WorldWideScience

Sample records for million million protons

  1. 50 million million protons for CERN's fiftieth anniversary

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The SPS set a new intensity record at the end of September. This performance was the result of work on the whole accelerator chain, from the proton source to the SPS. The aim was to explore the limits of the machines in providing protons for the CNGS facility, which needs very high intensities.

  2. Million object spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditto, Thomas D.; Ritter, Joseph M.

    2008-07-01

    A new class of astronomical telescope with a primary objective grating (POG) has been studied as an alternative to mirrors. Nineteenth century POG telescopes suffered from low resolution and ambiguity of overlapping spectra as well as background noise. The present design uses a conventional secondary spectrograph to disambiguate all objects while enjoying a very wide instantaneous field-of-view, up to 40°. The POG competes with mirrors, in part, because diffraction gratings provide the very chromatic dispersion that mirrors defeat. The resulting telescope deals effectively with long-standing restrictions on multiple object spectrographs (MOS). The combination of a POG operating in the first-order, coupled to a spectrographic astronomical telescope, isolates spectra from all objects in the free spectral range of the primary. First disclosed as a concept in year 2002, a physical proof-of-principle is now reported. The miniature laboratory model used a 50 mm plane grating primary and was able to disambiguate between objects appearing at angular resolutions of 55 arcseconds and spectral spacings of 0.15 nm. Astronomical performance is a matter of increasing instrument size. A POG configured according to our specifications has no moving parts during observations and is extensible to any length that can be held flat to tolerances approaching float glass. The resulting telescope could record over one million spectra per night of objects in a line of right ascension. The novel MOS does not require pre-imaging to start acquisition of uncharted star fields. Problems are anticipated in calibration and integration time. We propose means to ameliorate them.

  3. Mr Cameron's Three Million Apprenticeships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Martin

    2015-01-01

    In the 2015 general election campaign David Cameron celebrated the success of apprenticeships during the Coalition and promised another 3 million. This article argues that the "reinvention" of apprenticeships has neither created real skills nor provided real alternatives for young people and that the UK schemes fall far short of those in…

  4. Earth: 15 Million Years Ago

    CERN Document Server

    Mizushima, Masataka

    2008-01-01

    In Einstein's general relativity theory the metric component gxx in the direction of motion (x-direction) of the sun deviates from unity due to a tensor potential caused by the black hole existing around the center of the galaxy. Because the solar system is orbiting around the galactic center at 200 km/s, the theory shows that the Newtonian gravitational potential due to the sun is not quite radial. At the present time, the ecliptic plane is almost perpendicular to the galactic plane, consistent with this modification of the Newtonian gravitational force. The ecliptic plane is assumed to maintain this orientation in the galactic space as it orbits around the galactic center, but the rotational angular momentum of the earth around its own axis can be assumed to be conserved. The earth is between the sun and the galactic center at the summer solstice all the time. As a consequence, the rotational axis of the earth would be parallel to the axis of the orbital rotation of the earth 15 million years ago, if the so...

  5. CDC Allocates $184 Million for Zika Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_162694.html CDC Allocates $184 Million for Zika Protection Funds are earmarked for states, territories, local ... million has been earmarked to protect Americans against Zika virus infection, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control ...

  6. Children Adrift: Educating China's Millions of Migrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Haili

    1999-01-01

    The population of migrants moving within China's borders has reached some 80 million, including 2-3 million school-aged children. As migrant workers flock to cities, their children strain urban school systems or receive no education. But independent schools for migrants are illegal and substandard. In some rural provinces, vocational training may…

  7. Signatures of a two million year old supernova in the spectra of cosmic ray protons, antiprotons and positrons

    CERN Document Server

    Kachelriess, M; Semikoz, D V

    2015-01-01

    The locally observed cosmic ray spectrum has several puzzling features, such as the excess of positrons and antiprotons above $\\sim 20$ GeV and the discrepancy in the slopes of the spectra of cosmic ray protons and heavier nuclei in the TeV-PeV energy range. We show that these features are consistently explained by a nearby source which was active $\\sim 2$ Myr ago and has injected $(1-2)\\times 10^{50}$ erg in cosmic rays. The transient nature of the source and its overall energy budget point to the supernova origin of this local cosmic ray source. The age of the supernova suggests that the local cosmic ray injection was produced by the same supernova that has deposited $^{60}$Fe isotopes in the deep ocean crust.

  8. 16 million [pounds] investment for 'virtual supercomputer'

    CERN Multimedia

    Holland, C

    2003-01-01

    "The Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council is to spend 16million [pounds] to create a massive computing Grid, equivalent to the world's second largest supercomputer after Japan's Earth Simulator computer" (1/2 page)

  9. Sharing Economic Fruits with 900 Million Farmers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAOTIANBI

    2005-01-01

    The current goal of the central government is to benefit China′s900 million farmers through the development of mrket economy,as there can be no harmonious society without the participation of its major body.

  10. AREVA net income: 649 million euros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-03-15

    This document presents the financial statements for 2006 of Areva group: net income: 649 million euros; backlog up by 24.6% to 25.6 billion euros; steady growth of sales revenue: + 7.3%1 to 10.863 billion euros; operating income of 407 million euros: excellent divisional performance and constitution of a significant provision for the OL3 project in Finland; dividend proposed to Annual General Meeting of Shareholders: 8.46 euros per share.

  11. 200 million Euros:Worthy or Not?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    "Pierre Cardin to Sell Licenses to Chinese Companies with 200 million Euros",frankly speaking,at the first time I knew the news,several questions ran into my mind:"200 million Euros,is it too much for such a not-first-class international fashion brand?","200 millions Euros,with such a large amount of capital,domestic enterprises could gain more investment to develop their own brand?",or"Pierre Cardin…".Although later one of the spokesman of Pierre Cardin Group explained:"This is not about the sale of the Pierre Cardin group,but the sale of certain licenses in China",this hot deal still arouse fierce comments from not only the domestic industrial insiders,but also the publics.

  12. EMBL pay settlement will cost millions

    CERN Multimedia

    Abott, A

    1999-01-01

    A labour dispute at EMBL, Heidelberg, was settled last week at a cost of at least DM4 million for the organisation's 16 member states. The lab has asked for clarification on whether the ruling from the IL0 refers simply to a salary adjustment from 1995 or also to a backdated implementation of higher salary scales. This second option would cost considerably more - 8 percent of the budget in back pay and DM3.5 million per annum (1/2 page).

  13. Foreclosed: Two Million Homeless Students and Counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKibben, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    This article reports that according to First Focus, a bipartisan advocacy organization for children and families, a predicted two million children will lose their homes over the next two years because of the foreclosure crisis. From an economy deep in recession, an entirely new population of homeless students has emerged. And with job losses at…

  14. Carleton to oversee $40 million lab grant

    CERN Multimedia

    Singer, Zev

    2003-01-01

    "Carleton University got a major gift yesterday, as the federal government announced the university will oversee a $40-million grant to run the world's deepest underground lab at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory. Five other universities are partners in the project" (1/2 page).

  15. 730 Million Farmers Freed from Agricultural Tax

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    About 730 million farmers will benefit from tax cuts totaling more than 20 billion yuan (US$2.4 billion) this year, as 26 of China's 31 provinces will terminate the Agricultural Tax, according to Vice Minister of Agriculture Fan Xiaojian.

  16. Clustering Millions of Faces by Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Charles; Wang, Dayong; Jain, Anil

    2017-03-07

    Given a large collection of unlabeled face images, we address the problem of clustering faces into an unknown number of identities. This problem is of interest in social media, law enforcement, and other applications, where the number of faces can be of the order of hundreds of million, while the number of identities (clusters) can range from a few thousand to millions. To address the challenges of run-time complexity and cluster quality, we present an approximate Rank-Order clustering algorithm that performs better than popular clustering algorithms (k-Means and Spectral). Our experiments include clustering up to 123 million face images into over 10 million clusters. Clustering results are analyzed in terms of external (known face labels) and internal (unknown face labels) quality measures, and run-time. Our algorithm achieves an F-measure of 0:87 on the LFW benchmark (13K faces of 5; 749 individuals), which drops to 0:27 on the largest dataset considered (13K faces in LFW + 123M distractor images). Additionally, we show that frames in the YouTube benchmark can be clustered with an F-measure of 0:71. An internal per-cluster quality measure is developed to rank individual clusters for manual exploration of high quality clusters that are compact and isolated.

  17. Emulating a million machines to investigate botnets.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudish, Donald W.

    2010-06-01

    Researchers at Sandia National Laboratories in Livermore, California are creating what is in effect a vast digital petridish able to hold one million operating systems at once in an effort to study the behavior of rogue programs known as botnets. Botnets are used extensively by malicious computer hackers to steal computing power fron Internet-connected computers. The hackers harness the stolen resources into a scattered but powerful computer that can be used to send spam, execute phishing, scams or steal digital information. These remote-controlled 'distributed computers' are difficult to observe and track. Botnets may take over parts of tens of thousands or in some cases even millions of computers, making them among the world's most powerful computers for some applications.

  18. Nearly Four Million Californians Are Food Insecure

    OpenAIRE

    Chaparro, M. Pia; Langellier, Brent; Birnbach, Kerry; Sharp, Kerry; Harrison, Gail

    2012-01-01

    Food insecurity has increased significantly among low-income Californians over the last decade. According to data from the 2009 California Health Interview Survey, 3.8 million adults in households with incomes at or below 200% of the Federal Poverty Level (FPL) could not afford enough food at least once in the previous year. Low-income households with children and Spanish-speaking households suffered from the worst levels of food insecurity. Expanding nutrition assistance programs, such as th...

  19. Million Dollar Baby (2004 and Palliative Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Elías García Sánchez

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The worst misfortune that can befall an old, tormented and fearful boxing trainer is that the pupil he is training and of whom he is very fond should have a lesion as serious as a quadriplegia. This is the crux of the plot in Million Dollar Baby. A person who suffers a quadriplegia sees how most of her physical and sensorial abilities disappear and habitually suffers psychological disturbances requiring palliative medical care. Relatives are subjected to great stress and suffering. All these aspects are reflected, in general accurately, in the film.

  20. LHC collars - 12 million high technology gems

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Some 12 million steel collars will keep the LHC dipole magnet structures rigid. Their production has just begun. A huge job began last week: the high speed manufacturing of twelve million steel collars for the 1250 dipole magnets of the future Large Hadron Collider, LHC. The challenge is not only a matter of quantity: these collars are very high technology components because of the important role they play in the way the collider works. One of the main difficulties with the accelerator is that the magnetic field that keeps particles in orbit must have the same configuration and intensity in all the dipoles. But when the 8.33 tesla magnetic field is on -100.000 times the earth magnetic field - it produces a very strong force that can deform the 'soft' parts of the magnets, such as superconducting coils. The force loading one metre of dipole is almost comparable with the weight of a Boeing 747 - about 400 tonnes - so a huge deformation would occur without a mechanical component to keep the whole structure rigid...

  1. Interactive Graph Layout of a Million Nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Mi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sensemaking of large graphs, specifically those with millions of nodes, is a crucial task in many fields. Automatic graph layout algorithms, augmented with real-time human-in-the-loop interaction, can potentially support sensemaking of large graphs. However, designing interactive algorithms to achieve this is challenging. In this paper, we tackle the scalability problem of interactive layout of large graphs, and contribute a new GPU-based force-directed layout algorithm that exploits graph topology. This algorithm can interactively layout graphs with millions of nodes, and support real-time interaction to explore alternative graph layouts. Users can directly manipulate the layout of vertices in a force-directed fashion. The complexity of traditional repulsive force computation is reduced by approximating calculations based on the hierarchical structure of multi-level clustered graphs. We evaluate the algorithm performance, and demonstrate human-in-the-loop layout in two sensemaking case studies. Moreover, we summarize lessons learned for designing interactive large graph layout algorithms on the GPU.

  2. Enhancing the view of a million galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    Composite image hi-res Size hi-res: 851 KB Credits: ESA/Univ. of Leicester/I. Stewart and M. Watson XMM-Newton X-ray spectral colour composite image XMM-Newton X-ray spectral colour composite image of the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Field. The view gives an X-ray pseudo-colour representation of all the sources, coded according to their X-ray energy. More energetic sources are shown in blue and less energetic ones in red. This mosaic image, composed of 7 partially overlapping pointings, maps the full extent of the SXDF and corresponds to an exposure time exceeding one hundred hours. These data form the largest contiguous area over which deep X-ray observations have been performed. Composite image hi-res Size hi-res: 6215 KB Credits: NAOJ/Subaru Telescope XMM-Newton/Subaru colour composite image A colour composite image obtained by combining data taken with the Subaru Telescope in blue, red and near-infrared light. The image, worth over two hundred hours of exposure time, covers an area of sky seven times larger than the full moon. The images in blue light show details several hundred million times fainter than what can be seen with the naked eye. SXDS field hi-res Size hi-res: 448 KB Credits: NAOJ/Subaru Telescope SXDS field A particular of the SXDS field. The teardrop-shaped galaxy in the upper right portion of the frame is likely to have suffered from a collision with another galaxy. SXDS field hi-res Size hi-res: 358 KB Credits: NAOJ/Subaru Telescope SXDS field A particular of the SXDS field. The prominent spiral galaxy near the centre may be ineracting with a less-conspicuous dwarf galaxy to its lower right. One of the fundamental goals of modern astronomy is understanding the history of the Universe, and in particular learning about the processes that shape the formation and evolution of galaxies. To observe these processes as they unfold, astronomers must survey galaxies near and far, spanning a large enough volume of the Universe, so that local variations in the

  3. WISE photometry for 400 million SDSS sources

    CERN Document Server

    Lang, Dustin; Schlegel, David J

    2014-01-01

    We present photometry of images from the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE; Wright et al. 2010) of over 400 million sources detected by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS; York et al. 2000). We use a "forced photometry" technique, using measured SDSS source positions, star-galaxy separation and galaxy profiles to define the sources whose fluxes are to be measured in the WISE images. We perform photometry with The Tractor image modeling code, working on our "unWISE" coaddds and taking account of the WISE point-spread function and a noise model. The result is a measurement of the flux of each SDSS source in each WISE band. Many sources have little flux in the WISE bands, so often the measurements we report are consistent with zero. However, for many sources we get three- or four-sigma measurements; these sources would not be reported by the WISE pipeline and will not appear in the WISE catalog, yet they can be highly informative for some scientific questions. In addition, these small-signal measurements...

  4. Statistic analysis of millions of digital photos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wueller, Dietmar; Fageth, Reiner

    2008-02-01

    The analysis of images has always been an important aspect in the quality enhancement of photographs and photographic equipment. Due to the lack of meta data it was mostly limited to images taken by experts under predefined conditions and the analysis was also done by experts or required psychophysical tests. With digital photography and the EXIF1 meta data stored in the images, a lot of information can be gained from a semiautomatic or automatic image analysis if one has access to a large number of images. Although home printing is becoming more and more popular, the European market still has a few photofinishing companies who have access to a large number of images. All printed images are stored for a certain period of time adding up to several million images on servers every day. We have utilized the images to answer numerous questions and think that these answers are useful for increasing image quality by optimizing the image processing algorithms. Test methods can be modified to fit typical user conditions and future developments can be pointed towards ideal directions.

  5. WISE Photometry for 400 Million SDSS Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Dustin; Hogg, David W.; Schlegel, David J.

    2016-02-01

    We present photometry of images from the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) of over 400 million sources detected by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We use a “forced photometry” technique, using measured SDSS source positions, star-galaxy classification, and galaxy profiles to define the sources whose fluxes are to be measured in the WISE images. We perform photometry with The Tractor image modeling code, working on our “unWISE” coaddds and taking account of the WISE point-spread function and a noise model. The result is a measurement of the flux of each SDSS source in each WISE band. Many sources have little flux in the WISE bands, so often the measurements we report are consistent with zero given our uncertainties. However, for many sources we get 3σ or 4σ measurements; these sources would not be reported by the “official” WISE pipeline and will not appear in the WISE catalog, yet they can be highly informative for some scientific questions. In addition, these small-signal measurements can be used in stacking analyses at the catalog level. The forced photometry approach has the advantage that we measure a consistent set of sources between SDSS and WISE, taking advantage of the resolution and depth of the SDSS images to interpret the WISE images; objects that are resolved in SDSS but blended together in WISE still have accurate measurements in our photometry. Our results, and the code used to produce them, are publicly available at http://unwise.me.

  6. WISE PHOTOMETRY FOR 400 MILLION SDSS SOURCES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, Dustin [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics and Dunlap Institute, University of Toronto, 50 Saint George Street, Toronto, ON, M5S 3H4 (Canada); Hogg, David W. [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Schlegel, David J., E-mail: dstndstn@gmail.com [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    We present photometry of images from the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) of over 400 million sources detected by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We use a “forced photometry” technique, using measured SDSS source positions, star–galaxy classification, and galaxy profiles to define the sources whose fluxes are to be measured in the WISE images. We perform photometry with The Tractor image modeling code, working on our “unWISE” coaddds and taking account of the WISE point-spread function and a noise model. The result is a measurement of the flux of each SDSS source in each WISE band. Many sources have little flux in the WISE bands, so often the measurements we report are consistent with zero given our uncertainties. However, for many sources we get 3σ or 4σ measurements; these sources would not be reported by the “official” WISE pipeline and will not appear in the WISE catalog, yet they can be highly informative for some scientific questions. In addition, these small-signal measurements can be used in stacking analyses at the catalog level. The forced photometry approach has the advantage that we measure a consistent set of sources between SDSS and WISE, taking advantage of the resolution and depth of the SDSS images to interpret the WISE images; objects that are resolved in SDSS but blended together in WISE still have accurate measurements in our photometry. Our results, and the code used to produce them, are publicly available at http://unwise.me.

  7. 500 Million Yuan Textile Machinery Project Located in Laiyang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Textile machinery project with 500 million Yuan investment was formally signed in Yantai Laiyang Development Zone on November 15, which is the l Oth project in the development zone with more than 100 million Yuan investment, and the 5th project in the development zone with more than 500 million Yuan investment.

  8. Annual Offshore Oil Yield Tops 10 Million Tons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    @@ China's offshore oil output has already exceeded 10million tons in September, 1996, compared with last year's total 8.7 million tons. Oil industry executives said production for the whole year is likely to exceed 13 million tons or even 14 million tons. That means the China National Offshore Oil Corp. (CNOOC). established in 1982. will set a record in reaching such an annual output.The United States and the former Soviet Union spend 20and 25 years respectively toreach a similar output.

  9. Tarim Oil Field Company Oil Output Exceeds 5 Million Tons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    PetroChina Tarim Oil Field Company (Tarim Oil Field), located in the hinterland of Takelamagan Desert in Northwest Xinjiang Autonomous Region,produced 5.006 million tons of crude oil in 2002,ranking it as the sixth largest onshore oil field in China. This is the first time Tarim Oil Field has topped 5 million tons for its crude production.

  10. Crude Production Tops 2 Million Tons at Qinghai Oil Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ The crude oil output of Qinghai Oil Field in Qaidam basin of the northwestern China's Qinghai Province topped two million tons at the end of 2000.This is the first time that the annual crude oil output of the oilfield has exceeded two millions, according to Huang Ligong, general manager of Qinghai Oil Field under PetroChina.

  11. L130-million cut to grants hits UK physical scientists

    CERN Multimedia

    Cressey, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    "UK physicists, still reeling from massive funding cuts announced earlier this year, have learnt of worse to come. Roughly L130 million (US$260 million)is being slashed from research grants awarded by the Engineering and Physical Scienes Research Council (EPSRC), it announced on 17 March." (2 pages)

  12. R316-million Richards Bay Coal Terminal expansions underway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-01

    Fabrication is underway on items critical to the R316-million expansion programme newly embarked upon by Richards Bay Coal Terminal (RBCT, South Africa), according to project manager SEMTEC. The expansion will increase the capacity of RBTC from 44 million tons of export quality coal a year to 53-million tons. The scope of work includes the design and fabrication of a tandem tippler, a stacker reclaimer, and new conveyors as well as upgrading the existing conveyor, terminal control and railway system and the supply of new locomotives.

  13. Tobacco Use Costs World 6 Million Lives, $1 Trillion Annually

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prevention of noncommunicable diseases. Tobacco is a major cause of noncommunicable diseases including heart disease, cancer, diabetes and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Such preventable diseases account for about 16 million premature deaths (before age 70) worldwide every year, Bettcher and ...

  14. Monsanto Gives Washington U. $23.5 Million.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culliton, Barbara J.

    1982-01-01

    Reviews various provisions of a five-year, $23.5-million research agreement between Washington University and the Monsanto Company. The scientific focus of this venture will be on proteins and peptides which modify cellular behavior. (SK)

  15. Fourier spectroscopy with a one-million-point transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connes, J.; Delouis, H.; Connes, P.; Guelachvili, G.; Maillard, J.; Michel, G.

    1972-01-01

    A new type of interferometer for use in Fourier spectroscopy has been devised at the Aime Cotton Laboratory of the National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS), Orsay, France. With this interferometer and newly developed computational techniques, interferograms comprising as many as one million samples can now be transformed. The techniques are described, and examples of spectra of thorium and holmium, derived from one million-point interferograms, are presented.

  16. Chinese Poor Reduced to 26.1 Million

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The year 2004 saw the greatest reduction in the number of the poor over the past five years and the number of the poor decreased to 26.1 million,according to the latest statistics released by the Office of Poverty Alleviation under the State Council. In 2004, the number of people living in rural areas with an average per capita income of less than RMB668(dire poverty) was reduced by 2.9 million,

  17. The Girl's Guide to Building a Million-Dollar Business

    CERN Document Server

    Solovic, Susan Wilson

    2007-01-01

    We've all been told that nice girls don't get the corner office. And they certainly don't strike out on their own to start a million-dollar company. . . Fortunately, we all know better. As the head of the highly successful SBTV.com (Small Business Television), author Susan Solovic is an authority on making money and building a thriving business. Now in The Girls' Guide to Building a Million-Dollar Business, she shows women how to gain the confidence and knowledge they need to become successful entrepreneurs. Featuring interviews with daring, powerhouse women like Gayle Martz, President & CEO,

  18. Huatai Group Acquired Norske Skog Hebei for RMB 925 Million

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Huatai Group officially took over Norske Skog Hebei Paper Co.,Ltd. on September 24, 2009. According to the announcement,Huatai Group intended to purchase 100% equity stake of Norske Skog Hebei Paper held by Singapore Norske Skog Panasia Co. Pte. Ltd. at the purchase price of RMB 1 per share.Huatai Group also needs to pay RMB 677 million for part of the financing debt held by Norske Skog Hebei. The remaining RMB 248 million of financing debt will stay in the company.

  19. Russia to invest 200 million Swiss Francs in international accelerator

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Russia will invest 200 million CHF in the LHC project, according to first deputy industry, science and technologies minister. The results of scientific research in the center will be use in various industries, enabling new Russian technologies to enter the world market.

  20. A Program That Sold for 60 Million Yuan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    DURING a public bidding recently held by CCTV for one of its programs, the final bid of 65.6 million yuan - 2.3 times its base price, caused a sensation.At a time when TV occupies a dominant position, public bidding for prime-time commercials is common. As the first ever held by CCTV for a single TV pro-

  1. College of Engineering receives $1 million computing technology grant

    OpenAIRE

    Nystrom, Lynn A.

    2007-01-01

    A $1 million grant of Fujitsu technology and services to Virginia Tech's College of Engineering will assist in the college's creation of "digital opportunities" for underserved students, as well as pre-college students interested in studying math, science or engineering at Virginia Tech.

  2. Millions Learning: Scaling up Quality Education in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jenny Perlman; Winthrop, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    "Millions Learning: Scaling up Quality Education in Developing Countries" tells the story of where and how quality education has scaled in low- and middle-income countries. The story emerges from wide-ranging research on scaling and learning, including 14 in-depth case studies from around the globe. Ultimately, "Millions…

  3. EIB lends EUR 300 million for CERN's major collider

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    "The European Investment Bank (EIB) is lending EUR 300 million to finance the final phase of construction of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research. The EIB loan will also help to finance the instrumentation to record and analyse the high-energy particle collisions at the LHC" (1 page).

  4. Photographer : JPL Range : 4.2 million km. ( 2.6 million miles ) Jupiter's moon Europa, the size of

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Photographer : JPL Range : 4.2 million km. ( 2.6 million miles ) Jupiter's moon Europa, the size of earth's moon, is apparently covered by water ice, as indicated by ground spectrometers and its brightness. In this view, global scale dark sreaks discovered by Voyager 1 that criss-cross the the satelite are becoming visible. Bright rayed impact craters, which are abundant on Ganymede and Callisto, would be easily visible at this range, suggesting that Europa's surface is young and that the streaks are reflections of currently active internal dynamic processes.

  5. Million-degree plasma pervading the extended Orion Nebula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güdel, Manuel; Briggs, Kevin R; Montmerle, Thierry; Audard, Marc; Rebull, Luisa; Skinner, Stephen L

    2008-01-18

    Most stars form as members of large associations within dense, very cold (10 to 100 kelvin) molecular clouds. The nearby giant molecular cloud in Orion hosts several thousand stars of ages less than a few million years, many of which are located in or around the famous Orion Nebula, a prominent gas structure illuminated and ionized by a small group of massive stars (the Trapezium). We present x-ray observations obtained with the X-ray Multi-Mirror satellite XMM-Newton, revealing that a hot plasma with a temperature of 1.7 to 2.1 million kelvin pervades the southwest extension of the nebula. The plasma flows into the adjacent interstellar medium. This x-ray outflow phenomenon must be widespread throughout our Galaxy.

  6. Relative size predicts competitive outcome through 2 million years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liow, Lee Hsiang; Di Martino, Emanuela; Krzeminska, Malgorzata; Ramsfjell, Mali; Rust, Seabourne; Taylor, Paul D; Voje, Kjetil L

    2017-08-01

    Competition is an important biotic interaction that influences survival and reproduction. While competition on ecological timescales has received great attention, little is known about competition on evolutionary timescales. Do competitive abilities change over hundreds of thousands to millions of years? Can we predict competitive outcomes using phenotypic traits? How much do traits that confer competitive advantage and competitive outcomes change? Here we show, using communities of encrusting marine bryozoans spanning more than 2 million years, that size is a significant determinant of overgrowth outcomes: colonies with larger zooids tend to overgrow colonies with smaller zooids. We also detected temporally coordinated changes in average zooid sizes, suggesting that different species responded to a common external driver. Although species-specific average zooid sizes change over evolutionary timescales, species-specific competitive abilities seem relatively stable, suggesting that traits other than zooid size also control overgrowth outcomes and/or that evolutionary constraints are involved. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  7. Handling Capacity of Dalian Petrochemical Port Surpasses Ten Million Tons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Li

    2007-01-01

    @@ Dalian Petrochemical Port (of Dalian Petrochemical Corporation), CNPC's biggest petrochemical port,owns 15 1-100000 ton-grade berths and has an annual throughput of 18 million tons of crude, oil products,lubrication oil, atoleine, liquefied gas, and etc.. In recent years, the port handles over 10% of the total annual cargo throughput of all major ports in Dalian city and ranks second for its berthing capacity.

  8. U.S.A.I.D. awards university $34 million

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Virginia Tech President Charles W. Steger announced today that the university's Office of International Research, Education, and Development (OIRED) has received the largest single-day award to any university by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) Economic Growth, Agriculture, and Trade Program in the form of two grants totaling $34 million over 5 years. The work will enhance food security while limiting negative impacts on natural resources through sustainable agricultural ...

  9. Northeastern University in TREC 2009. Million Query Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    queries in the collection had at least one click on documents in the .gov collection. Given the computational complexity of feature extraction and...ranking functions (by employing SVM) over two different collections, (a) the Million Query 2008 (MQ08) collection (GOV2 corpus and queries with at least one ... click on doc- uments in the .gov domain), and (b) a Bing generated collection (described in Section 2.1) and employed the constructed ranking

  10. Evolution of global temperature over the past two million years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Carolyn W.

    2016-10-01

    Reconstructions of Earth’s past climate strongly influence our understanding of the dynamics and sensitivity of the climate system. Yet global temperature has been reconstructed for only a few isolated windows of time, and continuous reconstructions across glacial cycles remain elusive. Here I present a spatially weighted proxy reconstruction of global temperature over the past 2 million years estimated from a multi-proxy database of over 20,000 sea surface temperature point reconstructions. Global temperature gradually cooled until roughly 1.2 million years ago and cooling then stalled until the present. The cooling trend probably stalled before the beginning of the mid-Pleistocene transition, and pre-dated the increase in the maximum size of ice sheets around 0.9 million years ago. Thus, global cooling may have been a pre-condition for, but probably is not the sole causal mechanism of, the shift to quasi-100,000-year glacial cycles at the mid-Pleistocene transition. Over the past 800,000 years, polar amplification (the amplification of temperature change at the poles relative to global temperature change) has been stable over time, and global temperature and atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations have been closely coupled across glacial cycles. A comparison of the new temperature reconstruction with radiative forcing from greenhouse gases estimates an Earth system sensitivity of 9 degrees Celsius (range 7 to 13 degrees Celsius, 95 per cent credible interval) change in global average surface temperature per doubling of atmospheric carbon dioxide over millennium timescales. This result suggests that stabilization at today’s greenhouse gas levels may already commit Earth to an eventual total warming of 5 degrees Celsius (range 3 to 7 degrees Celsius, 95 per cent credible interval) over the next few millennia as ice sheets, vegetation and atmospheric dust continue to respond to global warming.

  11. Evolution of global temperature over the past two million years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Carolyn W

    2016-10-13

    Reconstructions of Earth's past climate strongly influence our understanding of the dynamics and sensitivity of the climate system. Yet global temperature has been reconstructed for only a few isolated windows of time, and continuous reconstructions across glacial cycles remain elusive. Here I present a spatially weighted proxy reconstruction of global temperature over the past 2 million years estimated from a multi-proxy database of over 20,000 sea surface temperature point reconstructions. Global temperature gradually cooled until roughly 1.2 million years ago and cooling then stalled until the present. The cooling trend probably stalled before the beginning of the mid-Pleistocene transition, and pre-dated the increase in the maximum size of ice sheets around 0.9 million years ago. Thus, global cooling may have been a pre-condition for, but probably is not the sole causal mechanism of, the shift to quasi-100,000-year glacial cycles at the mid-Pleistocene transition. Over the past 800,000 years, polar amplification (the amplification of temperature change at the poles relative to global temperature change) has been stable over time, and global temperature and atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations have been closely coupled across glacial cycles. A comparison of the new temperature reconstruction with radiative forcing from greenhouse gases estimates an Earth system sensitivity of 9 degrees Celsius (range 7 to 13 degrees Celsius, 95 per cent credible interval) change in global average surface temperature per doubling of atmospheric carbon dioxide over millennium timescales. This result suggests that stabilization at today's greenhouse gas levels may already commit Earth to an eventual total warming of 5 degrees Celsius (range 3 to 7 degrees Celsius, 95 per cent credible interval) over the next few millennia as ice sheets, vegetation and atmospheric dust continue to respond to global warming.

  12. A Million-Second Chandra View of Cassiopeia A

    CERN Document Server

    Hwang, U; Badenes, C; Berends, F A; Blondin, J M; Cioffi, D; Delaney, T A; Dewey, D; Fesen, R A; Flanagan, K A; Fryer, C L; Ghavamian, P; Hughes, J P; Morse, J A; Plucinsky, P P; Petre, R; Pohl, M; Rudnick, L; Sankrit, R; Slane, P O; Smith, R K; Vink, J; Warren, J S; Hwang, Una; Badenes, Carles; Berendse, Fred; Blondin, John; Cioffi, Denis; Laney, Tracey De; Dewey, Daniel; Fesen, Robert; Flanagan, Kathryn A.; Fryer, Christopher L.; Ghavamian, Parviz; Hughes, John P.; Morse, Jon A.; Plucinsky, Paul P.; Petre, Robert; Pohl, Martin; Rudnick, Lawrence; Sankrit, Ravi; Slane, Patrick O.; Smith, Randall K.; Vink, Jacco; Warren, Jessica S.

    2004-01-01

    We introduce a million-second observation of the supernova remnant Cassiopeia A with the Chandra X-ray Observatory. The bipolar structure of the Si-rich ejecta (NE jet and SW counterpart) is clearly evident in the new images, and their chemical similarity is confirmed by their spectra. These are most likely due to jets of ejecta as opposed to cavities in the circumstellar medium, since we can reject simple models for the latter. The properties of these jets and the Fe-rich ejecta will provide clues to the explosion of Cas A.

  13. Million Book Project vs GoogleTM Print

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ST. CLAIR Gloriana

    2005-01-01

    Google's announcement that it intended to digitize all the books in several major research libraries was met with mixed reactions. John Wilkin at the University of Michigan declared "This is the day the world changes," while Rory Litwin said in Library Juice that the move would "commercialize the great research libraries with a handshake, suddenly and epochally." The four directors of the Universal Library and Million Book Project have received many questions about the comparative aspects of our work and Google Print. My purpose is to compare the two, talking about their genesis, the realities of collections and logistics,and the worries that arise from these realities.

  14. En julegave på 11 millioner til musikterapiforskning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    2016-01-01

    11 millioner er pænt mange penge. Hvor kom de fra, og hvad blev der mon af dem? Lillejuleaften 2009 tikkede en mail ind til en bemærkelsesværdig lang liste af musikterapeuter og musikterapiforskere. Den var fra professor Tony Wigram og med overskriften: A VERY BIG CHRISTMAS PRESENT. Han indledte ...... med at skrive: ”I think you will all be very pleased to hear that an application I made to the Danish State Research Council back in June this year has been successful.In fact, it has been more successful than I could possibly have imagined...in my wildest dreams!!!”....

  15. Identification of Carboniferous (320 million years old) class Ic amber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, P Sargent; Anderson, Ken B

    2009-10-02

    The presence of amber, the fossil form of the resins produced by many types of higher plants, has been reported from many localities in Mesozoic and Cenozoic rocks. We have found Class I (polylabdanoid) amber in Carboniferous sediments dating to approximately 320 million years ago. This result demonstrates that preconifer gymnosperms evolved the biosynthetic mechanisms to produce complex polyterpenoid resins earlier than previously believed and that the biosynthetic pathways leading to the types of polylabdanoid resins that are now typically found in conifers and those now typically found in angiosperms had already diverged by the Carboniferous.

  16. [The Six Million Dollar Man: from fiction to reality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langeveld, C H Kees

    2013-01-01

    The term 'bionic' has been in existence since 1958, but only gained general recognition from the television series 'The Six Million Dollar Man'. Following a crash, the central figure in this series - test pilot Steve Austin - has an eye, an arm and both legs replaced by prostheses which make him stronger and faster than a normal person. This story is based on the science fiction book 'Cyborg' by Martin Caidin. In the world of comic books and films there are a number of examples of people who are given superhuman powers by having technological gadgets built in. Although the latter is not yet possible, the bionic human has now become reality.

  17. Osteopathology in Rhinocerotidae from 50 Million Years to the Present.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsey T Stilson

    Full Text Available Individual elements of many extinct and extant North American rhinocerotids display osteopathologies, particularly exostoses, abnormal textures, and joint margin porosity, that are commonly associated with localized bone trauma. When we evaluated six extinct rhinocerotid species spanning 50 million years (Ma, we found the incidence of osteopathology increases from 28% of all elements of Eocene Hyrachyus eximius to 65-80% of all elements in more derived species. The only extant species in this study, Diceros bicornis, displayed less osteopathologies (50% than the more derived extinct taxa. To get a finer-grained picture, we scored each fossil for seven pathological indicators on a scale of 1-4. We estimated the average mass of each taxon using M1-3 length and compared mass to average pathological score for each category. We found that with increasing mass, osteopathology also significantly increases. We then ran a phylogenetically-controlled regression analysis using a time-calibrated phylogeny of our study taxa. Mass estimates were found to significantly covary with abnormal foramen shape and abnormal bone textures. This pattern in osteopathological expression may reflect a part of the complex system of adaptations in the Rhinocerotidae over millions of years, where increased mass, cursoriality, and/or increased life span are selected for, to the detriment of long-term bone health. This work has important implications for the future health of hoofed animals and humans alike.

  18. Almost 19 million childhood injuries result in 11 thousand deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldman, H B

    1996-01-01

    Details are provided from a series of government and private agency reports on the accidents and related deaths of children and the effectiveness of efforts being made to reduce the incidence of these tragedies. In 1992 there were 83,000 accidental deaths and more than 17 million disabling injuries in the United States costing $399 billion. The death rate was down 10 percent from 1991, and also the lowest recorded in recent years. Included in these statistics are 19 million injured children and 11 thousand dead children. The leading cause of death of children less than ten years of age was an unintentional injury. The author presents details on the accidents and related deaths, as well as the effectiveness of efforts to reduce the incidence of these accidents. From the youngest ages to the teen years, a greater number of males than females are injured and die from accident-related causes. The number of accidental deaths of children, ages five to nine years, almost equalled the number of deaths from natural causes. For children ten to fourteen years old, the number of accidental deaths was one third greater than the number from natural causes. Statistics regarding death and injury from motor vehicles, firearms, consumer products, and poison are presented.

  19. A 40-million-year history of atmospheric CO(2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi Ge; Pagani, Mark; Liu, Zhonghui; Bohaty, Steven M; Deconto, Robert

    2013-10-28

    The alkenone-pCO2 methodology has been used to reconstruct the partial pressure of ancient atmospheric carbon dioxide (pCO2) for the past 45 million years of Earth's history (Middle Eocene to Pleistocene epochs). The present long-term CO2 record is a composite of data from multiple ocean localities that express a wide range of oceanographic and algal growth conditions that potentially bias CO2 results. In this study, we present a pCO2 record spanning the past 40 million years from a single marine locality, Ocean Drilling Program Site 925 located in the western equatorial Atlantic Ocean. The trends and absolute values of our new CO2 record site are broadly consistent with previously published multi-site alkenone-CO2 results. However, new pCO2 estimates for the Middle Miocene are notably higher than published records, with average pCO2 concentrations in the range of 400-500 ppm. Our results are generally consistent with recent pCO2 estimates based on boron isotope-pH data and stomatal index records, and suggest that CO2 levels were highest during a period of global warmth associated with the Middle Miocene Climatic Optimum (17-14 million years ago, Ma), followed by a decline in CO2 during the Middle Miocene Climate Transition (approx. 14 Ma). Several relationships remain contrary to expectations. For example, benthic foraminiferal δ(18)O records suggest a period of deglaciation and/or high-latitude warming during the latest Oligocene (27-23 Ma) that, based on our results, occurred concurrently with a long-term decrease in CO2 levels. Additionally, a large positive δ(18)O excursion near the Oligocene-Miocene boundary (the Mi-1 event, approx. 23 Ma), assumed to represent a period of glacial advance and retreat on Antarctica, is difficult to explain by our CO2 record alone given what is known of Antarctic ice sheet history and the strong hysteresis of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet once it has grown to continental dimensions. We also demonstrate that in the

  20. Ten million and one penguins, or, lessons learned from booting millions of virtual machines on HPC systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minnich, Ronald G.; Rudish, Donald W.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we describe Megatux, a set of tools we are developing for rapid provisioning of millions of virtual machines and controlling and monitoring them, as well as what we've learned from booting one million Linux virtual machines on the Thunderbird (4660 nodes) and 550,000 Linux virtual machines on the Hyperion (1024 nodes) clusters. As might be expected, our tools use hierarchical structures. In contrast to existing HPC systems, our tools do not require perfect hardware; that all systems be booted at the same time; and static configuration files that define the role of each node. While we believe these tools will be useful for future HPC systems, we are using them today to construct botnets. Botnets have been in the news recently, as discoveries of their scale (millions of infected machines for even a single botnet) and their reach (global) and their impact on organizations (devastating in financial costs and time lost to recovery) have become more apparent. A distinguishing feature of botnets is their emergent behavior: fairly simple operational rule sets can result in behavior that cannot be predicted. In general, there is no reducible understanding of how a large network will behave ahead of 'running it'. 'Running it' means observing the actual network in operation or simulating/emulating it. Unfortunately, this behavior is only seen at scale, i.e. when at minimum 10s of thousands of machines are infected. To add to the problem, botnets typically change at least 11% of the machines they are using in any given week, and this changing population is an integral part of their behavior. The use of virtual machines to assist in the forensics of malware is not new to the cyber security world. Reverse engineering techniques often use virtual machines in combination with code debuggers. Nevertheless, this task largely remains a manual process to get past code obfuscation and is inherently slow. As part of our cyber security work at

  1. A thirty million year-old inherited heteroplasmy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Doublet

    Full Text Available Due to essentially maternal inheritance and a bottleneck effect during early oogenesis, newly arising mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA mutations segregate rapidly in metazoan female germlines. Consequently, heteroplasmy (i.e. the mixture of mtDNA genotypes within an organism is generally resolved to homoplasmy within a few generations. Here, we report an exceptional transpecific heteroplasmy (predicting an alanine/valine alloacceptor tRNA change that has been stably inherited in oniscid crustaceans for at least thirty million years. Our results suggest that this heteroplasmy is stably transmitted across generations because it occurs within mitochondria and therefore escapes the mtDNA bottleneck that usually erases heteroplasmy. Consistently, at least two oniscid species possess an atypical trimeric mitochondrial genome, which provides an adequate substrate for the emergence of a constitutive intra-mitochondrial heteroplasmy. Persistence of a mitochondrial polymorphism on such a deep evolutionary timescale suggests that balancing selection may be shaping mitochondrial sequence evolution in oniscid crustaceans.

  2. Millions of Single Cloud Weak MgII Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Churchill, C W; Charlton, J; Churchill, Chris; Rigby, Jane; Charlton, Jane

    2001-01-01

    We report on a population of absorption systems selected by the presence of very weak Mg II doublets. A sub-population of these systems are iron enriched and have near solar metallicities. This would indicated advanced stages (i.e. few Gyr) of in situ star formation within the absorbing structures. From photoionization modeling, we infer low ionization fractions of f(HI/H)~0.01, and gas densities of ~0.1 cm^-3. Since the maximum HI column densities are \\~10^17 cm^-2, the inferred cloud sizes are ~10 pc. From their redshift number densities, this implies that their co-moving spatial density outnumbers normal bright galaxies by a factor of a few million.

  3. Production of centrifugal fields greater than 100 million times gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katano, R; Shimizu, S

    1979-07-01

    A high-speed rotation instrument to produce centrifugal fields greater than 100 million times gravity has been constructed. Small, solid, spherical high-carbon chromium steel rotors are suspended magnetically in high vacuum and spun by a rotating magnetic field. It is found that the spinning rotor explodes when the calculated average value of stress in the meridian plane reaches about 1.2 times the tensile strength of the material. The maximum speed of rotation so far achieved for more than a few days without bursting was obtained with a rotor of 1.50 mm diameter. The speed of 2.11 x 10(5) rev/s corresponded to a centrifugal field of 1.34 x 10(8) times gravity. Our instrument will find application in the study of nuclear atomic phenomena.

  4. The PMA Catalogue: 420 million positions and absolute proper motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmetov, V. S.; Fedorov, P. N.; Velichko, A. B.; Shulga, V. M.

    2017-07-01

    We present a catalogue that contains about 420 million absolute proper motions of stars. It was derived from the combination of positions from Gaia DR1 and 2MASS, with a mean difference of epochs of about 15 yr. Most of the systematic zonal errors inherent in the 2MASS Catalogue were eliminated before deriving the absolute proper motions. The absolute calibration procedure (zero-pointing of the proper motions) was carried out using about 1.6 million positions of extragalactic sources. The mean formal error of the absolute calibration is less than 0.35 mas yr-1. The derived proper motions cover the whole celestial sphere without gaps for a range of stellar magnitudes from 8 to 21 mag. In the sky areas where the extragalactic sources are invisible (the avoidance zone), a dedicated procedure was used that transforms the relative proper motions into absolute ones. The rms error of proper motions depends on stellar magnitude and ranges from 2-5 mas yr-1 for stars with 10 mag mas yr-1 for faint ones. The present catalogue contains the Gaia DR1 positions of stars for the J2015 epoch. The system of the PMA proper motions does not depend on the systematic errors of the 2MASS positions, and in the range from 14 to 21 mag represents an independent realization of a quasi-inertial reference frame in the optical and near-infrared wavelength range. The Catalogue also contains stellar magnitudes taken from the Gaia DR1 and 2MASS catalogues. A comparison of the PMA proper motions of stars with similar data from certain recent catalogues has been undertaken.

  5. Three million years of monsoon variability over the northern Sahara

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larrasoana, J.C.; Roberts, A.P.; Rohling, E.J.; Winklhofer, M. [School of Ocean and Earth Science, Southampton Oceanography Centre, University of Southampton, European Way, Southampton SO14 3ZH (United Kingdom); Wehausen, R. [Institut fuer Chemie und Biologie des Meeres (ICBM), Carl-von-Ossietzky-Universitaet, 26111, Oldenburg (Germany)

    2003-12-01

    We present a 3 million year record of aeolian dust supply into the eastern Mediterranean Sea, based on hematite contents derived from magnetic properties of sediments from Ocean Drilling Program Site 967. Our record has an average temporal resolution of {proportional_to}400 years. Geochemical data validate this record of hematite content as a proxy for the supply of aeolian dust from the Sahara. We deduce that the aeolian hematite in eastern Mediterranean sediments derives from the eastern Algerian, Libyan, and western Egyptian lowlands located north of the central Saharan watershed ({proportional_to}21 N). In corroboration of earlier work, we relate dust flux minima to penetration of the African summer monsoon front to the north of the central Saharan watershed. This would have enhanced soil humidity and vegetation cover in the source regions, in agreement with results from ''green Sahara'' climate models. Our results indicate that this northward monsoon penetration recurred during insolation maxima throughout the last 3 million years. As would be expected, this orbital precession-scale mechanism is modulated on both short ({proportional_to}100-kyr) and long ({proportional_to}400-kyr) eccentricity time scales. We also observe a strong expression of the {proportional_to}41-kyr (obliquity) cycle, which we discuss in terms of high- and low-latitude mechanisms that involve Southern Hemisphere meridional temperature contrasts and shifts in the latitudes of the tropics, respectively. We also observe a marked increase in sub-Milankovitch variability around the mid-Pleistocene transition ({proportional_to}0.95 Ma), which suggests a link between millennial-scale climate variability, including monsoon dynamics, and the size of northern hemisphere ice sheets. (orig.)

  6. How To Review 4 Million Lines of ATLAS Code

    CERN Document Server

    Stewart, Graeme; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    As the ATLAS Experiment prepares to move to a multi-threaded framework (AthenaMT) for Run3, we are faced with the problem of how to migrate 4 million lines of C++ source code. This code has been written over the past 15 years and has often been adapted, re-written or extended to the changing requirements and circumstances of LHC data taking. The code was developed by different authors, many of whom are no longer active, and under the deep assumption that processing ATLAS data would be done in a serial fashion. In order to understand the scale of the problem faced by the ATLAS software community, and to plan appropriately the significant efforts posed by the new AthenaMT framework, ATLAS embarked on a wide ranging review of our offline code, covering all areas of activity: event generation, simulation, trigger, reconstruction. We discuss the difficulties in even logistically organising such reviews in an already busy community, how to examine areas in sufficient depth to learn key areas in need of upgrade, yet...

  7. CSIR wins R1 million gas generator contract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    The Division of Energy Technology, CSIR, has signed a R1 million contract with Slagment (Pty) Ltd for the supply, installation and commissioning during the first half of 1989 of a fluidized-bed hot gas generator. The contract was won on selected tender. A demonstration plant was built during 1984 in Pretoria West and funded by the Development of Mineral and Energy Affairs, to demonstrate to industry the ability of fluidized-bed technology to burn discard coal, thus reducing energy costs. It has been in operation for more than 20 000 hours and has demonstrated that it can successfully operate on coals with up to 70% ash and 8% sulfur content as well as on duff coal and char with a fines content of up to 50% less than 2mm diameter. The importance of offering a solution to the serious problem of stockpiling local inferior coals and the prospect of developing local expertise in the new, emerging technology, gave the research project the required support. The following are discussed: fluidization, fluidized beds and combustion of coal, fluidized bed boilers burning coal, fluidized-bed hot gas generator burning coal; advantages of fluidized-bed combustors, and applications. 2 figs.

  8. How to review 4 million lines of ATLAS code

    CERN Document Server

    Stewart, Graeme; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    As the ATLAS Experiment prepares to move to a multi-threaded framework (AthenaMT) for Run3, we are faced with the problem of how to migrate 4 million lines of C++ source code. This code has been written over the past 15 years and has often been adapted, re-written or extended to the changing requirements and circumstances of LHC data taking. The code was developed by different authors, many of whom are no longer active, and under the deep assumption that processing ATLAS data would be done in a serial fashion. In order to understand the scale of the problem faced by the ATLAS software community, and to plan appropriately the significant efforts posed by the new AthenaMT framework, ATLAS embarked on a wide ranging review of our offline code, covering all areas of activity: event generation, simulation, trigger, reconstruction. We discuss the difficulties in even logistically organising such reviews in an already busy community, how to examine areas in sufficient depth to learn key areas in need of upgrade, yet...

  9. Possible shell disease in 100 million-year-old crabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klompmaker, Adiël A; Chistoserdov, Andrei Y; Felder, Darryl L

    2016-05-03

    Modern organisms exhibit evidence of many diseases, but recognizing such evidence in fossils remains difficult, thus hampering the study of the evolution of disease. We report on 2 molts of the goniodromitid crabs Distefania incerta and Goniodromites laevis from the mid-Cretaceous (late Albian) of Spain, with both species exhibiting damage to the dorsal carapace in otherwise well-preserved specimens. The subcircular to quadratical holes, found in <0.2% of the specimens, resemble damage caused by bacterial infections on the cuticle of modern decapods in terms of size and shape. Abiotic damage, predation, and encrustation followed by damage to the shell provide less satisfactory explanations, although these agents cannot be completely excluded from a role in shell disease etiology. We hypothesize that the observed fossil lesions are caused primarily by bacterial disease that started prior to molting, with or without other agents of initiation. If correct, this is the only known example of such bacterial infections in decapod crustaceans from the fossil record thus far, pushing back the evolutionary history of this type of shell disease by ~100 million years.

  10. 470-Million-year-old black corals from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baliński, Andrzej; Sun, Yuanlin; Dzik, Jerzy

    2012-08-01

    Phosphatic (possibly secondarily phosphatised) remains of antipatharian coralla, previously unknown in the fossil record, occur abundantly in the early Ordovician Fenxiang Formation in the Hubei Province, southern China. Probably two species (and genera) are represented, which differ in spinosity of branches. The more spinose one, Sinopathes reptans, has its lateral spines bearing regular, longitudinally arranged costellae. The early Floian geological age of this finding, about 470 Ma, supports predictions on the timing of anthozoan phylogeny derived from the molecular phylogenetic evidence. Black corals (Antipatharia) are basal to the scleractinians in the Hexacorallia clade, being more derived than sea anemones and the Zoantharia. Based on calibration of the molecular clock with Mesozoic data, the first split of lineages within the scleractinian hexacorals was proposed to take place approximately 425 million years ago. This implies that the origin of Antipatharia should precede this date. They have not been known in the fossil record because of unmineralised skeleton composed primarily of laminar chitin complexed with a protein. Unlike all recent species, the encrusting basal part of the colony dominated in the Ordovician ones and only occasionally erect branches developed, rather chaotically ramified. This presumably plesiomorphic trait seems consistent with ancient geological age and suggests that some problematic fossils from the Late Cambrian may be their, even less-derived, relatives.

  11. Banner hacked-3.7 million at risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. A large-scale computer cyberattack at Banner Health compromised the records of up to 3.7 million patients, health-insurance-plan members, food and drink customers, and doctors according to the an Arizona Republic article by Ken Alltucker (1. Banner Health discovered unusual activity on its computer servers in late June and uncovered evidence of two attacks, with hackers accessing both patient records and payment-card records of food and beverage customers. The Phoenix-based health-care provider said it will mail letters to those affected notifying them about details of the cyberattack and steps they can take to protect themselves. Banner employees, many of whom are patients and covered by Banner Health insurance plans, also are believed to be victims of the attack. The Banner Health attack is the largest among 32 known data breaches involving Arizona-based health and medical providers since 2010 according to a U.S. Department of Health and Human Services list. The breech ...

  12. Over one million followers reached in CERN TweetUp

    CERN Multimedia

    Katherine Chapman

    2012-01-01

    More than a million followers were reached on Twitter during CERN’s first ever “TweetUp”. On 25 July, 5 lucky Twitter followers, or "Tweeps" as they are known, visited CERN to take part in events held on the same day with the STS-134 astronauts. The Tweetup gave the online community a chance to ask questions and explore areas of CERN through the eyes of the tweeps, prompting over 1,000 tweets and re-tweets between them in 24 hours.   Loic Bommersbach, Lucy McKenna, Astrid Chantelauze (KIT), Nick Howes, Angeliki Kanellopoulou, Maud Ali-Cherif (ESA), Julien Harrod (ESA), Katherine Chapman (CERN), and Simon Bierwald outside the CERN Control Centre. Five winners of a competition announced on Twitter were invited to come to CERN and spend a day behind the scenes, taking part in events organised to celebrate the AMS experiment that was launched in May 2011. The aim was to give tweeps the opportunity to explore CERN and share their experiences, allowi...

  13. Anthropogenic carbon release rate unprecedented during past 66 million years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeebe, R. E.; Ridgwell, A.; Zachos, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    Carbon release rates from anthropogenic sources have reached a record high of about 10 Pg C/y in 2013. However, due to uncertainties in the strength of climate system feedbacks, the full impact of the rapid carbon release on the Earth system is difficult to predict with confidence. Geologic analogues from past transient climate changes could provide invaluable constraints but only if the associated carbon release rates can be reliably reconstructed. We present a new technique - based on combined data-model analysis - to extract rates of change from the geological record, without the need for a stratigraphic age model. Given currently available records, we then show that the present anthropogenic carbon release rate is unprecedented during the Cenozoic (past 66 million years) by at least an order of magnitude. Our results have important implications for our ability to use past analogues to predict future changes, including constraints on climate sensitivity, ocean acidification, and impacts on marine and terrestrial ecosystems. For example, the fact that we have effectively entered an era of 'no analogue' state presents fundamental challenges to constraining forward modeling. Furthermore, future ecosystem disruptions will likely exceed the relatively limited extinctions observed during climate aberrations throughout the Cenozoic.

  14. Blending Of Radioactive Salt Solutions In Million Gallon Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leishear, Robert A.; Lee, Si Y.; Fowley, Mark D.; Poirier, Michael R.

    2012-12-10

    Research was completed at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to investigate processes related to the blending of radioactive, liquid waste, salt solutions in 4920 cubic meter, 25.9 meter diameter storage tanks. One process was the blending of large salt solution batches (up to 1135 ? 3028 cubic meters), using submerged centrifugal pumps. A second process was the disturbance of a settled layer of solids, or sludge, on the tank bottom. And a third investigated process was the settling rate of sludge solids if suspended into slurries by the blending pump. To investigate these processes, experiments, CFD models (computational fluid dynamics), and theory were applied. Experiments were performed using simulated, non-radioactive, salt solutions referred to as supernates, and a layer of settled solids referred to as sludge. Blending experiments were performed in a 2.44 meter diameter pilot scale tank, and flow rate measurements and settling tests were performed at both pilot scale and full scale. A summary of the research is presented here to demonstrate the adage that, ?One good experiment fixes a lot of good theory?. Experimental testing was required to benchmark CFD models, or the models would have been incorrectly used. In fact, CFD safety factors were established by this research to predict full-scale blending performance. CFD models were used to determine pump design requirements, predict blending times, and cut costs several million dollars by reducing the number of required blending pumps. This research contributed to DOE missions to permanently close the remaining 47 of 51 SRS waste storage tanks.

  15. STBase: One Million Species Trees for Comparative Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Michelle M.; Deepak, Akshay; Fernández-Baca, David; Boss, Darren; Sanderson, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Comprehensively sampled phylogenetic trees provide the most compelling foundations for strong inferences in comparative evolutionary biology. Mismatches are common, however, between the taxa for which comparative data are available and the taxa sampled by published phylogenetic analyses. Moreover, many published phylogenies are gene trees, which cannot always be adapted immediately for species level comparisons because of discordance, gene duplication, and other confounding biological processes. A new database, STBase, lets comparative biologists quickly retrieve species level phylogenetic hypotheses in response to a query list of species names. The database consists of 1 million single- and multi-locus data sets, each with a confidence set of 1000 putative species trees, computed from GenBank sequence data for 413,000 eukaryotic taxa. Two bodies of theoretical work are leveraged to aid in the assembly of multi-locus concatenated data sets for species tree construction. First, multiply labeled gene trees are pruned to conflict-free singly-labeled species-level trees that can be combined between loci. Second, impacts of missing data in multi-locus data sets are ameliorated by assembling only decisive data sets. Data sets overlapping with the user’s query are ranked using a scheme that depends on user-provided weights for tree quality and for taxonomic overlap of the tree with the query. Retrieval times are independent of the size of the database, typically a few seconds. Tree quality is assessed by a real-time evaluation of bootstrap support on just the overlapping subtree. Associated sequence alignments, tree files and metadata can be downloaded for subsequent analysis. STBase provides a tool for comparative biologists interested in exploiting the most relevant sequence data available for the taxa of interest. It may also serve as a prototype for future species tree oriented databases and as a resource for assembly of larger species phylogenies from precomputed

  16. STBase: one million species trees for comparative biology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle M McMahon

    Full Text Available Comprehensively sampled phylogenetic trees provide the most compelling foundations for strong inferences in comparative evolutionary biology. Mismatches are common, however, between the taxa for which comparative data are available and the taxa sampled by published phylogenetic analyses. Moreover, many published phylogenies are gene trees, which cannot always be adapted immediately for species level comparisons because of discordance, gene duplication, and other confounding biological processes. A new database, STBase, lets comparative biologists quickly retrieve species level phylogenetic hypotheses in response to a query list of species names. The database consists of 1 million single- and multi-locus data sets, each with a confidence set of 1000 putative species trees, computed from GenBank sequence data for 413,000 eukaryotic taxa. Two bodies of theoretical work are leveraged to aid in the assembly of multi-locus concatenated data sets for species tree construction. First, multiply labeled gene trees are pruned to conflict-free singly-labeled species-level trees that can be combined between loci. Second, impacts of missing data in multi-locus data sets are ameliorated by assembling only decisive data sets. Data sets overlapping with the user's query are ranked using a scheme that depends on user-provided weights for tree quality and for taxonomic overlap of the tree with the query. Retrieval times are independent of the size of the database, typically a few seconds. Tree quality is assessed by a real-time evaluation of bootstrap support on just the overlapping subtree. Associated sequence alignments, tree files and metadata can be downloaded for subsequent analysis. STBase provides a tool for comparative biologists interested in exploiting the most relevant sequence data available for the taxa of interest. It may also serve as a prototype for future species tree oriented databases and as a resource for assembly of larger species phylogenies

  17. FastBLAST: homology relationships for millions of proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan N Price

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: All-versus-all BLAST, which searches for homologous pairs of sequences in a database of proteins, is used to identify potential orthologs, to find new protein families, and to provide rapid access to these homology relationships. As DNA sequencing accelerates and data sets grow, all-versus-all BLAST has become computationally demanding. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We present FastBLAST, a heuristic replacement for all-versus-all BLAST that relies on alignments of proteins to known families, obtained from tools such as PSI-BLAST and HMMer. FastBLAST avoids most of the work of all-versus-all BLAST by taking advantage of these alignments and by clustering similar sequences. FastBLAST runs in two stages: the first stage identifies additional families and aligns them, and the second stage quickly identifies the homologs of a query sequence, based on the alignments of the families, before generating pairwise alignments. On 6.53 million proteins from the non-redundant Genbank database ("NR", FastBLAST identifies new families 25 times faster than all-versus-all BLAST. Once the first stage is completed, FastBLAST identifies homologs for the average query in less than 5 seconds (8.6 times faster than BLAST and gives nearly identical results. For hits above 70 bits, FastBLAST identifies 98% of the top 3,250 hits per query. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: FastBLAST enables research groups that do not have supercomputers to analyze large protein sequence data sets. FastBLAST is open source software and is available at http://microbesonline.org/fastblast.

  18. In 2017 Annual Capacity of Aluminum in Inner Mongolia May Top 10 Million Tonnes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Up till now,Inner Mongolia whole region’s nonferrous metal industry has developed 5.64million tonnes of production capacity,newly added 1.45 million tonnes compared with 2012,up by 34.6%.Wherein,aluminum capacity was3.40 million tonnes,newly added 1.05 million tonnes,up by 44.7%;lead 400,000 tonnes,

  19. First Light with a 67-Million-Pixel WFI Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    The newest astronomical instrument at the La Silla observatory is a super-camera with no less than sixty-seven million image elements. It represents the outcome of a joint project between the European Southern Observatory (ESO) , the Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (MPI-A) in Heidelberg (Germany) and the Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte (OAC) near Naples (Italy), and was installed at the 2.2-m MPG/ESO telescope in December 1998. Following careful adjustment and testing, it has now produced the first spectacular test images. With a field size larger than the Full Moon, the new digital Wide Field Imager is able to obtain detailed views of extended celestial objects to very faint magnitudes. It is the first of a new generation of survey facilities at ESO with which a variety of large-scale searches will soon be made over extended regions of the southern sky. These programmes will lead to the discovery of particularly interesting and unusual (rare) celestial objects that may then be studied with large telescopes like the VLT at Paranal. This will in turn allow astronomers to penetrate deeper and deeper into the many secrets of the Universe. More light + larger fields = more information! The larger a telescope is, the more light - and hence information about the Universe and its constituents - it can collect. This simple truth represents the main reason for building ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) at the Paranal Observatory. However, the information-gathering power of astronomical equipment can also be increased by using a larger detector with more image elements (pixels) , thus permitting the simultaneous recording of images of larger sky fields (or more details in the same field). It is for similar reasons that many professional photographers prefer larger-format cameras and/or wide-angle lenses to the more conventional ones. The Wide Field Imager at the 2.2-m telescope Because of technological limitations, the sizes of detectors most commonly in use in

  20. Investment in the Meirama industrial complex reaches 59,229 million pesetas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-01

    This paper gives an account of the project to build a thermoelectric power station complex in the Meirama Valley (La Coruna, Spain) with a 550 MW capacity and burning the lignite deposits located in the same valley. These deposits contain 85 million tons of economically workable reserves and the production figure is four million tons per annum. The requisite investment in the project is now 59,229 million pesetas. (In Spanish)

  1. 78 FR 48683 - Announcement of Requirements and Registration for Million Hearts® Hypertension Control Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... consumption. To support improved blood pressure control, HHS/CDC is announcing the Million Hearts Hypertension... hypertension control rate will be shared through press releases, the challenge Web site, and Million Hearts and... hypertension may be shared in documents or other communication products that describe generally used...

  2. Evidence of 600-million-year old fungi-algae symbiosis discovered in marine fossils

    OpenAIRE

    Trulove, Susan

    2005-01-01

    Researchers from China and the United States have found evidence of lichen-like symbiosis in 600-million-year-old fossils from South China. The previous earliest evidence of lichen was 400-million-years-old, discovered in Scotland. The discovery also adds to the scarce fossil record of fungi and raises new questions about lichen evolution.

  3. A New finding pushes back the history of flying mammals by 70 million years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Teaming up with their US coworkers, CAS paleontologists have discovered, in Ningcheng of northern China's Inner Mongolia, the nearly complete fossil remains of a mammal that glided among the trees at least 125 million years ago. Before the finding, the earliest confirmed record of gliding flight of a mammal dates to about 51million years ago.

  4. Kids with ADHD Make 6.1 Million Doctor Visits a Year in U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163265.html Kids With ADHD Make 6.1 Million Doctor Visits a Year ... THURSDAY, Jan. 26, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Kids with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder account for more than 6 million physician office ...

  5. Teaching about the Big Three-O (300 Million) Using the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risinger, C. Frederick

    2006-01-01

    Most researchers and the Census Bureau expect the U.S. population to hit the 300 million mark sometime in October. This will make the United States the world's third most populous nation--behind China and India. In this article, the author found several websites dealing with the specific 300 million target, population growth in general, and…

  6. A 500 Million Yuan of the Aluminum Production Project in Inner Mongolia has been Made

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>Jarud Banner,Tongliao,Inner Mongolia has recently signed a cooperation agreement on the aluminum hub production project with Zhejiang Jinfei Kaida Wheel Co.,Ltd.The project will be implemented in two phases with a total investment of 500 million yuan,of which 200 million yuan is for the Phase I project to be put

  7. China's export of boats valued at over200million USD in2010%China's export of boats valued at over 200 million USD in 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Shouchun

    2011-01-01

    @@ In 2010, China's economy saw a relatively good recovery.The economic operation of the shipbuilding industry was better than expected and the import and export trade of ships developed at high speeds.According to the statistics of China's custom house, thetotal value of the import and export of boats was 295 million USD, up 40.75% from a year ago; the total quantity in import and export trade was 2057200 boats, up 15.26% in quantity from a year ago. Last year, the value of China's export of boats was 204 million USD, up 19.64%;2028700 boats were exported, up 14.79% in the quantity of boats from a year ago.The ratio of the export of boats to the export of ships in 2010 was 1%; the increase rate of boat export was much lower than that of ship export, which was 42.7%.In the first half of 2010, the export trade of boats showed a highspeed increase with monthly average export value of 14.655 million USD while in August and September, export decreased at a significant rate with the lowest value of 9.7324 million USD in September.

  8. Become One In A Million: Partnership Updates. Million Solar Roofs and Interstate Renewable Energy Council Annual Meeting, Washington, D.C., October 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tombari, C.

    2005-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Million Solar Roofs Initiative (MSR) is a unique public-private partnership aimed at overcoming market barriers for photovoltaics (PV), solar water heating, transpired solar collectors, solar space heating and cooling, and pool heating. This report contains annual progress reports from 866 partners across the United States.

  9. Classifying proteins into functional groups based on all-versus-all BLAST of 10 million proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolker, Natali; Higdon, Roger; Broomall, William; Stanberry, Larissa; Welch, Dean; Lu, Wei; Haynes, Winston; Barga, Roger; Kolker, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    To address the monumental challenge of assigning function to millions of sequenced proteins, we completed the first of a kind all-versus-all sequence alignments using BLAST for 9.9 million proteins in the UniRef100 database. Microsoft Windows Azure produced over 3 billion filtered records in 6 days using 475 eight-core virtual machines. Protein classification into functional groups was then performed using Hive and custom jars implemented on top of Apache Hadoop utilizing the MapReduce paradigm. First, using the Clusters of Orthologous Genes (COG) database, a length normalized bit score (LNBS) was determined to be the best similarity measure for classification of proteins. LNBS achieved sensitivity and specificity of 98% each. Second, out of 5.1 million bacterial proteins, about two-thirds were assigned to significantly extended COG groups, encompassing 30 times more assigned proteins. Third, the remaining proteins were classified into protein functional groups using an innovative implementation of a single-linkage algorithm on an in-house Hadoop compute cluster. This implementation significantly reduces the run time for nonindexed queries and optimizes efficient clustering on a large scale. The performance was also verified on Amazon Elastic MapReduce. This clustering assigned nearly 2 million proteins to approximately half a million different functional groups. A similar approach was applied to classify 2.8 million eukaryotic sequences resulting in over 1 million proteins being assign to existing KOG groups and the remainder clustered into 100,000 functional groups.

  10. Estimating the cost of new drug development: is it really 802 million dollars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Christopher P; Brantner, Van V

    2006-01-01

    This paper replicates the drug development cost estimates of Joseph DiMasi and colleagues ("The Price of Innovation"), using their published cost estimates along with information on success rates and durations from a publicly available data set. For drugs entering human clinical trials for the first time between 1989 and 2002, the paper estimated the cost per new drug to be 868 million dollars. However, our estimates vary from around 500 million dollars to more than 2,000 million dollars, depending on the therapy or the developing firm.

  11. EPA awards over $1.9 million to Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands for environmental protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    HONOLULU - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has awarded over $1.9 million to the Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands in federal funds for CNMI environmental programs to continue environmental protection work.

  12. Virginia Tech part of $14 million National Science Foundation nanotechnology grant

    OpenAIRE

    Doss, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    Researchers from geosciences and civil and environmental engineering at Virginia Tech are part of a consortium of four principal universities and five other schools awarded a multi-million dollar grant to study nanotechnology and the environment.

  13. Women’s Suits Stores Retail Worth CNY300 million In Oct.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Beijing Oct.-Sales value of women’s suits in Beijing 22 mid-to-high range department stores was 299 million, Basically similar with September according to Beijing Commercial Information Consultation Center. Accumulated sales value in Jan. - Sep. was CNY 279.6 million.Looking further into the sales rank of department stores, Yansha Youyi, Cuiwei Place and Wangfujing Department Store reported highestcomparable sales in Oct.; Cuiwei Place reported a CNY39.14 million sales value, claiming the top rank. Looking further into the sales rank of brands, Veto Moda and ONLY, sales value for each of them were over CNY 7 million claimed thetop two spots in Oct. The both are in-house brands of Denmark-based fashion house Bestseller. White Collar ranked the Third.

  14. 2.5 Million U.S. Women Have Condition That Can Cause Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Million U.S. Women Have Condition That Can Cause Infertility Pelvic inflammatory disease often caused by sexually transmitted ... infection of the reproductive tract that can cause infertility and lasting abdominal pain, a new U.S. government ...

  15. L'Europe prête 300 millions d'euros au CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The BEI (Banque Européenne d'Investissement) will lent to CERN 300 millions of Euros, not only to build the new accelerator, but also to help to set up and european programm of research (1 paragraph)

  16. Monolithic distributed Bragg reflector cavities in Al2O3 with quality factors exceeding one million

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernhardi, Edward; van Wolferen, Hendricus A.G.M.; Worhoff, Kerstin; de Ridder, R.M.; Pollnau, Markus

    Monolithic distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) cavities with quality factors exceeding one million have been realized in aluminum oxide channel waveguides. This technology enabled the successful demonstration of the first DBR laser in this waveguide platform.

  17. EPA Awards 15 Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Grants Totaling Over $8 Million to Combat Invasive Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    15-OPA124 CHICAGO -- The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency today announced the award of 15 Great Lakes Restoration Initiative grants totaling more than $8 million for projects to combat invasive species in the Great Lakes basin. These Great

  18. Boffins send 60 million MB around the world in 10 days

    CERN Multimedia

    Farrell, Nick

    2005-01-01

    In one of the world's biggest grid computing projects, UK boffins at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (EAL) in Oxfordshire managed to transfer 60 million megabytes of data aroung the world in ten days (1/2 page)

  19. China’s Hongqi Group Invests 500 Million Yuan in Guixi Copper Processing Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>China’s Hongqi Group recently signed an agreement with Guixi municipality to invest 500 million yuan in developing the copper processing project in Guixi.It is reported that this is the seveth copper processing project with

  20. Neo Material Technologies announces CDN(S)10 million private placement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Neo Material Technologies Inc.(TSX:HEM) (the "Company")announced on April 18,2008 that it had entered into an agreement with Hong Kong based CEF(Capital Markets)Limited for a placement of 2,375,297 million shares at a trailing 10-day volume weighted average price of CDNS4.21per share,for gross proceeds of CDN(S)10 million.

  1. CNOOC to Boost Oil Output to 290 Million Barrels in 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ China National Offshore Oil Company Limited (CNOOC Limited)announced in early February that its targeted net production volume in 2010 is between 275 million and 290 million barrels ofoil equivalent(BOE).In its 2010 business strategy and development plan recently released to the public the offshore oil giant said the production goal was set given a West Texas Intermediate (WTI)oil price of US $75 per barrel in 2010.

  2. Poweo - 2007 revenue of 363 million euro, up 48%; Poweo - Chiffre d'affaires 2007 de 363 millions euro, en hausse de 48%

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-02-15

    Poweo, the leading independent energy operator in France, presents its key activity indicators for the 4. quarter 2007 and the overall 2007 year (non-audited data): electricity and gas sales, energy and service supplies, revenue, margin and income. The main results are summarized thereafter: 129.8 million euro revenue for the 4. quarter (67.1% of positive growth with respect to 2006); 363.1 million euro revenue for 2007 (48.5% increase with respect to 2006); 91431 active client sites on December 31, 2007 (80300 on December 31, 2006); 13000 new residential client sites registered since the beginning of 2008; more than 3800 MW of fossil fuel power plant projects and 1200 MW of renewable power plant projects (500 MW in offshore wind power) with 30 to 100% estimated rates of success; a 41 MW wind power capacity already in operation. (J.S.)

  3. Endurance and failure characteristic of main-shaft jet engine bearing at 3 million DN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamberger, E. N.; Zaretsky, E. V.; Signer, H.

    1976-01-01

    Groups of thirty 120-mm bore angular-contact ball bearings were endurance tested at a speed of 12,000 and 25,000 rpm (1.44 million and 3.0 million DN, where DN is the product of the bearing bore in mm and the shaft speed in rpm) and a thrust load of 66,721 N. The bearings were manufactured from a single heat of VIM-VAR AISI M-50 steel. At 1.44 million and 3.0 million DN, 84,483 and 74,800 bearing test hours were accumulated, respectively. Test results were compared with similar bearings made from CVM AISI M-50 steel run under the same conditions. Bearing lives at speeds of 3 million DN with the VIM-VAR AISI M-50 steel were nearly equivalent to those obtained at lower speeds. A combined processing and material life factor of 44 was found for VIM-VAR AISI M-50 steel. Continuous running after a spall has occurred at 3.0 million DN can result in a destructive fracture of the bearing inner race.

  4. Million hearts: prevalence of leading cardiovascular disease risk factors--United States, 2005-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchey, Matthew D; Wall, Hilary K; Gillespie, Cathleen; George, Mary G; Jamal, Ahmed

    2014-05-30

    Each year, approximately 1.5 million U.S. adults have a heart attack or stroke, resulting in approximately 30 deaths every hour and, for nonfatal events, often leading to long-term disability. Overall, an estimated 14 million survivors of heart attacks and strokes are living in the United States. In 2011, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, in collaboration with nonprofit and private organizations, launched Million Hearts (http://www.millionhearts.hhs.gov), an initiative focused on implementing clinical and community-level evidence-based strategies to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and prevent a total of 1 million heart attacks and strokes during the 5-year period 2012-2016. From 2005-2006 to the period with the most current data, analysis of the Million Hearts four "ABCS" clinical measures (for aspirin, blood pressure, cholesterol, and smoking) showed 1) no statistically significant change in the prevalence of aspirin use for secondary prevention (53.8% in 2009-2010), 2) an increase to 51.9% in the prevalence of blood pressure control (in 2011-2012), 3) an increase to 42.8% in the prevalence of cholesterol management (in 2011-2012), and 4) no statistically significant change in the prevalence of smoking assessment and treatment (22.2% in 2009-2010). In addition, analysis of two community-level indicators found 1) a decrease in current tobacco product smoking (including cigarette, cigar, or pipe use) prevalence to 25.1% in 2011-2012 and 2) minimal change in mean daily sodium intake (3,594 mg/day in 2009-2010). Although trends in some measures are encouraging, further reductions of CVD risk factors will be needed to meet Million Hearts goals by 2017.

  5. Palaeoart at Two Million Years Ago? A Review of the Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James B. Harrod

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Current archaeological evidence supports the claim that symbolic behavior, including palaeoart, first emerged in human evolution around 1 million years ago. The purpose of this article is to review archaeological studies that might support the hypothesis that the earliest palaeoart actually is evident around 2 million years ago. This review identifies nine Oldowan artifacts that have been proposed as possible non-utilitarian and possibly symbolic behavior. Among seven stone tools, the three strongest candidates are the Olduvai Gorge, the FLK North grooved and pecked cobble, ~1.80 million years ago, and MNK Main subspheroid with hexagon shape framing an apparent natural dot-and-undulating-line motif, ~1.5–1.6 million years ago, both initially reported and described by Mary Leakey; and the curated Koobi Fora FxJj1 “broken core” with inner rhomboid shape, ~1.87 million years ago. All six stone tools from Olduvai Gorge need scientific re-examination to determine their chaîne opératoire and assess non-utilitarian features. If even one of the Olduvai Gorge artifacts were validated as symbolic behavior this would indicate the emergence of palaeoart one million years earlier than current proposals. It would also suggest that Homo habilis/rudolfensis or a very early Homo erectus had substantially more advanced cognitive, design and symbolic competencies than inferred in current theories. It would constitute a challenge to develop more advanced cognitive semiotic and art-theoretic analytical tools for illuminating the role of such palaeoart in hominin cultural evolution.

  6. [The future population of Mexico. 123 million by the year 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrigal Hinojosa, R

    1988-01-01

    Recent data on fertility in Mexico have allowed identification of the most likely of 2 alternative population projections through the year 2010. The projection assumes an increase in life expectancy for men and women respectively from 64.08 and 70.47 in 1980-85 and 77.00 in 2005-10. The migration assumption is that there will be a net loss of 529,274 Mexicans every 5 years. The total fertility rate is expected to decline from to 2.7. The total population was projected at 82.8 million in 1988, 104.0 million at the end of the century, and 123.2 million in 2010. The 0-14 age group will decline from 44.23% of the population in 1980 and 40.33% in 1985 to 31.41% in 2000 and 29.50% in 2010. The proportion aged 15-64 will increase from 52.45% in 1980 and 56.22% in 1985 to 63.96% in 2000 and 64 75% in 2010. The proportion of the population in localities with under 2500 inhabitants is expected to remain stable at about 24.3 million persons. Mexico City, Guadalajara, Monterrey, and Puebla will have a combined population of 35 million by the year 2000. In 2010, the Federal District and the State of Mexico which includes Mexico City are expected to contain 29.3% of the total population. The projected population increase over the next 22 years is 40.4 million, 16% greater than the national population in 1960. The implications for providing food and consumer goods, and especially for improving the quality of life are serious. The relative demand for primary and secondary education and for maternal-child health care will decline, but the demand for jobs and for family planning services will increase as the proportion of the population in the economically active age groups increases.

  7. Ninety million years of orogenesis, 250 million years of quiescence and further orogenesis with no change in PT: Significance for the role of deformation in porphyroblast growth

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A A Shah; T H Bell

    2012-12-01

    In situ dating of monazite grains preserved as inclusions within foliations defining FIAs (foliation inflection/intersection axes preserved within porphyroblasts) contained within garnet, staurolite, andalusite and cordierite porphyroblasts provides a chronology of ages that matches the FIA succession for the Big Thompson region of the northern Colorado Rocky Mountains. FIA sets 1, 2 and 3 trending NE–SW, E–W and SE–NW were formed at 1760.5 ± 9.7, 1719.7 ± 6.4 and 1674 ± 11± Ma, respectively. For three samples where garnet first grew during just one of each of these FIAs, the intersection of Ca, Mg, and Fe isopleths in their cores indicate that these rocks never got above 4 kbars throughout the Colorado Orogeny. Furthermore, they remained around approximately the same depth for ∼250 million years to the onset of the younger Berthoud Orogeny at 1415 ± 16 Ma when the pressure decreased slightly as porphyroblasts formed with inclusion trails preserving FIA set 4 trending NNE–SSW. No porphyroblast growth occurred during the intervening ∼250 million years of quiescence, even though the PT did not change over this period. This confirms microstructural evidence gathered over the past 25 years that crenulation deformation at the scale of a porphyroblast is required for reactions to re-initiate and enable further growth.

  8. Poweo 2006 consolidated revenue at euro 244 million, up 121%; Poweo chiffre d'affaires 2006 de 244 millions euro, en hausse de 121%

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-01-15

    POWEO, the leading independent energy operator in France, presents in this document its key business indicators for the 4. quarter of 2006 and the full year: POWEO records again a strong rise of its annual revenue, exceeding its euro 220 million target. This progression relates to all the business components. The particularly soft climatic conditions recorded in France at the end of the year did not result in a significant fall of revenue compared to initial forecasts. The number of customer sites amounts to 80.300 at December 31, 2006, in progression of 23% compared to the end of 2005. The customer base remained overall stable during the second half of 2006, POWEO limiting voluntarily the acquisition of customers in electricity during the preparation of the opening to competition of the residential market due to take place on July 1, 2007. The gas customer base for its part more than doubled compared to end June 2006, with more than 5.000 customer sites transferred as at December 31, 2006. The Energy Management net margin, realised or un-realised, amounted to euro 49.7 million in 2006, recognised as revenue under IFRS standards. This includes the euro 22 million exceptional capital gain mentioned in previous financial releases in 2006, as well as a euro 7.9 million un-realised capital gain resulting from the transfer of some contracts into the Energy Management portfolio further to the capacity swap agreement with EDF announced publicly on January 3, 2007. The services provided by POWEO to its customers enjoy a high level of acceptance and represented revenue of euro 2.9 million in 2006. As from 2007, the revenue realised through these services will be presented separately from other components of revenue in order to better reflect its expected growth. The services offering will be indeed a key element of the marketing strategy of POWEO in the years to come, with a potentially significant impact on the results taking into account their level of gross margin which

  9. Zhongfu Industry Co., Ltd Plans to Invest an Additional 155 million yuan in Aluminum Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>On December 8,Zhongfu Industry Co.,Ltd announced that it planned to authorize its subsidiary Linzhou City Linfeng Aluminum Industry Co.,Ltd to add 155 million yuan investment into Linzhou City Linfeng Aluminum Electric & Aluminum Product Co.,Ltd.

  10. One Million Bones: Measuring the Effect of Human Rights Participation in the Social Work Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Jane; Cheatham, Leah P.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the integration of human rights content and a national arts-activism initiative--One Million Bones--into a bachelor's-level macro practice class as a human rights teaching strategy. Two previously validated scales, the Human Rights Exposure (HRX) in Social Work and the Human Rights Engagement (HRE) in Social Work (McPherson…

  11. Queen's researchers make the grade: University boasts two of three finalists for million-dollar grant

    CERN Multimedia

    Armstrong, F E

    2003-01-01

    Two Queen's University researchers are among three Canadian finalists in a contest to win $1 million. Art McDonald, director of the Queen's-run Sudbury Neutrino Observatory Institute, and John Smol, Canada Research Chair in Environmental Change, have been nominated for the Gerhard Herzberg Canada Gold Medal for Science and Engineering (1 page).

  12. One Million Bones: Measuring the Effect of Human Rights Participation in the Social Work Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Jane; Cheatham, Leah P.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the integration of human rights content and a national arts-activism initiative--One Million Bones--into a bachelor's-level macro practice class as a human rights teaching strategy. Two previously validated scales, the Human Rights Exposure (HRX) in Social Work and the Human Rights Engagement (HRE) in Social Work (McPherson…

  13. European Union gives 9.8 million Euros for GRID development

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Press Office. Geneva

    2001-01-01

    A 9.8 million euro funding over three years in support of the DataGrid project was authorized by the EC Information Society Programme (within the Fifth Framework Research Programme for technology development) at the end of December 2000 and a contract has been awarded to CERN as leader of the project.

  14. Men’s Suits Retail Sales Worth CNY33.04 million of Beijing in Dec.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Beijing Dec. - Sales value of men’s suits in Beijing 22 mid-to-high range department stores was CNY33.0436 million,according to Beijing Commercial Information Consultation Center. e data was 7.46% lower than last month and higher 4.84% than the corresponding period last year.

  15. Modeling a Million-Node Slim Fly Network Using Parallel Discrete-Event Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, Noah; Carothers, Christopher; Mubarak, Misbah; Ross, Robert; Carns, Philip

    2016-05-15

    As supercomputers close in on exascale performance, the increased number of processors and processing power translates to an increased demand on the underlying network interconnect. The Slim Fly network topology, a new lowdiameter and low-latency interconnection network, is gaining interest as one possible solution for next-generation supercomputing interconnect systems. In this paper, we present a high-fidelity Slim Fly it-level model leveraging the Rensselaer Optimistic Simulation System (ROSS) and Co-Design of Exascale Storage (CODES) frameworks. We validate our Slim Fly model with the Kathareios et al. Slim Fly model results provided at moderately sized network scales. We further scale the model size up to n unprecedented 1 million compute nodes; and through visualization of network simulation metrics such as link bandwidth, packet latency, and port occupancy, we get an insight into the network behavior at the million-node scale. We also show linear strong scaling of the Slim Fly model on an Intel cluster achieving a peak event rate of 36 million events per second using 128 MPI tasks to process 7 billion events. Detailed analysis of the underlying discrete-event simulation performance shows that a million-node Slim Fly model simulation can execute in 198 seconds on the Intel cluster.

  16. NBODY6++GPU: Ready for the gravitational million-body problem

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Long; Aarseth, Sverre; Nitadori, Keigo; Berczik, Peter; Kouwenhoven, M B N; Naab, Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    Accurate direct $N$-body simulations help to obtain detailed information about the dynamical evolution of star clusters. They also enable comparisons with analytical models and Fokker-Planck or Monte-Carlo methods. NBODY6 is a well-known direct $N$-body code for star clusters, and NBODY6++ is the extended version designed for large particle number simulations by supercomputers. We present NBODY6++GPU, an optimized version of NBODY6++ with hybrid parallelization methods (MPI, GPU, OpenMP, and AVX/SSE) to accelerate large direct $N$-body simulations, and in particular to solve the million-body problem. We discuss the new features of the NBODY6++GPU code, benchmarks, as well as the first results from a simulation of a realistic globular cluster initially containing a million particles. For million-body simulations, NBODY6++GPU is $400-2000$ times faster than NBODY6 with 320 CPU cores and 32 NVIDIA K20X GPUs. With this computing cluster specification, the simulations of million-body globular clusters including $5...

  17. Third One-million-ton Oil Field in Junggar Basin Will Come into Being

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Jun; Li Songguo

    2002-01-01

    @@ PetroChina Xinjiang Oil FieldCompany is accelerating its efforts for construction of the third 1-million-ton oil field in Junggar basin - Luliang oil field located in the hinterland of the basin, which was found in 2000.

  18. 25+ Years of the Hubble Space Telescope and a Simple Error that Cost Millions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakerin, Said

    2016-11-01

    A simple mistake in properly setting up a measuring device caused millions of dollars to be spent in correcting the initial optical failure of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). This short article is intended as a lesson for a physics laboratory and discussion of errors in measurement.

  19. Veterinary college's Meng awarded nearly $3 million in grants to study hepatitis E virus

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas, Jeffrey S.

    2008-01-01

    Dr. X.J. Meng, of Blacksburg, Va., a professor of virology in the Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine's Department of Biomedical Sciences and Pathobiology at Virginia Tech, has been awarded two research grants totaling almost $3 million from the National Institutes of Health to study the hepatitis E virus.

  20. Sufficient oxygen for animal respiration 1,400 million years ago

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Shuichang; Wang, Xiaomei; Wang, Huajian

    2016-01-01

    The Mesoproterozoic Eon [1,600-1,000 million years ago (Ma)] is emerging as a key interval in Earth history, with a unique geochemical history that might have influenced the course of biological evolution on Earth. Indeed, although this time interval is rather poorly understood, recent chromium i...

  1. Domestic Output of Aluminium Alloy Hub Surpassing 70 million in 2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>According to a report from the hub branch of China Association of Automobile Manufactur- ers,China has produced a total of more than 70 million aluminium alloy hubs in 2007,a year- on-year growth over 25%,while consuming over 700,000 tons of primary aluminium the whole year.

  2. 380-million-yuan Refined Leadand Copper Project Launched in Kashi City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>On June 30,Chengdu Linpeng Co.,Ltd.de- cided to invest 380 million yuan in an refined lead and copper project in Kashi City.As a large mining development company,Chengdu Linpeng Co.,Ltd has discovered a huge poten-

  3. 17 Million U.S. Adults May Have Tough-to-Spot High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Million U.S. Adults May Have Tough-to-Spot High Blood Pressure 'Masked' hypertension doesn't show up in a ... Health and Human Services. More Health News on: High Blood Pressure Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics High ...

  4. Plant-wide assessment summary: $4.1 million in savings identified in Paramount Petroleum assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2003-08-01

    The Paramount Petroleum Corporation (PPC) and its partners conducted a systematic plant-wide assessment (PWA) to identify energy- and cost-saving opportunities at the company's plant in Paramount, California. The assessment team identified $4.1 million in potential annual savings.

  5. Plant-wide assessment summary: $1.6 million in savings identified in Augusta Newsprint assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2003-08-01

    Augusta Newsprint and its partners conducted a systematic plant-wide assessment (PWA) to identify energy- and cost-saving opportunities at the company's plant in Augusta, Georgia. The assessment team identified $1.6 million in potential annual savings.

  6. [Children's health. 40. Unacceptable that 14 million children die every year].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergqvist, L P

    1987-10-07

    The 40th annual report of the UN Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF) states that about 7 million of the 14 million children who die throughout the world each year could be saved by modern methods of health care and food supply. UNICEF's executive director James Grant points out that 40 years ago little international attention was given to mass death from starvation, but today any such crisis attracts the mass media, and people and governments act to avoid mass death. Undernourishment and epidemics continue to threaten the world's children and more than 280,000 children die from these causes each week. Even with the crises of the past two years in Africa there have been more deaths among children in India and Pakistan than in all of Africa's 46 countries together. Existing knowledge on cheap methods of improving the health of children in underdeveloped countries is sufficient to save at least 7 million children's lives each year. Many millions more could have a normal growth with better information on replacements on mother's milk, vaccinations and access to supplies of water, sugar, and salt for oral rehydration therapy. Just as important are the new technologies of the communications revolution which is taking place in underdeveloped countries. Most homes have a radio, and televisions are available in most villages and in many small communities there are schools and health workers.

  7. Kavli Foundation donate $7.5 million to University of Chicago for cosmological physics institute

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    "The University of Chicago will devote $7.5 million in donations from Fred Kavli and the Kavli Foundation of Oxnard, Calif., to studying some of the most puzzling scientific questions about the origin and evolution of the universe and the laws that govern it" (1 page)

  8. Lead & zinc output of Yuguang Gold & Lead in 2015 may reach 1.20 million tonnes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>Henan Yuguang Gold & Lead Group Co., Ltd said on December 6 that it would strive to increase lead & zinc output to 1.20 million tonnes in 2015.As the world’s largest lead smelting enterprise,Yuguang Gold & Lead is the largest silver

  9. Temporal disease trajectories condensed from population-wide registry data covering 6.2 million patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Boeck; Moseley, Pope; Oprea, Tudor;

    2014-01-01

    . We use the entire spectrum of diseases and convert 14.9 years of registry data on 6.2 million patients into 1,171 significant trajectories. We group these into patterns centred on a small number of key diagnoses such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and gout, which are central...

  10. China Hongqiao Will Expand Output Capacity By 16% This Year To 6 Million Tonnes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    As the world’s biggest aluminum manufacturer,China Hongqiao Group did not stop its pace of expansion against the macro background of decapacity.China Hongqiao recently indicates that,this year it plans to lift aluminum output capacity to6 million tonnes,up by 16%from the capacity

  11. Prospective Study of One Million Deaths in India: Rationale, Design, and Validation Results.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Over 75% of the annual estimated 9.5 million deaths in India occur in the home, and the large majority of these do not have a certified cause. India and other developing countries urgently need reliable quantification of the causes of death. They also need better epidemiological evidence about the relevance of physical (such as blood pressure and obesity, behavioral (such as smoking, alcohol, HIV-1 risk taking, and immunization history, and biological (such as blood lipids and gene polymorphisms measurements to the development of disease in individuals or disease rates in populations. We report here on the rationale, design, and implementation of the world's largest prospective study of the causes and correlates of mortality. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We will monitor nearly 14 million people in 2.4 million nationally representative Indian households (6.3 million people in 1.1 million households in the 1998-2003 sample frame and 7.6 million people in 1.3 million households in the 2004-2014 sample frame for vital status and, if dead, the causes of death through a well-validated verbal autopsy (VA instrument. About 300,000 deaths from 1998-2003 and some 700,000 deaths from 2004-2014 are expected; of these about 850,000 will be coded by two physicians to provide causes of death by gender, age, socioeconomic status, and geographical region. Pilot studies will evaluate the addition of physical and biological measurements, specifically dried blood spots. Preliminary results from over 35,000 deaths suggest that VA can ascertain the leading causes of death, reduce the misclassification of causes, and derive the probable underlying cause of death when it has not been reported. VA yields broad classification of the underlying causes in about 90% of deaths before age 70. In old age, however, the proportion of classifiable deaths is lower. By tracking underlying demographic denominators, the study permits quantification of absolute mortality rates

  12. Prospective study of one million deaths in India: rationale, design, and validation results.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhat Jha

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Over 75% of the annual estimated 9.5 million deaths in India occur in the home, and the large majority of these do not have a certified cause. India and other developing countries urgently need reliable quantification of the causes of death. They also need better epidemiological evidence about the relevance of physical (such as blood pressure and obesity, behavioral (such as smoking, alcohol, HIV-1 risk taking, and immunization history, and biological (such as blood lipids and gene polymorphisms measurements to the development of disease in individuals or disease rates in populations. We report here on the rationale, design, and implementation of the world's largest prospective study of the causes and correlates of mortality.We will monitor nearly 14 million people in 2.4 million nationally representative Indian households (6.3 million people in 1.1 million households in the 1998-2003 sample frame and 7.6 million people in 1.3 million households in the 2004-2014 sample frame for vital status and, if dead, the causes of death through a well-validated verbal autopsy (VA instrument. About 300,000 deaths from 1998-2003 and some 700,000 deaths from 2004-2014 are expected; of these about 850,000 will be coded by two physicians to provide causes of death by gender, age, socioeconomic status, and geographical region. Pilot studies will evaluate the addition of physical and biological measurements, specifically dried blood spots. Preliminary results from over 35,000 deaths suggest that VA can ascertain the leading causes of death, reduce the misclassification of causes, and derive the probable underlying cause of death when it has not been reported. VA yields broad classification of the underlying causes in about 90% of deaths before age 70. In old age, however, the proportion of classifiable deaths is lower. By tracking underlying demographic denominators, the study permits quantification of absolute mortality rates. Household case-control, proportional

  13. Southern Ocean dust-climate coupling over the past four million years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Garcia, Alfredo; Rosell-Melé, Antoni; Jaccard, Samuel L; Geibert, Walter; Sigman, Daniel M; Haug, Gerald H

    2011-08-18

    Dust has the potential to modify global climate by influencing the radiative balance of the atmosphere and by supplying iron and other essential limiting micronutrients to the ocean. Indeed, dust supply to the Southern Ocean increases during ice ages, and 'iron fertilization' of the subantarctic zone may have contributed up to 40 parts per million by volume (p.p.m.v.) of the decrease (80-100 p.p.m.v.) in atmospheric carbon dioxide observed during late Pleistocene glacial cycles. So far, however, the magnitude of Southern Ocean dust deposition in earlier times and its role in the development and evolution of Pleistocene glacial cycles have remained unclear. Here we report a high-resolution record of dust and iron supply to the Southern Ocean over the past four million years, derived from the analysis of marine sediments from ODP Site 1090, located in the Atlantic sector of the subantarctic zone. The close correspondence of our dust and iron deposition records with Antarctic ice core reconstructions of dust flux covering the past 800,000 years (refs 8, 9) indicates that both of these archives record large-scale deposition changes that should apply to most of the Southern Ocean, validating previous interpretations of the ice core data. The extension of the record beyond the interval covered by the Antarctic ice cores reveals that, in contrast to the relatively gradual intensification of glacial cycles over the past three million years, Southern Ocean dust and iron flux rose sharply at the Mid-Pleistocene climatic transition around 1.25 million years ago. This finding complements previous observations over late Pleistocene glacial cycles, providing new evidence of a tight connection between high dust input to the Southern Ocean and the emergence of the deep glaciations that characterize the past one million years of Earth history.

  14. (Updated) NCI Fiscal 2016 Bypass Budget Proposes $25 Million for Frederick National Lab | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Nancy Parrish, Staff Writer; image by Richard Frederickson, Staff Photographer The additional funding requested for Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research (FNLCR) in the Fiscal 2016 Bypass Budget was $25 million, or approximately 3.5 percent of the total additional funding request of $715 million. Officially called the Professional Judgment Budget, the Bypass Budget is a result of the National Cancer Act of 1971, which authorizes NCI to submit a budget directly to the president, to send to Congress. With a focus on NCI’s research priorities and areas of cancer research with potential for investment, the Bypass Budget specifies additional funding, over and above the current budget, that is needed to advance

  15. (Updated) NCI Fiscal 2016 Bypass Budget Proposes $25 Million for Frederick National Lab | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Nancy Parrish, Staff Writer; image by Richard Frederickson, Staff Photographer The additional funding requested for Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research (FNLCR) in the Fiscal 2016 Bypass Budget was $25 million, or approximately 3.5 percent of the total additional funding request of $715 million. Officially called the Professional Judgment Budget, the Bypass Budget is a result of the National Cancer Act of 1971, which authorizes NCI to submit a budget directly to the president, to send to Congress. With a focus on NCI’s research priorities and areas of cancer research with potential for investment, the Bypass Budget specifies additional funding, over and above the current budget, that is needed to advance

  16. Experience of active tuberculosis case finding in nearly 5 million households in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyanarayana, S.; Chadha, S. S.; Das, A.; Thapa, B.; Mohanty, S.; Pandurangan, S.; Babu, E. R.; Tonsing, J.; Sachdeva, K. S.

    2016-01-01

    In India, to increase tuberculosis (TB) case detection under the National Tuberculosis Programme, active case finding (ACF) was implemented by the Global Fund-supported Project Axshya, among high-risk groups in 300 districts. Between April 2013 and December 2014, 4.9 million households covering ~20 million people were visited. Of 350 047 presumptive pulmonary TB cases (cough of ⩾2 weeks) identified, 187 586 (54%) underwent sputum smear examination and 14 447 (8%) were found to be smear-positive. ACF resulted in the detection of a large number of persons with presumptive pulmonary TB and smear-positive TB. Ensuring sputum examination of all those with presumptive TB was a major challenge. PMID:27051605

  17. Epidemiologic Study of One Million American Workers and Military Veterans Exposed to Ionizing Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boice, John D. [International Epidemiology Inst. Ltd., Rockville, MD (United States)

    2015-02-27

    A pilot study was completed demonstrating the feasibility of conducting an epidemiologic study assessing cancer and other disease mortality among nearly one million US veterans and workers exposed to ionizing radiation, a population 10 times larger than atomic bomb survivor study with high statistical power to evaluate low dose rate effects. Among the groups enumerated and/or studied were: (1) 194,000 Department of Energy Uranium Workers; (2) 6,700 Rocketdyne Radiation Workers; (3) 7,000 Mound Radiation Workers; (4) 156,000 DOE Plutonium Workers; (5) 212,000 Nuclear Power Plant Workers; (6) 130,000 Industrial Radiography Workers; (7) 1.7 million Medical Workers and (8) 135,000 Atomic Veterans.

  18. Artificial brains. A million spiking-neuron integrated circuit with a scalable communication network and interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merolla, Paul A; Arthur, John V; Alvarez-Icaza, Rodrigo; Cassidy, Andrew S; Sawada, Jun; Akopyan, Filipp; Jackson, Bryan L; Imam, Nabil; Guo, Chen; Nakamura, Yutaka; Brezzo, Bernard; Vo, Ivan; Esser, Steven K; Appuswamy, Rathinakumar; Taba, Brian; Amir, Arnon; Flickner, Myron D; Risk, William P; Manohar, Rajit; Modha, Dharmendra S

    2014-08-01

    Inspired by the brain's structure, we have developed an efficient, scalable, and flexible non-von Neumann architecture that leverages contemporary silicon technology. To demonstrate, we built a 5.4-billion-transistor chip with 4096 neurosynaptic cores interconnected via an intrachip network that integrates 1 million programmable spiking neurons and 256 million configurable synapses. Chips can be tiled in two dimensions via an interchip communication interface, seamlessly scaling the architecture to a cortexlike sheet of arbitrary size. The architecture is well suited to many applications that use complex neural networks in real time, for example, multiobject detection and classification. With 400-pixel-by-240-pixel video input at 30 frames per second, the chip consumes 63 milliwatts.

  19. A tropical rainforest in Colorado 1.4 million years after the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kirk R; Ellis, Beth

    2002-06-28

    An extremely diverse lower Paleocene (64.1 million years ago) fossil leaf site from Castle Rock, Colorado, contains fossil litter that is similar to the litter of extant equatorial rainforests. The presence of a high-diversity tropical rainforest is unexpected, because other Paleocene floras are species-poor, a feature generally attributed to the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) extinction. The site occurs on the margin of the Denver Basin in synorogenic sedimentary rocks associated with the rise of the Laramide Front Range. Orographic conditions caused by local topography, combined with equable climate, appear to have allowed for the establishment of rainforests within 1.4 million years of the K-T boundary.

  20. Quesnoin, a novel pentacyclic ent-diterpene from 55 million years Old Oise Amber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jossang, Jean; Bel-Kassaoui, Hakima; Jossang, Akino; Seuleiman, Mannan; Nel, André

    2008-01-18

    Amber, fossilized tree resin, found at the Oise River area of the Paris basin (France) was dated as being 55 million years old. Quesnoin, a novel unique pure organic compound, was isolated from Oise amber. 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopic analysis indicated an unknown diterpene skeleton, quesnane. The absolute configurations of the eight chiral centers of quesnoin were determined to be 4S, 5S, 8R, 9S, 10S, 13S, 14R, and 16S by chiral auxiliary (R)- and (S)-phenylglycine methyl ester derivatization. Quesnoin allowed us to disclose the tree producer, corresponding to modern Hymenaea oblongifolia, Fabaceae, a subfamily of Caesalpiniaceae, one of the oldest angiosperm. The presence of the Amazon rainforest tree, H. oblongifolia, indicated that the climate of the Paris basin might have been tropical in the early Eocene period, 55 million years ago.

  1. Occupation and cancer - follow-up of 15 million people in five Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pukkala, Eero; Martinsen, Jan Ivar; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2009-01-01

    We present up to 45 years of cancer incidence data by occupational category for the Nordic populations. The study covers the 15 million people aged 30-64 years in the 1960, 1970, 1980/1981 and/or 1990 censuses in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden, and the 2.8 million incident cancer...... cases diagnosed in these people in a follow-up until about 2005. The study was undertaken as a cohort study with linkage of individual records based on the personal identity codes used in all the Nordic countries. In the censuses, information on occupation for each person was provided through free text...... the highest risk of lung cancer, probably attributable to active and passive smoking. Miners and quarry workers also had a high risk, which might be related to their exposure to silica dust and radon daughters. Among women, tobacco workers and engine operators had a more than fourfold risk as compared...

  2. Aerobic microbial respiration in 86-million-year-old deep-sea red clay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Røy, Hans; Kallmeyer, Jens; Adhikari, Rishi Ram; Pockalny, Robert; Jørgensen, Bo Barker; D'Hondt, Steven

    2012-05-18

    Microbial communities can subsist at depth in marine sediments without fresh supply of organic matter for millions of years. At threshold sedimentation rates of 1 millimeter per 1000 years, the low rates of microbial community metabolism in the North Pacific Gyre allow sediments to remain oxygenated tens of meters below the sea floor. We found that the oxygen respiration rates dropped from 10 micromoles of O(2) liter(-1) year(-1) near the sediment-water interface to 0.001 micromoles of O(2) liter(-1) year(-1) at 30-meter depth within 86 million-year-old sediment. The cell-specific respiration rate decreased with depth but stabilized at around 10(-3) femtomoles of O(2) cell(-1) day(-1) 10 meters below the seafloor. This result indicated that the community size is controlled by the rate of carbon oxidation and thereby by the low available energy flux.

  3. Laying the Foundation for a Solar America: The Million Solar Roofs Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strahs, G.; Tombari, C.

    2006-10-01

    As the U.S. Department of Energy's Solar Energy Technology Program embarks on the next phase of its technology acceptance efforts under the Solar America Initiative, there is merit to examining the program's previous market transformation effort, the Million Solar Roofs Initiative. Its goal was to transform markets for distributed solar technologies by facilitating the installation of solar systems.

  4. Women’s Apparel Sales Worth CNY 299 million in Mar.2012

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    According to Beijing Commercial Information Consultation Center. Sales value of Women’s Apparel in Beijing 18 mid-to-high range department stores in Mar. 2012 was CNY299 million . The data was 14.64% higher than last month and 18.77% higher than the corresponding period last year. In Mar.2012,Cuiwei Place ,Yansha Youyi and Shunyi Guotai reported highest comparable sales value of women’s apparel.Looking further into the sales

  5. Determination of thorium in the parts per million range in rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, H.; Grimaldi, F.S.

    1958-01-01

    A procedure is presented for the determination of thorium in the concentration range of 0??2 to 10 parts per million ThO2 in felsic or mafic rocks. Thorium is extracted by mesityl oxide and purified by iodate precipitation from nitric acid medium containing tartaric acid and hydrogen peroxide. The thorium is determined spectrophotometrically with thoron from meso-tartaric acid medium. ?? 1958.

  6. Trade partners UK in Europe Leaf lands 2.5 million pound CERN deal

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    "Leaf Technologies of Newtownabbey, County Antrim, has won a 2.5 million pound contract to supply electronic modules to CERN (the European Laboratory for Particle Physics) in Geneva, one of the world's most advanced scientific research projects, which is funded by the UK and 19 other European governments. Leaf will develop sophisticated circuit boards for the high precision controls of the Large Hadron Collider" (1 page)

  7. Wear of sequentially enhanced 9-Mrad polyethylene in 10 million cycle knee simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Riichiro; Williams, Paul Allen; Shoji, Hiromu; Hirakawa, Kazuo; Yamamoto, Kengo; Tsukamoto, Mikiko; Clarke, Ian C

    2008-07-01

    Highly crosslinked polyethylene (HXPE) has been shown to be effective in reducing wear in total hip replacements. HXPE has not found widespread use in TKR, because the crosslinking inevitably leads to reductions in critical properties such as toughness and fatigue strength. Sequentially enhanced crosslinking (SXPE) have been suggested for improved wear resistance for tibial inserts with maintenance of mechanical properties and anticipated high oxidation resistance superior to conventional polyethylene (XLPE). We compared the wear of SXPE (9Mrad) to XLPE inserts (3Mrad) to 10 million cycles. Triathlon femoral condyles were identical in both. This is the first wear study of SXPE inserts. According to the power law relating irradiation dose to wear of XLPE inserts, wear of 9 Mrad inserts should be reduced by 70% compared to 3Mrad controls. The wear rates of the SXPE inserts were reduced by 86% at 10 million cycles duration, somewhat greater than predicted. The one prior investigation by the manufacturer reported a 79% wear reduction for SXPE compared to controls in a 5 million cycle simulator study in knee design and test parameters. There were important differences between the two studies. Nevertheless there clearly appeared to be a major benefit for sequentially enhanced polyethylene in tibial inserts. This combined wear reduction of 80-85% with improved oxidation resistance and retention of mechanical properties may prove beneficial for active patients who may otherwise risk high wear rates over many years of use.

  8. Microslices and low-cost spectrographs for million element integral field spectrographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Content, Robert; Morris, Simon L.; Dubbeldam, Marc

    2003-02-01

    We describe a new concept for an integral field unit that allows the collection of a very large number of spectra. We also describe a complementary low cost spectrograph. Both are necessary for the design of integral field spectrographs with huge numbers of spatial elements. These concepts were developed for the Million Element Integral Field Unit and Spectrograph (MEIFUS) that we are proposing for an 8-m and a larger version for an Extremely Large Telescope (ELT, a 30-m telescope). The 8-m version of this spectrograph would give 2.2 million spectra, each 200 pixels long, covering a field of view of 5.2' x 5.2'. The ELT version would give 1.5 million spectra, each 600 pixels long, with a field of 2.7" x 3". The new concept of microslices for integral field units allows us to pack a large number of short spectra tightly on the detector without oversizing the spectrograph. It uses a series of independent cylindrical microlens arrays, as opposed to spherical or "simulated spherical using cylindrical" microlenses. We used the specific characteristics of our instrument, especially the short spectra, to develop a concept of a low cost spectrograph. We show that MEIFUS fills a technological gap between other integral field systems and Fabry-Perot instruments. We believe that integral field spectrographs with such a large number of spatial elements would be too expensive if they were to use fibers, typical slicer systems or typical spectrograph designs.

  9. A magnified young galaxy from about 500 million years after the Big Bang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wei; Postman, Marc; Zitrin, Adi; Moustakas, John; Shu, Xinwen; Jouvel, Stephanie; Høst, Ole; Molino, Alberto; Bradley, Larry; Coe, Dan; Moustakas, Leonidas A; Carrasco, Mauricio; Ford, Holland; Benítez, Narciso; Lauer, Tod R; Seitz, Stella; Bouwens, Rychard; Koekemoer, Anton; Medezinski, Elinor; Bartelmann, Matthias; Broadhurst, Tom; Donahue, Megan; Grillo, Claudio; Infante, Leopoldo; Jha, Saurabh W; Kelson, Daniel D; Lahav, Ofer; Lemze, Doron; Melchior, Peter; Meneghetti, Massimo; Merten, Julian; Nonino, Mario; Ogaz, Sara; Rosati, Piero; Umetsu, Keiichi; van der Wel, Arjen

    2012-09-20

    Re-ionization of the intergalactic medium occurred in the early Universe at redshift z ≈ 6-11, following the formation of the first generation of stars. Those young galaxies (where the bulk of stars formed) at a cosmic age of less than about 500 million years (z ≲ 10) remain largely unexplored because they are at or beyond the sensitivity limits of existing large telescopes. Understanding the properties of these galaxies is critical to identifying the source of the radiation that re-ionized the intergalactic medium. Gravitational lensing by galaxy clusters allows the detection of high-redshift galaxies fainter than what otherwise could be found in the deepest images of the sky. Here we report multiband observations of the cluster MACS J1149+2223 that have revealed (with high probability) a gravitationally magnified galaxy from the early Universe, at a redshift of z = 9.6 ± 0.2 (that is, a cosmic age of 490 ± 15 million years, or 3.6 per cent of the age of the Universe). We estimate that it formed less than 200 million years after the Big Bang (at the 95 per cent confidence level), implying a formation redshift of ≲14. Given the small sky area that our observations cover, faint galaxies seem to be abundant at such a young cosmic age, suggesting that they may be the dominant source for the early re-ionization of the intergalactic medium.

  10. Innovation for the 'bottom 100 million': eliminating neglected tropical diseases in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotez, Peter J; Dumonteil, Eric; Heffernan, Michael J; Bottazzi, Maria E

    2013-01-01

    An estimated 100 million people in the Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) region live on less than US$2 per day, while another 46 million people in the US live below that nation's poverty line. Almost all of the 'bottom 100 million' people suffer from at least one neglected tropical disease (NTD), including one-half of the poorest people in the region infected with hookworms, 10% with Chagas disease, and up to 1-2% with dengue, schistosomiasis, and/or leishmaniasis. In the US, NTDs such as Chagas disease, cysticercosis, toxocariasis, and trichomoniasis are also common among poor populations. These NTDs trap the poorest people in the region in poverty, because of their impact on maternal and child health, and occupational productivity. Through mass drug administration (MDA), several NTDs are on the verge of elimination in the Americas, including lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, trachoma, and possibly leprosy. In addition, schistosomiasis may soon be eliminated in the Caribbean. However, for other NTDs including hookworm infection, Chagas disease, dengue, schistosomiasis, and leishmaniasis, a new generation of 'anti-poverty vaccines' will be required. Several vaccines for dengue are under development by multinational pharmaceutical companies, whereas others are being pursued through non-profit product development partnerships (PDPs), in collaboration with developing country manufacturers in Brazil and Mexico. The Sabin Vaccine Institute PDP is developing a primarily preventive bivalent recombinant human hookworm vaccine, which is about to enter phase 1 clinical testing in Brazil, as well as a new therapeutic Chagas disease vaccine in collaboration with several Mexican institutions. The Chagas disease vaccine would be administered to seropositive patients to delay or prevent the onset of Chagasic cardiomyopathy (secondary prevention). Together, MDA and the development of new anti-poverty vaccines afford an opportunity to implement effective control and

  11. A new ascarid species in cynodont coprolite dated of 240 million years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRISCILLA A. DA SILVA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Cynodonts represent the transition from reptiles to mammals. They are classified as synapsids, or tetrapod animals with mammalian characteristics. We present here the finding of helminth eggs in a coprolite identified as of cynodont origin dated of nearly 240 million years. Microscopy revealed the presence of very well preserved intestinal parasite eggs. Up to now we identified an ascarid egg by morphological characteristics. Based on a previous description of the new genus Ascarites Poinar Jr and Boucot 2006 in coprolites of iguanodons from Belgium, we propose a new species, Ascarites rufferi n.sp. in cynodonts, a host that inhabited the Southern Region of Brazil in the Triassic period.

  12. Genetic Mapping of Millions of SNPs in Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) via Whole-Genome Resequencing

    OpenAIRE

    Bowers, John E.; Pearl, Stephanie A; Burke, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate assembly of complete genomes is facilitated by very high density genetic maps. We performed low-coverage, whole-genome shotgun sequencing on 96 F6 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of a cross between safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) and its wild progenitor (C. palaestinus Eig). We also produced a draft genome assembly of C. tinctorius covering 866 million bp (∼two-thirds) of the expected 1.35 Gbp genome after sequencing a single, short insert library to ∼21 × depth. Sequence reads f...

  13. Automatically Augmenting Lifelog Events Using Pervasively Generated Content from Millions of People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan F. Smeaton

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In sensor research we take advantage of additional contextual sensor information to disambiguate potentially erroneous sensor readings or to make better informed decisions on a single sensor’s output. This use of additional information reinforces, validates, semantically enriches, and augments sensed data. Lifelog data is challenging to augment, as it tracks one’s life with many images including the places they go, making it non-trivial to find associated sources of information. We investigate realising the goal of pervasive user-generated content based on sensors, by augmenting passive visual lifelogs with “Web 2.0” content collected by millions of other individuals.

  14. Understanding scanlation: how to read one million fan-translated manga pages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lev Manovich

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the first project in digital humanities which uses digital image analysis and visualization for the study of a massive image collection - one million manga pages. These pages correspond to 883 manga series that were available as “scanlations” (manga digitized and translated by fans in the fall 2009. Using computational techniques we were able to systematically analyze the visual language of special pages inserted by fans in scanlated versions, and also study visual differences between the pages from original Japanese publications and official English translations. The result is a better understanding of the multiple "mangas" which make up the "manga universe."

  15. The HIV / AIDS Alliance budgets $23 million for its 3-year plan as "linkman".

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The International Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Alliance, a London based nongovernmental organization (NGO) with a 1994 income of $3.5 million, is funding small organizations in developing countries via locally governed linking organizations, which review applications and provide technical support. The Alliance is headed by Jeff O'Malley, the founding executive director of Harvard's Global AIDS Policy Coalition and executive director of its 1992 "AIDS in the World" report. The result of a Rockefeller Foundation initiative, the Alliance has been operational since the beginning of 1994. 2 years of research, which focused on Mexico, the Ivory Coast, Tanzania, and Egypt, indicated that the ideal funding arrangement was one where a northern NGO funded a southern NGO in a partnership. However, the southern NGOs soon outgrew this relationship. Critics suggest existing networks should be used instead of the new linking organizations. O'Malley cites 2 reasons for this new method of empowering the south: 1) smaller community groups are reached and 2) national debate on AIDS is catalyzed. Research shows that groups on the edge of being considered NGOs have little access to funds; however, they often are in a position to do important work on AIDS prevention and care. After piloting programs in Burkina Faso and the Philippines, the Alliance released a provisional 3-year plan for networks to be established in 14 countries (9 in 1994, 5 in 1995). Linking organizations are being formed in Bangladesh, Ecuador, and Senegal. Pakistan and Sri Lanka will be next. Work ranges from prevention and care to social science research and small scale drug supply. Staff have a variety of backgrounds: health, AIDS, development, the private sector, government, and NGOs. Linking organizations are bound by a Statement of Vision and Values. Whether a new linking organization is established (Philippines) or an existing network used (Bangladesh) varies

  16. Determination of niobium in the parts per million range in rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, F.S.

    1960-01-01

    A modified niobium thiocyanate spectrophotometric procedure relatively insensitive to titanium interference is presented. Elements such as tungsten, molybdenum, vanadium, and rhenium, which seriously interfere in the spectrophotometric determination of niobium, are separated by simple sodium hydroxide fusion and leach; iron and magnesium are used as carriers for the niobium. Tolerance limits are given for 28 elements in the spectrophotometric method. Specific application is made to the determination of niobium in the parts per million range in rocks. The granite G-1 contains 0.0022% niobium and the diabase W-1 0.00096% niobium.

  17. Fossilized nuclei and chromosomes reveal 180 million years of genomic stasis in royal ferns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomfleur, Benjamin; McLoughlin, Stephen; Vajda, Vivi

    2014-03-21

    Rapidly permineralized fossils can provide exceptional insights into the evolution of life over geological time. Here, we present an exquisitely preserved, calcified stem of a royal fern (Osmundaceae) from Early Jurassic lahar deposits of Sweden in which authigenic mineral precipitation from hydrothermal brines occurred so rapidly that it preserved cytoplasm, cytosol granules, nuclei, and even chromosomes in various stages of cell division. Morphometric parameters of interphase nuclei match those of extant Osmundaceae, indicating that the genome size of these reputed "living fossils" has remained unchanged over at least 180 million years-a paramount example of evolutionary stasis.

  18. Discovery of 505-million-year old chitin in the basal demosponge Vauxia gracilenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, H; Rigby, J Keith; Botting, J P; Tsurkan, M V; Werner, C; Schwille, P; Petrášek, Z; Pisera, A; Simon, P; Sivkov, V N; Vyalikh, D V; Molodtsov, S L; Kurek, D; Kammer, M; Hunoldt, S; Born, R; Stawski, D; Steinhof, A; Bazhenov, V V; Geisler, T

    2013-12-13

    Sponges are probably the earliest branching animals, and their fossil record dates back to the Precambrian. Identifying their skeletal structure and composition is thus a crucial step in improving our understanding of the early evolution of metazoans. Here, we present the discovery of 505-million-year-old chitin, found in exceptionally well preserved Vauxia gracilenta sponges from the Middle Cambrian Burgess Shale. Our new findings indicate that, given the right fossilization conditions, chitin is stable for much longer than previously suspected. The preservation of chitin in these fossils opens new avenues for research into other ancient fossil groups.

  19. Weekday variation in triglyceride concentrations in 1.8 million blood samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaskolowski, Jörn; Ritz, Christian; Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Triglyceride (TG) concentration is used as a marker of cardio-metabolic risk. However, diurnal and possibly weekday variation exists in TG concentrations. OBJECTIVE: To investigate weekday variation in TG concentrations among 1.8 million blood samples drawn between 2008 and 2015 from...... variations in TG concentrations were recorded for out-patients between the age of 9 to 26 years, with up to 20% higher values on Mondays compared to Fridays (all PTriglyceride concentrations were highest after the weekend and gradually declined during the week. We suggest that unhealthy...

  20. Revival and Identification of Bacterial Spores in 25- to 40-Million-Year-Old Dominican Amber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Raul J.; Borucki, Monica K.

    1995-05-01

    A bacterial spore was revived, cultured, and identified from the abdominal contents of extinct bees preserved for 25 to 40 million years in buried Dominican amber. Rigorous surface decontamination of the amber and aseptic procedures were used during the recovery of the bacterium. Several lines of evidence indicated that the isolated bacterium was of ancient origin and not an extant contaminant. The characteristic enzymatic, biochemical, and 16S ribosomal DNA profiles indicated that the ancient bacterium is most closely related to extant Bacillus sphaericus.

  1. System design for a million channel digital spectrum analyzer /MCSA/. [of bandpass filtering in SETI receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, A.; Narasimha, M.; Narayan, S.

    1980-01-01

    The system design of a wideband (8 MHz) million-channel digital spectrum analyzer for use with a SETI receiver is presented. The analyzer makes use of a digital bandpass filter bank for transforming the wideband input signal into a specified number (120) of uniform narrowband output channels by the use of a Fourier transform digital processor combined with a prototype digital weighting network (finite impulse response filter). The output is then processed separately by 120 microprocessor-based discrete Fourier transform computers, each producing 8190 output channels of approximately 8 Hz bandwidth by the use of an 8190-point prime factor algorithm.

  2. UBC ScanCam: an inexpensive 122-million pixel scan camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuzhen; Heidrich, Wolfgang

    2004-06-01

    We describe the design of a very high resolution, low-cost scan camera for use in image-based modeling and rendering, cultural heritage projects, and professional digital photography. Our camera can acquire black&white, color, and nearinfrared images with a resolution of over 122 million pixels and can be readily built from off-the-shelf components for less than $1200. We discuss the construction of the system as well as color calibration and noise removal. Finally, we obtain quantitative measurements of the light sensitivity and the optical resolution of our camera and compare the image quality to a commercial digital SLR camera.

  3. World Carbon Black Output to Reach 12.7 Million Tons in 2015

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Yongkang

    2012-01-01

    From April 13 to April 17, "Carbon Black China of 2012" (CBC2012) was held in Hangzhou, China. Mr. Paul Ita, the president of US marketing research institution Notch Consulting Group, announced that the prospect of carbon black industry was closely linked with the development of auto industry and tire industry. The demand for carbon black of 2010 increased by 15% compared with that of 2009; the growth rate of demand for carbon black was 5.8% in 2011 and the total output was 10.7 million tons, which increased by about 5.5% compared with that of 2010.

  4. Discovery of the Sun’s million-degree hot corona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H ePeter

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available As time goes by, discoveries become common knowledge, and often the person who first changed a paradigm gets forgotten. One such case is the discovery that the Sun’s corona is a million degrees hot – much hotter than its surface. While we still work on solving how the Sun heats the corona, the name of the discoverer seems to be forgotten. Instead, other people get the credit who contributed important pieces to the puzzle, but the person who solved this puzzle was someone else. In this historical note we show that this credit should go to Hannes Alfvén.

  5. Measurement of the Positive Muon Lifetime and Determination of the Fermi Constant to Part-per-Million Precision

    CERN Document Server

    Webber, D M; ~Peng, Q; Battu, S; Carey, R M; Chitwood, D B; Crnkovic, J; Debevec, P T; Dhamija, S; Earle, W; Gafarov, A; Giovanetti, K; Gorringe, T P; Gray, F E; Hartwig, Z; Hertzog, D W; Johnson, B; Kammel, P; Kiburg, B; Kizilgul, S; Kunkle, J; Lauss, B; Logashenko, I; Lynch, K R; McNabb, R; Miller, J P; Mulhauser, F; Onderwater, C J G; Phillips, J; Rath, S; Roberts, B L; Winter, P; Wolfe, B

    2010-01-01

    We report a measurement of the positive muon lifetime to a precision of 1.0~parts per million (ppm); it is the most precise particle lifetime ever measured. The experiment used a time-structured, low-energy muon beam and a segmented plastic scintillator array to record more than 2 x 10^{12} decays. Two different stopping target configurations were employed in independent data-taking periods. The combined results give tau_{mu^+}(MuLan) = 2196980.3(2.2)~ps, more than 15 times as precise as any previous experiment. The muon lifetime gives the most precise value for the Fermi constant: G_F(MuLan) = 1.1663788 (7) x 10^-5 GeV^-2 (0.6~ppm). It is also used to extract the mu^-p singlet capture rate, which determines the proton's weak induced pseudoscalar coupling g_P.

  6. Twenty-million-year relationship between mammalian diversity and primary productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Susanne A.; Eronen, Jussi T.; Schnitzler, Jan; Hof, Christian; Janis, Christine M.; Mulch, Andreas; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; Graham, Catherine H.

    2016-09-01

    At global and regional scales, primary productivity strongly correlates with richness patterns of extant animals across space, suggesting that resource availability and climatic conditions drive patterns of diversity. However, the existence and consistency of such diversity-productivity relationships through geological history is unclear. Here we provide a comprehensive quantitative test of the diversity-productivity relationship for terrestrial large mammals through time across broad temporal and spatial scales. We combine >14,000 occurrences for 690 fossil genera through the Neogene (23-1.8 Mya) with regional estimates of primary productivity from fossil plant communities in North America and Europe. We show a significant positive diversity-productivity relationship through the 20-million-year record, providing evidence on unprecedented spatial and temporal scales that this relationship is a general pattern in the ecology and paleo-ecology of our planet. Further, we discover that genus richness today does not match the fossil relationship, suggesting that a combination of human impacts and Pleistocene climate variability has modified the 20-million-year ecological relationship by strongly reducing primary productivity and driving many mammalian species into decline or to extinction.

  7. Born too soon: accelerating actions for prevention and care of 15 million newborns born too soon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawn, Joy E; Kinney, Mary V; Belizan, José M; Mason, Elizabeth Mary; McDougall, Lori; Larson, Jim; Lackritz, Eve; Friberg, Ingrid K; Howson, Christopher P

    2013-01-01

    Preterm birth complication is the leading cause of neonatal death resulting in over one million deaths each year of the 15 million babies born preterm. To accelerate change, we provide an overview of the comprehensive strategy required, the tools available for context-specifi c health system implementation now, and the priorities for research and innovation. There is an urgent need for action on a dual track: (1) through strategic research to advance the prevention of preterm birth and (2) improved implementation and innovation for care of the premature neonate. We highlight evidence-based interventions along the continuum of care, noting gaps in coverage, quality, equity and implications for integration and scale up. Improved metrics are critical for both burden and tracking programmatic change. Linked to the United Nation’s Every Women Every Child strategy, a target was set for 50% reduction in preterm deaths by 2025. Three analyses informed this target: historical change in high income countries, recent progress in best performing countries, and modelling of mortality reduction with high coverage of existing interventions. If universal coverage of selected interventions were to be achieved, then 84% or more than 921,000 preterm neonatal deaths could be prevented annually, with antenatal corticosteroids and Kangaroo Mother Care having the highest impact. Everyone has a role to play in reaching this target including government leaders, professionals, private sector, and of course families who are aff ected the most and whose voices have been critical for change in many of the countries with the most progress.

  8. Crowdsourcing Precision Cerebrovascular Health: Imaging and Cloud Seeding A Million Brains Initiative™

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S Liebeskind

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Crowdsourcing, an unorthodox approach in medicine, creates an unusual paradigm to study precision cerebrovascular health, eliminating the relative isolation and non-standardized nature of current imaging data infrastructure, while shifting emphasis to the astounding capacity of big data in the cloud. This perspective envisions the use of imaging data of the brain and vessels to orient and seed A Million Brains Initiative™ that may leapfrog incremental advances in stroke and rapidly provide useful data to the sizable population around the globe prone to the devastating effects of stroke and vascular substrates of dementia. Despite such variability in the type of data available and other limitations, the data hierarchy logically starts with imaging and can be enriched with almost endless types and amounts of other clinical and biological data. Crowdsourcing allows an individual to contribute to aggregated data on a population, while preserving their right to specific information about their own brain health. The cloud now offers endless storage, computing prowess and neuroimaging applications for post-processing that is searchable and scalable. Collective expertise is a windfall of the crowd in the cloud and particularly valuable in an area such as cerebrovascular health. The rise of precision medicine, rapidly evolving technological capabilities of cloud computing and the global imperative to limit the public health impact of cerebrovascular disease converge in the imaging of A Million Brains Initiative™. Crowdsourcing secure data on brain health may provide ultimate generalizability, enable focused analyses, facilitate clinical practice and accelerate research efforts.

  9. Toward Millions of File System IOPS on Low-Cost, Commodity Hardware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Da; Burns, Randal; Szalay, Alexander S

    2013-01-01

    We describe a storage system that removes I/O bottlenecks to achieve more than one million IOPS based on a user-space file abstraction for arrays of commodity SSDs. The file abstraction refactors I/O scheduling and placement for extreme parallelism and non-uniform memory and I/O. The system includes a set-associative, parallel page cache in the user space. We redesign page caching to eliminate CPU overhead and lock-contention in non-uniform memory architecture machines. We evaluate our design on a 32 core NUMA machine with four, eight-core processors. Experiments show that our design delivers 1.23 million 512-byte read IOPS. The page cache realizes the scalable IOPS of Linux asynchronous I/O (AIO) and increases user-perceived I/O performance linearly with cache hit rates. The parallel, set-associative cache matches the cache hit rates of the global Linux page cache under real workloads.

  10. A 61-million-person experiment in social influence and political mobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Robert M; Fariss, Christopher J; Jones, Jason J; Kramer, Adam D I; Marlow, Cameron; Settle, Jaime E; Fowler, James H

    2012-09-13

    Human behaviour is thought to spread through face-to-face social networks, but it is difficult to identify social influence effects in observational studies, and it is unknown whether online social networks operate in the same way. Here we report results from a randomized controlled trial of political mobilization messages delivered to 61 million Facebook users during the 2010 US congressional elections. The results show that the messages directly influenced political self-expression, information seeking and real-world voting behaviour of millions of people. Furthermore, the messages not only influenced the users who received them but also the users' friends, and friends of friends. The effect of social transmission on real-world voting was greater than the direct effect of the messages themselves, and nearly all the transmission occurred between 'close friends' who were more likely to have a face-to-face relationship. These results suggest that strong ties are instrumental for spreading both online and real-world behaviour in human social networks.

  11. A 3D photograph with 92 million pixels for tagging particles

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2013-01-01

    Where was a given particle born? How can we tag it precisely enough to be able to then follow it along its track and through its decays? This is the job of the pixel detector installed at the heart of the ATLAS detector, only centimeters away from the LHC collisions. In order to improve its identification and tagging capabilities, the ATLAS collaboration has recently taken a big step towards the completion of the upgrade of its Pixel detector, which will include the insertion of a brand-new layer of 12 million pixels.   The 7 metre long beryllium beam pipe inserted in the carbon-fibre positioning tool is being prepared ready for the new innermost layer of the Pixel detector to be mounted. Photo: ATLAS Collaboration. With its three layers and 80 million channels concentrated in 2.2 square metres, the ATLAS pixel detector was already the world’s largest pixel-based system used in particle physics. Its excellent performance was instrumental in the discovery of the Higgs boson in July ...

  12. Bayesian hierarchical regression analysis of variations in sea surface temperature change over the past million years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Carolyn W.

    2016-09-01

    Statistical challenges often preclude comparisons among different sea surface temperature (SST) reconstructions over the past million years. Inadequate consideration of uncertainty can result in misinterpretation, overconfidence, and biased conclusions. Here I apply Bayesian hierarchical regressions to analyze local SST responsiveness to climate changes for 54 SST reconstructions from across the globe over the past million years. I develop methods to account for multiple sources of uncertainty, including the quantification of uncertainty introduced from absolute dating into interrecord comparisons. The estimates of local SST responsiveness explain 64% (62% to 77%, 95% interval) of the total variation within each SST reconstruction with a single number. There is remarkable agreement between SST proxy methods, with the exception of Mg/Ca proxy methods estimating muted responses at high latitudes. The Indian Ocean exhibits a muted response in comparison to other oceans. I find a stable estimate of the proposed "universal curve" of change in local SST responsiveness to climate changes as a function of sin2(latitude) over the past 400,000 years: SST change at 45°N/S is larger than the average tropical response by a factor of 1.9 (1.5 to 2.6, 95% interval) and explains 50% (35% to 58%, 95% interval) of the total variation between each SST reconstruction. These uncertainty and statistical methods are well suited for application across paleoclimate and environmental data series intercomparisons.

  13. Earliest porotic hyperostosis on a 1.5-million-year-old hominin, olduvai gorge, Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Domínguez-Rodrigo

    Full Text Available Meat-eating was an important factor affecting early hominin brain expansion, social organization and geographic movement. Stone tool butchery marks on ungulate fossils in several African archaeological assemblages demonstrate a significant level of carnivory by Pleistocene hominins, but the discovery at Olduvai Gorge of a child's pathological cranial fragments indicates that some hominins probably experienced scarcity of animal foods during various stages of their life histories. The child's parietal fragments, excavated from 1.5-million-year-old sediments, show porotic hyperostosis, a pathology associated with anemia. Nutritional deficiencies, including anemia, are most common at weaning, when children lose passive immunity received through their mothers' milk. Our results suggest, alternatively, that (1 the developmentally disruptive potential of weaning reached far beyond sedentary Holocene food-producing societies and into the early Pleistocene, or that (2 a hominin mother's meat-deficient diet negatively altered the nutritional content of her breast milk to the extent that her nursing child ultimately died from malnourishment. Either way, this discovery highlights that by at least 1.5 million years ago early human physiology was already adapted to a diet that included the regular consumption of meat.

  14. 168 million years old "marine lice" and the evolution of parasitism within isopods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagler, Christina; Hyžný, Matúš; Haug, Joachim T

    2017-03-09

    Isopods (woodlice, slaters and their relatives) are common crustaceans and abundant in numerous habitats. They employ a variety of lifestyles including free-living scavengers and predators but also obligate parasites. This modern-day variability of lifestyles is not reflected in isopod fossils so far, mostly as the life habits of many fossil isopods are still unclear. A rather common group of fossil isopods is Urda (190-100 million years). Although some of the specimens of different species of Urda are considered well preserved, crucial characters for the interpretation of their lifestyle (and also of their phylogenetic position), have so far not been accessible. Using up-to-date imaging methods, we here present morphological details of the mouthparts and the thoracopods of 168 million years old specimens of Urda rostrata. Mouthparts are of a sucking-piercing-type morphology, similar to the mouthparts of representatives of ectoparasitic isopods in groups such as Aegidae or Cymothoidae. The thoracopods bear strong, curved dactyli most likely for attaching to a host. Therefore, mouthpart and thoracopod morphology indicate a parasitic lifestyle of Urda rostrata. Based on morphological details, Urda seems deeply nested within the parasitic isopods of the group Cymothoida. Similarities to Aegidae and Cymothoidae are interpreted as ancestral characters; Urda is more closely related to Gnathiidae, which is therefore also interpreted as an ingroup of Cymothoida. With this position Urda provides crucial information for our understanding of the evolution of parasitism within isopods. Finally, the specimens reported herein represent the oldest parasitic isopods known to date.

  15. Future climate forcing potentially without precedent in the last 420 million years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Gavin L.; Royer, Dana L.; Lunt, Daniel J.

    2017-04-01

    The evolution of Earth's climate on geological timescales is largely driven by variations in the magnitude of total solar irradiance (TSI) and changes in the greenhouse gas content of the atmosphere. Here we show that the slow ~50 Wm-2 increase in TSI over the last ~420 million years (an increase of ~9 Wm-2 of radiative forcing) was almost completely negated by a long-term decline in atmospheric CO2. This was likely due to the silicate weathering-negative feedback and the expansion of land plants that together ensured Earth's long-term habitability. Humanity's fossil-fuel use, if unabated, risks taking us, by the middle of the twenty-first century, to values of CO2 not seen since the early Eocene (50 million years ago). If CO2 continues to rise further into the twenty-third century, then the associated large increase in radiative forcing, and how the Earth system would respond, would likely be without geological precedent in the last half a billion years.

  16. Twenty-million-year relationship between mammalian diversity and primary productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Susanne A; Eronen, Jussi T; Schnitzler, Jan; Hof, Christian; Janis, Christine M; Mulch, Andreas; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; Graham, Catherine H

    2016-09-27

    At global and regional scales, primary productivity strongly correlates with richness patterns of extant animals across space, suggesting that resource availability and climatic conditions drive patterns of diversity. However, the existence and consistency of such diversity-productivity relationships through geological history is unclear. Here we provide a comprehensive quantitative test of the diversity-productivity relationship for terrestrial large mammals through time across broad temporal and spatial scales. We combine >14,000 occurrences for 690 fossil genera through the Neogene (23-1.8 Mya) with regional estimates of primary productivity from fossil plant communities in North America and Europe. We show a significant positive diversity-productivity relationship through the 20-million-year record, providing evidence on unprecedented spatial and temporal scales that this relationship is a general pattern in the ecology and paleo-ecology of our planet. Further, we discover that genus richness today does not match the fossil relationship, suggesting that a combination of human impacts and Pleistocene climate variability has modified the 20-million-year ecological relationship by strongly reducing primary productivity and driving many mammalian species into decline or to extinction.

  17. Real-Time Million-Synapse Simulation of Rat Barrel Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eSharp

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Simulations of neural circuits are bounded in scale and speed by available computing resources, and particularly by the differences in parallelism and communication patterns between the brain and high-performance computers. SpiNNaker is a computer architecture designed to address this problem by emulating the structure and function of neural tissue, using very many low-power processors and an interprocessor communication mechanism inspired by axonal arbors. Here we demonstrate that thousand-processor SpiNNaker prototypes can simulate models of the rodent barrel system comprising fifty thousand neurons and fifty million synapses. We use the PyNN library to specify models, and the intrinsic features of Python to control experimental procedures and analysis. The models reproduce known thalamocortical response transformations, exhibit known, balanced dynamics of excitation and inhibition, and show a spatiotemporal spread of activity though the superficial cortical layers. These demonstrations are a significant step towards tractable simulations of entire cortical areas on the million-processor SpiNNaker machines in development.

  18. Physical mapping of the elephant X chromosome: conservation of gene order over 105 million years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Claudia Leticia Rodríguez; Waters, Paul D; Gilbert, Clément; Robinson, Terence J; Graves, Jennifer A Marshall

    2009-01-01

    All therian mammals (eutherians and marsupials) have an XX female/XY male sex chromosome system or some variant of it. The X and Y evolved from a homologous pair of autosomes over the 166 million years since therian mammals diverged from monotremes. Comparing the sex chromosomes of eutherians and marsupials defined an ancient X conserved region that is shared between species of these mammalian clades. However, the eutherian X (and the Y) was augmented by a recent addition (XAR) that is autosomal in marsupials. XAR is part of the X in primates, rodents, and artiodactyls (which belong to the eutherian clade Boreoeutheria), but it is uncertain whether XAR is part of the X chromosome in more distantly related eutherian mammals. Here we report on the gene content and order on the X of the elephant (Loxodonta africana)-a representative of Afrotheria, a basal endemic clade of African mammals-and compare these findings to those of other documented eutherian species. A total of 17 genes were mapped to the elephant X chromosome. Our results support the hypothesis that the eutherian X and Y chromosomes were augmented by the addition of autosomal material prior to eutherian radiation. Not only does the elephant X bear the same suite of genes as other eutherian X chromosomes, but gene order appears to have been maintained across 105 million years of evolution, perhaps reflecting strong constraints posed by the eutherian X inactivation system.

  19. Homogeneous nucleation and microstructure evolution in million-atom molecular dynamics simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibuta, Yasushi; Oguchi, Kanae; Takaki, Tomohiro; Ohno, Munekazu

    2015-08-27

    Homogeneous nucleation from an undercooled iron melt is investigated by the statistical sampling of million-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations performed on a graphics processing unit (GPU). Fifty independent instances of isothermal MD calculations with one million atoms in a quasi-two-dimensional cell over a nanosecond reveal that the nucleation rate and the incubation time of nucleation as functions of temperature have characteristic shapes with a nose at the critical temperature. This indicates that thermally activated homogeneous nucleation occurs spontaneously in MD simulations without any inducing factor, whereas most previous studies have employed factors such as pressure, surface effect, and continuous cooling to induce nucleation. Moreover, further calculations over ten nanoseconds capture the microstructure evolution on the order of tens of nanometers from the atomistic viewpoint and the grain growth exponent is directly estimated. Our novel approach based on the concept of "melting pots in a supercomputer" is opening a new phase in computational metallurgy with the aid of rapid advances in computational environments.

  20. The dynamics of LTR retrotransposon accumulation across 25 million years of panicoid grass evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estep, M C; DeBarry, J D; Bennetzen, J L

    2013-02-01

    Sample sequence analysis was employed to investigate the repetitive DNAs that were most responsible for the evolved variation in genome content across seven panicoid grasses with >5-fold variation in genome size and different histories of polyploidy. In all cases, the most abundant repeats were LTR retrotransposons, but the particular families that had become dominant were found to be different in the Pennisetum, Saccharum, Sorghum and Zea lineages. One element family, Huck, has been very active in all of the studied species over the last few million years. This suggests the transmittal of an active or quiescent autonomous set of Huck elements to this lineage at the founding of the panicoids. Similarly, independent recent activity of Ji and Opie elements in Zea and of Leviathan elements in Sorghum and Saccharum species suggests that members of these families with exceptional activation potential were present in the genome(s) of the founders of these lineages. In a detailed analysis of the Zea lineage, the combined action of several families of LTR retrotransposons were observed to have approximately doubled the genome size of Zea luxurians relative to Zea mays and Zea diploperennis in just the last few million years. One of the LTR retrotransposon amplification bursts in Zea may have been initiated by polyploidy, but the great majority of transposable element activations are not. Instead, the results suggest random activation of a few or many LTR retrotransposons families in particular lineages over evolutionary time, with some families especially prone to future activation and hyper-amplification.

  1. A progressively wetter climate in southern East Africa over the past 1.3 million years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, T. C.; Werne, J. P.; Brown, E. T.; Abbott, A.; Berke, M.; Steinman, B. A.; Halbur, J.; Contreras, S.; Grosshuesch, S.; Deino, A.; Scholz, C. A.; Lyons, R. P.; Schouten, S.; Damsté, J. S. Sinninghe

    2016-09-01

    African climate is generally considered to have evolved towards progressively drier conditions over the past few million years, with increased variability as glacial-interglacial change intensified worldwide. Palaeoclimate records derived mainly from northern Africa exhibit a 100,000-year (eccentricity) cycle overprinted on a pronounced 20,000-year (precession) beat, driven by orbital forcing of summer insolation, global ice volume and long-lived atmospheric greenhouse gases. Here we present a 1.3-million-year-long climate history from the Lake Malawi basin (10°-14° S in eastern Africa), which displays strong 100,000-year (eccentricity) cycles of temperature and rainfall following the Mid-Pleistocene Transition around 900,000 years ago. Interglacial periods were relatively warm and moist, while ice ages were cool and dry. The Malawi record shows limited evidence for precessional variability, which we attribute to the opposing effects of austral summer insolation and the temporal/spatial pattern of sea surface temperature in the Indian Ocean. The temperature history of the Malawi basin, at least for the past 500,000 years, strongly resembles past changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide and terrigenous dust flux in the tropical Pacific Ocean, but not in global ice volume. Climate in this sector of eastern Africa (unlike northern Africa) evolved from a predominantly arid environment with high-frequency variability to generally wetter conditions with more prolonged wet and dry intervals.

  2. First solar system solids to proto-planets: A Rapid growth in a few million years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Jitendranath

    2016-07-01

    First solar system solids to proto-planets: A Rapid growth in a few million years J. N. Goswami Physical Research Laboratory Ahmedabad-380009, India Collapse of a dense molecular cloud led to the formation of the proto-Sun surrounded by a high temperature gaseous nebula. The nebula settled down to the mid-plane and formation of the first solar system solids, refractory oxides and silicates, such as Corundum, Perovskite, Melilite took place, that was followed by formation of more common silicate minerals. Laboratory studies of primitive meteorites support this scenario and also provide evidence for correlated presence of several now-extinct short-lived nuclides (e.g. 41Ca, 26Al, 60Fe) at the time of formation of the first solar system solids. Presence of 60Fe in early solar system solids suggests injection of freshly synthesized nuclides from a stellar source (a supernova) into the proto-solar cloud that also triggered its collapse and led to formation of our solar system. Presence of 41Ca (half-life: 0.1Ma) in early solar system solids suggest a time scale of less than a million years for the collapse of the proto-solar cloud and formation of proto-Sun and the first solar system solids. The gradual evolution of larger solar system objects, up to planetesimals (represented by the asteroids), took place at a rapid pace within a time scale of a few million years. Some of the asteroids retain their pristine nature (e.g. parent bodies of carbonaceous chondrite), while others, underwent melting and differentiation due to internal heating. Harold Urey proposed radioactive 26Al as a possible heat source that was confirmed by experiment only in 1999. Irons and stony iron meteorites are fragments from core regions of differentiated asteroids. Extensive computer simulation studies suggest that an explosive stellar event (e.g. supernova) can indeed trigger the collapse of the proto-solar cloud and also inject freshly synthesized short-lived nuclides into it within a relatively

  3. From the million dollar's web, to ‘seriespepito’ Is it a Bubble 2.0?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José García-Ull

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In 2005, a 21 years old English student created The Million Dollar Homepage. The idea was simple: he divided the site into 100 blocks of 10x10 pixels each with the aim to sell these spaces to the brands interested in advertising on the website. Each pixel would cost 1 dollar. That apparently naive idea ended reaching notoriety in the newly named Web 2.0 (O'Reilly, 2005. Worldwide online media, many of whom just began their journey through the Web, covered the curious initiative. The online media coverage also jumped to traditional media (crossmedia narrative, Jenkins, 2006 and this issue had a direct influence on the increase of visitors and number of page views in the site. It was, in fact, one of the first examples of a viral message in the Web. Advertising brands were attracted by the media impact of the website, which became a showcase. Companies such as The Times or Yahoo were attracted by the web influence. In a few months, the business student Alex Tew sold every single pixel of his website to advertising brands, amountig to a million dollars. In 2015, according to Alexa Rank, onclickads.net, publited.com, adcash.com, popads.net or adf.ly are among the 150 most visited websites in Spain, competing with companies like facebook.com, wordpress.es, marca.com, rtve.es or bbva.es, to name a few. We present in the following article the reasons why these affiliate advertising networks occupy key positions in the rankings of most visited websites and to this end, we will focus on studying the business model of some of the main links pages, which offer access to download or online viewing of media formats, including series, documentaries and film content. We will focus in particular on the business models like seriespepito.com, closed due to alleged intellectual property crime in 2014. They generated within months, about a million dollars profit. We studied, with this purpose, the role of the affiliate networks, the use of tracking tools such as

  4. Realization and application of a 111 million pixel backside-illuminated detector and camera

    CERN Document Server

    Zacharias, Norbert; Bredthauer, Richard; Boggs, Kasey; Bredthauer, Greg; Lesser, Mike

    2007-01-01

    A full-wafer, 10,580 $\\times$ 10,560 pixel (95 $\\times$ 95 mm) CCD was designed and tested at Semiconductor Technology Associates (STA) with 9 um square pixels and 16 outputs. The chip was successfully fabricated in 2006 at DALSA and some performance results are presented here. This program was funded by the Office of Naval Research through a Small Business Innovation in Research (SBIR) program requested by the U.S. Naval Observatory for its next generation astrometric sky survey programs. Using Leach electronics, low read-noise output of the 111 million pixels requires 16 seconds at 0.9 MHz. Alternative electronics developed at STA allow readout at 20 MHz. Some modifications of the design to include anti-blooming features, a larger number of outputs, and use of p-channel material for space applications are discussed.

  5. A genetic variation map for chicken with 2.8 million single nucleotide polymorphisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, G K; Hillier, L; Brandstrom, M; Croojmans, R; Ovcharenko, I; Gordon, L; Stubbs, L; Lucas, S; Glavina, T; Kaiser, P; Gunnarsson, U; Webber, C; Overton, I

    2005-02-20

    We describe a genetic variation map for the chicken genome containing 2.8 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), based on a comparison of the sequences of 3 domestic chickens (broiler, layer, Silkie) to their wild ancestor Red Jungle Fowl (RJF). Subsequent experiments indicate that at least 90% are true SNPs, and at least 70% are common SNPs that segregate in many domestic breeds. Mean nucleotide diversity is about 5 SNP/kb for almost every possible comparison between RJF and domestic lines, between two different domestic lines, and within domestic lines--contrary to the idea that domestic animals are highly inbred relative to their wild ancestors. In fact, most of the SNPs originated prior to domestication, and there is little to no evidence of selective sweeps for adaptive alleles on length scales of greater than 100 kb.

  6. The Cambridge Structural Database: a quarter of a million crystal structures and rising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Frank H

    2002-06-01

    The Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) now contains data for more than a quarter of a million small-molecule crystal structures. The information content of the CSD, together with methods for data acquisition, processing and validation, are summarized, with particular emphasis on the chemical information added by CSD editors. Nearly 80% of new structural data arrives electronically, mostly in CIF format, and the CCDC acts as the official crystal structure data depository for 51 major journals. The CCDC now maintains both a CIF archive (more than 73,000 CIFs dating from 1996), as well as the distributed binary CSD archive; the availability of data in both archives is discussed. A statistical survey of the CSD is also presented and projections concerning future accession rates indicate that the CSD will contain at least 500,000 crystal structures by the year 2010.

  7. The Surface Age of Sputnik Planum, Pluto, Must Be Less than 10 Million Years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E Trilling

    Full Text Available Data from the New Horizons mission to Pluto show no craters on Sputnik Planum down to the detection limit (2 km for low resolution data, 625 m for high resolution data. The number of small Kuiper Belt Objects that should be impacting Pluto is known to some degree from various astronomical surveys. We combine these geological and telescopic observations to make an order of magnitude estimate that the surface age of Sputnik Planum must be less than 10 million years. This maximum surface age is surprisingly young and implies that this area of Pluto must be undergoing active resurfacing, presumably through some cryo-geophysical process. We discuss three possible resurfacing mechanisms and the implications of each one for Pluto's physical properties.

  8. A virtual observatory for photoionized nebulae: the Mexican Million Models database (3MdB)

    CERN Document Server

    Morisset, Christophe; Flores-Fajardo, Nahiely

    2014-01-01

    Photoionization models obtained with numerical codes are widely used to study the physics of the interstellar medium (Planetary Nebulae, H II regions, etc). Grid of models are performed to understand what are the effects of the different parameters used to describe the regions on the observables (mainly emission line intensities). Most of the time, only a small part of the computed results of such grids are published, and they are sometimes hard to obtain in a user-friendly format. We present here the Mexican Million Models dataBase (3MdB), an effort of resolving both of these issues in the form of a database of photoionization models, easily accessible throught the MySQL protocol, and containing a lot of usefull outputs from the models, such as the intensities of 178 emission lines, the ionic fractions of all the ions, etc. Some examples of the use of the 3MdB are also presented.

  9. Two modes of change in Southern Ocean productivity over the past million years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaccard, S L; Hayes, C T; Martínez-García, A; Hodell, D A; Anderson, R F; Sigman, D M; Haug, G H

    2013-03-22

    Export of organic carbon from surface waters of the Antarctic Zone of the Southern Ocean decreased during the last ice age, coinciding with declining atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO(2)) concentrations, signaling reduced exchange of CO(2) between the ocean interior and the atmosphere. In contrast, in the Subantarctic Zone, export production increased into ice ages coinciding with rising dust fluxes, thus suggesting iron fertilization of subantarctic phytoplankton. Here, a new high-resolution productivity record from the Antarctic Zone is compiled with parallel subantarctic data over the past million years. Together, they fit the view that the combination of these two modes of Southern Ocean change determines the temporal structure of the glacial-interglacial atmospheric CO(2) record, including during the interval of "lukewarm" interglacials between 450 and 800 thousand years ago.

  10. The surface age of Sputnik Planum, Pluto, must be less than 10 million years

    CERN Document Server

    Trilling, David E

    2016-01-01

    Data from the New Horizons mission to Pluto show no craters on Sputnik Planum down to the detection limit (2 km for low resolution data, 625 m for high resolution data). The number of small Kuiper Belt Objects that should be impacting Pluto is known to some degree from various astronomical surveys. We combine these geological and telescopic observations to make an order of magnitude estimate that the surface age of Sputnik Planum must be less than 10 million years. This maximum surface age is surprisingly young and implies that this area of Pluto must be undergoing active resurfacing, presumably through some cryo-geophysical process. We discuss three possible resurfacing mechanisms and the implications of each one for Pluto's physical properties.

  11. Continuously Growing Rodent Molars Result from a Predictable Quantitative Evolutionary Change over 50 Million Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vagan Tapaltsyan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The fossil record is widely informative about evolution, but fossils are not systematically used to study the evolution of stem-cell-driven renewal. Here, we examined evolution of the continuous growth (hypselodonty of rodent molar teeth, which is fuelled by the presence of dental stem cells. We studied occurrences of 3,500 North American rodent fossils, ranging from 50 million years ago (mya to 2 mya. We examined changes in molar height to determine whether evolution of hypselodonty shows distinct patterns in the fossil record, and we found that hypselodont taxa emerged through intermediate forms of increasing crown height. Next, we designed a Markov simulation model, which replicated molar height increases throughout the Cenozoic and, moreover, evolution of hypselodonty. Thus, by extension, the retention of the adult stem cell niche appears to be a predictable quantitative rather than a stochastic qualitative process. Our analyses predict that hypselodonty will eventually become the dominant phenotype.

  12. Surface-enhanced gallium arsenide photonic resonator with a quality factor of six million

    CERN Document Server

    Guha, Biswarup; Cadiz, Fabian; Morgenroth, Laurence; Ulin, Vladimir; Berkovitz, Vladimir; Lemaître, Aristide; Gomez, Carmen; Amo, Alberto; Combrié, Sylvian; Gérard, Bruno; Leo, Giuseppe; Favero, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Gallium Arsenide and related compound semiconductors lie at the heart of optoelectronics and integrated laser technologies. Shaped at the micro and nano-scale, they allow strong interaction with quantum dots and quantum wells, and promise to result in stunning devices. However gallium arsenide optical structures presently exhibit lower performances than their silicon-based counterparts, notably in nanophotonics where the surface plays a chief role. Here we report on advanced surface control of miniature gallium arsenide optical resonators, using two distinct techniques that produce permanent results. One leads to extend the lifetime of free-carriers and enhance luminescence, while the other strongly reduces surface absorption originating from mid-gap states and enables ultra-low optical dissipation devices. With such surface control, the quality factor of wavelength-sized optical disk resonators is observed to rise up to six million at telecom wavelength, greatly surpassing previous realizations and opening n...

  13. Geological and geochemical record of 3400-million-year-old terrestrial meteorite impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Donald R.; Byerly, Gary R.; Asaro, Frank; Kyte, Frank T.

    1989-01-01

    Beds of sand-sized spherules in the 3400-million-year-old Fig Tree Group, Barberton Greenstone belt, South Africa, formed by the fall of quenched liquid silicate droplets into a range of shallow- to deep-water depositional environments. The regional extent of the layers, their compositional complexity, and lack of included volcanic debris suggest that they are not products of volcanic activity. The layers are greatly enriched in iridium and other platinum group elements in roughly chondritic proportions. Geochemical modeling based on immobile element abundances suggests that the original average spherule composition can be approximated by a mixture of fractionated tholeiitic basalt, komatiite, and CI carbonaceous chondrite. The spherules are thought to be the products of large meteorite impacts on the Archean earth.

  14. Geological and geochemical record of 3400-million-year-old terrestrial meteorite impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowe, D.R. (Stanford Univ., CA (USA)); Byerly, G.R. (Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge (USA)); Asaro, F. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA)); Kyte, F.T. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (USA))

    1989-09-01

    Beds of sand-sized spherules in the 3400-million-year-old Fig Tree Group, Barberton Greenstone belt, South Africa, were formed by the fall of quenched liquid silicate droplets into a range of shallow- to deep-water depositional environments. The regional extent of the layers, their compositional complexity, and lack of included volcanic debris suggest that they are not products of volcanic activity. The layers are greatly enriched in iridium and other platinum group elements in roughly chondritic proportions. Geochemical modeling based on immobile element abundances suggests that the original average spherule composition can be approximated by a mixture of fractionated tholeiitic basalt, komatiite, and CI carbonaceous chondrite. The spherules are thought to be the products of large meteorite impacts on the Archean earth. 21 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  15. 15 million degrees a journey to the centre of the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Green, Lucie

    2016-01-01

    Light takes eight minutes to reach Earth from the surface of the Sun. But its journey within the Sun takes hundreds of thousands of years. What is going on in there? What are light and heat? How does the Sun produce them and how on earth did scientists discover this? In this astonishing and enlightening adventure, you'll travel millions of miles from inside the Sun to its surface and to Earth, where the light at the end of its journey is allowing you to read right now. You'll discover how the Sun works (including what it sounds like), the latest research in solar physics and how a solar storm could threaten everything we know. And you'll meet the groundbreaking scientists, including the author, who pieced this extraordinary story together.

  16. Brood care in a 100-million-year-old scale insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Xia, Fangyuan; Wappler, Torsten; Simon, Ewa; Zhang, Haichun; Jarzembowski, Edmund A; Szwedo, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    Behavior of extinct organisms can be inferred only indirectly, but occasionally rare fossils document particular behaviors directly. Brood care, a remarkable behavior promoting the survival of the next generation, has evolved independently numerous times among animals including insects. However, fossil evidence of such a complex behavior is exceptionally scarce. Here, we report an ensign scale insect (Hemiptera: Ortheziidae), Wathondara kotejai gen. et sp. nov., from mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber, which preserves eggs within a wax ovisac, and several freshly hatched nymphs. The new fossil is the only Mesozoic record of an adult female scale insect. More importantly, our finding represents the earliest unequivocal direct evidence of brood care in the insect fossil record and demonstrates a remarkably conserved egg-brooding reproductive strategy within scale insects in stasis for nearly 100 million years.

  17. A possible explanation for Earth's climatic changes in the past few million years

    CERN Document Server

    Wölfli, W

    1999-01-01

    The astronomical theory of Milankovitch relates the changes of Earth's past climate to variations in insolation caused by oscillations of the orbital parameters. However, this theory causes serious problems if used to account for some major observed phenomena of the past few million years. Here, we present an alternative explanation for these phenomena. It is based on the idea that the solar system until quite recently contained an additional massive object of planetary size. This object, called Z, is assumed to have moved on a highly eccentric orbit bound to the sun. It influenced Earth's climate through a gas cloud of evaporated material. Calculations show that more than once during the last 3.2 Myr it even approached the Earth close enough to provoke a significant shift of the geographic position of the poles. The last of these shifts terminated the Earth's Ice Age epoch. The origin and fate of Z is also discussed.

  18. A one-million-year-old Homo cranium from the Danakil (Afar) Depression of Eritrea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbate, E; Albianelli, A; Azzaroli, A; Benvenuti, M; Tesfamariam, B; Bruni, P; Cipriani, N; Clarke, R J; Ficcarelli, G; Macchiarelli, R; Napoleone, G; Papini, M; Rook, L; Sagri, M; Tecle, T M; Torre, D; Villa, I

    1998-06-04

    One of the most contentious topics in the study of human evolution is that of the time, place and mode of origin of Homo sapiens. The discovery in the Northern Danakil (Afar) Depression, Eritrea, of a well-preserved Homo cranium with a mixture of characters typical of H. erectus and H. sapiens contributes significantly to this debate. The cranium was found in a succession of fluvio-deltaic and lacustrine deposits and is associated with a rich mammalian fauna of early to early-middle Pleistocene age. A magnetostratigraphic survey indicates two reversed and two normal magnetozones. The layer in which the cranium was found is near the top of the lower normal magnetozone, which is identified as the Jaramillo subchron. Consequently, the human remains can be dated at approximately 1 million years before present.

  19. The United States Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program - Over 151 Million Miles Safely Steamed on Nuclear Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-03-01

    NNSA’s third mission pillar is supporting the U.S. Navy’s ability to protect and defend American interests across the globe. The Naval Reactors Program remains at the forefront of technological developments in naval nuclear propulsion and ensures a commanding edge in warfighting capabilities by advancing new technologies and improvements in naval reactor performance and reliability. In 2015, the Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program pioneered advances in nuclear reactor and warship design – such as increasing reactor lifetimes, improving submarine operational effectiveness, and reducing propulsion plant crewing. The Naval Reactors Program continued its record of operational excellence by providing the technical expertise required to resolve emergent issues in the Nation’s nuclear-powered fleet, enabling the Fleet to safely steam more than two million miles. Naval Reactors safely maintains, operates, and oversees the reactors on the Navy’s 82 nuclear-powered warships, constituting more than 45 percent of the Navy’s major combatants.

  20. Learning the sequence determinants of alternative splicing from millions of random sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Alexander B; Patwardhan, Rupali P; Shendure, Jay; Seelig, Georg

    2015-10-22

    Most human transcripts are alternatively spliced, and many disease-causing mutations affect RNA splicing. Toward better modeling the sequence determinants of alternative splicing, we measured the splicing patterns of over two million (M) synthetic mini-genes, which include degenerate subsequences totaling over 100 M bases of variation. The massive size of these training data allowed us to improve upon current models of splicing, as well as to gain new mechanistic insights. Our results show that the vast majority of hexamer sequence motifs measurably influence splice site selection when positioned within alternative exons, with multiple motifs acting additively rather than cooperatively. Intriguingly, motifs that enhance (suppress) exon inclusion in alternative 5' splicing also enhance (suppress) exon inclusion in alternative 3' or cassette exon splicing, suggesting a universal mechanism for alternative exon recognition. Finally, our empirically trained models are highly predictive of the effects of naturally occurring variants on alternative splicing in vivo.

  1. $1.1 million in orders for solar LED aviation lights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2004-10-01

    Solar powered light emitting diode aviation lights, valued at over one million dollars, have been ordered by the U.S. Marine Corps from Carmanah Technologies Corporation of Victoria, B. C. The lighting system will be used for aviation lights at two air bases in the Middle East. Applications will include runway edge, threshold, taxi way and obstruction lighting. Primary benefits of Carmanah's unique solar-powered LED lighting technology include reduced capital costs, simple installation, high performance, zero maintenance, proven reliability and night vision goggle compatibility. Carmanah now has supplied over 9,000 units of LED aviation lights to more than 50 different air bases in the Middle East, Southeast Asia and North America. Customers include the U.S. Armed Forces and other international military organizations. 1 photo.

  2. A New and Efficient Algorithm-Based Fault Tolerance Scheme for A Million Way Parallelism

    CERN Document Server

    Yao, Erlin; Wang, Rui; Zhang, Wenli; Tan, Guangming

    2011-01-01

    Fault tolerance overhead of high performance computing (HPC) applications is becoming critical to the efficient utilization of HPC systems at large scale. HPC applications typically tolerate fail-stop failures by checkpointing. Another promising method is in the algorithm level, called algorithmic recovery. These two methods can achieve high efficiency when the system scale is not very large, but will both lose their effectiveness when systems approach the scale of Exaflops, where the number of processors including in system is expected to achieve one million. This paper develops a new and efficient algorithm-based fault tolerance scheme for HPC applications. When failure occurs during the execution, we do not stop to wait for the recovery of corrupted data, but replace them with the corresponding redundant data and continue the execution. A background accelerated recovery method is also proposed to rebuild redundancy to tolerate multiple times of failures during the execution. To demonstrate the feasibility ...

  3. NCBI GEO: mining tens of millions of expression profiles--database and tools update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Tanya; Troup, Dennis B; Wilhite, Stephen E; Ledoux, Pierre; Rudnev, Dmitry; Evangelista, Carlos; Kim, Irene F; Soboleva, Alexandra; Tomashevsky, Maxim; Edgar, Ron

    2007-01-01

    The Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) archives and freely disseminates microarray and other forms of high-throughput data generated by the scientific community. The database has a minimum information about a microarray experiment (MIAME)-compliant infrastructure that captures fully annotated raw and processed data. Several data deposit options and formats are supported, including web forms, spreadsheets, XML and Simple Omnibus Format in Text (SOFT). In addition to data storage, a collection of user-friendly web-based interfaces and applications are available to help users effectively explore, visualize and download the thousands of experiments and tens of millions of gene expression patterns stored in GEO. This paper provides a summary of the GEO database structure and user facilities, and describes recent enhancements to database design, performance, submission format options, data query and retrieval utilities. GEO is accessible at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/

  4. Conservation of miRNA-mediated silencing mechanisms across 600 million years of animal evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauri, Marta; Kirchner, Marieluise; Aharoni, Reuven; Ciolli Mattioli, Camilla; van den Bruck, David; Gutkovitch, Nadya; Modepalli, Vengamanaidu; Selbach, Matthias; Moran, Yehu; Chekulaeva, Marina

    2017-01-01

    Our current knowledge about the mechanisms of miRNA silencing is restricted to few lineages such as vertebrates, arthropods, nematodes and land plants. miRNA-mediated silencing in bilaterian animals is dependent on the proteins of the GW182 family. Here, we dissect the function of GW182 protein in the cnidarian Nematostella, separated by 600 million years from other Metazoa. Using cultured human cells, we show that Nematostella GW182 recruits the CCR4-NOT deadenylation complexes via its tryptophan-containing motifs, thereby inhibiting translation and promoting mRNA decay. Further, similarly to bilaterians, GW182 in Nematostella is recruited to the miRNA repression complex via interaction with Argonaute proteins, and functions downstream to repress mRNA. Thus, our work suggests that this mechanism of miRNA-mediated silencing was already active in the last common ancestor of Cnidaria and Bilateria. PMID:27604873

  5. How the Sun Knocks Out My Cell Phone from 150 Million Kilometers Away

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladbury, Ray

    2014-01-01

    Large solar particle events (SPE) threaten many elements of critical infrastructure. A 2013 study by Lloyds of London and Atmospheric and Environmental Research recently found that if a worst-case solar event like the 1859 Carrington Event struck our planet now, it could result on $0.6-$2.36 trillion in damages to the economy. In March 2014, researchers Y. D. Liu et al. revealed that just such an event had narrowly missed Earth in July 2012. The event was observed by the STEREO A spacecraft. In this presentation, we examine how the sun can pack such a punch from 150 million km away, the threats such solar particle events pose, their mechanisms and the efforts NASA and other space agencies are carrying out to understand and mitigate such risks.

  6. Cameras a Million Miles Apart: Stereoscopic Imaging Potential with the Hubble and James Webb Space Telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Green, Joel D; Stansberry, John A; Meinke, Bonnie

    2016-01-01

    The two most powerful optical/IR telescopes in history -- NASA's Hubble and James Webb Space Telescopes -- will be in space at the same time. We have a unique opportunity to leverage the 1.5 million kilometer separation between the two telescopic nodal points to obtain simultaneously captured stereoscopic images of asteroids, comets, moons and planets in our Solar System. Given the recent resurgence in stereo-3D movies and the recent emergence of VR-enabled mobile devices, these stereoscopic images provide a unique opportunity to engage the public with unprecedented views of various Solar System objects. Here, we present the technical requirements for acquiring stereoscopic images of Solar System objects, given the constraints of the telescopic equipment and the orbits of the target objects, and we present a handful of examples.

  7. Atom-by-Atom Analysis of Semiconductor Nanowires with Parts Per Million Sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelling, S; Li, A; Cavalli, A; Assali, S; Car, D; Gazibegovic, S; Bakkers, E P A M; Koenraad, P M

    2017-02-08

    The functionality of semiconductor devices is determined by the incorporation of dopants at concentrations down to the parts per million (ppm) level and below. Optimization of intentional and unintentional impurity doping relies on methods to detect and map the level of impurities. Detecting such low concentrations of impurities in nanostructures is however challenging to date as on the one hand methods used for macroscopic samples cannot be applied due to the inherent small volumes or faceted surfaces and on the other hand conventional microscopic analysis techniques are not sufficiently sensitive. Here, we show that we can detect and map impurities at the ppm level in semiconductor nanowires using atom probe tomography. We develop a method applicable to a wide variety of nanowires relevant for electronic and optical devices. We expect that it will contribute significantly to the further optimization of the synthesis of nanowires, nanostructures and devices based on these structures.

  8. Spitzer Photometry of Approximately 1 Million Stars in M31 and 15 Other Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Rubab

    2017-01-01

    We present Spitzer IRAC 3.6-8 micrometer and Multiband Imaging Photometer 24 micrometer point-source catalogs for M31 and 15 other mostly large, star-forming galaxies at distances approximately 3.5-14 Mpc, including M51, M83, M101, and NGC 6946. These catalogs contain approximately 1 million sources including approximately 859,000 in M31 and approximately 116,000 in the other galaxies. They were created following the procedures described in Khan et al. through a combination of pointspread function (PSF) fitting and aperture photometry. These data products constitute a resource to improve our understanding of the IR-bright (3.6-24 micrometer) point-source populations in crowded extragalactic stellar fields and to plan observations with the James Webb Space Telescope.

  9. One million haemopoietic stem-cell transplants: a retrospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratwohl, Alois; Pasquini, Marcelo C; Aljurf, Mahmoud; Atsuta, Yoshiko; Baldomero, Helen; Foeken, Lydia; Gratwohl, Michael; Bouzas, Luis Fernando; Confer, Dennis; Frauendorfer, Karl; Gluckman, Eliane; Greinix, Hildegard; Horowitz, Mary; Iida, Minako; Lipton, Jeff; Madrigal, Alejandro; Mohty, Mohamad; Noel, Luc; Novitzky, Nicolas; Nunez, José; Oudshoorn, Machteld; Passweg, Jakob; van Rood, Jon; Szer, Jeff; Blume, Karl; Appelbaum, Frederic R; Kodera, Yoshihisa; Niederwieser, Dietger

    2015-03-01

    The transplantation of cells, tissues, and organs has been recognised by WHO as an important medical task for its member states; however, information about how to best organise transplantation is scarce. We aimed to document the activity worldwide from the beginning of transplantation and search for region adapted indications and associations between transplant rates and macroeconomics. Between Jan 1, 2006, and Dec 31, 2014, the Worldwide Network for Blood and Marrow Transplantation collected data for the evolution of haemopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) activity and volunteer donors in the 194 WHO member states. 953,651 HSCTs (553,350 [58%] autologous and 400,301 [42%] allogeneic) were reported by 1516 transplant centres from 75 countries. No transplants were done in countries with fewer than 300,000 inhabitants, a surface area less than 700 km(2), and a gross national income per person of US$1260 or lower. Use of HSCT increased from the first transplant in 1957 to almost 10,000 by 1985. We recorded a cumulative total of about 100,000 transplants by 1995, and an estimated 1 million by December, 2012. Unrelated donor registries contributed 22·3 million typed volunteer donors and 645,646 cord blood products by 2012. Numbers of allogeneic HSCTs increased in the past 35 years with no signs of saturation (R(2)=0·989). Transplant rates were higher in countries with more resources, more transplant teams, and an unrelated donor infrastructure. Our findings show achievements and high unmet needs and give guidance for decisions; to grant access for patients, to provide a donor infrastructure, and to limit overuse by defining risk and region adapted indications for HSCT as an efficient and cost-effective approach for life-threatening, potentially curable diseases. Funding for this study was indirectly provided by support of the WBMT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A persistent and dynamic East Greenland Ice Sheet over the past 7.5 million years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierman, Paul R; Shakun, Jeremy D; Corbett, Lee B; Zimmerman, Susan R; Rood, Dylan H

    2016-12-07

    Climate models show that ice-sheet melt will dominate sea-level rise over the coming centuries, but our understanding of ice-sheet variations before the last interglacial 125,000 years ago remains fragmentary. This is because terrestrial deposits of ancient glacial and interglacial periods are overrun and eroded by more recent glacial advances, and are therefore usually rare, isolated and poorly dated. In contrast, material shed almost continuously from continents is preserved as marine sediment that can be analysed to infer the time-varying state of major ice sheets. Here we show that the East Greenland Ice Sheet existed over the past 7.5 million years, as indicated by beryllium and aluminium isotopes ((10)Be and (26)Al) in quartz sand removed by deep, ongoing glacial erosion on land and deposited offshore in the marine sedimentary record. During the early Pleistocene epoch, ice cover in East Greenland was dynamic; in contrast, East Greenland was mostly ice-covered during the mid-to-late Pleistocene. The isotope record we present is consistent with distinct signatures of changes in ice sheet behaviour coincident with major climate transitions. Although our data are continuous, they are from low-deposition-rate sites and sourced only from East Greenland. Consequently, the signal of extensive deglaciation during short, intense interglacials could be missed or blurred, and we cannot distinguish between a remnant ice sheet in the East Greenland highlands and a diminished continent-wide ice sheet. A clearer constraint on the behaviour of the ice sheet during past and, ultimately, future interglacial warmth could be produced by (10)Be and (26)Al records from a coring site with a higher deposition rate. Nonetheless, our analysis challenges the possibility of complete and extended deglaciation over the past several million years.

  11. Hydrogeological processes in the Paris Basin: climate and geomorphologic impacts of the last five million years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jost, A.; Violette, S.; Goncalves, J.; Marsily, G. de [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Sisyphe (UNIR CNRS 7619), 75 - Paris (France); Ledoux, E. [Ecole des Mines de Paris, Sisyphe (UNIR CNRS 7619, CIG, ENSMP), 77 - Fontainebleau (France); Guyomard, Y.; Robin, C.; Bonnet, St.; Guillocheau, F. [Rennes-1 Univ., Geosciences Rennes (UNIR CNRS 6118), 35 (France); Kageyama, M.; Ramstein, G. [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnement (UMR CEA-CNRS), Orme des Merisiers, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Fauquette, S. [Montpellier-2 Univ., Institut des Sciences de l' Evolution de Montpellier (UNIR CNRS 5554) 34 (France); Favreb, E.; Such, J.P. [Universite Claude Bernard Lyon-1, PaleoEnvironnements et PaleobioSphere (UNIR CNRS 5125), 69 - Villeurbanne (France); Michelot, J.L. [OrsayTerre, FRE 2566, Faculte des Sciences, 91 - Orsay (France)

    2005-07-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the response of the Paris basin aquifer system to variations in its hydrodynamic boundary conditions on a time scale of several million years, trying to determine if the system has kept the memory of these past changes. Recent changes at a boundary are more especially of importance when considering its effects on groundwater flow in low-diffusivity regions, as it can generate a lasting transient flow, potentially responsible for abnormal pressures creation. For the purpose of this work, a 3D transient modelling of the Paris basin groundwater system has been developed using the code NEWSAM (ENSMP). The geometry and hydrodynamic input data of the model originate from previous studies on a basin model, NEWBAS (ENSMP), built to simulate the 248 My geological history of the basin. Both a geomorphologic and climatic scenarios have been established. Geomorphologic evolution is deduced from digital elevation model analysis, which allows to reconstruct the paleo-topography and measure river-valley incision and alpine orogenesis. Climate forcing results from a suite of paleo-climate modelling experiments using the LMDz atmospheric general circulation model (IPSL) with a refined spatial resolution centered on Paris, for the present, the Last Glacial Maximum (21 kyr BP) and the Middle Pliocene (3 My). The water balance is computed by a distributed hydrologic model, MODSUR (ENSMP). We present the simulated evolution of the transfers in the aquifer system in response to the altered boundary conditions induced by atmospheric and geomorphologic forcing, in the course of the last five million years. (authors)

  12. A persistent and dynamic East Greenland Ice Sheet over the past 7.5 million years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierman, Paul R.; Shakun, Jeremy D.; Corbett, Lee B.; Zimmerman, Susan R.; Rood, Dylan H.

    2016-12-01

    Climate models show that ice-sheet melt will dominate sea-level rise over the coming centuries, but our understanding of ice-sheet variations before the last interglacial 125,000 years ago remains fragmentary. This is because terrestrial deposits of ancient glacial and interglacial periods are overrun and eroded by more recent glacial advances, and are therefore usually rare, isolated and poorly dated. In contrast, material shed almost continuously from continents is preserved as marine sediment that can be analysed to infer the time-varying state of major ice sheets. Here we show that the East Greenland Ice Sheet existed over the past 7.5 million years, as indicated by beryllium and aluminium isotopes (10Be and 26Al) in quartz sand removed by deep, ongoing glacial erosion on land and deposited offshore in the marine sedimentary record. During the early Pleistocene epoch, ice cover in East Greenland was dynamic; in contrast, East Greenland was mostly ice-covered during the mid-to-late Pleistocene. The isotope record we present is consistent with distinct signatures of changes in ice sheet behaviour coincident with major climate transitions. Although our data are continuous, they are from low-deposition-rate sites and sourced only from East Greenland. Consequently, the signal of extensive deglaciation during short, intense interglacials could be missed or blurred, and we cannot distinguish between a remnant ice sheet in the East Greenland highlands and a diminished continent-wide ice sheet. A clearer constraint on the behaviour of the ice sheet during past and, ultimately, future interglacial warmth could be produced by 10Be and 26Al records from a coring site with a higher deposition rate. Nonetheless, our analysis challenges the possibility of complete and extended deglaciation over the past several million years.

  13. Climatic influences on deep-sea ostracode (Crustacea) diversity for the last three million years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuhara, Moriaki; Cronin, Thomas M

    2008-11-01

    Ostracodes are small, bivalved crustaceans with the finest-scale fossil resolution of any metazoan, rivaled only by the fossil record of the protistan Foraminifera. This article presents a synthesis of the patterns and possible causes of alpha species diversity variation in benthic deep-sea ostracodes at drilling sites in the North Atlantic and Arctic Oceans. Taken together, these sites represent a period of great climatic variability covering the past three million years. Sediment cores taken from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge show a positive correlation between warm temperatures and high species diversity. These Mid-Atlantic Ridge cores, at the same latitude as northern Spain, show the same positive correlation during the last two glacial-interglacial cycles (200-0 ka [thousands of years ago]) as they do during the pre-glacial Pliocene 2.85-2.4 Ma (millions of years ago). This positive correlation is also found in Pliocene cores from the Rockall Plateau, at the same latitude as Ireland. During the last 200 thousand years, however, this correlation is reversed in cores taken from both the Rockall and Iceland Plateaus. The discovery of high diversity during colder periods in recent high-latitude Rockall and Iceland cores seems to be explained by spikes in diversity caused by ice-rafting events, which would not affect the lower-latitude Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The Heinrich ice-rafting events reduce North Atlantic surface temperatures and salinity every approximately 6-12 ka, dramatically decreasing surface productivity. This increase in diversity during Heinrich events may be explained either by a negative correlation between surface productivity and benthic diversity or by increase in diversity caused by moderate disturbance when ice rafted debris fall to the bottom of the ocean.

  14. $32 Million in EPA funds help Northwest and Alaska tribes protect communities' health, water, air and natural resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has awarded $32 million in funding for the Indian Environmental General Assistance Program (GAP) capacity building grants to tribes and tribal consortia in Alaska, Idaho, Oregon and Washington.

  15. EPA Provides $2.3 Million to Two Universities in Atlanta to Protect Air Quality in a Changing Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ATLANTA - Today, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced $8.5 million in research funding to 12 universities to protect air quality from the current and future challenges associated with the impacts of climate change.

  16. 13 CFR 123.507 - Under what circumstances will SBA consider waiving the $2 million loan limit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION DISASTER LOAN PROGRAM Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans § 123.507... military conflict, and a loan in excess of $2 million is necessary to reopen or keep open the...

  17. Greensboro Small Business Among Recipients of $1.9 Million from EPA to Support the Nations Green Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ATLANTA - Today, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced almost $2 million to 19 small businesses nationwide to develop and commercialize technologies that tackle critical environmental problems. Bio-Adhesive Alliance, Inc. based in

  18. Outcomes of the Bowel Cancer Screening Programme (BCSP) in England after the first 1 million tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patnick, Julietta; Nickerson, Claire; Coleman, Lynn; Rutter, Matt D; von Wagner, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The Bowel Cancer Screening Programme in England began operating in 2006 with the aim of full roll out across England by December 2009. Subjects aged 60–69 are being invited to complete three guaiac faecal occult blood tests (6 windows) every 2 years. The programme aims to reduce mortality from colorectal cancer by 16% in those invited for screening. Methods All subjects eligible for screening in the National Health Service in England are included on one database, which is populated from National Health Service registration data covering about 98% of the population of England. This analysis is only of subjects invited to participate in the first (prevalent) round of screening. Results By October 2008 almost 2.1 million had been invited to participate, with tests being returned by 49.6% of men and 54.4% of women invited. Uptake ranged between 55–60% across the four provincial hubs which administer the programme but was lower in the London hub (40%). Of the 1.08 million returning tests 2.5% of men and 1.5% of women had an abnormal test. 17 518 (10 608 M, 6910 F) underwent investigation, with 98% having a colonoscopy as their first investigation. Cancer (n=1772) and higher risk adenomas (n=6543) were found in 11.6% and 43% of men and 7.8% and 29% of women investigated, respectively. 71% of cancers were ‘early’ (10% polyp cancer, 32% Dukes A, 30% Dukes B) and 77% were left-sided (29% rectal, 45% sigmoid) with only 14% being right-sided compared with expected figures of 67% and 24% for left and right side from UK cancer registration. Conclusion In this first round of screening in England uptake and fecal occult blood test positivity was in line with that from the pilot and the original European trials. Although there was the expected improvement in cancer stage at diagnosis, the proportion with left-sided cancers was higher than expected. PMID:22156981

  19. A new estimate of average dipole field strength for the last five million years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromwell, G.; Tauxe, L.; Halldorsson, S. A.

    2013-12-01

    The Earth's ancient magnetic field can be approximated by a geocentric axial dipole (GAD) where the average field intensity is twice as strong at the poles than at the equator. The present day geomagnetic field, and some global paleointensity datasets, support the GAD hypothesis with a virtual axial dipole moment (VADM) of about 80 ZAm2. Significant departures from GAD for 0-5 Ma are found in Antarctica and Iceland where paleointensity experiments on massive flows (Antarctica) (1) and volcanic glasses (Iceland) produce average VADM estimates of 41.4 ZAm2 and 59.5 ZAm2, respectively. These combined intensities are much closer to a lower estimate for long-term dipole field strength, 50 ZAm2 (2), and some other estimates of average VADM based on paleointensities strictly from volcanic glasses. Proposed explanations for the observed non-GAD behavior, from otherwise high-quality paleointensity results, include incomplete temporal sampling, effects from the tangent cylinder, and hemispheric asymmetry. Differences in estimates of average magnetic field strength likely arise from inconsistent selection protocols and experiment methodologies. We address these possible biases and estimate the average dipole field strength for the last five million years by compiling measurement level data of IZZI-modified paleointensity experiments from lava flows around the globe (including new results from Iceland and the HSDP-2 Hawaii drill core). We use the Thellier Gui paleointensity interpreter (3) in order to apply objective criteria to all specimens, ensuring consistency between sites. Specimen level selection criteria are determined from a recent paleointensity investigation of modern Hawaiian lava flows where the expected magnetic field strength was accurately recovered when following certain selection parameters. Our new estimate of average dipole field strength for the last five million years incorporates multiple paleointensity studies on lava flows with diverse global and

  20. THE GREAT SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA SHAKEOUT: Earthquake Science for 22 Million People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, L.; Cox, D.; Perry, S.; Hudnut, K.; Benthien, M.; Bwarie, J.; Vinci, M.; Buchanan, M.; Long, K.; Sinha, S.; Collins, L.

    2008-12-01

    Earthquake science is being communicated to and used by the 22 million residents of southern California to improve resiliency to future earthquakes through the Great Southern California ShakeOut. The ShakeOut began when the USGS partnered with the California Geological Survey, Southern California Earthquake Center and many other organizations to bring 300 scientists and engineers together to formulate a comprehensive description of a plausible major earthquake, released in May 2008, as the ShakeOut Scenario, a description of the impacts and consequences of a M7.8 earthquake on the Southern San Andreas Fault (USGS OFR2008-1150). The Great Southern California ShakeOut was a week of special events featuring the largest earthquake drill in United States history. The ShakeOut drill occurred in houses, businesses, and public spaces throughout southern California at 10AM on November 13, 2008, when southern Californians were asked to pretend that the M7.8 scenario earthquake had occurred and to practice actions that could reduce the impact on their lives. Residents, organizations, schools and businesses registered to participate in the drill through www.shakeout.org where they could get accessible information about the scenario earthquake and share ideas for better reparation. As of September 8, 2008, over 2.7 million confirmed participants had been registered. The primary message of the ShakeOut is that what we do now, before a big earthquake, will determine what our lives will be like after. The goal of the ShakeOut has been to change the culture of earthquake preparedness in southern California, making earthquakes a reality that are regularly discussed. This implements the sociological finding that 'milling,' discussing a problem with loved ones, is a prerequisite to taking action. ShakeOut milling is taking place at all levels from individuals and families, to corporations and governments. Actions taken as a result of the ShakeOut include the adoption of earthquake

  1. China Tongling Nonferrous Will Cut This Year’s Copper Output To 1.2 Million Tonnes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    Tongling Nonferrous Metals Group,China’s second biggest comprehensive copper manufacturer,plans to cut this year’s copper output to 1.2 million tonnes,last year it is 1.31million tonnes.The report quoted a statement from Xu Changning,a senior broker of the Commerce Department of Tongling Nonferrous Metals Group.Previously several Chinese copper

  2. Millions of Boreal Shield Lakes can be used to Probe Archaean Ocean Biogeochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiff, S. L.; Tsuji, J. M.; Wu, L.; Venkiteswaran, J. J.; Molot, L. A.; Elgood, R. J.; Paterson, M. J.; Neufeld, J. D.

    2017-04-01

    Life originated in Archaean oceans, almost 4 billion years ago, in the absence of oxygen and the presence of high dissolved iron concentrations. Early Earth oxidation is marked globally by extensive banded iron formations but the contributing processes and timing remain controversial. Very few aquatic habitats have been discovered that match key physico-chemical parameters of the early Archaean Ocean. All previous whole ecosystem Archaean analogue studies have been confined to rare, low sulfur, and permanently stratified lakes. Here we provide first evidence that millions of Boreal Shield lakes with natural anoxia offer the opportunity to constrain biogeochemical and microbiological aspects of early Archaean life. Specifically, we combined novel isotopic signatures and nucleic acid sequence data to examine processes in the anoxic zone of stratified boreal lakes that are naturally low in sulfur and rich in ferrous iron, hallmark characteristics predicted for the Archaean Ocean. Anoxygenic photosynthesis was prominent in total water column biogeochemistry, marked by distinctive patterns in natural abundance isotopes of carbon, nitrogen, and iron. These processes are robust, returning reproducibly after water column re-oxygenation following lake turnover. Evidence of coupled iron oxidation, iron reduction, and methane oxidation affect current paradigms of both early Earth and modern aquatic ecosystems.

  3. The Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury X. Ultraviolet to Infrared Photometry of 117 Million Equidistant Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Benjamin F; Dalcanton, Julianne J; Dolphin, Andrew E; Weisz, Daniel R; Bell, Eric F; Bianchi, Luciana; Byler, Eleanor; Gilbert, Karoline M; Girardi, Leo; Gordon, Karl; Gregersen, Dylan; Johnson, L C; Kalirai, Jason; Lauer, Tod R; Monachesi, Antonela; Rosenfield, Philip; Seth, Anil; Skillman, Evan

    2014-01-01

    We have measured stellar photometry with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) and Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) in near ultraviolet (F275W, F336W), optical (F475W, F814W), and near infrared (F110W, F160W) bands for 117 million resolved stars in M31. As part of the Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury (PHAT) survey, we measured photometry with simultaneous point spread function fitting across all bands and at all source positions after precise astrometric image alignment (<5-10 milliarcsecond accuracy). In the outer disk, the photometry reaches a completeness-limited depth of F475W~28, while in the crowded, high surface brightness bulge, the photometry reaches F475W~25. We find that simultaneous photometry and optimized measurement parameters significantly increase the detection limit of the lowest resolution filters (WFC3/IR) providing color-magnitude diagrams that are up to 2.5 magnitudes deeper when compared with color-magnitude diagrams from WFC3/IR photometry alone. We pres...

  4. Small Worlds Week: An online celebration of planetary science using social media to reach millions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Louis

    2015-11-01

    In celebration of the many recent discoveries from New Horizons, Dawn, Rosetta, and Cassini, NASA launched Small Worlds Week, an online, social media driven outreach program leveraging the infrastructure of Sun-Earth Days that included a robust web design, exemplary education materials, hands-on fun activities, multimedia resources, science and career highlights, and a culminating social media event. Each day from July 6-9, a new class of solar system small worlds was featured on the website: Monday-comets, Tuesday-asteroids, Wednesday-icy moons, and Thursday-dwarf planets. Then on Friday, July 10, nine scientists from Goddard Space Flight Center, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Naval Research Laboratory, and Lunar and Planetary Institute gathered online for four hours to answer questions from the public via Facebook and Twitter. Throughout the afternoon the scientists worked closely with a social media expert and several summer interns to reply to inquirers and to archive their chats. By all accounts, Small Worlds Week was a huge success with 37 million potential views of the social media Q&A posts. The group plans to improve and replicate the program during the school year with a more classroom focus, and then to build and extend the program to be held every year. For more information, visit http:// sunearthday.nasa.gov or catch us on Twitter, #nasasww.

  5. Gaia Data Release 1: Astrometry - one billion positions, two million proper motions and parallaxes

    CERN Document Server

    Lindegren, L; Bastian, U; Hernández, J; Klioner, S; Hobbs, D; Bombrun, A; Michalik, D; Ramos-Lerate, M; Butkevich, A; Comoretto, G; Joliet, E; Holl, B; Hutton, A; Parsons, P; Steidelmüller, H; Abbas, U; Altmann, M; Andrei, A; Anton, S; Bach, N; Barache, C; Becciani, U; Berthier, J; Bianchi, L; Biermann, M; Bouquillon, S; Bourda, G; Brüsemeister, T; Bucciarelli, B; Busonero, D; Carlucci, T; Castañeda, J; Charlot, P; Clotet, M; Crosta, M; Davidson, M; de Felice, F; Drimmel, R; Fabricius, C; Fienga, A; Figueras, F; Fraile, E; Gai, M; Garralda, N; Geyer, R; González-Vidal, J J; Guerra, R; Hambly, N C; Hauser, M; Jordan, S; Lattanzi, M G; Lenhardt, H; Liao, S; Löffler, W; McMillan, P J; Mignard, F; Mora, A; Morbidelli, R; Portell, J; Riva, A; Sarasso, M; Serraller, I; Siddiqui, H; Smart, R; Spagna, A; Stampa, U; Steele, I; Taris, F; Torra, J; van Reeven, W; Vecchiato, A; Zschocke, S; de Bruijne, J; Gracia, G; Raison, F; Lister, T; Marchant, J; Messineo, R; Soffel, M; Osorio, J; de Torres, A; O'Mullane, W

    2016-01-01

    Gaia Data Release 1 (Gaia DR1) contains astrometric results for more than 1 billion stars brighter than magnitude 20.7 based on observations collected by the Gaia satellite during the first 14 months of its operational phase. We give a brief overview of the astrometric content of the data release and of the model assumptions, data processing, and validation of the results. For stars in common with the Hipparcos and Tycho-2 catalogues, complete astrometric single-star solutions are obtained by incorporating positional information from the earlier catalogues. For other stars only their positions are obtained by neglecting their proper motions and parallaxes. The results are validated by an analysis of the residuals, through special validation runs, and by comparison with external data. Results. For about two million of the brighter stars (down to magnitude ~11.5) we obtain positions, parallaxes, and proper motions to Hipparcos-type precision or better. For these stars, systematic errors depending e.g. on positi...

  6. Genetic Mapping of Millions of SNPs in Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L. via Whole-Genome Resequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E. Bowers

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Accurate assembly of complete genomes is facilitated by very high density genetic maps. We performed low-coverage, whole-genome shotgun sequencing on 96 F6 recombinant inbred lines (RILs of a cross between safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L. and its wild progenitor (C. palaestinus Eig. We also produced a draft genome assembly of C. tinctorius covering 866 million bp (∼two-thirds of the expected 1.35 Gbp genome after sequencing a single, short insert library to ∼21 × depth. Sequence reads from the RILs were mapped to this genome assembly to facilitate SNP identification, and the resulting polymorphisms were used to construct a genetic map. The resulting map included 2,008,196 genetically located SNPs in 1178 unique positions. A total of 57,270 scaffolds, each containing five or more mapped SNPs, were anchored to the map. This resulted in the assignment of sequence covering 14% of the expected genome length to a genetic position. Comparison of this safflower map to genetic maps of sunflower and lettuce revealed numerous chromosomal rearrangements, and the resulting patterns were consistent with a whole-genome duplication event in the lineage leading to sunflower. This sequence-based genetic map provides a powerful tool for the assembly of a low-cost draft genome of safflower, and the same general approach is expected to work for other species.

  7. Genetic Mapping of Millions of SNPs in Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) via Whole-Genome Resequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, John E; Pearl, Stephanie A; Burke, John M

    2016-07-07

    Accurate assembly of complete genomes is facilitated by very high density genetic maps. We performed low-coverage, whole-genome shotgun sequencing on 96 F6 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of a cross between safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) and its wild progenitor (C. palaestinus Eig). We also produced a draft genome assembly of C. tinctorius covering 866 million bp (∼two-thirds) of the expected 1.35 Gbp genome after sequencing a single, short insert library to ∼21 × depth. Sequence reads from the RILs were mapped to this genome assembly to facilitate SNP identification, and the resulting polymorphisms were used to construct a genetic map. The resulting map included 2,008,196 genetically located SNPs in 1178 unique positions. A total of 57,270 scaffolds, each containing five or more mapped SNPs, were anchored to the map. This resulted in the assignment of sequence covering 14% of the expected genome length to a genetic position. Comparison of this safflower map to genetic maps of sunflower and lettuce revealed numerous chromosomal rearrangements, and the resulting patterns were consistent with a whole-genome duplication event in the lineage leading to sunflower. This sequence-based genetic map provides a powerful tool for the assembly of a low-cost draft genome of safflower, and the same general approach is expected to work for other species.

  8. Geomagnetic dipole strength and reversal rate over the past two million years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valet, Jean-Pierre; Meynadier, Laure; Guyodo, Yohan

    2005-06-09

    Independent records of relative magnetic palaeointensity from sediment cores in different areas of the world can be stacked together to extract the evolution of the geomagnetic dipole moment and thus provide information regarding the processes governing the geodynamo. So far, this procedure has been limited to the past 800,000 years (800 kyr; ref. 3), which does not include any geomagnetic reversals. Here we present a composite curve that shows the evolution of the dipole moment during the past two million years. This reconstruction is in good agreement with the absolute dipole moments derived from volcanic lavas, which were used for calibration. We show that, at least during this period, the time-averaged field was higher during periods without reversals but the amplitude of the short-term oscillations remained the same. As a consequence, few intervals of very low intensity, and thus fewer instabilities, are expected during periods with a strong average dipole moment, whereas more excursions and reversals are expected during periods of weak field intensity. We also observe that the axial dipole begins to decay 60-80 kyr before reversals, but rebuilds itself in the opposite direction in only a few thousand years.

  9. Using a million cell simulation of the cerebellum: network scaling and task generality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Ke; Hausknecht, Matthew J; Stone, Peter; Mauk, Michael D

    2013-11-01

    Several factors combine to make it feasible to build computer simulations of the cerebellum and to test them in biologically realistic ways. These simulations can be used to help understand the computational contributions of various cerebellar components, including the relevance of the enormous number of neurons in the granule cell layer. In previous work we have used a simulation containing 12000 granule cells to develop new predictions and to account for various aspects of eyelid conditioning, a form of motor learning mediated by the cerebellum. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of scaling up this simulation to over one million granule cells using parallel graphics processing unit (GPU) technology. We observe that this increase in number of granule cells requires only twice the execution time of the smaller simulation on the GPU. We demonstrate that this simulation, like its smaller predecessor, can emulate certain basic features of conditioned eyelid responses, with a slight improvement in performance in one measure. We also use this simulation to examine the generality of the computation properties that we have derived from studying eyelid conditioning. We demonstrate that this scaled up simulation can learn a high level of performance in a classic machine learning task, the cart-pole balancing task. These results suggest that this parallel GPU technology can be used to build very large-scale simulations whose connectivity ratios match those of the real cerebellum and that these simulations can be used guide future studies on cerebellar mediated tasks and on machine learning problems.

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: The Million Quasars (Milliquas) catalog (Flesch, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flesch, E. W.

    2017-04-01

    This is a compendium of 452,794 type-I QSOs and AGN, largely complete from the literature to 21 June 2016. Also included are ~900K high-confidence quasar candidates from SDSS-based photometric quasar catalogs (of 90%+ likelihood) and from all-sky radio/X-ray associated objects (of 80%+ likelihood). Type-II and Bl Lac objects are also included, bringing the total count to 1,422,219. This version is the same as v4.8 but with these changes: (1) The 3XMM-DR6 X-ray source catalog (www.cosmos.esa.int/web/xmm-newton/xsa) has been added and new X-ray associations calculated. (2) Radio/X-ray data have been reprocessed in line with that of the new Million Optical Radio/X-ray (MORX) associations catalogue, in preparation. The catalog format is simple, each object is shown as one line bearing the J2000 coordinates, its original name, object class, red and blue optical magnitudes, PSF class, redshift, the citations for the name and redshift, plus up to four radio/X-ray identifiers where applicable. Questions/comments/praise/complaints may be directed to Eric Flesch at eric(at)flesch.org. (1 data file).

  11. Concept of an autostereoscopic system containing 29 million of stereoscopic image pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasnick, Armin

    2015-02-01

    The number of perspective views limits the viewing zone of a passive, untracked autostereoscopic display. To enhance the freedom of movement in front of the 3D display, the number of views has to increase as well. An improvement of the viewing zone caused by the raising view numbers will result in lower resolution of each single perspective. A few companies have showed 3D displays with more than 8 or 9 views (including Sunny Ocean Studios 64 view display). The number of effective orthoscopic stereo image pairs is a triangular number on the base of the perspective views n. Using a stereoscopic glass (with only 2 views), the triangular number nΔ is also 2. But in a 5 view display (i.e. techXpert 3D display), nΔ=10. In a theoretical case, each vertical line of a display, represented by a sub-pixel, could consist a single view. On a real display with 7.680 sub pixel columns, the resulting triangular number is more than 29 million. The display system guides more than one view in the pupil of the observer's eye. This superposition principle of views leads to a reduction of channel separation and an increase of cross talk. It will be examined if a multitude of very low-resolution images with a high crosstalk could reproduce a satisfying 3D image.

  12. Cross-amplification and validation of SNPs conserved over 44 million years between seals and dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph I Hoffman

    Full Text Available High-density SNP arrays developed for humans and their companion species provide a rapid and convenient tool for generating SNP data in closely-related non-model organisms, but have not yet been widely applied to phylogenetically divergent taxa. Consequently, we used the CanineHD BeadChip to genotype 24 Antarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella individuals. Despite seals and dogs having diverged around 44 million years ago, 33,324 out of 173,662 loci (19.2% could be genotyped, of which 173 were polymorphic and clearly interpretable. Two SNPs were validated using KASP genotyping assays, with the resulting genotypes being 100% concordant with those obtained from the high-density array. Two loci were also confirmed through in silico visualisation after mapping them to the fur seal transcriptome. Polymorphic SNPs were distributed broadly throughout the dog genome and did not differ significantly in proximity to genes from either monomorphic SNPs or those that failed to cross-amplify in seals. However, the nearest genes to polymorphic SNPs were significantly enriched for functional annotations relating to energy metabolism, suggesting a possible bias towards conserved regions of the genome.

  13. Early evolution of limb regeneration in tetrapods: evidence from a 300-million-year-old amphibian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröbisch, Nadia B; Bickelmann, Constanze; Witzmann, Florian

    2014-11-07

    Salamanders are the only tetrapods capable of fully regenerating their limbs throughout their entire lives. Much data on the underlying molecular mechanisms of limb regeneration have been gathered in recent years allowing for new comparative studies between salamanders and other tetrapods that lack this unique regenerative potential. By contrast, the evolution of animal regeneration just recently shifted back into focus, despite being highly relevant for research designs aiming to unravel the factors allowing for limb regeneration. We show that the 300-million-year-old temnospondyl amphibian Micromelerpeton, a distant relative of modern amphibians, was already capable of regenerating its limbs. A number of exceptionally well-preserved specimens from fossil deposits show a unique pattern and combination of abnormalities in their limbs that is distinctive of irregular regenerative activity in modern salamanders and does not occur as variants of normal limb development. This demonstrates that the capacity to regenerate limbs is not a derived feature of modern salamanders, but may be an ancient feature of non-amniote tetrapods and possibly even shared by all bony fish. The finding provides a new framework for understanding the evolution of regenerative capacity of paired appendages in vertebrates in the search for conserved versus derived molecular mechanisms of limb regeneration.

  14. A 30 frames-per-second 18-million pixel image sensor for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Paul P. K.; Newman, J. Daniel; Sacco, Andrew P.

    2011-06-01

    ITT Geospatial Systems has space-qualified a visible band interline Charge Coupled Device (CCD) image sensor with 18 million pixels developed using commercial technology. The sensor is comprised of an 4320 (H) x 4144 (V) array of 8 micron square pixels. With multiple analog outputs each operating at 20 MHz the sensor will support 30 frames per second continuous video capture. The pixel incorporates a pinned photodiode, vertical overflow drain and microlens to achieve low dark current, lag-free imaging with highspeed global electronic shutter at high quantum efficiency (QE). The vertical and horizontal CCD's are true two-phase designs which support an integrate-while-read operation. The sensor chip is mounted on an Aluminum Nitride co-fired ceramic package optimized for electrical signal integrity, thermal and optical stability. The architecture supports quadrant redundancy. The complete assembly has been space-qualified to a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of 6 with Total Ionization Dose (TID) radiation testing at 25 Krad. The sensor exceeds 12-bit of dynamic range and 31% QE with 5 W of total power. The nonlinearity is measured to be 1.0% while the global non-uniformity is less than 2%. The low defect density of the CCD sensor allows high resolution video imaging in a space environment.

  15. A supertree pipeline for summarizing phylogenetic and taxonomic information for millions of species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redelings, Benjamin D.

    2017-01-01

    We present a new supertree method that enables rapid estimation of a summary tree on the scale of millions of leaves. This supertree method summarizes a collection of input phylogenies and an input taxonomy. We introduce formal goals and criteria for such a supertree to satisfy in order to transparently and justifiably represent the input trees. In addition to producing a supertree, our method computes annotations that describe which grouping in the input trees support and conflict with each group in the supertree. We compare our supertree construction method to a previously published supertree construction method by assessing their performance on input trees used to construct the Open Tree of Life version 4, and find that our method increases the number of displayed input splits from 35,518 to 39,639 and decreases the number of conflicting input splits from 2,760 to 1,357. The new supertree method also improves on the previous supertree construction method in that it produces no unsupported branches and avoids unnecessary polytomies. This pipeline is currently used by the Open Tree of Life project to produce all of the versions of project’s “synthetic tree” starting at version 5. This software pipeline is called “propinquity”. It relies heavily on “otcetera”—a set of C++ tools to perform most of the steps of the pipeline. All of the components are free software and are available on GitHub. PMID:28265520

  16. Epidemiological Pattern of Injuries in Iran; a Nationwide Review of Seven Million Emergency Department Admissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji Aghajani, Mohammad; Haddadi, Mashyaneh; Saadat, Soheil

    2017-01-01

    Globally, it is estimated that around 5.8 million people die annually as result of injuries, which causes 10% of all deaths and 16% of disability adjusted life years lost worldwide. This study aimed to determine the epidemiology of injuries in emergency departments in Iran. This cross sectional study was carried out using national injury surveillance data registry from 21 March 2009 to 20 March 2014. 7,176,344 patients with the mean age of 27.5 ± 17.8 years were registered to 657 EDs (70.6% male). Road Traffic Crash (RTC) was the most common cause of injury (31.0%) followed by hit (28.2%) and fall (10.1%). While roads were the commonest place of injuries, 34.0% of patients have been injured at home. More than 90% of injuries were unintentional. Assault and suicide attempt were causes of injury in 5.6% and 3.9% of patients, respectively. This paper addresses where prevention measures are most urgently needed and offers insights which could be useful for injury prevention programs in Iran and other developing countries.

  17. Epidemiological Pattern of Injuries in Iran; a Nationwide Review of Seven Million Emergency Department Admissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Haji Aghajani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Globally, it is estimated that around 5.8 million people die annually as result of injuries, which causes 10% of all deaths and 16% of disability adjusted life years lost worldwide. This study aimed to determine the epidemiology of injuries in emergency departments in Iran.Method: This cross sectional study was carried out using national injury surveillance data registry from 21 March 2009 to 20 March 2014.Results: 7,176,344 patients with the mean age of 27.5 ± 17.8 years were registered to 657 EDs (70.6% male. Road Traffic Crash (RTC was the most common cause of injury (31.0% followed by hit (28.2% and fall (10.1%. While roads were the commonest place of injuries, 34.0% of patients have been injured at home. More than 90% of injuries were unintentional. Assault and suicide attempt were causes of injury in 5.6% and 3.9% of patients, respectively.Conclusion:This paper addresses where prevention measures are most urgently needed and offers insights which could be useful for injury prevention programs in Iran and other developing countries.

  18. A new glimpse on Mesozoic zooplankton-150 million-year-old lobster larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Joachim T; Haug, Carolin

    2017-01-01

    Larvae of malacostracan crustaceans represent a large fraction of modern day zooplankton. Plankton is not only a major part of the modern marine ecosystem, but must have played an important role in the ecosystems of the past as well. Unfortunately, our knowledge about plankton composition of the past is still quite limited. As an important part of today's zooplankton, malacostracan larvae are still a rarity in the fossil record; many types of malacostracan larvae dominating the modern plankton have so far not been found as fossils. Here we report a new type of fossil malacostracan larva, found in the 150 million years old lithographic limestones of southern Germany (Solnhofen Lithographic Limestones). The three rather incomplete specimens mainly preserve the telson. A pronounced middle spine on the posterior edge of these specimens indicates that they are either larval forms of a clawed lobster or of an axiidean lobster, or of a closer relative to one of the two groups. The tergo-pleura are drawn out into distinct spines in one specimen, further supporting the interpretation as a larva of a clawed lobster or an early relative. The telson morphology also shows adaptations to a prolonged planktic life style, the latero-posterior edges are drawn out into distinct spines. Similar adaptations are known in larvae of the modern homarid lobster Nephrops norvegicus, not necessarily indicating a closer relationship, but convergent life styles. The new finds provide an important new insight into the composition of Mesozoic zooplankton and demonstrate the preservation potential of lithographic limestones.

  19. Developmental gene regulatory network architecture across 500 million years of echinoderm evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinman, Veronica F.; Nguyen, Albert T.; Cameron, R. Andrew; Davidson, Eric H.

    2003-01-01

    Evolutionary change in morphological features must depend on architectural reorganization of developmental gene regulatory networks (GRNs), just as true conservation of morphological features must imply retention of ancestral developmental GRN features. Key elements of the provisional GRN for embryonic endomesoderm development in the sea urchin are here compared with those operating in embryos of a distantly related echinoderm, a starfish. These animals diverged from their common ancestor 520-480 million years ago. Their endomesodermal fate maps are similar, except that sea urchins generate a skeletogenic cell lineage that produces a prominent skeleton lacking entirely in starfish larvae. A relevant set of regulatory genes was isolated from the starfish Asterina miniata, their expression patterns determined, and effects on the other genes of perturbing the expression of each were demonstrated. A three-gene feedback loop that is a fundamental feature of the sea urchin GRN for endoderm specification is found in almost identical form in the starfish: a detailed element of GRN architecture has been retained since the Cambrian Period in both echinoderm lineages. The significance of this retention is highlighted by the observation of numerous specific differences in the GRN connections as well. A regulatory gene used to drive skeletogenesis in the sea urchin is used entirely differently in the starfish, where it responds to endomesodermal inputs that do not affect it in the sea urchin embryo. Evolutionary changes in the GRNs since divergence are limited sharply to certain cis-regulatory elements, whereas others have persisted unaltered.

  20. WISE x SuperCOSMOS photometric redshift catalog: 20 million galaxies over 3pi steradians

    CERN Document Server

    Bilicki, M; Jarrett, T H; Cluver, M E; Maddox, N; Brown, M J I; Taylor, E N; Hambly, N C; Solarz, A; Holwerda, B W; Baldry, I; Loveday, J; Moffett, A; Hopkins, A M; Driver, S P; Alpaslan, M; Bland-Hawthorn, J

    2016-01-01

    We cross-match the two currently largest all-sky photometric catalogs, mid-infrared WISE and SuperCOSMOS scans of UKST/POSS-II photographic plates, to obtain a new galaxy sample that covers 3pi steradians. In order to characterize and purify the extragalactic dataset, we use external GAMA and SDSS spectroscopic information to define quasar and star loci in multicolor space, aiding the removal of contamination from our extended-source catalog. After appropriate data cleaning we obtain a deep wide-angle galaxy sample that is approximately 95% pure and 90% complete at high Galactic latitudes. The catalog contains close to 20 million galaxies over almost 70% of the sky, outside the Zone of Avoidance and other confused regions, with a mean surface density of over 650 sources per square degree. Using multiwavelength information from two optical and two mid-IR photometric bands, we derive photometric redshifts for all the galaxies in the catalog, using the ANNz framework trained on the final GAMA-II spectroscopic da...

  1. Estimating Distances from Parallaxes. III. Distances of Two Million Stars in the Gaia DR1 Catalogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astraatmadja, Tri L.; Bailer-Jones, Coryn A. L.

    2016-12-01

    We infer distances and their asymmetric uncertainties for two million stars using the parallaxes published in the Gaia DR1 (GDR1) catalogue. We do this with two distance priors: A minimalist, isotropic prior assuming an exponentially decreasing space density with increasing distance, and an anisotropic prior derived from the observability of stars in a Milky Way model. We validate our results by comparing our distance estimates for 105 Cepheids which have more precise, independently estimated distances. For this sample we find that the Milky Way prior performs better (the rms of the scaled residuals is 0.40) than the exponentially decreasing space density prior (rms is 0.57), although for distances beyond 2 kpc the Milky Way prior performs worse, with a bias in the scaled residuals of -0.36 (versus -0.07 for the exponentially decreasing space density prior). We do not attempt to include the photometric data in GDR1 due to the lack of reliable color information. Our distance catalog is available at http://www.mpia.de/homes/calj/tgas_distances/main.html as well as at CDS. This should only be used to give individual distances. Combining data or testing models should be done with the original parallaxes, and attention paid to correlated and systematic uncertainties.

  2. Estimating distances from parallaxes. III. Distances of two million stars in the Gaia DR1 catalogue

    CERN Document Server

    Astraatmadja, Tri L

    2016-01-01

    We infer distances and their asymmetric uncertainties for two million stars using the parallaxes published in the Gaia DR1 (GDR1) catalogue. We do this with two distance priors: A minimalist, isotropic prior assuming an exponentially decreasing space density with increasing distance, and an anisotropic prior derived from the observability of stars in a Milky Way model. We validate our results by comparing our distance estimates for 105 Cepheids which have more precise, independently estimated distances. For this sample we find that the Milky Way prior performs better (the RMS of the scaled residuals is 0.40) than the exponentially decreasing space density prior (RMS is 0.57), although for distances beyond 2kpc the Milky Way prior performs worse, with a bias in the scaled residuals of -0.36 (vs. -0.07 for the exponentially decreasing space density prior). We do not attempt to include the photometric data in GDR1 due to the lack of reliable colour information. Our distance catalogue is available at http://www.m...

  3. Marine and terrestrial herbivores display convergent chemical ecology despite 400 million years of independent evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasher, Douglas B; Stout, E Paige; Engel, Sebastian; Shearer, Tonya L; Kubanek, Julia; Hay, Mark E

    2015-09-29

    Chemical cues regulate key ecological interactions in marine and terrestrial ecosystems. They are particularly important in terrestrial plant-herbivore interactions, where they mediate both herbivore foraging and plant defense. Although well described for terrestrial interactions, the identity and ecological importance of herbivore foraging cues in marine ecosystems remain unknown. Here we show that the specialist gastropod Elysia tuca hunts its seaweed prey, Halimeda incrassata, by tracking 4-hydroxybenzoic acid to find vegetative prey and the defensive metabolite halimedatetraacetate to find reproductive prey. Foraging cues were predicted to be polar compounds but instead were nonpolar secondary metabolites similar to those used by specialist terrestrial insects. Tracking halimedatetraacetate enables Elysia to increase in abundance by 12- to 18-fold on reproductive Halimeda, despite reproduction in Halimeda being rare and lasting for only ∼36 h. Elysia swarm to reproductive Halimeda where they consume the alga's gametes, which are resource rich but are chemically defended from most consumers. Elysia sequester functional chloroplasts and halimedatetraacetate from Halimeda to become photosynthetic and chemically defended. Feeding by Elysia suppresses the growth of vegetative Halimeda by ∼50%. Halimeda responds by dropping branches occupied by Elysia, apparently to prevent fungal infection associated with Elysia feeding. Elysia is remarkably similar to some terrestrial insects, not only in its hunting strategy, but also its feeding method, defense tactics, and effects on prey behavior and performance. Such striking parallels indicate that specialist herbivores in marine and terrestrial systems can evolve convergent ecological strategies despite 400 million years of independent evolution in vastly different habitats.

  4. The first animals: ca. 760-million-year-old sponge-like fossils from Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iain Young

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most profound events in biospheric evolution was the emergence of animals, which is thought to have occurred some 600–650 Ma. Here we report on the discovery of phosphatised body fossils that we interpret as ancient sponge-like fossils and term them Otavia antiqua gen. et sp. nov. The fossils are found in Namibia in rocks that range in age between about 760 Ma and 550 Ma. This age places the advent of animals some 100 to 150 million years earlier than proposed, and prior to the extreme climatic changes and postulated stepwise increases in oxygen levels of Ediacaran time. These findings support the predictions based on genetic sequencing and inferences drawn from biomarkers that the first animals were sponges. Further, the deposition and burial of Otavia as sedimentary particles may have driven the large positive C-isotopic excursions and increases in oxygen levels that have been inferred for Neoproterozoic time.

  5. The MACHO Project 9 Million Star Color-Magnitude Diagram of the Large Magellanic Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Alcock, C B; Alves, D R; Axelrod, T S; Basu, A; Becker, A C; Bennett, D P; Cook, K H; Drake, A J; Freeman, K C; Geha, M; Griest, K; King, L; Lehner, M J; Marshall, S L; Minniti, D; Nelson, C; Peterson, B A; Popowski, P A; Pratt, M R; Quinn, P J; Stubbs, C W; Sutherland, W; Tomaney, A B; Vandehei, T; Welch, D L

    2000-01-01

    We present a 9 million star color-magnitude diagram (9M CMD) of the LMC bar. The 9M CMD reveals a complex superposition of different age and metallicity stellar populations, with important stellar evolutionary phases occurring over 3 orders of magnitude in number density. First, we count the non-variable supergiants, the associated Cepheids, and measure the effective temperatures defining the instability strip. Lifetime predictions of stellar evolution theory are tested, with implications for the origin of low-luminosity Cepheids. The highly-evolved AGB stars have a bimodal distribution in brightness, which we interpret as discrete old populations (>1 Gyr). The faint AGB may be metal-poor and very old. We identify the clusters NGC 411 and M3 as templates for the admixture of old stellar populations. However, there are indications that the old and metal-poor field population has a red HB morphology: the RR Lyraes lie on the red edge of the instability strip, the AGB-bump is very red, and the ratio of AGB-bump ...

  6. One million years of glaciation and denudation history in west Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strunk, Astrid; Knudsen, Mads Faurschou; Egholm, David L; Jansen, John D; Levy, Laura B; Jacobsen, Bo H; Larsen, Nicolaj K

    2017-01-18

    The influence of major Quaternary climatic changes on growth and decay of the Greenland Ice Sheet, and associated erosional impact on the landscapes, is virtually unknown beyond the last deglaciation. Here we quantify exposure and denudation histories in west Greenland by applying a novel Markov-Chain Monte Carlo modelling approach to all available paired cosmogenic (10)Be-(26)Al bedrock data from Greenland. We find that long-term denudation rates in west Greenland range from >50 m Myr(-1) in low-lying areas to ∼2 m Myr(-1) at high elevations, hereby quantifying systematic variations in denudation rate among different glacial landforms caused by variations in ice thickness across the landscape. We furthermore show that the present day ice-free areas only were ice covered ca. 45% of the past 1 million years, and even less at high-elevation sites, implying that the Greenland Ice Sheet for much of the time was of similar size or even smaller than today.

  7. Million-Body Star Cluster Simulations: Comparisons between Monte Carlo and Direct $N$-body

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez, Carl L; Wang, Long; Chatterjee, Sourav; Rasio, Frederic A; Spurzem, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    We present the first detailed comparison between million-body globular cluster simulations computed with a H\\'enon-type Monte Carlo code, CMC, and a direct $N$-body code, NBODY6++GPU. Both simulations start from an identical cluster model with $10^6$ particles, and include all of the relevant physics needed to treat the system in a highly realistic way. With the two codes "frozen" (no fine-tuning of any free parameters or internal algorithms of the codes) we find excellent agreement in the overall evolution of the two models. Furthermore, we find that in both models, large numbers of stellar-mass black holes (> 1000) are retained for 12 Gyr. Thus, the very accurate direct $N$-body approach confirms recent predictions that black holes can be retained in present-day, old globular clusters. We find only minor disagreements between the two models and attribute these to the small-$N$ dynamics driving the evolution of the cluster core for which the Monte Carlo assumptions are less ideal. Based on the overwhelming g...

  8. Childhood family correlates of heterosexual and homosexual marriages: a national cohort study of two million Danes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, Morten; Hviid, Anders

    2006-10-01

    Children who experience parental divorce are less likely to marry heterosexually than those growing up in intact families; however, little is known about other childhood factors affecting marital choices. We studied childhood correlates of first marriages (heterosexual since 1970, homosexual since 1989) in a national cohort of 2 million 18-49 year-old Danes. In multivariate analyses, persons born in the capital area were significantly less likely to marry heterosexually, but more likely to marry homosexually, than their rural-born peers. Heterosexual marriage was significantly linked to having young parents, small age differences between parents, stable parental relationships, large sibships, and late birth order. For men, homosexual marriage was associated with having older mothers, divorced parents, absent fathers, and being the youngest child. For women, maternal death during adolescence and being the only or youngest child or the only girl in the family increased the likelihood of homosexual marriage. Our study provides population-based, prospective evidence that childhood family experiences are important determinants of heterosexual and homosexual marriage decisions in adulthood.

  9. 3.2 million stillbirths: epidemiology and overview of the evidence review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawn, Joy E; Yakoob, Mohammad Yawar; Haws, Rachel A; Soomro, Tanya; Darmstadt, Gary L; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2009-05-07

    More than 3.2 million stillbirths occur globally each year, yet stillbirths are largely invisible in global data tracking, policy dialogue and programme implementation. This mismatch of burden to action is due to a number of factors that keep stillbirths hidden, notably a lack of data and a lack of consensus on priority interventions, but also to social taboos that reduce the visibility of stillbirths and the associated family mourning. Whilst there are estimates of the numbers of stillbirths, to date there has been no systematic global analysis of the causes of stillbirths. The multiple classifications systems in use are often complex and are primarily focused on high-income countries. We review available data and propose a programmatic classification that is feasible and comparable across settings. We undertook a comprehensive global review of available information on stillbirths in order to 1) identify studies that evaluated risk factors and interventions to reduce stillbirths, 2) evaluate the level of evidence for interventions, 3) place the available evidence for interventions in a health systems context to guide programme implementation, and 4) elucidate key implementation, monitoring, and research gaps. This first paper in the series outlines issues in stillbirth data availability and quality, the global epidemiology of stillbirths, and describes the methodology and framework used for the review of interventions and strategies.

  10. Neurotrophic activities of trk receptors conserved over 600 million years of evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Gad; Munno, David W; Levy, Zehava; Dissel, Helga M; Van-Minnen, Jan; Syed, Naweed I; Fainzilber, Mike

    2004-07-01

    The trk family of receptor tyrosine kinases is crucial for neuronal survival in the vertebrate nervous system, however both C. elegans and Drosophila lack genes encoding trks or their ligands. The only invertebrate representative of this gene family identified to date is Ltrk from the mollusk Lymnaea. Did trophic functions of trk receptors originate early in evolution, or were they an innovation of the vertebrates? Here we show that the Ltrk gene conserves a similar exon/intron order as mammalian trk genes in the region encoding defined extracellular motifs, including one exon encoding a putative variant immunoglobulin-like domain. Chimeric receptors containing the intracellular and transmembrane domains of Ltrk undergo ligand-induced autophosphorylation followed by MAP kinase activation in transfected cells. The chimeras are internalized similarly to TrkA in PC12 cells, and their stimulation leads to differentiation and neurite extension. Knock-down of endogenous Ltrk expression compromises outgrowth and survival of Lymnaea neurons cultured in CNS-conditioned medium. Thus, Ltrk is required for neuronal survival, suggesting that trophic activities of the trk receptor family originated before the divergence of molluscan and vertebrate lineages approximately 600 million years ago.

  11. Is 1.28 parts per million biomarker specific for neural progenitor cells?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhifeng Xu; Xiuqin Guo; Lian Ma; Renhua Wu; Chongyang Shen; Haiqiang Zhu; Yaowen Chen; Linping Wu; Peng Huang; Yeyu Xiao; Zhiwei Shen; Li Pang

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance-visible mobile lipid,at 1.28 parts per million(ppm),is thought to be due to mobile lipid droplets formed in cells and has been considered unique for neural progenitor cells.However,this idea remains controversial.The present study examined the 1.28 ppm biomarker in other stem cells and non-stem cells,and explored the relationship between 1.28 ppm biomarker and mobile lipid droplets.1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of EC109 cells,mesenchymal stem cells(MSCs)and adipogenic cells differentiated from MSCs was performed.Results show that 1.28 ppm biomarker was observed in human MSCs,but was absent from EC109cells.Following adipogenic differentiation induced for 2 weeks,the 1.28 ppm biomarker climbed remarkably,with mobile lipid droplet generation,suggesting that the 1.28 ppm biomarker is not specific for neural progenitor cells because it is also observed in MSCs and adipogenic-induced differentiated cells.Moreover,it is possible to monitor MSCs differentiation following cell transplantation,using 1.28 ppm biomarker changes.

  12. What Four Million Mappings Can Tell You about Two Hundred Ontologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazvinian, Amir; Noy, Natalya F.; Jonquet, Clement; Shah, Nigam; Musen, Mark A.

    The field of biomedicine has embraced the Semantic Web probably more than any other field. As a result, there is a large number of biomedical ontologies covering overlapping areas of the field. We have developed BioPortal—an open community-based repository of biomedical ontologies. We analyzed ontologies and terminologies in BioPortal and the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS), creating more than 4 million mappings between concepts in these ontologies and terminologies based on the lexical similarity of concept names and synonyms. We then analyzed the mappings and what they tell us about the ontologies themselves, the structure of the ontology repository, and the ways in which the mappings can help in the process of ontology design and evaluation. For example, we can use the mappings to guide users who are new to a field to the most pertinent ontologies in that field, to identify areas of the domain that are not covered sufficiently by the ontologies in the repository, and to identify which ontologies will serve well as background knowledge in domain-specific tools. While we used a specific (but large) ontology repository for the study, we believe that the lessons we learned about the value of a large-scale set of mappings to ontology users and developers are general and apply in many other domains.

  13. Iridium profile for 10 million years across the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary at Gubbio (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Walter; Asaro, Frank; Montanari, Alessandro

    1990-01-01

    The iridium anomaly at the Cretaceous-Tertiary (KT) boundary was discovered in the pelagic limestone sequence at Gubbio on the basis of 12 samples analyzed by neutron activation analysis (NAA) and was interpreted as indicating impact of a large extraterrestrial object at exactly the time of the KT mass extinction. Continuing controversy over the shape of the Ir profile at the Gubbio KT boundary and its interpretation called for a more detailed follow-up study. Analysis of a 57-meter-thick, 10-million-year-old part of the Gubbio sequence using improved NAA techniques revealed that there is only one Ir anomaly at the KT boundary, but this anomaly shows an intricate fine structure, the origin of which cannot yet be entirely explained. The KT Ir anomaly peaks in a 1-centimeter-thick clay layer, where the average Ir concentration is 3000 parts per trillion (ppt); this peak is flanked by tails with Ir concentrations of 20 to 80 ppt that rise above a background of 12 to 13 ppt. The fine structure of the tails is probably due in part to lateral reworking, diffusion, burrowing, and perhaps Milankovitch cyclicity.

  14. Terrestrial climate evolution in the Southwest Pacific over the past 30 million years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prebble, Joseph G.; Reichgelt, Tammo; Mildenhall, Dallas C.; Greenwood, David R.; Raine, J. Ian; Kennedy, Elizabeth M.; Seebeck, Hannu C.

    2017-02-01

    A reconstruction of terrestrial temperature and precipitation for the New Zealand landmass over the past ∼30 million years is produced using pollen data from >2000 samples lodged in the New Zealand Fossil Record Electronic Database and modern climate data of nearest living relatives. The reconstruction reveals a warming trend through the late Oligocene to early Miocene, peak warmth in the middle Miocene, and stepwise cooling through the late Neogene. Whereas the regional signal in our reconstruction includes a ∼5-10° northward tectonic drift, as well as an increase in high altitude biomes due to late Neogene and Pliocene uplift of the Southern Alps, the pattern mimics inferred changes in global ice extent, which suggests that global drivers played a major role in shaping local vegetation. Importantly, seasonal temperature estimates indicate low seasonality during the middle Miocene, and that subsequent Neogene cooling was largely due to cooler winters. We suggest that this may reflect increased Subantarctic influence on New Zealand vegetation as the climate cooled.

  15. A supertree pipeline for summarizing phylogenetic and taxonomic information for millions of species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin D. Redelings

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a new supertree method that enables rapid estimation of a summary tree on the scale of millions of leaves. This supertree method summarizes a collection of input phylogenies and an input taxonomy. We introduce formal goals and criteria for such a supertree to satisfy in order to transparently and justifiably represent the input trees. In addition to producing a supertree, our method computes annotations that describe which grouping in the input trees support and conflict with each group in the supertree. We compare our supertree construction method to a previously published supertree construction method by assessing their performance on input trees used to construct the Open Tree of Life version 4, and find that our method increases the number of displayed input splits from 35,518 to 39,639 and decreases the number of conflicting input splits from 2,760 to 1,357. The new supertree method also improves on the previous supertree construction method in that it produces no unsupported branches and avoids unnecessary polytomies. This pipeline is currently used by the Open Tree of Life project to produce all of the versions of project’s “synthetic tree” starting at version 5. This software pipeline is called “propinquity”. It relies heavily on “otcetera”—a set of C++ tools to perform most of the steps of the pipeline. All of the components are free software and are available on GitHub.

  16. The COSMOS2015 Catalog: Exploring the 1million galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Laigle, C; Ilbert, O; Hsieh, B C; Davidzon, I; Capak, P; Hasinger, G; Silverman, J D; Pichon, C; Coupon, J; Aussel, H; Borgne, D Le; Caputi, K; Cassata, P; Chang, Y -Y; Civano, F; Dunlop, J; Fynbo, J; kartaltepe, J S; Koekemoer, A; Fevre, O Le; Floc'h, E Le; Leauthaud, A; Lilly, S; Lin, L; Marchesi, S; Milvang-Jensen, B; Salvato, M; Sanders, D B; Scoville, N; Smolcic, V; Stockmann, M; Taniguchi, Y; Tasca, L; Toft, S; Vaccari, M; Zabl, J

    2016-01-01

    We present the COSMOS2015 catalog which contains precise photometric redshifts and stellar masses for more than half a million objects over the 2deg$^{2}$ COSMOS field. Including new $YJHK_{\\rm s}$ images from the UltraVISTA-DR2 survey, $Y$-band from Subaru/Hyper-Suprime-Cam and infrared data from the Spitzer Large Area Survey with the Hyper-Suprime-Cam Spitzer legacy program, this near-infrared-selected catalog is highly optimized for the study of galaxy evolution and environments in the early Universe. To maximise catalog completeness for bluer objects and at higher redshifts, objects have been detected on a $\\chi^{2}$ sum of the $YJHK_{\\rm s}$ and $z^{++}$ images. The catalog contains $\\sim 6\\times 10^5$ objects in the 1.5 deg$^{2}$ UltraVISTA-DR2 region, and $\\sim 1.5\\times 10^5$ objects are detected in the "ultra-deep stripes" (0.62 deg$^{2}$) at $K_{\\rm s}\\leq 24.7$ (3$\\sigma$, 3", AB magnitude). Through a comparison with the zCOSMOS-bright spectroscopic redshifts, we measure a photometric redshift prec...

  17. Dinosaurs in decline tens of millions of years before their final extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Manabu; Benton, Michael J.

    2016-05-01

    Whether dinosaurs were in a long-term decline or whether they were reigning strong right up to their final disappearance at the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) mass extinction event 66 Mya has been debated for decades with no clear resolution. The dispute has continued unresolved because of a lack of statistical rigor and appropriate evolutionary framework. Here, for the first time to our knowledge, we apply a Bayesian phylogenetic approach to model the evolutionary dynamics of speciation and extinction through time in Mesozoic dinosaurs, properly taking account of previously ignored statistical violations. We find overwhelming support for a long-term decline across all dinosaurs and within all three dinosaurian subclades (Ornithischia, Sauropodomorpha, and Theropoda), where speciation rate slowed down through time and was ultimately exceeded by extinction rate tens of millions of years before the K-Pg boundary. The only exceptions to this general pattern are the morphologically specialized herbivores, the Hadrosauriformes and Ceratopsidae, which show rapid species proliferations throughout the Late Cretaceous instead. Our results highlight that, despite some heterogeneity in speciation dynamics, dinosaurs showed a marked reduction in their ability to replace extinct species with new ones, making them vulnerable to extinction and unable to respond quickly to and recover from the final catastrophic event.

  18. Protostellar Disk Evolution Over Million-Year Timescales with a Prescription for Magnetized Turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Landry, Russell; Turner, Neal J; Abram, Greg

    2013-01-01

    Magnetorotational instability (MRI) is the most promising mechanism behind accretion in low-mass protostellar disks. Here we present the first analysis of the global structure and evolution of non-ideal MRI-driven T-Tauri disks on million-year timescales. We accomplish this in a 1+1D simulation by calculating magnetic diffusivities and utilizing turbulence activity criteria to determine thermal structure and accretion rate without resorting to a 3-D magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) simulation. Our major findings are as follows. First, even for modest surface densities of just a few times the minimum-mass solar nebula, the dead zone encompasses the giant planet-forming region, preserving any compositional gradients. Second, the surface density of the active layer is nearly constant in time at roughly 10 g/cm2, which we use to derive a simple prescription for viscous heating in MRI-active disks for those who wish to avoid detailed MHD computations. Furthermore, unlike a standard disk with constant-alpha viscosity, t...

  19. Iterative evolution of sympatric seacow (Dugongidae, Sirenia assemblages during the past ~26 million years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Velez-Juarbe

    Full Text Available Extant sirenians show allopatric distributions throughout most of their range. However, their fossil record shows evidence of multispecies communities throughout most of the past ∼26 million years, in different oceanic basins. Morphological differences among co-occurring sirenian taxa suggest that resource partitioning played a role in structuring these communities. We examined body size and ecomorphological differences (e.g., rostral deflection and tusk morphology among sirenian assemblages from the late Oligocene of Florida, early Miocene of India and early Pliocene of Mexico; each with three species of the family Dugongidae. Although overlapping in several ecomorphological traits, each assemblage showed at least one dominant trait in which coexisting species differed. Fossil sirenian occurrences occasionally are monotypic, but the assemblages analyzed herein show iterative evolution of multispecies communities, a phenomenon unparalleled in extant sirenian ecology. As primary consumers of seagrasses, these communities likely had a strong impact on past seagrass ecology and diversity, although the sparse fossil record of seagrasses limits direct comparisons. Nonetheless, our results provide robust support for previous suggestions that some sirenians in these extinct assemblages served as keystone species, controlling the dominance of climax seagrass species, permitting more taxonomically diverse seagrass beds (and sirenian communities than many of those observed today.

  20. Finding a million-star hotel an astro-tourist’s guide to dark sky places

    CERN Document Server

    Mizon, Bob

    2016-01-01

    Finding a Million-Star Hotel explores the modern phenomenon of astro-tourism, the efforts by increasing numbers of people to find nearby and distant locations where they can see the real night sky so often hidden by light pollution. Astronomer Bob Mizon directs readers to dark sky sites in the United Kingdom, the United States, and a few further afield. This is more than just a hotel guide with links for accommodation at or near the locations. There are chapters on choosing telescopes and binoculars, on celestial objects astro-tourists can look for in the night sky, and an investigation into the causes of the skyglow that veils our view of the stars. Most of those who go seeking the stars are not professional astronomers. This book is aimed at those observers with limited knowledge of the night sky who are eager to explore and enjoy it. Even those contemplating setting up astro-themed hotels, campsites, or astronomy events can benefit from reading this book and from the advice included on how to equip such pl...

  1. Multi-million Atom Electronic Structure Simulations using NEMO 3-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimeck, Gerhard; Oyafuso, Fabiano; Boykin, Timothy B.; Bowen, R. Chris

    2002-03-01

    The detailed physical understanding of heterostructure interfaces enabled the creation of now well developed devices such as quantum well lasers, quantum well detectors, heterostructure field transistors and resonant tunneling diodes. The design and optimization of these devices and their implementation required the development and utilization of quantitative simulation tools. One such example is the nanoelectronic modeling tool (NEMO 1-D) originally developed by Texas Instruments. The need for such simulation tools is expected to only increase as device feature sizes and experimental characterization capabilities decrease and as manufacturing uncertainties increase. Quantum dot are a proptotypical 3-D nanoelectronic device and they have been studied experimentally and theoretically extensively in the past few years. The presentation will outline our recent developments to model such quantum dots on an atomistic level using the tight-binding method. The parallelization of the software on Intel-based Beowulfs and an SGI Origin, will be discussed. Simulation domains consisting of several million atoms will be analyzed for effects of random particle disorder, interfaces and confinement. More information about the work can be found at this website http://hpc.jpl.nasa.gov/PEP/ gekco.

  2. A Comparison of Six Photometric Redshift Methods Applied to 1.5 Million Luminous Red Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Abdalla, Filipe B; Lahav, Ofer; Rashkov, Valery

    2008-01-01

    We present an updated version of MegaZ-LRG (Collister et al.,(2007)) with photometric redshifts derived with the neural network method, ANNz as well as five other publicly available photo-z codes (HyperZ, SDSS, Le PHARE, BPZ and ZEBRA) for ~1.5 million Luminous Red Galaxies (LRGs) in SDSS DR6. This allows us to identify how reliable codes are relative to each other if used as described in their public release. We compare and contrast the relative merits of each code using ~13000 spectroscopic redshifts from the 2SLAQ sample. We find that the performance of each code depends on the figure of merit used to assess it. As expected, the availability of a complete training set means that the training method performs best in the intermediate redshift bins where there are plenty of training objects. Codes such as Le PHARE, which use new observed templates perform best in the lower redshift bins. All codes produce reasonable photometric redshifts, the 1-sigma scatters ranging from 0.057 to 0.097 if averaged over the e...

  3. MegaZ-LRG: A photometric redshift catalogue of one million SDSS Luminous Red Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Collister, A A; Blake, C; Cannon, R; Croom, S; Drinkwater, M; Edge, A; Eisenstein, D; Loveday, J; Nichol, R; Pimbblet, K; De Propris, R; Roseboom, I; Ross, N; Schneider, D P; Shanks, T; Wake, D; Collister, Adrian; Lahav, Ofer; Blake, Chris; Cannon, Russell; Croom, Scott; Drinkwater, Michael; Edge, Alastair; Eisenstein, Daniel; Loveday, Jon; Nichol, Robert; Pimbblet, Kevin; Propris, Roberto De; Roseboom, Isaac; Ross, Nic; Schneider, Donald P.; Shanks, Tom; Wake, David

    2006-01-01

    We describe the construction of MegaZ-LRG, a photometric redshift catalogue of over one million luminous red galaxies (LRGs) in the redshift range 0.4 < z < 0.7 with limiting magnitude i < 20. The catalogue is selected from the imaging data of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 4. The 2dF-SDSS LRG and Quasar (2SLAQ) spectroscopic redshift catalogue of 13,000 intermediate-redshift LRGs provides a photometric redshift training set, allowing use of ANNz, a neural network-based photometric-redshift estimator. The rms photometric redshift accuracy obtained for an evaluation set selected from the 2SLAQ sample is sigma_z = 0.049 averaged over all galaxies, and sigma_z = 0.040 for a brighter subsample (i < 19.0). The catalogue is expected to contain ~5 per cent stellar contamination. The ANNz code is used to compute a refined star/galaxy probability based on a range of photometric parameters; this allows the contamination fraction to be reduced to 2 per cent with negligible loss of genuine galaxies...

  4. Big History or the 13800 million years from the Big Bang to the Human Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gústafsson, Ludvik E.

    2017-04-01

    Big History is the integrated history of the Cosmos, Earth, Life, and Humanity. It is an attempt to understand our existence as a continuous unfolding of processes leading to ever more complex structures. Three major steps in the development of the Universe can be distinguished, the first being the creation of matter/energy and forces in the context of an expanding universe, while the second and third steps were reached when completely new qualities of matter came into existence. 1. Matter comes out of nothing Quantum fluctuations and the inflation event are thought to be responsible for the creation of stable matter particles in what is called the Big Bang. Along with simple particles the universe is formed. Later larger particles like atoms and the most simple chemical elements hydrogen and helium evolved. Gravitational contraction of hydrogen and helium formed the first stars und later on the first galaxies. Massive stars ended their lives in violent explosions releasing heavier elements like carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur and iron into the universe. Subsequent star formation led to star systems with bodies containing these heavier elements. 2. Matter starts to live About 9200 million years after the Big Bang a rather inconspicous star of middle size formed in one of a billion galaxies. The leftovers of the star formation clumped into bodies rotating around the central star. In some of them elements like silicon, oxygen, iron and many other became the dominant matter. On the third of these bodies from the central star much of the surface was covered with an already very common chemical compound in the universe, water. Fluid water and plenty of various elements, especially carbon, were the ingredients of very complex chemical compounds that made up even more complex structures. These were able to replicate themselves. Life had appeared, the only occasion that we human beings know of. Life evolved subsequently leading eventually to the formation of multicellular

  5. Making Sense of 2.5 Million Surface Reflectance Spectra of Mercury from MESSENGER

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amore, M.; Helbert, J.; D'Incecco, P.; Domingue, D. L.; Izenberg, N. R.; McClintock, W. E.

    2012-12-01

    The Mercury Atmospheric and Surface and Composition Spectrometer (MASCS) on the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft has mapped the surface of Mercury on a global basis during its one-year primary orbital mission and the first third of its extended mission, producing ~2.5 million spectra from March 2011 to July 2012. The primary challenge to analyzing this dataset is to cope with its large size. In earlier studies of MASCS data, we combined several approaches, ranging from principal component analysis (PCA) to unsupervised cluster analysis and regridding to global and local fixed grids. Each of those techniques provided insight into spectral variations for different volumes of data, but each was quickly overcome by the growing dataset. The most recent version of our data analysis procedure uses PostgreSQL, a type of database management that controls the creation, integrity, maintenance, and use of a database. It embeds a high-level query language, which greatly simplifies database organization as well as retrieval and presentation of database information. We set up a data pipeline to update automatically the MASCS data, read them from the NASA Planetary Data System format, regrid the data to a common grid length, and store all information in the database. All data are then readily available to any authorized user in our network. We are working on a library to access the data directly from within our analysis software, and some preliminary functions have been implemented. As an example, the calculation of a parameter representing the database takes 2 s even for the full dataset of 2.5 million entries. It is thus straightforward to create and analyze rapidly the data, as for example the distribution of normalized radiance at a fixed wavelength. The new methodology provides facilities for controlling data access, enforcing data integrity, managing concurrency control, and recovering the database after a failure and

  6. A hot Jupiter orbiting a 2-million-year-old solar-mass T Tauri star.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donati, J F; Moutou, C; Malo, L; Baruteau, C; Yu, L; Hébrard, E; Hussain, G; Alencar, S; Ménard, F; Bouvier, J; Petit, P; Takami, M; Doyon, R; Collier Cameron, A

    2016-06-30

    Hot Jupiters are giant Jupiter-like exoplanets that orbit their host stars 100 times more closely than Jupiter orbits the Sun. These planets presumably form in the outer part of the primordial disk from which both the central star and surrounding planets are born, then migrate inwards and yet avoid falling into their host star. It is, however, unclear whether this occurs early in the lives of hot Jupiters, when they are still embedded within protoplanetary disks, or later, once multiple planets are formed and interact. Although numerous hot Jupiters have been detected around mature Sun-like stars, their existence has not yet been firmly demonstrated for young stars, whose magnetic activity is so intense that it overshadows the radial velocity signal that close-in giant planets can induce. Here we report that the radial velocities of the young star V830 Tau exhibit a sine wave of period 4.93 days and semi-amplitude 75 metres per second, detected with a false-alarm probability of less than 0.03 per cent, after filtering out the magnetic activity plaguing the spectra. We find that this signal is unrelated to the 2.741-day rotation period of V830 Tau and we attribute it to the presence of a planet of mass 0.77 times that of Jupiter, orbiting at a distance of 0.057 astronomical units from the host star. Our result demonstrates that hot Jupiters can migrate inwards in less than two million years, probably as a result of planet–disk interactions.

  7. Stature, body mass, and brain size: a two-million-year odyssey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Andrew

    2013-12-01

    Physical size has been critical in the evolutionary success of the genus Homo over the past 2.4 million-years. An acceleration in the expansion of savannah grasslands in Africa from 1.6Ma to 1.2Ma witnessed concomitant increases in physical stature (150-170cm), weight (50-70kg), and brain size (750-900cm(3)). With the onset of 100,000year Middle Pleistocene glacial cycles ("ice ages") some 780,000years ago, large-bodied Homo groups had reached modern size and had successfully dispersed from equatorial Africa, Central, and Southeast Asia to high-latitude localities in Atlantic Europe and North East Asia. While there is support for incursions of multiple Homo lineages to West Asia and Continental Europe at this time, data does not favour a persistence of Homo erectus beyond ∼400,000years ago in Africa, west and Central Asia, and Europe. Novel Middle Pleistocene Homo forms (780,000-400,000years) may not have been substantially taller (150-170cm) than earlier Homo (1.6Ma-800,000years), yet brain size exceeded 1000cm(3) and body mass approached 80kg in some males. Later Pleistocene Homo (400,000-138,000years) were 'massive' in their height (160-190cm) and mass (70-90kg) and consistently exceed recent humans. Relative brain size exceeds earlier Homo, yet is substantially lower than in final glacial H. sapiens and Homo neanderthalensis. A final leap in absolute and relative brain size in Homo (300,000-138,000years) occurred independent of any observed increase in body mass and implies a different selective mediator to that operating on brain size increases observed in earlier Homo. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. The evolutionary and genetic origins of consciousness in the Cambrian Period over 500 million years ago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Todd E.; Mallatt, Jon

    2013-01-01

    Vertebrates evolved in the Cambrian Period before 520 million years ago, but we do not know when or how consciousness arose in the history of the vertebrate brain. Here we propose multiple levels of isomorphic or somatotopic neural representations as an objective marker for sensory consciousness. All extant vertebrates have these, so we deduce that consciousness extends back to the group's origin. The first conscious sense may have been vision. Then vision, coupled with additional sensory systems derived from ectodermal placodes and neural crest, transformed primitive reflexive systems into image forming brains that map and perceive the external world and the body's interior. We posit that the minimum requirement for sensory consciousness and qualia is a brain including a forebrain (but not necessarily a developed cerebral cortex/pallium), midbrain, and hindbrain. This brain must also have (1) hierarchical systems of intercommunicating, isomorphically organized, processing nuclei that extensively integrate the different senses into representations that emerge in upper levels of the neural hierarchy; and (2) a widespread reticular formation that integrates the sensory inputs and contributes to attention, awareness, and neural synchronization. We propose a two-step evolutionary history, in which the optic tectum was the original center of multi-sensory conscious perception (as in fish and amphibians: step 1), followed by a gradual shift of this center to the dorsal pallium or its cerebral cortex (in mammals, reptiles, birds: step 2). We address objections to the hypothesis and call for more studies of fish and amphibians. In our view, the lamprey has all the neural requisites and is likely the simplest extant vertebrate with sensory consciousness and qualia. Genes that pattern the proposed elements of consciousness (isomorphism, neural crest, placodes) have been identified in all vertebrates. Thus, consciousness is in the genes, some of which are already known. PMID

  9. Adaptive evolution of voltage-gated sodium channels: the first 800 million years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakon, Harold H

    2012-06-26

    Voltage-gated Na(+)-permeable (Nav) channels form the basis for electrical excitability in animals. Nav channels evolved from Ca(2+) channels and were present in the common ancestor of choanoflagellates and animals, although this channel was likely permeable to both Na(+) and Ca(2+). Thus, like many other neuronal channels and receptors, Nav channels predated neurons. Invertebrates possess two Nav channels (Nav1 and Nav2), whereas vertebrate Nav channels are of the Nav1 family. Approximately 500 Mya in early chordates Nav channels evolved a motif that allowed them to cluster at axon initial segments, 50 million years later with the evolution of myelin, Nav channels "capitalized" on this property and clustered at nodes of Ranvier. The enhancement of conduction velocity along with the evolution of jaws likely made early gnathostomes fierce predators and the dominant vertebrates in the ocean. Later in vertebrate evolution, the Nav channel gene family expanded in parallel in tetrapods and teleosts (∼9 to 10 genes in amniotes, 8 in teleosts). This expansion occurred during or after the late Devonian extinction, when teleosts and tetrapods each diversified in their respective habitats, and coincided with an increase in the number of telencephalic nuclei in both groups. The expansion of Nav channels may have allowed for more sophisticated neural computation and tailoring of Nav channel kinetics with potassium channel kinetics to enhance energy savings. Nav channels show adaptive sequence evolution for increasing diversity in communication signals (electric fish), in protection against lethal Nav channel toxins (snakes, newts, pufferfish, insects), and in specialized habitats (naked mole rats).

  10. Increasing negativity of age stereotypes across 200 years: evidence from a database of 400 million words.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reuben Ng

    Full Text Available Scholars argue about whether age stereotypes (beliefs about old people are becoming more negative or positive over time. No previous study has systematically tested the trend of age stereotypes over more than 20 years, due to lack of suitable data. Our aim was to fill this gap by investigating whether age stereotypes have changed over the last two centuries and, if so, what may be associated with this change. We hypothesized that age stereotypes have increased in negativity due, in part, to the increasing medicalization of aging. This study applied computational linguistics to the recently compiled Corpus of Historical American English (COHA, a database of 400 million words that includes a range of printed sources from 1810 to 2009. After generating a comprehensive list of synonyms for the term elderly for these years from two historical thesauri, we identified 100 collocates (words that co-occurred most frequently with these synonyms for each of the 20 decades. Inclusion criteria for the collocates were: (1 appeared within four words of the elderly synonym, (2 referred to an old person, and (3 had a stronger association with the elderly synonym than other words appearing in the database for that decade. This yielded 13,100 collocates that were rated for negativity and medicalization. We found that age stereotypes have become more negative in a linear way over 200 years. In 1880, age stereotypes switched from being positive to being negative. In addition, support was found for two potential explanations. Medicalization of aging and the growing proportion of the population over the age of 65 were both significantly associated with the increase in negative age stereotypes. The upward trajectory of age-stereotype negativity makes a case for remedial action on a societal level.

  11. Hypertension Vaccine may be a boon to millions in developing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bairwa, Mohan; Pilania, Manju; Gupta, Vivek; Yadav, Kapil

    2014-01-01

    Hypertension affects around 40% adults aged 25 years and more worldwide, and accounts for 7% of total disability-adjusted life-years. A simple algorithmic program is required to manage hypertension consisting of screening, life style measures, treatment and follow-up, a reliable drug supply and distribution system, and a credible health information system. Despite availability of effective antihypertensive drugs, long term treatment is still costly, tedious, and at the population level rather unsuccessful. Hypertension leaves patients and families with an avoidable heavy economic burden due to failure to control blood pressure. Health policy needs to address gross imbalance between prevention and management by increasing contribution to the preventive programs. During 21st century, the risk factors for morbidity and mortality have been changed, and researchers have started to work upon vaccines against lifestyle diseases like hypertension, diabetes etc. Researchers began experimenting with vaccines against the renin-angiotensin system to control hypertension around six decades ago. The vaccine candidates against hypertension namely ATR12181, pHAV-4Ang IIs, CYT006-AngQb, AngI-R, ATRQβ-001 have shown promising results. A candidate vaccine, CYT006-AngQb, has crossed initial phase and moved into phase 2 trials. However, more human studies in subsequent phases of trials are required to establish the safety and efficacy of anti-hypertensive vaccine. If proved safe and cost effective, a vaccine even with 50% efficacy against hypertension may protect about 90 million people from hypertension and its heavy economic burden. It can be an appropriate solution for low compliance to antihypertensive drug therapy as well as an avalanche to induce efforts on various chronic disease vaccine development programs.

  12. Predicting the electronic properties of 3D, million-atom semiconductor nanostructure architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zunger, A.; Franceschetti, A.; Bester, G.; Jones, W. B.; Kim, Kwiseon; Graf, P. A.; Wang, L.-W.; Canning, A.; Marques, O.; Voemel, C.; Dongarra, J.; Langou, J.; Tomov, S.

    2006-09-01

    The past ~10 years have witnessed revolutionary breakthroughs both in synthesis of quantum dots (leading to nearly monodispersed, defect-free nanostructures) and in characterization of such systems, revealing ultra narrow spectroscopic lines of quantum entanglement, multiexciton recombination and more. These discoveries have led to new technological applications including quantum computing and ultra-high efficiency solar cells. Our work in this project is based on two realizations/observations: First, that the dots exhibiting clean and rich spectroscopic and transport characteristics are rather big. Indeed, the phenomenology indicated above is exhibited only by the well-passivated defect-free quantum dots containing at least a few thousand atoms (colloidal) and even a few hundred thousand atoms (self assembled). Understanding the behavior of nanotechnology devices requires the study of even larger, million-atom systems composed of multiple components such as wires+dots+films. Second, first-principles many-body computational techniques based on current approaches (Quantum Monte-Carlo, GW, Bethe-Salpeter) are unlikely to be adaptable to such large structures and, at the same time, the effective mass-based techniques are too crude to provide insights on the many-body/atomistic phenomenology revealed by experiment. Thus, we have developed a set of methods that use an atomistic approach (unlike effective-mass based techniques) and utilize single-particle + many body techniques that are readily scalable to ~103-106 atom nanostructures. New mathematical and computational techniques have also been developed to accelerate our calculations and go beyond simple conjugate gradient based methods allowing us to study larger systems. In this short paper based on a poster presented at the DOE SciDAC06 conference we will present the overall structure as well as highlights of our computational nanoscience project.

  13. What Does It Take to Develop a Million Lines of Open Source Code?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Ramil, Juan; Izquierdo-Cortazar, Daniel; Mens, Tom

    This article presents a preliminary and exploratory study of the relationship between size, on the one hand, and effort, duration and team size, on the other, for 11 Free/Libre/Open Source Software (FLOSS) projects with current size ranging between between 0.6 and 5.3 million lines of code (MLOC). Effort was operationalised based on the number of active committers per month. The extracted data did not fit well an early version of the closed-source cost estimation model COCOMO for proprietary software, overall suggesting that, at least to some extent, FLOSS communities are more productive than closed-source teams. This also motivated the need for FLOSS-specific effort models. As a first approximation, we evaluated 16 linear regression models involving different pairs of attributes. One of our experiments was to calculate the net size, that is, to remove any suspiciously large outliers or jumps in the growth trends. The best model we found involved effort against net size, accounting for 79 percent of the variance. This model was based on data excluding a possible outlier (Eclipse), the largest project in our sample. This suggests that different effort models may be needed for certain categories of FLOSS projects. Incidentally, for each of the 11 individual FLOSS projects we were able to model the net size trends with very high accuracy (R 2 ≥ 0.98). Of the 11 projects, 3 have grown superlinearly, 5 linearly and 3 sublinearly, suggesting that in the majority of the cases accumulated complexity is either well controlled or don’t constitute a growth constraining factor.

  14. MILLIONS OF MULTIPLES: DETECTING AND CHARACTERIZING CLOSE-SEPARATION BINARY SYSTEMS IN SYNOPTIC SKY SURVEYS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terziev, Emil; Law, Nicholas M. [Dunlap Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H4 (Canada); Arcavi, Iair [Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Baranec, Christoph; Bui, Khanh; Dekany, Richard G.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Riddle, Reed; Tendulkar, Shriharsh P. [Cahill Center for Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bloom, Joshua S. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Burse, Mahesh P.; Chorida, Pravin; Das, H. K.; Punnadi, Sujit; Ramaprakash, A. N. [Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007 (India); Kraus, Adam L. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Nugent, Peter [Computational Cosmology Center, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Ofek, Eran O. [Benoziyo Center for Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100 Rehovot (Israel); Sullivan, Mark, E-mail: emil.terziev@utoronto.ca [Department of Physics (Astrophysics), University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom)

    2013-06-01

    The direct detection of binary systems in wide-field surveys is limited by the size of the stars' point-spread functions (PSFs). A search for elongated objects can find closer companions, but is limited by the precision to which the PSF shape can be calibrated for individual stars. Based on a technique from weak-lensing analysis, we have developed the BinaryFinder algorithm to search for close binaries by using precision measurements of PSF ellipticity across wide-field survey images. We show that the algorithm is capable of reliably detecting binary systems down to Almost-Equal-To 1/5 of the seeing limit, and can directly measure the systems' position angles, separations, and contrast ratios. To verify the algorithm's performance we evaluated 100,000 objects in Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) wide-field-survey data for signs of binarity, and then used the Robo-AO robotic laser adaptive optics system to verify the parameters of 44 high-confidence targets. We show that BinaryFinder correctly predicts the presence of close companions with a <11% false-positive rate, measures the detected binaries' position angles within 1 Degree-Sign to 4 Degree-Sign (depending on signal-to-noise ratio and separation), and separations within 25%, and weakly constrains their contrast ratios. When applied to the full PTF data set, we estimate that BinaryFinder will discover and characterize {approx}450,000 physically associated binary systems with separations <2 arcsec and magnitudes brighter than m{sub R} = 18. New wide-field synoptic surveys with high sensitivity and sub-arcsecond angular resolution, such as LSST, will allow BinaryFinder to reliably detect millions of very faint binary systems with separations as small as 0.1 arcsec.

  15. Fossilized biophotonic nanostructures reveal the original colors of 47-million-year-old moths.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria E McNamara

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Structural colors are generated by scattering of light by variations in tissue nanostructure. They are widespread among animals and have been studied most extensively in butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera, which exhibit the widest diversity of photonic nanostructures, resultant colors, and visual effects of any extant organism. The evolution of structural coloration in lepidopterans, however, is poorly understood. Existing hypotheses based on phylogenetic and/or structural data are controversial and do not incorporate data from fossils. Here we report the first example of structurally colored scales in fossil lepidopterans; specimens are from the 47-million-year-old Messel oil shale (Germany. The preserved colors are generated by a multilayer reflector comprised of a stack of perforated laminae in the scale lumen; differently colored scales differ in their ultrastructure. The original colors were altered during fossilization but are reconstructed based upon preserved ultrastructural detail. The dorsal surface of the forewings was a yellow-green color that probably served as a dual-purpose defensive signal, i.e. aposematic during feeding and cryptic at rest. This visual signal was enhanced by suppression of iridescence (change in hue with viewing angle achieved via two separate optical mechanisms: extensive perforation, and concave distortion, of the multilayer reflector. The fossils provide the first evidence, to our knowledge, for the function of structural color in fossils and demonstrate the feasibility of reconstructing color in non-metallic lepidopteran fossils. Plastic scale developmental processes and complex optical mechanisms for interspecific signaling had clearly evolved in lepidopterans by the mid-Eocene.

  16. Creating a potential $5 million revenue gain from hydropower turbines using computational fluid dynamics simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masse, B.

    2001-07-01

    By modifying the runner at the blade trailing edge in the draft tube elbow Hydro-Quebec was able to improve the efficiency of hydropower turbines and through computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations achieve revenue gains of between $200,000 and $500,000 per year for each of twelve turbines at one of its plants. The revenue gains were made possible by these modifications, validated by simulations. Power output was raised by 7.8 MW and weighted turbine efficiency by 1.6 per cent. The FIDAP CFD code from Fluent Incorporated, Lebanon, New Hampshire, was used as one of the modeling and analysis tools. This software package uses the finite element approach, and has the advantage of using non-structured grids which provide greater flexibility in modeling the complex and irregular geometries involved in hydropower turbines. The presence of a large eddy in the draft tube elbow was discovered and considered to be the cause of the less than expected hydraulic efficiency of the twelve identical hydro turbines. Water flow between the runner and the draft tube was improved by modification of the runner outlet and the design of a new trailing edge. Significant increase in efficiency at all operating conditions was the result which was confirmed by parametric study on the draft tube flow. This application of CFD simulations provides an excellent illustration of how CFD can identify hydropower problems and help develop alternatives to improve machine performance. The revenue gains resulting from the modifications to reduce the eddy in the runner and the draft tube elbow have been validated in one turbine and the design changes are in the process of being implemented on the other eleven turbines for a combined potential revenue gain in the order of $5 million per year. 3 figs.

  17. Intron distribution in Plantae: 500 million years of stasis during land plant evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teich, René; Grauvogel, Carina; Petersen, Jörn

    2007-06-01

    Little is known about the evolution of the intron-exon organization in the more primitive groups of land plants, and the intron distribution among Plantae (glauco-, rhodo-, chloro- and streptophytes) has not been investigated so far. The present study is focused on some key species such as the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha, representing the most ancient lineage of land plants, and the streptophycean green alga Mesostigma viride, branching prior to charophycean green algae and terrestrial plants. The intron distribution of six genes for sugar phosphate metabolism was analyzed including four different glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenases (GAPDH), the sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase (SBP) and the glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI). We established 15 new sequences including three cDNA and twelve genomic clones with up to 24 introns per gene, which were identified in the GPI of Marchantia. The intron patterns of all six genes are completely conserved among seed plants, lycopods, mosses and even liverworts. This intron stasis without any gain of novel introns seem to last for nearly 500 million years and may be characteristic for land plants in general. Some unique intron positions in Mesostigma document that a uniform distribution is no common trait of all streptophytes, but it may correlate with the transition to terrestrial habitats. However, the respective genes of chlorophycean green algae display largely different patterns, thus indicating at least one phase of massive intron rearrangement in the green lineage. We moreover included rhodophyte and glaucophyte reference sequences in our analyses and, even if the well documented monophyly of Plantae is not reflected by a uniform intron distribution, at least one GPI intron is strictly conserved for 1.5 billion years.

  18. Identifying concerted evolution and gene conversion in mammalian gene pairs lasting over 100 million years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scherer Stephen W

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Concerted evolution occurs in multigene families and is characterized by stretches of homogeneity and higher sequence similarity between paralogues than between orthologues. Here we identify human gene pairs that have undergone concerted evolution, caused by ongoing gene conversion, since at least the human-mouse divergence. Our strategy involved the identification of duplicated genes with greater similarity within a species than between species. These genes were required to be present in multiple mammalian genomes, suggesting duplication early in mammalian divergence. To eliminate genes that have been conserved due to strong purifying selection, our analysis also required at least one intron to have retained high sequence similarity between paralogues. Results We identified three human gene pairs undergoing concerted evolution (BMP8A/B, DDX19A/B, and TUBG1/2. Phylogenetic investigations reveal that in each case the duplication appears to have occurred prior to eutherian mammalian radiation, with exactly two paralogues present in all examined species. This indicates that all three gene duplication events were established over 100 million years ago. Conclusion The extended duration of concerted evolution in multiple distant lineages suggests that there has been prolonged homogenization of specific segments within these gene pairs. Although we speculate that selection for homogenization could have been utilized in order to maintain crucial homo- or hetero- binding domains, it remains unclear why gene conversion has persisted for such extended periods of time. Through these analyses, our results demonstrate additional examples of a process that plays a definite, although unspecified, role in molecular evolution.

  19. How to record a million synaptic weights in a hippocampal slice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upinder S Bhalla

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A key step toward understanding the function of a brain circuit is to find its wiring diagram. New methods for optical stimulation and optical recording of neurons make it possible to map circuit connectivity on a very large scale. However, single synapses produce small responses that are difficult to measure on a large scale. Here I analyze how single synaptic responses may be detectable using relatively coarse readouts such as optical recording of somatic calcium. I model a network consisting of 10,000 input axons and 100 CA1 pyramidal neurons, each represented using 19 compartments with voltage-gated channels and calcium dynamics. As single synaptic inputs cannot produce a measurable somatic calcium response, I stimulate many inputs as a baseline to elicit somatic action potentials leading to a strong calcium signal. I compare statistics of responses with or without a single axonal input riding on this baseline. Through simulations I show that a single additional input shifts the distribution of the number of output action potentials. Stochastic resonance due to probabilistic synaptic release makes this shift easier to detect. With approximately 80 stimulus repetitions this approach can resolve up to 35% of individual activated synapses even in the presence of 20% recording noise. While the technique is applicable using conventional electrical stimulation and extracellular recording, optical methods promise much greater scaling, since the number of synapses scales as the product of the number of inputs and outputs. I extrapolate from current high-speed optical stimulation and recording methods, and show that this approach may scale up to the order of a million synapses in a single two-hour slice-recording experiment.

  20. How to record a million synaptic weights in a hippocampal slice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, Upinder S

    2008-06-20

    A key step toward understanding the function of a brain circuit is to find its wiring diagram. New methods for optical stimulation and optical recording of neurons make it possible to map circuit connectivity on a very large scale. However, single synapses produce small responses that are difficult to measure on a large scale. Here I analyze how single synaptic responses may be detectable using relatively coarse readouts such as optical recording of somatic calcium. I model a network consisting of 10,000 input axons and 100 CA1 pyramidal neurons, each represented using 19 compartments with voltage-gated channels and calcium dynamics. As single synaptic inputs cannot produce a measurable somatic calcium response, I stimulate many inputs as a baseline to elicit somatic action potentials leading to a strong calcium signal. I compare statistics of responses with or without a single axonal input riding on this baseline. Through simulations I show that a single additional input shifts the distribution of the number of output action potentials. Stochastic resonance due to probabilistic synaptic release makes this shift easier to detect. With approximately 80 stimulus repetitions this approach can resolve up to 35% of individual activated synapses even in the presence of 20% recording noise. While the technique is applicable using conventional electrical stimulation and extracellular recording, optical methods promise much greater scaling, since the number of synapses scales as the product of the number of inputs and outputs. I extrapolate from current high-speed optical stimulation and recording methods, and show that this approach may scale up to the order of a million synapses in a single two-hour slice-recording experiment.

  1. The evolutionary and genetic origins of consciousness in the Cambrian Period over 500 million years ago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd E Feinberg

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Vertebrates evolved in the Cambrian Period before 520 million years ago, but we do not know when or how consciousness arose in the history of the vertebrate brain. Here we propose multiple levels of isomorphic or somatotopic neural representations as an objective marker for sensory consciousness. All extant vertebrates have these, so we deduce that consciousness extends back to the group’s origin. The first conscious sense may have been vision. Then vision, coupled with additional sensory systems derived from ectodermal placodes and neural crest, transformed primitive reflexive systems into image forming brains that map and perceive the external world and the body’s interior. We posit that the minimum requirement for sensory consciousness and qualia is a brain including a forebrain (but not necessarily a developed cerebral cortex/pallium, midbrain and hindbrain. This brain must also have 1 hierarchical systems of intercommunicating, isomorphically organized, processing nuclei that extensively integrate the different senses into representations that emerge in upper levels of the neural hierarchy; and 2 a widespread reticular formation that integrates the sensory inputs and contributes to attention, awareness, and neural synchronization. We propose a two-step evolutionary history, in which the optic tectum was the original center of multi-sensory conscious perception (as in fish and amphibians: step 1, followed by a gradual shift of this center to the dorsal pallium or its cerebral cortex (in mammals, reptiles, birds: step 2. We address objections to the hypothesis and call for more studies of fish and amphibians. In our view, the lamprey has all the neural requisites and is likely the simplest extant vertebrate with sensory consciousness and qualia. Genes that pattern the proposed elements of consciousness (isomorphism, neural crest, placodes have been identified in all vertebrates. Thus, consciousness is in the genes, some of which are

  2. Conserved metallomics in two insect families evolving separately for a hundred million years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rempoulakis, Polychronis; Afshar, Negar; Osorio, Beatriz; Barajas-Aceves, Martha; Szular, Joanna; Ahmad, Sohel; Dammalage, Thilakasiri; Tomas, Ulysses Sto; Nemny-Lavy, Esther; Salomon, Mor; Vreysen, Marc J B; Nestel, David; Missirlis, Fanis

    2014-12-01

    Μetal cofactors are required for enzymatic catalysis and structural stability of many proteins. Physiological metal requirements underpin the evolution of cellular and systemic regulatory mechanisms for metal uptake, storage and excretion. Considering the role of metal biology in animal evolution, this paper asks whether metal content is conserved between different fruit flies. A similar metal homeostasis was previously observed in Drosophilidae flies cultivated on the same larval medium. Each species accumulated in the order of 200 µg iron and zinc and approximately ten-fold less manganese and copper per gram dry weight of the adult insect. In this paper, data on the metal content in fourteen species of Tephritidae, which are major agricultural pests worldwide, are presented. These fruit flies can be polyphagous (e.g., Ceratitis capitata) or strictly monophagous (e.g., Bactrocera oleae) or oligophagous (e.g., Anastrepha grandis) and were maintained in the laboratory on five distinct diets based on olive oil, carrot, wheat bran, zucchini and molasses, respectively. The data indicate that overall metal content and distribution between the Tephritidae and Drosophilidae species was similar. Reduced metal concentration was observed in B. oleae. Feeding the polyphagous C. capitata with the diet of B. oleae resulted in a significant quantitative reduction of all metals. Thus, dietary components affect metal content in some Tephritidae. Nevertheless, although the evidence suggests some fruit fly species evolved preferences in the use or storage of particular metals, no metal concentration varied in order of magnitude between these two families of Diptera that evolved independently for over 100 million years.

  3. A new glimpse on Mesozoic zooplankton—150 million-year-old lobster larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Carolin

    2017-01-01

    Larvae of malacostracan crustaceans represent a large fraction of modern day zooplankton. Plankton is not only a major part of the modern marine ecosystem, but must have played an important role in the ecosystems of the past as well. Unfortunately, our knowledge about plankton composition of the past is still quite limited. As an important part of today’s zooplankton, malacostracan larvae are still a rarity in the fossil record; many types of malacostracan larvae dominating the modern plankton have so far not been found as fossils. Here we report a new type of fossil malacostracan larva, found in the 150 million years old lithographic limestones of southern Germany (Solnhofen Lithographic Limestones). The three rather incomplete specimens mainly preserve the telson. A pronounced middle spine on the posterior edge of these specimens indicates that they are either larval forms of a clawed lobster or of an axiidean lobster, or of a closer relative to one of the two groups. The tergo-pleura are drawn out into distinct spines in one specimen, further supporting the interpretation as a larva of a clawed lobster or an early relative. The telson morphology also shows adaptations to a prolonged planktic life style, the latero-posterior edges are drawn out into distinct spines. Similar adaptations are known in larvae of the modern homarid lobster Nephrops norvegicus, not necessarily indicating a closer relationship, but convergent life styles. The new finds provide an important new insight into the composition of Mesozoic zooplankton and demonstrate the preservation potential of lithographic limestones. PMID:28168123

  4. Conserved form and function of the germinal epithelium through 500 million years of vertebrate evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grier, Harry J; Uribe, Mari Carmen; Lo Nostro, Fabiana L; Mims, Steven D; Parenti, Lynne R

    2016-08-01

    The germinal epithelium, i.e., the site of germ cell production in males and females, has maintained a constant form and function throughout 500 million years of vertebrate evolution. The distinguishing characteristic of germinal epithelia among all vertebrates, males, and females, is the presence of germ cells among somatic epithelial cells. The somatic epithelial cells, Sertoli cells in males or follicle (granulosa) cells in females, encompass and isolate germ cells. Morphology of all vertebrate germinal epithelia conforms to the standard definition of an epithelium: epithelial cells are interconnected, border a body surface or lumen, are avascular and are supported by a basement membrane. Variation in morphology of gonads, which develop from the germinal epithelium, is correlated with the evolution of reproductive modes. In hagfishes, lampreys, and elasmobranchs, the germinal epithelia of males produce spermatocysts. A major rearrangement of testis morphology diagnoses osteichthyans: the spermatocysts are arranged in tubules or lobules. In protogynous (female to male) sex reversal in teleost fishes, female germinal epithelial cells (prefollicle cells) and oogonia transform into the first male somatic cells (Sertoli cells) and spermatogonia in the developing testis lobules. This common origin of cell types from the germinal epithelium in fishes with protogynous sex reversal supports the homology of Sertoli cells and follicle cells. Spermatogenesis in amphibians develops within spermatocysts in testis lobules. In amniotes vertebrates, the testis is composed of seminiferous tubules wherein spermatogenesis occurs radially. Emerging research indicates that some mammals do not have lifetime determinate fecundity. The fact emerged that germinal epithelia occur in the gonads of all vertebrates examined herein of both sexes and has the same form and function across all vertebrate taxa. Continued study of the form and function of the germinal epithelium in vertebrates

  5. Changes in southern hemispheric polar amplification over the past 5 million years revealed by climate modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoencamp, Jori; Stap, Lennert; Tuenter, Erik; Lourens, Luc; van de Wal, Roderik

    2016-04-01

    Knowledge on polar amplification is important to relate high latitude climate records to global mean temperature changes. Several studies have pointed out that the strength of polar amplification in the Northern Hemisphere varies considerably due to the presence of large ice sheets and more sea ice during colder climate conditions. As a result, the polar amplification in the Northern Hemisphere decreases for warmer climates. In this study, we address the fact that these changes in the Northern Hemisphere also affect the polar amplification in the Southern Hemisphere. We study the Southern and Northern Hemisphere amplification together over the past 5 million years with the CLIMBER-2 intermediate complexity model. Radiation, land ice extent and height, and greenhouse gases are prescribed as forcing. We find that in contrast to the reduction in polar amplification in the Northern Hemisphere, polar amplification in the Southern Hemisphere increases for warmer climates. The amplification decreases in the Northern Hemisphere from 2.7 during glacial conditions to 1.6 for a pre-industrial climate, which is line with other climate simulations. Over the same CO2 range the southern hemispheric polar amplification increases from 1 to 1.6. This is caused by the fact that the atmospheric transport needed to balance the radiation surplus in the equatorial region needs to be compensated by relatively stronger transport of energy in Southern direction while the transport in Northern direction reduces. This reduction in Northern direction is driven by less (land and sea) ice resulting in a smaller meridional gradient in Northern direction and hence a smaller atmospheric transport. As a consequence, the traditional scaled (with LGM temperature) Dome C record needs to be corrected with a maximum of 0.6 degrees half-way glacial and interglacial conditions, if it is to be interpreted as global mean temperature change indicator. While this changes the amplitude, the phasing of

  6. WISE × SuperCOSMOS Photometric Redshift Catalog: 20 Million Galaxies over 3/pi Steradians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilicki, Maciej; Peacock, John A.; Jarrett, Thomas H.; Cluver, Michelle E.; Maddox, Natasha; Brown, Michael J. I.; Taylor, Edward N.; Hambly, Nigel C.; Solarz, Aleksandra; Holwerda, Benne W.; Baldry, Ivan; Loveday, Jon; Moffett, Amanda; Hopkins, Andrew M.; Driver, Simon P.; Alpaslan, Mehmet; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss

    2016-07-01

    We cross-match the two currently largest all-sky photometric catalogs—mid-infrared Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer and SuperCOSMOS scans of UKST/POSS-II photographic plates—to obtain a new galaxy sample that covers 3π steradians. In order to characterize and purify the extragalactic data set, we use external GAMA and Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectroscopic information to define quasar and star loci in multicolor space, aiding the removal of contamination from our extended source catalog. After appropriate data cleaning, we obtain a deep wide-angle galaxy sample that is approximately 95% pure and 90% complete at high Galactic latitudes. The catalog contains close to 20 million galaxies over almost 70% of the sky, outside the Zone of Avoidance and other confused regions, with a mean surface density of more than 650 sources per square degree. Using multiwavelength information from two optical and two mid-IR photometric bands, we derive photometric redshifts for all the galaxies in the catalog, using the ANNz framework trained on the final GAMA-II spectroscopic data. Our sample has a median redshift of {z}{med}=0.2, with a broad {dN}/{dz} reaching up to z > 0.4. The photometric redshifts have a mean bias of | δ z| ˜ {10}-3, a normalized scatter of σ z = 0.033, and less than 3% outliers beyond 3σ z . Comparison with external data sets shows no significant variation of photo-z quality with sky position. Together with the overall statistics, we also provide a more detailed analysis of photometric redshift accuracy as a function of magnitudes and colors. The final catalog is appropriate for “all-sky” three-dimensional (3D) cosmology to unprecedented depths, in particular through cross-correlations with other large-area surveys. It should also be useful for source preselection and identification in forthcoming surveys, such as TAIPAN or WALLABY.

  7. Safety of intracoronary infusion of 20 million C-kit positive human cardiac stem cells in pigs.

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    Matthew C L Keith

    Full Text Available There is mounting interest in using c-kit positive human cardiac stem cells (c-kit(pos hCSCs to repair infarcted myocardium in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy. A recent phase I clinical trial (SCIPIO has shown that intracoronary infusion of 1 million hCSCs is safe. Higher doses of CSCs may provide superior reparative ability; however, it is unknown if doses >1 million cells are safe. To address this issue, we examined the effects of 20 million hCSCs in pigs.Right atrial appendage samples were obtained from patients undergoing cardiac surgery. The tissue was processed by an established protocol with eventual immunomagnetic sorting to obtain in vitro expanded hCSCs. A cumulative dose of 20 million cells was given intracoronarily to pigs without stop flow. Safety was assessed by measurement of serial biomarkers (cardiac: troponin I and CK-MB, renal: creatinine and BUN, and hepatic: AST, ALT, and alkaline phosphatase and echocardiography pre- and post-infusion. hCSC retention 30 days after infusion was quantified by PCR for human genomic DNA. All personnel were blinded as to group assignment.Compared with vehicle-treated controls (n=5, pigs that received 20 million hCSCs (n=9 showed no significant change in cardiac function or end organ damage (assessed by organ specific biomarkers that could be attributed to hCSCs (P>0.05 in all cases. No hCSCs could be detected in left ventricular samples 30 days after infusion.Intracoronary infusion of 20 million c-kit positive hCSCs in pigs (equivalent to ~40 million hCSCs in humans does not cause acute cardiac injury, impairment of cardiac function, or liver and renal injury. These results have immediate translational value and lay the groundwork for using doses of CSCs >1 million in future clinical trials. Further studies are needed to ascertain whether administration of >1 million hCSCs is associated with greater efficacy in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy.

  8. A quarter-million years of paleoenvironmental change at Bear Lake, Utah and Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, D.S.; Bright, Jordon; Dean, W.E.; Rosenbaum, J.G.; Moser, K.; Anderson, R. Scott; Colman, Steven M.; Heil, C.W.; Jiménez-Moreno, Gonzalo; Reheis, M.C.; Simmons, K.R.

    2009-01-01

    A continuous, 120-m-long core (BL00-1) from Bear Lake, Utah and Idaho, contains evidence of hydrologic and environmental change over the last two glacial-interglacial cycles. The core was taken at 41.95??N, 111.31??W, near the depocenter of the 60-m-deep, spring-fed, alkaline lake, where carbonate-bearing sediment has accumulated continuously. Chronological control is poor but indicates an average sedimentation rate of 0.54 mm yr-1. Analyses have been completed at multi-centennial to millennial scales, including (in order of decreasing temporal resolution) sediment magnetic properties, oxygen and carbon isotopes on bulk-sediment carbonate, organic- and inorganiccarbon contents, palynology; mineralogy (X-ray diffraction), strontium isotopes on bulk carbonate, ostracode taxonomy, oxygen and carbon isotopes on ostracodes, and diatom assemblages. Massive silty clay and marl constitute most of the core, with variable carbonate content (average = 31 ?? 19%) and oxygen-isotopic values (??18O ranging from -18??? to -5??? in bulk carbonate). These variations, as well as fluctuations of biological indicators, reflect changes in the water and sediment discharged from the glaciated headwaters of the dominant tributary, Bear River, and the processes that influenced sediment delivery to the core site, including lake-level changes. Although its influence has varied, Bear River has remained a tributary to Bear Lake during most of the last quarter-million years. The lake disconnected from the river and, except for a few brief excursions, retracted into a topographically closed basin during global interglaciations (during parts of marine isotope stages 7, 5, and 1). These intervals contain up to 80% endogenic aragonite with high ??18O values (average = -5.8 ?? 1.7???), indicative of strongly evaporitic conditions. Interglacial intervals also are dominated by small, benthic/tychoplanktic fragilarioid species indicative of reduced habitat availability associated with low lake levels

  9. Gaia Data Release 1. Astrometry: one billion positions, two million proper motions and parallaxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindegren, L.; Lammers, U.; Bastian, U.; Hernández, J.; Klioner, S.; Hobbs, D.; Bombrun, A.; Michalik, D.; Ramos-Lerate, M.; Butkevich, A.; Comoretto, G.; Joliet, E.; Holl, B.; Hutton, A.; Parsons, P.; Steidelmüller, H.; Abbas, U.; Altmann, M.; Andrei, A.; Anton, S.; Bach, N.; Barache, C.; Becciani, U.; Berthier, J.; Bianchi, L.; Biermann, M.; Bouquillon, S.; Bourda, G.; Brüsemeister, T.; Bucciarelli, B.; Busonero, D.; Carlucci, T.; Castañeda, J.; Charlot, P.; Clotet, M.; Crosta, M.; Davidson, M.; de Felice, F.; Drimmel, R.; Fabricius, C.; Fienga, A.; Figueras, F.; Fraile, E.; Gai, M.; Garralda, N.; Geyer, R.; González-Vidal, J. J.; Guerra, R.; Hambly, N. C.; Hauser, M.; Jordan, S.; Lattanzi, M. G.; Lenhardt, H.; Liao, S.; Löffler, W.; McMillan, P. J.; Mignard, F.; Mora, A.; Morbidelli, R.; Portell, J.; Riva, A.; Sarasso, M.; Serraller, I.; Siddiqui, H.; Smart, R.; Spagna, A.; Stampa, U.; Steele, I.; Taris, F.; Torra, J.; van Reeven, W.; Vecchiato, A.; Zschocke, S.; de Bruijne, J.; Gracia, G.; Raison, F.; Lister, T.; Marchant, J.; Messineo, R.; Soffel, M.; Osorio, J.; de Torres, A.; O'Mullane, W.

    2016-11-01

    Context. Gaia Data Release 1 (DR1) contains astrometric results for more than 1 billion stars brighter than magnitude 20.7 based on observations collected by the Gaia satellite during the first 14 months of its operational phase. Aims: We give a brief overview of the astrometric content of the data release and of the model assumptions, data processing, and validation of the results. Methods: For stars in common with the Hipparcos and Tycho-2 catalogues, complete astrometric single-star solutions are obtained by incorporating positional information from the earlier catalogues. For other stars only their positions are obtained, essentially by neglecting their proper motions and parallaxes. The results are validated by an analysis of the residuals, through special validation runs, and by comparison with external data. Results: For about two million of the brighter stars (down to magnitude 11.5) we obtain positions, parallaxes, and proper motions to Hipparcos-type precision or better. For these stars, systematic errors depending for example on position and colour are at a level of ± 0.3 milliarcsecond (mas). For the remaining stars we obtain positions at epoch J2015.0 accurate to 10 mas. Positions and proper motions are given in a reference frame that is aligned with the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF) to better than 0.1 mas at epoch J2015.0, and non-rotating with respect to ICRF to within 0.03 mas yr-1. The Hipparcos reference frame is found to rotate with respect to the Gaia DR1 frame at a rate of 0.24 mas yr-1. Conclusions: Based on less than a quarter of the nominal mission length and on very provisional and incomplete calibrations, the quality and completeness of the astrometric data in Gaia DR1 are far from what is expected for the final mission products. The present results nevertheless represent a huge improvement in the available fundamental stellar data and practical definition of the optical reference frame.

  10. On the state-dependency of the equilibrium climate sensitivity during the last 5 million years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Köhler

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A still open question is how equilibrium warming in response to increasing radiative forcing – the specific equilibrium climate sensitivity S – is depending on background climate. We here present paleo-data based evidence on the state-dependency of S, by using CO2 proxy data together with 3-D ice-sheet model-based reconstruction of land ice albedo over the last 5 million years (Myr. We find that the land-ice albedo forcing depends non-linearly on the background climate, while any non-linearity of CO2 radiative forcing depends on the CO2 data set used. This non-linearity was in similar approaches not accounted for due to previously more simplistic approximations of land-ice albedo radiative forcing being a linear function of sea level change. Important for the non-linearity between land-ice albedo and sea level is a latitudinal dependency in ice sheet area changes.In our setup, in which the radiative forcing of CO2 and of the land-ice albedo (LI is combined, we find a state-dependency in the calculated specific equilibrium climate sensitivity S[CO2,LI] for most of the Pleistocene (last 2.1 Myr. During Pleistocene intermediate glaciated climates and interglacial periods S[CO2,LI] is on average ∼ 45 % larger than during Pleistocene full glacial conditions. In the Pliocene part of our analysis (2.6–5 Myr BP the CO2 data uncertainties prevents a well-supported calculation for S[CO2,LI], but our analysis suggests that during times without a large land-ice area in the Northern Hemisphere (e.g. before 2.82 Myr BP the specific equilibrium climate sensitivity S[CO2,LI] was smaller than during interglacials of the Pleistocene. We thus find support for a previously proposed state-change in the climate system with the wide appearance of northern hemispheric ice sheets. This study points for the first time to a so far overlooked non-linearity in the land-ice albedo radiative forcing, which is important for similar paleo data-based approaches to

  11. The COSMOS2015 Catalog: Exploring the 1 < z < 6 Universe with Half a Million Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laigle, C.; McCracken, H. J.; Ilbert, O.; Hsieh, B. C.; Davidzon, I.; Capak, P.; Hasinger, G.; Silverman, J. D.; Pichon, C.; Coupon, J.; Aussel, H.; Le Borgne, D.; Caputi, K.; Cassata, P.; Chang, Y.-Y.; Civano, F.; Dunlop, J.; Fynbo, J.; Kartaltepe, J. S.; Koekemoer, A.; Le Fèvre, O.; Le Floc'h, E.; Leauthaud, A.; Lilly, S.; Lin, L.; Marchesi, S.; Milvang-Jensen, B.; Salvato, M.; Sanders, D. B.; Scoville, N.; Smolcic, V.; Stockmann, M.; Taniguchi, Y.; Tasca, L.; Toft, S.; Vaccari, Mattia; Zabl, J.

    2016-06-01

    We present the COSMOS201524 catalog, which contains precise photometric redshifts and stellar masses for more than half a million objects over the 2deg2 COSMOS field. Including new {{YJHK}}{{s}} images from the UltraVISTA-DR2 survey, Y-band images from Subaru/Hyper-Suprime-Cam, and infrared data from the Spitzer Large Area Survey with the Hyper-Suprime-Cam Spitzer legacy program, this near-infrared-selected catalog is highly optimized for the study of galaxy evolution and environments in the early universe. To maximize catalog completeness for bluer objects and at higher redshifts, objects have been detected on a χ 2 sum of the {{YJHK}}{{s}} and z ++ images. The catalog contains ˜ 6× {10}5 objects in the 1.5 deg2 UltraVISTA-DR2 region and ˜ 1.5× {10}5 objects are detected in the “ultra-deep stripes” (0.62 deg2) at {K}{{s}}≤slant 24.7 (3σ, 3″, AB magnitude). Through a comparison with the zCOSMOS-bright spectroscopic redshifts, we measure a photometric redshift precision of {σ }{{Δ }z/(1+{z}s)} = 0.007 and a catastrophic failure fraction of η = 0.5%. At 3\\lt z\\lt 6, using the unique database of spectroscopic redshifts in COSMOS, we find {σ }{{Δ }z/(1+{z}s)} = 0.021 and η = 13.2 % . The deepest regions reach a 90% completeness limit of {10}10{M}⊙ to z = 4. Detailed comparisons of the color distributions, number counts, and clustering show excellent agreement with the literature in the same mass ranges. COSMOS2015 represents a unique, publicly available, valuable resource with which to investigate the evolution of galaxies within their environment back to the earliest stages of the history of the universe. The COSMOS2015 catalog is distributed via anonymous ftp and through the usual astronomical archive systems (CDS, ESO Phase 3, IRSA).

  12. Reconstructing the tectonic history of Fennoscandia from its margins: The past 100 million years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muir Wood, R. [EQE International Ltd (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-01

    In the absence of onland late Mesozoic and Cenozoic geological formations the tectonic history of the Baltic Shield over the past 100 million years can be reconstructed from the thick sedimentary basins that surround Fennoscandia on three sides. Tectonic activity around Fennoscandia through this period has been diverse but can be divided into four main periods: a. pre North Atlantic spreading ridge (100-60 Ma) when transpressional deformation on the southern margins of Fennoscandia and transtensional activity to the west was associated with a NNE-SSW maximum compressive stress direction; b. the creation of the spreading ridge (60-45 Ma) when there was rifting along the western margin; c. the re-arrangement of spreading axes (45-25 Ma) when there was a radial compression around Fennoscandia, and d. the re-emergence of the Iceland hot-spot (25-0 Ma) when the stress-field has come to accord with ridge or plume `push`. Since 60 Ma the Alpine plate boundary has had little influence on Fennoscandia. The highest levels of deformation on the margins of Fennoscandia were achieved around 85 Ma, 60-55 Ma, with strain-rates around 10{sup -9}/year. Within the Baltic Shield long term strain rates have been around 10{sup -1}1/year, with little evidence for significant deformations passing into the shield from the margins. Fennoscandian Border Zone activity, which was prominent from 90-60 Ma, was largely abandoned following the creation of the Norwegian Sea spreading ridge, and with the exception of the Lofoten margin, there is subsequently little evidence for deformation passing into Fennoscandia. Renewal of modest compressional deformation in the Voering Basin suggest that the `Current Tectonic Regime` is of Quaternary age although the orientation of the major stress axis has remained consistent since around 10 Ma. The past pattern of changes suggest that in the geological near-future variations are to be anticipated in the magnitude rather than the orientation of stresses.

  13. Georgia-Pacific: Crossett Mill Identifies Heat Recovery Projects and Operational Improvements that May Save $9.6 Million Annually

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2003-11-01

    An assessment team conducted a mill-wide energy survey at Georgia-Pacific's Crossett, Arkansas mill to update a previous pinch analysis. Three heat recovery projects were identified that could reduce annual costs by $4.8 million and reduce natural gas use by 1,845,000 x 106 Btu. The overall payback period for the heat recovery projects would be less than 1 year. Furthermore, by implementing operational improvements, the mill could save $4.8 million more annually and 1,500,000 x 106 Btu in natural gas.

  14. First quarter 2006: sales up by 13.3% to euros 2,476 million; 1. trimestre 2006: chiffre d'affaires de 2476 millions d'euros, en hausse de 13,3%

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-04-15

    The AREVA group's first quarter 2006 sales was euros 2,476 million, compared with euros 2,186 million for the same period in 2005, representing 13.3% growth in terms of reported data. Organic growth was 13.0%. Nuclear operations posted sales of euros 1,660 million, up 11.5% (up 11.6% like-for-like), and buoyant business volume marked by: net growth for the Front End Division (+20.4%), with 60% coming from volume-product mix effects and 40% from favorable price effects, especially for uranium supply and enrichment services; the contribution from the OL3 (Finland), Ling Ao-Phase II (China) and Flamanville 3 EPR (France) reactor projects, which boosted the Reactors and Services Division's sales by 13.2%; a slight decrease in the Back End Division (-2.5%). The Transmission and Distribution Division posted sales of euros 817 million, representing strong organic growth (up 16.6%), consistent with the increase in orders recorded in 2005. Orders booked in the first quarter of 2006 were up by 15.4% like-for-like (up 25.4% in reported data) compared with the first quarter of 2005. For 2006, the Group expects net growth in sales, like-for-like, although not at the particularly high levels of the first quarter.

  15. From one to one million: How does community structure track disturbance across time and space?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, A. E.

    2012-12-01

    The rate and severity of disturbances to the biosphere have been increasing over the last millennium due in part to anthropogenic effects, and the results of these disturbances are of increasing interest to the scientific and public communities. This project examines the impact of acidification and global warming on communities across a spectrum of temporal and spatial scales in both modern and fossil systems. Twenty datasets were selected from published zoo- and phyto-plankton literature to represent a temporal and spatial gradient, from small lakes to the open ocean, and from one year to one million years. Each dataset is associated with a proxy for an environmental disturbance (isotopes, pH, sedimentology, etc.) and consists of 15-300 samples across the interval of disturbance. To test the biotic changes induced by disturbance, community structure is measured by quantifying species-abundance distributions using rank-abundance curves and ordinations. A community consists of the individuals present in a given location at a given time, and the relative abundance of different species serves as a proxy for resource-partitioning. Disturbances cause a change in resource-partitioning, either by changing resource availability or by removing/adding species which compete for those resources. Therefore, shifts in resource-partitioning resulting from disturbance can be tracked by changes in community composition. Prior to an environmental disturbance, communities typically consist of many species that evenly partition resources and thereby abundance. After a disturbance, communities are dominated by a few species that can tolerate or thrive in the new conditions. Non-metric multi-dimensional scaling and Bray-Curtis polar ordinations reveal a progression from pre-disturbance communities, through the disturbance, and into the eventual recovery, which may or may not resemble the pre-disturbance communities. Larger disturbances (in terms of spatial extent or temporal duration

  16. Does happiness itself directly affect mortality? The prospective UK Million Women Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bette; Floud, Sarah; Pirie, Kirstin; Green, Jane; Peto, Richard; Beral, Valerie

    2016-02-27

    Poor health can cause unhappiness and poor health increases mortality. Previous reports of reduced mortality associated with happiness could be due to the increased mortality of people who are unhappy because of their poor health. Also, unhappiness might be associated with lifestyle factors that can affect mortality. We aimed to establish whether, after allowing for the poor health and lifestyle of people who are unhappy, any robust evidence remains that happiness or related subjective measures of wellbeing directly reduce mortality. The Million Women Study is a prospective study of UK women recruited between 1996 and 2001 and followed electronically for cause-specific mortality. 3 years after recruitment, the baseline questionnaire for the present report asked women to self-rate their health, happiness, stress, feelings of control, and whether they felt relaxed. The main analyses were of mortality before Jan 1, 2012, from all causes, from ischaemic heart disease, and from cancer in women who did not have heart disease, stroke, chronic obstructive lung disease, or cancer at the time they answered this baseline questionnaire. We used Cox regression, adjusted for baseline self-rated health and lifestyle factors, to calculate mortality rate ratios (RRs) comparing mortality in women who reported being unhappy (ie, happy sometimes, rarely, or never) with those who reported being happy most of the time. Of 719,671 women in the main analyses (median age 59 years [IQR 55-63]), 39% (282,619) reported being happy most of the time, 44% (315,874) usually happy, and 17% (121,178) unhappy. During 10 years (SD 2) follow-up, 4% (31,531) of participants died. Self-rated poor health at baseline was strongly associated with unhappiness. But after adjustment for self-rated health, treatment for hypertension, diabetes, asthma, arthritis, depression, or anxiety, and several sociodemographic and lifestyle factors (including smoking, deprivation, and body-mass index), unhappiness was not

  17. First half 2006: sales revenue up by 5.7% to euros 5,036 million; 1. semestre 2006: chiffre d'affaires en hausse de 5,7% a 5,036 million d'euros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The AREVA group reports first half 2006 sales revenue of 5,036 million euros, up from 4,764 million euros for the same period in 2005, representing 5.7% growth in terms of reported data. Organic growth was 5.1%. In the second quarter 2006 the group had revenue of 2,560 million euros, down 0.7% from second quarter 2005 sales (-1.6% like-for-like). Nuclear operations reported first half 2006 revenue of 3,334 million euros, up 1.6% from the first half of 2005 (+1.3% like-for-like), marked by: net growth of 12.9% for the Front End Division, mainly attributable to uranium deliveries and enrichment services; the contribution from reactor projects in Finland (OL3), China (Ling Ao-Phase II) and France (Flamanville 3 EPR), which boosted sales for the Reactors and Services Division by 2.7%, despite the downturn in sales of reactor services; a 14.4% drop in the Back End Division, primarily in the used fuel treatment business. The Transmission and Distribution Division recorded sales revenue of 1,701 million euros, representing strong organic growth of 13.8%, consistent with the increase in orders booked in the second half of 2005. Orders for the first half of 2006 were up by 17.5% like-for-like compared with those of the first half of 2005. The group is targeting a net increase in revenue for 2006, like-for-like.

  18. Occupation and cancer - follow-up of 15 million people in five Nordic countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pukkala, Eero; Martinsen, Jan Ivar; Lynge, Elsebeth; Gunnarsdottir, Holmfridur Kolbrun; Sparén, Pär; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Kjaerheim, Kristina

    2009-01-01

    We present up to 45 years of cancer incidence data by occupational category for the Nordic populations. The study covers the 15 million people aged 30-64 years in the 1960, 1970, 1980/1981 and/or 1990 censuses in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden, and the 2.8 million incident cancer cases diagnosed in these people in a follow-up until about 2005. The study was undertaken as a cohort study with linkage of individual records based on the personal identity codes used in all the Nordic countries. In the censuses, information on occupation for each person was provided through free text in self-administered questionnaires. The data were centrally coded and computerised in the statistical offices. For the present study, the original occupational codes were reclassified into 53 occupational categories and one group of economically inactive persons. All Nordic countries have a nation-wide registration of incident cancer cases during the entire study period. For the present study the incident cancer cases were classified into 49 primary diagnostic categories. Some categories have been further divided according to sub-site or morphological type. The observed number of cancer cases in each group of persons defined by country, sex, age, period and occupation was compared with the expected number calculated from the stratum specific person years and the incidence rates for the national population. The result was presented as a standardised incidence ratio, SIR, defined as the observed number of cases divided by the expected number. For all cancers combined (excluding non-melanoma skin cancer), the study showed a wide variation among men from an SIR of 0.79 (95% confidence interval 0.66-0.95) in domestic assistants to 1.48 (1.43-1.54) in waiters. The occupations with the highest SIRs also included workers producing beverage and tobacco, seamen and chimney sweeps. Among women, the SIRs varied from 0.58 (0.37-0.87) in seafarers to 1.27 (1.19-1.35) in tobacco workers. Low

  19. 125 million Yuan has been In-vested in the Aluminium Fluoride Project in Mianchi County,He-nan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>In May this year,Orient Shaoxing Salt Fluoride Co.,Ltd.under China Nonferrous Metals Min- ing Co.,Ltd.launched its 60,000-ton dry- process aluminium fluoride project.Currently, a total of 125 million Yuan has been invested in this project.It is reported that the project,lo-

  20. 78 FR 23563 - FCC Reduces Backlog of Broadcast Indecency Complaints by 70% (More Than One Million Complaints...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-19

    ... COMMISSION FCC Reduces Backlog of Broadcast Indecency Complaints by 70% (More Than One Million Complaints...., Monday through Thursday or from 8 a.m. until 11:30 a.m. on Friday at the FCC Reference Information Center... (202) 488-5563, email FCC@BCPIWEB.com , or you may contact BCPI via its Web site,...

  1. The first fly ash fired hollow brick production line with an annual capacity of 120 million bricks in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhuYali

    2005-01-01

    The article describes the first fly ash fired hollow brick production line with an annual output of 120 million bricks in China, which is designed and contracted by Xi'an Research and Design Institute of Wall and Roof Material, commissioned by Xi Baipo Generate Electricity Ltd. Company. It is a good sample for utilizing industrial wastes to produce hollow brick.

  2. Soil and Terrain Database for Tunisia primary data (version 1.0) - scale 1:1 million (SOTER_Tunisia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkshoorn, J.A.; Nachtergaele, F.O.; Huting, J.R.M.

    2013-01-01

    The Soil and Terrain database for Tunisia primary data (version 1.0), at scale 1:1 million (SOTER_Tunisia), was compiled of enhanced soil information within the framework of the FAO's program of Land Degradation Assessment in Drylands (LADA). A SOTER database was compiled based on the digital soil m

  3. Shangri-la Pulang Super Large Copper Mine Identified 6.50 Million tonnes of Copper Resource Reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>According to news from the Geological Prospecting Working Conference of Yunnan Provincial Government, at present it has identified that there are up to 6.5 million tonnes of copper resource reserve inside the Pulang Copper Mine Consolidated Zone in Shangri-la County.

  4. Europe CERN recherche - Pret de 300 millions d'euros de la BEI pour l'accelerateur de particules

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    "La Banque europeenne d'investissement (BEI) va preter 300 millions d'euros pour financer la phase finale de la construction du grand accelerateur de particules LHC (Large Hadron Collider) du CERN, a indique jeudi l'organisation europeenne pour la recherche nucleaire" (1/2 page).

  5. Soil and Terrain Database for Argentina, primary data (version 1.0) - scale 1:1 million (SOTER_Argentina)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkshoorn, J.A.; Huting, J.R.M.

    2014-01-01

    The Soil and Terrain database for Argentina primary data (version 1.0), at scale 1:1 million (SOTER_Argentina), was compiled of enhanced soil information within the framework of the FAO's program Land Degradation Assessment in Drylands (LADA). Primary soil and terrain data for Argentina were

  6. Soil and Terrain Database for Cuba, primary data (version 1.0) - scale 1:1 million (SOTER_Cuba)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkshoorn, J.A.; Huting, J.R.M.

    2014-01-01

    The Soil and Terrain database for Cuba primary data (version 1.0), at scale 1:1 million (SOTER_Cuba), was compiled of enhanced soil informtion within the framework of the FAO's program Land Degradation Assessment in Drylands (LADA). Primary soil and terrain data for Cuba were obtained from the SOTER

  7. CEMEX: Cement Manufacturer Saves 2.1 Million kWh Annually with a Motor Retrofit Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2005-11-01

    This DOE Industrial Technologies Program spotlight describes how the CEMEX cement manufacturing plant in Davenport, California, saves 2 million kWh and $168,000 in energy costs annually by replacing 13 worn-out motors with new energy-efficient ones.

  8. CEMEX: Cement Manufacturer Saves 2.1 Million kWh Annually with a Motor Retrofit Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-06-25

    This DOE Industrial Technologies Program spotlight describes how the CEMEX cement manufacturing plant in Davenport, California, saves 2 million kWh and $168,000 in energy costs annually by replacing 13 worn-out motors with new energy-efficient ones.

  9. Disbursement of $65 million to the State of Texas for construction of a Regional Medical Technology Center at the former Superconducting Super Collider Site, Waxahachie, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    As part of a settlement agreement between the US DOE and the State of Texas, DOE proposes to transfer $65 million of federal funds to the Texas National Research Laboratory Commission (TNLRC) for construction of the Regional Medical Technology Center (RMTC) to be located in Ellis County, Texas. The RMTC would be a state-of-the-art medical facility for proton cancer therapy, operated by the State of Texas in conjunction with the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center. The RMTC would use the linear accelerator assets of the recently terminated DOE Superconducting Super Collider Project to accelerate protons to high energies for the treatment of cancer patients. The current design provides for treatment areas, examination rooms, support laboratories, diagnostic imaging equipment, and office space as well as the accelerators (linac and synchrotron) and beam steering and shaping components. The potential environmental consequences of the proposed action are expected to be minor.

  10. Debate: Lessons Learnt from 10 Years and USD 50 million of Grant Making to End Human Trafficking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy Newcomb

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available On 26 September 2013, Humanity United, with our partners Legatum Foundation and Walk Free, announced the creation of the USD 100 million Freedom Fund to combat human trafficking around the world. This fund is the first of its kind, organised by three private foundations and borne in part from Humanity United’s experience as a donor over the past decade, during which time we provided more than USD 50 million to fund anti-trafficking efforts globally. During this time, we also worked closely with the donor community as well as organisations and activists working on the frontlines of the struggle to end human trafficking.  Over this period, four themes have emerged that help us better understand how to more effectively work and provide grants to combat human trafficking.

  11. Earth-like aqueous debris-flow activity on Mars at high orbital obliquity in the last million years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haas, T; Hauber, E; Conway, S J; van Steijn, H; Johnsson, A; Kleinhans, M G

    2015-06-23

    Liquid water is currently extremely rare on Mars, but was more abundant during periods of high obliquity in the last few millions of years. This is testified by the widespread occurrence of mid-latitude gullies: small catchment-fan systems. However, there are no direct estimates of the amount and frequency of liquid water generation during these periods. Here we determine debris-flow size, frequency and associated water volumes in Istok crater, and show that debris flows occurred at Earth-like frequencies during high-obliquity periods in the last million years on Mars. Results further imply that local accumulations of snow/ice within gullies were much more voluminous than currently predicted; melting must have yielded centimetres of liquid water in catchments; and recent aqueous activity in some mid-latitude craters was much more frequent than previously anticipated.

  12. Using 20-million-year-old amber to test the super-Arrhenius behaviour of glass-forming systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Simon, Sindee L; McKenna, Gregory B

    2013-01-01

    Fossil amber offers the opportunity to investigate the dynamics of glass-forming materials far below the nominal glass transition temperature. This is important in the context of classical theory, as well as some new theories that challenge the idea of an 'ideal' glass transition. Here we report results from calorimetric and stress relaxation experiments using a 20-million-year-old Dominican amber. By performing the stress relaxation experiments in a step-wise fashion, we measured the relaxation time at each temperature and, above the fictive temperature of this 20-million-year-old glass, this is an upper bound to the equilibrium relaxation time. The results deviate dramatically from the expectation of classical theory and are consistent with some modern ideas, in which the diverging timescale signature of complex fluids disappears below the glass transition temperature.

  13. Thermal Analysis of Post-eruption Loops from 80,000 to 1.6 million K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucera, T.; Landi, E.

    2006-01-01

    We analyze the thermal properties of a set of post eruptive loops which appeared after a prominence eruption on April 30, 2004. The event was observed by TRACE and SOHO/SUMER. The SUMER data was taken from a single slit location with a 90 second cadence and included a number of lines spanning the temperature range 80,000 to 1.6 million K. We perform a differential emission measure analysis of the loops in order to study their thermal evolution.

  14. A Measurement of the Absorption of Liquid Argon Scintillation Light by Dissolved Nitrogen at the Part-Per-Million Level

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, B. J. P.; Chiu, C. S.; J. M. Conrad; Ignarra, C. M.; Katori, T.; Toups, M.

    2013-01-01

    We report on a measurement of the absorption length of scintillation light in liquid argon due to dissolved nitrogen at the part-per-million (ppm) level. We inject controlled quantities of nitrogen into a high purity volume of liquid argon and monitor the light yield from an alpha source. The source is placed at different distances from a cryogenic photomultiplier tube assembly. By comparing the light yield from each position we extract the absorption cross section of nitrogen. We find that n...

  15. The 2,000 Mile Wall in Search of a Purpose: Since 2007 Visa Overstays have Outnumbered Undocumented Border Crossers by a Half Million

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Warren

    2017-03-01

    Two states had 47 percent of the 6.4 million EWIs in 2014: California (1.7 million and Texas (1.3 million. The percentage of overstays varies widely by state: more than two-thirds of the undocumented who live in Hawaii, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Pennsylvania are overstays. By contrast, the undocumented population in Kansas, Arkansas, and New Mexico consists of fewer than 25 percent overstays.

  16. Green Revolution research saved an estimated 18 to 27 million hectares from being brought into agricultural production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, James R; Villoria, Nelson; Byerlee, Derek; Kelley, Timothy; Maredia, Mywish

    2013-05-21

    New estimates of the impacts of germplasm improvement in the major staple crops between 1965 and 2004 on global land-cover change are presented, based on simulations carried out using a global economic model (Global Trade Analysis Project Agro-Ecological Zone), a multicommodity, multiregional computable general equilibrium model linked to a global spatially explicit database on land use. We estimate the impact of removing the gains in cereal productivity attributed to the widespread adoption of improved varieties in developing countries. Here, several different effects--higher yields, lower prices, higher land rents, and trade effects--have been incorporated in a single model of the impact of Green Revolution research (and subsequent advances in yields from crop germplasm improvement) on land-cover change. Our results generally support the Borlaug hypothesis that increases in cereal yields as a result of widespread adoption of improved crop germplasm have saved natural ecosystems from being converted to agriculture. However, this relationship is complex, and the net effect is of a much smaller magnitude than Borlaug proposed. We estimate that the total crop area in 2004 would have been between 17.9 and 26.7 million hectares larger in a world that had not benefited from crop germplasm improvement since 1965. Of these hectares, 12.0-17.7 million would have been in developing countries, displacing pastures and resulting in an estimated 2 million hectares of additional deforestation. However, the negative impacts of higher food prices on poverty and hunger under this scenario would likely have dwarfed the welfare effects of agricultural expansion.

  17. 500 million people with no access to power - How India can tackle its severe power shortage during the next decades?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiss, Peter; Sagodi, Attila

    2010-09-15

    India's population, now around 1.1 billion (out of which 500 million are not yet connected to the grid), is growing fast, and is expected to surpass that of China soon after 2020. Its economy is also expanding and is expected to be over 9 percent for most of the next decade. All of this bodes well for the electricity sector; consumption, currently at 600TWh annually, is set to double by 2020. To meet this demand, total generating capacity should jump by 90 GW, to 241GW, with an increased emphasis on nuclear, clean coal and renewables, including solar and small-hydro.

  18. Buoyed by geophysics : geophysics, just-in-time procurement help save millions on Ekwan pipeline buoyancy control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roche, P.

    2005-09-01

    Large-diameter natural gas pipelines buried in wet muskeg have the potential to rise to the surface due to buoyancy. Until recently, the most reliable method to prevent this was to attach specially manufactured bolt-on concrete weights at closely spaced intervals. However, these weights significantly increase capital budgets by millions of dollars because each weight weighs 2,540 kg and costs $1,000. A less costly alternative for buoyancy control in shallow muskeg is for the contractor to simply dig a deeper ditch. Another option is to hold down the pipeline by polyester straps attached to screw anchors. The challenge of applying these less costly options is that heavy equipment cannot be brought to the site to determine ground conditions until after all procurement, assessment and design is completed. Engineers must therefore select a buoyancy control measure based only on air photos and possibly a few drill holes. However, air photos do not indicate the depth of muskeg. Although some muskeg areas may turn out to be thick enough to avoid buoyancy control altogether, once construction is underway, it is too late to opt for cheaper alternatives. EnCana Corporation's 24-inch Ekwan pipeline was recently constructed through a remote area of British Columbia to connect the Greater Sierra natural gas discovery to a tie-in point on Nova Gas Transmission's northwest mainline. Air photos indicated that half of the route was through muskeg. AMEC E and C Services Inc. was responsible for the engineering and management of the project. The company used a combination of geophysical techniques to learn about the ground conditions. Toboggan mounted portable equipment was hauled by snowmobiles along trails made earlier by the survey crews. Ground penetrating radar assessed the muskeg thickness. Fixed frequency electromagnetic surveys also enhanced the results of the ground penetrating radar. The number of bolt-on weights was reduced from 9,000 to 3,700, a savings of $3

  19. Dislocation Emission at the Silicon/Silicon Nitride Interface: A Million Atom Molecular Dynamics Simulation on Parallel Computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachlechner, Martina E.; Omeltchenko, Andrey; Nakano, Aiichiro; Kalia, Rajiv K.; Vashishta, Priya; Ebbsjö, Ingvar; Madhukar, Anupam

    2000-01-01

    Mechanical behavior of the Si\\(111\\)/Si3N4\\(0001\\) interface is studied using million atom molecular dynamics simulations. At a critical value of applied strain parallel to the interface, a crack forms on the silicon nitride surface and moves toward the interface. The crack does not propagate into the silicon substrate; instead, dislocations are emitted when the crack reaches the interface. The dislocation loop propagates in the \\(1¯ 1¯1\\) plane of the silicon substrate with a speed of 500 \\(+/-100\\) m/s. Time evolution of the dislocation emission and nature of defects is studied.

  20. Dislocation Emission at the Silicon/Silicon Nitride Interface: A Million Atom Molecular Dynamics Simulation on Parallel Computers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachlechner, Martina E.; Omeltchenko, Andrey; Nakano, Aiichiro; Kalia, Rajiv K.; Vashishta, Priya; Ebbsjoe, Ingvar; Madhukar, Anupam

    2000-01-10

    Mechanical behavior of the Si(111)/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} (0001) interface is studied using million atom molecular dynamics simulations. At a critical value of applied strain parallel to the interface, a crack forms on the silicon nitride surface and moves toward the interface. The crack does not propagate into the silicon substrate; instead, dislocations are emitted when the crack reaches the interface. The dislocation loop propagates in the (1 11) plane of the silicon substrate with a speed of 500 ({+-}100) m/s . Time evolution of the dislocation emission and nature of defects is studied. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  1. Nuclear fission reactors from thousand of million years; Reactores de fision nuclear de hace miles de millones de anos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulbulian G, S.; Ordonez R, E.; Fernandez V, S.M. [ININ, 52750 La Marquesa, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    This book is about nuclear reactors, not only of the industrial ones that work to provide electric power, neither of those experimental ones as the first one that worked in Chicago in the first half of the XX Century but, mainly, of those that worked in the Earth thousands of millions of years ago. The book examines what happened in last geologic times, when the natural uranium had a different constitution to the current one. We will give you information on the nuclear fission reactors that worked in Gabon, Africa. A discussion of the radioactive isotopes formed during the operation of those reactors and its behavior until our days is presented. (Author)

  2. Photographer : JPL Range : 1.5 million km ( 930,000 miles ) This high resolution view of Jupitor's

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Photographer : JPL Range : 1.5 million km ( 930,000 miles ) This high resolution view of Jupitor's ring, part of a set obtained by Voyager 2 (A79-7101), suggests that it may be divided into several components, as are the rings of Saturn. Seen within the inner edge of the brighter ring is a fainter ring, which may extend all the way down to Jupiter's cloud tops. The ring was unexpectedly bright, due to forward scattering of sunlight by small ring particles. The rings were discovered in March 1979 by Voyager 1.

  3. ONE IN A MILLION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Football and English are two international languages that are underetood all over the world.This Premier Skills story can help you with both of these world languages.It doesn't matter if you're a football fanatic or you know nothing about the beautiful game-there will be something interesting here for you.There are 20 stories in the senes-one for each Barclays Premier League club.Each story has activities written by English teachers to help you learn.

  4. Million dollar baby

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Frankie Dunn (Clint Eastwood) has trained and managed some incredible fighters during a life time spent in the ring. He is a professional boxing trainer and owner of The Hit Pit, an old-school boxing gym nestled in the gritty heart of downtown Los Angeles. The Hit Pit is Frankie's life, and he divides his time between the seemingly disparate activities of training fighters and attending mass - which he has done almost every day for the past 23 years.

  5. 900 million and counting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowal Paul

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper will highlight current evidence about health and well-being that could encourage investment in health for older populations. The paper uses the example of hypertension throughout to illustrate how data collection efforts are translating research to policy. Hypertension, is a global scourge for poor and wealthy, younger and older adults, increasing the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease. Although it is easily diagnosed and can be effectively treated the burden of hypertension continues to grow as awareness, prevention and treatment lags, particularly for the poor and old. The focus is brought back to how current research can inform policy for ageing populations in the final section, using Ireland’s experience to demonstrate how to legislate the good life for older adults.

  6. More than 10 million steps in the right direction: results from the first American Heart Association scientific sessions walking challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Robert A; Arena, Ross; Després, Jean-Pierre; Ciarochi, Amy; Croll, Elizabeth; Bloch, Kenneth D

    2015-01-01

    In 2013, the Global Congress theme at the American Heart Association (AHA) Annual Scientific Sessions was Physical Activity (PA). As a key component of the Congress, iHealth working in collaboration with AHA provided a Bluetooth-enabled wireless PA and sleep tracker to up to 2,000 Scientific Sessions attendees. Approximately 1850 Scientific Sessions attendees registered for, received a PA tracker and participated in the Walking Challenge. More than 10 million steps were walked by participants (10,703,504) during the 2.5 days of the Walking Challenge. This translates into almost 6000 miles walked (5976.3 miles) and 656,716 calories burned by participants during the Challenge. The Global Congress of PA held at Scientific Sessions 2013 not only extensively reviewed the science of PA as a powerful/independent and, most importantly, modifiable cardiovascular risk factor, but it also provided evidence from a fun and entertaining challenge that PA as a risk behavior can be assessed and targeted. We just took 10 million steps in the right direction. Join us and make your steps count!

  7. Oxygen isotope stratigraphy and events in the northern South China Sea during the last 6 million years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Based on the stable isotopic analysis of more than 1000 samples of planktonic and benthic foraminifers from ODP Site 1148 in the northern South China Sea (SCS), the oxygen iso tope stratigraphy has been applied to the last 3 million years for the first time in the SCS. Further more, the paleoceanographic changes in the northern SCS during the last 6 million years have been unraveled. The benthic foraminiferaδl8O record shows that before ~3.1 Ma the SCS was much more influenced by the warm intermediate water of the Pacific. The remarkable decrease in the deepwater temperature of the SCS during the period of 3.1-2.5 Ma demonstrates the forma tion of the Northern Hemisphere ice-sheet. However, the several sea surface temperature (SST)reductions during the early and middle Pliocene, reflected by the planktonic foraminiferal δ18O,might be related to the ice-sheet growth in the Antarctic region. Only those stepwise and irreversi ble SST reductions during the period of ~2.2-0.9 Ma could be related to the formation and growth of the Northern Hemisphere ice-sheet.

  8. A Neptune-sized transiting planet closely orbiting a 5-10-million-year-old star

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Trevor J.

    2016-10-01

    Theories of the formation and early evolution of planetary systems postulate that planets are born in circumstellar disks, and undergo radial migration during and after dissipation of the dust and gas disk from which they formed. The precise ages of meteorites indicate that planetesimals - the building blocks of planets - are produced within the first million years of a star's life. A prominent question is: how early can one find fully formed planets like those frequently detected on short orbital periods around mature stars? Some theories suggest the in situ formation of planets close to their host stars is unlikely and the existence of such planets is evidence for large scale migration. Other theories posit that planet assembly at small orbital separations may be common. Here we report on a newly-born, transiting planet orbiting its star every 5.4 days. The planet is 50 per cent larger than Neptune, and its mass is less than 3.6 times Jupiter (at 99.7 per cent confidence), with a true mass likely to be within a factor of several of Neptune's. The 5-10 million year old star has a tenuous dust disk extending outwards from about 2 times the Earth-Sun separation, in addition to the large planet located at less than one-twentieth the Earth-Sun separation.

  9. A Measurement of the Absorption of Liquid Argon Scintillation Light by Dissolved Nitrogen at the Part-Per-Million Level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, B. J.P. [MIT, LNS; Chiu, C. S. [MIT, LNS; Conrad, J. M. [MIT, LNS; Ignarra, C. M. [MIT, LNS; Katori, T. [MIT, LNS; Toups, M. [MIT, LNS

    2013-07-24

    Here we report on a measurement of the absorption length of scintillation light in liquid argon due to dissolved nitrogen at the part-per-million (ppm)level. We inject controlled quantities of nitrogen into a high purity volume of liquid argon and monitor the light yield from an alpha source.The source is placed at different distances from a cryogenic photomultiplier tube assembly. By comparing the light yield from each position we extract the absorption cross section of nitrogen. We find that nitrogen absorbs argon scintillation light with strength of (1.51±0.15) × 10$-$4 cm$-$1ppm$-$1, correspondingto an absorption cross section of (4.99±0.51) × 10$-$21 cm2 molecule$-$1.We obtain the relationship between absorption length and nitrogenconcentration over the 0 to 50 ppm range and discuss the implicationsfor the design and data analysis of future large liquid argon time projection chamber (LArTPC)detectors. Our results indicate that for a current-generation LArTPC, wherea concentration of 2 parts per million of nitrogen is expected, the attenuationlength due to nitrogen will be 30±3 meters.

  10. A Neptune-sized transiting planet closely orbiting a 5–10-million-year-old star.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Trevor J; Hillenbrand, Lynne A; Petigura, Erik A; Carpenter, John M; Crossfield, Ian J M; Hinkley, Sasha; Ciardi, David R; Howard, Andrew W; Isaacson, Howard T; Cody, Ann Marie; Schlieder, Joshua E; Beichman, Charles A; Barenfeld, Scott A

    2016-06-30

    Theories of the formation and early evolution of planetary systems postulate that planets are born in circumstellar disks, and undergo radial migration during and after dissipation of the dust and gas disk from which they formed. The precise ages of meteorites indicate that planetesimals—the building blocks of planets—are produced within the first million years of a star’s life. Fully formed planets are frequently detected on short orbital periods around mature stars. Some theories suggest that the in situ formation of planets close to their host stars is unlikely and that the existence of such planets is therefore evidence of large-scale migration. Other theories posit that planet assembly at small orbital separations may be common. Here we report a newly born, transiting planet orbiting its star with a period of 5.4 days. The planet is 50 per cent larger than Neptune, and its mass is less than 3.6 times that of Jupiter (at 99.7 per cent confidence), with a true mass likely to be similar to that of Neptune. The star is 5–10 million years old and has a tenuous dust disk extending outward from about twice the Earth–Sun separation, in addition to the fully formed planet located at less than one-twentieth of the Earth–Sun separation.

  11. The path to a successful one-million tonne demonstration of geological sequestration: Characterization, cooperation, and collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, R.J.; Greenberg, S.E.; Frailey, S.M.; Krapac, I.G.; Leetaru, H.E.; Marsteller, S.

    2011-01-01

    The development of the Illinois Basin-Decatur USA test site for a 1 million tonne injection of CO2 into the Mount Simon Sandstone saline reservoir beginning in 2011 has been a multiphase process requiring a wide array of personnel and resources that began in 2003. The process of regional characterization took two years as part of a Phase I effort focused on the entire Illinois Basin, located in Illinois, Indiana, and Kentucky, USA. Seeking the cooperation of an industrial source of CO2 and site selection within the Basin took place during Phase II while most of the concurrent research emphasis was on a set of small-scale tests of Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) and CO2 injection into a coal seam. Phase III began the commitment to the 1 million-tonne test site development through the collaboration of the Archer Daniels Midland Company (ADM) who is providing a site, the CO2, and developing a compression facility, of Schlumberger Carbon Services who is providing expertise for operations, drilling, geophysics, risk assessment, and reservoir modelling, and of the Illinois State Geological Survey (ISGS) whose geologists and engineers lead the Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium (MGSC). Communications and outreach has been a collaborative effort of ADM, ISGS and Schlumberger Carbon Services. The Consortium is one of the seven Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships, a carbon sequestration research program supported by the National Energy Technology Laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy. ?? 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. By Mid July China’s Alumina Industry Completed Construction of a Total of 65.55Million Tonnes of Capacity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    According to relevant statistical data,by mid July,China’s alumina completed a total of65.55 million tonnes capacity,and operated56.60 million tonnes of capacity,capacity operating rate reached 86.34%.Wherein,Mongolia Xinwang Renewable Resource Co.,Ltd suspended production due to

  13. Climate Evolution in Central Asia during the Past Few Million Years: A Case Study from Issyk Kul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedi Oberhänsli

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The lake Issyk Kul occupies a deep basin within the Earth’s most active intracontinental mountain belt, the Tien Shan, far from any oceanic influence. It offers a record of continental climate spanning millions of years that is likely unmatched by any other source.A three-day workshop, with the same title as this report and sponsored by the International Continental Drilling Project and German Science Foundation, was held on 12–17 June 2011 on the shore of Issyk Kul to discuss the scientific justification for and the logistical aspects of scientific drilling of the lake. A two-day geological field trip followed the workshop. Forty-five scientists from twelve countries discussed three obvious targets for paleoclimatic study, a related study of erosion, and a study of how microbial life has evolved within the basin. The conclusion was that these research topics justify further consideration of deep continental drilling at Issyk Kul.

  14. Department of Energy Awards $43 Million to Spur Offshore Wind Energy, Wind Program Newsletter, September 2011 Edition (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-09-01

    EERE Wind Program Quarterly Newsletter - September 2011. In September, the U.S. Department of Energy announced that it will award $43 million over the next five years to 41 projects across 20 states to speed technical innovations, lower costs, and shorten the timeline for deploying offshore wind energy systems. The projects will advance wind turbine design tools and hardware, improve information about U.S. offshore wind resources, and accelerate the deployment of offshore wind by reducing market barriers such as supply chain development, transmission and infrastructure. The projects announced in September focus on approaches to advancing offshore technology and removing market barriers to responsible offshore wind energy deployment. Funding is subject to Congressional appropriations.

  15. A new chytridiomycete fungus intermixed with crustacean resting eggs in a 407-million-year-old continental freshwater environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strullu-Derrien, Christine; Gora, Tomasz; Longcore, Joyce E.

    2016-01-01

    The 407-million-year-old Rhynie Chert (Scotland) contains the most intact fossilised remains of an early land-based ecosystem including plants, arthropods, fungi and other microorganisms. Although most studies have focused on the terrestrial component, fossilised freshwater environments provide...... critical insights into fungal-algal interactions and the earliest continental branchiopod crustaceans. Here we report interactions between an enigmatic organism and an exquisitely preserved fungus. The fungal reproductive structures are intermixed with exceptionally well-preserved globular spiny structures...... interpreted as branchiopod resting eggs. Confocal laser scanning microscopy enabled us to reconstruct the fungus and its possible mode of nutrition, the affinity of the resting eggs, and their spatial associations. The new fungus (Cultoraquaticus trewini gen. et sp. nov) is attributed to Chytridiomycota based...

  16. Investigating Active Accretion, Flare Activity and a 50 Million Degree Corona in the cool AGB Star, Y Gem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai, Raghvendra

    2014-09-01

    We propose to make multi-epoch observations of the X-ray (and radio contiuum) emission from a cool AGB star, Y Gem. This star shows relatively strong X-ray emission implying the presence of 50 million degree coronal gas, and highly-variable FUV and NUV fluxes - likely evidence of variable accretion onto a magnetized accretion disk in a binary system. Y Gem is the most prominent member of a new class of AGB stars with FUV excesses identified using the GALEX archive. Our study will allow us to study the never-before explored phase of an active accretion disk in an AGB star with a binary companion. Such disks are believed to ultimately produce collimated jets that transform AGB circumsetllar envelopes into bipolar planetary nebulae.

  17. Evidence for the stability of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet divide for 1.4 million years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Andrew S.; Woodward, John; Marrero, Shasta M.; Dunning, Stuart A.; Steig, Eric J.; Freeman, Stewart P. H. T.; Stuart, Finlay M.; Winter, Kate; Westoby, Matthew J.; Sugden, David E.

    2016-02-01

    Past fluctuations of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) are of fundamental interest because of the possibility of WAIS collapse in the future and a consequent rise in global sea level. However, the configuration and stability of the ice sheet during past interglacial periods remains uncertain. Here we present geomorphological evidence and multiple cosmogenic nuclide data from the southern Ellsworth Mountains to suggest that the divide of the WAIS has fluctuated only modestly in location and thickness for at least the last 1.4 million years. Fluctuations during glacial-interglacial cycles appear superimposed on a long-term trajectory of ice-surface lowering relative to the mountains. This implies that as a minimum, a regional ice sheet centred on the Ellsworth-Whitmore uplands may have survived Pleistocene warm periods. If so, it constrains the WAIS contribution to global sea level rise during interglacials to about 3.3 m above present.

  18. BodyMap-Xs: anatomical breakdown of 17 million animal ESTs for cross-species comparison of gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogasawara, Osamu; Otsuji, Makiko; Watanabe, Kouji; Iizuka, Takayasu; Tamura, Takuro; Hishiki, Teruyoshi; Kawamoto, Shoko; Okubo, Kousaku

    2006-01-01

    BodyMap-Xs (http://bodymap.jp) is a database for cross-species gene expression comparison. It was created by the anatomical breakdown of 17 million animal expressed sequence tag (EST) records in DDBJ using a sorting program tailored for this purpose. In BodyMap-Xs, users are allowed to compare the expression patterns of orthologous and paralogous genes in a coherent manner. This will provide valuable insights for the evolutionary study of gene expression and identification of a responsive motif for a particular expression pattern. In addition, starting from a concise overview of the taxonomical and anatomical breakdown of all animal ESTs, users can navigate to obtain gene expression ranking of a particular tissue in a particular animal. This method may lead to the understanding of the similarities and differences between the homologous tissues across animal species. BodyMap-Xs will be automatically updated in synchronization with the major update in DDBJ, which occurs periodically.

  19. A 150-million-year-old crab larva and its implications for the early rise of brachyuran crabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Joachim T; Martin, Joel W; Haug, Carolin

    2015-03-09

    True crabs (Brachyura) are the most successful group of decapod crustaceans. This success is most likely coupled to their life history, including two specialised larval forms, zoea and megalopa. The group is comparably young, starting to diversify only about 100 million years ago (mya), with a dramatic increase in species richness beginning approximately 50 mya. Early evolution of crabs is still very incompletely known. Here, we report a fossil crab larva, 150 mya, documented with up-to-date imaging techniques. It is only the second find of any fossil crab larva, but the first complete one, the first megalopa, and the oldest one (other fossil ca. 110 mya). Despite its age, the new fossil possesses a very modern morphology, being indistinguishable from many extant crab larvae. Hence, modern morphologies must have been present significantly earlier than formerly anticipated. We briefly discuss the impact of this find on our understanding of early crab evolution.

  20. Exact fast computation of band depth for large functional datasets: How quickly can one million curves be ranked?

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Ying

    2012-10-01

    © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Band depth is an important nonparametric measure that generalizes order statistics and makes univariate methods based on order statistics possible for functional data. However, the computational burden of band depth limits its applicability when large functional or image datasets are considered. This paper proposes an exact fast method to speed up the band depth computation when bands are defined by two curves. Remarkable computational gains are demonstrated through simulation studies comparing our proposal with the original computation and one existing approximate method. For example, we report an experiment where our method can rank one million curves, evaluated at fifty time points each, in 12.4 seconds with Matlab.

  1. Sun-Earth Connections: How the Sun Knocks Out My Cell Phone from 150 Million Kilometers Away

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladbury, Raymond L.

    2014-01-01

    Large solar particle events (SPE) threaten many elements of critical infrastructure. A 2013 study by Lloyds of London and Atmospheric and Environmental Research recently found that if a worst-case solar event like the 1859 Carrington Event struck our planet now, it could result on $0.6-$2.36 trillion in damages to the economy. In March 2014, researchers Y. D. Liu et al. revealed that just such an event had narrowly missed Earth in July 2012. The event was observed by the STEREO A spacecraft. In this presentation, we examine how the sun can pack such a punch from 150 million km away, the threats such solar particle events pose, their mechanisms and the efforts NASA and other space agencies are carrying out to understand and mitigate such risks.

  2. Molecular dynamics simulations investigating consecutive nucleation, solidification and grain growth in a twelve-million-atom Fe-system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okita, Shin; Verestek, Wolfgang; Sakane, Shinji; Takaki, Tomohiro; Ohno, Munekazu; Shibuta, Yasushi

    2017-09-01

    Continuous processes of homogeneous nucleation, solidification and grain growth are spontaneously achieved from an undercooled iron melt without any phenomenological parameter in the molecular dynamics (MD) simulation with 12 million atoms. The nucleation rate at the critical temperature is directly estimated from the atomistic configuration by cluster analysis to be of the order of 1034 m-3 s-1. Moreover, time evolution of grain size distribution during grain growth is obtained by the combination of Voronoi and cluster analyses. The grain growth exponent is estimated to be around 0.3 from the geometric average of the grain size distribution. Comprehensive understanding of kinetic properties during continuous processes is achieved in the large-scale MD simulation by utilizing the high parallel efficiency of a graphics processing unit (GPU), which is shedding light on the fundamental aspects of production processes of materials from the atomistic viewpoint.

  3. A Million-Plus Neuron Model of the Hippocampal Dentate Gyrus: Critical Role for Topography in Determining Spatiotemporal Network Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, Phillip J; Yu, Gene J; Song, Dong; Berger, Theodore W

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a million-plus granule cell compartmental model of the rat hippocampal dentate gyrus, including excitatory, perforant path input from the entorhinal cortex, and feedforward and feedback inhibitory input from dentate interneurons. The model includes experimentally determined morphological and biophysical properties of granule cells, together with glutamatergic AMPA-like EPSP and GABAergic GABAA-like IPSP synaptic excitatory and inhibitory inputs, respectively. Each granule cell was composed of approximately 200 compartments having passive and active conductances distributed throughout the somatic and dendritic regions. Modeling excitatory input from the entorhinal cortex was guided by axonal transport studies documenting the topographical organization of projections from subregions of the medial and lateral entorhinal cortex, plus other important details of the distribution of glutamatergic inputs to the dentate gyrus. Information contained within previously published maps of this major hippocampal afferent were systematically converted to scales that allowed the topographical distribution and relative synaptic densities of perforant path inputs to be quantitatively estimated for inclusion in the current model. Results showed that when medial and lateral entorhinal cortical neurons maintained Poisson random firing, dentate granule cells expressed, throughout the million-cell network, a robust nonrandom pattern of spiking best described as a spatiotemporal "clustering." To identify the network property or properties responsible for generating such firing "clusters," we progressively eliminated from the model key mechanisms, such as feedforward and feedback inhibition, intrinsic membrane properties underlying rhythmic burst firing, and/or topographical organization of entorhinal afferents. Findings conclusively identified topographical organization of inputs as the key element responsible for generating a spatiotemporal distribution of clustered

  4. A million-plus neuron model of the hippocampal dentate gyrus: Dependency of spatio-temporal network dynamics on topography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, Phillip J; Yu, Gene J; Song, Dong; Berger, Theodore W

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a million-plus granule cell compartmental model of the rat hippocampal dentate gyrus, including excitatory, perforant path input from the entorhinal cortex, and feedforward and feedback inhibitory input from dentate interneurons. The model includes experimentally determined morphological and biophysical properties of granule cells, together with glutamatergic AMPA-like EPSP and GABAergic GABAA-like IPSP synaptic excitatory and inhibitory inputs, respectively. Each granule cell was composed of approximately 200 compartments having passive and active conductances distributed throughout the somatic and dendritic regions. Modeling excitatory input from the entorhinal cortex was guided by axonal transport studies documenting the topographical organization of projections from subregions of the medial and lateral entorhinal cortex, plus other important details of the distribution of glutamatergic inputs to the dentate gyrus. Results showed that when medial and lateral entorhinal cortical neurons maintained Poisson random firing, dentate granule cells expressed, throughout the million-cell network, a robust, non-random pattern of spiking best described as spatiotemporal "clustering". To identify the network property or properties responsible for generating such firing "clusters", we progressively eliminated from the model key mechanisms such as feedforward and feedback inhibition, intrinsic membrane properties underlying rhythmic burst firing, and/or topographical organization of entorhinal afferents. Findings conclusively identified topographical organization of inputs as the key element responsible for generating a spatio-temporal distribution of clustered firing. These results uncover a functional organization of perforant path afferents to the dentate gyrus not previously recognized: topography-dependent clusters of granule cell activity as "functional units" that organize the processing of entorhinal signals.

  5. IDENTIFICATION OF 1.4 MILLION ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI IN THE MID-INFRARED USING WISE DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Secrest, N. J.; Dudik, R. P.; Dorland, B. N.; Zacharias, N.; Makarov, V.; Fey, A.; Frouard, J.; Finch, C. [U.S. Naval Observatory, 3450 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20392 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    We present an all-sky sample of ≈1.4 million active galactic nuclei (AGNs) meeting a two-color infrared photometric selection criteria for AGNs as applied to sources from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer final catalog release (AllWISE). We assess the spatial distribution and optical properties of our sample and find that the results are consistent with expectations for AGNs. These sources have a mean density of ≈38 AGNs per square degree on the sky, and their apparent magnitude distribution peaks at g ≈ 20, extending to objects as faint as g ≈ 26. We test the AGN selection criteria against a large sample of optically identified stars and determine the “leakage” (that is, the probability that a star detected in an optical survey will be misidentified as a quasi-stellar object (QSO) in our sample) rate to be ≤4.0 × 10{sup −5}. We conclude that our sample contains almost no optically identified stars (≤0.041%), making this sample highly promising for future celestial reference frame work as it significantly increases the number of all-sky, compact extragalactic objects. We further compare our sample to catalogs of known AGNs/QSOs and find a completeness value of ≳84% (that is, the probability of correctly identifying a known AGN/QSO is at least 84%) for AGNs brighter than a limiting magnitude of R ≲ 19. Our sample includes approximately 1.1 million previously uncataloged AGNs.

  6. Government can't do it all. Over 250 million people in the developing world benefit from NGO support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-01

    Throughout the world, citizens are attempting to improve living conditions using direct participatory measures. Trade unions provide some of the clearest examples of citizens' groups which are challenging the power structure and encouraging democratization. In Chile, Korea, Zambia, Mali, and Poland, unions have been responsible for impressive governmental changes. People have also been working to improve living conditions through nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), which have expanded their beneficial influence from 100 million people in the early 1980s to 250 million today. Donors unhappy with official channels for aid have funneled funds between the North and the South in amounts which have increased from US $1 billion in 1970 to $5 billion 1990. NGOs help the poorest of the poor to achieve a measure of self-sufficiency (for example, an NGO provides small loans to landless people in Bangladesh). They also have the flexibility to respond to emergencies with an immediacy denied official channels (for example Oxfam chartered a boatload of food and supplies for Cambodia in 1979), and they remain to provide aid when officialdom has deserted the field (for example, the Red Cross, Save the Children, CARE, Concern, and Medicins Sans Frontieres have been a constant presence in Somalia). By helping marginalized groups claim their rights (for example, land rights for Indians in Ecuador), NGOs empower citizens to improve their lives in countless arenas. NGOs also provide advocacy for the powerless; Amnesty International contributed to the release of 1,296 political prisoners in 1990. Despite the important role of these groups, NGOs operate on a very small scale and can never assume the role of governments. In fact, one of the most important tasks ahead for NGOs may be to act as an intermediary between governments and their citizens. With more aid and partnership support, NGOs will be able to continue to expand their positive influence in the world.

  7. Evidence for deposition of 10 million tonnes of impact spherules across four continents 12,800 y ago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittke, James H.; Weaver, James C.; Bunch, Ted E.; Kennett, James P.; Kennett, Douglas J.; Moore, Andrew M.T.; Hillman, Gordon C.; Tankersly, Kenneth B.; Goodyear, Albert C.; Moore, Christopher R.; Daniel, I. Randolph; Ray, Jack H.; Lopinot, Neal H.; Ferraro, David; Israde-Alcántara, Isabel; Bischoff, James L.; DeCarli, Paul S.; Hermes, Robert E.; Kloosterman, Johan B.; Revay, Zsolt; Howard, George A.; Kimbel, David R.; Kletetschka, Gunther; Nabelek, Ladislav; Lipo, Carl P.; Sakai, Sachiko; West, Allen; Firestone, Richard B.

    2013-01-01

    Airbursts/impacts by a fragmented comet or asteroid have been proposed at the Younger Dryas onset (12.80 ± 0.15 ka) based on identification of an assemblage of impact-related proxies, including microspherules, nanodiamonds, and iridium. Distributed across four continents at the Younger Dryas boundary (YDB), spherule peaks have been independently confirmed in eight studies, but unconfirmed in two others, resulting in continued dispute about their occurrence, distribution, and origin. To further address this dispute and better identify YDB spherules, we present results from one of the largest spherule investigations ever undertaken regarding spherule geochemistry, morphologies, origins, and processes of formation. We investigated 18 sites across North America, Europe, and the Middle East, performing nearly 700 analyses on spherules using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy for geochemical analyses and scanning electron microscopy for surface microstructural characterization. Twelve locations rank among the world’s premier end-Pleistocene archaeological sites, where the YDB marks a hiatus in human occupation or major changes in site use. Our results are consistent with melting of sediments to temperatures >2,200 °C by the thermal radiation and air shocks produced by passage of an extraterrestrial object through the atmosphere; they are inconsistent with volcanic, cosmic, anthropogenic, lightning, or authigenic sources. We also produced spherules from wood in the laboratory at >1,730 °C, indicating that impact-related incineration of biomass may have contributed to spherule production. At 12.8 ka, an estimated 10 million tonnes of spherules were distributed across ∼50 million square kilometers, similar to well-known impact strewnfields and consistent with a major cosmic impact event.

  8. Real-time sensing of soil nitrate concentration in the parts per million range while the soil is in motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Roger W; Rathke, Samuel J; Laird, David A; McClelland, John F

    2013-09-01

    Reactive nitrogen (Nr) is a term used to describe non-nitrogen gas (non-N2) forms of nitrogen (N) in the biosphere. It causes major pollution problems when it occurs in excess, and it has many sources, including fertilizers used in production agriculture. Currently there is no on-the-go soil nitrate sensor that could guide the application of the optimal amount of fertilizer, which often varies significantly within a field. We report for the first time nitrate-in-soil measurements performed on moving soil samples at concentration levels relevant for fertilizer application. An infrared emission technique called transient infrared spectroscopy (TIRS) was tested on soil samples spiked with different nitrate concentrations in the parts-per-million range and moving at a velocity of 2.6 m/s (5.8 miles per hour) in the laboratory. The TIRS Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra were modeled by partial least squares and produced a standard error of cross-validation (SECV) of 6.3 parts per million (ppm) N and an R(2) of 0.938 for 512-scan spectra. These results are compared to those using fewer TIRS scans and to those from photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) and diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) measurements on stationary samples. TIRS 128-, 32-, and 8-scan spectra yielded SECVs of 11.2, 11.4, and 18.4 ppm N and R(2) values of 0.800, 0.831, and 0.583, respectively. The PAS and DRIFTS measurements produced SECVs of 12.4 and 9.0 ppm N and R(2) values of 0.766 and 0.876, respectively.

  9. Rapid emergence of life shown by discovery of 3,700-million-year-old microbial structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutman, Allen P.; Bennett, Vickie C.; Friend, Clark R. L.; van Kranendonk, Martin J.; Chivas, Allan R.

    2016-09-01

    Biological activity is a major factor in Earth’s chemical cycles, including facilitating CO2 sequestration and providing climate feedbacks. Thus a key question in Earth’s evolution is when did life arise and impact hydrosphere-atmosphere-lithosphere chemical cycles? Until now, evidence for the oldest life on Earth focused on debated stable isotopic signatures of 3,800-3,700 million year (Myr)-old metamorphosed sedimentary rocks and minerals from the Isua supracrustal belt (ISB), southwest Greenland. Here we report evidence for ancient life from a newly exposed outcrop of 3,700-Myr-old metacarbonate rocks in the ISB that contain 1-4-cm-high stromatolites—macroscopically layered structures produced by microbial communities. The ISB stromatolites grew in a shallow marine environment, as indicated by seawater-like rare-earth element plus yttrium trace element signatures of the metacarbonates, and by interlayered detrital sedimentary rocks with cross-lamination and storm-wave generated breccias. The ISB stromatolites predate by 220 Myr the previous most convincing and generally accepted multidisciplinary evidence for oldest life remains in the 3,480-Myr-old Dresser Formation of the Pilbara Craton, Australia. The presence of the ISB stromatolites demonstrates the establishment of shallow marine carbonate production with biotic CO2 sequestration by 3,700 million years ago (Ma), near the start of Earth’s sedimentary record. A sophistication of life by 3,700 Ma is in accord with genetic molecular clock studies placing life’s origin in the Hadean eon (>4,000 Ma).

  10. The company's mainframes join CERN's openlab for DataGrid apps and are pivotal in a new $22 million Supercomputer in the U.K.

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Hewlett-Packard has installed a supercomputer system valued at more than $22 million at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute (WTSI) in the U.K. HP has also joined the CERN openlab for DataGrid applications (1 page).

  11. Research Advances. Image Pinpoints All 5 Million Atoms in Viral Coat; Bilirubin, "Animals-Only" Pigment, Found in Plants; New Evidence Shows Humans Make Salicylic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Angela G.

    2009-08-01

    Recent "firsts" in chemical research: image of a viral capsid pinpointing 5 million atoms; isolation and identification of an "animal" pigment, bilirubin, from a plant source; evidence that humans make salicylic acid.

  12. Jiangxi Copper Co.,Ltd Invested 268 Million Yuan to Expand the Capacity of High-Grade Copper Foil Production to 5000 ton/year

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>At the end of 2008, Jiangxi Copper Co.,Ltd reviewed and approved the"Proposal on In- vesting 268 Million Yuan to Jiangxi Copper- Yates Foil Inc for Technical Upgrade and Phase-two Expansion of Capacity."

  13. Reduced-complexity multi-site rainfall generation: one million years over night using the model TripleM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breinl, Korbinian; Di Baldassarre, Giuliano; Girons Lopez, Marc

    2017-04-01

    We assess uncertainties of multi-site rainfall generation across spatial scales and different climatic conditions. Many research subjects in earth sciences such as floods, droughts or water balance simulations require the generation of long rainfall time series. In large study areas the simulation at multiple sites becomes indispensable to account for the spatial rainfall variability, but becomes more complex compared to a single site due to the intermittent nature of rainfall. Weather generators can be used for extrapolating rainfall time series, and various models have been presented in the literature. Even though the large majority of multi-site rainfall generators is based on similar methods, such as resampling techniques or Markovian processes, they often become too complex. We think that this complexity has been a limit for the application of such tools. Furthermore, the majority of multi-site rainfall generators found in the literature are either not publicly available or intended for being applied at small geographical scales, often only in temperate climates. Here we present a revised, and now publicly available, version of a multi-site rainfall generation code first applied in 2014 in Austria and France, which we call TripleM (Multisite Markov Model). We test this fast and robust code with daily rainfall observations from the United States, in a subtropical, tropical and temperate climate, using rain gauge networks with a maximum site distance above 1,000km, thereby generating one million years of synthetic time series. The modelling of these one million years takes one night on a recent desktop computer. In this research, we first start the simulations with a small station network of three sites and progressively increase the number of sites and the spatial extent, and analyze the changing uncertainties for multiple statistical metrics such as dry and wet spells, rainfall autocorrelation, lagged cross correlations and the inter-annual rainfall

  14. 100 Million Views of Electronic Cigarette YouTube Videos and Counting: Quantification, Content Evaluation, and Engagement Levels of Videos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jidong; Kornfield, Rachel; Emery, Sherry L

    2016-03-18

    The video-sharing website, YouTube, has become an important avenue for product marketing, including tobacco products. It may also serve as an important medium for promoting electronic cigarettes, which have rapidly increased in popularity and are heavily marketed online. While a few studies have examined a limited subset of tobacco-related videos on YouTube, none has explored e-cigarette videos' overall presence on the platform. To quantify e-cigarette-related videos on YouTube, assess their content, and characterize levels of engagement with those videos. Understanding promotion and discussion of e-cigarettes on YouTube may help clarify the platform's impact on consumer attitudes and behaviors and inform regulations. Using an automated crawling procedure and keyword rules, e-cigarette-related videos posted on YouTube and their associated metadata were collected between July 1, 2012, and June 30, 2013. Metadata were analyzed to describe posting and viewing time trends, number of views, comments, and ratings. Metadata were content coded for mentions of health, safety, smoking cessation, promotional offers, Web addresses, product types, top-selling brands, or names of celebrity endorsers. As of June 30, 2013, approximately 28,000 videos related to e-cigarettes were captured. Videos were posted by approximately 10,000 unique YouTube accounts, viewed more than 100 million times, rated over 380,000 times, and commented on more than 280,000 times. More than 2200 new videos were being uploaded every month by June 2013. The top 1% of most-viewed videos accounted for 44% of total views. Text fields for the majority of videos mentioned websites (70.11%); many referenced health (13.63%), safety (10.12%), smoking cessation (9.22%), or top e-cigarette brands (33.39%). The number of e-cigarette-related YouTube videos was projected to exceed 65,000 by the end of 2014, with approximately 190 million views. YouTube is a major information-sharing platform for electronic cigarettes

  15. 100 Million Views of Electronic Cigarette YouTube Videos and Counting: Quantification, Content Evaluation, and Engagement Levels of Videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background The video-sharing website, YouTube, has become an important avenue for product marketing, including tobacco products. It may also serve as an important medium for promoting electronic cigarettes, which have rapidly increased in popularity and are heavily marketed online. While a few studies have examined a limited subset of tobacco-related videos on YouTube, none has explored e-cigarette videos’ overall presence on the platform. Objective To quantify e-cigarette-related videos on YouTube, assess their content, and characterize levels of engagement with those videos. Understanding promotion and discussion of e-cigarettes on YouTube may help clarify the platform’s impact on consumer attitudes and behaviors and inform regulations. Methods Using an automated crawling procedure and keyword rules, e-cigarette-related videos posted on YouTube and their associated metadata were collected between July 1, 2012, and June 30, 2013. Metadata were analyzed to describe posting and viewing time trends, number of views, comments, and ratings. Metadata were content coded for mentions of health, safety, smoking cessation, promotional offers, Web addresses, product types, top-selling brands, or names of celebrity endorsers. Results As of June 30, 2013, approximately 28,000 videos related to e-cigarettes were captured. Videos were posted by approximately 10,000 unique YouTube accounts, viewed more than 100 million times, rated over 380,000 times, and commented on more than 280,000 times. More than 2200 new videos were being uploaded every month by June 2013. The top 1% of most-viewed videos accounted for 44% of total views. Text fields for the majority of videos mentioned websites (70.11%); many referenced health (13.63%), safety (10.12%), smoking cessation (9.22%), or top e-cigarette brands (33.39%). The number of e-cigarette-related YouTube videos was projected to exceed 65,000 by the end of 2014, with approximately 190 million views. Conclusions YouTube is a major

  16. Reducing one million child deaths from birth asphyxia – a survey of health systems gaps and priorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manandhar Ananta

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Millions of child deaths and stillbirths are attributable to birth asphyxia, yet limited information is available to guide policy and practice, particularly at the community level. We surveyed selected policymakers, programme implementers and researchers to compile insights on policies, programmes, and research to reduce asphyxia-related deaths. Method A questionnaire was developed and pretested based on an extensive literature review, then sent by email (or airmail or fax, when necessary to 453 policymakers, programme implementers, and researchers active in child health, particularly at the community level. The survey was available in French and English and employed 5-point scales for respondents to rate effectiveness and feasibility of interventions and indicators. Open-ended questions permitted respondents to furnish additional details based on their experience. Significance testing was carried out using chi-square, F-test and Fisher's exact probability tests as appropriate. Results 173 individuals from 32 countries responded (44%. National newborn survival policies were reported to exist in 20 of 27 (74% developing countries represented, but respondents' answers were occasionally contradictory and revealed uncertainty about policy content, which may hinder policy implementation. Respondents emphasized confusing terminology and a lack of valid measurement indicators at community level as barriers to obtaining accurate data for decision making. Regarding interventions, birth preparedness and essential newborn care were considered both effective and feasible, while resuscitation at community level was considered less feasible. Respondents emphasized health systems strengthening for both supply and demand factors as programme priorities, particularly ensuring wide availability of skilled birth attendants, promotion of birth preparedness, and promotion of essential newborn care. Research priorities included operationalising

  17. China ship export sharply increased by 50% nearly to 400 million US Dollars monthly last year Summary on China ship import/export in 2005

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Huaixin

    2006-01-01

    @@ General According to the Customs statistics in 2005,China exported 215761 pieces totally amounting to 4.7189 billion US dollars, which increased 49.4% than the previous year and nearly 400 million US dollars per month in average. It also imported 3818 vessels totally amounting to 490.8 million US dollars, which decreased 52.7% than the previous year. The surplus of the ship import vs. export accumulated to 4.2281 billion US dollars.

  18. The Hidden Poor: Over Three-Quarters of a Million Older Californians Overlooked by Official Poverty Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Frausto, Imelda D; Wallace, Steven P

    2015-08-01

    More than three-quarters of a million (772,000) older Californians are among the "hidden poor"--older adults with incomes above the federal poverty line (FPL) but below a minimally decent standard of living as determined by the Elder Economic Security Standard™ Index (Elder Index) in 2011. This policy brief uses the most recent Elder Index calculations to document the wide discrepancy that exists between the FPL and the Elder Index. This study finds that the FPL significantly underestimates the number of economically insecure older adults who are unable to make ends meet. Yet, because many public assistance programs are aligned with the FPL, potentially hundreds of thousands of economically insecure older Californians are denied aid. The highest rates of the hidden poor among older adults are found among renters, Latinos, women, those who are raising grandchildren, and people in the oldest age groups. Raising the income and asset eligibility requirement thresholds for social support programs such as Supplemental Security Income (SSI), housing, health care, and food assistance would help California's older hidden poor make ends meet.

  19. A Measurement of the Absorption of Liquid Argon Scintillation Light by Dissolved Nitrogen at the Part-Per-Million Level

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, B J P; Conrad, J M; Ignarra, C M; Katori, T; Toups, M

    2013-01-01

    We report on a measurement of the absorption length of scintillation light in liquid argon due to dissolved nitrogen at the part-per-million (ppm) level. We inject controlled quantities of nitrogen into a high purity volume of liquid argon and monitor the light yield from an alpha source. The source is placed at different distances from a cryogenic photomultiplier tube assembly. By comparing the light yield from each position we extract the absorption cross section of nitrogen. We find that nitrogen absorbs argon scintillation light with strength of $\\left(1.51\\pm 0.15\\right)\\times10^{-4} \\;\\mathrm{cm^{-1} ppm^{-1}}$, corresponding to an absorption cross section of $\\left(4.99 \\pm 0.51 \\right)\\times10^{-21}\\;\\mathrm{cm^{2} molecule^{-1}}$. We obtain the relationship between absorption length and nitrogen concentration over the 0 to 50 ppm range and discuss the implications for the design and data analysis of future large liquid argon time projection chamber (LArTPC) detectors. Our results indicate that for a ...

  20. Issues in health reform: how changes in eligibility may move millions back and forth between medicaid and insurance exchanges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommers, Benjamin D; Rosenbaum, Sara

    2011-02-01

    The Affordable Care Act will extend health insurance coverage by both expanding Medicaid eligibility and offering premium subsidies for the purchase of private health insurance through state health insurance exchanges. But by definition, eligibility for these programs is sensitive to income and can change over time with fluctuating income and changes in family composition. The law specifies no minimum enrollment period, and subsidy levels will also change as income rises and falls. Using national survey data, we estimate that within six months, more than 35 percent of all adults with family incomes below 200 percent of the federal poverty level will experience a shift in eligibility from Medicaid to an insurance exchange, or the reverse; within a year, 50 percent, or 28 million, will. To minimize the effect on continuity and quality of care, states and the federal government should adopt strategies to reduce the frequency of coverage transitions and to mitigate the disruptions caused by those transitions. Options include establishing a minimum guaranteed eligibility period and "dually certifying" some plans to serve both Medicaid and exchange enrollees.

  1. A Rapidly Star-forming Galaxy 700 Million Years After the Big Bang at z=7.51

    CERN Document Server

    Finkelstein, S L; Dickinson, M; Song, M; Tilvi, V; Koekemoer, A M; Finkelstein, K D; Mobasher, B; Ferguson, H C; Giavalisco, M; Reddy, N; Ashby, M L N; Dekel, A; Fazio, G G; Fontana, A; Grogin, N A; Huang, J -S; Kocevski, D; Rafelski, M; Weiner, B J; Willner, S P

    2013-01-01

    Out of several dozen z > 7 candidate galaxies observed spectroscopically, only five have been confirmed via Lyman-alpha emission, at z=7.008, 7.045, 7.109, 7.213 and 7.215. The small fraction of confirmed galaxies may indicate that the neutral fraction in the intergalactic medium (IGM) rises quickly at z > 6.5, as Lyman-alpha is resonantly scattered by neutral gas. However, the small samples and limited depth of previous observations makes these conclusions tentative. Here we report the results of a deep near-infrared spectroscopic survey of 43 z > 6.5 galaxies. We detect only a single galaxy, confirming that some process is making Lyman-alpha difficult to detect. The detected emission line at 1.0343 um is likely to be Lyman-alpha emission, placing this galaxy at a redshift z = 7.51, an epoch 700 million years after the Big Bang. This galaxy's colors are consistent with significant metal content, implying that galaxies become enriched rapidly. We measure a surprisingly high star formation rate of 330 Msol/yr,...

  2. A Neptune-sized transiting planet closely orbiting a 5-10-million-year-old star

    CERN Document Server

    David, Trevor J; Petigura, Erik A; Carpenter, John M; Crossfield, Ian J M; Hinkley, Sasha; Ciardi, David R; Howard, Andrew W; Isaacson, Howard T; Cody, Ann Marie; Schlieder, Joshua E; Beichman, Charles A; Barenfeld, Scott A

    2016-01-01

    Theories of the formation and early evolution of planetary systems postulate that planets are born in circumstellar disks, and undergo radial migration during and after dissipation of the dust and gas disk from which they formed. The precise ages of meteorites indicate that planetesimals - the building blocks of planets - are produced within the first million years of a star's life. A prominent question is: how early can one find fully formed planets like those frequently detected on short orbital periods around mature stars? Some theories suggest the in situ formation of planets close to their host stars is unlikely and the existence of such planets is evidence for large scale migration. Other theories posit that planet assembly at small orbital separations may be common. Here we report on a newly-born, transiting planet orbiting its star every 5.4 days. The planet is 50 per cent larger than Neptune, and its mass is less than 3.6 times Jupiter (at 99.7 per cent confidence), with a true mass likely to be with...

  3. Steady incision of Grand Canyon at the million year timeframe: A case for mantle-driven differential uplift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, Ryan; Karlstrom, Karl; Darling, Andrew; Crossey, Laura; Polyak, Victor; Granger, Darryl; Asmerom, Yemane; Schmandt, Brandon

    2014-07-01

    The Grand Canyon region provides an excellent laboratory to examine the interplay between river incision, magmatism, and the geomorphic and tectonic processes that shape landscapes. Here we apply U-series, Ar-Ar, and cosmogenic burial dating of river terraces to examine spatial variations in incision rates along the 445 km length of the Colorado River through Grand Canyon. We also analyze strath terrace sequences that extend to heights of several hundred meters above the river, and integrate these with speleothem constrained maximum incision rates in several reaches to examine any temporal incision variations at the million-year time frame. This new high-resolution geochronology shows temporally steady long-term incision in any given reach of Grand Canyon but significant variations along its length from 160 m/Ma in the east to 101 m/Ma in the west. Spatial and temporal patterns of incision, and the long timescale of steady incision rule out models where geomorphic controls such as climate oscillations, bedrock strength, sediment load effects, or isostatic response to differential denudation are the first order drivers of canyon incision. The incision pattern is best explained by a model of Neogene and ongoing epeirogenic uplift due to an eastward propagating zone of increased upper mantle buoyancy that we infer from propagation of Neogene basaltic volcanism and a strong lateral gradient in modern upper mantle seismic structure.

  4. Steady incision of Grand Canyon at the million year timeframe: a case for mantle-driven differential uplift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, Ryan S; Karl Karlstrom,; Laura Crossey,; Richard Young,; Michael Ort,; Yemane Asmerom,; Victor Polyak,; Andrew Darling,

    2014-01-01

    The Grand Canyon region provides an excellent laboratory to examine the interplay between river incision, magmatism, and the geomorphic and tectonic processes that shape landscapes. Here we apply U-series, Ar–Ar, and cosmogenic burial dating of river terraces to examine spatial variations in incision rates along the 445 km length of the Colorado River through Grand Canyon. We also analyze strath terrace sequences that extend to heights of several hundred meters above the river, and integrate these with speleothem constrained maximum incision rates in several reaches to examine any temporal incision variations at the million-year time frame. This new high-resolution geochronology shows temporally steady long-term incision in any given reach of Grand Canyon but significant variations along its length from 160 m/Ma in the east to 101 m/Ma in the west. Spatial and temporal patterns of incision, and the long timescale of steady incision rule out models where geomorphic controls such as climate oscillations, bedrock strength, sediment load effects, or isostatic response to differential denudation are the first order drivers of canyon incision. The incision pattern is best explained by a model of Neogene and ongoing epeirogenic uplift due to an eastward propagating zone of increased upper mantle buoyancy that we infer from propagation of Neogene basaltic volcanism and a strong lateral gradient in modern upper mantle seismic structure.

  5. Conservation of class C function of floral organ development during 300 million years of evolution from gymnosperms to angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pingyu; Tan, Hugh T W; Pwee, Keng-Hock; Kumar, Prakash P

    2004-02-01

    Flower development in angiosperms is regulated by the family of MADS-box transcription factors. MADS-box genes have also been reported from gymnosperms, another major group of seed plants. AGAMOUS (AG) is the class C MADS-box floral organ identity gene controlling the stamen and carpel development in Arabidopsis. We report the characterization of an ortholog of the AG gene, named Cycas AGAMOUS (CyAG), from the primitive gymnosperm Cycas edentata. The expression pattern of CyAG in Cycas parallels that of AG in Arabidopsis. Additionally, the gene structure, including the number and location of the introns, is conserved in CyAG and other AG orthologs known. Most importantly, functional analysis shows that CyAG driven by the AG promoter can rescue the loss-of-function ag mutant of Arabidopsis. However, the ectopic expression of CyAG in ag mutant Arabidopsis cannot produce the carpeloid and stamenoid organs in the first and second whorls, although the stamen and carpel are rescued in the third and fourth whorls of the transformants. These observations show that the molecular mechanism of class C function controlling reproductive organ identity (stamen and carpel of angiosperms or microsporophyll and megasporophyll of gymnosperms) arose before the divergence of angiosperms and gymnosperms, and has been conserved during 300 million years of evolution thereafter.

  6. Using ice-flow models to evaluate potential sites of million year-old ice in Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Van Liefferinge

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Finding suitable potential sites for an undisturbed record of million-year old ice in Antarctica requires a slow-moving ice sheet (preferably an ice divide and basal conditions that are not disturbed by large topographic variations. Furthermore, ice should be thick and cold basal conditions should prevail, since basal melting would destroy the bottom layers. However, thick ice (needed to resolve the signal at sufficient high resolution increases basal temperatures, which is a conflicting condition in view of finding a suitable drill site. In addition, slow moving areas in the center of ice sheets are also low-accumulation areas, and low accumulation reduces potential cooling of the ice through vertical advection. While boundary conditions such as ice thickness and accumulation rates are relatively well constraint, the major uncertainty in determining basal conditions resides in the geothermal heat flow (GHF underneath the ice sheet. We explore uncertainties in existing GHF datasets and their effect on basal temperatures of the Antarctic ice sheet and propose an updated method based on Pattyn (2010 to improve existing GHF datasets in agreement with known basal temperatures and their gradients to reduce this uncertainty. Both complementary methods lead to a better comprehension of basal temperature sensitivity and a characterization of potential ice coring sites within these uncertainties.

  7. Using ice-flow models to evaluate potential sites of million year-old ice in Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Van Liefferinge

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Finding suitable potential sites for an undisturbed record of million-year old ice in Antarctica requires slow-moving ice (preferably an ice divide and basal conditions that are not disturbed by large topographic variations. Furthermore, ice should be thick and cold basal conditions should prevail, since basal melting would destroy the bottom layers. However, thick ice (needed to resolve the signal at sufficient high resolution increases basal temperatures, which is a conflicting condition for finding a suitable drill site. In addition, slow moving areas in the center of ice sheets are also low-accumulation areas, and low accumulation reduces potential cooling of the ice through vertical advection. While boundary conditions such as ice thickness and accumulation rates are relatively well constrained, the major uncertainty in determining basal thermal conditions resides in the geothermal heat flow (GHF underneath the ice sheet. We explore uncertainties in existing GHF data sets and their effect on basal temperatures of the Antarctic Ice Sheet, and propose an updated method based on Pattyn (2010 to improve existing GHF data sets in agreement with known basal temperatures and their gradients to reduce this uncertainty. Both complementary methods lead to a better comprehension of basal temperature sensitivity and a characterization of potential ice coring sites within these uncertainties. The combination of both modeling approaches show that the most likely oldest ice sites are situated near the divide areas (close to existing deep drilling sites, but in areas of smaller ice thickness and across the Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains.

  8. High-Speed Photonic Reservoir Computing Using a Time-Delay-Based Architecture: Million Words per Second Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Larger

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Reservoir computing, originally referred to as an echo state network or a liquid state machine, is a brain-inspired paradigm for processing temporal information. It involves learning a “read-out” interpretation for nonlinear transients developed by high-dimensional dynamics when the latter is excited by the information signal to be processed. This novel computational paradigm is derived from recurrent neural network and machine learning techniques. It has recently been implemented in photonic hardware for a dynamical system, which opens the path to ultrafast brain-inspired computing. We report on a novel implementation involving an electro-optic phase-delay dynamics designed with off-the-shelf optoelectronic telecom devices, thus providing the targeted wide bandwidth. Computational efficiency is demonstrated experimentally with speech-recognition tasks. State-of-the-art speed performances reach one million words per second, with very low word error rate. Additionally, to record speed processing, our investigations have revealed computing-efficiency improvements through yet-unexplored temporal-information-processing techniques, such as simultaneous multisample injection and pitched sampling at the read-out compared to information “write-in”.

  9. State Medicaid programs missed $220 million in uncaptured savings as generic fluoxetine came to market, 2001-05.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelton, Christina M L; Chang, Lenisa V; Kreling, David H

    2013-07-01

    Patent expiration of brand-name pharmaceuticals creates opportunities for large savings for state Medicaid programs because generic versions of medications frequently represent a lower-cost alternative. State Medicaid programs that quickly recognize the availability of generics and adjust their drug payments in response to falling market prices can obtain the greatest benefit. We examined one such case: the movement to generic fluoxetine following patent expiration for Prozac, a widely prescribed antidepressant and an expensive drug for Medicaid. We found large differences in states' responses to generic availability. States took between two and ten calendar quarters to reach 90 percent use of generic rather than brand-name fluoxetine and four to eight quarters to achieve a 50 percent decrease in reimbursement per pill. We estimated that states failed to realize $220 million in uncaptured savings during 2001-05. By coordinating their efforts, perhaps with federal help, states could gain access in a more timely way to market prices for generic drugs and, hence, take greater advantage of the savings that those drugs offer.

  10. Adherence to weight loss medications; post-marketing study from HMO pharmacy data of one million individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemo, Beatriz; Endevelt, Ronit; Porath, Avi; Stampfer, Meir J; Shai, Iris

    2011-11-01

    Post-marketing data on weight-loss medications in free living population are a necessary adjunct to data from clinical trials. We conducted a population-based analysis of first-time medication users based on HMO pharmacy purchasing data serving > one million adults. During 5 years, usage of orlistat and sibutramine more than doubled and rates were higher during the months May-Aug. As compared to non-users (n = 1,038,828), annual weight-loss drug users (n = 7175) had higher women proportion, body-mass-index (BMI), bariatric surgery history, and usage of diabetes, depression, and cardiovascular medications (p analysis) reduced from 33.02 kg/m(2) to 32.04 kg/m(2) (p multivariate model, long-term adherence (≥ 4 months) to weight-loss medications was associated with use of sibutramine vs. orlistat (OR = 2.08; 95%CI: 1.76-2.45), and prevalence of diabetes (OR = 1.20; 95%CI: 1.01-1.25). Age, gender, and baseline BMI were not associated with long-term adherence. Usage of weight-loss drugs is higher among diabetes patients. However, the poor adherence to therapy is substantially below levels reported in clinical trials. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Seventy-five-million-year-old tropical tetra-like fish from Canada tracks Cretaceous global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbrey, M G; Murray, A M; Wilson, M V H; Brinkman, D B; Neuman, A G

    2009-11-01

    Newly discovered fossil fish material from the Cretaceous Dinosaur Park Formation of Alberta, Canada, documents the presence of a tropical fish in this northern area about 75 million years ago (Ma). The living relatives of this fossil fish, members of the Characiformes including the piranha and neon tetras, are restricted to tropical and subtropical regions, being limited in their distribution by colder temperatures. Although characiform fossils are known from Cretaceous through to Cenozoic deposits, none has been reported previously from North America. The modern distribution of characiforms in Mexico and southern Texas in the southernmost United States is believed to have been the result of a relatively recent colonization less than 12 Ma. The new Canadian fossils document the presence of these fish in North America in the Late Cretaceous, a time of significantly warmer global temperatures than now. Global cooling after this time apparently extirpated them from the northern areas and these fishes only survived in more southern climes. The lack of early Cenozoic characiform fossils in North America suggests that marine barriers prevented recolonization during warmer times, unlike in Europe where Eocene characiform fossils occur during times of global warmth.

  12. An estimated 400-800 million tons of prey are annually killed by the global spider community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyffeler, Martin; Birkhofer, Klaus

    2017-04-01

    Spiders have been suspected to be one of the most important groups of natural enemies of insects worldwide. To document the impact of the global spider community as insect predators, we present estimates of the biomass of annually killed insect prey. Our estimates assessed with two different methods suggest that the annual prey kill of the global spider community is in the range of 400-800 million metric tons (fresh weight), with insects and collembolans composing >90% of the captured prey. This equals approximately 1‰ of the global terrestrial net primary production. Spiders associated with forests and grasslands account for >95% of the annual prey kill of the global spider community, whereas spiders in other habitats are rather insignificant contributors over a full year. The spider communities associated with annual crops contribute less than 2% to the global annual prey kill. This, however, can be partly explained by the fact that annual crop fields are "disturbed habitats" with a low buildup of spider biomass and that agrobiont spiders often only kill prey over short time periods in a year. Our estimates are supported by the published results of exclusion experiments, showing that the number of herbivorous/detritivorous insects and collembolans increased significantly after spider removal from experimental plots. The presented estimates of the global annual prey kill and the relative contribution of spider predation in different biomes improve the general understanding of spider ecology and provide a first assessment of the global impact of this very important predator group.

  13. High-Speed Photonic Reservoir Computing Using a Time-Delay-Based Architecture: Million Words per Second Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larger, Laurent; Baylón-Fuentes, Antonio; Martinenghi, Romain; Udaltsov, Vladimir S.; Chembo, Yanne K.; Jacquot, Maxime

    2017-01-01

    Reservoir computing, originally referred to as an echo state network or a liquid state machine, is a brain-inspired paradigm for processing temporal information. It involves learning a "read-out" interpretation for nonlinear transients developed by high-dimensional dynamics when the latter is excited by the information signal to be processed. This novel computational paradigm is derived from recurrent neural network and machine learning techniques. It has recently been implemented in photonic hardware for a dynamical system, which opens the path to ultrafast brain-inspired computing. We report on a novel implementation involving an electro-optic phase-delay dynamics designed with off-the-shelf optoelectronic telecom devices, thus providing the targeted wide bandwidth. Computational efficiency is demonstrated experimentally with speech-recognition tasks. State-of-the-art speed performances reach one million words per second, with very low word error rate. Additionally, to record speed processing, our investigations have revealed computing-efficiency improvements through yet-unexplored temporal-information-processing techniques, such as simultaneous multisample injection and pitched sampling at the read-out compared to information "write-in".

  14. A New Chytridiomycete Fungus Intermixed with Crustacean Resting Eggs in a 407-Million-Year-Old Continental Freshwater Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strullu-Derrien, Christine; Goral, Tomasz; Longcore, Joyce E; Olesen, Jørgen; Kenrick, Paul; Edgecombe, Gregory D

    2016-01-01

    The 407-million-year-old Rhynie Chert (Scotland) contains the most intact fossilised remains of an early land-based ecosystem including plants, arthropods, fungi and other microorganisms. Although most studies have focused on the terrestrial component, fossilised freshwater environments provide critical insights into fungal-algal interactions and the earliest continental branchiopod crustaceans. Here we report interactions between an enigmatic organism and an exquisitely preserved fungus. The fungal reproductive structures are intermixed with exceptionally well-preserved globular spiny structures interpreted as branchiopod resting eggs. Confocal laser scanning microscopy enabled us to reconstruct the fungus and its possible mode of nutrition, the affinity of the resting eggs, and their spatial associations. The new fungus (Cultoraquaticus trewini gen. et sp. nov) is attributed to Chytridiomycota based on its size, consistent formation of papillae, and the presence of an internal rhizoidal system. It is the most pristine fossil Chytridiomycota known, especially in terms of rhizoidal development and closely resembles living species in the Rhizophydiales. The spiny resting eggs are attributed to the crustacean Lepidocaris rhyniensis, dating branchiopod adaptation to life in ephemeral pools to the Early Devonian. The new fungal interaction suggests that, as in modern freshwater environments, chytrids were important to the mobilisation of nutrients in early aquatic foodwebs.

  15. Next Generation Semiconductor Based Sequencing of the Donkey (Equus asinus Genome Provided Comparative Sequence Data against the Horse Genome and a Few Millions of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Bertolini

    Full Text Available Few studies investigated the donkey (Equus asinus at the whole genome level so far. Here, we sequenced the genome of two male donkeys using a next generation semiconductor based sequencing platform (the Ion Proton sequencer and compared obtained sequence information with the available donkey draft genome (and its Illumina reads from which it was originated and with the EquCab2.0 assembly of the horse genome. Moreover, the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Analyzer was used to sequence reduced representation libraries (RRL obtained from a DNA pool including donkeys of different breeds (Grigio Siciliano, Ragusano and Martina Franca. The number of next generation sequencing reads aligned with the EquCab2.0 horse genome was larger than those aligned with the draft donkey genome. This was due to the larger N50 for contigs and scaffolds of the horse genome. Nucleotide divergence between E. caballus and E. asinus was estimated to be ~ 0.52-0.57%. Regions with low nucleotide divergence were identified in several autosomal chromosomes and in the whole chromosome X. These regions might be evolutionally important in equids. Comparing Y-chromosome regions we identified variants that could be useful to track donkey paternal lineages. Moreover, about 4.8 million of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the donkey genome were identified and annotated combining sequencing data from Ion Proton (whole genome sequencing and Ion Torrent (RRL runs with Illumina reads. A higher density of SNPs was present in regions homologous to horse chromosome 12, in which several studies reported a high frequency of copy number variants. The SNPs we identified constitute a first resource useful to describe variability at the population genomic level in E. asinus and to establish monitoring systems for the conservation of donkey genetic resources.

  16. Next Generation Semiconductor Based Sequencing of the Donkey (Equus asinus) Genome Provided Comparative Sequence Data against the Horse Genome and a Few Millions of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolini, Francesca; Scimone, Concetta; Geraci, Claudia; Schiavo, Giuseppina; Utzeri, Valerio Joe; Chiofalo, Vincenzo; Fontanesi, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Few studies investigated the donkey (Equus asinus) at the whole genome level so far. Here, we sequenced the genome of two male donkeys using a next generation semiconductor based sequencing platform (the Ion Proton sequencer) and compared obtained sequence information with the available donkey draft genome (and its Illumina reads from which it was originated) and with the EquCab2.0 assembly of the horse genome. Moreover, the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Analyzer was used to sequence reduced representation libraries (RRL) obtained from a DNA pool including donkeys of different breeds (Grigio Siciliano, Ragusano and Martina Franca). The number of next generation sequencing reads aligned with the EquCab2.0 horse genome was larger than those aligned with the draft donkey genome. This was due to the larger N50 for contigs and scaffolds of the horse genome. Nucleotide divergence between E. caballus and E. asinus was estimated to be ~ 0.52-0.57%. Regions with low nucleotide divergence were identified in several autosomal chromosomes and in the whole chromosome X. These regions might be evolutionally important in equids. Comparing Y-chromosome regions we identified variants that could be useful to track donkey paternal lineages. Moreover, about 4.8 million of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the donkey genome were identified and annotated combining sequencing data from Ion Proton (whole genome sequencing) and Ion Torrent (RRL) runs with Illumina reads. A higher density of SNPs was present in regions homologous to horse chromosome 12, in which several studies reported a high frequency of copy number variants. The SNPs we identified constitute a first resource useful to describe variability at the population genomic level in E. asinus and to establish monitoring systems for the conservation of donkey genetic resources.

  17. 2.8 Million Years of Arctic Climate Change from Deep Drilling at Lake El'gygytgyn, NE Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melles, M.; Brigham-Grette, J.; Minyuk, P.; Wennrich, V.; Nowaczyk, N.; DeConto, R.; Anderson, P.; Andreev, A.; Haltia-Hovi, E.; Kukkonen, M.; Lozhkin, A.; Rosén, P.; Tarasov, P.

    2012-12-01

    coupling, which could be due to a reduction of Antarctic Bottom Water formation and/or a significant global sea-level rise during times of WAIS decays. References: Melles M. et al. (2011): The El'gygytgyn Scientific Drilling Project - conquering Arctic challenges through continental drilling. - Scientific Drilling, 11: 29-40. Melles M. et al. (2012): 2.8 Million Years of Arctic Climate Change from Lake El'gygytgyn, NE Russia. - Science, 337: 315-320. Nolan M. (2012): Analysis of local AWS and NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data at Lake El'gygytgyn, and its implications for maintaining multi-year lake-ice covers. - Clim. Past Disc., 8: 1443-1483. Naish T. et al. (2009): Obliquity-paced Pliocene West Antarctic Ice Sheet oscillations. - Nature, 458: 322-329. Pollard D. and DeConto R.M. (2009): Modelling West Antarctic ice sheet growth and collapse through the past five million years. - Nature, 458: 329-332.

  18. Surface and deep water carbon isotope record of the last one million years in the SW Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miriam, Cobianchi; Valeria, Luciani; Claudia, Lupi; Nicoletta, Mancin; Nicola, Pelosi; Mario, Sprovieri; Iacopo, Trattenero

    2010-05-01

    The Pleistocene carbon isotope record from the core MD 97-2114 (SW Pacific Ocean) is used to reconstruct the surface- and deep-water circulation variability during the last one million years. The analyzed core has been recovered from an IMAGES (International Marine Past Global Change Study) cruise, at 1,935 m water depth, on the north eastern slope of Chatham Rise (east of New Zealand). This region represents a key area for investigating the evolution during the Pleistocene of the biogeochemistry and dynamic of the southern oceanic fronts (Subtropical, Subantarctic, Polar Fronts). In fact, in this crucial area the largely wind-driven Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) interacts with the west Pacific Ocean circulation via Deep Western Boundary Current (DWBC) coming from the Antarctic region. The excellent record of the core MD 97-2114 offers a unique opportunity to investigate the climate and oceanographic evolution of the region at a millenarian time-scale by mean of a high-resolution chemostratigraphic, multi-proxy dataset. Moreover, quantitative data on the calcareous planktic and benthic microfossil record, integrated with the C and O isotope data performed both on planktic and benthic foraminiferal tests, allows to understand coupling or decoupling events between sea surface and bottom waters in terms of productivity, current activity and carbon export dynamics. The northward migration of the Polar Front during the Mid-Pleistocene Transition is particularly focalized for its potential effects on the primary productivity and on the carbon biological pump. This oceanographic event seems to be related to a variation in the volume of the DWBC like a response to changes in the water production from the Antarctic source, as already proposed in previous papers.

  19. Baseline intrinsic flammability of Earth’s ecosystems estimated from paleoatmospheric oxygen over the past 350 million years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, Claire M.; Yearsley, Jonathan M.; Hadden, Rory M.; McElwain, Jennifer C.; Rein, Guillermo

    2010-01-01

    Atmospheric oxygen (O2) is estimated to have varied greatly throughout Earth’s history and has been capable of influencing wildfire activity wherever fuel and ignition sources were present. Fires consume huge quantities of biomass in all ecosystems and play an important role in biogeochemical cycles. This means that understanding the influence of O2 on past fire activity has far-reaching consequences for the evolution of life and Earth’s biodiversity over geological timescales. We have used a strong electrical ignition source to ignite smoldering fires, and we measured their self-sustaining propagation in atmospheres of different oxygen concentrations. These data have been used to build a model that we use to estimate the baseline intrinsic flammability of Earth’s ecosystems according to variations in O2 over the past 350 million years (Ma). Our aim is to highlight times in Earth’s history when fire has been capable of influencing the Earth system. We reveal that fire activity would be greatly suppressed below 18.5% O2, entirely switched off below 16% O2, and rapidly enhanced between 19–22% O2. We show that fire activity and, therefore, its influence on the Earth system would have been high during the Carboniferous (350–300 Ma) and Cretaceous (145–65 Ma) periods; intermediate in the Permian (299–251 Ma), Late Triassic (285–201 Ma), and Jurassic (201–145 Ma) periods; and surprisingly low to lacking in the Early–Middle Triassic period between 250–240 Ma. These baseline variations in Earth’s flammability must be factored into our understanding of past vegetation, biodiversity, evolution, and biogeochemical cycles. PMID:21149686

  20. Eighty-five million years of Pacific Ocean gyre ecosystem structure: long-term stability marked by punctuated change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibert, Elizabeth; Norris, Richard; Cuevas, Jose; Graves, Lana

    2016-05-25

    While the history of taxonomic diversification in open ocean lineages of ray-finned fish and elasmobranchs is increasingly known, the evolution of their roles within the open ocean ecosystem remains poorly understood. To assess the relative importance of these groups through time, we measured the accumulation rate of microfossil fish teeth and elasmobranch dermal denticles (ichthyoliths) in deep-sea sediment cores from the North and South Pacific gyres over the past 85 million years (Myr). We find three distinct and stable open ocean ecosystem structures, each defined by the relative and absolute abundance of elasmobranch and ray-finned fish remains. The Cretaceous Ocean (pre-66 Ma) was characterized by abundant elasmobranch denticles, but low abundances of fish teeth. The Palaeogene Ocean (66-20 Ma), initiated by the Cretaceous/Palaeogene mass extinction, had nearly four times the abundance of fish teeth compared with elasmobranch denticles. This Palaeogene Ocean structure remained stable during the Eocene greenhouse (50 Ma) and the Eocene-Oligocene glaciation (34 Ma), despite large changes in the overall accumulation of both groups during those intervals, suggesting that climate change is not a primary driver of ecosystem structure. Dermal denticles virtually disappeared from open ocean ichthyolith assemblages approximately 20 Ma, while fish tooth accumulation increased dramatically in variability, marking the beginning of the Modern Ocean. Together, these results suggest that open ocean fish community structure is stable on long timescales, independent of total production and climate change. The timing of the abrupt transitions between these states suggests that the transitions may be due to interactions with other, non-preserved pelagic consumer groups.

  1. Rates of dinosaur body mass evolution indicate 170 million years of sustained ecological innovation on the avian stem lineage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger B J Benson

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale adaptive radiations might explain the runaway success of a minority of extant vertebrate clades. This hypothesis predicts, among other things, rapid rates of morphological evolution during the early history of major groups, as lineages invade disparate ecological niches. However, few studies of adaptive radiation have included deep time data, so the links between extant diversity and major extinct radiations are unclear. The intensively studied Mesozoic dinosaur record provides a model system for such investigation, representing an ecologically diverse group that dominated terrestrial ecosystems for 170 million years. Furthermore, with 10,000 species, extant dinosaurs (birds are the most speciose living tetrapod clade. We assembled composite trees of 614-622 Mesozoic dinosaurs/birds, and a comprehensive body mass dataset using the scaling relationship of limb bone robustness. Maximum-likelihood modelling and the node height test reveal rapid evolutionary rates and a predominance of rapid shifts among size classes in early (Triassic dinosaurs. This indicates an early burst niche-filling pattern and contrasts with previous studies that favoured gradualistic rates. Subsequently, rates declined in most lineages, which rarely exploited new ecological niches. However, feathered maniraptoran dinosaurs (including Mesozoic birds sustained rapid evolution from at least the Middle Jurassic, suggesting that these taxa evaded the effects of niche saturation. This indicates that a long evolutionary history of continuing ecological innovation paved the way for a second great radiation of dinosaurs, in birds. We therefore demonstrate links between the predominantly extinct deep time adaptive radiation of non-avian dinosaurs and the phenomenal diversification of birds, via continuing rapid rates of evolution along the phylogenetic stem lineage. This raises the possibility that the uneven distribution of biodiversity results not just from large

  2. Spintharus flavidus in the Caribbean—a 30 million year biogeographical history and radiation of a ‘widespread species’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austin Dziki

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Caribbean island biota is characterized by high levels of endemism, the result of an interplay between colonization opportunities on islands and effective oceanic barriers among them. A relatively small percentage of the biota is represented by ‘widespread species,’ presumably taxa for which oceanic barriers are ineffective. Few studies have explored in detail the genetic structure of widespread Caribbean taxa. The cobweb spider Spintharus flavidus Hentz, 1850 (Theridiidae is one of two described Spintharus species and is unique in being widely distributed from northern N. America to Brazil and throughout the Caribbean. As a taxonomic hypothesis, Spintharus “flavidus” predicts maintenance of gene flow among Caribbean islands, a prediction that seems contradicted by known S. flavidus biology, which suggests limited dispersal ability. As part of an extensive survey of Caribbean arachnids (project CarBio, we conducted the first molecular phylogenetic analysis of S. flavidus with the primary goal of testing the ‘widespread species’ hypothesis. Our results, while limited to three molecular loci, reject the hypothesis of a single widespread species. Instead this lineage seems to represent a radiation with at least 16 species in the Caribbean region. Nearly all are short range endemics with several distinct mainland groups and others are single island endemics. While limited taxon sampling, with a single specimen from S. America, constrains what we can infer about the biogeographical history of the lineage, clear patterns still emerge. Consistent with limited overwater dispersal, we find evidence for a single colonization of the Caribbean about 30 million years ago, coinciding with the timing of the GAARLandia landbridge hypothesis. In sum, S. “flavidus” is not a single species capable of frequent overwater dispersal, but rather a 30 my old radiation of single island endemics that provides preliminary support for a complex and

  3. Are patterns in nutrient limitation belowground consistent with those aboveground: Results from a 4 million year chronosequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, S.C.; Vitousek, P.M.; Cleveland, C.C.

    2011-01-01

    Accurately predicting the effects of global change on net carbon (C) exchange between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere requires a more complete understanding of how nutrient availability regulates both plant growth and heterotrophic soil respiration. Models of soil development suggest that the nature of nutrient limitation changes over the course of ecosystem development, transitioning from nitrogen (N) limitation in 'young' sites to phosphorus (P) limitation in 'old' sites. However, previous research has focused primarily on plant responses to added nutrients, and the applicability of nutrient limitation-soil development models to belowground processes has not been thoroughly investigated. Here, we assessed the effects of nutrients on soil C cycling in three different forests that occupy a 4 million year substrate age chronosequence where tree growth is N limited at the youngest site, co-limited by N and P at the intermediate-aged site, and P limited at the oldest site. Our goal was to use short-term laboratory soil C manipulations (using 14C-labeled substrates) and longer-term intact soil core incubations to compare belowground responses to fertilization with aboveground patterns. When nutrients were applied with labile C (sucrose), patterns of microbial nutrient limitation were similar to plant patterns: microbial activity was limited more by N than by P in the young site, and P was more limiting than N in the old site. However, in the absence of C additions, increased respiration of native soil organic matter only occurred with simultaneous additions of N and P. Taken together, these data suggest that altered nutrient inputs into ecosystems could have dissimilar effects on C cycling above- and belowground, that nutrients may differentially affect of the fate of different soil C pools, and that future changes to the net C balance of terrestrial ecosystems will be partially regulated by soil nutrient status. ?? 2010 US Government.

  4. Rates of dinosaur body mass evolution indicate 170 million years of sustained ecological innovation on the avian stem lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Roger B J; Campione, Nicolás E; Carrano, Matthew T; Mannion, Philip D; Sullivan, Corwin; Upchurch, Paul; Evans, David C

    2014-05-01

    Large-scale adaptive radiations might explain the runaway success of a minority of extant vertebrate clades. This hypothesis predicts, among other things, rapid rates of morphological evolution during the early history of major groups, as lineages invade disparate ecological niches. However, few studies of adaptive radiation have included deep time data, so the links between extant diversity and major extinct radiations are unclear. The intensively studied Mesozoic dinosaur record provides a model system for such investigation, representing an ecologically diverse group that dominated terrestrial ecosystems for 170 million years. Furthermore, with 10,000 species, extant dinosaurs (birds) are the most speciose living tetrapod clade. We assembled composite trees of 614-622 Mesozoic dinosaurs/birds, and a comprehensive body mass dataset using the scaling relationship of limb bone robustness. Maximum-likelihood modelling and the node height test reveal rapid evolutionary rates and a predominance of rapid shifts among size classes in early (Triassic) dinosaurs. This indicates an early burst niche-filling pattern and contrasts with previous studies that favoured gradualistic rates. Subsequently, rates declined in most lineages, which rarely exploited new ecological niches. However, feathered maniraptoran dinosaurs (including Mesozoic birds) sustained rapid evolution from at least the Middle Jurassic, suggesting that these taxa evaded the effects of niche saturation. This indicates that a long evolutionary history of continuing ecological innovation paved the way for a second great radiation of dinosaurs, in birds. We therefore demonstrate links between the predominantly extinct deep time adaptive radiation of non-avian dinosaurs and the phenomenal diversification of birds, via continuing rapid rates of evolution along the phylogenetic stem lineage. This raises the possibility that the uneven distribution of biodiversity results not just from large-scale extrapolation of

  5. Achieving a production goal of 1 million B/D of coal liquids by 1990. [Impediments and constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Charles; LaRosa, Dr., P. J.; Coles, E. T.; Fein, H. L.; Petros, J. J.; Iyer, R. S.; Merritt, R. T.

    1980-03-01

    Under this contract, Bechtel analyzed the resource requirements and reviewed major obstacles to the daily production of several million barrels of synthetic coal liquids. Further, the study sought to identify the industry infrastructure needed to support the commercial readiness of the coal liquefaction process. A selected list of critical resource items and their domestic/international availability was developed and examined, and the impact of their supply on the various synthetic coal liquids programs was evaluated. The study approach was to develop representative, or generic, direct and indirect coal liquefaction conceptual designs from available technology and costs data. The generic processes were to employ technology that would be considered commercial by the mid- or late-1980s. The size of the generic construction mobilization was considered reasonable at the outset of the program. The product slate was directed toward unrefined liquid fuels rather than diesel oil or gasoline. The generic processes were to use a wide range of coals to permit siting in most coal-producing regions across the country. Because of the dearth of conceptual design data in the literature, Bechtel developed generic plant designs by using in-house design expertise. Bechtel assumed that because it is first generation technology, the indirect process will be used at the outset of the liquids program, and the direct process will be introduced two to four years later as a second generation technology. The products of either of these processes will be limited to boiler fuels and/or other liquid products which require further upgrading. Cost estimates were developed from equipment lists, as well as material and labor estimates, which enabled the determination of an order-of-magnitude cost estimate and target plant construction schedule for both processes.

  6. Administrative databases as a tool for identifying healthcare demand and costs in an over-one million population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Madotto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: the aim of this study was to assess healthcare demand of specific groups of population and their costs borne by Italian Health System, using healthcare administrative databases.Methods: demographic, clinical and economic data were obtained from datasets available at the Regional Health System, combined into a data warehouse (DENALI, using a probabilistic record linkage to optimize the data matching process. The study population consisted of more than 1 million people registered in 2005 at one Local Healthcare Unit of Lombardy. Eight different segments were identified. Costs occurring in 2005 for hospital admissions, drug prescriptions, outpatient medical specialist visits were quantified in each segment.Results: healthy people accounted for 53% of the population and cost € 180 per-capita. Subjects with only one chronic disease made up 16% of the population and cost € 916 per-capita, those affected by several chronic diseases accounted for 13% and cost € 3 457 per-capita. Hospitalizations were the cost driver in five segments, ranging from 42% to 89% of total expenditures. Outpatient visits were the cost driver among healthy subjects (54% and those with a possible chronic disease (42%, while drug costs ranged between 4% (“acute event” and 32% (“one chronic disease”. Overall, healthcare cost was € 809 per-capita.Conclusions: healthcare costs were mainly determined by people affected by chronic conditions, even if “healthy people” ranked third for total expenditure. These costs need an appropriate identification of healthcare demand, that could be efficiently monitored through the use of administrative databases.

  7. A galaxy rapidly forming stars 700 million years after the Big Bang at redshift 7.51.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, S L; Papovich, C; Dickinson, M; Song, M; Tilvi, V; Koekemoer, A M; Finkelstein, K D; Mobasher, B; Ferguson, H C; Giavalisco, M; Reddy, N; Ashby, M L N; Dekel, A; Fazio, G G; Fontana, A; Grogin, N A; Huang, J-S; Kocevski, D; Rafelski, M; Weiner, B J; Willner, S P

    2013-10-24

    Of several dozen galaxies observed spectroscopically that are candidates for having a redshift (z) in excess of seven, only five have had their redshifts confirmed via Lyman α emission, at z = 7.008, 7.045, 7.109, 7.213 and 7.215 (refs 1-4). The small fraction of confirmed galaxies may indicate that the neutral fraction in the intergalactic medium rises quickly at z > 6.5, given that Lyman α is resonantly scattered by neutral gas. The small samples and limited depth of previous observations, however, makes these conclusions tentative. Here we report a deep near-infrared spectroscopic survey of 43 photometrically-selected galaxies with z > 6.5. We detect a near-infrared emission line from only a single galaxy, confirming that some process is making Lyman α difficult to detect. The detected emission line at a wavelength of 1.0343 micrometres is likely to be Lyman α emission, placing this galaxy at a redshift z = 7.51, an epoch 700 million years after the Big Bang. This galaxy's colours are consistent with significant metal content, implying that galaxies become enriched rapidly. We calculate a surprisingly high star-formation rate of about 330 solar masses per year, which is more than a factor of 100 greater than that seen in the Milky Way. Such a galaxy is unexpected in a survey of our size, suggesting that the early Universe may harbour a larger number of intense sites of star formation than expected.

  8. Physailis Method for Heterogeneous Mixtures of Dielectrics and Cionductors: Accurately Simulating One Million Particles Using a PC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Qianlong

    paper, the accuracy of the method is numerically investigated by example computations using one dielectric particle, one isolated conductor particle, one conductor particle connected to an external source with imposed voltage, and two conductor/dielectric particles with strong interactions. The efficiency of the method is demonstrated with one million particles, which suggests that the method can be used for many important engineering applications of broad interest.

  9. Physalis method for heterogeneous mixtures of dielectrics and conductors: Accurately simulating one million particles using a PC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qianlong

    2011-09-01

    paper, the accuracy of the method is numerically investigated by example computations using one dielectric particle, one isolated conductor particle, one conductor particle connected to an external source with imposed voltage, and two conductor/dielectric particles with strong interactions. The efficiency of the method is demonstrated with one million particles, which suggests that the method can be used for many important engineering applications of broad interest.

  10. Plutons: Simmer between 350° and 500°C for 10 million years, then serve cold (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, D. S.; Davis, J.

    2009-12-01

    The growing recognition that continental plutons are assembled incrementally over millions of years requires reexamination of the thermal histories of intrusive rocks. With the exception of the suggestion that pluton magma chambers can be revitalized by mafic input at their deepest structural levels, most aspects of modern pluton petrology are built on the underlying assumption that silicic plutons intrude as discrete thermal packages that undergo subsequent monotonic decay back to a steady-state geothermal gradient. The recognition that homogeneous silicic plutons are constructed over timescales too great to be single events necessitates rethinking pluton intrusion mechanisms, textures, thermochronology, chemical evolution and links to volcanic rocks. Three-dimensional thermal modeling of sheeted (horizontal and vertical) incremental pluton assembly (using HEAT3D by Wohletz, 2007) yields several results that are largely independent of intrusive geometry and may help understand bothersome field and laboratory results from plutonic rocks. 1) All increments cool quickly below hornblende closure temperature. However, late increments are emplaced into walls warmed by earlier increments, and they cycle between hornblende and biotite closure temperatures, a range in which fluid-rich melts are likely to be present. These conditions persist until the increments are far from the region of new magma flux, or the addition of increments stops. These observations are supported by Ar thermochronology and may explain why heterogeneous early marginal intrusive phases often grade into younger homogeneous interior map units. 2) Early increments become the contact metamorphic wall rocks of later increments. This observation suggests that much of the contact metamorphism associated with a given volume of plutonic rock is “lost” via textural modification of early increments during intrusion of later increments. Johnson and Glazner (CMP, in press) argue that mappable variations in

  11. The SCOPSCO Deep Drilling Project: a 1.3 million-year palaeoenvironmental reconstruction from Lake Ohrid using stable isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Jack; Leng, Melanie; Francke, Alexander; Vogel, Hendrik; Zanchetta, Giovanni; Wagner, Bernd

    2017-04-01

    Lake Ohrid is a large, ancient lake situated on the Balkan Peninsula in the central northern Mediterranean region. The lake hosts a world-class degree of endemic biodiversity and an extensive sedimentary archive. In 2013, an extremely successful International Continental scientific Drilling Program deep drilling campaign was conducted as part of the transdisciplinary Scientific Collaboration on Past Speciation Conditions in Lake Ohrid (SCOPSCO) project and recovered over 2100 m of sediment from the lake. The main target site in the central basin provided a 584-m composite record covering at least 1.3 million years. Here, we present new oxygen and carbon isotope data (δ18O and δ13C) from carbonate for the entire lacustrine sequence (upper 430 m) of the SCOPSCO cores spanning Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 41-1, based on chronological information derived from tephrostratigraphy, palaeomagnetic analyses, and orbital tuning of biogeochemical proxies. Contemporary monitoring data suggest variations in δ18O are primarily a function of changes in regional water balance. This is confirmed through the Holocene where the isotope dataset shows a stable transition from wetter conditions in the Early Holocene to a drier climate in the Late Holocene, which is consistent with a regional pattern of aridification. At the onset of deep-water lacustrine conditions around 1.3 Ma, very low δ18O are comparable to measured values for surface inflow today and infer that Lake Ohrid had a greatly reduced residence time and volume. Multiple rapid shifts to higher values in long-term average δ18O are observed in the early lake history, most likely associated with lake ontogeny and the progressive deepening of Lake Ohrid. After MIS 10, the observed variability between glacial and interglacial δ18O increases dramatically concomitant with a lower reconstructed lake level, suggesting a more pronounced sensitivity to hydroclimate change. A trend to higher interglacial δ18O through this time

  12. Reconstructing the diet of a 505-million-year-old arthropod: Sidneyia inexpectans from the Burgess Shale fauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacaï, Axelle; Vannier, Jean; Lerosey-Aubril, Rudy

    2016-03-01

    The feeding ecology of the 505-million-year-old arthropod Sidneyia inexpectans from the middle Cambrian (Series 3, Stage 5) Burgess Shale fauna (British Columbia, Canada) is revealed by three lines of evidence: the structure of its digestive system, the fossilized contents of its gut and the functional anatomy of its appendages. The digestive tract of Sidneyia is straight, tubular and relatively narrow in the trunk region. It is enlarged into a pear-shaped area in the cephalic region and stretches notably to form a large pocket in the abdomen. The mouth is ventral, posteriorly directed and leads to the midgut via a short tubular structure interpreted as the oesophagus. Anteriorly, three pairs of glands with internal, branching tubular structures open into the digestive tract. These glands have equivalents in various Cambrian arthropod taxa (e.g. naraoiids) and modern arthropods. Their primary function was most likely to digest and assimilate food. The abdominal pocket of Sidneyia concentrates undigested skeletal elements and various residues. It is interpreted here as the functional analogue of the stercoral pocket of some extant terrestrial arachnids (e.g. Araneae, Solifugae), whose primary function is to store food residuals and excretory material until defecation. Analysis of the gut contents indicates that Sidneyia fed largely on small ptychopariid trilobites, brachiopods, possibly agnostids, worms and other undetermined animals. Sidneyia was primarily a durophagous carnivore with predatory and/or scavenging habits, feeding on small invertebrates that lived at the water-sediment interface. There is no evidence for selective feeding. Its food items (e.g. living prey or dead material) were grasped and manipulated ventrally by its anterior appendages, then macerated into ingestible fragments and conveyed to the mouth via the converging action of strong molar-like gnathobases. Digestion probably took place within the anterior midgut via enzymes secreted in the

  13. Relative deprivation and mortality – a longitudinal study in a Swedish population of 4,7 million, 1990–2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åberg Yngwe Monica

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Relative deprivation has previously been discussed as a possible mechanism underlying the income-health relation. The idea is that income matters to the individual’s health, over and above the increased command over resources, as the basis of social comparisons between a person and his or her reference group. The following study aimed to analyze the role of individual-level relative deprivation for all-cause mortality in the Swedish population. The Swedish context, characterized by relatively small income inequalities and promoting values as egalitarianism and equality, together with a large data material provide unique possibilities for analyzing the hypothesized mechanism. Methods The data used are prospective longitudinal data from the Swedish population and based on a linkage of registers. Restricting selection to individuals 25–64 years, alive January 1st 1990, gave 4.7 million individuals, for whom a mortality follow-up was done over a 16-year period. The individual level relative deprivation was measured using the Yitzhaki index, calculating the accumulated shortfall between the individual’s income and the income of all other’s in the person’s reference group. All-cause mortality was used as the outcome measure. Results Relative deprivation, generated through social comparisons, is one possible mechanism within the income and health relation. The present study analyzed different types of objectively defined reference groups, all based on the idea that people compare themselves to similar others. Results show relative deprivation, when measured by the Yitzhaki index, to be significantly associated with mortality. Also, we found a stronger effect among men than among women. Analyzing the association within different income strata, the effect was shown to be weak among the poorest. Revealing the importance of relative deprivation for premature mortality, over and above the effect of absolute income, these

  14. Relative deprivation and mortality--a longitudinal study in a Swedish population of 4.7 million, 1990-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åberg Yngwe, Monica; Kondo, Naoki; Hägg, Sara; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2012-08-16

    Relative deprivation has previously been discussed as a possible mechanism underlying the income-health relation. The idea is that income matters to the individual's health, over and above the increased command over resources, as the basis of social comparisons between a person and his or her reference group. The following study aimed to analyze the role of individual-level relative deprivation for all-cause mortality in the Swedish population. The Swedish context, characterized by relatively small income inequalities and promoting values as egalitarianism and equality, together with a large data material provide unique possibilities for analyzing the hypothesized mechanism. The data used are prospective longitudinal data from the Swedish population and based on a linkage of registers. Restricting selection to individuals 25-64 years, alive January 1st 1990, gave 4.7 million individuals, for whom a mortality follow-up was done over a 16-year period. The individual level relative deprivation was measured using the Yitzhaki index, calculating the accumulated shortfall between the individual's income and the income of all other's in the person's reference group. All-cause mortality was used as the outcome measure. Relative deprivation, generated through social comparisons, is one possible mechanism within the income and health relation. The present study analyzed different types of objectively defined reference groups, all based on the idea that people compare themselves to similar others. Results show relative deprivation, when measured by the Yitzhaki index, to be significantly associated with mortality. Also, we found a stronger effect among men than among women. Analyzing the association within different income strata, the effect was shown to be weak among the poorest. Revealing the importance of relative deprivation for premature mortality, over and above the effect of absolute income, these results resemble previous findings. Relative deprivation, based on

  15. 60 Million non-facility births: who can deliver in community settings to reduce intrapartum-related deaths?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmstadt, Gary L; Lee, Anne C C; Cousens, Simon; Sibley, Lynn; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Donnay, France; Osrin, Dave; Bang, Abhay; Kumar, Vishwajeet; Wall, Steven N; Baqui, Abdullah; Lawn, Joy E

    2009-10-01

    For the world's 60 million non-facility births, addressing who is currently attending these births and what effect they have on birth outcomes is a key starting point toward improving care during childbirth. We present a systematic review of evidence for the effect of community-based cadres-community-based skilled birth attendants (SBAs), trained traditional birth attendants (TBAs), and community health workers (CHWs)-in improving perinatal and intrapartum-related outcomes. The evidence for providing skilled birth attendance in the community is low quality, consisting of primarily before-and-after and quasi-experimental studies, with a pooled 12% reduction in all cause perinatal mortality (PMR) and a 22%-47% reduction in intrapartum-related neonatal mortality (IPR-NMR). Low/moderate quality evidence suggests that TBA training may improve linkages with facilities and improve perinatal outcomes. A randomized controlled trial (RCT) of TBA training showed a 30% reduction in PMR, and a meta-analysis demonstrated an 11% reduction in IPR-NMR. There is moderate evidence that CHWs have a positive impact on perinatal-neonatal outcomes. Meta-analysis of CHW packages (2 cluster randomized controlled trials, 2 quasi-experimental studies) showed a 28% reduction in PMR and a 36% reduction in early neonatal mortality rate; one quasi-experimental study showed a 42% reduction in IPR-NMR. Skilled childbirth care is recommended for all pregnant women, and community strategies need to be linked to prompt, high-quality emergency obstetric care. CHWs may play a promising role in providing pregnancy and childbirth care, mobilizing communities, and improving perinatal outcomes in low-income settings. While the role of the TBA is still controversial, strategies emphasizing partnerships with the health system should be further considered. Innovative community-based strategies combined with health systems strengthening may improve childbirth care for the rural poor, help reduce gross

  16. Fast Hadamard transforms for compressive sensing of joint systems: measurement of a 3.2 million-dimensional bi-photon probability distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Daniel J; Knarr, Samuel H; Howell, John C

    2015-10-19

    We demonstrate how to efficiently implement extremely high-dimensional compressive imaging of a bi-photon probability distribution. Our method uses fast-Hadamard-transform Kronecker-based compressive sensing to acquire the joint space distribution. We list, in detail, the operations necessary to enable fast-transform-based matrix-vector operations in the joint space to reconstruct a 16.8 million-dimensional image in less than 10 minutes. Within a subspace of that image exists a 3.2 million-dimensional bi-photon probability distribution. In addition, we demonstrate how the marginal distributions can aid in the accuracy of joint space distribution reconstructions.

  17. VizieR Online Data Catalog: The Million Quasars (Milliquas) catalog (V5.2) (Flesch, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flesch, E. W.

    2017-08-01

    This is a compendium of 607,208 type-I QSOs and AGN, largely complete from the literature to 5-August-2017, including the release of SDSS-DR14. Also included are ~1.35M high-confidence (80%+ likelihood) quasar candidates from the NBCKDE, NBCKDE-v3, XDQSO, AllWISE and Peters photometric quasar catalogs (citations in Note 7 below) and from all-sky radio/X-ray associated objects which are calculated here. Type-II and Bl Lac objects are also included, bringing the total count to 1,998,464. Changes from version 5.1 are: (1) SDSS-DR14 and SDSS-DR14Q have been added, using the processing rules from the Half Million Quasars catalog (HMQ: Flesch 2015PASA...32...10F). (2) WISE quasar candidates have been added from Secrest et al, 2015, Cat. J/ApJS/221/12; these are ~430K candidates over the whole sky for which 2-color optical objects were found within a 2-arcsec radius. They have been processed into pQSOs from calibration against the SDSS-DR12Q multi-class superset, and photometric redshifts obtained using the four-color based method from the HMQ appendix 2. The four colors used were B-R, R-W1, W1-W2 & W2-W3. (3) Type-II narrow emission-line galaxies, (NELGs, class='N') are added as the luminosity class corresponding to the type-I AGN galaxies. High-luminosity type-II NLAGN (class='K') correspond to the type-I quasars. The NLAGN/NELG divider is the same luminosity/psf function which separates QSOs from AGNs. Type-II NELGs include unquantified contamination by LINERs and probably a few starbursts which eluded removal, so it serves as a catch-all category presented for completeness, rather than as a strict type-II class. (4) Small publications to 5 August 2017 have been added. (5) Positional fixes (of about 2 arcsec) have been applied to ~150 objects. Low-confidence or questionable objects (so deemed by their researchers) are not included in Milliquas. Additional quality cuts can be applied as detailed in Flesch 2015PASA...32...10F). Multiple lensed images are excluded and

  18. Deep drilling of ancient Lake Ohrid (Balkan region) to capture over 1 million years of evolution and global climate cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Bernd; Francke, Alexander; Wilke, Thomas; Krastel, Sebastian; Zanchetta, Giovanni; Sulpizio, Roberto; Reicherter, Klaus; Leng, Melanie; Grazhdani, Andon; Trajanovski, Sasho; Levkov, Zlatko; Reed, Jane; Wonik, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Ancient lakes, with sediment records spanning >1 million years, are very rare. The UNESCO World Heritage site of Lake Ohrid in the Balkan region is thought to be the oldest lake in continuous existence in Europe and, with 212 endemic species described to date, is a hotspot of evolution. An international group of scientists working on a project entitled 'Scientific Collaboration on Past Speciation Conditions in Lake Ohrid (SCOPSCO)' realized a deep drilling campaign of Lake Ohrid in spring 2013. Based on several coring seismic campaigns between 2004 and 2011, Lake Ohrid became the target of an ICDP deep drilling campaign, with specific research aims: (i) obtain precise information about the age and origin of the lake, (ii) unravel the lake's seismotectonic history, (iii) obtain a continuous record of Quaternary volcanic activity and climate change, and (iv) investigate the influence of major geological/environmental events on evolution and the generation of extraordinary endemic biodiversity. Drilling began in April 2013 using the Deep Lake Drilling System (DLDS) of DOSECC (USA). The campaign, completed by late May, was deemed one of the most successful ICDP lake drilling projects, with a total of ~2100 m of sediment recovered from four different sites. At the central "DEEP" site, hydro-acoustic data indicated a maximum sediment fill of ca. 700 m, of which the uppermost 568 m was recovered. Coarse gravel and pebbles underlying clay and shallow water facies hampered deeper penetration. A total of 1526 m of sediment cores was collected from six boreholes, with a composite field recovery ('master core') of 544 m (95%). Three additional sites were drilled in order to analyze lake-level fluctuations, catchment dynamics, biodiversity and evolution processes ("Cerava", deepest drilled depth: 90 m), to investigate active tectonics and spring dynamics ("Gradiste", deepest drilled depth: 123 m), and to try to understand the geological origins of the Ohrid Basin ("Pestani

  19. Cornell's LEPP, CHESS research labs expected to get $124 million in NSF funding for elementary particle and X-ray research

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "Cornell University will be awarded up to $124 million over the next five years by the National Science Foundation (NSF) to support research at the Laboratory for Elementary-Particle Physics (LEPP) and the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS), a national user facility" (1 page).

  20. Soil and Terrain Database Soil for China primary data (version 1.0) - scale 1:1 million (SOTER_China)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkshoorn, J.A.; Huting, J.R.M.; Batjes, N.H.

    2009-01-01

    The Soil and Terrain database for China primary data (version 1.0), at scale 1:1 million (SOTER_China), was compiled of enhanced soil information within the framework of the FAO's program of Land Degradation Assessment in Drylands (LADA). The primary database was compiled using the SOTER methodology

  1. EPA Awards $10 Million Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Grant for Great Lakes Coastal Wetland Monitoring Program, SUNY Brockport Among the Project Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    (New York, N.Y.) The U.S Environmental Protection Agency today announced it has awarded a $10 million five-year grant to Central Michigan University to continue implementation of EPA's Great Lakes Coastal Wetland Monitoring Program. Central Michigan Univer

  2. Oxygen isotope stratigraphy and events in the northern South China Sea during the last 6 million years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAN; Zhimin

    2001-01-01

    ., Peltier, W. R., An alternative astronomical calibration of the lower Pleistocene time scale based on ODP Site 677, Trans. R. Soc. Edinburgh Earth Sci., 1990, 81: 251.[13]Berger, W. H., Jansen, E., Mid-Pleistocene climate shift: The Nansen connection, Geophysical Monograph, 1994, 84: 295.[14]Shackleton, N. J., Backman, J., Zimmerman, H. et al., Oxygen isotope calibration of the onset of rafting and history of glaciation in the north Atlantic region, Nature, 1984, 307: 620.[15]Maslin, M. A., Hang, G. H., Sarnthein, M. et al., Northwestern Pacific site 882: The initiation of Northern Hemisphere glaciation, Proc. Ocean Drill Program Sci. Results, 1995, 145:315[16].Zahn, R., Mix, A. C., Benthic foraminiferal δ18O in the Ocean's temperature-salinity-density field: Constraints on ice age thermocline circulation, Paleoceanography, 1991, 6(1): 1.[17]Wang, L., Sea surface temperature history of the low latitude western Pacific during the last 5.3 million years, Palaeogeogr.Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol., 1994, 108(3/4): 379.[18]Leonard, K. A., Williams, D. F., Thunell, R. C., Pliocene paleoclimatic and paleoceanographic history of the south Atlan tic ocean: Stable isotopic record from Leg 72, Init. Rep. DSDP, 1983, 72: 859.[19]Cannariato, K. G., Ravelo, A. C., Pliocene-Pleistocene evolution of eastern tropical Pacific surface water circulation and thermocline depth, Paleoceanography, 1997, 12(6): 805.[20]Schmidt, H., Berger, W. H., Bickert, T. et al., Quaternary carbon isotope record of pelagic foraminifers: Site 806, Ontong Java Plateau, Proc. Ocean Drill Program Sci. Results, 1993, 130: 397.[21]Mix, A. C., Pissias, N. G., Rugh, W. et al., Benthic foraminifer stable isotope record from Site 849 (0-5 Ma): Local and global climate changes, Proc. Ocean Drill Program Sci. Results, 1995, 138: 371.[22]deMenocal, P., Baker, L., Data report: Benthic stable isotope data from sites 1014 and 1020 (0.6-1.2 Ma), Proc. Ocean Drill Program Sci. Results, 2000

  3. MIVAR: Transition from Productions to Bipartite Graphs MIVAR Nets and Practical Realization of Automated Constructor of Algorithms Handling More than Three Million Production Rules

    CERN Document Server

    Varlamov, Oleg O

    2011-01-01

    The theoretical transition from the graphs of production systems to the bipartite graphs of the MIVAR nets is shown. Examples of the implementation of the MIVAR nets in the formalisms of matrixes and graphs are given. The linear computational complexity of algorithms for automated building of objects and rules of the MIVAR nets is theoretically proved. On the basis of the MIVAR nets the UDAV software complex is developed, handling more than 1.17 million objects and more than 3.5 million rules on ordinary computers. The results of experiments that confirm a linear computational complexity of the MIVAR method of information processing are given. Keywords: MIVAR, MIVAR net, logical inference, computational complexity, artificial intelligence, intelligent systems, expert systems, General Problem Solver.

  4. Earth's eccentricity cycles and Indian Summer Monsoon variability over the past 2 million years: Evidence from deep-sea benthic foraminifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Anil K.; Dhingra, Hitesh; Mélice, Jean-Luc; Anderson, David M.

    Spectral analysis of a Uvigerina proboscidea time series from DSDP Site 214 using the Lomb-Scargle method for unevenly sampled data, exhibits two dominant power peaks at 412 and 94 kyrs over the last 2 million years, which correspond to the Earth's eccentricity cycles. The results indicate that the SW monsoon varied at about 100 kyr and 400 kyr periodicities within Earth's eccentricity domain (Milankovitch range) over the past 2 million years. Wavelet transform analysis reveals the non-stationary nature of monsoon upwelling over this interval. The amplitude of the 400 kyr cycle in the U. proboscidea time series began to increase at ∼900 kyrs as has also been observed in few recent studies. We do not see a strong relation between eccentricity highs and intense summer monsoons over the studied interval.

  5. The millions of people who use public transport in London every day deserve a frequent, comprehensive, and fairly priced service\\ud

    OpenAIRE

    Freeston-Clough, Richard

    2012-01-01

    More than 3 million Londoners use public transport in the capital every day; without it, London would literally grind to a halt. Richard Freeston-Clough of London TravelWatch writes that ahead of the upcoming Mayoral elections in May, public transport must be a priority for the candidates, and sets out ten policies to keep Londoners moving and ensure an accessible, efficient service that provides good value for money for its users.\\ud \\ud

  6. Fate of over 480 million inhabitants living in arsenic and fluoride endemic Indian districts: Magnitude, health, socio-economic effects and mitigation approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborti, Dipankar; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Chatterjee, Amit; Das, Dipankar; Das, Bhaskar; Nayak, Biswajit; Pal, Arup; Chowdhury, Uttam Kumar; Ahmed, Sad; Biswas, Bhajan Kumar; Sengupta, Mrinal Kumar; Lodh, Dilip; Samanta, Gautam; Chakraborty, Sanjana; Roy, M M; Dutta, Rathindra Nath; Saha, Khitish Chandra; Mukherjee, Subhas Chandra; Pati, Shyamapada; Kar, Probir Bijoy

    2016-12-01

    During our last 27 years of field survey in India, we have studied the magnitude of groundwater arsenic and fluoride contamination and its resulting health effects from numerous states. India is the worst groundwater fluoride and arsenic affected country in the world. Fluoride results the most prevalent groundwater related diseases in India. Out of a total 29 states in India, groundwater of 20 states is fluoride affected. Total population of fluoride endemic 201 districts of India is 411 million (40% of Indian population) and more than 66 million people are estimated to be suffering from fluorosis including 6 million children below 14 years of age. Fluoride may cause a crippling disease. In 6 states of the Ganga-Brahmaputra Plain (GB-Plain), 70.4 million people are potentially at risk from groundwater arsenic toxicity. Three additional states in the non GB-Plain are mildly arsenic affected. For arsenic with substantial cumulative exposure can aggravate the risk of cancers along with various other diseases. Clinical effects of fluoride includes abnormal tooth enamel in children; adults had joint pain and deformity of the limbs, spine etc. The affected population chronically exposed to arsenic and fluoride from groundwater is in danger and there is no available medicine for those suffering from the toxicity. Arsenic and fluoride safe water and nutritious food are suggested to prevent further aggravation of toxicity. The World Health Organization (WHO) points out that social problems arising from arsenic and fluoride toxicity eventually create pressure on the economy of the affected areas. In arsenic and fluoride affected areas in India, crisis is not always having too little safe water to satisfy our need, it is the crisis of managing the water.

  7. 85 million years of pelagic ecosystem evolution: Pacific Ocean deep-sea ichthyolith records reveal fish community dynamics and a long-term decline in sharks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibert, E. C.; Norris, R. D.; Cuevas, J. M.; Graves, L. G.

    2015-12-01

    The structure and productivity of open ocean consumers has undergone major changes over the past 85 million years. Here, we present the first long-term detailed records of pelagic fish and sharks utilizing the record of ichthyoliths (teeth and dermal scales) from the deep Pacific Ocean. While the North and South Pacific Oceans show similar patterns throughout the 85 million year history, the North Pacific ichthyolith accumulation is significantly higher than the South Pacific, suggesting that the basin has been a more productive region for tens of millions of years. Fish and sharks were not abundant in the Pacific gyres until ~75 million years ago (Ma) suggesting that neither group was quantitatively important in oligotrophic pelagic food webs prior to the latest Cretaceous. Relative to ray-finned fish, sharks were common in the ancient ocean. Most ichthyolith assemblages have >50% shark dermal scales (denticles), but denticle abundance has been declining in both absolute and relative abundance since the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K/Pg) mass extinction. The accumulation rate of ichthyoliths of both sharks and ray-finned fish was highest in the Early Eocene, during the peak of the Cenozoic 'greenhouse' climate where production of shark dermal denticles and fish teeth increased almost five times over Paleocene production rates. Ichthyolith fluxes fell with cooler climates in the later Eocene and Oligocene, but fish production is almost always higher than in the Cretaceous and Paleocene reflecting the expanded ecological roles and importance of pelagic fish in marine ecosystems. Shark denticle production fell to less than half that of the Cretaceous by 20 Ma when it dropped abruptly to near-zero levels. Currently denticles make up sharks appear to be falling as major pelagic consumers over the Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic, and particularly over the past 20 Ma, perhaps reflecting demographic changes in shark and fish communities, or the rise of resource competition from

  8. What’s new is old: Comments on (more archaeological evidence of one-million-year-old fire from South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis Rayne Pickering

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The essential roles of fire in human evolution and in humanity’s technological mastery of the natural world are disproportional to our understanding of its earliest domestication. Archaeologists researching relatively recent occurrences of fire, only after ~0.4 Ma and mostly in Europe, are particularly critical of earlier archaeological claims of fire from African sites older than 1.0 million years old.

  9. Phosphogenesis in the 2460 and 2728 million-year-old banded iron formations as evidence for biological cycling of phosphate in the early biosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi-Liang; Sun, Si; Chan, Lung S

    2013-01-01

    The banded iron formation deposited during the first 2 billion years of Earth's history holds the key to understanding the interplay between the geosphere and the early biosphere at large geological timescales. The earliest ore-scale phosphorite depositions formed almost at ∼2.0–2.2 billion years ago bear evidence for the earliest bloom of aerobic life. The cycling of nutrient phosphorus and how it constrained primary productivity in the anaerobic world of Archean–Palaeoproterozoic eons are still open questions. The controversy centers about whether the precipitation of ultrafine ferric oxyhydroxide due to the microbial Fe(II) oxidation in oceans earlier than 1.9 billion years substantially sequestrated phosphate, and whether this process significantly limited the primary productivity of the early biosphere. In this study, we report apatite radial flowers of a few micrometers in the 2728 million-year-old Abitibi banded iron formation and the 2460 million-year-old Kuruman banded iron formation and their similarities to those in the 535 million-year-old Lower Cambrian phosphorite. The lithology of the 535 Million-year-old phosphorite as a biosignature bears abundant biomarkers that reveal the possible similar biogeochemical cycling of phosphorus in the Later Archean and Palaeoproterozoic oceans. These apatite radial flowers represent the primary precipitation of phosphate derived from the phytoplankton blooms in the euphotic zones of Neoarchean and Palaoeproterozoic oceans. The unbiased distributions of the apatite radial flowers within sub-millimeter bands do not support the idea of an Archean Crisis of Phosphate. This is the first report of the microbial mediated mineralization of phosphorus before the Great Oxidation Event when the whole biosphere was still dominated by anaerobic microorganisms. PMID:23404127

  10. Copper consumption of wire and cable will exceed 4.5 million tons by the end of the 11th Five-year Plan Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>As forecasted by relevant experts,with the rapid growth of the economy in China,the cop- per consumption on wire and cable will reach 4.5 to 5 million tons by the end of the 11th Five-year Plan.Non-ferrous metals such as copper and aluminum are the most important raw materials for wire and cable industry.In

  11. Phosphogenesis in the 2460 and 2728 million-year-old banded iron formations as evidence for biological cycling of phosphate in the early biosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi-Liang; Sun, Si; Chan, Lung S

    2012-01-01

    The banded iron formation deposited during the first 2 billion years of Earth's history holds the key to understanding the interplay between the geosphere and the early biosphere at large geological timescales. The earliest ore-scale phosphorite depositions formed almost at ∼2.0-2.2 billion years ago bear evidence for the earliest bloom of aerobic life. The cycling of nutrient phosphorus and how it constrained primary productivity in the anaerobic world of Archean-Palaeoproterozoic eons are still open questions. The controversy centers about whether the precipitation of ultrafine ferric oxyhydroxide due to the microbial Fe(II) oxidation in oceans earlier than 1.9 billion years substantially sequestrated phosphate, and whether this process significantly limited the primary productivity of the early biosphere. In this study, we report apatite radial flowers of a few micrometers in the 2728 million-year-old Abitibi banded iron formation and the 2460 million-year-old Kuruman banded iron formation and their similarities to those in the 535 million-year-old Lower Cambrian phosphorite. The lithology of the 535 Million-year-old phosphorite as a biosignature bears abundant biomarkers that reveal the possible similar biogeochemical cycling of phosphorus in the Later Archean and Palaeoproterozoic oceans. These apatite radial flowers represent the primary precipitation of phosphate derived from the phytoplankton blooms in the euphotic zones of Neoarchean and Palaoeproterozoic oceans. The unbiased distributions of the apatite radial flowers within sub-millimeter bands do not support the idea of an Archean Crisis of Phosphate. This is the first report of the microbial mediated mineralization of phosphorus before the Great Oxidation Event when the whole biosphere was still dominated by anaerobic microorganisms.

  12. Assessing the Effects of the Urban Forest Restoration Effort of MillionTreesNYC on the Structure and Functioning of New York City Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Timon McPhearson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Current forest restoration practices for New York City’s (NYC MillionTreesNYC Initiative on public parkland include site preparation with extensive invasive species removal and tree and shrub planting with the goal of creating new multi-layered forests. We have launched a long-term investigation of these sites in order to understand the primary physical, chemical, and biological responses of urban ecosystems to MillionTreesNYC forest restoration practices. This research will examine high and low diversity tree and understory planting combinations in permanent experimental forest restoration plots across NYC. The study assesses how the interactions between soil heterogeneity, plant population dynamics, and forest restoration management strategies drive urban forest ecosystem structure and functioning. Working in collaboration with the NYC Department of Parks & Recreation (NYC Parks and the MillionTreesNYC tree planting campaign, we are examining different restoration strategies to assess how restoration practices affect the ecological development trajectories of newly established forests in NYC.

  13. Engine oil. How does it cope with millions of explosions? Oil analytics enables valuable insights.; Motorenoel. Wie verkraftet es millionfache Explosionen? Oelanalytik ermoeglicht wertvolle Einblicke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seemann, Michael [Adam Opel AG, Ruesselsheim (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    During engine operation the engine oil is faced with millions of explosions, high local temperatures and a mix of aggressive combustion gases and fuel components. The kind of oil aging depends also on the driving profile of the engine. The lecture describes the major oil analysis methods and their value. For each single parameter the correlation to the operating profiles will be discussed. This leads to a classification of driving conditions concerning their influence on the specific oil aging and the individual oil change information to the driver. (orig.)

  14. Over 30 million psychedelic users in the United States [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/w8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teri S Krebs

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We estimated lifetime prevalence of psychedelic use (lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD, psilocybin (magic mushrooms, mescaline, and peyote by age category using data from a 2010 US population survey of 57,873 individuals aged 12 years and older. There were approximately 32 million lifetime psychedelic users in the US in 2010; including 17% of people aged 21 to 64 years (22% of males and 12% of females. Rate of lifetime psychedelic use was greatest among people aged 30 to 34 (total 20%, including 26% of males and 15% of females.

  15. Millions and Billions of Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, Darren; Horowitz, Paul

    The history of the Harvard SETI group is inextricably linked with the history of Paul Horowitz. Horowitz became enamored with SETI as a student at Harvard, reading Ed Purcell's paper "Radio Astronomy and Communication Through Space" (Purcell, 1960), discussing with his roommates a class that Carl Sagan was teaching there using a draft of Shklovskii and Sagan's "Intelligent Life in the Universe" (Shklovskii and Sagan, 1966) as a text, and finally attending a Loeb Lecture series at Harvard by Frank Drake (Drake, 1969). The series was officially about pulsars but Drake did manage to slip in one inspiring talk about SETI. Horowitz says that "It was this lecture that launched me into this field; it was a revelation that you could go beyond idle speculation - you could actually calculate stuff."

  16. $100 million Alaskan Scientific Endowment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Susan M.

    Governor Steve Cowper has seen a longtime goal and campaign promise realized as he signed a law creating the Alaska Science and Technology Foundation on May 13. Its purpose is to fund Alaska-related scientific research projects and to promote economic and technological development and public health through basic and applied research.Cowper first proposed the foundation in 1980 and feels strongly that Alaska's natural resources must be treated wisely to insure their future. According to Cowper, “Alaska has more coastline than the rest of the nation combined. We have more forest, more minerals, and more oil and gas than any other state. And we're the only Arctic region the U.S. has.” He does not believe that the oil industry or the federal government can sufficiently handle the state's resources, thus his devotion to creating and supporting the foundation.

  17. A Million Cancer Genome Warehouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-20

    PB. For the compute server, we selected the Intel v2.0 motherboard , which uses 2 Intel® Xeon® E5-2600 processors, has 16 DIMM slots per board...and 4 PCIe slots (from x16 to x4). In 2014 we could build 192 GB per board and 10 cores per processor. Two motherboards fit in a chassis, with three...processor), we get $5K per server. Adding the price for motherboard and rounding it up we get $6K per server. Thus, each rack has 360 cores, 1.08PB, and

  18. Sifting through millions of megabits

    CERN Document Server

    2008-01-01

    CERN's Large hadron collider, which came online September 10, is a massive project, both tehcnically and collaboratively. For example, the raw data "coming from the experiment will be about 1 petabyte per second"....

  19. "We sold a million copies"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monteiro, Paolo Klinger; Moraga Gonzalez, Jose Luis

    We model a two period monopoly market with two-sided quality uncertainty. In first period, seller gathers information about consumers´ tastes upon observing its sales. In second period, seller may or may not deliver the information. If monopolist must commit either to reveal or conceal past-sales...... before observing them, committing to reveal is the dominant strategy whenever advertising cost is low, buyers are many and their private information is accurate. When seller can postpone advertising decision and gains experience, past-sales revelation occurs partially. In equilibrium, delivery of sales...

  20. Million s jevroprepjatstvijami / Valentin Zvegintsev

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Zvegintsev, Valentin

    2005-01-01

    Suurbritannia peaminister Tony Blair põhjendas oma ettepanekut vähendada Euroopa Liidu eelarvet 25 miljardi euro võrra seoses uute liikmete võimetusega kulutada kogu raha, mida neil oleks võimalik liidult saada. Tallinna võimalused eurorahade saamiseks ja kulutamiseks

  1. For 80 Million Poor Population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    POVERTY is always a concern of China’s government and people. In 1978, there were 699 impoverished counties in the whole country with a population of about one quarter of a billion, which was concentrated in the middle and western areas of China. These included remote mountainous areas, stone mountain areas, flood plain areas, wilderness areas and regions where minority nationalities live in compact communities. In these areas, resources are scarce, transportation is difficult and limited,

  2. Iran's Million-Student Alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labi, Aisha

    2008-01-01

    The Islamic Azad University was founded by Hashemi Rafsanjani, a cleric who was in the past the first speaker of the Majlis, or Parliament, of Iran's postrevolutionary government. He served as president of Iran from 1989 to 1997 and ran for re-election in 2005, when he was defeated by Mahmoud Ahmadinejad. In the two decades after Azad was founded,…

  3. EDMS - Reaching the Million Mark

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    When Christophe Seith from the company Cegelec sat down to work on 14 May 2009 at 10:09 a.m. to create the EDMS document entitled "Rapport tournée PH semaine 20", little did he know that he would be the proud creator of the millionth EDMS document and the happy prize winner of a celebratory bottle of champagne to mark the occasion. In the run up to the creation of the millionth EDMS document the EDMS team had been closely monitoring the steady rise in the EDMS number generator, so as to ensure the switch from the six figured i.d. to seven figures would run smoothly and of course, to be able to congratulate the creator of the millionth EDMS document. From left to right: Stephan Petit (GS-ASE- EDS Section Leader), Christophe Delamare (GS- ASE Group Leader), Christophe Seith, creator of the millionth EDMS document, David Widegren, (GS-ASE- EPS Section Leader). The millionth EDMS document. For t...

  4. Progress of health plans toward meeting the million hearts clinical target for high blood pressure control - United States, 2010-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Milesh M; Datu, Bennett; Roman, Dan; Barton, Mary B; Ritchey, Matthew D; Wall, Hilary K; Loustalot, Fleetwood

    2014-02-14

    High blood pressure is a major cardiovascular disease risk factor and contributed to >362,895 deaths in the United States during 2010. Approximately 67 million persons in the United States have high blood pressure, and only half of those have their condition under control. An estimated 46,000 deaths could be avoided annually if 70% of patients with high blood pressure were treated according to published guidelines. To assess blood pressure control among persons with health insurance, CDC and the National Committee for Quality Assurance (NCQA) examined data in the 2010-2012 Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set (HEDIS). In 2012, approximately 113 million adults aged 18-85 years were covered by health plans measured by HEDIS. The HEDIS controlling blood pressure (CBP) performance measure is the proportion of enrollees with a diagnosis of high blood pressure confirmed in their medical record whose blood pressure is controlled. Overall, only 64% of enrollees with diagnosed high blood pressure in HEDIS-reporting plans had documentation that their blood pressure was controlled. Although these findings signal that additional work is needed to meet the 70% target, modest improvements since 2010, coupled with focused efforts, might make it achievable.

  5. Risk of Cardiomyopathy in Younger Persons With a Family History of Death from Cardiomyopathy: A Nationwide Family Study in a Cohort of 3.9 Million Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranthe, Mattis F; Carstensen, Lisbeth; Øyen, Nina; Jensen, Morten K; Axelsson, Anna; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Melbye, Mads; Bundgaard, Henning; Boyd, Heather A

    2015-09-15

    Recommendations for presymptomatic screening of relatives of cardiomyopathy patients are based on findings from tertiary centers. Cardiomyopathy inheritance patterns are fairly well understood, but how cardiomyopathy in younger persons (cardiomyopathy by family history of premature death (cardiomyopathy. By linking Danish national register data, we constructed a cohort of 3.9 million persons born from 1950 to 2008. We ascertained family history of premature (cardiomyopathy or other conditions, and cohort members were followed from 1977 to 2008 for cardiomyopathy diagnosed at cardiomyopathies in 89 million person-years of follow-up. Using Poisson regression, we estimated incidence rate ratios for cardiomyopathy by family history of premature death. Premature cardiomyopathy deaths in first- and second-degree relatives were associated with 29- and 6-fold increases in the rate of cardiomyopathy, respectively. If the first-degree relative died aged cardiomyopathy increased 100-fold; given ≥2 premature deaths in first-degree relatives, the rate increased more than 400-fold. In contrast, a family history of premature death from other cardiac or noncardiac conditions increased the rate of cardiomyopathy 3-fold at most. A family history of premature cardiomyopathy death was associated with an increase in risk of cardiomyopathy ranging from 6- to 400-fold, depending on age, kinship, gender and number of affected family members. Our general population-based results support recommendations for presymptomatic screening of relatives of cardiomyopathy patients. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. A reference data set of 5.4 million phased human variants validated by genetic inheritance from sequencing a three-generation 17-member pedigree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberle, Michael A.; Fritzilas, Epameinondas; Krusche, Peter; Källberg, Morten; Moore, Benjamin L.; Bekritsky, Mitchell A.; Iqbal, Zamin; Chuang, Han-Yu; Humphray, Sean J.; Halpern, Aaron L.; Kruglyak, Semyon; Margulies, Elliott H.; McVean, Gil; Bentley, David R.

    2017-01-01

    Improvement of variant calling in next-generation sequence data requires a comprehensive, genome-wide catalog of high-confidence variants called in a set of genomes for use as a benchmark. We generated deep, whole-genome sequence data of 17 individuals in a three-generation pedigree and called variants in each genome using a range of currently available algorithms. We used haplotype transmission information to create a phased “Platinum” variant catalog of 4.7 million single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) plus 0.7 million small (1–50 bp) insertions and deletions (indels) that are consistent with the pattern of inheritance in the parents and 11 children of this pedigree. Platinum genotypes are highly concordant with the current catalog of the National Institute of Standards and Technology for both SNVs (>99.99%) and indels (99.92%) and add a validated truth catalog that has 26% more SNVs and 45% more indels. Analysis of 334,652 SNVs that were consistent between informatics pipelines yet inconsistent with haplotype transmission (“nonplatinum”) revealed that the majority of these variants are de novo and cell-line mutations or reside within previously unidentified duplications and deletions. The reference materials from this study are a resource for objective assessment of the accuracy of variant calls throughout genomes. PMID:27903644

  7. A perspective on 10-years HTS experience at the Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research - eighteen million assays and counting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackovic, Kurt; Lessene, Guillaume; Falk, Hendrik; Leuchowius, Karl-Johan; Baell, Jonathan; Street, Ian

    2014-03-01

    The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research (WEHI) is Australia's longest serving medical research institute. WEHI's High Throughput Screening (HTS) Facility was established in 2003 with $5 million of infrastructure funds invested by WEHI, and the Victorian State Government's Strategic Technology Initiative through Bio21 Australia Ltd. The Facility was Australia's first truly academic HTS facility and was one of only a handful operating in publicly funded institutions worldwide at that time. The objectives were to provide access to enabling HTS technologies, such as assay design, liquid handling automation, compound libraries and expertise to promote translation of basic research in a national setting that has a relatively young biotech sector and does not have a big Pharma research presence. Ten years on and the WEHI HTS Facility has participated in over 92 collaborative projects, generated over 18 million data points, and most importantly, projects that began in the Facility have been commercialized successfully (due to strong ties with Business Development and emphasis on intellectual property management) and now have molecules progressing in clinical trials.

  8. Poweo positive net income of 7.4 million euro in 2006. First time in the black since the company's creation; Poweo benefice net de 7,4 millions euro en 2006. 1. exercice beneficiaire depuis la creation de Poweo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-03-15

    POWEO, leading independent operator of electricity and gas, presents in this document the principal elements of its consolidated results and its highlights for 2006: - Sales turnover reaches 244.4 M euro, multiplied by 2.2 compared to 2005; - Operational result amounts to 9.3 M euro, against a loss of 8.4 M euro in 2005; - Consolidated net income group share reaches 7.4 M euro, against a loss of 4.9 M euro in 2005. The 2006 consolidated revenue amounted to 244.4 million euro against 243.7 million euro announced on January 31, taking into account a revaluation of 0.7 million euro of the Energy Management's performance. The number of transferred customer sites amounted to 80,300 as at December 31, 2006, in progression of 23% compared to the end of 2005. Gross margin reached 33.6 euro million, in strong progression compared to 2005, reflecting the effectiveness of the Energy Management activity which has allowed to very appreciably reduce the cost price for POWEO of the energy delivered to its customers, within the framework of its global sourcing strategy. Operating costs increased in line with the development plan, under the effect in particular of the strengthening of operational teams, the Group head-count having reached 90 people as at December 31, 2006. EBITDA reached 8.1 million euro in 2006, against a negative amount of 5.3 million euro in 2005, allowing POWEO to meet its objective of a positive EBITDA as announced in September 2006. The EBIT amounted to 9.3 million euro, taking into account a profit of dilution of 7.6 million euro related to the issuance premium recognized on POWEO Production by Verbund, the Austrian national electricity operator and reference shareholder of POWEO, within the framework of the partnership announced in January 2006. With a consolidated net income group share of 7.4 million euro, 2006 thus constitutes the first fiscal year in the black since the Company's creation in 2002. The consolidated net equity amounted to 103

  9. On-line application of near-infrared spectroscopy for monitoring water levels in parts per million in a manufacturing-scale distillation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambertus, Gordon; Shi, Zhenqi; Forbes, Robert; Kramer, Timothy T; Doherty, Steven; Hermiller, James; Scully, Norma; Wong, Sze Wing; LaPack, Mark

    2014-01-01

    An on-line analytical method based on transmission near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for the quantitative determination of water concentrations (in parts per million) was developed and applied to the manufacture of a pharmaceutical intermediate. Calibration models for water analysis, built at the development site and applied at the manufacturing site, were successfully demonstrated during six manufacturing runs at a 250-gallon scale. The water measurements will be used as a forward-processing control point following distillation of a toluene product solution prior to use in a Grignard reaction. The most significant impact of using this NIRS-based process analytical technology (PAT) to replace off-line measurements is the significant reduction in the risk of operator exposure through the elimination of sampling of a severely lachrymatory and mutagenic compound. The work described in this report illustrates the development effort from proof-of-concept phase to manufacturing implementation.

  10. Toward long-term all-sky time domain surveys-SINDICS: a prospective concept for a Seismic INDICes Survey of half a million red giants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Eric

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available CoRoT and Kepler have brought a new and deep experience in long-term photometric surveys and how to use them. This is true for exoplanets characterizing, stellar seismology and beyond for studying several other phenomena, like granulation or activity. Based on this experience, it has been possible to propose new generation projects, like TESS and PLATO, with more specific scientific objectives and more ambitious observational programs in terms of sky coverage and/or duration of the observations. In this context and as a prospective exercise, we explore here the possibility to set up an all-sky survey optimized for seismic indices measurement, providing masses, radii and evolution stages for half a million solar-type pulsators (subgiants and red giants, in our galactic neighborhood and allowing unprecedented stellar population studies.

  11. Utilization of Stimulants and Atomoxetine for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder among 5.4 Million Children Using Population-Based Longitudinal Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furu, Kari; Karlstad, Øystein; Zoëga, Helga

    2017-01-01

    . Prevalence of filling ≥1 prescriptions of ADHD drugs among children aged 6-17 years increased during 2008-2012 from 5.9 to 11.2 and 19.4 to 31.0 per 1000 girls and boys, respectively. Prevalence by country showed that Iceland, Finland and Sweden had a steady increase during the study period, while in Norway......Use of stimulants to treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has increased over the past two decades and varies substantially between countries. The objective of this multinational population-based study was to examine utilization of ADHD drugs (stimulants and atomoxetine) including...... comedication with other psychotropic drugs in the entire child population in the five Nordic countries. We included longitudinal data on dispensed ADHD drugs from five Nordic prescription registers during 2008-2012, which in 2012 comprised 48,296 individuals among 5.42 million inhabitants aged 0-17 years...

  12. Product length, dye choice, and detection chemistry in the bead-emulsion amplification of millions of single DNA molecules in parallel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiemann-Boege, Irene; Curtis, Christina; Shinde, Deepali N; Goodman, Daniel B; Tavaré, Simon; Arnheim, Norman

    2009-07-15

    The amplification of millions of single molecules in parallel can be performed on microscopic magnetic beads that are contained in aqueous compartments of an oil-buffer emulsion. These bead-emulsion amplification (BEA) reactions result in beads that are covered by almost-identical copies derived from a single template. The post-amplification analysis is performed using different fluorophore-labeled probes. We have identified BEA reaction conditions that efficiently produce longer amplicons of up to 450 base pairs. These conditions include the use of a Titanium Taq amplification system. Second, we explored alternate fluorophores coupled to probes for post-PCR DNA analysis. We demonstrate that four different Alexa fluorophores can be used simultaneously with extremely low crosstalk. Finally, we developed an allele-specific extension chemistry that is based on Alexa dyes to query individual nucleotides of the amplified material that is both highly efficient and specific.

  13. Joint venture to build and operate a 250 million cu ft/day LNG export facility at the southern tip of Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-10-16

    The facility, known as Gas de Chile, will be composed of state-owned Empresa Nacional del Petroleo (Chile) 31%, Compania de Petroleos de Chile 20%, Atlantic Richfield Co. 29%, and Air Products and Chemicals Inc. 20%. The gas would come from Posesion fields and be moved via a 24 in., 108 mi line to near Punta Arenas, where the $400 million processing and export complex is to be built. The group is reported to be seeking customers on either the west or east coast of the U.S. Financing for the project is to come from Interamerican Development Bank and from private institutions. Construction is scheduled to begin on the project in 1981 with completion in 1984.

  14. Poweo positive net income of 7.4 million euro in 2006. First time in the black since the company's creation; Poweo benefice net de 7,4 millions euro en 2006. 1. exercice beneficiaire depuis la creation de Poweo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-03-15

    POWEO, leading independent operator of electricity and gas, presents in this document the principal elements of its consolidated results and its highlights for 2006: - Sales turnover reaches 244.4 M euro, multiplied by 2.2 compared to 2005; - Operational result amounts to 9.3 M euro, against a loss of 8.4 M euro in 2005; - Consolidated net income group share reaches 7.4 M euro, against a loss of 4.9 M euro in 2005. The 2006 consolidated revenue amounted to 244.4 million euro against 243.7 million euro announced on January 31, taking into account a revaluation of 0.7 million euro of the Energy Management's performance. The number of transferred customer sites amounted to 80,300 as at December 31, 2006, in progression of 23% compared to the end of 2005. Gross margin reached 33.6 euro million, in strong progression compared to 2005, reflecting the effectiveness of the Energy Management activity which has allowed to very appreciably reduce the cost price for POWEO of the energy delivered to its customers, within the framework of its global sourcing strategy. Operating costs increased in line with the development plan, under the effect in particular of the strengthening of operational teams, the Group head-count having reached 90 people as at December 31, 2006. EBITDA reached 8.1 million euro in 2006, against a negative amount of 5.3 million euro in 2005, allowing POWEO to meet its objective of a positive EBITDA as announced in September 2006. The EBIT amounted to 9.3 million euro, taking into account a profit of dilution of 7.6 million euro related to the issuance premium recognized on POWEO Production by Verbund, the Austrian national electricity operator and reference shareholder of POWEO, within the framework of the partnership announced in January 2006. With a consolidated net income group share of 7.4 million euro, 2006 thus constitutes the first fiscal year in the black since the Company's creation in 2002. The consolidated net equity amounted to 103

  15. Socio-demographic factors, reproductive history and risk of osteoarthritis in a cohort of 4.6 million Danish women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, K T; Pedersen, B V; Nielsen, N M; Hansen, A V; Jacobsen, S; Frisch, M

    2011-10-01

    Studies addressing possible socio-demographic and reproductive factors in the aetiology of osteoarthritis (OA) are few. We studied possible influences of educational level, household income, marital status and parenting patterns on OA risk overall and at anatomical sites. We linked national register data about socio-demographic variables, reproductive histories and OA hospital contacts to a cohort of 4.6 million Danes. Ratios of first OA hospitalisation rates (RRs) were calculated using Poisson regression. Overall, 100,437 women and 92,020 men had a first OA hospital contact during 91.5 million person-years between 1982 and 2008. Short education, low income and married status were significantly associated with increased OA risk, and persons with children were at higher risk of OA(overall) (RR=1.10 in women; RR=1.22 in men), OA(knee) (RRs 1.14; 1.28), OA(back) (RRs 1.18; 1.33), and OA(hand) (RRs 1.21; 1.43), but not of OA(hip) (RRs 0.96; 1.00) than persons without children. The RR of OA(overall) increased by a factor of 1.05 in women and 1.04 in men per additional child, most notably for OA(knee) in women (1.10 per child). Risk of OA hospitalisation was highest among married persons and persons with short education or low income. The similar or even stronger associations with reproductive factors in men than women suggest that unmeasured lifestyle factors rather than biological factors associated with pregnancy might explain the higher OA risk in persons with children. However, the particularly strong association between parity and risk of OA(knee) in women is compatible with a role of pregnancy-associated factors. Copyright © 2011 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The importance of community education for individual mortality: a fixed-effects analysis of longitudinal multilevel data on 1.7 million Norwegian women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravdal, Oystein

    2010-12-01

    Earlier investigations have shown mortality effects of community socio-economic resources. However, the sex differences have not been clear, and the estimates may well have been biased because of inadequate control for community factors affecting both the socio-economic resources and mortality. The objective of this study was to see whether any effects appeared when time-invariant community characteristics were controlled by including community dummies (fixed effects) and whether there were any differences between women and men. Discrete-time hazard models for all-cause mortality were estimated for 1981-2002 for all Norwegians aged 60-89, using register data. There were 730 000 deaths among 1.7 million people observed during 19 million person-years. Average education was measured for 433 municipalities for each of the 22 years. According to the simplest models, a high average education in the municipality is associated with increased mortality. Control for population size (time-averaged) reversed the effects. Inclusion of municipality dummies instead of population size, to control also for additional unobserved time-invariant municipality characteristics, gave very different results: the effects were even stronger for men, while those for women were no longer significant. The results were quite robust to alternative specifications, including the use of a lagged average-education variable. The study supports the idea that community socio-economic resources may affect mortality and suggests that sex differentials may deserve more attention. It also illustrates the importance of controlling for time-invariant community factors. Unless these can be easily measured, in future investigations one may consider establishing longitudinal data and using a fixed-effects approach such as that used here.

  17. Nearly 400 million people are at higher risk of schistosomiasis because dams block the migration of snail-eating river prawns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolow, Susanne H.; Jones, Isabel J.; Jocque, Merlijn M. T.; La, Diana; Cords, Olivia; Knight, Anika; Lund, Andrea; Wood, Chelsea L.; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Hoover, Christopher M.; Collender, Phillip A.; Remais, Justin V.; Lopez-Carr, David; Fisk, Jonathan; Kuris, Armand M.; De Leo, Giulio A.

    2017-01-01

    Dams have long been associated with elevated burdens of human schistosomiasis, but how dams increase disease is not always clear, in part because dams have many ecological and socio-economic effects. A recent hypothesis argues that dams block reproduction of the migratory river prawns that eat the snail hosts of schistosomiasis. In the Senegal River Basin, there is evidence that prawn populations declined and schistosomiasis increased after completion of the Diama Dam. Restoring prawns to a water-access site upstream of the dam reduced snail density and reinfection rates in people. However, whether a similar cascade of effects (from dams to prawns to snails to human schistosomiasis) occurs elsewhere is unknown. Here, we examine large dams worldwide and identify where their catchments intersect with endemic schistosomiasis and the historical habitat ranges of large, migratory Macrobrachium spp. prawns. River prawn habitats are widespread, and we estimate that 277–385 million people live within schistosomiasis-endemic regions where river prawns are or were present (out of the 800 million people who are at risk of schistosomiasis). Using a published repository of schistosomiasis studies in sub-Saharan Africa, we compared infection before and after the construction of 14 large dams for people living in: (i) upstream catchments within historical habitats of native prawns, (ii) comparable undammed watersheds, and (iii) dammed catchments beyond the historical reach of migratory prawns. Damming was followed by greater increases in schistosomiasis within prawn habitats than outside prawn habitats. We estimate that one third to one half of the global population-at-risk of schistosomiasis could benefit from restoration of native prawns. Because dams block prawn migrations, our results suggest that prawn extirpation contributes to the sharp increase of schistosomiasis after damming, and points to prawn restoration as an ecological solution for reducing human disease.

  18. Serum penicillin G levels are lower than expected in adults within two weeks of administration of 1.2 million units.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P Broderick

    Full Text Available When introduced in the 1950s, benzathine penicillin G (BPG was shown to be effective in eradicating group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus (GAS for at least 3 weeks after administration. Several studies since the 1990s suggest that at 3-4 weeks serum penicillin G levels are less than adequate (below MIC(90 of 0.016 µg/ml. We studied these levels for 4 weeks after the recommended dose of BPG in military recruits, for whom it is used as prophylaxis against GAS. The 329 subjects (mean age 20 years each received 1.2 million units BPG IM and gave sera 1 day post injection and twice more at staggered time points over 4 weeks. Serum penicillin G levels were measured by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectometry. The half-life of serum penicillin G was 4.1 days. By day 11, mean levels were <0.02 µg/ml, and by day 15<0.01 µg/ml. Levels in more than 50% of the subjects were below 0.02 µg/ml on day 9, and <.01 µg/ml on day 16. There was no demonstrable effect of subject body-surface area nor of the four different lots of BPG used. These data indicate that in healthy young adults serum penicillin G levels become less than protective <2½ weeks after injection of 1.2 million units of BPG. The findings require serious consideration in future medical and public health recommendations for treatment and prophylaxis of GAS upper respiratory tract infections.

  19. Links Between Variations of Clay Mineral Supply and Deep Oceanic Circulation Over The Last Million Years At Site 984, Odp Leg 162 (northwestern Atlantic Ocean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bout-Roumazeilles, V.; Davies, G.; Récourt, P.

    The high northern latitude oceans influence the global environment through the formation of seasonal ice cover, transfer of sensible and latent heat to the atmosphere, and by deep-water formation. The ODP site 984 was drilled in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean in order to monitor the intermediate and deep-water masses variability at Milankovitch timescale over the last million years. Site 984 is located on the Bjorn Drift (61°N 24°W) on the eastern flank of the Reykjanes Ridge. The site lies on the northwestern margin of the Iceland basin directly under the influence of overflows from the Iceland-Faeroe Ridge. This water-mass flows as a deep northern boundary current through the Charlie -Gibbs fracture zone, south of site 984. The presence and the evolution of sediment drifts are intimately linked with the deep-water circulation patterns in this region, and the drift is presently being sculpted by the NSOW water overflowing the Wyville -Thomson Ridge. The sedimentary sequence recovered at site 984 is characterized by unusually high sedimentation rates. Where fine-grained sediments settle out of the current nepheloid layer, large drifts build up that typically have very high sedimentation rates due to the excess of fine fraction. Thus site 984 provides a very good record of glacial- interglacial and millennial-scale variations in thermohaline circulation and ice- rafting history over the Pleistocene. The clay mineral fraction was studied at high resolution over the last million years. The fine size fraction is mainly composed of smectite and illite which variations display the familiar sequences of glacial and interglacial marine isotope stages. The supply in illite is low during interglacial intervals while the smectite supply is high. By contrast, sediments deposited during glacial periods are characterized by a high illite / low smectite content. These variations tend to indicate that there is a major change in fine particles provenance from glacial to

  20. Estimating Longitudinal Risks and Benefits From Cardiovascular Preventive Therapies Among Medicare Patients: The Million Hearts Longitudinal ASCVD Risk Assessment Tool: A Special Report From the American Heart Association and American College of Cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd-Jones, Donald M; Huffman, Mark D; Karmali, Kunal N; Sanghavi, Darshak M; Wright, Janet S; Pelser, Colleen; Gulati, Martha; Masoudi, Frederick A; Goff, David C

    2017-03-28

    The Million Hearts Initiative has a goal of preventing 1 million heart attacks and strokes-the leading causes of mortality-through several public health and healthcare strategies by 2017. The American Heart Association and American College of Cardiology support the program. The Cardiovascular Risk Reduction Model was developed by Million Hearts and the Center for Medicare & Medicaid Services as a strategy to assess a value-based payment approach toward reduction in 10-year predicted risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) by implementing cardiovascular preventive strategies to manage the "ABCS" (aspirin therapy in appropriate patients, blood pressure control, cholesterol management, and smoking cessation). The purpose of this special report is to describe the development and intended use of the Million Hearts Longitudinal ASCVD Risk Assessment Tool. The Million Hearts Tool reinforces and builds on the "2013 ACC/AHA Guideline on the Assessment of Cardiovascular Risk" by allowing clinicians to estimate baseline and updated 10-year ASCVD risk estimates for primary prevention patients adhering to the appropriate ABCS over time, alone or in combination. The tool provides updated risk estimates based on evidence from high-quality systematic reviews and meta-analyses of the ABCS therapies. This novel approach to personalized estimation of benefits from risk-reducing therapies in primary prevention may help target therapies to those in whom they will provide the greatest benefit, and serves as the basis for a Center for Medicare & Medicaid Services program designed to evaluate the Million Hearts Cardiovascular Risk Reduction Model.

  1. Seven million year iron geochemistry record from a thick eolian red clay-loess sequence in Chinese Loess Plateau and the implications for paleomonsoon evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Recently, the Tertiary red clay sequence underlying Pleistoceneloess has attracted much attention. The remarkable progress is the recognition that the Tertiary red clay sequence is also wind-blown in origin, thus providing a good opportunity to reconstruct long-term monsoon changes. In contrast to the loess deposits, the magnetic susceptibility and the pedogenic characteristics are almost independent of each other in the red clay, thus challenging the validity of the readily measurable magnetic susceptibility in describing the monsoon history recorded by the red clay. With the objective to address the long-term East Asia summer monsoon evolution, the free to total Fe2O3 ratios were calculated in a continuous eolian red clay-loess sequence at Lingtai, the Chinese Loess Plateau, which has a thickness of 305 m and a basal age of 7.0 Ma. The seven million year Fe2O3 ratio record from the red clay-loess sequence indicates that (ⅰ) variations of the free to total Fe2O3 ratios of the loess can correlate generally with the alternations of the loess and paleosol horizons; (ⅱ) the East Asia summer monsoon was stronger as a whole in Neogene than that in Quaternary; (ⅲ) the strongest East Asia summer monsoon may occur between 4.0 and 4.8 Ma. The relatively small ice volume and high global temperature may be responsible for the strong summer monsoon during the early Pliocene.

  2. Re-evolution of lost mandibular teeth in frogs after more than 200 million years, and re-evaluating Dollo's law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, John J

    2011-05-01

    Dollo's law states that structures that are evolutionarily lost will not be regained. Recent phylogenetic studies have revealed several potential examples in which Dollo's law seems to be violated, where lost structures appear to have been regained over evolutionary time. However, these examples have recently been questioned and suggested to be methodological artifacts. In this article, I document a striking and incontrovertible phylogenetic example of the re-evolution of a lost, complex structure: mandibular teeth in the frog genus Gastrotheca. I use a time-calibrated phylogeny for 170 amphibian species to show that mandibular teeth were lost in the ancestor of modern frogs at least 230 million years ago (Mya) and have been regained in the last ∼ 5-17 My. I review recent studies on trait re-evolution and show that this long period of trait absence prior to re-acquisition is largely unprecedented. I also argue that there are several methodological issues that may cause trait re-evolution to be hardest to detect under those conditions when it is most likely to occur, leading to erroneous failures to reject Dollo's law. Finally, I discuss a mechanism that may facilitate trait re-evolution, and the evolution of mandibular teeth in frogs as an example of developmental constraint.

  3. Using Life-Cycle Human Factors Engineering to Avoid $2.4 Million in Costs: Lessons Learned from NASA's Requirements Verification Process for Space Payloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Daniel; Ellenberger, Rich

    2008-01-01

    The Human Factors Implementation Team (HFIT) process has been used to verify human factors requirements for NASA International Space Station (ISS) payloads since 2003, resulting in $2.4 million in avoided costs. This cost benefit has been realized by greatly reducing the need to process time-consuming formal waivers (exceptions) for individual requirements violations. The HFIT team, which includes astronauts and their technical staff, acts as the single source for human factors requirements integration of payloads. HFIT has the authority to provide inputs during early design phases, thus eliminating many potential requirements violations in a cost-effective manner. In those instances where it is not economically or technically feasible to meet the precise metric of a given requirement, HFIT can work with the payload engineers to develop common sense solutions and formally document that the resulting payload design does not materially affect the astronaut s ability to operate and interact with the payload. The HFIT process is fully ISO 9000 compliant and works concurrently with NASA s formal systems engineering work flow. Due to its success with payloads, the HFIT process is being adapted and extended to ISS systems hardware. Key aspects of this process are also being considered for NASA's Space Shuttle replacement, the Crew Exploration Vehicle.

  4. Evolving detectors of 2D patterns on a simulated CAM-Brain machine: an evolvable hardware tool for building a 75-million-neuron artificial brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Garis, Hugo; Korkin, Michael; Guttikonda, Padma; Cooley, Donald

    2000-11-01

    This paper presents some simulation results of the evolution of 2D visual pattern recognizers to be implemented very shortly on real hardware, namely the 'CAM-Brain Machine' (CBM), an FPGA based piece of evolvable hardware which implements a genetic algorithm (GA) to evolve a 3D cellular automata (CA) based neural network circuit module, of approximately 1,000 neurons, in about a second, i.e. a complete run of a GA, with 10,000s of circuit growths and performance evaluations. Up to 65,000 of these modules, each of which is evolved with a humanly specified function, can be downloaded into a large RAM space, and interconnected according to humanly specified gvdvips -o SPIE-2000.ps SPIE-2000 artificial brain architectures. This RAM, containing an artificial brain with up to 75 million neurons, is then updated by the CBM at a rate of 130 billion CA cells per second. Such speeds will enable real time control of robots and hopefully the birth of a new research field that we call 'brain building.' The first such artificial brain, to be built at STARLAB in 2000 and beyond, will be used to control the behaviors of a life sized kitten robot called 'Robokitty.' This kitten robot will need 2D pattern recognizers in the visual section of its artificial brain. This paper presents simulation results on the evolvability and generalization properties of such recognizers.

  5. Coeval 40Ar/39Ar Ages of 65.0 Million Years Ago from Chicxulub Crater Melt Rock and Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary Tektites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swisher, C C; Grajales-Nishimura, J M; Montanari, A; Margolis, S V; Claeys, P; Alvarez, W; Renne, P; Cedillo-Pardoa, E; Maurrasse, F J; Curtis, G H; Smit, J; McWilliams, M O

    1992-08-14

    (40)Ar/(39)Ar dating of drill core samples of a glassy melt rock recovered from beneath a massive impact breccia contained within the 180-kilometer subsurface Chicxulub crater in Yucatán, Mexico, has yielded well-behaved incremental heating spectra with a mean plateau age of 64.98 +/- 0.05 million years ago (Ma). The glassy melt rock of andesitic composition was obtained from core 9 (1390 to 1393 meters) in the Chicxulub 1 well. The age of the melt rock is virtually indistinguishable from (40)Ar/(39)Ar ages obtained on tektite glass from Beloc, Haiti, and Arroyo el Mimbral, northeastern Mexico, of 65.01 +/- 0.08 Ma (mean plateau age for Beloc) and 65.07 +/- 0.10 Ma (mean total fusion age for both sites). The (40)Ar/(39)Ar ages, in conjunction with geochemical and petrological similarities, strengthen the recent suggestion that the Chicxulub structure is the source for the Haitian and Mexican tektites and is a viable candidate for the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary impact site.

  6. Coeval Ar-40/Ar-39 ages of 65.0 million years ago from Chicxulub crater melt rock and Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary tektites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swisher, Carl C., III; Grajales-Nishimura, Jose M.; Montanari, Alessandro; Margolis, Stanley V.; Claeys, Philippe; Alvarez, Walter; Renne, Paul; Cedillo-Pardo, Esteban; Maurrasse, Florentin J.-M. R.; Curtis, Garniss H.

    1992-01-01

    Ar-40/Ar-39 dating of drill-core samples of a glassy melt rock recovered from beneath a massive impact breccia contained with the 180-kilometer subsurface Chicxulub crater yields well-behaved incremental heating spectra with a mean plateau age of 64.98 +/- 0.05 million years ago (Ma). The glassy melt rock of andesitic composition was obtained from core 9 (1390 to 1393 meters) in the Chicxulub 1 well. The age of the melt rock is virtually indistinguishable from Ar-40/Ar-39 ages obtained on tektite glass from Beloc, Haiti, and Arroyo el Mimbral, northeastern Mexico, of 65.01 +/- 0.08 Ma (mean plateau age for Beloc) and 65.07 +/- 0.10 Ma (mean total fusion age for both sites). The Ar-40/Ar-39 ages, in conjunction with geochemical and petrological similarities, strengthen the suggestion that the Chicxulub structure is the source for the Haitian and Mexican tektites and is a viable candidate for the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary impact site.

  7. Computer vision applied to herbarium specimens of German trees: testing the future utility of the millions of herbarium specimen images for automated identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Jakob; Merhof, Dorit; Renner, Susanne

    2016-11-16

    Global Plants, a collaborative between JSTOR and some 300 herbaria, now contains about 2.48 million high-resolution images of plant specimens, a number that continues to grow, and collections that are digitizing their specimens at high resolution are allocating considerable recourses to the maintenance of computer hardware (e.g., servers) and to acquiring digital storage space. We here apply machine learning, specifically the training of a Support-Vector-Machine, to classify specimen images into categories, ideally at the species level, using the 26 most common tree species in Germany as a test case. We designed an analysis pipeline and classification system consisting of segmentation, normalization, feature extraction, and classification steps and evaluated the system in two test sets, one with 26 species, the other with 17, in each case using 10 images per species of plants collected between 1820 and 1995, which simulates the empirical situation that most named species are represented in herbaria and databases, such as JSTOR, by few specimens. We achieved 73.21% accuracy of species assignments in the larger test set, and 84.88% in the smaller test set. The results of this first application of a computer vision algorithm trained on images of herbarium specimens shows that despite the problem of overlapping leaves, leaf-architectural features can be used to categorize specimens to species with good accuracy. Computer vision is poised to play a significant role in future rapid identification at least for frequently collected genera or species in the European flora.

  8. The perfect neuroimaging-genetics-computation storm: collision of petabytes of data, millions of hardware devices and thousands of software tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinov, Ivo D; Petrosyan, Petros; Liu, Zhizhong; Eggert, Paul; Zamanyan, Alen; Torri, Federica; Macciardi, Fabio; Hobel, Sam; Moon, Seok Woo; Sung, Young Hee; Jiang, Zhiguo; Labus, Jennifer; Kurth, Florian; Ashe-McNalley, Cody; Mayer, Emeran; Vespa, Paul M; Van Horn, John D; Toga, Arthur W

    2014-06-01

    The volume, diversity and velocity of biomedical data are exponentially increasing providing petabytes of new neuroimaging and genetics data every year. At the same time, tens-of-thousands of computational algorithms are developed and reported in the literature along with thousands of software tools and services. Users demand intuitive, quick and platform-agnostic access to data, software tools, and infrastructure from millions of hardware devices. This explosion of information, scientific techniques, computational models, and technological advances leads to enormous challenges in data analysis, evidence-based biomedical inference and reproducibility of findings. The Pipeline workflow environment provides a crowd-based distributed solution for consistent management of these heterogeneous resources. The Pipeline allows multiple (local) clients and (remote) servers to connect, exchange protocols, control the execution, monitor the states of different tools or hardware, and share complete protocols as portable XML workflows. In this paper, we demonstrate several advanced computational neuroimaging and genetics case-studies, and end-to-end pipeline solutions. These are implemented as graphical workflow protocols in the context of analyzing imaging (sMRI, fMRI, DTI), phenotypic (demographic, clinical), and genetic (SNP) data.

  9. A New 13 Million Year Old Gavialoid Crocodylian from Proto-Amazonian Mega-Wetlands Reveals Parallel Evolutionary Trends in Skull Shape Linked to Longirostry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Gismondi, Rodolfo; Flynn, John J.; Baby, Patrice; Tejada-Lara, Julia V.; Claude, Julien; Antoine, Pierre-Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Gavialoid crocodylians are the archetypal longirostrine archosaurs and, as such, understanding their patterns of evolution is fundamental to recognizing cranial rearrangements and reconstructing adaptive pathways associated with elongation of the rostrum (longirostry). The living Indian gharial Gavialis gangeticus is the sole survivor of the group, thus providing unique evidence on the distinctive biology of its fossil kin. Yet phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary ecology spanning ~70 million-years of longirostrine crocodylian diversification remain unclear. Analysis of cranial anatomy of a new proto-Amazonian gavialoid, Gryposuchus pachakamue sp. nov., from the Miocene lakes and swamps of the Pebas Mega-Wetland System reveals that acquisition of both widely separated and protruding eyes (telescoped orbits) and riverine ecology within South American and Indian gavialoids is the result of parallel evolution. Phylogenetic and morphometric analyses show that, in association with longirostry, circumorbital bone configuration can evolve rapidly for coping with trends in environmental conditions and may reflect shifts in feeding strategy. Our results support a long-term radiation of the South American forms, with taxa occupying either extreme of the gavialoid morphospace showing preferences for coastal marine versus fluvial environments. The early biogeographic history of South American gavialoids was strongly linked to the northward drainage system connecting proto-Amazonian wetlands to the Caribbean region. PMID:27097031

  10. The Range of Variation of the Mass of the Most Massive Star in Stellar Clusters Derived from 35 Million Monte Carlo Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Popescu, Bogdan

    2013-01-01

    A growing fraction of Simple Stellar Population (SSP) models, in an aim to create more realistic simulations capable of including stochastic variation in their outputs, begin their simulations with a distribution of discrete stars following a power-law function of masses. Careful attention is needed to create a correctly sampled Initial Mass Function (IMF) and in this contribution we provide a solid mathematical method called MASSCLEAN IMF Sampling for doing so. We then use our method to perform $10$ $million$ MASSCLEAN Monte Carlo stellar cluster simulations to determine the most massive star in a mass distribution as a function of the total mass of the cluster. We find a maximum mass range is predicted, not a single maximum mass. This maximum mass range is (a) dependent on the total mass of the cluster and (b) independent of an upper stellar mass limit, $M_{limit}$, for $unsaturated$ clusters and comes out naturally using our IMF sampling method. We then turn our analysis around, now starting with our new $...

  11. Lgals6, a 2-million-year-old gene in mice: a case of positive Darwinian selection and presence/absence polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houzelstein, Denis; Gonçalves, Isabelle R; Orth, Annie; Bonhomme, François; Netter, Pierre

    2008-03-01

    Duplications of genes are widely considered to be a driving force in the evolutionary process. The fate of such duplicated genes (paralogs) depends mainly on the early stages of their evolution. Therefore, the study of duplications that have already started to diverge is useful to better understand their evolution. We present here the example of a 2-million-year-old segmental duplication at the origin of the Lgals4 and Lgals6 genes in the mouse genome. We analyzed the distribution of these genes in samples from 110 wild individuals and wild-derived inbred strains belonging to eight mouse species from Mus (Coelomys) pahari to M. musculus and 28 laboratory strains. Using a maximum-likelihood method, we show that the sequence of the Lgals6 gene has evolved under the influence of strong positive selection that is likely to result in its neofunctionalization. Surprisingly, despite this selection pressure, the Lgals6 gene is present in some mouse species, but not all. Furthermore, even within the species and populations where it is present, the Lgals6 gene is never fixed. To explain this paradox, we propose different hypotheses such as balanced selection and neutral retention of ancient polymophism and we discuss this unexpected result with regard to known galectin properties and response to infections by pathogens.

  12. A 15 year catalog of more than 1 million low-frequency earthquakes: Tracking tremor and slip along the deep San Andreas Fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelly, David R.

    2017-05-01

    Low-frequency earthquakes (LFEs) are small, rapidly recurring slip events that occur on the deep extensions of some major faults. Their collective activation is often observed as a semicontinuous signal known as tectonic (or nonvolcanic) tremor. This manuscript presents a catalog of more than 1 million LFEs detected along the central San Andreas Fault from 2001 to 2016. These events have been detected via a multichannel matched-filter search, cross-correlating waveform templates representing 88 different LFE families with continuous seismic data. Together, these source locations span nearly 150 km along the central San Andreas Fault, ranging in depth from 16 to 30 km. This accumulating catalog has been the source for numerous studies examining the behavior of these LFE sources and the inferred slip behavior of the deep fault. The relatively high temporal and spatial resolutions of the catalog have provided new insights into properties such as tremor migration, recurrence, and triggering by static and dynamic stress perturbations. Collectively, these characteristics are inferred to reflect a very weak fault likely under near-lithostatic fluid pressure, yet the physical processes controlling the stuttering rupture observed as tremor and LFE signals remain poorly understood. This paper aims to document the LFE catalog assembly process and associated caveats, while also updating earlier observations and inferred physical constraints. The catalog itself accompanies this manuscript as part of the electronic supplement, with the goal of providing a useful resource for continued future investigations.

  13. Multi-megahertz OCT: High quality 3D imaging at 20 million A-scans and 4.5 GVoxels per second.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieser, Wolfgang; Biedermann, Benjamin R; Klein, Thomas; Eigenwillig, Christoph M; Huber, Robert

    2010-07-05

    We present ultra high speed optical coherence tomography (OCT) with multi-megahertz line rates and investigate the achievable image quality. The presented system is a swept source OCT setup using a Fourier domain mode locked (FDML) laser. Three different FDML-based swept laser sources with sweep rates of 1, 2.6 and 5.2MHz are compared. Imaging with 4 spots in parallel quadruples the effective speed, enabling depth scan rates as high as 20.8 million lines per second. Each setup provides at least 98dB sensitivity and approximately 10microm resolution in tissue. High quality 2D and 3D imaging of biological samples is demonstrated at full scan speed. A discussion about how to best specify OCT imaging speed is included. The connection between voxel rate, line rate, frame rate and hardware performance of the OCT setup such as sample rate, analog bandwidth, coherence length, acquisition dead-time and scanner duty cycle is provided. Finally, suitable averaging protocols to further increase image quality are discussed.

  14. Large graph visualization of millions of connections in the CERN control system network traffic: analysis and design of routing and firewall rules with a new approach

    CERN Document Server

    Gallerani, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The CERN Technical Network (TN) TN was intended to be a network for accelerator and infrastructure operations. However, today, more than 60 million IP packets are routed every hour between the General Purpose Network (GPN) and the TN, involving more than 6000 different hosts. In order to improve the security of the accelerator control system, it is fundamental to understand the network traffic between the two networks and to define new appropriate routing and firewall rules without impacting operations. The complexity and huge size of the infrastructure and the number of protocols and services involved, have discouraged for years any attempt to understand and control the network traffic between the GPN and the TN. In this paper, we show a new way to solve the problem graphically. Combining the network traffic analysis with the use of large graph visualization algorithms we produced usable 2D large color topology maps of the network identifying the inter-relations of the control system machines and s...

  15. 奥尼尔《马可百万》的文化透视研究%A Cultural Interpretation of O' Neill' s Marco Millions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周玲

    2016-01-01

    By means of cultural elucidatory theories, this paper is to give a cultural interpretation of diverse references and pro-found connotations conveyed in Marco Millions, a masterpiece based on the Oriental background by American playwright Eugene O' Neill, with an aim of expounding the conflict and integration of eastern and western cultures.It is to be proved that both cultural in-fluences on the playwright find thorough expression in O' Neill' s thought of pursuing sense of belonging and human homeland of"poetic habitation", which renders the play abundant cultural and literary significances.%借助文化阐释理论,对美国剧作家尤金· 奥尼尔以东方为背景的历史剧《马克百万》存在的种种文化表征和思想意蕴进行文化诠释,分析作品中东西方文化之间的冲突与融合,论证尤金· 奥尼尔所受到的东西文化的影响贯穿着他对寻找精神归属和"诗意的栖居"家园的思考,使这部戏剧呈现出丰富的文化、文学价值.

  16. The ACA’s Cost-Sharing Reduction Plans: A Key to Affordable Health Coverage for Millions of U.S. Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, Jon; Whitmore, Heidi; Green, Matthew; Call, Adrienne; Stromberg, Sam; Oran, Rebecca

    2016-10-01

    Issue: Without the cost-sharing reductions (CSRs) made available by the Affordable Care Act, health plans sold in the marketplaces may be unaffordable for many low-income people. CSRs are available to households earning between 100 percent and 250 percent of the federal poverty level that choose a silver-level marketplace plan. In 2016, about 7 million people received cost-sharing reductions that substantially lowered their deductibles, copayments, coinsurance, and out-of-pocket limits. Goal: To examine variations in consumer cost-sharing reductions between silver-level plans with CSRs to traditional marketplace plans and to employer-based insurance. Methods: Data analysis of 1,209 CSR-eligible plans sold in individual marketplaces in all 50 states and Washington, D.C. Key findings and conclusions: Cost-sharing amounts in silver plans with CSRs are much less than those in non-CSR base silver plans; silver plans with CSRs generally offer far better financial protection than those without. General annual deductibles range from $246 for CSR silver plans with a platinum-level actuarial value (94%) to as much as $3,063 for non-CSR silver plans. Out-of-pocket limits vary from $6,223 in base silver plans to $1,102 in silver plans with CSRs and a platinum-level actuarial level.

  17. A 1.3 million year record of synchronous faulting in the hangingwall and border fault of a half-graben in the Malawi (Nyasa) Rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartney, Tannis; Scholz, Christopher A.

    2016-10-01

    This paper analyzes throw-depth (T-z) profiles from a high resolution 2D reflection seismic grid in the central basin of Lake Malawi to investigate whether evidence exists: 1) for migration of faulting away from the border fault of the half-graben; and 2) that faults in the hangingwall lengthened over the last 1.3 million years. We use the high-precision age model from a 2005 scientific drilling project in our study area to constrain the ages of our seismic horizons and examine a fault array and two individual faults within the hangingwall of the central basin border fault. We account for climatic and sedimentological controls on stratal growth with a lake-level curve that accompanies the age model. A comparison of our hangingwall T-z profiles with published throw-distance (T-x) profiles for the border fault shows synchronous faulting over the last 1.3 m.y. rather than basinward migration of faulting. Furthermore, we find no evidence for significant propagation of the tips of the hangingwall faults in the last 1.3 m.y. and conclude that the lack of basinward migration of faulting is a consequence of strain localization on faults established at an early stage in basin development.

  18. DIANA-TarBase v7.0: indexing more than half a million experimentally supported miRNA:mRNA interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlachos, Ioannis S; Paraskevopoulou, Maria D; Karagkouni, Dimitra; Georgakilas, Georgios; Vergoulis, Thanasis; Kanellos, Ilias; Anastasopoulos, Ioannis-Laertis; Maniou, Sofia; Karathanou, Konstantina; Kalfakakou, Despina; Fevgas, Athanasios; Dalamagas, Theodore; Hatzigeorgiou, Artemis G

    2015-01-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNA species, which act as potent gene expression regulators. Accurate identification of miRNA targets is crucial to understanding their function. Currently, hundreds of thousands of miRNA:gene interactions have been experimentally identified. However, this wealth of information is fragmented and hidden in thousands of manuscripts and raw next-generation sequencing data sets. DIANA-TarBase was initially released in 2006 and it was the first database aiming to catalog published experimentally validated miRNA:gene interactions. DIANA-TarBase v7.0 (http://www.microrna.gr/tarbase) aims to provide for the first time hundreds of thousands of high-quality manually curated experimentally validated miRNA:gene interactions, enhanced with detailed meta-data. DIANA-TarBase v7.0 enables users to easily identify positive or negative experimental results, the utilized experimental methodology, experimental conditions including cell/tissue type and treatment. The new interface provides also advanced information ranging from the binding site location, as identified experimentally as well as in silico, to the primer sequences used for cloning experiments. More than half a million miRNA:gene interactions have been curated from published experiments on 356 different cell types from 24 species, corresponding to 9- to 250-fold more entries than any other relevant database. DIANA-TarBase v7.0 is freely available.

  19. The New York City Operations Support Tool: Supporting Water Supply Operations for Millions in an Era of Changing Patterns in Hydrological Extreme Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matonse, A. H.; Porter, J. H.; Frei, A.

    2015-12-01

    Providing an average 1.1 billion gallons (~ 4.2 x 106 cubic meters) of drinking water per day to approximately nine million people in New York City (NYC) and four upstate counties, the NYC water supply is among the world's largest unfiltered systems. In addition to providing a reliable water supply in terms of water quantity and quality, the city has to fulfill other flow objectives to serve downstream communities. At times, such as during extreme hydrological events, water quality issues may restrict water usage for parts of the system. To support a risk-based water supply decision making process NYC has developed the Operations Support Tool (OST). OST combines a water supply systems model with reservoir water quality models, near real time data ingestion, data base management and an ensemble hydrological forecast. A number of reports have addressed the frequency and intensities of extreme hydrological events across the continental US. In the northeastern US studies have indicated an increase in the frequency of extremely large precipitation and streamflow events during the most recent decades. During this presentation we describe OST and, using case studies we demonstrate how this tool has been useful to support operational decisions. We also want to motivate a discussion about how undergoing changes in patterns of hydrological extreme events elevate the challenge faced by water supply managers and the role of the scientific community to integrate nonstationarity approaches in hydrologic forecast and modeling.

  20. Pervasive survival of expressed mitochondrial rps14 pseudogenes in grasses and their relatives for 80 million years following three functional transfers to the nucleus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palmer Jeffrey D

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many mitochondrial genes, especially ribosomal protein genes, have been frequently transferred as functional entities to the nucleus during plant evolution, often by an RNA-mediated process. A notable case of transfer involves the rps14 gene of three grasses (rice, maize, and wheat, which has been relocated to the intron of the nuclear sdh2 gene and which is expressed and targeted to the mitochondrion via alternative splicing and usage of the sdh2 targeting peptide. Although this transfer occurred at least 50 million years ago, i.e., in a common ancestor of these three grasses, it is striking that expressed, nearly intact pseudogenes of rps14 are retained in the mitochondrial genomes of both rice and wheat. To determine how ancient this transfer is, the extent to which mitochondrial rps14 has been retained and is expressed in grasses, and whether other transfers of rps14 have occurred in grasses and their relatives, we investigated the structure, expression, and phylogeny of mitochondrial and nuclear rps14 genes from 32 additional genera of grasses and from 9 other members of the Poales. Results Filter hybridization experiments showed that rps14 sequences are present in the mitochondrial genomes of all examined Poales except for members of the grass subfamily Panicoideae (to which maize belongs. However, PCR amplification and sequencing revealed that the mitochondrial rps14 genes of all examined grasses (Poaceae, Cyperaceae, and Joinvilleaceae are pseudogenes, with all those from the Poaceae sharing two 4-NT frameshift deletions and all those from the Cyperaceae sharing a 5-NT insertion (only one member of the Joinvilleaceae was examined. cDNA analysis showed that all mitochondrial pseudogenes examined (from all three families are transcribed, that most are RNA edited, and that surprisingly many of the edits are reverse (U→C edits. Putatively nuclear copies of rps14 were isolated from one to several members of each of these

  1. Hydrothermal versus active margin sediment supply to the eastern equatorial Pacific over the past 23 million years traced by radiogenic Pb isotopes: Paleoceanographic and paleoclimatic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höfig, Tobias W.; Hoernle, Kaj; Hauff, Folkmar; Frank, Martin

    2016-10-01

    We investigated the evolution of the Pb isotopic composition of bulk sediments on the Cocos Plate in sedimentary successions of Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) Site 495 and Ocean Drilling Program/Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (ODP/IODP) Site 1256 over the past 23 million years of depositional history. Our study addresses the relationship of the sediment Pb isotope record to plate tectonics, weathering inputs, and paleoceanography. It is the first effort to characterize the Pb isotopic evolution of eastern equatorial Pacific sedimentation covering the entire tectonic pathway of the Cocos Plate from its formation at the East Pacific Rise to its arrival at the Central American subduction zone. The Sites 495 and 1256 bulk sediment Pb isotope records are fully consistent over time despite distinct differences between the type of sediment deposited at both locations. A systematic and continuous trend from ∼23 to ∼6-4 Ma toward more radiogenic Pb isotopic compositions, e.g., 206Pb/204Pb ratios increase from 18.29 to 18.81, reflects a decrease in the contribution of hydrothermal particles from the East Pacific Rise and an increase in the predominantly eolian contribution of mixed weathering products from the continental arcs of the Northern and south Central Andes as well as from southern Mexico. Surprisingly, both the Pb isotopic composition of the detrital fraction and that of past seawater indicate that inputs from nearby Central America and the Galápagos Archipelago did not significantly contribute to the sediments of our core locations but were overwhelmed by other sediment sources. A systematic change to less radiogenic Pb isotope ratios in sediments younger than ∼4-3 Ma, reaching present-day 206Pb/204Pb values near 18.70, reflects a reduction of the continental input from the South Central Volcanic Zone of the Andean Arc and increased contributions from southern Mexican igneous complexes. This isotopic trend reversal took place as a consequence of

  2. Fossil Shorelines Record Multiple Sea Level Highstands and Surface Deformation on Million Year Timescales at Cape Range National Park, Northwestern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandstrom, R. M.; O'Leary, M.; Barham, M.; Cai, Y.; Jacome, A. P.; Raymo, M. E.

    2015-12-01

    Correcting fossil shorelines for vertical displacement subsequent to deposition is a vital consideration in estimating sea level and ice volume during past warm periods. Field observations of paleo-sea level indicators must be adjusted for local tectonic deformation, subsequent sediment loading, dynamic topography (DT), and glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA). Dynamic topography is often the most difficult of these corrections to determine, especially on million year timescales, but is essential when providing constraints on sea level and ice volume changes. GIA effects from high latitude ice sheets minimally impact northwestern Australia, making this region well suited for observing surface displacement due to mantle and tectonic processes. This study presents centimeter accuracy paleo-shoreline data from four distinct marine terraces in the Cape Range National Park, Australia, which document vertical displacement history along 100 kilometers of coastline. The mapped region has an anticlinal structure in the center that has been slowly uplifting the three older reef complexes over the Neogene, constraining the timing of deformation. These neotectonics are probably caused by reactivation of ancient fault zones normal to the principal horizontal compressive stress, resulting in the warping of overlaying units. The elevation data also suggests minimal vertical displacement since the last interglacial highstand. Well-preserved fossil coral were collected from each terrace and will be geochemically dated using Sr isotope and U-series dating methods. This dataset provides a better understanding of DT and neotectonic deformation in this region (useful for improving mantle viscosity models), and offers a means for improving past sea level reconstructions in northwestern Australia.

  3. Discovery of a 240 million year old nematode parasite egg in a cynodont coprolite sheds light on the early origin of pinworms in vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugot, Jean-Pierre; Gardner, Scott L; Borba, Victor; Araujo, Priscilla; Leles, Daniela; Stock Da-Rosa, Átila Augusto; Dutra, Juliana; Ferreira, Luiz Fernando; Araújo, Adauto

    2014-11-13

    We report the discovery of a nematode parasite egg (Nemata: Oxyurida) from a coprolite closely associated with the remains of several species of Cynodontia, dated to 240 million years old. This finding is particularly significant because this is the oldest record of an oxyurid nematode yet discovered, and because the cynodonts are considered a stem-group of the mammals. We extracted material from a fully mineralized coprolite by both scraping the surface, and removing fragments from its interior with clean dental instruments used a single time. A single drop of glycerol from a new vial was added as a clearing reagent. Each slide was sealed with wax and examined with an optical microscope at 100× to 400× magnification. From one coprolite, 550 slides were examined; from 275 of these slides, sediment was examined that was scraped from the surface of the coprolite, and from the other 275 slides, material was examined that was extracted from the interior of the coprolite. All microscopic structures encountered were photographed, measured, and identified when possible. From the coprolite examined, we discovered an egg representing a new species of pinworm that, based on the egg structure, clearly places it in the family Heteroxynematidae. Nematodes of the order Oxyurida have very constrained life-histories, occurring only in animals that are not strictly carnivorous and also ingest large amounts of plant material. This fact enabled us to determine which species of cynodont, from several collected at the site in Brazil, are most likely the depositors of the coprolite, and therefore were the putative host of the parasite.

  4. The Ages and Masses of a Million Galactic-disk Main-sequence Turnoff and Subgiant Stars from the LAMOST Galactic Spectroscopic Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Maosheng; Liu, Xiaowei; Shi, Jianrong; Yuan, Haibo; Huang, Yang; Chen, Bingqiu; Wang, Chun; Tian, Zhijia; Wu, Yaqian; Yang, Yong; Zhang, Huawei; Huo, Zhiying; Ren, Juanjuan

    2017-09-01

    We present estimates of stellar age and mass for 0.93 million Galactic-disk main-sequence turnoff and subgiant stars from the LAMOST Galactic Spectroscopic Surveys. The ages and masses are determined by matching with stellar isochrones using a Bayesian algorithm, utilizing effective temperature {T}{eff}, absolute magnitude {M}V, metallicity [Fe/H], and α-element to iron abundance ratio [α/Fe] deduced from the LAMOST spectra. Extensive examinations suggest the age and mass estimates are robust. Overall, the sample stars have a median error of 34% for the age estimates, and half of the stars older than 2 Gyr have age uncertainties of only 20%-30%. The median error for the mass estimates of the whole sample of stars is ˜8%. The huge data set demonstrates good correlations among stellar age, [Fe/H] ([α/H]), and [α/Fe]. Particularly, double-sequence features are revealed in both the age-[α/Fe] and age-[Fe/H]([α/H]) spaces. In the [Fe/H]-[α/Fe] space, stars of 8-10 Gyr exhibit both the thin and thick disk sequences, while younger (older) stars show only the thin (thick) disk sequence, indicating that the thin disk became prominent 8-10 Gyr ago, while the thick disk formed earlier and was almost quenched 8 Gyr ago. Stellar ages exhibit positive vertical and negative radial gradients across the disk, and the outer disk of R ≳ 9 kpc exhibits a strong flare in stellar age distribution.

  5. Record linked retrospective cohort study of 4.6 million people exploring ethnic variations in disease: myocardial infarction in South Asians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mueller G

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Law and policy in several countries require health services to demonstrate that they are promoting racial/ethnic equality. However, suitable and accurate data are usually not available. We demonstrated, using acute myocardial infarction, that linkage techniques can be ethical and potentially useful for this purpose. Methods The linkage was based on probability matching. Encryption of a unique national health identifier (the Community Health Index (CHI ensured that information about health status and census-based ethnicity could not be ascribed to an identified individual. We linked information on individual ethnic group from the 2001 Census to Scottish hospital discharge and mortality data. Results Overall, 94% of the 4.9 million census records were matched to a CHI record with an estimated false positive rate of less than 0.1 %, with 84.9 – 87.6% of South Asians being successfully linked. Between April 2001 and December 2003 there were 126 first episodes of acute myocardial infarction (AMI among South Asians and 30,978 among non-South Asians. The incidence rate ratio was 1.45 (95% CI 1.17, 1.78 for South Asian compared to non-South Asian men and 1.80 (95% CI 1.31, 2.48 for South Asian women. After adjustment for age, sex and any previous admission for diabetes the hazard ratio for death following AMI was 0.59 (95% CI 0.43, 0.81, reflecting better survival among South Asians. Conclusion The technique met ethical, professional and legal concerns about the linkage of census and health data and is transferable internationally wherever the census (or population register contains ethnic group or race data. The outcome is a retrospective cohort study. Our results point to increased incidence rather than increased case fatality in explaining high CHD mortality rate. The findings open up new methods for researchers and health planners.

  6. Diagenesis in limestone-dolostone successions after 1 million years of rapid sea-level fluctuations: A case study from Grand Cayman, British West Indies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Min; Jones, Brian

    2016-08-01

    Meteoric diagenesis in young marine carbonate sediments has commonly been linked to fluctuations in Quaternary glacio-eustatic sea levels. The extent to which these sea-level changes are recorded in these carbonate successions, however, remains questionable. This is amply demonstrated by the diagenetic record found in the limestones and dolostones of the Cayman Formation (Miocene) on the Cayman Islands. On the eastern part of Grand Cayman, dolomitization that ceased by 1 million years ago created an architecture whereby the limestones in the central part of the island were surrounded by dolostones in coastal areas of the island. Since then, the upper 90 m of the Cayman Formation has been repeatedly cycled through many different marine and meteoric diagenetic zones as large, rapid eustatic oscillations in sea level affected the island. The records of these diagenetic cycles in the dolostones and limestones are, however, different and impossible to match to the cyclic changes in sea level. In the peripheral dolostones, post-dolomitization diagenetic features are sparse. In contrast, the limestones in the interior of the island exhibit a wider variety of meteoric diagenetic features, including extensive dissolution and calcite cementation. The dolostones have low porosity (limestones are characterized by high porosity (up to 50%), especially in the lower and middle parts of the studied limestone succession. The different phases of diagenesis found in the limestones, however, cannot be specifically matched to any sea-level fluctuations that have affected these successions. This issue is further exemplified by the fact that that the last marine transgression over the last ~ 16,000 years ago appears to have left no tangible record. The analysis of this succession clearly demonstrates that not all diagenetic regimes will be recorded in the fabrics of limestones or dolostones.

  7. Paleoceanography of the eastern equatorial Pacific over the past 4 million years and the geologic origins of modern Galápagos upwelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnauskas, Kristopher B.; Mittelstaedt, Eric; Murtugudde, Raghu

    2017-02-01

    An isolated, volcanic archipelago at the confluence of several major ocean currents, the Galápagos Archipelago (GA) is among the most biologically diverse places on Earth. There remain many open questions concerning evolution and speciation in the GA, with the details of the geologic formation of the islands over the past millions of years representing a key source of uncertainty. Paleoceanographic sea surface temperature (SST) proxy records from the far eastern equatorial Pacific (EEP) indicate that the modern gradient of SST across the GA (the cross-island SST gradient, or CIΔT) emerged relatively abruptly ∼1.6 Ma. As the modern CI ΔT is the result of a blockage and subsequent upwelling of the Equatorial Undercurrent (EUC) by the GA, we infer from these paleoceanographic data that the modern period during which the GA is arranged such that the islands constitute a significant topographic barrier to the EUC began ∼1.6 Ma. An extensive suite of ocean circulation model experiments-new and previously published-confirms that the sign and magnitude of the change in CI ΔT captured in paleoceanographic records can be explained by the islands impinging upon the EUC. Implications for the geologic history of the Galápagos and related biogeographical questions are discussed. Additionally, these results suggest that investigations of the Pan-Pacific SST gradient (PPΔT) should use one of the available proxy sites in the EEP that is not influenced by regional, geologically forced oceanographic changes; such an analysis supports recent suggestions of a more gradual development of the modern PP ΔT over the Plio-Pleistocene.

  8. Use of drugs for ADHD among adults-a multinational study among 15.8 million adults in the Nordic countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlstad, Øystein; Zoëga, Helga; Furu, Kari; Bahmanyar, Shahram; Martikainen, Jaana E; Kieler, Helle; Pottegård, Anton

    2016-12-01

    The use of ADHD drugs among adults is controversial and has until recently not been approved for use in adults in most countries. The aim was to investigate use of ADHD drugs (stimulants and atomoxetine) among the entire adult population in the Nordic countries. We conducted a multinational population-based prescription register study based on the entire adult population in the five Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden). All users of ADHD drugs aged 18-64 years during 2008-2012 were included, which for 2012 comprised 76,896 drug users among 15.8 million adult inhabitants. Annual prevalence of drug use increased during the study period for both genders and all age groups. The overall prevalence increased from 2.4 to 5.3 per 1000 men and 1.8 to 4.4 per 1000 women. Incidence also increased, but to a lesser extent in the last part of the study period. Methylphenidate was used by 88 % of drug users. Treatment was discontinued within the first year by 21 % of new drug users. Among all users of ADHD drugs, 53 % of men and 64 % of women concurrently used other psychotropic drugs, most frequently antidepressants and hypnotics. Psychotropic co-medication increased with age and was more pronounced among women than men. Use of ADHD drug among adults more than doubled over a 5-year period, and a majority were concurrently treated with other psychotropics. Adults constitute a substantial proportion of persons treated with ADHD drugs. Thus, evidence for long-term efficacy and safety in adults is urgently needed.

  9. Cultural Interpretation on the Mystery of Millions of Women Practicing Mulan Boxing%木兰拳百万娘子军之谜的文化解释

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩红雨; 张绰庵; 马敏卿

    2012-01-01

    By using the methods of literature review,oral history and so on,with the aid of the encoding and decoding theory of Stuart Hall,the paper makes cultural interpretation on the mystery of millions of women practicing Mulan boxing.The study finds out the main attracting factors of Mulan boxing: the clear cognition of its consumption objects;the new experience of technology production;the unity of music rhythm and technology movement;the combination of dancing and Wushu,etc.It aims to enrich the theory of Mulan and provide theoretical guidance for the inheritance of other traditional ethnic sports both at home and abroad.%采用文献资料法、口述史方法等,借助斯图亚特.霍尔的编码、解码理论,对木兰拳百万娘子军之谜进行文化解释。研究认为木兰拳吸引人、留住人的主要因素是:消费对象的明确化,技术生产的新体验,音乐节奏与技术动作的统一、舞武结合等健与美的完美表达。旨在丰富木兰拳理论,为国内外其他民族传统体育项目的传承提供理论指导。

  10. Characteristics of pneumonia deaths after an earthquake and tsunami: an ecological study of 5.7 million participants in 131 municipalities, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Yosuke; Ojima, Toshiyuki; Tomata, Yasutake; Okada, Eisaku; Nakamura, Mieko; Kawado, Miyuki; Hashimoto, Shuji

    2016-02-23

    On 11 March 2011, the Great East Japan Earthquake struck off Japan. Although some studies showed that the earthquake increased the risk of pneumonia death, no study reported whether and how much a tsunami increased the risk. We examined the risk for pneumonia death after the earthquake/tsunami. This is an ecological study. Data on population and pneumonia deaths obtained from the Vital Statistics 2010 and 2012, National Census 2010 and Basic Resident Register 2010 and 2012 in Japan. About 5.7 million participants residing in Miyagi, Iwate and Fukushima Prefectures during 1 year after the disaster were targeted. All municipalities (n=131) were categorised into inland (n=93), that is, the earthquake-impacted area, and coastal types (n=38), that is, the earthquake-impacted and tsunami-impacted area. The number of pneumonia deaths per week was totalled from 12 March 2010 to 9 March 2012. The number of observed pneumonia deaths (O) and the sum of the sex and age classes in the observed population multiplied by the sex and age classes of expected pneumonia mortality (E) were calculated. Expected pneumonia mortality was the pneumonia mortality during the year before. Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated for pneumonia deaths (O/E), adjusting for sex and age using the indirect method. SMRs were then calculated by coastal and inland municipalities. 6603 participants died of pneumonia during 1 year after the earthquake. SMRs increased significantly during the 1st-12th weeks. In the 2nd week, SMRs in coastal and inland municipalities were 2.49 (95% CI 2.02 to 7.64) and 1.48 (95% CI 1.24 to 2.61), respectively. SMRs of coastal municipalities were higher than those of inland municipalities. An earthquake increased the risk of pneumonia death and tsunamis additionally increased the risk. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  11. Feasibility of Twitter Based Earthquake Characterization From Analysis of 32 Million Tweets: There's Got to be a Pony in Here Somewhere!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earle, P. S.; Guy, M. R.; Smoczyk, G. M.; Horvath, S. R.; Jessica, T. S.; Bausch, D. B.

    2014-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) operates a real-time system that detects earthquakes using only data from Twitter—a service for sending and reading public text-based messages of up to 140 characters. The detector algorithm scans for significant increases in tweets containing the word "earthquake" in several languages and sends internal alerts with the detection time, representative tweet texts, and the location of the population center where most of the tweets originated. It has been running in real-time for over two years and finds, on average, two or three felt events per day, with a false detection rate of 9%. The main benefit of the tweet-based detections is speed, with most detections occurring between 20 and 120 seconds after the earthquake origin time. This is considerably faster than seismic detections in poorly instrumented regions of the world. The detections have reasonable coverage of populated areas globally. The number of Twitter-based detections is small compared to the number of earthquakes detected seismically, and only a rough location and qualitative assessment of shaking can be determined based on Tweet data alone. However, the Twitter-based detections are generally caused by widely felt events in populated urban areas that are of more immediate interest than those with no human impact. We will present a technical overview of the system and investigate the potential for rapid characterization of earthquake damage and effects using the 32 million "earthquake" tweets that the system has so far amassed. Initial results show potential for a correlation between characteristic responses and shaking level. For example, tweets containing the word "terremoto" were common following the MMI VII shaking produced by the April 1, 2014 M8.2 Iquique, Chile earthquake whereas a widely-tweeted deep-focus M5.2 north of Santiago, Chile on April 4, 2014 produced MMI VI shaking and almost exclusively "temblor" tweets. We are also investigating the use of other

  12. A young Moon-forming giant impact at 70-110 million years accompanied by late-stage mixing, core formation and degassing of the Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, Alex N

    2008-11-28

    New W isotope data for lunar metals demonstrate that the Moon formed late in isotopic equilibrium with the bulk silicate Earth (BSE). On this basis, lunar Sr isotope data are used to define the former composition of the Earth and hence the Rb-Sr age of the Moon, which is 4.48+/-0.02Ga, or 70-110Ma (million years) after the start of the Solar System. This age is significantly later than had been deduced from W isotopes based on model assumptions or isotopic effects now known to be cosmogenic. The Sr age is in excellent agreement with earlier estimates based on the time of lunar Pb loss and the age of the early lunar crust (4.46+/-0.04Ga). Similar ages for the BSE are recorded by xenon and lead-lead, providing evidence of catastrophic terrestrial degassing, atmospheric blow-off and significant late core formation accompanying the ca 100Ma giant impact. Agreement between the age of the Moon based on the Earth's Rb/Sr and the lead-lead age of the Moon is consistent with no major losses of moderately volatile elements from the Earth during the giant impact. The W isotopic composition of the BSE can be explained by end member models of (i) gradual accretion with a mean life of roughly 35Ma or (ii) rapid growth with a mean life of roughly 10Ma, followed by a significant hiatus prior to the giant impact. The former assumes that approximately 60 per cent of the incoming metal from impactors is added directly to the core during accretion. The latter includes complete mixing of all the impactor material into the BSE during accretion. The identical W isotopic composition of the Moon and the BSE limits the amount of material that can be added as a late veneer to the Earth after the giant impact to less than 0.3+/-0.3 per cent of ordinary chondrite or less than 0.5+/-0.6 per cent CI carbonaceous chondrite based on their known W isotopic compositions. Neither of these on their own is sufficient to explain the inventories of both refractory siderophiles such as platinum group

  13. Utilization of Stimulants and Atomoxetine for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder among 5.4 Million Children Using Population-Based Longitudinal Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furu, Kari; Karlstad, Øystein; Zoega, Helga; Martikainen, Jaana E; Bahmanyar, Shahram; Kieler, Helle; Pottegård, Anton

    2017-04-01

    Use of stimulants to treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has increased over the past two decades and varies substantially between countries. The objective of this multinational population-based study was to examine utilization of ADHD drugs (stimulants and atomoxetine) including comedication with other psychotropic drugs in the entire child population in the five Nordic countries. We included longitudinal data on dispensed ADHD drugs from five Nordic prescription registers during 2008-2012, which in 2012 comprised 48,296 individuals among 5.42 million inhabitants aged 0-17 years. Prevalence of filling ≥1 prescriptions of ADHD drugs among children aged 6-17 years increased during 2008-2012 from 5.9 to 11.2 and 19.4 to 31.0 per 1000 girls and boys, respectively. Prevalence by country showed that Iceland, Finland and Sweden had a steady increase during the study period, while in Norway the prevalence was quite stable and in Denmark it levelled off from 2010. Use in preschoolers (aged 0-5 years) was rare. Iceland had much higher prevalence and incidence than the other Nordic countries. The incidence of ADHD drug use increased during the study period, from 4.0 to 4.9 and from 1.5 to 2.3 per 1000 boys and girls, respectively. The increasing number of new users levelled off somewhat after 2010. Comedication with other psychotropic drugs was more common among girls (33.9%) than boys (27.0%) and was mainly melatonin, followed by antidepressants and antipsychotics. Overall prevalence of ADHD drug use increased among Nordic girls and boys aged 6-17 years, whereas the incidence increased slightly during 2008-2010 but levelled off through 2012. The substantial differences in ADHD drug use across the Nordic countries and high degree of comedication with other psychotropic drugs underscore the importance of close monitoring of treatment for ADHD among children. © 2016 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  14. Design, implementation and evaluation of a national campaign to distribute nine million free LLINs to children under five years of age in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lengeler Christian

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background After a national voucher scheme in 2004 provided pregnant women and infants with highly subsidized insecticide-treated nets (ITNs, use among children under five years (U5s in mainland Tanzania increased from 16% in 2004 to 26.2% in 2007. In 2008, the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare planned a catch-up campaign to rapidly and equitably deliver a free long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN to every child under five years in Tanzania. Methods The ITN Cell, a unit within the National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP, coordinated the campaign on behalf of the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare. Government contractors trained and facilitated local government officials to supervise village-level volunteers on a registration of all U5s and the distribution and issuing of LLINs. The registration results formed the basis for the LLIN order and delivery to village level. Caregivers brought their registration coupons to village issuing posts during a three-day period where they received LLINs for their U5s. Household surveys in five districts assessed ITN ownership and use immediately after the campaign. Results Nine donors contributed to the national campaign that purchased and distributed 9.0 million LLINs at an average cost of $7.07 per LLIN, including all campaign-associated activities. The campaign covered all eight zones of mainland Tanzania, the first region being covered separately during an integrated measles immunization/malaria LLIN distribution in August 2008, and was implemented one zone at a time from March 2009 until May 2010. ITN ownership at household level increased from Tanzania's 2008 national average of 45.7% to 63.4%, with significant regional variations. ITN use among U5s increased from 28.8% to 64.1%, a 2.2-fold increase, with increases ranging from 22.1-38.3% percentage points in different regions. Conclusion A national-level LLIN distribution strategy that fully engaged local government authorities helped

  15. Catching the missing million: experiences in enhancing TB & DR-TB detection by providing upfront Xpert MTB/RIF testing for people living with HIV in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Raizada

    Full Text Available A critical challenge in providing TB care to People Living with HIV (PLHIV is establishing an accurate bacteriological diagnosis. Xpert MTB/RIF, a highly sensitive and specific rapid tool, offers a promising solution in addressing these challenges. This study presents results from PLHIV taking part in a large demonstration study across India wherein upfront Xpert MTB/RIF testing was offered to all presumptive PTB cases in public health facilities.The study covered a population of 8.8 million across 18 sub-district level tuberculosis units (TU, with one Xpert MTB/RIF platform established at each TU. All HIV-infected patients suspected of TB (both TB and Drug Resistant TB (DR-TB accessing public health facilities in study area were prospectively enrolled and provided upfront Xpert MTB/RIF testing.2,787 HIV-infected presumptive pulmonary TB cases were enrolled and 867 (31.1%, 95% Confidence Interval (CI 29.4‒32.8 HIV-infected TB cases were diagnosed under the study. Overall 27.6% (CI 25.9-29.3 of HIV-infected presumptive PTB cases were positive by Xpert MTB/RIF, compared with 12.9% (CI 11.6-14.1 who had positive sputum smears. Upfront Xpert MTB/RIF testing of presumptive PTB and DR-TB cases resulted in diagnosis of 73 (9.5%, CI 7.6‒11.8 and 16 (11.2%, CI 6.7‒17.1 rifampicin resistance cases, respectively. Positive predictive value (PPV for rifampicin resistance detection was high 97.7% (CI 89.3‒99.8, with no significant difference with or without prior history of TB treatment.The study results strongly demonstrate limitations of using smear microscopy for TB diagnosis in PLHIV, leading to low TB and DR-TB detection which can potentially lead to either delayed or sub-optimal TB treatment. Our findings demonstrate the usefulness and feasibility of addressing this diagnostic gap with upfront of Xpert MTB/RIF testing, leading to overall strengthening of care and support package for PLHIV.

  16. A 3 million year index for North African humidity/aridity and the implication of potential pan-African Humid periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Katharine M.; Rohling, Eelco J.; Westerhold, Thomas; Zabel, Matthias; Heslop, David; Konijnendijk, Tiuri; Lourens, Lucas

    2017-09-01

    Mediterranean sediments are valuable archives of both African monsoon variability and higher-latitude climate processes, and can also be used to provide an environmental context for early human migrations and settlements. However, the long history of Mediterranean palaeoclimate studies largely pre-dates the advent of widespread x-ray fluorescence (XRF) core-scanning, so there are few continuous and high-resolution geochemical records from this key region that extend beyond the last glacial cycle. Here we present XRF core-scanning results for ODP Site 967 (Eastern Mediterranean) that have been fully-calibrated into element concentrations spanning the last 3 million years (My). Comparison with independent geochemical data from conventional XRF highlights disparities for certain element/element ratios, thus suggesting the need for caution when taking ratios of scanning XRF data. Principal component analysis of the calibrated XRF dataset reveals two dominant components: detrital inputs (PC1) and a 'sapropel' (≈monsoon run-off) signal (PC2), which we use to establish a new orbitally-tuned chronology. We observe inverse covariation between PC2 and a previously published aeolian dust record from ODP Site 967 (Larrasoaña et al., 2003), and combine these records to produce a composite index of humidity and aridity for the wider North African region over the past 3 My. We propose that by combining run-off and dust signals in a single metric, our index captures the effects of both strengthening/northward migration (increased run-off) and weakening/southward retreat (increased dust) of the North African monsoon. Comparison of the index with published records of Northwest and East African palaeohumidity suggests that it tracks the timing of ;Green Sahara Periods; throughout the Plio-Pleistocene, and that at least 30 of these intervals coincided with increased humidity across East Africa. We tentatively suggest that these specific episodes may be termed ;pan-African Humid

  17. Poweo 1. quarter 2007 revenue up 7% at 85 million euro. Energy supply to end-customers up 137%; Poweo chiffre d'affaires de 85 millions euro au 1. trimestre 2007, en hausse de 7%. Fourniture d'energie aux clients finaux en hausse de 137%

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-05-15

    POWEO, the leading independent electricity and gas operator in France, presents in this document its key business indicators for the first quarter of 2007. For the first time since its creation, POWEO achieved a quarterly sales turnover in excess of 100 million euro excluding the Energy Management activity. The implementation of commercial resources dedicated to the acquisition of large accounts in industry and services indeed enabled the Group to develop significantly the sales on this segment, in particular to a French large industrial group. POWEO intends to materialize in the coming months some opportunities with large accounts thanks to the implementation of the transitory regulated adjustment to market tariff (TARTAM), as decided by the government last fall 2006 and recently further defined. The professional customers segment started gradually to grow again. Before the launch of the residential offering, the acquisition of new professional customers during the past quarter compensated for usual erosion. The number of active sites customers amounts to 80.500 as at March 31, 2007, overall stable compared to the end of 2006. The electricity customer base represents 75.000 active sites as at March 31, 2007, the gas customer base further grew to reach 5.500 active sites at March 31, 2007. In addition, the commercial partners network has been streamlined in order to preserve only a reduced number of them, in view of the forthcoming launch of a new web site which will enable to market directly to the professional and residential customers POWEO's offering in energy and services. Within the framework of the capacity swap with EDF announced on January 3, 2007, part of the forward procurement contracts and call options initially dedicated to supply the end-customers had been re-classified in the Energy Management portfolio as of December 31, 2006. According to IFRS standards, this portfolio must be valued at market prices. The energy sector faced during the first

  18. Poweo 1. quarter 2007 revenue up 7% at 85 million euro. Energy supply to end-customers up 137%; Poweo chiffre d'affaires de 85 millions euro au 1. trimestre 2007, en hausse de 7%. Fourniture d'energie aux clients finaux en hausse de 137%

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-05-15

    POWEO, the leading independent electricity and gas operator in France, presents in this document its key business indicators for the first quarter of 2007. For the first time since its creation, POWEO achieved a quarterly sales turnover in excess of 100 million euro excluding the Energy Management activity. The implementation of commercial resources dedicated to the acquisition of large accounts in industry and services indeed enabled the Group to develop significantly the sales on this segment, in particular to a French large industrial group. POWEO intends to materialize in the coming months some opportunities with large accounts thanks to the implementation of the transitory regulated adjustment to market tariff (TARTAM), as decided by the government last fall 2006 and recently further defined. The professional customers segment started gradually to grow again. Before the launch of the residential offering, the acquisition of new professional customers during the past quarter compensated for usual erosion. The number of active sites customers amounts to 80.500 as at March 31, 2007, overall stable compared to the end of 2006. The electricity customer base represents 75.000 active sites as at March 31, 2007, the gas customer base further grew to reach 5.500 active sites at March 31, 2007. In addition, the commercial partners network has been streamlined in order to preserve only a reduced number of them, in view of the forthcoming launch of a new web site which will enable to market directly to the professional and residential customers POWEO's offering in energy and services. Within the framework of the capacity swap with EDF announced on January 3, 2007, part of the forward procurement contracts and call options initially dedicated to supply the end-customers had been re-classified in the Energy Management portfolio as of December 31, 2006. According to IFRS standards, this portfolio must be valued at market prices. The energy sector faced during the first

  19. Intel 80860 or I860: The million transistor RISC microprocessor chip with supercomputer capability. April 1988-September 1989 (Citations from the Computer data base). Report for April 1988-September 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-10-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning Intel's new microprocessor which has more than a million transistors and is capable of performing up to 80 million floating-point operations per second (80 mflops). The I860 (originally code named the N-10 during development) is to be used in workstation type applications. It will be suited for problems such as fluid dynamics, molecular modeling, structural analysis, and economic modeling which requires supercomputer number crunching and advanced graphics. (Contains 64 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  20. Cytosine deaminase adenoviral vector and 5-fluorocytosine selectively reduce breast cancer cells 1 million-fold when they contaminate hematopoietic cells: a potential purging method for autologous transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Sanchez, F; Pizzorno, G; Fu, S Q; Nanakorn, T; Krause, D S; Liang, J; Adams, E; Leffert, J J; Yin, L H; Cooperberg, M R; Hanania, E; Wang, W L; Won, J H; Peng, X Y; Cote, R; Brown, R; Burtness, B; Giles, R; Crystal, R; Deisseroth, A B

    1998-07-15

    48 hours. All of the BCC lines tested were shown to be sensitive to infection by adenoviral vectors when exposed to a recombinant adenoviral vector containing the reporter gene betagalactosidase (Ad.CMV-betagal). In contrast, less than 1% of the CD34-selected cells and their more immature subsets, such as the CD34+CD38- or CD34(+)CD33- subpopulations, were positive for infection by the Ad.CMV-betagal vector, as judged by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis, when exposed to the adenoviral vector under conditions that did not commit the early hematopoietic precursor cells to maturation. When artificial mixtures of hematopoietic cells and BCCs were exposed for 90 minutes to the Ad.CMV-CD vector and to 5-FC for 10 days or more, a greater than 1 million fold reduction in the number of BCCs, as measured by colony-limiting dilution assays, was observed. To test if the conditions were damaging for the hematopoietic reconstituting cells, marrow cells collected from 5-FU-treated male donor mice were incubated with the cytosine deaminase adenoviral vector and then exposed to 5-FC either for 4 days in vitro before transplantation or for 14 days immediately after transplantation in vivo. There was no significant decrease in the reconstituting capability of the male marrow cells, as measured by their persistence in female irradiated recipients for up to 6 months after transplantation. These observations suggest that adenovirus-mediated gene transfer of the Escherichia coli cytosine deaminase gene followed by exposure to the nontoxic pro-drug 5-FC may be a potential strategy to selectively reduce the level of contaminating BCCs in collections of hematopoietic cells used for autografts in breast cancer patients.

  1. First-order shallow aquifer characteristics across Europe: The International Hydrogeological Map of Europe at scale 1:1.5 Million (IHME1500)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, Andreas; Duscher, Klaus; Broda, Stefan; Clos, Patrick; Reichling, Jörg

    2017-04-01

    Since the mid of the last century, pan-European hydrogeological overview-mapping is conducted at the scale 1 : 1.5 Million following common standards and guidelines to interpret suitable geologic mapping units in terms of potential uppermost aquifer (or non-aquifer) characteristics. These comprises potential aquifer productivities and general hydrogeological aquifer conditions (fissured vs. porous). The printed IHME1500 dataset successively elaborated and published from 1970 - 2013 consists of 25 individual map sheets. Besides the potential aquifer characterization grouped in six classes, IHME1500 offers a complete coverage of lithological material properties of potential shallow aquifer assemblages, and tracelines of major fault structures. Regional information on groundwater surfaces, aquifer thicknesses and depths, locations and characteristics of groundwater springs and other punctual information related to European groundwater resources is present for some areas in selected map sheets, however not digitally available. Synoptic IHME1500 vector data consists of a topographically corrected, seamless and harmonized polygon layer with attribute information on potential aquifer productivity and lithology. While the standardized aquifer-classification is relatively easy to harmonize across the entire mapped area, the lithological information of IHME1500 is presented using sheet-specific legend information resulting in more than 1000 aquifer lithology classes. An attempt was made to harmonize this information utilizing a specifically developed taxonomic scheme, treating consolidated, partly consolidated and unconsolidated materials separately. The translation of the original lithological information into this scheme allows for a hierarchical grouping of the mapping units into five generalization levels, where the highest aggregation level displays a ternary map showing the distribution of consolidated, partially consolidated and unconsolidated aquifer materials. The

  2. Biodiesel Fuel Company Owner Pleads Guilty to Fraud and Clean Air Act Crimes Connected to Renewable Fuels Scheme / Philip J. Rivkin faces more than 10 years imprisonment and $51 million in restitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    WASHINGTON - Philip Joseph Rivkin, a.k.a. Felipe Poitan Arriaga, 50, today pleaded guilty to a Clean Air Act false statement and mail fraud as part of his role in a scheme to defraud EPA by falsely representing that he was producing millions of gall

  3. Cleaning up the Nalon, Caudal and Nora rivers: FEDER provide 1,000 million pesetas for the HUNOSA project. Saneamiento de los rios Nalon, Caudal y Nora. El FEDER aporta mil millones para un proyecto de HUNOSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    The Commission of the European Communities has recently approved aid from FEDER (European Regional Development Fund) for the HUNOSA project 'Cleaning discharge into public waterways from HUNOSA's coal washeries' to the value of 1,000 million pesetas. This is the maximum grant available from the Fund and equates to 45% of the total investment, estimated at 2,200 million pesetas. The project has been organised and carried out by HUNOSA and involves cleaning up the Nalon, Caudal and Nora rivers between 1990 and 1992. The project also includes a comprehensive study of the six washeries contributing to the pollution of the rivers and will apply to each the cheapest and most viable solution from an operational standpoint. 1 fig.

  4. Signing of CERN's 300 million EUR loan from the EIB in December 2002. From left to right : Philippe Busquin, European Research Commissioner, Philippe Maystadt, EIB President and Luciano Maiani, Director General of CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The European Investment Bank (EIB) is lending EUR 300 million to finance the final phase of construction of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN , the European Organization for Nuclear Research. The EIB loan will also help to finance the instrumentation to record and analyse the high-energy particle collisions at the LHC. A loan to enable construction of this major project was foreseen by CERN's governing Council when it approved the LHC in 1996.

  5. Fifty million Frenchmen have few nuclear fears

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DuPont, R.L.

    A psychiatrist examines why France chose the nuclear power option in 1974 and expects for it to generate 75% of its power by 1990 in contrast to the US rejection and fear of nuclear power. The fear dominating US media coverage since 1968 is classic phobic thinking. A comparison of US and French attitudes reveals that French nuclear plants are tourist attractions, accepted by residents as both safe and of economic benefit. Accidents are examined realistically in France without the what if drama given to US incidents. Some political problems have developed and recent anti-nuclear activities are taken seriously, but the opposition was not based on fear. Public acceptance in France is partly due to a lack of energy alternatives and a pragmatism that works against phobias. (DCK)

  6. The Million Book Project at Bibliotheca Alexandrina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ELDAKAR Youssef; EL-GAZZAR Khalid; ADLY Noha; NAGI Magdy

    2005-01-01

    The Bibliotheca Alexandrina (BA) has been developing and putting to use a workflow for turning printed books into digital books as its contribution to the building of a Universal Digital Library. This workflow is a process consisting of multiple phases, namely, scanning, image processing, OCR,digital archiving, document encoding, and publishing. Over the past couple of years, the BA has defined procedures and special techniques for the scanning, processing, OCR and publishing, especially of Arabic books. This workflow has been automated, allowing the governance of the different phases and making possible the production of 18000 books so far. The BA has also designed and implemented a framework for the encoding of digital books that allows publishing as well as a software system for managing the creation, maintenance, and publishing of the overall digital repository.

  7. 200 million Euros: Worthy or Hot?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ting

    2009-01-01

    @@ As the worldwide financial crisis keeps on spreading around,some global well known brands could not afford the cost pressure,and beaan to look for economic and political support.Although in such a tough period,it is a little difficult to make a decision to buy a less beneficial enterprise,some competitive companies still look for their targets,with a favorable price at the right time.

  8. Precision Cosmology: The First Half Million Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Bernard J. T.

    2017-06-01

    Cosmology seeks to characterise our Universe in terms of models based on well-understood and tested physics. Today we know our Universe with a precision that once would have been unthinkable. This book develops the entire mathematical, physical and statistical framework within which this has been achieved. It tells the story of how we arrive at our profound conclusions, starting from the early twentieth century and following developments up to the latest data analysis of big astronomical datasets. It provides an enlightening description of the mathematical, physical and statistical basis for understanding and interpreting the results of key space- and ground-based data. Subjects covered include general relativity, cosmological models, the inhomogeneous Universe, physics of the cosmic background radiation, and methods and results of data analysis. Extensive online supplementary notes, exercises, teaching materials, and exercises in Python make this the perfect companion for researchers, teachers and students in physics, mathematics, and astrophysics.

  9. Fake Makes Chinese Retailers Lose Millions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    On April 13,the judiciary of Brazil St.Paul under the help of the local police suddenly confiscated the wholesales market of Chinese clothing,located at Street 25 of the shopping center. In all,48 Chinese dealers were seized under allegation of

  10. ERAA nakazala svoihh na million / Artur Tooman

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tooman, Artur, 1971-

    2003-01-01

    Eesti Rahvusvaheliste Autovedajate Assotsiatsioonis tekkisid lahkarvamused hindade kujunemisele Venemaa poolt Eestile tasuta antud limiteeritud lubadele, mida autovedajatele müüakse 300 krooni tükk

  11. Precision cosmology the first half million years

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Bernard J T

    2017-01-01

    Cosmology seeks to characterise our Universe in terms of models based on well-understood and tested physics. Today we know our Universe with a precision that once would have been unthinkable. This book develops the entire mathematical, physical and statistical framework within which this has been achieved. It tells the story of how we arrive at our profound conclusions, starting from the early twentieth century and following developments up to the latest data analysis of big astronomical datasets. It provides an enlightening description of the mathematical, physical and statistical basis for understanding and interpreting the results of key space- and ground-based data. Subjects covered include general relativity, cosmological models, the inhomogeneous Universe, physics of the cosmic background radiation, and methods and results of data analysis. Extensive online supplementary notes, exercises, teaching materials, and exercises in Python make this the perfect companion for researchers, teachers and students i...

  12. Demographic dream : 1,5 million Estonians

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Haridus- ja teadusminister Tõnis Lukas loodab rahvuskaaslaste programmi abil saavutada, et väliseestlased ei unusta eesti keelt ning eesti keelt kõnelevate inimeste arv võiks järgmisel aastakümnel jõuda 1,5 miljonini

  13. News and Views: Kleopatra a pile of rubble, shedding moons; Did plasma flow falter to stretch solar minimum? Amateurs hit 20 million variable-star observations; Climate maths; Planetary priorities; New roles in BGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    Metallic asteroid 216 Kleopatra is shaped like a dog's bone and has two tiny moons - which came from the asteroid itself - according to a team of astronomers from France and the US, who also measured its surprisingly low density and concluded that it is a collection of rubble. The recent solar minimum was longer and lower than expected, with a low polar field and an unusually large number of days with no sunspots visible. Models of the magnetic field and plasma flow within the Sun suggest that fast, then slow meridional flow could account for this pattern. Variable stars are a significant scientific target for amateur astronomers. The American Association of Variable Star Observers runs the world's largest database of variable star observations, from volunteers, and reached 20 million observations in February.

  14. Areva - First quarter 2009 revenue climbs 8.5% to 3.003 billion euros; Areva - Progression du chiffre d'affaires du 1. trimestre 2009: + 8,5% a 3003 millions d'euros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-04-15

    First quarter 2009 revenue was up 8.5% compared with the same period last year, to 3.003 billion euros. At constant exchange rates and consolidation scope, growth came to 3.9%. Currency translation had a positive impact of 57 million euros over the quarter. Changes in the consolidation scope had an impact of 66 million euros, primarily due to the consolidation of acquisitions made in 2008 in Transmission and Distribution and in Renewable Energies. The growth engines for first quarter revenue were the Reactors and Services division and the Transmission and Distribution division, with growth of 9.2% and 16.1% respectively. Outside France, revenue rose to 2.032 billion euros, compared with 1.857 billion euros in the first quarter of 2008, and represents 68% of total revenue. Orders were steady in the first quarter, particularly in the Front End, which posted several significant contracts with US and Asian utilities, and in Transmission and Distribution, with orders up sharply in Asia and South America. As of March 31, 2009, the group's backlog reached 49.5 billion euros, for 28.3% growth year-on-year, including 31.3% growth in Nuclear and 10.2% in Transmission and Distribution. For the year as a whole, the group confirms its outlook for backlog and revenue growth as well as rising operating income It should be noted that revenue may vary significantly from one quarter to the next in nuclear operations. Accordingly, quarterly data cannot be viewed as a reliable indicator of annual trends.

  15. Research and practice on evaluation system of 1 0-million-ton capacity coal mine%千万吨级矿井评价体系研究与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张苏阳

    2016-01-01

    为推动国家“十三五”经济发展方式转变,促进煤炭工业的转型升级,神华集团公司基于所属的千万吨级矿井群,提出了建设世界一流示范矿井的目标。本文通过运用系统工程理论和战略思维方法,结合模糊综合评价法对千万吨级矿井的评价体系展开深入研究,构建了由6个一级指标、21个二级指标构成的千万吨级矿井评价体系,为建设世界一流示范矿井奠定了基础。运用该评价体系对神华集团所属的某千万吨级矿井进行综合评价,得出评价结论并应用于该矿井的工程实践。同时,该评价指标体系在指导煤矿的运营和发展,衡量和建设世界一流矿井的评价方面也具有一定的借鉴意义。%In order to driving the 13th Five-Year Plan for the transformation of economic de-velopment mode and promoting coal industrial transformation and upgrading,Shenhua Group provided a target to build a top of the world demonstrated coal mine basing upon their amounts of 1 0-million-ton capacity coal mines.According to utilization of system engineering theory and stra-tegic thinking method,the author conducted an intensive study on evaluation system of 10-mil-lion-ton capacity coal mines and also build an evaluation system of 10-million-ton capacity coal mines by combining fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method.The system includes 6 first class in-dicators and 2 1 second class indicators which established a foundation for building the top of the world coal mine.The system was applied to comprehensive evaluate one 10-million-ton capacity coal mine of Shenhua Group and get evaluated conclusion and engineering practice,in the mean-while,the evaluated indicator system provided a reference on evaluation of guiding coal mines'op-eration and development,and measuring and establishing the top of the world coal mine.

  16. lXlA单端口百万级BGP随机路由测试解决方案%IXIA Helps to Simulate Millions of Real World Routes to Qualify BGP Performance Testing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    虞乐

    2012-01-01

    With the rapid growth oflP network, single router in Chinese core network handles nearly millions of routes every day. The pain point is to test the FIB capability of this kind of router as well as to measure how fast they convergence. As the top vender of tester equipment, IXIA helps the customer to simulate millions of real world routes to qualify BGP testing solution which delivery most reality and pressure testing environment. Features like real-world routes importing, random routes generation and the hardware based"true view" convergence test is truly a breakthrough of the high performance router testing.%随着网络IP化进程的推进,核心网路由器间交互的路由条目每年都在成倍增长,总数已经接近百万。如何判断路由器是否有能力承载那么巨大的路由容量,如何测试它的转发能力.以及"-3主备倒换发生时,能多快地完成业务的收敛,一直是路由器BGP协议性能测试的瓶颈。IXIA作为顶级的测试设备厂商,一直致力于提供超高性能的硬件解决方案。我们在路由器测试领域以超高的端口能力,提供客户单端口、百万级BGP路由测试解决方案。该方案可以提供对现网路由的测试,也可根据现网路由扩展大量的随机路由,从而在最大强度、最接近真实网络的情况下,挑战被测设备的路由处理能力,同时提供硬件级的收敛测试方案。这相比于传统软件后分析的收敛测试,测试精度得到了大幅提高。

  17. HOZOP在400万t/a煤炭间接液化中的应用研究%Application Research of HOZOP Software Method to the Air Separation Unit in 4 Million t/a Coal Indirect Liquefaction Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马磊; 杨阳

    2014-01-01

    神华宁煤400万t/a煤炭间接液化项目上游10万空分装置初步设计HAZOP分析的目的是,针对杭州杭氧股份有限公司的设计,通过人工HAZOP分析(危险与可操作性分析)的方式,识别初设中存在的不足及风险隐患,帮助设计承包方及时改进和优化设计,以提升整个工艺系统的安全性,为设计承包方的详细设计及后期业主方的生产运营,提供坚实的保障。%According to the related standard requirements of the state and group company, this project should be carried out the HAZOP analysis for the further improvement of the project security level, to identi⁃fy the security issues exist in the design and to ensure the success of the 4 million t/a coal indirect liquefac⁃tion project (hereinafter referred to as the“project”) of Shenhua Ningxia Coal Industry Group, and lay the foundation to realize“secure with optimal”device. The purpose of the ten thousand upstream air separation unit preliminary design of HAZOP analysis of the 4 million t/a coal indirect liquefaction project of Shenhua Ningxia Coal Industry Group is direct at the preliminary design of Hangzhou Hangyang Co., Ltd.. To identify the shortage and potential risks exist in the preliminary design and help design contractors to improve and optimize their design through artificial HAZOP analysis (analysis of risk and operability) method. In order to enhance the security of the entire process system, and it provides solid guarantee for the design contractors detailed design and for the owners later period production and operation.

  18. Correlated variations and periodicity of global CO{sub 2}, biological mass extinctions and extra-terrestrial bolide impacts over the past 250 million years and possible geodynamical implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwari, R.k.; Rao, K.N.N. [National Geophysical Research Institute, Hyderabad (India). Theoretical Geophysics Group

    1998-12-31

    Earth`s history has been witness to recurrently alternating phases of catastrophic evolution and dominant tectonic deformations, contractions and extension of rifting and spreading leading to quasi-cyclic changes in sedimentary environment and various earth processes. Recent studies have shown quasi-periodicities of 32{+-}2 Million years (Myr) in various endogenic (geomagnetic reversals, magmatic events, mantle convection, various tectonic activities, climate change and biological extinctions) and exogenic (impact catering) processes indicating a remarkable kinship. A time series analysis is presented of the available CO{sub 2} record over the past 250 Myr decoded from global CaCO{sub 3} accumulation rates in sedimentary environment. The time series analysis reveals an intriguing evidence of a dominant periodicity of 33{+-}2 Myr which matches closely with a `common catastrophic periodicity` of 32 Myr identified in various terrestrial and extra-terrestrial records. The authors argue for a common physical link among the periodic global CO{sub 2} variations, mantle convection, geomagnetic reversals, volcanism, geotectonic cycles and enhanced cometary showers. Periodic variations in CO{sub 2} are suggested as one of the possible terrestrial stimulators for the oscillating `greenhouse effect` and related climatic deterioration that result in quasi-periodic mass extinctions. Identifical catastrophic cycles of endogenic and exogenic origin enhance the credence of their physical linkages and uphold the concept of non-uniformitarianism in earth`s processes. 55 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Correlated variations and periodicity of global CO[sub 2], biological mass extinctions and extra-terrestrial bolide impacts over the past 250 million years and possible geodynamical implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwari, R.k.; Rao, K.N.N. (National Geophysical Research Institute, Hyderabad (India). Theoretical Geophysics Group)

    1998-01-01

    Earth's history has been witness to recurrently alternating phases of catastrophic evolution and dominant tectonic deformations, contractions and extension of rifting and spreading leading to quasi-cyclic changes in sedimentary environment and various earth processes. Recent studies have shown quasi-periodicities of 32[+-]2 Million years (Myr) in various endogenic (geomagnetic reversals, magmatic events, mantle convection, various tectonic activities, climate change and biological extinctions) and exogenic (impact catering) processes indicating a remarkable kinship. A time series analysis is presented of the available CO[sub 2] record over the past 250 Myr decoded from global CaCO[sub 3] accumulation rates in sedimentary environment. The time series analysis reveals an intriguing evidence of a dominant periodicity of 33[+-]2 Myr which matches closely with a 'common catastrophic periodicity' of 32 Myr identified in various terrestrial and extra-terrestrial records. The authors argue for a common physical link among the periodic global CO[sub 2] variations, mantle convection, geomagnetic reversals, volcanism, geotectonic cycles and enhanced cometary showers. Periodic variations in CO[sub 2] are suggested as one of the possible terrestrial stimulators for the oscillating 'greenhouse effect' and related climatic deterioration that result in quasi-periodic mass extinctions. Identifical catastrophic cycles of endogenic and exogenic origin enhance the credence of their physical linkages and uphold the concept of non-uniformitarianism in earth's processes. 55 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Mineralogical composition and geographical distribution of African and Brazilian periatlantic laterites. The influence of continental drift and tropical paleoclimates during the past 150 million years and implications for India and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardy, Y.; Kobilsek, B.; Paquet, H.

    Following the break-up of Pangea at the end of the Jurassic time, the African and South American continents and then India and Australia drifted into the fringes of the equatorial or tropical climatic zone with the humidity varying according to the epochs. India, Brazil and the southern part of East Africa which were previously more arid and probably hotter during the Jurassic, became progressively more humid and cooler. By contrast, West Africa, Central Africa and Australia, formerly subject to very humid climates became subject to warmer and drier climatic conditions. In the first case, the ferricretes were rarely preserved intact but bauxites, generally massive and non pisolitic and essentially formed of gibbsite (Al(OH) 3) are abundant. In the second case, hematite (Fe 2O 3) occurring as nodular ferricretes are extensively developed together with gibbsite-bearing pisolitic bauxites and boehmite (AlOOH). Gibbsite and goethite are hydrated minerals related to humid and rather cool climates, whereas hematite and boehmite are dehydrated minerals related to less humid and warmer climatic conditions. Thus temperature, relative humidity of the atmosphere and the activity of water are the major climatic and thermodynamic parameters controlling the mechanisms of formation, the processes of evolution and the geographical distribution of bauxites and ferricretes. Furthermore, the geographical distribution and the mineralogical composition of ferricretes and bauxites are considered to be controlled not only by the different present-day climates but also and perhaps above all by the succession of paleoclimates during the past 150 million years.