Fjorback, Lone Overby
MINDFULNESS-BASED COGNITIVE THERAPY FOR FUNCTIONAL DISORDERS- A RANDOMISED CONTROLLED TRIAL Background: Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) is a group skills-training program developed by Kabat-Zinn. It is designed to teach patients to become more aware of and relate differently...... to their thoughts, feelings, and bodily sensations. Randomised controlled studies of MBSR have shown mitigation of stress, anxiety, and dysphoria in general population and reduction in total mood disturbance and stress symptoms in a medical population. In Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy MBSR is recombined...... with cognitive therapy. Aim: To examine the efficacy of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy in severe Functional disorders, defined as severe Bodily Distress Disorder. Method: 120 patients are randomised to either Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy: a manualized programme with eight weekly 3 ½ hour group...
Fjorback, Lone Overby
with cognitive therapy. Aim: To examine the efficacy of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy in severe Functional disorders, defined as severe Bodily Distress Disorder. Method: 120 patients are randomised to either Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy: a manualized programme with eight weekly 3 ½ hour group......MINDFULNESS-BASED COGNITIVE THERAPY FOR FUNCTIONAL DISORDERS- A RANDOMISED CONTROLLED TRIAL Background: Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) is a group skills-training program developed by Kabat-Zinn. It is designed to teach patients to become more aware of and relate differently...... to their thoughts, feelings, and bodily sensations. Randomised controlled studies of MBSR have shown mitigation of stress, anxiety, and dysphoria in general population and reduction in total mood disturbance and stress symptoms in a medical population. In Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy MBSR is recombined...
MacKenzie, Meagan B; Kocovski, Nancy L
Meagan B MacKenzie,1 Nancy L Kocovski21Department of Psychology, Ryerson University, Toronto, ON, Canada; 2Department of Psychology, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, ON, CanadaAbstract: Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) was developed as a psychological intervention for individuals at risk of depressive relapse. Possible mechanisms of change for this intervention are in line with its theoretical underpinnings, and include increases in mindfulness and/or decreases in nega...
Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is one of the main approaches in psychotherapy. It teaches the patient to examine the link between dysfunctional thoughts and maladaptive behaviors and to re- evaluate the cognitive biases involved in the maintenance of symptoms by using strategies such as guided discovery. CBT is constantly evolving in part to improve its' effectiveness and accessibility. Thus in the last decade, increasingly popular approaches based on mindfulness and acceptance have emerged. These therapies do not attempt to modify cognitions even when they are biased and dysfunctional but rather seek a change in the relationship between the individual and the symptoms. This article aims to present the historical context that has allowed the emergence of this trend, the points of convergence and divergence with traditional CBT as well as a brief presentation of the different therapies based on mindfulness meditation and acceptance. Hayes (2004) described three successive waves in behavior therapy, each characterized by "dominant assumptions, methods and goals": traditional behavior therapy, cognitive therapy and therapies based on mindfulness meditation and acceptance. The latter consider that human suffering occurs when the individual lives a restricted life in order avoid pain and immediate discomfort to the detriment of his global wellbeing. These therapies combine mindfulness, experiential, acceptance strategies with traditional behavior principles in order to attain lasting results. There are significant points of convergence between traditional CBT and therapies based on mindfulness meditation and acceptance. They are both empirically validated, based upon a theoretical model postulating that avoidance is key in the maintenance of psychopathology and they recommend an approach strategy in order to overcome the identified problem. They both use behavioral techniques in the context of a collaborative relationship in order to identify precise problems and to
Hauge, Christian R; Bonde, Jens Peter E; Rasmussen, Alice
no evidence-based treatments for MCS. Nevertheless, there is a substantial need for a treatment, because the condition can be severely disabling and can greatly reduce the quality of life (QOL) for those affected.In this study, we aim to assess the effects of a mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT...
MacKenzie, Meagan B; Kocovski, Nancy L
Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) was developed as a psychological intervention for individuals at risk of depressive relapse. Possible mechanisms of change for this intervention are in line with its theoretical underpinnings, and include increases in mindfulness and/or decreases in negative repetitive thoughts. This review provides an overview of current trends in MBCT research, including efficacy and questions regarding the specific effects of MBCT in light of recent comparisons with structurally equivalent control conditions, mechanisms of change, and moderators of treatment outcome. In addition, future directions are discussed, such as challenges with training an adequate number of therapists and disseminating this therapy.
Skovbjerg, S; Hauge, Christian Riis; Rasmussen, Alice
of an 8-week mindfulness-based cognitive therapy program (MBCT) for adults with MCS and to evaluate possible effects on psychological distress and illness perception. The study design was a randomized clinical trial. The MBCT programme comprised 8 weekly sessions of 2½ hours. Forty-two adults were...
Full Text Available Meagan B MacKenzie,1 Nancy L Kocovski21Department of Psychology, Ryerson University, Toronto, ON, Canada; 2Department of Psychology, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, ON, CanadaAbstract: Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT was developed as a psychological intervention for individuals at risk of depressive relapse. Possible mechanisms of change for this intervention are in line with its theoretical underpinnings, and include increases in mindfulness and/or decreases in negative repetitive thoughts. This review provides an overview of current trends in MBCT research, including efficacy and questions regarding the specific effects of MBCT in light of recent comparisons with structurally equivalent control conditions, mechanisms of change, and moderators of treatment outcome. In addition, future directions are discussed, such as challenges with training an adequate number of therapists and disseminating this therapy.Keywords: MBCT, efficacy, mechanisms of change, dissemination, moderators
Nyklíček, Ivan; VAN Son, Jenny; Pop, Victor J M
, and baseline levels of mindfulness skills) moderate the effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT)? METHODS: Outpatients with diabetes (type 1 or type 2; N=139) and an elevated level of emotional distress participated in the Diabetes and Mindfulness (DiaMind) trial. They were randomized...
Objective: The use of mindfulness-based therapy (MBT) in oncology settings has become increasingly popular, and research in the field has rapidly expanded. The objective was by means of a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the current evidence for the effect of MBT on symptoms...... effect size analyses were performed separately for nonrandomized studies (K 13, n 448) and randomized controlled trials (RCTs; K 9, n 955). Effect sizes were combined using the random-effects model. Results: In the aggregated sample of nonrandomized studies (average quality score: 0.5), MBT...... was associated with significantly reduced symptoms of anxiety and depression from pre- to posttreatment corresponding to moderate effect sizes (Hedges’s g) of 0.60 and 0.42, respectively. The pooled controlled effect sizes (Hedges’s g) of RCTs (average quality score: 2.9) were 0.37 for anxiety symptoms (p .001...
Schroevers, Maya J.; Brandsma, R.
The increased popularity of mindfulness-based interventions and the growing body of empirical evidence confirming the positive effects of these interventions on well-being warrant more research to determine if the effects are indeed related to learning mindfulness. The present study extends previous
Manolete S. Moscoso
Full Text Available RESUMEN Presentamos un resumen y una breve historia del creciente campo de Intervenciones Basadas en mindfulness o conciencia plena. En los últimos tiempos, existe un gran interés en este modelo terapéutico para reducir la vulnerabilidad al estrés crónico y distrés emocional. Mindfulness requiere intencionalmente enfocar nuestra atención a las experiencias que ocurren en el momento presente. A medida que la investigación avanza en esta temática, es vital definir cuidadosamente la estructura de mindfulness y comprender mejor sus mecanismos de acción neurocognitiva. Este informe presenta un marco conceptual que enfatiza el papel central de control atencional y mecanismos de sostenibilidad para desarrollar las habilidades de conciencia plena. También, repasamos la estructura de mindfulness y la autorregulación de las emociones; luego describimos brevemente nuestra investigación relacionada con nuestro programa de Reducción del Estrés en Cáncer de Mama basado en Mindfulness (MBSR-AC en la University of South Florida. Se presenta, a partir de esta premisa, un modelo propuesto que explica nuestros mecanismos cognitivos basados en la lógica del modelo de biocomportamental. ABSTRACT We are presenting an overview and a brief history of the growing field of Mindfulness Based Interventions. There has been a significant interest in this therapeutic model to reduce vulnerability to chronic stress and emotional distress in recent times. Mindfulness requires intentionally bringing our attention to the experiences that occur in the present moment. As the research advances in this line of inquiry, it is vital to carefully define the construct of Mindfulness and better understand its neurocognitive mechanisms of action. This review presents conceptual framework that emphasizes the central role of attentional control and sustainability mechanisms to build mindfulness skills. We also review the construct of Mindfulness and self-regulation of
Full Text Available Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT is frequently used for psychiatric disorders. Despite MBCT's considerable potential for improving psychological health for patients, there is little empirical evidence to support its practical application in Chinese. This review will define meditation and mindfulness, provide an overview of the development of MBCT, identify the evidence for the effectiveness of MBCT, and offer recommendations to medical personnels on how to provide support for patients receiving mindfulness intervention.
VAN Son, Jenny; Nyklíček, Ivan; Pop, Victor J M
OBJECTIVE: The DiaMind trial showed beneficial immediate effects of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) on emotional distress, but not on diabetes distress and HbA1c. The aim of the present report was to examine if the effects would be sustained after six month follow-up. METHODS: In the Dia...
Zhang, Mei-Fen; Wen, Yong-Shan; Liu, Wei-Yan; Peng, Li-Fen; Wu, Xiao-Dan; Liu, Qian-Wen
Abstract Anxiety and depression are common among patients with cancer, and are often treated with psychological interventions including mindfulness-based therapy. The aim of the study was to perform a meta-analysis of the effectiveness of mindfulness-based interventions for improving anxiety and depression in patients with cancer. Medline, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and Google Scholar were searched. The randomized controlled trials designed for patients diagnosed with cancer were included. Mindfulness-based interventions were provided. The outcomes assessed were the changes in anxiety and depression scores from before to after the intervention. The treatment response was determined by calculating the standardized mean difference (SMD) for individual studies and for pooled study results. Subgroup analyses by cancer type, type of therapy, and length of follow-up were performed. Seven studies, involving 469 participants who received mindfulness-based interventions and 419 participants in a control group, were included in the meta-analysis. Mindfulness-based stress reduction and art therapy were the most common interventions (5/7 studies). All studies reported anxiety and depression scores. The pooled SMD of the change in anxiety significantly favored mindfulness-based therapy over control treatment (−0.75, 95% confidence interval −1.28, −0.22, P = 0.005). Likewise, the pooled SMD of the change in depression also significantly favored mindfulness-based therapy over control (−0.90, 95% confidence interval −1.53, −0.26, P = 0.006). During the length of follow-ups less than 12 weeks, mindfulness-based therapy significantly improved anxiety for follow-up ≤12 weeks after the start of therapy, but not >12 weeks after the start of therapy. There was a lack of consistency between the studies in the type of mindfulness-based/control intervention implemented. Patients had different forms of cancer. Subgroup analyses included a relatively small number of
Gura, Shira Taylor
ABSTRACT The purpose of this paper is to explore the value of mindfulness and its role in occupational therapy education. The plethora of research on mindfulness-based stress reduction programs has shown consistent and positive results to enhance quality of life in clinical and nonclinical populations. Offering students the opportunities to learn and experience mindfulness could lead to enhanced self-awareness and care, focus and empathy, and a decrease of client judgment enhancing the success of clinical interventions.
Zhang, Mei-Fen; Wen, Yong-Shan; Liu, Wei-Yan; Peng, Li-Fen; Wu, Xiao-Dan; Liu, Qian-Wen
Abstract Anxiety and depression are common among patients with cancer, and are often treated with psychological interventions including mindfulness-based therapy. The aim of the study was to perform a meta-analysis of the effectiveness of mindfulness-based interventions for improving anxiety and depression in patients with cancer. Medline, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and Google Scholar were searched. The randomized controlled trials designed for patients diagnosed with cancer were included....
Fleer, Joke; Schroevers, Maya; Panjer, Vera; Geerts, Erwin; Meesters, Ybe
Background: The best available treatment for seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is light therapy. Yet, this treatment does not prevent recurrence of depression in subsequent seasons. The aim of the study is to gain preliminary insight in the efficacy of Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) in
der Meulen, R Van; Bos, Elisabeth; Appelo, Martinus; van den Brink, E.
Interventies die gebaseerd zijn op oefening in mindfulness staan de laatste jaren erg in de belangstelling. De training waarin oosterse meditatie oefening samen komt met de moderne westerse psychologie neemt nog altijd toe in populariteit (Brown e.a., 2007). Grondlegger is John Kabat-Zinn; die
Sonal Mathur; Mahendra Prakash Sharma; Srikala Bharath
Depression is the most common mental illness in the elderly, and cost-effective treatments are required. Therefore, this study is aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of a mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) on depressive symptoms, mindfulness skills, acceptance, and quality of life across four domains in patients with late-onset depression. A single case design with pre- and post-assessment was adopted. Five patients meeting the specified inclusion and exclusion criteria were recruit...
McKenna, L.; Marks, E. M.; Hallsworth, C. A.; Schaette, R.
BACKGROUND: Tinnitus is experienced by up to 15% of the population and can lead to significant disability and distress. There is rarely a medical or surgical target and psychological therapies are recommended. We investigated whether mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) could offer an effective new therapy for tinnitus. METHODS: This single-site randomized controlled trial compared MBCT to intensive relaxation training (RT) for chronic, distressing tinnitus in adults. Both treatments in...
... R S T U V W X Y Z Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) Information 6 Things You ... Disease and Dementia (12/20/13) Research Spotlights Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction, Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Shown To ...
This brief report describes a mindfulness-based art therapy (MBAT) intervention, "Walkabout: Looking In, Looking Out," which was piloted in 2010 and has since been offered at the Abramson Cancer Center at Pennsylvania Hospital in Philadelphia. The author adapted the original MBAT intervention using a walkabout conceptual model, which was…
Spek, A.A.; van Ham, N.C.; Nyklicek, I.
Research shows that depression and anxiety disorders are the most common psychiatric concern in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Mindfulness-based therapy (MBT) has been found effective in reducing anxiety and depression symptoms, however research in autism is limited. Therefore, we examined the
Shawyer, Frances; Enticott, Joanne C; Özmen, Mehmet; Inder, Brett; Meadows, Graham N
While mindfulness-based cognitive therapy is effective in reducing depressive relapse/recurrence, relatively little is known about its health economic properties. We describe the health economic properties of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy in relation to its impact on depressive relapse/recurrence over 2 years of follow-up. Non-depressed adults with a history of three or more major depressive episodes were randomised to mindfulness-based cognitive therapy + depressive relapse active monitoring (n = 101) or control (depressive relapse active monitoring alone) (n = 102) and followed up for 2 years. Structured self-report instruments for service use and absenteeism provided cost data items for health economic analyses. Treatment utility, expressed as disability-adjusted life years, was calculated by adjusting the number of days an individual was depressed by the relevant International Classification of Diseases 12-month severity of depression disability weight from the Global Burden of Disease 2010. Intention-to-treat analysis assessed the incremental cost-utility ratios of the interventions across mental health care, all of health-care and whole-of-society perspectives. Per protocol and site of usual care subgroup analyses were also conducted. Probabilistic uncertainty analysis was completed using cost-utility acceptability curves. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy participants had significantly less major depressive episode days compared to controls, as supported by the differential distributions of major depressive episode days (modelled as Poisson, p cognitive therapy group compared to controls, e.g., 31 and 55 days, respectively. From a whole-of-society perspective, analyses of patients receiving usual care from all sectors of the health-care system demonstrated dominance (reduced costs, demonstrable health gains). From a mental health-care perspective, the incremental gain per disability-adjusted life year for mindfulness-based
Key, Brenda L; Rowa, Karen; Bieling, Peter; McCabe, Randi; Pawluk, Elizabeth J
A significant number of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients continue to experience symptoms that interfere with their functioning following cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT). Providing an additional augmentation treatment following CBT could help reduce these residual symptoms. Mindfulness interventions that facilitate less reactivity to thoughts and feelings may be helpful for patients suffering from residual OCD symptoms. The purpose of the current randomized waitlist control trial was to evaluate the feasibility and impact of providing an 8-week mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) intervention following completion of a CBT intervention to OCD patients who continued to suffer from significant symptoms. Results indicated that compared to the waitlist control group, MBCT participants reported decreases in OCD symptoms (d = 1.38), depression symptoms (d = 1.25), anxiety symptoms (d = 1.02), and obsessive beliefs (d = 1.20) along with increases in self-compassion (d = 0.77) and mindfulness skills (d = 0.77). Additionally, participants reported high levels of satisfaction with the MBCT intervention. The results suggest that the use of MBCT for OCD as an augmentation therapy is acceptable to patients who continue to suffer from OCD symptoms after completing CBT and provides some additional relief from residual symptoms. Mindfulness interventions teach skills that facilitate disengaging from cognitive routines and accepting internal experience, and these skills may be valuable in treating obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), as individuals describe getting "stuck" in repetitive thoughts and consequent rituals. The results of this study suggest that teaching mindfulness skills using an 8-week mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) intervention provides an added benefit (decreases in OCD, depression, and anxiety symptoms) for patients with OCD who have completed a cognitive behavioural therapy intervention and continued to suffer from
Full Text Available Background. Functional gastrointestinal disorders are highly prevalent and standard treatments are often unsatisfactory. Mindfulness-based therapy has shown benefit in conditions including chronic pain, mood, and somatization disorders. Objectives. To assess the quality and effectiveness reported in existing literature, we conducted a meta-analysis of mindfulness-based therapy in functional gastrointestinal disorders. Methods. Pubmed, EBSCO, and Cochrane databases were searched from inception to May 2014. Study inclusion criteria included randomized, controlled studies of adults using mindfulness-based therapy in the treatment of functional gastrointestinal disorders. Study quality was evaluated using the Cochrane risk of bias. Effect sizes were calculated and pooled to achieve a summary effect for the intervention on symptom severity and quality of life. Results. Of 119 records, eight articles, describing seven studies, met inclusion criteria. In six studies, significant improvements were achieved or maintained at the end of intervention or follow-up time points. The studies had an unclear or high risk of bias. Pooled effects were statistically significant for IBS severity (0.59, 95% CI 0.33 to 0.86 and quality of life (0.56, 95% CI 0.47 to 0.79. Conclusion. Studies suggest that mindfulness based interventions may provide benefit in functional gastrointestinal disorders; however, substantial improvements in methodological quality and reporting are needed.
Kocovski, Nancy L; Fleming, Jan E; Hawley, Lance L; Ho, Moon-Ho Ringo; Antony, Martin M
The present study investigated mechanisms of change for two group treatments for social anxiety disorder (SAD): cognitive behavioral group therapy (CBGT) and mindfulness and acceptance-based group therapy (MAGT). Participants were treatment completers (n = 37 for MAGT, n = 32 for CBGT) from a randomized clinical trial. Cognitive reappraisal was the hypothesized mechanism of change for CBGT. Mindfulness and acceptance were hypothesized mechanisms of change for MAGT. Latent difference score (LDS) analysis results demonstrate that cognitive reappraisal coupling (in which cognitive reappraisal is negatively associated with the subsequent rate of change in social anxiety) had a greater impact on social anxiety for CBGT than MAGT. The LDS bidirectional mindfulness model (mindfulness predicts subsequent change in social anxiety; social anxiety predicts subsequent change in mindfulness) was supported for both treatments. Results for acceptance were less clear. Cognitive reappraisal may be a more important mechanism of change for CBGT than MAGT, whereas mindfulness may be an important mechanism of change for both treatments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Depression is the most common mental illness in the elderly, and cost-effective treatments are required. Therefore, this study is aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of a mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT on depressive symptoms, mindfulness skills, acceptance, and quality of life across four domains in patients with late-onset depression. A single case design with pre- and post-assessment was adopted. Five patients meeting the specified inclusion and exclusion criteria were recruited for the study and assessed on the behavioral analysis pro forma, geriatric depression scale, Hamilton depression rating scale, Kentucky inventory of mindfulness skills, Acceptance and Action Questionnaire II, The World Health Organization quality of life Assessment Brief version (WHOQO-L-BREF. The therapeutic program consisted of education regarding the nature of depression, training in formal and informal mindfulness meditation, and cognitive restructuring. A total of 8 sessions over 8 weeks were conducted for each patient. The results of this study indicate clinically significant improvement in the severity of depression, mindfulness skills, acceptance, and overall quality of life in all 5 patients. Eight-week MBCT program has led to reduction in depression and increased mindfulness skills, acceptance, and overall quality of life in patients with late-life depression.
Wilkinson-Tough, Megan; Bocci, Laura; Thorne, Kirsty; Herlihy, Jane
Despite the efficacy of cognitive-behavioural interventions in improving the experience of obsessions and compulsions, some people do not benefit from this approach. The present research uses a case series design to establish whether mindfulness-based therapy could benefit those experiencing obsessive-intrusive thoughts by targeting thought-action fusion and thought suppression. Three participants received a relaxation control intervention followed by a six-session mindfulness-based intervention which emphasized daily practice. Following therapy all participants demonstrated reductions in Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale scores to below clinical levels, with two participants maintaining this at follow-up. Qualitative analysis of post-therapy feedback suggested that mindfulness skills such as observation, awareness and acceptance were seen as helpful in managing thought-action fusion and suppression. Despite being limited by small participant numbers, these results suggest that mindfulness may be beneficial to some people experiencing intrusive unwanted thoughts and that further research could establish the possible efficacy of this approach in larger samples. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Haenen, Sharon; Nyklíček, Ivan; VAN Son, Jenny
BACKGROUND: There is increasing evidence that mindfulness-based interventions reduce psychological distress in various medical populations. However, it has hardly been studied if these effects are mediated by an increase in mindfulness. The aim of this study was to examine mediating effects...... of various mindfulness facets on effects of a Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) on perceived stress and mood. METHODS: Outpatients with diabetes types 1 and 2 and low levels of emotional wellbeing were randomized into a group receiving MBCT (n=70) or a waiting-list control group (n=69). Primary...... outcomes were mood and perceived stress. Before, after and at follow-up (6months post intervention) relevant questionnaires were completed. RESULTS: Mediation analysis using bootstrap resampling indicated that increases in total mindfulness and the facets observing and nonreactivity mediated the effects...
Imani, Saeed; Atef Vahid, Mohammad Kazem; Gharraee, Banafsheh; Noroozi, Alireza; Habibi, Mojtaba; Bowen, Sarah
This study investigated the effectiveness of mindfulness-based group therapy (MBGT) compared to the usual opioid dependence treatment (TAU).Thirty outpatients meeting the DSM-IV-TR criteria for opioid dependence from Iranian National Center for Addiction Studies (INCAS) were randomly assigned into experimental (Mindfulness-Based Group Therapy) and control groups (the Usual Treatment).The experimental group undertook eight weeks of intervention, but the control group received the usual treatment according to the INCAS program. The Five Factor Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) and the Addiction Sevier Index (ASI) were administered at pre-treatment and post-treatment assessment periods. Thirteen patients from the experimental group and 15 from the control group completed post-test assessments. The results of MANCOVA revealed an increase in mean scores in observing, describing, acting with awareness, non-judging, non-reacting, and decrease in mean scores of alcohol and opium in MBGT patient group. The effectiveness of MBGT, compared to the usual treatment, was discussed in this paper as a selective protocol in the health care setting for substance use disorders.
Full Text Available Objective: This study investigated the effectiveness of mindfulness-based group therapy (MBGT compared to the usual opioid dependence treatment (TAU.Thirty outpatients meeting the DSM-IV-TR criteria for opioid dependence from Iranian National Center for Addiction Studies (INCAS were randomly assigned into experimental (Mindfulness-Based Group Therapy and control groups (the Usual Treatment.The experimental group undertook eight weeks of intervention, but the control group received the usual treatment according to the INCAS program. Methods:The Five Factor Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ and the Addiction Sevier Index (ASI were administered at pre-treatment and post-treatment assessment periods. Thirteen patients from the experimental group and 15 from the control group completed post-test assessments. Results:The results of MANCOVA revealed an increase in mean scores in observing, describing, acting with awareness, non-judging, non-reacting, and decrease in mean scores of alcohol and opium in MBGT patient group. Conclusion:The effectiveness of MBGT, compared to the usual treatment, was discussed in this paper as a selective protocol in the health care setting for substance use disorders.
Zhang, Mei-Fen; Wen, Yong-Shan; Liu, Wei-Yan; Peng, Li-Fen; Wu, Xiao-Dan; Liu, Qian-Wen
Anxiety and depression are common among patients with cancer, and are often treated with psychological interventions including mindfulness-based therapy.The aim of the study was to perform a meta-analysis of the effectiveness of mindfulness-based interventions for improving anxiety and depression in patients with cancer.Medline, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and Google Scholar were searched. The randomized controlled trials designed for patients diagnosed with cancer were included. Mindfulness-based interventions were provided.The outcomes assessed were the changes in anxiety and depression scores from before to after the intervention. The treatment response was determined by calculating the standardized mean difference (SMD) for individual studies and for pooled study results. Subgroup analyses by cancer type, type of therapy, and length of follow-up were performed.Seven studies, involving 469 participants who received mindfulness-based interventions and 419 participants in a control group, were included in the meta-analysis. Mindfulness-based stress reduction and art therapy were the most common interventions (5/7 studies). All studies reported anxiety and depression scores. The pooled SMD of the change in anxiety significantly favored mindfulness-based therapy over control treatment (-0.75, 95% confidence interval -1.28, -0.22, P = 0.005). Likewise, the pooled SMD of the change in depression also significantly favored mindfulness-based therapy over control (-0.90, 95% confidence interval -1.53, -0.26, P = 0.006). During the length of follow-ups less than 12 weeks, mindfulness-based therapy significantly improved anxiety for follow-up ≤12 weeks after the start of therapy, but not >12 weeks after the start of therapy.There was a lack of consistency between the studies in the type of mindfulness-based/control intervention implemented. Patients had different forms of cancer. Subgroup analyses included a relatively small number of studies and did not
Sinha, Uday K.; Kumar, Deepak
Mindfulness-based approaches have been shown to be useful in a variety of physical and mental health conditions including chronic pain, cancer, psoriasis, eating disorders, anxiety and depression. Mindfulness based CBT finds its origins in Eastern Buddhist meditation which began many centuries ago. Recent studies on CBT with mindfulness have shown…
Full Text Available Background: Students’ aggression at schoolshas attracted the attention of many professionals and researchers. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy on the reduction of male secondary students' aggression in Kermanshah. Methods: In this experimental study, a pretest-posttest control group design was used. A total of 400 students were randomly selected from among the high school male students in Kermanshah using multistage sampling. Of these, 40 students who had a higher mean score were randomly divided into control and experimental groups. The experimental group underwent with mindfulness-based cognitive therapy once a week for eight sessions. The subjects completed Buss and Perry Aggression Questionnaire (1992 twice, one before treatment and another after treatment. The data were analyzed by multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA. Results: The results of multivariate analysis of covariance showed that after removing the effect of pretest, the experimental group indicated a significant reduction compared to the control group in the total aggression scale (F=1059.531; P<0.001. Also, after removing the effect of the pretest, the experimental group experienced a significant decrease compared to the control group at the micro scales of aggressive feeling (F=639.936; P<0.001, the subscales of aggressive thoughts (F=154.240; P<0.001, and aggressive behaviors (F=502.836; P<0.001,. Conclusion: This study showed that mindfulness-based cognitive therapy reduced aggression in all three components of aggressive behavior, aggressive thoughts and aggressive feelings in the students.
Problems with attention and symptom distress are common clinical features reported by women who receive adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer. Mindfulness practice significantly improves attention and mindfulness programs significantly reduce symptom distress in patients with cancer, and, more specifically, in women with breast cancer. Recently, a pilot investigation of a music therapy program, built on core attitudes of mindfulness practice, reported significant benefits of enhanced attention and decreased negative mood and fatigue in women with breast cancer. This paper delineates the design and development of the mindfulness-based music therapy (MBMT) program implemented in that pilot study and includes clients’ narrative journal responses. Conclusions and recommendations, including recommendation for further exploration of the function of music in mindfulness practice are provided. PMID:27517966
Farokhzad, Pegah; Yazdanfar, Tahmineh
AbstractThe present research is aimed to study the effectiveness of mindfulness based cognitive therapy on reduction of negative automatic thoughts of depressive patients. It was a semi-experimental research, using pre-test post-test with control group design. The statistical population consists of 20-40 year old patients who were referred to Tehran Psychiatric Institute for depression in 2015. Out of them, on the basis of Cohen’s table, 30 patients who had negative automatic thoughts were sc...
Kishita, Naoko; Takei, Yuko; Stewart, Ian
The aim of this study is to review the effectiveness of third wave mindfulness-based cognitive behavioral therapies (CBTs) for depressive or anxiety symptomatology in older adults across a wide range of physical and psychological conditions. Electronic literature databases were searched for articles, and random-effects meta-analysis was conducted. Ten studies met the inclusion criteria, of which nine reported the efficacy of interventions on depressive symptoms and seven on anxiety symptoms. Effect-size estimates suggested that mindfulness-based CBT is moderately effective on depressive symptoms in older adults (g = 0.55). The results demonstrated a similar level of overall effect size for anxiety symptoms (g = 0.58). However, there was a large heterogeneity, and publication bias was evident in studies reporting outcomes on anxiety symptoms, and thus, this observed efficacy for late-life anxiety may not be robust. The quality of the included studies varied. Only one study used an active psychological control condition. There were a limited number of studies that used an intent-to-treat (last observation carried forward method) analysis and reported appropriate methods for clinical trials (e.g., treatment-integrity reporting). Third wave mindfulness-based CBT may be robust in particular for depressive symptoms in older adults. We recommend that future studies (i) conduct randomized controlled trials with intent-to-treat to compare mindfulness-based CBT with other types of psychotherapy in older people and (ii) improve study quality by using appropriate methods for checking treatment adherence, randomization, and blinding of assessors. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Millstein, Daniel J; Orsillo, Susan M; Hayes-Skelton, Sarah A; Roemer, Lizabeth
To better understand the role interpersonal problems play in response to two treatments for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD); an acceptance-based behavior therapy (ABBT) and applied relaxation (AR), and to examine how the development of mindfulness may be related to change in interpersonal problems over treatment and at follow-up. Eighty-one individuals diagnosed with GAD (65.4% female, 80.2% identified as white, average age 32.92) were randomized to receive 16 sessions of either ABBT or AR. GAD severity, interpersonal problems, and mindfulness were measured at pre-treatment, post-treatment, 6-month follow-up, and 12-month follow-up. Mixed effect regression models did not reveal any significant effects of pre-treatment interpersonal problems on GAD severity over treatment. After controlling for post-treatment GAD severity, remaining post-treatment interpersonal problems predicted 6- but not 12-month GAD severity. Participants in both conditions experienced a large decrease in interpersonal problems over treatment. Increases in mindfulness over treatment and through follow-up were associated with decreases in interpersonal problems, even when accounting for reductions in overall GAD severity. Interpersonal problems may be an important target of treatment in GAD, even if pre-treatment interpersonal problems are not predictive of outcome. Developing mindfulness in individuals with GAD may help ameliorate interpersonal difficulties among this population.
Janssen, Lotte; Kan, Cornelis C; Carpentier, Pieter J; Sizoo, Bram; Hepark, Sevket; Grutters, Janneke; Donders, Rogier; Buitelaar, Jan K; Speckens, Anne E M
Adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often present with a lifelong pattern of core symptoms that is associated with impairments of functioning in daily life. This has a substantial personal and economic impact. In clinical practice there is a high need for additional or alternative interventions for existing treatments, usually consisting of pharmacotherapy and/or psycho-education. Although previous studies show preliminary evidence for the effectiveness of mindfulness-based interventions in reducing ADHD symptoms and improving executive functioning, these studies have methodological limitations. This study will take account of these limitations and will examine the effectiveness of Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) in further detail. A multi-centre, parallel-group, randomised controlled trial will be conducted in N = 120 adults with ADHD. Patients will be randomised to MBCT in addition to treatment as usual (TAU) or TAU alone. Assessments will take place at baseline and at three, six and nine months after baseline. Primary outcome measure will be severity of ADHD symptoms rated by a blinded clinician. Secondary outcome measures will be self-reported ADHD symptoms, executive functioning, mindfulness skills, self-compassion, positive mental health and general functioning. In addition, a cost-effectiveness analysis will be conducted. This trial will offer valuable information about the clinical and cost-effectiveness of MBCT in addition to TAU compared to TAU alone in adults swith ADHD. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02463396. Registered 8 June 2015.
Deckersbach, Thilo; Hölzel, Britta K.; Eisner, Lori R.; Stange, Jonathan P.; Peckham, Andrew D.; Dougherty, Darin D.; Rauch, Scott L.; Lazar, Sara; Nierenberg, Andrew A.
Introduction Bipolar disorder is characterized by recurrent episodes of depression and/or mania along with inter-episodic mood symptoms that interfere with psychosocial functioning. Despite periods of symptomatic recovery, many individuals with bipolar disorder continue to experience substantial residual mood symptoms that often lead to the recurrence of mood episodes. Aims The present study explored whether a new mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) for bipolar disorder would increase mindfulness, reduce residual mood symptoms, and increase emotion regulation abilities, psychological well-being, positive affect and psychosocial functioning. Following a baseline clinical assessment, 12 individuals with DSM-IV bipolar disorder were treated with 12 group sessions of MBCT. Results At the end of treatment, as well as at the 3-months follow-up, participants showed increased mindfulness, lower residual depressive mood symptoms, less attentional difficulties, and increased emotion regulation abilities, psychological well-being, positive affect and psychosocial functioning. Conclusions These findings suggest that treating residual mood symptoms with MBCT may be another avenue to improving mood, emotion regulation, well-being and functioning in individuals with bipolar disorder. PMID:22070469
Howells Fleur M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Cognitive processing in Bipolar Disorder is characterized by a number of attentional abnormalities. Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy combines mindfulness meditation, a form of attentional training, along with aspects of cognitive therapy, and may improve attentional dysfunction in bipolar disorder patients. Methods 12 euthymic BD patients and 9 control participants underwent record of electroencephalography (EEG, band frequency analysis during resting states (eyes open, eyes closed and during the completion of a continuous performance task (A-X version, EEG event-related potential (ERP wave component analysis. The individuals with BD completed an 8-week MBCT intervention and record of EEG was repeated. Results (1 Brain activity, individuals with BD showed significantly decreased theta band power, increased beta band power, and decreased theta/beta ratios during the resting state, eyes closed, for frontal and cingulate cortices. Post MBCT intervention improvement over the right frontal cortex was seen in the individuals with BD, as beta band power decreased. (2 Brain activation, individuals with BD showed a significant P300-like wave form over the frontal cortex during the cue. Post MBCT intervention the P300-like waveform was significantly attenuated over the frontal cortex. Conclusions Individuals with BD show decreased attentional readiness and activation of non-relevant information processing during attentional processes. These data are the first that show, MBCT in BD improved attentional readiness, and attenuated activation of non-relevant information processing during attentional processes.
Helmes, Edward; Ward, Bradley G
Anxiety in older people is under-diagnosed and poorly treated despite significant impairments that arise from anxiety. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) has been shown to be a promising treatment for anxiety. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of an MBCT program on anxiety symptoms in older people living in residential care. Fifty-two participants (34 females) were randomly allocated into therapy and control groups using a 2 × 3 mixed design. The average age of participants was 83 years. The group effect showed significant improvements on all measures at the end of the seven-week program in the therapy group, while the control group did not show significant changes. This study represents one of the first studies of the effectiveness of an MBCT program on anxiety symptoms for older people using a randomized controlled trial. The study has implications for future research that include the effectiveness of MBCT for the treatment of anxiety symptoms in older people, the utility of group therapy programs in residential care and the benefits of using specialized instruments for older populations.
Zahra Sedaghati Barogh
Full Text Available Objectives: Findings Demonstrated that Parent of Children With Cerebral Palsy Experience Elevated Level of Distress, Depression, Anxiety, Posttraumatic Stress Symptom and Subjective Symptom of Stress. Depression is a common condition that typically has a relapsing course. Effective interventions targeting relapse have the potential to dramatically reduce the point prevalence of the condition. Many of studies have shown that Mindfulness based cognitive therapy (MBCT is an intervention that has shown efficacy in reducing Depression syndrome and depressive relapse. In This Study, Effectiveness of Mindfulness–Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT on Reduction of Depression in Mothers of Children with Cerebral Palsy was examined. Methods: Three Mothers Whose Children Had Cerebral Palsy Were Diagnosed to Have Depression Symptoms, Using Beck Depression Inventory II, Structured Clinical in This Experimental Signal–Case Study. After The Baseline was Determined, Subject Attended on Eight–Session Program of Mindfulness–Based Cognitive Therapy. Results: The Comparison of Baseline and Post–Test was Showed That Depression Symptom has decreased through MBC. Improvement Quotient for Depression of each Subject was good. Discussion: Data Showed that MBCT Reduced Depression Symptoms in Mothers of Children With Cerebral Palsy.
McKenna, Laurence; Marks, Elizabeth M; Hallsworth, Christopher A; Schaette, Roland
Tinnitus is experienced by up to 15% of the population and can lead to significant disability and distress. There is rarely a medical or surgical target and psychological therapies are recommended. We investigated whether mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) could offer an effective new therapy for tinnitus. This single-site randomized controlled trial compared MBCT to intensive relaxation training (RT) for chronic, distressing tinnitus in adults. Both treatments involved 8 weekly, 120-min sessions focused on either relaxation (RT) or mindfulness meditation (MBCT). Assessments were completed at baseline and at treatment commencement 8 weeks later. The primary outcomes were tinnitus severity (Tinnitus Questionnaire) and psychological distress (Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation - Non-Risk, CORE-NR), 16 weeks after baseline. The analysis utilized a modified intention-to-treat approach. A total of 75 patients were randomly allocated to MBCT (n = 39) or RT (n = 36). Both groups showed significant reductions in tinnitus severity and loudness, psychological distress, anxiety, depression, and disability. MBCT led to a significantly greater reduction in tinnitus severity than RT, with a mean difference of 6.3 (95% CI 1.3-11.4, p = 0.016). Effects persisted 6 months later, with a mean difference of 7.2 (95% CI 2.1-2.3, p = 0.006) and a standardized effect size of 0.56 (95% CI 0.16-0.96). Treatment was effective regardless of initial tinnitus severity, duration, or hearing loss. MBCT is effective in reducing tinnitus severity in chronic tinnitus patients compared to intensive RT. It also reduces psychological distress and disability. Future studies should explore the generalizability of this approach and how outcome relates to different aspects of the intervention. © 2017 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.
Full Text Available Carisa Perry-Parrish,1 Nikeea Copeland-Linder,2 Lindsey Webb,2 Ashley Shields,1 Erica MS Sibinga2 1Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Pediatric Medical Psychology Program, 2Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA Abstract: Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT was introduced in 1995 to address the problem of recurrent depression. MBCT is based on the notion that meditation helps individuals effectively deploy and regulate attention to effectively manage and treat a range of psychological symptoms, including emotional responses to stress, anxiety, and depression. Several studies demonstrate that mindfulness approaches can effectively reduce negative emotional reactions that result from and/or exacerbate psychiatric difficulties and exposure to stressors among children, adolescents, and their parents. Mindfulness may be particularly relevant for youth with maladaptive cognitive processes such as rumination. Clinical experience regarding the utility of mindfulness-based approaches, including MBCT, is being increasingly supported by empirical studies to optimize the effective treatment of youth with a range of challenging symptoms. This paper provides a description of MBCT, including mindfulness practices, theoretical mechanisms of action, and targeted review of studies in adolescents. Keywords: youth, mindfulness-based cognitive therapy, adolescents
Baer, Ruth A.; Fischer, Sarah; Huss, Debra B.
Binge eating is a common problem associated with distress and dysfunction. Mindfulness-based interventions are attracting increasing attention, and the recent empirical literature suggests that they may be effective for a variety of disorders. Current theories about the etiology and maintenance of binge eating suggest that mindfulness training may…
Cairncross, Molly; Miller, Carlin J
Mindfulness-based therapies (MBTs) have been shown to be efficacious in treating internally focused psychological disorders (e.g., depression); however, it is still unclear whether MBTs provide improved functioning and symptom relief for individuals with externalizing disorders, including ADHD. To clarify the literature on the effectiveness of MBTs in treating ADHD and to guide future research, an effect-size analysis was conducted. A systematic review of studies published in PsycINFO, PubMed, and Google Scholar was completed from the earliest available date until December 2014. A total of 10 studies were included in the analysis of inattention and the overall effect size was d = -.66. A total of nine studies were included in the analysis of hyperactivity/impulsivity and the overall effect was calculated at d = -.53. Results of this study highlight the possible benefits of MBTs in reducing symptoms of ADHD. © The Author(s) 2016.
Greenberg, Jonathan; Shapero, Benjamin G; Mischoulon, David; Lazar, Sara W
An impaired ability to suppress currently irrelevant mental-sets is a key cognitive deficit in depression. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) was specifically designed to help depressed individuals avoid getting caught in such irrelevant mental-sets. In the current study, a group assigned to MBCT plus treatment-as-usual (n = 22) exhibited significantly lower depression scores and greater improvements in irrelevant mental-set suppression compared to a wait-list plus treatment-as-usual (n = 18) group. Improvements in mental-set-suppression were associated with improvements in depression scores. Results provide the first evidence that MBCT can improve suppression of irrelevant mental-sets and that such improvements are associated with depressive alleviation.
Schellekens, Melanie P J; Tamagawa, Rie; Labelle, Laura E; Speca, Michael; Stephen, Joanne; Drysdale, Elaine; Sample, Sarah; Pickering, Barbara; Dirkse, Dale; Savage, Linette Lawlor; Carlson, Linda E
Despite growing evidence in support of mindfulness as an underlying mechanism of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs), it has been suggested that nonspecific therapeutic factors, such as the experience of social support, may contribute to the positive effects of MBIs. In the present study, we examined whether change in mindfulness and/or social support mediated the effect of Mindfulness-Based Cancer Recovery (MBCR) compared to another active intervention (i.e. Supportive Expressive Group Therapy (SET)), on change in mood disturbance, stress symptoms and quality of life. A secondary analysis was conducted of a multi-site randomized clinical trial investigating the impacts of MBCR and SET on distressed breast cancer survivors (MINDSET). We applied the causal steps approach with bootstrapping to test mediation, using pre- and post-intervention questionnaire data of the participants who were randomised to MBCR (n = 69) or SET (n = 70). MBCR participants improved significantly more on mood disturbance, stress symptoms and social support, but not on quality of life or mindfulness, compared to SET participants. Increased social support partially mediated the impact of MBCR versus SET on mood disturbance and stress symptoms. Because no group differences on mindfulness and quality of life were observed, no mediation analyses were performed on these variables. Findings showed that increased social support was related to more improvement in mood and stress after MBCR compared to support groups, whereas changes in mindfulness were not. This suggests a more important role for social support in enhancing outcomes in MBCR than previously thought.
Home practice in Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy and Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction: A systematic review and meta-analysis of participants' mindfulness practice and its association with outcomes.
Parsons, Christine E; Crane, Catherine; Parsons, Liam J; Fjorback, Lone Overby; Kuyken, Willem
Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) and Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) emphasize the importance of mindfulness practice at home as an integral part of the program. However, the extent to which participants complete their assigned practice is not yet clear, nor is it clear whether this practice is associated with positive outcomes. For this systematic review and meta-analysis, searches were performed using Scopus and PubMed for studies published through to the end of 2015, reporting on formal home practice of mindfulness by MBSR or MBCT participants. Across 43 studies (N = 1427), the pooled estimate for participants' home practice was 64% of the assigned amount, equating to about 30 minutes per day, six days per week [95% CI 60-69%]. There was substantial heterogeneity associated with this estimate. Across 28 studies (N = 898), there was a small but significant association between participants' self-reported home practice and intervention outcomes (r = 0·26, 95% CI 0·19,-0·34). MBSR and MBCT participants report completing substantial formal mindfulness practice at home over the eight-week intervention, albeit less than assigned amounts. There is a small but significant association between the extent of formal practice and positive intervention outcomes for a wide range of participants. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Tovote, K. Annika; Schroevers, Maya J.; Snippe, Evelien; Emmelkamp, Paul M.G.; Links, Thera P.; Sanderman, Robbert; Fleer, Joke
Objective: Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) and Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) have shown to be effective interventions for treating depressive symptoms in patients with diabetes. However, little is known about which intervention works best for whom (i.e., moderators of efficacy). The
Schoenberg, P.L.; Speckens, A.E.M.
To illuminate candidate neural working mechanisms of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) in the treatment of recurrent depressive disorder, parallel to the potential interplays between modulations in electro-cortical dynamics and depressive symptom severity and self-compassionate experience.
Foley, Elizabeth; Baillie, Andrew; Huxter, Malcolm; Price, Melanie; Sinclair, Emma
Objective: This study evaluated the effectiveness of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) for individuals with a diagnosis of cancer. Method: Participants (N = 115) diagnosed with cancer, across site and stage, were randomly allocated to either the treatment or the wait-list condition. Treatment was conducted at 1 site, by a single…
Schoenberg, P.L.; Hepark, S.; Kan, C.C.; Barendregt, H.P.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Speckens, A.E.M.
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) would enhance attenuated amplitudes of event-related potentials (ERPs) indexing performance monitoring biomarkers of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHODS: Fifty adult ADHD patients took part in a randomised
Paterson, Laurel Q P; Handy, Ariel B; Brotto, Lori A
While few treatment options exist for low sexual desire and arousal, the most common sexual dysfunction in women, a growing body of research supports the efficacy of mindfulness-based approaches. The mechanisms underlying improvements, and whether they are due to mindfulness practice or other treatment components, are unclear. As a result, we designed and pilot-tested an eight-session group mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for sexuality (MBCT-S) program that includes more extensive practice of mindfulness skills and closely aligns with the evidence-based MBCT program for depression and anxiety. A total of 26 women (mean age 43.9, range 25 to 63) with a diagnosis of sexual interest/arousal disorder participated in eight weekly group sessions, before and after which they completed validated questionnaires. The majority of women attended all sessions and completed the recommended at-home mindfulness exercises. Compared to baseline, women reported significant improvements in sexual desire, overall sexual function, and sex-related distress, regardless of treatment expectations, relationship duration, or low desire duration. Depressed mood and mindfulness also significantly improved and mediated increases in sexual function. These pilot data suggest that eight-session MBCT-S is feasible and significantly improves sexual function, and provide the basis for a larger randomized-controlled trial (RCT) with a longer follow-up period.
Weber, Béatrice; Sala, Loretta; Gex-Fabry, Marianne; Docteur, Aurélie; Gorwood, Philip; Cordera, Paolo; Bondolfi, Guido; Jermann, Françoise; Aubry, Jean-Michel; Mirabel-Sarron, Christine
This study focused on patients with bipolar disorder (BD), several years after their participation in mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT). It aimed at documenting sustained mindfulness practice, perceived long-term benefit from the program, and changes regarded as direct consequences of the intervention. This cross-sectional survey took place at least 2 years after MBCT for 70.4% of participants. It was conducted in two specialized outpatient units for BDs that are part of the Geneva University Hospitals (Switzerland) and the Sainte-Anne Hospital in Paris (France). Eligibility criteria were a diagnosis of BD according to DSM-IV and participation in at least four MBCT sessions. Response rate was 66.4%. The final sample included 71 outpatients (71.8% bipolar I, 28.2% bipolar II). A questionnaire retrospectively assessed patient-perceived change, benefit from MBCT, and current mindfulness practice. Proportions of respondents who practiced mindfulness at least once a week were 54.9% for formal practice (body scan, sitting meditation, mindful walking, or movements) and 57.7% for informal practice (mindful daily activities). Perceived benefit for the prevention of relapse was moderate, but patients acknowledged long-lasting effects and persistent changes in their way of life. Formal mindfulness practice at least once a week tended to be associated with increased long-lasting effects (p = 0.052), whereas regular informal practice and mindful breathing were significantly associated with persistent changes in daily life (p = 0.038) and better prevention of depressive relapse (p = 0.035), respectively. The most frequently reported positive change was increased awareness of being able to improve one's health. Despite methodological limitations, this survey allowed documenting mindfulness practice and perceived sustained benefit from MBCT in patients with BD. Participants particularly valued increased awareness that they can influence their own health. Both
Garland, Sheila N; Rouleau, Codie R; Campbell, Tavis; Samuels, Charles; Carlson, Linda E
Insomnia is an important but often overlooked side effect of cancer. Dysfunctional sleep beliefs have been identified as an important perpetuating factor for insomnia. Mindfulness practice has been demonstrated to improve sleep quality but it is unknown whether these effects relate to changes in dysfunctional sleep beliefs. This study is a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial comparing mindfulness-based cancer recovery (MBCR) to cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) in cancer patients with insomnia. This present analysis compares program impact on mindfulness, dysfunctional sleep beliefs, and insomnia severity clinical cutoffs. Patients (MBCR, n = 32; CBT-I, n = 40) were assessed at baseline, post-program, and 3-month follow-up. Across both groups, patients showed improvements over time in acting with awareness (P = .021) and not judging experiences (P = .023). Changes in dysfunctional sleep beliefs produced by the CBT-I group exceeded those produced by MBCR at post-program and follow-up (P insomnia severity clinical cutoffs at post-program or follow-up. This study supports the use of both CBT-I and MBCR to reduce insomnia severity and suggests the development of mindfulness facets as a method of reducing dysfunctional sleep beliefs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Shaheen E Lakhan
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mindfulness-based therapy (MBT has been used effectively to treat a variety of physical and psychological disorders, including depression, anxiety, and chronic pain. Recently, several lines of research have explored the potential for mindfulness-therapy in treating somatization disorders, including fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, and irritable bowel syndrome. METHODS: Thirteen studies were identified as fulfilling the present criteria of employing randomized controlled trials to determine the efficacy of any form of MBT in treating somatization disorders. A meta-analysis of the effects of mindfulness-based therapy on pain, symptom severity, quality of life, depression, and anxiety was performed to determine the potential of this form of treatment. FINDINGS: While limited in power, the meta-analysis indicated a small to moderate positive effect of MBT (compared to wait-list or support group controls in reducing pain (SMD = -0.21, 95% CI: -0.37, -0.03; p<0.05, symptom severity (SMD = -0.40, 95% CI: -0.54, -0.26; p<0.001, depression (SMD = -0.23, 95% CI: -0.40, -0.07, p<0.01, and anxiety (SMD = -0.20, 95% CI: -0.42, 0.02, p = 0.07 associated with somatization disorders, and improving quality of life (SMD = 0.39, 95% CI: 0.19, 0.59; p<0.001 in patients with this disorder. Subgroup analyses indicated that the efficacy of MBT was most consistent for irritable bowel syndrome (p<0.001 for pain, symptom severity, and quality of life, and that mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MCBT were more effective than eclectic/unspecified MBT. CONCLUSIONS: Preliminary evidence suggests that MBT may be effective in treating at least some aspects of somatization disorders. Further research is warranted.
Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of present research was to investigate the effectiveness of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy on clinical syndrome and body image in women with bulimia nervosa disorder. Materials and Methods: This is a quasi-experimental study with pre-test, post-test, and control group. The study population consisted of all women who referred to two nutrition and diet therapy clinics in Mashhad between February and May 2015, among which 30 women with inclusion and exclusion criteria were selected as the sample using convenience sampling. The 30 participants were randomly assigned to two 15-person groups. The first group received mindfulness-based cognitive therapy and the second group was the control group that was placed on a waiting list. Binge Eating questionnaire (Gormally, 1982, Fisher’s image inventory and Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21 were used to collect data. Data analysis was conducted using analysis of covariance in SPSS. Results: Based on the test results, mindfulness-based cognitive therapy significantly reduced depression (P
Suvarna Shirish Joshi
Full Text Available The present investigation was undertaken to examine the effects of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT on interepisodic symptoms, emotional regulation, and quality of life in patients with bipolar affective disorder (BPAD in remission. The sample for the study comprised a total of five patients with the diagnosis of BPAD in partial or complete remission. Each patient was screened to fit the inclusion and exclusion criteria and later assessed on the Beck Depressive Inventory I, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale, Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II, and The World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment-BREF. Following preassessments, patients underwent 8–10 weeks of MBCT. A single case design with pre- and post-intervention assessment was adopted to evaluate the changes. Improvement was observed in all five cases on the outcome variables. The details of the results are discussed in the context of the available literature. Implications, limitations, and ideas for future investigations are also discussed.
Full Text Available Hypertension is a common, chronic and relapsing disease which is indeed one of the major public health issues. In our study, we employed quasi-experimental research method.Total 30 patients were randomly divided into two groups; test (n= 15 and control group (n= 15. To collect the required information we gave some depression, anxiety and stress-related questionnaire to the members of both the groups to fill up in the pre-test, post-test and follow-up phases. The test group received the treatment program in eight sessions of 90 minutes each. The results showed that there was a significant difference between levels of depression, and stress in two groups and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy has significantly reduced depression and stress in patients within the test group. But no significant difference was observed for the component of anxiety. Thus the program could be referred as effective in reducing psychological consequences in patients with hypertension.
Hamidian, Sajedeh; Omidi, Abdollah; Mousavinasab, Seyyed Masoud; Naziri, Ghasem
Background Dysthimia in adults is a chronic depression disorder which is characterized by a mild depression for at least 2 years. Remarkable psycho-social involvements, greater disturbances in psycho-social functions compared to other forms of depression and lack of definite findings about preferred treatment for this disorder led us to evaluate the effectiveness of Mindfulness based cognitive therapy (MBCT) method adjunct to pharmacotherapy compared with pharmachothrapy alone in treating dysthymia in this thesis. Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy on a chronic type of depression disorder called dysthymia Patients and Methods This study is a clinical trial of an interventional method which was carried out on dysthymic and double depressed patients who had referred to psychiatric clinics of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. In doing so, 50 patients above the age of 18 were selected through convenience sampling and assigned into intervention and control groups. The control group only received medications while the intervention group in addition to receiving medication, participated in 8 sessions of a mindfulness based cognitive therapy course which was held once a week and each session lasted for 2 to 2.5 hours. All the participants filled out Beck Depression Inventory II and five facet mindfulness questionnaire. The data were analyzed using the SPSS statistical software (version 16) and univariate covariance and independent t test statistical methods. Results In this study, no statistically significant differences were found between the two groups regarding the demographic characteristics. The mean difference between the two groups was statistically significant for the variables in post-test considering the pre-test. The experimental group participants showed significant improvement in terms of the defined variables; a trend which was not observed in the control group participants
Schoultz, Mariyana; Macaden, Leah; Hubbard, Gill
Background Mindfulness-based interventions have shown to improve depression and anxiety symptoms as well as quality of life in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, little is known about the experiences of this group of patients participating in mindfulness interventions. This paper sets out to explore the perspectives of patients with IBD recruited to a pilot randomised controlled trial (RCT) of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) about the intervention. Methods In ...
Piet, Jacob; Hougaard, Esben
Background: Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) is a group-based clinical intervention program designed to reduce relapse or recurrence of major depressive disorder (MDD) by means of systematic training in mindfulness meditation combined with cognitive-behavioral methods. Objective: By means...
Piet, Jacob; Hougaard, Esben
Background: Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) is a group-based clinical intervention program designed to reduce relapse or recurrence of major depressive disorder (MDD) by means of systematic training in mindfulness meditation combined with cognitive-behavioral methods. Objective: By means...
Nasrollah Vaisi; Mohammad Rostami; Zohreh Zangooei; Mohammad-Ali Khaksar-Beldachi
Objectives: This study intended to examine the effectiveness of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy on moderating maladaptive schemas and affective control in students suffering from learning disabilities. Methods: This experimental research was conducted using pretest-posttest and a control group. The population included all the female students who were studying in the Koohdasht's middle schools (academic year: 2012-2013). The sample included 40 female students suffering from learn...
Katayoun Pasdar; Jafar Hasani; Robabeh Noury
Introduction and Aims The aim of the present study was the evaluation of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy efficacy on self-compassion of patients with mixed anxiety-depression disorder. Materials and Methods Three participants with mixed anxiety-depression disorder were selected by available sampling. Participants evaluated 9 times by Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and Neff self-compassion Scale (SCS). For data analysis, we employed procedur...
Idusohan-Moizer, H; Sawicka, A; Dendle, J; Albany, M
Mindfulness-based interventions have been shown to be effective in the treatment of a range of health and psychological disorders in adults and young people without intellectual disabilities (ID). Clinical studies are emerging reporting on the efficacy of mindfulness-based interventions as a stand-alone treatment for common clinical disorders in adults with ID. This paper aims to evaluate the efficacy of an innovative structured mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) group programme adapted for adults with ID with a diagnosis of either recurrent depression, anxiety or both clinical conditions and a history of deliberate self-harm behaviour. Two groups ran consecutively consisting of a total of fifteen participants and seven carers. All participants were recorded as having either a borderline, mild, or moderate ID. The group programme ran over a period of 9 weeks with a follow-up session at 6 weeks post group intervention. Outcome measures included the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and two sub-scales from the Self-Compassion Scale administered at baseline, post therapy and at 6-week follow-up. The evaluation showed that participants reported an improvement in their experience of depression, anxiety, self-compassion and compassion for others. The most significant impact was in the reduced levels of anxiety reported. Improvements across all outcomes were maintained at 6-week follow-up. The results of the evaluation suggest that people with intellectual disabilities benefit from a structured MBCT group intervention and the results are maintained at 6-week follow-up. © 2013 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Hedman, Erik; Hesser, Hugo; Andersson, Erik; Axelsson, Erland; Ljótsson, Brjánn
Exposure-based cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) has been shown to be effective in the treatment of severe health anxiety, but little is known about mediators of treatment effect. The aim of the present study was to investigate mindful non-reactivity as a putative mediator of health anxiety outcome using data from a large scale randomized controlled trial. We assessed mindful non-reactivity using the Five Facets Mindfulness Questionnaire-Non-Reactivity scale (FFMQ-NR) and health anxiety with the Short Health Anxiety Inventory (SHAI). Participants with severe health anxiety (N=158) were randomized to internet-delivered exposure-based CBT or behavioral stress management (BSM) and throughout the treatment, both the mediator and outcome were measured weekly. As previously reported, exposure-based CBT was more effective than BSM in reducing health anxiety. In the present study, latent process growth modeling showed that treatment condition had a significant effect on the FFMQ-NR growth trajectory (α-path), estimate=0.18, 95% CI [0.04, 0.32], p=.015, indicating a larger increase in mindful non-reactivity among participants receiving exposure-based CBT compared to the BSM group. The FFMQ-NR growth trajectory was significantly correlated with the SHAI trajectory (β-path estimate=-1.82, 95% CI [-2.15, -1.48], panxiety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shallcross, Amanda J.; Gross, James J.; Visvanathan, Pallavi D.; Kumar, Niketa; Palfrey, Amy; Ford, Brett Q.; Dimidjian, Sona; Shirk, Stephen; Holm-Denoma, Jill; Goode, Kari M.; Cox, Erica; Chaplin, William; Mauss, Iris B.
Objective We evaluated the comparative effectiveness of Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) versus an active control condition (ACC) for depression relapse prevention, depressive symptom reduction, and improvement in life satisfaction. Method Ninety-two participants in remission from Major Depressive Disorder with residual depressive symptoms were randomized to either an 8-week MBCT or a validated ACC that is structurally equivalent to MBCT and controls for non-specific effects (e.g., interaction with a facilitator, perceived social support, treatment outcome expectations). Both interventions were delivered according to their published manuals. Results Intention-to-treat analyses indicated no differences between MBCT and ACC in depression relapse rates or time to relapse over a 60-week follow-up. Both groups experienced significant and equal reductions in depressive symptoms and improvements in life satisfaction. A significant quadratic interaction (group x time) indicated that the pattern of depressive symptom reduction differed between groups. The ACC experienced immediate symptom reduction post-intervention and then a gradual increase over the 60-week follow-up. The MBCT group experienced a gradual linear symptom reduction. The pattern for life satisfaction was identical but only marginally significant. Conclusions MBCT did not differ from an ACC on rates of depression relapse, symptom reduction, or life satisfaction, suggesting that MBCT is no more effective for preventing depression relapse and reducing depressive symptoms than the active components of the ACC. Differences in trajectory of depressive symptom improvement suggest that the intervention-specific skills acquired may be associated with differential rates of therapeutic benefit. This study demonstrates the importance of comparing psychotherapeutic interventions to active control conditions. PMID:26371618
Day, Melissa A; Thorn, Beverly E
This study aimed to determine if mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) engenders improvement in headache outcomes via the mechanisms specified by theory: (1) change in psychological process, (i.e., pain acceptance); and concurrently (2) change in cognitive content, (i.e., pain catastrophizing; headache management self-efficacy). A secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial comparing MBCT to a medical treatment as usual, delayed treatment (DT) control was conducted. Participants were individuals with headache pain who completed MBCT or DT (N=24) at the Kilgo Headache Clinic or psychology clinic. Standardized measures of the primary outcome (pain interference) and proposed mediators were administered at pre- and post-treatment; change scores were calculated. Bootstrap mediation models were conducted. Pain acceptance emerged as a significant mediator of the group-interference relation (pMediation models examining acceptance subscales showed nuances in this effect, with activity engagement emerging as a significant mediator (pmediation due to a non-significant pathway from the mediator to outcome. Criteria for mediation was also not met for the catastrophizing or self-efficacy models as neither of these variables significantly predicted pain interference. Pain acceptance, and specifically engagement in valued activities despite pain, may be a key mechanism underlying improvement in pain outcome during a MBCT for headache pain intervention. The theorized mediating role of cognitive content factors was not supported in this preliminary study. A large, definitive trial is warranted to replicate and extend the findings in order to streamline and optimize MBCT for headache. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zahara Sharbaf Olyaie
Discussion: Group mindfulness-based cognitive therapy can be considered as an effective and efficient approach to the quality of life and modification of body image in women with breast cancer who have undergone mastectomy.
Carpentier, D; Romo, L; Bouthillon-Heitzmann, P; Limosin, F
For several years, the learning of mindfulness has developed in a psychological intervention perspective, particularly in the field of addiction. Presently, the management of addictions with substances is centered on two questions: the motivation in the change of behaviour and in a significant change in alcohol consumption. Concerning alcohol dependence, the evolution of behaviour is variable and characterized by forgiveness episodes and relapses. Over many years, a treatment for the abuse of substance associated with techniques based on full consciousness (Kabat-Zinn, 1990; Segal et al., 2002) Mindfulness-based relapse prevention (MBRP) was developed by Marlatt et al. (2011). The prevention of the relapse therapy, based on full consciousness, is a program of eight sessions integrating techniques of "mindfulness" into the techniques of prevention of the relapse. However, not much research has focused on the MBRP, the publication of the manual regarding this intervention is too recent (Bowen S et al., 2011). We are interested in the active mechanisms, which are at stake in the MBRP. Indeed, the meditation acts presents many mechanisms in the addicting disorders. Our non-controlled research was based on a protocol in order to evaluate the alcohol consummation, mindfulness, impulsiveness, automatic thoughts, anxiety and abilities to cope. The first results are interesting: reduction of alcohol consummation, increase of mindfulness, reduction of trigger relapse, increasing cognitive flexibility and high degree of satisfaction among participants. An intervention MBRP was proposed to 26 patients who were assigned to three groups. They were questioned about their alcohol consumption and assessed by a protocol of seven evaluations before and after the group MBRP: Five Facets Mindfulness (FFMQ), Impulsive Behavior Scale (UPPS), Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (AAQ II), State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-A, STAI-B), Questionnaire of the automatic thoughts (QPA), and
Ives-Deliperi, Victoria L; Howells, Fleur; Stein, Dan J; Meintjes, Ernesta M; Horn, Neil
Preliminary research findings have shown that mindfulness-based cognitive therapy improves anxiety and depressive symptoms in bipolar disorder. In this study, we further investigated the effects of MBCT in bipolar disorder, in a controlled fMRI study. Twenty three patients with bipolar disorder underwent neuropsychological testing and functional MRI. Sixteen of these patients were tested before and after an eight-week MBCT intervention, and seven were wait listed for training and tested at the same intervals. The results were compared with 10 healthy controls. Prior to MBCT, bipolar patients reported significantly higher levels of anxiety and symptoms of stress, scored significantly lower on a test of working memory, and showed significant BOLD signal decrease in the medial PFC during a mindfulness task, compared to healthy controls. Following MBCT, there were significant improvements in the bipolar treatment group, in measures of mindfulness, anxiety and emotion regulation, and in tests of working memory, spatial memory and verbal fluency compared to the bipolar wait list group. BOLD signal increases were noted in the medial PFC and posterior parietal lobe, in a repeat mindfulness task. A region of interest analysis revealed strong correlation between signal changes in medial PFC and increases in mindfulness. The small control group is a limitation in the study. These data suggest that MBCT improves mindfulness and emotion regulation and reduces anxiety in bipolar disorder, corresponding to increased activations in the medial PFC, a region associated with cognitive flexibility and previously proposed as a key area of pathophysiology in the disorder. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Objective: The findings demonstrated that parents of children with cerebral palsy experience elevated levels of distress, depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress symptom and subjective symptom of stress and low quality of life. Effective interventions targeting relapse have the potential to dramatically reduce the point prevalence of this condition.Many studies have shown that Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT is an intervention that has shown efficacy in improving quality of life. In this study, the effect of Mindfulness –Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT on increasing quality of life in mothers of children with cerebral palsy has been examined.Method: Three mothers of CP children with low scores on quality of life in WHOQOL-BREF inventory participated in this single- case study.Results: Findings revealed that the MBCT program elevated quality of life of the participants. The improvement quotient for quality of life of each participant was good.Conclusion: The results have implication for efficacy of mindfulness for improvement of psychosocial life of families of children with cerebral palsy.
Idusohan-Moizer, H.; Sawicka, A.; Dendle, J.; Albany, M.
Background: Mindfulness-based interventions have been shown to be effective in the treatment of a range of health and psychological disorders in adults and young people without intellectual disabilities (ID). Clinical studies are emerging reporting on the efficacy of mindfulness-based interventions as a stand-alone treatment for common clinical…
Problems with attention and symptom distress are common clinical features reported by women who receive adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer. Mindfulness practice significantly improves attention and mindfulness programs significantly reduce symptom distress in patients with cancer, and, more specifically, in women with breast cancer. Recently, a pilot investigation of a music therapy program, built on core attitudes of mindfulness practice, reported significant benefits of enhanced attent...
Full Text Available Objectives: This study intended to examine the effectiveness of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy on moderating maladaptive schemas and affective control in students suffering from learning disabilities. Methods: This experimental research was conducted using pretest-posttest and a control group. The population included all the female students who were studying in the Koohdasht's middle schools (academic year: 2012-2013. The sample included 40 female students suffering from learning disabilities who had been randomly selected out of Koohdasht's middle school students after identification and a structured clinical interview and they were put into experimental and control groups (20 students each group. For data collection, Affective Control Scale and Young Schema Questionnaire were used. Results: The results of multivariate covariance analysis showed that mindfulness-based cognitive therapy has significantly decreased maladaptive schemas, depression, anxiety, and anger in subjects (P<0.001. Discussion: This finding represents important implications regarding education and mental health improvement in exceptional students. Therefore, it is recommended to use this therapeutic package in schools and clinics as a supplement to other therapies in order to decrease negative emotions and to prevent formation of maladaptive schemas in these students.
Lukasz M. Mazur, PhD
Full Text Available There is a need to better prepare radiation therapy (RT providers to safely operate within the health information technology (IT sociotechnical system. Simulation-based training has been preemptively used to yield meaningful improvements during providers' interactions with health IT, including RT settings. Therefore, on the basis of the available literature and our experience, we propose principles for the effective design and use of simulated scenarios and describe a conceptual framework for a debriefing approach to foster successful training that is focused on safety mindfulness during RT professionals' interactions with health IT.
van Vugt, Marieke Karlijn; Hitchcock, Peter; Shahar, Ben; Britton, Willoughby
converging research suggests that mindfulness training exerts its therapeutic effects on depression by reducing rumination. Theoretically, rumination is a multifaceted construct that aggregates multiple neurocognitive aspects of depression, including poor executive control, negative and overgeneral memory bias, and persistence or stickiness of negative mind states. Current measures of rumination, most-often self-reports, do not capture these different aspects of ruminative tendencies, and therefore are limited in providing detailed information about the mechanisms of mindfulness. we developed new insight into the potential mechanisms of rumination, based on three model-based metrics of free recall dynamics. These three measures reflect the patterns of memory retrieval of valenced information: the probability of first recall (Pstart) which represents initial affective bias, the probability of staying with the same valence category rather than switching, which indicates strength of positive or negative association networks (Pstay), and probability of stopping (Pstop) or ending recall within a given valence, which indicates persistence or stickiness of a mind state. We investigated the effects of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT; N = 29) vs. wait-list control (N = 23) on these recall dynamics in a randomized controlled trial in individuals with recurrent depression. Participants completed a standard laboratory stressor, the Trier Social Stress Test, to induce negative mood and activate ruminative tendencies. Following that, participants completed a free recall task consisting of three word lists. This assessment was conducted both before and after treatment or wait-list. while MBCT participant's Pstart remained relatively stable, controls showed multiple indications of depression-related deterioration toward more negative and less positive bias. Following the intervention, MBCT participants decreased in their tendency to sustain trains of negative
Schoenberg, Poppy L A; Hepark, Sevket; Kan, Cornelis C; Barendregt, Henk P; Buitelaar, Jan K; Speckens, Anne E M
To examine whether mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) would enhance attenuated amplitudes of event-related potentials (ERPs) indexing performance monitoring biomarkers of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Fifty adult ADHD patients took part in a randomised controlled study investigating ERP and clinical measures pre-to-post MBCT. Twenty-six patients were randomly allocated to MBCT, 24 to a wait-list control. Main outcome measures included error processing (ERN, Pe), conflict monitoring (NoGo-N2), and inhibitory control (NoGo-P3) ERPs concomitant to a continuous performance task (CPT-X). Inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity ADHD symptoms, psychological distress and social functioning, and mindfulness skills were also assessed. MBCT was associated with increased Pe and NoGo-P3 amplitudes, coinciding with reduced 'hyperactivity/impulsivity' and 'inattention' symptomatology. Specific to the MBCT; enhanced Pe amplitudes correlated with a decrease in hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms and increased 'act-with-awareness' mindfulness skill, whereas, enhanced P3 correlated with amelioration in inattention symptoms. MBCT enhanced ERP amplitudes associated with motivational saliency and error awareness, leading to improved inhibitory regulation. MBCT suggests having comparable modulation on performance monitoring ERP amplitudes as pharmacological treatments. Further study and development of MBCT as a treatment for ADHD is warranted, in addition to its potential scope for clinical applicability to broader defined externalising disorders and clinical problems associated with impairments of the prefrontal cortex. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mindfulness-based stress reduction and cognitive behavioral therapy for chronic low back pain: similar effects on mindfulness, catastrophizing, self-efficacy, and acceptance in a randomized controlled trial.
Turner, Judith A; Anderson, Melissa L; Balderson, Benjamin H; Cook, Andrea J; Sherman, Karen J; Cherkin, Daniel C
Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is believed to improve chronic pain problems by decreasing patient catastrophizing and increasing patient self-efficacy for managing pain. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) is believed to benefit patients with chronic pain by increasing mindfulness and pain acceptance. However, little is known about how these therapeutic mechanism variables relate to each other or whether they are differentially impacted by MBSR vs CBT. In a randomized controlled trial comparing MBSR, CBT, and usual care (UC) for adults aged 20 to 70 years with chronic low back pain (N = 342), we examined (1) baseline relationships among measures of catastrophizing, self-efficacy, acceptance, and mindfulness and (2) changes on these measures in the 3 treatment groups. At baseline, catastrophizing was associated negatively with self-efficacy, acceptance, and 3 aspects of mindfulness (nonreactivity, nonjudging, and acting with awareness; all P values pain.
Piet, Jacob; Wurtzen, Hanne; Zachariae, Robert
Objective: The use of mindfulness-based therapy (MBT) in oncology settings has become increasingly popular, and research in the field has rapidly expanded. The objective was by means of a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the current evidence for the effect of MBT on symptoms of anxiety and depression in adult cancer patients and…
Hauge, Christian Riise; Rasmussen, Alice; Piet, Jacob
the effects of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) for individuals with MCS. Methods The intention-to-treat sample (ITT) included 69 individuals who had been randomized to either MBCT or treatment as usual (TAU). The primary outcome measure was the Quick Environmental Exposure and Sensitivity Inventory...
O Connor, Maja; Piet, Jacob; Hougaard, Esben
We examined the effects of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) on symptom severity of depression, complicated grief, posttraumatic stress, and working memory in elderly bereaved people with long-term bereavement-related distress. A non-randomized, controlled pilot design was used in a sample...
Theadom, Alice; Cropley, Mark; Smith, Helen E; Feigin, Valery L; McPherson, Kathryn
Mind-body interventions are based on the holistic principle that mind, body and behaviour are all interconnected. Mind-body interventions incorporate strategies that are thought to improve psychological and physical well-being, aim to allow patients to take an active role in their treatment, and promote people's ability to cope. Mind-body interventions are widely used by people with fibromyalgia to help manage their symptoms and improve well-being. Examples of mind-body therapies include psychological therapies, biofeedback, mindfulness, movement therapies and relaxation strategies. To review the benefits and harms of mind-body therapies in comparison to standard care and attention placebo control groups for adults with fibromyalgia, post-intervention and at three and six month follow-up. Electronic searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE (Ovid), EMBASE (Ovid), PsycINFO (Ovid), AMED (EBSCO) and CINAHL (Ovid) were conducted up to 30 October 2013. Searches of reference lists were conducted and authors in the field were contacted to identify additional relevant articles. All relevant randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of mind-body interventions for adults with fibromyalgia were included. Two authors independently selected studies, extracted the data and assessed trials for low, unclear or high risk of bias. Any discrepancy was resolved through discussion and consensus. Continuous outcomes were analysed using mean difference (MD) where the same outcome measure and scoring method was used and standardised mean difference (SMD) where different outcome measures were used. For binary data standard estimation of the risk ratio (RR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI) was used. Seventy-four papers describing 61 trials were identified, with 4234 predominantly female participants. The nature of fibromyalgia varied from mild to severe across the study populations. Twenty-six studies were classified as having a low risk of bias for all
Tomfohr-Madsen, Lianne M; Campbell, Tavis S; Giesbrecht, Gerald F; Letourneau, Nicole L; Carlson, Linda E; Madsen, Joshua W; Dimidjian, Sona
Clinically significant psychological distress in pregnancy is common, with epidemiological research suggesting that between 15 and 25 % of pregnant women experience elevated symptoms of stress, anxiety, and depression. Untreated psychological distress in pregnancy is associated with poor obstetrical outcomes, changes in maternal physiology, elevated incidence of child physical and psychological disorders, and is predictive of maternal postpartum mood disorders. Despite the wide-ranging impact of antenatal psychological distress on mothers and their children, there is a gap in our knowledge about the most effective treatments that are available for psychological distress experienced in pregnancy. Additionally, no trials have focused on potential physiological changes that may occur as a result of receiving mindfulness training in pregnancy. The proposed trial will determine the effectiveness of an 8-week modified Mindfulness-based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) intervention delivered during pregnancy. A randomized controlled trial (RCT) design with repeated measures will be used to evaluate the effectiveness of MBCT to treat psychological distress in pregnancy. A sample of 60 consenting pregnant women aged 18 years and above will be enrolled and randomized to the experimental (MBCT) or control (treatment as usual) condition. Primary (e.g., symptoms of stress, depression, and anxiety), secondary (cortisol, blood pressure (BP), heart rate variability (HRV), and sleep) and other outcome data (e.g., psychological diagnoses) will be collected via a combination of laboratory visits and at-home assessments from both groups at baseline (T 1 ), immediately following the intervention (T 2 ), and at 3 months postpartum (T 3 ). Descriptive statistics will be used to describe sample characteristics. Data will be analyzed using an intention-to-treat approach. Hierarchical linear models will be used to test intervention effects on primary and secondary outcomes. The trial is expected
Spears, Claire Adams; Hedeker, Donald; Li, Liang; Wu, Cai; Anderson, Natalie K; Houchins, Sean C; Vinci, Christine; Hoover, Diana Stewart; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Cinciripini, Paul M; Waters, Andrew J; Wetter, David W
To examine cognitive and affective mechanisms underlying mindfulness-based addiction treatment (MBAT) versus cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and usual care (UC) for smoking cessation. Participants in the parent study from which data were drawn (N = 412; 54.9% female; 48.2% African American, 41.5% non-Latino White, 5.4% Latino, 4.9% other; 57.6% annual income <$30,000) were randomized to MBAT (n = 154), CBT (n = 155), or UC (n = 103). From quit date through 26 weeks postquit, participants completed measures of emotions, craving, dependence, withdrawal, self-efficacy, and attentional bias. Biochemically confirmed 7-day smoking abstinence was assessed at 4 and 26 weeks postquit. Although the parent study did not find a significant treatment effect on abstinence, mixed-effects regression models were conducted to examine treatment effects on hypothesized mechanisms, and indirect effects of treatments on abstinence were tested. Participants receiving MBAT perceived greater volitional control over smoking and evidenced lower volatility of anger than participants in both other treatments. However, there were no other significant differences between MBAT and CBT. Compared with those receiving UC, MBAT participants reported lower anxiety, concentration difficulties, craving, and dependence, as well as higher self-efficacy for managing negative affect without smoking. Indirect effects of MBAT versus UC on abstinence occurred through each of these mechanisms. Whereas several differences emerged between MBAT and UC, MBAT and CBT had similar effects on several of the psychosocial mechanisms implicated in tobacco dependence. Results help to shed light on similarities and differences between mindfulness-based and other active smoking cessation treatments. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Lilja, Josefine L; Zelleroth, Clara; Axberg, Ulf; Norlander, Torsten
This study examined the effectiveness of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) in primary care for patients with recurrent depression (major depressive disorder: MDD). According to the World Health Organization (WHO), MDD is now the leading cause of disease burden in middle- and high-income countries. Patients (N = 45) with three or more previous depressive episodes were recruited to participate in MBCT as a preventative intervention. Using a benchmarking approach, outcome data was compared with data from a recent efficacy study. The methodology is a rigorous approach to assessing effectiveness when evidence-based UK protocols are transferred into the existing Scandinavian service delivery. Additionally, a person-centred methodological approach was used to assess clinical significance on the Reliable Change Index (RCI). The analysis revealed comparable or larger effects from pre-test to post-test in reduced psychiatric symptoms, increased quality of life and level of mindfulness, and the effects were maintained over 14 months. Analysis of the relapse rate in the current study (16%) compared to the TAU in the efficacy study (68%) yielded an h value of 0.78, a moderate effect size. Only 13% dropped out of the treatment. According to the RCI findings, 65% to 67% of participants in the clinical group improved, no individual worsened, and women showed a significantly greater improvement of depression and anxiety than men. Therapeutic alliance and motivation had no impact on the outcome. The overall result suggests that MBCT can be implemented successfully in Scandinavian primary health care as a preventive intervention for patients with recurrent depression. © 2016 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this research was to study the effect of mindfulness-based art therapy (MBAT, as a new group intervention in recent psychotherapy, inreducing depression, anxiety, stress and improving the quality of life among postmenopausal women. Methods & Materials: Using semi-experimental pre-test post-test with control group design, the number of 17 postmenopausal women, between 47 to 60 years old, were selected using voluntary sampling method, and short version of the depression, anxiety, stress scales, and world health organization quality of life questionnaire were administrated in two experimental (n=9 and control groups (n=8. The experimental group attended in ten sessions MBAT protocol. One month after the intervention, both groups were assessed again using the same tools. Data were evaluated by MANCOVA. Results: Implementation of the MBAT in experimental group decreases depression, and stress. It also increases the quality of life, but has not significant effects on the anxiety. Conclusion: The MBAT, as a new intervention method which combines art therapy and psychotherapy, seems to decrease depression, stress, and improve quality of life in postmenopausal women. So, using MBAT is recommended in large scale in the population of postmenopausal women.
Luberto, Christina M; Wasson, Rachel S; Kraemer, Kristen M; Sears, Richard W; Hueber, Carly; Cotton, Sian
Hospital employees may experience occupational stress and burnout, which negatively impact quality of life and job performance. Evidence-based interventions implemented within the hospital setting are needed to promote employees' well-being. We offered a 4-week Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy group program for hospital employees, and used a mixed-methods practice-based research approach to explore feasibility, acceptability, and effects on stress and burnout. Participants were 65 hospital employees ( M age = 44.06; 85% white) who participated between September 2015 and January 2016. Participants completed validated measures of stress and burnout before and after the program, and answered open-ended satisfaction questions after the program. Groups consistently enrolled at least 10 participants, but attendance rates declined across sessions (76% at session 2 vs. 54% at session 4) due primarily to work-related scheduling conflicts. The program content was acceptable as evidenced by high perceived value ( M = 9.18 out of 10), homework compliance (51% practicing at least 3 times/week), and qualitative requests for program expansion. There were large, statistically significant decreases in stress (Δ M = 2.1, p strategies to enhance session attendance.
Compen, Félix R; Bisseling, Else M; Schellekens, Melanie Pj; Jansen, Ellen Tm; van der Lee, Marije L; Speckens, Anne Em
The number of patients living with cancer is growing, and a substantial number of patients suffer from psychological distress. Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) seem effective in alleviating psychological distress. Unfortunately, several cancer patients find it difficult, if not impossible, to attend a group-based course. Internet-based MBIs (eMBIs) such as Internet-based mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (eMBCT) may offer solutions. However, it is yet to be studied what facilitators and barriers cancer patients experience during eMBCT. This study aimed to explore facilitators and barriers of individual asynchronous therapist-assisted eMBCT as experienced by both patients and therapists. Patients with heterogeneous cancer diagnoses suffering from psychological distress were offered eMBCT. This 9-week intervention mirrored the group-based MBCT protocol and included weekly asynchronous written therapist feedback. Patients were granted access to a website that contained the eMBCT protocol and a secured inbox, and they were asked to practice and fill out diaries on which the therapist provided feedback. In total, 31 patients participated in an individual posttreatment interview on experienced facilitators and barriers during eMBCT. Moreover, eight therapists were interviewed. The data were analyzed with qualitative content analysis to identify barriers and facilitators in eMBCT. Both patients and therapists mentioned four overarching themes as facilitators and barriers: treatment setting (the individual and Internet-based nature of the treatment), treatment format (how the treatment and its guidance were organized and delivered), role of the therapist, and individual patient characteristics. The eMBCT provided flexibility in when, where, and how patients and therapists engage in MBCT. Future studies should assess how different eMBCT designs could further improve barriers that were found. ©Félix R Compen, Else M Bisseling, Melanie PJ Schellekens, Ellen TM
Mohammadi Ziabari, S.S.; Treur, J.
In this paper the effect of a mindfulness therapy based on a Network-Oriented Modeling approach is addressed. The considered therapy is Autogenic Training, that can be used when under stress; it has as two main goals to achieve feeling heavy and warm body parts (limbs). Mantra’s have been used in
Full Text Available Background This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of mindfulness-based cognitive group therapy (MBCT in reducing negative automatic thoughts and dysfunctional attitudes in cancer patients. Methods The study was an applied and quasi-experimental research conducted by pre- and post-testing. The sample consisted of 30 cancer patients selected by purposive sampling and randomly placed in the control and the experimental group (15 individuals per group. The members of both groups filled out the automatic thoughts questionnaire (ATQ and the dysfunctional attitudes scale (DAS-26 at the pre- and the post-test stage. The collected data were analyzed by the SPSS software and multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA tests. Results The results indicated that MBCT significantly reduced negative automatic thoughts (F = 126.15, P < 0.01 and dysfunctional attitudes (F = 179.53, P < 0.01 in the experimental group at the post-test stage in comparison to the control group. Conclusions Based on the results of this study, it is essential that therapeutic centers and support forums related to patients with refractory disorders use MBCT in their programs for reducing negative automatic thoughts and dysfunctional attitudes.
Dimidjian, Sona; Goodman, Sherryl H; Felder, Jennifer N; Gallop, Robert; Brown, Amanda P; Beck, Arne
Pregnant women with histories of depression are at high risk of depressive relapse/recurrence during the perinatal period, and options for relapse/recurrence prevention are limited. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) has strong evidence among general populations but has not been studied among at-risk pregnant women to prevent depression. We examined the feasibility, acceptability, and clinical outcomes of depression symptom severity and relapse/recurrence associated with MBCT adapted for perinatal women (MBCT-PD). Pregnant women with depression histories were recruited from obstetrics clinics in a large health maintenance organization at two sites and enrolled in MBCT-PD (N = 49). Self-reported depressive symptoms and interview-based assessments of depression relapse/recurrence status were measured at baseline, during MBCT-PD, and through 6-months postpartum. Pregnant women reported interest, engagement, and satisfaction with the program. Retention rates were high, as were rates of completion of daily homework practices. Intent to treat analyses indicated a significant improvement in depression symptom levels and an 18 % rate of relapse/recurrence through 6 months postpartum. MBCT-PD shows promise as an acceptable, feasible, and clinically beneficial brief psychosocial prevention option for pregnant women with histories of depression. Randomized controlled trials are needed to examine the efficacy of MBCT-PD for the prevention of depressive relapse/recurrence during pregnancy and postpartum.
Ana Moreno Coutiño
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to review mindfulness, which is a so-called third generation cognitive behavioral therapy (TGT. Contributions of these specific therapies are appreciated in their techniques, which have as therapeutic principle abandoning the battle against the symptoms and redirecting life instead. TGT have recently begun to be studied in major universities around the world, and have been successfully used in various clinical settings, as well as in various Western countries. This kind of therapy has also been evaluated in Latin America, but its introduction in the clinical and academic fields has been slower, perhaps because the general principles of mindfulness have not yet been sufficiently widespread. This paper summarizes the basis of TGT, describes its therapeutic approach, exposes the links between the main Buddhist precepts and mindfulness, and summarizes the current status of its research in the world.
Bulzacka, E; Lavault, S; Pelissolo, A; Bagnis Isnard, C
Mindfulness based interventions (MBI) have recently gained much interest in western medicine. MBSR paradigm is based on teaching participants to pay complete attention to the present experience and act nonjudgmentally towards stressful events. During this mental practice the meditator focuses his or her attention on the sensations of the body. While the distractions (mental images, thoughts, emotional or somatic states) arise the participant is taught to acknowledge discursive thoughts and cultivate the state of awareness without immediate reaction. The effectiveness of these programs is well documented in the field of emotional response regulation in depression (relapse prevention), anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder or eating disorders. Furthermore, converging lines of evidence support the hypothesis that mindfulness practice improves cognition, especially the ability to sustain attention and think in a more flexible manner. Nevertheless, formal rehabilitation programs targeting cognitive disturbances resulting from psychiatric (depression, disorder bipolar, schizophrenia) or neurologic conditions (brain injury, dementia) seldom rely on MBI principles. This review of literature aims at discussing possible links between MBI and clinical neuropsychology. We conducted a review of literature using electronic databases up to December 2016, screening studies with variants of the keywords ("Mindfulness", "MBI", "MBSR", "Meditation") OR/AND ("Cognition", "Attention", "Executive function", "Memory", "Learning") RESULTS: In the first part, we describe key concepts of the neuropsychology of attention in the light of Posner's model of attention control. We also underline the potential scope of different therapeutic contexts where disturbances of attention may be clinically relevant. Second, we review the efficacy of MBI in the field of cognition (thinking disturbances, attention biases, memory and executive processes impairment or low metacognitive abilities
Jang, Seung-Ho; Kang, Seung-Yeon; Lee, Hye-Jin; Lee, Sang-Yeol
Mindfulness-based art therapy (MBAT) induces emotional relaxation in cancer patients and is a treatment known to improve psychological stability. The objective of this research was to evaluate the treatment effects of MBAT for breast cancer patients. Overall, 24 breast cancer patients were selected as subjects of the study. Two groups, the MBAT group and control group with 12 patients each, were randomly assigned. The patients in the MBAT group were given 12 sessions of treatments. To measure depression and anxiety, low scales of the personality assessment inventory (PAI) was used. Health-related quality of life was evaluated using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTCQLQ-C30). The treatment results were analyzed using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and two-way repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). The results showed that depression and anxiety decreased significantly and health-related quality of life improved significantly in the MBAT group. In the control group, however, there was no significant change. MBAT can be seen as an effective treatment method that improves breast cancer patients׳ psychological stability and quality of life. Evaluation of treatment effects using program development and large-scale research for future clinical application is needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of an 8-week mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT group intervention to reduce psychological distress as well as to strengthen self-esteem, resilience, and general well-being for individuals living with a chronic illness and/or other health challenges. This pilot study employed a pre–posttest design to evaluate the outcome of the intervention for individuals receiving care in a Community and Family Medicine department and a Women’s Health Centre located in an urban downtown hospital. A total of 42 patients were enrolled in the study and 35 participants completed the intervention. Thirty-five of 42 enrolled participants completed the intervention. Twenty-eight participants completed the pretest and posttest assessments, which demonstrated statistically significant improvement on most outcome measures, including the Center for Epidemiological Studies–Depression Rating Scale (CES-D, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS, Affect Balance Scale (ABS, the Resilience Scale (RS, and the Five-Item World Health Organization Well-Being Index (WHO-5. Large effect sizes were observed for the CES-D, the ABS, and the DASS Stress subscale. Observed improvements were sustained at 4 weeks posttreatment. Results are consistent with studies indicating that MBCT offers promise in alleviating psychological distress for those who are seeking care in primary health care settings. Continued focus on how to best implement MBCT in primary health care, particularly for those with comorbid physical and mental health conditions, supports the World Health Organization’s recommendation to integrate evidence-based mental health care within primary health care to promote equitable access to care for those most in need.
Segal, Zindel V; Bieling, Peter; Young, Trevor; MacQueen, Glenda; Cooke, Robert; Martin, Lawrence; Bloch, Richard; Levitan, Robert D
Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) is a group-based psychosocial intervention designed to enhance self-management of prodromal symptoms associated with depressive relapse. To compare rates of relapse in depressed patients in remission receiving MBCT against maintenance antidepressant pharmacotherapy, the current standard of care. Patients who met remission criteria after 8 months of algorithm-informed antidepressant treatment were randomized to receive maintenance antidepressant medication, MBCT, or placebo and were followed up for 18 months. Outpatient clinics at the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, and St Joseph's Healthcare, Hamilton, Ontario. One hundred sixty patients aged 18 to 65 years meeting DSM-IV criteria for major depressive disorder with a minimum of 2 past episodes. Of these, 84 achieved remission (52.5%) and were assigned to 1 of the 3 study conditions. Patients in remission discontinued their antidepressants and attended 8 weekly group sessions of MBCT, continued taking their therapeutic dose of antidepressant medication, or discontinued active medication and were switched to placebo. Relapse was defined as a return, for at least 2 weeks, of symptoms sufficient to meet the criteria for major depression on module A of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. Intention-to-treat analyses showed a significant interaction between the quality of acute-phase remission and subsequent prevention of relapse in randomized patients (P = .03). Among unstable remitters (1 or more Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression score >7 during remission), patients in both MBCT and maintenance treatment showed a 73% decrease in hazard compared with placebo (P = .03), whereas for stable remitters (all Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression scores ≤7 during remission) there were no group differences in survival. For depressed patients achieving stable or unstable clinical remission, MBCT offers protection against relapse
Cairns, Victoria; Murray, Craig
The exploration of Mindfulness-based Cognitive Therapy through qualitative investigation is a growing area of interest within current literature, providing valuable understanding of the process of change experienced by those engaging in this therapeutic approach. This meta-synthesis aims to gain a deeper understanding of how the features of Mindfulness-based Cognitive Therapy contribute to positive therapeutic change. Noblit and Hare's (1988) 7-step meta-ethnography method was conducted in order to synthesize the findings of seven qualitative studies. The process of reciprocal translation identified the following five major themes: i) Taking control through understanding, awareness and acceptance; ii) The impact of the group; (iii) Taking skills into everyday life; (iv) Feelings towards the self; (v) The role of expectations. The synthesis of translation identified the higher order concept of "The Mindfulness-based Cognitive Therapy Journey to Change", which depicts the complex interaction between the five themes in relation to how they contribute to positive therapeutic change. The findings are discussed in relation to previous research, theory and their implications for clinical practice.
Mindfulness-based stress reduction and cognitive-behavioral therapy for chronic low back pain: similar effects on mindfulness, catastrophizing, self-efficacy, and acceptance in a randomized controlled trial
Turner, Judith A.; Anderson, Melissa L.; Balderson, Benjamin H.; Cook, Andrea J.; Sherman, Karen J.; Cherkin, Daniel C.
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is believed to improve chronic pain problems by decreasing patient catastrophizing and increasing patient self-efficacy for managing pain. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) is believed to benefit chronic pain patients by increasing mindfulness and pain acceptance. However, little is known about how these therapeutic mechanism variables relate to each other or whether they are differentially impacted by MBSR versus CBT. In a randomized controlled trial comparing MBSR, CBT, and usual care (UC) for adults aged 20-70 years with chronic low back pain (CLBP) (N = 342), we examined (1) baseline relationships among measures of catastrophizing, self-efficacy, acceptance, and mindfulness; and (2) changes on these measures in the 3 treatment groups. At baseline, catastrophizing was associated negatively with self-efficacy, acceptance, and 3 aspects of mindfulness (non-reactivity, non-judging, and acting with awareness; all P-values <0.01). Acceptance was associated positively with self-efficacy (P < 0.01) and mindfulness (P-values < 0.05) measures. Catastrophizing decreased slightly more post-treatment with MBSR than with CBT or UC (omnibus P = 0.002). Both treatments were effective compared with UC in decreasing catastrophizing at 52 weeks (omnibus P = 0.001). In both the entire randomized sample and the sub-sample of participants who attended ≥6 of the 8 MBSR or CBT sessions, differences between MBSR and CBT at up to 52 weeks were few, small in size, and of questionable clinical meaningfulness. The results indicate overlap across measures of catastrophizing, self-efficacy, acceptance, and mindfulness, and similar effects of MBSR and CBT on these measures among individuals with CLBP. PMID:27257859
Tailoring mind-body therapies to individual needs: patients' program preference and psychological traits as moderators of the effects of mindfulness-based cancer recovery and supportive-expressive therapy in distressed breast cancer survivors.
Carlson, Linda E; Tamagawa, Rie; Stephen, Joanne; Doll, Richard; Faris, Peter; Dirkse, Dale; Speca, Michael
Mindfulness-based cancer recovery (MBCR) and supportive-expressive therapy (SET) are well-validated psycho-oncological interventions, and we have previously reported health benefits of both programs. However, little is known about patients' characteristics or program preferences that may influence outcomes. Therefore, this study examined moderators of the effects of MBCR and SET on psychological well-being among breast cancer survivors. A multi-site randomized controlled trial was conducted between 2007 and 2012 in two Canadian cities (Calgary and Vancouver). A total of 271 distressed stage I-III breast cancer survivors were randomized into MBCR, SET or a 1-day stress management seminar (SMS). Baseline measures of moderator variables included program preference, personality traits, emotional suppression, and repressive coping. Outcome measures of mood, stress symptoms, quality of life, spiritual well-being, post-traumatic growth, social support, and salivary cortisol were measured pre- and post intervention. Hierarchical regression analyses were used to assess moderator effects on outcomes. The most preferred program was MBCR (55%). Those who were randomized to their preference improved more over time on quality of life and spiritual well-being post-intervention regardless of the actual intervention type received. Women with greater psychological morbidity at baseline showed greater improvement in stress symptoms and quality of life if they received their preferred versus nonpreferred program. Patients' program preference and baseline psychological functioning, rather than personality, were predictive of program benefits. These results suggest incorporating program preference can maximize the efficacy of integrative oncology interventions, and emphasize the methodological importance of assessing and accommodating for preferences when conducting mind-body clinical trials. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions
Fortuna, Lisa R; Porche, Michelle V; Padilla, Auralyd
Substance use is common among adolescents with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We aimed to develop and study an integrated treatment for adolescents with co-occurring disorders. This is a therapy development and open pilot trial study of a manualized therapy for adolescents with post-traumatic stress, depression, and substance use that uses a combination of cognitive therapy (CT) and mindfulness. Descriptive statistics and paired sample t-tests were calculated to assess for changes in PTSD symptoms, depression, and substance use frequency from baseline to end of treatment using standardized measures and validated by urine drug screens. We also examined for safety, predictors of clinical outcomes, and treatment retention. Thirty-seven adolescents participated in the study; 62% were study completers as defined by retention for at least 6 weeks of treatment. There were significant improvements in PTSD and depression symptoms from baseline to end of treatment, reflecting medium effect sizes, and which was associated with changes in trauma-associated cognitions. There was a reduction in cannabis use, which was the most commonly used substance. Preliminary results suggest feasibility, safety, and potential clinical effectiveness of an integrated therapy for adolescents with PTSD, depression, and substance use. Retention was comparable to other therapy clinical trial studies of adolescents despite the high risk for poor treatment retention and poor clinical outcomes among adolescents with PTSD and co-occurring disorders. We discuss the rationale for continued research of this mindfulness-based CT for adolescents with co-occurring disorders. Adolescents with co-occurring PTSD and substance use achieved meaningful improvement in PTSD and depression symptom severity after receiving a CT and mindfulness dual diagnosis approach. An integrated manualized therapy for dual diagnosis shows promise for reducing cannabis use in adolescents with PTSD. Changes in trauma
Marieke Karlijn Van Vugt
Full Text Available Objectives: Converging research suggests that mindfulness training exerts its therapeutic effectson depression by reducing rumination. Theoretically, rumination is a multifaceted construct thataggregates multiple neurocognitive aspects of depression, including poor executive control,negative and overgeneral memory bias, and persistence or stickiness of negative mind states.Current measures of rumination, most often self-reports, do not capture these different aspects ofruminative tendencies, and therefore are limited in providing detailed information about themechanisms of mindfulness.Methods: We developed new insights into the potential mechanisms of rumination, based onthree model-based metrics of free recall dynamics. These three measures reflect the patterns ofmemory retrieval of valenced information: The probability of first recall (Pstart whichrepresents initial affective bias, the probability of staying with the same valence category ratherthan switching, which indicates strength of positive or negative association networks (Pstay;and probability of stopping (Pstop or ending recall within a given valence, which indicatesdrift persistence or stickiness of a mind state. We then investigated the effects of MBCT(N=29 vs wait-list control (N=23 on these recall dynamics in a Randomized Controlled Trial(RCT in individuals with recurrent depression. Participants completed a standard laboratorystressor, the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST, to induce negative mood and activate ruminativetendencies. Then, participants completed a free recall task consisting of three word lists. Thisassessment was conducted both before and after treatment or wait-list.Results: While MBCT participant’s Pstart remained relatively stable, controls showed multipleindications of depression-related deterioration towards more negative and less positive bias.Following the intervention, MBCT participants decreased in their tendency to sustain trains ofnegative words
Hauge Christian Riise
Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS is a condition characterized by recurrent, self-reported symptoms from multiple organ systems, attributable to exposure to a wide range of chemically unrelated substances at low levels. The pathophysiology is unknown, and affected individuals generally favor avoidance of the symptom triggering substances as a coping strategy. The impact of MCS on daily life may thus be severe. An intervention that may effectively reduce the impact of MCS, alleviate the symptoms and the psychological distress associated with the condition is therefore highly needed. In this study we will assess the effects of a mindfulness-based cognitive (MBCT program on MCS. Methods/Design Using a randomized controlled design (RCT, we will compare MBCT with treatment as usual (TAU. The MBCT intervention will include 8 weekly 2.5 hour sessions, and 45 minutes of mindfulness home practice 6 days each week. Participants will be asked to complete questionnaires at baseline, post-treatment, and at 6 and 12 months’ follow-up. Based on sample size estimation, 82 participants will be randomized to either the MBCT intervention or to TAU. The primary outcome will be a measure of the impact of MCS on the participants’ lives. The secondary outcome measures are physical symptoms of psychological distress, perceived stress, illness perceptions, QOL, and work ability. Lastly, we will assess whether any effect of MBCT on the primary effect measure is mediated by level of mindfulness, self-compassion, perceived stress, and rumination. Discussion This trial will provide important information on the effects of MBCT on MCS. Trials registration Clinical trials identifier NCT01240395
Johannsen, Maja; O Connor, Maja; OToole, Mia Skytte
PURPOSE: To assess the efficacy of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) for late post-treatment pain in women treated for primary breast cancer. METHODS: A randomized wait list-controlled trial was conducted with 129 women treated for breast cancer reporting post-treatment pain (score ≥ 3...... pain rehabilitation strategy for women treated for breast cancer. In addition, the effect on neuropathic pain, a pain type reported by women treated for breast cancer, further suggests the potential of MBCT but should be considered preliminary....
To explore the efficacy of mindfulness- based music therapy (MBMT) to improve attention and decrease mood distress experienced by women with breast cancer receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. Quantitative, descriptive, longitudinal approach. A comprehensive cancer hospital and a university in southern Florida. 15 women with a diagnosis of breast cancer, stages I-III, receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. Participants individually received MBMT for one hour per week for four weeks. The sessions consisted of varied music activities accompanied by mindfulness attitudes, or mental strategies that enhance moment-to-moment awareness, and weekly homework. Demographic information was collected at baseline. Attention was measured using Conners' Continuous Performance Test II. Mood was measured using the Profile of Mood States-Brief Form. Narrative comments collected from the homework assignments served to reinforce quantitative data. Repeated measures analysis of variance showed that attention improved significantly over time. Although all mood states significantly improved from the beginning to the end of each MBMT session, the mood state of fatigue decreased significantly more than the other mood states. MBMT enhances attention and mood, particularly the mood state of fatigue, in women with breast cancer receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. . A preferred music listening and mindfulness exercise may be offered to women with breast cancer who experience attention problems and mood distress.
Schuling, Rhoda; Huijbers, Marloes; Jansen, Hetty; Metzemaekers, Renée; Den Brink, Erik Van; Koster, Frits; Van Ravesteijn, Hiske; Speckens, Anne
The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility, acceptability and preliminary effectiveness of Mindfulness - Based Compassionate Living (MBCL) as a follow-up intervention to Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy in adults with recurrent depression. We conducted an uncontrolled study in 17 patients with recurrent depression, in two successive groups. The first group contained novices to compassion training ( N = 14); in the second group, ten of these participated again, in addition to three new participants ( N = 13). The overall group contained 15 females and 2 males, aged between 37 and 71. The MBCL program was qualitatively evaluated using post-intervention focus group interviews in both groups. In addition, self-report questionnaires assessing depressive symptoms, worry and both self-compassion and mindfulness skills were administered before and after MBCL. No patients dropped out of the intervention. Average attendance was 7.52 (SD 0.73) out of eight sessions. Helpful elements were theory on the emotion regulation systems, practicing self-compassion explicitly and embodiment of a compassionate attitude by the teachers. Unhelpful elements were the lack of a clear structure, lack of time to practice compassion for self and the occurrence of the so-called back draft effect. We adapted the program in accordance with the feedback of the participants. Preliminary results showed a reduction in depressive symptoms in the second group, but not in the first group, and an increase in self-compassion in both groups. Worry and overall mindfulness did not change. MBCL appears to be feasible and acceptable for patients suffering from recurrent depressive symptoms who previously participated in MBCT. Selection bias may have been a factor as only experienced and motivated participants were used; this, however, suited our intention to co-create MBCL in close collaboration with knowledgeable users. Examination of the effectiveness of MBCL in a sufficiently powered
Mercer Stewart W
Full Text Available Abstract Background Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT is an 8-week course developed for patients with relapsing depression that integrates mindfulness meditation practices and cognitive theory. Previous studies have demonstrated that non-depressed participants with a history of relapsing depression are protected from relapse by participating in the course. This exploratory study examined the acceptability and effectiveness of MBCT for patients in primary care with active symptoms of depression and anxiety Methods 13 patients with recurrent depression or recurrent depression and anxiety were recruited to take part in the study. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted three months after completing the MBCT programme. A framework approach was used to analyse the data. Beck depression inventories (BDI-II and Beck anxiety inventories (BAI provided quantitative data and were administered before and three months after the intervention. Results The qualitative data indicated that mindfulness training was both acceptable and beneficial to the majority of patients. For many of the participants, being in a group was an important normalising and validating experience. However most of the group believed the course was too short and thought that some form of follow up was essential. More than half the patients continued to apply mindfulness techniques three months after the course had ended. A minority of patients continued to experience significant levels of psychological distress, particularly anxiety. Statistically significant reductions in mean depression and anxiety scores were observed; the mean pre-course depression score was 35.7 and post-course score was 17.8 (p = 0.001. A similar reduction was noted for anxiety with a mean pre-course anxiety score of 32.0 and mean post course score of 20.5 (p = 0.039. Overall 8/11 (72% patients showed improvements in BDI and 7/11 (63% patients showed improvements in BAI. In general the results
Qin, Yuge; Wang, Feng; Qin, Yuheng; Li, Li; Li, Mei
By analyzing the acupuncture taboos in Neijing (Internal Classic) on clinical application of mind conduction of acupuncture therapy in going against the actual situation, astronomy and others, it is found that the relevant acupuncture taboo implies many subtle mysteries of human body, qi, mind and astronomy, which have not been discovered yet in modern science and are very significant in qi protection. In Neijing, the acupuncture physicians have been highly required in the mind treatment, in which, accurately regulating qi circulation is the target in the treatment. The mind conduction is used for qi circulation to accomplish accurately the reinforcing or reducing in the deficiency or excess condition. All of the taboos are provided to normalize the accuracy of reinforcing and reducing technique of acupuncture therapy and avoid the damage of qi in human body. Hence, those taboos must be obeyed so as to prevent from serious consequence and ensure the safety of this acupuncture therapy.
Sizoo, Bram B; Kuiper, Erik
Anxiety and depression co-occur in 50-70% of adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) but treatment methods for these comorbid problems have not been systematically studied. Recently, two ASD-tailored protocols were published: mindfulness based stress reduction (MBSR) and cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT). We wanted to investigate if both methods are equally effective in reducing anxiety and depression symptoms among adults with ASD. 59 adults with ASD and anxiety or depression scores above 7 on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, gave informed consent to participate; 27 followed the CBT protocol, and 32 the MBSR treatment protocol. Anxiety and depression scores, autism symptoms, rumination, and global mood were registered at the start, at the end of the 13-week treatment period, and at 3-months follow-up. Irrational beliefs and mindful attention awareness were used as process measures during treatment and at follow-up. Results indicate that both MBSR and CBT are associated with a reduction in anxiety and depressive symptoms among adults with ASD, with a sustained effect at follow-up, but without a main effect for treatment group. A similar pattern was seen for the reduction of autistic symptoms, rumination and the improvement in global mood. There are some indications that MBSR may be preferred over CBT with respect to the treatment effect on anxiety when the scores on measures of irrational beliefs or positive global mood at baseline are high. Mindfulness and cognitive behavioral therapies are both promising treatment methods for reducing comorbid anxiety and depression in adults with ASD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
van Vugt, Marieke K.; Hitchcock, Peter; Shahar, Ben; Britton, Willoughby
Objectives: Converging research suggests that mindfulness training exerts its therapeutic effects on depression by reducing rumination. Theoretically, rumination is a multifaceted construct that aggregates multiple neurocognitive aspects of depression, including poor executive control, negative and
Alsubaie, Modi; Abbott, Rebecca; Dunn, Barnaby; Dickens, Chris; Keil, Tina Frieda; Henley, William; Kuyken, Willem
Recently, there has been an increased interest in studying the effects of mindfulness-based interventions for people with psychological and physical problems. However, the mechanisms of action in these interventions that lead to beneficial physical and psychological outcomes have yet to be clearly identified. The aim of this paper is to review, systematically, the evidence to date on the mechanisms of action in mindfulness interventions in populations with physical and/or psychological conditions. Searches of seven databases (PsycINFO, Medline (Ovid), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED, ClinicalTrials.gov) were undertaken in June 2014 and July 2015. We evaluated to what extent the studies we identified met the criteria suggested by Kazdin for establishing mechanisms of action within a psychological treatment (2007, 2009). We identified four trials examining mechanisms of mindfulness interventions in those with comorbid psychological and physical health problems and 14 in those with psychological conditions. These studies examined a diverse range of potential mechanisms, including mindfulness and rumination. Of these candidate mechanisms, the most consistent finding was that greater self-reported change in mindfulness mediated superior clinical outcomes. However, very few studies fully met the Kazdin criteria for examining treatment mechanisms. There was evidence that global changes in mindfulness are linked to better outcomes. This evidence pertained more to interventions targeting psychological rather than physical health conditions. While there is promising evidence that MBCT/MBSR intervention effects are mediated by hypothesised mechanisms, there is a lack of methodological rigour in the field of testing mechanisms of action for both MBCT and MBSR, which precludes definitive conclusions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Brody, Janet L; Scherer, David G; Turner, Charles W; Annett, Robert D; Dalen, Jeanne
Individual and group-based psychotherapeutic interventions increasingly incorporate mindfulness-based principles and practices. These practices include a versatile set of skills such as labeling and attending to present-moment experiences, acting with awareness, and avoiding automatic reactivity. A primary motivation for integrating mindfulness into these therapies is compelling evidence that it enhances emotion regulation. Research also demonstrates that family relationships have a profound influence on emotion regulation capacities, which are central to family functioning and prosocial behavior more broadly. Despite this evidence, no framework exists to describe how mindfulness might integrate into family therapy. This paper describes the benefits of mindfulness-based interventions, highlighting how and why informal mindfulness practices might enhance emotion regulation when integrated with family therapy. We provide a clinical framework for integrating mindfulness into family therapy, particularly as it applies to families with adolescents. A brief case example details sample methods showing how incorporating mindfulness practices into family therapy may enhance treatment outcomes. A range of assessment modalities from biological to behavioral demonstrates the breadth with which the benefits of a family-based mindfulness intervention might be evaluated. © 2017 The Authors. Family Process published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Family Process Institute.
Full Text Available Objectives: This pilot study investigated the feasibility and clinical utility of implementing a novel, evidence-informed, interdisciplinary group intervention – Mindfulness Based Functional Therapy (MBFT – for the management of persistent low back pain (LBP in primary care. MBFT aimed to improve physical and psychological functioning in patients with persistent LBP. Design: A single-group repeated measures design was utilized to gather data about feasibility, effect sizes, clinically significant changes and patient satisfaction.Setting: A community sample of 16 adults (75% female, mean (SD age 47.00 (9.12 years (range 26-65 years, with mean (SD LBP duration of 8.00 (9.00 years participated, using a simulated primary care setting at Curtin University in Australia.Intervention: MBFT is an 8-week group intervention co-facilitated by psychology and physiotherapy disciplines. Content includes: mindfulness meditation training, cognitive-functional physiotherapeutic movement retraining, pain education, and group support.Main outcome measures: Several validated self-report measures were used to assess functional disability, emotional functioning, mindfulness, pain catastrophizing, health-related quality of life at baseline, post-intervention, and 6 months follow-up.Results: Adherence and satisfaction was high, with 85% of participants highly satisfied with MBFT. Clinical significance analysis and effect size estimates showed improvements in a number of variables, including pain catastrophizing, physical functioning, role limitations due to physical condition, and depression, although these may have occurred due to non-intervention effects. Conclusions: MBFT is feasible to implement in primary care. Preliminary findings suggest that a randomized controlled trial is warranted to investigate its efficacy in improving physical and emotional functioning in people with disabling persistent LBP.
Hofmann, Stefan G; Gómez, Angelina F
This article reviews the ways in which mindfulness practices have contributed to cognitive and behavioral treatments for depression and anxiety. Research on mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) has increased rapidly in the past decade. The most common include mindfulness-based stress reduction and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy. MBIs are effective in reducing anxiety and depression symptom severity in a range of individuals. MBIs consistently outperform non-evidence-based treatments and active control conditions, such as health education, relaxation training, and supportive psychotherapy. MBIs also perform comparably with cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). The treatment principles of MBIs for anxiety and depression are compatible with standard CBT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Johannsen, M; Sørensen, J; O'Connor, M
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the cost-effectiveness of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) compared to a wait-list control group for pain in women treated for breast cancer. METHODS: A total of 129 women were randomly allocated to MBCT or a wait-list control group. The primary outcome...
Pollard, Elicia L.
The purposes of this study are to investigate whether the quiz scores of physical therapy students who integrated mind mapping in their learning strategies are significantly different than the quiz scores of students who did not use mind mapping to learn in a lecture-based research course and examine the students' perceptions of mind mapping as a…
Hamilton-West, Kate; Pellatt-Higgins, Tracy; Pillai, Neil
AimTo explore, for the first time, whether a modified mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) course has the potential to reduce stress and burnout among National Health Service (NHS) General Practitioners. There is a crisis of low morale among NHS GPs, with most describing their workload as 'unmanageable'. MBCT has been demonstrated to improve stress and burnout in other populations, but has not yet been evaluated in a cohort of NHS GPs. NHS GPs in South East England (n=22) attended a modified version of the MBCT course approved by National Institute for Health and Care Excellence for prevention of depressive relapse. This comprised eight weekly 2-h sessions with homework (mindfulness practice) between sessions. Participants completed the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) before (baseline) and then again one month (T2) and three months (T3) after attending the course. We also obtained qualitative data on participants' experiences of the course.FindingsCompliance with the intervention was very high. All GPs attended at least six sessions and all completed baseline questionnaires. At T2, data were obtained from 21 participants (95%); PSS scores were significantly lower than at baseline (P<0.001), as were MBI emotional exhaustion (P<0.001) and depersonalization scores (P=0.0421). At T3 we obtained data for 13 participants (59%); PSS scores and MBI emotional exhaustion scores were significantly lower (P<0.001; P=0.0024, respectively) and personal accomplishment scores were significantly higher (P<0.001) than at baseline. Participants reported that the course helped them to manage work pressures, feel more relaxed, enjoy their work and experience greater empathy and compassion (for self, colleagues and patients). Findings of this preliminary evaluation are promising. Further research is needed to evaluate this approach within a larger randomized-controlled trial.
Shi, Zhenrong; MacBeth, Angus
Presenting with common mental health difficulties, particularly depression and anxiety, there is also preliminary evidence that mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) including mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT), mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) and integrated mindfulness yoga practices may also be effective in reducing common mental health difficulties during pregnancy. We systematically reviewed and synthesized the current literature on the effectiveness of MBIs in reducing...
This paper explores theoretical and practical views of mindfulness and phenomena of presence moments. The potential for altering life and enabling change through lived experience of mindful presence moments has relevance for occupational therapy practice. To suggest ways for occupational therapists to become mindfully present during practice. Based on theoretical perspectives drawn from the fields of psychology, philosophy, psychoanalysis, neuroscience, and education, a four-fold approach will be outlined for occupational therapists to practice mindfully and experience presence moments. This approach emphasizes key concepts of awareness, non-judgment, reflection, curiosity, and commitment to practice. A clinical scenario is used to illustrate the approach. The ideas raised in this paper need to be incorporated into daily practice by occupational therapists so that a culture of mindful practice can be cultivated. Suggestions are provided throughout the paper for an agenda of potential research studies to address aspects of mindfulness and presence moments more fully.
Manuel Da Rocha, Stéphanie
Mindfulness is an approach inspired by Buddhist meditation. Recent scientific research shows that focusing on the present is a factor of care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Evaluation of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for life and a cognitive behavioural therapy stress-management workshop to improve healthcare staff stress: study protocol for two randomised controlled trials.
Strauss, Clara; Gu, Jenny; Pitman, Nikki; Chapman, Cavita; Kuyken, Willem; Whittington, Adrian
Healthcare workers experience higher levels of work-related stress and higher rates of sickness absence than workers in other sectors. Psychological approaches have potential in providing healthcare workers with the knowledge and skills to recognise stress and to manage stress effectively. The strongest evidence for effectiveness in reducing stress in the workplace is for stress-management courses based on cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) principles and mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs). However, research examining effects of these interventions on sickness absence (an objective indicator of stress) and compassion for others (an indicator of patient care) is limited, as is research on brief CBT stress-management courses (which may be more widely accessible) and on MBIs adapted for workplace settings. This protocol is for two randomised controlled trials with participant preference between the two trials and 1:1 allocation to intervention or wait-list within the preferred choice. The first trial is examining a one-day CBT stress-management workshop and the second trial an 8-session Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy for Life (MBCT-L) course, with both trials comparing intervention to wait-list. The primary outcome for both trials is stress post-intervention with secondary outcomes being sickness absence, compassion for others, depression symptoms, anxiety symptoms, wellbeing, work-related burnout, self-compassion, presenteeism, and mindfulness (MBCT-L only). Both trials aim to recruit 234 staff working in the National Health Service in the UK. This trial will examine whether a one-day CBT stress-management workshop and an 8-session MBCT-L course are effective at reducing healthcare staff stress and other mental health outcomes compared to wait-list, and, whether these interventions are effective at reducing sickness absence and presenteeism and at enhancing wellbeing, self-compassion, mindfulness and compassion for others. Findings will help inform
Garland, Sheila N; Carlson, Linda E; Stephens, Alisa J; Antle, Michael C; Samuels, Charles; Campbell, Tavis S
Our study examined whether mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) is noninferior to cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) for the treatment of insomnia in patients with cancer. This was a randomized, partially blinded, noninferiority trial involving patients with cancer with insomnia recruited from a tertiary cancer center in Calgary, Alberta, Canada, from September 2008 to March 2011. Assessments were conducted at baseline, after the program, and after 3 months of follow-up. The noninferiority margin was 4 points measured by the Insomnia Severity Index. Sleep diaries and actigraphy measured sleep onset latency (SOL), wake after sleep onset (WASO), total sleep time (TST), and sleep efficiency. Secondary outcomes included sleep quality, sleep beliefs, mood, and stress. Of 327 patients screened, 111 were randomly assigned (CBT-I, n = 47; MBSR, n = 64). MBSR was inferior to CBT-I for improving insomnia severity immediately after the program (P = .35), but MBSR demonstrated noninferiority at follow-up (P = .02). Sleep diary-measured SOL was reduced by 22 minutes in the CBT-I group and by 14 minutes in the MBSR group at follow-up. Similar reductions in WASO were observed for both groups. TST increased by 0.60 hours for CBT-I and 0.75 hours for MBSR. CBT-I improved sleep quality (P treatment of insomnia.
Solati, Kamal; Mousavi, Mohammad; Kheiri, Soleiman; Hasanpour-Dehkordi, Ali
This study was conducted to determine the efficacy of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) on psychological symptoms and quality of life (QoL) in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We conducted a randomized single-blind clinical trial in patients with SLE referred from the Imam Ali Clinic in Shahrekord, southwest Iran. The patients (46 in total in two groups of 23 each) were randomly assigned into the experimental and control groups. Both groups underwent routine medical care, and the experimental group underwent eight group sessions of MBCT in addition to routine care. The patient , s QoL was assessed using the General Health Questionnaire-28 and 36-Item Short Form Health Survey before, after, and six months after intervention (follow-up). A significant difference was seen in psychological symptoms and QoL between MBCT and control groups immediately after the intervention and at follow-up ( p ≤ 0.050). However, the difference was not significant for the physical components of QoL ( p ≥ 0.050). MBCT contributed to decreased psychological symptoms and improved QoL in patients with SLE with a stable effect on psychological symptoms and psychological components of QoL, but an unstable effect on physical components.
Butler, Rachel M; Boden, Matthew T; Olino, Thomas M; Morrison, Amanda S; Goldin, Philippe R; Gross, James J; Heimberg, Richard G
We examined (1) differences between controls and patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD) in emotional clarity and attention to emotions; (2) changes in emotional clarity and attention to emotions associated with cognitive-behavioral group therapy (CBGT), mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), or a waitlist (WL) condition; and (3) whether emotional clarity and attention to emotions moderated changes in social anxiety across treatment. Participants were healthy controls (n = 37) and patients with SAD (n = 108) who were assigned to CBGT, MBSR, or WL in a randomized controlled trial. At pretreatment, posttreatment, and 12-month follow-up, patients with SAD completed measures of social anxiety, emotional clarity, and attention to emotions. Controls completed measures at baseline only. At pretreatment, patients with SAD had lower levels of emotional clarity than controls. Emotional clarity increased significantly among patients receiving CBGT, and changes were maintained at 12-month follow-up. Emotional clarity at posttreatment did not differ between CBGT and MBSR or between MBSR and WL. Changes in emotional clarity predicted changes in social anxiety, but emotional clarity did not moderate treatment outcome. Analyses of attention to emotions were not significant. Implications for the role of emotional clarity in the treatment of SAD are discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Li, Yan; Jakary, Angela; Gillung, Erin; Eisendrath, Stuart; Nelson, Sarah J; Mukherjee, Pratik; Luks, Tracy
Our aim was to evaluate differences in metabolite levels between unmedicated patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and healthy controls, to assess changes in metabolites in patients after they completed an 8-week course of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT), and to exam the correlation between metabolites and depression severity. Sixteen patients with MDD and ten age- and gender-matched healthy controls were studied using 3D short echo-time (20 ms) magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) at 7 Tesla. Relative metabolite ratios were estimated in five regions of interest corresponding to insula, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), caudate, putamen, and thalamus. In all cases, MBCT reduced severity of depression. The ratio of total choline-containing compounds/total creatine (tCr) in the right caudate was significantly increased compared to that in healthy controls, while ratios of N-acetyl aspartate (NAA)/tCr in the left ACC, myo-inositol/tCr in the right insula, and glutathione/tCr in the left putamen were significantly decreased. At baseline, the severity of depression was negatively correlated with my-inositol/tCr in the left insula and putamen. The improvement in depression severity was significantly associated with changes in NAA/tCr in the left ACC. This study has successfully evaluated regional differences in metabolites for patients with MDD who received MBCT treatment and in controls using 7 Tesla MRSI.
Wong Samuel YS
Full Text Available Abstract Background Research suggests that an eight-week Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT program may be effective in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorders. Our objective is to compare the clinical effectiveness of the MBCT program with a psycho-education programme and usual care in reducing anxiety symptoms in people suffering from generalized anxiety disorder. Methods A three armed randomized, controlled clinical trial including 9-month post-treatment follow-up is proposed. Participants screened positive using the Structure Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID for general anxiety disorder will be recruited from community-based clinics. 228 participants will be randomly allocated to the MBCT program plus usual care, psycho-education program plus usual care or the usual care group. Validated Chinese version of instruments measuring anxiety and worry symptoms, depression, quality of life and health service utilization will be used. Our primary end point is the change of anxiety and worry score (Beck Anxiety Inventory and Penn State Worry Scale from baseline to the end of intervention. For primary analyses, treatment outcomes will be assessed by ANCOVA, with change in anxiety score as the baseline variable, while the baseline anxiety score and other baseline characteristics that significantly differ between groups will serve as covariates. Conclusions This is a first randomized controlled trial that compare the effectiveness of MBCT with an active control, findings will advance current knowledge in the management of GAD and the way that group intervention can be delivered and inform future research. Unique Trail Number (assigned by Centre for Clinical Trails, Clinical Trials registry, The Chinese University of Hong Kong: CUHK_CCT00267
Full Text Available Combat-related PTSD is common among returning veterans, and is a serious and debilitating disorder. While highly effective treatments involving trauma exposure exist, difficulties with engagement and early drop may lead to sub-optimal outcomes. Mindfulness training may provide a method for increasing emotional regulation skills that may improve engagement in trauma-focused therapy. Here we examine potential neural correlates of mindfulness training and in vivo exposure (non-trauma focused using a novel group therapy (Mindfulness-based Exposure Therapy in Afghanistan (OEF or Iraq (OIF combat veterans with PTSD. OEF/OIF combat veterans with PTSD (N=23 were treated with MBET (N = 14 or a comparison group therapy (Present-centered group therapy [PCGT], N = 9. PTSD symptoms were assessed at pre- and post-therapy with Clinician Administered PTSD scale (CAPS. Functional neuroimaging (3 Tesla fMRI before and after therapy examined responses to emotional faces (angry, fearful, and neutral faces. Patients treated with MBET had reduced PTSD symptoms (effect size d = .92 but effect was not significantly different from PCGT (d = .43. Improvement in PTSD symptoms from Pre- to Post treatment in both treatment groups was correlated with increased activity in rostral ACC, dorsal medial PFC, and left amygdala. The MBET group showed greater increases in amygdala and fusiform gyrus responses to Angry faces, as well as increased response in left medial PFC to Fearful faces. These preliminary findings provide intriguing evidence that MBET group therapy for PTSD may lead to changes in neural processing of social-emotional threat related to symptom reduction.
Cladder-Micus, M.B.; Vrijsen, J.N.; Becker, E.S.; Donders, A.R.T.; Spijker, J.; Speckens, A.E.M.
Background: Major depression is a common psychiatric disorder, frequently taking a chronic course. Despite provision of evidence-based treatments, including antidepressant medication and psychological treatments like cognitive behavioral therapy or interpersonal therapy, a substantial amount of
Cladder-Micus, M.B.; Vrijsen, J.N.; Becker, E.S.; Donders, A.R.T.; Spijker, J.; Speckens, A.E.M.
BACKGROUND: Major depression is a common psychiatric disorder, frequently taking a chronic course. Despite provision of evidence-based treatments, including antidepressant medication and psychological treatments like cognitive behavioral therapy or interpersonal therapy, a substantial amount of
Full Text Available A large proportion of mindfulness-based therapy trials report statistically significant results, even in the context of very low statistical power. The objective of the present study was to characterize the reporting of "positive" results in randomized controlled trials of mindfulness-based therapy. We also assessed mindfulness-based therapy trial registrations for indications of possible reporting bias and reviewed recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses to determine whether reporting biases were identified.CINAHL, Cochrane CENTRAL, EMBASE, ISI, MEDLINE, PsycInfo, and SCOPUS databases were searched for randomized controlled trials of mindfulness-based therapy. The number of positive trials was described and compared to the number that might be expected if mindfulness-based therapy were similarly effective compared to individual therapy for depression. Trial registries were searched for mindfulness-based therapy registrations. CINAHL, Cochrane CENTRAL, EMBASE, ISI, MEDLINE, PsycInfo, and SCOPUS were also searched for mindfulness-based therapy systematic reviews and meta-analyses.108 (87% of 124 published trials reported ≥1 positive outcome in the abstract, and 109 (88% concluded that mindfulness-based therapy was effective, 1.6 times greater than the expected number of positive trials based on effect size d = 0.55 (expected number positive trials = 65.7. Of 21 trial registrations, 13 (62% remained unpublished 30 months post-trial completion. No trial registrations adequately specified a single primary outcome measure with time of assessment. None of 36 systematic reviews and meta-analyses concluded that effect estimates were overestimated due to reporting biases.The proportion of mindfulness-based therapy trials with statistically significant results may overstate what would occur in practice.
Emerson, Nichole M.; Farris, Suzan R.; Ray, Jenna N.; Jung, Youngkyoo; McHaffie, John G.; Coghill, Robert C.
modulation. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Recent findings have demonstrated that mindfulness meditation significantly reduces pain. Given that the “gold standard” for evaluating the efficacy of behavioral interventions is based on appropriate placebo comparisons, it is imperative that we establish whether there is an effect supporting meditation-related pain relief above and beyond the effects of placebo. Here, we provide novel evidence demonstrating that mindfulness meditation produces greater pain relief and employs distinct neural mechanisms than placebo cream and sham mindfulness meditation. Specifically, mindfulness meditation-induced pain relief activated higher-order brain regions, including the orbitofrontal and cingulate cortices. In contrast, placebo analgesia was associated with decreased pain-related brain activation. These findings demonstrate that mindfulness meditation reduces pain through unique mechanisms and may foster greater acceptance of meditation as an adjunct pain therapy. PMID:26586819
Würtzen, Hanne; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Christensen, Jane
Background. Women with breast cancer experience different symptoms related to surgical or adjuvant therapy. Previous findings and theoretical models of mind-body interactions suggest that psychological wellbeing, i.e. levels of distress, influence the subjective evaluation of symptoms, which...... influences or determines functioning. The eight-week mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) program significantly reduced anxiety and depression in breast cancer patients in a randomized controlled trial (NCT00990977). In this study we tested the effect of MBSR on the burden of breast cancer related...... somatic symptoms, distress, mindfulness and spiritual wellbeing and evaluated possible effect modification by adjuvant therapy and baseline levels of, distress, mindfulness and spiritual wellbeing. Material and methods. A population-based sample of 336 women Danish women operated for breast cancer stages...
Sebastián Sánchez, Beatriz; Gil Roales-Nieto, Jesús; Ferreira, Nuno Bravo; Gil Luciano, Bárbara; Sebastián Domingo, Juan José
The current goal of treatment in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) focuses primarily on symptom management and attempts to improve quality of life. Several treatments are at the disposal of physicians; lifestyle and dietary management, pharmacological treatments and psychological interventions are the most used and recommended. Psychological treatments have been proposed as viable alternatives or compliments to existing care models. Most forms of psychological therapies studied have been shown to be helpful in reducing symptoms and in improving the psychological component of anxiety/depression and health-related quality of life. According to current NICE/NHS guidelines, physicians should consider referral for psychological treatment in patients who do not respond to pharmacotherapy for a period of 12 months and develop a continuing symptom profile (described as refractory irritable bowel syndrome). Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is the best studied treatment and seems to be the most promising therapeutic approach. However, some studies have challenged the effectiveness of this therapy for irritable bowel syndrome. One study concluded that cognitive behavioral therapy is no more effective than placebo attention control condition and another study showed that the beneficial effects wane after six months of follow-up. A review of mind/body approaches to irritable bowel syndrome has therefore suggested that alternate strategies targeting mechanisms other than thought content change might be helpful, specifically mindfulness and acceptance-based approaches. In this article we review these new psychological treatment approaches in an attempt to raise awareness of alternative treatments to gastroenterologists that treat this clinical syndrome.
Kahya, Holly Hannah; Raspin, Courtney Grant
Mindfulness-based therapies are becoming increasingly common in the treatment of mental health conditions. While the popularity of yoga continues to rise in Western culture, little has been done to explore the psychological benefits of yoga from a qualitative, clinical perspective. This study explores participant experiences of the "Yoga Therapy for the Mind Eight-Week Course" (YTFTM), an international, manualized yoga and mindfulness-based intervention for depression and anxiety. Eight female participants took part in semi-structured interviews, and transcripts were analyzed using an interpretative phenomenological analysis, with four master themes emerging: "Personal Journey of Change," "Ambivalence," "Mind/Body Connection," and "Group Experience." The findings highlight potential challenges of yoga and mindfulness-based interventions and the importance of providing adequate support in overcoming these. Findings also reveal that participants experience psychological benefits from the practice of yoga asana in addition to mindfulness, such as a more holistic understanding of psychological distress, adaptive coping strategies, and enhanced well-being. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Findings: therapy compliance, retention in treatment, decrease in somatic symptoms, anxiety, social dysfunction and increase in health was significantly in both combination of psychological intervention method than the Naltroxan group. Mindfulness-based on relapse prevention was more effective than CBT relapse prevention in decreasing of, social dysfunction, relapse prevention, increase of therapy compliance, and health. Results: Mindfulness based relapse prevention was superior to CBT and Naltroxan and considerably increased effectiveness of opioid relapse prevention therapy.
Burton, Mark; Schmertz, Stefan K; Price, Matthew; Masuda, Akihiko; Anderson, Page L
This study examined the relation between mindfulness and fear of negative evaluation over the course of nonmindfulness based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for social anxiety disorder (SAD). We expected that higher levels of mindfulness would be associated with a more positive response to treatment. This study is a secondary report from a randomized controlled trial in which participants (N = 65) diagnosed with SAD were randomly assigned to receive 8 weeks of 1 of 2 manualized treatments (exposure group therapy, n = 33; or virtual reality exposure therapy, n = 32) either immediately or following an 8 week waiting period. Fear of negative evaluation decreased following treatment and was negatively related to mindfulness throughout treatment and follow-up. Mindfulness did not moderate treatment outcome. These findings indicate that while mindfulness is related to fear, it is not a moderator of symptom reduction in nonmindfulness-based treatment. Implications for treatment and future research are discussed. 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc
Shorey, Ryan C; Elmquist, Joanna; Gawrysiak, Michael J; Strauss, Catherine; Haynes, Ellen; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L
Substance use disorders are understood as a chronically relapsing condition that is difficult to treat. However, in recent years there have been promising developments in the treatment of substance use disorders, specifically with interventions based on mindfulness and acceptance and commitment therapy. Little research has examined whether these types of interventions may positively impact residential substance use treatment outcomes. Thus, in the current study we developed and examined, in a randomized controlled trial, a 4-week, eight-session, adjunctive mindfulness and acceptance group therapy for patients in residential substance use treatment. Our primary outcomes were substance use cravings, psychological flexibility, and dispositional mindfulness at treatment discharge. Patients (N = 117) from a private residential substance use facility were randomized to receive the adjunctive mindfulness and acceptance group or treatment-as-usual. Patients were assessed at treatment intake and at discharge from a 28-30-day residential program. Although treatment groups did not statistically differ at discharge on any primary outcome, small effect sizes favored the mindfulness and acceptance group on cravings and psychological flexibility. Conclusions/Importance: Continued research is needed to determine whether the addition of mindfulness and acceptance-based interventions improve outcomes long term following residential substance use treatment.
Johannsen, Maja; O'Connor, Maja; O'Toole, Mia Skytte; Jensen, Anders Bonde; Højris, Inger; Zachariae, Robert
To assess the efficacy of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) for late post-treatment pain in women treated for primary breast cancer. A randomized wait list-controlled trial was conducted with 129 women treated for breast cancer reporting post-treatment pain (score ≥ 3 on pain intensity or pain burden assessed with 10-point numeric rating scales). Participants were randomly assigned to a manualized 8-week MBCT program or a wait-list control group. Pain was the primary outcome and was assessed with the Short Form McGill Pain Questionnaire 2 (SF-MPQ-2), the Present Pain Intensity subscale (the McGill Pain Questionnaire), and perceived pain intensity and pain burden (numeric rating scales). Secondary outcomes were quality of life (World Health Organization-5 Well-Being Index), psychological distress (the Hospital Depression and Anxiety Scale), and self-reported use of pain medication. All outcome measures were assessed at baseline, postintervention, and 3-month and 6-month follow-up. Treatment effects were evaluated with mixed linear models. Statistically significant time × group interactions were found for pain intensity (d = 0.61; P = .002), the Present Pain Intensity subscale (d = 0.26; P = .026), the SF-MPQ-2 neuropathic pain subscale (d = 0.24; P = .036), and SF-MPQ-2 total scores (d = 0.23; P = .036). Only pain intensity remained statistically significant after correction for multiple comparisons. Statistically significant effects were also observed for quality of life (d = 0.42; P = .028) and nonprescription pain medication use (d = 0.40; P = .038). None of the remaining outcomes reached statistical significance. MBCT showed a statistically significant, robust, and durable effect on pain intensity, indicating that MBCT may be an efficacious pain rehabilitation strategy for women treated for breast cancer. In addition, the effect on neuropathic pain, a pain type reported by women treated for breast cancer, further suggests the potential of MBCT but
The eCALM Trial-eTherapy for cancer appLying mindfulness: online mindfulness-based cancer recovery program for underserved individuals living with cancer in Alberta: protocol development for a randomized wait-list controlled clinical trial
Zernicke Kristin A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Elevated stress can exacerbate cancer symptom severity, and after completion of primary cancer treatments, many individuals continue to have significant distress. Mindfulness-Based Cancer Recovery (MBCR is an 8-week group psychosocial intervention consisting of training in mindfulness meditation and yoga designed to mitigate stress, pain, and chronic illness. Efficacy research shows face-to-face (F2F MBCR programs have positive benefits for cancer patients; however barriers exist that impede participation in F2F groups. While online MBCR groups are available to the public, none have been evaluated. Primary objective: determine whether underserved patients are willing to participate in and complete an online MBCR program. Secondary objectives: determine whether online MBCR will mirror previous efficacy findings from F2F MBCR groups on patient-reported outcomes. Method/design The study includes cancer patients in Alberta, exhibiting moderate distress, who do not have access to F2F MBCR. Participants will be randomized to either online MBCR, or waiting for the next available group. An anticipated sample size of 64 participants will complete measures online pre and post treatment or waiting period. Feasibility will be tracked through monitoring numbers eligible and participating through each stage of the protocol. Discussion 47 have completed/completing the intervention. Data suggest it is possible to conduct a randomized waitlist controlled trial of online MBCR to reach underserved cancer survivors. Trial registration Clinical Trials.gov Identifier: NCT01476891
Zeidan, Fadel; Emerson, Nichole M; Farris, Suzan R; Ray, Jenna N; Jung, Youngkyoo; McHaffie, John G; Coghill, Robert C
significantly reduces pain. Given that the "gold standard" for evaluating the efficacy of behavioral interventions is based on appropriate placebo comparisons, it is imperative that we establish whether there is an effect supporting meditation-related pain relief above and beyond the effects of placebo. Here, we provide novel evidence demonstrating that mindfulness meditation produces greater pain relief and employs distinct neural mechanisms than placebo cream and sham mindfulness meditation. Specifically, mindfulness meditation-induced pain relief activated higher-order brain regions, including the orbitofrontal and cingulate cortices. In contrast, placebo analgesia was associated with decreased pain-related brain activation. These findings demonstrate that mindfulness meditation reduces pain through unique mechanisms and may foster greater acceptance of meditation as an adjunct pain therapy. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/3515308-19$15.00/0.
Reid, Denise T
How mindfulness can be learned by occupational therapy students to manage their own self-care processes has not been fully examined as yet. This article describes an online curriculum approach for teaching a general introductory mindfulness course and examines outcomes with master's entry-level occupational therapy students. Fifteen students participated in an 8-week online mindfulness curriculum and completed a pre- and post-training survey. The Mindfulness Attention and Awareness Scale (MAAS) was used to measure mindfulness. Demographic, MAAS-scored mindfulness, and clinical utility data were collected. Results showed a statistically significant change (t = -4.82, p = 0.002) in MAAS mindfulness scores from the program start to end. Informal practice exercises and guided meditations were perceived by participants as being more helpful ways for developing an understanding and approach to mindfulness than were readings about mindfulness. This study suggests that mindfulness can be taught using an online approach.
Snippe, Evelien; Nyklicek, Ivan; Schroevers, Maya J.; Bos, Elisabeth H.
Increases in mindfulness are assumed to lead to improvements in psychological well-being during mindfulness-based treatments. However, the temporal order of this association has received little attention. This intensive longitudinal study examines whether within-person changes in mindfulness precede
Snippe, E.; Nyklicek, I.; Schroevers, M.
Increases in mindfulness are assumed to lead to improvements in psychological well-being during mindfulness-based treatments. However, the temporal order of this association has received little attention. This intensive longitudinal study examines whether within-person changes in mindfulness precede
Beatriz Sebastián Sánchez
Full Text Available The current goal of treatment in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS focuses primarily on symptom management and attempts to improve quality of life. Several treatments are at the disposal of physicians; lifestyle and dietary management, pharmacological treatments and psychological interventions are the most used and recommended. Psychological treatments have been proposed as viable alternatives or compliments to existing care models. Most forms of psychological therapies studied have been shown to be helpful in reducing symptoms and in improving the psychological component of anxiety/depression and health-related quality of life. According to current NICE/NHS guidelines, physicians should consider referral for psychological treatment in patients who do not respond to pharmacotherapy for a period of 12 months and develop a continuing symptom profile (described as refractory irritable bowel syndrome. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT is the best studied treatment and seems to be the most promising therapeutic approach. However, some studies have challenged the effectiveness of this therapy for irritable bowel syndrome. One study concluded that cognitive behavioral therapy is no more effective than attention placebo control condition and another study showed that the beneficial effects wane after six months of follow-up. A review of mind/body approaches to irritable bowel syndrome has therefore suggested that alternate strategies targeting mechanisms other than thought content change might be helpful, specifically mindfulness and acceptance-based approaches. In this article we review these new psychological treatment approaches in an attempt to raise awareness of alternative treatments to gastroenterologists that treat this clinical syndrome.
Kalmanowitz, Debra L; Ho, Rainbow T H
This study's objective was to understand how art therapy and mindfulness meditation could be integrated together in the context of different cultures and political violence and in work with asylum seekers suffering from trauma. We conducted a qualitative phenomenological study based on the social construction paradigm. Twelve participants took part in 4 intensive full-day art therapy and mindfulness workshops. The study's setting was an art therapy and mindfulness studio ( Inhabited Studio ) in Hong Kong where participants engaged in art making and in mindfulness-meditation practice. Different aspects of the Inhabited Studio appealed to participants based on each individual's worldview, culture, religion, and coping style. Responses to the Inhabited Studio were organized into 7 thematic clusters. Five themes were categorized into 2 broad categories composed of personal elements (memory, identity) and mediating aspects (emotional/self-regulation, communication, and imagination). The final 2, resilience and worldview, spanned both areas. Participants found the Inhabited Studio culturally compatible and some of the skills they learned helpful in times of stress. This points to how this combination can contribute to building resilience. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
van der Velden, Anne Maj; Piet, Jacob; Møller, Anne Buch
Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) is an evidencebased psychotherapeutic intervention, which integrates elements of cognitive behavioural therapy for depression with the clinical application of mindfulness meditation. MBCT is currently recommended in several national clinical guidelines a...
Mehling, Wolf E; Wrubel, Judith; Daubenmier, Jennifer J; Price, Cynthia J; Kerr, Catherine E; Silow, Theresa; Gopisetty, Viranjini; Stewart, Anita L
Enhancing body awareness has been described as a key element or a mechanism of action for therapeutic approaches often categorized as mind-body approaches, such as yoga, TaiChi, Body-Oriented Psychotherapy, Body Awareness Therapy, mindfulness based therapies/meditation, Feldenkrais, Alexander Method, Breath Therapy and others with reported benefits for a variety of health conditions. To better understand the conceptualization of body awareness in mind-body therapies, leading practitioners and teaching faculty of these approaches were invited as well as their patients to participate in focus groups. The qualitative analysis of these focus groups with representative practitioners of body awareness practices, and the perspectives of their patients, elucidated the common ground of their understanding of body awareness. For them body awareness is an inseparable aspect of embodied self awareness realized in action and interaction with the environment and world. It is the awareness of embodiment as an innate tendency of our organism for emergent self-organization and wholeness. The process that patients undergo in these therapies was seen as a progression towards greater unity between body and self, very similar to the conceptualization of embodiment as dialectic of body and self described by some philosophers as being experienced in distinct developmental levels.
Full Text Available Abstract Enhancing body awareness has been described as a key element or a mechanism of action for therapeutic approaches often categorized as mind-body approaches, such as yoga, TaiChi, Body-Oriented Psychotherapy, Body Awareness Therapy, mindfulness based therapies/meditation, Feldenkrais, Alexander Method, Breath Therapy and others with reported benefits for a variety of health conditions. To better understand the conceptualization of body awareness in mind-body therapies, leading practitioners and teaching faculty of these approaches were invited as well as their patients to participate in focus groups. The qualitative analysis of these focus groups with representative practitioners of body awareness practices, and the perspectives of their patients, elucidated the common ground of their understanding of body awareness. For them body awareness is an inseparable aspect of embodied self awareness realized in action and interaction with the environment and world. It is the awareness of embodiment as an innate tendency of our organism for emergent self-organization and wholeness. The process that patients undergo in these therapies was seen as a progression towards greater unity between body and self, very similar to the conceptualization of embodiment as dialectic of body and self described by some philosophers as being experienced in distinct developmental levels.
Effect of traditional yoga, mindfulness-based cognitive therapy, and cognitive behavioral therapy, on health related quality of life: a randomized controlled trial on patients on sick leave because of burnout.
Grensman, Astrid; Acharya, Bikash Dev; Wändell, Per; Nilsson, Gunnar H; Falkenberg, Torkel; Sundin, Örjan; Werner, Sigbritt
To explore if health related quality of life(HRQoL) increased after traditional yoga(TY), mindfulness based cognitive therapy(MBCT), or cognitive behavioral therapy(CBT), in patients on sick leave because of burnout. Randomized controlled trial, blinded, in ninety-four primary health care patients, block randomized to TY, MBCT or CBT (active control) between September 2007 and November 2009. Patients were living in the Stockholm metropolitan area, Sweden, were aged 18-65 years and were on 50%-100% sick leave. A group treatment for 20 weeks, three hours per week, with homework four hours per week. HRQoL was measured by the SWED-QUAL questionnaire, comprising 67 items grouped into 13 subscales, each with a separate index, and scores from 0 (worse) to 100 (best). SWED-QUAL covers aspects of physical and emotional well-being, cognitive function, sleep, general health and social and sexual functioning. Statistics: Wilcoxon's rank sum and Wilcoxon's sign rank tests, Bonett-Price for medians and confidence intervals, and Cohen's D. Twenty-six patients in the TY (21 women), and 27 patients in both the MBCT (24 women) and in the CBT (25 women), were analyzed. Ten subscales in TY and seven subscales in MBCT and CBT showed improvements, p cognitive function and sleep. The median improvement ranged from 0 to 27 points in TY, from 4 to 25 points in CBT and from 0 to 25 points in MBCT. The effect size was mainly medium or large. Comparison of treatments showed no statistical differences, but better effect (small) of both TY and MBCT compared to CBT. When comparing the effect of TY and MBCT, both showed a better effect (small) in two subscales each. A 20 week group treatment with TY, CBT or MBCT had equal effects on HRQoL, and particularly on main domains affected in burnout. This indicates that TY, MBCT and CBT can be used as both treatment and prevention, to improve HRQoL in patients on sick leave because of burnout, reducing the risk of future morbidity. July 22, 2012
McClintock, Andrew S; Anderson, Timothy; Cranston, Saryn
Existing treatments for maladaptive interpersonal dependency and dependent personality disorder do not meet basic scientific standards for effectiveness. The present investigation tested the efficacy of a mindfulness-based approach: mindfulness therapy for maladaptive interpersonal dependency (MT-MID). Forty-eight participants who reported consistently high levels of maladaptive dependency (i.e., scored higher than 1 standard deviation above the mean on the Interpersonal Dependency Inventory at two separate assessments) were randomized to either 5 sessions of MT-MID or a minimal contact control. Five self-reported outcomes (mindfulness, maladaptive interpersonal dependency, helplessness, fears of negative evaluation, and excessive reassurance seeking) were assessed at pretreatment, posttreatment, and a 4-week follow-up. Intent-to-treat analyses indicated that MT-MID yielded greater improvements than the control on all 5 outcomes at posttreatment (median d=1.61) and follow-up (median d=1.51). Participants assigned to MT-MID were more likely than control participants to meet criteria for clinically significant change at posttreatment (56.5% vs. 0%) and follow-up (42.9% vs. 0%). There was also evidence that increases in mindfulness mediated the dependency-related improvements. These results provide preliminary support for the efficacy of a mindfulness-based approach for treating the symptoms of maladaptive dependency. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Chiesa, Alberto; Serretti, Alessandro; Jakobsen, Janus Christian
The beneficial clinical effects of mindfulness practices are receiving increasing support from empirical studies. However, the functional neural mechanisms underlying these benefits have not been thoroughly investigated. Some authors suggest that mindfulness should be described as a 'top......-down' emotion regulation strategy, while others suggest that mindfulness should be described as a 'bottom-up' emotion regulation strategy. Current discrepancies might derive from the many different descriptions and applications of mindfulness. The present review aims to discuss current descriptions...... of mindfulness and the relationship existing between mindfulness practice and most commonly investigated emotion regulation strategies. Recent results from functional neuro-imaging studies investigating mindfulness training within the context of emotion regulation are presented. We suggest that mindfulness...
O’Reilly, Gillian A.; Cook, Lauren; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Black, David S.
Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) targeting eating behaviors have gained popularity in recent years. A literature review was conducted to determine the effectiveness of MBIs for treating obesity-related eating behaviors, such as binge eating, emotional eating, and external eating. A search protocol was conducted using the online databases Google Scholar, PubMed, PsycINFO, and Ovid Healthstar. Articles were required to meet the following criteria to be included in this review: (1) describe a MBI or the use of mindfulness exercises as part of an intervention, (2) include at least one obesity-related eating behavior as an outcome, (3) include quantitative outcomes, and (4) be published in English in a peer-reviewed journal. A total of N=21 articles were included in this review. Interventions used a variety of approaches to implement mindfulness training, including combined mindfulness and cognitive behavioral therapies, mindfulness-based stress reduction, acceptance-based therapies, mindful eating programs, and combinations of mindfulness exercises. Targeted eating behavior outcomes included binge eating, emotional eating, external eating, and dietary intake. Eighteen (86%) of the reviewed studies reported improvements in the targeted eating behaviors. Overall, the results of this first review on the topic support the efficacy of mindfulness-based interventions for changing obesity-related eating behaviors, specifically binge eating, emotional eating, and external eating. PMID:24636206
Crane, Rebecca S; Stanley, Steven; Rooney, Michael; Bartley, Trish; Cooper, Lucinda; Mardula, Jody
Evidence for the effectiveness of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) is rapidly growing as interest in this field expands. By contrast, there are few empirical analyses of the pedagogy of MBSR and MBCT. Development of the evidence base concerning the teaching of MBCT or MBSR would support the integrity of the approach in the context of rapid expansion. This paper describes an applied conversation analysis (CA) of the characteristics of inquiry in the MBSR and MBCT teaching process. Audio-recordings of three 8-week MBCT and MBSR classes, with 24, 12, and 6 participants, were transcribed and systematically examined. The study focused on the teacher-led interactive inquiry which takes place in each session after a guided meditation practice. The study describes and analyzes three practices within the inquiry process that can be identified in sequences of talk: turn-taking talk involving questions and reformulations; the development of participant skills in a particular way of describing experience; and talk that constructs intersubjective connection and affiliation within the group. CA enables fine-grained analysis of the interactional work of mindfulness-based inquiry. Inquiry is a process of disciplined improvisation which is both highly specific to the conditions of the moment it took place in and uses repeated and recognizable patterns of interaction.
Sharp, Jennifer E.; Niemiec, Ryan M.; Lawrence, Christopher
Mindfulness and character strengths are synergistic tools that work together to cultivate well-being. Mindfulness-Based Strengths Practice (MBSP) combines the research and practice of these constructs to enhance well-being, meaning, and engagement. In this article, research supporting how mindfulness and character strengths may benefit the gifted…
Brown, Amanda P.; Marquis, Andre; Guiffrida, Douglas A.
Mindfulness is a relatively new construct in counseling that is rapidly gaining interest as it is applied to people struggling with a myriad of problems. Research has consistently demonstrated that counseling interventions using mindfulness improve well-being and reduce psychopathology. This article provides a detailed definition of mindfulness,…
Kinser, Patricia Anne; Robins, Jo Lynne
Although a growing body of research suggests that mind-body therapies may be appropriate to integrate into the treatment of depression, studies consistently lack methodological sophistication particularly in the area of control groups. In order to better understand the relationship between control group selection and methodological rigor, we provide a brief review of the literature on control group design in yoga and tai chi studies for depression, and we discuss challenges we have faced in the design of control groups for our recent clinical trials of these mind-body complementary therapies for women with depression. To address the multiple challenges of research about mind-body therapies, we suggest that researchers should consider 4 key questions: whether the study design matches the research question; whether the control group addresses performance, expectation, and detection bias; whether the control group is ethical, feasible, and attractive; and whether the control group is designed to adequately control for nonspecific intervention effects. Based on these questions, we provide specific recommendations about control group design with the goal of minimizing bias and maximizing validity in future research.
O'Reilly, G A; Cook, L; Spruijt-Metz, D; Black, D S
Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) targeting eating behaviours have gained popularity in recent years. A literature review was conducted to determine the effectiveness of MBIs for treating obesity-related eating behaviours, such as binge eating, emotional eating and external eating. A search protocol was conducted using the online databases Google Scholar, PubMed, PsycINFO and Ovid Healthstar. Papers were required to meet the following criteria to be included in this review: (i) describe a MBI or the use of mindfulness exercises as part of an intervention; (ii) include at least one obesity-related eating behaviour as an outcome; (iii) include quantitative outcomes; and (iv) be published in English in a peer-reviewed journal. A total of N = 21 papers were included in this review. Interventions used a variety of approaches to implement mindfulness training, including combined mindfulness and cognitive behavioural therapies, mindfulness-based stress reduction, acceptance-based therapies, mindful eating programmes, and combinations of mindfulness exercises. Targeted eating behaviour outcomes included binge eating, emotional eating, external eating and dietary intake. Eighteen (86%) of the reviewed studies reported improvements in the targeted eating behaviours. Overall, the results of this first review on the topic support the efficacy of MBIs for changing obesity-related eating behaviours, specifically binge eating, emotional eating and external eating. © 2014 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2014 International Association for the Study of Obesity.
Clinical and psychological moderators of the effect of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy on persistent pain in women treated for primary breast cancer - explorative analyses from a randomized controlled trial.
Johannsen, M; O'Toole, M S; O'Connor, M; Jensen, A B; Zachariae, R
Mindfulness-based intervention has been found efficacious in reducing persistent pain in women treated for breast cancer. Little, however, is known about possible moderators of the effect. We explored clinical and psychological moderators of the effect on pain intensity previously found in a randomized controlled trial of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) with women treated for breast cancer with persistent pain. A total of 129 women treated for breast cancer reporting persistent pain were randomized to MBCT or a wait-list control. The primary outcome of pain intensity (11-point numeric rating scale) was measured at baseline, post-intervention, three, and six months follow-up. Proposed clinical moderators included age, axillary lymph node dissection (ALND), radiotherapy, and endocrine treatment. Psychological moderators included psychological distress [the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)], the adult attachment dimensions anxiety and avoidance [the Experiences in Close Relationships Short Form (the ECR-SF)], and alexithymia [the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20)]. Multi-level models were used to test moderation effects over time, i.e. time × group × moderator. Only attachment avoidance (p = 0.03, d = 0.36) emerged as a statistically significant moderator. Higher levels of attachment avoidance predicted a larger effect of MBCT in reducing pain intensity compared with lower levels attachment avoidance. None of the remaining psychological or clinical moderators reached statistical significance. However, based on the effect size, radiotherapy (p = 0.075, d = 0.49) was indicated as a possible clinical moderator of the effect, with radiotherapy being associated with a smaller effect of MBCT on pain intensity over time compared with no radiotherapy. Attachment avoidance, and potentially radiotherapy, may be clinically relevant factors for identifying the patients who may benefit most from MBCT as a pain intervention. Due to
Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial comparing mindfulness-based cognitive therapy with maintenance anti-depressant treatment in the prevention of depressive relapse/recurrence: the PREVENT trial
Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression is a common and distressing mental health problem that is responsible for significant individual disability and cost to society. Medication and psychological therapies are effective for treating depression and maintenance anti-depressants (m-ADM can prevent relapse. However, individuals with depression often express a wish for psychological help that can help them recover from depression in the long-term. We need to develop psychological therapies that prevent depressive relapse/recurrence. A recently developed treatment, Mindfulness-based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT, see http://www.mbct.co.uk shows potential as a brief group programme for people with recurring depression. In two studies it has been shown to halve the rates of depression recurring compared to usual care. This trial asks the policy research question, is MBCT superior to m-ADM in terms of: a primary outcome of preventing depressive relapse/recurrence over 24 months; and, secondary outcomes of (a depression free days, (b residual depressive symptoms, (c antidepressant (ADM usage, (d psychiatric and medical co-morbidity, (e quality of life, and (f cost effectiveness? An explanatory research question asks is an increase in mindfulness skills the key mechanism of change? Methods/Design The design is a single blind, parallel RCT examining MBCT vs. m-ADM with an embedded process study. To answer the main policy research question the proposed trial compares MBCT plus ADM-tapering with m-ADM for patients with recurrent depression. Four hundred and twenty patients with recurrent major depressive disorder in full or partial remission will be recruited through primary care. Depressive relapse/recurrence over two years is the primary outcome variable. The explanatory question will be addressed in two mutually informative ways: quantitative measurement of potential mediating variables pre/post-treatment and a qualitative study of service users' views and experiences
Agger Nielsen, Jeppe; Nielsen, Charlotte Agger
Mindfulness har de senere år budt sig til som effektiv hjælp til selvhjælp for fortravlede ledere og professionelle. Men er meditationsøvelser og forsøg på at finde indre ”zen”-ro overhovedet lederens anstrengelser værd? Denne artikel diskuterer effekterne af mindfulness og giver ordet til såvel...
Danitz, Sara B; Orsillo, Susan M
First-year students in higher education deal with an increasing number of mental health issues. Cost-effective and time-efficient programs that ease transitions and reduce risk of depression are needed. To date, programs informed by both cognitive-behavioral and acceptance-based-behavioral therapy (ABBT) approaches have produced some positive outcomes, but methodological limitations limit their utility. The aim of the present study was to address some of these limitations, by developing and preliminary testing the efficacy of a one-session ABBT intervention with first-year undergraduates and first-year law students. Ninety-eight first-year students were randomly assigned to receive either a single-session 90-min ABBT workshop within their first month of school or to a waitlist control condition. Students who received the intervention reported significantly less depression and more acceptance. Moreover, increase in acceptance over the course of the semester was associated with reductions in depression. Implications of these findings for future interventions are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.
Mothersill, David; Dillon, Rachael; Hargreaves, April; Castorina, Marco; Furey, Emilia; Fagan, Andrew J; Meaney, James F; Fitzmaurice, Brian; Hallahan, Brian; McDonald, Colm; Wykes, Til; Corvin, Aiden; Robertson, Ian H; Donohoe, Gary
Working memory based cognitive remediation therapy (CT) for psychosis has recently been associated with broad improvements in performance on untrained tasks measuring working memory, episodic memory and IQ, and changes in associated brain regions. However, it is unclear if these improvements transfer to the domain of social cognition and neural activity related to performance on social cognitive tasks. We examined performance on the Reading the Mind in the Eyes test (Eyes test) in a large sample of participants with psychosis who underwent working memory based CT (N = 43) compared to a Control Group of participants with psychosis (N = 35). In a subset of this sample, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine changes in neural activity during a facial emotion recognition task in participants who underwent CT (N = 15) compared to a Control Group (N = 15). No significant effects of CT were observed on Eyes test performance or on neural activity during facial emotion recognition, either at pworking memory based CT does not significantly impact an aspect of social cognition which was measured behaviourally and neurally. It provides further evidence that deficits in the ability to decode mental state from facial expressions are dissociable from working memory deficits, and suggests that future CT programs should target social cognition in addition to working memory for the purposes of further enhancing social function. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Niles, Halsey; Mehta, Darshan H; Corrigan, Alexandra A; Bhasin, Manoj K; Denninger, John W
Mind-body therapies (MBTs) are used throughout the world in treatment, disease prevention, and health promotion. However, the mechanisms by which MBTs exert their positive effects are not well understood. Investigations into MBTs using functional genomics have revolutionized the understanding of MBT mechanisms and their effects on human physiology. We searched the literature for the effects of MBTs on functional genomics determinants using MEDLINE, supplemented by a manual search of additional journals and a reference list review. We reviewed 15 trials that measured global or targeted transcriptomic, epigenomic, or proteomic changes in peripheral blood. Sample sizes ranged from small pilot studies (n=2) to large trials (n=500). While the reliability of individual genes from trial to trial was often inconsistent, genes related to inflammatory response, particularly those involved in the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) pathway, were consistently downregulated across most studies. In general, existing trials focusing on gene expression changes brought about by MBTs have revealed intriguing connections to the immune system through the NF-κB cascade, to telomere maintenance, and to apoptotic regulation. However, these findings are limited to a small number of trials and relatively small sample sizes. More rigorous randomized controlled trials of healthy subjects and specific disease states are warranted. Future research should investigate functional genomics areas both upstream and downstream of MBT-related gene expression changes-from epigenomics to proteomics and metabolomics.
Snippe, Evelien; Bos, E.H.; van der Ploeg, K.M.; Sanderman, Robbert; Fleer, J.; Schroevers, M.J.
Mindfulness and ruminative thinking have been shown to mediate the effects of mindfulness-based treatments on depressive symptoms. Yet, the dynamic interplay between these variables in daily life during mindfulness-based treatment has received little attention. The present study focuses on the
Thanks largely to the work of Kabat-Zinn and associates applications of mindfulness-based practices have grown exponentially over the last decade or so, particularly in the fields of education, psychology, psychotherapy and mind-body health. Having its origins in Buddhist traditions, the more recent secular and therapeutic applications of the…
Background. Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) have been shown to be effective in a wide range of health-related problems. Teaching and research with regard to MBIs have largely been conducted in the USA and Europe. The development of teachers of MBIs requires that they embody the practice of mindfulness ...
The Effects of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy and Cognitive Behavioral Analysis System of Psychotherapy added to Treatment as Usual on suicidal ideation in chronic depression: Results of a randomized-clinical trial.
Forkmann, Thomas; Brakemeier, Eva-Lotta; Teismann, Tobias; Schramm, Elisabeth; Michalak, Johannes
Suicidal ideation (SI) is common in chronic depression, but only limited evidence exists for the assumption that psychological treatments for depression are effective for reducing SI. In the present study, the effects of Mindfulness-based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT; group version) plus treatment-as-usual (TAU: individual treatment by either a psychiatrist or a licensed psychotherapist, including medication when indicated) and Cognitive Behavioral Analysis System of Psychotherapy (CBASP; group version) plus TAU on SI was compared to TAU alone in a prospective, bi-center, randomized controlled trial. The sample consisted of 106 outpatients with chronic depression. Multivariate regression analyses revealed different results, depending on whether SI was assessed via self-report (Beck Depression Inventory suicide item) or via clinician rating (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale suicide item). Whereas significant reduction of SI emerged when assessed via clinician rating in the MBCT and CBASP group, but not in the TAU group while controlling for changes in depression, there was no significant effect of treatment on SI when assessed via self-report. SI was measured with only two single items. Because all effects were of small to medium size and were independent of effects from other depression symptoms, the present results warrant the application of such psychotherapeutical treatment strategies like MBCT and CBASP for SI in patients with chronic depression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Mindfulness-based applications allow health care staffs to understand themselves as well as other individuals. Awareness based applications are not only stress reduction techniques but also a way of understanding the life and human existence, and it should not be only used to cope with the diseases. Emotions, thoughts and judgments of people might give direction to their life sometimes. Accessing a life without judgment and negative feelings brings a peaceful and happy life together. Mindfulness based stress reduction exercises may help to enjoy the present time, to cope with the challenges, stress and diseases and accept the negative life experiences rather than to question their reasons. About three decades ago, Kabat-Zin conducted the first investigation of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction program which is used commonly all around the world. The 8-weeks program, which contains mindful living exercises (such as eating, walking, cooking, etc., yoga, body scan and meditation practices, requires doing daily life activity and meditation with attention, openness and acceptance. The aim of this review article is to give information about Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction program and to emphasize its importance. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2015; 7(1: 68-80
Whitebird, Robin R; Kreitzer, Mary Jo; Lewis, Beth A; Hanson, Leah R; Crain, A Lauren; Enstad, Chris J; Mehta, Adele
Caregivers for a family member with dementia experience chronic long-term stress that may benefit from new complementary therapies such as mindfulness-based stress reduction. Little is known however, about the challenges of recruiting and retaining family caregivers to research on mind-body based complementary therapies. Our pilot study is the first of its kind to successfully recruit caregivers for a family member with dementia to a randomized controlled pilot study of mindfulness-based stress reduction. The study used an array of recruitment strategies and techniques that were tailored to fit the unique features of our recruitment sources and employed retention strategies that placed high value on establishing early and ongoing communication with potential participants. Innovative recruitment methods including conducting outreach to health plan members and generating press coverage were combined with standard methods of community outreach and paid advertising. We were successful in exceeding our recruitment goal and retained 92% of the study participants at post-intervention (2 months) and 90% at 6 months. Recruitment and retention for family caregiver interventions employing mind-body based complementary therapies can be successful despite many challenges. Barriers include cultural perceptions about the use and benefit of complementary therapies, cultural differences with how the role of family caregiver is perceived, the use of group-based designs requiring significant time commitment by participants, and travel and respite care needs for busy family caregivers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Brady, Victoria Popick; Whitman, Sarah M.
Over the past few years, there has been a proliferation of theoretical discussions and empirical research on the use of acceptance and mindfulness-based therapies to treat anxiety disorders. Because these treatment approaches are in their infancy, many clinicians may still be uncertain about how to apply such treatments in their work with clients.…
Full Text Available Eric L Garland,1,2 Matthew O Howard,3 Sarah E Priddy,1 Patrick A McConnell,4 Michael R Riquino,1 Brett Froeliger4 1College of Social Work, 2Hunstsman Cancer Institute, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA; 3School of Social Work, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 4Department of Neuroscience, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA Abstract: Dual-process models from neuroscience suggest that addiction is driven by dysregulated interactions between bottom-up neural processes underpinning reward learning and top-down neural functions subserving executive function. Over time, drug use causes atrophy in prefrontally mediated cognitive control networks and hijacks striatal circuits devoted to processing natural rewards in service of compulsive seeking of drug-related reward. In essence, mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs can be conceptualized as mental training programs for exercising, strengthening, and remediating these functional brain networks. This review describes how MBIs may remediate addiction by regulating frontostriatal circuits, thereby restoring an adaptive balance between these top-down and bottom-up processes. Empirical evidence is presented suggesting that MBIs facilitate cognitive control over drug-related automaticity, attentional bias, and drug cue reactivity, while enhancing responsiveness to natural rewards. Findings from the literature are incorporated into an integrative account of the neural mechanisms of mindfulness-based therapies for effecting positive behavior change in the context of addiction recovery. Implications of our theoretical framework are presented with respect to how these insights can inform the addiction therapy process. Keywords: mindfulness, frontostriatal, savoring, cue reactivity, hedonic dysregulation, reward, addiction
R.A. Gotink (Rinske); Hermans, K.S.F.M. (Karlijn S.F.M.); Geschwind, N. (Nicole); De Nooij, R. (Reinier); De Groot, W.T. (Wouter T.); A.E.M. Speckens (Anne)
textabstractThe aim of this study was to explore the feasibility and effectiveness of mindful walking in nature as a possible means to maintain mindfulness skills after a mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) or mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) course. Mindful walking alongside the
Mindfulness, a purposeful and nonjudgmental awareness of internal affective states, is emerging rapidly in the field of occupational therapy and medicine, but has not yet gained credibility in the education of the physical therapy profession. Some students lack the self-awareness needed to act on professional values, which prevents them from…
Full Text Available Greenhouse gases from human activities are causing climate change, creating risks for people around the globe. Behaviors involving transportation, diet, energy use, and purchasing drive greenhouse gas emissions, but are also related to health and well-being, providing opportunity for co-benefits. Replacing shorter automobile trips with walking or cycling, or eating plants rather than animals, for example, may increase personal health, while also reducing environmental impact. Mindfulness-based practices have been shown to enhance a variety of health outcomes, but have not been adapted towards environmental purposes. We designed the Mindful Climate Action (MCA curriculum to help people improve their health while simultaneously lowering their carbon footprints. Combining mindfulness-based practices with the Stages of Change theory, the MCA program aims to: (1 improve personal health and well-being; (2 decrease energy use; (3 reduce automobile use; (4 increase active transport; (5 shift diet towards plant-based foods; and (6 reduce unnecessary purchasing. Mindfulness practices will foster attentional awareness, openness, and response flexibility, supporting positive behavior change. We plan to test MCA in a randomized controlled trial, with rigorous assessment of targeted outcomes. Our long-term goal is to refine and adapt the MCA program to a variety of audiences, in order to enhance public health and environmental sustainability.
Lee, Courtney; Crawford, Cindy; Hickey, Anita
Chronic pain management typically consists of prescription medications or provider-based, behavioral, or interventional procedures which are often ineffective, may be costly, and can be associated with undesirable side effects. Because chronic pain affects the whole person (body, mind, and spirit), patient-centered complementary and integrative medicine (CIM) therapies that acknowledge the patients' roles in their own healing processes have the potential to provide more efficient and comprehensive chronic pain management. Active self-care complementary and integrative medicine (ACT-CIM) therapies allow for a more diverse, patient-centered treatment of complex symptoms, promote self-management, and are relatively safe and cost-effective. To date, there are no systematic reviews examining the full range of ACT-CIM used for chronic pain symptom management. A systematic review was conducted, using Samueli Institute's rapid evidence assessment of the literature (REAL©) methodology, to rigorously assess both the quality of the research on ACT-CIM modalities and the evidence for their efficacy and effectiveness in treating chronic pain symptoms. A panel of subject matter experts was also convened to evaluate the overall literature pool and develop recommendations for the use and implementation of these modalities. Following key database searches, 146 randomized controlled trials were included in the review, 54 of which investigated mind-body therapies, as defined by the authors. This article summarizes the current evidence, quality, efficacy, and safety of these modalities. Recommendations and next steps to move this field of research forward are also discussed. The entire scope of the review is detailed throughout the current Pain Medicine supplement. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
The effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy compared with maintenance antidepressant treatment in the prevention of depressive relapse/recurrence: results of a randomised controlled trial (the PREVENT study).
Kuyken, Willem; Hayes, Rachel; Barrett, Barbara; Byng, Richard; Dalgleish, Tim; Kessler, David; Lewis, Glyn; Watkins, Edward; Morant, Nicola; Taylor, Rod S; Byford, Sarah
Individuals with a history of recurrent depression have a high risk of repeated depressive relapse/recurrence. Maintenance antidepressant medication (m-ADM) for at least 2 years is the current recommended treatment, but many individuals are interested in alternatives to m-ADM. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) has been shown to reduce the risk of relapse/recurrence compared with usual care but has not yet been compared with m-ADM in a definitive trial. To establish whether MBCT with support to taper and/or discontinue antidepressant medication (MBCT-TS) is superior to and more cost-effective than an approach of m-ADM in a primary care setting for patients with a history of recurrent depression followed up over a 2-year period in terms of preventing depressive relapse/recurrence. Secondary aims examined MBCT's acceptability and mechanism of action. Single-blind, parallel, individual randomised controlled trial. UK general practices. Adult patients with a diagnosis of recurrent depression and who were taking m-ADM. Participants were randomised to MBCT-TS or m-ADM with stratification by centre and symptomatic status. Outcome data were collected blind to treatment allocation and the primary analysis was based on the principle of intention to treat. Process studies using quantitative and qualitative methods examined MBCT's acceptability and mechanism of action. The primary outcome measure was time to relapse/recurrence of depression. At each follow-up the following secondary outcomes were recorded: number of depression-free days, residual depressive symptoms, quality of life, health-related quality of life and psychiatric and medical comorbidities. In total, 212 patients were randomised to MBCT-TS and 212 to m-ADM. The primary analysis did not find any evidence that MBCT-TS was superior to m-ADM in terms of the primary outcome of time to depressive relapse/recurrence over 24 months [hazard ratio (HR) 0.89, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.67 to 1.18] or for any
Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression is a common condition that typically has a relapsing course. Effective interventions targeting relapse have the potential to dramatically reduce the point prevalence of the condition. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT is a group-based intervention that has shown efficacy in reducing depressive relapse. While trials of MBCT to date have met the core requirements of phase 1 translational research, there is a need now to move to phase 2 translational research - the application of MBCT within real-world settings with a view to informing policy and clinical practice. The aim of this trial is to examine the clinical impact and health economics of MBCT under real-world conditions and where efforts have been made to assess for and prevent resentful demoralization among the control group. Secondary aims of the project involve extending the phase 1 agenda to an examination of the effects of co-morbidity and mechanisms of action. Methods/Design This study is designed as a prospective, multi-site, single-blind, randomised controlled trial using a group comparison design between involving the intervention, MBCT, and a self-monitoring comparison condition, Depression Relapse Active Monitoring (DRAM. Follow-up is over 2 years. The design of the study indicates recruitment from primary and secondary care of 204 participants who have a history of 3 or more episodes of Major Depression but who are currently well. Measures assessing depressive relapse/recurrence, time to first clinical intervention, treatment expectancy and a range of secondary outcomes and process variables are included. A health economics evaluation will be undertaken to assess the incremental cost of MBCT. Discussion The results of this trial, including an examination of clinical, functional and health economic outcomes, will be used to assess the role that this treatment approach may have in recommendations for treatment of depression in Australia and
Shi, Zhenrong; MacBeth, Angus
Presenting with common mental health difficulties, particularly depression and anxiety, there is also preliminary evidence that mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) including mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT), mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) and integrated mindfulness yoga practices may also be effective in reducing common mental health difficulties during pregnancy. We systematically reviewed and synthesized the current literature on the effectiveness of MBIs in reducing severity of perinatal anxiety and depression. Databases including PubMed, Cochrane Library, IndMED and PsychoInfo were searched for relevant studies. Manual searches were conducted in relevant articles and Google Scholar. Seventeen cohorts representing 18 studies were included. Pre-post effect sizes were reported for both treatment and control groups. Seven randomized controlled trials (RCTs), two non-randomized controlled trials and nine treatment evaluations were included. Maternal participation in an MBI was associated with reductions in perinatal anxiety of moderate to large magnitude. Results for the effect of MBIs on depression were less consistent, with pre-post treatment reductions of moderate magnitude, but no significant differences in depression scores when MBI was compared with a control group. There was some evidence that MBIs were associated with increased mindfulness. Risk of bias in studies was variable. Our review offers preliminary evidence for the effectiveness of MBIs in reducing perinatal anxiety, with more equivocal findings with regard to perinatal depressive symptoms. Further methodologically rigorous evaluation using RCTs and longer follow-up periods are recommended.
Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy compared with maintenance antidepressant treatment in the prevention of depressive relapse or recurrence (PREVENT): a randomised controlled trial.
Kuyken, Willem; Hayes, Rachel; Barrett, Barbara; Byng, Richard; Dalgleish, Tim; Kessler, David; Lewis, Glyn; Watkins, Edward; Brejcha, Claire; Cardy, Jessica; Causley, Aaron; Cowderoy, Suzanne; Evans, Alison; Gradinger, Felix; Kaur, Surinder; Lanham, Paul; Morant, Nicola; Richards, Jonathan; Shah, Pooja; Sutton, Harry; Vicary, Rachael; Weaver, Alice; Wilks, Jenny; Williams, Matthew; Taylor, Rod S; Byford, Sarah
Individuals with a history of recurrent depression have a high risk of repeated depressive relapse or recurrence. Maintenance antidepressants for at least 2 years is the current recommended treatment, but many individuals are interested in alternatives to medication. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) has been shown to reduce risk of relapse or recurrence compared with usual care, but has not yet been compared with maintenance antidepressant treatment in a definitive trial. We aimed to see whether MBCT with support to taper or discontinue antidepressant treatment (MBCT-TS) was superior to maintenance antidepressants for prevention of depressive relapse or recurrence over 24 months. In this single-blind, parallel, group randomised controlled trial (PREVENT), we recruited adult patients with three or more previous major depressive episodes and on a therapeutic dose of maintenance antidepressants, from primary care general practices in urban and rural settings in the UK. Participants were randomly assigned to either MBCT-TS or maintenance antidepressants (in a 1:1 ratio) with a computer-generated random number sequence with stratification by centre and symptomatic status. Participants were aware of treatment allocation and research assessors were masked to treatment allocation. The primary outcome was time to relapse or recurrence of depression, with patients followed up at five separate intervals during the 24-month study period. The primary analysis was based on the principle of intention to treat. The trial is registered with Current Controlled Trials, ISRCTN26666654. Between March 23, 2010, and Oct 21, 2011, we assessed 2188 participants for eligibility and recruited 424 patients from 95 general practices. 212 patients were randomly assigned to MBCT-TS and 212 to maintenance antidepressants. The time to relapse or recurrence of depression did not differ between MBCT-TS and maintenance antidepressants over 24 months (hazard ratio 0·89, 95% CI 0·67-1·18
Full Text Available Paranoia embodies altered representation of the social environment, fuelling altered feelings of social acceptance leading to further mistrust. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT may relieve paranoia and reduce its impact on social acceptance.To determine whether MBCT alters momentary feeling of paranoia and social acceptance in daily life.Randomized controlled trial of daily-life repeated measures (up to 120 per participant before and after allocation to MBCT or waiting list control.Volunteer sample of 130 eligible men and women with residual affective dysregulation after at least one episode of major depressive disorder.Eight weeks of MBCT in groups of 10-15 participants in addition to participants' usual treatment.Daily-life ratings of paranoia and social acceptance. This manuscript concerns additional analyses of the original trial; hypotheses were developed after data collection (focus initially on depressive symptoms but before data analysis.Sixty-six participants were assigned to the waiting list control group and 64 to the MBCT intervention group, of whom 66 and 61 respectively were included in the per-protocol analyses. Intention-to-treat analyses revealed a significant group by time interaction in the model of momentary paranoia (b = -.18, p<0.001, d = -0.35 and social acceptance (b = .26, p<0.001, d = 0.41. Paranoia levels in the intervention group were significantly reduced (b = -.11, p<0.001 and feelings of social acceptance significantly increased (b = .18, p<0.001, whereas in the Control condition a significant increase in paranoia (b = .07, p = 0.008 and a decrease in social acceptance was apparent (b = -.09, p = 0.013. The detrimental effect of paranoia on social acceptance was significantly reduced in the MBCT, but not the control group (group by time interaction: b = .12, p = 0.022.MBCT confers a substantial benefit on subclinical paranoia and may interrupt the social
Andersen, Signe; Würtzen, Hanne; Steding-Jessen, Marianne
The prevalence of sleep disturbance is high among cancer patients, and the sleep problems tend to last for years after the end of treatment. As part of a large randomized controlled clinical trial (the MICA trial, NCT00990977) of the effect of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) on psycholo......The prevalence of sleep disturbance is high among cancer patients, and the sleep problems tend to last for years after the end of treatment. As part of a large randomized controlled clinical trial (the MICA trial, NCT00990977) of the effect of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR...
Godfrey, Kathryn M; Gallo, Linda C; Afari, Niloofar
Mindfulness-based interventions are increasingly used to treat binge eating. The effects of these interventions have not been reviewed comprehensively. This systematic review and meta-analysis sought to summarize the literature on mindfulness-based interventions and determine their impact on binge eating behavior. PubMED, Web of Science, and PsycINFO were searched using keywords binge eating, overeating, objective bulimic episodes, acceptance and commitment therapy, dialectical behavior therapy, mindfulness, meditation, mindful eating. Of 151 records screened, 19 studies met inclusion criteria. Most studies showed effects of large magnitude. Results of random effects meta-analyses supported large or medium-large effects of these interventions on binge eating (within-group random effects mean Hedge's g = -1.12, 95 % CI -1.67, -0.80, k = 18; between-group mean Hedge's g = -0.70, 95 % CI -1.16, -0.24, k = 7). However, there was high statistical heterogeneity among the studies (within-group I(2) = 93 %; between-group I(2) = 90 %). Limitations and future research directions are discussed.
Schmidt, Andreas T
Recently, there has been a lot of enthusiasm for mindfulness practice and its use in healthcare, businesses and schools. An increasing number of studies give us ground for cautious optimism about the potential of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) to improve people's lives across a number of dimensions. This paper identifies and addresses some of the main ethical and political questions for larger-scale MBIs. First, how far are MBIs compatible with liberal neutrality given the great diversity of lifestyles and conceptions of the good characteristic of modern societies? It will be argued that the potential benefits of contemporary secular mindfulness practice are indeed of a sufficiently primary or all-purpose nature to qualify as suitable goals of liberal public policy. Second, what challenges are brought up if mindfulness is used in contexts and applications-such as military settings-whose goals seem incompatible with the ethical and soteriological views of traditional mindfulness practice? It will be argued that, given concerns regarding liberal neutrality and reasonable disagreement about ethics, MBIs should avoid strong ethical commitments. Therefore, it should, in principle, be applicable in contexts of controversial moral value. Finally, drawing on recent discussions within the mindfulness community, it is argued that we should not overstate the case for mindfulness and not crowd out discussion of organisational and social determinants of stress, lowered well-being, and mental illness and the collective measures necessary to address them. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Anheyer, Dennis; Leach, Matthew J; Klose, Petra; Dobos, Gustav; Cramer, Holger
Background Mindfulness-based stress reduction/cognitive therapy are frequently used for pain-related conditions, but their effects on headache remain uncertain. This review aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of mindfulness-based stress reduction/cognitive therapy in reducing the symptoms of chronic headache. Data sources and study selection MEDLINE/PubMed, Scopus, CENTRAL, and PsychINFO were searched to 16 June 2017. Randomized controlled trials comparing mindfulness-based stress reduction/cognitive therapy with usual care or active comparators for migraine and/or tension-type headache, which assessed headache frequency, duration or intensity as a primary outcome, were eligible for inclusion. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Tool. Results Five randomized controlled trials (two on tension-type headache; one on migraine; two with mixed samples) with a total of 185 participants were included. Compared to usual care, mindfulness-based stress reduction/cognitive therapy did not improve headache frequency (three randomized controlled trials; standardized mean difference = 0.00; 95% confidence interval = -0.33,0.32) or headache duration (three randomized controlled trials; standardized mean difference = -0.08; 95% confidence interval = -1.03,0.87). Similarly, no significant difference between groups was found for pain intensity (five randomized controlled trials; standardized mean difference = -0.78; 95% confidence interval = -1.72,0.16). Conclusions Due to the low number, small scale and often high or unclear risk of bias of included randomized controlled trials, the results are imprecise; this may be consistent with either an important or negligible effect. Therefore, more rigorous trials with larger sample sizes are needed.
Song, Yeoungsuk; Lindquist, Ruth
Nursing students often experience depression, anxiety, stress and decreased mindfulness which may decrease their patient care effectiveness. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) effectively reduced depression, anxiety and stress, and increased mindfulness in previous research with other populations, but there is sparse evidence regarding its effectiveness for nursing students in Korea. To examine the effects of MBSR on depression, anxiety, stress and mindfulness in Korean nursing students. A randomized controlled trial. Fifty (50) nursing students at KN University College of Nursing in South Korea were randomly assigned to two groups. Data from 44 students, MBSR (n=21) and a wait list (WL) control (n=23) were analyzed. The MBSR group practiced mindfulness meditation for 2 h every week for 8 weeks. The WL group did not receive MBSR intervention. Standardized self-administered questionnaires of depression, anxiety, stress and mindfulness were administered at the baseline prior to the MBSR program and at completion (at 8 weeks). Compared with WL participants, MBSR participants reported significantly greater decreases in depression, anxiety and stress, and greater increase in mindfulness. A program of MBSR was effective when it was used with nursing students in reducing measures of depression, anxiety and stress, and increasing their mindful awareness. MBSR shows promise for use with nursing students to address their experience of mild depression, anxiety and stress, and to increase mindfulness in academic and clinical work, warranting further study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wong, Mei Yin; Ree, Melissa J; Lee, Christopher W
Although cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for insomnia has resulted in significant reductions in symptoms, most patients are not classified as good sleepers after treatment. The present study investigated whether additional sessions of cognitive therapy (CT) or mindfulness-based therapy (MBT) could enhance CBT in 64 participants with primary insomnia. All participants were given four sessions of standard CBT as previous research had identified this number of sessions as an optimal balance between therapist guidance and patient independence. Participants were then allocated to further active treatment (four sessions of CT or MBT) or a no further treatment control. The additional treatments resulted in significant improvements beyond CBT on self-report and objective measures of sleep and were well tolerated as evidenced by no dropouts from either treatment. The effect sizes for each of these additional treatments were large and clinically significant. The mean scores on the primary outcome measure, the Insomnia Severity Index, were 5.74 for CT and 6.69 for MBT, which are within the good-sleeper range. Treatment effects were maintained at follow-up. There were no significant differences between CT and MBT on any outcome measure. These results provide encouraging data on how to enhance CBT for treatment of insomnia. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. CBT treatments for insomnia can be enhanced using recent developments in cognitive therapy. CBT treatments for insomnia can be enhanced using mindfulness-based treatments. Both cognitive therapy and mindfulness produce additional clinically significant change. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Schuver, Katie J; Lewis, Beth A
The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of a 12-week mindfulness-based yoga intervention on depressive symptoms and rumination among depressed women. Prospective, randomized, controlled 12 week intervention pilot study. Depressive symptoms were assessed at baseline, post-intervention (12 weeks), and one-month follow-up. Women with a history of diagnosed depression and currently depressed were randomized to a mindfulness-based yoga condition or a walking control. The mindfulness-based yoga intervention consisted of a home-based yoga asana, pranayama and meditation practice with mindfulness education sessions delivered over the telephone. The walking control condition consisted of home-based walking sessions and health education sessions delivered over the phone. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Ruminative Responses Scale (RRS). Both groups reported decreases in depressive symptoms from baseline to post-intervention, f(1,33)=34.83, pyoga condition reported significantly lower levels of rumination than the control condition at post-intervention, after controlling for baseline levels of rumination, f(1,31)=6.23, pyoga may provide tools to manage ruminative thoughts among women with elevated depressive symptoms. Future studies, with larger samples are needed to address the effect of yoga on depression and further explore the impact on rumination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Workplace incivility remains a problem within the nursing profession. As nurse leaders, we must recognize and not ignore the complexity of cultures that have adapted incivility into the work environment. Nursing education is a discipline that requires collaborative team work, independent drive, and commitment. New nursing faculty experiencing incivility can use mindfulness-based meditation approaches to cope with uncivil behaviors experienced within the workplace. Nurse educators applying the concepts of mindfulness can learn how to provide themselves self-care by reducing stress, as enhanced daily awareness of peace and calm are incorporated into their lifestyle. Mindfulness provides a realization that control can only be given to other persons when an individual allows or accepts another's negative behaviors. Awareness of the value and importance of oneself can assist the nurse educator experiencing incivility to maintain his or her emotional, physical, and spiritual health despite the volatility of the work environment.
Zeidan, Fadel; Vago, David
Pain is a multidimensional experience that involves sensory, cognitive, and affective factors. The constellation of interactions between these factors renders the treatment of chronic pain challenging and financially burdensome. Further, the widespread use of opioids to treat chronic pain has led to an opioid epidemic characterized by exponential growth in opioid misuse and addiction. The staggering statistics related to opioid use highlight the importance of developing, testing, and validating fast-acting nonpharmacological approaches to treat pain. Mindfulness meditation is a technique that has been found to significantly reduce pain in experimental and clinical settings. The present review delineates findings from recent studies demonstrating that mindfulness meditation significantly attenuates pain through multiple, unique mechanisms—an important consideration for the millions of chronic pain patients seeking narcotic-free, self-facilitated pain therapy. PMID:27398643
Full Text Available This paper introduces basic concepts of rule based test generation with mind maps, and reports experiences learned from industrial application of this technique in the domain of smart card testing by Giesecke & Devrient GmbH over the last years. It describes the formalization of test selection criteria used by our test generator, our test generation architecture and test generation framework.
Crane, Rebecca S; Eames, Catrin; Kuyken, Willem; Hastings, Richard P; Williams, J Mark G; Bartley, Trish; Evans, Alison; Silverton, Sara; Soulsby, Judith G; Surawy, Christina
The assessment of intervention integrity is essential in psychotherapeutic intervention outcome research and psychotherapist training. There has been little attention given to it in mindfulness-based interventions research, training programs, and practice. To address this, the Mindfulness-Based Interventions: Teaching Assessment Criteria (MBI:TAC) was developed. This article describes the MBI:TAC and its development and presents initial data on reliability and validity. Sixteen assessors from three centers evaluated teaching integrity of 43 teachers using the MBI:TAC. Internal consistency (α = .94) and interrater reliability (overall intraclass correlation coefficient = .81; range = .60-.81) were high. Face and content validity were established through the MBI:TAC development process. Data on construct validity were acceptable. Initial data indicate that the MBI:TAC is a reliable and valid tool. It can be used in Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction/Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy outcome evaluation research, training and pragmatic practice settings, and in research to assess the impact of teaching integrity on participant outcome.
Bower, Julienne E; Irwin, Michael R
The use of mind-body therapies, including Tai Chi, Qigong, yoga, and meditation, has grown steadily in recent years. These approaches have been shown to be effective in reducing symptoms and improving quality of life, and research has begun to examine the impact of these therapies on biological processes, including inflammation. A review of 26 randomized controlled trials was conducted to describe the effects of mind-body therapies (MBTs) on circulating, cellular, and genomic markers of inflammation. This qualitative evaluation showed mixed effects of MBTs on circulating inflammatory markers, including CRP and IL-6, and on measures of stimulated cytokine production. More consistent findings were seen for genomic markers, with trials showing decreased expression of inflammation-related genes and reduced signaling through the proinflammatory transcription factor NF-κB. Potential mechanisms for these effects are discussed, including alterations in neuroendocrine, neural, and psychological and behavioral processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lynn, Steven Jay; Malakataris, Anne; Condon, Liam; Maxwell, Reed; Cleere, Colleen
In this article, we describe how cognitive hypnotherapy can be used in conjunction with evidence-based practices for the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We review cognitive-behavioral interventions for PTSD, including mindfulness and acceptance-based approaches, and contend that (a) empirical support for the use of hypnosis in treating a variety of conditions is considerable; (b) hypnosis is fundamentally a cognitive-behavioral intervention; (c) psychological interventions with a firm footing in cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) are well-suited to treat the symptoms of PTSD; and (d) hypnosis can be a useful adjunct to evidence-based cognitive-behavioral approaches, including mindfulness and acceptance-based interventions, for treating PTSD.
Coletti, Juan Pablo; Teti, Germán Leandro
Over the last decades a series of psychological treatments labeled have been developed. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) is a third generation therapy that essentially seeks to promote the acceptance of private events in opposition to their modification or change, with the aim of promoting cognitive flexibility. Thus, it is intended that the subject be permitted to choose their behavior consistent with personal values. The current work aims to provide overview specific to the contextual conditions that promoted the emergence of ACT, the underlying philosophy and theory, and the particularities of the intervention model.
Perroud, Nader; Nicastro, Rosetta; Jermann, Françoise; Huguelet, Philippe
One of the components of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) is the use of mindfulness skills as a core component of treatment for subjects with borderline personality disorder (BPD). In this study, we investigated changes in and correlates of mindfulness skills over a 1-year follow-up including a 4-week session of intensive DBT followed by 10 months of standard DBT. Fifty-two BPD subjects were assessed several times using the Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills (KIMS) which describes mindfulness in four discrete dimensions: observing (Obs), describing (Des), acting with awareness (AwA) and accepting without judgment (AwJ). AwJ was the only dimension that increased significantly over time after adjustment for potential confounding factors (β = 0.24; P = 0.0002). Increases in AwJ correlated with improvement in BPD symptoms. This study highlights the usefulness of investigating changes in mindfulness dimensions during DBT. AwJ is a possible mechanism for positive change. Encouraging this skill should lead to a more adaptive response to problematic situations and counteract impulsive and problematic behaviors. The lack of specific control groups means that these findings are preliminary and replication is required.
Baker Timothy B
Full Text Available Abstract Background Mindfulness means paying attention in the present moment, non-judgmentally, without commentary or decision-making. We report results of a pilot study designed to test the feasibility of using Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR (with minor modifications as a smoking intervention. Methods MBSR instructors provided instructions in mindfulness in eight weekly group sessions. Subjects attempted smoking cessation during week seven without pharmacotherapy. Smoking abstinence was tested six weeks after the smoking quit day with carbon monoxide breath test and 7-day smoking calendars. Questionnaires were administered to evaluate changes in stress and affective distress. Results 18 subjects enrolled in the intervention with an average smoking history of 19.9 cigarettes per day for 26.4 years. At the 6-week post-quit visit, 10 of 18 subjects (56% achieved biologically confirmed 7-day point-prevalent smoking abstinence. Compliance with meditation was positively associated with smoking abstinence and decreases in stress and affective distress. Discussions and conclusion The results of this study suggest that mindfulness training may show promise for smoking cessation and warrants additional study in a larger comparative trial.
Bo Kyung Sohn; Yun Kyu Oh; Jung-Seok Choi; Jiyoun Song; Ahyoung Lim; Jung Pyo Lee; Jung Nam An; Hee-Jeong Choi; Jae Yeon Hwang; Hee-Yeon Jung; Jun-Young Lee; Chun Soo Lim
Background : Many patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) undergoing hemodialysis (HD) experience depression. Depression influences patient quality of life (QOL), dialysis compliance, and medical comorbidity. We developed and applied a group cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) program including mindfulness meditation for ESRD patients undergoing HD, and measured changes in QOL, mood, anxiety, perceived stress, and biochemical markers. Methods : We conducted group CBT over a 12-week period...
Wimmer, Lena; Bellingrath, Silja; von Stockhausen, Lisa
The present paper reports a pilot study which tested cognitive effects of mindfulness practice in a theory-driven approach. Thirty-four fifth graders received either a mindfulness training which was based on the mindfulness-based stress reduction approach (experimental group), a concentration training (active control group), or no treatment (passive control group). Based on the operational definition of mindfulness by Bishop et al. (2004), effects on sustained attention, cognitive flexibility...
Plaza, Inmaculada; Demarzo, Marcelo Marcos Piva; Herrera-Mercadal, Paola
Background Interest in mindfulness has increased exponentially, particularly in the fields of psychology and medicine. The trait or state of mindfulness is significantly related to several indicators of psychological health, and mindfulness-based therapies are effective at preventing and treating many chronic diseases. Interest in mobile applications for health promotion and disease self-management is also growing. Despite the explosion of interest, research on both the design and potential uses of mindfulness-based mobile applications (MBMAs) is scarce. Objective Our main objective was to study the features and functionalities of current MBMAs and compare them to current evidence-based literature in the health and clinical setting. Methods We searched online vendor markets, scientific journal databases, and grey literature related to MBMAs. We included mobile applications that featured a mindfulness-based component related to training or daily practice of mindfulness techniques. We excluded opinion-based articles from the literature. Results The literature search resulted in 11 eligible matches, two of which completely met our selection criteria–a pilot study designed to evaluate the feasibility of a MBMA to train the practice of “walking meditation,” and an exploratory study of an application consisting of mood reporting scales and mindfulness-based mobile therapies. The online market search eventually analyzed 50 available MBMAs. Of these, 8% (4/50) did not work, thus we only gathered information about language, downloads, or prices. The most common operating system was Android. Of the analyzed apps, 30% (15/50) have both a free and paid version. MBMAs were devoted to daily meditation practice (27/46, 59%), mindfulness training (6/46, 13%), assessments or tests (5/46, 11%), attention focus (4/46, 9%), and mixed objectives (4/46, 9%). We found 108 different resources, of which the most used were reminders, alarms, or bells (21/108, 19.4%), statistics tools
Plaza, Inmaculada; Demarzo, Marcelo Marcos Piva; Herrera-Mercadal, Paola; García-Campayo, Javier
Interest in mindfulness has increased exponentially, particularly in the fields of psychology and medicine. The trait or state of mindfulness is significantly related to several indicators of psychological health, and mindfulness-based therapies are effective at preventing and treating many chronic diseases. Interest in mobile applications for health promotion and disease self-management is also growing. Despite the explosion of interest, research on both the design and potential uses of mindfulness-based mobile applications (MBMAs) is scarce. Our main objective was to study the features and functionalities of current MBMAs and compare them to current evidence-based literature in the health and clinical setting. We searched online vendor markets, scientific journal databases, and grey literature related to MBMAs. We included mobile applications that featured a mindfulness-based component related to training or daily practice of mindfulness techniques. We excluded opinion-based articles from the literature. The literature search resulted in 11 eligible matches, two of which completely met our selection criteria-a pilot study designed to evaluate the feasibility of a MBMA to train the practice of "walking meditation," and an exploratory study of an application consisting of mood reporting scales and mindfulness-based mobile therapies. The online market search eventually analyzed 50 available MBMAs. Of these, 8% (4/50) did not work, thus we only gathered information about language, downloads, or prices. The most common operating system was Android. Of the analyzed apps, 30% (15/50) have both a free and paid version. MBMAs were devoted to daily meditation practice (27/46, 59%), mindfulness training (6/46, 13%), assessments or tests (5/46, 11%), attention focus (4/46, 9%), and mixed objectives (4/46, 9%). We found 108 different resources, of which the most used were reminders, alarms, or bells (21/108, 19.4%), statistics tools (17/108, 15.7%), audio tracks (15/108, 13
O'Driscoll, Michelle; Byrne, Stephen; Mc Gillicuddy, Aoife; Lambert, Sharon; Sahm, Laura J
Health and social care undergraduate students experience stress due to high workloads and pressure to perform. Consequences include depression and burnout. Mindfulness may be a suitable way to reduce stress in health and social care degree courses. The objective of this systematic review is to identify and critically appraise the literature on the effects of Mindfulness-Based Interventions for health and social care undergraduate students. PubMed, EMBASE, Psych Info, CINAHL, The Cochrane Library and Academic Search Complete were searched from inception to 21st November 2016. Studies that delivered Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction, Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy, or an intervention modelled closely on these, to health or social care undergraduate students were included. Eleven studies, representing medicine, nursing and psychology students met the inclusion criteria. The most commonly used measurement tools were; the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire and the General Health Questionnaire. Short term benefits relating to stress and mood were reported, despite all but one study condensing the curriculum. Gender and personality emerged as factors likely to affect intervention results. Further research with long-term follow-up is required to definitively conclude that mindfulness is an appropriate intervention to mentally prepare health and social care undergraduate students for their future careers.
Full Text Available Psychological and health-restorative benefits of mind-body therapies have been investigated, but their impact on the immune system remain less defined.To conduct the first comprehensive review of available controlled trial evidence to evaluate the effects of mind-body therapies on the immune system, focusing on markers of inflammation and anti-viral related immune responses.Data sources included MEDLINE, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, and PsycINFO through September 1, 2013. Randomized controlled trials published in English evaluating at least four weeks of Tai Chi, Qi Gong, meditation, or Yoga that reported immune outcome measures were selected. Studies were synthesized separately by inflammatory (n = 18, anti-viral related immunity (n = 7, and enumerative (n = 14 outcomes measures. We performed random-effects meta-analyses using standardized mean difference when appropriate.Thirty-four studies published in 39 articles (total 2, 219 participants met inclusion criteria. For inflammatory measures, after 7 to 16 weeks of mind-body intervention, there was a moderate effect on reduction of C-reactive protein (effect size [ES], 0.58; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.04 to 1.12, a small but not statistically significant reduction of interleukin-6 (ES, 0.35; 95% CI, -0.04 to 0.75, and negligible effect on tumor necrosis factor-α (ES, 0.21; 95% CI, -0.15 to 0.58. For anti-viral related immune and enumerative measures, there were negligible effects on CD4 counts (ES, 0.15; 95% CI, -0.04 to 0.34 and natural killer cell counts (ES, 0.12, 95% CI -0.21 to 0.45. Some evidence indicated mind-body therapies increase immune responses to vaccination.Mind-body therapies reduce markers of inflammation and influence virus-specific immune responses to vaccination despite minimal evidence suggesting effects on resting anti-viral or enumerative measures. These immunomodulatory effects, albeit incomplete, warrant further methodologically rigorous studies to determine
Creswell, J David
Mindfulness interventions aim to foster greater attention to and awareness of present moment experience. There has been a dramatic increase in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of mindfulness interventions over the past two decades. This article evaluates the growing evidence of mindfulness intervention RCTs by reviewing and discussing (a) the effects of mindfulness interventions on health, cognitive, affective, and interpersonal outcomes; (b) evidence-based applications of mindfulness interventions to new settings and populations (e.g., the workplace, military, schools); (c) psychological and neurobiological mechanisms of mindfulness interventions; (d) mindfulness intervention dosing considerations; and (e) potential risks of mindfulness interventions. Methodologically rigorous RCTs have demonstrated that mindfulness interventions improve outcomes in multiple domains (e.g., chronic pain, depression relapse, addiction). Discussion focuses on opportunities and challenges for mindfulness intervention research and on community applications.
Individuals suffering from generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) experience a broad range of physical, emotional, and cognitive distress. A hallmark of GAD is anxiety around making decisions. Many clinicians notice improvements in patients through specific modalities, such as mindfulness, hypnosis, and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT); however, these individual methods sometimes fall short. Clinicians and researchers alike note that it can be more effective to combine these three methods into an integrative treatment protocol. This article demonstrates the efficacy of an integrative model through the case study of a client who suffers from GAD and acute fear of decision making. Competent use of mindfulness, hypnosis, and CBT helps the client build the skills necessary to self-soothe, diminish worry, access resources, and enhance hope for the future. Through the article, clinicians interested in integrated treatment models will gain insight into how to apply these methods.
Cynthia J. Price
Full Text Available Emotion regulation involves a coherent relationship with the self, specifically effective communication between body, mind, and feelings. Effective emotion regulation involves the ability to accurately detect and evaluate cues related to physiological reactions to stressful events, accompanied by appropriate regulation strategies that temper and influence the emotional response. There is compelling evidence demonstrating links between poor or disrupted awareness of sensory information, or interoceptive awareness, and difficulties with emotion regulation. This paper presents a framework, based on psychological and neurobiological research, for understanding how interoceptive awareness facilitates regulation and an integrated sense of self, and thus contributes to health and well-being. A mind-body therapeutic approach called mindful awareness in body-oriented therapy (MABT, uniquely designed to teach fundamental skills of interoceptive awareness, is described. MABT develops the distinct interoceptive awareness capacities of identifying, accessing, and appraising internal bodily signals that are identified in physiological models as the critical components of interoception for emotion regulation. The explanatory model is that the development of these key interoceptive capacities improves sensory (physical and emotional awareness, reduces distress, and improves regulation. Strategies for teaching and learning interoceptive awareness are not well-developed in mindfulness or psychotherapeutic approaches, particularly important for people who may have difficulty attending to interoceptive awareness due to stress, chronic pain or trauma. To address this issue, MABT provides an individualized protocol for scaffolding interoceptive awareness through a combination of psychoeducation and somatic approaches explicitly addressing difficulties with interoceptive processing. Clinical vignettes are included to provide exemplars of this approach and to highlight
Heerkens, Yvonne; Kuijer, Wietske; van der Heijden, Beatrice; Engels, Josephine
Objectives The purpose of this exploratory study was to obtain greater insight into the effects of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) and Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) on the mental health of employees. Methods Using PsycINFO, PubMed, and CINAHL, we performed a systematic review in October 2015 of studies investigating the effects of MBSR and MBCT on various aspects of employees’ mental health. Studies with a pre-post design (i.e. without a control group) were excluded. Results 24 articles were identified, describing 23 studies: 22 on the effects of MBSR and 1 on the effects of MBSR in combination with some aspects of MBCT. Since no study focused exclusively on MBCT, its effects are not described in this systematic review. Of the 23 studies, 2 were of high methodological quality, 15 were of medium quality and 6 were of low quality. A meta-analysis was not performed due to the emergent and relatively uncharted nature of the topic of investigation, the exploratory character of this study, and the diversity of outcomes in the studies reviewed. Based on our analysis, the strongest outcomes were reduced levels of emotional exhaustion (a dimension of burnout), stress, psychological distress, depression, anxiety, and occupational stress. Improvements were found in terms of mindfulness, personal accomplishment (a dimension of burnout), (occupational) self-compassion, quality of sleep, and relaxation. Conclusion The results of this systematic review suggest that MBSR may help to improve psychological functioning in employees. PMID:29364935
Gallegos, Autumn M; Cross, Wendi; Pigeon, Wilfred R
Military sexual trauma (MST) represents a significant public health concern among military personnel and Veterans and is associated with considerable morbidity and suicide risk. It is estimated that 22% of Veteran women and 1% of Veteran men experienced sexual assault or repeated, threatening sexual harassment during their military service. Exposure to traumatic stress has detrimental effects on emotion regulation, which refers to a set of strategies used to modulate different components of emotion at different points on the trajectory of an emotional response. Mindfulness-based interventions offer approaches to health that focus on mind and body practices that can help regulate the experience and expression of difficult emotions. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) is an evidence-based therapy shown to be effective for depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder. This article discusses the rationale for providing MBSR to Veterans who have been exposed to MST. The article also discusses ways to facilitate implementation of this practice in the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs health care system. We address potential barriers to care and ways to facilitate implementation at the patient, provider, organization/local, and policy levels. MBSR is likely to be an important component of a comprehensive approach to care for Veterans exposed to MST. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.
Lloyd, Annette; White, Ross; Eames, Catrin; Crane, Rebecca
A growing body of research supports the efficacy of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs). MBIs consider home-practice as essential to increasing the therapeutic effects of the treatment. To date however, the synthesis of the research conducted on the role of home-practice in controlled MBI studies has been a neglected area. This review aimed to conduct a narrative synthesis of published controlled studies, evaluating mindfulness-based group interventions, which have specifically measured home-practice. Empirical research literature published until June 2016 was searched using five databases. The search strategy focused on mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT), and home-practice. Included studies met the following criteria: controlled trials, participants 18 years and above, evaluations of MBSR or MBCT, utilised standardised quantitative outcome measures and monitored home-practice using a self-reported measure. Fourteen studies met the criteria and were included in the review. Across all studies, there was heterogeneity in the guidance and resources provided to participants and the approaches used for monitoring home-practice. In addition, the guidance on the length of home-practice was variable across studies, which indicates that research studies and teachers are not adhering to the published protocols. Finally, only seven studies examined the relationship between home-practice and clinical outcomes, of which four found that home-practice predicted improvements on clinical outcome measures. Future research should adopt a standardised approach for monitoring home-practice across MBIs. Additionally, studies should assess whether the amount of home-practice recommended to participants is in line with MBSR/MBCT manualised protocols. Finally, research should utilise experimental methodologies to explicitly explore the relationship between home-practice and clinical outcomes.
Bernardo Lopez Abel
Full Text Available Mind-body therapies are a heterogeneous group of interventions that seek to improve multiple aspects of somatic health by focusing on interactions between mental factors and physiological functions. There is a growing interest in modern Western culture in these forms of alternative medicine. Most of these therapies exert their effects via stress control. Induction of the relaxation response via neurohormonal, endocrine and immunological pathways may have beneficial effects in a variety of conditions, including oncological, neuropsychiatric and cardiovascular pathologies. Several randomized controlled trials have produced promising results, supporting a complementary role of mind-body therapies for both the prevention and treatment of the most prevalent cardiovascular problems.
Zhuang, Ling; Zhao, Xinjian; Ji, Tianming; Miao, Jingwen; Cui, Haina
When the wind power is connected to the power grid, its characteristics of fluctuation, intermittent and randomness will affect the stability of the power system. The wind power prediction can guarantee the power quality and reduce the operating cost of power system. There were some limitations in several traditional wind power prediction methods. On the basis, the wind power prediction method based on Mind Evolutionary Algorithm (MEA) is put forward and a prediction model is provided. The experimental results demonstrate that MEA performs efficiently in term of the wind power prediction. The MEA method has broad prospect of engineering application.
Chronic pain and its associated syndrome have become increasingly prevalent in primary care. With the increase in narcotic use and subsequent adverse events, primary care physicians often seek safer alternatives to treating this condition. Prescribing narcotics necessitates using methods to screen for high abuse risk and protect against misuse. With the understanding of how chronic pain is related to mental illnesses such as depression and posttraumatic stress disorder, mindfulness techniques and behavioral therapy can be used to help decrease the dependence on dangerous opioid medications and help patients understand, accept, and cope with their chronic pain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This paper reviews the current literature on mindfulness-based interventions in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Mindfulness means paying attention and being aware of the experiences occurring in the present moment, and it is usually developed by the practice of meditation. Research shows that mindfulness training is associated with improved attention systems and self-regulation, and that it therefore fosters those skills that are underdeveloped in individuals with ADHD. Although only few studies have investigated the effectiveness of mindfulness training in ADHD (many of which showing methodological limitations), the findings do suggest that mindfulness may be useful in ADHD interventions.
Wupperman, Peggilee; Cohen, Mia Gintoft; Haller, Deborah L; Flom, Peter; Litt, Lisa C; Rounsaville, Bruce J
Disorders of behavioral dysregulation often involve more than one dsyregulated behavior (e.g., drug abuse and aggression, alcohol abuse and gambling). The high co-occurrence suggests the need of a transdiagnostic treatment that can be customized to target multiple specific behaviors. The current pilot study compared a 20-week, individual transdiagnostic therapy (mindfulness and modification therapy [MMT]) versus treatment as usual (TAU) in targeting alcohol problems, drug use, physical aggression, and verbal aggression in self-referred women. Assessments were administered at baseline, post-intervention, and 2-month follow-up. Wilcoxon signed-ranked tests and multilevel modeling showed that MMT (n = 13) displayed (a) significant and large decreases in alcohol/drug use, physical aggression, and verbal aggression; (b) significantly greater decreases in alcohol/drug use and physical aggression than did TAU (n = 8); and (c) minimal-to-no deterioration of effects at follow-up. Both conditions showed significant decreases in verbal aggression, with no statistically significant difference between conditions. MMT also displayed greater improvements in mindfulness. Preliminary findings support the feasibility and efficacy of MMT in decreasing multiple dysregulated behaviors. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Jellesma, F.C.; Cornelis, J.
Purpose of study: The aim of this pilot study was to examine a mind-body-based preventive intervention program and to determine relationships between children's behavioral inhibition system (BIS) and behavioral activation system, stress, and stress reduction after the program. Design of study:
Crane, Rebecca S; Kuyken, Willem; Hastings, Richard P; Rothwell, Neil; Williams, J Mark G
Several randomised controlled trials suggest that mindfulness-based approaches are helpful in preventing depressive relapse and recurrence, and the UK Government's National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence has recommended these interventions for use in the National Health Service. There are good grounds to suggest that mindfulness-based approaches are also helpful with anxiety disorders and a range of chronic physical health problems, and there is much clinical and research interest in applying mindfulness approaches to other populations and problems such as people with personality disorders, substance abuse, and eating disorders. We review the UK context for developments in mindfulness-based approaches and set out criteria for mindfulness teacher competence and training steps, as well as some of the challenges and future directions that can be anticipated in ensuring that evidence-based mindfulness approaches are available in health care and other settings.
Mani, Madhavan; Kavanagh, David J; Hides, Leanne; Stoyanov, Stoyan R
Background There is growing evidence for the positive impact of mindfulness on wellbeing. Mindfulness-based mobile apps may have potential as an alternative delivery medium for training. While there are hundreds of such apps, there is little information on their quality. Objective This study aimed to conduct a systematic review of mindfulness-based iPhone mobile apps and to evaluate their quality using a recently-developed expert rating scale, the Mobile Application Rating Scale (MARS). It al...
AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0685 TITLE: Home-based, Online Mindfulness and Cognitive Training for Soldiers and Veterans with TBI PRINCIPAL...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Home-based, Online Mindfulness and Cognitive Training for Soldiers and Veterans with TBI 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER...individuated brain training program (cognitive training + mindfulness /stress- reduction training) with caregiver support portal and lifestyle monitor is
Lores, Taryn Jade; Henke, Miriam; Chur-Hansen, Anna
Context • Interest has been rising in the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for the promotion of health and treatment of disease. To date, the majority of CAM research has focused on exploring the demographic characteristics, attitudes, and motivations of CAM users and on the efficacy of different therapies and products. Less is known with respect to the psychological characteristics of people who use CAM. Previous research has not investigated the usefulness of integrating mind-body therapies with natural products in a combined mood intervention. Objective • The study intended to investigate attitudes toward a proposed new approach to the treatment of mood, one that integrates psychological mind-body therapies and natural nutritional products. Design • Participants completed an online survey covering demographics, personality traits, locus of control, use of CAM, attitudes toward the proposed psychonutritional approach, and mood. Setting • This study was conducted at the University of Adelaide School of Psychology (Adelaide, SA, Australia). Participants • Participants were 333 members of the Australian general public, who were recruited online via the social-media platform Facebook. The majority were women (83.2%), aged between 18 and 81 y. Outcome Measures • Measures included the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale Form B, the Ten-Item Personality Inventory, and the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale. Results • Participants were positive about the proposed approach and were likely to try it to enhance their moods. The likeliness of use of the combined approach was significantly higher in the female participants and was associated with higher levels of the personality trait openness and an internal health locus of control, after controlling for all other variables. Conclusions • Interest exists for an intervention for mood that incorporates both psychological and nutritional approaches. Further research into the
Sohn, Bo Kyung; Oh, Yun Kyu; Choi, Jung-Seok; Song, Jiyoun; Lim, Ahyoung; Lee, Jung Pyo; An, Jung Nam; Choi, Hee-Jeong; Hwang, Jae Yeon; Jung, Hee-Yeon; Lee, Jun-Young; Lim, Chun Soo
Many patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) undergoing hemodialysis (HD) experience depression. Depression influences patient quality of life (QOL), dialysis compliance, and medical comorbidity. We developed and applied a group cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) program including mindfulness meditation for ESRD patients undergoing HD, and measured changes in QOL, mood, anxiety, perceived stress, and biochemical markers. We conducted group CBT over a 12-week period with seven ESRD patients undergoing HD and suffering from depression. QOL, mood, anxiety, and perceived stress were measured at baseline and at weeks 8 and 12 using the World Health Organization Quality of Life scale, abbreviated version (WHOQOL-BREF), the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II), the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D), the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). Biochemical markers were measured at baseline and after 12 weeks. The Temperament and Character Inventory was performed to assess patient characteristics before starting group CBT. The seven patients showed significant improvement in QOL, mood, anxiety, and perceived stress after 12 weeks of group CBT. WHOQOL-BREF and the self-rating scales, BDI-II and BAI, showed continuous improvement across the 12-week period. HAM-D scores showed significant improvement by week 8; PSS showed significant improvement after week 8. Serum creatinine levels also improved significantly following the 12 week period. In this pilot study, a CBT program which included mindfulness meditation enhanced overall mental health and biochemical marker levels in ESRD patients undergoing HD.
Singh, Nirbhay N.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Winton, Alan S. W.; Singh, Ashvind N. A.; Singh, Judy; Singh, Angela D. A.
Smoking is a major risk factor for a number of health conditions and many smokers find it difficult to quit smoking without specific interventions. We developed and used a mindfulness-based smoking cessation program with a 31-year-old man with mild intellectual disabilities who had been a smoker for 17 years. The mindfulness-based smoking…
Crane, Rebecca S.; Eames, Catrin; Kuyken, Willem; Hastings, Richard P.; Williams, J. Mark G.; Bartley, Trish; Evans, Alison; Silverton, Sara; Soulsby, Judith G.; Surawy, Christina
Background: The assessment of intervention integrity is essential in psychotherapeutic intervention outcome research and psychotherapist training. There has been little attention given to it in mindfulness-based interventions research, training programs, and practice. Aims: To address this, the Mindfulness-Based Interventions: Teaching Assessment…
Mason, Ashley E; Epel, Elissa S; Kristeller, Jean; Moran, Patricia J; Dallman, Mary; Lustig, Robert H; Acree, Michael; Bacchetti, Peter; Laraia, Barbara A; Hecht, Frederick M; Daubenmier, Jennifer
We evaluated changes in mindful eating as a potential mechanism underlying the effects of a mindfulness-based intervention for weight loss on eating of sweet foods and fasting glucose levels. We randomized 194 obese individuals (M age = 47.0 ± 12.7 years; BMI = 35.5 ± 3.6; 78% women) to a 5.5-month diet-exercise program with or without mindfulness training. The mindfulness group, relative to the active control group, evidenced increases in mindful eating and maintenance of fasting glucose from baseline to 12-month assessment. Increases in mindful eating were associated with decreased eating of sweets and fasting glucose levels among mindfulness group participants, but this association was not statistically significant among active control group participants. Twelve-month increases in mindful eating partially mediated the effect of intervention arm on changes in fasting glucose levels from baseline to 12-month assessment. Increases in mindful eating may contribute to the effects of mindfulness-based weight loss interventions on eating of sweets and fasting glucose levels.
AAD Dalem Dwi Putra
Full Text Available Insomnia is defined as a disorder of difficulty initiating sleep, difficulty maintaining sleep, sleep is not fresh during 1 month or more that makes a significant clinical disturbance or distress. Insomnia affects 15% to 40% of world general population and predominantly in women 65 to 79 years. Insomnia also reported in individuals aged 18 to 34 years. If neglected for a long time, insomnia can diminish job performance and quality of live for each individuals. The new strategy to solve this problem in the future is combining pharmacotherapy like eszopiclone a nonbenzodiazepine derivate and mind-body therapy (MBT to the patients. It can lowering severe risk of conventional drugs side effects, but from pharmacoeconomic this drug is not costly effective. It must combine with MBT to decrease frequency and duration of drug consumption.
Mani, Madhavan; Kavanagh, David J; Hides, Leanne; Stoyanov, Stoyan R
There is growing evidence for the positive impact of mindfulness on wellbeing. Mindfulness-based mobile apps may have potential as an alternative delivery medium for training. While there are hundreds of such apps, there is little information on their quality. This study aimed to conduct a systematic review of mindfulness-based iPhone mobile apps and to evaluate their quality using a recently-developed expert rating scale, the Mobile Application Rating Scale (MARS). It also aimed to describe features of selected high-quality mindfulness apps. A search for "mindfulness" was conducted in iTunes and Google Apps Marketplace. Apps that provided mindfulness training and education were included. Those containing only reminders, timers or guided meditation tracks were excluded. An expert rater reviewed and rated app quality using the MARS engagement, functionality, visual aesthetics, information quality and subjective quality subscales. A second rater provided MARS ratings on 30% of the apps for inter-rater reliability purposes. The "mindfulness" search identified 700 apps. However, 94 were duplicates, 6 were not accessible and 40 were not in English. Of the remaining 560, 23 apps met inclusion criteria and were reviewed. The median MARS score was 3.2 (out of 5.0), which exceeded the minimum acceptable score (3.0). The Headspace app had the highest average score (4.0), followed by Smiling Mind (3.7), iMindfulness (3.5) and Mindfulness Daily (3.5). There was a high level of inter-rater reliability between the two MARS raters. Though many apps claim to be mindfulness-related, most were guided meditation apps, timers, or reminders. Very few had high ratings on the MARS subscales of visual aesthetics, engagement, functionality or information quality. Little evidence is available on the efficacy of the apps in developing mindfulness.
Carpenter, Kelly M; Vickerman, Katrina A; Salmon, Erica E; Javitz, Harold S; Epel, Elissa S; Lovejoy, Jennifer C
This study evaluated the feasibility and efficacy of integrating mindfulness training into a phone-based weight loss program to improve outcomes in those with high levels of emotional eating. Participants were 75 enrollees into an employer-sponsored weight loss program who reported high levels of overeating in response to thoughts and feelings. Seventy-five overweight and obese participants (92% female, 65% Caucasian, aged 26 to 68 years) were randomized to the new mindfulness weight loss program (n = 50) or the standard behavioral weight loss program (n = 25). Both programs consisted of 11 coaching calls with health coaches and registered dietitians with supplemental online materials. Satisfaction, engagement, and percent weight lost did not significantly differ for intervention vs. control at six months. Intervention participants had significantly better scores at six-month follow-up on mindful eating, binge eating, experiential avoidance, and one mindfulness subscale. Exploratory analyses showed that improvements on several measures predicted more weight loss in the intervention group. This pilot study found that integrating mindfulness into a brief phone-based behavioral weight loss program was feasible and acceptable to participants, but did not produce greater weight loss on average, despite hypothesized changes in mindful eating. Only one third of intervention participants reported participating in mindfulness exercises regularly. Mechanisms of change observed within the intervention group suggest that for adults with high levels of emotional eating those who embrace mindful eating and meditation may lose more weight with a mindfulness intervention.
Jellesma, Francine C; Cornelis, Janine
The aim of this pilot study was to examine a mind-body-based preventive intervention program and to determine relationships between children's behavioral inhibition system (BIS) and behavioral activation system, stress, and stress reduction after the program. Children participated in the program (n=30) or in a control condition (n=24). They filled out questionnaires before and after the program and reported their levels of stress before and after each of the five sessions. The program consisted of weekly sessions. Each session incorporated yoga postures, visualization, and social exercises. Breathing techniques were integrated. Stress reductions were only seen in the intervention group and mainly in children with high BIS--irrespective of their behavioral activation system. The results demonstrate that children with high BIS may benefit from a mind-body-based stress reduction program.
Handayani, A. D.; Herman, T.; Fatimah, S.; Setyowidodo, I.; Katminingsih, Y.
Inquiry based learning is learning that based on understanding constructivist mathematics learning. Learning based on constructivism is the Student centered learning. In constructivism, students are trained and guided to be able to construct their own knowledge on the basis of the initial knowledge that they have before. This paper explained that inquiry based learning can be used to developing student’s Mathematical habits of mind. There are sixteen criteria Mathematical Habits of mind, among which are diligent, able to manage time well, have metacognition ability, meticulous, etc. This research method is qualitative descriptive. The result of this research is that the instruments that have been developed to measure mathematical habits of mind are validated by the expert. The conclusion is the instrument of mathematical habits of mind are valid and it can be used to measure student’s mathematical habits of mind.
Wimmer, Lena; Bellingrath, Silja; von Stockhausen, Lisa
The present paper reports a pilot study which tested cognitive effects of mindfulness practice in a theory-driven approach. Thirty-four fifth graders received either a mindfulness training which was based on the mindfulness-based stress reduction approach (experimental group), a concentration training (active control group), or no treatment (passive control group). Based on the operational definition of mindfulness by Bishop et al. (2004), effects on sustained attention, cognitive flexibility, cognitive inhibition, and data-driven as opposed to schema-based information processing were predicted. These abilities were assessed in a pre-post design by means of a vigilance test, a reversible figures test, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, a Stroop test, a visual search task, and a recognition task of prototypical faces. Results suggest that the mindfulness training specifically improved cognitive inhibition and data-driven information processing.
Full Text Available The present paper reports a pilot study which tested cognitive effects of mindfulness practice in a theory-driven approach. Thirty-four fifth graders received either a mindfulness training which was based on the mindfulness-based stress reduction approach (experimental group, a concentration training (active control group or no treatment (passive control group. Based on the operational definition of mindfulness by Bishop et al. (2004, effects on sustained attention, cognitive flexibility, cognitive inhibition and data-driven as opposed to schema-based information processing were predicted. These abilities were assessed in a pre-post design by means of a vigilance test, a reversible figures test, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, a Stroop test, a visual search task, and a recognition task of prototypical faces. Results suggest that the mindfulness training specifically improved cognitive inhibition and data-driven information processing.
Feliu-Soler, Albert; Pascual, Juan C; Borràs, Xavier; Portella, Maria J; Martín-Blanco, Ana; Armario, Antonio; Alvarez, Enric; Pérez, Víctor; Soler, Joaquim
Emotional dysregulation has been proposed as a hallmark of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Mindfulness techniques taught in dialectical behaviour therapy (DBT) appear to be effective in reducing affective symptoms and may enhance emotion regulation in BPD patients. In the present study, we assessed whether 10 weeks of DBT-mindfulness (DBT-M) training added to general psychiatric management (GPM) could improve emotion regulation in BPD patients. A total of 35 patients with BPD were included and sequentially assigned to GPM (n = 17) or GPM plus DBT-M (n = 18). Participants underwent a negative emotion induction procedure (presentation of standardized unpleasant images) both pre-intervention and post-intervention. Clinical evaluation was also performed before and after treatment. No differences were observed in emotional response at the post-treatment session. However, patients in the DBT-M group showed greater improvement in clinical symptoms. Formal mindfulness practice was positively correlated with clinical improvements and lower self-reported emotional reactivity. Our preliminary results suggest that mindfulness training reduces some psychiatric symptoms but may not have a clear effect on how patients respond to emotional stimuli in an experimental setting. No clear effect of mindfulness training was observed on emotional response to a negative emotion induction procedure. Application of the DBT-M module jointly to GPM induced better clinical outcomes than GPM alone. Formal mindfulness practice showed a positive impact on emotion regulation and clinical improvement. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
van Berkel, J.; Boot, C.R.L.; Proper, K.I.; Bongers, P.M.; van der Beek, A.J.
Introduction: Overweight and obesity are associated with an increased risk of morbidity. Mindfulness training could be an effective strategy to optimize lifestyle behaviors related to body weight gain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a worksite mindfulness-based
Thornton, Victoria; Williamson, Rachel; Cooke, Bronwen
Background: Mindfulness is becoming increasingly reported as an effective way to support well-being and reduce mental health difficulties. Materials and Methods: This study reports on the development and pilot of a mindfulness-based group for young people with learning disabilities and their carers. Results: Group participants reported that the…
Rosa Calderón Vicente
Full Text Available The aim of this work was to carry out a systematic review of scientific studies that have applied psychological mindfulness-based treatments on people with intellectual disabilities to delve into the available evidence regarding their applicability and efficiency. Therefore, a bibliographic research was carried out for the different data bases from July 2015 to May 2016 and different references were taken between 2000 and 2015. Thirteen relevant articles were chosen and analyzed. The reported findings suggested that the mindfulness-based therapies seems to have a positive influence on the behavior and emotions of people over sixteen with borderline, medium and moderate intellectual disabilities. However, these findings should be carefully interpreted due to the methodological limitations identified in the reviewed studies, and it is necessary to continue investigating and improving research designs in order that they can confirm the initial results.
Felver, Joshua C; Tipsord, Jessica M; Morris, Maxwell J; Racer, Kristina Hiatt; Dishion, Thomas J
This article describes results from a randomized clinical trial of a mindfulness-based intervention for parents and children, Mindful Family Stress Reduction, on a behavioral measure of attention in youths, the Attention Network Task (ANT). Forty-one parent-child dyads were randomly assigned to either the mindfulness-based intervention condition or a wait-list control. School-age youths completed the ANT before and after the intervention. Results demonstrate significant, medium-size ( f 2 = -.16) intervention effects to the conflict monitoring subsystem of the ANT such that those in the intervention condition decreased in conflict monitoring more than those in the wait-list control. Youths in the intervention condition also showed improvements in their orienting subsystem scores, compared with controls. Mindfulness-based interventions for youths have potential utility to improve attentional self-regulation, and future research should consider incorporating measures of attention into interventions that use mindfulness training.
Simon B Zeichner
Full Text Available The number of patients with breast cancer diagnosed with sleep disturbance has grown substantially within the United States over the past 20 years. Meanwhile, there have been significant improvements in the psychological treatment of sleep disturbance in patients with breast cancer. More specifically, cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I, mindfulness, and yoga have shown to be 3 promising treatments with varying degrees of benefit, supporting data, and inherent limitations. In this article, we will outline the treatment approach for sleep disturbance in patients with breast cancer and conduct a comprehensive review of CBT-I, mindfulness, and yoga as they pertain to this patient population.
Bo Kyung Sohn
Full Text Available Background : Many patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD undergoing hemodialysis (HD experience depression. Depression influences patient quality of life (QOL, dialysis compliance, and medical comorbidity. We developed and applied a group cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT program including mindfulness meditation for ESRD patients undergoing HD, and measured changes in QOL, mood, anxiety, perceived stress, and biochemical markers. Methods : We conducted group CBT over a 12-week period with seven ESRD patients undergoing HD and suffering from depression. QOL, mood, anxiety, and perceived stress were measured at baseline and at weeks 8 and 12 using the World Health Organization Quality of Life scale, abbreviated version (WHOQOL-BREF, the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II, the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D, the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI, and the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS. Biochemical markers were measured at baseline and after 12 weeks. The Temperament and Character Inventory was performed to assess patient characteristics before starting group CBT. Results : The seven patients showed significant improvement in QOL, mood, anxiety, and perceived stress after 12 weeks of group CBT. WHOQOL-BREF and the self-rating scales, BDI-II and BAI, showed continuous improvement across the 12-week period. HAM-D scores showed significant improvement by week 8; PSS showed significant improvement after week 8. Serum creatinine levels also improved significantly following the 12 week period. Conclusion : In this pilot study, a CBT program which included mindfulness meditation enhanced overall mental health and biochemical marker levels in ESRD patients undergoing HD.
Phang, Cheng Kar; Mukhtar, Firdaus; Ibrahim, Normala; Keng, Shian-Ling; Sidik, Sherina Mohd.
Pursuing undergraduate medical training can be very stressful and academically challenging experience. A 5-week mindfulness-based stress management (MBSM/Mindful-Gym) program was developed to help medical students cope with stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention in reducing stress among students in a…
Atkinson, Melissa J; Wade, Tracey D
Successful prevention of eating disorders represents an important goal due to damaging long-term impacts on health and well-being, modest treatment outcomes, and low treatment seeking among individuals at risk. Mindfulness-based approaches have received early support in the treatment of eating disorders, but have not been evaluated as a prevention strategy. This study aimed to assess the feasibility, acceptability, and efficacy of a novel mindfulness-based intervention for reducing the risk of eating disorders among adolescent females, under both optimal (trained facilitator) and task-shifted (non-expert facilitator) conditions. A school-based cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted in which 19 classes of adolescent girls (N = 347) were allocated to a three-session mindfulness-based intervention, dissonance-based intervention, or classes as usual control. A subset of classes (N = 156) receiving expert facilitation were analyzed separately as a proxy for delivery under optimal conditions. Task-shifted facilitation showed no significant intervention effects across outcomes. Under optimal facilitation, students receiving mindfulness demonstrated significant reductions in weight and shape concern, dietary restraint, thin-ideal internalization, eating disorder symptoms, and psychosocial impairment relative to control by 6-month follow-up. Students receiving dissonance showed significant reductions in socio-cultural pressures. There were no statistically significant differences between the two interventions. Moderate intervention acceptability was reported by both students and teaching staff. Findings show promise for the application of mindfulness in the prevention of eating disorders; however, further work is required to increase both impact and acceptability, and to enable successful outcomes when delivered by less expert providers. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Luskin, F M; Newell, K A; Griffith, M; Holmes, M; Telles, S; Marvasti, F F; Pelletier, K R; Haskell, W L
A review of research on complementary and alternative treatments, specifically mind-body techniques, was conducted at Stanford University. The goals of the review were to establish a comprehensive literature review and to provide a rationale for future research concerning successful aging. Computerized searches were conducted using MEDLINE, PsychInfo, Stanford Library, Dissertation Abstracts, Lexus-Nexus, the Internet, and interviews conducted with practitioners. All studies since 1990 that examined mind-body treatments of cardiovascular disorders in the elderly were included. Mind-body practices evaluated were social support, cognitive-behavioral treatment, meditation, the placebo effect, hope, faith, imagery, spiritual healing, music therapy, hypnosis, yoga, t'ai chi, qigong and aikido. Studies conducted after 1990 were a priority, but when more recent literature was scarce, other studies using randomized, controlled trials were included. Mind-body techniques were found to be efficacious primarily as complementary and sometimes as stand-alone alternative treatments for cardiovascular disease-related conditions. Studies provided evidence for treatment efficacy, but the need for further controlled research was evident. Reviewers found only a handful of randomized, controlled research studies conducted in the United States. As a result, there is a lack of replicated studies with which to determine appropriate treatment dosage and the mechanisms by which many of the practices work. Compelling anecdotal evidence, the presence of some controlled research, overall cost effectiveness, and the lack of side effects resulting from mind-body treatments make further investigation a high priority.
Soeder, J. F.
A microcomputer interactive data system (MINDS) software package for the 8086 family of microcomputers is described. To enhance program understandability and ease of code maintenance, the software is written in PL/M-86, Intel Corporation's high-level system implementation language. The MINDS software is intended to run in residence with real-time digital control software to provide displays of steady-state and transient data. In addition, the MINDS package provides classic monitor capabilities along with extended provisions for debugging an executing control system. The software uses the CP/M-86 operating system developed by Digital Research, Inc., to provide program load capabilities along with a uniform file structure for data and table storage. Finally, a library of input and output subroutines to be used with consoles equipped with PL/M-86 and assembly language is described.
Kuhlmann, Sophie Merle; Bürger, Arne; Esser, Günter; Hammerle, Florian
Medical training is very demanding and associated with a high prevalence of psychological distress. Compared to the general population, medical students are at a greater risk of developing a psychological disorder. Various attempts of stress management training in medical school have achieved positive results on minimizing psychological distress; however, there are often limitations. Therefore, the use of a rigorous scientific method is needed. The present study protocol describes a randomized controlled trial to examine the effectiveness of a specifically developed mindfulness-based stress prevention training for medical students that includes selected elements of cognitive behavioral strategies (MediMind). This study protocol presents a prospective randomized controlled trial, involving four assessment time points: baseline, post-intervention, one-year follow-up and five-year follow-up. The aims include evaluating the effect on stress, coping, psychological morbidity and personality traits with validated measures. Participants are allocated randomly to one of three conditions: MediMind, Autogenic Training or control group. Eligible participants are medical or dental students in the second or eighth semester of a German university. They form a population of approximately 420 students in each academic term. A final total sample size of 126 (at five-year follow-up) is targeted. The trainings (MediMind and Autogenic Training) comprise five weekly sessions lasting 90 minutes each. MediMind will be offered to participants of the control group once the five-year follow-up is completed. The allotment is randomized with a stratified allocation ratio by course of studies, semester, and gender. After descriptive statistics have been evaluated, inferential statistical analysis will be carried out with a repeated measures ANOVA-design with interactions between time and group. Effect sizes will be calculated using partial η-square values. Potential limitations of this study
Gardner, Frank L; Moore, Zella E
Since mindfulness-based and acceptance-based practice models were first conceptualized and applied in sport in an attempt to enhance performance and overall well-being of athletes and performers, these state-of-the-art theoretical and practice models have substantially broadened our knowledge base and have been successfully incorporated into sport and performance practice domains worldwide. Evolving from a sound empirical foundation, mindfulness-based and acceptance-based models in sport psychology have accumulated a strong basic and applied empirical foundation. In the nearly 20 years since their incorporation in the context of sport, empirical findings have demonstrated efficacious outcomes associated with performance and personal well-being, as well as supported their theorized mechanisms of change. Particularly as sport and performance environments increasingly call upon practitioners to provide more comprehensive care to clientele, including a range of care from performance enhancement and maintenance, to general personal well-being, to subclinical and clinical issues, mindfulness-based and acceptance-based practitioners have the tools to offer robust, empirically informed interventions that can enhance skills and quality of life, and/or ameliorate personal struggles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nyklicek, I.; Irrmischer, M.
The aim of the present study was to examine potentially moderating effects of personality characteristics regarding changes in anxious and depressed mood associated with Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR), controlling forsociodemographicactors.Meditation-naïvearticipants from the general
Bremner, Marie; Blake, Barbara; Stiles, Cheryl
The purpose of this systematic review is to explore the experiences and perceptions of persons living with HIV who participate in mind-body and energy therapies. The review will focus on the use of mind-body medicine and energy therapies that include meditation, prayer, mental healing, Tai Chi, yoga, art therapy, music therapy, dance therapy, Qigong, reiki, therapeutic touch, healing touch and electromagnetic therapy. These mind-body and energy therapies are selected categories because they do not involve options that might be contraindicated to an individual's current treatment regime. More specifically, the review questions are: Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is a popular adjunct to conventional medicine across global populations. Complementary generally refers to a non-mainstream approach together with conventional medicine whereas alternative refers to a non-mainstream approach in place of conventional medicine. Most people use non-mainstream approaches along with conventional treatments. The World Health Organization [WHO] defines CAM as distinct health-care practices that have not been assimilated into a country's mainstream health care system.The USA's National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH), formerly National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM), organizes CAM into five medical system categories: whole medical systems, mind-body medicine, biologically based practices, manipulative and body-based practices, and energy therapies. Whole medical systems include homeopathy, naturopathy, traditional Chinese medicine and Ayurveda. Mind-body medicine includes meditation, prayer, mental healing, Tai Chi, yoga, art therapy, music therapy and dance therapy. Biologically based practices include dietary supplements, herbal supplements and a few scientifically unproven therapies. Manipulative and body-based practices include massage and spinal manipulation such as chiropractic and osteopathic. Energy therapies
Ruffault, Alexis; Carette, Claire; Lurbe I Puerto, Kàtia; Juge, Nicolas; Beauchet, Alain; Benoliel, Jean-Jacques; Lacorte, Jean-Marc; Fournier, Jean F; Czernichow, Sébastien; Flahault, Cécile
Mindfulness-based interventions for healthy behaviors such as exercise and dietary modifications have aroused growing interest. This study aims to test the effectiveness of a mindfulness-based intervention for the reduction of impulsive eating and the improvement of motivation to exercise among obese individuals. One-hundred and twenty obese outpatients, aged 18 to 65years, diagnosed with a binge eating disorder, will be randomly assigned to one of the three following groups: mindfulness practice, sham meditation, or treatment as usual control. The tested intervention consists of a 1-year computerized mindfulness-based program. Mindfulness sessions are audio recordings that the patients are asked to listen to, 10min every day. Self-reported questionnaires measuring impulsive eating, motivation to exercise, physical activity level, mood, and mindfulness skills are filled in at baseline, 1, 6, and 12months. Physical activity, calories consumption, and biomarkers are measured with more objective measurement tools at baseline, 6months and 12months. Mindfulness, as both a de-automation element and as a moderator of motivation to exercise, can lead to the reduction of impulsive eating and also to an increase in levels of physical activity. These effects could cause weight loss in obese patients suffering from binge eating disorder. clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02571387. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Berk, Lotte; van Boxtel, Martin; van Os, Jim
An increased need exists to examine factors that protect against age-related cognitive decline. There is preliminary evidence that meditation can improve cognitive function. However, most studies are cross-sectional and examine a wide variety of meditation techniques. This review focuses on the standard eight-week mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) such as mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT). We searched the PsychINFO, CINAHL, Web of Science, COCHRANE, and PubMed databases to identify original studies investigating the effects of MBI on cognition in older adults. Six reports were included in the review of which three were randomized controlled trials. Studies reported preliminary positive effects on memory, executive function and processing speed. However, most reports had a high risk of bias and sample sizes were small. The only study with low risk of bias, large sample size and active control group reported no significant findings. We conclude that eight-week MBI for older adults are feasible, but results on cognitive improvement are inconclusive due a limited number of studies, small sample sizes, and a high risk of bias. Rather than a narrow focus on cognitive training per se, future research may productively shift to investigate MBI as a tool to alleviate suffering in older adults, and to prevent cognitive problems in later life already in younger target populations.
Banerjee, Moitree; Cavanagh, Kate; Strauss, Clara
Little is known about the factors associated with engagement in mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs). Moreover, engagement in MBIs is usually defined in terms of class attendance ('physical engagement') only. However, in the psychotherapy literature, there is increasing emphasis on measuring participants' involvement with interventions ('psychological engagement'). This study tests a model that rumination and worry act as barriers to physical and psychological engagement in MBIs and that this in turn impedes learning mindfulness. One hundred and twenty-four participants were given access to a 2-week online mindfulness-based self-help (MBSH) intervention. Self-report measures of mindfulness, rumination, worry, positive beliefs about rumination, positive beliefs about worry and physical and psychological engagement were administered. A path analysis was used to test the linear relationships between the variables. Physical and psychological engagement were identified as two distinct constructs. Findings were that rumination and worry both predicted psychological disengagement in MBSH. Psychological engagement predicted change in the describe, act with awareness, non-judge and non-react facets of mindfulness while physical engagement only predicted changes in the non-react facet of mindfulness. Thus, rumination and worry may increase risk of psychological disengagement from MBSH which may in turn hinder cultivating mindfulness. Future suggestions for practice are discussed.
Toivonen, Kirsti I; Zernicke, Kristin; Carlson, Linda E
Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) are becoming increasingly popular for helping people with physical health conditions. Expanding from traditional face-to-face program delivery, there is growing interest in Web-based application of MBIs, though Web-based MBIs for people with physical health conditions specifically have not been thoroughly reviewed to date. The objective of this paper was to review Web-based MBIs for people with physical health conditions and to examine all outcomes reported (eg, efficacy or effectiveness for physical changes or psychological changes; feasibility). Databases PubMed, PsycINFO, Science Direct, CINAHL Plus, and Web of Science were searched. Full-text English papers that described any Web-based MBI, examining any outcome, for people with chronic physical health conditions were included. Randomized, nonrandomized, controlled, and uncontrolled trials were all included. Extracted data included intervention characteristics, population characteristics, outcomes, and quality indicators. Intervention characteristics (eg, synchronicity and guidance) were examined as potential factors related to study outcomes. Of 435 publications screened, 19 published papers describing 16 studies were included. They examined Web-based MBIs for people with cancer, chronic pain or fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), epilepsy, heart disease, tinnitus, and acquired brain injury. Overall, most studies reported positive effects of Web-based MBIs compared with usual care on a variety of outcomes including pain acceptance, coping measures, and depressive symptoms. There were mixed results regarding the effectiveness of Web-based MBIs compared with active control treatment conditions such as cognitive behavioral therapy. Condition-specific symptoms (eg, cancer-related fatigue and IBS symptoms) targeted by treatment had the largest effect size improvements following MBIs. Results are inconclusive regarding physical variables. Preliminary evidence suggests
Zeidan, Fadel; Adler-Neal, Adrienne L; Wells, Rebecca E; Stagnaro, Emily; May, Lisa M; Eisenach, James C; McHaffie, John G; Coghill, Robert C
Mindfulness meditation, a cognitive practice premised on sustaining nonjudgmental awareness of arising sensory events, reliably attenuates pain. Mindfulness meditation activates multiple brain regions that contain a high expression of opioid receptors. However, it is unknown whether mindfulness-meditation-based analgesia is mediated by endogenous opioids. The present double-blind, randomized study examined behavioral pain responses in healthy human volunteers during mindfulness meditation and a nonmanipulation control condition in response to noxious heat and intravenous administration of the opioid antagonist naloxone (0.15 mg/kg bolus + 0.1 mg/kg/h infusion) or saline placebo. Meditation during saline infusion significantly reduced pain intensity and unpleasantness ratings when compared to the control + saline group. However, naloxone infusion failed to reverse meditation-induced analgesia. There were no significant differences in pain intensity or pain unpleasantness reductions between the meditation + naloxone and the meditation + saline groups. Furthermore, mindfulness meditation during naloxone produced significantly greater reductions in pain intensity and unpleasantness than the control groups. These findings demonstrate that mindfulness meditation does not rely on endogenous opioidergic mechanisms to reduce pain. Endogenous opioids have been repeatedly shown to be involved in the cognitive inhibition of pain. Mindfulness meditation, a practice premised on directing nonjudgmental attention to arising sensory events, reduces pain by engaging mechanisms supporting the cognitive control of pain. However, it remains unknown if mindfulness-meditation-based analgesia is mediated by opioids, an important consideration for using meditation to treat chronic pain. To address this question, the present study examined pain reports during meditation in response to noxious heat and administration of the opioid antagonist naloxone and placebo saline. The results
Soler, Joaquim; Valdepérez, Ana; Feliu-Soler, Albert; Pascual, Juan C; Portella, Maria J; Martín-Blanco, Ana; Alvarez, Enrique; Pérez, Víctor
It is known that patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) show attention deficits and impulsivity. The main aim of this study was to explore the effects of Dialectical Behavioral Therapy-Mindfulness training (DBT-M), used as an adjunct to general psychiatric management (GPM), on attention variables in patients diagnosed with BPD. A second objective was to assess the relation of mindfulness formal practice on clinical variables. A sample of 60 patients with BPD was recruited. Forty of them were allocated to GPM + DBT-M treatment and the other 20 received GPM alone. At the termination of the mindfulness training, DBT-M + GPM group showed a significant improvement on commissions, hit reaction time, detectability scores from the CPT-II neuropsychological test, and also on the composite scores of inattention and impulsivity. Further, the more minutes of mindfulness practice were correlated to greater improvement in general psychiatric symptoms and affective symptomatology, but not in CPT-II measures. This is probably the first study so far assessing the effects of this single DBT module in patients with BPD. The results suggest a positive effect of such intervention on attention and impulsivity variables. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Cell transplantation is a strategy with great potential for the treatment of Parkinson's disease, and many types of stem cells, including neural stem cells and embryonic stem cells, are considered candidates for transplantation therapy. Mesenchymal stem cells are a great therapeutic cell source because they are easy accessible and can be expanded from patients or donor mesenchymal tissues without posing serious ethical and technical problems. They have trophic effects for protecting damaged tissues as well as differentiation ability to generate a broad spectrum of cells, including dopamine neurons, which contribute to the replenishment of lost cells in Parkinson's disease. This paper focuses mainly on the potential of mesenchymal stem cells as a therapeutic cell source and discusses their potential clinical application in Parkinson's disease.
Klatt, Maryanna; Steinberg, Beth; Duchemin, Anne-Marie
A pragmatic mindfulness intervention to benefit personnel working in chronically high-stress environments, delivered onsite during the workday, is timely and valuable to employee and employer alike. Mindfulness in Motion (MIM) is a Mindfulness Based Intervention (MBI) offered as a modified, less time intensive method (compared to Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction), delivered onsite, during work, and intends to enable busy working adults to experience the benefits of mindfulness. It teaches mindful awareness principles, rehearses mindfulness as a group, emphasizes the use of gentle yoga stretches, and utilizes relaxing music in the background of both the group sessions and individual mindfulness practice. MIM is delivered in a group format, for 1 hr/week/8 weeks. CDs and a DVD are provided to facilitate individual practice. The yoga movement is emphasized in the protocol to facilitate a quieting of the mind. The music is included for participants to associate the relaxed state experienced in the group session with their individual practice. To determine the intervention feasibility/efficacy we conducted a randomized wait-list control group in Intensive Care Units (ICUs). ICUs represent a high-stress work environment where personnel experience chronic exposure to catastrophic situations as they care for seriously injured/ill patients. Despite high levels of work-related stress, few interventions have been developed and delivered onsite for such environments. The intervention is delivered on site in the ICU, during work hours, with participants receiving time release to attend sessions. The intervention is well received with 97% retention rate. Work engagement and resiliency increase significantly in the intervention group, compared to the wait-list control group, while participant respiration rates decrease significantly pre-post in 6/8 of the weekly sessions. Participants value institutional support, relaxing music, and the instructor as pivotal to program success
Anorexia nervosa is a serious psychiatric illness with limited evidenced-based treatment options. Mindfulness appears useful in many conditions, but few studies focus on its use in individuals with anorexia nervosa. To examine and summarize studies of mindfulness in individuals with anorexia nervosa and identify areas for future research. An integrated review was conducted by searching health care computerized databases. Results were mixed among the eight studies that met inclusion criteria. Multimodal mindfulness-based therapies appear effective, while brief interventions may be equally useful or result in greater anxiety compared to distraction. Qualitative data support that some participants feel mindfulness is challenging but beneficial. Mindfulness as a concurrent part of therapy and/or when routinely practiced may be more clinically useful than single-episode mindful eating interventions. Due to the complexity of the concept of mindfulness and limited existing data, additional research is needed.
Presne, Claire; Monge, Matthieu; Mansour, Janette; Oprisiu, Roxana; Choukroun, Gabriel; Achard, Jean Michel; Fournier, Albert
Diuretics are pharmacological agents that increase natriuresis through inhibition of tubular re-absorption of sodium. The mechanisms and site of this inhibition differ with each drug class, accounting for their additive effects on natriuresis increase and their hydroelectrolytic side effects. The response to a given diuretic dose depends on the diuretic concentration on the urine at its action site. This concentration may be decreased by pharmacokinetic factors such as encountered in renal insufficiency or in nephrotic syndrome. These resistance mechanisms of diuretics may be corrected by dose increase, previous diuretic fixation on albumin or warfarin administration. Once these mechanisms are opposed, the diuretic concentration for maximal efficacy is reached at is action site and the natriuresis obtained as the normal maximal plateau. This is not the case when an oedematous systemic disease with effective hypovolemia is present, like in heart failure or cirrhosis, or when chronic use of loop diuretics has induced a hypertrophy of the more distant part of the tubule. In theses cases, a pharmacodynamic resistance exists, resulting in a lower maximal natriuresis plateau in spite of adequate concentration of the diuretic at its action site, even in the absence of pharmacokinetic resistance factors. The main indications of diuretics are systemic oedematous disease and hypertension. In the oedematous diseases, diuretics indication is both straightforward and sufficient only if effective hypervolemia is present. The therapeutic approach is discussed according to the various clinical conditions and pathophysiological background. In uncomplicated hypertension, diuretics are the cornerstone of the therapy. The most suitable diuretic treatment for hypertension is an association of low doses thiazide (12.5-50 mg/day) with potassium sparing diuretics. Rare indications of diuretics are also reviewed.
Zangi, Heidi A; Haugli, Liv
Chronic non-malign pain has a substantial impact on all parts of an individual's life. Mindfulness- and acceptance- based interventions are increasingly offered to help people manage their pain and strengthening their health promoting resources. In this paper, we present a mindfulness- and acceptance-based intervention, the Vitality Training Programme (VTP), to mitigating pain and accompanying symptoms and increasing pain coping abilities. Based on a clinical case presentation, we discuss how the VTP can help individuals to live a better life with pain. The VTP has been evaluated in two randomised controlled trials and two qualitative studies. Existing evidence is presented. Finally, based on a recently published theoretical model, we present some possible common explanatory mechanisms across various mindfulness- and acceptance-based interventions that might also apply to the VTP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Würtzen, Hanne; Oksbjerg Dalton, Susanne; Kaae Andersen, Klaus
Danish population-based registries and clinical databases to determine differences in demographics, breast cancer and co-morbidity among 1208 women eligible for a randomized controlled trial (www.clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00990977) of mindfulness-based stress reduction MBSR. RESULTS: Participants......BACKGROUND: Discussion regarding the necessity to identify patients with both the need and motivation for psychosocial intervention is ongoing. Evidence for an effect of mindfulness-based interventions among cancer patients is based on few studies with no systematic enrollment. METHODS: We used...
Leahey, Tricia M.; Crowther, Janis H.; Irwin, Sharon R.
Binge eating is a negative indicator of post-surgical weight loss and health outcome in bariatric surgery patients (Hsu, Bentancourt, Sullivan, 1996). Cognitive-behavioral techniques and mindfulness-based practices have been shown to successfully treat binge eating (Agras, Telch, Arnow, Eldredge, & Marnell, 1997; Kristeller & Hallett, 1999). This…
Burke, Meghan M; Chan, Neilson; Neece, Cameron L
Parents of children with (versus without) intellectual and developmental disabilities report greater stress; such stress may be exacerbated by dissatisfaction with school services, poor parent-school partnerships, and the need for parent advocacy. Increasingly, mindfulness interventions have been used to reduce parent stress. However, it is unclear whether parents apply mindfulness strategies during the special education process to reduce school-related stress. To investigate whether mindfulness may reduce school-related stress, interviews were conducted with 26 parents of children with intellectual and developmental disabilities who completed a mindfulness-based stress reduction intervention. Participants were asked about their stress during meetings with the school, use of mindfulness strategies in communicating with the school, and the impact of such strategies. The majority of parent participants reported: special education meetings were stressful; they used mindfulness strategies during IEP meetings; and such strategies affected parents' perceptions of improvements in personal well-being, advocacy, family-school relationships, and access to services for their children. Implications for future research, policy, and practice are discussed.
Sharma, Manoj; Rush, Sarah E
Stress is a global public health problem with several negative health consequences, including anxiety, depression, cardiovascular disease, and suicide. Mindfulness-based stress reduction offers an effective way of reducing stress by combining mindfulness meditation and yoga in an 8-week training program. The purpose of this study was to look at studies from January 2009 to January 2014 and examine whether mindfulness-based stress reduction is a potentially viable method for managing stress. A systematic search from Medline, CINAHL, and Alt HealthWatch databases was conducted for all types of quantitative articles involving mindfulness-based stress reduction. A total of 17 articles met the inclusion criteria. Of the 17 studies, 16 demonstrated positive changes in psychological or physiological outcomes related to anxiety and/or stress. Despite the limitations of not all studies using randomized controlled design, having smaller sample sizes, and having different outcomes, mindfulness-based stress reduction appears to be a promising modality for stress management. © The Author(s) 2014.
Comorbidity is a multicausal, multidimensional, multifaced phenomenon in medicine. There are many different definitions of the co-occurrence of two or more disorders, but Feinstein's is the most acceptable. Although epidemiological data show a high prevalence of comorbidity of somatic and psychiatric disorders, it is still underrecognized and undertreated. There are many unanswered questions related to comorbidity, including whether comorbidity is a valid phenomenon; whether the epidemiological results have validity; what is the linkage between somatic and psychological processes; which factors take part in the bidirectional manifestation; how do we treat the involved disorders; what is the right organization to manage the patients. The aim of the author was to review different aspects of comorbidity with the help of new knowledge. The starting point of the interpretation was the concept of identical biological substrates (pathophysiological endpoint) that generate the development of somatic and psychiatric disorders. The formation of these substrates is influenced by risk factors, which depend or not on the person (stressors vs genes). The effects of risk factors and biological substrates are parallel to each other, but one of them is a dominant agent. The author's concept ("dominance theory") is based on new discoveries of the biological mechanisms of psychiatric processes to help to understand the phenomenon of comorbidity and develop new therapies. It is very important to recognize, to diagnose and treat comorbidity because of the prevalence of excess mortality is high and the morbidity burden influences the patient' quality of life.
van Bockstaele, B.; Bögels, S.M.; Hofmann, S.G.; DiBartolo, P.M.
Over the past decades, a wealth of evidence has accumulated indicating that cognitive processes, such as attention for unwanted stimuli or sensations and the negative interpretation of ambiguous signals, are critically involved in the development and maintenance of social anxiety disorder (SAD).
Sampl, Juliane; Maran, Thomas; Furtner, Marco R.
The present randomized pilot intervention study examines the effects of a mindfulness-based self-leadership training (MBSLT) specifically developed for academic achievement situations. Both mindfulness and self-leadership have a strong self-regulatory focus and are helpful in terms of stress resilience and performance enhancements. Based on several theoretical points of contact and a specific interplay between mindfulness and self-leadership, the authors developed an innovative intervention p...
Lin, Wen-Hua; Chen, Chih-Hsuan; Shu, Bih-Ching
Happiness, an important factor in maintaining health, not only enhances the abilities of self-control, self-regulation, and coping but also promotes mental health. Mindfulness therapy has been increasingly used in recent years. Therefore, the purpose of the present article is to introduce the concepts of mindfulness and to describe the relationship between mindfulness and happiness. Further, we provide brief introductions to mindfulness-based stress reduction and mindfulness cognitive therapy as well as present the current evidence related to the effects of mindfulness programs and therapies in clinical patient care. The information in the present article may be referenced and used by nurses in patient care and may be referenced by health professionals to promote their own mental health in order to maintain optimal fitness for providing high-quality patient care.
Full Text Available School-based mindfulness interventions have been shown to be effective in reducing mental health symptoms. However, comparatively little research has investigated the acceptability of these programs from the perspective of the children. Program acceptability underpins engagement, and more engaging programs are also more efficacious (Cowan & Sheridan, 2003; Mautone et al., 2009 yet there is little literature which has considered the acceptability of school-based mindfulness programs. To address this gap, semi-structured interviews were conducted with upper primary aged children (N = 30 who had participated in a six week mindfulness program in four Australian primary schools. Thematic analysis of interviews revealed children found the program to be acceptable. Children reported that they enjoyed doing the mindfulness program, would recommend it to others, and learned about relaxing as well as felt relaxed while doing the program. Children also highlighted the use of culturally appropriate teaching materials and possible stigmatisation as threats to the acceptability of the program. The results of the study support the acceptability of mindfulness programs in school settings, grounded in the unique perspective of the child.
Improving quality of life using compound mind-body therapies: evaluation of a course intervention with body movement and breath therapy, guided imagery, chakra experiencing and mindfulness meditation.
Fernros, Lotta; Furhoff, Anna-Karin; Wändell, Per E
Assess changes in quality of life and in sense of coherence (SOC), after an intervention involving a self-development course using mind-body medicine (MBM) activities. A questionnaire study using a health-related quality of life (HRQOL) instrument, the SWEDQUAL, with 13 subscales and scores ranging from 0 to 100, combined with the SOC-13 scale, healthcare utilisation, medication and sick listing data. A training centre for MBM. Eligible course attendants (study group, SG, n = 83) assessed their HRQOL before and 6 months after a 1-week course. A control group (CG) of individuals who had previously attended the course (n = 69), matched for age, sex and length of course time to the SG, also made assessments. Changes in HRQOL and SOC in SG and CG. Of the 13 HRQOL subscales, eight showed clinically significant improvement in the SG (>9%, p positive (26%)], Cognitive functioning (24%), Sleep (15%), Pain (10%), Role limitation due to emotional health (22%) and Family functioning (16%). Sexual, marital and physical function and role in the SG as well as all CG scores were similar to average population values. The assessed SOC also improved in the SG after intervention (p < 0.01), challenging previous statements of 'the stableness of SOC'. Use of psychotropic medication was slightly reduced in the younger aged SG participants after intervention. This group of men and women (SG), starting from a clinically significant low health assessment, had improved their HRQOL and SOC after the course intervention.
Vandenberg, Brooke E; Advocat, Jenny; Hassed, Craig; Hester, Jennifer; Enticott, Joanne; Russell, Grant
Despite emerging evidence suggesting positive outcomes of mindfulness training for the self-management of other neurodegenerative diseases, limited research has explored its effect on the self-management of Parkinson's disease (PD). We aimed to characterize the experiences of individuals participating in a facilitated, group mindfulness-based lifestyle program for community living adults with Stage 2 PD and explore how the program influenced beliefs about self-management of their disease. Our longitudinal qualitative study was embedded within a randomized controlled trial exploring the impact of a 6-week mindfulness-based lifestyle program on patient-reported function. The study was set in Melbourne, Australia in 2012-2013. We conducted semi-structured interviews with participants before, immediately after, and 6 months following participation in the program. Sixteen participants were interviewed prior to commencing the program. Of these, 12 were interviewed shortly after its conclusion, and 9 interviewed at 6 months. Prior to the program, participants felt a lack of control over their illness. A desire for control and a need for alternative tools for managing the progression of PD motivated many to engage with the program. Following the program, where participants experienced an increase in mindfulness, many became more accepting of disease progression and reported improved social relationships and self-confidence in managing their disease. Mindfulness-based lifestyle programs have the potential for increasing both participants' sense of control over their reactions to disease symptoms as well as social connectedness. Community-based mindfulness training may provide participants with tools for self-managing a number of the consequences of Stage 2 PD.
Both concepts, mentalization and the theory of mind, describe metacognitive processes. Mentalization mainly concerns the reflection of affective mental states. In contrast, theory of mind focuses on epistemic states such as beliefs, intentions and persuasions. Gender differences have proved to be relevant for both, the development of mentalization and the theory of mind. However, there are few studies and findings are inconsistent. In an own study, we investigated the relationship between early competences in metacognition (tested in a false-belief-task second order) and narrative skills of kindergarten children. Results show that children who had successfully passed the theory of mind test tended to face conflicts more directly in the stories. In consequence, these children showed less narrative avoidance. However, differences were only found in girls and not in boys. The precise understanding of developmental differences in metacognition between girls and boys may be an important aspect with regards to improving mentalization based therapy of children.
Boyle, Michael P.
The use of mindfulness training for increasing psychological well-being in a variety of clinical and nonclinical populations has exploded over the last decade. In the area of stuttering, it has been widely recognized that effective long-term management often necessitates treatment of cognitive and affective dimensions of the disorder in addition…
Zipp, Genevieve; Maher, Catherine
Background and Purpose: Regardless of our discipline educators seek to create environments that actively engage students in their learning journey. One teaching and learning strategy that has emerged in higher education is mind mapping (MM). The purpose of this exploratory study was to determine the prevalence of MM usage in a health science…
Candace C. Johnson
Full Text Available Background. A major determinant in cardiometabolic health is metabolic syndrome (MetS, a cluster of symptoms that portend the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD. As mind-body therapies are thought to help in lowering physiological and environmental CVD risk factors including blood pressure and psychological stress, they may also be beneficial for the primary prevention of CVD. Objectives. To synthesize and summarize existing knowledge on the effectiveness of mind-body therapies on MetS outcomes in African-American (AA women, a US subpopulation at high risk for CVD. Search Methods. A systematic search of eight databases was conducted in order to identify published papers addressing the topic. We included trials involving AA adult women, ages 18–64, and we included RCTs that involved multifactorial interventions. Outcomes of interest were MetS, chronic disease, and CVD risk factors (blood pressure, blood lipids, blood glucose, BMI, waist circumference, and mental health domains. Two authors independently selected trials for inclusion, extracted data, and assessed risks of bias. Main Results. We identified five trials for inclusion in this review. One study reported outcomes associated with the full MetS symptom cluster. The included trials were small, short term, and at high risk of bias. All interventions lasted at least 6 weeks.
Kristeller, Jean L; Wolever, Ruth Q
This paper reviews the conceptual foundation of mindfulness-based eating awareness training (MB-EAT). It provides an overview of key therapeutic components as well as a brief review of current research. MB-EAT is a group intervention that was developed for treatment of binge eating disorder (BED) and related issues. BED is marked by emotional, behavioral and physiological disregulation in relation to food intake and self-identity. MB-EAT involves training in mindfulness meditation and guided mindfulness practices that are designed to address the core issues of BED: controlling responses to varying emotional states; making conscious food choices; developing an awareness of hunger and satiety cues; and cultivating self-acceptance. Evidence to date supports the value of MB-EAT in decreasing binge episodes, improving one's sense of self-control with regard to eating, and diminishing depressive symptoms.
Interest in the use of mindfulness-based activities with children and youth is growing. The article evaluates empirical evidence related to the use of mindfulness-based activities to facilitate enhanced student learning and to support students' psychological, physiological, and social development. It also provides an overview of interventions that…
Maynard, Brandy R.; Wilson, Alyssa N.; Labuzienski, Elizabeth; Whiting, Seth W.
Background and Aims: To examine the effects of mindfulness-based interventions on gambling behavior and symptoms, urges, and financial outcomes. Method: Systematic review and meta-analytic procedures were employed to search, select, code, and analyze studies conducted between 1980 and 2014, assessing the effects of mindfulness-based interventions…
Cormier, Abigail; McBride, Dawn Lorraine
This project provides a comprehensive overview of the research literature on problem gambling in adults and includes a detailed mindfulness-based psychoeducational group manual for problem gambling, complete with an extensive group counselling consent form, assessment and screening protocols, 10 user-friendly lesson plans, templates for a…
Fulton, Cheryl L.; Cashwell, Craig S.
Mindfulness-based awareness and compassion were examined as predictors of empathy and anxiety among 152 master's-level counseling interns. Results of hierarchical multiple regression analysis supported that awareness and compassion differentially contributed to explaining the variance in counselor empathy and anxiety. Implications for counselor…
Nyklíček, Ivan; Irrmischer, Mona
The aim of the present study was to examine potentially moderating effects of personality characteristics regarding changes in anxious and depressed mood associated with Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR), controlling for socio-demographic factors. Meditation-naïve participants from the
Gould, Laura Feagans; Dariotis, Jacinda K.; Mendelson, Tamar; Greenberg, Mark. T.
This study examines gender, grade-level, and baseline depressive symptoms as potential moderators of a school-based mindfulness intervention's impact on the self-regulatory outcomes of urban youth. Ninety-seven participants from four urban public schools were randomly assigned to an intervention or wait-list control condition. Fourth and fifth…
Mendelson, Tamar; Greenberg, Mark T.; Dariotis, Jacinda K.; Gould, Laura Feagans; Rhoades, Brittany L.; Leaf, Philip J.
Youth in underserved, urban communities are at risk for a range of negative outcomes related to stress, including social-emotional difficulties, behavior problems, and poor academic performance. Mindfulness-based approaches may improve adjustment among chronically stressed and disadvantaged youth by enhancing self-regulatory capacities. This paper…
de Weerd, Harmen; Verbrugge, Rineke; Verheij, Bart; Kamiński, Bogumił; Koloch, Grzegorz
Agent-based models are a powerful tool for explaining the emergence of social phenomena in a society. In such models, individual agents typically have little cognitive ability. In this paper, we model agents with the cognitive ability to make use of theory of mind. People use this ability to reason
One of the areas in which brain-based mind reading (BMR) may be applied is forensic psychiatry. The purpose of this paper is to identify opportunities and challenges for forensic psychiatry regarding BMR. In order to do so, a conceptual framework for BMR will be introduced, which distinguishes
Jabbari, Sosan; Firoozabadi, Somayeh Sadati; Rostami, Sedighe
The purpose of the present study was to predict the resiliency in parents with exceptional children based on their mindfulness. This descriptive correlational study was performed on 260 parents of student (105 male and 159 female) that were selected by cluster sampling method. Family resiliency questionnaire (Sickby, 2005) and five aspect…
Verweij, H.; Ravesteijn, H.J. van; Hooff, M.L.M. van; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.; Speckens, A.E.M.
Background: Burnout is highly prevalent in residents. No randomized controlled trials have been conducted measuring the effects of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) on burnout in residents. Objective: To determine the effectiveness of MBSR in reducing burnout in residents. Design: A
Dundas, Ingrid; Thorsheim, Torbjørn; Hjeltnes, Aslak; Binder, Per Einar
Mindfulness based stress reduction (MBSR) for academic evaluation anxiety and self-confidence in 70 help-seeking bachelor's and master's students was examined. A repeated measures analysis of covariance on the 46 students who completed pretreatment and posttreatment measures (median age = 24 years, 83% women) showed that evaluation anxiety and…
Kim, Jeongil; Kwon, Miyoung
Background: Task performance is a critical factor for learning in individuals with intellectual disabilities. This study aimed to examine mindfulness-based intervention (MBI) to improve task performance for children with intellectual disability (ID). Methods: Three elementary school children with ID participated in the study. A multiple baseline…
Demarzo, M.M.P.; Montero- Marin, J.; Cuijpers, P.; Zabaleta-del-Olmo, E.; Mahtani, K.R.; Vellinga, A.; Vicens, C.; Lopez-del-Hoyo, Y.; Garcia-Campayo, J.
PURPOSE Positive effects have been reported after mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) in diverse clinical and nonclinical populations. Primary care is a key health care setting for addressing common chronic conditions, and an effective MBI designed for this setting could benefit countless people
Garrison, Kathleen A; Pal, Prasanta; Rojiani, Rahil; Dallery, Jesse; O'Malley, Stephanie S; Brewer, Judson A
Tobacco use is responsible for the death of about 1 in 10 individuals worldwide. Mindfulness training has shown preliminary efficacy as a behavioral treatment for smoking cessation. Recent advances in mobile health suggest advantages to smartphone-based smoking cessation treatment including smartphone-based mindfulness training. This study evaluates the efficacy of a smartphone app-based mindfulness training program for improving smoking cessation rates at 6-months follow-up. A two-group parallel-randomized clinical trial with allocation concealment will be conducted. Group assignment will be concealed from study researchers through to follow-up. The study will be conducted by smartphone and online. Daily smokers who are interested in quitting smoking and own a smartphone (n = 140) will be recruited through study advertisements posted online. After completion of a baseline survey, participants will be allocated randomly to the control or intervention group. Participants in both groups will receive a 22-day smartphone-based treatment program for smoking. Participants in the intervention group will receive mobile mindfulness training plus experience sampling. Participants in the control group will receive experience sampling-only. The primary outcome measure will be one-week point prevalence abstinence from smoking (at 6-months follow-up) assessed using carbon monoxide breath monitoring, which will be validated through smartphone-based video chat. This is the first intervention study to evaluate smartphone-based delivery of mindfulness training for smoking cessation. Such an intervention may provide treatment in-hand, in real-world contexts, to help individuals quit smoking. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02134509 . Registered 7 May 2014.
Lyzwinski, Lynnette Nathalie; Caffery, Liam; Bambling, Matthew; Edirippulige, Sisira
Recent research indicates that mindfulness-based interventions are effective for stress, maladaptive weight-related behaviors, and weight loss. Little is presently known about their applicability and effectiveness when delivered electronically, including through Web-based and mobile device media. The primary aims of this review were to identify what types of electronic mindfulness-based interventions have been undertaken for stress, maladaptive weight-related behaviors, and weight loss, and to assess their overall effectiveness. A systematic search of PubMed (MEDLINE), Embase, CINAHL, and Web of Science databases was undertaken in June 2016. A total of 21 studies were identified that met inclusion criteria and were selected in the final review. Of these, 19 were mindfulness-based interventions for stress reduction. Two were Web-based mindful eating/intuitive eating interventions for weight. Only one electronic mindfulness-based study was identified that targeted both stress and maladaptive weight-related behaviors. Most electronic interventions were effective for stress reduction N = 14/19 (74%). There were insufficient electronic mindfulness-based interventions for weight to determine if they were effective or not. Additionally, no mobile mindfulness-based intervention was identified for weight or weight-related behaviors. Electronic mindfulness-based interventions through diverse media appear to be effective for stress reduction. More studies are needed that target weight and weight-related behaviors as well as studies that target both stress and weight. More randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that assess mobile mindfulness-based apps are needed as we only identified four app trials for stress. Mobile mindfulness-based interventions for weight and weight-related behaviors are a future area of research novelty.
Phang, Cheng Kar; Mukhtar, Firdaus; Ibrahim, Normala; Keng, Shian-Ling; Mohd Sidik, Sherina
Pursuing undergraduate medical training can be very stressful and academically challenging experience. A 5-week mindfulness-based stress management (MBSM/Mindful-Gym) program was developed to help medical students cope with stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention in reducing stress among students in a medical school in Malaysia. Seventy-five medical students participated in the program. They were stratified according to years of studies and randomly allocated to intervention (N = 37) and control groups (N = 38). The following outcome variables were measured at pre- and post-intervention: mindfulness (with Mindful Awareness Attention Scale); perceived stress (with Perceived Stress Scale); mental distress (with General Health Questionnaire), and self-efficacy (with General Self-efficacy Scale). Hierarchical multiple regressions were used to analyse the effect of group (intervention vs. control) on changes in the outcome variables. There were significant improvements at one week post-intervention in all outcome variables: mindfulness (β = 0.19, ΔR2 = 0.04, p = .040, f (2) = 0.05), perceived stress (β = -0.26, ΔR2 = 0.07, p = .009, f (2) = 0.10); mental distress (β = -0.28, ΔR2 = 0.10, p = .003, f (2) = 0.15); and self-efficacy (β = 0.30, ΔR2 = 0.09, p students in Malaysia.
Porter, Sam; Holmes, Valerie; McLaughlin, Katrina; Lynn, Fiona; Cardwell, Chris; Braiden, Hannah-Jane; Doran, Jackie; Rogan, Sheelagh
This article is a report of a trial protocol to determine if improvizational music therapy leads to clinically significant improvement in communication and interaction skills for young people experiencing social, emotional or behavioural problems. Music therapy is often considered an effective intervention for young people experiencing social, emotional or behavioural difficulties. However, this assumption lacks empirical evidence. Music in mind is a multi-centred single-blind randomized controlled trial involving 200 young people (aged 8-16 years) and their parents. Eligible participants will have a working diagnosis within the ambit of international classification of disease 10 mental and behavioural disorders and will be recruited over 15 months from six centres within the Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services of a large health and social care trust in Northern Ireland. Participants will be randomly allocated in a 1:1 ratio to receive standard care alone or standard care plus 12 weekly music therapy sessions delivered by the Northern Ireland Music Therapy Trust. Baseline data will be collected from young people and their parents using standardized outcome measures for communicative and interaction skills (primary endpoint), self-esteem, social functioning, depression and family functioning. Follow-up data will be collected 1 and 13 weeks after the final music therapy session. A cost-effectiveness analysis will also be carried out. This study will be the largest trial to date examining the effect of music therapy on young people experiencing social, emotional or behavioural difficulties and will provide empirical evidence for the use of music therapy among this population. Trial registration. This study is registered in the ISRCTN Register, ISRCTN96352204. Ethical approval was gained in October 2010. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Ruijgrok-Lupton, Pauline Eva; Crane, Rebecca S; Dorjee, Dusana
Growing interest in mindfulness-based programs (MBPs) has resulted in increased demand for MBP teachers, raising questions around safeguarding teaching standards. Training literature emphasises the need for appropriate training and meditation experience, yet studies into impact of such variables on participant outcomes are scarce, requiring further investigation. This feasibility pilot study hypothesised that participant outcomes would relate to teachers' mindfulness-based teacher training levels and mindfulness-based teaching and meditation experience. Teachers ( n = 9) with different MBP training levels delivering mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) courses to the general public were recruited together with their course participants ( n = 31). A teacher survey collected data on their mindfulness-based teacher training, other professional training and relevant experience. Longitudinal evaluations using online questionnaires measured participant mindfulness and well-being before and after MBSR and participant course satisfaction. Course attendees' gains after the MBSR courses were correlated with teacher training and experience. Gains in well-being and reductions in perceived stress were significantly larger for the participant cohort taught by teachers who had completed an additional year of mindfulness-based teacher training and assessment. No correlation was found between course participants' outcomes and their teacher's mindfulness-based teaching and meditation experience. Our results support the hypothesis that higher mindfulness-based teacher training levels are possibly linked to more positive participant outcomes, with implications for training in MBPs. These initial findings highlight the need for further research on mindfulness-based teacher training and course participant outcomes with larger participant samples.
Daniela L. Stan
Full Text Available Survivors of breast cancer are faced with a multitude of medical and psychological impairments during and after treatment and throughout their lifespan. Physical exercise has been shown to improve survival and recurrence in this population. Mind-body interventions combine a light-moderate intensity physical exercise with mindfulness, thus having the potential to improve both physical and psychological sequelae of breast cancer treatments. We conducted a review of mindfulness-based physical exercise interventions which included yoga, tai chi chuan, Pilates, and qigong, in breast cancer survivors. Among the mindfulness-based interventions, yoga was significantly more studied in this population as compared to tai chi chuan, Pilates, and qigong. The participants and the outcomes of the majority of the studies reviewed were heterogeneous, and the population included was generally not selected for symptoms. Yoga was shown to improve fatigue in a few methodologically strong studies, providing reasonable evidence for benefit in this population. Improvements were also seen in sleep, anxiety, depression, distress, quality of life, and postchemotherapy nausea and vomiting in the yoga studies. Tai chi chuan, Pilates, and qigong were not studied sufficiently in breast cancer survivors in order to be implemented in clinical practice.
VAN Son, Jenny; Nyklíček, Ivan; Pop, Victor J M
, with respect to improving quality of life, dispositional mindfulness, and self-esteem of patients with diabetes; third, with regard to self-care and clinical outcomes; finally, a potential effect modification by clinical and personality characteristics will be explored. METHODS/DESIGN: The Diabetes......-report data will be collected on quality of life, dispositional mindfulness, self-esteem, self-care, and personality, while complications and glycemic control will be assessed from medical files and blood pressure will be measured. Group differences will be analyzed with repeated measures analysis...... of covariance.The study is supported by grants from the Dutch Diabetes Research Foundation and Tilburg University and has been approved by a medical ethics committee. DISCUSSION: It is hypothesized that emotional well-being, quality of life, dispositional mindfulness, self-esteem, self-care, and blood pressure...
Full Text Available BackgroundEmotion (dysregulation as well as the interventions for improving these difficulties are receiving a growing attention in the literature. The aim of the present paper was to conduct a systematic review about the efficacy of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs in both substance and behavioral addictions (BAs.MethodA literature search was conducted using Cochrane, PubMed, and Web of Science. Fifty-four randomized controlled trials published in English since 2009 to April 2017 were included into a narrative synthesis.ResultsMindfulness-based interventions were applied in a wide range of addictions, including substance use disorders (from smoking to alcohol, among others and BAs (namely, gambling disorder. These treatments were successful for reducing dependence, craving, and other addiction-related symptoms by also improving mood state and emotion dysregulation. The most commonly used MBI approaches were as follows: Mindfulness-Based Relapse Prevention, Mindfulness Training for Smokers, or Mindfulness-Oriented Recovery Enhancement, and the most frequent control group in the included studies was Treatment as Usual (TAU. The most effective approach was the combination of MBIs with TAU or other active treatments. However, there is a lack of studies showing the maintenance of the effect over time. Therefore, studies with longer follow-ups are needed.ConclusionThe revised literature shows support for the effectiveness of the MBIs. Future research should focus on longer follow-up assessments as well as on adolescence and young population, as they are a vulnerable population for developing problems associated with alcohol, drugs, or other addictions.
Johnson, Catherine; Burke, Christine; Brinkman, Sally; Wade, Tracey
Anxiety, depression and eating disorders show peak emergence during adolescence and share common risk factors. School-based prevention programs provide a unique opportunity to access a broad spectrum of the population during a key developmental window, but to date, no program targets all three conditions concurrently. Mindfulness has shown promising early results across each of these psychopathologies in a small number of controlled trials in schools, and therefore this study investigated its use in a randomised controlled design targeting anxiety, depression and eating disorder risk factors together for the first time. Students (M age 13.63; SD = .43) from a broad band of socioeconomic demographics received the eight lesson, once weekly.b ("Dot be") mindfulness in schools curriculum (N = 132) or normal lessons (N = 176). Anxiety, depression, weight/shape concerns and wellbeing were the primary outcome factors. Although acceptability measures were high, no significant improvements were found on any outcome at post-intervention or 3-month follow-up. Adjusted mean differences between groups at post-intervention were .03 (95% CI: -.06 to -.11) for depression, .01 (-.07 to -.09) for anxiety, .02 (-.05 to -.08) for weight/shape concerns, and .06 (-.08 to -.21) for wellbeing. Anxiety was higher in the mindfulness than the control group at follow-up for males, and those of both genders with low baseline levels of weight/shape concerns or depression. Factors that may be important to address for effective dissemination of mindfulness-based interventions in schools are discussed. Further research is required to identify active ingredients and optimal dose in mindfulness-based interventions in school settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bartels-Velthuis, Agna A.; Schroevers, Maya J.; van der Ploeg, Karen; Koster, Frits; Fleer, Joke; van den Brink, Erik
We developed a novel compassion-focused training (mindfulness-based compassionate living; MBCL) and examined its effects in a heterogeneous psychiatric outpatient population with regard to feasibility and changes in levels of depression, anxiety, mindfulness and compassion. The training consisted of
This study explored the potential of classroom-based meditation practice as a tool to facilitate learning. Moreover, the impact of meditation on cognitive engagement, mindfulness and academic performance of undergraduate college students was investigated. Additionally, the relationships between mindfulness and cognitive engagement, and between…
Dalen, Jeanne; Smith, Bruce W; Shelley, Brian M; Sloan, Anita Lee; Leahigh, Lisa; Begay, Debbie
The purpose of this study was to pilot a brief (6-week) group curriculum for providing mindfulness training to obese individuals, called Mindful Eating and Living (MEAL). Participants were recruited through a local Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA) in spring 2006. Data was collected at three time points: baseline, completion of intervention (6 weeks), and 3-month follow-up (12 weeks). Six weekly two-hour group classes (with two monthly follow-up classes). Content included training in mindfulness meditation, mindful eating, and group discussion, with emphasis on awareness of body sensations, emotions, and triggers to overeat. Key variables assessed included changes in weight, body-mass index (BMI), eating behavior, and psychological distress. In addition, physiological markers of cardiovascular risk were evaluated including C-reactive protein (hsCRP), adiponectin, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). Ten obese patients enrolled with a mean BMI of 36.9 kg/m² [SD±6.2]. The mean weight was 101 kg/m² and the mean age was 44 years (SD=8.7; range=31-62). Compared to baseline data, participants showed statistically significant increases in measures of mindfulness and cognitive restraint around eating, and statistically significant decreases in weight, eating disinhibition, binge eating, depression, perceived stress, physical symptoms, negative affect, and C-reactive protein. This study provides preliminary evidence that a eating focused mindfulness-based intervention can result in significant changes in weight, eating behavior, and psychological distress in obese individuals. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available It is difficult for obese (body mass index of more than 30 and overweight (body mass index of 25–30 people to reduce and maintain their weight. The aim of this case series was to examine the effectiveness of a new cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT program that combines mindfulness exercises (e.g., the raisin exercise and breathing exercises and an online intervention to prevent dropout and subsequent weight gain in overweight participants. This case series included three participants, for whom previous weight reduction programs had been unsuccessful. All participants completed the program (60-min, group sessions provided weekly for 9 weeks and an 18-month follow-up assessment. Results showed that all participants succeeded in losing weight (loss ranged from 5.30 to 8.88% of their total body weight. Although rebound weight gain is commonly observed in the first year following initial weight loss, the follow-up assessment showed that participants achieved further weight loss during the 18-month follow-up period. These results suggest that a CBT program that comprises mindfulness and an online intervention may be an effective method for weight loss and maintenance, and may prevent dropout in obese and overweight individuals.Trial Registration: This case series was registered at www.umin.ac.jp with identifier UMIN000029664.
Meditation experts try Virtual Reality Mindfulness: A pilot study evaluation of the feasibility and acceptability of Virtual Reality to facilitate mindfulness practice in people attending a Mindfulness conference.
Navarro-Haro, María V; López-Del-Hoyo, Yolanda; Campos, Daniel; Linehan, Marsha M; Hoffman, Hunter G; García-Palacios, Azucena; Modrego-Alarcón, Marta; Borao, Luis; García-Campayo, Javier
Regular mindfulness practice benefits people both mentally and physically, but many populations who could benefit do not practice mindfulness. Virtual Reality (VR) is a new technology that helps capture participants' attention and gives users the illusion of "being there" in the 3D computer generated environment, facilitating sense of presence. By limiting distractions from the real world, increasing sense of presence and giving people an interesting place to go to practice mindfulness, Virtual Reality may facilitate mindfulness practice. Traditional Dialectical Behavioral Therapy (DBT®) mindfulness skills training was specifically designed for clinical treatment of people who have trouble focusing attention, however severe patients often show difficulties or lack of motivation to practice mindfulness during the training. The present pilot study explored whether a sample of mindfulness experts would find useful and recommend a new VR Dialectical Behavioral Therapy (DBT®) mindfulness skills training technique and whether they would show any benefit. Forty four participants attending a mindfulness conference put on an Oculus Rift DK2 Virtual Reality helmet and floated down a calm 3D computer generated virtual river while listening to digitized DBT® mindfulness skills training instructions. On subjective questionnaires completed by the participants before and after the VR DBT® mindfulness skills training session, participants reported increases/improvements in state of mindfulness, and reductions in negative emotional states. After VR, participants reported significantly less sadness, anger, and anxiety, and reported being significantly more relaxed. Participants reported a moderate to strong illusion of going inside the 3D computer generated world (i.e., moderate to high "presence" in VR) and showed high acceptance of VR as a technique to practice mindfulness. These results show encouraging preliminary evidence of the feasibility and acceptability of using VR to
Meditation experts try Virtual Reality Mindfulness: A pilot study evaluation of the feasibility and acceptability of Virtual Reality to facilitate mindfulness practice in people attending a Mindfulness conference.
María V Navarro-Haro
Full Text Available Regular mindfulness practice benefits people both mentally and physically, but many populations who could benefit do not practice mindfulness. Virtual Reality (VR is a new technology that helps capture participants' attention and gives users the illusion of "being there" in the 3D computer generated environment, facilitating sense of presence. By limiting distractions from the real world, increasing sense of presence and giving people an interesting place to go to practice mindfulness, Virtual Reality may facilitate mindfulness practice. Traditional Dialectical Behavioral Therapy (DBT® mindfulness skills training was specifically designed for clinical treatment of people who have trouble focusing attention, however severe patients often show difficulties or lack of motivation to practice mindfulness during the training. The present pilot study explored whether a sample of mindfulness experts would find useful and recommend a new VR Dialectical Behavioral Therapy (DBT® mindfulness skills training technique and whether they would show any benefit. Forty four participants attending a mindfulness conference put on an Oculus Rift DK2 Virtual Reality helmet and floated down a calm 3D computer generated virtual river while listening to digitized DBT® mindfulness skills training instructions. On subjective questionnaires completed by the participants before and after the VR DBT® mindfulness skills training session, participants reported increases/improvements in state of mindfulness, and reductions in negative emotional states. After VR, participants reported significantly less sadness, anger, and anxiety, and reported being significantly more relaxed. Participants reported a moderate to strong illusion of going inside the 3D computer generated world (i.e., moderate to high "presence" in VR and showed high acceptance of VR as a technique to practice mindfulness. These results show encouraging preliminary evidence of the feasibility and acceptability
Meditation experts try Virtual Reality Mindfulness: A pilot study evaluation of the feasibility and acceptability of Virtual Reality to facilitate mindfulness practice in people attending a Mindfulness conference.
Navarro-Haro, María V.; López-del-Hoyo, Yolanda; Campos, Daniel; Linehan, Marsha M.; Hoffman, Hunter G.; García-Palacios, Azucena; Modrego-Alarcón, Marta; Borao, Luis; García-Campayo, Javier
Regular mindfulness practice benefits people both mentally and physically, but many populations who could benefit do not practice mindfulness. Virtual Reality (VR) is a new technology that helps capture participants’ attention and gives users the illusion of “being there” in the 3D computer generated environment, facilitating sense of presence. By limiting distractions from the real world, increasing sense of presence and giving people an interesting place to go to practice mindfulness, Virtual Reality may facilitate mindfulness practice. Traditional Dialectical Behavioral Therapy (DBT®) mindfulness skills training was specifically designed for clinical treatment of people who have trouble focusing attention, however severe patients often show difficulties or lack of motivation to practice mindfulness during the training. The present pilot study explored whether a sample of mindfulness experts would find useful and recommend a new VR Dialectical Behavioral Therapy (DBT®) mindfulness skills training technique and whether they would show any benefit. Forty four participants attending a mindfulness conference put on an Oculus Rift DK2 Virtual Reality helmet and floated down a calm 3D computer generated virtual river while listening to digitized DBT® mindfulness skills training instructions. On subjective questionnaires completed by the participants before and after the VR DBT® mindfulness skills training session, participants reported increases/improvements in state of mindfulness, and reductions in negative emotional states. After VR, participants reported significantly less sadness, anger, and anxiety, and reported being significantly more relaxed. Participants reported a moderate to strong illusion of going inside the 3D computer generated world (i.e., moderate to high “presence” in VR) and showed high acceptance of VR as a technique to practice mindfulness. These results show encouraging preliminary evidence of the feasibility and acceptability of
Manoj Kumar Sharma; Mahendra P Sharma; P Marimuthu
Background: Youth have shown indulgence in various high-risk behaviors and violent activities. Yoga-based approaches have been used for the management of psychological problems. The present work explores the role of mindfulness-based program in the management of aggression among youth. Materials and Methods: Sociodemographic information schedule, Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire, and World Health Organization quality of life were administered on 50 subjects in the age range of 18-25 ye...
Full Text Available Mindfulness programs for schools are popular. We systematically reviewed the evidence regarding the effects of school-based mindfulness interventions on psychological outcomes, using a comprehensive search strategy designed to locate both published and unpublished studies. Systematic searches in 12 databases were performed in August 2012. Further studies were identified via hand search and contact with experts. Two reviewers independently extracted the data, also selecting information about intervention programs (elements, structure etc., feasibility, and acceptance. Twenty-four studies were identified, of which 13 were published. Nineteen studies used a controlled design. In total, 1,348 students were instructed in mindfulness, with 876 serving as controls, ranging from grade 1 to 12. Overall effect sizes were Hedge's g = 0.40 between groups and g = 0.41 within groups (p < 0.0001. Between group effect sizes for domains were: cognitive performance g = 0.80, stress g = 0.39, resilience g = 0.36, (all p < 0.05, emotional problems g = 0.19 third person ratings g = 0.25 (both n.s.. All in all, mindfulness-based interventions in children and youths hold promise, particularly in relation to improving cognitive performance and resilience to stress. However, the diversity of study samples, variety in implementation and exercises, and wide range of instruments used require a careful and differentiated examination of data. There is great heterogeneity, many studies are underpowered, and measuring effects of Mindfulness in this setting is challenging. The field is nascent and recommendations will be provided as to how interventions and research of these interventions may proceed.
George, Mary Catherine; Wongmek, Arada; Kaku, Michelle; Nmashie, Alexandra; Robinson-Papp, Jessica
Treatment guidelines for chronic pain recommend nonpharmacologic modalities as part of a comprehensive management plan. Chronic pain is common among people living with HIV/AIDS, but there is little data to guide the choice of nonpharmacologic therapies in this complex population. We performed a mixed-methods feasibility study of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) versus health education control with 32 inner city, HIV-infected participants. Outcome measures included: the Brief Pain Inventory, Perceived Stress Scale, HIV Symptoms Index, autonomic function testing, and audiotaped focus groups. Post-intervention, participants reported modest improvements in pain measures and perceived stress, but no effect of group assignment was observed. At 3-month follow-up, 79% of MBSR participants were still practicing, and pain intensity was improved, whereas in the control group pain intensity had worsened. Qualitative analysis revealed a strong sense of community in both groups, but only MBSR was perceived as useful for relaxation and pain relief.
Imes, Suzanne A; Clance, Pauline Rose; Gailis, Andra T; Atkeson, Ellen
In the literature on chronic or life-threatening illness, there is an overriding emphasis on clients' psychological coping styles and how they relate to psychological functioning. By contrast, in our approach, we look at the subjective mind/body experiences that clients have of their illness and how their lives are impacted by their illness. As psychotherapists, we address their existential distress, pain, body experience, thoughts, and feelings, as well as their efforts to cope or find meaning in their illness. We summarize Gestalt/Existential therapy for chronic illness, illustrate the approach with three case-vignettes, and stress the importance of attending to each client's unique responses to illness. Copyright 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Jaffray, Linda; Bridgman, Heather; Stephens, Miranda
guidelines and a Narrative synthesis. Data sources: The Cochrane Library, CINAHL, MEDLINE, PsycINFO and EMBASE databases, searched from inception to February 2014 and references of included studies. Results: A total of 13 articles, reporting 10 studies (n = 432 participants) were included. All studies were......Background: There is a need to identify proactive, evidence-based interventions to support informal palliative caregivers. Mindfulness-based interventions, evidenced in the literature as providing physical and mental health benefits for diverse populations, may have application in the setting...... of palliative caregiving. Aim: To describe, evaluate and synthesise the peer-reviewed literature on the effects of mindfulness-based interventions for informal palliative caregivers. Design: A Systematic Literature Review according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta Analyses...
Mindfulness is a way to practice 'healthy mindedness' – a form of self help that has been the subject for research and development of a number of new significant self-technologies, therapy and meditation treatment methods. To be mindful can help people to feel more relaxed (serenity) and fully...... alive. The article aims at describing realistic expectations to the contribution of mindfulness to health education work in the field of mental health. The article discuss ways in which mindfulnesss is connected with established health education in the mental health promotion field, and ways in which...... mindfulness breaks with established health education. Interest in utilising mindfulness and mindfulness-inspired methods in health-education intervention has increased in recent years. Mindfulness is seen here as an answer to how to achieve more accepting presence, and thereby a healthier mental life...
Yaghubi, Mehdi; Zargar, Fatemeh; Akbari, Hossein
Impulsivity is one of the causes of relapse that can affect treatment outcomes. Studies have shown that addiction treatments can reduce impulsivity in drug-dependent individuals. Studies also have suggested that mindfulness is associated with impulsivity. However, no study has investigated the effectiveness of the mindfulness-based intervention on impulsivity in opioid-dependent individuals. This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of mindfulness-based relapse prevention (MBRP) with treatment as usual (TAU) in terms of impulsivity and relapse for methadone-treated patients. The present randomized controlled clinical trial was performed in Kashan, Iran, in 2015. The study population was opioid-dependent patients referred to Maintenance Treatment Centers. Seventy patients were selected by random sampling and were assigned in two groups (MBRP and TAU) randomly. The participants of two groups filled out Barratt impulsivity scale (BIS-11) as a pre-test and 8 weeks later as post-test and 2 months later as a follow-up. Both groups received methadone-therapy. The MBRP group received 8 sessions of group therapy, while the control group did not receive any group psychotherapy session. Finally, data from 60 patients were analyzed statistically. The MBRP group had decreased impulsivity significantly (P relapse frequency (P relapse probability. These findings suggest that MBRP is useful for opioid-dependent individuals with high-level impulsivity, and relapse prevention.
Jee, Sandra H; Couderc, Jean-Philippe; Swanson, Dena; Gallegos, Autumn; Hilliard, Cammie; Blumkin, Aaron; Cunningham, Kendall; Heinert, Sara
This article presents a pilot project implementing a mindfulness-based stress reduction program among traumatized youth in foster and kinship care over 10 weeks. Forty-two youth participated in this randomized controlled trial that used a mixed-methods (quantitative, qualitative, and physiologic) evaluation. Youth self-report measuring mental health problems, mindfulness, and stress were lower than anticipated, and the relatively short time-frame to teach these skills to traumatized youth may not have been sufficient to capture significant changes in stress as measured by electrocardiograms. Main themes from qualitative data included expressed competence in managing ongoing stress, enhanced self-awareness, and new strategies to manage stress. We share our experiences and recommendations for future research and practice, including focusing efforts on younger youth, and using community-based participatory research principles to promote engagement and co-learning. CLINICALTRIALS.GOV: Protocol Registration System ID NCT01708291. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nararro-Haro, Maria V; Hoffman, Hunter G; Garcia-Palacios, Azucena; Sampaio, Mariana; Alhalabi, Wadee; Hall, Karyn; Linehan, Marsha
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a severe mental disorder characterized by a dysfunctional pattern of affective instability, impulsivity, and disturbed interpersonal relationships. Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT®) is the most effective treatment for Borderline Personality Disorder, but demand for DBT® far exceeds existing clinical resources. Most patients with BPD never receive DBT®. Incorporating computer technology into the DBT® could help increase dissemination. Immersive Virtual Reality technology (VR) is becoming widely available to mainstream consumers. This case study explored the feasibility/clinical potential of using immersive virtual reality technology to enhance DBT® mindfulness skills training of a 32 year old female diagnosed with BPD. Prior to using VR, the patient experienced difficulty practicing DBT® mindfulness due to her emotional reactivity, and difficulty concentrating. To help the patient focus her attention, and to facilitate DBT® mindfulness skills learning, the patient looked into virtual reality goggles, and had the illusion of slowly "floating down" a 3D computer-generated river while listening to DBT® mindfulness training audios. Urges to commit suicide, urges to self harm, urges to quit therapy, urges to use substances, and negative emotions were all reduced after each VR mindfulness session and VR mindfulness was well accepted/liked by the patient. Although case studies are scientifically inconclusive by nature, results from this feasibility study were encouraging. Future controlled studies are needed to quantify whether VR-enhanced mindfulness training has long term benefits e.g., increasing patient acceptance and/or improving therapeutic outcome. Computerizing some of the DBT® skills treatment modules would reduce cost and increase dissemination.
Nararro-Haro, Maria V.; Hoffman, Hunter G.; Garcia-Palacios, Azucena; Sampaio, Mariana; Alhalabi, Wadee; Hall, Karyn; Linehan, Marsha
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a severe mental disorder characterized by a dysfunctional pattern of affective instability, impulsivity, and disturbed interpersonal relationships. Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT®) is the most effective treatment for Borderline Personality Disorder, but demand for DBT® far exceeds existing clinical resources. Most patients with BPD never receive DBT®. Incorporating computer technology into the DBT® could help increase dissemination. Immersive Virtual Reality technology (VR) is becoming widely available to mainstream consumers. This case study explored the feasibility/clinical potential of using immersive virtual reality technology to enhance DBT® mindfulness skills training of a 32 year old female diagnosed with BPD. Prior to using VR, the patient experienced difficulty practicing DBT® mindfulness due to her emotional reactivity, and difficulty concentrating. To help the patient focus her attention, and to facilitate DBT® mindfulness skills learning, the patient looked into virtual reality goggles, and had the illusion of slowly “floating down” a 3D computer-generated river while listening to DBT® mindfulness training audios. Urges to commit suicide, urges to self harm, urges to quit therapy, urges to use substances, and negative emotions were all reduced after each VR mindfulness session and VR mindfulness was well accepted/liked by the patient. Although case studies are scientifically inconclusive by nature, results from this feasibility study were encouraging. Future controlled studies are needed to quantify whether VR-enhanced mindfulness training has long term benefits e.g., increasing patient acceptance and/or improving therapeutic outcome. Computerizing some of the DBT® skills treatment modules would reduce cost and increase dissemination. PMID:27853437
Maria V Nararro-Haro
Full Text Available Borderline personality disorder (BPD is a severe mental disorder characterized by a dysfunctional pattern of affective instability, impulsivity, and disturbed interpersonal relationships. Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT® is the most effective treatment for Borderline Personality Disorder, but demand for DBT® far exceeds existing clinical resources. Most patients with BPD never receive DBT®. Incorporating computer technology into the DBT® could help increase dissemination. Immersive Virtual Reality technology (VR is becoming widely available to mainstream consumers. This case study explored the feasibility/clinical potential of using immersive virtual reality technology to enhance DBT® mindfulness skills training of a 32 year old female diagnosed with BPD. Prior to using VR, the patient experienced difficulty practicing DBT® mindfulness due to her emotional reactivity, and difficulty concentrating. To help the patient focus her attention, and to facilitate DBT® mindfulness skills learning, the patient looked into virtual reality goggles, and had the illusion of slowly floating down a 3D computer-generated river while listening to DBT® mindfulness training audios. Urges to suicide, self-harm, urges to quit therapy, urges to use substances, and negative emotions were all reduced after each VR mindfulness session. VR mindfulness was well accepted/liked by the patient, and increased positive emotions. Although case studies are scientifically inconclusive by nature, results from this feasibility study were encouraging. Future controlled studies are needed to quantify whether VR-enhanced mindfulness training has long term benefits e.g., increasing patient acceptance and/or improving therapeutic outcome. Computerizing some of the DBT® skills treatment modules would reduce cost and increase dissemination.
Full Text Available Brian E Goldhagen,1 Karen Kingsolver,2 Sandra S Stinnett,1 Jullia A Rosdahl1 1Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Family and Community Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USABackground and objective: Stress and burnout impact resident physicians. This prospective study tests the hypothesis that a mindfulness-based resilience intervention would decrease stress and burnout in residents.Methods: Resident physicians from the Departments of Family Medicine, Psychiatry, and Anesthesia at Duke University, Durham, NC, USA, participated in two or three 1-hour sessions of mindfulness-based resilience activities, which introduced mindful-awareness and included practical exercises for nurturing resilience. Anonymous surveys were distributed before (completed by 47 residents and after the intervention (both completed by 30 residents; a follow-up survey was distributed 1 month later (seven residents completed all three surveys. The survey included the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale, 21-question version (DASS-21, the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory, the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale, and ten questions from the Cognitive Failures Questionnaire.Results: At baseline, most residents’ scores were in the normal range with respect to stress; however, female residents had higher DASS-21 scores than male residents (31.7, females vs 18.4, males; P=0.002. Most residents’ burnout scores were in the abnormal range, both with respect to exhaustion (38/47 residents, subscore ≥2.25 and disengagement (37/47 residents, subscore ≥2.1. Higher perceived levels of stress correlated with the instruments. Analysis of the surveys before and after the intervention showed no significant short-term change in stress, burnout, mindful-awareness, or cognitive failure. There was a trend for females and post-medical school graduate year 1 and 2 (PGY1 and PGY2 residents to have a reduction in DASS-21 scores after intervention. There was also a trend of
O’Reilly, Gillian A.; Cook, Lauren; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Black, David S.
Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) targeting eating behaviors have gained popularity in recent years. A literature review was conducted to determine the effectiveness of MBIs for treating obesity-related eating behaviors, such as binge eating, emotional eating, and external eating. A search protocol was conducted using the online databases Google Scholar, PubMed, PsycINFO, and Ovid Healthstar. Articles were required to meet the following criteria to be included in this review: (1) describ...
Pallesen, Karen Johanne; Dahlgaard, Jesper; Fjorback, Lone
expression to pathological changes. We finally discuss the effects of mindfulness-based interventions on these changes. Can the damage be reversed? Stress-induced modulation of physiological processes may account for a group of poorly understood “functional” disorders, commonly labeled as “Medically...... Unexplained Symptoms”, “Functional Somatic Syndromes”, or “Bodily Distress Syndrome”. In our research clinic, we use Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction to treat patients with these disorders. The beneficial effects of the treatment have received increasing support from empirical studies, which indicate...... that mindfulness-based therapies mediate neuroplastic changes and changes in physiological stress mechanisms. We describe some of the experiences gained and results obtained using Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction in clinical treatment....
Pallesen, Karen Johanne; Dahlgaard, Jesper Ovesen; Fjorback, Lone Overby
track from epigenetic influences via altered gene expression to pathological changes. We finally discuss the effects of mindfulness-based interventions on these changes. Can the damage be reversed? Stress-induced modulation of physiological processes may account for a group of poorly understood...... “functional” disorders, commonly labeled as “Medically Unexplained Symptoms”, “Functional Somatic Syndromes”, or “Bodily Distress Syndrome”. In our research clinic, we use Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction to treat patients with these disorders. The beneficial effects of the treatment have received...... increasing support from empirical studies, which indicate that mindfulness-based therapies mediate neuroplastic changes and changes in physiological stress mechanisms. We describe some of the experiences gained and results obtained using Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction in clinical treatment. Keywords...
Grünenberg, Kristina; Walker, Hanne Kjærgaard; Knudsen, Jakob Skov
Meditation er ikke et nyt fænomen i det danske samfund. Det er den fokus som meditationsformen Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) har været genstand for i de senere år imidlertid. Inden for en sundhedssociologisk ramme undersøges nogle af grundene til, at netop MBSR er blevet populær både i...... en analyse af empirien, i hvilken forfatterne bl.a. argumenterer for, at opfattelsen af virkninger tilskrevet mindfulness meditation må ses i relation til to diskurser, som fremanalyseres og benævnes henholdsvis autenticitets- og e ektiviseringsdiskurserne. Disse diskurser udgør i artiklen...
Jensen, Mette Kold; Hansen, Tia G. B.; Vedsted-Hansen, Hanne
Endometriosis is an important cause of pain and fatigue in fertile women. The disease is often overlooked in general medical practice, and significant delay from onset of symptoms to diagnosis and treatment is common. Severe cases cause chronic pain and reduce work ability and quality of life even...... after optimal medical treatment. We suggest a psychological intervention based on mindfulness techniques for dealing with pain, and report results from a pilot study with 10 endometriosis patients with chronic pain problems. Participants’ level of distress was measured with self-report questionnaires...... until tested in a randomized controlled trial, it should be noted that our findings are in line with qualitative studies in women with endometriosis, and with data on the effects of mindfulness in other chronic pain domains. We encourage further studies on this kind of intervention for women...
Stokhof, Harry; de Vries, Bregje; Bastiaens, Theo; Martens, Rob
Student questioning is an important self-regulative strategy and has multiple benefits for teaching and learning science. Teachers, however, need support to align student questioning to curricular goals. This study tests a prototype of a principle-based scenario that supports teachers in guiding effective student questioning. In the scenario, mind mapping is used to provide both curricular structure as well as support for student questioning. The fidelity of structure and the process of implementation were verified by interviews, video data and a product collection. Results show that the scenario was relevant for teachers, practical in use and effective for guiding student questioning. Results also suggest that shared responsibility for classroom mind maps contributed to more intensive collective knowledge construction.
Adler-Neal, Adrienne L; Zeidan, Fadel
Fibromyalgia is a disorder characterized by widespread pain and a spectrum of psychological comorbidities, rendering treatment difficult and often a financial burden. Fibromyalgia is a complicated chronic pain condition that requires a multimodal therapeutic approach to optimize treatment efficacy. Thus, it has been postulated that mind-body techniques may prove fruitful in treating fibromyalgia. Mindfulness meditation, a behavioral technique premised on non-reactive sensory awareness, attenuates pain and improves mental health outcomes. However, the impact of mindfulness meditation on fibromyalgia-related outcomes has not been comprehensively characterized. The present review delineates the existing evidence supporting the effectiveness and hypothesized mechanisms of mindfulness meditation in treating fibromyalgia-related outcomes. Mindfulness-based interventions premised on cultivating acceptance, non-attachment, and social engagement may be most effective in decreasing fibromyalgia-related pain and psychological symptoms. Mindfulness-based therapies may alleviate fibromyalgia-related outcomes through multiple neural, psychological, and physiological processes. Mindfulness meditation may provide an effective complementary treatment approach for fibromyalgia patients, especially when combined with other reliable techniques (exercise; cognitive behavioral therapy). However, characterizing the specific analgesic mechanisms supporting mindfulness meditation is a critical step to fostering the clinical validity of this technique. Identification of the specific analgesic mechanisms supporting mindfulness-based pain relief could be utilized to better design behavioral interventions to specifically target fibromyalgia-related outcomes.
McConachie, Douglas Alexander James; McKenzie, Karen; Morris, Paul Graham; Walley, Robert M
Support staff working with individuals with intellectual disability (ID) and challenging behaviour experience high levels of work-related stress. Preliminary theoretical and experimental research has highlighted the potential suitability of acceptance and mindfulness approaches for addressing support staff stress. This study examines the effectiveness of an acceptance and mindfulness-based stress management workshop on the levels of psychological distress and well-being of support staff working with individuals with ID and challenging behaviour. Support staff (n=120) were randomly assigned to a workshop intervention condition (n=66) or to a waiting list control condition (n=54). Measurements were completed at three time points (pre-, post and 6 week follow-up) for: psychological distress, well-being, perceived work stressors, thought suppression, and emotional avoidance/psychological inflexibility. The intervention led to significantly greater reductions in distress in the intervention group than in the control group. This was largely maintained at 6 week follow-up. This effect was more pronounced amongst a subsample that had shown higher levels of psychological distress at baseline. Thought suppression was found to reduce significantly in the intervention group between post intervention and follow-up, although no significant change was found in well-being or experiential avoidance/psychological inflexibility. Overall, results demonstrated support for the effectiveness of an acceptance and mindfulness-based intervention in reducing distress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Noordali, Farhan; Cumming, Jennifer; Thompson, Janice L
This systematic review aimed to examine the effectiveness of Mindfulness-based interventions in reducing diabetes-related physiological and psychological symptoms in adults with types 1 and 2 diabetes. Five databases were systematically searched. A total of 11 studies satisfied the inclusion criteria. Mindfulness-based intervention effectiveness for physiological outcomes (glycaemic control and blood pressure) was mixed. Mindfulness-based interventions appear to have psychological benefits reducing depression, anxiety and distress symptoms across several studies. Studies' short-term follow-up periods may not allow sufficient time to observe physiological changes or illustrate Mindfulness-based interventions' potential long-term efficacy. More long-term studies that include a consistent, standardised set of outcome measures are required.
Rosenvinge, Jan H.; Tyssen, Reidar; Hanley, Adam; Garland, Eric
Longitudinal research investigating the enduring impact of mindfulness training is scarce. This study investigates the six-year effects of a seven-week mindfulness-based course, by studying intervention effects in the trajectory of dispositional mindfulness and coping skills, and the association between those change trajectories and subjective well-being at six-year follow-up. 288 Norwegian medical and psychology students participated in a randomized controlled trial. 144 received a 15-hour mindfulness course over seven weeks in the second or third semester with booster sessions twice yearly, while the rest continued their normal study curricula. Outcomes were subjective well-being, and dispositional mindfulness and coping assessed using the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire and the Ways of Coping Checklist. Analyses were performed for the intention-to-treat sample, using latent growth curve models. At six-year follow-up, students receiving mindfulness training reported increased well-being. Furthermore, they reported greater increases in the trajectory of dispositional mindfulness and problem-focused coping along with greater decreases in the trajectory of avoidance-focused coping. Increases in problem-focused coping predicted increases in well-being. These effects were found despite relatively low levels of adherence to formal mindfulness practice. The findings demonstrate the viability of mindfulness training in the promotion of well-being and adaptive coping, which could contribute to the quality of care given, and to the resilience and persistence of health care professionals. Trial registration: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00892138 PMID:29689081
Simpson, Robert; Simpson, Sharon; Wood, Karen; Mercer, Stewart W; Mair, Frances S
Objectives To study barriers and facilitators to implementation of mindfulness-based stress reduction for people with multiple sclerosis. Methods Qualitative interviews were used to explore barriers and facilitators to implementation of mindfulness-based stress reduction, including 33 people with multiple sclerosis, 6 multiple sclerosis clinicians and 2 course instructors. Normalisation process theory provided the underpinning conceptual framework. Data were analysed deductively using normalisation process theory constructs (coherence, cognitive participation, collective action and reflexive monitoring). Results Key barriers included mismatched stakeholder expectations, lack of knowledge about mindfulness-based stress reduction, high levels of comorbidity and disability and skepticism about embedding mindfulness-based stress reduction in routine multiple sclerosis care. Facilitators to implementation included introducing a pre-course orientation session; adaptations to mindfulness-based stress reduction to accommodate comorbidity and disability and participants suggested smaller, shorter classes, shortened practices, exclusion of mindful-walking and more time with peers. Post-mindfulness-based stress reduction booster sessions may be required, and objective and subjective reports of benefit would increase clinician confidence in mindfulness-based stress reduction. Discussion Multiple sclerosis patients and clinicians know little about mindfulness-based stress reduction. Mismatched expectations are a barrier to participation, as is rigid application of mindfulness-based stress reduction in the context of disability. Course adaptations in response to patient needs would facilitate uptake and utilisation. Rendering access to mindfulness-based stress reduction rapid and flexible could facilitate implementation. Embedded outcome assessment is desirable.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Childbirth is an important transitional life event, but one in which many women are dissatisfied stemming in part from a sense that labour is something that happens to them rather than with them. Promoting maternal satisfaction with childbirth means equipping women with communication and decision making skills that will enhance their ability to feel involved in their labour. Additionally, traditional antenatal education does not necessarily prepare expectant mothers and their birth support partner adequately for birth. Mindfulness-based interventions appear to hold promise in addressing these issues. Mindfulness-based Child Birth Education (MBCE was a pilot intervention combining skills-based antenatal education and Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction. Participant experiences of MBCE, both of expectant mothers and their birth support partners are the focus of this article. Methods A generic qualitative approach was utilised for this study. Pregnant women between 18 and 28 weeks gestation, over 18 years of age, nulliparous with singleton pregnancies and not taking medication for a diagnosed mental illness or taking illicit drugs were eligible to undertake the MBCE program which was run in a metropolitan city in Australia. Focus groups with 12 mothers and seven birth support partners were undertaken approximately four months after the completion of MBCE. Audio recordings of the groups were transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically using the method of constant comparison by all four authors independently and consensus on analysis and interpretation arrived at through team meetings. Results A sense of both ‘empowerment’ and ‘community’ were the essences of the experiences of MBCE both for mothers and their birth support partner and permeated the themes of ‘awakening my existing potential’ and ‘being in a community of like-minded parents’. Participants suggested that mindfulness techniques learned during MBCE
The devaluation and debilitation of education in general and vocational education and training (VET) in particular has been explored and described in recent years by a wide range of critical commentators. Education stands in dire need of therapy, and this paper suggests a therapeutic process for rejuvenating and enhancing VET through attention to…
Raja-Khan, Nazia; Agito, Katrina; Shah, Julie; Stetter, Christy M; Gustafson, Theresa S; Socolow, Holly; Kunselman, Allen R; Reibel, Diane K; Legro, Richard S
To evaluate the feasibility and cardiometabolic effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) in women with overweight or obesity. Eighty-six women with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m 2 were randomized to 8 weeks of MBSR or health education and followed for 16 weeks. The primary outcome was the Toronto Mindfulness Scale. Secondary outcomes included the Perceived Stress Scale-10, fasting glucose, and blood pressure. Compared to health education, the MBSR group demonstrated significantly improved mindfulness at 8 weeks (mean change from baseline, 4.5 vs. -1.0; P = 0.03) and significantly decreased perceived stress at 16 weeks (-3.6 vs. -1.3, P = 0.01). In the MBSR group, there were significant reductions in fasting glucose at 8 weeks (-8.9 mg/dL, P = 0.02) and at 16 weeks (-9.3 mg/dL, P = 0.02) compared to baseline. Fasting glucose did not significantly improve in the health education group. There were no significant changes in blood pressure, weight, or insulin resistance in the MBSR group. In women with overweight or obesity, MBSR significantly reduces stress and may have beneficial effects on glucose. Future studies demonstrating long-term cardiometabolic benefits of MBSR will be key for establishing MBSR as an effective tool in the management of obesity. © 2017 The Authors. Obesity published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Obesity Society (TOS).
Fulwiler, Carl; Brewer, Judson A.; Sinnott, Sinead; Loucks, Eric B.
Obesity affects more than one-third of U.S. adults and is a major cause of preventable morbidity and mortality, primarily from cardiovascular disease. Traditional behavioral interventions for weight loss typically focus on diet and exercise habits and often give little attention to the role of stress and emotions in the initiation and maintenance of unhealthy behaviors, which may account for their modest results and considerable variability in outcomes. Stress eating and emotional eating are increasingly recognized as important targets of weight loss interventions. Mindfulness-based interventions were specifically developed to promote greater self-efficacy in coping with stress and negative emotions, and appear to be effective for a variety of conditions. In recent years researchers have begun to study mindfulness interventions for weight loss and CVD risk management. This review describes the rationale for the use of mindfulness in interventions for weight loss and CVD risk management, summarizes the research to date, and suggests priorities for future research. PMID:28405260
Levoy, Emily; Lazaridou, Asimina; Brewer, Judson; Fulwiler, Carl
Emotional eating is an important predictor of weight loss and weight regain after weight loss. This two part study's primary aim was to explore changes in emotional eating in a general population of individuals taking the Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) program, with a secondary aim to explore whether changes in mindfulness predicted changes in emotional eating. Self-reported survey data exploring these questions were collected before and after the intervention for two sequential studies (Study 1 and Study 2). While there were no control groups for either study, in both studies emotional eating scores following the MBSR were significantly lower than scores prior to taking the MBSR (p mindfulness were correlated with changes in emotional eating (r = 0.317, p = 0.004). These results suggest that MBSR may be an effective intervention for emotional eating, and that further research is warranted to examine effects on weight loss and maintenance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Omidi, Abdollah; Zargar, Fatemeh
Programs to improve the pain and health status in illnesses with pain such as headache are still in their infancy. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) is a new psychotherapy that appears to be effective in treating chronic pain. This study evaluated efficacy of MBSR in improving pain severity and mindful awareness in patients with tension headache. This study was a randomized controlled clinical trial that was conducted in 2012 in Shahid Beheshti Hospital of Kashan City. Sixty patients who were diagnosed with tension-type headache according to the International Headache Classification Subcommittee were randomly assigned to treatment as usual (TAU) or MBSR groups. The MBSR group received eight weekly treatments. Any session lasted 120 minutes. The sessions were based on MBSR protocol. Diary scale for measuring headache and Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) were administered at pretreatment, and posttreatment, and three-month follow-up in both groups. The data was analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance. The mean of pain severity was 7.36 ± 1.25 before intervention that was significantly reduced to 5.62 ± 1.74 and 6.07 ± 1.08 after the intervention and follow-up (P headache. It appears that MBSR is an effective psychotherapy for treatment of patients with tension headache.
Guo, Sophie Huey-Ming; Lee, Chia-Wen; Tsao, Chien-Ming; Hsing, Hung-Chun
Social media, a communication tool, is increasingly used to facilitate the engagement of experts (such as a health provider) and other participants in a wide range of programs. However, social media requires study to elucidate its applications under women health-related conditions. This work develops a social media-based mindful yoga program for pregnant women, and delivers media content by ways of Facebook platform and DVD. The results of pilot testing revealed users' preference of using Facebook platform. Developing experience and uses' responses can provide valuable information for further implement socialmedia based interventions.
Shore, Robert; Strauss, Clara; Cavanagh, Kate; Hayward, Mark; Ellett, Lyn
Paranoia is common and distressing in the general population and can impact on health, emotional well-being and social functioning, such that effective interventions are needed. Brief online mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) have been shown to reduce symptoms of anxiety and depression in non-clinical samples; however, at present, there is no research investigating whether they can reduce paranoia. The current study explored whether a brief online MBI increased levels of mindfulness and reduced levels of paranoia in a non-clinical population. The mediating effect of mindfulness on any changes in paranoia was also investigated. One hundred and ten participants were randomly allocated to either a 2-week online MBI including 10 min of daily guided mindfulness practice or to a waitlist control condition. Measures of mindfulness and paranoia were administered at baseline, post-intervention and 1-week follow-up. Participants in the MBI group displayed significantly greater reductions in paranoia compared to the waitlist control group. Mediation analysis demonstrated that change in mindfulness skills (specifically the observe, describe and non-react facets of the FFMQ) mediated the relationship between intervention type and change in levels of paranoia. This study provides evidence that a brief online MBI can significantly reduce levels of paranoia in a non-clinical population. Furthermore, increases in mindfulness skills from this brief online MBI can mediate reductions in non-clinical paranoia. The limitations of the study are discussed.
de Munter, J.P.J.M.; Lee, C.; Wolters, E.C.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a synucleinopathy-induced chronic progressive neurodegenerative disorder, worldwide affecting about 5 million humans. As of yet, actual therapies are symptomatic, and neuroprotective strategies are an unmet need. Due to their capability to transdifferentiate, to immune
Elsawy, Amr S; Eldawlatly, Seif; Taher, Mohamed; Aly, Gamal M
Practical application of Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs) requires that the whole BCI system be portable. The mobility of BCI systems involves two aspects: making the electroencephalography (EEG) recording devices portable, and developing software applications with low computational complexity to be able to run on low computational-power devices such as tablets and smartphones. This paper addresses the development of MindEdit; a P300-based text editor for Android-based devices. Given the limited resources of mobile devices and their limited computational power, a novel ensemble classifier is utilized that uses Principal Component Analysis (PCA) features to identify P300 evoked potentials from EEG recordings. PCA computations in the proposed method are channel-based as opposed to concatenating all channels as in traditional feature extraction methods; thus, this method has less computational complexity compared to traditional P300 detection methods. The performance of the method is demonstrated on data recorded from MindEdit on an Android tablet using the Emotiv wireless neuroheadset. Results demonstrate the capability of the introduced PCA ensemble classifier to classify P300 data with maximum average accuracy of 78.37±16.09% for cross-validation data and 77.5±19.69% for online test data using only 10 trials per symbol and a 33-character training dataset. Our analysis indicates that the introduced method outperforms traditional feature extraction methods. For a faster operation of MindEdit, a variable number of trials scheme is introduced that resulted in an online average accuracy of 64.17±19.6% and a maximum bitrate of 6.25bit/min. These results demonstrate the efficacy of using the developed BCI application with mobile devices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Audrey Ballantine, Manuela Cirilli, Evangelia Dimovasili, Manjit Dosanjh, Seamus Hegarty
The European hadron therapy community gathered in Stockholm from 3 to 5 September for the annual ENLIGHT workshops. Three of the four EC-funded projects born under the umbrella of ENLIGHT (see box) were discussed in the prestigious Nobel Forum at the Karolinska Institutet. Souvenir photo from the ENLIGHT workshops On its second birthday, the PARTNER Initial Training Network was especially under the spotlight, as the European Commission conducted a formal project review bringing together the institutes, companies and young researchers involved. The 21 PARTNER researchers experienced the thrill of presenting their work in this privileged setting. During the coffee breaks, they joked about this being their only chance in life to speak in the Nobel Forum – but who knows what these brilliant young minds will achieve! They certainly impressed the European Commission’s Project Officer Gianluca Coluccio and Expert Reviewer Kaisa Hellevuo, who stated that PARTNER is a showcase proj...
Hawley, Lance L; Padesky, Christine A; Hollon, Steven D; Mancuso, Enza; Laposa, Judith M; Brozina, Karen; Segal, Zindel V
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for depression is highly effective. An essential element of this therapy involves acquiring and utilizing CBT skills; however, it is unclear whether the type of CBT skill used is associated with differential symptom alleviation. Outpatients (N = 356) diagnosed with a primary mood disorder received 14 two-hour group sessions of CBT for depression, using the Mind Over Mood protocol. In each session, patients completed the Beck Depression Inventory and throughout the week they reported on their use of CBT skills: behavioral activation (BA), cognitive restructuring (CR), and core belief (CB) strategies. Bivariate latent difference score (LDS) longitudinal analyses were used to examine patterns of differential skill use and subsequent symptom change, and multigroup LDS analyses were used to determine whether longitudinal associations differed as a function of initial depression severity. Higher levels of BA use were associated with a greater subsequent decrease in depressive symptoms for patients with mild to moderate initial depression symptoms relative to those with severe symptoms. Higher levels of CR use were associated with a greater subsequent decrease in depressive symptoms, whereas higher levels of CB use were followed by a subsequent increase in depressive symptoms, regardless of initial severity. Results indicated that the type of CBT skill used is associated with differential patterns of subsequent symptom change. BA use was associated with differential subsequent change as a function of initial severity (patients with less severe depression symptoms demonstrated greater symptom improvement), whereas CR use was associated with symptom alleviation and CB use with an increase in subsequent symptoms as related to initial severity. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Witkiewitz, Katie; Bowen, Sarah
Objective A strong relation between negative affect and craving has been demonstrated in laboratory and clinical studies, with depressive symptomatology showing particularly strong links to craving and substance abuse relapse. Mindfulness-Based Relapse Prevention (MBRP), shown to be efficacious for reduction of substance use, uses mindfulness-based practices to teach alternative responses to emotional discomfort and lessen the conditioned response of craving in the presence of depressive symptoms. The goal of the current study was to examine the relation between measures of depressive symptoms, craving, and substance use following MBRP. Methods Individuals with substance use disorders (N=168; age 40.45, (SD=10.28); 36.3% female; 46.4% nonwhite) were recruited after intensive stabilization, then randomly assigned to either eight weekly sessions of MBRP or a treatment-as-usual control group. Approximately 73% of the sample was retained at the final four-month follow-up assessment. Results Results confirmed a moderated-mediation effect, whereby craving mediated the relation between depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory) and substance use (Time Line Follow Back) among the treatment-as-usual group, but not among MBRP participants. Specifically, MBRP attenuated the relation between postintervention depressive symptoms and craving (Penn Alcohol Craving Scale) two months following the intervention (f2=.21). This moderation effect predicted substance use four-months following the intervention (f2=.18). Conclusion MBRP appears to influence cognitive and behavioral responses to depressive symptoms, partially explaining reductions in postintervention substance use among the MBRP group. Although preliminary, the current study provides evidence for the value of incorporating mindfulness practice into substance abuse treatment and identifies one potential mechanism of change following MBRP. PMID:20515211
Kuhlmann, S M; Huss, M; Bürger, A; Hammerle, F
High prevalence rates of psychological distress in medical training and later professional life indicate a need for prevention. Different types of intervention were shown to have good effects, but little is known about the relative efficacy of different types of stress management interventions, and methodological limitations have been reported. In order to overcome some of these limitations, the present study aimed at evaluating the effect of a specifically developed mindfulness-based stress prevention training for medical students (MediMind) on measures of distress, coping and psychological morbidity. We report on a prospective randomized controlled trial with three study conditions: experimental treatment (MediMind), standard treatment (Autogenic Training) and a control group without treatment. The sample consisted of medical or dental students in the second or eighth semester. They completed self-report questionnaires at baseline, after the training and at one year follow-up. Distress (Trier Inventory for the Assessment of Chronic Stress, TICS) was assessed as the primary outcome and coping (Brief COPE) as a co-primary outcome. Effects on the psychological morbidity (Brief Symptom Inventory, BSI) as a secondary outcome were expected one year after the trainings. Initially, N = 183 students were randomly allocated to the study groups. At one year follow-up N = 80 could be included into the per-protocol analysis: MediMind (n =31), Autogenic Training (n = 32) and control group (n = 17). A selective drop-out for students who suffered more often from psychological symptoms was detected (p = .020). MANCOVA's on TICS and Brief COPE revealed no significant interaction effects. On the BSI, a significant overall interaction effect became apparent (p = .002, η2partial = .382), but post hoc analyses were not significant. Means of the Global Severity Index (BSI) indicated that MediMind may contribute to a decrease in psychological morbidity. Due
Martires, Joanne; Zeidler, Michelle
Insomnia is the most common reported sleep disorder with limited treatment options including pharmacotherapy and cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia. Pharmacotherapy can be complicated by tolerance and significant side-effects and cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia providers are limited in number. This article reviews mindfulness meditation as an additional therapy for insomnia. Both mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) and mindfulness-based therapy for insomnia (MBTI) have been studied in the treatment of insomnia. Randomized controlled studies of MBSR and MBTI have shown overall reduction in sleep latency and total wake time and increase in total sleep time after mindfulness therapy using both patient reported outcome and quantitative measures of sleep. Mindfulness techniques have been shown to be well accepted by patients with long-lasting effects. A three-arm randomized study with MBSR, MBTI, and self-monitoring showed similar improvement in insomnia between the MBSR and MBTI groups, with possibly longer duration of efficacy in the MBTI group. Recent data show that MBTI is also an effective and accepted treatment for insomnia in older patients. Increasing evidence shows that mindfulness meditation, delivered either via MBSR or MBTI, can be successfully used for the treatment of insomnia with good patient acceptance and durable results.
Martinez, Michelle E; Kearney, David J; Simpson, Tracy; Felleman, Benjamin I; Bernardi, Nicole; Sayre, George
Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) is associated with reduced depressive symptoms, quality of life improvements, behavioral activation, and increased acceptance among veterans. This study was conducted to increase the reach and impact of a veterans' MBSR program by identifying barriers to enrollment and participation to inform modifications in program delivery. Verify or challenge suspected barriers, and identify previously unrecognized barriers, to enrollment and participation in MBSR among veterans. A retrospective qualitative analysis of semistructured interviews. VA Puget Sound Health Care System (Seattle, WA). 68 interviewed, and 48 coded and analyzed before reaching saturation. Content analysis of semistructured interviews. Of the participants who enrolled, most (78%) completed the program and described MBSR positively. Veterans identified insufficient or inaccurate information, scheduling issues, and an aversion to groups as barriers to enrollment. Participants who discontinued the program cited logistics (e.g., scheduling and medical issues), negative reactions to instructors or group members, difficulty understanding the MBSR practice purposes, and struggling to find time for the practices as barriers to completion. Other challenges (cohort dynamics, teacher impact on group structure and focus, instructor lack of military service, and physical and psychological challenges) did not impede participation; we interpreted these as growth-facilitating challenges. Common conditions among veterans (chronic pain, posttraumatic stress disorder, and depression) were not described as barriers to enrollment or completion. Women-only MBSR groups and tele-health MBSR groups could improve accessibility to MBSR for veterans by addressing barriers such as commute anxiety, time restrictions, and an aversion to mixed gender groups among women. Educating MBSR teachers about veteran culture and health challenges faced by veterans, adding psychoeducation materials that
Lopes, Shirlene Aparecida; Vannucchi, Bruna Pesce; Demarzo, Marcelo; Cunha, Ângelo Geraldo José; Nunes, Maria do Patrocínio Tenório
Chronic pain is a prevalent disorder in nursing workers worldwide. Several studies have proposed measures to mitigate this critical scenario. Mindfulness-based interventions (MBI) have been found to have promising results in the treatment of this disorder. To quantify the effectiveness of an adapted mindfulness program (AMP) in the management of musculoskeletal pain (MSP) in nursing technicians of a Brazilian university hospital. This study was a clinical, prospective, open, repeated measures trial, with data collection between January and July 2015. Brazilian university hospital. Participants/Subjects: Sixty-four female nursing technicians with a mean age of 47.01 years (standard deviation = 9.50) with chronic pain symptoms. Sixty-four female nursing technicians with a mean age of 47.01 years (standard deviation = 9.50) and MSP participated in this prospective study. Before the intervention (T0), scores of anxiety, depression, mindfulness, musculoskeletal complaints, pain catastrophizing, self-compassion, and perception of quality of life were quantified. These scores were reevaluated after 8 weeks (T1) and 12 weeks (T2) of weekly AMP sessions (60 minutes each). The variables were evaluated by analysis of variance for repeated measures, followed by the Bonferroni test. AMP reduced the scores of musculoskeletal symptoms, anxiety, depression, and pain catastrophizing (p < .001). A significant increase was identified in self-compassion scores and perception of quality of life in the physical, psychological, and overall assessment (p ≤ .04). Positive effects of AMP occurred at T1 and remained unchanged at T2. AMP contributed to a reduction in painful symptoms and improved the quality of life of nursing workers, with a lasting effect until the 20th week of follow-up, indicating utility as an effective strategy for the management of MSP in the group studied. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights
Zellner Keller, Brigitte; Singh, Nirbhay N; Winton, Alan S W
A number of cognitive interventions have been developed to enhance cognitive functioning in the growing population of the elderly. We describe the Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Approach for Seniors (MBCAS), a new training program designed especially for seniors. It was conceived in the context of self-development for seniors who wish to enhance their relationship with their inner and outer selves in order to navigate their aging process more easily and fluently. Physical and psychosocial problems related to aging, as well as some temporal issues, were taken into account in developing this program. Unlike clinically oriented mindfulness-based programs, which are generally delivered during an 8-week period, the MBCAS training program is presented over a period of 8 months. The main objectives of this program are to teach seniors to observe current experiences with nonjudgmental awareness, to identify automatic behaviors or reactions to current experiences that are potentially nonadaptive, and to enhance and reinforce positive coping with typical difficulties that they face in their daily lives. Details of the program development and initial implementation are presented, with suggestions for evaluating the program's effectiveness.
Coatsworth, J. Douglas; Duncan, Larissa G.; Berrena, Elaine; Bamberger, Katharine T.; Loeschinger, Daniel; Greenberg, Mark T.; Nix, Robert L.
Teaching mindfulness to parents as well as adolescents through a family-centered intervention approach can have a positive impact on the parent-youth relationship. In mindful parenting, caretakers are aware of their own feelings and emotions, and interact with their adolescents in a mindful way by demonstrating emotional awareness, attentive…
Quintana Hernández, Domingo Jesús; Miró Barrachina, María Teresa; Ibáñez Fernández, Ignacio; del Pino, Angelo Santana; García Rodríguez, Javie r; Hernández, Jaime Rojas
The purpose of this research was to assess effects of a mindfulness based neuropsychological intervention on the clinical course of Alzheimer's disease. A two year randomized and double blind clinical trial was conducted on 127 probable Alzheimer's disease patients, according to NINCDS-ADRDA scale. Patients were grouped into three experimental groups (cognitive stimulation, progressive muscular relaxation, and mindfulness) plus a control group. All participants were receiving donepezil. Cognitive skills were assessed with CAMCOG and MMSE, functional area with RDRS-2, and NPI was used for psychopathology screening. Three treatment sessions per week were carried out for two years, and follow up measurements were taken every six months. The global cognitive function, functionality and behavioral disorders measurements indicated that patients from the experimental group based on mindfulness were stable during the two years, while patients from the control group, as well as the other experimental groups, showed a mild but significant worsening of their mental capacities. The mindfulness based neuropsychological program showed better cognitive and functional stability, as well as significant improvement in the psychopathological condition of mild to moderate Alzheimer' patients. These results support the idea that a mindfulness based intervention can produce a clinically relevant improvement in the treatment of dementia. More research is needed to confirm these data. Copyright © 2013 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Liposome-encapsulated chemotherapeutics have been used in the treatment of a variety of cancers and are feasible for use as mono-therapeutics as well as for combination therapy in conjunction with other modalities. Despite widespread use of liposomal drugs in cancer patient care, insufficient drug...... biomolecules. By modulating the liposomal membrane, liposomes can become sensitive towards enzymatically-driven destabilization and/or functionalization, thereby allowing control of the release of encapsulated therapeutics within the diseased tissue upon intrinsic stimulation from tumor-associated enzymes...... in tumor-bearing mice.The safety and efficacy of sPLA2-sensitive liposomal L-OHP was assessed in sPLA2-deficient FaDu hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma and sPLA2-expressing Colo205 colorectal adenocarcinoma. Also, the feasibility of multimodal cancer therapy employing L-OHP encapsulated in MMP...
Trowbridge, Kelly; Mische Lawson, Lisa
The use of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) is well documented in the mental health, medical, and education literature. There is minimal research on the use of mindfulness with social workers. As demonstrated in other professional and helping fields, mindfulness may enhance clinical skills, reduce burnout, and increase job satisfaction among social workers. In the health care field mindfulness appears integral to patient and family relationships and personal resilience. The evolving and expanding role of hospital social workers may lead to increased work stress and greater demands from both the medical system and patients and families. Research with medical providers, such as physicians and nurses, suggests mindfulness may help in reducing stress, enhancing relationships, and fostering the self-reflection required to provide patient-centered care. We systematically reviewed the existing literature to begin understanding both mindfulness qualities and practices and the effectiveness of MBIs among social workers as well as the relationship of mindfulness to patient-centered care.
Innes, Kim E; Selfe, Terry Kit; Alexander, Gina K; Taylor, Ann Gill
The study objectives were to ascertain whether a novel educational film class is an acceptable and feasible comparison group for a randomized controlled trial regarding the effects of an active mind-body therapy on cardiovascular disease risk in postmenopausal women. Seventy-five (75) participants attended a baseline assessment visit and were randomly assigned to either a yoga group or an educational film (control) group. Both groups attended two 90-minute classes/week for 8 weeks, followed by a second assessment visit. Those not attending the second assessment were classified as dropouts. Over 60 films covering a range of topics relevant to the study population were evaluated; 15 were selected by consensus of at least 2 researchers and 1 layperson. Each film session followed the same format: an informal greeting period, viewing of the film, and a 15-minute postfilm discussion. To determine acceptability and feasibility of the film class, potential between-group differences in dropout and attendance were examined, and participant feedback given during class and on end-of-study questionnaires were evaluated. The relation between group assignment and dropout was not significant (χ(2) [1, N = 75] = 0.14, p = 0.71). One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated no significant between-group difference in number of classes attended for the yoga (X = 13.67 ± 3.10) versus film group (13.26 ± 1.97), F(1,63) = 0.39, p = 0.53). Participant feedback regarding the film program was positive. These findings support the feasibility and acceptability of this educational film control. Easy to standardize and tailor to a variety of populations, this film program may offer an attractive alternative to the more traditional educational control.
Zazulak, Joyce; Sanaee, May; Frolic, Andrea; Knibb, Nicole; Tesluk, Eve; Hughes, Edward; Grierson, Lawrence E M
Empathy is an essential attribute for medical professionals. Yet, evidence indicates that medical learners' empathy levels decline dramatically during medical school. Training in evidence-based observation and mindfulness has the potential to bolster the acquisition and demonstration of empathic behaviours for medical learners. In this prospective cohort study, we explore the impact of a course in arts-based visual literacy and mindfulness practice ( Art of Seeing ) on the empathic response of medical residents engaged in obstetrics and gynaecology and family medicine training. Following this multifaceted arts-based programme that integrates the facilitated viewing of art and dance, art-making, and mindfulness-based practices into a practitioner-patient context, 15 resident trainees completed the previously validated Interpersonal Reactivity Index, Compassion, and Mindfulness Scales. Fourteen participants also participated in semistructured interviews that probed their perceived impacts of the programme on their empathic clinical practice. The results indicated that programme participants improved in the Mindfulness Scale domains related to self-confidence and communication relative to a group of control participants following the arts-based programme. However, the majority of the psychometric measures did not reveal differences between groups over the duration of the programme. Importantly, thematic qualitative analysis of the interview data revealed that the programme had a positive impact on the participants' perceived empathy towards colleagues and patients and on the perception of personal and professional well-being. The study concludes that a multifaceted arts-based curriculum focusing on evidence-based observation and mindfulness is a useful tool in bolstering the empathic response, improving communication, and fostering professional well-being among medical residents. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already
Lai, Chien-Han; Wu, Yu-Te; Hou, Yuh-Ming
The functional network analysis of whole brain is an emerging field for research in depression. We initiated this study to investigate which subnetwork is significantly altered within the functional connectome in major depressive disorder (MDD). The study enrolled 52 first-episode medication-naïve patients with MDD and 40 controls for functional network analysis. All participants received the resting-state functional imaging using a 3-Tesla magnetic resonance scanner. After preprocessing, we calculated the connectivity matrix of functional connectivity in whole brain for each subject. The network-based statistics of connectome was used to perform group comparisons between patients and controls. The correlations between functional connectivity and clinical parameters were also performed. MDD patients had significant alterations in the network involving "theory of mind" regions, such as the left precentral gyrus, left angular gyrus, bilateral rolandic operculums and left inferior frontal gyrus. The center node of significant network was the left angular gyrus. No significant correlations of functional connectivity within the subnetwork and clinical parameters were noted. Functional connectivity of "theory of mind" subnetwork may be the core issue for pathophysiology in MDD. In addition, the center role of parietal region should be emphasized in future study. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Russell, Lahiru; Ugalde, Anna; Milne, Donna; Krishnasamy, Meinir; O Seung Chul, Eric; Austin, David W; Chambers, Richard; Orellana, Liliana; Livingston, Patricia M
People with a melanoma diagnosis are at risk of recurrence, developing a new primary or experiencing disease progression. Previous studies have suggested that fear of a cancer recurrence is clinically relevant in this group of patients and, if not addressed, can lead to distress. Mindfulness-based interventions have been shown to alleviate symptoms of anxiety and depression among various groups of cancer patients. Online mindfulness-based interventions have the potential to reach people unable to attend face-to-face interventions due to limitations such as cancer-related illness, transportation or time constraints. This study aims to (1) examine whether individuals with a melanoma diagnosis are willing to participate and adhere to a 6-week online mindfulness-based intervention and (2) explore potential benefits of the program on fear of cancer recurrence, worries, rumination, perceived stress and trait mindfulness to inform the design of a clinical trial. This is a single-site randomised controlled trial of a feasibility study. Seventy-five participants with stage 2c or 3 melanoma will be recruited from a melanoma outpatient clinic and randomised (2:1) either to an online mindfulness-based program (intervention) or to usual care (control). The intervention is a 6-week program specifically developed for this study. It consists of videos describing the concept of mindfulness, short daily guided meditation practices (5-10 min), automated meditation reminders and instructions for applying mindfulness in daily life to enhance wellbeing. All participants will complete questionnaires at baseline and at 6-week post-randomisation. Participants in the control group will be given access to the online program at the end of the study. Primary outcomes are overall recruitment; retention; extent of questionnaire completion; and usability and acceptability of, and adherence to, the program. The secondary outcomes are fear of cancer recurrence, worries, rumination, perceived
Rationale and study protocol of the EASY Minds (Encouraging Activity to Stimulate Young Minds) program: cluster randomized controlled trial of a primary school-based physical activity integration program for mathematics
Riley, Nicholas; Lubans, David R; Holmes, Kathryn; Morgan, Philip J
Background Novel strategies are required to increase school-based physical activity levels of children. Integrating physical activity in mathematics lessons may lead to improvements in students’ physical activity levels as well as enjoyment, engagement and learning. The primary aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of a curriculum-based physical activity integration program known as EASY Minds (Encouraging Activity to Stimulate Young Minds) on children’s daily school time physical activ...
Bogels, S.M.; Lehtonen, A.; Restifo, K.
Mindfulness is a form of meditation based on the Buddhist tradition, which has been used over the last two decades to successfully treat a multitude of mental health problems. Bringing mindfulness into parenting ("mindful parenting") is one of the applications of mindfulness. Mindful parenting
Full Text Available Codie R Rouleau,1 Sheila N Garland,2 Linda E Carlson3 1Department of Psychology, Faculty of Arts, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada; 2Department of Family Medicine and Community Health, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 3Department of Oncology, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada Abstract: Research on the use of mindfulness-based stress reduction and related mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs in cancer care has proliferated over the past decade. MBIs have aimed to facilitate physical and emotional adjustment to life with cancer through the cultivation and practice of mindfulness (ie, purposeful, nonjudgmental, moment-to-moment awareness. This descriptive review highlights three categories of outcomes that have been evaluated in MBI research with cancer patients – namely, symptom reduction, positive psychological growth, and biological outcomes. We also examine the clinical relevance of each targeted outcome, while describing recently published original studies to highlight novel applications of MBIs tailored to individuals with cancer. Accumulating evidence suggests that participation in a MBI contributes to reductions in psychological distress, sleep disturbance, and fatigue, and promotes personal growth in areas such as quality of life and spirituality. MBIs may also influence markers of immune function, hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis regulation, and autonomic nervous system activity, though it remains unclear whether these biological changes translate to clinically important health benefits. We conclude by discussing methodological limitations of the extant literature, and implications of matching MBIs to the needs and preferences of cancer patients. Overall, the growing popularity of MBIs in cancer care must be balanced against scientific evidence for their impact on specific clinical outcomes. Keywords: mindfulness-based intervention
van Emmerik, Arnold A P; Berings, Fieke; Lancee, Jaap
Although several hundreds of apps are available that (cl)aim to promote mindfulness, only a few methodologically sound studies have evaluated the efficacy of these apps. This randomized waiting-list controlled trial therefore tested the hypothesis that one such app (the VGZ Mindfulness Coach ) can achieve immediate and long-term improvements of mindfulness, quality of life, general psychiatric symptoms, and self-actualization. One hundred ninety-one experimental participants received the VGZ Mindfulness Coach, which offers 40 mindfulness exercises and background information about mindfulness without any form of therapeutic guidance. Compared to 186 control participants, they reported large (Cohen's d = 0.77) and statistically significant increases of mindfulness after 8 weeks and small-to-medium increases of the Observing, Describing, Acting with awareness, Nonjudging, and Nonreactivity mindfulness facets as measured with the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (Cohen's d = 0.66, 0.26, 0.49, 0.34, and 0.43, respectively). Also, there were large decreases of general psychiatric symptoms (GHQ-12; Cohen's d = -0.68) and moderate increases of psychological, social, and environmental quality of life (WHOQOL-BREF; Cohen's d = 0.38, 0.38, and 0.36, respectively). Except for social quality of life, these gains were maintained for at least 3 months. We conclude that it is possible to achieve durable positive effects on mindfulness, general psychiatric symptoms, and several aspects of quality of life at low costs with smartphone apps for mindfulness such as the VGZ Mindfulness Coach.
Camilleri, Géraldine M; Méjean, Caroline; Bellisle, France; Hercberg, Serge; Péneau, Sandrine
In industrialized countries characterized by a high prevalence of obesity and chronic stress, mind-body practices such as yoga or meditation may facilitate body weight control. However, virtually no data are available to ascertain whether practicing mind-body techniques is associated with weight status. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between the practice of mind-body techniques and weight status in a large population-based sample of adults. A total of 61,704 individuals aged ≥18 years participating in the NutriNet-Santé study (2009-2014) were included in this cross-sectional analysis conducted in 2014. Data on mind-body practices were collected, as well as self-reported weight and height. The association between the practice of mind-body techniques and weight status was assessed using multiple linear and multinomial logistic regression models adjusted for sociodemographic, lifestyle, and dietary factors. After adjusting for sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, regular users of mind-body techniques were less likely to be overweight (OR=0.68, 95% CI=0.63, 0.74) or obese (OR=0.55, 95% CI=0.50, 0.61) than never users. In addition, regular users had a lower BMI than never users (-3.19%, 95% CI=-3.71, -2.68). These data provide novel information about an inverse relationship between mind-body practice and weight status. If causal links were demonstrated in further prospective studies, such practice could be fostered in obesity prevention and treatment. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chenneville, Tiffany; St. John Walsh, Audra
This paper describes a "mindful rational living" approach, which incorporates mindfulness techniques with rational emotive behavioral therapy strategies for addressing HIV in the school setting. The utility of this approach for attending to the physical, mental, and psychosocial aspects of school-based HIV prevention and treatment will…
Cherkin, Daniel C; Sherman, Karen J; Balderson, Benjamin H; Turner, Judith A; Cook, Andrea J; Stoelb, Brenda; Herman, Patricia M; Deyo, Richard A; Hawkes, Rene J
The self-reported health and functional status of persons with back pain in the United States have declined in recent years, despite greatly increased medical expenditures due to this problem. Although patient psychosocial factors such as pain-related beliefs, thoughts and coping behaviors have been demonstrated to affect how well patients respond to treatments for back pain, few patients receive treatments that address these factors. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), which addresses psychosocial factors, has been found to be effective for back pain, but access to qualified therapists is limited. Another treatment option with potential for addressing psychosocial issues, mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), is increasingly available. MBSR has been found to be helpful for various mental and physical conditions, but it has not been well-studied for application with chronic back pain patients. In this trial, we will seek to determine whether MBSR is an effective and cost-effective treatment option for persons with chronic back pain, compare its effectiveness and cost-effectiveness compared with CBT and explore the psychosocial variables that may mediate the effects of MBSR and CBT on patient outcomes. In this trial, we will randomize 397 adults with nonspecific chronic back pain to CBT, MBSR or usual care arms (99 per group). Both interventions will consist of eight weekly 2-hour group sessions supplemented by home practice. The MBSR protocol also includes an optional 6-hour retreat. Interviewers masked to treatment assignments will assess outcomes 5, 10, 26 and 52 weeks postrandomization. The primary outcomes will be pain-related functional limitations (based on the Roland Disability Questionnaire) and symptom bothersomeness (rated on a 0 to 10 numerical rating scale) at 26 weeks. If MBSR is found to be an effective and cost-effective treatment option for patients with chronic back pain, it will become a valuable addition to the limited treatment options
Michele F. Rodrigues
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The objective of this study was to conduct a review of the literature covering the use of different mindfulness-based therapy approaches in treatment of mood and anxiety disorders, including mindfulness skills and mindfulness linked to emotional regulation and fear of negative appraisal. Methods A review was conducted of literature identified by searching the scientific databases PubMed and PsycINFO with the following keywords: mindfulness, mood disorders, and anxiety disorders. The search covered the past 10 years. The search returned 532 articles, 24 were selected, their full texts were read, and 16 were included in this review. Results Six articles about mindfulness-based stress reduction, four about mindfulness-based cognitive therapy, and three about fear of negative appraisal and emotional regulation were reviewed. All of the articles covered mindfulness in relation to mood and anxiety disorders. Conclusions The literature in this field suggests that mindfulness is an effective strategy for the treatment of mood and anxiety disorders and is effective in therapy protocols with different structures including virtual modalities. Use of mindfulness in scientific models continues to expand.
Nyklíček, Ivan; Irrmischer, Mona
The aim of the present study was to examine potentially moderating effects of personality characteristics regarding changes in anxious and depressed mood associated with Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR), controlling for socio-demographic factors. Meditation-naïve participants from the general population self-presenting with psychological stress complaints ( n = 167 participants, 70% women, mean age 45.8 ± 9.3 years) were assessed in a longitudinal investigation of change in mood before and after the intervention and at a 3-month follow-up. Participants initially scoring high on neuroticism showed stronger decreases in both anxious and depressed mood (both p moderating effects, when controlled for baseline mood. Only neuroticism showed to be associated with delayed benefit. Results are discussed in the context of findings from similar research using more traditional cognitive-behavioral interventions.
Susanti, L. B.; Poedjiastoeti, S.; Taufikurohmah, T.
The purpose of this study is to explain the validity of guided inquiry and mind mapping-based worksheet that has been developed in this study. The worksheet implemented the phases of guided inquiry teaching models in order to train students’ creative thinking skills. The creative thinking skills which were trained in this study included fluency, flexibility, originality and elaboration. The types of validity used in this study included content and construct validity. The type of this study is development research with Research and Development (R & D) method. The data of this study were collected using review and validation sheets. Sources of the data were chemistry lecturer and teacher. The data is the analyzed descriptively. The results showed that the worksheet is very valid and could be used as a learning media with the percentage of validity ranged from 82.5%-92.5%.
Catherine E Kerr
Full Text Available Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR and Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT use a common set of exercises to reduce distress in chronic pain and decrease risk of depression relapse. These standardized mindfulness (ST-Mindfulness practices predominantly require attending to breath and body sensations. Here, we offer a novel view of ST-Mindfulness’s somatic focus as a form of training for optimizing attentional modulation of 7-14 Hz alpha rhythms that play a key role in filtering inputs to primary sensory neocortex and organizing the flow of sensory information. In support of the framework, we describe our previous finding (Kerr et al, 2011 that ST-Mindfulness enhanced attentional regulation of alpha in primary somatosensory cortex (SI. The framework allows us to make several predictions. In chronic pain, we predict somatic attention in ST-Mindfulness de-biases alpha in SI, freeing up pain-focused attentional resources. In depression relapse, we predict ST-Mindfulness’s somatic attention competes with internally focused rumination, as internally focused cognitive processes (e.g., working and short term memory rely on alpha filtering of sensory input. Our computational model (Jones et al, 2009 predicts ST-Mindfulness enhances top-down modulation of alpha by facilitating precise alterations in timing and efficacy of SI thalamocortical inputs. We conclude by considering how the proposed framework aligns with Buddhist teachings that mindfulness starts with mindfulness of the body. Translating this theory into neurophysiology, we hypothesize that with its somatic focus, mindfulness’ top-down alpha rhythm modulation in SI enhances gain control which, in turn, sensitizes practitioners to better detect and regulate when the mind wanders from its somatic focus. This enhanced regulation of somatic mind-wandering may be an early stage of mindfulness training, leading to cognitive regulation and metacognition.
Trowbridge, Kelly; Mische Lawson, Lisa; Andrews, Stephanie; Pecora, Jodi; Boyd, Sabra
Mindfulness practices, including mindfulness meditation, show promise for decreasing stress among health care providers. This exploratory study investigates the feasibility of a two-day compressed mindfulness-based stress reduction (cMBSR) course provided in the hospital workplace with pediatric health care social workers. The standard course of Jon Kabat-Zinn's MBSR requires a participant commitment to eight weeks of instruction consisting of one 2.5-hour-per-week class, a single day retreat, and 45 minutes of practice for six of seven days each week. Commitments to family, work, caregiving, education, and so on, as well as limitations such as distance, may prevent health care providers from participating in a standard MBSR course. Using t tests, researchers measured the effect of cMBSR on (a) positive and negative experiences in pediatric social work, (b) perceived stress, (c) mindfulness, and (d) caring self-efficacy (as a component of patient- and family-centered care). Results included significant differences between the pre- and post-intervention outcome variables on the Professional Quality of Life Secondary Traumatic Stress subscale, the Mindful Attention and Awareness Scale, and the Caring Efficacy Scale. Findings found adequate evidence for the feasibility of cMBSR design and for a need of a more rigorous study of the effects of the cMBSR intervention. © 2017 National Association of Social Workers.
Investigation under international cooperation on the mentality/intellect-based technology. Development of mind-based technology; Shinsei chisei kiban gijutsu kokusai kyodo kenkyu chosa. Mind-Based Technology no kaihatsu ni kakawaru kenkyu chosa
The mind-based technology (MBT) was investigated to be developed, for materializing the world where the human race and machinery live together without sense of incompatibility. Based on the human mind, the MBT is a technology to support the personal expression which respects the value judgment, diversity and individuality in the human life. For it, it is important to technologically comprehend the human mind and physiological/psychological state, and particularly, control the human will. In order to structure the social system in which the human race and technology live together, it is also important to build a life system information processing model which simulates the formation process to integrate the feeling, knowledge and conscience, together with an action system to be established. As an image to which the MBT is applied, support will be extended to the life fulfillment, personal expression and hearty communication. Development is expected toward the social security technology with robots living in the human society. Pursuing the mental richness and worthwhile life, the high-grade mature society needs the technology to communicate with the machinery gentle to the human race on the mutual interface. 21 refs., 8 figs.
Korukcu, Oznur; Kukulu, Kamile
The purpose of the researchers is to determine the effect of a mindfulness program on readiness for motherhood, the level of maternal attachment, and on postpartum self-evaluation. We used a quasiexperimental design. Researchers applied the mindfulness-based Transition to Motherhood program to the treatment group for 7 days. Data were collected between December 2012 and June 2014 in Turkey. At the end of the study, the treatment group showed improvement in measures of acceptance of pregnancy, level of readiness to give birth, level of maternal attachment, and level of competence in the role of motherhood.
Mittner, M.; Boekel, W.; Tucker, A.M.; Turner, B.M.; Heathcote, A.; Forstmann, B.U.
Mind wandering is an ubiquitous phenomenon in everyday life. In the cognitive neurosciences, mind wandering has been associated with several distinct neural processes, most notably increased activity in the default mode network (DMN), suppressed activity within the anti-correlated (task-positive)
Sampl, Juliane; Maran, Thomas; Furtner, Marco R
The present randomized pilot intervention study examines the effects of a mindfulness-based self-leadership training (MBSLT) specifically developed for academic achievement situations. Both mindfulness and self-leadership have a strong self-regulatory focus and are helpful in terms of stress resilience and performance enhancements. Based on several theoretical points of contact and a specific interplay between mindfulness and self-leadership, the authors developed an innovative intervention program that improves mood as well as performance in a real academic setting. The intervention was conducted as a randomized controlled study over 10 weeks. The purpose was to analyze the effects on perceived stress, test anxiety, academic self-efficacy, and the performance of students by comparing an intervention and control group ( n = 109). Findings demonstrated significant effects on mindfulness, self-leadership, academic self-efficacy, and academic performance improvements in the intervention group. Results showed that the intervention group reached significantly better grade point averages than the control group. Moreover, the MBSLT over time led to a reduction of test anxiety in the intervention group compared to the control group. Furthermore, while participants of the control group showed an increase in stress over time, participants of the intervention group maintained constant stress levels over time. The combination of mindfulness and self-leadership addressed both positive effects on moods and on objective academic performance. The effects demonstrate the great potential of combining mindfulness with self-leadership to develop a healthy self-regulatory way of attaining achievement-related goals and succeeding in high-stress academic environments.
Young, Katie; van der Velden, Anne Maj; Craske, Michelle
of PubMed and Scopus databases resulted in 39 papers, 7 of which were eligible for inclusion. The most consistent longitudinal effect observed was increased insular cortex activity following mindfulness-based interventions. In contrast to previous reviews, we did not find robust evidence for increased...
Schellekens, Melanie P. J.; Jansen, Ellen T. M.; Willemse, Heidi H. M. A.; van Laarhoven, Hanneke W. M.; Prins, Judith B.; Speckens, Anne E. M.
Peer support groups for cancer patients show mixed findings regarding effectiveness on psychological wellbeing. When embedded in a psychosocial intervention, such as mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), peer support might be of more benefit to participants. This study is a qualitative
Snippe, E.; Dziak, J.J.; Lanza, S.T.; Nyklicek, I.; Wichers, M.
Both daily stress and the tendency to react to stress with heightened levels of negative affect (i.e., stress sensitivity) are important vulnerability factors for adverse mental health outcomes. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) may help to reduce perceived daily stress and stress
Snippe, Evelien; Dziak, John J.; Lanza, Stephanie T.; Nykliek, Ivan; Wichers, Marieke
Both daily stress and the tendency to react to stress with heightened levels of negative affect (i.e., stress sensitivity) are important vulnerability factors for adverse mental health outcomes. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) may help to reduce perceived daily stress and stress
Ridderinkhof, A.; de Bruin, E.I.; Blom, 'R.; Bögels, S.M.
A combined mindfulness-based program for children and their parents (MYmind) was beneficial for adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In this study, we investigated whether this program is also beneficial for younger children with ASD, whether effects last on the long-term, and whether it
Jazaieri, Hooria; Lee, Ihno A.; Goldin, Philippe R.; Gross, James J.
We examined whether social anxiety severity at pre-treatment would moderate the impact of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) or Aerobic Exercise (AE) for generalized social anxiety disorder. MBSR and AE produced equivalent reductions in weekly social anxiety symptoms. Improvements were moderated by pre-treatment social anxiety severity. PMID:25684277
van de Weijer-Bergsma, Eva|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304834335; Langenberg, George; Brandsma, Rob; Oort, Frans J.; Bögels, Susan M.
Studies on the effects of mindfulness interventions on mental health and behavioral problems in children show promising results, but are primarily conducted with selected samples of children. The few studies investigating school-based interventions used self-selected samples, provided training
Alegre, Alberto A.; Zumaeta, Pablo A.
It is proposed that the problem of the mind-brain relationship can be overcome by a non-classical materialistic model of personality based on the information defined as a special form of negentropy with a structure and activity, which in five intra-individual categories, organizes all and each of the levels of the personality, and, in an…
Malboeuf-Hurtubise, Catherine; Joussemet, Mireille; Taylor, Geneviève; Lacourse, Eric
Mindfulness-Based Interventions (MBIs) have been increasingly implemented in schools to foster better emotional regulation skills for students with special education needs such as learning disabilities (LDs). This pilot study aimed to evaluate the impact of a MBI on the need satisfaction of elementary students with severe LDs. A prospective…
De Veer, S.; Brouwers, A.; Evers, W.; Tomic, W.
Abstract In general, people who stutter feel hampered in their communication with others and suffer from stress and anxiety when they have to speak. The Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) program has proved to be successful in reducing stress, fear and anxiety in many studies involving a
Dumas, Jean E.
Disagreements and conflicts in families with disruptive children often reflect rigid patterns of behavior that have become overlearned and automatized with repeated practice. These patterns are mindless: They are performed with little or no awareness and are highly resistant to change. This article introduces a new, mindfulness-based model of…
van de Weijer-Bergsma, E.; Langenberg, G.; Brandsma, R.; Oort, F.J.; Bögels, S.M.
Studies on the effects of mindfulness interventions on mental health and behavioral problems in children show promising results, but are primarily conducted with selected samples of children. The few studies investigating school-based interventions used self-selected samples, provided training
Dongen, J.M. van; Berkel, J. van; Boot, C.R.L.; Bosmans, J.E.; Proper, K.I.; Bongers, P.M.; Beek, A.J. van der; Tulder, M.W. van; Wier, M.F. van
Objectives: The aim of this study was to conduct a cost-effectiveness and return-on-investment analysis comparing a mindfulness-based worksite intervention to usual practice. Methods: Two hundred fifty-seven governmental research institute employees were randomized to the intervention or control
Young, Katie; van der Velden, Anne Maj; Craske, Michelle
of PubMed and Scopus databases resulted in 39 papers, 7 of which were eligible for inclusion. The most consistent longitudinal effect observed was increased insular cortex activity following mindfulness-based interventions. In contrast to previous reviews, we did not find robust evidence for increased...
Conclusions: A mindfulness-based group approach to treatment of disordered eating or body image issues shows promise for improving the quality of life for college-aged students. Undergraduate institutions have the advantage of using social interaction to facilitate healthy behavioral change. Future research with larger and more diverse samples is suggested, and implications regarding practice and education are also discussed.
Flook, Lisa; Goldberg, Simon B.; Pinger, Laura; Davidson, Richard J.
Self-regulatory abilities are robust predictors of important outcomes across the life span, yet they are rarely taught explicitly in school. Using a randomized controlled design, the present study investigated the effects of a 12-week mindfulness-based Kindness Curriculum (KC) delivered in a public school setting on executive function,…
Verweij, H.; Waumans, R.C.; Smeijers, D.; Lucassen, P.L.; Donders, A.R.T.; Horst, H.E. van der; Speckens, A.E.M.
BACKGROUND: Burnout is highly prevalent in GPs and can have a negative influence on their wellbeing, performance, and patient care. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) may be an effective intervention to decrease burnout symptoms and increase wellbeing. AIM: To gain insight into the
Reese, Hannah E; Vallejo, Zayda; Rasmussen, Jessica; Crowe, Katherine; Rosenfield, Elizabeth; Wilhelm, Sabine
In this pilot study we sought to develop and test a modified form of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR-tics) for the treatment of Tourette Syndrome (TS) and Chronic Tic Disorder (CTD). Our specific aims were: 1) To determine the feasibility and acceptability of an 8-week trial of MBSR-tics in individuals 16 and older with TS or CTD and 2) To determine the efficacy of an 8-week trial of MBSR-tics in individuals 16 and older with TS or CTD. Eighteen individuals age 16-67 completed an uncontrolled open trial of MBSR-tics. The intervention consisted of 8 weekly 2-hour classes and one 4hour retreat in the fifth or sixth week of the program. Symptomatic assessments were performed at baseline, post-treatment, and one-month follow-up. MBSR-tics proved to be a feasible and acceptable intervention. It resulted in significant improvement in tic severity and tic-related impairment. 58.8% of subjects were deemed treatment responders. Therapeutic gains were maintained at 1-month follow-up. Improvements in tic severity were correlated with increases in self-reported levels of mindfulness. This small open pilot study provides preliminary support for the feasibility, acceptability, and efficacy of MBSR-tics for individuals 16 or older with TS or CTD. A larger randomized controlled trial with blind assessment is necessary to confirm these initial, promising findings. Trial Registration Partners Clinical Trials Registry Number 2011P000606 (clinicaltrials.partners.org). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Flores, Araceli; Linehan, Marsha M; Todd, S Rob; Hoffman, Hunter G
Introduction: Paralysis from a spinal cord injury (SCI) increases risk of psychological problems including suicide attempts, substance use disorder, negative emotions (e.g., anger), depression, anxiety, ASD/PTSD. Dialectical Behavioral Therapy® (DBT®) has been shown to be effective for treating similar psychological symptoms in non-SCI patient populations. The current study explored for the first time, the feasibility and clinical potential of using Immersive Virtual Reality (VR) enhanced DBT® Mindfulness skills training to help reduce psychological symptoms (negative emotions and anxiety, ASD/PTSD) of two patients with SCI. Patient 1 was a 39-year-old male patient suffering multiple spinal cord injuries, resulting in quadriplegia, after falling out of a four story building. Patient 1 had severe depression, and anxiety symptoms. Patient 2, was a 31 year old male with a C7 vertebral body fracture, leading to paresis, after suffering a blunt force trauma injury during an attempted suicide, jumping from a moving vehicle. Patient 2 had mild depression, and anxiety symptoms. Methods: Each patient looked into VR goggles, and had the illusion of slowly "floating down" a river in virtual reality while listening to DBT® Mindfulness Skills training instructions. Each patient filled out brief psychological ratings before and after each VR session, four VR DBT® sessions for patient 1, and two VR DBT® sessions for patient 2. Results: As predicted, patient 1 reported reductions in negative emotions after each VR DBT® Mindfulness session. Patient 2 had mixed results on some of the measures of negative emotions. And both patients reported feeling less depressed, less anxious, and less emotionally upset, after VR DBT® Mindfulness Skills learning. Patient 2 reported large reductions in short term ASD/PTSD symptoms after his first VR DBT® mindfulness skills training session. Conclusion: This study explored the feasibility of using VR DBT® with quadriplegic or paresis SCI
Full Text Available Introduction: Paralysis from a spinal cord injury (SCI increases risk of psychological problems including suicide attempts, substance use disorder, negative emotions (e.g., anger, depression, anxiety, ASD/PTSD. Dialectical Behavioral Therapy® (DBT® has been shown to be effective for treating similar psychological symptoms in non-SCI patient populations. The current study explored for the first time, the feasibility and clinical potential of using Immersive Virtual Reality (VR enhanced DBT® Mindfulness skills training to help reduce psychological symptoms (negative emotions and anxiety, ASD/PTSD of two patients with SCI. Patient 1 was a 39-year-old male patient suffering multiple spinal cord injuries, resulting in quadriplegia, after falling out of a four story building. Patient 1 had severe depression, and anxiety symptoms. Patient 2, was a 31 year old male with a C7 vertebral body fracture, leading to paresis, after suffering a blunt force trauma injury during an attempted suicide, jumping from a moving vehicle. Patient 2 had mild depression, and anxiety symptoms.Methods: Each patient looked into VR goggles, and had the illusion of slowly “floating down” a river in virtual reality while listening to DBT® Mindfulness Skills training instructions. Each patient filled out brief psychological ratings before and after each VR session, four VR DBT® sessions for patient 1, and two VR DBT® sessions for patient 2.Results: As predicted, patient 1 reported reductions in negative emotions after each VR DBT® Mindfulness session. Patient 2 had mixed results on some of the measures of negative emotions. And both patients reported feeling less depressed, less anxious, and less emotionally upset, after VR DBT® Mindfulness Skills learning. Patient 2 reported large reductions in short term ASD/PTSD symptoms after his first VR DBT® mindfulness skills training session.Conclusion: This study explored the feasibility of using VR DBT® with quadriplegic
Full Text Available Chemotherapy has been widely applied in clinics. However, the therapeutic potential of chemotherapy against cancer is seriously dissatisfactory due to the nonspecific drug distribution, multidrug resistance (MDR and the heterogeneity of cancer. Therefore, combinational therapy based on chemotherapy mediated by nanotechnology, has been the trend in clinical research at present, which can result in a remarkably increased therapeutic efficiency with few side effects to normal tissues. Moreover, to achieve the accurate pre-diagnosis and real-time monitoring for tumor, the research of nano-theranostics, which integrates diagnosis with treatment process, is a promising field in cancer treatment. In this review, the recent studies on combinational therapy based on chemotherapy will be systematically discussed. Furthermore, as a current trend in cancer treatment, advance in theranostic nanoparticles based on chemotherapy will be exemplified briefly. Finally, the present challenges and improvement tips will be presented in combination therapy and nano-theranostics.
Chinn, Pauline W. U.
This paper approaches mindfulness, an awareness of internal and external realities, as a culturally-shaped habit of mind. Findings of a cross-cultural study and popular sayings that reflect America's cultural orientation to consumption and competition are contrasted with findings from Hawaiian language newspapers, traditional cultural practices, and Hawaiian sayings that indicate an orientation to ecological mindfulness that increased the resilience of fragile social ecosystems. Marginalization of indigenous culture, language, and knowledge and cultural differences between teachers and indigenous students are proposed as a contributing factor to lower science performance of Native Hawaiian students in mainstream schools. Two professional development projects designed to reduce conflicts between culture and science instruction are presented. Findings from these projects suggest alignment of science inquiry with indigenous cultural knowledge and practices oriented to sustainability supports the development of teachers' ecological mindfulness as indicated by increased awareness of, interest in, and incorporation of place and culture-based based resources into their instruction. Teacher feedback indicates that mapping technologies that enable teachers to visualize and integrate indigenous place-based Hawaiian knowledge with science inquiry are promising instructional strategies.
Williams, Hants; Simmons, Leigh Ann; Tanabe, Paula
The aim of this article is to discuss how advanced practice nurses (APNs) can incorporate mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) as a nonpharmacologic clinical tool in their practice. Over the last 30 years, patients and providers have increasingly used complementary and holistic therapies for the nonpharmacologic management of acute and chronic diseases. Mindfulness-based interventions, specifically MBSR, have been tested and applied within a variety of patient populations. There is strong evidence to support that the use of MBSR can improve a range of biological and psychological outcomes in a variety of medical illnesses, including acute and chronic pain, hypertension, and disease prevention. This article will review the many ways APNs can incorporate MBSR approaches for health promotion and disease/symptom management into their practice. We conclude with a discussion of how nurses can obtain training and certification in MBSR. Given the significant and growing literature supporting the use of MBSR in the prevention and treatment of chronic disease, increased attention on how APNs can incorporate MBSR into clinical practice is necessary. © The Author(s) 2015.
Chacko, Sara A; Yeh, Gloria Y; Davis, Roger B; Wee, Christina C
This study aimed to develop and test a novel mindfulness-based intervention (MBI) designed to control weight after bariatric surgery. Randomized, controlled pilot trial. Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA. Bariatric patients 1-5 years post-surgery (n=18) were randomized to receive a 10-week MBI or a standard intervention. Primary outcomes were feasibility and acceptability of the MBI. Secondary outcomes included changes in weight, eating behaviors, psychosocial outcomes, and metabolic and inflammatory biomarkers. Qualitative exit interviews were conducted post-intervention. Major themes were coded and extracted. Attendance was excellent (6 of 9 patients attended ≥7 of 10 classes). Patients reported high satisfaction and overall benefit of the MBI. The intervention was effective in reducing emotional eating at 6 months (-4.9±13.7 in mindfulness vs. 6.2±28.4 in standard, p for between-group difference=0.03) but not weight. We also observed a significant increase in HbA1C (0.34±0.38 vs. -0.06±0.31, p=0.03). Objective measures suggested trends of an increase in perceived stress and symptoms of depression, although patients reported reduced stress reactivity, improved eating behaviors, and a desire for continued mindfulness-based support in qualitative interviews. This novel mindfulness-based approach is highly acceptable to bariatric patients post-surgery and may be effective for reducing emotional eating, although it did not improve weight or glycemic control in the short term. Longer-term studies of mindfulness-based approaches may be warranted in this population. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT02603601. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dalen, Jeanne; Brody, Janet L; Staples, Julie K; Sedillo, Donna
Currently, over 30% of US youth are overweight and 1 in 6 have metabolic syndrome, making youth obesity one of the major global health challenges of the 21st century. Few enduring treatment strategies have been identified in youth populations, and the majority of standard weight loss programs fail to adequately address the impact of psychological factors on eating behavior and the beneficial contribution of parental involvement in youth behavior change. A critical need exists to expand treatment development efforts beyond traditional education and cognitive-behavioral programs and explore alternative treatment models for youth obesity. Meditation-based mindful eating programs represent a unique and novel scientific approach to the current youth obesity epidemic given that they address key psychological variables affecting weight. The recent expansion of mindfulness programs to include family relationships shows the immense potential for broadening the customarily individual focus of this intervention to include contextual factors thought to influence youth health outcomes. This article provides an overview of how both mindful eating and family systems theory fits within a conceptual framework in order to guide development of a comprehensive family-based mindful eating program for overweight youth.
Bagger, Jonatan I; Christensen, Mikkel; Knop, Filip K
for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. In contrast to other antidiabetic treatments, these agents have a positive outcome profile on body weight. Worldwide there are 500 million obese people, and 3 million are dying every year from obesity-related diseases. Recently, incretin-based therapy was proposed...... for the treatment of obesity. Currently two different incretin therapies are widely used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes: 1) the GLP-1 receptor agonists which cause significant and sustained weight loss in overweight patients, and 2) dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors being weight neutral. These findings...... have led to a greater interest in the physiology of intestinal peptides with potential weight-reducing properties. This review discusses the effects of the incretin-based therapies in obesity, and provides an overview of intestinal peptides with promising effects as potential new treatments for obesity....
This paper presents work on the design rationale and architecture of ReMindMe. ReMindMe aims to provide agent-based support for people with Alzheimer’s disease and their social environment by playing music with a strong personal meaning to the patient so as to activate personal memory recall.
Caldwell, Karen; Harrison, Mandy; Adams, Marianne; Quin, Rebecca H.; Greeson, Jeffrey
Objective: This study examined whether mindfulness increased through participation in movement-based courses and whether changes in self-regulatory self-efficacy, mood, and perceived stress mediated the relationship between increased mindfulness and better sleep. Participants: 166 college students enrolled in the 2007-2008 academic year in 15 week…
Luethcke, Cynthia A; McDaniel, Leda; Becker, Carolyn Black
This study compares different versions of mirror exposure (ME), a body image intervention with research support. ME protocols were adapted to maximize control and comparability, and scripted for delivery by research assistants. Female undergraduates (N=168) were randomly assigned to receive mindfulness-based (MB; n=58), nonjudgmental (NJ; n=55), or cognitive dissonance-based (CD, n=55) ME. Participants completed the Body Image Avoidance Questionnaire (BIAQ), Body Checking Questionnaire (BCQ), Satisfaction with Body Parts Scale (SBPS), Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), and Eating Disorders Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) at pre-treatment, post-treatment, and 1-month follow-up. Mixed models ANOVAs revealed a significant main effect of time on all measures, and no significant time by condition interaction for any measures except the SBPS. Post-hoc analysis revealed that only CD ME significantly improved SBPS outcome. Results suggest that all versions of ME reduce eating disorder risk factors, but only CD ME improves body satisfaction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Demarzo, Marcelo M P; Montero-Marin, Jesús; Cuijpers, Pim; Zabaleta-del-Olmo, Edurne; Mahtani, Kamal R; Vellinga, Akke; Vicens, Caterina; López-del-Hoyo, Yolanda; García-Campayo, Javier
Positive effects have been reported after mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) in diverse clinical and nonclinical populations. Primary care is a key health care setting for addressing common chronic conditions, and an effective MBI designed for this setting could benefit countless people worldwide. Meta-analyses of MBIs have become popular, but little is known about their efficacy in primary care. Our aim was to investigate the application and efficacy of MBIs that address primary care patients. We performed a meta-analytic review of randomized controlled trials addressing the effect of MBIs in adult patients recruited from primary care settings. The PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) and Cochrane guidelines were followed. Effect sizes were calculated with the Hedges g in random effects models. The meta-analyses were based on 6 trials having a total of 553 patients. The overall effect size of MBI compared with a control condition for improving general health was moderate (g = 0.48; P = .002), with moderate heterogeneity (I(2) = 59; P .05). Although the number of randomized controlled trials applying MBIs in primary care is still limited, our results suggest that these interventions are promising for the mental health and quality of life of primary care patients. We discuss innovative approaches for implementing MBIs, such as complex intervention and stepped care. © 2015 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.
Bagger, Jonatan I; Christensen, Mikkel; Knop, Filip K
It has long been known that peptide hormones from the gastrointestinal tract have significant impact on the regulation of nutrient metabolism. Among these hormones, incretins have been found to increase insulin secretion, and thus incretin-based therapies have emerged as new modalities...
Bornert, Olivier; Peking, Patricia; Bremer, Jeroen; Koller, Ulrich; van den Akker, Peter C.; Aartsma-Rus, Annemieke; Pasmooij, Anna M. G.; Murauer, Eva M.; Nystroem, Alexander
Genetic disorders affecting the skin, genodermatoses, constitute a large and heterogeneous group of diseases, for which treatment is generally limited to management of symptoms. RNA-based therapies are emerging as a powerful tool to treat genodermatoses. In this review, we discuss in detail RNA
Martin, Emily Cecile
The aim of this research project was to conduct a manual development study and an open clinical trial in order to demonstrate the feasibility and efficacy of a mindfulness and acceptance based intervention for increasing cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in sedentary adults through adherence to a fitness walking program. Development of the treatment manual followed a 3-phase process (literature review and initial draft preparation, expert review, draft revision) based on expert systems analysis...
Rogers, Jeffrey M; Ferrari, Madeleine; Mosely, Kylie; Lang, Cathryne P; Brennan, Leah
The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of mindfulness-based interventions on psychological and physical health outcomes in adults who are overweight or obese. We searched 14 electronic databases for randomized controlled trials and prospective cohort studies that met eligibility criteria. Comprehensive Meta-analysis software was used to compute the effect size estimate Hedge's g. Fifteen studies measuring post-treatment outcomes of mindfulness-based interventions in 560 individuals were identified. The average weight loss was 4.2 kg. Overall effects were large for improving eating behaviours (g = 1.08), medium for depression (g = 0.64), anxiety (g = 0.62) and eating attitudes (g = 0.57) and small for body mass index (BMI; g = 0.47) and metacognition (g = 0.38) outcomes. Therapeutic effects for BMI (g = 0.43), anxiety (g = 0.53), eating attitudes (g = 0.48) and eating behaviours (g = 0.53) remained significant when examining results from higher quality randomized control trials alone. There was no efficacy advantage for studies exceeding the median dose of 12 h of face-to-face intervention. Studies utilizing an Acceptance and Commitment Therapy approach provided the only significant effect for improving BMI (g = 0.66), while mindfulness approaches produced great variation from small to large (g = 0.30-1.68) effects across a range of psychological health and eating-related constructs. Finally, the limited longitudinal data suggested maintenance of BMI (g = 0.85) and eating attitudes (g = 0.75) gains at follow-up were only detectable in lower quality prospective cohort studies. Mindfulness-based interventions may be both physically and psychologically beneficial for adults who are overweight or obese, but further high-quality research examining the mechanisms of action are encouraged. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.
Muñoz San José, A; Oreja-Guevara, C; Cebolla Lorenzo, S; Carrillo Notario, L; Rodríguez Vega, B; Bayón Pérez, C
Depression or anxiety in multiple sclerosis (MS) has been linked to a more severe course of the disease and higher numbers of relapses, in addition to poorer treatment adherence and exacerbated immune system dysregulation. Recent investigations indicate that psychotherapeutic interventions for stress management, such as mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs), could improve quality of life, depression, anxiety, and fatigue in MS patients. Mindfulness fosters the ability to slow down and observe experiences as they truly are, which improves affect regulation. Mindfulness is acquired through training; its advantage over other psychotherapeutic interventions is that effects may remain over time, since cultivating mindfulness depends on regular practising of abilities learned during training. The objective of this article is to review the current evidence of psychotherapeutic and psychosocial interventions, including MBIs for stress management, and their beneficial effects on MS patients. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Previous research has shown that a mindfulness-based decentering technique can help individuals resist eating chocolate over a 5-day period. However, it is unclear how this technique exerts its effect. This study explored one potential mechanism; that decentering increases the cognitive accessibility of relevant goals. Male and female participants (n = 90 spent 5 min practicing either a decentering or relaxation (control technique. They then viewed a picture of a chocolate bar for 3 min whilst either applying the decentering technique or letting their mind wander (control. Finally, all participants completed 20 letter strings, rated their motivation for weight loss and for healthy eating, and indicated whether or not they were dieting to lose weight. As predicted, those who had applied the decentering technique produced a greater number of health and weight loss related words when completing the letter strings, compared to those who had simply let their mind wander (p < 0.001. However, contrary to predictions, these effects were not significantly greater amongst those who were more motivated to lose weight or eat healthily, or amongst those who were dieting to lose weight, though the means were in the predicted directions. The results suggest that this particular mindfulness technique may increase the accessibility of relevant goals. Further research would be needed to (a compare effects with other strategies that prompt individuals to remember their goals, (b examine other potential mechanisms of action, and (c confirm that effects on self-control are mediated by increased goal accessibility.
Kearney, David J; Milton, Meredith L; Malte, Carol A; McDermott, Kelly A; Martinez, Michelle; Simpson, Tracy L
The adverse health effects and increasing prevalence of obesity in the United States make interventions for obesity a priority in health research. Diet-focused interventions generally do not result in lasting reductions in weight. Behavioral interventions that increase awareness of eating cues and satiety have been postulated to result in healthier eating habits. We hypothesized that participation in a program called mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) would positively influence the eating behaviors and nutritional intake of participants through changes in emotional eating (EE), uncontrolled eating (UE), and type and quantity of food consumed. Forty-eight veterans at a large urban Veterans Administration medical center were assessed before MBSR, after MBSR, and 4 months later. For all participants (N = 48), MBSR participation was not associated with significant changes in EE or UE. In addition, there were no significant differences in the intake of energy, fat, sugar, fruit, or vegetables at either follow-up time point as compared with baseline. Enhanced mindfulness skills and reduced depressive symptoms were seen over time with medium to large effect sizes. Changes in mindfulness skills were significantly and negatively correlated with changes in EE and UE over time. Overall, there was no evidence that participation in MBSR was associated with beneficial changes in eating through reductions in disinhibited eating or significant changes in dietary intake. Randomized studies are needed to further define the relationship between mindfulness program participation and eating behaviors. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Full Text Available Objective: There is a research gap in studies that evaluate the effectiveness of a school-embedded mindfulness-based intervention for both students and teachers. To address this gap, the present pilot study reviews relevant literature and investigates whether students and teachers who participate in separate Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR courses show improvements across a variety of psychological variables including areas of mental health and creativity. Methods: The study applied a controlled waitlist design with three measurement points. A total of 29 students (n = 15 in the intervention and n = 14 in the waitlist group and 29 teachers (n = 14 in the intervention and n = 15 in the waitlist group completed questionnaires before and after the MBSR course. The intervention group was also assessed after a four-month follow-up period. Results: Relative to the control group, significant improvements in self-reported stress, self-regulation, school-specific self-efficacy and interpersonal problems were found among the students who participated in the MBSR course (p < .05, Cohens` d ranges from 0.62-0.68. Medium effect sizes on mindfulness, anxiety and creativity indicate a realistic potential in those areas. By contrast, teachers in the intervention group showed significantly higher self-reported mindfulness levels and reduced interpersonal problems compared to the control group(p < .05, Cohens` d = 0.66 and 0.42, respectively, with medium effect sizes on anxiety and emotion regulation. Conclusion: The present findings contribute to a growing body of studies investigating mindfulness in schools by discussing the similarities and differences in the effects of MBSR on students and teachers as well as stressing the importance of investigating interpersonal effects.
Petterson, Haley; Olson, Bernadette L
Clinical Scenario: Student athletes experience a variety of stressors from school and social activities, as well as the additional demands of sport participation. Mindfulness-based interventions can help increase mental awareness and acceptance, as well as mitigate negative thoughts and emotions. The use of mindfulness-based interventions may be beneficial for reducing thoughts of stress, injury reduction, and improving overall wellbeing. Does the use of mindfulness-based interventions for student-athletes aged 13-24 years reduce stress and injury as well as improve overall quality of life? The literature was searched for studies that investigated the use of mindfulness-based strategies for student-athletes specifically for reducing stress and injury and/or improving quality of life. The literature search returned 8 possible studies related to the clinical question and 3 studies met the inclusion criteria (1 randomized control trial, 2 nonrandomized control cohort studies). All 3 included studies demonstrated overall improved levels of mindfulness among student-athletes after the use of a mindfulness-based intervention. Mindfulness-based interventions had positive effects for reducing negative thoughts and levels of perceived stress. The number of injury occurrences were found to decrease following the integration of a mindfulness-based intervention within an athletic population. Clinical Bottom Line: There is sufficient evidence supporting the use of mindfulness-based interventions with student-athletes for increasing mindfulness, managing negative emotions and perceived stress, as well as improving overall well-being. There is also current literature that advocates the use of mindfulness-based interventions for reducing injury, but further research is needed for support. Strength of Recommendation: Grade B evidence exists to support that the use of mindfulness-based interventions for student-athletes will reduce stress and improve overall well-being as well as
Andersen, Tonny Elmose; Vægter, Henrik Bjarke
BACKGROUND: Eradication of pain is seldom an option in chronic pain management. Hence, mindfulness meditation has become popular in pain management. OBJECTIVE: This pilot study compared the effect of a 13-weeks cognitive behavioural therapy program with integrated mindfulness meditation (CBTm......) in patients with chronic non-malignant pain with a control condition. It was hypothesised that the CBTm program would reduce pain intensity and psychological distress compared to the control condition and that level of mindfulness and acceptance both would be associated with the reduction in pain intensity...... and psychological distress were performed in both groups at baseline and after 13 weeks. RESULTS: The CBTm program reduced depression, anxiety and pain-catastrophizing compared with the control group. Increased level of mindfulness and acceptance were associated with change in psychological distress...
Van der Gucht, Katleen; Takano, Keisuke; Raes, Filip; Kuppens, Peter
The underlying mechanisms of the effectiveness of mindfulness-based interventions for emotional well-being remain poorly understood. Here, we examined the potential mediating effects of cognitive reactivity and self-compassion on symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress using data from an earlier randomised controlled school trial. A moderated time-lagged mediation model based on multilevel modelling was used to analyse the data. The findings showed that post-treatment changes in cognitive reactivity and self-coldness, an aspect of self-compassion, mediated subsequent changes in symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress. These results suggest that cognitive reactivity and self-coldness may be considered as transdiagnostic mechanisms of change of a mindfulness-based intervention programme for youth.
Aherne, Declan; Farrant, Katie; Hickey, Louise; Hickey, Emma; McGrath, Lisa; McGrath, Deirdre
Medical practitioners and students are at increased risk of a number of personal and psychological problems. Stress and anxiety due to work-load and study requirements are common and self-care methods are important in maintaining well-being. The current study examines perceptions of and satisfaction ratings with a mindfulness based stress reduction (MBSR) programme for 1(st) year (compulsory) and 2(nd) year (optional) Graduate Entry Medical School students. A mixed method pre and post study of Year 1 (n = 140) and Year 2 (n = 88) medical students completing a 7 week MBSR course compared student satisfaction ratings. Thematic analysis of feedback from the students on their perception of the course was also carried out. Year 1 students (compulsory course) were less satisfied with content and learning outcomes than Year 2 students (optional course) (p levels of satisfaction and positive feedback when delivered on an optional basis. Catering for the individual needs of the participant and promoting a safe environment are core elements of a successful self-care programme.
Agnes S. Chan
Full Text Available There is growing interest in the adoption of lifestyle interventions to remediate age-related declines in memory functioning and physical and psychological health among older adults. This study aimed to investigate whether a Chinese Chan-based lifestyle intervention, the Dejian Mind-Body Intervention (DMBI, leads to positive benefits for memory functioning in older adults. Fifty-six adults aged 60 years or older with subjective memory complaints (SMC were randomly assigned to receive the DMBI or a control intervention (i.e., a conventional memory intervention; MI once a week for 10 weeks; 48 of the adults completed the intervention. Participants’ verbal and visual memory functioning before and after the intervention were compared. In addition, changes in the participants’ subjective feelings about their memory performance and physical and psychological health after the intervention were examined. The results showed that both the DMBI and MI resulted in significant improvements in both verbal and visual memory functioning and that the extent of the improvements was correlated with participants’ level of performance at baseline. In addition, compared to the MI group, the DMBI group had significantly greater improvements in subjective physical and psychological health after the intervention. In summary, the present findings support the potential of the DMBI as an alternative lifestyle intervention for improving memory functioning, subjective physical and psychological health of older adults with SMC.
Full Text Available Several cross-sectional studies have documented neuroanatomical changes in individuals with a long history of meditation, while a few evidences are available about the interaction between neuroanatomical and psychological changes even during brief exposure to meditation. Here we analyzed several morphometric indexes at both cortical and subcortical brain level, as well as multiple psychological dimensions, before and after a brief -8 weeks- Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR training program, in a group of 23 meditation naïve-subjects compared to age-gender matched subjects. We found a significant cortical thickness increase in the right insula and the somatosensory cortex of MBSR trainees, coupled with a significant reduction of several psychological indices related to worry, state anxiety, depression and alexithymia. Most importantly, an interesting correlation between the increase in right insula thickness and the decrease in alexithymia levels during the MBSR training were observed. Moreover, a multivariate pattern classification approach allowed to identify a cluster of regions more responsive to MBSR training across subjects. Taken together, these findings documented the significant impact of a brief MBSR training on brain structures, as well as stressing the idea of MBSR as a valuable tool for alexithymia modulation, also originally providing a plausible neurobiological evidence of a major role of right insula into mediating the observed psychological changes.
Short, Vanessa L; Gannon, Meghan; Weingarten, Wendy; Kaltenbach, Karol; LaNoue, Marianna; Abatemarco, Diane J
Background Parenting women with substance use disorder could potentially benefit from interventions designed to decrease stress and improve overall psychosocial health. In this study we assessed whether a mindfulness based parenting (MBP) intervention could be successful in decreasing general and parenting stress in a population of women who are in treatment for substance use disorder and who have infants or young children. Methods MBP participants (N = 59) attended a two-hour session once a week for 12 weeks. Within-group differences on stress outcome measures administered prior to the beginning of the MBP intervention and following the intervention period were investigated using mixed-effects linear regression models accounting for correlations arising from the repeated-measures. Scales assessed for pre-post change included the Perceived Stress Scale-10 (PSS) and the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form (PSI). Results General stress, as measured by the PSS, decreased significantly from baseline to post-intervention. Women with the highest baseline general stress level experienced the greatest change in total stress score. A significant change also occurred across the Parental Distress PSI subscale. Conclusions Findings from this innovative interventional study suggest that the addition of MBP within treatment programs for parenting women with substance use disorder is an effective strategy for reducing stress within this at risk population.
Sanada, Kenji; Alda Díez, Marta; Salas Valero, Montserrat; Pérez-Yus, María C; Demarzo, Marcelo M P; Montero-Marín, Jesús; García-Toro, Mauro; García-Campayo, Javier
Only a small number of articles have investigated the relationship between mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) and biomarkers. The aim of this systematic review was to study the effect of MBIs on specific biomarkers (cytokines, neuropeptides and C-reactive protein (CRP)) in both healthy subjects and cancer patients. A search was conducted using PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO and the Cochrane library between 1980 and September 2016. A total of 13 studies with 1110 participants were included. In the healthy population, MBIs had no effect on cytokines, but were found to increase the levels of the neuropeptide insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). With respect to neuropeptide Y, despite the absence of post-intervention differences, MBIs may enhance recovery from stress. With regard to CRP, MBIs could be effective in lower Body Mass Index (BMI) individuals. In cancer patients, MBIs seem to have some effect on cytokine levels, although it was not possible to determine which specific cytokines were affected. One possibility is that MBIs might aid recovery of the immune system, increasing the production of interleukin (IL)-4 and decreasing interferon gamma (IFN-γ). MBIs may be involved in changes from a depressive/carcinogenic profile to a more normalized one. However, given the complexity and different contexts of the immune system, and the fact that this investigation is still in its preliminary stage, additional randomized controlled trials are needed to further establish the impact of MBI programmes on biomarkers in both clinical and non-clinical populations.
Full Text Available Recurrent headaches cause significant burden for adolescents and their families. Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs have been shown to reduce stress and alter the experience of pain, reduce pain burden, and improve quality of life. Research indicates that MBIs can benefit adults with chronic pain conditions including headaches. A pilot nonrandomized clinical trial was conducted with 20 adolescent females with recurrent headaches. Median class attendance was 7 of 8 total sessions; average class attendance was 6.10±2.6. Adherence to home practice was good, with participants reporting an average of 4.69 (SD = 1.84 of 6 practices per week. Five participants dropped out for reasons not inherent to the group (e.g., extracurricular scheduling; no adverse events were reported. Parents reported improved quality of life and physical functioning for their child. Adolescent participants reported improved depression symptoms and improved ability to accept their pain rather than trying to control it. MBIs appear safe and feasible for adolescents with recurrent headaches. Although participants did not report decreased frequency or severity of headache following treatment, the treatment had a beneficial effect for depression, quality of life, and acceptance of pain and represents a promising adjunct treatment for adolescents with recurrent headaches.
Donal G MacCoon
Full Text Available Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR is a secular form of meditation training. The vast majority of the extant literature investigating the health effects of mindfulness interventions relies on wait-list control comparisons. Previous studies have found that meditation training over several months is associated with improvements in cognitive control and attention.We used a visual continuous performance task (CPT to test the effects of eight weeks of mindfulness training on sustained attention by comparing MBSR to the Health Enhancement Program (HEP, a structurally equivalent, active control condition in a randomized, longitudinal design (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01301105 focusing on a non-clinical population typical of MBSR participants. Researchers were blind to group assignment. 63 community participants were randomized to either MBSR (n = 31 or HEP (n = 32. CPT analyses were conducted on 29 MBSR participants and 25 HEP participants. We predicted that MBSR would improve visual discrimination ability and sustained attention over time on the CPT compared to HEP, with more home practice associated with greater improvements. Our hypotheses were not confirmed but we did find some evidence for improved visual discrimination similar to effects in partial replication of other research. Our study had sufficient power to demonstrate that intervention groups do not differ in their improvement over time in sustained attention performance. One of our primary predictions concerning the effects of intervention on attentional fatigue was significant but not interpretable.Attentional sensitivity is not affected by mindfulness practice as taught in MBSR, but it is unclear whether mindfulness might positively affect another aspect of attention, vigilance. These results also highlight the relevant procedural modifications required by future research to correctly investigate the role of sustained attention in similar samples.ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT
Daubenmier, Jennifer; Moran, Patricia J; Kristeller, Jean; Acree, Michael; Bacchetti, Peter; Kemeny, Margaret E; Dallman, Mary; Lustig, Robert H; Grunfeld, Carl; Nixon, Douglas F; Milush, Jeffrey M; Goldman, Veronica; Laraia, Barbara; Laugero, Kevin D; Woodhouse, Leslie; Epel, Elissa S; Hecht, Frederick M
To determine whether adding mindfulness-based eating and stress management practices to a diet-exercise program improves weight loss and metabolic syndrome components. In this study 194 adults with obesity were randomized to a 5.5-month program with or without mindfulness training and identical diet-exercise guidelines. Intention-to-treat analyses with multiple imputation were used for missing data. The primary outcome was 18-month weight change. Estimated effects comparing the mindfulness to control arm favored the mindfulness arm in (a) weight loss at 12 months, -1.9 kg (95% CI: -4.5, 0.8; P = 0.17), and 18 months, -1.7 kg (95% CI: -4.7, 1.2; P = 0.24), though not statistically significant; (b) changes in fasting glucose at 12 months, -3.1 mg/dl (95% CI: -6.3, 0.1; P = 0.06), and 18 months, -4.1 mg/dl (95% CI: -7.3, -0.9; P = 0.01); and (c) changes in triglyceride/HDL ratio at 12 months, -0.57 (95% CI: -0.95, -0.18; P = 0.004), and 18 months, -0.36 (95% CI: -0.74, 0.03; P = 0.07). Estimates for other metabolic risk factors were not statistically significant, including waist circumference, blood pressure, and C-reactive protein. Mindfulness enhancements to a diet-exercise program did not show substantial weight loss benefit but may promote long-term improvement in some aspects of metabolic health in obesity that requires further study. © 2016 The Authors. Obesity published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Obesity Society (TOS).
Inquiry-based working is assumed to contribute to improving educational quality and to stimulate professional learning. It involves having an inquiry habit of mind, being data literate and creating a culture of inquiry in schools (based on Earl & Katz, 2006). The general aim of this study was to
Brosseau-Liard, Patricia; Penney, Danielle; Poulin-Dubois, Diane
Children can selectively attend to various attributes of a model, such as past accuracy or physical strength, to guide their social learning. There is a debate regarding whether a relation exists between theory-of-mind skills and selective learning. We hypothesized that high performance on theory-of-mind tasks would predict preference for learning new words from accurate informants (an epistemic attribute), but not from physically strong informants (a non-epistemic attribute). Three- and 4-year-olds (N = 65) completed two selective learning tasks, and their theory of mind abilities were assessed. As expected, performance on a theory-of-mind battery predicted children’s preference to learn from more accurate informants but not from physically stronger informants. Results thus suggest that preschoolers with more advanced theory of mind have a better understanding of knowledge and apply that understanding to guide their selection of informants. This work has important implications for research on children’s developing social cognition and early learning. PMID:26211504
Braganza, Shahina; Young, Jessica; Sweeny, Amy; Brazil, Victoria
ED staff are subject to many stressors, but there are few descriptions of collective approaches to enhancing wellness in this setting. We aim to describe a programme developed to address these issues at department level, to report the feasibility and sustainability of the programme, and its impact on staff. The oneED programme was developed and delivered in a tertiary ED. The programme included a 1 day mindfulness workshop, followed by ongoing mindfulness activities embedded in clinical areas over the subsequent 12 months. A mixed-methods evaluation of the programme was conducted, which included quantitative validated psychological tools to measure anxiety, depression and emotional exhaustion, and pragmatic evaluation using surveys of participants and iterative appreciative inquiry. Eighty staff members attended the mindfulness workshop; 66 from ED. Following the workshop, understanding and frequency of mindfulness practice increased significantly in 47% of participants. Free-text survey results demonstrated that staff found the programme to be acceptable (80% survey participants) and of perceived value to themselves (50%) and the ED (60%). Appreciative inquiry led to modification of the programme: the 4 min pause is now conducted weekly rather than daily, the pause consists of a variety of activities, and group activities are made more overtly optional. A departmental wellness programme embedding mindfulness practice is feasible and sustainable. Potential for success is enhanced by an approach that is open to modification according to each institution's culture. © 2018 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.
Brosseau-Liard, Patricia; Penney, Danielle; Poulin-Dubois, Diane
Children can selectively attend to various attributes of a model, such as past accuracy or physical strength, to guide their social learning. There is a debate regarding whether a relation exists between theory-of-mind skills and selective learning. We hypothesized that high performance on theory-of-mind tasks would predict preference for learning new words from accurate informants (an epistemic attribute), but not from physically strong informants (a non-epistemic attribute). Three- and 4-year-olds (N = 65) completed two selective learning tasks, and their theory-of-mind abilities were assessed. As expected, performance on a theory-of-mind battery predicted children's preference to learn from more accurate informants but not from physically stronger informants. Results thus suggest that preschoolers with more advanced theory of mind have a better understanding of knowledge and apply that understanding to guide their selection of informants. This work has important implications for research on children's developing social cognition and early learning. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.
Jazaieri, Hooria; Lee, Ihno A; Goldin, Philippe R; Gross, James J
We examined whether social anxiety severity at pre-treatment would moderate the impact of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) or aerobic exercise (AE) for generalized social anxiety disorder. MBSR and AE produced equivalent reductions in weekly social anxiety symptoms. Improvements were moderated by pre-treatment social anxiety severity. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) and aerobic exercise (AE) are effective in reducing symptoms of social anxiety. Pre-treatment social anxiety severity can be used to inform treatment recommendations. Both MBSR and AE produced equivalent reductions in weekly levels of social anxiety symptoms. MBSR appears to be most effective for patients with lower pre-treatment social anxiety symptom severity. AE appears to be most effective for patients with higher pre-treatment social anxiety symptom severity. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.
Roy Malis, Françoise; Meyer, Thorsten; Gross, Mechthild M
Applications of mindfulness during the perinatal period have recently been explored and appear to offer a decrease in stress, anxiety and depression during this period. However, it still remains unclear what practical use women make of mindfulness during the postpartum period and the mechanisms through which it works. The subjective experience of mindfulness practice by mothers is not fully understood. The aim of the present study was to explore how women enrolled in a "Mindfulness-Based Childbirth and Parenting programme" experienced mindfulness practice during the postpartum period. Ten pregnant women over 18 years of age with singleton pregnancies, no diagnoses of mental illness and participation in a "Mindfulness-Based Childbirth and Parenting programme" were recruited to take part in a postpartum interview. Audio recordings of the interviews were transcribed and analysed thematically based on a phenomenological approach. The transcripts of nine interviews were submitted to a coding process consisting of the identification of words, sentences or paragraphs expressing common ideas. These ideas were classified in codes, each code representing a specific description, function or action (e.g. self-perception, personal organization, formal/informal meditation practice). Progressively, a framework of thematic ideas was extracted from the transcripts, allowing the interviews to be systematically organized and their content analysed in depth. Five themes emerged from the descriptions of practices of mindfulness during the postpartum period: perception of the present moment, breathing, acceptance, self-compassion and the perception of mindfulness as a shelter. Mindfulness practices during the postpartum period may contribute to a mother's psychological wellbeing. The perception of mindfulness as a shelter had not previously been reported. Future research could address whether this role is specific to the postpartum period.
Full Text Available The most successful programming offered in juvenile justice facilities do not transfer easily back to communities to give youth the opportunity to practice intervention skills once they return home. Having this opportunity is particularly important to youth leaving state custody given that they disproportionately return to poor communities and disrupted families that both exacerbate behaviors associated with juvenile justice involvement and act as barriers to much needed services and support. With this in mind, a randomized controlled trial was used to quantitatively assess the ability of freely available Internet-based mindfulness meditation instruction to increase mindfulness in treatment youth, with weekly journals and open-ended post-test questions used to qualitatively explore the treatment experience. Findings suggest that an Internet delivery of mindfulness meditation is both engaging to incarcerated youth, helpful to them in coping with life in a juvenile justice facility, and able to increase mindfulness in youth who practice it.
Abrahamson, Joseph R.
Science deals with knowledge of the material world based on objective reality. It is under constant attack by those who need magic, that is, concepts based on imagination and desire, with no basis in objective reality. A convenient target for such people is speculation on the machinery and method of operation of the human mind, questions that are still obscure in 1994. In The Emperor's New Mind, Roger Penrose attempts to look beyond objective reality for possible answers, using, in his argume...
Luís F Seoane
Full Text Available We provide a proof of concept for an EEG-based reconstruction of a visual image which is on a user's mind. Our approach is based on the Rapid Serial Visual Presentation (RSVP of polygon primitives and Brain-Computer Interface (BCI technology. In an experimental setup, subjects were presented bursts of polygons: some of them contributed to building a target image (because they matched the shape and/or color of the target while some of them did not. The presentation of the contributing polygons triggered attention-related EEG patterns. These Event Related Potentials (ERPs could be determined using BCI classification and could be matched to the stimuli that elicited them. These stimuli (i.e. the ERP-correlated polygons were accumulated in the display until a satisfactory reconstruction of the target image was reached. As more polygons were accumulated, finer visual details were attained resulting in more challenging classification tasks. In our experiments, we observe an average classification accuracy of around 75%. An in-depth investigation suggests that many of the misclassifications were not misinterpretations of the BCI concerning the users' intent, but rather caused by ambiguous polygons that could contribute to reconstruct several different images. When we put our BCI-image reconstruction in perspective with other RSVP BCI paradigms, there is large room for improvement both in speed and accuracy. These results invite us to be optimistic. They open a plethora of possibilities to explore non-invasive BCIs for image reconstruction both in healthy and impaired subjects and, accordingly, suggest interesting recreational and clinical applications.
Perez-Blasco, Josefa; Viguer, Paz; Rodrigo, Maria F
Several pilot studies have provided evidence that mindfulness-based intervention is beneficial during pregnancy, yet its effects in mothers during the early parenting period are unknown. The purpose of the present pilot study was to examine the effectiveness of a mindfulness-based intervention in breast-feeding mothers. We developed and tested an 8-week mindfulness-based intervention aimed at improving maternal self-efficacy, mindfulness, self-compassion, satisfaction with life, and subjective happiness, and at reducing psychological distress. A randomized controlled, between-groups design was used with treatment and control groups (n = 26) and pretest and posttest measures. ANCOVA results indicated that, compared to the control group, mothers in the treatment group scored significantly higher on maternal self-efficacy, some dimensions of mindfulness (observing, acting with awareness, non-judging, and non-reactivity), and self-compassion (self-kindness, mindfulness, over-identification, and total self-compassion). In addition, mothers who received the treatment exhibited significantly less anxiety, stress, and psychological distress. The results supported previous research findings about the benefits of mindfulness-based intervention in women from the perinatal and postpartum periods through the early parenting period. Additional research is needed to validate our findings in non-breast-feeding mothers and to examine the intervention's indirect benefits in terms of family relationships and child development.
More than one-third of U.S. adults over the age of 20 years are classified as obese and nearly two-thirds are overweight or obese. The prevalence of obesity among U.S. children and adolescents has almost tripled since 1980, with 17% of all youth and children now considered obese. Nine million children aged 6-19 years are overweight, making obesity the largest health care threat facing today's children. Historically, the arsenal against obesity has been primarily focused on interventions that increase physical activity and decrease caloric intake. American weight loss strategies that incorporate dietary modifications and exercise have proven effective in achieving weight loss, but most of the weight is regained over time. Mindfulness based interventions, combined with other traditional weight loss strategies, have the potential to offer a long-term, holistic approach to wellness. However, research reports examining the complementary addition of mindfulness based approaches in the treatment obesity and eating disorders are relatively scarce in the empirical literature. This paper describes what is currently known about the role of mindfulness based interventions when used alone, or in combination with, other traditional approaches in the treatment of obesity and eating disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chen-Yang Zhao; Rui Cheng; Zhe Yang; Zhong-Min Tian
Chemotherapy has been widely applied in clinics. However, the therapeutic potential of chemotherapy against cancer is seriously dissatisfactory due to the nonspecific drug distribution, multidrug resistance (MDR) and the heterogeneity of cancer. Therefore, combinational therapy based on chemotherapy mediated by nanotechnology, has been the trend in clinical research at present, which can result in a remarkably increased therapeutic efficiency with few side effects to normal tissues. Moreover,...
Olsen, Poul Bitsch
Mindful innovation is an approach to innovation that pays attention to people's experience in an organization rather than to formal organization or social role.......Mindful innovation is an approach to innovation that pays attention to people's experience in an organization rather than to formal organization or social role....
Alberts, H J E M; Thewissen, R; Raes, L
This study explored the efficacy of a mindfulness-based intervention for problematic eating behavior. A non-clinical sample of 26 women with disordered eating behavior was randomly assigned to an 8-week MBCT-based eating intervention or a waiting list control group. Data were collected at baseline and after 8 weeks. Compared to controls, participants in the mindfulness intervention showed significantly greater decreases in food cravings, dichotomous thinking, body image concern, emotional eating and external eating. These findings suggest that mindfulness practice can be an effective way to reduce factors that are associated with problematic eating behaviour. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Turner, Tami; Hingle, Melanie
Mindfulness-based interventions are reported to be highly acceptable and have positive effects on youth, yet most are clinic- or school-based aimed at emotional regulation or academic performance. To provide flexible program delivery, we developed and tested a standalone mindfulness-based app aimed at improving weight-related behaviors (eg, diet, physical activity, sleep) in adolescents. Our objective was to assess the feasibility, acceptability, and utility of a mindfulness-based mobile app. In a single-arm pilot study, 15 adolescents (14-18 years) were prompted to access the app once a day, every day for 6 weeks. Outcomes were measured by in-app and poststudy surveys, and descriptive statistical analyses were performed. Time within a mindfulness state was self-reported during weekly timed practices. The app was rated highly for content and encouraging the practice of activities to promote mindfulness states. Teens reported increased awareness of eating behaviors and high adherence, particularly during physically active practices. Average self-reported time spent in a mindfulness state increased 2.5 times by week 6 (78 [SD 17] seconds) compared to week 1 (31 [SD 21] seconds). The high acceptability and utility ratings of the app, increases in reported time in mindfulness states, and high frequency of participation, including mindful eating and physical activity, suggest the mindfulness-based mobile app has the potential to improve awareness of weight-related behaviors. ©Tami Turner, Melanie Hingle. Originally published in JMIR Research Protocols (http://www.researchprotocols.org), 26.04.2017.
Koncz, Rebecca; Wolfenden, Fiona; Hassed, Craig; Chambers, Richard; Cohen, Julia; Glozier, Nicholas
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a 6-week mindfulness-based stress release program (SRP) on stress and work engagement in fulltime university employees. Perceived stress, workplace wellbeing, and engagement were measured at baseline and within 1 week of the SRP completion, and contemporaneously 6 weeks apart for a waitlist control group. A second program was implemented to examine reproducibility of results. Fifty participants undertook the SRPs, and 29 participants were waitlisted. A significant improvement in distress, workplace wellbeing, and vigor was observed within the first SRP group, when compared with the control group. The improvement in distress and wellbeing was reproduced in the second SRP group. This study adds to the growing body of research that mindfulness may be an effective method for reducing workplace stress, improving employee wellbeing, and enhancing work engagement.
Robb, Sara Wagner; Benson, Kelsey; Middleton, Lauren; Meyers, Christine; Hébert, James R
Studies have demonstrated the potential of the Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) program to improve the condition of individuals with health outcomes such as hypertension, diabetes, and chronic pain; improve psychological well-being; reduce stress levels; and increase survival among cancer patients. To date, only one study has focused on the effect of long-term meditation on stress, showing a positive protective relationship. However, the relationship between meditation and cancer incidence remains unexplored. The objective of this study was to describe the state-level relationship between MBSR instructors and their practices and county-level health outcomes, including cancer incidence, in the United States. This ecologic study was performed using geospatial mapping and descriptive epidemiology of statewide MBSR characteristics and overall health, mental health state rankings, and age-adjusted cancer incidence rates. Weak to moderate state-level correlations between meditation characteristics and colorectal and cervical cancer incidence were detected, with states with more meditation (e.g., more MBSR teachers per population) correlated with a decreased cancer incidence. A negative correlation was detected between lung & bronchus cancer and years teaching MBSR only. Moderate positive correlations were detected between Hodgkin's Lymphoma and female breast cancer in relation to all meditation characteristics. Statistically significant correlations with moderate coefficients were detected for overall health ranks and all meditation characteristics, most strongly for total number of years teaching MBSR and total number of years of general meditation practice. Our analyses might suggest that a relationship exists between the total number of MBSR teachers per state and the total number of years of general meditation practice per state, and colorectal and cervical cancer incidence. Positive correlations were observed with overall health rankings. Despite this study
I shall propose metaphilosophy of mind as the philosophy of mind investigating mind. That is to say, I pose the question of how knowledge of mind provided by cognitive science, broadly construed, is constrained by the epistemic position of the knower, i.e. by the very fact that it is undertaken by a mind. Here I would like to propose a minimal framework, based on two distinctions: (i) the standard one between empirical and conceptual analysis; (ii) a new one, between the internal questions of...
Warhel Asim Mohammed
Full Text Available Literature indicates that injured athletes face both physical and psychological distress after they have been injured. In this study, a Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR was utilised as an intervention for use during the period of recovery with injured athletes and, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first study using MBSR as an intervention for this purpose.Objective: The aim of this research was to investigate the role of MBSR practise in reducing the perception of pain and decreasing anxiety/stress, as well as increasing pain tolerance and mindfulness. An additional aim was to increase positive mood and decrease negative mood in injured athletes.Methods: The participants comprised of twenty athletes (male = 14; female = 6; age range = 21–36 years who had severe injuries, preventing their participation in sport for more than 3 months. Prior to their injury, the participants had trained regularly with their University teams and participated in official university championships. Both groups followed their normal physiotherapy treatment, but in addition, the intervention group practised mindfulness meditation for 8 weeks (one 90-min session/week. A Cold Pressor Test (CPT was used to assess pain tolerance. In contrast, the perception of pain was measured using a Visual Analogue Scale. Other measurements used were the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS, Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS, and Profile of Mood States (POMS.Results: Our results demonstrated an increase in pain tolerance for the intervention group and an increase in mindful awareness for injured athletes. Moreover, our findings observed a promising change in positive mood for both groups. Regarding the Stress/Anxiety scores, our findings showed a notable decrease across sessions; however, no significant changes were observed in other main and interaction effects in both groups.Conclusion: Injured athletes can benefit from using mindfulness as part of the
Perlovsky, Leonid I
Is it possible to turn psychology into "hard science"? Physics of the mind follows the fundamental methodology of physics in all areas where physics have been developed. What is common among Newtonian mechanics, statistical physics, quantum physics, thermodynamics, theory of relativity, astrophysics… and a theory of superstrings? The common among all areas of physics is a methodology of physics discussed in the first few lines of the paper. Is physics of the mind possible? Is it possible to describe the mind based on the few first principles as physics does? The mind with its variabilities and uncertainties, the mind from perception and elementary cognition to emotions and abstract ideas, to high cognition. Is it possible to turn psychology and neuroscience into "hard" sciences? The paper discusses established first principles of the mind, their mathematical formulations, and a mathematical model of the mind derived from these first principles, mechanisms of concepts, emotions, instincts, behavior, language, cognition, intuitions, conscious and unconscious, abilities for symbols, functions of the beautiful and musical emotions in cognition and evolution. Some of the theoretical predictions have been experimentally confirmed. This research won national and international awards. In addition to summarizing existing results the paper describes new development theoretical and experimental. The paper discusses unsolved theoretical problems as well as experimental challenges for future research.
Full Text Available Is it possible to turn psychology into hard science? Physics of the mind follows the fundamental methodology of physics in all areas where physics have been developed. What is common among Newtonian mechanics, statistical physics, quantum physics, thermodynamics, theory of relativity, astrophysics... and a theory of superstrings? The common among all areas of physics is a methodology of physics discussed in the first few lines of the paper. Is physics of the mind possible? Is it possible to describe the mind based on the few first principles as physics does? The mind with its variabilities and uncertainties, the mind from perception and elementary cognition to emotions and abstract ideas, to high cognition. Is it possible to turn psychology and neuroscience into hard sciences? The paper discusses established first principles of the mind, their mathematical formulations, and a mathematical model of the mind derived from these first principles, mechanisms of concepts, emotions, instincts, behavior, language, cognition, intuitions, conscious and unconscious, abilities for symbols, functions of the beautiful and musical emotions in cognition and evolution. Some of the theoretical predictions have been experimentally confirmed. This research won national and international awards. In addition to summarizing existing results the paper describes new development theoretical and experimental. The paper discusses unsolved theoretical problems as well as experimental challenges for future research.
Newton, Therese L.; Ohrt, Jonathan H.
Approximately 39-49% of college students have experienced grief due to death in the past 24 months. Students' grief is often complicated due to the nature of their developmental characteristics (e.g., searching for autonomy, identity development, career direction, academic pressure, and formation of intimate relationships). Group mindfulness-based…
Full Text Available Objective: The present study was designed to investigate the effectiveness of mindfulness in the prevention of relapse in drug abusers. Method: Using a quasi experimental design, 90 male drug abusers who had undergone detoxification were selected from among all detoxified individuals referred to drug rehabilitation centers in the City of Tehran. Patients were placed randomly in three groups: Mindfulness training intervention, behavioral drug reduction counseling and a control group in which no intervention was applied. Diagnosis of drug abuse was made using structured clinical interview for diagnosing axis I disorders on DSMIV (SCID-I as well as tests to measure morphine levels in the blood. Fisher test was used to compare groups. Patients were assessed two weeks and two months after the intervention as follow up measure. Findings: Results show that both intervention groups were effective in preventing relapse as compared to the control group. Furthermore, the effectiveness of mindfulness training and BDRC was about the same. There were no significant differences between patients with and without experience of drug abuse and married and single patients. Conclusion: Both mindfulness training and BDRC may be considered effective practical methods in reducing the risk of relapse in male drug abusers.
de Weerd, Hermanes; Verbrugge, Rineke; Verheij, Bart; Herzig, Andreas; Lorini, Emiliano
When people engage in social interactions, they often rely on their theory of mind, their ability to reason about unobservable mental content of others such as beliefs, goals, and intentions. This ability allows them to both understand why others behave the way they do as well as predict future
Educational theorists may be right to suggest that providing mindfulness training in schools can challenge oppressive pedagogies and overcome Western dualism. Before concluding that this training is liberatory, however, one must go beyond pedagogy and consider schooling's role in enacting the educational neurofuture envisioned by mindfulness…
Colonnesi, Cristina; Wissink, Inge B.; Noom, Marc J.; Asscher, Jessica J.; Hoeve, Machteld; Stams, Geert Jan J. M.; Polderman, Nelleke; Kellaert-Knol, Marijke G.
Objectives: We evaluated a new attachment-oriented intervention aimed at improving parental mind-mindedness, promoting positive parent-child relationships, and reducing child psychopathology in families with adopted children. Method: The sample consisted of 20 families with adopted children (2-5 years of age). After the pretest, the intervention…
Lee, Eun-Kyoung Othelia; Yoon, Hyunsook; Lee, Jungui; Yoon, Jiyoung; Chang, Eunjin
This community-based, health promotion intervention for seniors provided a comprehensive review of the effect of body-mind-spirit (BMS) interventions on health behaviors. The 12-week curriculum offered sessions on exercise, nutrition, sexuality, leisure, stress management, cognitive behavioral therapy, forgiveness, and happiness. Gerontological…
Quintana Hernández, Domingo Jesús; Miró Barrachina, María Teresa; Ibáñez Fernández, Ignacio; Santana del Pino, Angelo; Rojas Hernández, Jaime; Rodríguez García, Javier; Quintana Montesdeoca, María del Pino
A longitudinal study was conducted in order to analyze the feasibility, safety, and effects of the practice of mindfulness, relaxation and cognitive stimulation on the evolution of Alzheimer's disease, with the aim of testing the equivalence of these interventions. There were a total of 168 participants with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) treated with donepezil. In the present article, the 21 participants with advanced AD who completed a follow-up period of 24 months are presented. The participants were grouped into three experimental groups (mindfulness, relaxation, and cognitive stimulation) and one control group. Each group carried out three weekly sessions with bi-annual follow-up measurements (cognition: CAMCOG and MMSE; functionality: RDRS; psychopathology: NPI). Non-parametric analyses were performed. The cognitive function and functionality scores showed no significant differences between the groups. However, the scores in cognitive function of the mindfulness group and the cognitive stimulation group did not decrease in an intra-group analysis. In NPI, there were significant differences between the mindfulness group and the control group by the end of the study (P<.017). The data showed that the treatment with donepezil in combination with mindfulness or cognitive stimulation presented a better clinical evolution than the pharmacological treatment alone or combined with relaxation. These data suggest that these therapeutic alternatives should be investigated further, and that the non-pharmacological treatments should be recommended in clinical practice in order to control the evolution of AD in the long term. In order to confirm these findings, a larger study is necessary. Copyright © 2014 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Stokhof, Harry; de Vries, Bregje; Bastiaens, Theo; Martens, Rob
Student questioning is an important learning strategy, but rare in many classrooms, because teachers have concerns if these questions contribute to attaining curricular objectives. Teachers face the challenge of making student questioning effective for learning the curriculum. To address this challenge, a principle-based scenario for guiding effective student questioning was developed and tested for its relevance and practicality in two previous studies. In the scenario, which consists of a sequence of pedagogical activities, mind maps support teachers and students to explore and elaborate upon a core curriculum, by raising, investigating, and exchanging student questions. In this paper, a follow-up study is presented that tested the effectiveness of the scenario on student outcomes in terms of attainment of curricular objectives. Ten teachers and their 231 students participated in the study. Pre- and posttest mind maps were used to measure individual and collective learning outcomes of student questioning. Findings show that a majority of students progressed in learning the core curriculum and elaborated upon it. The findings suggest that visualizing knowledge construction in a shared mind map supports students to learn a core curriculum and to refine their knowledge structures.
Schulman, Sam; Witt, Daniel M.; Vandvik, Per Olav; Fish, Jason; Kovacs, Michael J.; Svensson, Peter J.; Veenstra, David L.; Crowther, Mark; Guyatt, Gordon H.
Background: High-quality anticoagulation management is required to keep these narrow therapeutic index medications as effective and safe as possible. This article focuses on the common important management questions for which, at a minimum, low-quality published evidence is available to guide best practices. Methods: The methods of this guideline follow those described in Methodology for the Development of Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis Guidelines: Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines in this supplement. Results: Most practical clinical questions regarding the management of anticoagulation, both oral and parenteral, have not been adequately addressed by randomized trials. We found sufficient evidence for summaries of recommendations for 23 questions, of which only two are strong rather than weak recommendations. Strong recommendations include targeting an international normalized ratio of 2.0 to 3.0 for patients on vitamin K antagonist therapy (Grade 1B) and not routinely using pharmacogenetic testing for guiding doses of vitamin K antagonist (Grade 1B). Weak recommendations deal with such issues as loading doses, initiation overlap, monitoring frequency, vitamin K supplementation, patient self-management, weight and renal function adjustment of doses, dosing decision support, drug interactions to avoid, and prevention and management of bleeding complications. We also address anticoagulation management services and intensive patient education. Conclusions: We offer guidance for many common anticoagulation-related management problems. Most anticoagulation management questions have not been adequately studied. PMID:22315259
Shomaker, Lauren B; Bruggink, Stephanie; Pivarunas, Bernadette; Skoranski, Amanda; Foss, Jillian; Chaffin, Ella; Dalager, Stephanie; Annameier, Shelly; Quaglia, Jordan; Brown, Kirk Warren; Broderick, Patricia; Bell, Christopher
(1) Evaluate feasibility and acceptability of a mindfulness-based group in adolescent girls at-risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D) with depressive symptoms, and (2) compare efficacy of a mindfulness-based versus cognitive-behavioral group for decreasing depressive symptoms and improving insulin resistance. Parallel-group, randomized controlled pilot trial conducted at a university. Thirty-three girls 12-17y with overweight/obesity, family history of diabetes, and elevated depressive symptoms were randomized to a six-week mindfulness-based (n=17) or cognitive-behavioral program (n=16). Both interventions included six, one-hour weekly group sessions. The mindfulness-based program included guided mindfulness awareness practices. The cognitive-behavioral program involved cognitive restructuring and behavioral activation. Adolescents were evaluated at baseline, post-intervention, and six-months. Feasibility/acceptability were measured by attendance and program ratings. Depressive symptoms were assessed by validated survey. Insulin resistance was determined from fasting insulin and glucose, and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry was used to assess body composition. Most adolescents attended ≥80% sessions (mindfulness: 92% versus cognitive-behavioral: 87%, p=1.00). Acceptability ratings were strong. At post-treatment and six-months, adolescents in the mindfulness condition had greater decreases in depressive symptoms than adolescents in the cognitive-behavioral condition (psmindfulness-based intervention also had greater decreases in insulin resistance and fasting insulin at post-treatment, adjusting for fat mass and other covariates (psmindfulness-based intervention shows feasibility and acceptability in girls at-risk for T2D with depressive symptoms. Compared to a cognitive-behavioral program, after the intervention, adolescents who received mindfulness showed greater reductions in depressive symptoms and better insulin resistance. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02218138
Yvonne Nathalie Delevoye-Turrell
Full Text Available Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction meditation (MBSR may offer optimal performance through heightened attention for increased body consciousness. To test this hypothesis, MBSR effects were assessed on the simple task of lifting an object. A dual task paradigm was included to assess the opposite effect of a limited amount of attention on motor consciousness. In a stimulus-based condition, the subjects’ task was to lift an object that was hefted with weights. In an intentional-based condition, subjects were required to lift a light object while imagining that the object was virtually heavier and thus, adjust their grip voluntarily. The degree of motor consciousness was evaluated by calculating correlation factors for each participant between the grip force level used during the lift trial (lift the object and that used during its associated reproduce trial (without lifting, indicate the force you think you used in the previous trial. Under dual task condition, motor consciousness decreased for intention- and stimulus-based actions, revealing the importance of top-down attention for building the motor representation that guides action planning. For MBSR-experts, heightened attention provided stronger levels of motor consciousness; this was true for both intention and stimulus-based actions. For controls, heightened attention decreased the capacity to reproduce force levels, suggesting that voluntary top-down attention interfered with the automatic bottom-up emergence of body sensations.Our results provide strong arguments for involvement of two types of attention for the emergence of motor consciousness. Bottom-up attention would serve as an amplifier of motor-sensory afferences; Top down attention would help transfer the motor-sensory content from a pre-conscious to a conscious state of processing. MBSR would be a specific state for which both types of attention are optimally combined to provide experts with total experiences of their body in
Full Text Available Background: Obesity affects the cognitive, emotional and behavioral functions and usually produces mood and anxiety disorders. The present study aimed to determine the effectiveness of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR on promoting quality of life and decreasing anxiety among the obese women. Materials and Methods: In this pre-post-test designed experimental study with a 2 mouth follow- up, 24 obese women (BMI≥30 were randomly selected in the Obesity Treatment Center in (Tehran, Iran and assigned in Experimental and Control groups. Data were collected using the questionnaires of anxiety of Spiel-Berger (1970 and quality of life of Viyear (1988. The MBSR interventions of Kabat-Zinn were performed for experimental group in 8 sessions, followed by the assessment of anxiety and quality of life. Results: The pre- post-test and follow- up scores for quality of life of participants in MBSR program, in terms of general health; physical limitations; physical function; social function; state anxiety and trait anxiety were: (7.66±0.88, 9.50±1.67, 9.58±1.66; (22.83±1.58, 27.91±1.16, 27±1.53; (4.50±0.67, 6.16±1.11, 5±0.95; (2.91± 0.28, 5.91±0.66, 5.75±0.38; (52.25±3.51, 43.08±2.39, 44±2.29 and (68.08±1.78, 46.75±1.71, 47.25±2, respectively. The scores of quality of life was significantly increased in participants in MBSR compared to the Control group (P<0.01. In addition, the scores of state and trait anxiety were significantly decreased (P<0.01. Conclusion: The results of research provide some evidence to suggest that MBSR is an appropriate therapy for promoting quality of life and decreasing anxiety in obese women.
Alberto A. Alegre
Full Text Available It is proposed that the problem of the mind-brain relationship can be overcome by a non-classical materialistic model of personality based on the information defined as a special form of negentropy with a structure and activity, which in five intra-individual categories, organizes all and each of the levels of the personality, and, in an extra-individual category organizes the society. This concept of information leads to a monistic view of the universe and turns into conceptions of society, personality, consciousness, and mental activity based on a theoretical framework that explains the nature of the social individual.
Demarzo, Marcelo; Montero-Marin, Jesus; Puebla-Guedea, Marta; Navarro-Gil, Mayte; Herrera-Mercadal, Paola; Moreno-González, Sergio; Calvo-Carrión, Sandra; Bafaluy-Franch, Laura; Garcia-Campayo, Javier
Background: Many attempts have been made to abbreviate mindfulness programmes in order to make them more accessible for general and clinical populations while maintaining their therapeutic components and efficacy. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of an 8-week mindfulness-based intervention (MBI) programme and a 4-week abbreviated version for the improvement of well-being in a non-clinical population. Method: A quasi-experimental, controlled, pilot study was conducted with pre-post and 6-month follow-up measurements and three study conditions (8- and 4-session MBI programmes and a matched no-treatment control group, with a sample of 48, 46, and 47 participants in each condition, respectively). Undergraduate students were recruited, and mindfulness, positive and negative affect, self-compassion, resilience, anxiety, and depression were assessed. Mixed-effects multi-level analyses for repeated measures were performed. Results: The intervention groups showed significant improvements compared to controls in mindfulness and positive affect at the 2- and 6-month follow-ups, with no differences between 8- vs. 4-session programmes. The only difference between the abbreviated MBI vs. the standard MBI was found in self-kindness at 6 months, favoring the standard MBI. There were marginal differences in anxiety between the controls vs. the abbreviated MBI, but there were differences between the controls vs. the standard MBI at 2- and 6-months, with higher levels in the controls. There were no differences in depression between the controls vs. the abbreviated MBI, but differences were found between the controls vs. the standard MBI at 2- and 6-months, favoring the standard MBI. There were no differences with regard to negative affect and resilience. Conclusion: To our knowledge, this is the first study to directly investigate the efficacy of a standard 8-week MBI and a 4-week abbreviated protocol in the same population. Based on our findings, both programmes
Full Text Available Background: Many attempts have been made to abbreviate mindfulness programmes in order to make them more accessible for general and clinical populations while maintaining their therapeutic components and efficacy. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of an 8-week mindfulness-based intervention (MBI programme and a 4-week abbreviated version for the improvement of well-being in a non-clinical population.Method: A quasi-experimental, controlled, pilot study was conducted with pre-post and 6-month follow-up measurements and three study conditions (8- and 4-session MBI programmes and a matched no-treatment control group, with a sample of 48, 46, and 47 participants in each condition, respectively. Undergraduate students were recruited, and mindfulness, positive and negative affect, self-compassion, resilience, anxiety, and depression were assessed. Mixed-effects multi-level analyses for repeated measures were performed.Results: The intervention groups showed significant improvements compared to controls in mindfulness and positive affect at the 2- and 6-month follow-ups, with no differences between 8- vs. 4-session programmes. The only difference between the abbreviated MBI vs. the standard MBI was found in self-kindness at 6 months, favoring the standard MBI. There were marginal differences in anxiety between the controls vs. the abbreviated MBI, but there were differences between the controls vs. the standard MBI at 2- and 6-months, with higher levels in the controls. There were no differences in depression between the controls vs. the abbreviated MBI, but differences were found between the controls vs. the standard MBI at 2- and 6-months, favoring the standard MBI. There were no differences with regard to negative affect and resilience.Conclusion: To our knowledge, this is the first study to directly investigate the efficacy of a standard 8-week MBI and a 4-week abbreviated protocol in the same population. Based on our findings, both
Full Text Available A socially intelligent robot must be capable to extract meaningful information in real time from the social environment and react accordingly with coherent human-like behavior. Moreover, it should be able to internalize this information, to reason on it at a higher level, build its own opinions independently, and then automatically bias the decision-making according to its unique experience. In the last decades, neuroscience research highlighted the link between the evolution of such complex behavior and the evolution of a certain level of consciousness, which cannot leave out of a body that feels emotions as discriminants and prompters. In order to develop cognitive systems for social robotics with greater human-likeliness, we used an “understanding by building” approach to model and implement a well-known theory of mind in the form of an artificial intelligence, and we tested it on a sophisticated robotic platform. The name of the presented system is SEAI (Social Emotional Artificial Intelligence, a cognitive system specifically conceived for social and emotional robots. It is designed as a bio-inspired, highly modular, hybrid system with emotion modeling and high-level reasoning capabilities. It follows the deliberative/reactive paradigm where a knowledge-based expert system is aimed at dealing with the high-level symbolic reasoning, while a more conventional reactive paradigm is deputed to the low-level processing and control. The SEAI system is also enriched by a model that simulates the Damasio’s theory of consciousness and the theory of Somatic Markers. After a review of similar bio-inspired cognitive systems, we present the scientific foundations and their computational formalization at the basis of the SEAI framework. Then, a deeper technical description of the architecture is disclosed underlining the numerous parallelisms with the human cognitive system. Finally, the influence of artificial emotions and feelings, and their link
Bei, Bei; Byrne, Michelle L; Ivens, Clare; Waloszek, Joanna; Woods, Michael J; Dudgeon, Paul; Murray, Greg; Nicholas, Christian L; Trinder, John; Allen, Nicholas B
Existing literature links poor sleep and anxiety symptoms in adolescents. This pilot study aimed to develop a practical method through which a program to improve sleep could reach adolescents in need and to examine the feasibility of a mindfulness-based, multi-component group sleep intervention using sleep and anxiety as outcome measures. Sixty-two grade 9 students (aged 13-15) at a girls' school were screened with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS). Ten participants with self-reported poor sleep were enrolled into a six-session program based on Bootzin & Stevens, with added stress/anxiety-specific components. Sessions covered key aspects of basic mindfulness concepts and practice, sleep hygiene, sleep scheduling, evening/daytime habits, stimulus control, skills for bedtime worries and healthy attitudes to sleep. Treatment changes were measured by pre-post scores on the PSQI, SCAS and 7-day actigraphy-measured sleep. The program demonstrated high acceptability, with a completion rate of 90%. Based on effect-size analysis, participants showed significant improvement on objective sleep onset latency (SOL), sleep efficiency and total sleep time; actigraphy data also showed significantly earlier bedtime, rise time and smaller day-to-day bedtime variation. Post-intervention global PSQI scores were significantly lower than that of pre-intervention, with significant improvement in subjective SOL, sleep quality and sleep-related daytime dysfunction. There were small improvements on some subscales of the SCAS, but change on its total score was minimal. A mindfulness-based, multi-component, in-school group sleep intervention following brief screening is feasible, and has the potential to improve sleep. Its impact on anxiety needs further investigation. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Smallwood, Jonathan; Mrazek, Michael D; Schooler, Jonathan W
Mind wandering--defined as a cognitive focus on information that is unrelated to immediate sensory input or the task at hand--is a ubiquitous characteristic of the human condition. When it occurs, the integrity of a wide range of cognitive skills can be compromised. The current paper describes the phenomenon of mind wandering, explores its potential role in medical practice and considers how the education system may profitably control this ubiquitous cognitive state. We argue that because many aspects of a medical professional's work (such as fatigue and depression) maximise the mind's tendency to wander, this experience is likely to be a common occurrence in many medical situations. We then review the psychological literature on mind wandering as it relates to medical practice. Based on this review, we suggest that because mind wandering interferes with an individual's ability to integrate current events into a more general context, its occurrence may lead to downstream problems in the way that symptoms are interpreted and treated. Finally, because the experience of mind wandering is often both difficult to control and hard to recognise, it is difficult to prevent. We argue that techniques that help individuals to become more mindful have the potential to ameliorate the cost of mind wandering to the medical profession. Given the ubiquitous nature of the experience of mind wandering, the integration of mindfulness training into medical education programmes could be of general benefit to society at large. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2011.
Quintana-Hernández, Domingo J; Miró-Barrachina, María T; Ibáñez-Fernández, Ignacio J; Pino, Angelo Santana-Del; Quintana-Montesdeoca, María P; Rodríguez-de Vera, Bienvenida; Morales-Casanova, David; Pérez-Vieitez, María Del Carmen; Rodríguez-García, Javier; Bravo-Caraduje, Noelia
The Canary Islands longitudinal study on non-pharmacological treatments showed the overall effectiveness of mindfulness in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, no specific data on the maintenance of cognitive capacities were presented. To determine whether the practice of mindfulness modifies the course of cognitive impairment in AD. Longitudinal, non-inferiority and equivalence, randomized clinical trial, repeated-measures design, with three experimental groups and one control group. Patients with AD who voluntarily attended the Lidia García Foundation (n = 502). Only those who were treated with donepezil and MMSE ≥18 were included (n = 120). Over a two-year period, each group carried out three weekly sessions of stimulation based on mindfulness, cognitive stimulation therapy, and progressive muscle relaxation. Cognitive assessment CAMDEX-R (MMSE and CAMCOG). Repeated-measures ANOVA (p mindfulness group showed significant scores compared with the control and muscle relaxation groups (p mindfulness and cognitive stimulation therapy were equivalent (p≥0.05). Group cognitive stimulation evolved better than the control (p mindfulness group (p≥0.80), moderate for the relaxation group (p≥0.50), and low for the cognitive stimulation group (p≥0.20). The practice of mindfulness maintained cognitive function over a period of two years. This longitudinal study suggests that mindfulness can be used as a non-pharmacological treatment to slow cognitive impairment in AD.
Minami, Haruka; Brinkman, Hannah R; Nahvi, Shadi; Arnsten, Julia H; Rivera-Mindt, Monica; Wetter, David W; Bloom, Erika Litvin; Price, Lawrence H; Vieira, Carlos; Donnelly, Remington; McClain, Lauren M; Kennedy, Katherine A; D'Aquila, Erica; Fine, Micki; McCarthy, Danielle E; Graham Thomas, J; Hecht, Jacki; Brown, Richard A
Although individuals with psychiatric disorders are disproportionately affected by cigarette smoking, few outpatient mental health treatment facilities offer smoking cessation services. In this paper, we describe the development of a smartphone-assisted mindfulness smoking cessation intervention with contingency management (SMI-CM), as well as the design and methods of an ongoing pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) targeting smokers receiving outpatient psychiatric treatment. We also report the results of an open-label pilot feasibility study. In phase 1, we developed and pilot-tested SMI-CM, which includes a smartphone intervention app that prompts participants to practice mindfulness, complete ecological momentary assessment (EMA) reports 5 times per day, and submit carbon monoxide (CO) videos twice per day. Participants earned incentives if submitted videos showed CO≤6ppm. In phase 2, smokers receiving outpatient treatment for mood disorders are randomized to receive SMI-CM or enhanced standard treatment plus non-contingent CM (EST). The results from the pilot feasibility study (N=8) showed that participants practiced mindfulness an average of 3.4times/day (≥3min), completed 72.3% of prompted EMA reports, and submitted 68.0% of requested CO videos. Participants reported that the program was helpful overall (M=4.85/5) and that daily mindfulness practice was helpful for both managing mood and quitting smoking (Ms=4.50/5). The results from the feasibility study indicated high levels of acceptability and satisfaction with SMI-CM. The ongoing RCT will allow evaluation of the efficacy and mechanisms of action underlying SMI-CM for improving cessation rates among smokers with mood disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Training people to deliver mindfulness-based interventions (MBI is becoming an important activity as mindfulness has been shown to have clinical benefits across a variety of conditions. Training courses must not only address the principles, skills and theory of mindfulness, but the trainers themselves must be able to embody the practice. There is limited research on the ability of teachers-in-training to embody the practice as a result of teacher training programmes. This study explored the extent to which a short course enabled future teachers to embody mindfulness practice. This first module was part of a larger course of four modules to prepare future teachers of MBIs. Methods Qualitative data was obtained from 10 out of 35 end of course written assignments that asked respondents to reflect on their experience of mindfulness practice during the course. These were systematically selected and a focus group interview was also conducted with local participants. Data was analysed by means of the framework method and key themes identified. Results The combination of a retreat and on-line learning was perceived to be effective. Students reported significant changes in personal functioning as a result of daily mindfulness practice: self-awareness, improved relationships, enhanced connectedness, better self-regulation, enhanced compassion and curiosity towards self and others and self-acceptance. Participants began to introduce elements of mindfulness into their professional practice. Conclusions The first module of a post-graduate training programme for health professionals who want to teach MBIs successfully supported students to embody, explore and apply mindfulness in their lives. The integrated teaching modalities of residential retreat and distance-based on-line learning appeared effective.
The effect of a mindfulness-based intervention in cognitive functions and psychological well-being applied as an early intervention in schizophrenia and high-risk mental state in a Chilean sample: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.
Langer, Álvaro I; Schmidt, Carlos; Mayol, Rocío; Díaz, Marcela; Lecaros, Javiera; Krogh, Edwin; Pardow, Aída; Vergara, Carolina; Vergara, Guillermo; Pérez-Herrera, Bernardita; Villar, María José; Maturana, Alejandro; Gaspar, Pablo A
According to the projections of the World Health Organization, 15% of all disabilities will be associated with mental illnesses by 2020. One of the mental disorders with the largest social impacts due to high personal and family costs is psychosis. Among the most effective psychological approaches to treat schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders at the world level is cognitive behavioral therapy. Recently, cognitive behavioral therapy has introduced several tools and strategies that promote psychological processes based on acceptance and mindfulness. A large number of studies support the effectiveness of mindfulness in dealing with various mental health problems, including psychosis. This study is aimed at determining the efficiency of a mindfulness-based program in increasing cognitive function and psychological well-being in patients with a first episode of schizophrenia and a high risk mental state (those at risk of developing an episode of psychosis). This is an experimentally designed, multi-center randomized controlled trial, with a 3-month follow-up period. The study participants will be 48 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia (first episode) and 48 with a high-risk mental state, from Santiago, Chile, aged between 15 and 35 years. Participants will be submitted to a mindfulness-based intervention (MBI), which will involve taking part in eight mindfulness workshops adapted for people with psychosis. Workshops will last approximately 1.5 hours and take place once a week, over 8 weeks. The primary outcome will be the cognitive function through Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (MATRICS) and the secondary outcome will be psychological well-being measured by self-reporting questionnaires. The outcomes of this trial will add empirical evidence to the benefits and feasibility of MBIs for the psychotherapeutic treatment of patients with schizophrenia and high-risk mental states in reducing cognitive impairment in
Astin, John A; Shapiro, Shauna L; Eisenberg, David M; Forys, Kelly L
Although emerging evidence during the past several decades suggests that psychosocial factors can directly influence both physiologic function and health outcomes, medicine had failed to move beyond the biomedical model, in part because of lack of exposure to the evidence base supporting the biopsychosocial model. The literature was reviewed to examine the efficacy of representative psychosocial-mind-body interventions, including relaxation, (cognitive) behavioral therapies, meditation, imagery, biofeedback, and hypnosis for several common clinical conditions. An electronic search was undertaken of the MEDLINE, PsycLIT, and the Cochrane Library databases and a manual search of the reference sections of relevant articles for related clinical trials and reviews of the literature. Studies examining mind-body interventions for psychological disorders were excluded. Owing to space limitations, studies examining more body-based therapies, such as yoga and tai chi chuan, were also not included. Data were extracted from relevant systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and randomized controlled trials. Drawing principally from systematic reviews and meta-analyses, there is considerable evidence of efficacy for several mind-body therapies in the treatment of coronary artery disease (eg, cardiac rehabilitation), headaches, insomnia, incontinence, chronic low back pain, disease and treatment-related symptoms of cancer, and improving postsurgical outcomes. We found moderate evidence of efficacy for mind-body therapies in the areas of hypertension and arthritis. Additional research is required to clarify the relative efficacy of different mind-body therapies, factors (such as specific patient characteristics) that might predict more or less successful outcomes, and mechanisms of action. Research is also necessary to examine the cost offsets associated with mind-body therapies. There is now considerable evidence that an array of mind-body therapies can be used as effective adjuncts to
ADRIANA L. DA SILVA
Full Text Available Nanotechnology is an emerging science with the potential to create new materials and strategies involving manipulation of matter at the nanometer scale (<100 nm. With size-dependent properties, nanoparticles have introduced a new paradigm in pharmacotherapy – the possibility of cell-targeted drug delivery with minimal systemic side effects and toxicity. The present review provides a summary of published findings, especially regarding to nanoparticle formulations for lung diseases. The available data have shown some benefits with nanoparticle-based therapy in the development of the disease and lung remodeling in respiratory diseases. However, there is a wide gap between the concepts of nanomedicine and the published experimental data and clinical reality. In addition, studies are still required to determine the potential of nanotherapy and the systemic toxicity of nanomaterials for future human use.
Anclair, Malin; Lappalainen, Raimo; Muotka, Joona; Hiltunen, Arto J
Parents of children with chronic conditions often experience a crisis with serious mental health problems for themselves as a consequence. The healthcare focus is on the children; however, the parents often worry about their children's health and future but are seldom offered any counselling or guidance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of two group-based behavioural interventions on stress and burnout among parents of children with chronic conditions. After a waiting list control period (n = 28), parents were offered either a cognitive behavioural (CBT, n = 10) or a mindfulness program (MF, n = 9). Both interventions decreased significantly stress and burnout. The within-group effect sizes were large in both interventions (CBT, g = 1.28-1.64; MF, g = 1.25-2.20). Hence, the results of this pilot study show that treating a group using either CBT or mindfulness can be an efficient intervention for reducing stress levels and burnout in parents of children with chronic conditions. © 2017 The Authors Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Nordic College of Caring Science.
Demarzo, Marcelo M. P.; Montero-Marin, Jesús; Stein, Phyllis K.; Cebolla, Ausiàs; Provinciale, Jaime G.; García-Campayo, Javier
The psychological construct of mindfulness refers to an awareness that emerges by intentionally paying attention to the present experience in a non-judgmental or evaluative way. This particular quality of awareness has been associated to several indicators of physical and psychological health, and can be developed using mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs), and therefore MBIs have been successfully applied as preventive and complementary interventions and therapies in medicine and psychology. Together with quiet sitting and lying meditation practices, mindful physical exercises such as “mindful walking” and “mindful movement” are key elements in MBIs and couple muscular activity with an internally directed focus, improving interoceptive attention to bodily sensations. In addition, MBIs seem to share similar mechanisms with physical fitness (PF) by which they may influence cardiovascular responses to stress. Based on these facts, it is feasible to raise the question of whether physical training itself may induce the development of that particular quality of awareness associated with mindfulness, or if one's dispositional mindfulness (DM) (the tendency to be more mindful in daily life) could moderate the effects of exercise on cardiovascular response to stress. The role of mindfulness as a mediator or moderator of the effect of exercise training on cardiovascular responses to stress has barely been studied. In this study, we have hypothesized pathways (moderation and mediation) by which mindfulness could significantly influence the effects of PF on cardiovascular responses to stress and discussed potential practical ways to test these hypotheses. PMID:24723891
Marcelo Marcos Piva Demarzo
Full Text Available The psychological construct of mindfulness refers to an awareness that emerges by intentionally paying attention to the present experience in a non-judgmental or evaluative way. This particular quality of awareness has been associated to several indicators of physical and psychological health, and can be developed using mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs, and therefore MBIs have been successfully applied as preventive and complementary interventions and therapies in medicine and psychology. Together with quiet sitting and lying meditation practices, mindful physical exercises such as mindful walking and mindful movement are key elements in MBIs and couple muscular activity with an internally directed focus, improving interoceptive attention to bodily sensations. In addition, MBIs seem to share similar mechanisms with physical fitness by which they may influence cardiovascular responses to stress. Based on these facts, it is feasible to raise the question of whether physical training itself may induce the development of that particular quality of awareness associated with mindfulness, or if one’s dispositional mindfulness (the tendency to be more mindful in daily life could moderate the effects of exercise on cardiovascular response to stress. The role of mindfulness as a mediator or moderator of the effect of exercise training on cardiovascular responses to stress has barely been studied. In this study, we have hypothesized pathways (moderation and mediation by which mindfulness could significantly influence the effects of physical fitness on cardiovascular responses to stress and have discuss potential practical ways to test these hypotheses.
Demarzo, Marcelo M P; Montero-Marin, Jesús; Stein, Phyllis K; Cebolla, Ausiàs; Provinciale, Jaime G; García-Campayo, Javier
The psychological construct of mindfulness refers to an awareness that emerges by intentionally paying attention to the present experience in a non-judgmental or evaluative way. This particular quality of awareness has been associated to several indicators of physical and psychological health, and can be developed using mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs), and therefore MBIs have been successfully applied as preventive and complementary interventions and therapies in medicine and psychology. Together with quiet sitting and lying meditation practices, mindful physical exercises such as "mindful walking" and "mindful movement" are key elements in MBIs and couple muscular activity with an internally directed focus, improving interoceptive attention to bodily sensations. In addition, MBIs seem to share similar mechanisms with physical fitness (PF) by which they may influence cardiovascular responses to stress. Based on these facts, it is feasible to raise the question of whether physical training itself may induce the development of that particular quality of awareness associated with mindfulness, or if one's dispositional mindfulness (DM) (the tendency to be more mindful in daily life) could moderate the effects of exercise on cardiovascular response to stress. The role of mindfulness as a mediator or moderator of the effect of exercise training on cardiovascular responses to stress has barely been studied. In this study, we have hypothesized pathways (moderation and mediation) by which mindfulness could significantly influence the effects of PF on cardiovascular responses to stress and discussed potential practical ways to test these hypotheses.
Full Text Available Sanjay Kalra1, Bharti Kalra2, Rakesh Sahay3, Navneet Agrawal41Department of Endocrinology, 2Department of Diabetology, Bharti Hospital, Karnal, India; 3Department of Endocrinology, Osmania Medical College, Hyderabad, India; 4Department of Medicine, GR Medical College, Gwalior, IndiaAbstract: There are two important incretin hormones, glucose-dependent insulin tropic polypeptide (GIP and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1. The biological activities of GLP-1 include stimulation of glucose-dependent insulin secretion and insulin biosynthesis, inhibition of glucagon secretion and gastric emptying, and inhibition of food intake. GLP-1 appears to have a number of additional effects in the gastrointestinal tract and central nervous system. Incretin based therapy includes GLP-1 receptor agonists like human GLP-1 analogs (liraglutide and exendin-4 based molecules (exenatide, as well as DPP-4 inhibitors like sitagliptin, vildagliptin and saxagliptin. Most of the published studies showed a significant reduction in HbA1c using these drugs. A critical analysis of reported data shows that the response rate in terms of target achievers of these drugs is average. One of the first actions identified for GLP-1 was the glucose-dependent stimulation of insulin secretion from islet cell lines. Following the detection of GLP-1 receptors on islet beta cells, a large body of evidence has accumulated illustrating that GLP-1 exerts multiple actions on various signaling pathways and gene products in the ß cell. GLP-1 controls glucose homeostasis through well-defined actions on the islet ß cell via stimulation of insulin secretion and preservation and expansion of ß cell mass. In summary, there are several factors determining the response rate to incretin therapy. Currently minimal clinical data is available to make a conclusion. Key factors appear to be duration of diabetes, obesity, presence of autonomic neuropathy, resting energy expenditure, plasma glucagon levels and
Stjernholm, Ole; Ehrensvärd, Martin Gustaf
Tematiserer nogle af de udfordringer, der møder dig, som regelmæssigt praktiserer mindfulness og kommer med bud på, hvad bevidsthedens vaner og mønstre betyder for dybden af stilhed - og hvordan man kan arbejde med den viden.......Tematiserer nogle af de udfordringer, der møder dig, som regelmæssigt praktiserer mindfulness og kommer med bud på, hvad bevidsthedens vaner og mønstre betyder for dybden af stilhed - og hvordan man kan arbejde med den viden....
Morris, James A
The process of conscious and unconscious decision making is analyzed using decision theory. An essential part of an optimum decision strategy is the assessment of values and costs associated with correct and incorrect decisions. In the case of unconscious decisions this involves an automatic process akin to computation using numerical values. But for conscious decisions the conscious mind must experience the outcome of the decision as pleasure or pain. It is suggested that the rules of behavior are programmed in our genes but modified by experience of the society in which we are reared. Our unconscious then uses the rules to reward or punish our conscious mind for the decisions it makes. This is relevant to concepts of altruism and religion in society. It is consistent with the observation that we prefer beauty to utility. The decision theory equations also explain the paradox that a single index of happiness can be applied in society. The symptoms of mental illness can be due to appropriate or inappropriate action by the unconscious. The former indicates a psychological conflict between conscious and unconscious decision making. Inappropriate action indicates that a pathological process has switched on genetic networks that should be switched off. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Schools have a duty of care to all students and to directly prevent and intervene with bullying amongst children and adolescents. The emergence of cyberbullying escalates this responsibility as the strategies that have become appropriate at national levels for bullying do not always parallel over to online environments. The impact on mental health is the most obvious concern for those responsible for reducing bullying, however, input from psychologists and mental health professionals is scant and often limited on this topic. This paper outlines what bullying is and the devastating impact it can have on the mental health of those involved. It will outline the most common anti-bullying initiatives as well as the current psychological and educational techniques, which could also be used to alleviate distress associated with bullying involvement. We will focus specifically on the role of mindfulness techniques and argue for more of such exercises to be included in whole-school bullying programmes. We conclude by arguing the need to investigate components relevant to both mindfulness and anti-bullying programmes (e.g., empathy, perspective-taking as active ingredients for reducing the impact of bullying on mental health.
Kelly, Amber; Garland, Eric L
This pilot randomized controlled trial evaluated a novel trauma-informed model of mindfulness-based stress reduction (TI-MBSR) as a phase I trauma intervention for female survivors of interpersonal violence (IPV). A community-based sample of women (mean age = 41.5, standard deviation = 14.6) with a history of IPV was randomly assigned to an 8-week TI-MBSR intervention (n = 23) or a waitlist control group (n = 22). Symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression as well as anxious and avoidant attachment were assessed pre- and postintervention. Relative to the control group, participation in TI-MBSR was associated with statistically and clinically significant decreases in PTSD and depressive symptoms and significant reductions in anxious attachment. Retention in the intervention was high, with most participants completing at least 5 of the 8 sessions for the intervention. Minutes of mindfulness practice per week significantly predicted reductions in PTSD symptoms. TI-MBSR appears to be a promising and feasible phase I intervention for female survivors of interpersonal trauma. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Gamboa, Olga L.; Garcia-Campayo, Javier; Müller, Teresa; von Wegner, Frederic
Forgetting is a common phenomenon in everyday life. Although it often has negative connotations, forgetting is an important adaptive mechanism to avoid loading the memory storage with irrelevant information. A very important aspect of forgetting is its interaction with emotion. Affective events are often granted special and priority treatment over neutral ones with regards to memory storage. As a consequence, emotional information is more resistant to extinction than neutral information. It has been suggested that intentional forgetting serves as a mechanism to cope with unwanted or disruptive emotional memories and the main goal of this study was to assess forgetting of emotional auditory material using the item-method directed forgetting (DF) paradigm using a forgetting strategy based on mindfulness as a means to enhance DF. Contrary to our prediction, the mindfulness-based strategy not only did not improve DF but reduced it for neutral material. These results suggest that an interaction between processes such as response inhibition and attention is required for intentional forgetting to succeed. PMID:28382015
Zou, Tao; Wu, Chenghan; Fan, Xiaoduo
Mindfulness intervention is a psychotherapy based on the Buddhist practice of meditation, combining the theories and methodology of contemporary psychology. The empirical research in recent years has indicated that mindfulness intervention yields favorable results including reduction of depression relapse, alleviation of the symptoms of depression and anxiety, reduction of substance abuse, relief of pain, blood pressure management, enhancement of immunity, and improvement of sleep. Currently, mindfulness therapy has become the mainstream of psychotherapy in the realm of European and American psychotherapy. The fields of psychology and psychotherapy in China have also begun to introduce mindfulness intervention in recent years. However, there is a lack of relevant practice and research in the field of clinical mental health. This article will briefly introduce the concept of mindfulness, the basic mechanism of the intervention, and the basic skills and guidelines in clinical practice.
Medina, Wilson L; Wilson, David; de Salvo, Vera; Vannucchi, Bruna; de Souza, Érika Leonardo; Lucena, Leandro; Sarto, Héctor Morillo; Modrego-Alarcón, Marta; Garcia-Campayo, Javier; Demarzo, Marcelo
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is an emerging global healthcare problem and its prevalence is increasing at an alarming rate. Despite improvements in both medical and pharmacological therapies, a complex medical condition may demand a diversified approach, such as: drug therapy, healthy diet and exercises, diabetes education programs, adherence to medical treatment and active participation of the patients in their lifestyle changes, such as stress management. The concept of mindfulness is here defined as the awareness that unfolds from the intention to attentively observe the current experience in a non-judgmental and non-evaluative way. This state of awareness can be enhanced through the use of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs), which have been associated to many physical and psychological health indicators. The aim of this overview is to offer the rationale and potential benefits of mindfulness in the control of DM and its complications. a narrative review of the current and updated literature available on online database and which came up using the terms "mindfulness" and "diabetes mellitus". Mindfulness-based Interventions (MBIs) can be seen as preventive and complementary interventions in DM, particularly for the relief of symptoms related to depression and anxiety in diabetic patients and also in the management of other factors, including mindful eating, physical exercises and treatment adherence. Although many studies only present research protocols, mindfulness seems to have beneficial effects on all aspects of diabetes, including incidence, control and complications. Furthermore, longer term and more carefully controlled trials are necessary in order to draw consistent conclusions on the beneficial role of MBIs on DM. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Bakhshani, Nour Mohammad; Amirani, Ahmadreza; Amirifard, Hamed; Shahrakipoor, Mahnaz
The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Stress reduction (MBSR) on perceived pain intensity and quality of life in patients with chronic headache. Thus, forty patients based on the diagnosis of a neurologist and diagnostic criteria of the International Headache Society (IHS) for migraine and chronic tension-type headache were selected and randomly assigned to the intervention group and control group, respectively. The participants completed the Pain and quality of life (SF-36) questionnaire. The intervention group enrolled in an eight-week MBSR program that incorporated meditation and daily home practice, per week, session of 90-minutes. Results of covariance analysis with the elimination of the pre-test showed significantly improvement of pain and quality of life in the intervention group compared with the control group. The findings from this study revealed that MBSR can be used non-pharmacological intervention for improvement the quality of life and development of strategies to cope with pain in patients with chronic headache. And can be used in combination with other therapies such as pharmacotherapy.
Intrinsic and acquired resistance to molecular target therapy critically limits the outcome of cancer treatments. Target levels including quantitative and gene alteration should be determinants for the resistance. Downstream of the target molecules, drug metabolism, and drug transport influences the tumor sensitivity to molecular target therapy. The mechanisms of resistance to antibody therapy have not been fully clarified. Correlative clinical studies using these biomarkers of resistance are extremely important for circumvention of clinical resistance to target based therapy.
Cuellar, Norma G
Mindfulness meditation (MfM) is a mind-body therapy identified by the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Initially taught in a formal classroom setting, MfM is a sustainable intervention with minimal costs that can be used over time. For veterans, after mastery, this technique shows promise in improving health outcomes and quality of life. This article describes MfM, discusses the conceptual framework and evidence-based research for MfM, and identifies the implications of MfM use by health care providers who are caring for war veterans.
The effects of computer-based mindfulness training on Self-control and Mindfulness within Ambulatorily assessed network Systems across Health-related domains in a healthy student population (SMASH): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.
Rowland, Zarah; Wenzel, Mario; Kubiak, Thomas
Self-control is an important ability in everyday life, showing associations with health-related outcomes. The aim of the Self-control and Mindfulness within Ambulatorily assessed network Systems across Health-related domains (SMASH) study is twofold: first, the effectiveness of a computer-based mindfulness training will be evaluated in a randomized controlled trial. Second, the SMASH study implements a novel network approach in order to investigate complex temporal interdependencies of self-control networks across several domains. The SMASH study is a two-armed, 6-week, non-blinded randomized controlled trial that combines seven weekly laboratory meetings and 40 days of electronic diary assessments with six prompts per day in a healthy undergraduate student population at the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Germany. Participants will be randomly assigned to (1) receive a computer-based mindfulness intervention or (2) to a wait-list control condition. Primary outcomes are self-reported momentary mindfulness and self-control assessed via electronic diaries. Secondary outcomes are habitual mindfulness and habitual self-control. Further measures include self-reported behaviors in specific self-control domains: emotion regulation, alcohol consumption and eating behaviors. The effects of mindfulness training on primary and secondary outcomes are explored using three-level mixed models. Furthermore, networks will be computed with vector autoregressive mixed models to investigate the dynamics at participant and group level. This study was approved by the local ethics committee (reference code 2015_JGU_psychEK_011) and follows the standards laid down in the Declaration of Helsinki (2013). This randomized controlled trial combines an intensive Ambulatory Assessment of 40 consecutive days and seven laboratory meetings. By implementing a novel network approach, underlying processes of self-control within different health domains will be identified. These results will
Mindfulness meditation (or simply mindfulness) is an ancient method of attention training. Arguably, developed originally by the Buddha, it has been practiced by Buddhists over 2,500 years as part of their spiritual training. The popularity in mindfulness has soared recently following its adaptation as Mindfulness-Based Stress Management by Jon Kabat-Zinn (1995). Mindfulness is often compared to hypnosis but not all assertions are accurate. This article, as a primer, delineates similarities and dissimilarities between mindfulness and hypnosis in terms of 12 specific facets, including putative neuroscientific findings. It also provides a case example that illustrates clinical integration of the two methods.
Rationale and study protocol of the EASY Minds (Encouraging Activity to Stimulate Young Minds) program: cluster randomized controlled trial of a primary school-based physical activity integration program for mathematics.
Riley, Nicholas; Lubans, David R; Holmes, Kathryn; Morgan, Philip J
Novel strategies are required to increase school-based physical activity levels of children. Integrating physical activity in mathematics lessons may lead to improvements in students' physical activity levels as well as enjoyment, engagement and learning. The primary aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of a curriculum-based physical activity integration program known as EASY Minds (Encouraging Activity to Stimulate Young Minds) on children's daily school time physical activity levels. Secondary aims include exploring the impact of EASY Minds on their engagement and 'on task' behaviour in mathematics. Grade 5/6 classes from eight public schools in New South Wales, Australia will be randomly allocated to intervention (n = 4) or control (n = 4) groups. Teachers from the intervention group will receive one day of professional development, a resource pack and asked to adapt their lessons to embed movement-based learning in their daily mathematics program in at least three lessons per week over a six week period. Intervention support will be provided via a weekly email and three lesson observations. The primary outcomes will be children's physical activity levels (accelerometry) across both the school day and during mathematics lessons (moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and sedentary time). Children's 'on-task' behaviour, enjoyment of mathematics and mathematics attainment will be assessed as secondary outcomes. A detailed process evaluation will be undertaken. EASY Minds is an innovative intervention that has the potential to improve key physical and academic outcomes for primary school aged children and help guide policy and practice regarding the teaching of mathematics. Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register ACTRN12613000637741 13/05/2013.
The American Music Therapy Association has recently put into action a plan called its Research Strategic Priority, with one of its central purposes to advance the music therapy field through research promoting Evidence-Based Practice of music therapy. The extant literature on music therapy practice, theory, and research conveys a range of very different perspectives on what may count as the "evidence" upon which practice is based. There is therefore a need to conceptualize evidence-based music therapy practice in a multifaceted, yet coherent and balanced way. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate a framework based upon four distinct epistemological perspectives on evidence-based music therapy practice that together represent an integral understanding.
Borker, David R.
There is a growing interest among educators in teaching and learning practices based on mindfulness, a concept derived from eastern meditative traditions. This paper describes how mindfulness practices and concepts can be used to enhance the student's learning experience in beginning economics courses. Specific areas with a high potential for…
Aleksandra E. Zgierska
Full Text Available Background. Treatment fidelity is essential to methodological rigor of clinical trials evaluating behavioral interventions such as Mindfulness Meditation (MM. However, procedures for monitoring and maintenance of treatment fidelity are inconsistently applied, limiting the strength of such research. Objective. To describe the implementation and findings related to fidelity monitoring of the Mindfulness-Based Relapse Prevention for Alcohol Dependence (MBRP-A intervention in a 26-week randomized controlled trial. Methods. 123 alcohol dependent adults were randomly assigned to MM (MBRP-A and home practice, adjunctive to usual care; N=64 or control (usual care alone; N=59. Treatment fidelity assessment strategies recommended by the National Institutes of Health Behavior Change Consortium for study/intervention design, therapist training, intervention delivery, and treatment receipt and enactment were applied. Results. Ten 8-session interventions were delivered. Therapist adherence and competence, assessed using the modified MBRP Adherence and Competence Scale, were high. Among the MM group participants, 46 attended ≥4 sessions; over 90% reported at-home MM practice at 8 weeks and 72% at 26 weeks. They also reported satisfaction with and usefulness of MM for maintaining sobriety. No adverse events were reported. Conclusions. A systematic approach to assessment of treatment fidelity in behavioral clinical trials allows determination of the degree of consistency between intended and actual delivery and receipt of intervention.
Connolly Amy B
Full Text Available Abstract Background Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR programs are becoming increasingly common, but have not been studied in low income minority older populations. We sought to understand which parts of MBSR were most important to practicing MBSR members of this population, and to understand whether they apply their training to daily challenges. Methods We conducted three focus groups with 13 current members of an MBSR program. Participants were African American women over the age of 60 in a low-income housing residence. We tape recorded each session and subsequently used inductive content analysis to identify primary themes. Results and discussion Analysis of the focus group responses revealed three primary themes stress management, applying mindfulness, and the social support of the group meditation. The stressors they cited using MBSR with included growing older with physical pain, medical tests, financial strain, and having grandchildren with significant mental, physical, financial or legal hardships. We found that participants particularly used their MBSR training for coping with medical procedures, and managing both depression and anger. Conclusion A reflective stationary intervention delivered in-residence could be an ideal mechanism to decrease stress in low-income older adult's lives and improve their health.
Schellekens, Melanie P J; Jansen, Ellen T M; Willemse, Heidi H M A; van Laarhoven, Hanneke W M; Prins, Judith B; Speckens, Anne E M
Peer support groups for cancer patients show mixed findings regarding effectiveness on psychological wellbeing. When embedded in a psychosocial intervention, such as mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), peer support might be of more benefit to participants. This study is a qualitative exploration of how women with breast cancer experience the possible benefits and impediments of participating with fellow patients in an MBSR training. Five focus groups (n = 37) and three individual interviews (n = 3) were conducted with breast cancer patients who participated in MBSR. The qualitative data were analysed with the constant comparative method in order to develop a grounded theory. We could identify a process where at the start of MBSR, patients experienced anticipatory fear for facing the suffering of fellow patients, especially for those who could not be cured anymore. In most women, this fear gradually subsided during the first two sessions. The atmosphere in the MBSR training was experienced as safe and supportive, providing a context where participants could connect with and trust one another. In turn, this facilitated participants to learn from one another. Our findings do not only show that the peer group facilitates the learning process in MBSR, but the MBSR also seemed to provide an atmosphere that promotes the experienced social support in participants. In addition, the results emphasize the importance for mindfulness teachers to acknowledge and explore the fear for facing fellow patients in the group. Future research should examine whether the results are generalizable to patients with other cancer types.
Dariotis, Jacinda K; Mirabal-Beltran, Roxanne; Cluxton-Keller, Fallon; Gould, Laura Feagans; Greenberg, Mark T; Mendelson, Tamar
Previous studies on school-based mindfulness and yoga programs have focused primarily on quantitative measurement of program outcomes. This study used qualitative data to investigate program content and skills that students remembered and applied in their daily lives. Data were gathered following a 16-week mindfulness and yoga intervention delivered at three urban schools by a community non-profit organization. We conducted focus groups and interviews with nine classroom teachers who did not participate in the program and held six focus groups with 22 fifth and sixth grade program participants. This study addresses two primary research questions: (1) What skills did students learn, retain, and utilize outside the program? and (2) What changes did classroom teachers expect and observe among program recipients? Four major themes related to skill learning and application emerged as follows: (1) youths retained and utilized program skills involving breath work and poses; (2) knowledge about health benefits of these techniques promoted self-utilization and sharing of skills; (3) youths developed keener emotional appraisal that, coupled with new and improved emotional regulation skills, helped de-escalate negative emotions, promote calm, and reduce stress; and (4) youths and teachers reported realistic and optimistic expectations for future impact of acquired program skills. We discuss implications of these findings for guiding future research and practice.
Full Text Available The work presents some theoretical and practical results of the abstracting practice carried out by the teachers and cadets of Voronezh Institute of the Ministry of Interior of Russia. The sources used in the experiment were of British and American origin, equally authentic, and were mainly of engineering content because of the cadets’ speciality. The main purpose of the experiment was focused on the primary source adequate abstract making as a product of a keen understanding of social and professional aspects, views, and anticipations of English-speaking nations. The authors analyzed a number of current approaches towards abstract making procedures and offered an original system of the education strategy by means of Mind Map building technique.
Owens, Otis L; Beer, Jenay M; Reyes, Ligia I; Gallerani, David G; Myhren-Bennett, Amanda R; McDonnell, Karen K
Up to 70% of lung cancer survivors are affected by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a common, debilitating, comorbid disease. Lung cancer and COPD are both characterized by symptoms such as breathlessness, fatigue, and psychological distress. These distressing chronic symptoms are exacerbated by stress and detract from an individual's quality of life. The aim of this study was to identify and evaluate evidence-based, commercially available apps for promoting mindfulness-based strategies among adults with a COPD or lung cancer history (ie, chronic lung disease). For this review, an interdisciplinary research team used 19 keyword combinations in the search engines of Google and iOS app stores in May 2017. Evaluations were conducted on the apps' (1) content, (2) usability heuristics, (3) grade-level readability, and (4) cultural sensitivity. The search resulted in 768 apps (508 in iOS and 260 in Google stores). A total of 9 apps met the inclusion criteria and received further evaluation. Only 1 app had below an eighth-grade reading level; the ninth one did not have enough text to calculate a readability score. None of the 9 apps met the cultural sensitivity evaluation criteria. This systematic review identified critical design flaws that may affect the ease of using the apps in this study. Few mobile apps promote mindfulness-based strategies among adults with chronic lung disease (ie, COPD or lung cancer or both), but those that exist, overall, do not meet the latest scientific evidence. Recommendations include more stringent regulation of health-related apps, use of evidence-based frameworks and participatory design processes, following evidence-based usability practices, use of culturally sensitive language and images, and ensuring that content is written in plain language. ©Otis L Owens, Jenay M Beer, Ligia I Reyes, David G Gallerani, Amanda R Myhren-Bennett, Karen K McDonnell. Originally published in JMIR Mhealth and Uhealth (http
Bogosian, A; Hurt, C S; Vasconcelos E Sa, D; Hindle, J V; McCracken, L; Cubi-Molla, P
Psychological difficulties, especially depression and anxiety, are the most prevalent non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease. Pharmacological treatments for these conditions appear relatively ineffective in Parkinson's disease. Mindfulness courses are increasingly popular and recognised as effective for managing emotional states, and there is growing evidence for the effectiveness of mindfulness courses for people with long-term medical conditions. With this exploratory pilot trial, we want to assess the feasibility of the procedures and processes, including recruitment, most appropriate outcome measure(s), acceptability of type and number of measures, potential nocebo effects, and potential effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a specially adapted distance-delivered mindfulness-based intervention in people affected by Parkinson's disease. This is a pilot two-arm randomised parallel group controlled trial. Sixty participants who meet eligibility criteria will be randomly assigned either to an 8-week mindfulness-based intervention group or a wait-list control group. The mindfulness intervention will include 1-h weekly sessions delivered by a health psychologist trained to facilitate mindfulness courses. Participants in both groups will complete standardised questionnaires assessing anxiety, depression, pain, insomnia, fatigue, and daily activities at four time points (baseline, 4, 8, and 20 weeks). The analysis will also consider potential mechanisms of change, such as acceptance, self-compassion, and tolerance of uncertainty, as well as health economic outcomes. Participants' experiences of the mindfulness interventions will be explored via in-depth interviews. A mindfulness-based intervention for people with Parkinson's delivered remotely, through Skype group videoconferences, may represent a viable, more accessible, intervention for people with mobility limitations and people who live in rural areas. The trial will provide important information about the
Dutton, Mary Ann; Bermudez, Diana; Matas, Armely; Majid, Haseeb; Myers, Neely L.
In this article, we consider the use of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR; Kabat-Zinn, 1991) as a community-based intervention for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among low-income, predominantly African American women with a history of intimate partner violence (IPV). The results of a pilot randomized clinical trial (RCT) of MBSR as an…
Full Text Available Teresa M Edenfield, Sy Atezaz SaeedDepartment of Psychiatric Medicine, Brody School of Medicine at East Carolina University, Greenville, NC, USAAbstract: In recent years, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM treatments have increased in popularity. This is especially true for treatments that are related to exercise and mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs in the treatment of both mental and physical illness. MBIs, such as Mindfulness-based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT and Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR, which are derived from ancient Buddhist and Yoga philosophies, have become popular treatments in contemporary psychotherapy. While there is growing evidence that supports the role of these interventions in relapse prevention, little is known about the role that MBIs play in the treatment of acute symptoms of depression and anxiety. Even less is known about the importance of specific components of MBIs (eg, mindfulness meditation [MM] and the overall impact that these interventions have on the experience or expression of psychological distress. Moreover, few studies have rigorously evaluated the dose-response relationship that is required to effect positive symptom change and the mechanisms of change that are responsible for observed improvements. This review will define meditation and mindfulness, discuss the relationship between stress and health and how MM relates to therapeutically engaging the relaxation response, and review the empirical findings that are related to the efficacy of MM in the treatment of depression and anxiety symptoms. Given the paucity of research that examines the applications of these treatments in clinical populations, the limitations of applying these findings to clinical samples will be mentioned. A brief review of the issues related to the possible mechanisms of change and the dose-response relationship regarding MBIs, particularly MM, will be provided. Finally, limitations of the extant literature and
Schoneveld, Elke A; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, Anna; Granic, Isabela
A large proportion of children experience subclinical levels of anxiety and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) aimed at preventing anxiety disorders is moderately effective. However, most at-risk children do not seek help or drop out of programs prematurely because of stigma, lack of motivation, and accessibility barriers. Applied games have received increased attention as viable alternatives and have shown promising results, but direct comparisons between applied games and the gold-standard CBT are lacking. Our aim was to investigate whether the applied game MindLight is as effective as CBT (i.e., Coping Cat) within an indicated prevention context. We conducted a randomized controlled non-inferiority trial with a sample of 174 children (7- to 12-year olds) with elevated levels of anxiety, comparing MindLight to CBT. Anxiety was assessed with self- and parent-reports at pre- and post-program, and at 3- and 6-month follow-ups. Intention-to-treat and completers-only confidence interval approach and latent growth curve modeling showed an overall significant quadratic decrease in child- and parent-reported anxiety symptoms over time and, as predicted, the magnitude of improvement was the same for MindLight and CBT. The within-group effect sizes were small to medium at post-test (- 0.32 to - 0.63), and medium to large (- 0.60 to - 1.07) at 3- and 6-month follow-ups. Furthermore, MindLight and CBT were rated equally anxiety inducing, difficult, and appealing; CBT was rated as more relevant to daily life than MindLight. The current study adds to the growing research on applied games for mental health and shows that these games hold potential as alternative delivery models for evidence-based therapeutic techniques.
Galante, Julieta; Dufour, Géraldine; Vainre, Maris; Wagner, Adam P; Stochl, Jan; Benton, Alice; Lathia, Neal; Howarth, Emma; Jones, Peter B
The rising number of young people going to univer