline and PEP-case activity, as well as the absorption and accumulation of cations under moderate NaCl stress caused osmotic adjustment which kept the plant healthy. These results suggest that Aloe may be a viable crop for soil irrigated with hard water or affected by salinity at least at concentrations used in the present study. PMID:24736276

  8. Content, mineral allocation and leaching behavior of heavy metals in urban PM2.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazziotti Tagliani, Simona; Carnevale, Monica; Armiento, Giovanna; Montereali, Maria Rita; Nardi, Elisa; Inglessis, Marco; Sacco, Fabrizio; Palleschi, Simonetta; Rossi, Barbara; Silvestroni, Leopoldo; Gianfagna, Antonio

    2017-03-01

    To clarify the relationship between airborne particulate exposure and negative impacts on human health, focusing on the heavy metal content alone might not be sufficient. To address this issue, in the present work, mineral allocation and leaching behavior of heavy metals in the PM2.5 were investigated. This work, therefore, provides a novel perspective in the field of urban airborne particle investigation that is not currently found in the literature. Four sampling campaigns were performed in the urban area of Rome (Central Italy) during the winter and summer seasons (February and July 2013 and 2014, respectively). The measured concentrations of the regulated elements of As, Cd, Ni and Pb were consistent with those reported by the local Environmental Agency (ARPA Lazio), but non-regulated heavy metals, including Fe, Cu, Cr and Zn, were also found in PM2.5 and analyzed in detail. As a novelty, heavy metals were associated with the host-identified mineral phases, primarily oxides and alloys, and to a lesser extent, other minerals, such as sulfates, carbonates and silicates. Leaching tests of the collected samples were conducted in a buffered solution mimicking the bodily physiological environment. Despite the highest concentration of heavy metals found during the winter sampling period, all of the elements showed a leaching trend leading to major mobility during the summer period. To explain this result, an interesting comparative analysis between the leaching test behavior and innovative mineral allocation was conducted. Both the heavy metal content and mineral allocation in PM2.5 might contribute to the bioavailability of toxic elements in the pulmonary environment. Hence, for regulatory purposes, the non-linear dependency of heavy metal bioavailability on the total metal content should be taken into account.

  9. Stored human urine supplemented with wood ash as fertilizer in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) cultivation and its impacts on fruit yield and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Surendra K; Holopainen, Jarmo K; Heinonen-Tanski, Helvi

    2009-08-26

    This study evaluates the use of human urine and wood ash as fertilizers for tomato cultivation in a greenhouse. Tomatoes were cultivated in pots and treated with 135 kg of N/ha applied as mineral fertilizer, urine + ash, urine only, and control (no fertilization). The urine fertilized plants produced equal amounts of tomato fruits as mineral fertilized plants and 4.2 times more fruits than nonfertilized plants. The levels of lycopene were similar in tomato fruits from all fertilization treatments, but the amount of soluble sugars was lower and Cl(-) was higher in urine + ash fertilized tomato fruits. The beta-carotene content was greater and the NO(3)(-) content was lower in urine fertilized tomato fruits. No enteric indicator microorganisms were detected in any tomato fruits. The results suggest that urine with/without wood ash can be used as a substitute for mineral fertilizer to increase the yields of tomato without posing any microbial or chemical risks.

  10. Evaluation of mineral content and heavy metals of dromedary camel milk in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdieh MOSTAFIDI

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to determine the amount of major mineral compounds and heavy metals of camel milk in Iran. For this purpose camel milk samples were collected from seven regions of Iran include Qazvin, Golestan, Semnan, Sistan-Baluchestan, Khuzestan, Bushehr and Tehran. The samples were analyzed using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometer (ICP-OES method. The results showed that among the mineral contents, iron and zinc of camel milk were greater than bovine milk. Based on the codex standard 193-2007 standards, the maximum acceptable limit for lead and cadmium is 20 µg/kg and 10 µg/kg, respectively. The results of this study showed that the measured amounts of lead, cadmium and nickel in all samples were less than the acceptable limit for bovine milk. Bovine milk and dairy products are a poor source of iron, while the obtained data revealed that camel milk is a major source of minerals, especially iron. The camel milk’s iron was 10 times more than bovine milk. However, variations in mineral content in camel milk could be due to feed, stage of lactation, milk collection time, drought conditions, environmental conditions and associated analytical methods. Camel milk recommended as a valuable source of food for the human.

  11. Phenolic Profiles, Phytchemicals and Mineral Content of Decoction and Infusion of Opuntia ficus-indica Flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, Imene; Ennouri, Monia; Bouaziz, Mohamed; Ben Amira, Amal; Attia, Hamadi

    2015-12-01

    Opuntia flowers are a natural source of biologically active compounds and they have been used as medicinal plant for a long time. Despite the various uses reported for the decoction and infusion of these flowers, their characterization has been discarded. In this study, the decoction and infusion prepared from Opuntia ficus-indica were analyzed with respect to their content in minerals and phytochemicals in order to evaluate its nutritional characteristics. The obtained data proved that these preparations are a rich source of minerals mainly K and Ca. Moreover, the phytochemical analysis revealed that they have important polyphenols, flavonoids and tannins contents with the infusion that presented the highest polyphenol levels. LC-MS analyses of decoction and infusion allowed the characterization of 20 phenolic compounds. It is mainly identified by the presence of flavonols glycosides.

  12. Health Effects Due to Radionuclides Content of Solid Minerals within Port of Richards Bay, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix B. Masok

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the radiological health hazards to various body organs of workers working within Transnet Precinct in Richards Bay in Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa due to radionuclide content of mineral ores often stored within the facility. Thirty samples were collected from five mineral ores (rock phosphate, rutile, zircon, coal and hematite and analyzed for 238U, 234U, 226Ra, 210Pb, 235U, 232Th, 228Ra, 228Th and 40K using delayed neutron activation analysis and low energy gamma spectroscopy. Rutile was found to be the most radioactive mineral ore within the facility with 210Pb concentration of 759.00 ± 106.00 Bq·kg−1. Effective annual dose rate in (mSv·y−1 delivered to different organs of the body: testes, bone marrow, whole body, lungs and ovaries from mineral ores were such that dose from mineral ores decreased in the order coal > rutile > rock phosphate > hematite > zircon. The organs with the highest received dose rate were the testes and this received dose was from coal. However, all of the calculated absorbed dose rates to organs of the body were below the maximum permissible safety limits.

  13. Bone mineral content measurement in small infants by single-photon absorptiometry: current methodologic issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steichen, J.J.; Asch, P.A.; Tsang, R.C.

    1988-07-01

    Single-photon absorptiometry (SPA), developed in 1963 and adapted for infants by Steichen et al. in 1976, is an important tool to quantitate bone mineralization in infants. Studies of infants in which SPA was used include studies of fetal bone mineralization and postnatal bone mineralization in very low birth weight infants. The SPA technique has also been used as a research tool to investigate longitudinal bone mineralization and to study the effect of nutrition and disease processes such as rickets or osteopenia of prematurity. At present, it has little direct clinical application for diagnosing bone disease in single patients. The bones most often used to measure bone mineral content (BMC) are the radius, the ulna, and, less often, the humerus. The radius appears to be preferred as a suitable bone to measure BMC in infants. It is easily accessible; anatomic reference points are easily palpated and have a constant relationship to the radial mid-shaft site; soft tissue does not affect either palpation of anatomic reference points or BMC quantitation in vivo. The peripheral location of the radius minimizes body radiation exposure. Trabecular and cortical bone can be measured separately. Extensive background studies exist on radial BMC in small infants. Most important, the radius has a relatively long zone of constant BMC. Finally, SPA for BMC in the radius has a high degree of precision and accuracy. 61 references.

  14. Comparing heavy metal contents in crops receiving mineral fertilisers and animal manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bent Tolstrup; Elsgaard, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Spring barley (grain, straw), grass-clover (two cuts), winter wheat (grain, straw) and silage maize grown in the Askov long-term experiment with different levels (0, ½, 1, 1½, 2) of mineral fertiliser (NPK) and animal manure (AM) had concentrations of As, Pb, Cd and Hg below the EC maximum...... in the analysed metal contents between crops grown with NPK and AM. Crop contents of uranium and thallium were below the analytical detection limits regardless of nutrient source and addition rate. Thus in a farming context similar to that of the Askov experiment, the long-term application of standard rates...

  15. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF GENITAL PROLAPSE IN BUFFALOES KEPT UNDER DIFFERENT SYSTEMS AND SERUM MICRO MINERAL CONTENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. BHATTI, I. AHMAD, N. AHMAD, L. A. LODHI AND M. AHMAD

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The present project was planned to conduct an epidemiological survey of genital prolapse in buffaloes kept under different feeding and production systems and to study serum micro mineral contents in these animals. Data on 343 buffaloes were recorded for epidemiological studies, including 297 normal pregnant and 46 prolapsed cases. For serum micro mineral contents, blood samples were collected from 40 buffaloes comprising of 20 normal pregnant and 20 suffering from genital prolapse and analyzed for serum Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn contents. Occurrence of genital prolapse differed non significantly in animals kept under two feeding systems (stall fed and semi stall fed, three floor conditions (uneven floor, kacha/brick floor, sloppy floor and two production systems (rural subsistence small holding and market oriented small holding. Its occurrence was higher during humid summer than other seasons. The mean values of serum copper and zinc were lower in prolapsed buffaloes compared to controls (P<0.01, while there was no difference in serum iron and manganese concentrations among animals of the two groups. Parity had no effect on serum concentration of any micro mineral. However, serum Zn level was higher in buffaloes suffering from vaginal prolapse compared to those with uterine prolapse (P<0.05.

  16. [Chemical composition, dietary fiber and mineral content of frequently consumed foods in northwest Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haro, M I; Caire, G; Sánchez, A; Valencia, M E

    1995-06-01

    Nutrient composition in foods is very important specially in evaluation of nutritional status in populations. In this study the proximate composition, dietary fiber (DF) and mineral content of 15 frequently consumed foods in Northwest Mexico were determined. The procedures used were AOAC (1984) official methods, chemical-enzymatic method for DF and atomic absorption spectrophometry for minerals. Foods were grouped into cereals, legumes, meat and dairy products, fat was the most variable component in all foods (0,41 to 21,1 g/100 g). Fired beans (Phaseolus vulgaris: variedad pinto) had the highest DF content (9,21 g/100g); as is basis). Sodium among the minerales was also highly variable mainly due to the addition of salt during preparation of foods, except in corn tortillas were salt is not added. In contrast wheat flour tortillas had the highest sodium content of the foods analysed. Fresh white cheese had the highest calcium content (563 mg/100g). The meat group had the highest content of Fe and Zn (2,4-5,4 and 4,2-5,4 mg/100 g respectively). This study has provided information with current analytical techniques of important foods in northwest Mexico that will contribute to food composition tables in Latin America.

  17. Physico-Chemical Properties, Antioxidant Activity and Mineral Contents of Pineapple Genotypes Grown in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Hua Lu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The fruit physico-chemical properties, antioxidant activity and mineral contents of 26 pineapple [Ananas comosus (L. Merr.] genotypes grown in China were measured. The results showed great quantitative differences in the composition of these pineapple genotypes. Sucrose was the dominant sugar in all 26 genotypes, while citric acid was the principal organic acid. Potassium, calcium and magnesium were the major mineral constituents. The ascorbic acid (AsA content ranged from 5.08 to 33.57 mg/100 g fresh weight (FW, while the total phenolic (TP content varied from 31.48 to 77.55 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE/100 g FW. The two parameters in the predominant cultivars Comte de Paris and Smooth Cayenne were relative low. However, MD-2 indicated the highest AsA and TP contents (33.57 mg/100 g and 77.55 mg GAE/100 g FM, respectively, and it also showed the strongest antioxidant capacity 22.85 and 17.30 μmol TE/g FW using DPPH and TEAC methods, respectively. The antioxidant capacity of pineapple was correlated with the contents of phenolics, flavonoids and AsA. The present study provided important information for the further application of those pineapple genotypes.

  18. Physico-chemical properties, antioxidant activity and mineral contents of pineapple genotypes grown in china.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xin-Hua; Sun, De-Quan; Wu, Qing-Song; Liu, Sheng-Hui; Sun, Guang-Ming

    2014-06-23

    The fruit physico-chemical properties, antioxidant activity and mineral contents of 26 pineapple [Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.] genotypes grown in China were measured. The results showed great quantitative differences in the composition of these pineapple genotypes. Sucrose was the dominant sugar in all 26 genotypes, while citric acid was the principal organic acid. Potassium, calcium and magnesium were the major mineral constituents. The ascorbic acid (AsA) content ranged from 5.08 to 33.57 mg/100 g fresh weight (FW), while the total phenolic (TP) content varied from 31.48 to 77.55 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 g FW. The two parameters in the predominant cultivars Comte de Paris and Smooth Cayenne were relative low. However, MD-2 indicated the highest AsA and TP contents (33.57 mg/100 g and 77.55 mg GAE/100 g FM, respectively), and it also showed the strongest antioxidant capacity 22.85 and 17.30 μmol TE/g FW using DPPH and TEAC methods, respectively. The antioxidant capacity of pineapple was correlated with the contents of phenolics, flavonoids and AsA. The present study provided important information for the further application of those pineapple genotypes.

  19. Content of amino acids and minerals in selected sorts of legumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Kráčmar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The aim of this study was to determine amino acid composition and mineral content in selected legume samples. All analyses were carried out at the laboratory temperature of 21±2 °C in triplicate. Amino acid composition was determined using the automatic amino acid analyzer AAA 400 with post-column derivatization. To assess the nutritional value of protein, index of essential amino acids (EAAI was calculated. Minerals were determined using the atomic absorption spectrometer AA 30. All results were statistically evaluated. The highest content of Cys, Glu, Asp, Leu, Lys and Arg was determined in seeds of G. max; only the content of Cys and His was lower than 10 g kg-1. The greatest total content of essential amino acids (EAA was discovered in soybeans, almost 128 g kg-1. The majority (Na, K, Mg, and Ca, trace (Fe, Zn, and Cr and toxic elements (Pb, Cd were determined. Legumes were rich in Mg and Ca-mainly G. max and Ph. vulgaris. The content of Mg was 2.1 g/1000g in soybeans and 1.6 g/1000g in common beans. Also in these two legumes the greatest concentration of toxic Pb was found. Values obtained during the determination of the chemical composition in samples of legumes and buckwheat products can be influenced by many factors, e.g. climatic conditions, location etc.

  20. Minerals content of Paraguayan yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis, S.H.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera García, R; Basualdo, I; Peralta, I; de Herebia, M; Caballero, S

    1997-03-01

    Minerals content (Fe, Ca, Mn, Mg, Na, K, Zn and Cu) of the leaves of Paraguayan yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis, S.H.) as well as of commercial products has been determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Considerable amounts of iron and calcium and remarkably high content of magnesium and potassium have been found both in the leaves and in the commercial products. Highly significant difference between the Fe content of the leaves and that of the commercial products has been found. Also, highly significant difference has been found between the Fe and Ca content of the higher quality-greater sale reputed commercial products and that of the lower quality-smaller sale reputed ones. Seasonal and soil linked variations are also presented. The nutritional and quality control significance of these findings for the MERCOSUR (Southern South America Economical Community) are discussed.

  1. Evaluation of Acid Digestion Procedures to Estimate Mineral Contents in Materials from Animal Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, M N N; Rocha, G C; Valadares Filho, S C; Detmann, E

    2015-11-01

    Rigorously standardized laboratory protocols are essential for meaningful comparison of data from multiple sites. Considering that interactions of minerals with organic matrices may vary depending on the material nature, there could be peculiar demands for each material with respect to digestion procedure. Acid digestion procedures were evaluated using different nitric to perchloric acid ratios and one- or two-step digestion to estimate the concentration of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and zinc in samples of carcass, bone, excreta, concentrate, forage, and feces. Six procedures were evaluated: ratio of nitric to perchloric acid at 2:1, 3:1, and 4:1 v/v in a one- or two-step digestion. There were no direct or interaction effects (p>0.01) of nitric to perchloric acid ratio or number of digestion steps on magnesium and zinc contents. Calcium and phosphorus contents presented a significant (p0.01) calcium or phosphorus contents in carcass, excreta, concentrate, forage, and feces. Number of digestion steps did not affect mineral content (p>0.01). Estimated concentration of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and zinc in carcass, excreta, concentrated, forage, and feces samples can be performed using digestion solution of nitric to perchloric acid 4:1 v/v in a one-step digestion. However, samples of bones demand a stronger digestion solution to analyze the mineral contents, which is represented by an increased proportion of perchloric acid, being recommended a digestion solution of nitric to perchloric acid 2:1 v/v in a one-step digestion.

  2. Risk assessment of mineral and heavy metal content of selected tea products from the Ghanaian market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkansah, Marian Asantewah; Opoku, Francis; Ackumey, Abiathar Abraham

    2016-06-01

    Food consumption is the most likely route of human exposure to metals. Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) is among the most widely consumed non-alcoholic beverages. Concentrations of heavy metals and minerals in tea from 15 different brands in Kumasi, Ghana were measured to assess the health risk associated with their consumption. The mineral and metal contents (Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, As, Cd) were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (Z-8100 polarized Zeeman). The results revealed that the mean concentrations were in the order: Ca > Fe > As > Cd > Zn > Pb. The average contents of Ca, Fe, Zn, Pb, Cd, and As in the samples were 94.08, 6.15, 0.20, 0.16, 0.36, and 1.66 mg/kg, respectively. All the minerals and heavy metals were below the maximum permissible limits stipulated by the World Health Organization (WHO) and US Pharmacopeia (USP). Metal-to-metal correlation indicated strong correlations between As/Zn, Cd/Zn, Cd/As, and Pb/As pairs. Factor analysis demonstrated a clear separation between minerals, grouped on one side, and heavy metals, clustered on another side. Both the target hazard quotient (THQ) and hazard index (HI) levels in green tea were far below 1, suggesting that consumption of green tea should pose no potential risk to human health. However, carcinogenic risk levels for arsenic were high; R > 10(-6). The results showed that residents in Kumasi consume tea could be at risk from exposure to these heavy metals and minerals.

  3. Sugar Profile, Mineral Content, and Rheological and Thermal Properties of an Isomerized Sweet Potato Starch Syrup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunson Dominque

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, corn is used to produce more than 85% of the world’s high fructose syrup (HFS. There is a search for alternative HFS substrates because of increased food demand and shrinking economies, especially in the developing world. The sweet potato is a feasible, alternative raw material. This study isomerized a high glucose sweet potato starch syrup (SPSS and determined its sugar profile, mineral content, and rheological and thermal properties. Rheological and thermal properties were measured using a rheometer and DSC, respectively. Sweet potato starch was hydrolyzed to syrup with a mean fructose content of 7.6±0.4%. The SPSS had significantly higher (P<0.05 mineral content when compared to commercial ginger and pancake syrups. During 70 days of storage, the SPSS acted as a non-Newtonian, shear-thinning liquid in which the viscosity decreased as shear stress increased. Water loss temperature of the SPSS continually decreased during storage, while pancake and ginger syrups’ peak water loss temperature decreased initially and then increased. Further and more detailed studies should be designed to further enhance the fructose content of the syrup and observe its stability beyond 70 days. The SPSS has the potential to be used in human food systems in space and on Earth.

  4. Bone mineral content and bone mineral density are lower in older than in younger females with Rett syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although bone mineral deficits have been identified in Rett syndrome (RTT), the prevalence of low bone mineral density (BMD) and its association with skeletal fractures and scoliosis has not been characterized fully in girls and women with RTT. Accordingly, we measured total body bone mineral conten...

  5. Influence of Drought and Sowing Time on Protein Composition, Antinutrients, and Mineral Contents of Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sondeep Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study in a two-year experiment investigated the influence of drought and sowing time on protein composition, antinutrients, and mineral contents of wheat whole meal of two genotypes differing in their water requirements. Different thermal conditions prevailing during the grain filling period under different sowing time generated a large effect on the amount of total soluble proteins. Late sown conditions offered higher protein content accompanied by increased albumin-globulin but decreased glutenin content. Fe content was increased to 20–23%; however, tannin decreased to 18–35% under early sown rain-fed conditions as compared to irrigated timely sown conditions in both the genotypes. Activity of trypsin inhibitor was decreased under rain-fed conditions in both genotypes. This study inferred that variable sowing times and irrigation practices can be used for inducing variation in different wheat whole meal quality characteristics. Lower temperature prevailing under early sown rain-fed conditions; resulted in higher protein content. Higher Fe and lower tannin contents were reported under early sown rain-fed conditions however, late sown conditions offered an increase in phytic acid accompanied by decreased micronutrients and glutenin contents.

  6. Mineral elements and essential oil contents of Scutellaria luteo-caerulea Bornm. & Snit.

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    Mohammad Nikbin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Scutellaria luteo-caerulea Bornm. & Snit. is one of the species of genus Scutellaria, within the family of the Lamiaceae, that is used for immune system stimulation and antibacterial effects in traditional medicine in Iran. The aims of this study were to analyze essential oils and mineral element contents of leaves of  S. luteo-caerulea in flowering stage of development. Materials and Methods: The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation of the leaves of S. luteo-caerulea and were analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS. Moreover, microwave digestion with atomic absorption spectrophotometry were used for the mineral elements assay. Results: Ninety-seven constituents were detected. Between them, the major components were trans-caryophyllene (25.4%, D-germacrene (7.9%, and linalool (7.4%. Determination of mineral elements showed that the highest minerals were Ca2+ (65.14±1.95 µg/ml and K+ (64.67±3.10 µg/ml. Conclusion: Presence of different essential oils and rich sources of Ca2+ and K+ candidate this plant as an auxiliary medication in different diseases, but more complementary researches are needed about its potency and side effects.

  7. Effect of Probiotics Supplementation on Bone Mineral Content and Bone Mass Density

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    Kolsoom Parvaneh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A few studies in animals and a study in humans showed a positive effect of probiotic on bone metabolism and bone mass density. Most of the investigated bacteria were Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium . The positive results of the probiotics were supported by the high content of dietary calcium and the high amounts of supplemented probiotics. Some of the principal mechanisms include (1 increasing mineral solubility due to production of short chain fatty acids; (2 producing phytase enzyme by bacteria to overcome the effect of mineral depressed by phytate; (3 reducing intestinal inflammation followed by increasing bone mass density; (4 hydrolysing glycoside bond food in the intestines by Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria. These mechanisms lead to increase bioavailability of the minerals. In conclusion, probiotics showed potential effects on bone metabolism through different mechanisms with outstanding results in the animal model. The results also showed that postmenopausal women who suffered from low bone mass density are potential targets to consume probiotics for increasing mineral bioavailability including calcium and consequently increasing bone mass density.

  8. An objective algorithm for the determination of bone mineral content using dichromatic absorptiometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appledorn, C.R.; Witt, R.M.; Wellman, H.N.; Johnston, C.C.

    1985-05-01

    The determination of vertebral column bone mineral content by dual photon absorptiometric methods is a problem of continued clinical interest. The more successful methods suffer from the frequent need of operator interaction in order to maintain good precision results. The authors have introduced a new objective algorithm that eliminates the subjectiveness of operator interaction without sacrificing reproducibility. The authors' system consists of a modified rectilinear scanner interfaced to a CAMAC acquisition device coupled to a PDP-11V03 minicomputer. The subject is scanned in the supine position with legs elevated to minimize lordosis. The source (Gd-153) and detector are collimated defining an area of 10mm x 10mm at the level of the spine. The transverse scan width is usually 120 mm. Scanning from the iliac crests toward the head, 50 transverses at 3mm y-increments are acquired at approximately 1mm increments. The data analysis begins with the calculation of R-value for each pixel in the scan. The calculations for bone mineral content are performed and various quantities are accumulated. In a reproducibility study of 116 patient studies, the authors achieved a bone mineral/bone area ratio precision (std dev/mean) of 1.37% without operator interaction nor vertebral body selection.

  9. Genetic Identification of Quantitative Trait Loci for Contents of Mineral Nutrients in Rice Grain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ana Luisa Garcia-Oliveira; Lubin Tan; Yongcai Fu; Chuanqing Sun

    2009-01-01

    In present study, Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, Ca, Mg, P and K contents of 85 Introgression linee (ILs) derived from a cross between an elite indica cultivar Teqing and the wild rice (Oryza rufipogon) were measured by inductively coupled argon plasma (ICAP) spectrometry. Substantial variation was observed for all traits and most of the mineral elements were significantly positive correlated or independent except for Fe with Cu. A total of 31 putative quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were detected for these eight mineral elements by single point analysis. Wild rice (O. rufipogon) contributed favorable alleles for most of the QTLs (26 QTLs), and chromosomes 1, 9 and 12 exhibited 14 QTLs (45%) for these traits. One major effect of QTL for zinc content accounted for the largest proportion of phenotypic variation (11%-19%) was detected near the simple sequence repeats marker RM152 on chromosome 8. The co-locations of QTLs for some mineral elements observed in this mapping population suggested the relationship was at a molecular level among these traits and could be helpful for simultaneous improvement of these traits in rice grain by marker assisted selection.

  10. Bilirubin - urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conjugated bilirubin - urine; Direct bilirubin - urine ... Bilirubin is not normally found in the urine. ... Increased levels of bilirubin in the urine may be due to: Biliary tract disease Cirrhosis Gallstones in the biliary tract Hepatitis Liver disease ...

  11. Contents of vitamins, mineral elements, and some phenolic compounds in cultivated mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattila, P; Könkö, K; Eurola, M; Pihlava, J M; Astola, J; Vahteristo, L; Hietaniemi, V; Kumpulainen, J; Valtonen, M; Piironen, V

    2001-05-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the contents of mineral elements (Ca, K, Mg, Na, P, Cu, Fe, Mn, Cd, Pb, and Se), vitamins (B(1), B(2), B(12), C, D, folates, and niacin), and certain phenolic compounds (flavonoids, lignans, and phenolic acids) in the cultivated mushrooms Agaricus bisporus/white, Agaricus bisporus/brown, Lentinus edodes, and Pleurotus ostreatus. Selenium, toxic heavy metals (Cd, Pb), and other mineral elements were analyzed by ETAAS, ICP-MS, and ICP methods, respectively; vitamins were detected by microbiological methods (folates, niacin, and vitamin B(12)) or HPLC methods (other vitamins), and phenolic compounds were analyzed by HPLC (flavonoids) or GC--MS methods (lignans and phenolic acids). Cultivated mushrooms were found to be good sources of vitamin B(2), niacin, and folates, with contents varying in the ranges 1.8--5.1, 31--65, and 0.30--0.64 mg/100 g dry weight (dw), respectively. Compared with vegetables, mushrooms proved to be a good source of many mineral elements, e.g., the contents of K, P, Zn, and Cu varied in the ranges 26.7--47.3 g/kg, 8.7--13.9 g/kg, 47--92 mg/kg, and 5.2--35 mg/kg dw, respectively. A. bisporus/brown contained large amounts of Se (3.2 mg/kg dw) and the levels of Cd were quite high in L. edodes (1.2 mg/kg dw). No flavonoids or lignans were found in the mushrooms analyzed. In addition, the phenolic acid contents were very low.

  12. The influence of compost on carbohydrates and minerals content in the mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Bąkowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A study of the effect of different composts: horse manure and broiler chicken manure and the influence of flushes during the growing cycle on the carbohydrates and mineral composition of mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus was carried out. In this study the strain Somycel 11 was used. It was found that mannitol, glucose and fructose contents in mushrooms growing on broiler chicken manure were significantly higher than on horse manure. Noticeable differences of macro- and microelement contents were observed, depending on the size of the fruit-body, flushes and type of compost. Phosphorus content in mushroom tissue of the first three flushes growing on horse manure was 2.7 times higher than in those from broiler chicken manure. Boron level in mushrooms in all flushes growing on broiler chicken manure was four times higher as compared with that on horse manure.

  13. Influence of somatic cell count on mineral content and salt equilibria of milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primo Mariani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this research was to study the effect of somatic cell count on mineral content and salt equilibria at the level of quarter milk samples. Ten Italian Friesian cows, in which two homologous quarters (front quarters in 1 cow, rear quarters in 6 cows and both rear and front quarters in 3 cows were characterised by a milk SCC400,000 cells/mL (HC-milk, respectively, were selected. Cows were milked at quarter level during the morning milking and a single sample was collected from each selected quarter, thus, 26 quarter milk samples were collected. Compared to LC-milk, HC-milk was characterised by a lower content of phosphorus and potassium and by a higher content of both sodium and chloride. The equilibrium of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium between the colloidal and soluble phase of milk and the mineralisation degree of the casein micelles, were not different between HC and LC milk.

  14. Improved process control through real-time measurement of mineral content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turler, Daniel; Karaca, Murat; Davis, William B.; Giauque, Robert D.; Hopkins, Deborah

    2001-11-02

    In a highly collaborative research and development project with mining and university partners, sensors and data-analysis tools are being developed for rock-mass characterization and real-time measurement of mineral content. Determining mineralogy prior to mucking in an open-pit mine is important for routing the material to the appropriate processing stream. A possible alternative to lab assay of dust and cuttings obtained from drill holes is continuous on-line sampling and real-time x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy. Results presented demonstrate that statistical analyses combined with XRF data can be employed to identify minerals and, possibly, different rock types. The objective is to create a detailed three-dimensional mineralogical map in real time that would improve downstream process efficiency.

  15. The Heterogeneous Mineral Content of Bone—Using Stochastic Arguments and Simulations to Overcome Experimental Limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukas, C.; Kollmannsberger, P.; Ruffoni, D.; Roschger, P.; Fratzl, P.; Weinkamer, R.

    2011-07-01

    On a sub-millimeter length scale, bone is a very heterogeneous material with varying mineral content. This heterogeneity can be measured by quantitative backscattered electron imaging (qBEI) and quantified by a probability distribution called the bone mineralization density distribution (BMDD). The stochastic nature of the backscattering of electrons during the measurement makes the results dependent on the acquisition time. In this work the influence of the measurement conditions was quantified and was corrected for using Tikhonov regularization. Deconvolution reduces the width of the BMDD and allows a more precise definition of a reference BMDD for healthy adults. The corrected information was used as input for a mathematical model that predicts the time evolution of the BMDD. Simulations of osteoporosis treatment reveal a double peak in the BMDD that is not observed in experiments due to limited acquisition time. Our method allows determining the necessary acquisition time to resolve such double peaks.

  16. Osteoporotic-like effects of cadmium on bone mineral density and content in aged ovariectomized beagles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacco-Gibson, N.; Abrams, J.; Chaudhry, S.; Hurst, D.; Peterson, D.; Bhattacharyya, M.

    1992-12-31

    Our purpose was to evaluate the effects of ovariectomy in conjunction with cadmium (Cd) exposure on bone. Aged female beagles with {sup 45}Ca-labeled skeletons ovariectomized and exposed to Cd. Successive vertebral scans by dual photon absorptiometry monitored changes in bone mineral density (BMD) in each dog with time. Results showed that ovariectomy or Cd exposure alone caused significant decreases in BMD; ovariectomy with Cd exposure caused the greatest decrease. Ovariectomy alone did not decrease BMD in the distal end or mid-shaft of the tibia while BMD of the distal tibia decreased significantly due to Cd exposure alone. Combination treatment resulted in significant decreases in BMD of both tibial regions. At necropsy, tibiae, humeri, lumbar vertebrae and ribs were obtained for biochemical analysis. No group-to-group differences in bone weights (wet, dry, ash), in ash/dry ratios, or in long bone and vertebral Ca/dry or Ca/ash ratios were observed. Significantly higher total {sup 45}Ca content and {sup 45}Ca/dry and {sup 45}Ca/ash ratios were observed in long bones and vertebrae of OV- and OV+ groups. In contrast, intact ribs showed significantly decreased Ca/dry and Ca/ash ratios compared to the SO-group. Quartered ribs demonstrated regional responses to specific treatment; decreases in total Ca content were greatest in the mid-rib region ({minus}36 to {minus}46%). Results suggest that in the aged female beagle, bone mineral loss associated with estrogen depletion is not only related to bone type (trabecular versus cortical) but also to bone Ca pools. Our results also suggest that a regional heterogeneity of bone plays a role in responsiveness to ovariectomy and Cd exposure. These aspects suggest that Cd is an exogenous factor affecting bone mineral loss independently of estrogen depletion. However, estrogen depletion primes bone for responsiveness to Cd-induced bone mineral loss.

  17. Ovariectomy-induced changes in aged beagles: Histomorphometry and mineral content of the rib

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, A.K.; Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Hurst, D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Center for Mechanistic Biology and Biotechnology; Miller, S. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Radiobiology Div.; Sacco-Gibson, N. [Proctor and Gamble Pharmaceuticals, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1997-08-01

    The effects of ovariectomy on the aged beagle skeleton were studied by histomorphometric analysis of the cortical bone in sequential rib biopsies. Biopsies were taken from each ovariectomized (OV) or sham-operated (SO) dog at the time of surgery and at 1, 4, and 8.5 months after surgery. Tetracycline, calcein, and xylenol orange, respectively, were administered by a fluorochrome labeling procedure (2d-10d-2d) just prior to each postoperative biopsy to provide markers of bone formation. Analysis of sequential biopsies provided a means to follow the response to ovariectomy over time and compare each animal against its own baseline. Examination of sequential biopsies indicated that cortical porosity increased by the fourth month after ovariectomy and remained high at 8.5 months. Ovariectomy did not influence histomorphometric indices at one month after surgery, but substantial differences were observed at later times. Ovariectomy stimulated a transient increase in bone formation and was increased six-fold over that of SO dogs at four months. Ribs were also analyzed for mineral content at necropsy. The rib was heterogeneous along its length for calcium content and concentration. In the midrib where biopsies for histomorphometric analysis were taken, ovariectomy induced a decrease in mass and mineral content; total calcium was decreased by approximately 31%. These data demonstrate that the rib cortical bone is a responsive site for the effects of ovariectomy in female dogs.

  18. [Effects of soil texture and water content on the mineralization of soil organic carbon in paddy soils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhong-lin; Wu, Jin-shui; Ge, Ti-da; Tang, Guo-yong; Tong, Cheng-li

    2009-01-01

    To understand how soil texture and water content affect the mineralization of organic C in paddy soil, 3 selected soils (sandy loam, clay loam, and silty clay) were incubated (25 degrees C) with 14 C-labelled rice straw (1.0 g x kg(-1)) at water content varied from 45% to 105% of water holding capacity (WHC). Data indicated that, in the sandy loam and clay loam, the mineralization rate of 14 C-labelled rice straw reached the maximum at 75% WHC, as 53% and 58% of the straw C mineralized in the incubation period of 160 d, whereas in the silty clay, it increased gradually (from 41.8% to 49.0%) as water content increased up to 105% WHC. For all of the three soils, the mineralization rate of soil native organic C reached the maximum at 75% WHC, with 5.8% of the organic C mineralized in the same period for the sandy loam, and 8.0% and 4.8% for the clay loam and silty clay, respectively. As water content increased further, the mineralization rate of native organic C in the three soils significantly declined. The mineralization rate of added rice straw and native organic C in all the three soils, was well fitted with a conic curve. These results suggest that water-logging can decrease the mineralization of organic C in paddy soils.

  19. Effects of glyphosate on the mineral content of glyphosate-resistant soybeans (Glycine max).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Stephen O; Reddy, Krishna N; Bu, Kaixuan; Cizdziel, James V

    2012-07-11

    There are conflicting claims as to whether treatment with glyphosate adversely affects mineral nutrition of glyphosate-resistant (GR) crops. Those who have made claims of adverse effects have argued links between reduced Mn and diseases in these crops. This article describes experiments designed to determine the effects of a recommended rate (0.86 kg ha(-1)) of glyphosate applied once or twice on the mineral content of young and mature leaves, as well as in seeds produced by GR soybeans (Glycine max) in both the greenhouse and field using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). In the greenhouse, there were no effects of either one application (at 3 weeks after planting, WAP) or two applications (at 3 and 6 WAP) of glyphosate on Ca, Mg, Mn, Zn, Fe, Cu, Sr, Ba, Al, Cd, Cr, Co, or Ni content of young or old leaves sampled at 6, 9, and 12 WAP and in harvested seed. Se concentrations were too low for accurate detection in leaves, but there was also no effect of glyphosate applications on Se in the seeds. In the field study, there were no effects of two applications (at 3 and 6 WAP) of glyphosate on Ca, Mg, Mn, Zn, Fe, Cu, Sr, Ba, Al, Cd, Cr, Co, or Ni content of young or old leaves at either 9 or 12 WAP. There was also no effect on Se in the seeds. There was no difference in yield between control and glyphosate-treated GR soybeans in the field. The results indicate that glyphosate does not influence mineral nutrition of GR soybean at recommended rates for weed management in the field. Furthermore, the field studies confirm the results of greenhouse studies.

  20. The effect of processing on total organic acids content and mineral availability of simulated cassava-vegetable diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adewusi, S R; Ojumu, T V; Falade, O S

    1999-01-01

    Changes in pH, titratable acidity and mineral content (Ca, Fe, Mg, Zn) were estimated in processed cassava products while the mineral content of raw and blanched amaranthus vegetable was determined. pH of fresh cassava (6.5) decreased as total organic acid (0.07%) increased with fermentation period. Fufu and lafun had the lowest pH and the highest total organic acids contents. Fermentation of cassava increased the total calcium and iron contents, reduced magnesium level while zinc remained fairly constant in grated cassava but was reduced when soaked in water (for the preparation of fufu and lafun). Fermentation also increased the availability of these selected minerals in both cassva products and simulated cassava-vegetable diets. Blanching reduced the mineral content of amaranthus vegetable but increased mineral availability. Fermentation of cassava and blanching of vegetables play an important role in making minerals more available and these processing methods should be encouraged to potentially ameliorate the disease states associated with mineral deficiency.

  1. Antioxidant Capacity, Mineral Content and Sensory Properties of Gluten-Free Rice and Buckwheat Cookies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenka Pestorić

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Light buckwheat flour was used to substitute rice fl our at the level of 10, 20 and 30 % to produce gluten-free cookies. The substitution of gluten-free cookie formulation with light buckwheat fl our contributed to the signifi cantly higher mineral content, especially magnesium, potassium, iron and copper, in comparison with the control rice cookies (p<0.05. Gluten-free cookies made with rice fl our and buckwheat fl our exhibited signifi cantly higher total phenolic and rutin content, scavenging activity against 1,1-diphenyl 2-picrylhydrazyl radicals (DPPH•, antioxidant activity and reducing power than the control cookies (p<0.05. Comparing all evaluated sensory properties, cookies containing 20 % of light buckwheat flour had the most acceptable sensory properties. The obtained results of principal component analysis showed that the cookies with 20 and 30 % buckwheat flour had better antioxidant and sensory properties in comparison with other two cookie samples.

  2. Influence of vacuum packaging on seed quality and mineral contents in chilli (Capsicum annuum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepa, G T; Chetti, Mahadev B; Khetagoudar, Mahadev C; Adavirao, Gopal M

    2013-02-01

    Studies were carried out to find out the influence of vacuum packaging on physical parameters of whole chilli and biochemical constituents in chilli seeds. Chilli fruits were stored in vacuum packed and jute bags stored at room temperature (25 ± 2 °C), cold storage (4 ± 1 °C) under both light and dark conditions for a period of 24 months. At the end of the storage period, seeds were separated from fruits and various parameters viz., moisture content, capsaicin content, ascorbic acid, carbohydrates, protein and mineral elements like Fe, P, Na and K were analyzed. It was observed that the samples stored in vacuum packed bags maintained the quality with least deterioration in all the quality parameters compared to samples stored in jute bags.

  3. Effect of Fat-Mineral Preparation From Fish Oil on Fatty Acid Content on Cow Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witold Janeczek

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available 8-week-lasting investigation aimed at the assessment of the effect of fish oil application in the form of fat-mineral preparation (F-M on fatty acid content in milk fat. The subject of this investigation were highly efficient dairy cows (primiparous and multiparous. The cows were administered F-M containing fish oil (1% in dry mass of ration which resulted in decreased level of shortchain fatty acids in milk fat and increased level of longchain fatty acids. There was recorded significant increase in isomer cis-9,trans-11 CLA content, as well as the one of polyunsaturated fatty acids of n-3 - EPA and DHA group. The number of n-3 group acid did considerably increase. The fatty acids n-6/n-3 ratio showed significant decrease in both experimental groups.

  4. Evaluation of fatty acid profiles and mineral content of grape seed oil of some grape genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangolar, Serpil Gök; Ozoğul, Yeşim; Tangolar, Semih; Torun, Ayfer

    2009-01-01

    The grape seeds of seven grape cultivars (Alphonse Lavallée, Muscat of Hamburg, Alicante Bouschet, Razaki, Narince, Oküzgözü and Horoz karasi) and two rootstocks (Salt creek and Cosmo 2) were evaluated in terms of quality properties including protein, oil, moisture, ash, fatty acid composition and mineral contents. The oil contents were found to be different for each cultivar, which ranged from 10.45% (Razaki) to 16.73% (Salt creek). Saturated fatty acid values were less than the values of monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids in all genotypes. Among the identified fatty acids, linoleic acid (C18:2) was the predominant fatty acid and followed by oleic acid (C18:1) and palmitic acid (C16:0) in all varieties. The results of mineral analysis showed that all varieties contained considerable amount of macro and micro elements. These grape seeds could be used as a food supplement to improve the nutritive value of the human diet.

  5. Effects of Er:YAG laser on mineral content of sound dentin in primary teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guler, Cigdem; Malkoc, Meral Arslan; Gorgen, Veli Alper; Dilber, Erhan; Bulbul, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the mineral content of sound dentin in primary teeth prepared using an Er:YAG laser at two different power settings. Thirty-six primary second molars were used in this study. Three dentin slabs were obtained from each tooth, and the slabs were randomly divided into three groups: Group A, control; Group B, Er:YAG laser at 3.5 W, 175 mJ, and 20 Hz, short pulse mode; and Group C, Er:YAG laser at 4 W, 200 mJ, and 20 Hz, medium-short pulse mode. One dentin slab per group was used to evaluate the dentinal morphology and surface roughness values using SEM and profilometer, respectively. Mineral content in the dentin slabs were calculated by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance and Tukey's HSD tests. No significant differences in Ca, K, Mg, Na, and P levels or Ca/P ratio were found among the groups (P > 0.05). SEM micrographs showed that surface irregularities increased with a higher power setting. The surface roughness after laser treatment in Group B and Group C was found to be similar, unlike Group A.

  6. Effect of organic and conventional rearing system on the mineral content of pork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Wang, Donghua; Yang, Shuming

    2016-08-01

    Dietary composition and rearing regime largely determine the trace elemental composition of pigs, and consequently their concentration in animal products. The present study evaluates thirteen macro- and trace element concentrations in pork from organic and conventional farms. Conventional pigs were given a commercial feed with added minerals; organic pigs were given a feed based on organic feedstuffs. The content of macro-elements (Na, K, Mg and Ca) and some trace elements (Ni, Fe, Zn and Sr) in organic and conventional meat samples showed no significant differences (P>0.05). Several trace element concentrations in organic pork were significantly higher (Porganic and conventional pork, respectively), Mn (695 and 473μg/kg) and Cu (1.80 and 1.49mg/kg). The results showed considerable differences in mineral content between samples from pigs reared in organic and conventional systems. Our results also indicate that authentication of organic pork can be realized by applying multivariate chemometric methods such as discriminant analysis to this multi-element data.

  7. CLINICAL, HAEMATOLOGICAL AND SERUM MACRO MINERAL CONTENTS IN BUFFALOES WITH GENITAL PROLAPSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ahmed, I. Ahmad, L. A. Lodhi, N. Ahmad and H. A. Samad

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, 20 buffaloes suffering from genital prolapse and 10 normal pregnant (control group buffaloes were used to investigate clinical and haematological changes and serum macro mineral contents. Blood samples of all animals were collected aseptically in two portions i.e. with and without anticoagulant. Haematological parameters were determined from samples containing anticoagulant. Serum was separated from the other portion for determination of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium concentrations with spectrophotmetric kits. The results showed that there was a drastic decrease in serum calcium (6.42 ± 1.05 v 10.96 ± 0.95 mg/dl, phosphorus (2.90 ± 0.85 v 5.50 ± 1.61 mg/dl and magnesium (1.50 ± 0.53 v 2.40 ± 0.53 mg/dl levels in prolapsed animals as compared to the controls (P<0.01. There was also a significant decrease in PCV, Hb concentration, lymphocytes and monocytes, while an increase in ESR, WBC counts and neutrophils was observed in prolapsed animals as compared to controls. However, there was no difference in haematological and serum macro mineral contents between vaginal prolapsed and uterine prolapsed buffaloes. It was concluded that deficiency of calcium, phosphorus or magnesium might be possible causes of genital prolapse in these buffaloes.

  8. Comprehensive phenotypic analysis and quantitative trait locus identification for grain mineral concentration, content, and yield in maize (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Riliang; Chen, Fanjun; Liu, Bingran; Wang, Xin; Liu, Jianchao; Li, Pengcheng; Pan, Qingchun; Pace, Jordon; Soomro, Ayaz-Ali; Lübberstedt, Thomas; Mi, Guohua; Yuan, Lixing

    2015-09-01

    Understanding the correlations of seven minerals for concentration, content and yield in maize grain, and exploring their genetic basis will help breeders to develop high grain quality maize. Biofortification by enhanced mineral accumulation in grain through genetic improvement is an efficient way to solve global nutrient malnutrition, in which one key step is to detect the underlying quantitative trait loci (QTL). Herein, a maize recombinant inbred population (RIL) was field grown to maturity across four environments (two locations × two years). Phenotypic data for grain mineral concentration, content and yield were determined for copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), magnesium (Mg), potassium (K) and phosphorus (P). Significant effects of genotype, location and year were observed for all investigated traits. The strongest location effects were found for Zn accumulation traits probably due to distinct soil Zn availabilities across locations. Heritability (H (2)) of different traits varied with higher H (2) (72-85 %) for mineral concentration and content, and lower (48-63 %) for mineral yield. Significant positive correlations for grain concentration were revealed between several minerals. QTL analysis revealed 28, 25, and 12 QTL for mineral concentration, content and yield, respectively; and identified 8 stable QTL across at least two environments. All these QTL were assigned into 12 distinct QTL clusters. A cluster at chromosome Bin 6.07/6.08 contained 6 QTL for kernel weight, mineral concentration (Mg) and content (Zn, K, Mg, P). Another cluster at Bin 4.05/4.06 contained a stable QTL for Mn concentration, which were previously identified in other maize and rice RIL populations. These results highlighted the phenotypic and genetic performance of grain mineral accumulation, and revealed two promising chromosomal regions for genetic improvement of grain biofortification in maize.

  9. The association of soil organic matter with mineral surfaces depends on clay content in an arable Cambisol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, Steffen A.; Angelika, Koelbl; Hoeschen, Carmen; Mueller, Carsten W.; Koegel-Knabner, Ingrid

    2017-04-01

    The amount and distribution of mineral-associated soil organic matter (MOM) depends on the availability of adsorptive mineral surface area. In soils with low content of fine-sized mineral particles, the available mineral surface is limited in comparison to soils with high content of fine-sized mineral particles. Accordingly, the spatial distribution of MOM from soils with various contents of fine-sized mineral particles should reflect different structural organization of organo-mineral associations. In this study, we analyzed MOM and further indicators of its binding in the topsoil (020 cm) of an arable Cambisol. The sampled site showed a gradient in the content of clay-sized particles (6-35 %) under similar soil management and biomass input. We obtained fine silt-sized (26.3 μm) and clay-sized (0.22 μm) mineral-associated (>1.6 g cm3) fractions from a combined density and size fractionation. We measured solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectra and analyzed the specific surface area of the fractions by N2-BET with and without NaOCl oxidation. The spatial distribution of MOM was determined by nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) at a lateral resolution of approximately 100 nm. We found that the mineral-associated carbon concentration of the fine silt and clay-sized fractions decreased from 80 to 40 mg g-1 when the content of clay-sized particles increased from 6 to 15 %. In the clay-rich soils the mineral-associated carbon remained constant at approximately 40 mg g-1 for higher contents of clay-sized particles from 15 to 30 %. In addition, the 12C and 12C14N ion distributions obtained from NanoSIMS indicated a much higher coverage of mineral surface with MOM in the sandy soils than in the clay-rich soils. Our data shows that both the concentration and coverage of MOM is increased in soils with a lower content of fine-sized mineral particles, when the input of organic material to the soil is similar.

  10. Human urine and wood ash as plant nutrients for red beet (Beta vulgaris) cultivation: impacts on yield quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Surendra K; Holopainen, Jarmo K; Weisell, Janne; Heinonen-Tanski, Helvi

    2010-02-10

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of human urine and wood ash fertilization on the yield and quality of red beet by measuring the microbial, nutrient, and antioxidant (betanin) content of the roots. Red beets were fertilized with 133 kg of N/ha as mineral fertilizer, urine and ash, and only urine with no fertilizer as a control. The mineral-fertilized plants and urine- and ash-fertilized plants also received 89 kg of P/ha. Urine and ash and only urine fertilizer produced 1720 and 656 kg/ha more root biomass, respectively, versus what was obtained from the mineral fertilizer. Few fecal coliforms and coliphage were detected in mineral-fertilized and urine- and ash-fertilized red beet roots. The protein and betanin contents in red beet roots were similar in all treatments. In conclusion, this study revealed that urine with or without ash can increase the yield of red beet and furthermore the microbial quality and chemical quality were similar to the situation in mineral-fertilized products.

  11. Conteúdo de minerais dos ingredientes e da multimistura Mineral content of ingredients and multimixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celma de Oliveira Barbosa

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste estudo foram determinar o conteúdo de minerais dos ingredientes e da multimistura, produzida e comercializada em Teresina-PI e avaliar a composição mineral da multimistura, relacionando-a com a ingestão diária recomendada (IDR. As amostras estudadas foram multimistura, pó da folha de macaxeira, farelo de arroz, farelo de trigo, farinha de trigo e fubá de milho. Os minerais Ca, Cu, K, Mn, Zn, Fe, Mg, Na e P foram determinados usando a técnica de espectrometria de emissão atômica com fonte de plasma indutivamente acoplado (ICP OES. A análise estatística dos dados foi realizada por meio de médias e desvios padrão. As amostras apresentaram baixos teores para a maioria dos minerais analisados, com exceção dos ingredientes farelo de trigo e farinha de trigo. Em especial, observou-se que a multimistura não atingiu o mínimo necessário de 25% do valor diário (VD, para ser considerada complemento nutricional pelo Ministério da Saúde, para os minerais analisados, com exceção do Mn e Mg. Concluiu-se que não existe uma padronização nas quantidades dos ingredientes no preparo da multimistura e que os teores dos minerais não atendem às recomendações diárias necessárias para crianças.The objectives of this study were to determine the mineral content of ingredients and multimixture produced and commercialized in Teresina-PI/Brazil and evaluate the mineral composition in relation to the dietary reference intakes (DRI. The studied samples were multimixture, cassava leaf powder, rice bran, wheat bran, wheat flour and corn flour. The minerals Ca, Cu, K, Mn, Zn, Fe, Mg, Na and P were determined using the atomic emission spectrometry (ICP OES. The statistics analysis of the data was carried out by mean and standard deviations. The samples had low levels in most of the analyzed minerals, except for wheat bran and wheat flour. In particular, it was observed that the multimixture did not reach the minimum of 25% of the

  12. Proximate Composition, Mineral Content and Fatty Acids Analyses of Aromatic and Non-Aromatic Indian Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Kumar Verma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Awareness on nutritive value and health benefits of rice is of vital importance in order to increase the consumption of rice in daily diet of the human beings. In this study, a total of six aromatic and two non-aromatic rice accessions grown in India were analysed for their nutritional quality attributes including proximate composition, mineral contents and fatty acids. Data with three replications were used to measure Pearson's simple correlation co-efficient in order to establish the relationship among various nutritional quality attributes. The result on proximate composition showed that Govind Bhog had the highest moisture (13.57% and fat (0.92% content, which signifies its tasty attribute. Badshah Bhog exhibited the highest fibre content (0.85%, carbohydrate content (82.70% and food energy (365.23 kCal per 100 g. Among the minerals, the higher Ca (98.75 mg/kg, Zn (17.00 mg/kg and Fe (31.50 mg/kg were in Gopal Bhog, whereas the highest Na (68.85 mg/kg was in Badshah Bhog, the highest K (500.00 mg/kg was in Swetganga, Khushboo and Sarbati. The highest contents of unsaturated fatty acids viz. oleic acid (49.14%, linoleic acid (46.99% and linolenic acid (1.27% were found in Sarbati, whereas the highest content of saturated fatty acids viz. myristic acid (4.60% and palmitic acid (31.91% were found in Govind Bhog and stearic acid (6.47% in Todal. The identified aromatic rice accessions Gopal Bhog, Govind Bhog and Badshah Bhog and non-aromatic rice accession Sarbati were found nutritionally superior among all eight tested accessions. The nutritional quality oriented attributes in this study were competent with recognized prominent aromatic and non-aromatic rice accessions as an index of their nutritional worth and recommend to farmers and consumers which may be graded as export quality rice with good unique nutritional values in international market.

  13. Sodium Contents in Dairy Cow Urine and Soil Aggregate Sizes Influence the Amount of Nitrogen Lost from Soil

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    Toru Hamamoto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cow urine deposition on pasture soils is a major source of N-related environmental impacts in the dairy farming systems. The urine-N can potentially be lost to the ground water as nitrate (NO3- and to the atmosphere as nitrous oxide (N2O. These N-related environmental impacts are possibly related to the sodium (Na+ concentrations in urine. We sampled a pasture soil and separated it into three aggregate size groups (0–3, 3–5, and 5–7 mm. Then, cow urine with variable Na+ concentrations (4.3–6.1 g Na+ L−1 was added to the soil cores. We treated the cores with simulated heavy rains and measured the amounts of calcium (Ca2+, Na+, potassium (K+, and inorganic-N leached from the soils. N2O emission rates were also determined throughout the experimental period. Increasing Na+ concentration in urine decreased the loss of NO3- (−20%, after repeatedly applied simulated rain treatments (30 mm × 3, whereas it increased the loss of ammonium (31% and K+ (19%. For the loss of Ca2+ and the emissions of N2O, the effect of the Na+ concentrations was unclear. Field level studies and studies focusing on the mechanisms behind the changes in nutrient losses are needed.

  14. Lack of transgene and glyphosate effects on mineral nutrition and amino acid content of glyphosate-resistant soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    There has been controversy as to whether the glyphosate resistance gene and/or glyphosate applied to glyphosate-resistant (GR) soybean affect mineral content (especially Mg, Mn, and Fe), yield and amino acid content of GR soybean. A two-year field study (2013 and 2014) examined these questions at si...

  15. Urine culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture and sensitivity - urine ... when urinating. You also may have a urine culture after you have been treated for an infection. ... when bacteria or yeast are found in the culture. This likely means that you have a urinary ...

  16. Study on the Correlations between Mineral Contents in Musculus Longissimus Dorsi and Meat Quality for Five Breeds of Pigs

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    REN Guang-zhi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The correlations between mineral contents in musculus longissimus dorsi and meat quality for five breeds of pigs were studied in this experiment. Two imported breeds (Duroc and Yorkshires and three local breeds (Huainan pig, Nanyang black pig, Queshan black pig from Henan province of China were chosen in this trial. Ten 90 kg finishing pigs were selected randomly to slaughter from each breed. Mineral contents of K, Na, Ca, Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn in musculus longissimus dorsi were detected by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and their correlations with meat quality were also analyzed. The results showed : (1 Mn and protein contents had no significant difference among all the breeds (p>0.05, (2 K content in Duroc was higher than that in the other four breeds significantly (p<0.01, (3 Mineral contents of Na, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn in local breeds were higher than that in the imported breeds significantly (p<0.01, (4 Marble stripes and meat colour in local breeds were superior to the imported ones, (5 Intramuscular fat content of local breeds was higher than that of the imported ones (p<0.01, (6 There was a significant positive correlation between Zn and the other mineral contents in the muscle (p<0.01 or p<0.05, (7 Both Cu and Fe contents had a significant positive correlation with meat color (p<0.05, but negative correlation with drip loss (p<0.05, (8 There was a positive correlation between Zn and intramuscular fat content (p<0.01, but negative correlation between Zn and drip loss (p<0.01. In conclusion, Minerals in muscle had significant correlations with meat quality elements, but no significant correlations with meat protein and fat contents.

  17. Sugar Profile, Mineral Content, and Rheological and Thermal Properties of an Isomerized Sweet Potato Starch Syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominque, Brunson; Gichuhi, Peter N; Rangari, Vijay; Bovell-Benjamin, Adelia C

    2013-01-01

    Currently, corn is used to produce more than 85% of the world's high fructose syrup (HFS). There is a search for alternative HFS substrates because of increased food demand and shrinking economies, especially in the developing world. The sweet potato is a feasible, alternative raw material. This study isomerized a high glucose sweet potato starch syrup (SPSS) and determined its sugar profile, mineral content, and rheological and thermal properties. Rheological and thermal properties were measured using a rheometer and DSC, respectively. Sweet potato starch was hydrolyzed to syrup with a mean fructose content of 7.6 ± 0.4%. The SPSS had significantly higher (P SPSS acted as a non-Newtonian, shear-thinning liquid in which the viscosity decreased as shear stress increased. Water loss temperature of the SPSS continually decreased during storage, while pancake and ginger syrups' peak water loss temperature decreased initially and then increased. Further and more detailed studies should be designed to further enhance the fructose content of the syrup and observe its stability beyond 70 days. The SPSS has the potential to be used in human food systems in space and on Earth.

  18. Total antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content and mineral elements in the fruit peel of Myrciaria cauliflora

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    Clináscia Rodrigues Rocha Araújo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content and mineral elements of the fruit peel of Myrciaria cauliflora were investigated. The antioxidant capacity was analyzed by the diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and β-carotene methods. The assays based on the DPPH (EC50 = 3.18 g sample/g DPPH, ABTS•+ (1017 μmol Trolox/g sample, FRAP (1676 µM Fe2SO4/g sample and β-carotene/linoleic acid (70% of oxidation inhibition methods indicated a high antioxidant capacity of the fruit peel extract of the plant. The Folin-Denis method was more efficient in determining the total phenolic compound contents in the different solvents than the Folin-Ciocalteu one. Extractions made with 4:1 methanol-water, 4:1 ethanol-water, 3:2 ethanol-water and 3:2 acetone-water solutions using the Folin-Denis method exhibited high contents of phenolic compounds (18.95, 14.06, 12.93 and 11.99 mg GAE/g, respectively. Potassium was the major element found in the fruit peel, followed by phosphorus, calcium, magnesium and iron, in that order. As a result, the fruit peel of M. cauliflora can be considered as an important source of natural antioxidants and essential elements of easy access for the population and for application in the food industry.

  19. Influence of breed, year season and lactation stage on the buffalo milk mineral content

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    G. Crudeli

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the milk mineral composition of buffalo raised in Corrientes, Argentina, as well as to investigate variations attributed to breed, lactation period and time of the year. Milk samples (n = 105 were collected from 25 Murrah, Mediterranean, Jafarabadi and half-breed Murrah x Mediterranean buffaloes of second and fifth lactation. Animals were located in a dairy farm area with subtropical wet climate with 1.690 mm annual rains and annual mean temperature of 22°C. Mean records were: Ca (1.12 ± 0.40 g.kg-1, P (0.99 ± 0.32 g.kg-1, Mg (0.08± 0.02 g.kg-1, K (0.92 ± 0.25 g.kg-1, Na (0.35 ± 0.11 g.kg-1, Cu (0.35 ± 0.16 mg.kg-1, Mn (0.27 ± 0.10 mg.kg-1, Zn (4.10 ± 1.40 mg.kg-1 y Fe (1.61 ± 0.61 mg.kg-1. These parameters did not reveal significant differences attributable to breed, except for Mg. The time of the year affected the composition of the minerals, except for the Mg and Zn. The nursing stages affect the Ca, P, K and Cu concentrations. From the results obtained, it can be concluded that the mineral content in the milk of buffaloes, it is considerably influenced by regional factors.

  20. Effect of various laser irradiations on the mineral content of dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilber, Erhan; Malkoc, Meral Arslan; Ozturk, A Nilgun; Ozturk, Firat

    2013-01-01

    THE AIM OF THIS STUDY WAS TO EVALUATE THE MINERAL CONTENT OF DENTIN IRRADIATION WITH ERBIUM: yttrium-aliminum-garnet (Er:YAG), Neodmiyum:yttrium-aliminum garnet (Nd:YAG) and potassium titanium phosphate (KTP) laser used for in the treatment of dentin hypersensitivity. Six extracted wisdom, unerupted molar teeth were used in this study. The enamel of the teeth was removed with a conventional bur under water cooling to expose the dentin surface. The teeth were mounted in a slow-speed, diamond-saw, sectioning machine. Two dentin slabs were obtained from each tooth and each slab was sectioned so that 4 slabs were made from each teeth. Then dentin slabs were randomly divided into four groups. Group A: Control Group, Group B: Er:YAG laser, Group C: Nd:YAG laser, Group D: KTP laser. The levels of Ca, K, Mg, Na,P and Ca/P mineral ratio in each dentin slab were measured by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Data were analysed by one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey HSD tests. One sample from each group was prepared for scanning electron microscopy (SEM). There were no significant differences between the groups for Ca, K, Mg, Na,P and Ca/P mineral ratio (P>.05). SEM photographs indicated that there were melted areas around the exposed dentin tubules in groups treated with Er:YAG and KTP lasers. This study demonstrated that laser etching with the Er:YAG, Nd:YAG, KTP laser systems did not affect the compositional structure of the dentin surfaces.

  1. Seasonal Changes in Forage Nutrients and Mineral Contents in Water Resources,Forage and Yak Blood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阎萍

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports results of a study conducted to investigate the concentrations of seven mineral elements in yak blood, forage and water resources around the Qinghai Lake in Qinghai Province in different seasons. Meanwhile, the nutritional compositions of the forage were also surveyed. The results suggest that the mineral elements and the forage nutrients change in a seasonal pattern. In yak blood,the sodium(Na)concentration varies from 0.291 to 0.034 mg/mL,and this is lower than the normal value. In the forage,the ratio calcium(Ca)to phosphorus(P)is 4.06~7.47:1 and potassium(K)to Na 30~27:1. These results indicate that the nutrition of the yak in the area is deficient in Na but high in K. For the withered forage sampled in February,the protein content is only 31.14% of the total protein in the forage growing at puerile stage in June. The severe loss of protein by 68. 9% and decrease of effective nutrients in the wintered forage are considered to be the reasons resulting in the poor condition of yak in winter and spring seasons.

  2. Effect of intracoronal bleaching agents on ultrastructure and mineral content of dentin

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    Fatemeh Maleknejad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the ultrastructural changes of dentin induced after exposure to different intracoronal tooth bleaching agents. Materials and Methods: Dental discs of 1 mm thickness were prepared from coronal dentin of sixty-four human maxillary premolars. Experimental specimens were divided into four subgroups: 45% carbamide peroxide, 35% hydrogen peroxide, sodium perborate + 30% hydrogen peroxide, sodium perborate + water. The specimens were then evaluated under scanning electron microscope to determine diameter of dentinal tubules and chemical analysis. Results: There was significant difference between dentinal tubule diameter of all test and control groups with the exception of sodium perborate + water. Chemical analysis revealed that there was no significant difference between experimental subgroups regarding calcium and sulfur wt%. Conclusions: All bleaching agents increased dentinal tubule diameter and promote alterations in mineral content of dentin with the exception of Sodium perborate mixed with water.

  3. Effects of Er:YAG Laser on Mineral Content of Sound Dentin in Primary Teeth

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the mineral content of sound dentin in primary teeth prepared using an Er:YAG laser at two different power settings. Thirty-six primary second molars were used in this study. Three dentin slabs were obtained from each tooth, and the slabs were randomly divided into three groups: Group A, control; Group B, Er:YAG laser at 3.5 W, 175 mJ, and 20 Hz, short pulse mode; and Group C, Er:YAG laser at 4 W, 200 mJ, and 20 Hz, medium-short pulse mode. One den...

  4. ICP-AES Determination of Mineral Content in Boletus tomentipes Collected from Different Sites of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue-mei; Zhang, Ji; Li, Tao; Li, Jie-qing; Wang, Yuan-zhong; Liu, Hong-gao

    2015-05-01

    P, Na, Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Zn, As, Cd, Co, Cr and Ni, contents have been examined in caps and stipes of Boletus tomentipes collected from different sites of Yunnan province, southwest China. The elements were determined using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) with microwave digestion. P, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn and Cu were the most abundant amongst elements determined in Boletus tomentipes. The caps were richer in P, Mg, Zn and Cd, and the stipes in Ca, Co and Ni. Cluster analysis showed a difference between Puer (BT7 and BT8) and other places. The PCA explained about 77% of the total variance, and the minerals differentiating these places were P (PC1) together with Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, As and Ni, Na (PC2) together with Cd, and Zn (PC3). The results of this study imply that element concentrations of a mushroom are mutative when collected from the different bedrock soil geochemistry.

  5. Characterization of Italian honeys (Marche Region on the basis of their mineral content and some typical quality parameters

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    Cucina Domenico

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The characterization of three types of Marche (Italy honeys (Acacia, Multifloral, Honeydew was carried out on the basis of the their quality parameters (pH, sugar content, humidity and mineral content (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Fe, and Mn. Pattern recognition methods such as principal components analysis (PCA and linear discriminant analysis (LDA were performed in order to classify honey samples whose botanical origins were different, and identify the most discriminant parameters. Lastly, using ANOVA and correlations for all parameters, significant differences between diverse types of honey were examined. Results Most of the samples' water content showed good maturity (98% whilst pH values were in the range 3.50 – 4.21 confirming the good quality of the honeys analysed. Potassium was quantitatively the most relevant mineral (mean = 643 ppm, accounting for 79% of the total mineral content. The Ca, Na and Mg contents account for 14, 3 and 3% of the total mineral content respectively, while other minerals (Cu, Mn, Fe were present at very low levels. PCA explained 75% or more of the variance with the first two PC variables. The variables with higher discrimination power according to the multivariate statistical procedure were Mg and pH. On the other hand, all samples of acacia and honeydew, and more than 90% of samples of multifloral type have been correctly classified using the LDA. ANOVA shows significant differences between diverse floral origins for all variables except sugar, moisture and Fe. Conclusion In general, the analytical results obtained for the Marche honeys indicate the products' high quality. The determination of physicochemical parameters and mineral content in combination with modern statistical techniques can be a useful tool for honey classification.

  6. Characterization of major and trace minerals, fatty acid composition, and cholesterol content of Protected Designation of Origin cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuelian, C L; Currò, S; Penasa, M; Cassandro, M; De Marchi, M

    2017-05-01

    Cheese provides essential nutrients for human nutrition and health, such as minerals and fatty acids (FA). Its composition varies according to milk origin (e.g., species and breed), rearing conditions (e.g., feeding and management), and cheese-making technology (e.g., coagulation process, addition of salt, ripening period). In recent years, cheese production has increased worldwide. Italy is one of the main producers and exporters of cheese. This study aimed to describe mineral, FA, and cholesterol content of 133 samples from 18 commercial cheeses from 4 dairy species (buffalo, cow, goat, and sheep) and from 3 classes of moisture content (hard, 45%). Mineral concentrations of cheese samples were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry, and FA and cholesterol contents were determined by gas chromatography. Moisture and species had a significant effect on almost all traits: the highest levels of Na, Ca, and Fe were found in cheeses made from sheep milk; the greatest level of Cu was found in cow milk cheese, the lowest amount of K was found in buffalo milk cheese, and the lowest amount of Zn was found in goat cheeses. In all samples, Cr and Pb were not detected (below the level of detection). In general, total fat, protein, and minerals significantly increased when the moisture decreased. Buffalo and goat cheeses had the highest saturated FA content, and sheep cheeses showed the highest content of unsaturated and polyunsaturated FA, conjugated linoleic acid, and n-3 FA. Goat and sheep cheeses achieved higher proportions of minor FA than did cow and buffalo cheeses. Buffalo cheese exhibited the lowest cholesterol level. Our results confirm that cheese mineral content is mainly affected by the cheese-making process, whereas FA profile mainly reflects the FA composition of the source milk. This study allowed the characterization of mineral and FA composition and cholesterol content and revealed large variability among different commercial

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF CARBOHYDRATE-VITAMIN-MINERAL ADDITIVES WET PRESSING WITH INCREASE IN MOLASSES CONTENT TECHNOLOGY

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    V. A. Afanas’ev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A technology for wet pressing of carbohydrate-vitamin-mineral additives with increase in content of molasses was developed. In the UVMD wet pressing with increased molasses content two options for finished additives were considered: briquettes and pellets. In the first phase of work pilot batch of feed supplement for cattle was prepared: 25 % of rapeseed meal; 10 % of soybean meal; 4 % of feeding oil; 51 % of molasses; 5 % of lime; 5 % of premix. It is established that satisfactory mixing occurs when entering the molasses up to 40 %. Further increase in molasses content causes deterioration of mixing. In the second phase a research at the choice of materials, providing hardening of molasses briquette was carried out. At the same time additives for cattle contained 30 ... 50 % of molasses, sunflower meal, wheat bran, beet pulp, tricalcium phosphate, salt, premix. 3 % of hydrated lime and zeolite and also 5 % of limestone flour were used as the cementitious materials in the preparation of pellets with the molasses content of 40,0 %. Briquettes with 30 % and 50 % of molasses do not have sufficient strength. It has been established that when entering the 50 % of molasses and 3 % of hardeners countercurrent flow of material in the mixer stops, the mixture becomes viscous, of pasty consistency. Molasses briquettes had not hardened during storage, were soft and plastic. Briquettes containing 40,0 % of molasses and 3,0 % of hydrated or unhydrated lime were hard in comparison with briquettes containing other hardeners. With increasing input of hardeners up to 5 % molasses blocks were more solid and retained its shape.

  8. Lack of transgene and glyphosate effects on yield, and mineral and amino acid content of glyphosate-resistant soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Stephen O; Rimando, Agnes M; Reddy, Krishna N; Cizdziel, James V; Bellaloui, Nacer; Shaw, David R; Williams, Martin M; Maul, Jude E

    2017-05-25

    There has been controversy as to whether the glyphosate resistance gene and/or glyphosate applied to glyphosate-resistant (GR) soybean affect the content of cationic minerals (especially Mg, Mn and Fe), yield and amino acid content of GR soybean. A two-year field study (2013 and 2014) examined these questions at sites in Mississippi, USA. There were no effects of glyphosate, the GR transgene or field crop history (for a field with both no history of glyphosate use versus one with a long history of glyphosate use) on grain yield. Furthermore, these factors had no consistent effects on measured mineral (Al, As, Ba, Cd, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Ga, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Rb, Se, Sr, Tl, U, V, Zn) content of leaves or harvested seed. Effects on minerals were small and inconsistent between years, treatments and mineral, and appeared to be random false positives. No notable effects on free or protein amino acids of the seed were measured, although glyphosate and its degradation product, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), were found in the seed in concentrations consistent with previous studies. Neither glyphosate nor the GR transgene affect the content of the minerals measured in leaves and seed, harvested seed amino acid composition, or yield of GR soybean. Furthermore, soils with a legacy of GR crops have no effects on these parameters in soybean. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. FATTY ACIDS, AMINO ACIDS, MINERAL CONTENTS, AND PROXIMATE COMPOSITION OF SOME BROWN SEAWEEDS(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabarsa, Mehdi; Rezaei, Masoud; Ramezanpour, Zohreh; Robert Waaland, J; Rabiei, Reza

    2012-04-01

    This study was conducted to create a nutritional database on brown seaweeds and to popularize their consumption and utilization in Iran. The fatty acid contents, amino acids profiles, and certain mineral elements composition of some brown seaweeds, Padina pavonica (L.) Thivy, Dictyota dichotoma (Huds.) J. V. Lamour., and Colpomenia sinuosa (Mert. ex Roth) Derbés et Solier were determined. Total lipid content ranged from 1.46 ± 0.38 to 2.94 ± 0.94 g · 100 g(-1) dry weight (dwt), and the most abundant fatty acids were C16:0, C18:1, C20:4 ω6, and C20:5 ω3. The unsaturated fatty acids predominated in all species and had balanced sources of ω3 and ω6 acids. Highest total polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels occurred in C. sinuosa. The protein content of D. dichotoma was 17.73 ± 0.29 g · 100 g(-1) dwt, significantly higher than the other seaweeds examined. Among amino acids essential to human nutrition, methionine (Met; in D. dichotoma and P. pavonica) and lysine (Lys; in C. sinuosa) were present in high concentrations. The crude fiber content varied by 9.5 ± 11.6 g · 100 g(-1) dwt in all species. Chemical analysis indicated that ash content was between 27.02 ± 0.6 and 39.28 ± 0.7 g · 100 g(-1) dwt, and that these seaweeds contained higher amounts of both macrominerals (7,308-9,160 mg · 100 g(-1) dwt; Na, K, Ca) and trace elements (263-1,594 mg · 100 g(-1) dwt; Fe, Ni, Mn, Cu, Co) than have been reported for edible land plants. C. sinuosa had the highest amount of Ca, Fe, and a considerable content of Na was measured in P. pavonica.

  10. The relationship between mineral contents, particle matter and bottom ash distribution during pellet combustion: molar balance and chemometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeguirim, Mejdi; Kraiem, Nesrine; Lajili, Marzouk; Guizani, Chamseddine; Zorpas, Antonis; Leva, Yann; Michelin, Laure; Josien, Ludovic; Limousy, Lionel

    2017-03-21

    This paper aims to identify the correlation between the mineral contents in agropellets and particle matter and bottom ash characteristics during combustion in domestic boilers. Four agrifood residues with higher mineral contents, namely grape marc (GM), tomato waste (TW), exhausted olive mill solid waste (EOMSW) and olive mill wastewater (OMWW), were selected. Then, seven different pellets were produced from pure residues or their mixture and blending with sawdust. The physico-chemical properties of the produced pellets were analysed using different analytical techniques, and a particular attention was paid to their mineral contents. Combustion tests were performed in 12-kW domestic boiler. The particle matter (PM) emission was characterised through the particle number and mass quantification for different particle size. The bottom ash composition and size distribution were also characterised. Molar balance and chemometric analyses were performed to identify the correlation between the mineral contents and PM and bottom ash characteristics. The performed analyses indicate that K, Na, S and Cl are released partially or completely during combustion tests. In contrast, Ca, Mg, Si, P, Al, Fe and Mn are retained in the bottom ash. The chemometric analyses indicate that, in addition to the operating conditions and the pellet ash contents, K and Si concentrations have a significant effect on the PM emissions as well as on the agglomeration of bottom ash.

  11. Analysis of Human Serum and Whole Blood for Mineral Content by ICP-MS and ICP-OES: Development of a Mineralomics Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, James M.; Young, Daniel J.; Essader, Amal S.; Sumner, Susan J.; Levine, Keith E.

    2014-01-01

    Minerals are inorganic compounds that are essential to the support of a variety of biological functions. Understanding the range and variability of the content of these minerals in biological samples can provide insight into the relationships between mineral content and the health of individuals. In particular, abnormal mineral content may serve as an indicator of illness. The development of robust, reliable analytical methods for the determination of the mineral content of biological samples is essential to developing biological models for understanding the relationship between minerals and illnesses. This manuscript describes a method for the analysis of the mineral content of small volumes of serum and whole blood samples from healthy individuals. Interday and intraday precision for the mineral content of the blood (250 μl) and serum (250 μl) samples was measured for eight essential minerals, sodium (Na), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), potassium (K), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and selenium (Se) by plasma spectrometric methods and ranged from 0.635 – 10.1% relative standard deviation (RSD) for serum and 0.348 – 5.98% for whole blood. A comparison of the determined ranges for ten serum samples and six whole blood samples provided good agreement with literature reference ranges. The results demonstrate that the digestion and analysis methods can be used to reliably measure the content of these minerals, and potentially to add other minerals. PMID:24917052

  12. Analysis of human serum and whole blood for mineral content by ICP-MS and ICP-OES: development of a mineralomics method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, James M; Young, Daniel J; Essader, Amal S; Sumner, Susan J; Levine, Keith E

    2014-07-01

    Minerals are inorganic compounds that are essential to the support of a variety of biological functions. Understanding the range and variability of the content of these minerals in biological samples can provide insight into the relationships between mineral content and the health of individuals. In particular, abnormal mineral content may serve as an indicator of illness. The development of robust, reliable analytical methods for the determination of the mineral content of biological samples is essential to developing biological models for understanding the relationship between minerals and illnesses. This paper describes a method for the analysis of the mineral content of small volumes of serum and whole blood samples from healthy individuals. Interday and intraday precision for the mineral content of the blood (250 μL) and serum (250 μL) samples was measured for eight essential minerals--sodium (Na), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), potassium (K), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and selenium (Se)--by plasma spectrometric methods and ranged from 0.635 to 10.1% relative standard deviation (RSD) for serum and 0.348-5.98% for whole blood. A comparison of the determined ranges for ten serum samples and six whole blood samples provided good agreement with literature reference ranges. The results demonstrate that the digestion and analysis methods can be used to reliably measure the content of these minerals and potentially of other minerals.

  13. The effect of arsenic exposure on the biochemical and mineral contents of Labeo rohita bones: An FT-IR study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaniappan, PL. RM.; Vijayasundaram, V.

    2009-01-01

    Arsenic compounds are ubiquitous and widespread in the environment as a result of natural or anthropogenic occurrence. Fish are the major source of protein for human consumption. They are also a source of contamination, because of the amounts of heavy elements they can contain, some of which are highly toxic. Fish bones are high in calcium, which is an essential mineral for normal body function. It consists of water, organic material, and mineral matter. Chelating agents have been used clinically as antidotes for acute and chronic metal intoxications. In the present study, an attempt is made to investigate the bio-accumulation of arsenic and its effect on the biochemical and mineral contents of Labeo rohita bones using, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The results of the present study indicate that arsenic exposure induces significant reduction on the biochemical and mineral contents of the L. rohita bones. Further, the DMSA treatment significantly improves these levels. This shows that DMSA is an effective chelator for arsenic toxicity. Quantitative curve-fitting analyses of amide I band have proved useful in studying the nature and the extent of protein conformational changes. A decrease in α-helical and random coil structures and an increase in β-sheet structures have been observed due to arsenic exposure. In conclusion, the present study shows that the FT-IR spectroscopy coupled with second derivative and curve-fitting analysis gives useful information about the biochemical and mineral contents of the L. rohita bones.

  14. SALT ACCLIMATION OF TRITICUM-AESTIVUM BY CHOLINE CHLORIDE - PLANT-GROWTH, MINERAL-CONTENT, AND CELL-PERMEABILITY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MANSOUR, MM; STADELMANN, EJ; LEESTADELMANN, OY

    1993-01-01

    Seedlings of a salt sensitive line of Triticum aestivum were grown in Hoagland solution supplemented with 100 mM NaCl following a pretreatment with choline chloride (ChCl). Changes in growth, mineral content of roots and shoots, and passive permeability of the cell membrane were measured. Relative g

  15. Role of Production Area, Seasonality and Age of Fermented Camel (Camelus Dromedarius Milk Gariss on Mineral Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Ismail Ahmed

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the differences between some minerals content of gariss samples collected from two different production areas in two different production systems (i.e. traditional system Kordofan area and semi-intensive system- which, the camels are kept in an open barn and graze around the farm. The lactating female camels are supplemented with concentrates in addition to good quality ration containing groundnut cake and Sorghum biocolor and water supply upon required in Kordofan and Khartoum provinces in Sudan at the different seasons (summer, autumn and winter and their gariss samples were collected. Sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus of gariss samples collected in autumn season (Kordofan area, summer season (Khartoum area, and winter season (Khartoum and Kordofan areas were determined, after that the age of gariss was noted from farmers directly when the samples were collected. Four different ages of gariss which registered were (5-8 hrs, 12 hrs, 48 hrs and more than 48 hrs. Each fermentation time (age of gariss was used for analyzing mineral contents. The results showed that gariss prepared from different production locations and in different seasons in Kordofan and Khartoum production areas were statistically different in most of the mineral contents determined. To conclude, different feeding sources or different physiological status may affect camels’ milk and consequently their gariss product, also different age of gariss had affects the mineral content of milk.

  16. Oophorectomy did not show any additional effect on bone density and mineral content in thyroxine treated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broulik, P D; Pacovský, V; Límanová, Z

    1989-03-01

    Experimental hyperthyroidism (thyroxine administration for 21 days) caused a significant decrease in ash mass, bone density and mineral content in the femora of mice, the same degree of reduction in individual measures of bone mass being found in oophorectomized and intact mice treated with thyroxine. It may be suggested that estrogens did not protect the skeleton against the resorbing action of thyroxine or triiodothyronine.

  17. Total and regional bone mineral content in healthy Spanish subjects by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguado Henche, S.; Rodriguez Torres, R.; Clemente de Arriba, C.; Gomez Pellico, L. [Universidad de Alcala, Departamento de Anatomia y Embriologia Humana, Facultad de Medicina, Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain)

    2008-11-15

    This is an observational cross-sectional study. The aim of the present study was to describe and analyze patterns of change in total and regional bone mineral content in relation to age and gender in a sedentary Spanish sample population (from the Community of Madrid). The age range of the sample population was from birth to 80 years. One thousand one hundred twenty healthy subjects were recruited and divided into 16 groups according to age. Each subject underwent whole-body densitometry using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. An analysis was made of the amount of bone mineral content (BMC) in the whole body and in different regions: the head, trunk, upper limbs, and lower limbs. Gender differences in mean values for upper limbs and lower limbs are statistically significant between 16 and 70 years of age. For the head and trunk, the mean BMC values show the most significant gender differences between 16 and 25 years of age (p{<=}0.001). Total bone mineral content (TBMC) and TBMC-to-height ratio show significant gender differences between 16 and 70 years of age. In females, TBMC values increase up to 20 years of age and in males up to 25 years of age. We have determined an evolutionary normal pattern of bone mineral content in urban Spanish people. (orig.)

  18. Mineral content removal after Papacarie application in primary teeth: a quantitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt, S T; Pereira, J R; Rosa, A W; Oliveira, K S; Ghizoni, J S; Oliveira, M T

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the mineral content removed from primary teeth after using a chemomechanical system, called Papacarie. Twenty human primary extracted molars were divided into two groups of 10 specimens each. Group A presented sound molars and Group B decayed molars on the occlusal or occlusal-proximal surface. In Group A, cavities in enamel and dentin with high speed drills were made before treatment. All teeth were treated with Papacárie following the manufacturer's instructions. Each cavity was filled in with the product, allowing curing for 45 seconds, and then removed with the non-cutting edge of the curette. The collected material was sent for laboratory analysis using atomic absorption spectrophotometry technique. Medians for each group were calculated through the application of Mann-Whitney and a statistically significant difference (p removed from sound tissue, the median of calcium in group A (0.08% Ca) was compared with that of the gold standard (0.04% Ca), which showed a close correlation of values between them. Indicate that the amount of calcium removed with Papacárie affects only the carious component of teeth. This goes in accordance with the principles of cavity preparation and follows the current philosophy of preventive dentistry.

  19. Influence of packaging and conditions of storaging on content of mineral water Guber-Srebrenica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blagojević Dragana D.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Mineral waters are found in nature in greater depths most often in reduction conditions, so after surfacing their content alters in contact with oxygen, which is caused by oxidation of certain components. Due to this, efforts were made to make these waters more stabile so they could be used after certain time. This work monitors the stability of Guber (Argentaria-Srebrenica water exposed to light and with addition of ascorbic acid. The methods of analysis and the parameters analyzed are: gravimetric (SO2-4, suspended solids, total dry residue at 180°C, conductometry (electric conductivity, volumetric (Al3+, spectrometric (SiO2 and atomic-absorption spectrophotometry (Fe2+, Mg2+, Mn2+, Zn2+, K+, Ca2+, Na+ i Cu2+. Obtained results of water analysis, after retaining water in PET (polyethylentereftalate and glass bottles, in certain time intervals, show that significant changes of concentration of Fe2+, Al3+, K+, Ca2+, pH value and electric conductivity occurred. Concentration of iron Fe2+ has been slightly changed after 120 days, in sample stabilized with 0,2 g ascorbic acid, while concentrations of Al and K+ were changing the same as without adding of stabilizer. Samples of water in glass packaging without added stabilizer are less stable compared to samples which were retained in PET packaging.

  20. Variability of vitamins B1, B2 and minerals content in baobab (Adansonia digitata) leaves in East and West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyacinthe, Traoré; Charles, Parkouda; Adama, Korbo; Diarra, Compaoré-Sérémé; Dicko, Mamoudou H; Svejgaard, Jan J; Diawara, Bréhima

    2015-01-01

    The regional variability and age-age correlation on vitamin B1, vitamin B2 and minerals (Ca, Mg, P, K, Cu, Fe, Mn, Na, and Zn) concentration in baobab leaves were investigated. Baobab was cultivated from seeds from 11 countries including Benin, Burkina Faso, Kenya, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Niger, Tanzania, Togo, Senegal, and Sudan. Vitamins B1 and B2 content were assessed using microbiological VitaFast kits methods and minerals by atomic absorption and flame spectrometry methods. Overall, the results showed a higher content of vitamin B2 compared to vitamin B1 with the highest vitamin B2 content (1.04 ± 0.05 mg/100 g DM) from Senegal. The highest iron (Fe) content of 26.39 mg/100 g was found in baobab leaves from Mali. For age-age correlation, adult baobab leaves of Nankoun in Burkina Faso provided the highest calcium (Ca) content of 3373 mg/100 g. However, for provenance trial, young plants from three communities of Burkina Faso showed the highest calcium (Ca) and potassium (K) content. The study demonstrated that vitamins B1 and B2 and mineral contents in baobab leaves vary with the country and the age of the tree. Vitamin B1 content was higher in baobab leaves from ascendants compared to those from descendants, while in contrast vitamin B2 content was higher in the leaves from the descendants compared to their ascendants (mother tree).

  1. Determination of Tracer Arrival Times and Volumetric Contents of Clay and Mineral Fines Using Visible NearInfrared Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, Cecilie; Møldrup, Per; Karup, Dan;

    to give rapid and accurate predictions of soil functional properties related to texture and organic matter, such as water retention and compaction. We evaluated visNIR spectroscopy as a rapid and indirect method for predicting selected BTC tracer mass arrival times (TMATs) and the volumetric contents...... and volumetric contents of clay and mineral fines were correlated to spectral data with partial least squares regression on a calibration set (133 samples) and then tested on a validation set (44 samples). We obtained accurate visNIR predictions of the 5% TMAT and volumetric contents of clay and mineral fines....... VisNIR predictions of later TMATs of 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40 and 50% showed decreasing accuracy with increasing TMAT, which probably reflect decreasing correlation with soil texture....

  2. Myoglobin urine test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urine myoglobin; Heart attack - myoglobin urine test; Myositis - myoglobin urine test; Rhabdomyolysis - myoglobin urine test ... The test involves only normal urination, which should cause no discomfort.

  3. Relationship between heavy metal contents and clay mineral properties in surface sediments: Implications for metal pollution assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yueh-Min; Gao, Jin-bo; Yuan, Yong-Qiang; Ma, Jun; Yu, Shen

    2016-08-01

    Clay minerals in surface sediments can affect the adsorption of heavy metals. However, few historical studies have focused on the influence of fine clay mineral characteristics on metal sorption. Since the reactions between heavy metals and fine clay minerals in sediments remain obscure, this study investigates the influence of fine clay mineral characteristics on metal sorption in a typical urbanizing small watershed. Clay minerals, including nanoparticles with various size fractions ranging from 1000 to 2000 (clay), 450-1000 (fine clay), and 220-450 (very fine clay) nm were used to demonstrate their transformation from well crystalline to poorly crystalline. The nanoparticles were collected and evaluated by determination of their surface area, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and chemical analyses. The relationship between metal content and properties of the surface sediments was also revealed by canonical correlation analysis. With smaller particle sizes, nanoparticles (very fine clay) were observed to be poorly crystalline, possibly indicating few repetitions of unit cells as a result of preferential structural disruption of other crystal planes caused by pressure-induced phase transition in the fine-size fractions. The first canonical matrix (M) variables of metal contents can be predicted by both surface area and pore volume, followed by kaolinite and illite contents. On the other hand, the category of metal, i.e., Cu, Cr, Zn, or Pb, was significantly correlated with the first 'M' canonical variables. The data obtained in the present study are of fundamental significance in advancing our understanding of the reactions between heavy metals and fine clay minerals in the terrestrial ecosystem.

  4. Bone mineral content has stronger association with lean mass than fat mass among Indian urban adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raman K Marwaha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There are conflicting reports on the relationship of lean mass (LM and fat mass (FM with bone mineral content (BMC. Given the high prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency in India, we planned the study to evaluate the relationship between LM and FM with BMC in Indian children and adolescents. The objective of the study was to evaluate the relationship of BMC with LM and FM. Materials and Methods: Total and regional BMC, LM, and FM using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and pubertal staging were assessed in 1403 children and adolescents (boys [B]: 826; girls [G]: 577. BMC index, BMC/LM and BMC/FM ratio, were calculated. Results: The age ranged from 5 to 18 years, with a mean age of 13.2 ± 2.7 years. BMC adjusted for height (BMC index and BMC/height ratio was comparable in both genders. There was no difference in total BMC between genders in the prepubertal group but were higher in more advanced stages of pubertal maturation. The correlation of total as well as regional BMC was stronger for LM (B: Total BMC - 0.880, trunk - 0.715, leg - 0.894, arm - 0.891; G: Total BMC - 0.827, leg - 0.846, arm - 0.815 (all value indicate r2 , P < 0.0001 for all when compared with FM (B: Total BMC - 0.776, trunk - 0.676, leg - 0.772, arm - 0.728; G: Total BMC - 0.781, leg - 0.741, arm - 0.689; all P < 0.0001 except at trunk BMC (LM - 0.682 vs. FM - 0.721; all P < 0.0001, even after controlling for age, height, pubertal stage, and biochemical parameters. Conclusions: BMC had a stronger positive correlation with LM than FM.

  5. ESTIMATE OF THE HEAVY MINERAL-CONTENT IN SAND AND ITS PROVENANCE BY RADIOMETRIC METHODS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEMEIJER, RJ; LESSCHER, HME; SCHUILING, RD; ELBURG, ME

    1990-01-01

    A comparison has been made of the traditional gravimetric method for measuring the heavy mineral mass fraction in sand with a method based on the emission of gamma-rays from the uranium and thorium series by radiogenic heavy-minerals. The comparision reveals that beach sand along the Dutch coast may

  6. Variability of mineral nitrogen contents in soil as affected by meat and bone meal used as fertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Stępień

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a number of alternative sources of organic matter have been discovered, such as producís made of waste materials and recycled into composts or as meal of meat and bone. Meat and bone meal, a by-product of the meat industry, is rich in N and P and hence it can be a viable alternative to mineral fertilizers. This study determined the direct effect of different doses of meat and bone meal (MBM used as fertilizer on the content of mineral N in soil. The effect of MBM fertilizer applied at rates of 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 t ha-1 was compared with no fertilization. The experiment was conducted in the years 2007-2009 at the research station in Balcyny, Poland. MBM was applied every year for 3 yr, with the following crop sequence: 2007 winter wheat (T. aestivum, 2008 winter rape (Brassica rapa L. subsp. oleífera (DC. Metzg., and 2009 spring wheat. Determination of mineral N (NO3--N and NH4+-N were taken from the 0-30 cm layer, each year, during the full plant vegetation. The study found that changes in the mineral N content in soil depended on the dose of MBM and the crop species in a sequence. Each 0.5 t of MBM above 1.0 t ha-1 increased the mineral N content by an average of 4 mg. MBM applied every year at 2.0 and 2.5 t ha-1 produced a 2.33- and 2.56-fold increase in the mineral N content compared to unfertilized soil. The rate of release of NO3--N was found to be the highest at those sites in all the years of study, while that of NH4+-N was highest during the first 2 yr of study. The levels of NO3--N lay within the range of very low fertility. A strong correlation was found between NO3--N and NH4+-N content in soil and the N content in winter and spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. grain and in winter rapeseed (Brassica rapa L. subsp. oleífera (DC. Metzg. The NO3--N and NH4+-N compounds released from MBM were a good source of N for the plants.

  7. Effects of Storage Time and Condition on Mineral Contents of Grape Pekmez Produced by Vacuum and Classical Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kayisoglu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effect of storage period and conditions on chemical properties of boiled grape juice (pekmez produced from the grape variety of Kınalı Yapıncak using classical and vacuum methods. Pekmez samples were stored in 250 cc volumed jars. Products obtained using two different production methods were stored for 10 months in room conditions and at +4 ºC temperature. Starting from the beginning of the storage, mineral analyses were repeated in every two months. Average copper, manganese, phosphorus, and sodium contents in pekmez samples produced by vacuum method were higher than by classical method at the end of storage period. But, calcium content in pekmez samples produced by classical method was higher than that of the other. Zinc, iron, and potassium contents in either vacuum method or classical method were not significantly different. In conclusion; in general, mineral contents were better in pekmez produced by vacuum method than classical method. Phosphor, sodium, potassium, calcium, copper, zinc and manganese contents were affected significantly by storage period, but iron was not. In addition, storage condition did not affect sodium, zinc and iron contents.

  8. Correlation of Plant Morphological and Grain Quality Traits with Mineral Element Contents in Yunnan Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Ya-wen; SHEN Shi-quan; WANG Lu-xiang; LIU Jia-fu; PU Xiao-ying; DU Juan; QIU Min

    2005-01-01

    Correlations between four grain quality, 24 plant morphological traits and eight element contents of 653 accessions fromYunnan rice were analyzed. P, K, Ca and Mg contents of core collection were closely correlated to the most plant morphologicaland grain quality traits, and there were highly significant correlations (P <0.01) among some traits including P content to number ofstems and tillers, K content and amylose content, Ca content and plant height, Mg content and protein content. Mn, Zn, Cu and Fecontents of core collection were closely related to a few traits, such as Fe content and gel consistency (-0.1121 **), Zn content andseed setting rate (-0.1411 **), Cu content and number of grains per panicle (-0.1398**), Mn content and plant height (-0.2492**).

  9. A decrease in phytic acid content substantially affects the distribution of mineral elements within rice seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Hiroaki; Iwai, Toru; Matsubara, Chie; Usui, Yuto; Okamura, Masaki; Yatou, Osamu; Terada, Yasuko; Aoki, Naohiro; Nishida, Sho; Yoshida, Kaoru T

    2015-09-01

    Phytic acid (myo-inositol hexakisphosphate; InsP6) is the storage compound of phosphorus and many mineral elements in seeds. To determine the role of InsP6 in the accumulation and distribution of mineral elements in seeds, we performed fine mappings of mineral elements through synchrotron-based X-ray microfluorescence analysis using developing seeds from two independent low phytic acid (lpa) mutants of rice (Oryza sativa L.). The reduced InsP6 in lpa seeds did not affect the translocation of mineral elements from vegetative organs into seeds, because the total amounts of phosphorus and the other mineral elements in lpa seeds were identical to those in the wild type (WT). However, the reduced InsP6 caused large changes in mineral localization within lpa seeds. Phosphorus and potassium in the aleurone layer of lpa greatly decreased and diffused into the endosperm. Zinc and copper, which were broadly distributed from the aleurone layer to the inner endosperm in the WT, were localized in the narrower space around the aleurone layer in lpa mutants. We also confirmed that similar distribution changes occurred in transgenic rice with the lpa phenotype. Using these results, we discussed the role of InsP6 in the dynamic accumulation and distribution patterns of mineral elements during seed development.

  10. Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) measurement by GC-MS in blood, urine and gastric contents, following an acute intoxication in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodson, Q; Denooz, R; Serpe, P; Charlier, C

    2008-01-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB, sodium oxybate) is a compound related to neuromodulator gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), emerging as a recreational drug of abuse and as a rape drug. GHB-related emergencies have dramatically increased in the 1990s, but a decrease is observed since 2000. We describe the case of an acute GHB intoxication in a 28-year-old male who fell unconscious after ingestion of a mouthful of an unknown beverage, and required medical support for 2 days. A cocaine abuse was also detected by preliminary toxicological screening, but the clinical presentation was not typical of cocaine intoxication. A simple liquid-liquid extraction was used for quantitation of GHB, followed by disilyl-derivatization and analysis in selective ion monitoring (SIM) mode by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), using GHB-d6 as internal standard. High concentrations of GHB were detected in urine (3020 mg/L) and gastric contents (71487 mg/L) at admission. After a 6-hours delay, GHB was still present in urine at 2324 mg/L and in blood at 43 mg/L. The clinical symptoms of cocaine intoxication were diminished by GHB consumption, and the cerebral scan was modified. Attention must thus be paid to acute intoxications with surprising clinical symptoms, and GHB has probably to be added to the preliminary toxicological screening. Data available regarding GHB are briefly reviewed, and our results are compared with previously published reports of non-fatal GHB intoxication.

  11. mineral elements content of some coarse grains used as staple food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    2014-06-01

    Jun 1, 2014 ... Keywords: Mineral Elements, Coarse Grains, Staple Food, Kano, Nigeria. INTRODUCTION ... maize, sorghum, wheat, cowpea and rice are the most popular agricultural ... of the body by the time the baby walks. Deficiencies.

  12. Softening and Mineral Content of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) Leaves During the Fermentation to Produce Ntoba mbodi

    OpenAIRE

    S. Mokemiabeka; J. Dhellot; S.C. Kobawila; P. Diakabana; R.N. Ntietie Loukombo; A.G. Nyanga-Koumou; D. Louembe

    2011-01-01

    The aim of study is to investigate the softening of cassava leaves during the fermentation of Ntoba mbodi and the mineral content of cassava leaves fermented and unfermented. The softening of cassava leaves is a characteristic of fermentation to produce Ntoba mbodi. It is due to an enzymatic process. The activity of cellulase and polygalacturonase enzymes, very weak at the beginning of fermentation, increases sharply in 24 h and decreases thereafter. The pectinesterase and pectin lyase activi...

  13. Profiling contents of water-soluble metabolites and mineral nutrients to evaluate the effects of pesticides and organic and chemical fertilizers on tomato fruit quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Masami; Ohta, Yuko; Licang, Sun; Motoyama, Naoki; Kikuchi, Jun

    2015-02-15

    In this study, the contents of water-soluble metabolites and mineral nutrients were measured in tomatoes cultured using organic and chemical fertilizers, with or without pesticides. Mineral nutrients and water-soluble metabolites were determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry, respectively, and results were analysed by principal components analysis (PCA). The mineral nutrient and water-soluble metabolite profiles differed between organic and chemical fertilizer applications, which accounted for 88.0% and 55.4%, respectively, of the variation. (1)H-(13)C-hetero-nuclear single quantum coherence experiments identified aliphatic protons that contributed to the discrimination of PCA. Pesticide application had little effect on mineral nutrient content (except Fe and P), but affected the correlation between mineral nutrients and metabolites. Differences in the content of mineral nutrients and water-soluble metabolites resulting from different fertilizer and pesticide applications probably affect tomato quality.

  14. The estimation of mineral contents in oriental supplements consumed by elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hansang; Lee, Namju; Kim, Jongkyu

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study is twofold: to examine macro (calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus) and trace mineral (iron) concentration in oriental supplements (OS), and to define OS prevalence in elite athletes. Participants of this study were 928 varsity athletes (male: 680, female: 248) with 23 sports types. Recent 3-month dietary supplements (DS) and OS practice was surveyed during training period, and mineral concentration in 72 randomly collected OS samples were analyzed. DS use was 41% and OS use was 20% in university elite athletes. Most common OS use informants were parents (74%). OS intake reason was for health maintenance (37%), energy supplement (25%), and recovery improvement (15%). Moreover, health maintenance was higher in females (47%) than males (32%) while energy supplement was higher in males (28%) than females (18%) (χ(2)(8) = 17.676, p = 0.024). Beliefs in OS efficacy and importance were significantly higher in female athletes compared to male athletes (p iron (8.10 ppb), which was a small amount. An association between OS intake reason and mineral concentration in calcium, phosphorus, and iron was found, but no association between OS intake and magnesium. In conclusion, an association between OS intake reason and mineral concentration differed by the ingredients. Minerals in OS were very small amount, which would be improved for mineral balance in elite athletes.

  15. Effect of Three-year Multi-Component Exercise Training on Bone Mineral Density and Content in a Postmenopausal Woman with Osteoporosis: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Farzaneh Movaseghi; Heydar Sadeghi

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of 3-years of moderate multi-component exercise training on bone mineral density and bone mineral content in a female subject with osteoporosis. A 57-year-old postmenopausal woman, a known case of osteoporosis following an accident, participated in this study. Bone mineral density and bone mineral content was measured in the femoral neck area and the lumbar spine by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The measurements lasted four years,...

  16. Manganese Supplementation in Deer under Balanced Diet Increases Impact Energy and Contents in Minerals of Antler Bone Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelli, Jamil; Garcia, Andrés; Ceacero, Francisco; Gomez, Santiago; Luna, Salvador; Gallego, Laureano; Gambin, Pablo; Landete-Castillejos, Tomás

    2015-01-01

    Bone ash, collagen, Ca and P composition, are considered the main factors affecting mechanical properties in bones. However, a series of studies in bone and antler have shown that some trace minerals, such as manganese, may play a role whose importance exceeds what may be expected considering their low content. A previous study showed that a reduction in manganese in antlers during a year of late winter frosts led to generalized antler breakage in Spain, which included a reduction of 30% of cortical thickness, 27% reduction in impact energy, and 10% reduction in work to peak force. Starting for this observation, we experimentally studied the effects of manganese supplementation in adults and yearling (yearlings) red deer under a balanced diet. Subjects were 29 deer of different age classes (adult n = 19, yearlings n = 10) that were divided in a manganese injected group (n = 14) and a control group (n = 15). Antler content in ashes and minerals, intrinsic mechanical properties and cross section structure were examined at 4 points along the antler beam. A one way ANOVA (mean per antler) showed that in yearlings, manganese supplementation only increased its content and that of Fe. However, in adults, Mn supplementation increased the mean content per antler of Ca, Na, P, B, Co, Cu, K, Mn, Ni, Se (while Si content was reduced), and impact work but not Young's modulus of elasticity, bending strength or work to peak force. A GLM series on characteristics in the uppermost part examined in the antler, often showing physiological exhaustion and depletion of body stores, showed also a 16% increase in work to peak force in the antlers of the treated group. Thus, manganese supplementation altered mineral composition of antler and improved structure and some mechanical properties despite animals having a balanced diet.

  17. Prediction of Areal Bone Mineral Density and Bone Mineral Content in Children and Adolescents Living With HIV Based on Anthropometric Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Luiz Rodrigo Augustemak de; Krug, Rodrigo de Rosso; Silva, Rosane Carla Rosendo da; Carvalho, Aroldo Prohmann de; González-Chica, David Alejandro; Back, Isabela de Carlos; Petroski, Edio Luiz

    2016-10-01

    Children and adolescents living with HIV have low bone mass for age. There are reliable and accurate methods for evaluation of bone mass, however, alternative methods are necessary, especially, for application in limited-resource scenarios. Anthropometry is a noninvasive and low cost method that can predict bone mass in healthy youths. The aim of the study was to develop predictive equations for bone mineral content and bone mineral density in children and adolescents living with HIV based on anthropometric variables. Forty-eight children and adolescents of both sexes (24 females) from 7 to 17 years, living in greater Florianopolis area, Santa Catarina, Brazil, who were under clinical follow-up at "Hospital Infantil Joana de Gusmão", participated in the study. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to evaluate whole-body bone mineral content (BMC) and areal bone mineral density (aBMD). Height, body weight, bone diameters, arm circumference, and triceps skinfold were measured and the body mass index and arm muscle area were calculated. Multiple regression models were fitted to predict BMC and aBMD, using backward selection (p ≥ 0.05). Two predictive models with high R(2) values (84%-94%) were developed. Model 1 to estimate aBMD [Y = -0.1450124 + (height × 0.0033807) + (age × 0.0146381) + (body mass index × 0.0158838) + (skin color × 0.0421068)], and model 2 to estimate BMC [Y = 1095.1 + (body weight × 45.66973) + (age × 31.36516) + (arm circumference × -53.27204) + (femoral diameter × -9.594018)].The predictive models using anthropometry provided reliable estimates and can be useful to monitor aBMD and BMC in children and adolescents living with human immunodeficiency virus where limited resources are available.

  18. A retail market study of organic and conventional potatoes (Solanum tuberosum): mineral content and nutritional implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Andrea M; Cook, David M; Eggett, Dennis L; Christensen, Merrill J

    2012-06-01

    Whether or not all foods marketed to consumers as organic meet specified standards for use of that descriptor, or are nutritionally different from conventional foods, is uncertain. In a retail market study in a Western US metropolitan area, differences in mineral composition between conventional potatoes and those marketed as organic were analysed. Potatoes marketed as organic had more copper and magnesium (p potatoes. Comparison of individual mineral concentrations between foodstuffs sold as organic or conventional is unlikely to establish a chemical fingerprint to objectively distinguish between organic and conventional produce, but more sophisticated chemometric analysis of multi-element fingerprints holds promise of doing so. Although statistically significant, these differences would only minimally affect total dietary intake of these minerals and be unlikely to result in measurable health benefits.

  19. Correlation analysis between bone mineral density and serum element contents of postmenopausal women in Xi'an urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shun-Zhi; Yan, Hong; Xu, Peng; Li, Jian-Ping; Zhuang, Gui-Hua; Zhu, Bo-Feng; Lu, She-Min

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the correlation between serum macro-element and trace element contents and bone mineral density (BMD) as well as the occurrence of osteoporosis. After the epidemiological investigation of 290 postmenopausal women from ages 45 to 65 in the Xi'an urban area, their blood was collected and serum concentrations of macro-elements, calcium, phosphonium, potassium, sodium, magnesium, and trace elements, zinc, iron, copper, and selenium were determined using atomic absorption spectrometry. Their BMD was measured by QDR-2000 dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). The correlation analysis between BMD and serum element contents was done with the software of SPSS 13.0. The correlation analysis of serum elements of postmenopausal women showed that there was a significant correlation between serum calcium and the other elements, and also a significant correlation between serum phosphonium and the others except serum potassium. The serum potassium content had a significant correlation with serum calcium, sodium and iron, but sodium content showed a significant correlation with the others except iron and selenium. In addition, copper had a significant correlation with the others except potassium and selenium. In correlation analysis between BMD and the elements contents, only did the potassium content show a significant positive correlation with BMD of lumbar vertebra and proximal femora. The comparison results between osteoporosis group, osteopenia group, and healthy group showed that there was no significant difference in the element contents between the groups, but there existed a tendency that potassium content increased with the rise of BMD. There exist significant correlations between the contents of serum elements such as calcium, phosphonium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, zinc, iron, copper, and selenium, but no significant differences in these elements contents between the osteoporosis group, osteopenia group, and healthy

  20. Urine Odor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... References Brunzel NA. Physical examination of urine. In: Fundamentals of Urine and Body Fluid Analysis. 3rd ed. St. Louis, Mo.: Saunders Elsevier; 2013:97. McPherson RA, et al., eds. Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods. 23rd ed. St. Louis, Mo.: ...

  1. The effect of mineral fertilization on the content of phenolic acids and mass of roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Buchwald

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Research on the mineral fertilization of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge was carried out in the years 2000 - 2002. It was stated that the potassium fertilization has the strongest effect on the content of phenolic acids and on mass of roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza. The effect of atmospheric conditions in particular years is also essential. The optimal doses of fertilizers (pure component content in kg · ha- were the following: N - 100, P2O5 - 30, K20 - 180. Having used this fertilizing combination the average content of phenolic acids was 4,62% and the average aerial dry mass of roots was 13,21 g per 1 plant after one year of cultivation.

  2. Effect of sex and rearing system on the quality and mineral content of fiber from raeini cashmere goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamsaddini-Bafti Mehrdad

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to compare the quality characteristics and mineral content of the fiber from male and female cashmere goats raised under different management systems. Male and female Raeini cashmere goats (, 20.9 ± 0.4%, 66.1 ± 1.5%, 33.8 ± 1.5% and 1.8 ± 0.2 gf/tex, respectively. The sulfur, copper and zinc content of the cashmere averaged 2.8 ± 0.1%, 0.00065 ± 0.00002% and 0.01276 ± 0.00025%, respectively. Rearing method significantly affected staple length, coefficient of variation of fiber diameter, cashmere tenacity and copper content. Males had a higher coefficient of variation of fiber diameter and cashmere tenacity than females (P 

  3. Stability and broad-sense heritability of mineral content in potato: calcium and magnesium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcium and magnesium are two minerals with prominent roles in animal and plant metabolism. Advanced potato breeding lines were found to contain between 266 and 944 µg per gram fresh weight of calcium and between 705 1089 µg per gram fresh weight of magnesium. All trials had significant genotype b...

  4. Association Mapping of Quantitative Trait Loci for Mineral Element Contents in Whole Grain Rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan; Sun, Chengxiao; Min, Jie; Chen, Yaling; Tong, Chuan; Bao, Jinsong

    2015-12-23

    Mineral elements in brown rice grain play an important role in human health. In this study, variations in the content of iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), selenium (Se), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) in 378 accessions of brown rice were investigated, and association mapping was used to detect the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) responsible for the variation. Among seven subpopulations, the mean values of Zn and Cd in the japonica group were significantly higher than in the indica groups. The population structure accounted for from 5.7% (Se) to 22.1% (Pb) of the total variation. Correlation analyses showed that Pb was positively correlated with the other minerals (P rice grain by marker-assisted selection (MAS).

  5. Height and weight are correlated with lumbar spinal bone mineral contents and densities in Chinese adolescents with early ankylosing spondylitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Xing; HU Yun-yu; MA Xiang-dong; WANG Quan-ping; LI Xiao-juan; LU Rong; WANG Jun; XU Xin-zhi

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To explore the possible factors influencing lumbar spinal bone mineral contents and bone mineral densities in Chinese adolescents with early ankylosing spondylitis(AS). Methods: Thirty-one male Chinese adolescent outpatients with early AS were included and compared with 31 age-matched male controls. Age (year), height (cm), total body weight (kg) together with body mass index (BMI, kg/m2 ) of all subjects and disease duration (month), BASMI,BASFI, BASDAI, SASSS as well as ESR (mm/h) of AS patients were obtained. Lumbar2-4 bone mineral content (L2-4BMC, g) and lumbar2-4 areal bone mineral density (L2-4 BMD, g/cm2 ) were evaluated using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) with Lunar DPX-IQ device and lumbar2-4 volumetric bone mineral apparent density (L2-4 BMAD, g/cm3 )was subsequently calculated. Correlation and multiple regression analyses were performed. Results: Compared with 31 agematched male controls, AS patients had significantly lower L2-4 BMD [ (0. 984 ± 0.142) g/cm2 vs ( 1.055 ± 0. 137) g/cm2,P = 0.049 ] and L2- 4 BMAD [ (0. 1527 ± 0. 0173) g/cm3 vs (0. 1630 ± 0. 0195) g/cm3, P = 0. 032 ]. In AS patients,multiple regression analysis identified that only the factor of height was significantly correlated with L2- 4 BMC ( R = 0. 673,P = 0.000) and the factor of weight had predominant influences on L2-4 BMD ( R = 0. 620, P = 0. 000) as well as L2-4BMAD (R=0.510, P = 0.003). Conclusion: The young patients with early AS had marked reduction in lumbar spine bone mineral densities, which indicated an important primary event leading to osteoporosis. Positive effects of height and weight on lumbar spine bone mass and densities could expectantly make favorable contributions to early prevention of AS associated bone loss and subsequent osteoporosis.

  6. Softening and Mineral Content of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz Leaves During the Fermentation to Produce Ntoba mbodi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mokemiabeka

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study is to investigate the softening of cassava leaves during the fermentation of Ntoba mbodi and the mineral content of cassava leaves fermented and unfermented. The softening of cassava leaves is a characteristic of fermentation to produce Ntoba mbodi. It is due to an enzymatic process. The activity of cellulase and polygalacturonase enzymes, very weak at the beginning of fermentation, increases sharply in 24 h and decreases thereafter. The pectinesterase and pectin lyase activity, already present at the beginning of fermentation, reaches the maximum after 24 h of fermentation for pectinesterase and 48 h for pectin lyase. The cellulase is mainly of microbial origin. The cassava leaves softening is gradual and becomes maximum at the end of fermentation. It is accompanied by a loss of water leading to a decrease in protein and magnesium content. The Ntoba mbodi is richer in ash than fresh cassava leaves. Although Ntoba mbodi is a vegetable rich in minerals, its sodium content is low. Thus, Ntoba mbodi can be recommended for a meal without peril.

  7. Effect of Three-year Multi-Component Exercise Training on Bone Mineral Density and Content in a Postmenopausal Woman with Osteoporosis: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movaseghi, Farzaneh; Sadeghi, Heydar

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of 3-years of moderate multi-component exercise training on bone mineral density and bone mineral content in a female subject with osteoporosis. A 57-year-old postmenopausal woman, a known case of osteoporosis following an accident, participated in this study. Bone mineral density and bone mineral content was measured in the femoral neck area and the lumbar spine by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The measurements lasted four years, first year without any exercise training and three succeeding years with exercise intervention. After three years of exercise training, bone mineral density and bone mineral content were improved in both regions, despite the increase in age and decrease in weight. This case highlights the importance of exercise training in maintaining and increasing bone mineral density and bone mineral content of the spine and hip in post-menopausal women. Considering its positive effects, regular and lifelong exercise training must be incorporated into peoples' life due to the chronic nature of bone loss in aging process.

  8. Effect of Three-year Multi-Component Exercise Training on Bone Mineral Density and Content in a Postmenopausal Woman with Osteoporosis: A Case Report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Movaseghi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of 3-years of moderate multi-component exercise training on bone mineral density and bone mineral content in a female subject with osteoporosis. A 57-year-old postmenopausal woman, a known case of osteoporosis following an accident, participated in this study. Bone mineral density and bone mineral content was measured in the femoral neck area and the lumbar spine by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The measurements lasted four years, first year without any exercise training and three succeeding years with exercise intervention. After three years of exercise training, bone mineral density and bone mineral content were improved in both regions, despite the increase in age and decrease in weight. This case highlights the importance of exercise training in maintaining and increasing bone mineral density and bone mineral content of the spine and hip in post-menopausal women. Considering its positive effects, regular and lifelong exercise training must be incorporated into peoples' life due to the chronic nature of bone loss in aging process.

  9. Electron imaging of calcium oxalate crystals in beagle dogs’ urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walaa I. Mohamaden

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Calcium oxalate crystalluria appears to be a common problem in most of small animal clinics. This current study aimed at inducing a condition of oxalate crystalluria in beagles and record the primary changes in canine blood and urine on response to oxalates injection. 15 dogs were divided into two groups; those in the treatment group were injected intravenously with 0.5 M potassium oxalate and the dogs of control group were injected with physiological saline for five successive days. Urine test revealed a significant decrease in urinary creatinine and urinary urea nitrogen levels. The ultrastructural examination of urine sediment showed typical and atypical phases of calcium oxalate crystals and the X-ray defractionation of these crystals showed high content of calcium in addition to other minerals. Therefore potassium oxalate injection may provide an example of calcium oxalate crystalluria which may answer some question around the pathogenesis of this problem in dogs.

  10. Comparing heavy metal contents in crops receiving mineral fertilisers and animal manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bent Tolstrup; Elsgaard, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Spring barley (grain, straw), grass-clover (two cuts), winter wheat (grain, straw) and silage maize grown in the Askov long-term experiment with different levels (0, ½, 1, 1½, 2) of mineral fertiliser (NPK) and animal manure (AM) had concentrations of As, Pb, Cd and Hg below the EC maximum...... in crops grown on unmanured soil and soil with AM were similar and below that of crops grown with NPK. For a range of other elements including Cr and Ni, we found no general relationship between fertilisation rate and their concentration in the crops. Except for Cd, no systematic differences were found...... of NPK and AM does not pose a threat in terms of feed quality. However, the long-term accumulation of heavy metals added with mineral fertilisers and animal manure is essentially irreversible and may threaten soil quality....

  11. Evaluation of Mineral Content and Photon Interaction Parameters of Dental Enamel After Phosphoric Acid and Er:YAG Laser Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsek, Huseyin; Gurbuz, Taskın; Buyuk, Suleyman Kutalmış; Ozdemir, Yuksel

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of laser and acid etching on the mineral content and photon interaction parameters of dental enamel in human teeth. The composition of dental enamel may vary, especially at the surface, depending on the reactions that occur during dental treatment. Forty maxillary premolars were divided randomly into 2 groups of 20 teeth. In the first group, half of teeth crowns were etched by using 37% phosphoric acid; in the second group, half of teeth crowns were etched by using an erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) laser. The remaining half crowns in each group were used as untreated controls. We characterized the calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), and potassium (K) contents in each specimen by using wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The total atomic cross-section ([Formula: see text]), effective atomic number ([Formula: see text]), and electron density (Ne) of the tooth samples were determined at photon energies of 22.1, 25, 59.5, and 88 keV by using a narrow beam transmission method. Data were analyzed statistically by using the Mann-Whitney U test. The mineral contents after Er:YAG laser and phosphoric acid etching did not differ significantly (p > 0.05), and no significant variation in [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], or Ne was observed. Therefore, we conclude that the Er:YAG laser and phosphoric acid systems used in this study did not affect mineral composition or photon interaction parameters of dental enamel.

  12. The monitoring of mineral elements content in fruit purchased in supermarkets and food markets from Timisoara, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heghedűş-Mîndru Ramona Cristina

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating various fruit samples using atomic absorption spectrometry method, the content in mineral elements, macroelements (Na, K, Ca, Mg and microelements (Cr, Cu, Mn, Fe, Cd , Pb, Zn, Co and Ni. Fruit samples were taken from supermarkets (imported products and agricultural markets (domestic products in the city of Timisoara, Romania. The results obtained by chemical analysis were evaluated statistically based on method of main components analyzed. Major influence in the group had evidence if macroelements potassium and sodium, iron and manganese where microelements. The results were compared with results obtained by other researchers in the world. The results fall within the legal limits set by law.

  13. New aspects of osteoporosis: Bone mineral content (BMC) measurement in osteoporosis associated with drugs, arthritis, and related conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, M.D.; Shapiro, B.

    1987-02-01

    Sensitive, non-invasive measurements of bone mineral content (BMC) provide the means to identify and characterize, prior to the development of symptoms, osteoporosis associated with drugs, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, diabetes mellitus, anorexia nervosa and immobilization. Moreover, BMC can be used to effectively screen populations at risk for the development of osteoporosis and longitudinal studies in individual patients can be used to guide effective anti-osteopenia therapy. This review will briefly detail recent BMC measurements in osteoporosis due to drugs, arthritis and related conditions.

  14. OPTIMIZATION OF SOME MINERAL CONTENTS OF DRIED OSMO-PRETREATED GREEN BELL PEPPER (Capsicum annuum) USING RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Odewole, M M; M.O. Sunmonu; Oyeniyi, S K; Adeyinka-Ajiboye, O; Ayodimeji, Z O

    2016-01-01

    A study to optimize three mineral contents (magnesium, potassium and manganese) of dried osmo-pretreated green bell pepper was done using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Five levels of osmotic solution concentration (A) (5% (w/w), 10% (w/w), 15% (w/w), 20% (w/w) and 25% (w/w)) of common salt and osmotic process durations (B) (60 min, 90 min, 120 min, 150 min and 180 min) were considered. After osmotic dehydration, all pre-treated and some control (unpre-treated) samples were dried at a co...

  15. Determination of some minerals and β-carotene contents in aromatic indica rice (Oryza sativa L.) germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renuka, N; Mathure, Sarika V; Zanan, Rahul L; Thengane, Ratnakar J; Nadaf, Altafhusain B

    2016-01-15

    39 aromatic indica rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars were characterized for Iron, Zinc, Calcium, Magnesium, Copper and β-carotene contents. The β-carotene contents were ranging from 1.23 to 9.9μg/g in brown and 0.08 to 1.99μg/g in milled rice. Among the mineral contents, Magnesium was found ranging from 855μg/g (Gham) to maximum of 1636μg/g (Badshahbhog) followed by Iron in 32μg/g (Jirga) to 218μg/g (Kalsal), Copper content from 2μg/g (Girga) to 1004μg/g (Gham), Zinc content from 25 (Gham) to 165μg/g (Ambemohar-157) and Calcium ranged from 14μg/g (Ambemohar pandhara) to 67μg/g (Kate chinoor). The study showed that the germplasm assessed is a good source of micronutrients and can be further exploited in breeding programme.

  16. Nutrient composition, mineral content and the solubility of the proteins of palm weevil, Rhynchophorus phoenicis f.(Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OMOTOSO O.T.; ADEDIRE C.O.

    2007-01-01

    Adult (ADS) and larva stages of palm weevil Rhynchophorus phoenicis were analyzed for their nutritional potentials using proximate and mineral contents as indices. The early larva stage (ELS) contains the highest moisture content of 11.94% while ADS has the least value of 4.79%. The late larva stage (LLS) has the highest protein content of 10.51% while ADS contains 8.43%. Ash content is highest in ELS with a value of 2.37% and lowest in ADS with a value of 1.43%. ELS and LLS have the highest (22.14%) and lowest (17.22%) fibre contents respectively. The values of potassium, magnesium and iron in ELS were (455.00±21.21), (60.69±2.57) and (6.50±3.40) mg/kg while LLS recorded (457.50±10.61), (43.52±1.37) and (6.00±1.10) mg/kg and ADS recorded (372.50±24.75), (53.31±1.88) and (22.90±3.70) mg/kg. Chromium, phosphorus, nickel, calcium, lead, manganese and zinc were also detected. Copper was not detected in any of the samples. In all the developmental stages the protein solubilities were pH dependent with the minimum protein solubilities occurring at acidic pH while the maximum protein solubilities occurred at alkaline pH.

  17. Comparison of the phenolic compounds, carotenoids and tocochromanols content in wheat grain under organic and mineral fertilization regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopka, Iwona; Tańska, Małgorzata; Faron, Alicja; Stępień, Arkadiusz; Wojtkowiak, Katarzyna

    2012-10-19

    A field study was performed to evaluate the effect of mineral (NPK) and organic-based fertilizers such as compost (C), manure (FYM) and meat and bone meal (MBM) on the appearance (dimensions and color) of spring wheat kernels and on the total content in grain of main its phytochemicals (polyphenols, carotenoids and tocochromanols) and phenolic acids composition. Total phenolic compounds were determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu assay after alkaline hydrolysis of grain and carotenoids were analyzed spectrophotometrically. Composition of tocochromanols and phenolic acids was determined using RP-HPLC techniques. Only insignificant differences in the appearance of kernels and small changes in the content and composition of grain phytochemicals were noted between the studied fertilization systems. Among the analyzed phytochemicals the greatest variation was observed in the group of polyphenol compounds, with a stated increase of their total content of 6.7 and 11.2% in grain fertilized with MBM and compost, respectively. Simultaneously the grain from organic fertilization contained significantly less phenolic acids, and the decrease in their content ranged from 10.0% for FYM to 24.8% for MBM+EM-1. Organically and conventionally fertilized grain had similar amounts of tocochromanols and carotenoids. Comparison of MBM and MBM+EM-1 variants showed that application of effective microorganisms decreased carotenoids and tocochromanols content by 8.5 and 9.7%, respectively.

  18. Comparison of the Phenolic Compounds, Carotenoids and Tocochromanols Content in Wheat Grain under Organic and Mineral Fertilization Regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Wojtkowiak

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A field study was performed to evaluate the effect of mineral (NPK and organic-based fertilizers such as compost (C, manure (FYM and meat and bone meal (MBM on the appearance (dimensions and color of spring wheat kernels and on the total content in grain of main its phytochemicals (polyphenols, carotenoids and tocochromanols and phenolic acids composition. Total phenolic compounds were determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu assay after alkaline hydrolysis of grain and carotenoids were analyzed spectrophotometrically. Composition of tocochromanols and phenolic acids was determined using RP-HPLC techniques. Only insignificant differences in the appearance of kernels and small changes in the content and composition of grain phytochemicals were noted between the studied fertilization systems. Among the analyzed phytochemicals the greatest variation was observed in the group of polyphenol compounds, with a stated increase of their total content of 6.7 and 11.2% in grain fertilized with MBM and compost, respectively. Simultaneously the grain from organic fertilization contained significantly less phenolic acids, and the decrease in their content ranged from 10.0% for FYM to 24.8% for MBM+EM-1. Organically and conventionally fertilized grain had similar amounts of tocochromanols and carotenoids. Comparison of MBM and MBM+EM-1 variants showed that application of effective microorganisms decreased carotenoids and tocochromanols content by 8.5 and 9.7%, respectively.

  19. Black Urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Vakili

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A 2-year-old boy was born at term of healthy, non-consanguineous Iranian parents. His mother attended in the clinic with the history of sometimes discoloration of diapers after passing urine. She noticed that first at the age of one month with intensified in recent months. His Physical examination and growth parameters were normal. His mother denied taking any medication (sorbitol, nitrofurantoin, metronidazole, methocarbamol, sena and methyldopa (5. Qualitative urine examination showed dark black discoloration. By this history, alkaptonuria was the most clinical suspicious. A 24-hour-urine sample was collected and sent for quantitative measurements. The urine sample was highly positive for homogentisic acid and negative for porphyrin metabolites.

  20. Lithium content in potable water, surface water, ground water, and mineral water on the territory of Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Kostik

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine lithium concentration in potable water, surface water, ground, and mineral water on the territory of the Republic of Macedonia. Water samples were collected from water bodies such as multiple public water supply systems located in 13 cities, wells boreholes located in 12 areas, lakes and rivers located in three different areas. Determination of lithium concentration in potable water, surface water was performed by the technique of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, while in ground water samples from wells boreholes and mineral waters with the technique of ion chromatography. The research shows that lithium concentration in potable water ranging from 0.1 to 5.2 μg/L; in surface water from 0.5 to 15.0 μg/L; ground water from wells boreholes from 16.0 to 49.1 μg/L and mineral water from 125.2 to 484.9 μg/L. Obtained values are in accordance with the relevant international values for the lithium content in water.

  1. Genotypic variation for seed protein and mineral content among post-rainy season-grown sorghum genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Badigannavar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Sorghum is an important staple food crop of Asian and African countries. As a “poor man's crop”, it provides dietary starch, protein, and some vitamins and minerals. Minerals are important for various physiological functions in the human body. As a major staple crop of central and southern Indian provinces, sorghum landraces are a source of supplementary micronutrients. Concentrations of micronutrients and protein and yield parameters were studied using 112 local landraces and varieties. Univariate analysis revealed wide variation for iron (1.10–9.54 mg 100 g− 1, zinc (1.12–7.58 mg 100 g− 1, protein (3.50–12.60%, and grain yield (2.50–76.50 g among the landraces. High estimates of genetic/phenotypic coefficient of variation, and genetic advances over the mean were identified for landraces and varieties. High heritabilities were also identified for yield and mineral content. Correlation estimates among the genotypes indicated that grain yield was positively correlated with copper and protein with copper and zinc. Cluster analysis based on Euclidean distance resolved all of the genotypes into three major clusters. The wide range of values with high heritability estimates may favor the use of these landraces in recombination breeding to improve nutritional quality in sorghum.

  2. Genotypic variation for seed protein and mineral content among post-rainy season-grown sorghum genotypes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ashok Badigannavar; G. Girish; V. Ramachandran; T.R. Ganapath

    2016-01-01

    Sorghum is an important staple food crop of Asian and African countries. As a“poor man's crop”, it provides dietary starch, protein, and some vitamins and minerals. Minerals are important for various physiological functions in the human body. As a major staple crop of central and southern Indian provinces, sorghum landraces are a source of supplementary micronutrients. Concentrations of micronutrients and protein and yield parameters were studied using 112 local landraces and varieties. Univariate analysis revealed wide variation for iron (1.10–9.54 mg 100 g−1), zinc (1.12–7.58 mg 100 g−1), protein (3.50–12.60%), and grain yield (2.50–76.50 g) among the landraces. High estimates of genetic/phenotypic coefficient of variation, and genetic advances over the mean were identified for landraces and varieties. High heritabilities were also identified for yield and mineral content. Correlation estimates among the genotypes indicated that grain yield was positively correlated with copper and protein with copper and zinc. Cluster analysis based on Euclidean distance resolved all of the genotypes into three major clusters. The wide range of values with high heritability estimates may favor the use of these landraces in recombination breeding to improve nutritional quality in sorghum.

  3. Genotypic variation for seed protein and mineral content among post-rainy season-grown sorghum genotypes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ashok Badigannavar; G.Girish; V.Ramachandran; T.R.Ganapathi

    2016-01-01

    Sorghum is an important staple food crop of Asian and African countries.As a poor man s crop",it provides dietary starch,protein,and some vitamins and minerals.Minerals are important for various physiological functions in the human body.As a major staple crop of central and southern Indian provinces,sorghum landraces are a source of supplementary micronutrients.Concentrations of micronutrients and protein and yield parameters were studied using 112 local landraces and varieties.Univariate analysis revealed wide variation for iron(1.10-9.54 mg 100 g-1),zinc(1.12-7.58 mg 100 g-1),protein(3.50-12.60%),and grain yield(2.50-76.50 g) among the landraces.High estimates of genetic/phenotypic coefficient of variation,and genetic advances over the mean were identified for landraces and varieties.High heritabilities were also identified for yield and mineral content.Correlation estimates among the genotypes indicated that grain yield was positively correlated with copper and protein with copper and zinc.Cluster analysis based on Euclidean distance resolved all of the genotypes into three major clusters.The wide range of values with high heritability estimates may favor the use of these landraces in recombination breeding to improve nutritional quality in sorghum.

  4. Status of bone mineral content and body composition in boys engaged in intensive physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madić Dejan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. It is well known that physical activity has an anabolic effect on bone tissue. But there is a lack of information about the effect of intensive physical activity in childhood, particularly at the prepubertal stage. To examine the influence of training on body composition and bone mineral density we have studied a group of prepubertal soccer players as well as a group of inactive prepubertal boys at the starting phase of their peak bone mass acquisition. Methods. A total of 62 healthy prepubertal boys took part in this study. They were divided into two groups. The first one consisted of 32 soccer players (aged 10.7 ± 0.5 years, who had been playing football for at least 1 year (10-15 h per week. The second group a control group 30 boys (aged 11.2 ± 0.7 years doing 1.5 h per week physical activity at school. Body composition was assessed by a Body Fat Analyzer 'BES 200 Z'. Bone mineral density measurements of the left and the right calcaneus were done by using ultrasound densitometer 'Sahara' (Hologic, Inc., MA, USA. Results. There were significant differences between soccer players and the control group in fat mass (p = 0.01. Besides, a significant difference was determined between the group of athletes and the control group in bone mineral density of both calcaneal bones (p = 0.01. Conclusion. The results of this study confirm the significant effects of physical activity on reducing body mass and increasing bone density. Considering that football training can be very easily implemented in the broader population of children and young people, which does not apply to many other sports, it should be used more in the prevention of obesity and osteoporosis.

  5. Environmentally Friendly Nitrogen Fertilizers Appplication for Winter Cereals Considering the Mineral Nitrogen Content in Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Timbare, R.; Bušmanis, M.

    2006-01-01

    In order to improve nitrogen fertilizers application recommendations for cereals, the soil mineral nitrogen (Nmin) investigations (1995 – 2000) were carried out on sod – podzolic and brown – lesssive loamy sand and loamy soils in co-operation with other research institutions. The soil samples for determination of NO3 – N and NH4 – N were taken in depth 0 - 20, 21 – 40 and 41 – 60 cm in spring before the start of growth on winter cereals fields, but in 2001,2002- also in autumn before the sowi...

  6. Thermal neutron absorption cross section and clay mineral content for Miocene Carpathian samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woznicka

    2000-12-01

    A correlation between the thermal neutron absorption cross section and the clay volume for samples from the chosen geological region is discussed. A comparison of the calculated and measured absorption cross sections as a function of clay volume allows an estimate to be made on the presence of highly absorbing impurities in clays. From the example presented, it was deduced that 105 ppm of B or 25 ppm of Gd in the clay minerals in the samples tested would be sufficient to explain the difference between the experimental and calculated cross sections.

  7. Urine sediment from a Chihuahua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallatto, Valarie; Wood, Michael; Grindem, Carol

    2005-12-01

    A 6-year-old, intact male Chihuahua was presented with stranguria and painful urination of 5 days duration. Cystine crystals were observed in low numbers in unstained urine sediment preparations, and a diagnosis of cystinuria was made. Uroliths were removed surgically from the urethra and the bladder, and mineral analysis indicated the stones were composed of 100% cystine. Cystinuria results from an inherited defect in renal tubular transport of cystine that affects many breeds and has been found as an autosomal recessive trait in Newfoundlands. Accurate identification of cystine crystals in urine is an important means of diagnosing cystinuria.

  8. The associations of exposure to combined hormonal contraceptive use on bone mineral content and areal bone mineral density accrual from adolescence to young adulthood: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackowski, Stefan A; Baxter-Jones, Adam D G; McLardy, Ashlee J; Pierson, Roger A; Rodgers, Carol D

    2016-12-01

    The association of long term combined hormone based contraceptives (CHC) use on bone mineral content (BMC) and areal bone mineral density (aBMD) development remains controversial, as it appears that the relationship may be age-dependent. The purpose of this study was to investigate the long-term associations of CHC exposure on the accrual of bone parameters from adolescence into young-adulthood. 110 women (67 exposed to CHC) were drawn from the Pediatric Bone Mineral Accrual Study (PBMAS). Serial measures of total body (TB), lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN) BMC and aBMD were assessed by DXA (a total of 950 scans) and aligned by biological age (BA, years from peak height velocity [PHV]). Multilevel random effects models were constructed to assess the time dependent associations between annual CHC exposure and the development of bone parameters. After BA, height, lean tissue mass, fat mass, calcium and vitamin D intake, and physical activity were controlled, it was observed that those individuals exposed to CHC 6-years post PHV developed significantly less (-0.00986 ± 0.00422 g/cm(2)) TB aBMD than their non CHC exposed peers. Additionally, there were significant BA by CHC exposure interactions, where CHC exposure 6-years or more post PHV resulted in developing less TB BMC (-4.94 ± 2.41 g), LS BMC (-0.29 ± 0.11 g) and LS aBMD (-0.00307 ± 0.00109 g/cm(2)). One year after the attainment of PHV, CHC users were predicted to have 1.2% more TB BMC, 3.8% more LS BMC and 1.7% more LS aBMD than non-users. At 9-years post PHV the predicted differences showed that CHC users had 0.9% less TB BMC and 2.7% less LS BMC and 1.6% less LS BMD than those not exposed to CHC. CHC may not hinder the development of BMC or aBMD during adolescence; however, exposure 6-years or more after PHV may be detrimental.

  9. Changes in Soil C and N Contents and Mineralization Across a Cultivation Chronosequence of Paddy Fields in Subtropical China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhong-Pei; ZHANG Tao-Lin; HAN Feng-Xiang; P. FELIX-HENNINGSEN

    2005-01-01

    Dynamics of soil organic matter in a cultivation chronosequence of paddy fields were studied in subtropical China.Mineralization of soil organic matter was determined by measuring CO2 evolution from soil during 20 days of laboratory incubation. In the first 30 years of cultivation, soil organic C and N contents increased rapidly. After 30 years, 0-10 cm soil contained 19.6 g kg-1 organic C and 1.62 g kg-1 total N, with the corresponding values of 18.1 g kg-1 and 1.50 g kg-1 for 10-20 cm, and then remained stable even after 80 years of rice cultivation. During 20 days incubation the mineralization rates of organic C and N in surface soil (0-10 cm) ranged from 2.2% to 3.3% and from 2.8% to 6.7%,respectively, of organic C and total N contents. Biologically active C size generally increased with increasing soil organic C and N contents. Soil dissolved organic C decreased after cultivation of wasteland to 10 years paddy field and then increased. Soil microbial biomass C increased with number of years under cultivation, while soil microbial biomass N increased during the first 30 years of cultivation and then stabilized. After 30 years of cultivation surface soil (0-10 cm)contained 332.8 mg kg-1 of microbial biomass C and 23.85 mg kg-1 of microbial biomass N, which were 111% and 47% higher than those in soil cultivated for 3 years. It was suggested that surface soil with 30 years of rice cultivation in subtropical China would have attained a steady state of organic C content, being about 19 g kg-1.

  10. Physicochemical properties and mineral contents of seven different date fruit (Phoenix dactylifera L.) varieties growing from Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Juhaimi, Fahad; Ghafoor, Kashif; Özcan, Mehmet Musa

    2014-04-01

    The date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) fruits (Soukari, Soulag, Barhi, Khulas, Rozaiz, Soughi and Monaif) were evaluated with respect to some physical and chemical properties. While crude protein contents of fruits change between 1.51% (Soulag) to 2.41% (Soughi), crude fibre contents ranged between 1.91% (Soukari) to 3.90% (Barhi). Vitamin C contents of date samples changed between 971.82 mg/kg (Soughi) to 1,453.15 mg/kg (Barhi). Antioxidant activity of date fruits ranged from 80.07 IC50 (Soukari) to 81.21 IC50 (Soulag). The highest phenolic content was found in Khulas with a mean value of 198 mg GAE/100 g. Energy values of date fruits ranged from 3,725 kcal/kg (Soulag) to 3,870 kcal/kg (Soukari). Sucrose contents of date fruits changed between 1.02% (Soulag) to 55.71% (Soukari). Mineral contents of several date fruits were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Date samples contain potassium at a range between 7,468 mg/kg (Khulas) to 9,619 mg/kg (Soulag). Phosphorus contents of fruits were found between 1,848 mg/kg (Soulag) to 3,066 mg/kg (Rozaiz) and followed by magnesium and calcium. The highest Zn (9.33 mg/kg), Cu (4.27 mg/kg) and Mn (3.26 mg/kg) were found in Rozaiz, Soukari and Barhi samples, respectively.

  11. Determination of the Mineral Composition and Toxic Element Contents of Propolis by Near Infrared Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Martín, M. Inmaculada; Escuredo, Olga; Revilla, Isabel; Vivar-Quintana, Ana M.; Coello, M. Carmen; Palacios Riocerezo, Carlos; Wells Moncada, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    The potential of near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) with remote reflectance fiber-optic probes for determining the mineral composition of propolis was evaluated. This technology allows direct measurements without prior sample treatment. Ninety one samples of propolis were collected in Chile (Bio-Bio region) and Spain (Castilla-León and Galicia regions). The minerals measured were aluminum, calcium, iron, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, and some potentially toxic trace elements such as zinc, chromium, nickel, copper and lead. The modified partial least squares (MPLS) regression method was used to develop the NIR calibration model. The determination coefficient (R2) and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) obtained for aluminum (0.79, 53), calcium (0.83, 94), iron (0.69, 134) potassium (0.95, 117), magnesium (0.70, 99), phosphorus (0.94, 24) zinc (0.87, 10) chromium (0.48, 0.6) nickel (0.52, 0.7) copper (0.64, 0.9) and lead (0.70, 2) in ppm. The results demonstrated that the capacity for prediction can be considered good for wide ranges of potassium, phosphorus and zinc concentrations, and acceptable for aluminum, calcium, magnesium, iron and lead. This indicated that the NIR method is comparable to chemical methods. The method is of interest in the rapid prediction of potentially toxic elements in propolis before consumption. PMID:26540058

  12. Determination of the Mineral Composition and Toxic Element Contents of Propolis by Near Infrared Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Inmaculada González-Martín

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The potential of near infrared spectroscopy (NIR with remote reflectance fiber-optic probes for determining the mineral composition of propolis was evaluated. This technology allows direct measurements without prior sample treatment. Ninety one samples of propolis were collected in Chile (Bio-Bio region and Spain (Castilla-León and Galicia regions. The minerals measured were aluminum, calcium, iron, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, and some potentially toxic trace elements such as zinc, chromium, nickel, copper and lead. The modified partial least squares (MPLS regression method was used to develop the NIR calibration model. The determination coefficient (R2 and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP obtained for aluminum (0.79, 53, calcium (0.83, 94, iron (0.69, 134 potassium (0.95, 117, magnesium (0.70, 99, phosphorus (0.94, 24 zinc (0.87, 10 chromium (0.48, 0.6 nickel (0.52, 0.7 copper (0.64, 0.9 and lead (0.70, 2 in ppm. The results demonstrated that the capacity for prediction can be considered good for wide ranges of potassium, phosphorus and zinc concentrations, and acceptable for aluminum, calcium, magnesium, iron and lead. This indicated that the NIR method is comparable to chemical methods. The method is of interest in the rapid prediction of potentially toxic elements in propolis before consumption.

  13. Influence of Nitrogen Fertilizer and Endophyte Infection on Ecophysiological Parameters and Mineral Element Content of Perennial Ryegrass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    An-Zhi Ren; Yu-Bao Gao; Wei Wang; Jin-Long Wang; Nian-Xi Zhao

    2009-01-01

    An expedment was designed to determine the effect of the fungal endophyte Neotyphodium lolii on the growth, physiological parameters and mineral element content of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perennel L.), when growing at two N supply levels. Endophyfe infection had a significant positive effect on both shoot and root growth of ryegrass, but this difference was only significant in the high N supply treatment. At high N supply, endophyte-infected (EI) plants accumulated more soluble sugar in the sheath and the root than endophyte-free (EF) plants. Endophyte infection affected mineral element concentrations In the root more than in the shoot. We found a significant effect of endophyte infection on B, Mn and Mg in the root, but significant effect was only found on B in the shoot. EI plants tended to accumulate less B in the shoot at both N levels, but accumulated more B, Mn and Mg in the root at low N levels. The difference of growth parameters in different periods was significant. The content of soluble sugar and crude protein in the sheath were also dependent on the growth stages of both EI and EF plants.

  14. Recycling coffee grounds and tea leaf wastes to improve the yield and mineral content of grains of paddy rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikawa, Claudio K; Saigusa, M

    2011-08-30

    Coffee grounds and tea leaf wastes exhibit strong affinity for metals such as Fe and Zn. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of top-dressing application of Fe- and Zn-enriched coffee grounds and tea leaf wastes at the panicle initiation stage on the mineral content of rice grains and the yield of paddy rice. The Fe and Zn contents of brown rice grains increased significantly on application of both coffee and tea waste materials. The concentration of Mn was increased by top-dressing application of coffee waste material only. For Cu, no significant (P coffee and tea waste materials led to a significant (P coffee grounds and tea wastes from coffee shops. Use of these novel materials would not only reduce the waste going to landfill but would also benefit the mineral nutrition of rice consumers at low cost by increasing Fe and Zn levels of rice grains as well as grain yield. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Influence of nitrogen fertilizer and endophyte infection on ecophysiological parameters and mineral element content of perennial ryegrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, An-Zhi; Gao, Yu-Bao; Wang, Wei; Wang, Jin-Long; Zhao, Nian-Xi

    2009-01-01

    An experiment was designed to determine the effect of the fungal endophyte Neotyphodium lolii on the growth, physiological parameters and mineral element content of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perennel L.), when growing at two N supply levels. Endophyte infection had a significant positive effect on both shoot and root growth of ryegrass, but this difference was only significant in the high N supply treatment. At high N supply, endophyte-infected (EI) plants accumulated more soluble sugar in the sheath and the root than endophyte-free (EF) plants. Endophyte infection affected mineral element concentrations in the root more than in the shoot. We found a significant effect of endophyte infection on B, Mn and Mg in the root, but significant effect was only found on B in the shoot. EI plants tended to accumulate less B in the shoot at both N levels, but accumulated more B, Mn and Mg in the root at low N levels. The difference of growth parameters in different periods was significant. The content of soluble sugar and crude protein in the sheath were also dependent on the growth stages of both EI and EF plants.

  16. Ketones urine test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketone bodies - urine; Urine ketones; Ketoacidosis - urine ketones test; Diabetic ketoacidosis - urine ketones test ... Urine ketones are usually measured as a "spot test." This is available in a test kit that ...

  17. Content of certain mineral components in the thallus of lichens and the bark of roadside trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisława Kuziel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The total N, P, Mg, Ca, K and Na contents were investigated in the thalli of several lichen species occurring on various trees, and in the bark and bark extracts from these trees. pH of the bark extracts was also determined. Wide differences were found in the content of the elements in point in the thalli of various lichen species on Acer platanoides and on the thalli of the same species on other trees. No relation was detected between the chemical composition of the bark and that of the lichen thalli occurring on it.

  18. Gas content of some thermal and thermal-mineral waters in Bosnia and Herzogovinia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derkovic, B. (Geoinzenjering, Sarajevo, Yugoslavia)

    Studies were made of the gas content of thermal waters from nine wells in Bosnia and Herzogovinia. The wells are located at Kulasi, Olovo, Laktasi, Fojnica, Slatina, Gornji, Ilidza near Sarajevo, and Ilidza near Banja Luka. All the waters were characterized by nitrogen and originate at fairly shallow depths. The gas contents of the waters, in terms of C, CO/sub 2/, O/sub 2/, N/sub 2/, H/sub 2/S, He, Ne, As, Kr, and Xe are reported. Due to their ease of recovery, these waters are extensively used in balneological applications.

  19. Effect of sample handling on alkaloid and mineral content of aqueous extracts of greater celandine (Chelidonium majus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Then, M; Szentmihályi, K; Sárközi, A; Illés, V; Forgács, E

    2000-08-11

    The authors examined the extraction of alkaloids from the greater celandine (Chelidonium majus L.) by different methods (traditional pressing and tea making, microwave and supercritical fluid extraction). The extractants were water and propylene glycol. For comparison of the extraction methods, the yield was evaluated according to total alkaloid content measured by spectroscopy. The highest alkaloid yield was obtained by microwave extraction and by making tea. Distribution of the components was studied by thin-layer chromatography and densitometry. The concentration and the ratio of alkaloid components in extracts are significantly different depending on the extraction method. The solution obtained by supercritical fluid extraction contains coptisine and chelidonine, while berberine could be obtained by microwave extraction only. Extracts with high coptisine content were obtained by supercritical fluid extraction, followed by pressing and microwave extraction. Mineral element content of the drug and extracts was also determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. Element content (Na, Ca, Fe) was found to be highest in microwave extracts.

  20. Comparison of Mineral Element Content in a Functional Food Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp. from Asia and South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Contents of eight mineral elements in maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp. from China and Peru were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. Cu contents in maca samples from China (2.5–31 mg kg−1 dry weight, dw were higher than the samples from Peru (<2.1 mg kg−1 dw. Na in two samples from China was found to be significantly of high content (2400 and 2600 mg kg−1 dw. The contents (mg kg−1 dw of B, Co, Cr, Li, Ni, and Zn were, respectively, 8.1–21, <0.023, <1.1~3.5, 0.020–0.17, 0.085–4.5, and 10–39 for the samples from China, while being 6.6–12, <0.023, <1.1~2.3, 0.035–0.063, 0.68–1.7, and 27–39 for the samples from Peru.

  1. Increasing the calcium content of mealworms (Tenebrio molitor) to improve their nutritional value for bone mineralization of growing chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klasing, K C; Thacker, P; Lopez, M A; Calvert, C C

    2000-12-01

    The purpose of these studies was to determine the husbandry variables that optimize the Ca content of mealworms (Tenebrio molitor) and to determine the bioavailability of this Ca for bone mineralization in chicks that consume the mealworms. To determine the optimal level of Ca in the substrates used in short-term (mealworms and to determine the length of time that mealworms should be exposed to high-Ca substrates, mealworms were placed in either a wheat bran or a chicken starter substrate supplemented with 0, 4, 8, or 12% Ca from CaCO3. The mealworms were harvested after 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, or 14 days. The Ca content of the mealworms was greatest with the use of chicken starter and increased linearly with the Ca content of the substrate. In general, the Ca content of the mealworms increased during the first 24 hr and decreased after > or = 1 wk, especially at the higher levels of Ca supplementation. The chicken starter also resulted in higher levels of vitamin D in mealworms. Mealworms held in wheat bran with 8% Ca were fed to growing chicks. Ca bioavailability was calculated from the chicks' bone ash. The Ca in these mealworms was 76% as bioavailable as the Ca in oyster shell.

  2. Mix design of concrete with high content of mineral additions: Optimisation to improve early age strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.I.A. Khokhar; E. Roziere; P. Turcry; F. Grondin; A. Loukili [Institut de Recherche en Genie Civil et Mecanique (GeM), Nantes (France)

    2010-05-15

    The concrete industry is an important source of CO{sub 2} gas emissions. The cement used in the design of concrete is the result of a chemical process linked to the decarbonation of limestone conducted at high temperature and results in a significant release of carbon dioxide. Under the project EcoBeton (Green concrete) funded by the French National Research Agency (ANR), concrete mixtures have been designed with a low cement quantity, by replacing cement by mineral additions i.e., blast-furnace slag, fly ash or limestone fillers. Replacement of cement by other materials at high percentages generally lowers the early age strength of the resulting concrete. To cope with this problem, an optimisation method for mix design of concrete using Bolomey's law has been used. Following the encouraging results obtained from mortar, a series of tests on concretes with various substitution percentages were carried out to validate the optimisation method.

  3. Solar thermal evaporation of human urine for nitrogen and phosphorus recovery in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonini, Samantha, E-mail: sam_antonini@uni-bonn.de; Nguyen, Phong Thanh; Arnold, Ute; Eichert, Thomas; Clemens, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    A No Mix sanitation system was installed in a dormitory at the University of Can Tho in Vietnam, with the objective of recycling nutrients from source separated urine. This paper presents a pilot scale evaporation technology, and investigates the feasibility of recovering nitrogen and phosphorus from human urine by solar still for use as fertilizer. After 26 days of sun exposure, 360 g of solid fertilizer material was recovered from 50 L undiluted urine. This urine-derived fertilizer was mainly composed of sodium chloride, and had phosphorus and nitrogen contents of almost 2%. When tested with maize and ryegrass, the urine fertilizer led to biomass yields and phosphorus and nitrogen uptakes comparable to those induced by a commercial mineral fertilizer. Urine acidification with sulfuric or phosphoric acid prior treatment reduced nitrogen losses, improved the nutrient content of the generated fertilizers, and induced higher biomass yields and nitrogen and phosphorus uptakes than the commercial mineral fertilizer. However, acidification is not recommended in developing countries due to additional costs and handling risks. The fate of micropollutants and the possibility of separating sodium chloride from other beneficial nutrients require further investigation. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 360 g of fertilizer was derived from 50 L urine by solar evaporative distillation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The fertilizer contained 90% sodium chloride, 3% sulfur, 2% nitrogen, 2% phosphorus. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It induced biomass yields comparable to those produced by a commercial fertilizer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Urine acidification improved the nutrient content of the generated fertilizers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Acidification is not recommended for use in developing countries (costs, safety).

  4. Influence of cultivar on the content of selected minerals in red beet roots (Beta vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nizioł-Łukaszewska Zofia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Beetroot is a vegetable that accumulate heavy metals. This is largely dependent on the cultivar, methods and growing conditions. The aim of the study was to determine the composition of elements in the roots of 15 cultivars of red beet. The analysis assessed the content of macroelements (Na, P and heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Mn, Zn. Most soils of the Lesser Poland region are exposed to the impact of industrial and transportation pollution. The soils of this region are characterized by strong acidification as well as natural or increased heavy metal content. The experiment was set up at the experimental field of the Department of Vegetable and Medicinal Plants of the University of Agriculture in Krakow, in 2009-2010. On the basis of the performed analysis, ‘Opolski’ was chosen as the cultivar that was characterized by a high content of macroelements and lower ability to accumulate heavy metals than the other tested cultivars. The lowest ability to accumulate heavy metals (Cd and Cr was found in the cases of cultivars with cylindrical root shapes, such as Rywal or Opolski. One can indicate such cultivars as Astar F1 or Nabab F1 as cultivars recommended for cultivation in ecologically threatened areas.

  5. Capacity of microorganisms to decompose organic carbon affected by an increasing content of reactive mineral phases in a podzolic soil chronosequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeire, Marie-Liesse; Doetterl, Sebastian; Bode, Samuel; Delmelle, Pierre; Van Oost, Kristof; Cornelis, Jean-Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Soil organic matter stabilization has received considerable interest in the last decades due to the importance of the soil organic carbon (SOC) pool in the global C budget. There is increasing evidence that the formation of organo-mineral associations play a major role in the mechanisms of organic carbon stabilization, indicating that the persistence of organic matter in soils relates primarily to soil physico-chemical and biological conditions than to intrinsic recalcitrance. Al and Fe oxy-hydroxides and short-range ordered aluminosilicates are known for their high capacity to sorb organic carbon. However, the impact of the evolution of these reactive mineral phases over short time scale on the distribution of microorganisms and their ability to decompose SOC is still poorly understood. To further study the short-term evolution of organo-mineral associations, we investigated a 500-year podzolic soil chronosequence which is characterized by an increasing amount of secondary reactive mineral phases with pedogenesis and soil age, and thus by increased organo-mineral associations. In order to determine the impact of these secondary mineral phases on the degradation of SOC by microorganisms, an incubation experiment was carried out using soil horizons up to 1m deep from 6 profiles of different ages along the chronosequence. Furthermore, we used amino sugars and phospholipid fatty acids as tracers of dead and living microbial biomass, respectively, in the incubated samples. Our results show that SOC mineralization was significantly lower in the illuvial Bh/Bhs horizons (which contain more reactive mineral phases) compared to the surface E horizons (depleted in reactive mineral phases), although the content in amino sugars is similar in these horizons. In the deeper Bw and BC horizons, as well as in the young profiles (organo-mineral associations, SOC mineralization rates were the highest. These findings suggest that stabilization of OC through organo-mineral

  6. Bone computed tomography mineral content evaluation in chickens: effects of substances in homeopathic concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canello, Sergio; Gasparini, Gabriele; Luisetto, Patrizio; Di Cerbo, Alessandro; Pomerri, Fabio

    2016-02-01

    Ninety-six cobb race chickens were equally divided in 4 groups and randomly assigned to receive a standard treatment feed + homeopathic concentrations of Symphytum (S.) officinalis (9CH), or standard treatment feed + homeopathic concentrations of Tricalcarea (4CH), or standard treatment feed + homeopathic concentrations of Calcarea (C.) carbonica (30CH) or a placebo (the same feed but without any homeopathic compound) in order to assess the ability of the homeopathic compounds to increase the concentration of calcium hydroxyapatite in the sternal spongy bone tissue. We measured the concentration of calcium hydroxyapatite in the sternal spongy bone tissue of all chickens by means of a computed tomography (CT). 30%, 36% and 63% increase of sternum spongy-bone mineralization was observed after a 2 years period in the treatment groups with S. officinalis (9CH), Tricalcarea (4CH) (*P chickens reared in commercial poultry-sheds, creating a weakness of the whole animal supporting apparatus. Homeopathic preparations with bone-tissue tropism may improve their health quality. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Dual photon absorptiometry using a gadolinium-153 source applied to measure equine bone mineral content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moure, Alessandro [National Scientific and Technological Development Council, Ministry of Science and Technology, SEPN 509, Bloco A, Sala 204, 70750-901 BrasIlia, DF (Brazil); Reichmann, Peter [Department of Veterinary Clinical Medicine, Agricultural Science Centre/Londrina State University, CP 6001, 86051-990 Londrina, PR (Brazil); Gamba, Humberto Remigio [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica do Parana, Post-Graduate Programme in Electrical Engineering and Applied Computer Science, Av. 7 de setembro 3165, 80230-901 Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2003-12-07

    The application of the dual photon absorptiometry (DPA) technique, using gadolinium-153 as the photon source, to evaluate the bone mineral density (BMD) of the third metacarpal bone of horses is presented. The radiation detector was implemented with a NaI(TI) scintillator coupled to a 14 stage photomultiplier. A modular mechanical system allows the position of the prototype to be adjusted in relation to the animal. A moveable carrier makes it possible to scan the third metacarpal with a velocity adjustable between 1 and 12 mm s{sup -1}, in steps of 1 mm s{sup -1}, for a total distance of 250 mm. The prototype was evaluated with a phantom of the third metacarpal bone made of perspex and aluminium, and in vitro with a transverse slice of the third metacarpal bone of a horse. The tests showed that the prototype has an accuracy and precision of, approximately, 10% and 6%, respectively, for a 6 s acquisition time. Preliminary studies carried out in three foals from birth to one year of age indicated that the prototype is well suited to in vivo and in situ analysis of the BMD of the third metacarpal bones of horses, making it possible to evaluate the changes of BMD levels on a monthly basis. Also, results indicated an exponential behaviour of the BMD curve during the first year of life of the studied horses.

  8. Mineral Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria Isolated from Various Plant Rhizosphere under Different Aluminum Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolly Iriani Damarjaya

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study was to isolate and characterize the mineral phosphate solubilizing bacteriafrom rhizosphere and evaluate their potential as plant growth promoting bacteria in Al-toxic soils. The halozone formation method was used to isolate PSB using the media containing insoluble phosphates (Ca-P or Al-Pas a source of phosphate. Eight of acid and Al-tolerant PSB isolates that were able to solubilize Ca-P wereobtained from rhizosphere of clover, wheat, corn, and sunflower grown in Al-toxic soil. Identification of theisolates based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis demonstrated that the isolates were strains of Burkholderia(5 strains, Pseudomonas (1 strain, Ralstonia (1 strain, and unidentified bacterium (1 strains. All PSB isolatesshowed the capability to dissolve Ca-P, and only 1 strain (Ralstonia strain was able to dissolve Al-P in agar platemedium. The P-solubilization by these isolates was correlated with pH of medium. Inoculation of the bacterialstrains on clover on Al-toxic medium showed that all isolates increased the plant dry weight compared withuninoculated treatment. Our results showed that those PSB isolates have potential to be developed as a biofertilizerto increase the efficiency of P-inorganic fertilizer used in Al-toxic soils.

  9. Implication of milling methods, thermal treatment, and particle size of feed in layers on mineral digestibility and retention of minerals in egg contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafeez, A; Mader, A; Ruhnke, I; Röhe, I; Boroojeni, F Goodarzi; Yousaf, M S; Männer, K; Zentek, J

    2015-02-01

    Feed production with different milling methods, thermal treatment, and particle size may influence mineral digestibility and retention in eggs. The present study investigated the impact of roller (R) and hammer (H) mills, mash (M) and expandate (E) with fine (F) and coarse (C) particle sizes, on apparent ileal absorption (AIA) and apparent total digestibility (ATD) and retention of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, zinc, manganese, copper and iron in yolk, albumen, and shell. A total of 384 hens (Lohmann Brown), 19 weeks old, were assigned using a randomized design with a 2×2×2 factorial arrangement. Eight experimental diets were offered ad libitum during the whole experimental period and one week before for diet adaption. The AIA of magnesium, zinc, copper, and iron was higher in treatment R in comparison with treatment H (P<0.01, P≤0.03, P<0.01 and P<0.01, respectively). The AIA of magnesium was higher in treatment M than treatment E (P<0.01). The AIA of magnesium was higher in treatment C in comparison with treatment F (P≤0.05) due to particle size. The ATD of copper and iron was higher in treatment R than treatment H (P<0.01 and P≤0.03, respectively). The ATD was higher for phosphorus and lower for iron in treatment F than treatment C (P≤0.05 and P≤0.02. respectively). The copper concentration in yolk and albumen was higher in treatment C than treatment F (P<0.01 and P≤0.03, respectively). Besides a few overall interactions, the AIA and ATD of copper and manganese were lower in H+M group than R+M group (P≤0.05). The ATD of iron was higher in the M+C group compared to the M+F group (P<0.01), whereas the albumen zinc concentration was higher in the E+C group than E+F group (P < 0.01). In conclusion, the feed produced by hammer mill had negative effects on AIA and ATD for trace elements in particular, but mineral concentrations in egg contents were mostly comparable for all treatments. Therefore, milling methods, thermal treatment, and particle sizes

  10. Suplemento mineral aniônico para vacas no periparto: parâmetros sanguíneos, urinários e incidência de patologias de importância na bovinocultura leiteira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele F. Greghi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A fim de avaliar o efeito do suplemento mineral aniônico sobre parâmetros sanguíneos, urinários e incidência de hipocalcemia e retenção de placenta, dezoito vacas de aptidão leiteira com grau de sangue 7/8 Holandesa preta e branca, com 440-620 kg e 5-10 anos, foram divididas com delineamento em blocos em função da ordem de parto em dois grupos: controle (BCAD=46,38mEq/kg de MS e tratamento (com adição de suplemento mineral aniônico e BCAD = -249,28mEq/kg de MS. Foram monitorados níveis de cálcio total e pH na urina e soro sanguíneo; TCO2, pCO2, HCO3, excesso de base, cálcio ionizado, Na, K, Se no sangue; escore de condição corporal, hematócrito e hemoglobina. Os dados sanguíneos, urinários e ECC foram submetidos ao Proc Means do SAS (2000 com análise de variância a 5% e teste de Tukey e a incidência de retenção de placenta analisada por Mann-Whitney (P<0,07 e a concentração sérica de Se por teste t de Student (P<0,05, ambos pelo GraphPad Prism 5.0. O suplemento mineral aniônico diminuiu os valores de TCO2, pCO2, HCO3 e EB no sangue com menor perda de peso, mas a variação de pH e cálcio foi restrita ao tempo. O suplemento mineral aniônico não provocou leve acidose metabólica desejada e, consequentemente, não preveniu a hipocalcemia. Contudo, por apresentar Se em sua composição, proporcionou maior concentração deste micronutriente no soro e contribuiu para menor retenção de placenta.

  11. Effect of different debittering processes on mineral and phytic acid content of lupin (Lupinus albus L.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertaş, Nilgün; Bilgiçli, Nermin

    2014-11-01

    Lupin is a valuable ancient legume which contains high amount of protein, dietary fiber, oil, minerals and different functional components. Bitter lupin seeds cannot be consumed directly since its high toxic alkaloid content. Cooking and soaking are effective processes for removing these toxic substances and antinutrients as phytic acid, trypsin inhibitors and oligosaccharides. In this study, debittering process containing cooking and soaking up to 144 h was applied to lupin seeds. Raw lupin seeds had 3.3 % ash and 41.3 % protein content. Ash and protein content of debittered seeds changed between 2.1 and 2.5 %, 39.5 and 40.9 % respectively. After debittering process, significant (p Phytic acid was removed from raw lupin seeds up to 71.4 % ratio by debittering processes, and soaking in distilled water at 55 °C and long soaking time (144 h) was found the most effective methods on phytic acid loss. While more lighter (L*) seeds were obtained with soaking in distilled water at 25 °C, soaking in 0.5 % NaHCO3 solution gave more yellowish (b*) seed properties compared to other soaking methods. Soaking in 0.5 % NaHCO3 solution at 144 h gave the most liked products in terms of sensorial evaluation.

  12. Variations of Antioxidant Characteristics and Mineral Contents in Pulp and Peel of Different Apple (Malus domestica Borkh. Cultivars from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maleeha Manzoor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Variations of phenolics, antioxidant activity, and mineral contents in peel and pulp of five apple (Malus domestica Borkh. cultivars from Pakistan, namely Red Delicious, Golden Delicious, Kashmiri Amri, Kala Kulu and Sky Spur were appraised. The mean extract yield of antioxidant components obtained with 80:20 methanol-water (v/v, was found to be 22.1 g/100 g for peel and 14.2 g/100 g for pulp on a dry weight basis. The amounts of total phenolics and total flavonoids in peel and pulp of different cultivars of apple ranged from 1,907.5–2,587.9 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g DW and 1,214.3–1,816.4 mg catechin equivalent/100 g DW and 1,185.2–1,475.5 mg GAE/100 g DW and 711.8–999.3 mg CE/100 g DW, respectively. The inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation and DPPH scavenging activity of the extracts varied from 71.7–84.9 and 66.6–80.8% in peel, and 43.9–52.8 and 42.9–51.1% in pulp, respectively. Reducing power of the tested fruit part extracts at concentration 12.5 mg/mL ranged from 2.54–2.89 and 1.37–1.73, respectively. With regard to minerals analysis, both fruit parts showed the amount of K to be the highest, followed by Mg, Ca, Fe, Na and Zn. The results revealed that peel of the tested apple cultivars in this study had superior antioxidant capacity and mineral concentration than the pulp, indicating significant variations between the parts tested. Thus, consumption of apple fruits along with peel might be recommended to gaining better nutritive benefits.

  13. Bone mineral density and content during weight cycling in female rats: effects of dietary amylase-resistant starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagpal Sugeet

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although there is considerable evidence for a loss of bone mass with weight loss, the few human studies on the relationship between weight cycling and bone mass or density have differing results. Further, very few studies assessed the role of dietary composition on bone mass during weight cycling. The primary objective of this study was to determine if a diet high in amylase-resistant starch (RS2, which has been shown to increase absorption and balance of dietary minerals, can prevent or reduce loss of bone mass during weight cycling. Methods Female Sprague-Dawley (SD rats (n = 84, age = 20 weeks were randomly assigned to one of 6 treatment groups with 14 rats per group using a 2 × 3 experimental design with 2 diets and 3 weight cycling protocols. Rats were fed calcium-deficient diets without RS2 (controls or diets high in RS2 (18% by weight throughout the 21-week study. The weight cycling protocols were weight maintenance/gain with no weight cycling, 1 round of weight cycling, or 2 rounds of weight cycling. After the rats were euthanized bone mineral density (BMD and bone mineral content (BMC of femur were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and concentrations of calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, and zinc in femur and lumbar vertebrae were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results Rats undergoing weight cycling had lower femur BMC (p 2 had higher femur BMD (p 2-fed rats also had higher femur calcium (p Conclusion Weight cycling reduces bone mass. A diet high in RS2 can minimize loss of bone mass during weight cycling and may increase bone mass in the absence of weight cycling.

  14. A day in the life of a content miner and team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Arrow

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available It’s tough for Peter getting out of bed today – yesterday he travelled to Brussels and back, fighting for ‘The Right to Read is the Right to Mine’ (R2RR2M. Content mining – also known as text and data mining (TDM – is a hot topic in Europe. It’s got huge promise, with two million scholarly publications a year and so much data that we can’t take it all in – 5,000 papers a day (and grey literature, and theses, and…. So we must have machines to help.

  15. Mineralization Content Alters Osteogenic Responses of Bone Marrow Stromal Cells on Hydroxyapatite/Polycaprolactone Composite Nanofiber Scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketul C. Popat

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic tissue scaffolds have a high potential impact for patients experiencing osteogenesis imperfecta. Using electrospinning, tissue scaffolds composed of hydroxyapatite/polycaprolactone (HAp/PCL composite nanofibers were fabricated with two different HAp concentrations—1% and 10% of the solid scaffold weight. After physico-chemical scaffold characterization, rat bone marrow stromal cells were cultured on the composite scaffolds in maintenance medium and then in osteogenic medium. Quantitative PCR, colorimetric assays, immunofluorescent labeling, and electron microscopy measured osteogenic cell responses to the HAp/PCL scaffolds. In maintenance conditions, both Hap/PCL scaffolds and control scaffolds supported cell colonization through seven days with minor differences. In osteogenic conditions, the 10% HAp scaffolds exhibited significantly increased ALP assay levels at week 3, consistent with previous reports. However, qPCR analysis demonstrated an overall decrease in bone matrix-associated genes on Hap/PCL scaffolds. Osteopontin and osteocalcin immunofluorescent microscopy revealed a trend that both mineralized scaffolds had greater amounts of both proteins, though qPCR results indicated the opposite trend for osteopontin. Additionally, type I collagen expression decreased on HAp scaffolds. These results indicate that cells are sensitive to minor changes in mineral content within nanofibers, even at just 1% w/w, and elucidating the sensing mechanism may lead to optimized osteogenic scaffold designs.

  16. Feto-maternal vitamin D status and infant whole-body bone mineral content in the first weeks of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dror, D K; King, J C; Durand, D J; Fung, E B; Allen, L H

    2012-09-01

    Compromised vitamin D status is common in pregnancy and may have adverse impacts on fetal development. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of infant whole-body bone mineral content (WBBMC) at 8-21 days of age with feto-maternal vitamin D status in a multiethnic population in Oakland, California. This was a cross-sectional study of 120 women and their newborn infants. Maternal and cord blood were collected at delivery. WBBMC was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in term-born infants 8-21 days post birth. No significant association was observed between unadjusted or size-adjusted WBBMC and feto-maternal vitamin D status analyzed continuously or categorically. In multivariate modeling, unadjusted WBBMC was predicted by bone area (Pfeto-maternal vitamin D status. Anthropometric predictors but not vitamin D remained significant in the multivariate model after adjustment of WBBMC for weight, bone area (bone mineral density) or logarithmically derived exponents of the denominators. Results of the present study do not support an association between feto-maternal vitamin D status and early infant WBBMC, raw or adjusted for inter-individual differences in size, in a multiethnic population in Northern California.

  17. Seasonal variation of macro and trace mineral contents in 14 browse species that grow in northeastern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, R G.; Haenlein, G F.W.; Núñez-González, M A.

    2001-02-01

    Leaves and twigs from shrub species consumed by range goats: Acacia berlandieri, Acacia farnesiana, Acacia greggii, Acacia rigidula, Celtis pallida, Cercidium macrum, Condalia obovata, Cordia boissieri, Desmanthus virgathus, Leucaena leucocephala, Leucophyllum texanum, Opuntia lindehimieri, Porlieria angustifolia, Prosopis glandulosa, and Ziziphus obtusifolia were evaluated for comparative seasonal contents of Ca, P, Mg K, Zn, Mn, Cu and Fe. Plants were collected in summer (September 12, 1992), fall (November 20, 1992), winter (February 20, 1993) and spring (May 22, 1993) in Marín, County, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. During spring and summer mineral concentrations were higher in general. Only Ca, Mg, K, and Fe were in substantial amounts in all seasons to meet adult goat requirements. With the exception of spring, shrubs had extremely low P concentrations. Manganese, Cu and Zn in most plants had low marginal levels to meet adult goat requirements. Moreover, potential intake of P, Mn, Cu and Zn in shrub species by goats weighing 50kg BW consuming 2.0kg per day DM was low. However, plants such as D. virgathus, L. texanum, P. glandulosa, L. leucocephala and C. macrum can be considered prominent components in diets of range goats because of their high mineral concentrations. It appears that ration formulations for range goats in northeastern Mexico should include P, Mn, Cu and Zn in all seasons of the year.

  18. Synergistic Effect of Selenium Addition and Water Stress on Melilotus officinalis L. Mineral Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiota KOSTOPOULOU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the combined effects of selenium (Se enrichment and water stress on the accumulation of available macro- and micronutrients in Melilotus officinalis L. aerial parts. Plants of M. officinalis were subjected to three levels of Se addition (0, 1 and 3 mg Se L-1 water and to two water treatments: a full irrigation and b limited irrigation (water stress. The above ground biomass (stems and leaves was analyzed for Se, potassium (K, sodium (Na, magnesium (Mg, iron (Fe, copper (Cu, calcium (Ca, manganese (Mn and zinc (Zn. Se addition differentially affected the K, Mg and Ca content of M. officinalis aerial parts, while it led to the reduction of the micronutrients Cu, Fe and Mn. Water stress resulted in the increase of K, Na, Mg, Ca and Cu, and to the decrease of the Fe, Zn and Mn content. An interaction between selenium addition and water treatment was more notable for Ca and Mg, which decreased under water stress at low Se level and for Zn and Cu, which increased under water stress at high Se level. According to our findings, Se-induced increased accumulation of some inorganic ions in the aerial parts of this species under water stress conditions could serve as a means to alleviate the adverse impact of water deficit on important metabolic processes, enhancing M. officinalis tolerance to water stress.

  19. Effects of storage time and straw content of cattle slurry on the mineralization of nitrogen and carbon in soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, P.

    1998-01-01

    to a sandy and a sandy loam soil. After 1 week, the preceding storage period (0-20 weeks) and temperature (5 degrees C or 15 degrees C) had no significant effect on the net release of inorganic N from the slurry in soil. Thus, the increased NH4+ content in the slurry after storage was followed by increased...... net N immobilization in soil. Additional straw in the slurry caused increased net N immobilization only in the sandy loam soil. Following anaerobic storage, 8-14% of slurry C was released in gaseous form, and the net mineralization of slurry C after 12 weeks in soil amounted to 54-63%. The extra net...

  20. Evaluation of drying methods with respect to drying kinetics, mineral content and colour characteristics of rosemary leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arslan, Derya [Selcuk University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Food Engineering, Konya (Turkey); Musa Ozcan, M. [Selcuk University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Food Engineering, Konya (Turkey)], E-mail: mozcan@selcuk.edu.tr

    2008-05-15

    Rosemary leaves (Rosmarinus officinalis L., Lamiaceae) were dried by using sun, oven (50 deg. C) and microwave oven (700 W, 2450 MHz) drying methods. Microwave oven drying shortened the drying time more than 99% when compared to the sun and oven drying methods. K, Ca, Na, Mg and P were the most abundant elements in the rosemary samples. The mineral content of oven dried rosemary leaves was higher than that of the sun and microwave dried samples. The logarithmic and Midilli and Kuecuek models were shown to give a good fit to the sun and oven drying. The Page, Modified Page and Midilli and Kuecuek models have shown a better fit to the experimental microwave oven drying data of rosemary leaves. Microwave oven drying revealed optimum colour values. Oven drying resulted in a considerable decrease in the colour quality of the rosemary leaves.

  1. Evaluation of the effectiveness of micro-Raman spectroscopy in monitoring the mineral contents change of human enamel in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa, Yue; Feng, Xiaowei; Lei, Chang; Yu, Yan; Jiang, Tao; Wang, Yining

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate the efficacy of micro-Raman spectroscopy on detecting mineral content change during the demineralization and de/remineralization cycling process. The enamel samples (n = 55) were randomly divided into three groups and separately treated with demineralization solution (n = 20), de/remineralization cycling solution (n = 30), and distilled water (n = 5). Micro-Raman spectroscopy, microhardness (MHS), and the released calcium ions concentration were performed before and after treatment, respectively. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with a post hoc Tukey test was used to analyze the results. The Spearman correlation coefficients among the parameters of Raman relative intensity decrease (RRID%), the percentage of MHS loss (PML), and the released calcium ions concentration were also analyzed. In demineralization group, RRID%, PML, and released calcium ions concentration were highly correlated with each other (r = 0.979, p < 0.001; r = 0.984, p < 0.001; and r = 0.983, p < 0.001, respectively). While for the de/remineralization cycling group, there also existed a high correlation between RRID% and PML (r = 0.987, p < 0.001). In conclusion, micro-Raman spectroscopy could effectively monitor the mineral content change, and its efficacy was validated by the measurement of released calcium ions concentration and MHS.

  2. Urine culture - catheterized specimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture - urine - catheterized specimen; Urine culture - catheterization; Catheterized urine specimen culture ... urinary tract infections may be found in the culture. This is called a contaminant. You may not ...

  3. Effect of organic amendments and mineral fertilizer on zinc bioavailability, plant content and translocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chami, Ziad Al; Cavoski, Ivana; Mondelli, Donato; Miano, Teodoro

    2013-04-01

    Organic matter plays a key role in heavy metal bioavailability through changes in soil chemical characteristics, and by its metal-chelating ability, the latter being one of the most important factors controlling the mobility and bioavailability of heavy metals in the soil-plant system. In this research, rocket (Eruca vesicaria L. Cavalieri), a common edible plant species in the Mediterranean regions, was used as bio-indicator to evaluate the effect of different organic amendments on Zn toxicity, absorption, and translocation. The main objectives of this study were to investigate the bioavailability of Zn in an artificially contaminated soil after the addition of compost, manure and chemical fertilizers at agronomically recommended doses and to evaluate their ability to reduce Zn concentration in the edible plant part. A greenhouse pots experiment was carried out using rocket plant grown on an artificially contaminated soil. In this study, the effect of compost, manure and chemical fertilizers on Zn fate in a soil-plant system was evaluated. At the end of the experiment main growth parameters and Zn content in plants were determined. In addition, Zn speciation in the soil was assessed using the original BCR sequential extraction and the DTPA extraction. The overall assessment of experimental results is that compost, followed by chemical fertilizers treatments, was the most efficient in enhancing plant growth and decreasing metal toxicity and concentrations in plant tissues. Manure amendments increased plant Zn content and toxicity in rocket plants. In the case of compost treatment, this effect can be attributed to the humified OM present in compost; while the negative effect of manure is due to its content in low molecular weight organic acids. The effect of chemical fertilizers treatment could be attributed to the addition of P fertilizer in soluble and highly available forms to the plants. On the contrary, using DTPA and BCR sequential extraction procedure, all

  4. Salt content in ready-to-eat food and bottled spring and mineral water retailed in Novi Sad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trajković-Pavlović Ljiljana B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Salt intake above 5 g/person/day is a strong independent risk factor for hypertension, stroke and cardiovascular diseases. Published studies indicate that the main source of salt in human diet is processed ready-to-eat food, contributing with 65-85% to daily salt intake. Objective. The aim of this paper was to present data on salt content of ready-to-eat food retailed in Novi Sad, Serbia, and contribution of the salt contained in 100 g of food to the recommended daily intake of salt for healthy and persons with cardiovascular disease (CVD risk. Methods. In 1,069 samples of ready-to-eat food, salt (sodium chloride content was calculated based on chloride ion determined by titrimetric method, while in 54 samples of bottled water sodium content was determined using flame-photometry. Food items in each food group were categorized as low, medium or high salt. Average salt content of each food group was expressed as a percentage of recommended daily intake for healthy and for persons with CVD risk. Results. Average salt content (g/100 g ranged from 0.36±0.48 (breakfast cereals to 2.32±1.02 (grilled meat. The vast majority of the samples of sandwiches (91.7%, pizza (80.7%, salami (73.9%, sausages (72.9%, grilled meat (70.0% and hard cheese (69.6% had a high salt profile. Average amount of salt contained in 100 g of food participated with levels ranging from 7.2% (breakfast cereals to 46.4% (grilled meat and from 9.6% to 61.8% in the recommended daily intake for healthy adult and person with CVD risk, respectively. Average sodium content in 100 ml of bottled spring and mineral water was 0.33±0.30 mg and 33±44 mg, respectively. Conclusion. Ready-to-eat food retailed in Novi Sad has high hidden salt content, which could be considered as an important contributor to relatively high salt consumption of its inhabitants.

  5. Different methods of preparing rumen and caecum content from reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus for the analyses of minerals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitta Åhman

    1982-05-01

    Full Text Available Different methods were used for preparation of samples of rumen and caecum content from reindeer. The mineral contents of the samples were compared. Rumen and caecum samples from three reindeer were centrifuged at sampling and the fluid was stored frozen. Further preparation of these samples caused a gradient in mineral concentration at centrifugation, varying between samples. This procedure consequently gave no reliable results. Hence, three methods of preparing total rumen content after freezing were compared: centrifugation, wet and dry ashing (after drying. Na, K, Mg, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn were analysed. The mineral analyses of rumen fluid, 41 compared to total rumen content, gave divergent results for the different minerals, depending on solubility. Wet ashing and dry ashing gave approximately the same results. Considering these results, analyses of minerals in samples of total rumen or caecum content is recommended, rather than analyses in fluid samples. The samples should be frozen or dried immediately at collection, and later be used for either wet or dry ashing.Olika metoder vid preparering av vom- och blindtarmsinnhåll från ren (Rangifer tarandus tarandus för analys av mineraler.Abstract in Swedish / Sammanfattning: Prov av vom- och blindtarmsinnehåll från ren preparerades på olika sätt och mineralåmnesinnehållet i proverna jämfördes. Vom- och blindtarmsprover från tre renar centrifugerades vid provtagningen och vätskan frystes. Vid vidare preparering av de fryslagrade vätskeproverna, uppstod vid centrifugering en gradient i fråga om mineralhalt. Denna var olika fôr olika prover. Detta tillvagagångssatt gav således inte tillförlitliga resultat. På grund härav jämfördes tre metoder fôr preparering av fryslagrat totalt vominnehåll: centrifugering samt våt- och torrföraskning (efter torkning. Na, K, Mg, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu och Zn analyserades. Mineralanalyserna på vomvätska, jämfört med analyserna på totalt

  6. Characterization of protein, lipid and mineral contents in common Norwegian seaweeds and evaluation of their potential as food and feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maehre, Hanne K; Malde, Marian K; Eilertsen, Karl-Erik; Elvevoll, Edel O

    2014-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine protein and amino acid composition, lipid and fatty acid composition, along with a range of essential minerals in common Norwegian seaweed species representing the red (Palmaria palmata and Vertebrata lanosa), green (Cladophora rupestris, Enteromorpha intestinalis and Ulva lactuca) and brown (Alaria esculenta, Laminaria digitata, Laminaria hyperborea, Fucus vesiculosus and Pelvetia canaliculata) classes and assess their potential as alternatives to cereals in food and feed. As macroalgae accumulate heavy metals, arsenic, cadmium and mercury were also analyzed. Proteins ranged from 34 to 123 g kg(-1) dry weight (DW) and the essential amino acid levels may cover both human and salmonid requirements. Lipids were low (6-58 g kg(-1) DW), but the red algae had high relative content of long-chained omega-3 fatty acids (32-34 % of the fatty acids). Iodine contents were particularly high in the Laminaria species. Of the heavy metals only arsenic levels may be of concern. In total, the red alga P. palmata was regarded as the best alternative to cereals in food and feed. For several of the other species, single-component extraction for the ingredients market may be better than using the whole product. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Soaking and extrusion effects on physicochemical parameters, phytic acid, nutrient content and mineral bio-accessibility of whole rice grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarracín, Micaela; José González, Rolando; Drago, Silvina Rosa

    2015-03-01

    A combination of soaking and extrusion processes of whole rice grain was studied. The effects of temperature (35-55 °C) and time (24-48 h) of soaking treatment on phytic acid (PA), protein and ashes losses using a factorial design were evaluated. Taking into account ash, protein and PA losses, whole rice was soaked 24 h at 45 °C and extruded using a Brabender single screw extruder. Effects of extrusion temperature (160-190 °C) and moisture content (14-19 g/100 g) on product characteristics were evaluated using surface response methodology. Values corresponding to the different responses were: Expansion (1.64-3.28), Specific Volume (5.68-11.06 cm(3)/g), Water absorption (3.41-4.43 mL/g) and Solubility (45.44-66.20 g/100 g). The content of PA was reduced from 740.09 to 163.47 mg/100 g (77%) after both processes, resulting in a higher mineral bio-accessibility, and a 7.3% decrease of protein digestibility. Total soluble phenolics and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) were affected according to the treatment. Both treatments were important to obtain a nutritionally improved whole grain product.

  8. Urine Tests (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... TOPIC Vesicoureteral Reflux (VUR) Blood in the Urine (Hematuria) Urine Test: Creatinine Urine Test: Microalbumin-to-Creatinine ... Video) Urinary Tract Infections Blood in the Urine (Hematuria) Kidneys and Urinary Tract Contact Us Print Resources ...

  9. Clean catch urine sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... opening of the vagina. To collect the urine sample: Keeping your labia spread open, urinate a small amount into the toilet bowl, then stop the flow of urine. Hold the urine cup a few inches (or a ...

  10. Urination - difficulty with flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... common cause is infection of the prostate or urinary tract. Symptoms of a possible infection include: Burning or pain with urination Frequent urination Cloudy urine Sense of urgency (strong, sudden urge to urinate) The problem can ...

  11. Evaluation of the mineral content of peripheral bones (radius) by photon-absorption technique in normals as well as in patients with various types of bone diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Runge, H.; Fengler, F.; Franke, J.; Koall, W.

    1980-10-01

    The evaluation of the mineral content of peripheral bones by measuring the photon absorption of the radius has proven to be a valuable method for routine clinical work: for diagnosis, follow-up and control of therapy. While there was a significant difference in the findings of normal persons compared with those of patients suffering from osteoporosis, renal osteodystrophy, osteogenesis imperfecta and skeletal fluorosis, there was no difference between normals and these patients suffering from Bechterew, Scheuermann, coxarthrosis, spondylosis, skoliosis and rheumatoid arthritis. Normal values for the mineral content and the width of the radius at the junction of the middle and lower third - based on 8000 examinations - are mentioned.

  12. Determination of Mineral Content in Indian Spices by ICP-OES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Kumaravel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Vegetarian and non vegetarian Indian diet consists of various cereals and vegetables along with spices, often used in the preparation of curries. The nutritive potential of trace element has been evaluated using Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES. In this study, 15 trace elements like As,Hg,Se,Zn,P,Pb,Cd,Fe,Mn,Cr,Mg,Cu,C,Na and K have been determined in Five Indian popular spices. The result shows that the spice Aniseed contains Phosphorous (2027.10±14.0 mg/kg, Iron (5.40±2.0 mg/kg, Magnesium (270.10±7.0mg/kg, Calcium (602.8±4.0 mg/kg, Sodium (365.10±3.0 mg/kg and Potassium (887.80±11.0 mg/kg. The spice Poppy seeds showed Phosphorous content of (3980.0±13.5mg/kg, Iron (5.475±2.5 mg/kg, Magnesium (287.20±14.0 mg/kg, Calcium (690.50±4.0 mg/kg, Sodium (81.16±5.0 mg/kg and Potassium (746.70±6.0 mg/kg. The spice Cloves showed that it contains Phosphorous (6355.0±20.0 mg/kg, Iron (1.699±0.2mg/kg, and Potassium (318.01±5.0 mg/kg. The spice Ajwain seeds showed the presence of Phosphorous (1764.0±16.0 mg/kg, Iron (17.87±8.0 mg/kg, Manganese (5.729±2.6 mg/kg and Calcium (1353.0±10.0 mg/kg, The spice Fenugreek seeds showed that it contains Phosphorous (2950.0±17.5 mg/kg and Potassium (124.82±2.0 mg/kg. Heavy metals As and Hg are absent in all five spices. Heavy metals Cr, Cd and Pb are absent in Cloves, Fenugreek and Ajwain species. The results showed that the spice powder is a good source of calcium, potassium, magnesium, Iron and Phosphorous.

  13. Identifying Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of the Phenolic Extracts and Mineral Contents of Virgin Olive Oils (Olea europaea L. cv. Edincik Su from Different Regions in Turkey

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    Ayhan Dağdelen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the phenolic extracts and mineral contents of virgin olive oils (Olea europaea L. cv. Edincik Su obtained from three different locations, Edincik, Gomec, and Izmir, in Turkey. Antioxidant activity was analysed spectrometrically, antimicrobial effect was evaluated by disc diffusion method, and mineral contents were determined by using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES. Total phenolic contents and free radical scavenging activities of Edincik Su olive cultivar were found between 159.99 and 189.64 mg gallic acid equivalent/kg and 21.76 and 31.79% inhibition of DPPH• radical values, respectively. Phenolic composition was also varied according to location and hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol were determined as major phenolic compounds. Fourteen pathogenic bacteria and two fungal strains were used to determine the antimicrobial activity. Phenolic extracts showed antimicrobial effect against a wide range of microorganisms and the descending rank of the antimicrobial activities was Gomec, Izmir, and Edincik samples. The highest antimicrobial activities were determined against Clostridium perfringens ATCC 13124 and Campylobacter jejuni ATCC  33291 in all samples. Sixteen elements were used as standards (eleven of them were heavy metals to identify mineral contents. Fe, Mg, Sn, K, and Ca were determined in Gomec samples and Mg and K were detected in Edincik samples while no mineral content was detected in Izmir sample.

  14. [The effect of a low-dose hydrochlorothiazide therapy on the bone mineral content of the axial and peripheral skeleton].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jergas, M; Kosow, A; Uffmann, M; Schmutz, G; Böckenförde, J B; Glüer, C C; Köster, O

    1994-12-02

    An increase in bone mineral content (BMC) as well as a decrease in the incidence of fracture of the proximal femur have been described in patients on thiazide diuretic treatment. A study was undertaken to assess, by means of dual X-ray absorptiometry, the effect of chronic low-dosage antihypertensive treatment with hydrochlorothiazide (HCT; < or = 25 mg daily) on lumbar vertebrae (representing the axial skeleton) and the nondominant radius (peripheral skeleton). Measurements were made on 27 women (mean age 63.8 +/- 8.2 years) and 23 men (65.9 +/- 9.5 years) and compared with a control group of 19 women (62 +/- 8.7 years) and 20 men (65.9 +/- 9.5 years) with minor surgical or dermatological lesions who had never taken HCT or other drugs with potential effects on mineral bone metabolism. In men who had been on HCT for more than 5 years, BMC of the lumbar vertebrae was higher by 10.3% and of the radius by 3.8% than among the controls (differences not significant). In women who had been on HCT for more than 5 years, the corresponding increases were 19.6% (P < 0.05) and 5.4% (not significant). Among those patients who had been on HCT for less than 5 years there were no significant differences compared with the control group. There were no significant differences between the groups relating as regards the proximal radius which, in contrast to the ultradistal radius, consists predominantly of cortical bone. -These data indicate that, while HCT has only a slight influence on BMC, it can be considered to have a desirable associated effect in the antihypertensive treatment of elderly patients.

  15. Impact of chronic nicotine administration on bone mineral content in young and adult rats: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Mahmoud M; Selima, Eman A; Salama, Mona A

    2013-11-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of chronic nicotine administration on bone mineral homeostasis in rapidly growing young rats in comparison to effects in adult male rats. Two doses of nicotine (3 and 4.5mg/kg/day, as nicotine hydrogen tartrate) were used and rat treatment was continued for 6 months. In this study, all nicotine-treated rats weighed less than control rats and the effect was dose-dependent. Also, rats treated with nicotine had lower femoral wet weight and showed a significant reduction in femoral mid-shaft cortical width and femoral and lumbar vertebral ash weights. These effects were associated with a significant reduction of ash calcium and phosphorus contents of the femora and lumbar vertebrae. The bone mineral-lowering effects of nicotine were more severe in the lumbar vertebral spongy bone than in the femoral compact bone and these changes were more marked in adult rats than in young rats. An additional interesting observation was that the femora of young rats treated with nicotine were significantly shorter than those of control young rats. Also, the values of the femoral ash weight per unit length were significantly decreased in nicotine-treated adult rats but not in nicotine-treated young rats. Thus, these results show that nicotine-induced changes in bone vary with age. The clinical relevance of this study is that it may provide justification to insist that all people in general and the risky young group in particular should be warned against the hazards of the negative effects of nicotine on bone.

  16. Available content, surface runoff and leaching of phosphorus forms in a typic hapludalf treated with organic and mineral nutrient sources

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    Cledimar Rogério Lourenzi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The application of animal manure to soil can increase phosphorus availability to plants and enhance transfer of the nutrient solution drained from the soil surface or leached into the soil profile. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of successive applications of organic and mineral nutrient sources on the available content, surface runoff and leaching of P forms in a Typic Hapludalf in no-tillage systems. Experiment 1 was set up in 2004 in the experimental area of UFSM, in Santa Maria (RS, Brazil. The treatments consisted of: control (without nutrient application and application of pig slurry (PS, pig deep-litter (PL, cattle slurry (CS, and mineral fertilizers (NPK. The rates were determined to meet the N crop requirements of no-tillage black oat and maize, grown in the 2010/2011 growing season. The soil solution was collected after each event (rain + runoff or leaching and the soluble, particulate and total P contents were measured. In November 2008, soil was collected in 2 cm intervals to a depth of 20 cm, in 5 cm intervals to a depth of 40 cm, and in 10 cm intervals to a depth of 70 cm. The soil was dried and ground, and P determined after extraction by anion exchange resin (AER. In experiment 2, samples collected from the Typic Hapludalf near experiment 1 were incubated for 20, 35, 58, 73 and 123 days after applying the following treatments: soil, soil + PS, soil + PL, soil + CS and soil + NPK. Thereafter, the soil was sampled and P was analyzed by AER. The applications of nutrient sources over the years led to an increase in available P and its migration in the soil profile. This led to P transfer via surface runoff and leaching, with the largest transfer being observed in PS and PL treatments, in which most P was applied. The soil available P and P transfer via surface runoff were correlated with the amounts applied, regardless of the P source. However, P transfer by leaching was not correlated with the applied nutrient

  17. A SURVEY ON LEAD INTOXICATION IN LEAD MINERS

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    P. Meshgi

    1972-12-01

    Full Text Available A survey on lead intoxication in lead mine workers was carried out among Khanehsorme, lead miners in NajafAabad and also in Ab-bagh lead miners in Shahreza, both located in district of Esfahan, Iran. The studies were carried out on 62 miners out of 82 employees in Khanehsorme, 25 miners out of 27 employees in Ab-bagh lead miners and 47 rural inhabitants in the surroundings of mines were selected as the Control group. Clinical examinations were done. Age and sex group, working hours, type of work, and duration of service and previous occupation of workers were questioned. The determination of lead in urine was done according to Truhaut et Boudene's method and the content of blood Hemoglobin was performed according to Sali method. Results obtained in lead miners in comparison with the control group showed the absorption of lead and consequently lead intoxication was observed some extent.

  18. Determination of Mineral Content in Methanolic Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L. Seed Extract and Its Effect on Osteoblast Markers

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    Young Seok Lee

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L. seeds are used as a folk medicine to enhance bone formation or to prevent osteoporosis in Korea. Therefore, the methanolic extract of safflower seeds (MESS containing high mineral content, such as calcium (Ca, potassium (K and phosphorous (P, was evaluated for the role on osteoblast (Ob markers of Sprague-Dawley rats. In serum of 3 to 11 weeks (wks old rats, both osteocalcin (OC content and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (B-ALP activity increased to their maximum levels in 4-7 wks. Hence, 3 wks old rats were selected for 8 wks oral treatment of MESS, resulted in the significant increase of Ob markers in serum such as OC content (4-8 wks, B-ALP activity (1-2 wks and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I level (1 wk, and the growth parameter such as the length of femur (2-8 wks and tibia (4 wks. On the basis of Pearson’s correlation coefficient, there were a moderate correlation between OC and B-ALP at 8 wks, a low correlation between OC and IGF-I at 1, 4 and 8 wks, a moderate correlation between OC and femur length at 1, 2 and 8 wks, and a moderate correlations between OC and tibia length at 1 and 8 wks of MESS-treated groups. The result reveals that the changes of OC correlated at low to moderate level with the changes of B-ALP activity, IGF-I content and femur and tibia length in the MESS-treatment period. On the other hand, there were a strong correlation between IGF-I and femur length at 2 wks and moderate correlation between IGF-I and tibia length at 1, 2 and 8 wks of MESS-treated groups. Therefore, the effect of MESS on bone formation likely appears to be mediated by IGF-I at the early stage of treatment.

  19. Mineral content of hay harvested in Bavarian and Swiss horse farms. Predictive value of cutting time, number of cut, botanical composition, origin and fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienzle, E; Möllmann, F; Nater, S; Wanner, M; Wichert, B

    2008-12-01

    Hay samples from 29 horse farms in Southern Upper Bavaria and 31 horse farms in Switzerland were taken and analysed for minerals such as calcium, magnesium, phosphorus and potassium. The content of herbs and legumes in the hay was determined and the Weende analysis was performed. Comparison between Bavaria and Switzerland resulted in comparable calcium contents of approximately 4 g Ca/kg dry matter (DM) in grass hay. Hay with more than 10% of herbs and legumes found only in Switzerland showed higher Ca contents of >7 g Ca/kg DM in hay. The mineral contents of phosphorus and potassium were lower in hay from Switzerland (P: 1.8 +/- 0.7 g/kg DM, K: 15.4 +/- 5.1 g/kg DM) than from Bavaria (P: 3.8 +/- 0.6 g/kg DM, K: 20.0 +/- 6.0 DM), whereas the magnesium content of the hay showed no difference between the regions ( approximately 1.5 g Mg/kg DM). Very late first grass hay cuts showed low magnesium and calcium (horses differed from those in dairy cattle in the same region. Fertilization showed only small effects on the mineral contents of the hay produced for horses. Therefore, in calculation of ration and production of supplements for horses, these differences should be taken into account.

  20. Evidence of associations between feto-maternal vitamin D status, cord parathyroid hormone and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, and newborn whole body bone mineral content

    Science.gov (United States)

    In spite of a high prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy in pregnant women and neonates, relationships among vitamin D status [25(OH)D], parathyroid hormone (PTH), bone specific alkaline phosphatase (BALP), and whole body bone mineral content (WBBMC) in the newborn are poorly characterized. The purpose...

  1. Varying response of the concentration and content of soybean seed mineral elements, carbohydrates, organic acids, amino acids, protein, and oil to phosphorus starvation and CO2 enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    A detailed investigation of the concentration (g-1 seed weight) and content (g plant-1) of seed mineral elements and metabolic profile under phosphorus (P) starvation at ambient (aCO2) and elevated carbon dioxide (eCO2) in soybean is limited. Soybean plants were grown in a controlled environment at ...

  2. Proximate composition, functional properties, amino acid, mineral and vitamin contents of a novel food: Alhydwan (Boerhavia elegana Choisy) seed flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Farga, Ammar; Zhang, Hui; Siddeeg, Azhari; Shamoon, Muhammad; V M Chamba, Moses; Al-Hajj, Nabil

    2016-11-15

    Alhydwan (Boerhavia elegana Choisy) seed flour was evaluated for chemical and nutritional composition, and functional properties in a pursuit to identify an innovative plant with high nutraceuticals value which could be exploited in other food applications. The flour was found to be rich in dietary fiber (30.13%), protein (14.60%), crude fat (11.49%), carbohydrates (30.77%), and ash (6.88%) and encompassed adequate amounts of essential amino acids and minerals, whereas, sucrose constituted 71.3% of total sugar contents. Vitamins analysis revealed that flour is rich in water-soluble vitamins such as Thiamin (B1), Riboflavin (B2) and Niacin (B3), to the amounts of 19.3, 8.2 and 2.3mg/100g, respectively. Results on functional properties demonstrated high water and oil absorption capacities of 6.31 and 2.43g/g, respectively. Foaming capacity, foam stability and emulsion capacity were 9.35%, 6.90%, and 29.60%, respectively. It can be concluded that alhydwan is an excellent food material with a high nutritional value.

  3. EFFECT OF WASTE MINERAL ADDITIVES ON FLOW STABILITY OVER TIME IN SELF-COMPACTING CONCRETE MIXES WITH LOW CLINKER CONTENT

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    Anna M. Grabiec

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary solutions in concrete technology are varied, and consist in e.g. the use of new generation concretes, including the most spectacular achievement of the 1990s – self-compacting concrete (SCC being the subject of continuous research, as well as protection of the environment against excessive anthropogenic pressures, such as carbon dioxide which is a major emission substance from the cement industry. The studies analysed the possibilities for replacing part of the clinker binder (cement CEM I 42.5 R in self-compacting concrete with three types of waste mineral additives: fly ash, limestone powder, and granite powder. Focus was placed on key technological characteristics of concrete mixes: air content and rheological properties, maximal diameter of slump-flow and changes thereof over time, as well as the mix’s flow time into the 500 mm diameter, determining the flow dynamics. 28-day compressive strength of the concrete was recognised as a secondary property which in self-compacting concretes results from achieving the right range of the mix’s rheological properties. Concretes were produced using gravel-sand aggregate in 3-fraction composition and a high-efficiency superplasticiser. The studies were conducted as a planned experiment in the 3-ingredient mixes plan.

  4. Dual photon absorptiometry in patients with Paget disease (bone mineral contents of lumbar spine and femoral neck)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talbot, J.N.; Piketty, C.; Kiffel, T.; Coutris, G.; Milhaud, G.

    1988-01-01

    The bone mineral contents (BMC) of the lumbar spine (84 cases) and of one femoral neck (53 cases) were measured by dual photon absorptiometry (DPA) in patients suffering from Paget's disease of bone. The BMC of the patients and of 53 controls were compared, taking into account the occurrence of a scintigraphic hyperfixation, in each patient. A hyperfixation of the technetium labelled diphosphonate in the lumbar spine, more frequent in males, was associated with an elevated mean BMC value. The difference versus controls was significant in men but not in women. A hyperfixation of the femoral neck was associated with an elevated mean BMC value in both sexes. BMC values greater than the mean BMC of controls + 2 SD were observed in 83 per cent of these male patients and 50 per cent of the females. In contrast, BMC values lower than in controls were observed in non-pagetic areas. DPA allows the quantification of these abnormalities which cannot be evidenced by bone scintigraphy even if alkaline phosphatases levels are assayed.

  5. Applications of the direct photon absorption technique for measuring bone mineral content in vivo. Determination of body composition in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    The bone mineral content, BMC, determined by monoenergetic photon absorption technique, of 29 different locations on the long bones and vertebral columns of 24 skeletons was measured. Compressive tests were made on bone from these locations in which the maximum load and maximum stress were measured. Also the ultimate strain, modulus of elasticity and energy absorbed to failure were determined for compact bone from the femoral diaphysis and cancellous bone from the eighth through eleventh thoracic vertebrae. Correlations and predictive relationships between these parameters were examined to investigate the applicability of using the BMC at sites normally measured in vivo, i.e. radius and ulna in estimating the BMC and/or strength of the spine or femoral neck. It was found that the BMC at sites on the same bone were highly correlated r = 0.95 or better; the BMC at sites on different bones were also highly interrelated, r = 0.85. The BMC at various sites on the long bones could be estimated to between 10 and 15 per cent from the BMC of sites on the radius or ulna.

  6. Safety of nonthermal atmospheric pressure plasma for tooth bleaching evaluated in terms of microhardness and mineral content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, S. H.; Hong, J. W.; Lee, H. J.; Jeon, Y. C.; Kim, G. C.

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of bleaching with nonthermal atmospheric pressure plasma and 15% hydrogen peroxide (HP) or 15% carbamide peroxide (CP). Sixty human enamel and dentin slabs were randomly assigned to six groups as follows: Group 1 was a control group and did not receive any treatment; Group 2 was exposed only to plasma, as a negative control; Group 3 was treated with 15% HP; Group 4 was treated with 15% HP plus plasma; Group 5 was treated with 15% CP alone; and Group 6 was treated with 15% CP plus plasma during 30 min bleaching treatments. A microhardness measurement was conducted according to a microhardness tester. The amount of calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), chloride (Cl), sodium (Na), magnesium (Mg), and zinc (Zn) in the enamel and dentin was quantified with an electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA). The data were analyzed by using the Student’s t test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), complemented by Tukey’s test. The statistical analysis did not show any significant differences in microhardness values and six mineral contents in all groups (p  >  0.05). Therefore, we believe that the application of nonthermal atmospheric pressure plasma is a safe energy source for tooth bleaching.

  7. Analysis of Mineral and Heavy Metal Content of Some Commercial Fruit Juices by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Dehelean

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of potentially toxic elements and compounds in foodstuffs is of intense public interest and thus requires rapid and accurate methods to determine the levels of these contaminants. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry is a powerful tool for the determination of metals and nonmetals in fruit juices. In this study, 21 commercial fruit juices (apple, peach, apricot, orange, kiwi, pear, pineapple, and multifruit present on Romanian market were investigated from the heavy metals and mineral content point of view by ICP-MS. Our obtained results were compared with those reported in literature and also with the maximum admissible limit in drinking water by USEPA and WHO. For Mn the obtained values exceeded the limits imposed by these international organizations. Co, Cu, Zn, As, and Cd concentrations were below the acceptable limit for drinking water for all samples while the concentrations of Ni and Pb exceeded the limits imposed by USEPA and WHO for some fruit juices. The results obtained in this study are comparable to those found in the literature.

  8. The effect of the Oxford uncemented medial compartment arthroplasty on the bone mineral density and content of the proximal tibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, G J; Gilchrist, N; Maxwell, R; March, R; Heard, A; Frampton, C

    2013-11-01

    We studied the bone mineral density (BMD) and the bone mineral content (BMC) of the proximal tibia in patients with a well-functioning uncemented Oxford medial compartment arthroplasty using the Lunar iDXA bone densitometer. Our hypothesis was that there would be decreased BMD and BMC adjacent to the tibial base plate and increased BMD and BMC at the tip of the keel. There were 79 consecutive patients (33 men, 46 women) with a mean age of 65 years (44 to 84) with a minimum two-year follow-up (mean 2.6 years (2.0 to 5.0)) after unilateral arthroplasty, who were scanned using a validated standard protocol where seven regions of interest (ROI) were examined and compared with the contralateral normal knee. All had well-functioning knees with a mean Oxford knee score of 43 (14 to 48) and mean Knee Society function score of 90 (20 to 100), showing a correlation with the increasing scores and higher BMC and BMD values in ROI 2 in the non-implanted knee relative to the implanted knee (p = 0.013 and p = 0.015, respectively). The absolute and percentage changes in BMD and BMC were decreased in all ROIs in the implanted knee compared with the non-implanted knee, but this did not reach statistical significance. Bone loss was markedly less than reported losses with total knee replacement. There was no significant association with side, although there was a tendency for the BMC to decrease with age in men. The BMC was less in the implanted side relative to the non-implanted side in men compared with women in ROI 2 (p = 0.027), ROI 3 (p = 0.049) and ROI 4 (p = 0.029). The uncemented Oxford medial compartment arthroplasty appears to allow relative preservation of the BMC and BMD of the proximal tibia, suggesting that the implant acts more physiologically than total knee replacement. Peri-prosthetic bone loss is an important factor in assessing long-term implant stability and survival, and the results of this study are encouraging for the long-term outcome of this arthroplasty.

  9. Magnetic susceptibility, chemical element content and morphology of magnetic mineral in surface sediment of Kamp Walker and Hubay rivers as an inlet of Sentani lake, Papua-Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulaikah, Siti; Sisinggih, Dian; Bungkang, Yusuf; Dani, Zem; Ong, Mahfud David

    2017-07-01

    As an inlet of Sentani lake, Kamp Walker and Hubay rivers have a different environment characteristic, i.e. Kamp Walker has a proximate inhabitant, while Hubay has a relatively more natural environment. In this study, we conduct measurement of magnetic susceptibility, Fe content and morphology of magnetic mineral extracted from the two rivers surface sediment. The magnetic susceptibility of low frequency (χlf) of sediment samples from the two rivers are varies from 11.11 × 10-6 kg/m3 to 24.96 10-6 kg/m3 for Kamp Walker with dependence frequency susceptibility (χfd) from 0.031% to 0.367%. Meanwhile, for HubayRivers we find the χlf varies from 4.56 × 10-6 kg/m3 to 16.93 × 10-6 kg/m3 and χfd from 0.104% to 1.033%. Fe content of the sample from the two river are also has a different average i.e around 60% for Hubay and 50% for Kamp Walker, that may because of the source of magnetic minerals on sediment are mainly a lithogenic magnetic mineral in Hubay, and anthropogenic magnetic mineral in Kamp Walker. The morphology of magnetic mineral, based on the SEM image shows a rounded and crystalline shape.

  10. Blackberry wines mineral and heavy metal content determination after dry ashing: multivariate data analysis as a tool for fruit wine quality control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amidžić Klarić, Daniela; Klarić, Ilija; Mornar, Ana; Velić, Darko; Velić, Natalija

    2015-08-01

    This study brings out the data on the content of 21 mineral and heavy metal in 15 blackberry wines made of conventionally and organically grown blackberries. The objective of this study was to classify the blackberry wine samples based on their mineral composition and the applied cultivation method of the starting raw material by using chemometric analysis. The metal content of Croatian blackberry wine samples was determined by AAS after dry ashing. The comparison between an organic and conventional group of investigated blackberry wines showed statistically significant difference in concentrations of Si and Li, where the organic group contained higher concentrations of these compounds. According to multivariate data analysis, the model based on the original metal content data set finally included seven original variables (K, Fe, Mn, Cu, Ba, Cd and Cr) and gave a satisfactory separation of two applied cultivation methods of the starting raw material.

  11. Impact of vitamin and mineral supplement withdrawal and wheat middling inclusion on finishing pig growth performance, fecal mineral concentration, carcass characteristics, and the nutrient content and oxidative stability of pork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, D T; Rozeboom, D W; Hill, G M; Booren, A M; Link, J E

    2002-11-01

    A study was conducted to determine if supplement withdrawal (omission of dietary vitamin and trace mineral premixes and a two-thirds reduction in dietary inorganic phosphorus) for 28 d preslaughter and the feeding of wheat middlings (dietary concentrations of 5, 15, and 30% from weaning to 16, 16 to 28, and 28 kg to slaughter, respectively) affect growth performance, carcass characteristics, and fecal mineral concentrations ofthe pig, as well as the nutrient content and oxidative stability of the longissimus dorsi muscle. Crossbred pigs (n = 64) were blocked by weight and assigned to one of four dietary treatments in a 2 x 2 factorial design (with or without supplement withdrawal, and with or without wheat middlings). Supplement withdrawal and wheat middling inclusion did not influence average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake, gain/feed, or carcass traits, except for a decrease (P pigs from 28 to 65 kg when fed wheat middlings. Supplement withdrawal decreased (P mineral supplementation, wheat middling inclusion decreased (P Supplement withdrawal decreased (P 0.05) longissimus dorsi Ca, P, Fe, and Zn concentrations. Dietary treatment did not affect either Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase or glutathione peroxidase activity in the longissimus dorsi. The results from this study indicate that supplement withdrawal and dietary wheat middling inclusion alter pork nutrient content and fecal mineral concentration, but not the oxidative stability of pork.

  12. Study on Mineral Elements Content of Macadamia Shell%澳洲坚果种壳矿质元素含量研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨为海; 张明楷; 曾辉; 邹明宏; 罗炼芳; 张汉周; 陆超忠

    2011-01-01

    测定了28份澳洲坚果(Macadamia integrifoliaF.Mull)种质种壳中N、K、Ca、Mg、Zn、Cu、Fe、Mn等8种矿质元素含量,并对其进行了主成分分析和聚类分析.结果表明,澳洲坚果种壳矿质元素含量在不同种质之间差异较大,8种矿质元素可划分为4个有明确意义的主成分,28份种质种壳按矿质元素含量可聚类为4大类型.%The contents of 8 mineral elements(N, K, Ca, Mg, Zn, Cu, Fe and Mn) in the macadamia (Macadamia inte-grifolia F. Mull) shells in 28 germplasm resources were analyzed by principal component and cluster analysis. The results showed that the mineral elements content of macadamia (Macadamia integrifolia F. Mull) shell had a large variation among all tested germplasm resources, the 8 mineral elements were divided into 4 significant principal components and the shells of 28 germplasm resources were classified as 4 clusters according to the content of mineral elements.

  13. Nitrogen fractions and mineral content in different lupin species (Lupinus albus, Lupinus angustifolius, and Lupinus luteus). Changes induced by the alpha-galactoside extraction process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porres, Jesus M; Aranda, Pilar; López-Jurado, María; Urbano, Gloria

    2007-09-05

    The protein and mineral composition of different varieties of three different lupin species (Lupinus albus, Lupinus angustifolius, and Lupinus luteus) and the effect of alpha-galactoside removal by means of a hydroalcoholic extraction process on such composition were studied in relationship to nutrient distribution among the different anatomical parts of the seed (embryo, cotyledon, and seed coat). The extent of processing-derived protein insolubilization was assessed by both chemical and electrophoretic techniques and related to the amount of nitrogen soluble in H(2)O, NaCl, ethanol, NaOH, and sodium dodecyl sulfate/beta-mercaptoethanol (SDS/BME). The alpha-galactoside extraction process caused a significant increase in the amount of total and insoluble nitrogen and decreased the amount of soluble protein nitrogen, without affecting the content of soluble nonprotein nitrogen. alpha-Galactoside extraction was not effective at decreasing the levels of Mn present in lupins, and processing caused an increase in the content of this mineral in all of the species studied with the exception of L. albus var. multolupa. In general, the effect of processing on mineral content varied with the different lupin species, and mineral losses were lower in L. luteus.

  14. Spectroscopic Evidence of the Improvement of Reactive Iron Mineral Content in Red Soil by Long-Term Application of Swine Manure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chichao Huang

    Full Text Available Mineral elements in soil solutions are thought to be the precursor of the formation of reactive minerals, which play an important role in global carbon (C cycling. However, information regarding the regulation of mineral elements release in soil is scarce. Here, we examined the long-term (i.e., 23 yrs effects of fertilisation practices on Fe minerals in a red soil in Southern China. The results from chemical analysis and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy showed that long-term swine manure (M treatment released greater amounts of minerals into soil solutions than chemical fertilisers (NPK treatment, and Fe played a dominant role in the preservation of dissolved organic C. Furthermore, Fe K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge fine structure spectroscopy demonstrated that reactive Fe minerals were mainly composed of less crystalline ferrihydrite in the M-treated soil and more crystalline goethite in the NPK-treated soil. In conclusion, this study reported spectroscopic evidence of the improvement of reactive Femineral content in the M-treated soil colloids when compared to NPK-treated soil colloids.

  15. Spectroscopic Evidence of the Improvement of Reactive Iron Mineral Content in Red Soil by Long-Term Application of Swine Manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chichao; Liu, Sha; Li, Ruizhi; Sun, Fusheng; Zhou, Ying; Yu, Guanghui

    2016-01-01

    Mineral elements in soil solutions are thought to be the precursor of the formation of reactive minerals, which play an important role in global carbon (C) cycling. However, information regarding the regulation of mineral elements release in soil is scarce. Here, we examined the long-term (i.e., 23 yrs) effects of fertilisation practices on Fe minerals in a red soil in Southern China. The results from chemical analysis and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy showed that long-term swine manure (M) treatment released greater amounts of minerals into soil solutions than chemical fertilisers (NPK) treatment, and Fe played a dominant role in the preservation of dissolved organic C. Furthermore, Fe K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge fine structure spectroscopy demonstrated that reactive Fe minerals were mainly composed of less crystalline ferrihydrite in the M-treated soil and more crystalline goethite in the NPK-treated soil. In conclusion, this study reported spectroscopic evidence of the improvement of reactive Femineral content in the M-treated soil colloids when compared to NPK-treated soil colloids.

  16. [The content of mineral elements in Camellia olei fera ovary at pollination and fertilization stages determined by auto discrete analyzers and atomic absorption spectrophotometer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Feng; Yuan, De-Yi; Gao, Chao; Liao, Ting; Chen, Wen-Tao; Han, Zhi-Qiang; Zhang, Lin

    2014-04-01

    In order to elucidate the nutrition of Camellia olei fera at pollination and fertilization stages, the contents of mineral elements were determined by auto discrete analyzers and atomic absorption spectrophotometer, and the change in the contents of mineral elements was studied and analysed under the condition of self- and cross-pollination. The results are showed that nine kinds of mineral elements contents were of "S" or "W" type curve changes at the pollination and fertilization stages of Camellia olei fera. N, K, Zn, Cu, Ca, Mn element content changes showed "S" curve under the self- and out-crossing, the content of N reaching the highest was 3.445 8 mg x g(-1) in self-pollination of 20 d; K content reaching the highest at the cross-pollination 20 d was 6.275 5 mg x g(-1); Zn content in self-pollination of 10 d reaching the highest was 0.070 5 mg x g(-1); Cu content in the cross-pollination of 5 d up to the highest was 0.061 0 mg x g(-1); Ca content in the cross-pollination of 15 d up to the highest was 3.714 5 mg x g(-1); the content of Mn reaching the highest in self-pollination 30 d was 2. 161 5 mg x g(-1). Fe, P, Mg element content changes was of "S" type curve in selfing and was of "W" type curve in outcrossing, Fe content in the self-pollination 10 d up to the highest was 0.453 0 mg x g(-1); P content in self-pollination of 20 d reaching the highest was 6.731 8 mg x g(-1); the content of Mg up to the highest in self-pollination 25 d was 2.724 0 mg x g(-1). The results can be used as a reference for spraying foliar fertilizer, and improving seed setting rate and yield in Camellia olei fera.

  17. Use of almond shell and almond hull as substrates for sweet pepper cultivation. Effects on fruit yield and mineral content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valverde, M.; Madrid, R.; Garcia, A. L.; Amor, F. M. del; Rincon, L.

    2013-05-01

    The use of almond by products as substrate in greenhouses for growing vegetables has a great economic interest. The objective of this work was to assess the use of two almond by-products (almond shell-AS and almond hull-AH), which had been previously conditioned without composting, as substrates for pepper (cv. Caprino F1) production and to study their effects on the yield, fruit size, and fruit mineral content. Physical, physico-chemical, and chemical characteristics of the almond by-products were determined both initially and during the pepper growing season. Initially, all values of the parameters studied ? except sulfur and iron ? differed significantly between the two substrates. During cultivation, the 18 substrate parameters and variables tested - except bulk density - exhibited significant variations with time for AS; the same occurred for AH, exceptions being pH, total nitrogen Nt, N-NH4, bulk density, and manganese. The changes in both substrates for the K, N, and S concentrations were significant. The nutrient levels in AH were higher than for AS. The almond shell and almond hull substrates produced slight decreases in total fruit yield with respect to the control (0.79 and 3.22 for AS and AH, respectively), with a lesser decrease for AS, due to reductions in the number of fruits per plant rather than to reductions in individual fruit weight. The plants grown on the AS and AH substrates showed a decrease in total fruit yield, due to reductions in the number of fruits per plant rather than reductions in individual fruit weight. (Author) 37 refs.

  18. Use of almond shell and almond hull as substrates for sweet pepper cultivation. Effects on fruit yield and mineral content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Valverde

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of almond by products as substrate in greenhouses for growing vegetables has a great economic interest. The objective of this work was to assess the use of two almond by-products (almond shell-AS and almond hull-AH, which had been previously conditioned without composting, as substrates for pepper (cv. Caprino F1 production and to study their effects on the yield, fruit size, and fruit mineral content. Physical, physico-chemical, and chemical characteristics of the almond by-products were determined both initially and during the pepper growing season. Initially, all values of the parameters studied ― except sulfur and iron ― differed significantly between the two substrates. During cultivation, the 18 substrate parameters and variables tested - except bulk density - exhibited significant variations with time for AS; the same occurred for AH, exceptions being pH, total nitrogen Nt, N-NH4, bulk density, and manganese. The changes in both substrates for the K, N, and S concentrations were significant. The nutrient levels in AH were higher than for AS. The almond shell and almond hull substrates produced slight decreases in total fruit yield with respect to the control (0.79 and 3.22 for AS and AH, respectively, with a lesser decrease for AS, due to reductions in the number of fruits per plant rather than to reductions in individual fruit weight. The plants grown on the AS and AH substrates showed a decrease in total fruit yield, due to reductions in the number of fruits per plant rather than reductions in individual fruit weight.

  19. The relationships among total body fat, bone mineral content and bone marrow adipose tissue in early-pubertal girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L Newton, Anna; J Hanks, Lynae; Davis, Michelle; Casazza, Krista

    2013-01-01

    Investigation of the physiologic relevance of bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) during growth may promote understanding of the bone-fat axis and confluence with metabolic factors. The objective of this pilot investigation was two-fold: (1) to evaluate the relationships among total body fat, bone mineral content (BMC) and femoral BMAT during childhood and underlying metabolic determinants and (2) to determine if the relationships differ by race. Participants included white and non-Hispanic black girls (n=59) ages 4-10 years. Femoral BMAT volume was measured by magnetic resonance imaging, BMC and body fat by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Metabolic parameters were assessed in the fasted state. Total fat and BMC were positively associated with BMAT; however, simultaneous inclusion of BMC and body fat in the statistical model attenuated the association between BMC and BMAT. Differences in BMAT volume were observed, non-Hispanic black girls exhibiting marginally greater BMAT at age eight (P=0.05) and white girls exhibiting greater BMAT at age ten (PBMAT and leptin (P=0.02) and adiponectin (P=0.002) in white girls while BMAT and insulin were inversely related in non-Hispanic black girls (P=0.008). Our findings revealed a positive relationship between BMAT, body fat and BMC, although body fat, respective to leptin, contributed partly to the relationship between BMAT and BMC. Despite large differences in total fat between non-Hispanic black and white, the relationship between BMAT and BMC was similar to white girls. However, this relationship appeared to be impacted through different mechanisms according to race.

  20. Urine - abnormal color

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003139.htm Urine - abnormal color To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine ...

  1. Effect of dietary moisture and sodium content on urine composition and calcium oxalate relative supersaturation in healthy miniature schnauzers and labrador retrievers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, A E; Hynds, W K; Markwell, P J

    2003-04-01

    The aim of this series of studies was to evaluate two possible feeding strategies as methods for reducing the risk of calcium oxalate (CaOx) formation in two breeds of healthy dog. The studies compared the effect of dietary moisture (Study 1) and dietary sodium (Na), (Study 2) on urine composition of labrador retrievers (LR) and miniature schnauzers (MS). A nutritionally complete dry dog food was fed to 16 dogs (eight LR, eight MS; Study 1) and 15 dogs (seven LR, eight MS; Study 2) for 24 days (Study 1), or 36 days (Study 2). The dogs were fed the diet alone (7% moisture, 0.06 g Na/100 kcal), or supplemented with deionised water to 73% moisture (Study 1), or dietary Na, to deliver 0.20 or 0.30 g Na per 100 kcal (Study 2). Urine pH, volume, specific gravity, and concentrations of 12 analytes were measured for each dog. Urinary relative supersaturations (RSS) with CaOx were calculated from these values. The effects of supplemental Na or water were established using t tests (Study 1) or analysis of variance, and multiple range tests (least significant difference) (Study 2); Phigh moisture diet may reduce the risk of CaOx formation in high-risk breeds. Increasing dietary Na led to production of urine with a significantly lower CaOx RSS in both breeds, indicating that sodium supplementation to dry diet formats may reduce the risk of CaOx formation. These feeding strategies should be considered when evaluating methods for preventing CaOx formation within high-risk groups.

  2. Subduction Factory 3: An Excel worksheet and macro for calculating the densities, seismic wave speeds, and H2O contents of minerals and rocks at pressure and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Bradley R.; Abers, Geoffrey A.

    2004-01-01

    An Excel macro to calculate mineral and rock physical properties at elevated pressure and temperature is presented. The workbook includes an expandable database of physical parameters for 52 rock-forming minerals stable at high pressures and temperatures. For these minerals the elastic moduli, densities, seismic velocities, and H2O contents are calculated at any specified P and T conditions, using basic thermodynamic relationships and third-order finite strain theory. The mineral modes of suites of rocks are also specifiable, so that their predicted aggregate properties can be calculated using standard solid mixing theories. A suite of sample rock modes taken from the literature provides a useful starting point. The results of these calculations can be applied to a wide variety of geophysical questions including estimating the alteration of the oceanic crust and mantle; predicting the seismic velocities of lower-crustal xenoliths; estimating the effects of changes in mineralogy, pressure and temperature on buoyancy; and assessing the H2O content and mineralogy of subducted lithosphere from seismic observations.

  3. Mineral, fatty acid, and flavonoid content in a subset of plant introductions from the pulse species, Macrotyloma uniflorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsegram, Macrotyloma uniflorum is an underutilized legume used as a pulse vegetable. The USDA, ARS, PGRCU conserves 36 horsegram accessions from countries worldwide. To determine if horsegram contains variable amounts of dietary minerals, fatty acids, and health enhancing nutraceuticals including...

  4. Selection for increased muscling in Angus cattle did not increase the glycolytic potential or negatively impact pH decline, retail colour stability or mineral content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGilchrist, P; Greenwood, P L; Pethick, D W; Gardner, G E

    2016-04-01

    This study determined the impact of selection for greater muscling in Angus cattle on myofibre characteristics, muscle enzymatics, retail colour stability, pH decline and mineral content of the semimembranosus (SM), semitendinosus (ST) and longissimus thoracis (LT). Muscle from 10 low muscled (low) and 11 high muscled (high) steers were analysed. The high steers had myofibres 22% and 24% larger in cross-sectional area in the SM and ST (Piron in the LT (Pmineral content, pH decline or retail colour stability. Myofibre hypertrophy is one mechanism leading to greater muscle mass of these high muscled cattle.

  5. Effects of metal implants on whole-body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry measurements of bone mineral content and body composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giangregorio, L.M. [McMaster Univ., Dept. of Kinesiology, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Webber, C.E. [Hamilton Health Sciences, Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: webber@hhsc.ca

    2003-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of metal implants on measurements of bone mineral content and body composition by x-ray-based dual-photon absorptiometry. Four whole-body dual-photon absorptiometry scans were performed on 13 participants with metal rods either present or absent during the scans. The influence of the amount of metal (50 g, 100 g and 150 g), the proximity of the metal rod to the x-ray source and the reproducibility of any metal-induced effects were evaluated by altering the position or the size of the metal rod used, or both. The presence of metal rods weighing 100 g or 150 g significantly increased reported total body mass and bone mineral content (p < 0.034). Soft-tissue mass was increased when the scan included the 100-g rod (p < 0.003). The proximity of the metal to the x-ray source did not have a significant influence on the body composition changes induced by the metal. The effects of the metal rods on body composition variables were reproducible. The presence of metal rods inflated body composition variables measured by dual-photon absorptiometry; however, the effects are reproducible during repeat scans of an individual patient. Metal had the largest impact on whole-body bone mineral content, causing errors of 1.5%-3%. (author)

  6. Bone Mineral Density, Mechanical, Microstructural Properties and Mineral Content of the Femur in Growing Rats Fed with Cactus Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Mill. (Cactaceae) Cladodes as Calcium Source in Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Becerra, Ezequiel; Gutiérrez-Cortez, Elsa; Del Real, Alicia; Rojas-Molina, Alejandra; Rodríguez-García, Mario; Rubio, Efraín; Quintero-García, Michelle; Rojas-Molina, Isela

    2017-02-04

    Mechanical, microstructural properties, mineral content and bone mineral density (BMD) of the femur were evaluated in growing rats fed with Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Mill. (Cactaceae) cladodes at different maturity stages as calcium source. Male weanling rats were fed with cladodes at early maturity stage (25 and 60 days of age, belonging to groups N-60 and N-200, respectively) and cladodes at late maturity stage (100 and 135 days of age, belonging to groups N-400 and N-600, respectively) for 6 weeks. Additionally, a control group fed with calcium carbonate as calcium source was included for comparative purposes. All diets were fitted to the same calcium content (5 g/kg diet). The failure load of femurs was significantly lower (p ≤ 0.05) in groups N-60 and N-200 in comparison to N-400, N-600 and control groups. The cortical width (Ct.Wi) and trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) of the femurs in control and N-600 groups were significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) than Ct.Wi and Tb.Th of femurs in groups N-60 and N-200. Trabecular separation of the femurs in N-60 and N-200 groups showed the highest values compared with all experimental groups. The highest calcium content in the femurs were observed in control, N-600 and N-400 groups; whereas the lowest phosphorus content in the bones were detected in N-200, N-600 and N-400 groups. Finally, the BMD in all experimental groups increased with age; nevertheless, the highest values were observed in N-600 and control groups during pubertal and adolescence stages. The results derived from this research demonstrate, for the first time, that the calcium found in Opuntia ficus indica cladodes is actually bioavailable and capable of improving mineral density and mechanical and microstructural properties of the bones. These findings suggest that the consumption of cladodes at late maturity stage within the diet might have a beneficial impact on bone health.

  7. Urine Protein and Urine Protein to Creatinine Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities Urine Protein and Urine Protein to Creatinine Ratio Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: 24-Hour Urine Protein; Urine Total Protein; Urine Protein to Creatinine Ratio; ...

  8. Impact of the addition of different plant residues on carbon-nitrogen content and nitrogen mineralization-immobilization turnover in a soil incubated under laboratory conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, M. K.; Tahir, M. M.; Sabir, N.; Khurshid, M.

    2014-10-01

    Application of plant residues as soil amendment may represent a valuable recycling strategy that affects on carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling, soil properties improvement and plant growth promotion. The amount and rate of nutrient release from plant residues depend on their quality characteristics and biochemical composition. A laboratory incubation experiment was conducted for 120 days under controlled conditions (25 °C and 58% water filled pore space (WFPS)) to quantify initial biochemical composition and N mineralization of leguminous and non-leguminous plant residues i.e. the roots, shoots and leaves of Glycine max, Trifolium repens, Zea mays, Poplus euramericana, Rubinia pseudoacacia and Elagnus umbellate incorporated into the soil at the rate of 200 mg residue N kg-1 soil. The diverse plant residues showed wide variation in total N, carbon, lignin, polyphenols and C/N ratio with higher polyphenol content in the leaves and higher lignin content in the roots. The shoot of G. max and the shoot and root of T. repens displayed continuous mineralization by releasing a maximum of 109.8, 74.8 and 72.5 mg N kg-1 and representing a 55, 37 and 36% of added N being released from these resources. The roots of G. max and Z. mays and the shoot of Z. mays showed continuous negative values throughout the incubation showing net immobilization. After an initial immobilization, leaves of P. euramericana, R. pseudoacacia and E. umbellate exhibited net mineralization by releasing a maximum of 31.8, 63.1 and 65.1 mg N kg-1, respectively and representing a 16, 32 and 33% of added N being released. Nitrogen mineralization from all the treatments was positively correlated with the initial residue N contents (r = 0.89; p ≤ 0.01), and negatively correlated with lignin content (r = -0.84; p ≤ 0.01), C/N ratio (r = -0.69; p ≤ 0.05), lignin/N ratio (r = -0.68; p ≤ 0.05), polyphenol/N ratio (r = -0.73; p ≤ 0.05) and ligin + polyphenol/N ratio (r = -0.70; p ≤ 0.05) indicating

  9. Impact of the addition of different plant residues on nitrogen mineralization-immobilization turnover and carbon content of a soil incubated under laboratory conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleeem Abbasi, M.; Tahir, M. Mahmood; Sabir, N.; Khurshid, M.

    2015-02-01

    Application of plant residues as soil amendment may represent a valuable recycling strategy that affects carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling in soil-plant systems. The amount and rate of nutrient release from plant residues depend on their quality characteristics and biochemical composition. A laboratory incubation experiment was conducted for 120 days under controlled conditions (25 °C and 58% water-filled pore space) to quantify initial biochemical composition and N mineralization of leguminous and non-leguminous plant residues, i.e., the roots, shoots and leaves of Glycine max, Trifolium repens, Zea mays, Populus euramericana, Robinia pseudoacacia and Elaeagnus umbellata, incorporated into the soil at the rate of 200 mg residue N kg-1 soil. The diverse plant residues showed a wide variation in total N, C, lignin, polyphenols and C / N ratio with higher polyphenol content in the leaves and higher lignin content in the roots. The shoot of Glycine max and the shoot and root of Trifolium repens displayed continuous mineralization by releasing a maximum of 109.8, 74.8 and 72.5 mg N kg-1 and representing a 55, 37 and 36% recovery of N that had been released from these added resources. The roots of Glycine max and Zea mays and the shoot of Zea mays showed continuous negative values throughout the incubation. After an initial immobilization, leaves of Populus euramericana, Robinia pseudoacacia and Elaeagnus umbellata exhibited net mineralization by releasing a maximum of 31.8, 63.1 and 65.1 mg N kg-1, respectively, and representing a 16, 32 and 33% N recovery, respectively. Nitrogen mineralization from all the treatments was positively correlated with the initial residue N contents (r = 0.89; p ≤ 0.01) and negatively correlated with lignin content (r = -0.84; p ≤ 0.01), C / N ratio (r = -0.69; p ≤ 0.05), lignin / N ratio (r = -0.68; p ≤ 0.05), polyphenol / N ratio (r = -0.73; p ≤ 0.05) and (lignin + polyphenol) : N ratio (r = -0.70; p ≤ 0.05) indicating a

  10. Short communication: Variations in major mineral contents of Mediterranean buffalo milk and application of Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy for their prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocco, G; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Bonfatti, V; Schiavon, S; Bittante, G; Cecchinato, A

    2016-11-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to assess variability in the major mineral components of buffalo milk, (2) to estimate the effect of certain environmental sources of variation on the major minerals during lactation, and (3) to investigate the possibility of using Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy as an indirect, noninvasive tool for routine prediction of the mineral content of buffalo milk. A total of 173 buffaloes reared in 5 herds were sampled once during the morning milking. Milk samples were analyzed for Ca, P, K, and Mg contents within 3h of sample collection using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. A Milkoscan FT2 (Foss, Hillerød, Denmark) was used to acquire milk spectra over the spectral range from 5,000 to 900 wavenumber/cm. Prediction models were built using a partial least square approach, and cross-validation was used to assess the prediction accuracy of FTIR. Prediction models were validated using a 4-fold random cross-validation, thus dividing the calibration-test set in 4 folds, using one of them to check the results (prediction models) and the remaining 3 to develop the calibration models. Buffalo milk minerals averaged 162, 117, 86, and 14.4mg/dL of milk for Ca, P, K, and Mg, respectively. Herd and days in milk were the most important sources of variation in the traits investigated. Parity slightly affected only Ca content. Coefficients of determination of cross-validation between the FTIR-predicted and the measured values were 0.71, 0.70, and 0.72 for Ca, Mg, and P, respectively, whereas prediction accuracy was lower for K (0.55). Our findings reveal FTIR to be an unsuitable tool when milk mineral content needs to be predicted with high accuracy. Predictions may play a role as indicator traits in selective breeding (if the additive genetic correlation between FTIR predictions and measures of milk minerals is high enough) or in monitoring the milk of buffalo populations for dairy industry purposes.

  11. Effects of particle shape, hematite content and semi-external mixing with carbonaceous components on the optical properties of accumulation mode mineral dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Mishra

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The radiative forcing estimation of the polluted mineral dust is limited due to lack of morphological analysis, mixing state with the carbonaceous components and the hematite content in the pure dust. The accumulation mode mineral dust has been found to mix with anthropogenically produced black carbon, organic carbon and brown carbon during long range transport. The above features of the polluted dust are not well accounted in the optical models and lead the uncertainty in the numerical estimation of their radiative impact. The Semi-external mixing being a prominent mixing of dust and carbonaceous components has not been studied in details so for compared to core-shell, internal and external mixing studies. In present study, we consider the pure mineral dust composed of non-metallic components (such as Quartz, Feldspar, Mica and Calcite and metalic component like hematite (Fe2O3. The hematite percentage in the pure mineral dust governs its absorbance. Based on this hematite variation, the hematite fraction in pure mineral dust has been constrained between 0–8%. The morphological and mineralogical characterization of the polluted dust led to consider the three sphere, two sphere and two spheroid model shapes for polluted dust particle system. The pollution gives rise to various light absorbing aerosol components like black carbon, brown carbon and organic carbon (comprising of HUmic-Like Substances, HULIS in the atmosphere. The entire above discussed model shapes have been considered for the mineral dust getting polluted with (1 organic carbon (especially HULIS component (2 Brown carbon and (3 black carbon by making a semi-external mixture with pure mineral dust. The optical properties (like Single Scattering Albedo, SSA; Asymmetry parameter, g and Extinction efficiency, Qext of above model shapes for the polluted dust have been computed using Discrete Dipole Approximation, DDA code. For above

  12. Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    Aim, content and methods are fundamental categories of both theoretical and practical general didactics. A quick glance in recent pedagogical literature on higher education, however, reveals a strong preoccupation with methods, i.e. how teaching should be organized socially (Biggs & Tang, 2007......; Race, 2001; Ramsden, 2003). This trend appears closely related to the ‘from-teaching-to-learning’ movement, which has had a strong influence on pedagogy since the early nineties (Keiding, 2007; Terhart, 2003). Another interpretation of the current interest in methodology can be derived from...... for selection of content (Klafki, 1985, 2000; Myhre, 1961; Nielsen, 2006). These attempts all share one feature, which is that criteria for selection of content appear very general and often, more or less explicitly, deal with teaching at the first Bologna-cycle; i.e. schooling at the primary and lower...

  13. Effect of Soaking, Cooking, Germination and Fermentation Processing on Proximate Analysis and Mineral Content of Three White Sorghum Varieties (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossam Saad El-BELTAGI

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The changes in chemical composition, amylose and minerals content after soaking, cooking, germination and fermentation of threewhite sorghum varieties, named ‘Dorado’, ‘Shandaweel-6’, and ‘Giza-15’ were investigated. The chemical composition concluded includingcrude protein, oils, crude fiber and ash. Crude protein content ranged from 10.62 to 12.46% in raw sorghum. ‘Shandaweel-6’ was thehighest variety in crude protein content (12.46%. ‘Dorado’ was the highest variety in oils and ash (3.91 and 1.45%. ‘Shandaweel-6’ wasthe highest variety in crude fiber (1.85%. Amylose content ranged from 18.30 to 20.18% in raw sorghum. Amylose was higher in ‘Giza-15’ than other varieties. Minerals content i.e., Zn, Fe, Ca, K, Na, Mg, Mn and Cu were investigated. Results indicated that raw ‘Dorado’was the highest variety in K, Mg, Ca, Fe and Mn (264.53, 137.14, 33.09, 7.65 and 1.98 mg/100g. While, ‘Shandaweel-6’ was the highestvariety in Zn and Cu (5.02 and 0.84 mg/100 g. Finally ‘Giza-15’ was the highest variety in P and Na (381.37 and 119.29 mg/100 g.After treatments chemical composition, amylose and minerals were decreased. Processing techniques reduce the levels of antinutritionalorganic factors, which including phytates, phenols, tannins and enzyme inhibitors by releasing exogenous and endogenous enzymes suchas phytase enzyme formed during processing.

  14. High vitamin D and calcium intakes increase bone mineral (Ca and P) content in high-fat diet-induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qingming; Sergeev, Igor N

    2015-02-01

    Vitamin D and calcium are essential for bone formation, mineralization, and remodeling. Recent studies demonstrated that an increased body mass can be detrimental to bone health. However, whether an increase in dietary vitamin D and calcium intakes in obesity is beneficial to bone health has not been established. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of increased vitamin D and calcium intakes, alone or in combination, on bone status in a high-fat diet-induced obesity (DIO) mouse model. We hypothesized that DIO in growing mice affects bone mineral status and that high vitamin D and calcium intakes will promote mineralization of the growing bone in obesity via Ca(2+) regulatory hormones, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) and parathyroid hormone (PTH). Male mice were fed high vitamin D3 (10 000 IU/kg), high calcium (1.2%), or high vitamin D3 plus high-calcium diets containing 60% energy as fat for 10 weeks. Bone weight, specific gravity, mineral (Ca and P), and collagen (hydroxyproline) content were measured in the femur and the tibia. Regulators of Ca(2+) metabolism and markers of bone status (PTH, 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], 1,25(OH)2D3, and osteocalcin) were measured in blood plasma. Diet-induced obese mice exhibited lower bone Ca and P content and relative bone weight compared with the normal-fat control mice, whereas collagen (hydroxyproline) content was not different between the two groups. High vitamin D3 and calcium intakes significantly increased bone Ca and P content and relative bone weight in DIO mice, which was accompanied by an increase in 1,25(OH)2D3 and a decrease in PTH and osteocalcin concentrations in blood. The findings obtained indicate that increased vitamin D and calcium intakes are effective in increasing mineral (Ca and P) content in the growing bone of obese mice and that the hormonal mechanism of this effect may involve the vitamin D-PTH axis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Photoluminescence of urine salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordun, O.; Drobchak, O.

    2008-02-01

    Photoexcitation and luminescence spectra of dried urine sample under laser excitation were studied. Luminescence spectra of urine are determined by luminescence of urea which is the main component of urine. The presence of pathological salts in urine leads to the long-wave shifting of maxima of luminescence and to the decreasing of luminescence intensity.

  16. The urine marker test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elbe, Anne-Marie; Jensen, Stine Nylandsted; Elsborg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Urine sample collection for doping control tests is a key component of the World Anti-Doping Agency's fight against doping in sport. However, a substantial number of athletes experience difficulty when having to urinate under supervision. Furthermore, it cannot always be ensured...... that athletes are actually delivering their own urine. A method that can be used to alleviate the negative impact of a supervised urination procedure and which can also identify urine as coming from a specific athlete is the urine marker test. Monodisperse low molecular weight polyethylene glycols (PEGs......) are given orally prior to urination. Urine samples can be traced to the donor by analysis of the PEGs previously given. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the use of the urine marker during urine doping control testing. METHODS: Two studies investigated athletes' acceptance...

  17. Glutathione S-transferases M1 and T1 polymorphisms and arsenic content in hair and urine in two ethnic clans exposed to indoor combustion of high arsenic coal in Southwest Guizhou, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Guo-fang; Guo, Wei-chao; Shen, Jian-hua [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology, Shanghai (China); Du, Hui; Lu, Hong-chao; Kai, Jin-xiang; Zhou, Yun-shu [Prefecture Center for Disease Prevention and Control, Xingyi, Guizhou (China); Chen, Ji-gang [Municipal Center for Disease Prevention and Control, Shanghai (China); Zhang, Xin-jiang [Zunyi Medical College, Affiliated Hospital, Division of Dermatology, Zunyi, Guizhou (China); Lu, Da-ru [Fudan University, Institute of Genetics, School of Life Sciences, Shanghai (China); Golka, Klaus [Institute for Occupational Physiology at the University of Dortmund, Dortmund (Germany)

    2007-08-15

    A total of 2,402 cases of arsenic-related skin lesions (as of 2002) in a few villages of China's Southwest Guizhou Autonomous Prefecture represent a unique case of endemic arseniasis related with indoor combustion of high arsenic coal. A significant difference of skin lesion prevalence was observed between two clans of different ethnicities (Hmong and Han) in one of the hyperendemic villages in this prefecture. This study was focused on a possible involvement of GST T1 and M1 polymorphisms in risk modulation of skin lesions and in the body burden of As in this unique case of As exposure. GST T1 and M1 polymorphisms were genotyped by an allele-specific PCR-based procedure. Total As contents in hair and urine samples as well as environmental samples of the homes of the two ethnic clans were analyzed. No significant deviations in the population frequencies of GST T1 and M1 0/0 genotypes or their combination were recorded between diagnosed skin lesion patients and asymptomatic individuals in both clans. Significantly higher As contents in hair and urine were observed in GSTM1 0/0 carriers, not in GSTT1 0/0 carriers. After stratified by ethnicity and gender, a statistically significant association of the GSTM1 0/0 genotype and higher As content in hair was only confirmed in the subgroups of ethnic Han clan members and all male villagers, not in ethnic Hmong clan members or in females. GST T1 and M1 homozygous deletions were not associated with an increased susceptibility to skin lesions in long-term exposure to indoor combustion of high As coal. The polymorphic status at the locus of GSTM1 might modulate individual's body burden of total As in some Chinese ethnic groups. (orig.)

  18. Growth hormone (GH) treatment increases serum insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3, bone isoenzyme alkaline phosphatase and forearm bone mineral content in young adults with GH deficiency of childhood onset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Pedersen, S A; Sørensen, S;

    1994-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that growth hormone (GH)-deficient adults have a markedly decreased bone mineral content compared to healthy adults. However, there are conflicting results regarding the effects of GH treatment on bone mineral content in GH-deficient adults. Therefore, we evaluated...... the effect of GH treatment on a marker of bone formation (bone alkaline phosphatase), hepatic excretory function and distal forearm bone mineral content in GH-deficient adults. Growth hormone was administered subcutaneously in 21 adults (13 males and 8 females) with GH deficiency of childhood onset for 4...

  19. Simultaneous analysis 26 mineral element contents from highly consumed cultured chicken overexposed to arsenic trioxide by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ying; Sun, Bonan; Li, Siwen; Sun, Xiao; Guo, Ying; Zhao, Hongjing; Wang, Yu; Jiang, Guangshun; Xing, Mingwei

    2016-11-01

    This study assessed the impacts of dietary arsenic trioxide (As2O3) on 26 mineral element contents in the liver and kidney of chicken. A total of 100 male Hy-line cocks were randomly divided into 2 groups (50 chickens in each group), including an arsenic-treated group (basic diet supplemented with As2O3 at 30 mg/kg) and a control group (basal diet). The feeding experiment lasted for 90 days and the experimental animals were given free access to feed and water. We determined 26 mineral elements in the liver and kidney by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results showed that nine element levels (Al, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, Se, Cd, Ba, and Pb) were significantly decreased (P chickens exposed to As2O3 compared to the control chickens where three element levels (Ni, As, and Hg) increased significantly (P chickens exposed to As2O3 compared to the control chickens where four element levels (Mo, As, Cd, and Hg) increased significantly (P chicken, and the effects vary from organ to organ. The aim of this study is to provide references for further study of heavy metal poisoning by detecting the contents of minerals induced by arsenic in chicken.

  20. Tolerance, bone mineral content, and serum vitamin D concentration of term infants fed partially hydrolyzed whey-based infant formula

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of the study was to assess the tolerance (intake, incidence of spit up/vomit, and stool patterns), bone mineral status, and vitamin D status of healthy, term infants fed one of two partially hydrolyzed bovine whey protein infant formulas from birth to 56 or 84 days of age. The control ...

  1. 石墨炉原子吸收光谱法测定尿铅含量影响因素的研究%Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry determination of lead content in urine of factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛荣正

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry determination of lead content in urine of factors, to find a solution. Methods: The standard addition method; control of the absorbance of the blank tube; parameters of graphite furnace heating a reasonable choice; use of pyrolytic coated graphite tube; choose a suitable matrix modifier agent and select the appropriate dosage. Results: The precision of the recovery test and the standard quality control urine samples were determined to meet the requirements of the standard curve in the 0 μg/L ~ 80 μg/L was well inside the range, the average regression equation: Y = 0. 00113C -0.0052, correlation coefficient r = 0. 99935. The detection limit was 7.42 pg/L, to meet the diagnosis of occupational lead absorption and lead poisoning requirements. Conclusion: The use of graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry determination of lead in urine, simple, fast, high recovery rate and less background interference, accurate and which can be high, suitable for a large sample population occupational exposure to the determination of lead in urine.%目的:通过对石墨炉原子吸收光谱法测定尿铅含量影响因素的研究,找出解决办法.方法:采用标准加入法;控制空白管的吸光度;对石墨炉升温参数进行合理的选择;使用热解凃层石墨管;选择合适的基体改进剂及选择合适加入量.结果:精密度试验、回收率试验与标准质控尿样测定都符合要求,标准曲线在0μg/L~80μg/L范围内线性良好,平均回归方程为:Y=0.00113C-0.0052,相关系数r=0.99935,方法检出限为7.42μg/L,能满足铅吸收和铅中毒职业病诊断的要求.结论:使用石墨炉原子吸收光谱法测定尿铅,操作简单、快速、回收率高、背景干扰少、结果准确可靠,适合用于职业接触人群中大样本尿铅的测定.

  2. INTERACTION BETWEEN DIETARY MINERAL AND PHYTASE ON BIOLOGICAL PERFORMANCES OF JAPANESE FLOUNDER, Paralichthys olivaceus. PART I. GROWTH, FEED INTAKE, AND WHOLE BODY MINERAL CONTENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asda Laining

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the effect of dietary calcium (Ca, inorganic phosphorus (IP, and phytase (P supplementation in marine fish, a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design was arranged to observe the interrelationship between dietary Ca and IP with the presence of dietary phytase. Two levels of dietary Ca at 0% and 0.2% combined with either 0% or 0.25% of dietary IP and either with 0 and 2,000 FTU phytase/kg diet, respectively to formulate eight experimental diets. SPI-based diet was used as basal diet and the sources of Ca, IP, and phytase were similar to those used in the previous experiment. Juvenile Japanese flounder with initial body weight around 0.6 g was fed the test diets. After 30 days of feeding trial, the results showed that both dietary IP and phytase, but not dietary Ca significantly enhanced the growth and feed intake. The highest growth was achieved in fish fed a diet containing the Ca, IP, and phytase supplement among groups. Fish fed diet without the three dietary supplements had the lowest SGR and did not significantly improve by supplementing dietary Ca. Feed intake (FI and was significantly influenced by dietary IP and phytase, not dietary Ca while feed conversion ratio (FCR was significantly affected by all dietary treatments. Interaction effect was detected between dietary Ca and IP, between dietary IP and P on FCR. Total phosphorus content in whole body was significantly increased by supplementing all dietary treatments which was highest in fish fed 0.25 IP/0.2 Ca/P. Significant interaction was observed between dietary IP and P on this parameter. Whole body Ca content was significantly improved by either dietary IP or Ca and not dietary P. As conclusion even without inorganic Ca supplement, dietary IP at level of 0.25% or 2,000 FTU phytase/kg diet could enhance growth and FI of fish as well as whole body phosphorus content of juvenile Japanese flounder when diet basal contained organic Ca around 1.2%.

  3. The relationship between CT-determined mineral content and liability to fracture of normal and metastatic vertebrae. Beziehungen zwischen dem computertomographisch bestimmten Mineralgehalt und dem Frakturverhalten von gesunden und metastatischen Wirbelkoerpern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crone-Muenzebrock, W.; Spielmann, R.P. (Hamburg Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Abt. fuer Roentgendiagnostik); Meenen, N.M. (Hamburg Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Abt. fuer Unfallchirurgie)

    1989-09-01

    The mineral content of 42 normal and 19 vertebrae with metastases obtained at post mortem was determined by a dual energy method and this was related to their liability to fracture. In the normal vertebrae, this relationship was expressed in the form of a logarithmic function. Amongst vertebrae with osteolytic lesions, liability to fracture increased more rapidly than mineral loss. Vertebrae with osteoblastic metastases showed increased mineral concentration with an increased liability to fracture as compared with normal vertebrae. (orig.).

  4. Influences of Cadmium on Grain Mineral Nutrient Contents of Two Rice Genotypes Differing in Grain Cadmium Accumulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Wang-da; YAO Hai-gen; ZHANG Hong-mei; TAO Xian-guo

    2009-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of Cd on grain Cd, K, P, Mg, Zn, Cu, Pb, Fe and Mn accumulation in two rice genotypes (Xiushui 63 and Xiushui 217) differing in grain Cd accumulation under four Cd levels, i.e. 0, 0.5, 2.5 and 12.5 mg/kg. Rice genotype greatly affected the grain K content, but not significantly for P, Mg, Zn, Cu, Pb, Fe and Mn contents. There were remarkable effects of additional Cd on the contents of P, Mg and Zn in grains, while not significant for K, Cu, Pb, Fe and Mn contents. No significant differences were found in the interaction of genotype by additional Cd on these nine element contents. The low grain Cd accumulation genotype Xiushui 217 had significantly higher grain K, Mg, Cu and Mn contents than the high grain Cd accumulation genotype Xiushui 63, but the case was opposite for Zn, Pb and Fe contents. It also showed that Cd addition levels significantly influenced the K, P, Mg, Zn, Cu, Pb, Fe and Mn contents in rice grains. Grain K, P, Mg, Zn, Fe and Mn contents reduced with the increasing rate of Cd addition.

  5. Plant litter chemistry alters the content and composition of organic carbon associated with soil mineral and aggregate fractions in invaded ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Mioko; Suseela, Vidya; Simpson, Myrna; Powell, Brian; Tharayil, Nishanth

    2017-10-01

    Through the input of disproportionate quantities of chemically distinct litter, invasive plants may potentially influence the fate of organic matter associated with soil mineral and aggregate fractions in some of the ecosystems they invade. Although context dependent, these native ecosystems subjected to prolonged invasion by exotic plants may be instrumental in distinguishing the role of plant-microbe-mineral interactions from the broader edaphic and climatic influences on the formation of soil organic matter (SOM). We hypothesized that the soils subjected to prolonged invasion by an exotic plant that input recalcitrant litter (Japanese knotweed, Polygonum cuspidatum) would have a greater proportion of plant-derived carbon (C) in the aggregate fractions, as compared with that in adjacent soil inhabited by native vegetation that input labile litter, whereas the soils under an invader that input labile litter (kudzu, Pueraria lobata) would have a greater proportion of microbial-derived C in the silt-clay fraction, as compared with that in adjacent soils that receive recalcitrant litter. At the knotweed site, the higher C content in soils under P. cuspidatum, compared with noninvaded soils inhabited by grasses and forbs, was limited to the macroaggregate fraction, which was abundant in plant biomarkers. The noninvaded soils at this site had a higher abundance of lignins in mineral and microaggregate fractions and suberin in the macroaggregate fraction, partly because of the greater root density of the native species, which might have had an overriding influence on the chemistry of the above-ground litter input. At the kudzu site, soils under P. lobata had lower C content across all size fractions at a 0-5 cm soil depth despite receiving similar amounts of Pinus litter. Contrary to our prediction, the noninvaded soils receiving recalcitrant Pinus litter had a similar abundance of plant biomarkers across both mineral and aggregate fractions, potentially because of

  6. Impact of Long-Term Alfalfa Cropping on Soil Potassium Content and Clay Minerals in a Semi-Arid Loess Soil in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI De-Cheng; B. VELDE; LI Feng-Min; ZHANG Gan-Lin; ZHAO Ming-Song; HUANG Lai-Ming

    2011-01-01

    Alfalfa cropping has been considered an efficient method of increasing soil fertility.Usually nitrogen increase in root nodules is considered to be the major beneficial effect.A 21-year time series (five sampling periods) of alfalfa cultivation plots on a loess soil,initially containing illite and chlorite,in Lanzhou of northwestern China was selected to investigate the relationships among alfalfa cropping,soil potassium (K) content and soil clay minerals.The results indicated that soil K significantly accumulated after cropping,with a peak value at about 15 years,and decreased afterwards.The accumulated K was associated with the K increase in the well-crystallized illite,which was not extracted by the traditional laboratory K extraction methods in assessing bioavailability.The steep decline in soil K content after 15-year cropping was in accord with the observed fertility loss in the alfalfa soil.Plant biomass productivity peaked at near 9 years of culture,whereas soil K and clay minerals continued to increase until cropping for 15 years.This suggested that K increased in the topsoil came from the deep root zone.Thus alfalfa continued to store K in clays even after peak production occurred.Nitrogen did not follow these trends,showing a general decline compared with the native prairie soils that had not been cropped.Therefore,the traditional alfalfa cropping can increase K content in the topsoil.

  7. Lithium content in potable water, surface water, ground water, and mineral water on the territory of Republic of Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Vesna Kostik; Biljana Bauer; Zoran Kavrakovski

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine lithium concentration in potable water, surface water, ground, and mineral water on the territory of the Republic of Macedonia. Water samples were collected from water bodies such as multiple public water supply systems located in 13 cities, wells boreholes located in 12 areas, lakes and rivers located in three different areas. Determination of lithium concentration in potable water, surface water was performed by the technique of inductively coupl...

  8. The influence of calcium intake and physical activity on bone mineral content and bone size in healthy children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Christian; Thomsen, B. Lykke; Michaelsen, Kim F.

    2001-01-01

    Adolescents, Bone area, Bone minral content, Calcium intake, Children, Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, Physical activity, Size-adjusted......Adolescents, Bone area, Bone minral content, Calcium intake, Children, Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, Physical activity, Size-adjusted...

  9. CONTENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The Development and Evolution of the Idea of the Mandate of Heaven in the Zhou Dynasty The changes in the idea of Mandate of Heaven during the Shang and Zhou dynasties are of great significance in the course of the development of traditional Chinese culture. The quickening and awakening of the humanistic spirit was not the entire content of the Zhou idea of Mandate of Heaven. In the process of annihilating the Shang dynasty and setting up their state, the Zhou propagated the idea of the Mandate of Heaven out of practical needs. Their idea of the Mandate of Heaven was not very different from that of the Shang. From the Western Zhou on, the Zhou idea of Mandate of Heaven by no means developed in a linear way along a rational track. The intermingling of rationality and irrationality and of awakening and non-awakening remained the overall state of the Zhou intellectual superstructure after their "spiritual awakening".

  10. Effects of microcystin-LR, cylindrospermopsin and a microcystin-LR/cylindrospermopsin mixture on growth, oxidative stress and mineral content in lettuce plants (Lactuca sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Marisa; Azevedo, Joana; Pinto, Edgar; Neves, Joana; Campos, Alexandre; Vasconcelos, Vitor

    2015-06-01

    Toxic cyanobacterial blooms are documented worldwide as an emerging environmental concern. Recent studies support the hypothesis that microcystin-LR (MC-LR) and cylindrospermopsin (CYN) produce toxic effects in crop plants. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) is an important commercial leafy vegetable that supplies essential elements for human nutrition; thus, the study of its sensitivity to MC-LR, CYN and a MC-LR/CYN mixture is of major relevance. This study aimed to assess the effects of environmentally relevant concentrations (1, 10 and 100 µg/L) of MC-LR, CYN and a MC-LR/CYN mixture on growth, antioxidant defense system and mineral content in lettuce plants. In almost all treatments, an increase in root fresh weight was obtained; however, the fresh weight of leaves was significantly decreased in plants exposed to 100 µg/L concentrations of each toxin and the toxin mixture. Overall, GST activity was significantly increased in roots, contrary to GPx activity, which decreased in roots and leaves. The mineral content in lettuce leaves changed due to its exposure to cyanotoxins; in general, the mineral content decreased with MC-LR and increased with CYN, and apparently these effects are time and concentration-dependent. The effects of the MC-LR/CYN mixture were almost always similar to the single cyanotoxins, although MC-LR seems to be more toxic than CYN. Our results suggest that lettuce plants in non-early stages of development are able to cope with lower concentrations of MC-LR, CYN and the MC-LR/CYN mixture; however, higher concentrations (100 µg/L) can affect both lettuce yield and nutritional quality.

  11. Proximate composition, mineral contents, phytochemical constituents, antimicrobial activities and Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy analysis of bark, stem and seed of Hippophae rhamnoides Linn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javid Ali

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the proximate composition, mineral contents, antimicrobial, phytochemical and Fourier transforms infrared (FTIR spectroscopy analysis of bark, stem and seed of Hippophae rhamnoides. Methods: Proximate composition was determined according to the described methods. Mineral analysis was carried out by atomic absorption spectroscopy and flame photometer. Antimicrobial activities were evaluated according to the agar well diffusion method. Phytochemical qualitative analysis was carried out according to the described methods and functional groups were determined by FTIR Prestige-21 Shimadzu Japan. Results: The proximate analysis showed high content of protein and fiber in stem and bark. High content of Na (900 mg/L and K (670 mg/L was found in bark powder, while in seed, high contents of Ca (800 mg/L, Mg (725 mg/L, Fe (250 mg/L Zn (90 mg/L and Mn (65 mg/L were found compared to stem and bark. Phenols, flavonoids and tannins showed high contents in stem and bark of all extracts. The bark aqueous extract showed high zone of inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus (21 mm and Escherichia coli (20 mm, while methanol extract of stem showed high zone of inhibition (14 mm and 13 mm against Enterococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli respectively. The aqueous extract of bark documented high zone of inhibition against Aspergillus niger (21 mm and Aspergillus parasiticus (20 mm. FTIR spectra revealed the presence of OH, C-O and C=O functional groups. Conclusions: The study concludes that bark, stem and seed extracts will be useful guideline for the new syntheses of feed, food supplements and herb drugs with various combination, which can be used for the treatment of many diseases at global level especially in tropical regions as well as the male nutrition problems in these areas.

  12. Proximate composition, mineral contents, phytochemical constituents, antimicrobial activities and Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy analysis of bark, stem and seed of Hippophae rhamnoides Linn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Javid Ali; Bashir Ahmad; Said Hassan; Muhammad Siddique; Farrah Gul; Shafaat Ullah

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare the proximate composition, mineral contents, antimicrobial, phytochemical and Fourier transforms infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy analysis of bark, stem and seed of Hippophae rhamnoides. Methods: Proximate composition was determined according to the described methods. Mineral analysis was carried out by atomic absorption spectroscopy and flame photometer. Antimicrobial activities were evaluated according to the agar well diffusion method. Phytochemical qualitative analysis was carried out according to the described methods and functional groups were determined by FTIR Prestige-21 Shimadzu Japan. Results:The proximate analysis showed high content of protein and fiber in stem and bark. High content of Na (900 mg/L) and K (670 mg/L) was found in bark powder, while in seed, high contents of Ca (800 mg/L), Mg (725 mg/L), Fe (250 mg/L) Zn (90 mg/L) and Mn (65 mg/L) were found compared to stem and bark. Phenols, flavonoids and tannins showed high contents in stem and bark of all extracts. The bark aqueous extract showed high zone of inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus (21 mm) and Escherichia coli (20 mm), while methanol extract of stem showed high zone of inhibition (14 mm and 13 mm) against Enterococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli respectively. The aqueous extract of bark documented high zone of inhibition against Aspergillus niger (21 mm) and Aspergillus parasiticus (20 mm). FTIR spectra revealed the presence of OH, C-O and C=O functional groups. Conclusions:The study concludes that bark, stem and seed extracts will be useful guideline for the new syntheses of feed, food supplements and herb drugs with various combination, which can be used for the treatment of many diseases at global level especially in tropical regions as well as the male nutrition problems in these areas.

  13. Influence of long-term mineral fertilization on metal contents and properties of soil samples taken from different locations in Hesse, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnecki, S.; Düring, R.-A.

    2015-01-01

    Essential and non-essential metals occur in soils as a result of weathering, industrial processes, fertilization, and atmospheric deposition. Badly adapted cultivation of agricultural soils (declining pH value, application of unsuitable fertilizers) can enhance the mobility of metals and thereby increase their concentrations in agricultural products. As the enrichment of metals in soils occurs over long time periods, monitoring of the long-term impact of fertilization is necessary to assess metal accumulation in agricultural soils. The main objective of this study was to test the effects of different mineral fertilizer variations on soil properties (pH, Corg, and cation exchange capacity (CEC)) and pseudo-total and mobile metal contents of soils after 14 years of fertilizer application and to determine residual effects of the fertilization 8 years after cessation of fertilizer treatment. Soil samples were taken from a field experiment which was carried out at four different locations (210, 260, 360, and 620 m above sea level) in Hesse, Germany. During the study, a significant decrease in soil pH and an evident increase in soil carbon content and cation exchange capacity with fertilization were determined. The CEC of the soils was closely related to their organic C contents. Moreover, pseudo- and mobile metal (Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, Zn) contents in the soils increased due to application of 14 years of mineral fertilizer treatments (N, P, NP, and NPK) when compared to control plots. Eight years after termination of the fertilization in the soil samples taken from soil profiles of the fertilized plots (NPK) for monitoring the residual effects of the fertilizer application, a decrease of 82.6, 54.2, 48.5, 74.4, and 56.9% in pseudo-total Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, and Zn contents, respectively, was determined.

  14. Is increase in bone mineral content caused by increase in skeletal muscle mass/strength in adult patients with GH-treated GH deficiency? A systematic literature analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klefter, O.; Feldt-Rasmussen, U.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Adult patients with GH deficiency (GHD) are characterized by a reduced muscle mass, but also reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC), which have been ascribed to GHD per se. The aim of this study was to investigate if changes in BMD/BMC in adult GHD patients could be due...... performed a systematic literature analysis, including 51 clinical trials published between 1996 and 2008, which had studied the development in muscle mass, muscle strength, BMD, and/or BMC in GH-treated adult GHD patients. RESULTS: GH therapy had an anabolic effect on skeletal muscle. The largest increase...

  15. Influência do processamento no teor de minerais em sucos de maçãs Influence of the processing of apple juice in mineral content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Nogueira

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A produção brasileira de maçãs apresenta 130 mil toneladas de frutas classificadas como descarte, que são anualmente transformadas em suco de maçã e exportadas na forma de concentrado. Alguns minerais têm apresentado teores abaixo dos padrões de qualidade internacionais, comprometendo a autenticidade e comercialização desse produto. Este trabalho teve como objetivos: quantificar os principais minerais em diferentes cultivares de maçãs e verificar o efeito das operações de processamento no teor de minerais, em sucos de maçãs. Foi avaliado, em diferentes cultivares de maçã, o teor de minerais na fruta e nos sucos obtidos por prensagem e liquefação enzimática. O teor de cinzas nas frutas das cultivares Gala (15,6 ± 0,8 g.kg -1 e Fuji (15,1 ± 0,5 g.kg -1 foi inferior ao das demais cultivares brasileiras (20,3 ± 2,6 g.kg -1. No processamento do suco por prensagem, apenas 15% das cinzas da fruta foram transferidas para o suco, contra 23% pelo processo de extração por liquefação, permanecendo grande quantidade de minerais no bagaço. O suco de maçã apresentou teores de minerais compatíveis com a International Federation of Fruit Juice Producers (IFU, entretanto, o teor de magnésio (29,24 ± 6,10 mg.L-1 ficou abaixo do limite preconizado pela IFU e o teor de cálcio (38,21 ± 7,20 mg.L-1 foi inferior aos valores da literatura e muito próximo do limite mínimo permitido, o que indica que estes minerais, nos sucos de maçãs processados no país, apresentam baixos teores.The Brazilian apple production discards 130,000 tons of classified fruit that is annually transformed into apple juice and exported as concentrate. Some minerals have presented contents below the international standards of quality, which in turn is problematic concerning authenticity and commercialization. This aims of this work are to quantify the main minerals in different apple varieties and to observe the effect of processing operations on mineral

  16. Bone Mineral Density, Mechanical, Microstructural Properties and Mineral Content of the Femur in Growing Rats Fed with Cactus Opuntia ficus indica (L. Mill. (Cactaceae Cladodes as Calcium Source in Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezequiel Hernández-Becerra

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical, microstructural properties, mineral content and bone mineral density (BMD of the femur were evaluated in growing rats fed with Opuntia ficus indica (L. Mill. (Cactaceae cladodes at different maturity stages as calcium source. Male weanling rats were fed with cladodes at early maturity stage (25 and 60 days of age, belonging to groups N-60 and N-200, respectively and cladodes at late maturity stage (100 and 135 days of age, belonging to groups N-400 and N-600, respectively for 6 weeks. Additionally, a control group fed with calcium carbonate as calcium source was included for comparative purposes. All diets were fitted to the same calcium content (5 g/kg diet. The failure load of femurs was significantly lower (p ≤ 0.05 in groups N-60 and N-200 in comparison to N-400, N-600 and control groups. The cortical width (Ct.Wi and trabecular thickness (Tb.Th of the femurs in control and N-600 groups were significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05 than Ct.Wi and Tb.Th of femurs in groups N-60 and N-200. Trabecular separation of the femurs in N-60 and N-200 groups showed the highest values compared with all experimental groups. The highest calcium content in the femurs were observed in control, N-600 and N-400 groups; whereas the lowest phosphorus content in the bones were detected in N-200, N-600 and N-400 groups. Finally, the BMD in all experimental groups increased with age; nevertheless, the highest values were observed in N-600 and control groups during pubertal and adolescence stages. The results derived from this research demonstrate, for the first time, that the calcium found in Opuntia ficus indica cladodes is actually bioavailable and capable of improving mineral density and mechanical and microstructural properties of the bones. These findings suggest that the consumption of cladodes at late maturity stage within the diet might have a beneficial impact on bone health.

  17. Bone Mineral Density, Mechanical, Microstructural Properties and Mineral Content of the Femur in Growing Rats Fed with Cactus Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Mill. (Cactaceae) Cladodes as Calcium Source in Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Becerra, Ezequiel; Gutiérrez-Cortez, Elsa; Del Real, Alicia; Rojas-Molina, Alejandra; Rodríguez-García, Mario; Rubio, Efraín; Quintero-García, Michelle; Rojas-Molina, Isela

    2017-01-01

    Mechanical, microstructural properties, mineral content and bone mineral density (BMD) of the femur were evaluated in growing rats fed with Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Mill. (Cactaceae) cladodes at different maturity stages as calcium source. Male weanling rats were fed with cladodes at early maturity stage (25 and 60 days of age, belonging to groups N-60 and N-200, respectively) and cladodes at late maturity stage (100 and 135 days of age, belonging to groups N-400 and N-600, respectively) for 6 weeks. Additionally, a control group fed with calcium carbonate as calcium source was included for comparative purposes. All diets were fitted to the same calcium content (5 g/kg diet). The failure load of femurs was significantly lower (p ≤ 0.05) in groups N-60 and N-200 in comparison to N-400, N-600 and control groups. The cortical width (Ct.Wi) and trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) of the femurs in control and N-600 groups were significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) than Ct.Wi and Tb.Th of femurs in groups N-60 and N-200. Trabecular separation of the femurs in N-60 and N-200 groups showed the highest values compared with all experimental groups. The highest calcium content in the femurs were observed in control, N-600 and N-400 groups; whereas the lowest phosphorus content in the bones were detected in N-200, N-600 and N-400 groups. Finally, the BMD in all experimental groups increased with age; nevertheless, the highest values were observed in N-600 and control groups during pubertal and adolescence stages. The results derived from this research demonstrate, for the first time, that the calcium found in Opuntia ficus indica cladodes is actually bioavailable and capable of improving mineral density and mechanical and microstructural properties of the bones. These findings suggest that the consumption of cladodes at late maturity stage within the diet might have a beneficial impact on bone health. PMID:28165410

  18. Effect of sprouting and roasting processes on some physico-chemical properties and mineral contents of soybean seed and oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özcan, Mehmet Musa; Al Juhaimi, Fahad

    2014-07-01

    Free fatty acid contents of sprouted soybean oil were found between 1.26% (Adasoy) and 4.20% (Nazlıcan and Türksoy). Peroxide values (PV) of sprouted soybean oils were found between 1.52meq/kg (Adasoy) and 3.85meq/kg (A3935), while peroxide values of roasted seed oils were determined between 2.52meq/kg (Adasoy) and 4.03meq/kg (Nova). Palmitic, oleic and linoleic acids were found as major fatty acids of soybean genotypes. Oleic acid contents of samples were found between 19.07% (roasted Adasoy) and 35.31% (roasted A3935), linoleic contents of oils ranged between 42.17% (roasted Nazlican) and 54.76% (sprouted A3127). Macro and micro element contents of sprouted, oven roasted and raw (untreated) soybean seeds were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry. The potassium contents of soybean seeds ranged between 16,375mg/kg (raw Adasoy) and 20,357mg/kg (sprouted A3127, while phosphorus contents of seeds varied from 5427mg/kg (oven roasted Türksoy) to 7759mg/kg (sprouted Nova). The micro element contents of samples were found to be different depending on the processing procedures and soybean genotypes.

  19. Urine specific gravity test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003587.htm Urine specific gravity test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Urine specific gravity is a laboratory test that shows the concentration ...

  20. Protein urine test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Urine albumin; Proteinuria; Albuminuria Images White nail syndrome Protein urine test References Gerber GS, Brendler CB. Evaluation of the urologic patient: history, physical examination, and urinalysis. In: Wein AJ, Kavoussi ...

  1. Urine drug screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drug screen -- urine ... detect the presence of illegal and some prescription drugs in your urine. Their presence indicates that you recently used these drugs. Some drugs may remain in your system for ...

  2. Urine concentration test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003608.htm Urine concentration test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A urine concentration test measures the ability of the kidneys to ...

  3. Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editor IJRED

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available International Journal of Renewable Energy Development www.ijred.com Volume 1             Number 3            October 2012                ISSN 2252- 4940   CONTENTS OF ARTICLES page Design and Economic Analysis of a Photovoltaic System: A Case Study 65-73 C.O.C. Oko , E.O. Diemuodeke, N.F. Omunakwe, and E. Nnamdi     Development of Formaldehyde Adsorption using Modified Activated Carbon – A Review 75-80 W.D.P Rengga , M. Sudibandriyo and M. Nasikin     Process Optimization for Ethyl Ester Production in Fixed Bed Reactor Using Calcium Oxide Impregnated Palm Shell Activated Carbon (CaO/PSAC 81-86 A. Buasri , B. Ksapabutr, M. Panapoy and N. Chaiyut     Wind Resource Assessment in Abadan Airport in Iran 87-97 Mojtaba Nedaei       The Energy Processing by Power Electronics and its Impact on Power Quality 99-105 J. E. Rocha and B. W. D. C. Sanchez       First Aspect of Conventional Power System Assessment for High Wind Power Plants Penetration 107-113 A. Merzic , M. Music, and M. Rascic   Experimental Study on the Production of Karanja Oil Methyl Ester and Its Effect on Diesel Engine 115-122 N. Shrivastava,  , S.N. Varma and M. Pandey  

  4. Comparison of total-body calcium with radiographic and photon absorptiometry measurement of appendicular bone mineral content. [Comparison of findings in patients with primary osteoporosis and healthy marathon runners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanzi, I; Colbert, C; Bachtell, R; Thompson, K; Aloia, J; Cohn, S

    1978-01-01

    Two groups of investigators utilized three techniques for evaluating bone mineral mass. In one institution, total-body calcium by total body neutron activation analysis, and bone mineral content of the radius by photon absorptiometry were measured concomitantly. In the other institution, the mean bone mineral content of the three inner phalanges of the left hand was measured by radiographic absorptiometry. These techniques were applied to two groups of subjects: 16 patients with primary osteoporosis and 14 healthy marathon runners. The higher correlation found in osteoporotic patients may be related to the diffuse nature of this condition and to differences in the distribution of skeletal mass in the marathon runners.

  5. Compositionally Controlled Volatile Content of Nominally Volatile-Free Minerals in the Continental Upper Mantle of Southern Gondwana (Patagonia & W. Antarctica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooks, E. E.; Gibson, S. A.; Leat, P. T.; Petrone, C. M.

    2015-12-01

    H2O and F contents affect many physical and chemical properties of the upper mantle, including melting temperature and viscosity. These elements are hosted by hydrous and F-rich phases, and by modally abundant, nominally-anhydrous/halogen-free mantle minerals, which can potentially accommodate the entire volatile budget of the upper mantle. We present high-precision SIMS analyses of H2O, and F in mantle xenoliths hosted by recently-erupted (5-10 Ka) alkali basalts from south Patagonia (Pali Aike) and older (c. 25 Ma) alkali basalts from localities along the Antarctic Peninsula. Samples are well characterised peridotites and pyroxenites, from a range of depths in the off-craton lithospheric mantle. Minerals are relatively dry: H2O contents of olivine span 0-49 ppm, orthopyroxene 150-235 ppm and clinopyroxene 100-395 ppm, with highest concentrations found in spinel-garnet lherzolites from Pali Aike. These H2O concentrations fall within the global measured range for off-craton mantle minerals. H2O and F are correlated, and the relative compatibility of F in mantle phases is clinopyroxene>orthopyroxene>olivine. However, elevated F concentrations of 100-210 ppm are found in pyroxenites from two Antarctic localities. This elevated F content is not correlated with high H2O, suggesting that these rocks interacted with a F-rich melt. In clinopyroxenes, F concentration is correlated with Ti, and the ratio of M1Ti to M1Al + M1Cr, suggesting a charge balanced substitution. Consistency between samples (excepting high-F pyroxenites) suggests a constant F-budget, and that concentrations in clinopyroxenes are controlled by mineral chemistry. In orthopyroxene, F correlates with CaO, but no other major or minor elements. Large variability of H2O concentrations within samples is attributed to diffusive loss during ascent. Cl is negligible in all samples, indicating little or no influence of slab fluids from this long-lived subduction zone.

  6. Study of mineral content (Nutrients and Trace elements) in vine leaf and 4 weed species included in the vegetal cover in a Spanish vineyard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorós, José Angel; Bravo, Sandra; Pérez-de-los-Reyes, Caridad; Jesús García-Navarro, Francisco; Higueras, Pablo; Campos, Juan Antonio; María Moreno, Marta

    2016-04-01

    The content of some mineral elements (Na, Ca, Mg, K, P, S, Fe, Mn, Si, Al, V, Cr, Cu, Rb, Sr, Ba, Zn, Pb, Ce, La and Nd) has been studied in vine leaf and four weed species (Mendicago lupulina L.; Malva sylvestris L., Hordeum murinum L. and Scandix pecten-veneris L.) included in the natural vegetal cover of a vineyard sited in Ciudad Real province (Central Spain). Samples were taken in May 2015, dried and milled in order to analyze them using the X Ray Fluorescence Technique. The results obtained have been compared with those measured in a vineyard located in a different site and with those suggested by the literature consulted for plants in general all around the world. The results indicate that some differences in mineral content among the weed species can be drafted. Great differences have been found in K, Si, Ca and Zn, although other elements, such as Mg, P, S, Ba and Nd, remained almost constant despite of the species. Moreover, the influence of the type of soil (different site) can give a different composition of the vine leaf in some elements. This last point is especially evident in the case of the Sr (more present in calcareous soils and leaves of plants grown on them, reaching 377 mg kg-1 versus less than 86 mg kg-1 in the non-calcareous studied soil).

  7. Accuracy of lateral dual energy X-ray absorptiometry for the determination of bone mineral content in the thoracic and lumbar spine: an in vitro study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edmondston, S.J. (Curtin Univ., Perth (Australia). Dept. of Physiotherapy); Singer, K.P. (Royal Perth Hospital, WA (Australia) Curtin Univ., Perth (Australia). Dept. of Physiotherapy); Price, R.I. (Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Perth (Australia)); Breidahl, P.D. (Royal Perth Hospital, WA (Australia))

    1993-04-01

    Lateral scanning with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was undertaken on 153 thoracic and lumbar vertebral bodies from nine individuals (mean age 67; range 34-92 years) to establish their bone mineral content (BMC). All specimens were subsequently de-fatted and ashed to compare ash weight with BMC of the T1 to L5 segments. Linear regression analysis indicated a higher correlation between BMC and measured ash weights for each vertebral column (range: r = 0.97-0.99), with error analysis for all vertebrae tested showing a standard error of 0.40 g, or 10.8%. For the L2-4 segments the accuracy error was 0.50 g or 7.9%. In both cases there was a mean trend towards underestimation of ash weight. Mean BMC values of the T1 to T5 segments were similar before a progressive increase caudally. These data affirm the utility of DXA for determining bone mineral content in the vertebral column across wide ranges of age, and segmental and bone density. (Author).

  8. Comparison of calcium carbonate and aluminium hydroxide as phosphate binders on biochemical bone markers, PTH(1-84), and bone mineral content in dialysis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, B; Jensen, J D; Nielsen, H K;

    1991-01-01

    Bone mineral content, estimated by single-photon absorptiometry of the forearm, serum values of intact parathyroid hormone (PTH(1-84], osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase, 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (1,25(OH)2D3), and aluminium were determined during treatment with calcium carbonate (CaCO3...... 0.05), osteocalcin decreased (89% versus 117%, P less than 0.01), alkaline phosphatase decreased (92% versus 116%, P less than 0.05), and aluminium decreased (56% versus 189%, P less than 0.05). 1,25(OH)2D3 remained unchanged in both periods. No increase in soft-tissue calcification was demonstrated......) or aluminium hydroxide (Al(OH)3) in 11 dialysis patients participating in a randomised cross-over study. Each treatment period lasted 6 months. Serum phosphorus was maintained in the range 1.5-2.0 mmol/l. During Al(OH)3 treatment bone mineral content (BMC) decreased by 11% per half-year (mean), but only by 3...

  9. Short-term forecasting of the chloride content in the mineral waters of the Ustroń Health Resort using SARIMA and Holt-Winters models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dąbrowska Dominika

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Ustroń S.A. Health Resort (southern Poland uses iodide-bromide mineral waters taken from Middle and Upper Devonian limestones and dolomites with a mineralisation range of 110-130 g/dm3 for curative purposes. Two boreholes - U-3 and U3-A drilled in the early 1970s were exploited. The aim of this paper is to estimate changes in mineral water quality of the Ustroń Health Resort by taking into consideration chloride content in the water from the U-3 borehole. The data has included the results of monthly analyses of chlorides from 2005 to 2015 during the tests carried out by the Mining Department of the Health Resort. The triple exponential smoothing (ETS function and the Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (SARIMA method of modelling time series were used for the calculations. The ability to properly forecast mineral water quality can result in a good status of the exploitation borehole and a limited number of failures in the exploitation system. Because of the good management of health resorts, it is possible to acquire more satisfied customers. The main goal of the article involves the real-time forecast accuracy, obtained results show that the proposed methods are effective for such situations. Presented methods made it possible to obtain a 24-month point and interval forecast. The results of these analyses indicate that the chloride content is forecast to be in the range of 72 to 83 g/l from 2015 to 2017. While comparing the two methods of analysis, a narrower range of forecast values and, therefore, greater accuracy were obtained for the ETS function. The good performance of the ETS model highlights its utility compared with complicated physically based numerical models.

  10. An Assessment of the Consumption of Energy and Selected Minerals and Their Content in the Hair of Children Aged 1-4 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinek, Katarzyna; Wójciak, Rafał Wojciech; Krejpcio, Zbigniew; Stanisławska-Kubiak, Maia

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the consumption of energy and selected minerals (Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu) and their content in the hair of children aged 1-4 years. Seventy-five children were divided into three age subgroups: 12-24-month-olds, 25-36-month-olds and 37-48-month-olds. The data on energy intake and consumption of nutrients were obtained by means of a nutritional interview. The content of elements in the hair was measured by means of flame atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) with an AAS-3 spectrophotometer (Zeiss). The daily food rations of children aged 12-36 months were characterised by adequate energy value, but the values of Ca and K were too low, whereas the content of Mg, Zn and Cu was high. On the other hand, the daily food rations of children aged 37-48 months provided sufficient amounts of Mg and Zn, but the value of Cu was too high, whereas energy, Ca, K and Fe were too low. About 42.7% of the children under study were characterised by an abnormal state of nutrition. An inadequately balanced diet needs to be corrected by educating parents or guardians in appropriate nutrition. There are significant correlations (r > 0.9) between the supply of Ca in the diet of children aged 1-4 years and the content of this element in their hair.

  11. Performance, meat quality, meat mineral contents and caecal microbial population responses to humic substances administered in drinking water in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, E; Coskun, I; Ocak, N; Erener, G; Dervisoglu, M; Turhan, S

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effect of different levels of humic substances (HS) administered in drinking water on caecal microflora and mineral composition and colour characteristics of breast and thigh meats and the growth performance, carcass and gastrointestinal tract (GIT) traits of broiler chicks. A total of 480 3-d-old broiler chickens were randomly allocated to 4 treatments with 4 cages per treatment and 30 bird (15 males and 15 females) chicks per cage. All birds were fed on commercial basal diet. The control birds (HS0) received drinking water with no additions, whereas birds in the other treatment groups received a drinking water with 7.5 (HS7.5), 15.0 (HS15.0) and 22.5 (HS22.5) g/kg HS. Mush feed were provided on an ad libitum basis. Body weight and feed intake of broilers were determined at d 0, 21, and 42, and feed conversion ratio was calculated. On d 42, 4 broilers (2 males and 2 females) from each cage were slaughtered and the breast and thigh meats were collected for mineral composition and quality measurements. Performance, carcass and GIT traits and caecal microbial population of broiler chicks at d 42 were not affected by the dietary treatments. The lightness (L*) of breast and thigh meat decreased in broilers supplemented with 15 and 22.5 g/kg HS in drinking water. Although the redness (a*) of breast meat increased, yellowness of thigh meat decreased in broilers supplemented with 15 and 22.5 g/kg HS in drinking water (P water can be applied for broiler chicks to maintain growth performance and improve meat quality without changing caecal microflora.

  12. Analysis of effective thermal conductivity for mineral cast material structures with varying epoxy content using TPS method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Selvakumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventionally, cast iron is the material used for high speed machine tool structures. As an alternate material to improve the structural properties, composite materials are being used, which are known to exhibit excellent thermal and mechanical properties. While selecting an alternate material, thermal conductivity is an important thermo physical property of the material that should be studied. A resin composite material has a lesser thermal conductivity and its thermal properties vary with the composition of the mixture. A material with lower thermal conductivity will have higher heat concentration within the structure, which may result in structural deformation. In this analysis, epoxy granite, a material which is tested to exhibit excellent mechanical properties has been selected to study its thermal properties. Tests are carried out using Transient Plane Source (TPS method, on eight samples with varying volume fraction of epoxy content in the range 10-24%. It is observed that, the effective thermal conductivity decreases with an increase in epoxy resin content in the mixture because the resin content increases interfacial resistance between particles. Hence, lower epoxy content in the mixture that maximizes the effective thermal conductivity while maintaining good mechanical properties is to be selected.

  13. Targeted expression of HvHMA2 increases the mineral content of the inner endosperm in barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noeparvar, Shahin; Darbani, Behrooz; Tauris, Birgitte

    2017-01-01

    Cereals are a major source of dietary energy and protein but are nutritionally poor in micronutrients. Zinc (Zn) biofortification of staple crops has been proposed as a promising strategy to combat the global challenge of human Zn-deficiency. The aim of this study was to improve the Zn content in...

  14. Impact of the breeding region and the season on the content of the selected mineral elements in the hair of cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota CYGAN-SZCZEGIELNIAK

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to analyze the effect of the season and the breeding region on the content of selected minerals (Ca, Mg, Na and K in the hair of dairy cows. The research material was made up of 114 polish Holstein-Friesians breed cows from three breeding centres in Poland: Kombinat Rolny Sp. z o. o. - Kietrz (the opolskie province, Hodowla Zarodowa Zwierząt Sp. z o.o. - Knyszyn (the podlaskie province and Ośrodek Hodowli Zarodowej Sp. z o.o. - Osięciny (the kujawsko-pomorskie province. The cows were kept in freestanding cowsheds with den boxes. The animal nutrition involved the use of the TMR system, considering the division into nutrition groups. The hair was sampled in summer and in the period of winter and spring from the side of the body, right behind the coastal arch. Determination of Ca, Mg, Na and K was performed by means of atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS. The study revealed seasonal variations in the content of mineral elements in the hair of dry cows and a region-dependent differentiation. The highest content of the quantity elements in question was found in the hair of the cows from Osięciny. The mean concentration of Ca, Mg, Na and K in the hair of cows from Osięciny was statistically significantly higher than in the hair collected in winter from the animals from Knyszyn and Kietrz. The lowest values of the determined elements were noted in the hair of cows bred in Knyszyn. The investigation of the correlation between the amounts of the elements, based on an analysis of all samples of hair, revealed a positive correlation between Na and K cations, as well as between Mg and Ca cations.

  15. [Comparative study of the short-term effect of mineral water on calcium metabolism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vezzoli, Giuseppe; Arcidiacono, Teresa; Puzzovio, Maria; Mora, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    Mineral water may be a useful means to achieve optimal dietary calcium intake, but the effect of different mineral waters on calcium metabolism is unknown. We therefore evaluated calcium excretion in 24-hour urine in 10 healthy individuals (5 women and 5 men) after two weeks of drinking at least 1500 mL/day of mineral water with a low electrolyte content or 1500 mL/day of mineral water rich in calcium and bicarbonate but with a different sodium content. The low-sodium water Sangemini was one of these two mineral waters. Calcium excretion did not significantly increase after intake of the Sangemini mineral water in comparison with the baseline period of low-electrolyte mineral water intake. Conversely, the calcium excretion increased significantly after intake of the second mineral water. The plasma concentration of C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen and the urinary phosphate excretion decreased after intake of the second mineral water in comparison with the baseline period, whereas they did not decrease after intake of Sangemini water. Therefore, phosphate excretion was higher after drinking Sangemini water than the other studied mineral water. Drinking Sangemini water may have a slight effect on calcium excretion and may not inhibit bone turnover in the short term. The lesser effect of Sangemini water on calcium excretion could be useful in the treatment of osteoporosis.

  16. Carbon content of forest floor and mineral soil in Mediterranean Pinus spp. and Oak stands in acid soils in Northern Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrero, C.; Turrión, M.B.; Pando, V.; Bravo, F.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study: The aim of the study was to determine the baseline carbon stock in forest floor and mineral soils in pine and oak stands in acid soils in Northern Spain. Area of study: The study area is situated in northern Spain (42° N, 4° W) on “Paramos y Valles” region of Palencia. aterial and methods: An extensive monitoring composed of 48 plots (31 in pine and 17 in oak stands) was carried out. Litter layers and mineral soil samples, at depths of 0-30 cm and 30-60 cm, were taken in each plot. An intensive monitoring was also performed by sampling 12 of these 48 plots selected taken in account species forest composition and their stand development stage. Microbial biomass C (CMB), C mineralization (CRB), and soil organic C balance at stand level were determined in surface soil samples of intensive monitoring. Main results: No differences in soil C content were detected in the two forest ecosystems up to 60 cm depth (53.0±25.8 Mg C ha-1 in Pinus spp. plantations and 60.3±43.8 Mg C ha-1 in oak stands). However, differences in total C (CT), CMB and CRB were found in the upper 10 cm of the soils depending on the stand development stage in each species forest composition (Pinus nigra, Pinus pinaster, Pinus sylvestris and Quercus pyrenaica). Plots with high development stage exhibited significant lower metabolic quotient (qCO2), so, meant more efficient utilization of C by the microbial community. The C content in the forest floor was higher in pine stands (13.7±0.9 Mg C ha-1) than in oak stands (5.4±0.7 Mg C ha-1). A greater turnover time was found in pine ecosystems vs. oak stands. In contrast, forest floor H layer was nonexistent in oak stands. Research highlights: Results about litterfall, forest floor and mineral soil dynamics in this paper can be used strategically to reach environmental goals in new afforestation programs and sustainable forest management approaches. (Author)

  17. Influence of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi on Growth, Mineral Nutrition and Chlorogenic Acid Content of Lonicera confusa Seedlings Under Field Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI An-Dong; LI Qian; HUANG Jian-Guo; YUAN Ling

    2013-01-01

    Lonicera confusa,a traditional Chinese medicine herb for treating cold,flu,acute fever,and so forth,is often grown artificially in acidic soils and suffers from phosphorus (P) deficiency.A five-year field experiment was carried out to study the colonization rate,growth,nutrition,and chlorogenic acid content of Lonicera confusa seedlings inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi,Glomus etunicatum and Glomus intraradices.Before transplanting into a field,both AM-inoculated and uninoculated control plants were cultured in nursery beds.In the plants inoculated with the AM fungi,the colonization rate decreased linearly with time and a greater decrease was observed in the plants inoculated with G.intraradices than with G.etunicatum,while the AM colonization increased from 0% to 12.1% in the uninoculated control plants 5 years after transplanting.Plant height,crown diameter,number of new branches,and flower yield increased significantly by AM inoculation as compared to the uninoculated control.Phosphorus concentrations in leaves and flowers increased,and plant uptake of nutrients,e.g.,nitrogen (N),P,and potassium (K),was also enhanced significantly by AM inoculation.The Lonicera confusa seedlings had a better response to inoculation of G.intraradices than G.etunicatum in both growth and chlorogenic acid content in flowers.In contrast,both plant P uptake and P concentrations in leaves and flowers were similar between two fungal inoculations.The positive responses of Lonicera confusa to AM inoculation in growth,nutrient uptake,flowering,and chlorogenic acid content in flowers suggested that AM inoculation in nursery beds could promote the plant growth and increase chlorogenic acid content in flowers of Lonicera confusa when grown on acidic and P-deficient soils.

  18. Characterization of Spanish honeys with protected designation of origin "Miel de Granada" according to their mineral content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Alda-Garcilope, C; Gallego-Picó, A; Bravo-Yagüe, J C; Garcinuño-Martínez, R M; Fernández-Hernando, P

    2012-12-01

    Honey attributes such as geographical origin or specified botanical sources often command a premium price due to their organoleptic or pharmacoactive properties. "Miel de Granada" is a highly quality product with protected designation of origin (PDO) which includes six monofloral honeys and two multifloral honeys. Our objective was the characterization of "Miel de Granada" according to their metal content. Metal content was specific enough and allowed discrimination from honeys of different botanical and geographical origins and confirmed the authenticity of PDO labelling as Granada product with the determination of only five elements (K, Na, Ca, Mg and Zn). Chemometric techniques as cluster analysis and ANOVA were used to classify honeys according to their botanical and geographical origin in the metal data. Metal content marks the differences in honey samples and can be used as a tool to assess the quality of honeys. ANOVA showed significant differences among rosemary honeys from different geographical areas despite the botanical factor weight. Our research contributes to the groundwork studies to determine the geographical origin of Spanish honeys. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Pulp yield and mineral content of commercial hybrids of yellow passion fruits Conteúdo mineral e rendimento de polpa de híbridos comerciais de maracujá-amarelo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiva Domenech Tupinambá

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Physical analyses and an analysis of the mineral content were carried out by peroxide-perchloric wet-digestion, taking readings using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES and measurements using an analytical balance and digital paquimeter, of three commercial hybrids of Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Deg.: BRS Sol do Cerrado, BRS Ouro Vermelho and BRS Gigante Amarelo, cultivated and harvested from the experimental area of Embrapa Cerrados, Planaltina, DF, Brazil, in October/2007. Eighteen fruits were evaluated for each hybrid, and presented weights and dimensions superior to those found in the scientific literature, without significant differences between the hybrids. Sol do Cerrado showed less weight loss post storage when compared to the other hybrids, but no significant differences were found with respect to the other physical parameters studied. The mineral contents found in the hybrids were higher than the values found in the scientific literature and in the Brazilian food composition tables (TACO elaborated by NEPA-UNICAMP. The Sol do Cerrado had a higher iron content than the other hybrids. The hybrids are excellent sources of minerals, especially in comparison with the frozen pulp sold in supermarkets.Análises físicas e de conteúdo mineral foram executadas por meio de digestão peróxido/perclórica com leitura em ICP-AES, e medições, com auxílio de balança analítica digital e paquímetro digital, de três híbridos comerciais de Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Deg. - BRS Sol do Cerrado, BRS Ouro Vermelho e BRS Gigante Amarelo -, cultivados na área experimental da Embrapa Cerrados, Planaltina-DF, no período de outubro de 2007. Dezoito frutos de cada híbrido foram avaliados e apresentaram pesos e dimensões superiores àqueles encontrados na literatura científica, sem diferenças significativas entre os híbridos. Sol do Cerrado apresentou menor perda de peso após o armazenamento em relação aos

  20. EFFECTS OF HEAT STRESS ON BLOOD ACID-BASE BALANCE AND MINERAL CONTENT IN GUINEA FOWLS WHEN DRINKING WATER TREATED WITH MAGNETIC FIELD WAS USED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata GŁOWIŃSKA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to examine the effect of 24-hour heat stress on blood acid-base balance parameters and mineral content in guinea fowls when drinking water treated with magnetic field was used. The maximum environmental temperature at the end of the present experiment was 32oC. The relative humidity was maintained at 55% (±2. Blood samples were collected from birds three times: in the 1st, 12th and 24th hour of stress. Exposure to heat stress significantly increased blood bicarbonate ion concentration (HCO3 -, content of buffer alkali (BB and decreased shortage of alkali (BE but only in the 12th hour of stress. In the level of oxygen pressure (pO2 and percentage of oxygen content (O2sat in the 12th and 24th hour of the experiment statistically high significant decrease occurred. In consequence of high environmental temperature the statistically significant decrease of sodium was found. No changes in the level of potassium and chlorine ions in guinea fowls watered magnetized water occurred.

  1. Influence of “Chelavite” Mineral Supplement Use on Cadmium and Lead Content in Blood, Wool and Milk of Heavy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Borisovna ANDREEVA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to study the influence of this supplement use on the concentration of cadmium and lead in blood serum, wool and milk of heavy cows. The cows of milking herd of black-and-white breed, of 3-5 years old were the object of research. Their yearly milk production was 6 thousand litters (control and experimental group, each having 15 heads. The cows have been fed according to the balanced ration for heavy cows. The mineral supplement dose was determined according to the instruction for application for cows of experimental group with feed. The curative dose was 0.6 ml for 10 kg of body mass 1 time a day during 30 days. The samples were taken before giving the mineral supplement “Chelavite” and after the course had finished. The device Unicam AAS-939 was used to determine the cadmium and lead content in blood, wool and milk by way of atomic absorption spectrophotometry. It has been found that the cadmium level reduced by 2.35 times, the lead level reduced by 1,5 times in cows blood, the cadmium level reduced by 1.33 times, the lead level reduced by 4.34 times in cows wool, the cadmium level reduced by 2.2 times, the lead level reduced by 3.7 times in cows milk after giving them mineral supplement “Chelavite”. Thus, the application of chelate compounds in form of “Chelavite” for cows reduces concentration of heavy metals such as cadmium and lead. Then this is one of the ways to improve the milk quality.

  2. Salt content in ready-to-eat food and bottled spring and mineral water retailed in Novi Sad

    OpenAIRE

    Trajković-Pavlović Ljiljana B.; Popović Milka B.; Bijelović Sanja V.; Velicki Radmila S.; Torović Ljilja D.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Salt intake above 5 g/person/day is a strong independent risk factor for hypertension, stroke and cardiovascular diseases. Published studies indicate that the main source of salt in human diet is processed ready-to-eat food, contributing with 65-85% to daily salt intake. Objective. The aim of this paper was to present data on salt content of ready-to-eat food retailed in Novi Sad, Serbia, and contribution of the salt contained in 100 g of food...

  3. The Content of Placer Heavy Mineral and Characteristics of REE at Toboali Coast and Its Surrounding Area, Bangka Belitung Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor CD Aryanto

    2017-02-01

    At Toboali coast, South Bangka the presence of REE in sediments are above the Earth's crust generally. They’re concentrations, such as La (5.07 to 199 ppm, Ce (106-394 ppm, Pr (5.11-59.7 ppm, Nd (16.5-201 ppm, Sm (9.97-52.3 ppm, Eu (0.18-1.55 ppm, Gd (9.11-39.3 ppm, Tb (1.35-8.14 ppm, Dy (9.01-56.3 ppm, Ho (1.89-12.3 ppm, Er (5.19-33.9 ppm, Tm (0.77-5.62 ppm, Yb (3.3-37.5 ppm and Lu (0.71-5.41 ppm. LREE (La-Eu highest content is generally found in the location of the tailings sludge (TBL-13C, not so in HREE (Gd-Lu, the highest content is widely available on the sandy beach sediments (TBL-13B. Tectonic environment of Toboali granitoid rocks by plotting a spider diagram refers to the chondrite normalization is continental magmatic arc.

  4. Mineral content of ionomer cements and preventive effect of these cements against white spot lesions around restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Lilian Fernanda Santos; Fidalgo, Tatiana Kelly da Silva; Maia, Lucianne Cople

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the ion exchange at the material/enamel interface and the preventive effect of restorative materials submitted to cariogenic challenge against white spot. Restorations in enamel/dentin of bovine teeth were performed with composite resin (Filtek™ Z250 - control group) and glass-ionomers cements - GICs (Ionomaster R™ and Fuji IX™ - experimental groups). Samples were grouped and submitted to neutral saliva (n = 15) or pH-cycling regimen (n = 15). After eight days of pH cycling, material/enamel interfaces were analyzed by EDX in order to determine the differences (p white spot lesion formation was evaluated macroscopically (p 0.05) versus the experimental groups. Ca and P content were higher in enamel than in restorative materials. After pH cycling, the GIC enamel bulk showed a significantly higher Sr content compared with the composite resin (p white spot formation around restorations in comparison with Ionomaster R™ (p white spot formation and presented a preventive effect (p = 0.051). GICs presented a greater percentage of fluoride, aluminum, and strontium, and proved effective in white spot lesion prevention around restorations.

  5. Is increase in bone mineral content caused by increase in skeletal muscle mass/strength in adult patients with GH-treated GH deficiency?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klefter, Oliver; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla

    2009-01-01

    performed a systematic literature analysis, including 51 clinical trials published between 1996 and 2008, which had studied the development in muscle mass, muscle strength, BMD, and/or BMC in GH-treated adult GHD patients. RESULTS: GH therapy had an anabolic effect on skeletal muscle. The largest increase......OBJECTIVE: Adult patients with GH deficiency (GHD) are characterized by a reduced muscle mass, but also reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC), which have been ascribed to GHD per se. The aim of this study was to investigate if changes in BMD/BMC in adult GHD patients could be due...... to a muscle modulating effect, and if treatment with GH would primarily increase muscle mass and strength with a secondary increase in BMD/BMC, thus supporting the present physiological concept that mass and strength of bones are mainly determined by dynamic loads from the skeletal muscles. METHOD: We...

  6. Prediction of femoral neck and spine bone mineral content from the BMC of the radius or ulna and the relationship between bone strength and BMC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C. R.

    1974-01-01

    The bone mineral content (BMC) is extensively used to provide information about the status of an entire skeleton. Changes in BMC are employed to evaluate the effect of various drugs, disease states, weightlessness, exercise, renal dialysis and others on the skeleton. Clinical and functional information is discussed that may be derived from the BMC of a limited region of the skeleton. In particular there is a fairly high degree of correlation between the BMC of the radius or ulna and that of the femoral neck, r about 0.85 and a somewhat lower relationship between the BMC of the radius or ulna and the thoracic vertebrae, r about 0.65. Also the BMC is highly related to the strength of bone at that scan site.

  7. [Evaluating exposure of population to dust, with consideration of components and dispersion contents of industrial discharges from enterprise extracting and processing mineral raw materials (discussion)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, I V; Zagorodnov, S Iu; Popova, E V

    2014-01-01

    The article covers results of study concerning disperse content of solid components of discharges from main dust- generating technologic operations in extraction and processing of mineral raw materials (pouring ore to conveyor, drying with combustion gas in fluid-bed, pouring of end product, sorting ore on riddle, drying on vibration dry and cool device, etc). Findings are that fractions under 10 and 2.5 micrometers approach 50% in general structure of dust discharges. Maximal share of low-disperse dust enters ambient air from vibraion dry and cool devices, riddles and pouring places. Exceeded reference values for acute and chronic exposure are registered on TSP and PM10 at a sanitary protection zone border and in the nearest living area points--that can forecast intolerable risks for health of population exposed and necessitate instrumental confirmation of the detected jeopardy level.

  8. Proximate analysis, mineral composition, phytochemical contents, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and GC-MS investigation of various solvent extracts of cactus cladode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sana BAKARI

    Full Text Available Abstract Cladodes Powder Extracts (CPE are known for their medicinal properties such as being an auxiliary treatment for obesity and gastrointestinal or cardiovascular disorders as well as lowering cholesterol levels. The presented results proved that CPE was found to be a rich source of carbohydrate, ash, moisture and minerals namely Magnesium, Calcium and Zinc which highlighted its good nutritional value. Moreover, the solvent extracts displayed appreciable level of polyphenols, flavonoids and tannins contents compounds which may explain their higher and varied antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. The time-kill assay revealed that the bactericidal concentration required for cladode to kill M. luteus should be less than 3.12 mg/mL (2MIC. Interestingly, GC-MS analyses of ethyl acetate CPE demonstrate the presence of six compounds. The overall data emphasize the nutritional potential of CP as a promising natural preservative and a substitute to the synthetic counterparts and therefore to be consumed in a healthy diet.

  9. Dephytinisation of soyabean protein isolate with low native phytic acid content has limited impact on mineral and trace element absorption in healthy infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidsson, Lena; Ziegler, Ekhard E; Kastenmayer, Peter; van Dael, Peter; Barclay, Denis

    2004-02-01

    Infant formulas based on soyabean protein isolate are often used as an alternative to cows'-based formulas. However, the presence of phytic acid in soya formulas has raised concern about the absorption of trace elements and minerals from these products. The aim of the present study was to evaluate mineral and trace element absorption from regular and dephytinised soya formula in healthy infants. Soyabean protein isolate with a relatively low native content of phytic acid was used for production of a regular soya formula (300 mg phytic acid/kg liquid formula) and an experimental formula was based on dephytinised soya protein isolate (absorptions were measured by a stable isotope technique based on 72 h faecal excretion of non-absorbed stable isotopes (Zn, Fe, Cu and Ca) and by the chemical balance technique (Mn, Zn, Cu and Ca) in nine infants (69-191 d old). Fe absorption was also measured by erythrocyte incorporation 14 d after intake. The results from the present study demonstrated that Zn absorption, measured by a stable isotope technique, was significantly greater after dephytinisation (mean value 16.7 v. 22.6 %; P=0.03). No other statistically significant differences between the two formulas were observed. The nutritional benefit of dephytinisation was marginal in the present study. Based on these results, the use of soyabean protein isolate with low native content of phytic acid should be promoted for production of soya formulas and adequate addition of ascorbic acid to enhance Fe absorption should be ensured in the products.

  10. Depression of alveolar macrophage hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion release by mineral dusts: correlation with antimony, lead, and arsenic contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulyas, H; Labedzka, M; Gercken, G

    1990-04-01

    Activated rabbit alveolar macrophages were incubated with airborne dusts from four West German sites (1 to 200 micrograms/10(6) cells) and waste incinerator fly ash fractions (50 to 500 micrograms/10(6) cells). Quartz dust DQ 12 (5 to 200 micrograms/10(6) cells) and Fe2O3 (0.05 to 50 micrograms/10(6) cells) were used as control dusts. The zymosan-stimulated hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion release of the macrophages were not affected significantly by Fe2O3. All other investigated dusts decreased the two cell functions which were correlated negatively with surfaces, particle numbers, and antimony, lead, and arsenic contents of the dusts. The influence of heavy metal antagonisms and dust surfaces on dust toxicity against alveolar macrophages is discussed.

  11. Investigation of the growth and development, essential oil and minerals content in two species of mint in hydroponics and aquaponics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ghorbani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Aquaponic is the combined culture of fish and plants. This experiment was arranged as a factorial in the framework of completely randomized design with two factors of growing system (aquaponics and hydroponics and plant species (Mentha piperita and Mentha sativa with 3 replications. The results showed that most growth factors of the two species were higher in hydroponics compared to aquaponics. Aerial parts and root fresh and dry mass, leaf area and number of nodes were higher in hydroponics compared to aquaponic culture. SPAD index was influenced by the culture system and its value was higher in hydroponic system. Essential oil content of M. sativa was higher in hydroponics and of Mentha piperita was higher in aquaponics. Lower amount of Mn and Mg in Mentha sativa shoots and N, P, Mg and Mn in Mentha piperita was the probable reason for growth reduction of plants in aquaponics as compared to hydroponics.

  12. Unmixing of Rock Thermal Infrared Spectrum and Conversion of Mineral Content%岩石热红外光谱解混与矿物含量反演

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘善军; 卓建英; 吴立新; 徐忠印

    2011-01-01

    Distinguishing and converting mineral ingredient and content based on the spectrum unmixing of rock are an important direction of high-spectral remote sensing. The thermal infrared spectrum of a block of alkali feldspar granite is measured by using Turbo FT portable infrared spectral radiometer in outdoor site and normal temperature, and the thermal infrared spectrums (7-14u,m) of four mineral ingredients of the rock, that is, potash feldspar, plagioclase, white mica, and quartz are also measured under three different conditions, I.e. Grain sample of 0.71-lmm in outdoor site and normal temperature, grain sample of 0.71-lmm in indoor site and 80t, and block sample at outdoor site and normal temperature. Then the spectrum of the rock is linearly decomposed by using the spectrums of the four minerals as the end members, and the results are compared with the results that the ASU spectrum is used as the end member. The result shows that the unmixing effect is best when the spectrums of rock and the end member mineral are measured in the same condition; and that the spectrum of block rock could be decomposed by the spectrums of block minerals, however it could not be decomposed by ASU spectrum. The experimental result is beneficial to the remote sensing geology and mineral mapping.%以碱性长石花岗岩为例,采用Turbo FT便携式红外光谱辐射计对其4种组成矿物(钾长石、斜长石、白云母、石英)分别进行0.71—1mm颗粒室外常温、0.71—1mm颗粒室内80℃、块体室外常温的热红外(7—14μm)光谱特征测试,以测试结果作为端元光谱对室外常温下测得的块状碱性长石花岗岩光谱进行解混,并与将ASU光谱作为端元光谱的解混效果进行比较.结果表明,当岩石与矿物端元的光谱测试条件相同时,解混效果最好;使用块状端元光谱能有效解混块状岩石光谱;ASU颗粒光谱不能解混块体岩石的矿物成分及含量.试验结果对遥感地质及矿物填图的研究具有指导意义.

  13. Growth hormone (GH) treatment increases serum insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3, bone isoenzyme alkaline phosphatase and forearm bone mineral content in young adults with GH deficiency of childhood onset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Pedersen, S A; Sørensen, S

    1994-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that growth hormone (GH)-deficient adults have a markedly decreased bone mineral content compared to healthy adults. However, there are conflicting results regarding the effects of GH treatment on bone mineral content in GH-deficient adults. Therefore, we evaluated...... the effect of GH treatment on a marker of bone formation (bone alkaline phosphatase), hepatic excretory function and distal forearm bone mineral content in GH-deficient adults. Growth hormone was administered subcutaneously in 21 adults (13 males and 8 females) with GH deficiency of childhood onset for 4...... months in a double-blind, placebo-controlled GH trial, while 13 of the patients then received further GH for an additional 14 months. Serum insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) increased significantly from 100 to 279 micrograms/l and IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) from 1930 to 3355 micrograms/l after 4...

  14. Hydrothermal minerals

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nath, B.N.

    -floor hydrothermal processes involving free circulation of seawater through ocean crust as convection. Heat flow, seafloor fracturing, permeability and fluid composition are the parameters governing the type and extent of mineralization. The chimney like... stream_size 23365 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Refresher_Course_Mar_Geol_Geophys_2007_Lecture_Notes_78.pdf.txt stream_source_info Refresher_Course_Mar_Geol_Geophys_2007_Lecture_Notes_78.pdf.txt Content-Encoding UTF-8...

  15. Idiopathic recurrent calcium urolithiasis (IRCU: pathophysiology evaluated in light of oxidative metabolism, without and with variation of several biomarkers in fasting urine and plasma - a comparison of stone-free and -bearing male patients, emphasizing mineral, acid-base, blood pressure and protein status*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwilie PO

    2011-08-01

    negatively correlated, whereas in SF plasma Ca/Pi ratio, PTH and body mass index correlated positively; 6 multivariate regression analysis revealed that PTH, body mass index and nitrate together could explain 22 (p = 0.002 and only 7 (p = 0.06 per cent of variation of plasma Ca/Pi in SF and SB, respectively Conclusions In IRCU a numerous constituents of fasting urine, plasma, blood and blood pressure change in response to variation of OM biomarkers, suggesting involvement of OM imbalance as factor in functional deterioration of tissue; b in the majority of patients a positive exponential relationship links urine Ca/Pi to urine Ca/Pi divided by plasma Ca/Pi, presumably to accumulate Ca outside tubular lumen, thereby minimizing intratubular and urinary Ca salt crystallization; c alteration of interactions of low urine nitrate, PTH and Ca/Pi in plasma may be of importance in formation of new Ca stone and co-regulation of dynamics of blood vasculature; d overweight, combined with OM-modified renal interstitial environment appears to facilitate these processes, carrying the risk that CaPi mineral develops within or/and close to blood vessel tissue, and spreads towards urothelium. For future research focussing on IRCU pathogenesis studies are recommended on the role of affluent lifestyle mediated renal ischemia, mild hypertensive nephropathy, rise of uric acid precursor oxypurines and uricemia, clarifying also why loss of significance of interrelationships of OM biomarkers with traditional Ca stone risk factors is characteristic for SB patients. OM biomarkers Plasma uric acid - Discussed as scavenger of reactive oxygen species, but also as donator (via the xanthine oxido-reductase reaction Urinary malonedialdehydc - Accepted as indicator of peroxidation of lipids within biological cell membranes Urinaiy nitrate - Accepted as indicator of vasodilation-mediating nitric oxide production by blood vessel endothelium Urinary malonedialdehyde/Plasma uric acid - Tentative markers of

  16. Sensory profile, soluble sugars, organic acids, and mineral content in milk- and soy-juice based beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés, Víctor; Tenorio, M Dolores; Villanueva, M José

    2015-04-15

    The juice industry has undergone a continuous innovation to satisfy the increasing healthy food demand by developing, among others, beverages based on fruits and milk or soybeans. The comparison among the sensory attributes between nineteen commercial mixed beverages showed significant differences in colour, sweetness, acidity, and consistency. Sucrose and citric acid were found in large proportion due to their natural presence or their addition. Potassium was the major macromineral (148-941 mg/L), especially in soy beverages. The low concentration of sodium in soy drinks is a healthy characteristic. The profile of inorganic anions has been included for the first time. Sulphate (39-278 mg/L) and phosphate (51-428 mg/L) were the predominant anions. High correlations were found between the percentage of fruit and consistency, fructose, malic acid, potassium and phosphate content (r(2)>0.790). Based on the data obtained, these beverages show pleasant organoleptic characteristics and constitute a good source of essential nutrients for regular consumers.

  17. Urine testing for diabetic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Marsden

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Urine testing is relatively cheap and easy to do. Urine testing can be used to check for blood in the urine, to check for infection (by detecting the presence of white blood cells or protein and can show up other systemic problems such as liver problems (by showing abnormal bilirubin levels. Urine testing can also detect ketones in the urine.

  18. Amino acid, mineral and fatty acid content of pumpkin seeds (Cucurbita spp) and Cyperus esculentus nuts in the Republic of Niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glew, R H; Glew, R S; Chuang, L-T; Huang, Y-S; Millson, M; Constans, D; Vanderjagt, D J

    2006-06-01

    Dried seeds and nuts are widely consumed by indigenous populations of the western Sahel, especially those who inhabit rural areas. In light of the need for quantitative information regarding the content of particular nutrients in these plant foods, we collected dried pumpkin (Cucurbita spp) seeds and nuts of Cyperus esculentus in the Republic of Niger and analyzed them for their content of essential amino acids, minerals and trace elements, and fatty acids. On a dry weight basis, pumpkin seed contained 58.8% protein and 29.8% fat. However, the lysine score of the protein was only 65% relative to the FAO/WHO protein standard. The pumpkin seed contained useful amounts of linoleic (92 microg/g dry weight) and the following elements (on a microg per g dry weight basis): potassium (5,790), magnesium (5,690), manganese (49.3), zinc (113), selenium (1.29), copper (15.4), chromium (2.84), and molybdenum (0.81), but low amounts of calcium and iron. Except for potassium (5,573 microg/g dry weight) and chromium (2.88 microg/g dry weight), the C. esculentis nuts contained much less of these same nutrients compared to pumpkin seeds. In conclusion, pumpkin seeds represent a useful source of many nutrients essential to humans. The data in this report should of practical value to public health officials in rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa.

  19. Production and evaluation of mineral and nutrient contents, chemical composition, and sensory properties of ice creams fortified with laboratory-prepared peach fibre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yangılar, Filiz

    2016-01-01

    Background In the coming years, a nutraceutical food may provide both physical and mental benefits that are commonly attributed to the active components of the food. Objective In this study, we determined the nutrient and mineral contents, sensory properties, and physical and chemical characteristics of ice creams manufactured using peach fibre at different concentrations (1 and 2%). Method A total of five experimental groups were formed: two types (from peach peel and pulp) of flour, two fibre concentrations (1 and 2%), and a control group without fibres. Results Flour obtained from peach pulp and peel was found to have a significant (pice cream samples, especially the rates of Ca, K, Mg, and P, which increased in the samples depending on the content of peach fibre. Sensory ratings and acceptability of ice creams decreased significantly with increasing peach peel fibre, whereas ice creams made with C (control) and B1 (ice creams made from 1% peach pulp fibre) was the highest scored by the panellists. Conclusions Peach fibre concentrates might be used as a good source of nutraceutical ingredients. PMID:27814781

  20. Pink urine syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis del Carpio-Orantes

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present images we allude to a syndrome of low incidence, characterized by pink urine, being related to factors such as obesity, and being triggered by abdominal surgeries, use of propofol, among others. Being favoured by the presence of abundant crystals of uric acid in the urine confers the typical pink coloration.

  1. The mineral consumption and weight gain of grazing steers fed mineral supplements with different sodium contents and physical forms Consumo mineral e ganho de peso de garrotes mantidos em pastoreio recebendo suplementos minerais com diferentes teores de sódio e formas de apresentação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Lippi Ortolani

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Thirty crossbred two-year-old steers, kept on pasture of Braquiaria decumbens, were used in two different experiments of 90 days each. In the first experiment, the steers were randomly assigned in five groups of six steers each to verify the influence of different percentages of sodium chloride (SC in mineral mix (MM containing essential macro and microelements (A - 100% SC; B - 80% SC/20% MM; C - 60% SC/40% MM; D - 40% SC/ 60 MM and E - 20% SCl/80 MM on the consumption of the mineral supplement and the weight gain. In the second experiment, the same steers were reassigned to three groups of 10 animals each to study the effect of mineral salt (40% SC/60% MM offered loose, partially blocked or as a hard block on the mineral consumption and weight gain. Steers fed supplement D had the highest intake followed by groups B and C; lowest intake was verified in group E. All mineral supplements but E were fed adequately to meet the Na requirement (6.3g/head/d for a 350kg growing steer. Higher average daily gain was verified in steers of groups D and C than those of group E. The highest mineral intake was observed in steers fed loose mineral (60g/head/d followed by partially block (45g/d; the lowest consumption occurred in the steers fed hard block mineral (27g/d. The coefficient of variation of supplement intake increased as mineral hardness increased. The higher the mineral intake, in the second experiment, the greater the average daily gain. Grazing steers should be offered mineral supplements with 40% and 60% of NaCl changed weekly in order to avoid the hardening of its contents.Trinta garrotes cruzados, com dois anos de idade, mantidos em pastos de capim Braquiria decumbens, foram utilizados em dois experimentos, com duração de 90 dias cada. No primeiro deles, os garrotes foram distribuídos, ao acaso, em cinco grupos de seis animais cada, para avaliar a influência de diferentes porcentagens de cloreto de sódio (CS na mistura mineral (MM

  2. Minerals Yearbook, volume I, Metals and Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2017-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industries and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Content of the individual Minerals Yearbook volumes follows:Volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters about virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. Chapters on survey methods, summary statistics for domestic nonfuel minerals, and trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries in the United States are also included.Volume II, Area Reports: Domestic, contains a chapter on the mineral industry of each of the 50 States and Puerto Rico and the Administered Islands. This volume also has chapters on survey methods and summary statistics of domestic nonfuel minerals.Volume III, Area Reports: International, is published as four separate reports. These regional reports contain the latest available minerals data on more than 180 foreign countries and discuss the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations and the United States. Each report begins with an overview of the region’s mineral industries during the year. It continues with individual country chapters that examine the mining, refining, processing, and use of minerals in each country of the region and how each country’s mineral industry relates to U.S. industry. Most chapters include production tables and industry structure tables, information about Government policies and programs that affect the country’s mineral industry, and an outlook section.The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the Minerals Yearbook are welcomed.

  3. Blood in the Urine (Hematuria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Blood in the Urine (Hematuria) KidsHealth > For Teens > Blood in the Urine (Hematuria) ... español Sangre en la orina (hematuria) What Is Hematuria? When blood gets into a person's urine (pee), ...

  4. Nonhazardous Urine Pretreatment Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akse, James R.; Holtsnider, John T.

    2012-01-01

    A method combines solid phase acidification with two non-toxic biocides to prevent ammonia volatilization and microbial proliferation. The safe, non-oxidizing biocide combination consists of a quaternary amine and a food preservative. This combination has exhibited excellent stabilization of both acidified and unacidified urine. During pretreatment tests, composite urine collected from donors was challenged with a microorganism known to proliferate in urine, and then was processed using the nonhazardous urine pre-treatment method. The challenge microorganisms included Escherichia coli, a common gram-negative bacteria; Enterococcus faecalis, a ureolytic gram-positive bacteria; Candida albicans, a yeast commonly found in urine; and Aspergillus niger, a problematic mold that resists urine pre-treatment. Urine processed in this manner remained microbially stable for over 57 days. Such effective urine stabilization was achieved using non-toxic, non-oxidizing biocides at higher pH (3.6 to 5.8) than previous methods in use or projected for use aboard the International Space Station (ISS). ISS urine pretreatment methods employ strong oxidants including ozone and hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)), a carcinogenic material, under very acidic conditions (pH = 1.8 to 2.4). The method described here offers a much more benign chemical environment than previous pretreatment methods, and will lower equivalent system mass (ESM) by reducing containment volume and mass, system complexity, and crew time needed to handle pre-treatment chemicals. The biocides, being non-oxidizing, minimize the potential for chemical reactions with urine constituents to produce volatile, airborne contaminants such as cyanogen chloride. Additionally, the biocides are active under significantly less acidic conditions than those used in the current system, thereby reducing the degree of required acidification. A simple flow-through solid phase acidification (SPA) bed is employed to overcome the natural buffering

  5. Urine protein electrophoresis test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urine protein electrophoresis; UPEP; Multiple myeloma - UPEP; Waldenström macroglobulinemia - UPEP; Amyloidosis - UPEP ... special paper and apply an electric current. The proteins move and form visible bands. These reveal the ...

  6. Urinating more at night

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... calcium level Certain medicines, including water pills (diuretics) Diabetes insipidus Waking often during the night to urinate can ... medicines are you taking? Have you changed your diet? Do you drink caffeine and alcohol? If so, ...

  7. Sodium urine test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... urine sodium level may be a sign of: Adrenal glands releasing too much hormone ( hyperaldosteronism ) Not enough fluid in the body (dehydration) Diarrhea and fluid loss Heart failure Kidney problems, such as chronic kidney disease or ...

  8. PBG urine test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porphobilinogen test ... temporarily stop taking medicines that may affect the test results. Be sure to tell your provider about ... This test involves only normal urination, and there is no discomfort.

  9. Changes in the content of total nitrogen and mineral nitrogen in the basil herb depending on the cultivar and nitrogen nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Dzida

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Among fundamental nutrients, nitrogen fertilization is considered one of the most effective factors affecting both the yield and the quality of plant material. Nitrogen form used for fertilizing is also of great importance. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of nitrogen nutrition (calcium nitrate, ammonium nitrate, and urea as well as (green, purple, and‘Fino Verde’ on the chemical composition and yielding of basil (Ocimum basilicumL.. After drying the plant material at a temperature of 60°C and milling, total nitrogen was determined by means of Kjeldahl method, while mineral nitrogen content (N-NH 4, N-NO 3 was analyzed in 2% acetic acid extract. Yield of fresh basil matter depended significantly on the variety grown. The highest yields were obtained from a cultivar of ‘Fino Verde’ fertilized with ammonium nitrate. The purple variety plants fertilized with urea were characterized by a largest amount of total nitrogen. The‘Fino Verde’cultivar fertilized with urea accumulated the least quantities of nitrates in the basil herb.

  10. COMPARISON OF MORPHOLOGICAL TRAITS AND MINERAL CONTENT IN EUCOMIS AUTUMNALIS (MILL. CHITT. PLANTS OBTAINED FROM BULBS TREATED WITH FUNGICIDES AND COATED WITH NATURAL POLYSACCHARIDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Salachna

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Eucomis autumnalis is an attractive ornamental species from the South Africa, commonly used in natural medicine. Plant protection programs, particularly those concerning plants grown for phytotherapeutics, are focused on prophylactic treatments that facilitate a limited use of pesticides negatively affecting the environment. Polysaccharides, such as chitosan and sodium alginate are exemplary non-toxic and biodegradable substances used for hydrogel coatings. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of treating E. autumnalis bulbs with fungicide or coating with natural polysaccharides on the morphological traits and content of minerals in the leaves and bulbs. Prior to planting, the bulbs were divided into three groups: (I untreated bulbs (control; (II bulbs treated with Kaptan and Topsin fungicides; (III bulbs coated with oligochitosan and sodium alginate. Bulb coating was found to exert a stimulating effect on plant height, number and length of leaf, greenness index (SPAD, number of flowers per inflorescence, fresh weight of the aboveground part and fresh weight of bulbs. The leaves and bulbs of plants grown from coated bulbs contained more nitrogen, potassium and boron. Treating the bulbs with fungicides positively affected the number of leaves, greenness index and fresh weight of the aboveground part.

  11. Anomalous CO2 content in the Gallicano thermo-mineral spring (Serchio Valley, Italy) before the 21 June 2013, Alpi Apuane earthquake (M = 5.2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierotti, L.; Botti, F.; D'Intinosante, V.; Facca, G.; Gherardi, F.

    Since late 2002, a continuous automatic monitoring network is operating in Tuscany, Central Italy, to investigate the geochemical response of selected aquifers to local seismic activity. The monitoring is aimed at identifying possible earthquake geochemical precursors. The network is currently constituted by six stations, all equipped with sensors for the measurement of temperature, pH, redox potential, electrical conductivity, CO2 and CH4 dissolved concentration, that have been installed in the areas of highest seismic risk of the region. By combining geochemical data gathered from the automatic station of Gallicano (Garfagnana, Northern Tuscany), and obtained via chemical analyses of spring water samples collected during periodic field surveys in the area surrounding this station, the most significant aspects of the deep fluid circulation paths feeding the Gallicano thermo-mineral system have been investigated, and the geochemical baseline of the Gallicano spring defined. The CO2 continuous signal recorded by the Gallicano automatic station has been then processed over the period 2003-2013 in the search for anomalies possibly related to local seismic activity. A substantial anomaly in CO2 content has been observed at Gallicano in conjunction with the Alpi Apuane earthquake (M = 5.2) of 21 June 2013.

  12. Evidence of associations between feto-maternal vitamin D status, cord parathyroid hormone and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, and newborn whole body bone mineral content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dror, Daphna K; King, Janet C; Fung, Ellen B; Van Loan, Marta D; Gertz, Erik R; Allen, Lindsay H

    2012-02-01

    In spite of a high prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy in pregnant women and neonates, relationships among vitamin D status (25(OH)D), parathyroid hormone (PTH), bone specific alkaline phosphatase (BALP), and whole body bone mineral content (WBBMC) in the newborn are poorly characterized. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationships between maternal and cord 25(OH)D, PTH, BALP, and WBBMC in newborns in a multiethnic population in Oakland, California and to evaluate the predictive value of the biochemical indices as indicators of WBBMC. Maternal and cord blood were collected from 80 mother-infant pairs and infant WBBMC was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry 8-21 days post-birth. Cord PTH and BALP were each inversely correlated with infant WBBMC (r = -0.28, p = 0.01 and r = -0.26, p = 0.02) and with cord 25(OH)D (r = -0.24, p = 0.03 and r = -0.34, p = 0.002), while cord 25(OH)D and unadjusted or weight-adjusted WBBMC were not significantly correlated with one other. In multivariate regression modeling, infant WBBMC was most strongly predicted by infant weight (p feto-maternal 25(OH)D, cord PTH and BALP, and early infant WBBMC, though neither feto-maternal 25(OH)D nor the measured biochemical indices were suitable indicators of WBBMC.

  13. Effects of high dietary contents of calcium and phosphorus on mineral metabolism and growth of vitamin D-deficient suckling and weaned rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, S A; Boass, A; Toverud, S U

    1987-07-01

    We have tested the hypothesis that normalization of the plasma calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) concentrations by dietary means in vitamin D-deficient rat pups will prevent rickets. From day 6 of pregnancy rats were given a vitamin D-free diet containing 1.6% Ca and 1.4% P (-D 1.6) which normalized plasma Ca during lactation. Pups weaned from these mothers, and continuing on the -D 1.6 diet until 56 days of age, had a mean plasma Ca value of 8.6 +/- 0.2 mg/dl and were not significantly different from pups fed a vitamin D-replete diet with 0.4% Ca and 0.4% P in the following parameters: body weight (mean +/- SE for -D 1.6 rats: 197 +/- 4 g), percent bone ash (53 +/- 0.5), and tibia epiphyseal cartilage width (385 +/- 26 micron). In contrast, pups consuming the vitamin D-free diet with 0.4% Ca and 0.4% P had plasma Ca of 4.9 +/- 0.2 mg/dl, body weight of 156 +/- 4 g, reduced bone ash (45 +/- 0.5%) and abnormally wide epiphyseal cartilage (727 +/- 113 micron). Thus, elevating the plasma Ca level of vitamin D-deficient rat pups by dietary means can normalize body weight, epiphyseal cartilage width and bone mineral content.

  14. IMPACT OF CARBOHYDRATES AND MINERAL CONTENTS OF DIFFERENT INDIGENOUS STRAINS OF OYSTER MUSHROOM (Jacq.Fr. CULTIVATED ON DIFFERENT AGRICULTURAL WASTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amjad S. Gondal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Different strains of Pleurotus ostreatus were cultivated on different agro-cellulosic wastes viz. cotton waste, wheat straw and paddy straw to determine the effect of these agro wastes on biological efficiency, carbohydrate and mineral contents including Na, K, Ca, Cu, Zn and Fe. Maximum biological efficiency was recorded on P. ostreatus (grey strain, 134.4% and (white strain, 113.7% on wheat straw. P. sajor-caju showed maximum biological efficiency (195.9% on wheat straw. Maximum amount of Na was found (0.18g/100g on P. ostreatus (grey strain and K was found on P. sajor-caju (4.58g/100g cultivated on paddy straw followed by wheat straw and cotton waste. P. ostreatus (white strain cultivated on paddy straw showed maximum amount of Cu (0.0009g/100g while maximum amount of Zn was found (0.017g/100g on P. ostreatus (white strain. Maximum amount of Fe was found (0.008g/100g on P. sajor-caju cultivated on cotton waste. P. sajor-caju cultivated on cotton waste showed significantly highest carbohydrate (0.079g/100g.

  15. Corn stalk as matrix in decomposting toilet for treating urine and feces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sintawardani, N.; Nilawati, D.; Astuti, J. T.

    2017-03-01

    Bio-Toilet technology (BT) which is appropriate for the habits of Indonesian people has been studied and developed. BT is a dry toilet technology commonly uses ligno-cellulosic waste materials as matrix to facilitate the growth of natural microbes. In aerobic condition, microbes degrade feces and urine. Mineral as the leftover of feces and urine, such as nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) remain in the rest of matrix waste. After certain period. matrix can be harvested and used as soil conditioner. BT uses much less water, mobile, and very useful to be applied in areas where water availability is limited. BT type with different capacities, user amounts and mixing systems has been developed using sawdust for matrix. Since corn stalk is categorized as useless and priceless waste, its application in BT is challenging. Performance of BT with corn stalk as matrix to degrade feces and urine of carnivore imitating the human waste was observed. BT M-15 manual mixing type with paddle was filled with chopped corn stalk as much as 45% of total volume. This BT was designed for 15 person as users per day if 80% reactor volume was filled with ligno-cellulosic matrix. It is assumed that 150 g of feces are discharged once per person/day and 1000 mL of urine 6-8 times per day. Start up process was made in the beginning to initialize the needed microbes in the reactor (matrix). The discharge of feces and urine were increased slowly and gradually the users were increased from 1 to 4 users per day. Performance of BT was indicated by the change in the pile that showed by moisture content, temperature and pH. C/N ratio in matrix decreased significantly from 43 to 17. This result showed that the corn stalk could be used as matrix in BT.

  16. Assessment Of NPK In Human Male And Female Urine For Its Fertilising Potential In Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred L.K. Kuwornu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The study evaluated concentrations of Nitrogen Phosphorus and Potassium in male and female urine stored over six months and its potential as a fertilizing agent in agriculture. Urinals were constructed to allow for easy collection of male and female urine and then stored in transparent bottles for six months in a greenhouse. Monthly triplicate analysis of male and female urine was done for nitrogen phosphorus potassium temperature pH and colour change. Bray P1 and Flame photometry methods were used in the determination of phosphorus and potassium contents and Kjedahl digestion and non-digestion direct methods for nitrogen content. Temperature pH and colour were determined using mercury thermometer temperaturepH meter and a colour chart. Results showed that nitrogen in female urine was significantly p0.05 higher than that in male urine after 2 to 5 months of storage. However there were no significant differences p0.05 with respect to the direct method. Contrastingly phosphorus in male urine was significantly p0.05 higher than that in female urine after 2 to 3 months of storage but there were no significant differences in potassium content for all male and female urine samples. Generally NPK yields in both urine sources peaked four months after storage. There was a moderate positive correlation between the direct female urine Nitrogen and storage time. The phosphorus levels also correlated positively with storage time and temperature but weakly negative with pH. Generally urine nitrogen strongly correlated positively with potassium but moderately with temperature and pH. Colour of matured urine after six months storage was yellow for females and brown for males. NPK contents in both male 30.43.4-1-43.7 and female 34.46.5-1-62.8 urine were comparable to those of chemical fertilizers such as 21 N ammonia. However the nitrogen content of digested female urine was significantly higher than that of male urine. Phosphorus concentration was

  17. 金厂沟梁地区土壤含水粘土矿物含量短波红外光谱反演%Inversion of Hydrated Clay Mineral Content in Soil of Jinchanggouliang Area Based on SWIR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹会; 邢立新; 潘军; 刘立文; 杨东旭; 王莹

    2013-01-01

    Based on the physical mechanism that clay mineral can produce characteristic spectrum at shortwave infrared ray ( SWIR) , we chose the characteristic wave band of clay mineral, used the actual analysis results and test data of the mineral components, and adopted multivariate linear regression analysis to build model for inversing the soil clay mineral content of Jinchanggouliang area of Inner Mongolia. The study results demonstrated that applying soil spectral reflectance which was corresponding with the characteristic wave band to establish forecast model could carry out the inversion of hydrated clay mineral content in the soil of this area. The clay mineral content influenced the discretion of the soil spectral reflectance.%基于粘土矿物在短波红外线处产生特征光谱的机理,选出其特征波段,利用矿物组分的实际分析结果和测试数据,采用多元线性回归方法建立模型,对内蒙古金厂沟梁地区的土壤粘土矿物含量进行了反演.研究结果表明:应用特征波段对应的土壤光谱反射率建立预测模型可以用于该地区土壤粘土矿物含量的反演;粘土矿物含量的多少影响光谱反射率的高低.

  18. Study of dung, urine, and milk of selected grazing animals as bioindicators in environmental geoscience--a case study from Mangampeta barite mining area, Kadapa District, Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghu, V

    2015-01-01

    The ancient scientific Sanskrit texts of Ayurveda (science of longevity) deal with waters, plants, and animals in relation to human health. Based on the studies mentioned in Ayurveda and modern literature, biological responses of grazing animals in Mangampeta barite mining area in Kadapa District, Andhra Pradesh, were studied. A non-mineralized Tirupati area in Chittoor District, Andhra Pradesh, was selected for the purpose of comparison. In these areas, certain animal products of selected grazing animals were studied if they could be used as tools in mineral exploration. Samples of dung, urine, and milk from cow, bullock, she-buffalo, he-buffalo, sheep, and goat were collected from these two areas during winter and summer seasons. Goat dung was found to have lowest moisture content and highest organic matter while goat urine contained highest amounts of organic matter and ash content. All these animal products were analyzed for 11 trace elements. The concentration of trace elements released through dung, urine, and milk widely varied in different animal species with seasonal variations. The elemental concentration was higher in dung and lower in urine, when compared to that of milk. The concentration of all elements in dung, urine, and milk of all animals, in both the areas, was higher in winter than that in summer. Dung represents the metabolic process of the whole animal and reflects the dietary conditions whether fed on natural or inorganic supplement. It can be inferred that dung, urine, and milk of any animal can be used as tools in mineral exploration during winter, while during summer, only dung can be useful. The dung of goat when compared to that of the other cattle serves as a better tool in environmental studies as goat depends almost entirely on natural vegetation without human interference.

  19. Acid-base balance and hydration status following consumption of mineral-based alkaline bottled water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heil Daniel P

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study sought to determine whether the consumption of a mineral-rich alkalizing (AK bottled water could improve both acid-base balance and hydration status in young healthy adults under free-living conditions. The AK water contains a naturally high mineral content along with Alka-PlexLiquid™, a dissolved supplement that increases the mineral content and gives the water an alkalizing pH of 10.0. Methods Thirty-eight subjects were matched by gender and self-reported physical activity (SRPA, hrs/week and then split into Control (12 women, 7 men; Mean +/- SD: 23 +/- 2 yrs; 7.2 +/- 3.6 hrs/week SRPA and Experimental (13 women, 6 men; 22 +/- 2 yrs; 6.4 +/- 4.0 hrs/week SRPA groups. The Control group consumed non-mineralized placebo bottled water over a 4-week period while the Experimental group consumed the placebo water during the 1st and 4th weeks and the AK water during the middle 2-week treatment period. Fingertip blood and 24-hour urine samples were collected three times each week for subsequent measures of blood and urine osmolality and pH, as well as total urine volume. Dependent variables were analyzed using multivariate repeated measures ANOVA with post-hoc focused on evaluating changes over time within Control and Experimental groups (alpha = 0.05. Results There were no significant changes in any of the dependent variables for the Control group. The Experimental group, however, showed significant increases in both the blood and urine pH (6.23 to 7.07 and 7.52 to 7.69, respectively, a decreased blood and increased urine osmolality, and a decreased urine output (2.51 to 2.05 L/day, all during the second week of the treatment period (P Conclusions Consumption of AK water was associated with improved acid-base balance (i.e., an alkalization of the blood and urine and hydration status when consumed under free-living conditions. In contrast, subjects who consumed the placebo bottled water showed no changes over the

  20. Multilevel Approach of a 1-Year Program of Dietary and Exercise Interventions on Bone Mineral Content and Density in Metabolic Syndrome – the RESOLVE Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courteix, Daniel; Valente-dos-Santos, João; Ferry, Béatrice; Lac, Gérard; Lesourd, Bruno; Chapier, Robert; Naughton, Geraldine; Marceau, Geoffroy; João Coelho-e-Silva, Manuel; Vinet, Agnès; Walther, Guillaume; Obert, Philippe; Dutheil, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Background Weight loss is a public health concern in obesity-related diseases such as metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, restrictive diets might induce bone loss. The nature of exercise and whether exercise with weight loss programs can protect against potential bone mass deficits remains unclear. Moreover, compliance is essential in intervention programs. Thus, we aimed to investigate the effects that modality and exercise compliance have on bone mineral content (BMC) and density (BMD). Methods We investigated 90 individuals with MetS who were recruited for the 1-year RESOLVE trial. Community-dwelling seniors with MetS were randomly assigned into three different modalities of exercise (intensive resistance, intensive endurance, moderate mixed) combined with a restrictive diet. They were compared to 44 healthy controls who did not undergo the intervention. Results This intensive lifestyle intervention (15–20 hours of training/week + restrictive diet) resulted in weight loss, body composition changes and health improvements. Baseline BMC and BMD for total body, lumbar spine and femoral neck did not differ between MetS groups and between MetS and controls. Despite changes over time, BMC or BMD did not differ between the three modalities of exercise and when compared with the controls. However, independent of exercise modality, compliant participants increased their BMC and BMD compared with their less compliant peers. Decreases in total body lean mass and negative energy balance significantly and independently contributed to decreases in lumbar spine BMC. Conclusion After the one year intervention, differences relating to exercise modalities were not evident. However, compliance with an intensive exercise program resulted in a significantly higher bone mass during energy restriction than non-compliance. Exercise is therefore beneficial to bone in the context of a weight loss program. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00917917 PMID:26376093

  1. Multilevel Approach of a 1-Year Program of Dietary and Exercise Interventions on Bone Mineral Content and Density in Metabolic Syndrome--the RESOLVE Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courteix, Daniel; Valente-dos-Santos, João; Ferry, Béatrice; Lac, Gérard; Lesourd, Bruno; Chapier, Robert; Naughton, Geraldine; Marceau, Geoffroy; João Coelho-e-Silva, Manuel; Vinet, Agnès; Walther, Guillaume; Obert, Philippe; Dutheil, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Weight loss is a public health concern in obesity-related diseases such as metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, restrictive diets might induce bone loss. The nature of exercise and whether exercise with weight loss programs can protect against potential bone mass deficits remains unclear. Moreover, compliance is essential in intervention programs. Thus, we aimed to investigate the effects that modality and exercise compliance have on bone mineral content (BMC) and density (BMD). We investigated 90 individuals with MetS who were recruited for the 1-year RESOLVE trial. Community-dwelling seniors with MetS were randomly assigned into three different modalities of exercise (intensive resistance, intensive endurance, moderate mixed) combined with a restrictive diet. They were compared to 44 healthy controls who did not undergo the intervention. This intensive lifestyle intervention (15-20 hours of training/week + restrictive diet) resulted in weight loss, body composition changes and health improvements. Baseline BMC and BMD for total body, lumbar spine and femoral neck did not differ between MetS groups and between MetS and controls. Despite changes over time, BMC or BMD did not differ between the three modalities of exercise and when compared with the controls. However, independent of exercise modality, compliant participants increased their BMC and BMD compared with their less compliant peers. Decreases in total body lean mass and negative energy balance significantly and independently contributed to decreases in lumbar spine BMC. After the one year intervention, differences relating to exercise modalities were not evident. However, compliance with an intensive exercise program resulted in a significantly higher bone mass during energy restriction than non-compliance. Exercise is therefore beneficial to bone in the context of a weight loss program. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00917917.

  2. Multilevel Approach of a 1-Year Program of Dietary and Exercise Interventions on Bone Mineral Content and Density in Metabolic Syndrome--the RESOLVE Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Courteix

    Full Text Available Weight loss is a public health concern in obesity-related diseases such as metabolic syndrome (MetS. However, restrictive diets might induce bone loss. The nature of exercise and whether exercise with weight loss programs can protect against potential bone mass deficits remains unclear. Moreover, compliance is essential in intervention programs. Thus, we aimed to investigate the effects that modality and exercise compliance have on bone mineral content (BMC and density (BMD.We investigated 90 individuals with MetS who were recruited for the 1-year RESOLVE trial. Community-dwelling seniors with MetS were randomly assigned into three different modalities of exercise (intensive resistance, intensive endurance, moderate mixed combined with a restrictive diet. They were compared to 44 healthy controls who did not undergo the intervention.This intensive lifestyle intervention (15-20 hours of training/week + restrictive diet resulted in weight loss, body composition changes and health improvements. Baseline BMC and BMD for total body, lumbar spine and femoral neck did not differ between MetS groups and between MetS and controls. Despite changes over time, BMC or BMD did not differ between the three modalities of exercise and when compared with the controls. However, independent of exercise modality, compliant participants increased their BMC and BMD compared with their less compliant peers. Decreases in total body lean mass and negative energy balance significantly and independently contributed to decreases in lumbar spine BMC.After the one year intervention, differences relating to exercise modalities were not evident. However, compliance with an intensive exercise program resulted in a significantly higher bone mass during energy restriction than non-compliance. Exercise is therefore beneficial to bone in the context of a weight loss program.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00917917.

  3. The influence of Citrosept addition to drinking water and Scutellaria baicalensis root extract on the content of selected mineral elements in the blood plasma of turkey hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusinek-Prystupa, Elżbieta; Lechowski, Jerzy; Zukiewicz-Sobczak, Wioletta; Sobczak, Paweł; Zawiślak, Kazimierz

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research work was to indicate the influence of Citrosept preparation and Scutellaria baicalensis root extract, administered per os to growing turkey hens in 3 different dosages, on the content of selected mineral elements in blood plasma of slaughter turkey hens. An attempt was also made to specify the most effective dosage of the applied preparations with the highest efficiency as regards increased levels of examined macro- and microelements in the birds' blood. The research experiment was conducted on 315 turkey hens randomly divided into seven groups, each consisting of 45 turkey hens. Group K constituted the control group without experimental additions of the above-mentioned preparations. When it comes to turkey hens which belonged to groups II-IV, Citrosept preparation was instilled to water in the following dosages: Group II - 0.011 ml/kg of bm; Group III - 0.021 ml/kg of bm; Group IV - 0.042 ml/kg bm. For birds which belonged to groups V-VII preparation, which was Scutellaria baicalensis root extract, was instilled to water in the following dosages: Group V - 0.009 ml/kg of bm; Group VI - 0.018 ml/kg of bm, Group VII - 0.036 ml/kg bm. In the examined plant extracts and blood plasma of the birds the levels of Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Zn, and Fe were identified. The use of examined extracts influenced the changes in the levels of all tested elements in slaughter turkey hens' blood plasma. An upward tendency was recorded which regarded the level of calcium and magnesium, and a downward tendency of sodium, potassium, copper, zinc, and iron in relation to the results achieved in the control group.

  4. Selenium speciation in pretreated human urine by ion-exchange chromatography and ICP-MS detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Bente; Jons, O.; Bendahl, L.

    2001-01-01

    Urine samples were extracted by benzo-15-crown-5-ether to remove sodium and potassium. More than 90% of the sodium and potassium content of the urine was removed with this extraction. In a cation-exchange system based on oxalic acid at pH 3, chromatography of an untreated urine pool resulted in a...

  5. Comparative investigation of minerals, chlorophylls contents, fatty acid composition and thermal profiles of olive leaves (Olea europeae L. as by-product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahloul, N.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a chemical (the minerals, chlorophyll contents and fatty acids and thermophysical investigation (DSC profile of four varieties of olive leaves grown in Tunisia. The total chlorophy1l contents of olive leaves ranged from 1132.33 to 1795.93 ppm. The results showed that linolenic acid (C18:3 is the major fatty acid in olive leaves (from 30.02 to 42.16%, followed by oleic acid (C18:1 and palmitic acid (C16:0. The thermal profiles of olive leaf extracts determined by their DSC melting curves revealed simple thermograms with a single peak after melting. The hexane extract of the Chemchali variety, which contained relatively high unsaturated fatty acids and low saturated fatty acid levels, exhibited the lowest peak temperature value (54.59 °C and required the smallest amount of energy for melting (31.57 J·g−1. This study showed that olive leaves possessed physicochemical properties and a fatty acid composition that may become interesting for industrial applications.Este trabajo presenta estudios de la composición química (minerales, contenido de clorofila y ácidos grasos e inves tigaciones termofísicas ( perfil DSC de cuatro variedades de hojas de olivo cultivadas en Túnez. Los contenidos totales de clorofila de las hojas de olivo oscilaron entre 1132,33 y 1795,93 ppm. Los resultados mostraron que el ácido linolénico (C18:3 es el ácido graso principal en las hojas de olivo (30,02 a 42,16%, seguido de los ácidos oleico (C18:1 y palmítico (C16:0. Los perfiles térmicos de los extractos de hoja de olivo determinados por sus curvas de fusion, DSC mostró termogramas simples con un solo pico después de la fusión. El extracto de hexano de la variedad Chemchali, que contenía ácidos grasos insaturados relativamente mas altos y bajos niveles de ácidos grasos saturados, exhibió el pico de temperatura más baja (54,59 °C y requiere menor energía para la fusión (31,57 J·g−1. Este estudio mostró que las hojas de olivo

  6. Comparison of mineral element content in nine wild vegetables from Qinling Mountains%秦岭产9种野菜中矿质元素含量的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐伟君; 张九东; 陶贵荣; 杜喜春

    2012-01-01

    Contents of Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, Ca, Mg, N, P and K in Cardamine macrophylla var. macrophylla Willd., Houttuynia cordata Thunb., Pteridium aquilinum var. latiusculum ( Desv.) Underw. ex Heller, Aralia chinensis L., Osmunda japonica Thunb., Vitex trifolia L., Chenopodium album L., Lycium chinense Miller and Cichorium intybus L. from Qinling Mountains were determined, and compared to average contents of those mineral elements in cultivation foliage vegetables. The results show that contents of Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, Ca, Mg, N, P and K in nine wild vegetables are 2. 90-14.20,0.5-3.6, 2.7-14.3,4.5-50.6, 141.9-4 646.0,106.3-643.9, 2 029.8-8 583.5, 295.3-1 136.0 and 3 870.0-14 011. 9 μg · g-1 , respectively. In which, Fe content in C. intybus, Ca content in V. trifolia, Mg and K contents in C. album, Zn and Mn contents in A. chinensis and Cu, N and P contents in 0. japonica all are the highest. Average contents of Ca, N, Fe and K in nine wild vegetables from Qinling Mountains all have very obvious difference with those in cultivation foliage vegetables, but differences in average contents of Cu, Mg and P among them are relatively small.

  7. The human urine metabolome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souhaila Bouatra

    Full Text Available Urine has long been a "favored" biofluid among metabolomics researchers. It is sterile, easy-to-obtain in large volumes, largely free from interfering proteins or lipids and chemically complex. However, this chemical complexity has also made urine a particularly difficult substrate to fully understand. As a biological waste material, urine typically contains metabolic breakdown products from a wide range of foods, drinks, drugs, environmental contaminants, endogenous waste metabolites and bacterial by-products. Many of these compounds are poorly characterized and poorly understood. In an effort to improve our understanding of this biofluid we have undertaken a comprehensive, quantitative, metabolome-wide characterization of human urine. This involved both computer-aided literature mining and comprehensive, quantitative experimental assessment/validation. The experimental portion employed NMR spectroscopy, gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS, direct flow injection mass spectrometry (DFI/LC-MS/MS, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC experiments performed on multiple human urine samples. This multi-platform metabolomic analysis allowed us to identify 445 and quantify 378 unique urine metabolites or metabolite species. The different analytical platforms were able to identify (quantify a total of: 209 (209 by NMR, 179 (85 by GC-MS, 127 (127 by DFI/LC-MS/MS, 40 (40 by ICP-MS and 10 (10 by HPLC. Our use of multiple metabolomics platforms and technologies allowed us to identify several previously unknown urine metabolites and to substantially enhance the level of metabolome coverage. It also allowed us to critically assess the relative strengths and weaknesses of different platforms or technologies. The literature review led to the identification and annotation of another 2206 urinary compounds and was used to help guide the subsequent experimental studies. An online database

  8. 糖尿病足患者坏死组织与血液及尿液中多胺含量测定与相关分析%Determination and correlation analysis of contents of putrescine, cadaverine, and histamine in necrotic tissue, blood, and urine of patients with diabetic foot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘思容; 荣新洲; 樊桂成; 李庆辉; 魏亚明

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine and perform a correlation analysis of the contents of putrescine,cadaverine,and histamine in necrotic tissue,blood,and urine of patients with diabetic foot (DF).Methods Ten patients with severe wet necrotizing DF hospitalized from January 2011 to January 2012 were assigned as group DF,and 10 orthopedic patients with scar but without diabetes or skin ulcer hospitalized in the same period were assigned as control group.Samples of necrotic tissue from feet of patients in group DF and normal tissue from extremities of patients in control group,and samples of blood and 24-hour urine of patients in both groups were collected,and the amount of each sample was 10 mL.Contents of putrescine,cadaverine,and histamine were determined with high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.The data got from the determination of blood and urine were processed with t test,and those from necrotic or normal tissue with Wilcoxon rank sum test.The correlation of contents of polyamines between necrotic tissue and blood,blood and urine were processed with simple linear regression analysis.Results (1) Contents of putrescine,cadaverine,and histamine in the necrotic tissue of group DF were (186.1 ± 26.8),(78.553 ±12.441),(33 ± 10) mg/kg,which were significantly higher than those in normal tissue of control group [(2.2±1.2),(1.168 ±0.014),0 mg/kg,with Z values respectively-3.780,-3.781,-4.038,P values all below 0.01].The content of putrescine in necrotic tissue of group DF was significantly higher than those of cadaverine and histamine (with Z values respectively-3.780,-3.630,P values all below 0.01).(2) Contents of putrescine,cadaverine,and histamine in the blood of group DF were (0.075 ± 0.013),(0.022 ± 0.003),(0.052 ± 0.014) mg/L,and they were significantly higher than those in the blood of control group [(0.014 ± 0.009),(0.013 ± 0.003),(0.016 ± 0.008) mg/L,with t values respectively 6.591,2.207,3.568,P < 0.05 or P < 0.01].The content of

  9. Outcrop analogue study of Permocarboniferous geothermal sandstone reservoir formations (northern Upper Rhine Graben, Germany): impact of mineral content, depositional environment and diagenesis on petrophysical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aretz, Achim; Bär, Kristian; Götz, Annette E.; Sass, Ingo

    2016-07-01

    oil and acidic waters led to the dissolution of haematite cements in the lower Permocarboniferous formations. During the Eocene, subsidence of the Upper Rhine Graben porosities and permeabilities of the sandstones of these formations were strongly reduced to 2.5 % and 3.2 × 10-18 m2. The second important influence on reservoir quality is the distinct depositional environment and its influence on early diagenetic processes. In early stage diagenesis, the best influence on reservoir properties exhibits a haematite cementation. It typically occurs in eolian sandstones of the Kreuznach Formation (Upper Permocarboniferous) and is characterized by grain covering haematite coatings, which are interpreted to inhibit cementation, compaction and illitization of pore space during burial. Eolian sandstones taken from outcrops and reservoir depths exhibit the highest porosities (16.4; 12.3 %) and permeabilities (2.0 × 10-15; 8.4 × 10-16 m2). A third important influence on reservoir quality is the general mineral composition and the quartz content which is the highest in the Kreuznach Formation with 73.8 %. Based on the integrated study of depositional environments and diagenetic processes, reservoir properties of the different Permocarboniferous formations within the northern Upper Rhine Graben and their changes with burial depth can be predicted with satisfactory accuracy. This leads to a better understanding of the reservoir quality and enables an appropriate well design for exploration and exploitation of these geothermal resources.

  10. Phenylpyruvic acid in urine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulemans, O.; Vergeer, E.G.

    1960-01-01

    The method of The, Fleury And Vink for the determination of phenylpyruvic acid (PPA) in urine is modified by measuring the extinction after the green colour with ferric chloride has faded, and subtracting this extinction from that found initially. More accurate values are obtained and low PPA values

  11. Mathematical model for bone mineralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana V Komarova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Defective bone mineralization has serious clinical manifestations, including deformities and fractures, but the regulation of this extracellular process is not fully understood. We have developed a mathematical model consisting of ordinary differential equations that describe collagen maturation, production and degradation of inhibitors, and mineral nucleation and growth. We examined the roles of individual processes in generating normal and abnormal mineralization patterns characterized using two outcome measures: mineralization lag time and degree of mineralization. Model parameters describing the formation of hydroxyapatite mineral on the nucleating centers most potently affected the degree of mineralization, while the parameters describing inhibitor homeostasis most effectively changed the mineralization lag time. Of interest, a parameter describing the rate of matrix maturation emerged as being capable of counter-intuitively increasing both the mineralization lag time and the degree of mineralization. We validated the accuracy of model predictions using known diseases of bone mineralization such as osteogenesis imperfecta and X-linked hypophosphatemia. The model successfully describes the highly non-linear mineralization dynamics, which includes an initial lag phase when osteoid is present but no mineralization is evident, then fast primary mineralization, followed by secondary mineralization characterized by a continuous slow increase in bone mineral content. The developed model can potentially predict the function for a mutated protein based on the histology of pathologic bone samples from mineralization disorders of unknown etiology.

  12. Genetics Home Reference: maple syrup urine disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... links) Genetic Testing Registry: Classical maple syrup urine disease Genetic Testing Registry: Intermediate maple syrup urine disease Genetic Testing Registry: Maple syrup urine disease Other Diagnosis ...

  13. Effects of boiling and roasting on proximate composition, lipid oxidation, fatty acid profile and mineral content of two sesame varieties commercialized and consumed in Far-North Region of Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenyang, Noël; Ponka, Roger; Tiencheu, Bernard; Djikeng, Fabrice T; Azmeera, Thirupathi; Karuna, Mallampalli S L; Prasad, Rachapudi B N; Womeni, Hilaire M

    2017-04-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of boiling and roasting on the proximate, lipid oxidation, fatty acid profile and mineral content of two sesame seeds varieties. The proximate composition was significantly affected (PBoiling appeared to be the best processing method for cooking the two sesame varieties concerning oxidative stability and fatty acid profile. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Utilization of Human Urine as Fertilizer with Magnesium Oxide (MgO, Zeolite and Activated Carbon as Absorbent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hijrah Purnama Putra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Urine is residual fluid excreted by kidneys through urinary tract to outside of the human body, to maintain homeostasis of fluid in the body. Normally urine still contains high amount of nitrogen, which is 87%, phosphor 50%, potassium 54% and low bacterial content. With these contents urine potentially becomes organic fertilizer rich with nitrogen, phosphor and potassium contents and is beneficial to plants. However, until today the utilization or urine in Indonesia is very low. The urine produced is dispose with feces in toilets. This study aimed to utilize urine as solid organic fertilizer using magnesium oxide (MgO, zeolite, and actived carbon as absorbents of ammonium and phosphor. The study started with collecting urine, time variations of urine storage were 24; 48 and 72 hours, and urine was mixed with water as an assumption that urine mixes with water when flushed in urinals. The result showed effectiveness of optimum urine absorption in urine stored for 48 hours by adding 8 gram MgO, producing ammonium and phosphor contents 56.100 ppm and 3.610 ppm, respectively. From environmental perspective, utilization of urine as organic fertilizer was applicable because it satisfied the ecological principle of sanitation to prevent soil pollution, ground and surface water pollution and its utilization as agricultural resources.

  15. Water, mineral waters and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petraccia, Luisa; Liberati, Giovanna; Masciullo, Stefano Giuseppe; Grassi, Marcello; Fraioli, Antonio

    2006-06-01

    The authors focus on water resources and the use of mineral waters in human nutrition, especially in the different stages of life, in physical activity and in the presence of some morbid conditions. Mineral water is characterized by its purity at source, its content in minerals, trace elements and other constituents, its conservation and its healing properties recognized by the Ministry of Health after clinical and pharmacological trials. Based on total salt content in grams after evaporation of 1l mineral water dried at 180 degrees C (dry residues), mineral waters can be classified as: waters with a very low mineral content, waters low in mineral content, waters with a medium mineral content, and strongly mineralized waters. Based on ion composition mineral waters can be classified as: bicarbonate waters, sulfate waters, sodium chloride or saltwater, sulfuric waters. Based on biological activity mineral waters can be classified as: diuretic waters, cathartic waters, waters with antiphlogistic properties. Instructions for use, doses, and current regulations are included.

  16. Objectively measured physical activity predicts hip and spine bone mineral content in children and adolescents ages 5 - 15 years: Iowa Bone Development Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen F Janz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the association between physical activity (PA and bone mineral content (BMC; g from middle childhood to middle adolescence and compared the impact of vigorous-intensity PA (VPA over moderate- to vigorous-intensity PA (MVPA. Participants from the Iowa Bone Development Study were examined at ages 5, 8, 11, 13, and 15 yr (n=369, 449, 452, 410, 307, respectively. MVPA and VPA (min/day were measured using ActiGraph accelerometers. Anthropometry was used to measure body size and somatic maturity. Spine BMC and hip BMC were measured via dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Sex-specific multi-level linear models were fit for spine BMC and hip BMC, adjusted for weight (kg, height (cm, linear age (yr, non-linear age (yr2, and maturity (pre peak height velocity vs. at/post peak height velocity. The interaction effects of PA×maturity and PA×age were tested. We also examined differences in spine BMC and hip BMC between the least (10th percentile and most (90th percentile active participants at each examination period. Results indicated that PA added to prediction of BMC throughout the 10-year follow-up, except MVPA did not predict spine BMC in females. Maturity and age did not modify the PA effect for males nor females. At age 5, the males at the 90th percentile for VPA had 8.5% more hip BMC than males in the 10th percentile for VPA. At age 15, this difference was 2.0%. Females at age 5 in the 90th percentile for VPA had 6.1% more hip BMC than those in the 10th percentile for VPA. The age 15 difference was 1.8%. VPA was associated with BMC at weight-bearing skeletal sites from childhood to adolescence, and the effect was not modified by maturity or age. Our findings indicate the importance of early and sustained interventions that focus on VPA. Approaches focused on MVPA may be inadequate for optimal bone health, particularly for females.

  17. Bone mineral content measurement in 255 old patients with diabetes mellitus%老年糖尿病255例骨矿含量测定分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡万春; 张凡; 李晓卫

    2001-01-01

    Objective To study the incidence of osteoporosis and influential factors of bone mineral content(BMC)in old diabetic patients. Methods BMC was measured in 255 old diabetic patients, using mode l SD-1000 single photoabsorptiometer. Results ①BMC was signific an tly higher in males than in females and decreased with increasing ages in males and femmales.②BMC decreased with lengthening medical history. ③In male diabeti c patients BMC correlated positively with the body mass indices (BMI), but there was no significant difference between the group with BMI 20-25 kg/m2 and the group with BMI over 25 kg/m2 in female patients. ④The incidence of osteoporo sis in this group was 38.04%(32.45% for male:46.15% for female) Conclusion Combined osteoporosis is a common chronic complication in old patients with diabetes mellitus.%目的 探讨老年糖尿病患者合并骨质疏松的发病率及骨矿含量的影响因素。  方法使用SD-1000型骨矿物仪测量255例老年糖尿病患者。结果 ①男性糖尿病患者BMC显著高于女性,男、女性BMC均随年龄的增高 而降低;②随着病程的增加BMC降低,呈显著负相关;③男性糖尿病患者BMC与体重指数(BMI)呈显著正相关,女性患者BMI20~25 kg/m2组与大 于25 kg/m2组之间BMC相差不显著;④本组糖尿病合并骨质疏松发病率为38.04%,其中男 性为32.45%,女性为46.15%。结论 糖尿病合并骨质疏松是糖尿病的一种常见慢性并发症。

  18. Transcriptomic Changes in Liver of Young Bulls Caused by Diets Low in Mineral and Protein Contents and Supplemented with n-3 Fatty Acids and Conjugated Linoleic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegolo, Sara; Cecchinato, Alessio; Mach, Núria; Babbucci, Massimiliano; Pauletto, Marianna; Bargelloni, Luca; Schiavon, Stefano; Bittante, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify transcriptional modifications and regulatory networks accounting for physiological and metabolic responses to specific nutrients in the liver of young Belgian Blue × Holstein bulls using RNA-sequencing. A larger trial has been carried out in which animals were fed with different diets: 1] a conventional diet; 2] a low-protein/low-mineral diet (low-impact diet) and 3] a diet enriched in n-3 fatty acids (FAs), conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and vitamin E (nutraceutical diet). The initial hypothesis was that the administration of low-impact and nutraceutical diets might influence the transcriptional profiles in bovine liver and the resultant nutrient fluxes, which are essential for optimal liver function and nutrient interconversion. Results showed that the nutraceutical diet significantly reduced subcutaneous fat covering in vivo and liver pH. Dietary treatments did not affect overall liver fat content, but significantly modified the liver profile of 33 FA traits (out of the total 89 identified by gas-chromatography). In bulls fed nutraceutical diet, the percentage of n-3 and CLA FAs increased around 2.5-fold compared with the other diets, whereas the ratio of n6/n3 decreased 2.5-fold. Liver transcriptomic analyses revealed a total of 198 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) when comparing low-impact, nutraceutical and conventional diets, with the nutraceutical diet showing the greatest effects on liver transcriptome. Functional analyses using ClueGo and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis evidenced that DEGs in bovine liver were variously involved in energy reserve metabolic process, glutathione metabolism, and carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Modifications in feeding strategies affected key transcription factors regulating the expression of several genes involved in fatty acid metabolism, e.g. insulin-induced gene 1, insulin receptor substrate 2, and RAR-related orphan receptor C. This study provides noteworthy insights into

  19. The organic and mineral matter contents in deposits infilling floodplain basins: Holocene alluviation record from the Kłodnica and Osobłoga river valleys, southern Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcicki, K. J.; Marynowski, L.

    2012-07-01

    The work examines the timing and environmental conditions of floodplain sedimentation in the valleys of the upland Kłodnica and piedmont Osobłoga rivers in the Upper Odra River basin. A distribution of 52 14C-ages shows relatively high floodplain sedimentation at the Late Glacial-Holocene transition, more stable floodplain environments since the Early (in the Kłodnica Valley) and Middle Holocene (in the Osobłoga Valley) and a gradual increase in floodplain deposition in the Late Holocene (since hydrological events) as well as factors affecting the local record of sedimentation (i.e. valley morphology, hydrologic conditions and episodes of local erosion). A clear relationship is shown between an increase in alluviation and climate- or human-induced extension of unforested areas. The deposition of mineral-rich sediments increases rapidly during periods characterized by non-arboreal pollen values exceeding approximately 8% in pollen diagrams. On the other hand, the results obtained do not confirm significant interactions between Holocene changes in forest composition and alluviation. Despite the settlement of agrarian groups, the sedimentary record of human activity in the Osobłoga catchment is very poor during the Neolithic and early Bronze Age. A large-scale alluviation of the Osobłoga and Kłodnica valleys was initiated during the settlement of people of the Lusatian culture from the middle Bronze Age and escalated in the early Middle Ages and Modern Times. The deposition of products of soil erosion was limited to between ca. 1.9-1.2 kyr BP, probably due to demographic regression during the Migration Period. Comparison of OM/MM fluctuations with phases of increased fluvial activity does not show a relationship between Holocene wetter phases and catchment sediment yield. Sedimentary episodes in the Upper Odra basin also show a low degree of correlation with the probability density curve of the 14C-ages. The results obtained in the Kłodnica and Osob

  20. Tritium analysis of urine samples from the general Korean public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seokwon; Ha, Wi-Ho; Lee, Seung-Sook

    2013-11-01

    The tritium concentrations of urine samples and the effective dose of the general Korean public were evaluated. To achieve accurate HTO analysis of urine samples, we established the optimal conditions for measuring the HTO content of urine samples. Urine samples from 50 Koreans who do not work at a nuclear facility were analyzed on the basis of the results. The average urine analysis result was 2.8 ±1 .4 Bq/L, and the range was 1.8-5.6 Bq/L. The measured values were lower than those reported for other countries. These results show that environmental factors and lifestyle differences are the main factors affecting the tritium level of the general public. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. 9种壳斗科树种坚果3种矿质元素及Vc含量分析%Analysis of 3 Mineral Elements and Vc Contents in Nuts of 9 Fagaceae Species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马冬雪; 刘仁林

    2011-01-01

    @@ 壳斗科(Fagaceae)主要分布在亚洲东南部,全球约900种.我国大多数地区通常把壳斗科植物的坚果都称为"橡实",有些省区仅将栎属(QucercusL.)树种的坚果称之为"橡实",而李世华等[1]认为"橡实又叫橡子";显然,"橡实或橡子"均指壳斗科植物的坚果.%In order to obtain more and detailed information, the chemical experiment methods were used to analyze the main nutritional components of mineral Ca, Mg, Fe and Vt, acid value in the nuts of 9 Fagaceae species. Some conclusions are as follows: ( 1 ) Among the 9 species, the Castanea seguinii nut has the greatest content of Ca, followed by Castanea henryi and Lithocarpus litseifolius, that in the Cyclobalanopsis gracilis nuts is the least; meanwhile, the Castanea seguinii nuts contain the most Mg, followed by Castanopsis sclerophylla and Castanopsis tibetana, but the Castanea henryi nut has the least mineral Mg. In addition, the Castanopsis sclerophylla nuts contain the greatest content of Fe, but the nuts of some species such as Castanea seguinii, Castanopsis eyrei, and Castanea henryicontain also more mineral Fe. (2) the nuts of Castanea seguinii contain rich content of Vc, followed by Castanea henryi. (3) Among these 9 species, Cyclobalanopsis gracilis nuts contain the highest acid value, followed by Cyclobalanopsis glauca, the fruits of Castanea seguinii, Castanea henryi and Castanopsis sclerophylla nuts have the moderate acidity value, which taste better and have a higher development value. In a word, the nuts of these 9 species contain rich mineral nutritional ingredients and Vc. It is considered that these species could meet the need of food industry in great scale.

  2. 77 FR 56273 - Conflict Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ... opportunity to improve a company's existing risk management and supply chain management, stimulating... Minerals Already in the Supply Chain a. Proposed Rules b. Comments on the Proposed Rules c. Final Rule 6... Content and Supply Chain Due Diligence 1. Content of the Conflict Minerals Report a. Proposed Rules...

  3. Urine Diagnosis for Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Haiyan; Zhao Baohua

    2002-01-01

    @@ The key to saving the life of a person suffering from a malignant tumor lies in early diagnosis and surgery. Chinese scientists have developed a new method of diagnosing cancer by analyzing a person's urine. This feat was acclaimed by a panel of experts at a meeting under the auspices of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) in July 30 in Dalian, in northeast China's Liaoning Province.

  4. 气相色谱-质谱联用(GC-MS)法检测人体血液、尿液中大麻及其主要代谢物的含量%Detecting contents of Cannabis and its metabolites in human blood and urine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    艾斯凯尔·艾尔肯; 孙力扬; 谢辉; 王华; 努尔艾力·塔依尔; 艾克拜尔·热合曼

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate GC-MS methods value in the detection of contents of tetrahydrocanna-binol (THC),THC acetic acid (THC-COOH),cannabinol (CBN)and cannabidiol (CBD)in human sam-ples (blood,urine).Methods Hydrolized human urine and blood samples were made as solution of weak acid,adding deuterated THC (THC-D3)and deuterated THCA (THC-COOH-D3)as an internal standard reagent,using solid phase extraction (SPE)to extract THC,THC-COOH,CBN and CBD from the sam-ples,after silylating agent BSTFA (containing 1% TMCS)derivatizing to determine the contents by GC-MS method.Results In the blood samples,the contents of THC,THC-COOH,CBN and CBD had good linear relationship with their peak areas within 10 - 80 μg/L,in which correlation coefficient R 2 was>0.9967,the average recovery rate was 91.8% - 97% and the relative standard deviation (RSD)was 0.59%-1.8%.The contents of THC in 5 cases of blood sample were 12,19,13,30,23 μg/L respective-ly,the contents of CBN in 3 cases of blood were 43,47,56 μg/L respectively,the contents of CBN in 2 cases of blood were 0.9974,the average recov-ery rate was 93.1%-99.3% and the relative standard deviation (RSD)was 0.27%-1.16%.Since most of the THC was acidized to THC-COOH,there was no THC or less than the limit of detection of THC in 5 cases of urine sample.The content of CBN in 1 cases of urine was 41 μg/L,the content of CBN in 1 cases of urine was < 40 μg/L,the contents of CBN in 3 cases of urine were < 20 μg/L,the contents of CBD in 3 cases of urine were 71,56,50 μg/L respectively,the content of CBD in 1 cases of urine was < 50 μg/L, the content of CBD in 1 cases of urine was < 15 μg/L,and the contents of THC-COOH in 5 cases of urine were 88.4,99,53,47,65 μg/L respectively.Conclusion The method is simple and accurate,which could simultaneously detect the contents of THC,THC-COOH,CBN and CBD.%目的:探讨气相色谱-质谱联用法在检测人体血液、尿液中四氢大麻酚(THC)、四氢大麻酚酸(THC-COOH)

  5. 基于图像分类的矿物含量测定及精度评价%Mineral contents determination and accuracy evaluation based on classification of petrographic images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶润青; 牛瑞卿; 张良培; 易顺华

    2011-01-01

    There are many human errors and lack accuracy evaluation existing in the mineral contents determination for traditional methods.A new approach is proposed for mineral contents determination and accuracy evaluation based on images classification.The method is firstly to divide the petrographic images into different mineral classes by using image classification algorithms,and then to obtain the mineral contents through pixel statistic,finally contents accuracy evaluation is carried out by Confusion Matrix(CM).According to the spectral and texture features of the petrographic images,two approaches were proposed for mineral contents determination.One is for the petrographic images with simple texture and large color distinction is to adopt direct classification.The experiment of granite photos shows that the supervised classifiers are better than the unsupervised ones in accuracy,and the Maximum Likelihood Classifier(MLC) results with the highest accuracy of 94.25%;The other method is for the petrographic images with complex mineral texture(such as interference colors,twins,etc.),an object-oriented Multi-resolution Segmentation(MS)algorithm is employed for images segmentation before mineral classification.The muscovite monzogranite microscope image experiment shows the content estimated accuracy is 94.85%.%针对传统矿物含量测定中存在人为误差、缺乏精度评价等问题,提出了基于图像分类的矿物含量测定及精度评价方法,该方法通过统计分类后图像中每种矿物的像元数量测定矿物含量,并采用混淆矩阵评价含量测定精度.根据岩石图像的光谱和纹理特征,提出了两种基本的矿物含量测定方式:1)对于纹理简单、矿物光谱区分度大的岩石图像,采用直接分类方式测定矿物含量,花岗岩手标本照片矿物分类实验表明监督分类效果优于非监督分类,且监督分类中最大似然法分类(MLC)的精度最

  6. Analysis of Copper-Bearing Rocks and Minerals for Their Metal Content Using Visible Spectroscopy: A First Year Chemistry Laboratory Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bopegedera, A. M. R. P.

    2016-01-01

    General chemistry and introductory chemistry students were presented with a laboratory exploration for the determination of the mass percent of copper in rock and mineral samples. They worked independently in the laboratory, which involved multiple lab (pipetting, preparing standard solutions by quantitative dilution, recording visible spectra…

  7. Avaliação de macro e microminerais em frutas tropicais cultivadas no nordeste brasileiro Evaluation of macro and micro-mineral content in tropical fruits cultivated in the northeast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Mozarina Beserra Almeida

    2009-09-01

    minerals evaluated in this study, K presented the highest content, followed by Ca and Mg. Sweetsop, soursop, sapodilla, and murici are good sources of two or more minerals. High correlations were obtained between K and the minerals P, Co, and Fe and between Co and Fe. Therefore, the consumption of the studied tropical fruits is suggested as an assistant to the reposition of mineral nutrients.

  8. 糖尿病肾病患者血清 Cys C、Hcy 和尿 mindin、NAG 含量检测及对疾病早期诊断的价值%Detection of serum Cys C and Hcy as well as urine mindin and NAG contents in patients with diabetic nephropathy and value for early diagnosis of disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王强

    2016-01-01

    目的::研究糖尿病肾病患者的血清胱抑素 C (Cys C)、同型半胱氨酸(Hcy)和尿 mindin、N-乙酰-β-D 氨基葡萄糖苷酶(NAG)含量及对疾病早期诊断的价值.方法:选择糖尿病肾病患者和单纯糖尿病患者进行研究,采集血清并测定 Cys C、Hcy、PGF-2α、丙二醛(MDA)、晚期蛋白氧化产物(AOPP)、超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶(GSH-Px)、VitE 的含量,采集尿液并测定 mindin、NAG、MST1、JNK、Foxos、Caspase-3、Caspase-12的含量.结果:糖尿病肾病尿液中 mindin、NAG、MST1、JNK、Foxos、Caspase-3、Caspase-12的含量以及血清中 Cys C、Hcy、PGF-2α、MDA、AOPP 的含量均显著高于单纯糖尿病患者(P <0.05),血清中 SOD、GSH-Px、VitE 的含量显著低于单纯糖尿病患者(P <0.05);CKD 分期越高,尿液中 mindin、NAG、MST1、JNK、Foxos、Caspase-3、Caspase-12的含量以及血清中 Cys C、Hcy、PGF-2α、MDA、AOPP 的含量越高,血清中 SOD、GSH-Px、VitE 的含量越低(P <0.05);尿液中 mindin、NAG 含量与 MST1、JNK、Foxos、Caspase-3、Caspase-12含量呈正相关(P <0.05);血清中 Cys C、Hcy 含量与 PGF-2α、MDA、AOPP 的含量呈正相关(P <0.05),与 SOD、GSH-Px、VitE 的含量呈负相关(P <0.05).结论:糖尿病肾病患者血清 Cys C、Hcy 和尿 mindin、NAG 含量在CKD1期即开始升高,同时与细胞凋亡、氧化应激损伤密切相关,有助于疾病的早期诊断.%Objective:study the serum cystatin C (Cys C)and homocysteine (Hcy)as well as urine mindin and N-ace-tyl-β-D-glucosa minidase (NAG)contents in patients with diabetic nephropathy and the value for early diagnosis of disease. Methods:Patients with diabetic nephropathy and patients with diabetes alone were selected for study,serum was collected to detect Cys C,Hcy,PGF-2α,malondialdehyde (MDA),advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP),superoxide dismutase (SOD),glutathione peroxidase

  9. Adulterants in Urine Drug Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, S

    Urine drug testing plays an important role in monitoring licit and illicit drug use for both medico-legal and clinical purposes. One of the major challenges of urine drug testing is adulteration, a practice involving manipulation of a urine specimen with chemical adulterants to produce a false negative test result. This problem is compounded by the number of easily obtained chemicals that can effectively adulterate a urine specimen. Common adulterants include some household chemicals such as hypochlorite bleach, laundry detergent, table salt, and toilet bowl cleaner and many commercial products such as UrinAid (glutaraldehyde), Stealth® (containing peroxidase and peroxide), Urine Luck (pyridinium chlorochromate, PCC), and Klear® (potassium nitrite) available through the Internet. These adulterants can invalidate a screening test result, a confirmatory test result, or both. To counteract urine adulteration, drug testing laboratories have developed a number of analytical methods to detect adulterants in a urine specimen. While these methods are useful in detecting urine adulteration when such activities are suspected, they do not reveal what types of drugs are being concealed. This is particularly the case when oxidizing urine adulterants are involved as these oxidants are capable of destroying drugs and their metabolites in urine, rendering the drug analytes undetectable by any testing technology. One promising approach to address this current limitation has been the use of unique oxidation products formed from reaction of drug analytes with oxidizing adulterants as markers for monitoring drug misuse and urine adulteration. This novel approach will ultimately improve the effectiveness of the current urine drug testing programs. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessment of chromium content of feedstuffs, their estimated requirement, and effects of dietary chromium supplementation on nutrient utilization, growth performance, and mineral balance in summer-exposed buffalo calves (Bubalus bubalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Muneendra; Kaur, Harjit; Tyagi, Amrish; Mani, Veena; Deka, Rijusmita Sarma; Chandra, Gulab; Sharma, Vijay Kumar

    2013-10-01

    This study was conducted to determine the chromium content of different feedstuffs, their estimated requirement, and effect of dietary Cr supplementation on nutrient intake, nutrient utilization, growth performance, and mineral balance in buffalo calves during summer season. Levels of Cr was higher in cultivated fodder, moderate in cakes and cereal grains, while straw, grasses, and non-conventional feeds were poor in Cr content. To test the effect of Cr supplementation in buffalo calves, 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 ppm of inorganic Cr were fed to 24 buffalo calves. Buffalo calves were randomly assigned to four treatments (n = 6) and raised for 120 days. A metabolic trial for a period of 7 days was conducted after 3 months of dietary treatments. Blood samples were collected at fortnight interval for plasma mineral estimation. The results suggested that dietary Cr supplementation in summer did not have any affects (P > 0.05) on feed consumption, growth performance, nitrogen balance, and physiological variables. However, dietary Cr supplementation had significant effect (P 0.05) balance and plasma levels of other trace minerals. The estimated Cr requirement of buffalo calves during summer season was calculated to be 0.044 mg/kg body mass and 10.37 ppm per day. In conclusion, dietary Cr supplementation has regardless effect on feed consumption, mass gain, and nutrient utilization in buffalo calves reared under heat stress conditions. However, supplementation of Cr had positive effect on its balance and plasma concentration without interacting with other trace minerals.

  11. 根区温度对水培生菜生长和矿质元素含量的影响%Effects of root zone temperature on the growth and mineral elements content of hydroponically-grown lettuce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李润儒; 朱月林; 高垣美智子; 矢守航; 杨立飞

    2015-01-01

    The plant growth and mineral elements content were studied in hydroponically-grown lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.)under five different root zone temperatures.The results showed that with the increase of root zone temperature,the lettuce yield per plant increased first and then decreased,reaching the maximum value at 25 ℃,and the dry matter content was the highest.Effects of root zone temperature on lettuce leaf net photosyn-thetic rate and the content of mineral elements were similar to the yield.Under the treatment of 35 ℃ root zone temperature,the lettuce growth and mineral elements accumulation were significantly inhibited,and the nitrate content decreased significantly.The results indicated that the most suitable root zone temperature was 25 ℃ for the growth and mineral elements absorption of hydroponically-grown lettuce.%在水培条件下,研究了5个根区温度对生菜(Lactuca sativa L.)生长和矿质元素含量的影响。结果表明:随着根区温度的升高,生菜单株产量呈先增加后减少的趋势,在25℃时达到最大值,且干物质含量最高;根区温度对生菜叶片净光合速率和矿质元素含量的影响与对产量的影响相似,即在25℃时达到最大值。35℃根区温度处理下,根叶生长和地上部矿质元素的积累受到严重阻碍,生菜叶片硝酸盐含量显著下降。在5个根区温度处理中,25℃对水培生菜的生长及矿质元素的吸收最为适宜。

  12. Mineral oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furby, N. W.

    1973-01-01

    The characteristics of lubricants made from mineral oils are discussed. Types and compositions of base stocks are reviewed and the product demands and compositions of typical products are outlined. Processes for commercial production of mineral oils are examined. Tables of data are included to show examples of product types and requirements. A chemical analysis of three types of mineral oils is reported.

  13. 基于实测高光谱数据的矿物含量提取方法研究%A Method to Extract Content of Minerals Based on Measured Hyperspectral Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亚军; 王钦军; 陈玉; 胡芳; 徐茹; 蔺启忠

    2015-01-01

    针对利用线性模型提取矿物含量精度较低的问题,以波长范围为350~2500 nm的岩石光谱为数据源,基于光谱匹配方法进行矿物识别,应用简化的 Hapke模型将岩石样品反射率转换为单次反照率,利用线性模型分解单次反照率进行含量提取,并通过分段滤波及建立区域光谱库的方法提高识别精度,建立了一种基于实测光谱数据的矿物含量提取方法。通过对包古图V号岩体光谱数据的分析,与X射线衍射结果相比,该方法对长石类矿物的识别精度为100%,含量提取精度为80.5%;对粘土类蚀变矿物的识别精度为92.2%,含量提取的精度为92.36%。该方法将矿物学共生关系加入到矿物识别方法中,保证了结果的可靠性;提出了分段滤波的预处理思路,避免了滤波算法对光谱波形及吸收特征的影响,并且据有较好的去噪效果;应用Hapke模型进行实测的岩石光谱解混,能避免复杂的光谱非线性分解计算,从理论上提高矿物含量提取的精度和计算的效率。该方法对快速分析蚀变信息等工作具有一定的指导意义。%To improve the accuracy of mineral content extraction by linear decomposition model ,a method was established , which took rock spectra with wavelength from 350 to 2 500 nm as the data source ,identified minerals based on spectral matching methods ,applied Hapke model to transform spectral reflectance into single scattering albedo and resolved single scattering albedo to get mineral content .In this method ,sectional noise filtering and regional mineral spectra library were added to improve the identifying accuracy .Based on the analysis on the fifth Baogutu rock body ,compared with XRD results ,accuracies of quartz , feldspar class and altered minerals identification were 75% ,100% and 92.2% separately .Accuracy of the content extraction of feldspar class ,hornblende and altered minerals were 80

  14. Determination of Antioxidant Capacity, Total Phenolic Content and Mineral Composition of Different Fruit Tissue of Five Apple Cultivars Grown in Chile Determinación de la Capacidad Antioxidante, contenido de Fenoles totales y Composición Mineral de Diferentes Tejidos de Frutos de Cinco Variedades de Manzana cultivadas en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Henríquez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Apples (Malus domestica Borkh. have been identified as one of the main dietary sources of antioxidants, mainly phenolic compounds. These compounds vary in their composition and concentration, among cultivars and fruit tissues. In this research, the total phenolic content (Folin-Ciocalteau assay, antioxidant capacity (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power, FRAP assay and mineral composition in three fruit tissues (peel, pulp and whole fruit, of apple cultivars commonly used for dried apple production in Chile, were studied. In addition, the physical-chemical characteristics (dry weight, pH, titratable acidity, soluble solids content and color were also evaluated. The results indicated that the total phenolic content, the antioxidant capacity, and the mineral composition, of peel were substantially higher than those of whole fruit, and pulp for all the cultivars studied. Among cultivars, ‘Red Delicious’ apple peels have a significantly much higher content of total phenolic (11.6 mg gallic acid equivalents [GAE] g-1 FW and a higher FRAP (209.9 µmol Fe+2 g-1 FW. Additionally, a high correlation between total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity was found in all the cultivars and fruit tissues analyzed, except in the apple pulp. On the other hand, the physical and chemical composition differed among cultivars and fruit tissues. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that the total phenolic content, antioxidant capacity, mineral composition, and physical and chemical characteristics vary considerably depending on the apple cultivars and fruit tissues analyzed.Las manzanas (Malus domestica Borkh. han sido identificadas como una de las principales fuentes de antioxidantes en la dieta, principalmente de compuestos fenólicos. Estos compuestos varían en su composición y concentración según el cultivar y el tejido del fruto. En esta investigación se determinó: el contenido de fenoles totales (ensayo de Folin-Ciocalteau, la capacidad

  15. Effects of taurine supplementation on bone mineral density in ovariectomized rats fed calcium deficient diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Mi-Ja

    2009-01-01

    Taurine supplementation has been shown to have a beneficial effect on femur bone mineral content in ovariectomized rats. It therefore seemed desirable to find out whether the beneficial effect of taurine on ovariectomized rats fed calcium deficient diet could also be reproduced. Forty female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups. One group was OVX and the other group received sham operation (SHAM), and received either control diet or a taurine supplemented diet for 6 weeks. All rats were fed on calcium deficient diet (AIN-93: 50% level of calcium) and deionized water. Bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) were measured in spine and femur. The serum and urine concentrations of calcium and phosphorus were determined. Bone formation was measured by serum osteocalcin and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) concentrations. Bone resorption rate was measured by deoxypyridinoline (DPD) crosslinks immunoassay and corrected for creatinine. Urinary calcium and phosphorus excretion, osteocalcin in blood and cross link value were not significantly different among the groups. Within the OVX group, the taurine supplemented group had not higher femur bone mineral content than the control group. This study established the need for a study on the taurine effect on bone with different calcium levels.

  16. Cortisol in urine and saliva

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurwitz Eller, N; Netterstrøm, B; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the study was to analyse the relations between excretion of cortisol in urine and saliva and the intima media thickness (IMT) of the artery carotis communis.......The objective of the study was to analyse the relations between excretion of cortisol in urine and saliva and the intima media thickness (IMT) of the artery carotis communis....

  17. Mineral nutrition and caffeine content in coffee leaves Nutrição mineral e conteúdo de cafeína em folhas de café

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAULO MAZZAFERA

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of nutrient supply on the caffeine content of coffee (Coffea arabica L. leaves was investigated. Seeds were germinated in nutrient-agar media lacking N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Zn, B or Mo. The control treatment contained all essential nutrients. The caffeine concentration was determined seven months after seed sowing when the seedlings have 3 to 4 pair of leaves. The omission of K induced the highest caffeine content in the leaves (24.5 g.kg-1. Caffeine in the control treatment was 21.9 g.kg -1. Absence of P induced the lowest content, 17.5 g.kg-1.O efeito do suprimento de nutrientes sobre o conteúdo de cafeína em folhas de café (Coffea arabica L. foi estudado. Sementes foram germinadas em meios nutrientes de ágar deficientes em N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Zn, B ou Mo. O meio-controle continha todos os nutrientes essenciais. A concentração de cafeína foi determinada sete meses após a colocação das sementes nos meios, quando três a quatro pares de folhas haviam sido emitidos. A omissão de K induziu o maior conteúdo de cafeína nas folhas (24,5 g.kg-1. O conteúdo do alcalóide no tratamento-controle foi de 21,9 g.kg-1. A ausência de P induziu maior redução, sendo o conteúdo de 17,5 g.kg-1.

  18. Urine matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) as biomarkers for the progression of fracture healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigner, Nathan A; Kulkarni, Nitin; Yakavonis, Mark; Young, Megan; Tinsley, Brian; Meeks, Brett; Einhorn, Thomas A; Gerstenfeld, Louis C

    2012-03-01

    Whilst the majority of fractures heal normally, it is estimated that ∼10% of fractures exhibit some level of delayed or impaired healing. Although radiography is the primary diagnostic tool to assess the progression of fracture healing, radiographic features only qualitatively correlate with tissue level increases in mineral content and do not quantitatively measure underlying biological processes that are associated with the progression of healing. Specific metaloproteinases have been shown to be essential to processes of both angiogenesis and mineralised cartilage resorption and bone remodelling at different phases of fracture healing. The aim of this study was to determine the potential of using a simple urine based assay of the activity of two MMPs as a means of assessing the biological progression of fracture healing through the endochondral phase of healing. Using a standard mid-diaphyseal murine model of femoral fracture, MMP9 and MMP13 proteins and enzymatic activity levels were quantified in the urine of mice across the time-course of fracture healing and compared to the mRNA and protein expression profiles in the calluses. Both urinary MMP9 and MMP13 protein and enzymatic activity levels, assessed by Western blot, zymogram and specific MMP fluorometric substrate assays, corresponded to mRNA expression and immunohistologic assays of the proteins within callus tissues. These studies suggest that urinary levels of MMP9 and MMP13 may have potential as metabolic markers to monitor the progression of fracture healing.

  19. Increase of a BLSS closure using mineralized human waste in plant cultivation on a neutral substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gros, Jean-Bernard; Ushakova, Sofya; Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Kudenko, Yurii; Lasseur, Christophe; Shikhov, V.; Anischenko, O.

    The purpose of this work was to study the full-scale potential use of human mineralized waste (feces and urine) as a source of mineral elements for plants cultivation in a Biological Life Support System. The plants which are potential candidates for a photosynthesizing link were grown on a neutral solution containing human mineralized waste. Spring wheat Triticum aestivum L., peas Pisum sativum L. Ambrosia cultivar and leaf lettuce Lactuca sativa L., Vitamin variety, were taken as the investigation objects. The plants were grown by hydroponics method on expanded clay aggregates in a vegetation chamber in constant environmental conditions. During the plants growth a definite amount of human mineralized waste was added daily in the nutrient solution. The nutrient solution was not changed during the entire vegetation period. Estimation of the plant needs in macro elements was based on a total biological productivity equal to 0.04 kg.day--1 .m-2 . As the plant requirements in potassium exceeded the potassium content in human waste, water extract of wheat straw containing the required potassium amount was added to the nutrient solution. Knop's solution was used in the control experiments. The experiment and control plants did not show significant differences in their photosynthetic apparatus state and productivity. A small decrease in total productivity of the experimental plants was observed which can result in some reduction of ˆ2 production in a BLSS. Most I probably it is due to the reduced nitrogen use. Therefore in a real BLSS after the mineralization of human feces and urine, it will be efficient to implement a more complete oxidation of nitrogencontaining compounds system, including nitrification. In this case the plants, prospective representatives of the BLSS photosynthesizing unit, could be cultivated on the solutions mainly based on human mineralized waste.

  20. An Intervention with Mineral Water Decreases Cardiometabolic Risk Biomarkers. A Crossover, Randomised, Controlled Trial with Two Mineral Waters in Moderately Hypercholesterolaemic Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Toxqui

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Water intake is essential for health maintenance and disease prevention. The effects of an intervention with two mineral waters, sodium-bicarbonated mineral water (BW or control mineral water low in mineral content (CW, on cardiometabolic risk biomarkers were studied. In a randomised-controlled crossover-trial, sixty-four moderately hypercholesterolaemic adults were randomly assigned to consume 1 L/day of either BW (sodium, 1 g/L; bicarbonate, 2 g/L or CW with the main meals for eight weeks, separated by an eight-week washout period. Blood lipids, lipid oxidation, glucose, insulin, aldosterone, urine pH, urinary electrolytes, blood pressure, body weight, fluid intake, energy, and nutrients from total diet and beverages were determined. Total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and glucose decreased (p < 0.01, oxidised LDL tended to decrease (p = 0.073, and apolipoprotein B increased during the intervention, without water type effect. Energy and carbohydrates from beverages decreased since soft drinks and fruit juice consumptions decreased throughout the trial. BW increased urinary pH (p = 0.006 and reduced calcium/creatinine excretion (p = 0.011. Urinary potassium/creatinine decreased with both waters. Consumption of 1 L/day of mineral water with the main meals reduces cardiometabolic risk biomarkers, likely to be attributed to a replacement of soft drinks by water. In addition, BW does not affect blood pressure and exerts a moderate alkalizing effect in the body.

  1. Teor de clorofila e perfil de sais minerais de Chlorella vulgaris cultivada em solução hidropônica residual Chlorophyll content and minerals profile in the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris cultivated in hydroponic wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Cleber Bertoldi

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available O cultivo de microalgas representa uma potencial fonte de biomassa rica em clorofila e sais minerais como: fósforo, ferro, manganês, cobre, zinco, magnésio e cálcio. Este experimento teve como objetivo avaliar a composição de minerais, bem como determinar o teor de clorofila a e b da microalga Chlorella vulgaris cultivada em solução hidropônica residual em três diferentes concentrações comparadas com um cultivo controle. Os resultados mostraram que os teores de clorofila a e b da microalga não apresentaram diferença significativa entre os cultivos. Com relação à composição dos sais minerais, a Chlorella cultivada na solução residual mais concentrada apresentou valores superiores quando comparada com a cultivada nos demais cultivos. Dessa forma, a biomassa da Chlorella vulgaris demonstrou ser uma potencial fonte de clorofila e de sais minerais, quando cultivada em solução hidropônica residual, possibilitando a utilização desse resíduo de forma sustentável.The microalgaes cultive represents a potential source of biomass rich in chlorophyll and minerals as: P, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Mg and Ca. This research was aimed at evaluating the composition of minerals, as well as, determining the content of chlorophyll a and b from the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris cultivated in hydroponic wastewater in three different concentrations compared with the control cultive. The results showed that the contents of chlorophyll a and b of the microalgae did not show significant difference between the cultives. In relation to the composition of the minerals, the Chlorella cultivated in the most concentrated wastewater, showed higher values when compared with the one cultivated in the others cultures. In this manner, the Chlorella vulgaris biomass demonstrated to be a potential source of chlorophyll and minerals, when cultivated in hydroponic wastewater, allowing the use of this residue in a sustainable way.

  2. [Pastel in the urine bag].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantaloube, Lucie; Lebaudy, Cécile; Hermabessière, Sophie; Rolland, Yves

    2012-03-01

    Purple urine bag syndrome is a relatively unknown phenomenon in which the urine bag and the collector of chronically catheterized patients turn purple or blue. It affects predominantly women, and is mainly reported in elderly patients. The mechanism seems to be related to the appearance in the urine of two compounds that have been identified as indigo (blue) and indirubin (red) which bind to the urine bag and the collector. Several associated factors are usually mentioned such as constipation, alkaline urine, bed rest, institutionalization or cognitive impairment. They are risk factor of this phenomenon. On the other hand, an infection or a urinary bacterial colonization is necessary and high bacterial counts seem to be the critical step in the development of the purple urine bag syndrome. We report on two cases of purple urine bag syndrome observed in two patients being treated in a long-term care unit. Both of whom were diagnosed with indwelling urinary bacterial colonization, with Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa respectively.

  3. Infinite dilution conductimetry of plasma and urine: correlation with osmolality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genain, C; Tellier, P; Syrota, A; Pocidalo, J J; Hans, M

    1978-08-15

    The infinite dilution conductivity (IDC) of plasma and urine allows a measurement of the electrolyte content in small samples (5 to 15 microliter). The method was compared to the corrected osmolality (II'p) measured by the freezing-point depression. A linear correlation existed between II'p and the IDC: for plasma: II'p = 13.10 sigma o,p + 37.00 (n = 46 and r = 0.9949) for urine: II'u = 12.75 sigma o,u + 16.56 (n = 85 and r = 0.9504). The measurement of the IDC does not depend on protein concentration and can be used instead of the osmometer methods to determine the total plasma and urine electrolyte content.

  4. Comparison of Mineral Elements Composition and Content in Different Positions of Wheat Grains%小麦籽粒不同部位矿质元素组成及含量分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雅洁; 郑琪

    2016-01-01

    以陇黑麦838(黑粒)、平凉44号、农大3753(黑粒)、农大5181、陇鉴108和陇育4号为试验材料,采用X-射线能谱仪测定小麦籽粒不同部位的部分矿质元素组成和相对含量。结果表明,小麦籽粒中除含有大量C、O外,皮层富含K、 Ca、 Fe,其次是Na、 Mg、 Cl和Cu。糊粉层富含K、 Mg和Fe,其次是Si、 Cl、 Ca和Mn。胚乳层O含量最高, Cl、 K、 Ca和Fe次之,并含少量Na、 Mg、和Se等元素。胚中Mg、 Cl、 K、 Ca和Fe含量较高, Na、 Mn、 Cu和Se次之。黑粒小麦陇黑麦838和农大3753籽粒Ca、 Fe、 Zn和Se元素的相对含量高于普通小麦。总体来看,所有品种(系)糊粉层矿质元素含量最高,皮层和胚次之,胚乳最低。不同类型品种(系)籽粒各部位的矿质元素含量存在基因型差异,黑粒小麦矿质价值高于普通小麦。%With Longheimai 838(black grain), Pingliang 44, Nongda 3753(black grain), Nongda 5181, Longjian 108 and Longyu 4 as the experimental materials, mineral element composition and relative content in different parts of wheat grains were determined by X-ray energy spectrometer. The result shows that wheat grains contain a large amount of C, O, the cortex is rich in K, Ca, Fe, followed by Na, Mg, Cl and Cu; aleurone layer rich in K, Mg and Fe, Si, Cl, Ca and Mn are lower; endosperm layer all of varieties (lines), content of O is the highest, followed by Cl, K, Ca and Fe, a small amount of Na, Mg, and Se and other elements; content of Mg, Cl, K, Ca and Fe are higher in embryo, Na, Mn, Cu and Se are lower; Ca, Fe, Zn and Se is higher in black grain wheat Longheimai 838 and Nongda 3753 grains than that of common wheat grains. Anyway, mineral elements contents are highest in aleurone layer of all varieties (lines), followed by cortex and embryo, the contents of mineral elements are the lowest in endosperm of all parts of the grains; different varieties (lines) exist genotype

  5. Ultra-Short Echo-Time MRI Detects Changes in Bone Mineralization and Water Content in OVX Rat Bone in Response to Alendronate Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anumula, SeshaSailaja; Wehrli, Suzanne L.; Magland, Jeremy; Wright, Alexander C.; Wehrli, Felix W.

    2010-01-01

    In this work we hypothesize that bisphosphonate treatment following ovariectomy manifests in increased phosphorus and decreased water concentration, both quantifiable nondestructively with ultra-short echo-time (UTE) 31P and 1H MRI techniques. We evaluated this hypothesis in ovariectomized (OVX) rats undergoing treatment with two regimens of alendronate. Sixty female four-month old rats divided into four groups of 15 animals each: ovariectomized (OVX), OVX treatment groups ALN1 and ALN2, receiving 5μg/kg/day and 25μg/kg/day of alendronate, and a sham-operated group (NO) serving as control. Treatment, starting one week post surgery, lasted for 50 days at which time animals were sacrificed. Whole bones from the left and right femora were extracted from all the animals. 31P and 1H water concentration were measured by UTE MRI at 162 and 400 MHz in the femoral shaft and the results compared with other measures of mineral and matrix properties obtained by 31P solution NMR, CT density, ash weight, and water measured by dehydration. Mechanical parameters (elastic modulus, EM, and ultimate strength, US) were obtained by three-point bending. The following quantities were lower in OVX relative to NO: phosphorus concentration measured by 31P-MRI (−8%; 11.4±0.9 vs 12.4±0.8 %, p ovariectomy. PMID:20096815

  6. Proteomic analysis of proteins selectively associated with hydroxyapatite, brushite, and uric acid crystals precipitated from human urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurgood, Lauren A; Ryall, Rosemary L

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the intracrystalline protein profiles of hydroxyapatite (HA), brushite (BR), and uric acid (UA) crystals precipitated from the same urine samples. HA, BR, and UA crystals were precipitated on two different occasions from the same pooled healthy urine. Crystals were washed to remove surface-bound proteins, and their composition was confirmed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX). SDS-PAGE was used for visual comparison of the protein content of the demineralised crystal extracts, which were analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). HA comprised nanosized particles interspersed with organic material, which was absent from the BR and UA crystals. The number and type of individual proteins differed between the 3 minerals: 45 proteins were detected in the HA crystal extracts and 77 in the BR crystals, including a number of keratins, which were regarded as methodological contaminants. After excluding the keratins, 21 proteins were common to both HA and BR crystals. Seven nonkeratin proteins were identified in the UA extracts. Several proteins consistently detected in the HA and BR crystal extracts have been previously implicated in kidney stone disease, including osteopontin, prothrombin, protein S100A9 (calgranulin B), inter-α-inhibitor, α1-microglobulin bikunin (AMBP), heparan sulfate proteoglycan, and Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein, all of which are strong calcium binders. We concluded that the association of proteins with HA, BR, and UA crystals formed in healthy urine is selective and that only a few of the numerous proteins present in healthy urine are likely to play any significant role in preventing stone pathogenesis.

  7. Bone Mineral Density in Thalassemia Major Patients from Antalya, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Aslan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. We assessed the bone mineral density and related parameters in nine adults, thirty-eight pubertal, prepubertal totally forty-seven patients with thalassemia major living in Antalya, Turkey. Materials and Methods. We measured height and pubertal staging in last five years by six-month intervals. Average ferritin and hemoglobin concentrations were calculated for last three years. The levels of hydroxyproline, calcium, phosphorus, and creatinine were measured in 24 h urine, and those of parathormone, IGF 1, osteocalcine, alkaline phosphatase, calcium, ionized calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, creatine, blood glucose, thyroid stimulating hormone, alanine transaminase, and aspartate transaminase were determined in serum, and also the bone mineral density was measured. Results. The average L1–L4 bone mass density was 27.1±10.1 g cm−2; the average bone mineral content was 0.65 ± 0.11 g. of the patients with a Z-score under 2.5. A moderate relationship was found between the bone mass density age and height. Subjects in low pubertal staging and short stature (<3% percentile have significantly lower bone mass densities P<0.001. Conclusion. he prevalence of osteoporosis is high in patients with thalassemia major, possibly related to delayed puberty.

  8. Nutrient removal and microalgal biomass production on urine in a short light-path photobioreactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuantet, K.; Temmink, B.G.; Zeeman, G.; Janssen, M.G.J.; Wijffels, R.H.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2014-01-01

    Due to the high nitrogen and phosphorus content, source-separated urine can serve as a major nutrient source for microalgae production. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutrient removal rate and the biomass production rate of Chlorella sorokiniana being grown continuously in urine employing

  9. Nutrient removal and microalgal biomass production on urine in a short light-path photobioreactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuantet, K.; Temmink, B.G.; Zeeman, G.; Janssen, M.G.J.; Wijffels, R.H.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2014-01-01

    Due to the high nitrogen and phosphorus content, source-separated urine can serve as a major nutrient source for microalgae production. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutrient removal rate and the biomass production rate of Chlorella sorokiniana being grown continuously in urine employing

  10. Treating urine by Spirulina platensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chenliang; Liu, Hong; Li, Ming; Yu, Chengying; Yu, Gurevich

    In this paper Spirulina platensis with relatively high nutrition was cultivated to treat human urine. Batch culture showed that the consumption of N in human urine could reach to 99%, and the consumption of P was more than 99.9%, and 1.05 g biomass was obtained by treating 12.5 ml synthetic human urine; continuous culture showed that S. platensis could consume N, Cl, K and S in human urine effectively, and the consumption could reach to 99.9%, 75.0%, 83.7% and 96.0%, respectively, and the consumption of P was over 99.9%, which is very important to increase the closure and safety of the bioregenerative life support system (BLSS).

  11. Bone mineral content in the spongiosa of the lumbar spine of healthy perimenopausal women measured by QCT. Normal values and their relationship to mechanical stress of the vertebral column

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montag, M.; Meyer-Galander, H.M.; Peters, P.E.; Doeren, M.; Montag, T.

    1988-04-01

    Healthy perimenopausal women (152) were examined by QCT to quantify the mineral content of the axial skeleton. The density was measured in the spongiosa of the L 2-4, using single energy technique and the Cann-Genant calibration phantom. The women, aged 37 to 64, had no history of pathological fractures, ovariectomy, metabolic disease, or hormone therapy. The age-related mean values were 25 mg K2HP04cm/sup 3/ lower than the normal values reported by Genant et al. for 203 healthy American women. The 95% confidence interval was distinctly narrower (+-40 mgcm/sup 3/) than the American confidence interval (+-60 mgcm/sup 3/). To evaluate the relationship of the BMC to mechanical stress, the BMC was compared with body weight, body mass index (weightheight/sup 2/), and the lumbar muscle mass was estimated from cross sections of the paravertebral muscles in the CT images. The assumption that higher mechanical stress results in higher bone mineralization could not be confirmed.

  12. Teores de proteína e minerais de espécies nativas, potenciais hortaliças e frutas Protein and mineral contents of native species, potential vegetables, and fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdely Ferreira Kinupp

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A Região Metropolitana de Porto Alegre (RMPA, Rio Grande do Sul (Brasil, apresenta uma significativa riqueza de hortaliças e frutas nativas com potencial alimentício negligenciado. Além de indicativos etnológicos sobre seus usos como alimento, pouco se conhece sobre elas, principalmente sobre sua composição bromatológica. Estudos revelam que plantas alimentícias não-convencionais são mais ricas nutricionalmente do que plantas domesticadas. Com o objetivo de prospectar o potencial alimentício e contribuir com dados sobre os teores de proteína e minerais de plantas nativas na RMPA foram selecionadas 69 espécies, distribuídas em 58 gêneros e 33 famílias botânicas, totalizando 76 análises de diferentes partes comestíveis. Além do N convertido em proteína, foram analisados os teores de Ca, Mg, Mn, P, Fe, Na, K, Cu, Zn, S e B. Muitas espécies mostraram-se promissoras, com teores protéico e mineral superiores ao das espécies comerciais de usos similares. Apesar de adaptadas e abundantes na RMPA e dos conteúdos significativos de proteína e minerais, a grande maioria destas espécies permanece desconhecida ou subutilizada. Estudos e incentivos efetivos para o aproveitamento econômico de espécies negligenciadas poderiam contribuir para a conservação, a valorização das espécies autóctones e para uma dieta mais diversa e saudável do homem.The Metropolitan Region of Porto Alegre (MRPA, Rio Grande do Sul state (Brazil, presents a significant richness of native vegetables and fruits with neglected nourishing potential. Beyond the ethnological indicatives on their uses as food, little is known on these vegetables and fruits, mainly regard to the bromatological composition. Studies reveal that the unconventional food plants are nutritionally richer than domesticated plants. In the aim to evaluate the nourishing potential of the native plants in the MRPA region and to contribute with data on their protein and mineral contents

  13. 糙米蛋白质含量与矿质元素含量的相关分析及NIRS模型的建立%Correlation Analysis of Protein Content and Mineral Content in Brown Rice and Establishment of the Math Model for the NIRS Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭咏梅; 李华慧; 李少明; 段延碧; 黄平; 涂建

    2013-01-01

    Using 162 rice samples as materials, the method of semimicro-kjeldahl was employed to determinate the protein content,while atomic absorption spectrophotometry (ASS) was employed to determinate the contents of Ca,Mg,Fe,Zn,Cu,and Mn,colorimetry with phosphate-molybdenum-blue complex was employed to determinate the content of P,and flame photometry was employed to determinate the content of K in brown rice. The relationships of protein content and mineral content, different mineral element contents in brown rice were investigated. The chemo-metrical method of partial least squares gression was used to establish the calibration model of protein content in brown rice. The results showed that the elemental concentrations in brown rice were in turn of P > K > Mg > Ca > Zn > Fe > Cu > Mn. Significant positive correlations were found between protein content and mineral contents, including P,K,Cu,and Mn. In addition,the optimal model was developed by the spectral data pretreatment of the first derivative in 11995.7 -7498.3/cm and 6102 -4597. 7/cm,by analyzing spectral data pretreatment and light frequency ranges. This model's calibration coefficient and validation coefficient were 92. 89 and 89. 76, respectively. The model showed significant correlation and lower error between near-infrared value and true value. The germplasm of rice resource with high protein content and rich mineral contents, such as Xiaoheigu, Xiaohongmi and Zinuomi had been selected. Good calibration equation was successfully developed for protein content and the equation showed satisfactory determination coefficients. Finally, a probably effective way to improve protein content of rice was proposed. Combination of some special characteristics, such as protein content, P, K, Cu, and Mn etc, was one of the effective approaches to increase nutrient of rice. This NIRS-assisted-selection could be a very efficient method to improve protein content and mineral contents in rice breeding programs.%利用162份

  14. Electrochemical incineration of the antibiotic ciprofloxacin in sulfate medium and synthetic urine matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonin, Vanessa S; Santos, Mauro C; Garcia-Segura, Sergi; Brillas, Enric

    2015-10-15

    The degradation of 100 mL of 0.245 mM of the antibiotic ciprofloxacin in 0.05 M Na2SO4 at pH 3.0 has been studied by electrochemical oxidation with electrogenerated H2O2 (EO-H2O2), electro-Fenton (EF), UVA photoelectro-Fenton (PEF) and solar PEF (SPEF). Electrolyses were performed with a stirred tank reactor using either a boron-doped diamond (BDD) or Pt anode and an air-diffusion cathode. In EF, PEF and SPEF, ciprofloxacin was rapidly removed due to its oxidation with (•)OH formed from Fenton's reaction between added Fe(2+) and H2O2 generated at the cathode. The larger electrochemical incineration of the antibiotic was achieved by SPEF with BDD with 95% mineralization thanks to the additional attack by hydroxyl radicals formed from water oxidation at the BDD anode surface and the photolysis of final Fe(III)-oxalate and Fe(III)-oxamate species from sunlight. Up to 10 primary intermediates and 11 hydroxylated derivatives were identified by LC-MS, allowing the proposal of a reaction sequence for ciprofloxacin mineralization. A different behavior was found when the same antibiotic concentration was oxidized in a synthetic urine matrix with high urea content and a mixture of PO4(3-), SO4(2-) and Cl(-) ions. Since Fenton's reaction was inhibited in this medium, only EO and EO-H2O2 processes were useful for mineralization, being the organics mainly degraded by HClO formed from Cl(-) oxidation. The EO process with a BDD/stainless steel cell was found to be the most powerful treatment for the urine solution, yielding 96% ciprofloxacin removal and 98% mineralization after 360 min of electrolysis at optimum values of pH 3.0 and current density of 66.6 mA cm(-2). The evolution of released inorganic ions was followed by ion chromatography. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. 近红外光谱对天然岩石中矿物成分含量测定的研究%The research of determining the content of mineral composition in natural rock by near-infrared spectrum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪达峰

    2014-01-01

    It is important to use scientific and efficient method to detect the content of mineral composition in natural rock for the ratio-nal use of mineral.In this paper,near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectrometer is used to obtain the near infrared diffuse reflection spectrum information of the simulate natural rock samples mixed by the rock powder of kaolin,white mica and montmorillonite.Standard normalization method is employed to pre-process the spectral data,Random forests is also adopted to establish mathematical model. The predictions of minimum root mean square error of the 3 kinds of rock composition are:0.0880,0.0956 and 0.1212.The experimental results show that to determine the content of various mineral composition in natural rock by near-infrared diffuse reflection spectrum is feasible,which provides theory basis for the rapid detection of rock components in the future.%使用科学而高效的方法检测天然岩石中矿物成分对于矿物的合理利用有重要的影响。文章使用近红外漫反射光谱仪获取由高岭土、白云母和蒙脱石3种岩石矿物粉末混合成的模拟天然岩石样本的近红外漫反射光谱信息,通过标准归一化的方法对光谱数据进行预处理,采用随机森林进行数学建模,对岩石样本的组成成分进行预测,预测得到3种岩石成分最小均方根误差分别为:0.0880,0.0956,0.1212。实验结果表明应用近红外漫反射光谱来测定天然岩石中各种矿物成分的含量是可行的,为今后岩石成分的快速检测提供了理论依据。

  16. The Relationship among Total Dissolved Solid in Water and Blood Macro Mineral Concentrations and Health Status of Dairy Cattle in Qom Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Alizadeh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Dairy farms in some arid areas around the world have to use drinking water that contained elevated total dissolved solids (TDS; however, very limited data is available concerning water TDS effects on health status and blood mineral levels of cattle. The aim of this study was to compare 3 dairy cattle groups in several dairy farms with different drinking water TDS: High (HTDS; >4000 ppm, Medium (MTDS; 1500-3000 ppm, and Low (LTDS; ≈ 490 ppm. Metabolic disorders record and some management information of each herd during five years were collected and some Holstein dairy herd in Qom (n = 10 were assigned to 3 groups. Moreover, six same dairy cows were selected from each TDS group and blood and feed samples were collected twice a week. Urine samples were taken from the dry cows and urine pH was measured. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS. Although water TDS range was between 500 and 4500 ppm, dry cows urine pH was unaltered by water TDS and health problems are not common in this area. Blood calcium concentrations increased linearly as TDS increased (P < 0.05. Similarly, blood potassium concentrations were affected by TDS, whereas blood Mg and Na contents were unaltered by TDS. Negligible elevated some mineral concentrations in blood whereas the water TDSs are dramatically different show necessity of revision of mineral supplementation or providing high quality water to decrease metabolic stress in dairy cattle.

  17. Reproducibility of urinary biomarkers in multiple 24-h urine samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qi; Bertrand, Kimberly A; Franke, Adrian A; Rosner, Bernard; Curhan, Gary C; Willett, Walter C

    2017-01-01

    Limited knowledge regarding the reproducibility of biomarkers in 24-h urine samples has hindered the collection and use of the samples in epidemiologic studies. We aimed to evaluate the reproducibility of various markers in repeat 24-h urine samples. We calculated intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) of biomarkers measured in 24-h urine samples that were collected in 3168 participants in the NHS (Nurses' Health Study), NHSII (Nurses' Health Study II), and Health Professionals Follow-Up Study. In 742 women with 4 samples each collected over the course of 1 y, ICCs for sodium were 0.32 in the NHS and 0.34 in the NHSII. In 2439 men and women with 2 samples each collected over 1 wk to ≥1 mo, the ICCs ranged from 0.33 to 0.68 for sodium at various intervals between collections. The urinary excretion of potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphate, sulfate, and other urinary markers showed generally higher reproducibility (ICCs >0.4). In 47 women with two 24-h urine samples, ICCs ranged from 0.15 (catechin) to 0.75 (enterolactone) for polyphenol metabolites. For phthalates, ICCs were generally ≤0.26 except for monobenzyl phthalate (ICC: 0.55), whereas the ICC was 0.39 for bisphenol A (BPA). We further estimated that, for the large majority of the biomarkers, the mean of three 24-h urine samples could provide a correlation of ≥0.8 with true long-term urinary excretion. These data suggest that the urinary excretion of various biomarkers, such as minerals, electrolytes, most polyphenols, and BPA, is reasonably reproducible in 24-h urine samples that are collected within a few days or ≤1 y. Our findings show that three 24-h samples are sufficient for the measurement of long-term exposure status in epidemiologic studies. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  18. Aggregate and Mineral Resources - Minerals

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — This point occurrence data set represents the current mineral and selected energy resources of Utah. The data set coordinates were derived from USGS topographic maps...

  19. Creating a urine black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, Randy; Pan, Zhao; Meritt, Andrew; Belden, Jesse; Truscott, Tadd

    2015-11-01

    Since the mid-nineteenth century, both enlisted and fashion-conscious owners of khaki trousers have been plagued by undesired speckle patterns resulting from splash-back while urinating. In recent years, industrial designers and hygiene-driven entrepreneurs have sought to limit this splashing by creating urinal inserts, with the effectiveness of their inventions varying drastically. From this large assortment of inserts, designs consisting of macroscopic pillar arrays seem to be the most effective splash suppressers. Interestingly this design partially mimics the geometry of the water capturing moss Syntrichia caninervis, which exhibits a notable ability to suppress splash and quickly absorb water from impacting rain droplets. With this natural splash suppressor in mind, we search for the ideal urine black hole by performing experiments of simulated urine streams (water droplet streams) impacting macroscopic pillar arrays with varying parameters including pillar height and spacing, draining and material properties. We propose improved urinal insert designs based on our experimental data in hopes of reducing potential embarrassment inherent in wearing khakis.

  20. Laboratory study of the impact of model soil organic carbon content and mineral matter on TCE sorption behaviors%模拟土样有机碳和矿物质对TCE吸附贡献的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩璐; 何江涛; 张晶; 张坤峰

    2011-01-01

    was reduced with the increasing amount of the organic matters. The sorption contribution rate of minerals was less than 5% when the organic carbon content was more than 0. 82%, and even could be neglected when the organic carbon content was higher than 1 %. Also the original concentration of the TCE could affect the capacity of the sorption and the sorption contribution of the organic carbon and minerals insome way. The Freundlich sorption model was used to simulate the TCE isotherm sorption patterns in two segments, with Ce = 500 ng/L as the boundary. The fitting exponential of Freundlich (n) decreased with the increasing TCE concentration. Besides, the contribution rate of the organic carbon increased while that of the minerals went down with the increasingly higher TCE concentration. When the TCE concentration varied from 50 to 500 μg/L and f∝ was 0.16%, the sorption contribution rate of minerals fluctuated in the range of 28% ~ 16% and decreased to 3% - 1 % at f∝ equal to 1 %, whereas the TCE concentration almost had nothing to do with their contributions.

  1. Minerals yearbook: Mineral industries of Asia and the Pacific. Volume 3. 1991 international review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-12-31

    This edition of the Minerals Yearbook records the performance of the worldwide minerals industry during 1991 and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Content of the individual Yearbook volumes follows: Volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters on virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. Volume II, Area Reports: Domestic, contains chapters on the minerals industry of each of the 50 States and Puerto Rico, Northern Marianas, Island Possessions, and Trust Territory. Volume III, Area Reports: International, contains the latest available mineral data on more than 160 foreign countries and discuss the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations.

  2. Calcium and phosphorus contents of body parts of some domestic animals used as meat source in Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Edith U Ebeledike; Godwin IC Nwokedi; Okechukwu O Ndu; Festus BC Okoye; Izuchukwu S Ochiogu

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the calcium and phosphorus contents of four domestic animals used as sources of meat in Nigeria. Methods:The calcium contents of the body parts of the animals were determined using atomic absorption spectrometer. Their phosphorus contents were determined colorimetrically using the molybdenum blue method. Results:The calcium and phosphorus contents were significantly higher in the bone samples than in the other animal parts investigated (P<0.05). The calcium contents of all the edible parts were higher in chicken than in the other animals. High calcium and phosphorus contents were detected in the faeces of chicken and goat, and that of cattle and goat, respectively. Low calcium and phosphorus contents were detected in the urine samples. Calcium÷phosphorus ratios calculated for the bones of chicken, cattle and goat were satisfactory. Conclusions:In conclusion, calcium and phosphorus contents of the animal parts vary significantly and their relative contents may be related to the animal's diet. Chicken parts may be the preferred dietary source of these minerals. This study highlights the need for routine investigation of the mineral contents of food, which is necessary for proper nutritional guidelines.

  3. Fumarolic minerals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balic Zunic, Tonci; Garavelli, Anna; Jakobsson, Sveinn Peter

    2016-01-01

    The fumarolic mineralogy of the Icelandic active volcanoes, the Tyrrhenian volcanic belt (Italy) and the Aegean active arc (Greece) is investigated, and literature data surveyed in order to define the characteristics of the European fumarolic systems. They show broad diversity of mineral...... associations, with Vesuvius and Vulcano being also among the world localities richest in mineral species. Volcanic systems, which show recession over a longer period, show fumarolic development from the hightemperature alkaline halide/sulphate, calcic sulphate or sulphidic parageneses, synchronous...... fluctuations in activity, illustrated by the example of Vulcano where the high-temperature association appears intermittently. A full survey of the mineral groups and species is given in respect to their importance and appearance in fumarolic associations....

  4. Blood and urine cadmium and bioelements profile in nickel-cadmium battery workers in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulat, Z Plamenac; Dukic-Cosic, D; Dokic, M; Bulat, P; Matovic, V

    2009-03-01

    Although cadmium (Cd) is extensively used for nickel-cadmium battery production, few recent reports are available on the effect of this toxic metal on the imbalance of biometals in occupational exposure. The current study was carried out to determine the Cd level and its effect on the content of bioelements: zinc, cooper, magnesium, and iron in blood and urine of workers exposed to Cd during nickel-cadmium battery production. beta(2)-microglobulins (beta(2)-MG), as indicators of kidney damage, were determined in urine.The study group comprised 32 male nickel-cadmium battery workers, and the control group had 15 male construction workers with no history of Cd exposure. Levels of Cd and bioelements were determined in blood and urine by atomic absorption spectrophotometry.Cd concentration in blood of exposed workers was around 10 microg/L and in urine ranged from 1.93 to 8.76 microg/g creatinine (cr). Urine Cd concentration was significantly higher in exposed workers than in the controls, although no statistical difference in beta(2)-MG content was observed in urine between the two groups. Blood Zn and Mg level were significantly reduced and urine Zn level was increased in Cd-exposed group when compared with controls.The mean Cd concentrations in blood and urine did not exceed the recommended reference values of 10 microg/L in blood and 10 microg/g cr in urine. Cd exposure resulted in disturbances of Zn in blood and urine and Mg in blood but had no effect on Cu and Fe content in biological fluids.

  5. Male urination in the train

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loth, M.; Molenbroek, J.F.M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study about hygiene in train toilets. The central problem is that with the existing train toilet design and the different groups of users it is impossible to keep the train toilet clean. In a conventional train, it is especially difficult for men to urinate

  6. Nonhazardous Urine Pretreatment Method for Future Exploration Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A novel urine pretreatment that will prevent biological growth or chemical instabilities in urine without using hazardous chemicals is proposed. Untreated urine...

  7. Analysis of Mineral Elements Content in the Edible Stages of Vespa mandarinia Smith%金环胡蜂食用虫态矿质元素含量分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张佑祥; 易浪波; 李艳丽; 方秦洪; 刘世彪

    2012-01-01

    The vespa mandarinia Smith samples in four edible stages, such as larvae, immature pupas, mature pupa* and adults were respectively digested by microwave, and the digestion solution was directly injected into inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES)lor quantitative determination of 14 mineral elements (K?P,S, Ca、Mg、Fe、Xu、GO、Mn、Se、Zn、Ba、Al and Cd). The results showed that the four edible stages contained rich components of K>P,S,Ca,Mg,Fe,Zn and Se.and had high edible value. The content of harmful element of Cd (0.09-0.36 ug/g) was in the national food contaminants limited range, and the content of Al (96.78-320.52 ug/g) was a little high.%以微波消解法处理金环胡蜂(Vespa mandarinia Smith)4种食用虫态即幼虫、初化蛹、老熟蛹和成虫,采用电感耦合等离子体发射光谱法( ICP-OES)对这4种食用虫态样品中的K、P、S、Ca、Mg、Fe、Cu、Co、Mn、Se、Zn、Ba、Al、Cd等14种矿质元素成分进行了分析.结果表明:金环胡蜂各食用虫态中的K、P、S、Ca、Mg、Fe、Zn和S;e等元素含量特别丰富,具有较高的食用价值;有害元素中Gd的含量为0.09.0.36 μg/g.尚在国家食品污染物限量范围内,而Al的含量96.78~320.52 μg/g,偏高.

  8. Screening for human papillomavirus: Is urine useful?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K W D′Hauwers

    2009-01-01

    We looked at the usefulness of urine as a tool for HPV screening. Pubmed was searched with the words ′′HPV′′, ′′Urine,′′ and ′′HPV-DNA′′. The chance of finding HPV-DNA in urine is higher in men with lesions in the urethra than outside the urethra, and in women with abnormal cervical cytology. In general, the results of testing urine for HPV-DNA are better for women than for men, probably because of the anatomical position of the urethra to the vagina, vulva, and cervix. In both genders, urine HPV prevalence is higher in HIV pos patients and in high-risk populations. Urine, to screen asymptomatic low-risk-profile (women seems less useful because their urine samples are often inadequate. If urine proves to be the best medium to screen, a low-risk population remains controversial.

  9. Associations between adiposity, hormones, and gains in height, whole-body height-adjusted bone size, and size-adjusted bone mineral content in 8- to 11-year-old children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Ritz, Christian; Larnkjær, Anni

    2016-01-01

    We examined fat-independent associations of hormones with height and whole-body bone size and mineral content in 633 school children. IGF-1 and osteocalcin predict growth in height, while fat, osteocalcin, and in girls also, IGF-1 predict growth in bone size. Leptin and ghrelin are inversely...... associated with bone size in girls. INTRODUCTION: Obesity causes larger bone size and bone mass, but the role of hormones in this up-regulation of bone in obesity is not well elucidated. We examined longitudinal associations between baseline body fat mass (FM), and fat-independent fasting levels of ghrelin.......017) and inversely associated with both baseline ghrelin (-0.01 cm(2)/pg/ml, p = 0.001) and leptin (-1.21 cm(2)/μg/ml, p = 0.005). In boys, gain in BMCsize was positively associated with osteocalcin (0.18 g/ng/ml, p = 0.030). CONCLUSIONS: This large longitudinal study suggests that in 8- to 11-year-old children, IGF...

  10. Thin layer chromatography of camel urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarig Hab,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available General screening of 10 camel urine samples was carried out to determine the most common constituent of camel urine. Samples used were crude, ethanolic and chlorofermic extracts and compared with their lyophilysed urine. The study revealed the presence of alkaloids and triterpene. The objectives of this investigation are to verify camel urine major chemical constituents which are extremely valuable information for detecting new drugs of natural origin.

  11. Clay Mineral: Radiological Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotomácio, J. G.; Silva, P. S. C.; Mazzilli, B. P.

    2008-08-01

    Since the early days, clays have been used for therapeutic purposes. Nowadays, most minerals applied as anti-inflammatory, pharmaceutics and cosmetic are the clay minerals that are used as the active ingredient or, as the excipient, in formulations. Although their large use, few information is available in literature on the content of the radionuclide concentrations of uranium and thorium natural series and 40K in these clay minerals. The objective of this work is to determine the concentrations of 238U, 232Th, 226Ra, 228Ra, 210Pb and 40K in commercial samples of clay minerals used for pharmaceutical or cosmetic purposes. Two kinds of clays samples were obtained in pharmacies, named green clay and white clay. Measurement for the determination of 238U and 232Th activity concentration was made by alpha spectrometry and gamma spectrometry was used for 226Ra, 228Ra, 210Pb and 40K determination. Some physical-chemical parameters were also determined as organic carbon and pH. The average activity concentration obtained was 906±340 Bq kg-1 for 40K, 40±9 Bq kg-1 for 226Ra, 75±9 Bq kg-1 for 228Ra, 197±38 Bq kg-1 for 210Pb, 51±26 Bq kg-1 for 238U and 55±24 Bq kg-1 for 232Th, considering both kinds of clay.

  12. PURPLE URINE BAG SYNDROME: AN ALARMING HUE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumbha Thulasi Ram

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purple urine bag syndrome is a rare phenomenon reported mostly in females on an indwelling catheter in chronically constipated with alkaline urine. It is secondary to recurrent urinary tract infections with indigo and indirubicin producing bacteria. Here we present this interesting case of an elderly woman who had purple colored urine bag

  13. Getting a Urine Test (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Too Short All About Puberty Getting a Urine Test (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting a Urine Test (Video) Print A A A en español Obtención ... cup, but docs learn a lot from urine tests. Obviously, this test doesn't hurt. And if ...

  14. Getting a Urine Test (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... About Puberty Train Your Temper Getting a Urine Test (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting a Urine Test (Video) Print A A A en español Obtención ... cup, but docs learn a lot from urine tests. Obviously, this test doesn't hurt. And if ...

  15. Getting a Urine Test (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Video: Getting an X-ray Getting a Urine Test (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting a Urine Test (Video) Print A A A en español Obtención ... cup, but docs learn a lot from urine tests. Obviously, this test doesn't hurt. And if ...

  16. Aboveground vertebrate and invertebrate herbivore impact on net N mineralization in subalpine grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risch, Anita C; Schotz, Martin; Vandegehuchte, Martijn L; Van Der Putten, Wim H; Duyts, Henk; Raschein, Ursina; Gwiazdowicz, Dariusz J; Busse, Matt D; Page-dumroese, Deborah S; Zimmermann, Stephan

    2015-12-01

    Aboveground herbivores have strong effects on grassland nitrogen (N) cycling. They can accelerate or slow down soil net N mineralization depending on ecosystem productivity and grazing intensity. Yet, most studies only consider either ungulates or invertebrate herbivores, but not the combined effect of several functionally different vertebrate and invertebrate herbivore species or guilds. We assessed how a diverse herbivore community affects net N mineralization in subalpine grasslands. By using size-selective fences, we progressively excluded large, medium, and small mammals, as well as invertebrates from two vegetation types, and assessed how the exclosure types (ET) affected net N mineralization. The two vegetation types differed in long-term management (centuries), forage quality, and grazing history and intensity. To gain a more mechanistic understanding of how herbivores affect net N mineralization, we linked mineralization to soil abiotic (temperature; moisture; NO3-, NH4+, and total inorganic N concentrations/pools; C, N, P concentrations; pH; bulk density), soil biotic (microbial biomass; abundance of collembolans, mites, and nematodes) and plant (shoot and root biomass; consumption; plant C, N, and fiber content; plant N pool) properties. Net N mineralization differed between ET, but not between vegetation types. Thus, short-term changes in herbivore community composition and, therefore, in grazing intensity had a stronger effect on net N mineralization than long-term management and grazing history. We found highest N mineralization values when only invertebrates were present, suggesting that mammals had a negative effect on net N mineralization. Of the variables included in our analyses, only mite abundance and aboveground plant biomass explained variation in net N mineralization among ET. Abundances of both mites and leaf-sucking invertebrates were positively correlated with aboveground plant biomass, and biomass increased with progressive exclusion

  17. Mineral bioprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torma, A.E.

    1993-05-01

    In the last 25 years, the introduction of biotechnological methods in hydrometallurgy has created new opportunities and challenges for the mineral processing industry. This was especially true for the production of metal values from mining wastes and low-and-complex-grade mineral resources, which were considered economically not amenable for processing by conventional extraction methods. Using bio-assisted heap, dump and in-situ leaching technologies, copper and uranium extractions gained their first industrial applications. The precious metal industries were the next to adopt the bio-preoxidation technique in the extraction of gold from refractory sulfide-bearing ores and concentrates. A variety of other bioleaching opportunities exist for nickel, cobalt, cadmium and zinc sulfide leaching. Recently developed bioremediation methods and biosorption technologies have shown a good potential for industrial applications to remove trace heavy metal and radionuclide concentrations from contaminated soils, and mining and processing effluents.

  18. Nitrification and microalgae cultivation for two-stage biological nutrient valorization from source separated urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppens, Joeri; Lindeboom, Ralph; Muys, Maarten; Coessens, Wout; Alloul, Abbas; Meerbergen, Ken; Lievens, Bart; Clauwaert, Peter; Boon, Nico; Vlaeminck, Siegfried E

    2016-07-01

    Urine contains the majority of nutrients in urban wastewaters and is an ideal nutrient recovery target. In this study, stabilization of real undiluted urine through nitrification and subsequent microalgae cultivation were explored as strategy for biological nutrient recovery. A nitrifying inoculum screening revealed a commercial aquaculture inoculum to have the highest halotolerance. This inoculum was compared with municipal activated sludge for the start-up of two nitrification membrane bioreactors. Complete nitrification of undiluted urine was achieved in both systems at a conductivity of 75mScm(-1) and loading rate above 450mgNL(-1)d(-1). The halotolerant inoculum shortened the start-up time with 54%. Nitrite oxidizers showed faster salt adaptation and Nitrobacter spp. became the dominant nitrite oxidizers. Nitrified urine as growth medium for Arthrospira platensis demonstrated superior growth compared to untreated urine and resulted in a high protein content of 62%. This two-stage strategy is therefore a promising approach for biological nutrient recovery.

  19. Effect of trace minerals and starch on digestibility and rumen fermentation in diets for dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pino, F; Heinrichs, A J

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different forms of trace minerals (TM) and the use of different starch levels in dairy heifer diets on rumen fermentation and digestibility. Eight rumen cannulated dairy heifers (15.4 ± 0.8 mo of age and 438.31 ± 18.08 kg of body weight) were subjected to a split-plot, 4 × 4 Latin square design with 19-d periods: 15d of adaptation and 4d of sampling. The whole-plot factor was type of TM; organic as proteinates (OTM) or inorganic sulfates (ITM), and the subplot was starch level (3.54, 12.95, 22.25, and 31.73%). Total collection of feces and urine was completed on d 15 to 19 to determine digestibility and TM excretion. Rumen contents were sampled on d 18 to 19 at 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, and 22 h after feeding to measure pH and volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations. Plasma samples were collected to evaluate TM concentrations and enzymatic activity for ceruloplasmin, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase. Starch level affected pH, individual VFA concentrations, and nutrient excretion. Trace mineral intake was lower for OTM compared with ITM. No effect of TM form on dry matter digestibility was detected, but as level of starch increased, diet dry matter digestibility increased. Rumen pH was lower for diets with OTM, which is consistent with higher total VFA production and butyrate proportion observed for heifers fed OTM diets. These variables may be explained by the higher bioavailability of OTM and faster utilization and fermentation by rumen microorganisms. Heifers that consumed ITM had higher moisture in feces and higher urine excretion, which increased total manure production. Total excretion of TM was not different by treatment. Blood plasma mineral concentration was not different between treatments except for Mn, which was higher for OTM. Enzymatic activity was not affected by treatments. Mineral intake was reduced and blood mineral levels were not different, suggesting enhanced

  20. Greenhouse evaluation and environmental impact assessment of different urine-derived struvite fertilizers as phosphorus sources for plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonini, Samantha; Arias, Maria Alejandra; Eichert, Thomas; Clemens, Joachim

    2012-11-01

    A selection of six urine-derived struvite fertilizers generated by innovative precipitation technologies was assessed for their quality and their effectiveness as phosphorus sources for crops. Struvite purity was influenced by drying techniques and magnesium dosage. In a greenhouse experiment, the urine fertilizers led to biomass yields and phosphorus uptakes comparable to or higher than those induced by a commercial mineral fertilizer. Heavy metal concentrations of the different struvite fertilizers were below the threshold limits specified by the German Fertilizer and Sewage Sludge Regulations. The computed loading rates of heavy metals to agricultural land were also below the threshold limits decreed by the Federal Soil Protection Act. Urine-derived struvite contributed less to heavy metal inputs to farmland than other recycling products or commercial mineral and organic fertilizers. When combined with other soil conditioners, urine-derived struvite is an efficient fertilizer which covers the magnesium and more than half of the phosphorus demand of crops.

  1. On-Demand Urine Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquharson, Stuart; Inscore, Frank; Shende, Chetan

    2010-01-01

    A lab-on-a-chip was developed that is capable of extracting biochemical indicators from urine samples and generating their surface-enhanced Raman spectra (SERS) so that the indicators can be quantified and identified. The development was motivated by the need to monitor and assess the effects of extended weightlessness, which include space motion sickness and loss of bone and muscle mass. The results may lead to developments of effective exercise programs and drug regimes that would maintain astronaut health. The analyzer containing the lab-on-a- chip includes materials to extract 3- methylhistidine (a muscle-loss indicator) and Risedronate (a bone-loss indicator) from the urine sample and detect them at the required concentrations using a Raman analyzer. The lab-on- a-chip has both an extractive material and a SERS-active material. The analyzer could be used to monitor the onset of diseases, such as osteoporosis.

  2. Insulating and sheathing materials of electric and optical cables: common test methods part 4-1: methods specific to polyethylene and polypropylene compounds – resistance to environmental stress cracking – measurement of the melt flow index – carbon black and/or mineral filler content measurement in polyethylene by direct combustion – measurement of carbon black content by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) – assessment of carbon black dispersion in polyethylene using a microscope

    CERN Document Server

    International Electrotechnical Commission. Geneva

    2004-01-01

    Specifies the test methods to be used for testing polymeric insulating and sheathing materials of electric cables for power distribution and telecommunications including cables used on ships. Gives the methods for measurements of the resistance to environmental stress cracking, for wrapping test after thermal ageing in air, for measurement of melt flow index and for measurement of carbon black and/or mineral filler content, which apply to PE and PP coumpounds, including cellular compounds and foam skin for insulation.

  3. [Evolution of urine test paper].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Akemi

    2014-07-01

    Qualitative urinalysis with test strips is utilized as a screening test. Test strip use has been incorporated in the diagnostic criteria of a variety of clinical practice guidelines. The strips can measure many parameters and have the advantage of being able to rapidly provide results at a low cost. I hope that the standardization of parameters on test strip use will progress further, and that new urine biomarkers will be included.

  4. Role of minerals in animal health disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinovec Zlatan J.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available All mineral matter, essential or non-essential, can have a significant influence on production results and the health of animals, if large quantities of them are present in a feed ration. A maximally tolerant content depends on the animal specie and category. Many factors, such as physiological status (growth, lactation, etc., nutritive status, content and ratio of nutritive matter in the ration, duration of exposure, and the biological level of utilization of elements, also affect the maximally tolerant content of mineral matter in feed. The content of certain mineral matter in plant feed significantly depends on the soil factor, as well as the content and level of utilization of mineral matter from the soil. Mn, Se and Mo can be present in plant feed in such quantities as to induce toxicosis. Industrial contaminants, Cd, Pb or F, can contaminate plants, in particular their leaves, in quantities which lead to the appearance of clinical signs of conventional toxicosis. Moreover, natural water can contain large quantities of S, F, Na, Mg, or Fe, and certain mineral matter can get into water through industrial waste. In addition to the above, it is possible to cause unwanted effects through the frequent, but primarily unprofessional use of mineral additives, since it is extremely important, besides meeting the mineral requirements of each individual element, to secure a ratio among the mineral matter themselves as well as with other nutritive matter. Mineral matter present in food are in mutual interference, and these relations can be synergistic or antagonistic. The sufficiency of a large number of mineral matter has a negative effect on the utilization of other matter (conditional and/or border deficiency, while certain elements cause the clinical appearance of toxic effects. The accidental intake of large quantities of certain mineral matter is revealed as clinical signs of acute toxicosis, which is very different from chronic effects caused by

  5. The performance of fully automated urine analysis results for predicting the need of urine culture test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Yüksel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Urinalysis and urine culture are most common tests for diagnosis of urinary tract infections. The aim of our study is to examine the diagnostic performance of urine analysis and the role of urine analysis to determine the requirements for urine culture. Methods: Urine culture and urine analysis results of 362 patients were retrospectively analyzed. Culture results were taken as a reference for chemical and microscopic examination of urine and diagnostic accuracy of the test parameters, that may be a marker for urinary tract infection, and the performance of urine analysis were calculated for predicting the urine culture requirements. Results: A total of 362 urine culture results of patients were evaluated and 67% of them were negative. The results of leukocyte esterase and nitrite in chemical analysis and leukocytes and bacteria in microscopic analysis were normal in 50.4% of culture negative urines. In diagnostic accuracy calculations, leukocyte esterase (86.1% and microscopy leukocytes (88.0% were found with high sensitivity, nitrite (95.4% and bacteria (86.6% were found with high specificity. The area under the curve was calculated as 0.852 in ROC analysis for microscopic examination for leukocytes. Conclusion: Full-automatic urine devices can provide sufficient diagnostic accuracy for urine analysis. The evaluation of urine analysis results in an effective way can predict the necessity for urine culture requests and especially may contribute to a reduction in the work load and cost. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (2: 286-289

  6. Urine bag as a modern day matula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Stalin

    2013-01-01

    Since time immemorial uroscopic analysis has been a staple of diagnostic medicine. It received prominence during the middle ages with the introduction of the matula. Urinary discoloration is generally due to changes in urochrome concentration associated with the presence of other endogenous or exogenous pigments. Observation of urine colors has received less attention due to the advances made in urinalysis. A gamut of urine colors can be seen in urine bags of hospitalized patients that may give clue to presence of infections, medications, poisons, and hemolysis. Although worrisome to the patient, urine discoloration is mostly benign and resolves with removal of the offending agent. Twelve urine bags with discolored urine (and their predisposing causes) have been shown as examples. Urine colors (blue-green, yellow, orange, pink, red, brown, black, white, and purple) and their etiologies have been reviewed following a literature search in these databases: Pubmed, EBSCO, Science Direct, Proquest, Google Scholar, Springer, and Ovid.

  7. Urine Bag as a Modern Day Matula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Stalin

    2013-01-01

    Since time immemorial uroscopic analysis has been a staple of diagnostic medicine. It received prominence during the middle ages with the introduction of the matula. Urinary discoloration is generally due to changes in urochrome concentration associated with the presence of other endogenous or exogenous pigments. Observation of urine colors has received less attention due to the advances made in urinalysis. A gamut of urine colors can be seen in urine bags of hospitalized patients that may give clue to presence of infections, medications, poisons, and hemolysis. Although worrisome to the patient, urine discoloration is mostly benign and resolves with removal of the offending agent. Twelve urine bags with discolored urine (and their predisposing causes) have been shown as examples. Urine colors (blue-green, yellow, orange, pink, red, brown, black, white, and purple) and their etiologies have been reviewed following a literature search in these databases: Pubmed, EBSCO, Science Direct, Proquest, Google Scholar, Springer, and Ovid. PMID:24959539

  8. Manure production and mineral excretion in feces of gilts fed ractopamine - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v35i3.18662

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everton Daniel

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to evaluate the feces+urine produced per animal (FUPA, dry matter, mineral matter, organic matter, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and sulfur in feces of gilts fed diets with increasing levels of ractopamine (0, 5, 10 and 15 mg kg-1 of diet. A total of 468 finishing gilts were allotted into 36 pens. In two days of each week, feces and urine were daily sampled in four pens per treatment, quantifying the feces+urine. To determine the characterization of feces, two samples per week were taken daily, in nine pens per treatment. It was used a split plot design, considering the ractopamine level as the plot and the weeks as the subplots. There was no reduction in nitrogen amount in feces. An interaction was detected between ractopamine concentrations and weeks for FUPA and phosphorus, potassium and sulfur in feces. Ractopamine addition in diets for gilts has reduced the feces+urine production and nitrogen and phosphorus excretion. Higher values estimated for potassium content in feces of animals fed diets with 10 and 15 mg of ractopamine kg-1 were found between the second and third week. Increasing levels of ractopamine from 5 to 15 mg kg-1 promoted higher excretion of sulfur over the weeks of supply.   

  9. In vitro monitoring of natural thorium in urine using fluorimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaiselvan, S; Lakshmanan, A R; Meenakshisundaram, V

    2011-12-15

    A relatively less expensive and less time consuming radio analytical technique for quantitative determination of Th(nat) in urine at mBq level is developed and reported in this paper. Th in urine is co-precipitated with Ca(3)(PO(4))(2) from wet oxidized urine matrix and the precipitate is dissolved in HNO(3) and evaporated to dryness. The residue is dissolved in 3M HCl and 200mg of Na-EDTA is added to mask Ca(2+), Mg(2+) and Fe(3+) ions. Th(4+) is extracted into 0.01M PC-88A (2-ethyl hexyl phosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester), dissolved in toluene from the experimentally optimized pH 2.5 ± 0.3 in aqueous phase. Th(4+) is stripped into 8.0M HCl and evaporated to dryness. The content of the beaker is dissolved in pH 1.8 HCl and complexed with 3-hydroxy flavone. The sample is excited at 397 nm and fluorescence intensity is measured at 462 nm. The detailed study of the method is presented in this paper. Interference study on elements that are normally present in urine and other actinides (if present) is also given. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Pretreatment process for mineral analysis in FFH using INAA-method and evaluation of mineral intakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ok Hee; Youn, Kyung Jin; Lee, Ji Bum; Kim, Mi Jin [Yongin University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    This study were aimed to set up the pre-treatment process for FFH and analyse Pretreatment processes for the analysis of food mineral contents by INAA were established according to FFH state using freeze-drying and homogenization. The Se contents showed higher precision with INAA-method than ICP-method. The content of Ca, Na, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Cr, Co in FFH measured using INAA-method showed that the mineral contents in the amount of recommended intakes by manufacturer were not significantly different according to FFH type. The average Ca contents was the highest in Yousanguns > nutritional supplement> glucosamines. The average K content of FFH with one serving size were the highest in glucosamines>aloes> nutritional supplements. I content among FFH was the highest in nutritional supplements. The average Mg contents were highest in Chlorella-Spirurina and Aloes. The average Cu content of FFH was the highest in Yeasts. The contents of Fe, Zn and Se were the highest in nutritional supplements. The mineral contents in recommended intake amounts by manufacturer were over the maximum contents regulated by Korean FDA in some imported FFH products. their mineral contents of FFH using NAA-method and to assess the mineral intakes by FFH

  11. Efectos de dos sistemas de producción en el contenido de minerales en el fruto de Musa AAB Simmonds Effects of two production systems in the mineral content in the fruit of Musa AAB Simmonds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Barrera-Violeth

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Los sistemas de producción orgánico y/o ecológico tienen como objetivo garantizar la sostenibilidad y la renovación de base natural, mediante la limitación del uso de productos de síntesis química para favorecer el ambiente y la salud humana. Teniendo en cuenta estas características, se estudió el efecto de los sistemas de producción orgánico y convencional sobre el contenido de nutrientes minerales del fruto del plátano Hartón (Musa AAB Simmonds, durante el proceso de maduración. Las determinaciones se realizaron en la Universidad de Córdoba (Montería, Colombia con el fin de establecer las diferencias en el contenido de minerales en los frutos en ambos sistemas y en diferentes estados de maduración. Se utilizó un diseño completamente al azar con arreglo factorial 2 x 5 y cinco repeticiones. Los factores fueron: sistema de producción y estado de maduración; los cinco niveles del segundo factor correspondieron a los grados de maduración: verde-oscuro (V, verde-claro (VC, amarillo-verde (AV, amarillo (A y muy amarillo (MA. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que entre ambos sistemas de producción y en distintos grados de maduración, se presentan diferencias significativas (P Organic production systems and/or ecological aim to ensure the sustainability and renewal of natural base by limiting chemical synthesis products favoring the environment and human health due to these benefits, we studied the effect of systems organic and conventional production on mineral nutrient content of the fruit of plantain (Musa AAB Simmonds during the ripening process. Measurements were performed at the University of Córdoba (Montería, Colombia in order to differentiate between the two systems, in varying states of maturity. A complete randomized design with 2 x 5 factorial arrangements with five replications was used. The factors were: production system and state of maturity, the five levels of the second factor corresponded to the following

  12. Amino Acid and Mineral Contents of Pitaya Fruits Harvested from Saline Habitats%盐碱环境火龙果氨基酸和矿质元素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨道富; 林旗华; 李玉发; 蔡秋英; 陈源; 卓玉辉

    2011-01-01

    在盐碱环境下,测定不同果肉颜色火龙果品种‘银龙’和‘白玉龙’果实的氨基酸和8种矿质元素(钾、镁、钙、钠、铁、锌、锰和铜)含量.结果表明:盐碱环境下生产的火龙果含有17种氨基酸,氨基酸种类齐全,‘银龙’和‘白玉龙’中总氨基酸含量分别为765.62 mg·hg-1 FW和1 122.60 mg·hg-1FW,其中谷氨酸的含量最高,‘银龙’和‘白玉龙’中分别达到了15.88%和20.77%;药用氨基酸也较为丰富,‘银龙’和‘白玉龙’中分别为62.79%和66.88%.2个参试品种中的钾、镁、钙、铁、锌等矿质元素含量均高于种植于其他生态环境下相应肉色火龙果.并探讨了盐碱环境对火龙果果实氨基酸、矿质元素等营养品质的影响,以及盐碱环境下火龙果种植模式的社会经济效益.%Contents of amino acids and 8 minerals (I. E. , K,Mg, Ca, Na, Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu) in two of pitaya fruit, Yinlong and Baiyulong, grown in saline habitats were determined. The results indicated that the pitaya fruits contained 17 amino acids. The total amino acid contents of Yinlong and Baiyulong were 765. 62 mg · Hg-1 FW and 1, 122. 60 mg · Hg-1 FW, respectively. Glutamic acid cotent was the highest among them, accounting for 15. 88% and 20. 77% of the total amino acids in Yinlong and Baiyulong, respectively. The pharmacological amino acids were rich in the pitaya fruits, constituting 62. 79% and 66. 88% of the total amino acids in Yinlong and Baiyulong, respectively. The contents of K, Mg, Ca, Fe and Zn were higher in the pitaya fruits from the plants grown in saline habitats than otherwise. Thus, the effect of cultivation of pitaya fruit plants under saline conditions on the fruit's chemical contents, quality and socio-economic benefits are presented for future reference.

  13. Application of duckweed for human urine treatment in Bioregenerative Life Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manukovsky, Nickolay; Kovalev, Vladimir

    The object of the study was the common duckweed Lemna minor L. Thanks to the ability to assimilate mineral and organic substances, duckweed is used to purify water in sewage lagoons. In addition, duckweed biomass is known to be a potential high-protein feed resource for domestic animals and fish. The aim of the study was to estimate an application of duckweed in a two-stage treatment of human urine in Bioregenerative Life Support System (BLSS). At the first stage, the urine’s organic matter is oxidized by hydrogen peroxide. Diluted solution of oxidized urine is used for cultivation of duckweed. The appointment of duckweed is the assimilation of mineralized substances of urine. Part of the duckweed biomass yield directly or after composting could be embedded in the soil-like substrate as organic fertilizer to compensate the carry-over in consequence of plant growing. The rest duckweed biomass could be used as a feed for animals in BLSS. Then, the residual culture liquid is concentrated and used as a source of dietary salt. It takes 10-15 m2 of duckweed culture per crewmember to treat oxidized urine. The BLSS configuration including two-component subsystem of urine treatment is presented.

  14. Nondigestible carbohydrates and mineral bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greger, J L

    1999-07-01

    Generally, fiber and compounds associated with fiber in cereal products (e.g., phytates) have been found to reduce the apparent absorption of minerals (such as calcium, magnesium, zinc and manganese) in humans, livestock and animal models. The effects of "soluble" forms of fiber (specifically pectins, gums, resistant starches, lactulose, oligofructose and inulin) on mineral absorption are more difficult to characterize. The addition of these soluble forms of fiber has been found in various studies to add viscosity to the gut contents, promote fermentation and the production of volatile fatty acids in the cecum, have a trophic effect on the ceca of animals and increase serum enteroglucagon concentrations. Thus it is not surprising that the addition of soluble forms of fiber to diets often has been found to improve absorption of minerals. This may reflect absorption of electrolytes from the large intestine. Future work should address the mechanisms by which ingestion of nondigestible carbohydrates improves mineral absorption in humans.

  15. Nutrição mineral, crescimento e teor de óleo essencial da menta em solução nutritiva sob diferentes concentrações de fósforo e épocas de coleta Mineral nutrition, growth and essential oil content of mint in nutrient solution under different phosphorus concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos R. Rodrigues

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito de concentrações de P e épocas de coleta sobre o crescimento, nutrição mineral e teor de óleo essencial da menta (Mentha piperita L.. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados com parcelas subdivididas, em esquema fatorial 2x5, sendo 2 épocas de coleta (65 e 95 dias de cultivo (DC e 5 concentrações de P na solução nutritiva (6; 12; 18; 24 e 30 mg L-1, com 4 repetições. Foi determinada a massa seca de folhas (MSF, caules (MSC, raízes (MSR e total (MST e as relações folha:caule (F:C e parte aérea:raiz (PA:R. Também, foi determinado o teor de óleo essencial em folhas frescas. Os níveis críticos foliares e acúmulo de nutrientes na parte aérea da menta foram estimados por meio da análise química das folhas e caules. As concentrações de P na solução influenciaram o crescimento e a produção de óleo essencial pela menta. Na coleta realizada aos 65 DC, apenas a MSF foi influenciada pelo P, não se observando efeito sobre os teores de óleo essencial. Aos 95 DC, o aumento da concentração de P promoveu aumentos significativos na massa seca das partes e do total da menta e, também, nos teores de óleo essencial, sendo o teor máximo (2,192 dag kg-1 obtido com 19,50 mg L-1 de P. As maiores concentrações de P avaliadas (24 e 30 mg L-1, promoveram aumentos na produção de matéria fresca e seca da parte aérea da menta, mas, reduziram os teores de óleo essencial, devido ao efeito de diluição, não significando, portanto, ganhos de produção de óleo por planta. Os teores foliares dos nutrientes associados ao teor máximo de óleo aos 95 DC foram em g kg-1: N=37,2; =3,9; K=21,2; Ca=9,3; Mg=3,8; S=3,0; e, em mg kg-1: B=35; Cu=8; Fe=323; Mn=145 e Zn=22. A exigência nutricional aos 95 DC relacionada ao teor máximo de óleo essencial seguiu a seqüência: N>K>Ca>P>Mg>S>Fe>Mn>B>Zn>Cu.The effect of P concentrations and harvest period upon the growth, mineral nutrition and essential oil

  16. 补光对青海云杉家系幼苗生物量和矿质元素的影响%Effects of Supplemental Light on Biomass and Mineral Element Content of Seedlings From Nine Families in Picea crassifolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳芳群; 王军辉; 贾子瑞; 李悦; 仲永芳; 祁生秀

    2014-01-01

    Supplementing light in the night can efficiently promote the seedlings growth of Picea crassifolia,but the families genetic variation with supplemental light and the relationship between seedlings growth and mineral elements content were not clear. In this study,we explore the effects of extending lighting time on seedling growth and nutrition absorption,and analyze the response of the family genetic difference to light supplemental. The biomass and mineral element content of nine families from superior trees in P. crassifolia with supplemental light were investigated in growing and bud set period. The results showed that biomass and mineral element content were significantly affected by family, lighting time and interacted by family and lighting time. The biomass of P. crassifolia was increased with supplemental light treatment,and the aboveground biomass and underground biomass were 2. 01 and 1. 54 times higher than that of the control,respectively. The seedlings with higher growth rate had lower N:P ratio which was mainly affected by the P content. The N:P ratio of seedlings with supplemental light (7. 71) was significantly lower than that of the control (9. 05) in July. There was a significant negative correlation between the P content and the aboveground biomass. With increased seedling growth promoted by supplemental light,the P content was probably diluted in synthesizing RNA and protein. Thus,it is necessary to apply phosphate fertilizer to seedlings with supplemental light. The family genetic differentiation and phenotypic plasticity to lighting time together brought about the different responses of different families in biomass and nutrient element content to the supplemental light,which makes it possible to select superior family under supplemental light.

  17. ROCKS & MINERALS DETERMINATION AND ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    20160255 Wang Na(Tianjin Center of Geological Survey,China Geological Survey,Tianjin 300170,China);Teng Xinhua Determination of Low-Content Iron Carbonate in Stream Sediments by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry with Aluminum Chloride Extraction(Rock and Mineral Analysis,ISSN0254-5357,CN11-2131/TD,34(2),2015,p.229

  18. A history of urine microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, J Stewart

    2015-11-01

    The naked-eye appearance of the urine must have been studied by shamans and healers since the Stone Age, and an elaborate interpretation of so-called Uroscopy began around 600 AD as a form of divination. A 1000 years later, the first primitive monocular and compound microscopes appeared in the Netherlands, and along with many other objects and liquids, urine was studied from around 1680 onwards as the enlightenment evolved. However, the crude early instruments did not permit fine study because of chromatic and linear/spherical blurring. Only after complex multi-glass lenses which avoided these problems had been made and used in the 1820s in London by Lister, and in Paris by Chevalier and Amici, could urinary microscopy become a practical, clinically useful tool in the 1830s. Clinical urinary microscopy was pioneered by Rayer and his pupils in Paris (especially Vigla), in the late 1830s, and spread to UK and Germany in the 1840s, with detailed descriptions and interpretations of cells and formed elements of the urinary sediment by Nasse, Henle, Robinson and Golding Bird. Classes were held, most notably by Donné in Paris. After another 50 years, optical microscopy had reached its apogee, with magnifications of over 1000 times obtainable free of aberration, using immersion techniques. Atlases of the urinary sediment were published in all major European countries and in the US. Polarised light and phase contrast was used also after 1900 to study urine, and by the early 20th century, photomicroscopy (pioneered by Donné and Daguerre 50 years previously, but then ignored) became usual for teaching and recording. In the 1940s electron microscopy began, followed by detection of specific proteins and cells using immunofluorescent antibodies. All this had been using handheld methodology. Around 1980, machine-assisted observations began, and have dominated progress since.

  19. Papain: a novel urine adulterant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, David L; Nicolaides, Andrea; Rice, Peter J; Dufforc, Michelle; Johnson, David A; Ferslew, Kenneth E

    2005-01-01

    The estimated number of employees in the United Stated screened annually for illicit drugs is approximately 20 million, with marijuana being the most frequently abused drug. Urine adulterants provide an opportunity for illicit drug users to obtain a false-negative result on commonly used primary drug screening methods such as the enzyme multiplied immunoassay technique and the fluorescence polarized immunoassay technique (FPIA). Typical chemical adulterants such as nitrites are easily detected or render the urine specimen invalid as defined in the proposed SAMHSA guidelines for specimen validity testing based on creatinine, specific gravity, and pH. Papain is a cysteine protease with intrinsic ester hydrolysis capability. The primary metabolite of the psychoactive chemical in marijuana, 11-norcarboxy-Delta9-tetrahydrocannibinol (THC-COOH), was assayed by FPIA in concentrations ranging from 25 to 500 ng/mL, at pH values ranging from 4.5 to 8, over the course of 3 days with papain concentrations ranging from 0 to 10 mg/mL. FPIA analysis of other frequently abused drugs: amphetamines, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, cocaine, opiates, and phencyclidine, along with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) of THC-COOH and high-pressure liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV) of nordiazepam was performed in order to determine if the mechanism of urine adulteration by papain was analyte specific. Control and adulterated urine specimens (n = 30) were assayed for creatinine, specific gravity, and pH to determine if papain rendered the specimens invalid based on the proposed SAMHSA guidelines. There was a direct pH, temperature, and time-dependent correlate between the increase in papain concentration and the decrease in THC-COOH concentration from the untreated control groups (p < 0.01). The average 72-h THC-COOH concentration decrease at pH 6.2 with a papain concentration of 10 mg/mL was 50%. Papain did not significantly decrease the concentration of the

  20. Effect of two prophylactic bolus vitamin D dosing regimens (1000 IU/day vs. 400 IU/day) on bone mineral content in new-onset and infrequently-relapsing nephrotic syndrome: a randomised clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muske, Sravani; Krishnamurthy, Sriram; Kamalanathan, Sadish Kumar; Rajappa, Medha; Harichandrakumar, K T; Sivamurukan, Palanisamy

    2017-05-03

    To examine the efficacy of two vitamin D dosages (1000 vs. 400 IU/day) for osteoprotection in children with new-onset and infrequently-relapsing nephrotic syndrome (IFRNS) receiving corticosteroids. This parallel-group, open label, randomised clinical trial enrolled 92 children with new-onset nephrotic syndrome (NS) (n = 28) or IFRNS (n = 64) to receive 1000 IU/day (Group A, n = 46) or 400 IU/day (Group B, n = 46) vitamin D (administered as a single bolus initial supplemental dose) by block randomisation in a 1:1 allocation ratio. In Group A, vitamin D (cholecalciferol in a Calcirol® sachet) was administered in a single stat dose of 84,000 IU on Day 1 of steroid therapy (for new-onset NS), calculated for a period of 12 weeks@1000 IU/day) and 42,000 IU on Day 1 of steroid therapy (for IFRNS, calculated for a period of 6 weeks@1000 IU/day). In Group B, vitamin D (cholecalciferol in a Calcirol® sachet) was administered as a single stat dose of 33,600 IU on Day 1 of steroid therapy (for new-onset NS, calculated for a period of 12 weeks@400 IU/day) and 16,800 IU on Day 1 of steroid therapy (for IFRNS, calculated for a period of 6 weeks@400 IU/day). The proportionate change in bone mineral content (BMC) was analysed in both groups after vitamin D supplementation. Of the 92 children enrolled, 84 (n = 42 new onset, n = 42 IFRNS) completed the study and were included in the final analysis. Baseline characteristics including initial BMC, bone mineral density, cumulative prednisolone dosage and serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol levels were comparable in the two groups. There was a greater median proportionate change in BMC in the children who received 1000 IU/day vitamin D (3.25%, IQR -1.2 to 12.4) than in those who received 400 IU/day vitamin D (1.2%, IQR -2.5 to 3.8, p = 0.048). The difference in proportionate change in BMC was only statistically significant in the combined new-onset and IFRNS, but not for IFRNS alone. There was a greater

  1. 肥胖男童骨矿物质含量及瘦体重的研究%Research of Bone Mineral Content and Lean Mass in Male Obese Children.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜梅; 黄玉春; 华天懿; 赵淑霞

    2001-01-01

    【目的】了解以体脂含量增加为特点的肥胖儿童骨矿物质含量、骨密度及瘦体重有何变化。【方法】应用体块指数(BMI)诊断的肥胖组及对年龄、身高进行一一配对的正常组儿童各17例,年龄7~13岁,测定其骨矿物质含量(BMC)、骨密度(BMD)及瘦体重(LM),观察二组间的差异,再用体脂含量百分比(F%)来重新诊断这34名儿童,观察肥胖组与对照组间上述指标的差异,并应用多因素分析肥胖与骨矿物质含量之间的关系。【结果】应用BMI为诊断标准时肥胖组与对照组间的BMC、BMD、LM有显著差异。改用F%为诊断标准后,肥胖儿童与正常儿童间的BMC、BMD差别消失,LM之间的差别也减小,多因素分析结果:体脂含量、肥胖与BMC无关。【结论】若以体脂含量增加来定义肥胖儿童,其骨矿物质含量、骨密度与正常儿童相比无差别,瘦体重差别也不大,单纯体脂含量的增加并不能引起骨矿物质含量的改变。%【Objective】 To assess and compare bone mineral content(BMC), bone mineral density(BMD)and lean mass(LM) in normal children and obese children who have excessive fat.  【Methods】 In a case control study,17 male obese children aged 7~13,diagnosed by body mass index(BMI)were recruited,17 healthy male children mached for age and height were enrolled as control.Total body BMC,total body BMD and total LM were measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry. The results were compared between the two groups. Then, obesity were rediagnosed by body fat percent(F%) in these 34 children, comparation was done again. Multiple-linear-regression analysis was used to access the influence of age, height, body composition variables and obesity on the dependent variable BMC. 【Results】 When BMI was used to diagnose obesity, there was significant differences in BMC,BMD and LM between two groups. However, when F% was used to assess obesity, no

  2. Thermally stimulated luminescence of urine salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordun, O.; Drobchak, O.

    2008-05-01

    The thermally stimulated luminescence (TSL) of normal and pathological urine was studied. The presence of pathological salts leads to extinguishing of TSL intensity and to the appearance of additional stripes with maxima nearly 118 and 205K, except of characteristic stripes with the maxima nearly 173 and 260K. TSL stripes depend on urine constituents. The comparison of TSL intensity of normal and pathological urine is carried out and energies of thermal activation are determined for most intensive TSL stripes.

  3. Minerals in the world economy. Minerals yearbook Volume 3. 1992 international review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    This edition of the Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industry during 1992 and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Content of the individual Yearbook volumes follows: Volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters on virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. Volume II, Area Reports: Domestic, contains chapters on the minerals industry of each of the 50 States, Puerto Rico, Northern Marianas, Island Possessions, and Trust Territory. Volume III, Minerals Yearbook--International Review contains the latest available mineral data on more than 175 foreign countries and discusses the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations.

  4. Urine screening with the MS-2.

    OpenAIRE

    Hoban, D J; Koss, J C; Gratton, C A; Ronald, A R

    1983-01-01

    A study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of the MS-2 (Abbott Laboratories, Dallas, Tex.) in screening urine specimens in a large clinical laboratory. A total of 15,319 urine specimens (9,954 midstream specimens and 5,365 catheter specimens) were evaluated with the MS-2 and by a surface streak procedure. The study was conducted in two phases, differing in that phase II urine specimens were evaluated in the MS-2 by using a program software update (03.01). For midstream urine specime...

  5. The Content and Bioavailability of Mineral Nutrients of Selected Wild and Traditional Edible Plants as Affected by Household Preparation Methods Practiced by Local Community in Benishangul Gumuz Regional State, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailu, Andinet Abera; Addis, Getachew

    2016-01-01

    Edible parts of some wild and traditional vegetables used by the Gumuz community, namely, Portulaca quadrifida, Dioscorea abyssinica, Abelmoschus esculentus, and Oxytenanthera abyssinica, were evaluated for their minerals composition and bioavailability. Mineral elements, namely, Ca, Fe, Zn, and Cu, were analyzed using Shimadzu atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Effects of household processing practices on the levels of mineral elements were evaluated and the bioavailability was predicted using antinutrient-mineral molar ratios. Fe, Zn, Ca, Cu, P, Na, and K level in raw edible portions ranged in (0.64 ± 0.02–27.0 ± 6.24), (0.46 ± 0.02–0.85 ± 0.02), (24.49 ± 1.2–131.7 ± 8.3), (0.11 ± 0.01–0.46 ± 0.04), (39.13 ± 0.34–57.27 ± 0.94), (7.34 ± 0.42–20.42 ± 1.31), and (184.4 ± 1.31–816.3 ± 11.731) mg/100 g FW, respectively. Although statistically significant losses in minerals as a result of household preparation practices were observed, the amount of nutrients retained could be valuable especially in communities that have limited alternative sources of these micronutrients. The predicted minerals' bioavailability shows adequacy in terms of calcium and zinc but not iron. PMID:26981523

  6. Ectopic mineral formation in the prostate gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A.Moskalenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This work analyzes the data of cont emporary scientific literature regarding the ectopic mineralization in the prostate gland, its pathogenetic features are considered. The scientific literature of recent decades gives grounds to assert that the processes of concrement formation in the prostate gland are influenced by many factors, pathological mineralization can be realized by different mechanisms. They include chronic inflammation, stagnation fract ions in gland, reflux of urine from the urethra at intravesicle obstruction, malformation of prostate and seminal vesicles, specific inflammation, polymorphism of gene protein inhibitors of calcification. These mechanisms are interconnected, each of them may participate in the overall development of concrement fo rmation in the prostate. In recent years, due to improved instrumental diagnosis we observe a significant increase of the number of patients, who were found with pathogenic prostate gland biol iths, which requires more detailed and in-depth study of the mechanisms of mineral formation in the prostate.

  7. Excretion of cannabinoids in urine after ingestion of cannabis seed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, T; Sager, F; Brenneisen, R

    1997-09-01

    Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) quantitation of 25 cannabis sed oils determined delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) concentrations from 3 to 1500 micrograms/g oil. In a pilot study, the morning urine of six volunteers who had ingested 11 or 22 g of the oil, which contained the highest THC content (1500 micrograms/g), was collected for six days. The urine samples were screened by immunoassay, and the content of 11-nor-9-carboxy-delta 9-THC (THCCOOH) was determined by GC-MS. Urine samples were found cannabis positive for up to six days with THCCOOH-equivalent concentrations up to 243 ng/mL. by the Abuscreen OnLine immunoassay and THCCOOH contents from 5 to 431 ng/mL by the GC-MS method. All subjects reported THC-specific psychotropic effects.

  8. Mineral content, based in the Recommended Daily Intake, in cashew nut obtained from conventional and organic cultivation in different stages of processingTeor de minerais, baseado na Ingestão Diária Recomendada, em castanhas de caju obtidas dos cultivos convencional e orgânico em diferentes etapas de processamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Josino Soares

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The cashew nut has a high nutritional value since it is a source of protein, fatty acids and carbohydrates. The minerals quantification in food is important, since these are important constituents from the nutritional point of view. Given the above, this research aimed to characterize and quantify the minerals of the cashew nuts from conventional and organic cultivation during various stages of processing with emphasis in the Recommended Daily Intake of these minerals. The study was performed with cashew nuts collected at four stages of processing (after shelling, before peeling, after peeling and packing. The minerals sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, copper, zinc, manganese, cobalt, nickel and selenium were quantified. The nuts presented good content of all minerals studied. There was little variation in the content of the potassium, magnesium, zinc and cobalt minerals during the processing. The cashew nuts from conventional cultivation presented similar content of minerals to the nuts from organic cultivation. A castanha de caju possui elevado valor nutricional por ser fonte de proteína, ácidos graxos e carboidratos. A quantificação dos minerais em alimentos é importante, já que estes constituintes são muito importantes do ponto de vista nutricional. Diante do exposto, essa pesquisa teve como objetivo caracterizar e quantificar os minerais na amêndoa de castanha de caju dos cultivos convencional e orgânico em diferentes etapas de processamento com ênfase à Ingestão Diária Recomendada destes minerais. O estudo foi realizado com amêndoas de castanha de caju coletadas em quatro etapas da linha de processamento (após a decorticação, antes da despeliculagem, após a despeliculagem e embalagam. Os minerais sódio, potássio, cálcio, magnésio, ferro, cobre, zinco, manganês, cobalto, níquel e selênio foram quantificados. As amêndoas apresentaram boas quantidades de todos os minerais estudados. Ocorreu pequena varia

  9. Mineral elements in milk and dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šimun Zamberlin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Mineral elements occur in milk and dairy products as inorganic ions and salts, as well as part of organic molecules, such as proteins, fats, carbohydrates and nucleic acids. The chemical form of mineral elements is important because it determines their absorption in the intestine and their biological utilization. The mineral composition of milk is not constant because it depends on lactation phase, nutritional status of the animal, and environmental and genetic factors. The objective of this research is to point out the research results of chemical form, content and nutritional importance of individual mineral elements that are present in various milks and dairy products.

  10. Effect of biochar on mineral nitrogen content in soils with different pH values%生物质炭对不同pH值土壤矿质氮含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗煜; 赵小蓉; 李贵桐; 赵立欣; 孟海波; 林启美

    2014-01-01

    concentration. The causes for high fertility of these soils are multiple, but the source of the large amounts of organic matter and their high nutrient retention has been attributed to the extraordinarily high proportions of black carbon. Besides, the high available nitrogen (N) is from both direct nutrient addition by the biochar and greater nutrient retention. It is also reported biochar can influence soil N concentrations via affecting soil process, such as N transformation. However, it remains largely unknown how biochar affect N transformations.In this study, biochars were produced at 350°C (BC350) and 700°C (BC700) by using Miscanthus giganteus, and applied with and without ryegrass into soils with low (pH=3.8) and high pH values (pH=7.6) incubated for 180 days. Our results showed that the addition of biochar to soils had an average increase of total N content of 22% and 17%, respectively in acid and alkaline soils. Biochars had obvious effect on NH4+-N in acid soil. After 87 days of incubation, NH4+-N was declined to very low concentration. BC350 had a slight increase of NO3--N in acid soil. Compared with BC350, soils with BC700 significantly (p0.05) was observed in treatments with and without ryegrass, neither between day 87 and 180, suggesting mineralization was largely occurred at the early incubation time in the soil with biochar added. The effects of biochar on the form and content of soil mineral nitrogen were closely related to the biochar’s abilities including ammonium adsorption, enhancing soil pH value, enhancing ammonia volatilization, and microbial biomass nitrogen formation. In the practical application, using biochar as coating materials in producing the slow-release fertilizer to improve nitrogen use efficiency seems to be very promised, and more research is needed in this area in the near future.

  11. Whole shoot mineral partitioning and accumulation in pea (Pisum sativum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaran, Renuka P; Grusak, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    Several grain legumes are staple food crops that are important sources of minerals for humans; unfortunately, our knowledge is incomplete with respect to the mechanisms of translocation of these minerals to the vegetative tissues and loading into seeds. Understanding the mechanism and partitioning of minerals in pea could help in developing cultivars with high mineral density. A mineral partitioning study was conducted in pea to assess whole-plant growth and mineral content and the potential source-sink remobilization of different minerals, especially during seed development. Shoot and root mineral content increa