WorldWideScience

Sample records for million euro telecom

  1. AREVA net income: 649 million euros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-03-15

    This document presents the financial statements for 2006 of Areva group: net income: 649 million euros; backlog up by 24.6% to 25.6 billion euros; steady growth of sales revenue: + 7.3%1 to 10.863 billion euros; operating income of 407 million euros: excellent divisional performance and constitution of a significant provision for the OL3 project in Finland; dividend proposed to Annual General Meeting of Shareholders: 8.46 euros per share.

  2. 200 million Euros:Worthy or Not?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    "Pierre Cardin to Sell Licenses to Chinese Companies with 200 million Euros",frankly speaking,at the first time I knew the news,several questions ran into my mind:"200 million Euros,is it too much for such a not-first-class international fashion brand?","200 millions Euros,with such a large amount of capital,domestic enterprises could gain more investment to develop their own brand?",or"Pierre Cardin…".Although later one of the spokesman of Pierre Cardin Group explained:"This is not about the sale of the Pierre Cardin group,but the sale of certain licenses in China",this hot deal still arouse fierce comments from not only the domestic industrial insiders,but also the publics.

  3. L'Europe prête 300 millions d'euros au CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The BEI (Banque Européenne d'Investissement) will lent to CERN 300 millions of Euros, not only to build the new accelerator, but also to help to set up and european programm of research (1 paragraph)

  4. Poweo - 2007 revenue of 363 million euro, up 48%; Poweo - Chiffre d'affaires 2007 de 363 millions euro, en hausse de 48%

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-02-15

    Poweo, the leading independent energy operator in France, presents its key activity indicators for the 4. quarter 2007 and the overall 2007 year (non-audited data): electricity and gas sales, energy and service supplies, revenue, margin and income. The main results are summarized thereafter: 129.8 million euro revenue for the 4. quarter (67.1% of positive growth with respect to 2006); 363.1 million euro revenue for 2007 (48.5% increase with respect to 2006); 91431 active client sites on December 31, 2007 (80300 on December 31, 2006); 13000 new residential client sites registered since the beginning of 2008; more than 3800 MW of fossil fuel power plant projects and 1200 MW of renewable power plant projects (500 MW in offshore wind power) with 30 to 100% estimated rates of success; a 41 MW wind power capacity already in operation. (J.S.)

  5. European Union gives 9.8 million Euros for GRID development

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Press Office. Geneva

    2001-01-01

    A 9.8 million euro funding over three years in support of the DataGrid project was authorized by the EC Information Society Programme (within the Fifth Framework Research Programme for technology development) at the end of December 2000 and a contract has been awarded to CERN as leader of the project.

  6. Poweo 2006 consolidated revenue at euro 244 million, up 121%; Poweo chiffre d'affaires 2006 de 244 millions euro, en hausse de 121%

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-01-15

    POWEO, the leading independent energy operator in France, presents in this document its key business indicators for the 4. quarter of 2006 and the full year: POWEO records again a strong rise of its annual revenue, exceeding its euro 220 million target. This progression relates to all the business components. The particularly soft climatic conditions recorded in France at the end of the year did not result in a significant fall of revenue compared to initial forecasts. The number of customer sites amounts to 80.300 at December 31, 2006, in progression of 23% compared to the end of 2005. The customer base remained overall stable during the second half of 2006, POWEO limiting voluntarily the acquisition of customers in electricity during the preparation of the opening to competition of the residential market due to take place on July 1, 2007. The gas customer base for its part more than doubled compared to end June 2006, with more than 5.000 customer sites transferred as at December 31, 2006. The Energy Management net margin, realised or un-realised, amounted to euro 49.7 million in 2006, recognised as revenue under IFRS standards. This includes the euro 22 million exceptional capital gain mentioned in previous financial releases in 2006, as well as a euro 7.9 million un-realised capital gain resulting from the transfer of some contracts into the Energy Management portfolio further to the capacity swap agreement with EDF announced publicly on January 3, 2007. The services provided by POWEO to its customers enjoy a high level of acceptance and represented revenue of euro 2.9 million in 2006. As from 2007, the revenue realised through these services will be presented separately from other components of revenue in order to better reflect its expected growth. The services offering will be indeed a key element of the marketing strategy of POWEO in the years to come, with a potentially significant impact on the results taking into account their level of gross margin which

  7. First quarter 2006: sales up by 13.3% to euros 2,476 million; 1. trimestre 2006: chiffre d'affaires de 2476 millions d'euros, en hausse de 13,3%

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-04-15

    The AREVA group's first quarter 2006 sales was euros 2,476 million, compared with euros 2,186 million for the same period in 2005, representing 13.3% growth in terms of reported data. Organic growth was 13.0%. Nuclear operations posted sales of euros 1,660 million, up 11.5% (up 11.6% like-for-like), and buoyant business volume marked by: net growth for the Front End Division (+20.4%), with 60% coming from volume-product mix effects and 40% from favorable price effects, especially for uranium supply and enrichment services; the contribution from the OL3 (Finland), Ling Ao-Phase II (China) and Flamanville 3 EPR (France) reactor projects, which boosted the Reactors and Services Division's sales by 13.2%; a slight decrease in the Back End Division (-2.5%). The Transmission and Distribution Division posted sales of euros 817 million, representing strong organic growth (up 16.6%), consistent with the increase in orders recorded in 2005. Orders booked in the first quarter of 2006 were up by 15.4% like-for-like (up 25.4% in reported data) compared with the first quarter of 2005. For 2006, the Group expects net growth in sales, like-for-like, although not at the particularly high levels of the first quarter.

  8. First half 2006: sales revenue up by 5.7% to euros 5,036 million; 1. semestre 2006: chiffre d'affaires en hausse de 5,7% a 5,036 million d'euros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The AREVA group reports first half 2006 sales revenue of 5,036 million euros, up from 4,764 million euros for the same period in 2005, representing 5.7% growth in terms of reported data. Organic growth was 5.1%. In the second quarter 2006 the group had revenue of 2,560 million euros, down 0.7% from second quarter 2005 sales (-1.6% like-for-like). Nuclear operations reported first half 2006 revenue of 3,334 million euros, up 1.6% from the first half of 2005 (+1.3% like-for-like), marked by: net growth of 12.9% for the Front End Division, mainly attributable to uranium deliveries and enrichment services; the contribution from reactor projects in Finland (OL3), China (Ling Ao-Phase II) and France (Flamanville 3 EPR), which boosted sales for the Reactors and Services Division by 2.7%, despite the downturn in sales of reactor services; a 14.4% drop in the Back End Division, primarily in the used fuel treatment business. The Transmission and Distribution Division recorded sales revenue of 1,701 million euros, representing strong organic growth of 13.8%, consistent with the increase in orders booked in the second half of 2005. Orders for the first half of 2006 were up by 17.5% like-for-like compared with those of the first half of 2005. The group is targeting a net increase in revenue for 2006, like-for-like.

  9. Europe CERN recherche - Pret de 300 millions d'euros de la BEI pour l'accelerateur de particules

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    "La Banque europeenne d'investissement (BEI) va preter 300 millions d'euros pour financer la phase finale de la construction du grand accelerateur de particules LHC (Large Hadron Collider) du CERN, a indique jeudi l'organisation europeenne pour la recherche nucleaire" (1/2 page).

  10. Areva - First quarter 2009 revenue climbs 8.5% to 3.003 billion euros; Areva - Progression du chiffre d'affaires du 1. trimestre 2009: + 8,5% a 3003 millions d'euros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-04-15

    First quarter 2009 revenue was up 8.5% compared with the same period last year, to 3.003 billion euros. At constant exchange rates and consolidation scope, growth came to 3.9%. Currency translation had a positive impact of 57 million euros over the quarter. Changes in the consolidation scope had an impact of 66 million euros, primarily due to the consolidation of acquisitions made in 2008 in Transmission and Distribution and in Renewable Energies. The growth engines for first quarter revenue were the Reactors and Services division and the Transmission and Distribution division, with growth of 9.2% and 16.1% respectively. Outside France, revenue rose to 2.032 billion euros, compared with 1.857 billion euros in the first quarter of 2008, and represents 68% of total revenue. Orders were steady in the first quarter, particularly in the Front End, which posted several significant contracts with US and Asian utilities, and in Transmission and Distribution, with orders up sharply in Asia and South America. As of March 31, 2009, the group's backlog reached 49.5 billion euros, for 28.3% growth year-on-year, including 31.3% growth in Nuclear and 10.2% in Transmission and Distribution. For the year as a whole, the group confirms its outlook for backlog and revenue growth as well as rising operating income It should be noted that revenue may vary significantly from one quarter to the next in nuclear operations. Accordingly, quarterly data cannot be viewed as a reliable indicator of annual trends.

  11. Poweo positive net income of 7.4 million euro in 2006. First time in the black since the company's creation; Poweo benefice net de 7,4 millions euro en 2006. 1. exercice beneficiaire depuis la creation de Poweo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-03-15

    POWEO, leading independent operator of electricity and gas, presents in this document the principal elements of its consolidated results and its highlights for 2006: - Sales turnover reaches 244.4 M euro, multiplied by 2.2 compared to 2005; - Operational result amounts to 9.3 M euro, against a loss of 8.4 M euro in 2005; - Consolidated net income group share reaches 7.4 M euro, against a loss of 4.9 M euro in 2005. The 2006 consolidated revenue amounted to 244.4 million euro against 243.7 million euro announced on January 31, taking into account a revaluation of 0.7 million euro of the Energy Management's performance. The number of transferred customer sites amounted to 80,300 as at December 31, 2006, in progression of 23% compared to the end of 2005. Gross margin reached 33.6 euro million, in strong progression compared to 2005, reflecting the effectiveness of the Energy Management activity which has allowed to very appreciably reduce the cost price for POWEO of the energy delivered to its customers, within the framework of its global sourcing strategy. Operating costs increased in line with the development plan, under the effect in particular of the strengthening of operational teams, the Group head-count having reached 90 people as at December 31, 2006. EBITDA reached 8.1 million euro in 2006, against a negative amount of 5.3 million euro in 2005, allowing POWEO to meet its objective of a positive EBITDA as announced in September 2006. The EBIT amounted to 9.3 million euro, taking into account a profit of dilution of 7.6 million euro related to the issuance premium recognized on POWEO Production by Verbund, the Austrian national electricity operator and reference shareholder of POWEO, within the framework of the partnership announced in January 2006. With a consolidated net income group share of 7.4 million euro, 2006 thus constitutes the first fiscal year in the black since the Company's creation in 2002. The consolidated net equity amounted to 103

  12. Poweo positive net income of 7.4 million euro in 2006. First time in the black since the company's creation; Poweo benefice net de 7,4 millions euro en 2006. 1. exercice beneficiaire depuis la creation de Poweo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-03-15

    POWEO, leading independent operator of electricity and gas, presents in this document the principal elements of its consolidated results and its highlights for 2006: - Sales turnover reaches 244.4 M euro, multiplied by 2.2 compared to 2005; - Operational result amounts to 9.3 M euro, against a loss of 8.4 M euro in 2005; - Consolidated net income group share reaches 7.4 M euro, against a loss of 4.9 M euro in 2005. The 2006 consolidated revenue amounted to 244.4 million euro against 243.7 million euro announced on January 31, taking into account a revaluation of 0.7 million euro of the Energy Management's performance. The number of transferred customer sites amounted to 80,300 as at December 31, 2006, in progression of 23% compared to the end of 2005. Gross margin reached 33.6 euro million, in strong progression compared to 2005, reflecting the effectiveness of the Energy Management activity which has allowed to very appreciably reduce the cost price for POWEO of the energy delivered to its customers, within the framework of its global sourcing strategy. Operating costs increased in line with the development plan, under the effect in particular of the strengthening of operational teams, the Group head-count having reached 90 people as at December 31, 2006. EBITDA reached 8.1 million euro in 2006, against a negative amount of 5.3 million euro in 2005, allowing POWEO to meet its objective of a positive EBITDA as announced in September 2006. The EBIT amounted to 9.3 million euro, taking into account a profit of dilution of 7.6 million euro related to the issuance premium recognized on POWEO Production by Verbund, the Austrian national electricity operator and reference shareholder of POWEO, within the framework of the partnership announced in January 2006. With a consolidated net income group share of 7.4 million euro, 2006 thus constitutes the first fiscal year in the black since the Company's creation in 2002. The consolidated net equity amounted to 103

  13. Telecom Titan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU YUE

    2010-01-01

    @@ While the global telecommunications industry continues to reel from the worldwide recession,Huawei Technologies Co.Ltd.,China's top telecom equipment manufacturer,is staging a swift and defiant surge.

  14. Poweo 1. quarter 2007 revenue up 7% at 85 million euro. Energy supply to end-customers up 137%; Poweo chiffre d'affaires de 85 millions euro au 1. trimestre 2007, en hausse de 7%. Fourniture d'energie aux clients finaux en hausse de 137%

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-05-15

    POWEO, the leading independent electricity and gas operator in France, presents in this document its key business indicators for the first quarter of 2007. For the first time since its creation, POWEO achieved a quarterly sales turnover in excess of 100 million euro excluding the Energy Management activity. The implementation of commercial resources dedicated to the acquisition of large accounts in industry and services indeed enabled the Group to develop significantly the sales on this segment, in particular to a French large industrial group. POWEO intends to materialize in the coming months some opportunities with large accounts thanks to the implementation of the transitory regulated adjustment to market tariff (TARTAM), as decided by the government last fall 2006 and recently further defined. The professional customers segment started gradually to grow again. Before the launch of the residential offering, the acquisition of new professional customers during the past quarter compensated for usual erosion. The number of active sites customers amounts to 80.500 as at March 31, 2007, overall stable compared to the end of 2006. The electricity customer base represents 75.000 active sites as at March 31, 2007, the gas customer base further grew to reach 5.500 active sites at March 31, 2007. In addition, the commercial partners network has been streamlined in order to preserve only a reduced number of them, in view of the forthcoming launch of a new web site which will enable to market directly to the professional and residential customers POWEO's offering in energy and services. Within the framework of the capacity swap with EDF announced on January 3, 2007, part of the forward procurement contracts and call options initially dedicated to supply the end-customers had been re-classified in the Energy Management portfolio as of December 31, 2006. According to IFRS standards, this portfolio must be valued at market prices. The energy sector faced during the first

  15. Poweo 1. quarter 2007 revenue up 7% at 85 million euro. Energy supply to end-customers up 137%; Poweo chiffre d'affaires de 85 millions euro au 1. trimestre 2007, en hausse de 7%. Fourniture d'energie aux clients finaux en hausse de 137%

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-05-15

    POWEO, the leading independent electricity and gas operator in France, presents in this document its key business indicators for the first quarter of 2007. For the first time since its creation, POWEO achieved a quarterly sales turnover in excess of 100 million euro excluding the Energy Management activity. The implementation of commercial resources dedicated to the acquisition of large accounts in industry and services indeed enabled the Group to develop significantly the sales on this segment, in particular to a French large industrial group. POWEO intends to materialize in the coming months some opportunities with large accounts thanks to the implementation of the transitory regulated adjustment to market tariff (TARTAM), as decided by the government last fall 2006 and recently further defined. The professional customers segment started gradually to grow again. Before the launch of the residential offering, the acquisition of new professional customers during the past quarter compensated for usual erosion. The number of active sites customers amounts to 80.500 as at March 31, 2007, overall stable compared to the end of 2006. The electricity customer base represents 75.000 active sites as at March 31, 2007, the gas customer base further grew to reach 5.500 active sites at March 31, 2007. In addition, the commercial partners network has been streamlined in order to preserve only a reduced number of them, in view of the forthcoming launch of a new web site which will enable to market directly to the professional and residential customers POWEO's offering in energy and services. Within the framework of the capacity swap with EDF announced on January 3, 2007, part of the forward procurement contracts and call options initially dedicated to supply the end-customers had been re-classified in the Energy Management portfolio as of December 31, 2006. According to IFRS standards, this portfolio must be valued at market prices. The energy sector faced during the first

  16. Telecom Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    and information infrastructure issues - for people in government, academia, industry and the consulting community. This book addresses the process of policy and regulatory reform in telecom that is now in its formative stage. It draws on detailed knowledge of industry development and regulatory experience...

  17. TELECOM LAB

    CERN Multimedia

    IT-CS-TEL Section

    2001-01-01

    The Telecom Lab is moving from Building 104 to Building 31 S-026, with its entrance via the ramp on the side facing Restaurant n°2. The help desk will thus be closed to users on Tuesday 8 May. On May 9, the Lab will only be able to deal with problems of a technical nature at the new address and it will not be able to process any new subscription requests throughout the week from 7 to 11 May. We apologise for any inconvenience this may cause and thank you for your understanding.

  18. Telecoms Mobile TV's Curtain Call

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAVID HENDRICKSON

    2006-01-01

    @@ This year's World Cup was more than a showcase of the globe's top football stars. It also represented a coming out party of sorts for mobile television. According to Informa Telecoms & Media, the 2006 World Cup was expected to garner upwards of US$300 million for the emerging mobile TV business, with millions of fanatics worldwide following the action by video streaming and packaged match highlights delivered to the palm of their hand.

  19. Telecom Market after Restructuring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu Jingjiang

    2008-01-01

    @@ What happened? A telecom-restructuring plan was announced on May 24,2008,encouraging the fixed-line operator China Telecom to buy China Unicom's code-division multiple access (CDMA) network (both assets and subscribers).

  20. TELECOM 1 multiservices network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombard, D.; Ramat, P.; Rancy, F.

    The main objectives of the TELECOM 1 French domestic satellite project are to set up a business communication network which is to carry a wide range of digital services including data, voice, and pictures between a number of small earth stations located on the subscribers' premises. The parallel development of terrestrial specialized services networks has enabled the fitting of the TELECOM 1 network with high interworking capabilities with these networks. It has also allowed TELECOM 1 to be designed as the basis of the Future Integrated Services Digital Network. The TELECOM 1 network consists of the terrestrial network, the satellite network, and the maintenance network. Various elements which include the terrestrial network; the satellite network, and its modulation, TDMA frame and terminals; the System Management Center; the signalling system; and the demand assignment operation which are involved in the operation of the multiservices network are presented. The TELECOM 1 network evolution until 1990 through the rapid development of the ISDN is discussed.

  1. 200 million Euros: Worthy or Hot?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ting

    2009-01-01

    @@ As the worldwide financial crisis keeps on spreading around,some global well known brands could not afford the cost pressure,and beaan to look for economic and political support.Although in such a tough period,it is a little difficult to make a decision to buy a less beneficial enterprise,some competitive companies still look for their targets,with a favorable price at the right time.

  2. UtilityTelecom_TELEFAC

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The UtilityTelecom_TELEFAC data layer contains points which are intended to represent the location of telecommunications facilities (towers and/or antennas) in...

  3. Telecoms in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders

    The focus of this paper is on the development of the Danish telecom network and service provision market since liberalization and the role of policy and regulation in shaping this development. More specifically, the emphasis is on investment. However, in order to present a sufficiently...... comprehensive picture, developments in financial performance, technology diffusion, price developments, and innovation are also included. Furthermore, the competitive situation on the Danish telecom market is examined, as the competitive environment affects the investment incentives of market players. The aim...

  4. About Network Telecom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    NETWORK TELECOM magazine is the network & telecommunications industry's leading publication in China, specializing in the field of optic fiber communications, access network, mobile communications, CATV network,cabling system and data communications; and has established its reputation by a combination of authoritative editorial content, targeting a circulation of high quality covering the entire China region.

  5. About Network Telecom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    NETWORK TELECOM magazine is the network & telecommunications industry's leading publication in China. specializing in the field of optic fiber communications, access network, mobile communications. CATV network,cabling system and data communications;and has established its reputation by a combination of authoritative editorial content, targeting a circulation of high quality covering the entire China region.

  6. About Network telecom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    NETWORK TELECOM magazine, commenced publication in 1999, is the network & telecommunicationsindust0?s leading publication in China. specializing in the field of optic fiber communications, access network,mobile communications, CATV network,cabling system and data communications; and has established itsrepuion by a combination of authoritative editorial content, targeting a ckcuatlon of high o.uality covering theentire China regiom

  7. Valuing Euro rating-triggered step-up telecom bonds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Houweling (Patrick); A.A. Mentink; A.C.F. Vorst (Ton)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractWe value rating-triggered step-up bonds with three methods: (i) the Jarrow, Lando and Turnbull (1997, JLT) framework, (ii) a similar framework using historical probabilities and (iii) as plain vanilla bonds. We find that the market seems to value single step-up bonds according to the JLT

  8. Valuing Euro Rating-Triggered Step-Up Telecom Bonds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Houweling (Patrick); A.A. Mentink; A.C.F. Vorst (Ton)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractWe value rating-triggered step-up bonds with three methods: (i) the Jarrow, Lando and Turnbull (1997, JLT) framework, (ii) a similar framework using historical probabilities and (iii) as plain vanilla bonds. We find that the market seems to value single step-up bonds according to the JLT

  9. Valuing Euro rating-triggered step-up telecom bonds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Houweling (Patrick); A.A. Mentink; A.C.F. Vorst (Ton)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractWe value rating-triggered step-up bonds with three methods: (i) the Jarrow, Lando and Turnbull (1997, JLT) framework, (ii) a similar framework using historical probabilities and (iii) as plain vanilla bonds. We find that the market seems to value single step-up bonds according to the JLT

  10. Valuing Euro Rating-Triggered Step-Up Telecom Bonds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Houweling (Patrick); A.A. Mentink; A.C.F. Vorst (Ton)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractWe value rating-triggered step-up bonds with three methods: (i) the Jarrow, Lando and Turnbull (1997, JLT) framework, (ii) a similar framework using historical probabilities and (iii) as plain vanilla bonds. We find that the market seems to value single step-up bonds according to the JLT

  11. The Danish Euro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn Sørensen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I analyse the political debate leading up to the Danish euro referendum in 2000. I show how the euro-positive government unintentionally reinforced the arguments of the euro-sceptics by framing the euro as something belonging to the nation-state. I argue that this paradoxical...

  12. Restructuring diversified telecom operators

    OpenAIRE

    Ulset, Svein

    2002-01-01

    The paper examines the divestiture trend among diversified major telecom operators using a combined agency and transaction cost economics approach. Our illustrative cases seem to support both the governance failure thesis of agency theory and the efficient governance theses of corporate finance and transaction cost economics. That is, manager-controlled companies tend to grow oversized and overdiversified before being transformed into more efficient scale and scope by actively intervening own...

  13. Debatable Premises in Telecom Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurwitz, Justin (Gus); Layton, Roslyn

    2015-01-01

    Around the world, telecommunications policy is one of the most important areas of public policy. The modern economy is driven by telecom technologies, and many telecom-related firms – Google, Apple, Facebook, and myriad fixed and mobile Internet service providers – are among the largest companies...

  14. Debatable Premises in Telecom Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    HURWITZ, Justin; Layton, Roslyn

    2014-01-01

    Around the world, telecommunications policy is one of the most important areas of public policy. The modern economy is driven by telecom technologies, and many telecom-related firms – Google, Apple, Facebook, and myriad fixed and mobile Internet service providers – are among the largest companies...

  15. Telecoms in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders

    comprehensive picture, developments in financial performance, technology diffusion, price developments, and innovation are also included. Furthermore, the competitive situation on the Danish telecom market is examined, as the competitive environment affects the investment incentives of market players. The aim...... of this paper is to analyze the relationship between market developments and performance and the policy and regulatory initiatives taken and to discuss the general lessons with respect to initiatives fostering or limiting investment, innovation, and performance in general. (Released Feb. 2004. WDR0302a updates...

  16. The Euro's Uncertain Future

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ The euro recently dipped as risks with European Union members proliferated,giving rise to warnings against a euro crisis in the near future.But is the euro doomed to fail? And what are the shortterm prospects for the global economy?

  17. IP and Competitiveness of Chinese Telecom Firms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Jian-qiu

    2004-01-01

    Based on the influence, this paper discusses the perspectives of IP technology. It illustrates that IP is changing the service structure of China Telecom and IP is striking traditional telecom networks and changing the competitive structure of telecom markets. IP is one of core technologies in future telecom networks and there is an opportunity for Chinese telecom firms to quicken their network innovation and improve the competitiveness for their sustainable development.

  18. Designing Next Generation Telecom Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Samarajiva, Rohan

    – ICT convergence regulation and multisector utility regulation. Whatever structure of next generation telecom regulation is adopted, all countries will need to pay much greater attention to the need for increased coordination of policy directions and regulatory activities both across the industries......Continuously expanding applications of information and communication technologies (ICT) are transforming local, national, regional and international economies into network economies, the foundation for information societies. They are being built upon expanded and upgraded national telecom networks...... to creating an environment to foster a massive expansion in the coverage and capabilities of the information infrastructure networks, with national telecom regulators as the key implementers of the policies of reform. The first phase of reform has focused on industry specific telecom policy and regulation...

  19. Designing Next Generation Telecom Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Samarajiva, Rohan

    Continuously expanding applications of information and communication technologies (ICT) are transforming local, national, regional and international economies into network economies, the foundation for information societies. They are being built upon expanded and upgraded national telecom networks......, the new information infrastructures. The point of entry to participation in these new economies and societies is through local communication networks, which determine the access possibilities and boundaries of opportunity for individuals, organisations and countries. The telecom reform process is directed...... to creating an environment to foster a massive expansion in the coverage and capabilities of the information infrastructure networks, with national telecom regulators as the key implementers of the policies of reform. The first phase of reform has focused on industry specific telecom policy and regulation...

  20. Telecom Restructuring Shows Few Winners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BRADLEY GARDNER

    2008-01-01

    @@ The long-awaited restructuring of the Chinese telecom industry was announced on lune 2,and while China Unicorn (中国联通) got the best deal of the major players,analysts agreed that neither Unicorn nor China Telecom (中国电信) got enough out of the restructuring to challenge the dominant position of market leader China Mobile (中国移动).

  1. Euro on ohus ja euro ei ole ohus / Kaivo Kopli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopli, Kaivo

    2010-01-01

    Saksamaa kantsler Angela Merkel teatas, et euro on ohus. Prantsuse majandusminister Christine Lagarde avaldas arvamust, et euro pole ohus, et euro on kindel ja usaldusväärne valuuta. Kreekas toimunud üldstreik halvas majanduse

  2. Euro on ohus ja euro ei ole ohus / Kaivo Kopli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopli, Kaivo

    2010-01-01

    Saksamaa kantsler Angela Merkel teatas, et euro on ohus. Prantsuse majandusminister Christine Lagarde avaldas arvamust, et euro pole ohus, et euro on kindel ja usaldusväärne valuuta. Kreekas toimunud üldstreik halvas majanduse

  3. Internet TV Telecom Giants Expect on IPTV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ISABELDING

    2005-01-01

    At the China Cable and Satellite Broadcasting (CCBN) 2005 exhibition, held in Beijing at'the end of March, two of China's biggest telecom operators - China Telecom and China Netcom - were attracting a great deal of attention.

  4. The Telecom Lab is moving

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2009-01-01

    As of 2nd March 2009, the Telecom Lab will move to Building 58 R-017. The Telecom Lab is the central point for all support questions regarding CERN mobile phone services (provision of SIM cards, requests for modifications of subscriptions, diagnostics for mobile phone problems, etc.). The opening hours as well as the contact details for the Telecom Lab remain unchanged: New location: Building 58 R-017 Opening hours: Every week day, from 11 a.m. to 12 a.m. Phone number: 72480 Email address: labo.telecom@cern.ch This change has no impact on support requests for mobile services. Users can still submit their requests concerning mobile phone subscriptions using the usual EDH form (https://edh.cern.ch/Document/GSM). The automatic message sent to inform users of their SIM card availability will be updated to indicate the new Telecom Lab location. You can find all information related to CERN mobile phone services at the following link: http://cern.ch/gsm CS Section - IT/CS group

  5. The demand for euros

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, I.J.M.; Roelands, S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the demand for euros using panel data for 10 euro area countries covering the period from 1999 to 2008. Monetary aggregates are constructed to ensure that money is a national concept by excluding deposits owned by non-residents and including external deposits owned by

  6. Critical pollutant emissions from the Indian telecom network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, S. K.; Schultz, M. G.; Beig, G.

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, India developed the world's 2nd largest telecom network based largely on mobile phone connections. The energy demand of the telecom sector especially in rural areas is mainly fueled by diesel combustion in mid-size generators due to either lack of grid power or unstable provision of electricity. This study quantifies the magnitude of emissions from the Indian telecom sector and presents a gridded inventory for the year 2011 with a spatial distribution derived on the provincial level including information on urban versus rural telecom installations. The estimated total NOx, PM, CO, BC, SO2, HC and CO2 emissions are found to be 295 ± 196 Gg/yr, 155 ± 108 Gg/yr, 61 ± 41 Gg/yr, 28 ± 18 Gg/yr, 114 ± 12 Gg/yr 19.50 ± 13 Gg/yr and 27.9 ± 12 million tons/yr, respectively. The future development of emissions from this sector will depend on the rate of electrification and possible market saturation. Air quality in rural areas of India could be improved by replacing diesel generators with renewable energy sources or electricity from the grid.

  7. Debatable Premises in Telecom Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    HURWITZ, Justin; Layton, Roslyn

    2014-01-01

    Around the world, telecommunications policy is one of the most important areas of public policy. The modern economy is driven by telecom technologies, and many telecom-related firms – Google, Apple, Facebook, and myriad fixed and mobile Internet service providers – are among the largest companies...... in the world. The Internet is opening up new platforms for business, education, government, and civic engagement. It has literally been a driving force in toppling governments. Telecommunications policy is important to every government in the world, and debates over what policies should be implemented...

  8. THE EURO AT CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Your UBS branch at CERN

    2001-01-01

    As part of the changeover to the euro, the UBS is pleased to announce the following information: From 28 December 2001, the cash dispensing machines will no longer issue French francs (FRF). At the beginning of January, all machines in the network will be modified to issue 50-euro notes. The wall machines in Buildings 500 and 504 will also issue 100-euro notes. Until 28 February 2002, it will be possible to sell notes in IN currencies (currencies of member countries of the economic and monetary union) in exchange for CHF over bank counters. In Switzerland, IN currencies are not directly convertible into euros. The conversion of cash from an IN currency to cash in euros is equivalent to a purchase and sale operation via Swiss francs. The UBS does not purchase or sell coins in euros (including IN currencies). Until 28 February 2002, it will be possible at all branches to deposit old coinage in IN currencies in Unicef 'Change for Good' envelopes. Until the second half of 2002, euro-denominated accounts will be a...

  9. L’euro, una moneta completa (The Euro Becomes a Complete Money

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Vaciago

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The euro changeover has been a success as millions of Europeans have become accustomed to using the new coins and banknotes. What comes next? So far the benefits of the euro are a product of the "vices" which have been taken away from us. In the case of Italy, the gains have been very low inflation and interest rates. Much more has still to come. First, the euro-zone has to become an optimum currency area: all national markets are required to integrate into one larger and more efficient market. This will lead to faster growth in line with Adam Smith's theory. Second, we still need to transfer foreign policy and defense, along with the euro, to a European level thereby completing the Union.   

  10. The future of telecom regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Falch, Morten

    The paper analyses the developments of the Danish IT and telecom regulatory authority in light of the increasing promotion of broadband and the increasingly important enabling role of ICTs. An important focus is on the independence of the regulatory institution in relation to the policy functions...

  11. Asia: The Global Telecom Dynamo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Stephen; Weiss, Edward; Sujarto, P. J.; Nakorn, Pria; Kim, B. A.; Chan, Lily; Bromby, Robin

    1997-01-01

    In a 1995 study, Moody's Investors Research found that companies and governments in the Pacific Rim would require $363 billion for essential telecom infrastructure by the end of the decade. Examines the state of communications in Hong Kong, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand, Australia, and New Zealand.…

  12. Dedicated orthogeriatric service saves the HSE a million euro

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shanahan, E

    2016-03-01

    Hip fracture is common in older adults and is associated with high morbidity, mortality and significant health care costs. A pilot orthogeriatrics service was established in an acute hospital. We aimed to establish the cost effectiveness of this service. Length of hospital stay, discharge destination and rehabilitation requirements were analysed for a one year period and compared to patients who received usual care prior to the service. We calculated the costs incurred and savings produced by the orthogeriatric service. Median length of stay was reduced by 3 days (p=<0.001) saving €266,976. There was a 19% reduction in rehabilitation requirements saving €192,600. Median rehabilitation length of stay was reduced by 6.5 days saving €171,093. Reductions in long term care requirements led to savings of €10,934 per week. Costs to establish such a service amount to €171,564. The introduction of this service led to improved patient outcomes in a cost effective manner.

  13. Debatable Premises in Telecom Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurwitz, Justin (Gus); Layton, Roslyn

    2015-01-01

    Around the world, telecommunications policy is one of the most important areas of public policy. The modern economy is driven by telecom technologies, and many telecom-related firms – Google, Apple, Facebook, and myriad fixed and mobile Internet service providers – are among the largest companies...... in the world. The Internet is opening up new platforms for business, education, government, and civic engagement. It has literally been a driving force in toppling governments. Telecommunications policy is important to every government in the world, and debates over what policies should be implemented......‟t stand up well to critical analysis. This paper collects and responds to a number of these premises that, collectively, underlie much popular, political, and academic support for increased telecommunications regulation in the United States and Europe – as well as much of the rest of the world....

  14. British Telecom and Project Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, G. H. L.; Morrow, G.

    1983-07-01

    Factors influencing the emergence of local area network (LANs) are covered along with British Telecom's involvement in Project Universe, an experiment to produce high-speed data links between several LANs in the United Kingdom with the Orbital Test Satellite (OTS). Other functions of Project Universe include measuring the network components performance, developing procedures for using the system for computer-computer and terminal-computer operations, and investigating the use of LAN satellites for business and computer communications. British Telecom has been involved with Project Universe since its inception. A standard Videotex system has been connected to the Cambridge Ring, consequently providing Videotex terminals attached to the ring access to a special Universe Prestel system. Future goals include replacing the OTS with a new satellite with a terminal operating at 8-10 Mbit/s. Block diagrams are provided.

  15. Debatable Premises in Telecom Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurwitz, Justin (Gus); Layton, Roslyn

    2015-01-01

    Around the world, telecommunications policy is one of the most important areas of public policy. The modern economy is driven by telecom technologies, and many telecom-related firms – Google, Apple, Facebook, and myriad fixed and mobile Internet service providers – are among the largest companies...... in the world. The Internet is opening up new platforms for business, education, government, and civic engagement. It has literally been a driving force in toppling governments. Telecommunications policy is important to every government in the world, and debates over what policies should be implemented......‟t stand up well to critical analysis. This paper collects and responds to a number of these premises that, collectively, underlie much popular, political, and academic support for increased telecommunications regulation in the United States and Europe – as well as much of the rest of the world....

  16. Risk Analysis of Telecom Enterprise Financing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Hua; SHU Hua-ying

    2005-01-01

    The main research objects in this paper are the causes searching and risk estimating method for telecom enterprises' financial risks. The multi-mode financing for telecom enterprises makes it flexible to induce the capital and obtain the profit by corresponding projects. But there are also potential risks going with these financing modes. After making analysis of categories and causes of telecom enterprises' financing risk, a method by Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is put forward to estimating the financing risk. And the author makes her suggestion and opinion by example analysis, in order to provide some ideas and basis for telecom enterprise's financing decision-making.

  17. THE CERN HEALTH INSURANCE SCHEME AND THE EURO

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2002-01-01

    Since 1 January 2002, the euro is the common currency of 12 European countries and some 300 million people. Of course, such a change has some consequences on our Health Insurance Scheme. As you know, when filling in the medical expenses claim form, you are required to indicate a currency code, i.e. the currency in which you have incurred medical expenses. You may have noticed that the euro is not yet on the list of currencies which appear on the bottom left of the existing form. This will be changed very soon, once the stock of existing forms has been used up. Until then, please note that the currency code for the euro is 002 (easy to remember since the code for the Swiss franc is 001). If you forget this code, don't worry! Just indicate «euro» next to the amount of your medical bill, or simply use the euro symbol!

  18. Constructing EuroMan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandberg, Marie; Andersen, Dorte

    2008-01-01

    Regionalism. In the first two parts of the article, this connection is analysed in detail. In the last part, we will illustrate how EuroMan is enacted in the Spanish region Catalonia and in the border town Görlitz-Zgorzelec in the Polish-German borderland. These two examples have been made possible...

  19. The EURO, Prudent Coherence?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.J.M. Arnold (Ivo); C.G. de Vries (Casper)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractA flurry of recent articles has argued on the basis of constructed European wide monetary aggregates that the demand for EURO's will be more stable than the current demand for national currencies. In policy circles this seemingly moderating effect of monetary integration figures as an

  20. Dr Andrea Granelli, Vice President, Telecom Italia

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    Photo 06: Dr Andrea Granelli, Chief Executive Officer, Telecom Italia Lab (second from right) visiting the LHC superconducting magnet test hall with (from left to right) M. Cecchi , F. Gagliardi and G. Cavallari. Photo 15: Dr Andrea Granelli, Chief Executive Officer, Telecom Italia Lab (left) visiting the LHC superconducting magnet test hall with (from left to right) M. Cecchi and G. Cavallari.

  1. 3G & FMC, Future Hope for Telecom?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ In the telecom industry of China, the growth speed will show slight downhill in 2009. That is mainly caused by the mature market penetration and tough competition amongst 3 .full-service operators. After almost 6 years' swift growth,China's telecom industry growth speed is slowing down (lowerthan GDP growth from 2007) due to mature market penetration.

  2. Road to EURO

    OpenAIRE

    Florin Untaru

    2013-01-01

    The process of adopting the single European current represents an enormous challenge for all countries that joined the EU in 2004 and 2007 respectively, with major implications in terms of monetary policy, but also on the economic or social one. We intend to analyze the way in which our country now fulfills the criteria established by the Treaty of Maastricht and the advantages/disadvantages of the rapid changeover to the euro.

  3. A bright on-demand source of indistinguishable single photons at telecom wavelengths

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Je-Hyung; Richardson, Christopher J K; Leavitt, Richard P; Waks, Edo

    2015-01-01

    Long-distance quantum communication relies on the ability to efficiently generate and prepare single photons at telecom wavelengths. In many applications these photons must also be indistinguishable such that they exhibit interference on a beamsplitter, which implements effective photon-photon interactions. However, deterministic generation of indistinguishable single photons with high brightness remains a challenging problem. We demonstrate a telecom wavelength source of indistinguishable single photons using an InAs/InP quantum dot in a nanophotonic cavity. The cavity enhances the quantum dot emission, resulting in a nearly Gaussian transverse mode profile with high out-coupling efficiency exceeding 46%, leading to detected photon count rates that would exceed 1.5 million counts per second. We also observe Purcell enhanced spontaneous emission rate as large as 4. Using this source, we generate linearly polarized, high purity single photons at telecom-wavelength and demonstrate the indistinguishable nature o...

  4. Designing Next Generation Telecom Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Samarajiva, Rohan; Melody, William H.

    2003-01-01

    to the regulatory process such as scarcity of regulatory resources and safeguards for regulatory independence, are examined. It is concluded that ICT and media convergence issues are primarily about improving the efficiency of market economies, and how changes in regulation can facilitate this process. Multi......This article critically examines the multiple rationales for telecom, IT, media convergence regulation, on the one hand, and multisector utility regulation, on the other, and the practical questions of implementation they pose, with a view to contributing to informed policy and regulatory decisions....... Both options involve substantive as well as procedural issues, not necessarily separable. The conditions that may affect the creation of convergence and multi-sector regulation, ranging from underlying commonality of inputs and the behaviour of regulated firms to considerations that are specific...

  5. New Face of China's Telecom Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Ping

    2008-01-01

    @@ On October 15 2008, China Unicorn merged with China Netcom, the latter declaring withdrawal from the market. Both agreed, to rename "China Unicorn Limited" as 'China Unicorn (HongKong) Limited ', which happened just after China Mobile had announced that would become its wholly-owned subsidiary and China Telecom had proclaimed that it would take over the CDMA business from China Unicorn since October 1 2008. It means that the "six to three" reorganization has finally become a reality and marks the beginning of an era of All-Service Operation for the telecom industry. The three new telecom operators will surely undergo profound changes in corporate strategy and operation areas, it is foreseeable that the merging of China Netcom with China Unicorn will rewrite the history of the development of China's telecom industry.

  6. EuroCirCol kick-off event

    CERN Multimedia

    Hardre, Julie

    2015-01-01

    The EuroCirCol (http://cern.ch/eurocircol) kick-off event at CERN on June 2-4 brought together 62 participants to constitute governance bodies, commit to the project plan and align the organisation, structures and processes of 16 institutions from 10 countries. The goal of the project is to conceive a post-LHC research infrastructure around a 100 km circular energy-frontier hadron collider capable of reaching 100 TeV collisions. The project officially started on June 1 and will run for four years. The total estimated budget of 11.2 million Euros includes a 2.99 million Euro contribution from the Horizon 2020 programme on developing new world-class research infrastructures (http://cordis.europa.eu/project/rcn/194962_en.html).

  7. Has the euro increased trade?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bun, M.J.G.; Klaassen, F.J.G.M.

    2002-01-01

    A major economic reason for the introduction of the euro was its supposedly positive effect on intra-EMU trade. Existing studies examine this suspicion indirectly using non-EMU data and report ambiguous results. We estimate the euro-effect directly from data that include EMU observations. Using a dy

  8. Euro-Mediterranean Partnership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brach, Juliane

    2007-01-01

    The EU and 12 countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) engaged in 1995 in the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership (EMP) in political, economic and cultural matters with the aim to foster cooperation, stability and prosperity around the Mediterranean Basin. The Economic and Financial...... Partnership (EFP) plays a central role in the EMP design and implementation, which is centered on economic and trade integration as a starting point for and an anchor of socio-economic development in the MENA region. Against this background, this paper reviews the situation in the MENA partner countries...... and the past performance of the EFP. It analyses the association agreements, economic cooperation and financial assistance, discusses the major obstacles, and outlines the potential of the EFP to shape the European Neighborhood Policy....

  9. The EuroMyositis registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lilleker, James B; Vencovsky, Jiri; Wang, Guochun

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: The EuroMyositis Registry facilitates collaboration across the idiopathic inflammatory myopathy (IIM) research community. This inaugural report examines pooled Registry data. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis of IIM cases from 11 countries was performed. Associations between clinical subtyp...

  10. Areva excellent business volume: backlog as of december 31, 2008: + 21.1% to 48.2 billion euros. 2008 revenue: + 10.4% to 13.2 billion euros; Areva excellent niveau d'activite: carnet de commandes au 31/12/2008: + 21,1% a 48,2 Mds d'euros. Chiffre d'affaires de l'exercice 2008: + 10,4% a 13,2 Mds d'euros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    AREVA's backlog stood at 48.2 billion euros as of December 31, 2008, for 21.1% growth year-on-year, including 21.8% growth in Nuclear and 16.5% growth in Transmission and Distribution. The Nuclear backlog came to 42.5 billion euros at December 31, 2008. The Transmission and Distribution backlog came to 5.7 billion euros at year-end. The group recognized revenue of 13.2 billion euros in 2008, for year-on-year growth of 10.4% (+9.8% like-for-like). Revenue outside France was up 10.5% to 9.5 billion euros, representing 72% of total revenue. Revenue was up 6.5% in the Nuclear businesses (up 6.3% LFL), with strong performance in the Reactors and Services division (+10.9% LFL) and the Front End division (+7.2% LFL). The Transmission and Distribution division recorded growth of 17% (+15.8% LFL). Revenue for the fourth quarter of 2008 rose to 4.1 billion euros, up 5.2% (+1.6% LFL) from that of the fourth quarter of 2007. Revenue for the Front End division rose to 3.363 billion euros in 2008, up 7.1% over 2007 (+7.2% LFL). Foreign exchange (currency translations) had a negative impact of 53 million euros. Revenue for the Reactors and Services division rose to 3.037 billion euros, up 11.8% over 2007 (+10.9% LFL). Foreign exchange (currency translations) had a negative impact of 47 million euros. Revenue for the Back End division came to 1.692 billion euros, a drop of 2.7% (-2.5% LFL). Foreign exchange (currency translations) had a negative impact of 3.5 million euros. Revenue for the Transmission and Distribution division rose to 5.065 billion euros in 2008, up 17.0% (+15.8% LFL)

  11. Telecoms Take A Turn for the Better

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    China has started restructuring its telecom industry to promote more competition and clear the way for issuing 3G licenses china’s largest mobile communications company,China Mobile Communications Corp.,announced on May 23 that it would acquire China Railway Communication Co.Ltd.,also known

  12. Where Is the Vision for Telecom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    I'm worded about telecom. Service prices continue to drop with no bottom in sight, as bit transport becomes a commodity. Telephone companies everywhere are losing their landline business to wireless, and both Wi-Fi and voice over Intemet protocol threaten even further disruptions. As the profitability drains out of the industry, research is being starved. Where is this headed?

  13. China's Telecome,Grows into Giants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shang Tieli; Wang Na

    2008-01-01

    @@ Thirty years ago,backward telecommunications infrastructure and network technology fell far short of the demand to promote the fast development of all sectors in society,particularly constraining China's economic growth.But over the past thirty years China's telecom industry has developed by leaps and bounds.

  14. EuroGeoSurveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demicheli, L.; Ludden, J. N.; Robida, F.

    2012-04-01

    In order to create safe, healthy and wealthy places to live in, it is vital that we understand our planet. At national level the collection of information on the state of the solid Earth and its processes is normally mandated to Geological Surveys. In fact, a Geological Survey is the national institution responsible for the geological inventory, monitoring, knowledge and research for the security, health and prosperity of the society. And EuroGeoSurveys (EGS) is the organisation representing the Geological Surveys from 33 countries around Europe. With one member for each country of the European Union and beyond, including the Russian Federation and Ukraine, the EGS network covers the whole continent. EGS'principal purpose is to provide geoscientific knowledge that underpins European policies and regulations for the benefit of society. Naturally, in our day-to-day activities, we contribute to the merging of economic, environmental and social agendas. Engaging a joint workforce of several thousands of geoscientists, also involving regional geological surveys in Germany, Italy and Spain, we strive to be the first body to be contacted when there is an international need for European geodata, or'geo-help'. For this reason we work on a daily basis with the EU institutions, and are considered the natural source of information on Earth science issues and relevant downstream applications in Europe. Our General Secretariat is based in the European Quarter of Brussels close to the European Commission, the EU Council, the European Parliament, and the political seat of NATO. Our operational strategy is based on the cooperation between national institutions, which enables to synergistically integrate both information and activities of our member organisations. This has allowed us to make significant progress over the years, permitting geology to become a topic deserving great attention on the European agenda. In order to enable a quick but high quality response to requests for

  15. The Euro Introduction and Non-Euro Currencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.J.C. van Dijk (Dick); M.I.S.H. Munandar (Haris); C.M. Hafner (Christian)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis paper documents the existence of large structural breaks in the unconditional correlations among the British pound, Norwegian krone, Swedish krona, Swiss franc, and euro exchange rates (against the US dollar) during the period 1994-2003. Using the framework of dynamic conditional co

  16. Telecoms Huawei Crushes Upstart Rival

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JESSY ZHANG

    2006-01-01

    @@ Huawei's purchase of Harbour Networks is an acquisition based more on revenge and less on business strategy On Sunday June 25th, Harbour Networks' president Li Yinan walked into his Beijing office as usual. However, on this particular day there was nothing left for him to handle, as the company had ceased operations in early June when its shareholders decided to sell the company's majority assets to Huawei Technologies. Still, sitting in the empty building, Li was at least safe from his angry employees, whose millions of yuan in options had been turned into waste paper.

  17. CERN wired-up at Telecom 2003

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    CERN demonstrated the newest Grid technology and highlighted advances in networking through optical fibres at the ITU Telecom World 2003, the international exhibition on telecommunication that was held at Palexpo, Geneva, 12-18 October 2003. There CERN also set a new land speed long-range data transmission record and showed live transmissions via high quality videoconferencing from the Internet2 conference in Indianapolis.

  18. Intrinsically stable light source at telecom wavelengths

    CERN Document Server

    Monteiro, Fernando; Sanguinetti, Bruno; Zbinden, Hugo

    2013-01-01

    We present a highly stable light source at telecom wavelengths, based on a short erbium doped fiber. The high stability arises from the high inversion of the Er3+ion population. This source is developed to work as a stable reference in radiometric applications and is useful in any application where high stability and/or a large bandwidth are necessary. The achieved long-term stability is 10 ppm.

  19. Euro-Multiculturalism and Toleration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2014-01-01

    controversies. Euro-multiculturalism is a) about mainly immigrant religious minorities rather than indigenous or national minorities defined in mainly cultural or linguistic terms; b) does not for the most part consist in special group-differentiated rights or forms of recognition going beyond established...

  20. Euro Heart Survey 2009 Snapshot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puymirat, Etienne; Battler, Alex; Birkhead, John

    2013-01-01

    Detailed data on patients admitted for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) on a European-wide basis are lacking. The Euro Heart Survey 2009 Snapshot was designed to assess characteristics, management, and hospital outcomes of AMI patients throughout European Society of Cardiology (ESC) member...... countries in a contemporary 'real-world' setting, using a methodology designed to improve the representativeness of the survey....

  1. Euro-Philiacs, Euro-Sceptics and Europhobics: Higher Education Policy, Values and Institutional Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neave, Guy

    2005-01-01

    The European higher education landscape is inhabited by three clans: the Euro-philiac, his wicked twin, the Euro-phobic and most interesting of all, the Euro-sceptic. This unholy trinity has long been with us. Though the recent Euro electoral fiasco has in all probability served to bolster the ranks

  2. Euro adoption in Romania: Facts and perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.-C. Enache

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to link the nominal convergence criteria with Romanian citizens perceptions about euro adoption. Based on convergence reports and Euro-barometer data, the 2010 and 2012 years are analysed. It is shown that even if the nominal convergence achievements are improving, the perceptions regarding the euro adoption are deteriorating. A better communication strategy is advised.

  3. Kas euro uppumissurm solgipanges? / Margo Kokerov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kokerov, Margo, 1978-

    1999-01-01

    Euro kasutuselevõtmine Euroopa riikides. Euro ajalugu. Tabelid: töötuse määr ja sisemajanduse koguprodukti muutumine kvartaalselt USA-s, Jaapanis ja Euroopa Liidu 11 riigis; euro-dollari kurss jaanuar-juuni 1999

  4. Efficient generation of indistinguishable single photons on-demand at telecom wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jehyung; Cai, Tao; Richardson, Christopher; Leavitt, Richard; Waks, Edo

    Highly efficient single photon sources are important building blocks for optical quantum information processing. For practical use and long-distance quantum communication, single photons should have fiber-compatible telecom wavelengths. In addition, most quantum communication applications require high degree of indistinguishability of single photons, such that they exhibit interference on a beam splitter. However, deterministic generation of indistinguishable single photons with high brightness remains a challenging problem in particular at telecom wavelengths. We demonstrate a telecom wavelength source of indistinguishable single photons using an InAs/InP quantum dot in a nanophotonic cavity. To obtain the efficient single quantum dot emission, we employ the higher order mode in L3 photonic crystal cavity that shows a nearly Gaussian transverse mode profile and results in out-coupling efficiency exceeding 46 % and unusual bright single quantum dot emission exceeding 1.5 million counts per second at a detector. We also observe Purcell enhanced spontaneous emission rate as large as 4 and high linear polarization ratio of 0.96 for the coupled dots. Using this source, we generate high purity single photons at 1.3 μm wavelength and demonstrate the indistinguishable nature of the emission using a two-photon interference measurement.

  5. China Telecom clears the way for strategy transformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ The comprehensive pilot of China Telecom transformation was unveiled in Pudong of Shanghai a few days ago, which indicates comprehensive pilot projects starting formally. Huang WenLin, Vice President of China Telecom, attends the unveiling ceremony and proposes four requirements.

  6. Single-Photon Detection at Telecom Wavelengths

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Zhi-Bin; MA Hai-Qiang; LEI Ming; WANG Di; LIU Zhao-Jie; YANG Han-Dong; WU Ling-An; ZHAI Guang-Jie; FENG Ji

    2007-01-01

    A single-photon detector based on an InGaAs avalanche photodiode has been developed for use at telecom wavelengths. A suitable delay and sampling gate modulation circuit are used to prevent positive and negative transient pulses from influencing the detection of true photon induced avalanches. A monostable trigger circuit eliminates the influence of avalanche peak jitter, and a dead time modulation feedback control circuit decreases the afterpulsing. From performance tests we find that at the optimum operation point, the quantum efficiency is 12% and the dark count rate 1.5 × 10-6 ns-1, with a detection rate of 500 kHz.

  7. Mapping the Telecom services Industry and Defining the Major Attributes for the Successful Diffusion of Telecom Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ismail, Abdullah

    2009-01-01

    The report maps out the telecom services industry and define the major attributes required to be considered for the analysis of successful diffusion of telecom services. This chapter is part of the final PhD report which focuses on a case study based on the comparative study of the diffusion of t...

  8. Euro-Multiculturalism and Toleration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2014-01-01

    commitments fundamentally different from liberalism. The paper considers two objections to the proposed understanding of Euro-multiculturalism, namely a) that it over-inclusive in the sense that it includes religion as a central category and thereby neglects important differences between religion and culture......, and b) that it is under-inclusive in the sense that it collapses multiculturalism into standard liberal political theory and fails to explain what is distinctive about multiculturalism. Finally the paper shows that multiculturalism in this sense can involve issues of toleration....

  9. Euro zone and its monetary policy

    OpenAIRE

    Dorel Dumitru CHIRIŢESCU; Andreea ANDRAŞIU

    2010-01-01

    In this article I have tried to make a short presentation of the Euro Zone and it’s monetary policy. At the present moment the Euro Zone has 16 countries that have adopted the Euro as a national currency and also 4 small countries that have monetary agreements with their neighbours. The monetary policy represents all the regulations of the money supply and interest rates adopted by the European Central Bank in order to control the inflation rate and to stabilize ...

  10. The Euro crisis. Causes and Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph S. Weber

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Euro crisis is mainly a consequence of the international financial crisis of 2008. Thereby, the term Euro crisis is misleading as there is no currency crisis. First, the article shows some of the birth defects of the Euro. Second, it shows that the increase in public debt was caused by rescue measures for banks and anti-cyclical fiscal policy. Third, we argue that the Euro crisis is not just one crisis (a sovereign debt crisis but it is a combination of several macroeconomic crises including a growth crisis, a labour market crisis, a public debt crisis, and a current account crisis.

  11. "EuroPrix 99" / Raivo Kelomees

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kelomees, Raivo, 1960-

    1999-01-01

    1998. a. algatasid Austria Majandusministeerium ja Euroopa Nõukogu võistluse "EuroPrix MultiMediaArt" väljapaistvate multimeediatoodete esiletõstmiseks. "EuroPrix 99" tutvustus. Tööde saatmise tähtaeg 30. juuni 1999. Multimeediaturust Eestis. Salzburgis korraldatud workshop multimeediaturu stimuleerimise strateegiatest. Ilmunud ka kogumikus "Ekraan kui membraan". Tartu, 2007, lk. 193-194

  12. Kas Eesti saab 2007. a. euro?

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Sisaldab artikleid: Maris Lauri. Inflatsioonikriteeriumi täitmine pea võimatu; Joaquin Almunia. Eesti vastuvõtmiseks EL oma eeskirju ei muuda; Euro kasutuselevõtu mõjud Eestile; Ruta Eier. Kokkuvõttes on tegemist ikkagi poliitilise otsusega; Euro kasutuselevõtuga kaasnevad muutused; Reitinguagentuur eeldab liitumist 2007. aastal

  13. Euro Membership as a Real Option Trigger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom; Pantzalis, Christos

    2007-01-01

    Our empirical study of manufacturing firms (NAICS 33) in the 15 countries consisting the EU prior to its 2004 expansion shows that the introduction of the Euro has made firms based in one of the twelve countries that opted to adopt the Euro more inclined than firms based in one of the three non-a...

  14. Scalability of telecom cloud architectures for live-TV distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Asensio Carmona, Adrian; Contreras, Luis Miguel; Ruiz Ramírez, Marc; López Álvarez, Victor; Velasco Esteban, Luis Domingo

    2015-01-01

    A hierarchical distributed telecom cloud architecture for live-TV distribution exploiting flexgrid networking and SBVTs is proposed. Its scalability is compared to that of a centralized architecture. Cost savings as high as 32 % are shown. Peer Reviewed

  15. Telecom Reform in China: Legislation, Competition and Prospects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Bin; ZHANG Wei

    2002-01-01

    China's telecom sector has experienced decade-long reform and market opening. The reform and prospects of China's telecom service industry are analysed in 4aspects: infrastructure development, industrial restructuring and regulation, market structure, and market opening. A competitive market has been preliminarily shaped, and its infrastructure is well advanced; but the market regulatory system and foreign direct investment is still rather inadequate. To meet WTO commitments, first priority must be given to improving regulatory system and further relaxing FDI restrictions.

  16. Highly efficient entanglement swapping and teleportation at telecom wavelength

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Rui-Bo; Takeoka, Masahiro; Takagi, Utako; Shimizu, Ryosuke; Sasaki, Masahide

    2014-01-01

    Entanglement swapping at telecom wavelengths is at the heart of quantum networking in optical fiber infrastructures. Although entanglement swapping has been demonstrated experimentally so far using various types of entangled photon sources both in near-infrared and telecom wavelength regions, the rate of swapping operation has been too low to be applied to practical quantum protocols, due to limited efficiency of entangled photon sources and photon detectors. Here we demonstrate drastic impro...

  17. Euro Membership as a Real Option Trigger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom; Pantzalis, Christos

    2007-01-01

    -adopters (UK, Sweden, and Denmark) to exercise various forms of real options such as to establish alliances / partnerships, to enter new markets / market segments, to switch suppliers, and to generally expand in the Euro-area. The study furthermore shows that small, profitable and financially constrained firms......Our empirical study of manufacturing firms (NAICS 33) in the 15 countries consisting the EU prior to its 2004 expansion shows that the introduction of the Euro has made firms based in one of the twelve countries that opted to adopt the Euro more inclined than firms based in one of the three non...

  18. Electric Vehicle Plan [in France]. 4 billion euros for 2020; Plan Voiture Electrique. 4 miljard euro tot 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Zutphen, E.

    2009-11-15

    On October 1st 2009 two ministries (Environment and Industry) announced fourteen measures for promoting plug-in and hybrid vehicles in their 'Plan Voiture Electrique'. The investments amount to up to 4 billion euros until 2020. The aim is to have 450 thousand hybrids and electric vehicles on the roads of France in 2015. In 2020 there should be 2 million of them and in 2025 4.5 million. The plan has three areas of attention: incentives for the purchase of electric or hybrid vehicles, the infrastructure (charging points) and the production of the vehicle and the batteries within France. [Dutch] Op 1 oktober 2009 werden door 2 ministeries (Milieu en Industrie) in het 'Plan Voiture Electrique' veertien maatregelen bekendgemaakt waarmee plug-in-hybrides en elektrische autos zullen worden gepromoot. De investeringen bedragen tot 2020 4 miljard euro. Het doel is om in 2015 450 duizend hybrides en elektrische voertuigen op de Franse wegen te laten rijden. In 2020 moeten dat er 2 miljoen zijn en in 2025 4,5 miljoen. Het plan betreft drie verschillende actiegebieden: stimulering van de aankoop van elektrische- of hybride voertuigen, de infrastructuur (oplaadpunten), en de productie in eigen land van zowel het voertuig als de batterijen.

  19. Romanian Policy-Mix to Adopting Euro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Socol

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the present estate of Euro implementation in Monetary and EconomicUnion (EMU and Romanian position in this context. The Romanian admittance in EU at January 2007increased the interest to study the transmission and coordination mechanisms, related to mix commonmonetary policy – different fiscal policy across the countries in the Euro area. Our study focuses on theconsequences of Romanian admittance in Euro Zone in 2014 and optimal policy-mix to good preparationto accomplish this target. The controversies between economists regarding the construction processof EMU remain large. What are the consequences of implementing the “tye-hands” strategy for Romanianfinancial authorities? Can Romania solve the potential conflict between real and nominal convergencerelating the European integration? What is the best strategy for Romania with the aim to obtain afaster real convergence with the European Union countries? Can Romania maximize the benefits toadopting Euro in 2014?

  20. EuroPlus+ Reward / Alar Hammer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hammer, Alar

    2000-01-01

    EuroPlus+ Reward on mitmes versioonis ilmunud inglise keele õppeprogramm, milles on ühendatud multimeedia võimalused ning distantsõpe ning mis loob täiesti uued võimalused keele omandamiseks arvuti abil

  1. Euro peal ja dollar all / Tõnis Arnover

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Arnover, Tõnis, 1952-

    2007-01-01

    Viimastel päevadel on euro kurss USA dollari suhtes kerkinud oma olemasolu kaheksa aasta kõrgeimale tasemele. Diagramm. Vt. samas: USA mõju kahaneb; Nõrkuse põhjus intressipoliitikas; Dollari ohud seotud eelarve ja naftaga

  2. EuroPlus+ Reward / Alar Hammer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hammer, Alar

    2000-01-01

    EuroPlus+ Reward on mitmes versioonis ilmunud inglise keele õppeprogramm, milles on ühendatud multimeedia võimalused ning distantsõpe ning mis loob täiesti uued võimalused keele omandamiseks arvuti abil

  3. Sudden stops in the Euro area

    OpenAIRE

    Merler, Silvia; Pisani-Ferry, Jean

    2012-01-01

    The single currency was expected to make balance of payments irrelevant between the euro-area member states. This benign view has been challenged by recent developments, especially as imbalances between euro-area central banks have widened within the TARGET2 settlement system. Current-account developments can be misleading as indicators of financial account developments in countries that receive significant official support. Greece, Ireland, Italy, Portugal and Spain experienced significant p...

  4. Strategies for sustainable channel relations in mobile telecom sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Githa Heggde

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The telecom sector in India largely comprises of wireless connections for phones. As of today, there are approximately 21 network providers in the country with about 7 per each circle, each offering competitive pricing to the consumers. The main objective of the study is to provide an accurate role for the company executive in developing channel relations. Further to this, the study explores the strategies which can sustain a good working relationship between the company and its channel members in the mobile telecom sector. The constructs identified for developing sustainable relationships were Setting distribution objectives, Channel design, Logistics, Image Building, Inventory management, Channel management, Payment & credit, Promotional assistance, Setting targets, Coverage frequency , Motivating channel members to perform. The sample selected contained distributors from the Mobile telecom sector and company executives/channel managers of leading telecom companies. Factor analysis and Friedman’s test was applied. The findings revealed a correlation in attitude between distributors and the executives. Motivating distributors was rated as the most important strategy by the company. The distributors felt that all channel partners needed to have positive attitude towards the channel while company executives felt that aggression made channel members perform effectively. Such findings will be of use to mobile telecom companies who are new entrants to the Indian market and to existing companies who plan to expand their coverage.

  5. Highly efficient entanglement swapping and teleportation at telecom wavelength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Rui-Bo; Takeoka, Masahiro; Takagi, Utako; Shimizu, Ryosuke; Sasaki, Masahide

    2015-03-01

    Entanglement swapping at telecom wavelengths is at the heart of quantum networking in optical fiber infrastructures. Although entanglement swapping has been demonstrated experimentally so far using various types of entangled photon sources both in near-infrared and telecom wavelength regions, the rate of swapping operation has been too low to be applied to practical quantum protocols, due to limited efficiency of entangled photon sources and photon detectors. Here we demonstrate drastic improvement of the efficiency at telecom wavelength by using two ultra-bright entangled photon sources and four highly efficient superconducting nanowire single photon detectors. We have attained a four-fold coincidence count rate of 108 counts per second, which is three orders higher than the previous experiments at telecom wavelengths. A raw (net) visibility in a Hong-Ou-Mandel interference between the two independent entangled sources was 73.3 +/- 1.0% (85.1 +/- 0.8%). We performed the teleportation and entanglement swapping, and obtained a fidelity of 76.3% in the swapping test. Our results on the coincidence count rates are comparable with the ones ever recorded in teleportation/swapping and multi-photon entanglement generation experiments at around 800 nm wavelengths. Our setup opens the way to practical implementation of device-independent quantum key distribution and its distance extension by the entanglement swapping as well as multi-photon entangled state generation in telecom band infrastructures with both space and fiber links.

  6. Highly efficient entanglement swapping and teleportation at telecom wavelength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Rui-Bo; Takeoka, Masahiro; Takagi, Utako; Shimizu, Ryosuke; Sasaki, Masahide

    2015-03-20

    Entanglement swapping at telecom wavelengths is at the heart of quantum networking in optical fiber infrastructures. Although entanglement swapping has been demonstrated experimentally so far using various types of entangled photon sources both in near-infrared and telecom wavelength regions, the rate of swapping operation has been too low to be applied to practical quantum protocols, due to limited efficiency of entangled photon sources and photon detectors. Here we demonstrate drastic improvement of the efficiency at telecom wavelength by using two ultra-bright entangled photon sources and four highly efficient superconducting nanowire single photon detectors. We have attained a four-fold coincidence count rate of 108 counts per second, which is three orders higher than the previous experiments at telecom wavelengths. A raw (net) visibility in a Hong-Ou-Mandel interference between the two independent entangled sources was 73.3 ± 1.0% (85.1 ± 0.8%). We performed the teleportation and entanglement swapping, and obtained a fidelity of 76.3% in the swapping test. Our results on the coincidence count rates are comparable with the ones ever recorded in teleportation/swapping and multi-photon entanglement generation experiments at around 800 nm wavelengths. Our setup opens the way to practical implementation of device-independent quantum key distribution and its distance extension by the entanglement swapping as well as multi-photon entangled state generation in telecom band infrastructures with both space and fiber links.

  7. Million s jevroprepjatstvijami / Valentin Zvegintsev

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Zvegintsev, Valentin

    2005-01-01

    Suurbritannia peaminister Tony Blair põhjendas oma ettepanekut vähendada Euroopa Liidu eelarvet 25 miljardi euro võrra seoses uute liikmete võimetusega kulutada kogu raha, mida neil oleks võimalik liidult saada. Tallinna võimalused eurorahade saamiseks ja kulutamiseks

  8. Services Systems to Leverage Innovators' Knowledge: The Telecoms Industry Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugeaud, Florie; Soulier, Eddie

    Today, telecoms operators have to prove their innovation capacity. They address corporate customers which are involved in collaborative value networks. They implement a process of new services research in order to create adapted solutions. This process is linked to a collaborative and complex practice between diverse innovators. However there is no structured method to leverage this community’s knowledge. Based on the SSME discussions, we suggest enriching the telecoms innovation approaches by the representation and the simulation of "services systems". This paper also proposes the development of a collaborative tool to support this suggestion and the innovators’ practices. Our approach is currently tested on a specific telecom service in the e-health domain which presents an interesting business ecosystem.

  9. Present and future of the Telecom 1 system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramat, P.; Rancy, F.

    The French national satellite communication system Telecom 1 is now operational, with two in-orbit spacecraft, Telecom 1-A (launched in August 1984) and Telecom 1-B (launched in May 1985). This system opens an era of new digital services for overseas French lands and European business communities. This paper describes the present status of the system, in terms of architecture, hardware, and services. These accomplishments, which were carried out under the technical management of the Centre National d'Etudes des Telecommunications (CNET), have now to be put in the perspective of future developments. On-going activities now undertaken by CNET in this framework are presented in this paper: new satellite and earth station technologies will provide enhanced traffic capability and service quality at lower costs.

  10. Resonance fluorescence from a telecom-wavelength quantum dot

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Khuzheyri, R; Huwer, J; Santana, T S; Szymanska, J Skiba-; Felle, M; Ward, M B; Stevenson, R M; Farrer, I; Tanner, M G; Hadfield, R H; Ritchie, D A; Shields, A J; Gerardot, B D

    2016-01-01

    We report on resonance fluorescence from a single quantum dot emitting at telecom wavelengths. We perform high-resolution spectroscopy and observe the Mollow triplet in the Rabi regime--a hallmark of resonance fluorescence. The measured resonance-fluorescence spectra allow us to rule out pure dephasing as a significant decoherence mechanism in these quantum dots. Combined with numerical simulations, the experimental results provide robust characterisation of charge noise in the environment of the quantum dot. Resonant control of the quantum dot opens up new possibilities for on-demand generation of indistinguishable single photons at telecom wavelengths as well as quantum optics experiments and direct manipulation of solid-state qubits in telecom-wavelength quantum dots.

  11. Innovative MAN Euro V engines without exhaust aftertreatment; Innovative MAN Euro V Motorisierung ohne Abgasnachbehandlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Held, W.; Raab, G.; Schaller, K.V.; Gotre, W.; Lehmann, H.; Moeller, H.; Schroeppel, W. [MAN Nutzfahrzeuge AG, Muenchen (Germany); MAN Nutzfahrzeuge AG, Nuernberg (Germany); MAN Nutzfahrzeuge AG, Steyr (Austria)

    2009-07-01

    MAN Nutzfahrzeuge AG (Munich, Federal Republic of Germany) always is eager to offer products for the respective markets whereby the products are interesting for the customer under economic criteria. Additionally, the products shall not lack in the travelling comfort under consideration of the legal emission borders. Thus, a AdBlue {sup registered} free technology for all MAN series was already offered before the legal introduction of EURO IV. This technology is based on an internal-motor solution with external, cooled AGR and a PM-Cat {sup registered} -filter. This solution is esteemed highly by our customers because apart from the well-known advantages in relation to a SCR technology there were no losses with the operating cost. With EURO V which is inserted in some countries MAN Nutzfahrzeuge AG returns to a long-term experience with SCR technology. The motivation for the development of a AdBlue {sup registered} free solution was the positive feedback of our customers on the basis of MAN EURO IV AGR/PM Cat technology. With the developed EURO V AGR solution, other EURO IV solutions in line with market conditions for the 'Emerging markets' can be derived with which a technology without exhaust post-treatment can be offered worldwide for our customers. This technology presents the basis for a platform concept EURO IV/V and EURO VI. In this concept, EURO IV can be presented without subsequent treatment of exhaust gases, EURO V in connection with an Oxicat and EURO VI with a SCRT system. Here, the vehicle/engine concept presents the most important components for the individual series in particular. By means of these components, the goal EURO V was achieved internal-motor without losses of operating cost and life span in relation to SCR technologies.

  12. Supercontinuum generation in standard telecom fiber using picoseconds pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estudillo-Ayala, J. M.; Rojas-Laguna, R.; Hernandez-Garcia, J. C.; Pottiez, O.; Mata-Chavez, R. I.; Trejo-Duran, M.; Jauregui-Vazquez, D.; Sierra-Hernandez, J. M.; Andrade-Lucio, J. A.

    2012-02-01

    We reported Supercontinuum (SC) generation in standard telecom fiber using picosecond pulses of microchip laser. The pulses width is 700 ps at 1064 nm, using 57 m long of standard fiber, and the spectra extend from 700 to above 1700 nm, some 100 nm further into the visible. The physical processes leading to the formation of the continuum spectrum were studied by monitoring the growth of the SC while increasing the input power. The coupling efficiency of ours experimental setup between the microchip laser and the telecom fiber helped us to obtain this wide spectrum.

  13. Practical IP and telecom for broadcast engineering and operations

    CERN Document Server

    Huffman, Fred

    2004-01-01

    What you need to know to survive, long term. Interests between broadcasters and telecom people are blurring. Technical operations and design engineers in one field are increasingly required to deal with practices and techniques in the other. The problem is expectations and terminology differences aren't recognized until it's too late. Take "Quality of Service." The telecom people specify a percentage of the time that the service is guaranteed to be available. The down time may be very, very small. But, if it occurs during a high-priced commercial in the Super Bowl, it is very, very s

  14. Optical telecom networks as weak quantum measurements with post- selection

    CERN Document Server

    Brunner, N; Collins, D; Gisin, Nicolas; Scarani, V; Acin, Antonio; Brunner, Nicolas; Collins, Daniel; Gisin, Nicolas; Scarani, Valerio

    2003-01-01

    We show that weak measurements with post-selection, proposed in the context of the quantum theory of measurement, naturally appear in the everyday physics of fiber optics telecom networks through polarization-mode dispersion (PMD) and polarization-dependent losses (PDL). Specifically, the PMD leads to a time-resolved discrimination of polarization; the post-selection is done in the most natural way: one post-selects those photons that have not been lost because of the PDL. The quantum formalism is shown to simplify the calculation of optical networks in the telecom limit of weak PMD.

  15. Optical telecom networks as weak quantum measurements with postselection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Nicolas; Acín, Antonio; Collins, Daniel; Gisin, Nicolas; Scarani, Valerio

    2003-10-31

    We show that weak measurements with postselection, proposed in the context of the quantum theory of measurement, naturally appear in the everyday physics of fiber optics telecom networks through polarization-mode dispersion (PMD) and polarization-dependent losses (PDL). Specifically, the PMD leads to a time-resolved discrimination of polarization; the postselection is done in the most natural way: one postselects those photons that have not been lost because of the PDL. The quantum formalism is shown to simplify the calculation of optical networks in the telecom limit of weak PMD.

  16. Current account imbalances in the euro area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klára Plecitá

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available While the current account balance for the euro area as a whole has been in balance, divergences in current account positions among the euro-area members have widened since the introduction of the common currency euro. During the last 13 years Portugal, Greece and Spain have run large and persistent current account deficits, whereas Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Finland or Germany have displayed during the same period large and persistent surpluses. However, there is no unambiguous agreement among economists, whether this divergence of current account positions of the euro-area countries mirrors growing intra-euro-area imbalances (Gros, 2012 or just reflects proper functioning of the European integration process (Schmitz and von Hagen, 2009. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to estimate equilibrium current account position for each of the original 12 euro area countries so that it is possible to assess whether the divergence of intra-euro current account balances could be explained on the basis of economic fundamentals or it just reflects misallocation of resources and thus macroeconomic imbalances. The equilibrium current account balance is estimated using a panel-econometric technique for a sample of 30 industrial countries, which represent euro-area member states and their main business partners, over the period 1993–2011. Economic fundamentals affecting the equilibrium current account position are selected on the basis of the saving-investment balance, the trade balance and the net income balance, to ensure that we take into an account all theoretically important explanatory variables. We find that the main determinants of current account norms in our sample are fiscal balance, a country’s net international investment position, oil balance and a country’s stage of economic development. The major part of the euro-area countries exhibits current account positions close to their equilibrium levels with the exception of the Netherlands and

  17. EURO AREA FISCAL STRUCTURES. A MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HURDUZEU Gheorghe

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The European framework for fiscal policies is constructed mainly on the objective of monitoring budget balances and public debt, allowing national governments to decide on the specific fiscal policy that is more suitable to their internal context and public needs. However, for Euro Area member states this autonomy is restricted by the conditions imposed through the Stability and Growth Pact. As the recent macroeconomic dynamics underlined the necesity of improving the fiscal outcomes, the fiscal framework was updated and modified by the provisions of the new European economic governance meant to avoid unsound and unsustainable fiscal policies that could affect the stability of other Euro Area member states. The Six-Pack, the Fiscal Compact and the other conditions imposed by the reform of the fiscal governance framework are meant to ensure more discipline in drafting and executing national budgets. Even so, national authorities maintain their fiscal sovereignty and the decision regarding fiscal structures remains at their disposal, as long as the drafts are approved and the outcomes are maintained in the limits imposed through the supranational fiscal framework. Regardless of the numerous differences between member states, similar trends regarding tax mixes can be noticed in time. The objectives of this paper is to analyze fiscal structures of Euro Area member states and to determine, if any, groups with similar fiscal structures, their composition and the similarities that characterize Euro Area in this respect. In order to have a clear overview of fiscal structures within Euro Area, we analyzed data for 17 member states, for year 2012, taking into consideration total general government revenue, indirect taxation, direct taxation and social contributions. As one of the aims of this paper is to determine whether in Euro Area the main contributors are corporations or individuals, we also analyzed the structure of direct taxation, dividing it into

  18. Adopting the Euro: Costs or Benefits?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Socol

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the present estate of euro implementation in Monetary and Economic Union (EMU. The Romanian admittance in EU at January 2007 increases interest to study the transmission and coordination mechanisms, related to mix common monetary policy - different fiscal policy across the countries in the euro area. Our study focuses on Euro Zone using the Optimum Currency Area Theory and empirical evidences. The controversies beetwen economists regarding the construction process of EMU remain large. The paper evaluates the costs and benefits of adopting the euro and the main effects of Romanian integration in European Monetary Union. What are the consequences of implementing the "tye hands" strategy for Romanian financial authorities? Can Romania solve the potential conflict between real and nominal convergence relating the European integration? What is the best strategy for Romania with the aim to obtain a faster real convergence with the European Union countries? Can Romania maximize the benefits to adopting euro in 2014? Is the European Union a Optimum Currency Area?

  19. Million object spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditto, Thomas D.; Ritter, Joseph M.

    2008-07-01

    A new class of astronomical telescope with a primary objective grating (POG) has been studied as an alternative to mirrors. Nineteenth century POG telescopes suffered from low resolution and ambiguity of overlapping spectra as well as background noise. The present design uses a conventional secondary spectrograph to disambiguate all objects while enjoying a very wide instantaneous field-of-view, up to 40°. The POG competes with mirrors, in part, because diffraction gratings provide the very chromatic dispersion that mirrors defeat. The resulting telescope deals effectively with long-standing restrictions on multiple object spectrographs (MOS). The combination of a POG operating in the first-order, coupled to a spectrographic astronomical telescope, isolates spectra from all objects in the free spectral range of the primary. First disclosed as a concept in year 2002, a physical proof-of-principle is now reported. The miniature laboratory model used a 50 mm plane grating primary and was able to disambiguate between objects appearing at angular resolutions of 55 arcseconds and spectral spacings of 0.15 nm. Astronomical performance is a matter of increasing instrument size. A POG configured according to our specifications has no moving parts during observations and is extensible to any length that can be held flat to tolerances approaching float glass. The resulting telescope could record over one million spectra per night of objects in a line of right ascension. The novel MOS does not require pre-imaging to start acquisition of uncharted star fields. Problems are anticipated in calibration and integration time. We propose means to ameliorate them.

  20. Research on the measurement of the price change of telecom services in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Hui-juan

    2006-01-01

    It is difficult to measure the total change of the telecom service price (TSP) in China due to the complexity of TSP and the diversity of telecom service. This article analyzes the relation between telecom service revenue and traffic volumes of telecom service and deduces the method of measuring the total change in tendency of telecom price, which is based on the consumer's actual payment for telecom services. After describing the changing trend of TSP with the time series data from 1949 to 2000, the TSP showed a continuous declining tendency during 1949~1975. In contrast, the TSP showed a rising tendency from 1976 to 1991 and a sharp declining trend after 1992. Empirical tests and actual background of telecom reform support the results.

  1. BUSINESS CYCLE SYNCHRONIZATION IN THE EURO AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Laura Văleanu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Business cycle synchronization represents a condition for the successful implementation of the common monetary policy within the Economic and Monetary Union. There is a tight relation between business cycle synchronization and the economic convergence of the Member States of the Monetary Union. Investigating the specialized literature, this study analyses below the factors which influence the synchronization of the economic fluctuations of the economies in the Euro area. A second objective of this study is represented by the pointing out of the evolution of the synchronization process of the business cycle after the adoption of the euro, in the euro area countries by reference to the empiric evidence. The hypothesis of the study states that the introduction of the unique currency in 1999 resulted into the increase of the synchronization degree of the business cycle.

  2. Explaining British Policy on the Euro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Howarth

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Four overlapping analytical frameworks focusing upon domestic British politics are applied to explain the detailed development of the policy on the euro maintained by the Conservative Government then Party in opposition and the Labour Party opposition and then Government: intra-party politics; inter-party politics; public opinion and the nature of British democracy; and neo-pluralism (competing economic and other interests. This article posits that British government - and in particular Labour Government - reluctance to hold a referendum on euro membership and actively push a pro-euro policy can be best explained in terms of ideologically infused intra- (rather than inter- party politics and the realities of pluralist politics, while explanations rooted in an analysis of public opinion are less helpful.

  3. euro a ser una moneda internacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Hortensia Lacayo Ojeda

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se estudia cuáles son los principales factores económicos y financieros que llevan al euro, la nueva moneda común europea, a ser una moneda internacional junto al dólar y al yen. Entre dichos factores se encuentran, en primer lugar, el respaldo económico de los doce países de la Unión Económica y Monetaria medido a través de su importancia demográfica, su producto interno bruto (PIB y su grado de apertura comercial; en segundo lugar, la dimensión financiera de la zona euro en lo referente a las inversiones realizadas en la moneda europea, su utilización como moneda de reserva y como moneda de intercambio; en tercer término, la confianza que inspire el euro a los actores económicos

  4. Are pound and euro the same currency?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsushita, Raul [Department of Statistics, University of Brasilia, 70910900 Brasilia DF (Brazil); Gleria, Iram [Department of Physics, Federal University of Alagoas, 57072970 Maceio (Brazil); Figueiredo, Annibal [Department of Physics, University of Brasilia, 70910900 Brasilia DF (Brazil); Silva, Sergio da [Department of Economics, Federal University of Santa Catarina, 88049970 Florianopolis (Brazil)], E-mail: professorsergiodasilva@gmail.com

    2007-08-20

    Based on long-range dependence, some analysts claim that the exchange rate time series of the pound sterling and of an artificially extended euro have been locked together for years despite daily changes [M. Ausloos, K. Ivanova, Physica A 286 (2000) 353; K. Ivanova, M. Ausloos, False EUR exchange rates vs DKK, CHF, JPY and USD. What is a strong currency? in: H. Takayasu (Ed.), Empirical Sciences in Financial Fluctuations: The Advent of Econophysics, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2002, pp. 62-76]. They conclude that pound and euro are in practice the same currency. We assess the long-range dependence over time through Hurst exponents of pound-dollar and extended euro-dollar exchange rates employing three alternative techniques, namely rescaled range analysis, detrended fluctuation analysis, and detrended moving average. We find the result above (which is based on detrended fluctuation analysis) not to be robust to the changing techniques and parameterizing.

  5. J2EE-based integrated telecom network management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Zhongwu; Wei, Guo

    2004-04-01

    The paper will present a J2EE-based architecture of integrated telecom network management system, and also will introduce the MVC(Model, View and Control) design pattern in the architecture. Using J2EE and MVC design pattern, we can easily build multiple user interfaces (included Web-based), flexible, manageable, and extensible network management system.

  6. Impact of Disruptive Innovations on Mobile Telecom Industry in Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael Bakhit

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The telecommunication industry is different from other industries in the basis of innovation rate. This industry continuously provides end users with new technological generations and disruptive technologies. Due to the complexity of the nature of the product served, telecommunication industry is an important case to study in order to explain the real reasons for the challenges facing telecom companies. Researching in this area will explain why some companies survive while others fail. The wide range served technology innovations is most likely to result in rapid mutation of consumers’ spending habits thus directly influencing the mobile phone companies. The aim of this is to test the reliability of innovations and its impact on companies’ profitability. For that purpose, a survey with 200 end users and 20 employees from two telecom providers (“Alfa, and “Touch” was conducted to investigate various disruptive and conventional means and their impact on the financial performance of telecom industry. The results show that most of the revenue of telecom industry comes from usage of data while the industry is lacking for competition, and quality services while charging high tariffs for customers. Currently customers are migrating to data, therefore performing a pressure on the industry to improve its services. To conclude, network operators need to decide what to they want to sacrifice and how far they want to go to reach targeted results.

  7. Quantum interference of independently generated telecom-band single photons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Monika [Center for Photonic Communication and Computing, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208-3112 (United States); Altepeter, Joseph B.; Huang, Yu-Ping; Oza, Neal N. [Center for Photonic Communication and Computing, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208-3118 (United States); Kumar, Prem [Center for Photonic Communication and Computing, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208-3112, USA and Center for Photonic Communication and Computing, Department of Electrical Engineering (United States)

    2014-12-04

    We report on high-visibility quantum interference of independently generated telecom O-band (1310 nm) single photons using standard single-mode fibers. The experimental data are shown to agree well with the results of simulations using a comprehensive quantum multimode theory without the need for any fitting parameter.

  8. The British Telecom radiopaging service in general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, F H

    1981-10-01

    This paper reports a new radiopaging service supplied by British Telecom that will eventually cover the whole United Kingdom. The use of this service by a three-man practice is described. The service is considered to be a major development in communications that will be of interest to most general practitioners.

  9. Optical telecom networks as weak measurements with post-selection

    CERN Document Server

    Brunner, N

    2003-01-01

    In this work we establish a link between two apparently unrelated subjects: polarization effects in optical fibers and devices, and the quantum theory of weak measurements. We show that the abstract concept of weak measurements followed by post-selection, introduced a decade ago by quantum theorists, naturally appears in the everyday physics of telecom networks.

  10. China Telecom Forging An Empire of Comprehensive Information Services

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The transformation of China Telecom starts from late 2004. General Manager Wang Xiaochu put forward the strategy of transforming into a comprehensive information services provider soon after he took the post and defined transformation as the core mission in the next several years in 2005. With

  11. Research on Strategic Cooperation Between China Post and Telecoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZUO Zhen-lin; ZHANG Jing; LIANG Xiong-jian

    2005-01-01

    Firstly several aspects of the strategic cooperation between China Post and Telecoms are described in succession, which includes the necessity, the probability, the significance and the detailed contents of the strategic cooperation. With that the way to select strategic partners and the frame of the cooperated business are proposed. Lastly the obstacles of the cooperation and accordingly the solution of them are discussed.

  12. A Bullish Outlook for the Euro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    With two EU countries joining the eurozone in 2008,the euro will become an even stronger currency The euro’s exchange rate to the U.S. dollar rocketed in 2007.And with Malta and Cyprus becoming new members of the eurozone on January 1,2008,the enlarged area will play

  13. EURO ZONE AND ITS MONETARY POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorel Dumitru CHIRIŢESCU

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article I have tried to make a short presentation of the Euro Zone and it’s monetary policy. At the present moment the Euro Zone has 16 countries that have adopted the Euro as a national currency and also 4 small countries that have monetary agreements with their neighbours. The monetary policy represents all the regulations of the money supply and interest rates adopted by the European Central Bank in order to control the inflation rate and to stabilize a specific currency, in this case, the Euro. Stabilizing the inflation rate to certain levels is the main goal of the monetary policy. The monetary policy is the second policy, next to the fiscal one which in which a government, in this case the European Union’s official bodies, can impact the economic situation of the Eurozone. The fiscal policy represents the way a government spends, borrows or applies different types of taxes. The Monetary policy can be either expansionary, when unemployement and recessions needs to be combated, or contractionary, when inflation is conbated byt raising the interest rates.

  14. Cern faces 260m euro budget cuts

    CERN Multimedia

    Banks, Michael

    2010-01-01

    "The Cern particle-physics lab near Geneva is to slash about 260m euro ($340m) from its budget for 2011-2015. The cut, which was approved by Cern's council last month, will require the lab to scale back research into future particles accelerators" (0.5 page)

  15. THE FORESIGHTS OF THE ADOPTION OF EURO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Loredana Juncu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Even if the Euro critics showed the warning that the change of the national currency brings a loose of the control and the decision power about the monetary problems and the flexibility of the decisions, many consider that the adoption of the single currency would allow us to protect the economies from the external shocks. We have to eliminate the uncertainty, the high costs and we have to be able to avoid and / or manage the monetary fluctuations especially in situations like today’s economic crisis. One of the effects the crisis has created throughout the European Union and especially in Romania is connected with the return back in the country of the population that works in Western Europe and the reflux of money it implies. The structural problems of the Romanian economy that creates this workforce dynamic is to continue to affect the Euro adoption plan until significant solutions will be addressed in order to maintain the workforce in the country.Europe is facing a dilemma. For now there is a significant distrust in Euro. Romania needs to acknowledge the fact that a single European currency allows first of all the overpass of the actual internal fragmentation of the market and so to strengthen the national position in relation with the international. Romania can still be optimistic about the objective of adopting Euro if an efficient financial policy will be implemented.

  16. Roots of the weaknesses of the euro. Euro nõrkuste juured

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mart Sõrg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the euro was to speed up the integration process and economic development in Europe. History of euro showed us that these optimistic goals have been only partly fulfilled. This modest result has several essential roots. Our research showed that Europe have not been and is even not today the optimal currency area. The architecture of the EMU was incomplete: in building up it was not given enough power to ECB, also were underestimated vitality national interests in member states. Therefore common interests in euro area were not enough protected. Last global financial and economic crisis showed clearly main weaknesses of euro and enforced to start to liquidate them. We conclude that resent reforms and enlargement of the EMU (Estonia probably will strengthen this union

  17. Ist der Euro gefährdet? Is the European currency euro put at risk?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Rohde

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to high national debt in several member states of the Euro-Currency-Area which led to huge relief programmes the single European currency Euro seems to be at risk. Bur neither inflation rates nor exchange rate movements of the Euro since 1999 up to 2011 give reasons to believe that an up to now success story of the Euro will come to a sudden end in shortness. On the other hand it often had been argued that increasing national debt will inevitably lead to higher inflation rates and will endanger a currency by permanent devaluation. But the institutional and legal framework of the European monetary policy, if used correctly, will give sufficient protection against inflation pressure due to increasing national debt. The most danger for the European currency or for the European-Currency-Area can be seen in drifting apart of national competiveness between the member states of the Euro- Area, especially due to an existing lack of coordination in wage policy. Different wage policies in the member states of the Euro-Area in the past had led to different national inflation rates and had caused calculated real exchange rate movements which had lasting influence on national competiveness, which hamper international trade in the case of real appreciation or which promote international trade in the case of real depreciation..

  18. 160 Adopting the Euro: A Long Path towards National Consensus within the Euro Area Candidate Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina Criste

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The global financial crisis outbreak after 2007 has profoundly changed the course of the history of relations in the world economy, creating a complicated framework of political relations between countries and economic regions. In this context, it is important to depict the economic convergence stage of Euro Area candidate countries and to what extent this crisis has or has not changed the euro adoption objective for these countries. The present paper aimed to shed a light on this issue by analyzing both the state of the convergence process and the public attitude regarding euro adoption in four Euro Area candidate countries which have the same monetary policy strategy (inflation targeting. The research results show the way in which the global financial crisis “deviates” the convergence trajectory of the nominal indicators, but also the political and public sentiment against the euro adoption in the selected countries. The results represent a valuable groundwork for analyzing the way in which National Central Banks candidate to the Eurosystem are implied into the processing for euro adoption during turbulence times

  19. Euro esimene kümme / Sirje Rank

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rank, Sirje, 1966-

    2008-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 7. mai lk. 32. Euroopa ühisraha euro asutamine ja areng. Arvamust avaldavad Siim Kallas ja Vahur Kraft. Kommenteerib Raivo Vare: Eesti võib euro saada 2015-2017. Vt. samas: Luukamber uusliikmetele on praegu karmim; Taust; Diagramm: Euro tervis on kümne aastaga tugevamaks muutunud

  20. Euro roll rahvusvahelise valuutana / Tommaso Padoa-Schioppa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Padoa-Schioppa, Tommaso

    2003-01-01

    Autor käsitleb euro erakasutust rahvusvahelises ulatuses, analüüsib euro ametlikku rolli reservvaluutana välisvaluutareservide mitmekesistamise üleüldise arengu tingimustes ning vaatleb euro kasutamist euroalale geograafiliselt lähedastes piirkondades. Lühendatud tõlge autori kõnest 2002. aasta 22. novembril Frankfurdis toimunud Euroopa panganduskongressil

  1. Advokaat: lepinguid euro tulek ei muuda / Kadrin Karner

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karner, Kadrin

    2010-01-01

    Tark & Co advokaat Hannes Vallikivi rääkis konverentsil "Mida toob euro?", et kõik lepingud jäävad euro tulekul kehtima ja euro tulek ei anna alust ka lepingut muuta. Lisa: mis juhtub enne ja pärast euroga liitumist?

  2. Riik ei loobu plaanitud euro-kampaaniast / Aivar Reinap

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Reinap, Aivar, 1968-

    2005-01-01

    Rahandusministeeriumi eurole ülemineku projektijuht Anne Sulling kinnitab, et Eesti ei ole loobunud eesmärgist võtta euro kasutusele 2007. aastal. Koos Euroopa Liiduga plaanib riik kulutada euro teavitamiskampaaniale kuni ühe euro inimese kohta ehk kokku ligi 1,4 miljonit eurot. Lisa: Poolt ja vastu

  3. A Survey On Data Mining Techniques In Customer Churn Analysis For Telecom Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal M. Almana

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Customer churn prediction in Telecom Industry is a core research topic in recent years. A huge amount of data is generated in Telecom Industry every minute. On the other hand, there is lots of development in data mining techniques. Customer churn has emerged as one of the major issues in Telecom Industry. Telecom research indicates that it is more expensive to gain a new customer than to retain an existing one. In order to retain existing customers, Telecom providers need to know the reasons of churn, which can be realized through the knowledge extracted from Telecom data. This paper surveys the commonly used data mining techniques to identify customer churn patterns. The recent literature in the area of predictive data mining techniques in customer churn behavior is reviewed and a discussion on the future research directions is offered.

  4. Asset-backed Securitization -- a New Financing Channel for the Telecom Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Telecom enterprises are in urgent need of a large amount of funds for updating networks and expanding market shares, while asset-backed securitization is the most rapidly and vigorously growing product of financial innovation in the international capital market. Since telecom asset is characterized by long recovery period, poor liquidity, high quality and stable cash flow, which are the basic conditions for using asset-backed securitization to finance, asset-backed securitization can be a new financing way for telecom enterprises.

  5. Real Option--A New Approach in the Evaluation of Telecom Investment Projects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Hong

    2005-01-01

    This paper gives a new method into the evaluating system of telecom investment projects, I.e. Real Option. This may overcome the defects resulted from employing Net Present Value (NPV), which is now used in the evaluation of telecom projects. A theoretical analysis of Real Option is provided, followed by an example of telecom investment project to illustrate the differences between the two methods.

  6. Energy Issues In Mobile Telecom Network: A Detailed Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Balagangadhar Rao

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Diesel and Conventional energy costs are increasing at twice the growth rate of revenues of Mobile Telecom Network infrastructure industry. There is an urgent need to reduce the Operating Expenditure (OPEX in this front. While bridging the rural and urban divide, Telecom Operators should adopt stronger regulations for climate control by reducing the Green house gases like CO2.This strengthens the business case for renewable energy technology usage. Solutions like Solar, Fuel Cells, Wind, Biomass, and Geothermal can be explored and implemented in the arena of energy starving Telecom sector. Such sources provide clean and green energy. They are free and infinitely available. These technologies which use the natural resources are not only suitable for stand alone applications but also have long life span. Their maintenance cost is quite minimal. Most important advantage of the use of these natural resources is to have a low Carbon foot print. These are silent energy sources. Out of these, Solar-based solutions are available as Ground (or Tower mounted variants. Hybrid Technology solutions like Solar-Solar, Solar-DCDG (Direct Current Diesel Generators or Solar-battery bank are to be put into use in order to cut down the OPEX (Operating Expenditure. Further, a single Multi Fuel Cell can also be used, which can run on Ethanol/Bio Fuel/Compressed Natural Gas (CNG/Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG/Pyrolysis oil. Also, storage solutions like Lithium ion batteries reduce the Diesel Generator run hours, offering about fifty percent of savings in operating expenditure front. A detailed analysis is made in this paper in respect of the Energy requirements of Mobile Telecom Network; Minimising the Operating Costs by the usage of the technologies that harvest Natural resources; Sharing the Infrastructure by different Operators and bringing Energy efficiency by adopting latest Storage back up technologies.

  7. Time-multiplexed measurements of nonclassical light at telecom wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, G.; Silberhorn, C.; Rehacek, J.; Hradil, Z.; Motka, L.; Stoklasa, B.; Sánchez-Soto, L. L.

    2014-10-01

    We report the experimental reconstruction of the statistical properties of an ultrafast pulsed type II parametric down-conversion source in a periodically poled potassium titanyl phosphate waveguide at telecom wavelengths, with almost perfect photon-number correlations. We use a photon-number-resolving time-multiplexed detector based on a fiber-optical setup and a pair of avalanche photodiodes. By resorting to a germane data-pattern tomography, we assess the properties of the nonclassical light states with unprecedented precision.

  8. Optical Telecom Networks as Weak Quantum Measurements with Postselection

    OpenAIRE

    Brunner, Nicolas; Acin, Antonio; Collins, Daniel Geoffrey; Gisin, Nicolas; Scarani, Valerio

    2003-01-01

    We show that weak measurements with post-selection, proposed in the context of the quantum theory of measurement, naturally appear in the everyday physics of fiber optics telecom networks through polarization-mode dispersion (PMD) and polarization-dependent losses (PDL). Specifically, the PMD leads to a time-resolved discrimination of polarization; the post-selection is done in the most natural way: one post-selects those photons that have not been lost because of the PDL. The quantum formali...

  9. Latent Clustering Models for Outlier Identification in Telecom Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Ouyang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Collected telecom data traffic has boomed in recent years, due to the development of 4G mobile devices and other similar high-speed machines. The ability to quickly identify unexpected traffic data in this stream is critical for mobile carriers, as it can be caused by either fraudulent intrusion or technical problems. Clustering models can help to identify issues by showing patterns in network data, which can quickly catch anomalies and highlight previously unseen outliers. In this article, we develop and compare clustering models for telecom data, focusing on those that include time-stamp information management. Two main models are introduced, solved in detail, and analyzed: Gaussian Probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis (GPLSA and time-dependent Gaussian Mixture Models (time-GMM. These models are then compared with other different clustering models, such as Gaussian model and GMM (which do not contain time-stamp information. We perform computation on both sample and telecom traffic data to show that the efficiency and robustness of GPLSA make it the superior method to detect outliers and provide results automatically with low tuning parameters or expertise requirement.

  10. Large deployable reflectors for telecom and earth observation applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scialino, L.; Ihle, A.; Migliorelli, M.; Gatti, N.; Datashvili, L.; van `t Klooster, K.; Santiago Prowald, J.

    2013-12-01

    Large deployable antennas are one of the key components for advanced missions in the fields of telecom and earth observation. In the recent past, missions have taken on board large deployable reflector (LDR) up to 22 m of diameter and several missions have already planned embarking large reflectors, such as the 12 m of INMARSAT XL or BIOMASS. At the moment, no European LDR providers are available and the market is dominated by Northrop-Grumman and Harris. Consequently, the development of European large reflector technology is considered a key step to maintain commercial and strategic competitiveness (ESA Large Reflector Antenna Working Group Final Report, TEC-EEA/2010.595/CM, 2010). In this scenario, the ESA General Study Project RESTEO (REflector Synergy between Telecom and Earth Observation), starting from the identification of future missions needs, has identified the most promising reflector concepts based on European heritage/technology, able to cover the largest range of potential future missions for both telecom and earth observation. This paper summarizes the activities and findings of the RESTEO Study.

  11. Euro Banknote Recognition System for Blind People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Dunai Dunai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of a portable system with the aim of allowing blind people to detect and recognize Euro banknotes. The developed device is based on a Raspberry Pi electronic instrument and a Raspberry Pi camera, Pi NoIR (No Infrared filter dotted with additional infrared light, which is embedded into a pair of sunglasses that permit blind and visually impaired people to independently handle Euro banknotes, especially when receiving their cash back when shopping. The banknote detection is based on the modified Viola and Jones algorithms, while the banknote value recognition relies on the Speed Up Robust Features (SURF technique. The accuracies of banknote detection and banknote value recognition are 84% and 97.5%, respectively.

  12. Euro Banknote Recognition System for Blind People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunai Dunai, Larisa; Chillarón Pérez, Mónica; Peris-Fajarnés, Guillermo; Lengua Lengua, Ismael

    2017-01-20

    This paper presents the development of a portable system with the aim of allowing blind people to detect and recognize Euro banknotes. The developed device is based on a Raspberry Pi electronic instrument and a Raspberry Pi camera, Pi NoIR (No Infrared filter) dotted with additional infrared light, which is embedded into a pair of sunglasses that permit blind and visually impaired people to independently handle Euro banknotes, especially when receiving their cash back when shopping. The banknote detection is based on the modified Viola and Jones algorithms, while the banknote value recognition relies on the Speed Up Robust Features (SURF) technique. The accuracies of banknote detection and banknote value recognition are 84% and 97.5%, respectively.

  13. Euro Banknote Recognition System for Blind People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunai Dunai, Larisa; Chillarón Pérez, Mónica; Peris-Fajarnés, Guillermo; Lengua Lengua, Ismael

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a portable system with the aim of allowing blind people to detect and recognize Euro banknotes. The developed device is based on a Raspberry Pi electronic instrument and a Raspberry Pi camera, Pi NoIR (No Infrared filter) dotted with additional infrared light, which is embedded into a pair of sunglasses that permit blind and visually impaired people to independently handle Euro banknotes, especially when receiving their cash back when shopping. The banknote detection is based on the modified Viola and Jones algorithms, while the banknote value recognition relies on the Speed Up Robust Features (SURF) technique. The accuracies of banknote detection and banknote value recognition are 84% and 97.5%, respectively. PMID:28117703

  14. Single telecom photon heralding by wavelength multiplexing in an optical fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhard, Andreas; Brito, José; Kucera, Stephan; Bock, Matthias; Eschner, Jürgen; Becher, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the multiplexing of a weak coherent and a quantum state of light in a single telecommunication fiber. For this purpose, we make use of spontaneous parametric down conversion and quantum frequency conversion to generate photon pairs at 854 nm and the telecom O-band. The herald photon at 854 nm triggers a telecom C-band laser pulse. The telecom single photon (O-band) and the laser pulse (C-band) are combined and coupled to a standard telecom fiber. Low-background time correlation between the weak coherent and quantum signal behind the fiber shows successful multiplexing.

  15. The Euro as a Reserve Currency

    OpenAIRE

    Adamczyk, Marzena

    2010-01-01

    There has been an unusual accumulation of foreign exchange reserves in recent years. Central banks have to diversify their reserves away from the US dollar, especially towards the euro. The same situation is in a private sector, where investors reduce the share of dollar denominated assets. This process has progressed gradually, but it is possible that the euro’s role as a reserve currency will continue to increase. The purpose of ...

  16. Minister denies fudging in quest for euro

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Rahandusminister Jürgen Ligi kinnitas, et Eesti ei ole eurokriteeriumi täitmiseks mingeid pettusi rakendanud. Mart Laar leiab, et euro kasutuselevõttu võib segada tööpuuduse kõrge tase. Riigikogu rahanduskomisjoni esimees Taavi Rõivas ei usu, et kõrge tööpuudus võiks euroga liitumist edasi lükata

  17. On The Road to Euro: How Synchronized Is Estonia with the Euro zone?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brixiova, Zuzana

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available While the currency board served Estonia well during transition in the 1990s, it has limited its ability to counter the impact of the global financial crisis and heightened the currency risks. The euro adoption has thus become a top policy priority again. However, this paper finds that even after almost two decades of hard peg with the core of the euro zone shocks affecting Estonia are relatively weakly synchronized with those of the zone, contributing to large output volatility. Nevertheless, the case for euro adoption by Estonia holds, since the costs of the loss of independent monetary policy were paid, and - as the global financial crisis demonstrated - the currency board is no substitute for the common currency. To reduce future output volatility, Estonia should move to counter-cyclical fiscal policies, maintain labor and product market flexibility, and adopt policies stimulating rise in the knowledge and high-tech content of its production.

  18. Rede de Negócios em Empresas de Telecomunicações: O Caso Algar Telecom

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Patricia Viveiros de Castro Krakauer; Jaércio Alex Silva Barbosa; Rita de Cácia Rodrigues de Oliveira Knop

    2015-01-01

      This study turns to the topic of business networking in telecom companies and has as its object of study Algar Telecom, which stands out for being one of the most innovative and profitable companies...

  19. 意军Euro Cargo/Euro Trakker系列运输车一瞥

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高艺

    2007-01-01

    意大利军队装备的Euro Cargo/Euro Trakker系列运输车是依维柯公司生产的民用运输车的军选民用型,包括多种型号,可以适应特殊作战需求。该系列运输车采用传统的外形设计,全部采用民用动力传动部件。

  20. Fraud Risk Modelling: Requirements Elicitation in the Case of Telecom Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yesuf, Ahmed; Wolos, Lars Peter; Rannenberg, Kai

    2017-01-01

    . In this paper, we highlight the important requirements for a usable and context-aware fraud risk modelling approach for Telecom services. To do so, we have conducted two workshops with experts from a Telecom provider and experts from multi-disciplinary areas. In order to show and document the requirements, we...

  1. Focusing on Telecom Services%电信业大打服务牌

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜燕鹏

    2005-01-01

    From the opening of the information industry working meeting to now, almost in all meetings and proseminars we can find the same keyword: telecom services. Now several domestic telecom giants also walk out of the price war, and pay more attention to their services. It is true that services should be regarded as it is now.

  2. Study on the Cost Calculation of Local Fixed Telecom Network Based on Unbundled Network Elements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Liang; LIANG Xiong-jian; HUANG Xiu-qing

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, according to the practical condition of local fixed telecom network, based on the method of the realistic total element long-run incremental cost, the practical methods of dividing the network elements, calculating the cost of network elements and services are given, to provide reference for the cost calculation in telecom industry.

  3. Education in methodology for health care--EuroMISE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvárová, J

    1994-06-01

    In January 1993 the Joint European Project "Education in the methodology field of health care", EuroMISE (European Education in Medical Informatics, Statistics and Epidemiology) started under the European TEMPUS program. Training and education in EuroMISE consist of three overlapping methodology branches: medical informatics, medical statistics, and epidemiology. A teaching scheme has been developed in cooperation between Charles University, Prague, and EC universities and organizations involved in the EuroMISE project. One of the main tasks of the project is to design a modularly structured EuroMISE course set, to develop teaching materials and tools in the English language, and to link the EuroMISE project with other programs and projects in this field. Running EuroMISE courses, firstly for university teachers, will have a major impact in disseminating the acquired knowledge and skills.

  4. Modular system design for plastic euro pallets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Tepić

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Although pallet, as a tool, yields significant and widely recognized economic effects in production and distribution systems, it is still not fully utilized, indicating that it needs to be defined and developed as a specific product. Euro pallet product was designed using PRO/ENGINEER software system CAD module, as one of the most popular Cax systems, yielding a pallet of novel modular design that meets all the operational requirements of the existing range. The chosen material ensures high pallet longevity and durability, in line with the concept of sustainable development.

  5. EURO2008 - practical information from the police

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The Geneva cantonal police have set up a toll-free telephone line to deal with questions and requests from the public as rapidly and simply as possible. The number is 0800 800 844, and the line will be open from 8 a.m. to 2 a.m. every day from 2 June to 30 June 2008. 0800 800 844 Detailed security recommendations for the individual matches will be posted at http://www.ge.ch/euro2008/securite/securite_en.asp

  6. EURO2008 - Informations utiles de la police

    CERN Multimedia

    DSU Department

    2008-01-01

    (English version next week) Durant le mois de juin, afin de garantir une proximité maximale, la Police cantonale genevoise répond à toutes les questions et sollicitations avec un numéro de téléphone vert gratuit du 2 au 30 juin 2008, de 08h00 à 02h00 au 0800 800 844 Vous trouverez toutes les informations utiles concernant la sécurité, match par match, sur le site http://www.ge.ch/euro2008/securite/securite.asp

  7. Influence of Advertising Appeals and Personality on Telecoms Consumption Preferences in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnabas E. Nwankwo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This research purposely studied the influence of advertising appeals and consumer personality on telecoms consumption preferences, using MTN telecoms service as the product of study and 150 participants from Enugu metropolis and Agbani, Enugu state, Nigeria; age range of 16 to 35 years with a mean age of 23 years and standard deviation of 3. The research was empirically tested, using a two-way ANOVA (F-test for the analysis, with the purpose of finding out if there will be an influence of advertising appeals and consumer personality on telecoms consumption preferences and if there will be any interaction effect. The findings are as follows; there was a significant influence of advertising appeals on telecoms consumption preferences; there was no significant influence of personality on telecoms consumption preferences, there was no significant influence of the interaction effect. Implication and limitations and recommendation were made for future research.

  8. The Telecom Lab is moving to the Building 2, in front of the Main Building

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2011-01-01

      As of 28 September 2011, the Telecom Lab will move to the Building 2/1-046. Please note that the Telecom Lab desk will be closed on 28 of September due to the move. However, for all urgent matters, please contact the Telecom Lab by mail or by phone. The Telecom Lab is the central point for all support questions regarding CERN mobile phone services (provision of SIM cards, requests for modifications of subscriptions, diagnostics for mobile phone problems, etc.). The opening hours as well as the contact details for the Telecom Lab remain unchanged. New location:                Building 2/1-046 Opening hours:              From Monday to Friday, from 8 a.m. to 6 p.m. Phone number:      ...

  9. Perception of Euro in Poland – Economic and Psychological Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Matyja

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Diagnosis of the opportunities and threats associated with the introduction of the euro in Poland was the main focus of this study. The research had two main objectives: exploratory and operational. The exploratory objective was to capture the structure of convictions affecting Poles’ attitudes toward the introduction of the euro. The operational objective was to verify which of those convictions have the most infl uence on the lack of support for the introduction of the euro. Methodology: The research was conducted with a national random sample (n=509 of Polish citizens. The CAPI/ CASI face-to-face questionnaire was used. Findings: There exists a multi-level structure of attitudes towards the euro. The attitude toward the introduction of the euro is explained by attitudes toward the euro and the Polish zloty, perceived gains and losses from introduction of the euro and life attitudes. One cannot force another individual to support the introduction of the euro. However, one can act upon the convictions of the nation, which has a major impact on raising euro acceptance. The most impact is from strengthening of national beliefs, which strongly and positively affect the level of euro acceptance, whereas any reduction lowers the acceptance of the introduction of a new currency. Limitations: As any other social phenomena, money perception is very dynamic and dependent on current political and social issues. Therefore, despite the fact that the model seems to defi ne the factors and their influence on euro perception very accurately, it is essential that every time it is applied, the current state of mind of the society is measured. Furthermore, additional research should be conducted for groups deviating from the average results for the society. Originality: The practical aspect of this research is the opportunity to point out convictions, which need to be modified to increase euro acceptance.

  10. Sampling time error in EuroSCORE II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poullis, Michael; Fabri, Brian; Pullan, Mark; Chalmers, John

    2012-05-01

    Seasonal variation in mortality after cardiac surgery exists. EuroSCORE II accrued data over a 12-week period from May to July 2010. We investigated whether the accrual period for EuroSCORE II had a different mortality rate compared with the rest of the year. We found in a study population of 18,706 that the accrual period of EuroSCORE II may introduce bias into the predicted mortality, potentially reducing the accuracy of the new model.

  11. General Court rules trading in euro securities not to be restricted to euro area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delivorias, A.; Mańko, R.

    2015-01-01

    On 4 March 2015 the General Court of the EU, in a case brought by the United Kingdom, ruled that the European Central Bank's 'Eurosystem Oversight Policy Framework' is illegal in so far as it requires that 'central counterparties' have to be located within the euro area. The ECB or any Member State

  12. TDMA demand assignment operation in Telecom 1 business services network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombard, D.; Rancy, F.

    Telecom 1 is a French domestic satellite whose main function is the establishment of an intracompany network carrying a wide range of digital services, including digital data, voice, and images, among a large number of earth stations located on the subscriber's premises. This satellite system is to begin operations in 1983 from a geostationary orbit, using five 6-MHz bandwidth transponders in the 14/12 GHz band. TDMA with Demand Assignment will be employed, and the system is designed to provide additional, link-by-link cryptographic or error correction encoding facilities when a high degree of privacy or transmission quality are desired.

  13. Technology Scaling Impact on Embedded ADC Design for Telecom Receivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jannik Hammel; Andreani, Pietro; Malcovati, Piero

    2005-01-01

    -frequency, medium-resolution applications. The design of a 10 bit 20 MS/s ADC using the successive approximation algorithm is presented in order to validate the presented concepts. By using a deep-submicron technology, the speed of the chosen architecture is pushed to meet the desired output rate.......This paper is concerned with the impact of technology scaling on the choice of A/D converters in telecom receivers. It is shown that the trend of diminishing feature size, together with better matching of passive components, allows the use of A/D topologies traditionally confined to low...

  14. TARGET - NEW PAYMENT SYSTEM FOR THE EURO AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELENA VIOLETA DRĂGOI

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available At EU level, the funds transfer systems have undergone significant changes starting with the introduction of euro. The launch of the euro, the emergence of new technologies, introduction of financial innovations and the globalization have led to reorganization of funds transfer systems` infrastructure. The paper aims to offer an analysis of actual payment system for Euro area, a trans-European funds transfer system with gross settlement in real-time for payments in euro TARGET- to increase economical and operational efficiency of payments and also to reduce the risks in the electronic funds transfer system by creating efficient and secure payment systems.

  15. Integrated modeling of the Euro50

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Torben E.; Browne, Michael T.; Enmark, Anita; Moraru, Dan; Owner-Petersen, Mette; Riewaldt, Holger

    2004-07-01

    The Euro50 is a proposed 50 m optical and infrared telescope. It will have thousands of control loops to keep the optics aligned under influence of wind, gravity and thermal loads. Cross-disciplinary integrated modeling is used to study the overall performance of the Euro50. A sub-model of the mechanical structure originates from finite element modeling. The optical performance is determined using ray tracing, both non-linear and linearized. The primary mirror segment alignment control system is modeled with the 618 segments taken as rigid bodies. Adaptive optics is included using a layered model of the atmosphere and sub-models of the wavefront sensor, reconstructor and controller. The deformable mirror is, so far, described by a simple influence function and a second order dynamical transfer function but more detailed work is in progress. The model has been implemented using Matlab/Simulink on individual computers but it will shortly be implemented on a Beowulf cluster within a trusted network. Communication routines between Matlab on the cluster processors have been written and are being benchmarked. Representative results from the simulations are shown.

  16. Mars expert Edwin, 17, amazes Euro.

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Edwin Kite represented the UK in the 'Life in the Universe' competition held at CERN, Geneva. In his presentation Could Mars Have Supported Advanced Life?, he presented models of the Martian atmosphere over thousands of millions of years and demonstrated how the Red Planet could have sustained algae-like life between 3 and 4 thousand million years ago (1/2 page).

  17. Mr Cameron's Three Million Apprenticeships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Martin

    2015-01-01

    In the 2015 general election campaign David Cameron celebrated the success of apprenticeships during the Coalition and promised another 3 million. This article argues that the "reinvention" of apprenticeships has neither created real skills nor provided real alternatives for young people and that the UK schemes fall far short of those in…

  18. Communication by euro area central bankers : structure, information and effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, D.J.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis is an empirical study of communication by euro area central bankers. Its remainder is structured as follows: chapter 2, ECB communication during the first years of the EMU, describes communication by euro area central bankers during the period January 1999 to May 2002. Amongst other thin

  19. EuroGOV: Engineering a Multilingual Web Corpus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sigurbjörnsson, B.; Kamps, J.; de Rijke, M.

    2005-01-01

    EuroGOV is a multilingual web corpus that was created to serve as the document collection for WebCLEF, the CLEF 2005 web retrieval task. EuroGOV is a collection of web pages crawled from the European Union portal, European Union member state governmental web sites, and Russian government web sites.

  20. Economic, social, political benefits and effects of introducing the Euro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian M. TRUICHICI

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to present the advantages, disadvantages and consequences of introducing the euro, which are analyzed in several aspects: for consumers, for companies, for the euro area countries, for the European economy, for the society, for the NGO’s and administration.

  1. Are there political budget cycles in the euro area?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mink, Mark; de Haan, Jakob

    This article examines whether there is a political budget cycle (PBC) in countries in the euro area. Using a multivariate model for 1999-2004 and various election indicators we find strong evidence that, since the start of the Stability and Growth Pact, fiscal policy-makers in the euro area have

  2. Are there political budget cycles in the euro area?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mink, Mark; de Haan, Jakob

    2006-01-01

    This article examines whether there is a political budget cycle (PBC) in countries in the euro area. Using a multivariate model for 1999-2004 and various election indicators we find strong evidence that, since the start of the Stability and Growth Pact, fiscal policy-makers in the euro area have pur

  3. Impacts of the Euro on the Slovenian Tourism Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Nemec Rudež

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the impacts of the Euro adoption in Slovenia on its tourism. For this purpose, the empirical research among foreign tourists in Slovenia was conducted on their perceptions of the Euro adoption in Slovenia during the second half of 2007. The multivariate factor analysis was performed, which confirmed the four common dimensions of the Euro impacts on Slovenian tourism: attractiveness, costs, expensiveness, and comparison. The mean values of the analyzed items indicate the most positive impacts of the Euro on the direct price comparison and the easiness of comparison among tourist destinations in the Euro zone. The empirical results suggest that the Euro adoption has had the greatest impacts on better comparisons among tourist destinations in the Euro zone, followed by a significant decline in travel-operational costs. The increase in the expensiveness of the destination among foreign tourists is confirmed, whereas no significant improvement in the attractiveness of Slovenia as a tourist destination was proved after the Euro adoption.

  4. Võlakriis kukutas euro nelja aasta madalaimale tasemele / Kaja Koovit

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koovit, Kaja, 1968-

    2010-01-01

    Euro kukkus dollari suhtes enam kui nelja aasta madalaimale tasemele. Odav euro meeldib Euroopa eksportijaile, samas kardavad analüütikud, et kui Kreeka ei suuda oma võlakohustusi täita mõjutab see maailma finantsturge samuti kui investeerimispanga Lehman Brothers kokkukukkumine

  5. Forecasting the Euro exchange rate using vector error correction models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarle, B. van; Bos, M.; Hlouskova, J.

    2000-01-01

    Forecasting the Euro Exchange Rate Using Vector Error Correction Models. — This paper presents an exchange rate model for the Euro exchange rates of four major currencies, namely the US dollar, the British pound, the Japanese yen and the Swiss franc. The model is based on the monetary approach of ex

  6. EuroGOV: Engineering a Multilingual Web Corpus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sigurbjörnsson, B.; Kamps, J.; de Rijke, M.

    2005-01-01

    EuroGOV is a multilingual web corpus that was created to serve as the document collection for WebCLEF, the CLEF 2005 web retrieval task. EuroGOV is a collection of web pages crawled from the European Union portal, European Union member state governmental web sites, and Russian government web sites.

  7. Võlakriis kukutas euro nelja aasta madalaimale tasemele / Kaja Koovit

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koovit, Kaja, 1968-

    2010-01-01

    Euro kukkus dollari suhtes enam kui nelja aasta madalaimale tasemele. Odav euro meeldib Euroopa eksportijaile, samas kardavad analüütikud, et kui Kreeka ei suuda oma võlakohustusi täita mõjutab see maailma finantsturge samuti kui investeerimispanga Lehman Brothers kokkukukkumine

  8. The Euro Crisis in Online Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uldam, Julie; Kaun, Anne

    2013-01-01

    While Scandinavian countries may be coping with the Euro crisis relatively better than most other European countries, they are far from unaffected. Nonetheless, the mainstream media have represented Scandinavia and Sweden as prime examples of resilience at a governmental level (i.e. the ability...... the financial crisis) remain largely absent from mainstream media reports. Instead, civil society initiatives that respond to the consequences of the crisis have to rely on self-representation and sharing of resources in online media. One example is the Swedish grassroots organisation, Megafonen....... of a national economy to withstand, adapt and overcome the financial crisis), disregarding the consequences of growing inequalities and the dismantling of welfare state. Consequently, reports on resilience at the civil society level (i.e. the ability of citizens and communities to withstand, adapt and overcome...

  9. Political economy of the euro area crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dadak Casimir

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available For many experts the true motivation behind the introduction of a single currency in Europe is political rather than economic. This view is based on the fact that the euro area does not constitute an optimal currency area and, therefore, the costs of monetary integration are likely to outweigh the benefits. In particular, the loss of control over monetary policy and exchange rates make overcoming asymmetric demand-side shocks very painful. Moreover, the monetary union lacks a common fiscal authority that could help in smoothing out business cycles. The present crisis exposed these vulnerabilities and, unfortunately, so far economic policies adopted in the region have failed to rectify these shortcomings.

  10. Lessons from the "Euro-Phospholipid" project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervera, Ricard

    2008-01-01

    The "Euro-Phospholipid" project started in 1999 with a multicentre, consecutive and prospective design. A total cohort of 1000 patients with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), derived from 13 countries (Belgium, Bulgaria, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Israel, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain and United Kingdom), has been followed since then by a European consortium that was created as part of the network promoted by the "European Forum on Antiphospholipid Antibodies", a study group devoted to the development of multicentre projects with large populations of APS patients. This project allowed the identification of the prevalence and characteristics of the main clinical and immunological manifestations at the onset and during the evolution of APS and demonstrated that it is possible to recognize more homogeneous subsets of clinical significance.

  11. The Euro Crisis in Online Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uldam, Julie; Kaun, Anne

    2013-01-01

    While Scandinavian countries may be coping with the Euro crisis relatively better than most other European countries, they are far from unaffected. Nonetheless, the mainstream media have represented Scandinavia and Sweden as prime examples of resilience at a governmental level (i.e. the ability...... of a national economy to withstand, adapt and overcome the financial crisis), disregarding the consequences of growing inequalities and the dismantling of welfare state. Consequently, reports on resilience at the civil society level (i.e. the ability of citizens and communities to withstand, adapt and overcome...... the financial crisis) remain largely absent from mainstream media reports. Instead, civil society initiatives that respond to the consequences of the crisis have to rely on self-representation and sharing of resources in online media. One example is the Swedish grassroots organisation, Megafonen....

  12. ANALYSIS OF ECONOMIC SHOCKS AFFECTING EURO AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIUS-CORNELIU MARINAS

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to explain the causes of economic shocks that are manifested in the euro area countries and to examine the possibilities of their adjustment in the context of a common monetary policy. The member countries of the European Monetary Union can not use its own exchange rate or monetary policy to neutralize the economic shocks. Therefore, they must find new ways to adjust the shocks such increase labor market flexibility and promoting reforms in the areas with significant structural rigidities. Common monetary policy also generates asymmetric shocks, as long as Member States are in different phases of the business cycle. In this study I have demonstrated that the ECB's monetary policy has favored Germany and has disadvantaged the countries confronted in present with problems of debt financing.

  13. Group-Oriented Services: A Shift towards Consumer-Managed Relationships in the Telecom Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrdoljak, Luka; Bojic, Iva; Podobnik, Vedran; Jezic, Gordan; Kusek, Mario

    Today, telecom operators face a threefold challenge: a social challenge dealing with the evolution of the consumer lifestyle, a technological challenge dealing with ever changing ICT trends and a business challenge dealing with the need for innovative business models. This paper introduces an idea of group-oriented services, a special type of personalized telecom services, as a possible solution for all three of these challenges. A proof-of-concept service, called Agent-Based Mobile Content Brokerage, is presented and elaborated with the aim to demonstrate a shift towards consumer-managed relationships, a novel provisioning paradigm within the telecom industry.

  14. NOx emissions of Euro 5 and Euro 6 diesel passenger cars - test results in the lab and on the road

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kadijk, G.; Ligterink, N.E.; Mensch, P. van; Smokers, R.T.M.

    2016-01-01

    This document contains results from emission tests, carried out by TNO in the period 2010-20151. The specific focus is on NOx emissions of Euro 5 and Euro 6 diesel passenger cars. The emission tests were carried out as part of a project conducted by TNO for the Dutch Ministry of Infrastructure and t

  15. PREPAID TELECOM CUSTOMERS SEGMENTATION USING THE K-MEAN ALGORITHM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marar Liviu Ioan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The scope of relationship marketing is to retain customers and win their loyalty. This can be achieved if the companies’ products and services are developed and sold considering customers’ demands. Fulfilling customers’ demands, taken as the starting point of relationship marketing, can be obtained by acknowledging that the customers’ needs and wishes are heterogeneous. The segmentation of the customers’ base allows operators to overcome this because it illustrates the whole heterogeneous market as the sum of smaller homogeneous markets. The concept of segmentation relies on the high probability of persons grouped into segments based on common demands and behaviours to have a similar response to marketing strategies. This article focuses on the segmentation of a telecom customer base according to specific and noticeable criteria of a certain service. Although the segmentation concept is widely approached in professional literature, articles on the segmentation of a telecom customer base are very scarce, due to the strategic nature of this information. Market segmentation is carried out based on how customers spent their money on credit recharging, on making calls, on sending SMS and on Internet navigation. The method used for customer segmentation is the K-mean cluster analysis. To assess the internal cohesion of the clusters we employed the average sum of squares error indicator, and to determine the differences among the clusters we used the ANOVA and the post-hoc Tukey tests. The analyses revealed seven customer segments with different features and behaviours. The results enable the telecom company to conceive marketing strategies and planning which lead to better understanding of its customers’ needs and ultimately to a more efficient relationship with the subscribers and enhanced customer satisfaction. At the same time, the results enable the description and characterization of expenditure patterns

  16. The telecom reform process in Europe and the upcoming challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders

    2013-01-01

    an introduction to the telecom reform process based on previous research and the papers in this issue of info. Findings – The introduction argues that the European telecommunication reform process with the telecommunications green paper of 1987 as an important point of departure has been a success in many ways......Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief introduction to the telecommunication reform process in Europe, its status, and upcoming policy issues. Furthermore, it also aims to provide an overview of the papers in this special issue. Design/methodology/approach – The paper provides....... It has, for example, facilitated the development of mobile, of the internet and its many applications, and considerably lowered prices. However, there are important areas where a single European market has not developed. Moreover, new challenges are rising in terms of upcoming reconfigurations...

  17. Antecedents of job satisfaction: A study of telecom sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ramay

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This study is based on the assumption that “a happy worker is a productive worker”. The research was conducted to identify the significance of those factors that lead towards job satisfaction and commitment of employees working in the telecom sector of Pakistan. The associations among pay and benefits, performance appraisal system, career development and management, supervision and collegiality and open communication (independent variables were investigated with job satisfaction (dependent variable. The relationship between job satisfaction (dependent variable and job commitment (outcome was also hypothesized. Through questionnaire survey responses from 221 employees working at managerial and non-managerial positions were collected, which showed the significant association of supervision and collegiality and open communication on job satisfaction. Furthermore, job satisfaction was also found highly correlated and dependent upon job commitment. Managerial implications and conclusions are presented based upon these results.

  18. Cost Characteristics of Telecom Networks and their Implications for Market Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falch, Morten

    1997-01-01

    The paper analyses the cost structure of telecom operators and test the hypotheses of economies of scale and economies of density. The impact of new technologies and the regulatory implications are analysed.......The paper analyses the cost structure of telecom operators and test the hypotheses of economies of scale and economies of density. The impact of new technologies and the regulatory implications are analysed....

  19. Technology-driven industry evolution in the telecom sector: The comparative case of Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Valarezo Garcia, Jose

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this Thesis is to analyze the current situation of the telecom industry in Ecuador and its tendencies as part of the Telecom, Media and Technology TMT industry. The analysis elaborates about the ongoing effects at the industry and business levels of the widespread of mainstream products and services in the TMT market in the case of Ecuador, benchmarking it with the global context. In this sense, the case study is developed by addressing the following question: How the widesprea...

  20. Cost Characteristics of Telecom Networks and their Implications for Market Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falch, Morten

    1997-01-01

    The paper analyses the cost structure of telecom operators and test the hypotheses of economies of scale and economies of density. The impact of new technologies and the regulatory implications are analysed.......The paper analyses the cost structure of telecom operators and test the hypotheses of economies of scale and economies of density. The impact of new technologies and the regulatory implications are analysed....

  1. New strategies of industrial organization: outsourcing and consolidation in the mobile telecom sector in India

    OpenAIRE

    Sumangala Damodaran

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The paper discusses the experience of the mobile telecom sector in India in terms of its business organization. There is a high level of outsourcing of activities, including those such as network management, which would usually be included within the core competence of mobile telecom companies. This outsourcing strategy, pioneered by Bharti Airtel, has resulted in considerable cost savings and increased profits for a small number of core employees of the lead firm. At the same time, ...

  2. Developing Motivational and Coaching Skills in Telecom Companies. A comparative study between Batelco and Zain, Bahrain

    OpenAIRE

    Kadhem, Sayed Mohamed J E

    2009-01-01

    Over the last 20 years, the telecommunication industry has grown rapidly and has become one of the major business markets in the Kingdom of Bahrain. Today it can be considered as the fastest growing segment of trade and business development in the country. Since 2000, monopoly of the telecom market has been demolished as the government has modified the policy of licensing mobile enterprises. This, along with the advanced technology in telecom sector, has led to the launching of numerous compe...

  3. EuroMInd-D: A Density Estimate of Monthly Gross Domestic Product for the Euro Area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proietti, Tommaso; Marczak, Martyna; Mazzi, Gianluigi

    EuroMInd-D is a density estimate of monthly gross domestic product (GDP) constructed according to a bottom–up approach, pooling the density estimates of eleven GDP components, by output and expenditure type. The components density estimates are obtained from a medium-size dynamic factor model...... parameters, and conditional simulation filters for simulating from the predictive distribution of GDP. Both algorithms process sequentially the data as they become available in real time. The GDP density estimates for the output and expenditure approach are combined using alternative weighting schemes...

  4. Estonia's accession to the euro area / Mart Sõrg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sõrg, Mart, 1943-

    2006-01-01

    Eesti astumine Euroopa Liidu liikmeks mais 2004 tõi kaasa kohustuse liituda ka europiirkonnaga. Ettevalmistused kulgevad seaduse harmoniseerimise, euro kasutuselevõtu tehnilise ettevalmistuse ning majanduse stabiilsus- ja kasvupakti nõuetele vastavusse viimise osas

  5. Euro pole enam mägede taga / Vahur Kraft

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kraft, Vahur, 1961-

    2003-01-01

    Ühisraha kasutuselevõtuks peab iga riik vastama majandus- ja rahapoliitilistele eeldustele, mis näitavad valmisolekut uuele rahale üleminekuks. Eestis tuleb euro kasutusele mitte varem kui 2006. a.

  6. Mündikeskne euro sunnib muudatustele / Agnes Ojala

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ojala, Agnes

    2010-01-01

    Eurole ülemineku tõttu ootavad kaubandust ja teenindust ees mitmed muutused. Eesti Pank kavatseb pärast euro kasutuselevõttu krooni paberraha ja mündid üle lugeda ning hävitada. Riikide kogemus näitab, et pärast euro kasutuselevõttu hakatakse eelistama kaardimakseid ning müntide hulk jaekaubanduses väheneb

  7. Siracusa, EuroMediterranean Smart City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Minozzi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available About three years ago, the City of Siracusa has started a serious reflection about the crisis, about its model of development and its problems related to its territorial marginality. In this context, it lodged a service "Complex Programs and EU Policies" internal the Department of Public Works as the first embryo of the future Urban Center in Siracusa. The Smarter Cities Challenge program, sponsored by IBM, provides, for the years 2011-2012-2013 a selection through a call, a hundred cities around the world that offer a program of counseling on territorial issues, urban, social, exposed by the city in challenge. The program for 2012, selected Siracusa, the only Italian city in a hundred choices, with a theme that emphasizes the need to find methods (smart to integrate the two systems, the industrial and the historical, cultural, into the overall Siracusa system territorial. The advent of smart policies also confirms the trend that characterized the most evolved from the most marginal realities in Europe. For the realities of the Euro-Mediterranean area, such as Siracusa, the winners model’s urban policies originate from the most evolved and developed, where the economy is more structured and able to assume the active role of actors development and urban transformations. So, a universal language of transformations really exist? The same model development produces the same results everywhere, regardless the places and the people tribe? To promote smart Siracusa means, not only, economic innovation promotion, social inclusion and environmental sustainability, but also: Siracusa intends to strengthen its image as innovation land and to evolve into a center of excellence for smart policies.

  8. Earth: 15 Million Years Ago

    CERN Document Server

    Mizushima, Masataka

    2008-01-01

    In Einstein's general relativity theory the metric component gxx in the direction of motion (x-direction) of the sun deviates from unity due to a tensor potential caused by the black hole existing around the center of the galaxy. Because the solar system is orbiting around the galactic center at 200 km/s, the theory shows that the Newtonian gravitational potential due to the sun is not quite radial. At the present time, the ecliptic plane is almost perpendicular to the galactic plane, consistent with this modification of the Newtonian gravitational force. The ecliptic plane is assumed to maintain this orientation in the galactic space as it orbits around the galactic center, but the rotational angular momentum of the earth around its own axis can be assumed to be conserved. The earth is between the sun and the galactic center at the summer solstice all the time. As a consequence, the rotational axis of the earth would be parallel to the axis of the orbital rotation of the earth 15 million years ago, if the so...

  9. Surface-enhanced gallium arsenide photonic resonator with a quality factor of six million

    CERN Document Server

    Guha, Biswarup; Cadiz, Fabian; Morgenroth, Laurence; Ulin, Vladimir; Berkovitz, Vladimir; Lemaître, Aristide; Gomez, Carmen; Amo, Alberto; Combrié, Sylvian; Gérard, Bruno; Leo, Giuseppe; Favero, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Gallium Arsenide and related compound semiconductors lie at the heart of optoelectronics and integrated laser technologies. Shaped at the micro and nano-scale, they allow strong interaction with quantum dots and quantum wells, and promise to result in stunning devices. However gallium arsenide optical structures presently exhibit lower performances than their silicon-based counterparts, notably in nanophotonics where the surface plays a chief role. Here we report on advanced surface control of miniature gallium arsenide optical resonators, using two distinct techniques that produce permanent results. One leads to extend the lifetime of free-carriers and enhance luminescence, while the other strongly reduces surface absorption originating from mid-gap states and enables ultra-low optical dissipation devices. With such surface control, the quality factor of wavelength-sized optical disk resonators is observed to rise up to six million at telecom wavelength, greatly surpassing previous realizations and opening n...

  10. Report on the Design, Development and Compilation of a Bilingual Multifunctional Intranet-based Convergence Telecom Lexinome at a Major Danish Telecoms Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Henrik Køhler

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses the conceptual considerations for the design and development of an Intranet-based lexicographic knowledge management system at Tele Danmark (TD). The Convergence Telecom Lexinome is thus the result of the interplay between theory and practice. The design and development of CT...

  11. Progress towards a quantum memory with telecom-frequency conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stack, Daniel; Lee, Patricia J.; Quraishi, Qudsia

    2014-05-01

    Quantum networks provide conduits capable of transmitting quantum information that connect to nodes at remote locations where the quantum information can be stored or processed. Fiber-based transmission of quantum information over long distances may be achieved using quantum memory elements and quantum repeater protocols. However, atombased quantum memories typically involve interactions with light fields outside the telecom window needed to minimize absorption in transmission by optical fibers. We report on progress towards a quantum memory based on the generation of 795 nm spontaneously emitted single photons by a write-laser beam interacting with a cold 87Rb ensemble. The single photons are then frequency-converted into (out of) the telecomm band via difference (sum) frequency generation in a PPLN crystal. Finally, the atomic state is read out via the interaction of a read-pulse with the quantum memory. With such a system, it will be possible to realize a long-lived quantum memory that will allow transmission of quantum information over many kilometers with high fidelity, essential for a scalable, long-distance quantum network.

  12. Optimization of a Quantum Memory with Telecom-Wavelength Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stack, Daniel; Grissom, Ian; Tang, Priscilla; Lee, Patricia; Quraishi, Qudsia

    2014-05-01

    Quantum networks provide conduits capable of transmitting quantum information that connect to nodes at remote locations where the quantum information can be stored or processed. Fiber-based transmission of quantum information over long distances may be achieved using quantum memory elements and quantum repeater protocols. We report on progress towards a quantum memory based on the generation of off-axis, spontaneously emitted single photons by a 795 nm write-laser beam interacting with a cold 87Rb ensemble. The detection of a single photon heralds the creation of a spin wave in the atomic cloud. Single photons associated with undesirable optical transitions are filtered out by an 85Rb vapor cell filled with a buffer gas whose optical density is augmented with light induced atom desorption (LIAD) and heating. The photons are converted into the telecom band by difference frequency generation in a PPLN crystal and sent down a long optical fiber. The atomic state is read out via the interaction of a read-pulse with the quantum memory. With such a system, it will be possible to realize a long-lived quantum memory that will allow transmission of quantum information over many kilometers with high fidelity, essential for a scalable, long-distance quantum network.

  13. An Investigation of Telecom Mobile Data Billing Plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Bing Lin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, mobile operators have provided many billing alternatives such as limited and unlimited billing plans, and shared and non-shared data plans for the users with different needs. A non-shared data plan is designed for a single user with a limited monthly data allowance. On the other hand, the monthly data allowance of a shared data plan is shared by a group of users with multiple devices. The mobile operators often conduct the primary price study to compare their billing plans, which shows the relationship between the prices of the billing plans against the fixed amounts of data usage. Although the primary price study can easily and quickly draw the conclusions, it only provides rough billing plan suggestions. In reality, the amounts of data usage are not fixed, and therefore should be measured from commercial mobile networks to reflect the user behaviors on data usage. This paper proposes an analytical approach by using the measured data of Chunghwa Telecom Co., Ltd. (CHT, the largest telecommunications company in Taiwan, to derive the expected payments of various billing plans. The results of the analytical model are more accurate than those of the primary price study, and therefore provide better suggestions for billing plan selection. Other mobile operators can easily use our model to analyze the billing alternatives with their measured data.

  14. Progress Towards a Quantum Memory with Telecom-Wavelength Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stack, Daniel; Quraishi, Qudsia; Lee, Patricia; Grissom, Ian; Meyers, Ronald; Deacon, Keith; Tunick, Arnold

    2013-05-01

    Fiber-based transmission of quantum information over long distances may be achieved using quantum memory elements and quantum repeater protocols. However, atom-based quantum memories typically involve interactions with light fields outside the telecom window needed to minimize absorption in transmission by optical fibers. We report on progress towards a quantum memory based on the generation of 780 nm spontaneously emitted single photons by a write-laser beam interacting with a cold 87Rb ensemble. The single photons are then frequency-converted into (via four-wave mixing in a cold Rb sample) and out of (via sum frequency generation in a PPLN crystal) the telecomm band. Finally, the atomic state is read out via the interaction of a read-pulse with the quantum memory. With such a system, it will be possible to realize a long-lived quantum memory that will allow transmission of quantum information over many kilometers with high fidelity, essential for a scalable, long-distance quantum network. Duan et al., Nature 414, 413-418 (2001).

  15. CDC Allocates $184 Million for Zika Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_162694.html CDC Allocates $184 Million for Zika Protection Funds are earmarked for states, territories, local ... million has been earmarked to protect Americans against Zika virus infection, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control ...

  16. Euro 2012 European Football Championship Finals: planning for a health legacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallwood, Catherine A H; Arbuthnott, Katherine G; Banczak-Mysiak, Barbara; Borodina, Mariya; Coutinho, Ana Paula; Payne-Hallström, Lara; Lipska, Elzbieta; Lyashko, Viktor; Miklasz, Miroslaw; Miskiewicz, Paulina; Nitzan, Dorit; Pokanevych, Igor; Posobkiewicz, Marek; Rockenschaub, Gerald; Sadkowska-Todys, Malgorzata; Sinelnik, Svetlana; Smiley, Daniel; Tomialoic, Rysard; Yurchenko, Volodimir; Memish, Ziad A; Heymann, David; Endericks, Tina; McCloskey, Brian; Zumla, Alimuddin; Barbeschi, Maurizio

    2014-06-14

    The revised international health regulations offer a framework that can be used by host countries to organise public health activities for mass gatherings. From June 8, to July 1, 2012, Poland and Ukraine jointly hosted the Union of European Football Associations European Football Championship Finals (Euro 2012). More than 8 million people from around the world congregated to watch the games. Host countries and international public health agencies planned extensively to assess and build capacity in the host countries and to develop effective strategies for dissemination of public health messages. The effectiveness of public health services was maximised through rapid sharing of information between parties, early use of networks of experienced individuals, and the momentum of existing national health programmes. Organisers of future mass gatherings for sporting events should share best practice and their experiences through the WHO International Observer Program. Research about behaviour of large crowds is needed for crowd management and the evidence base translated into practice. A framework to measure and evaluate the legacy of Euro 2012 is needed based on the experiences and the medium-term and long-term benefits of the tournament. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Design of an AC/DC power supply for telecom applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suntio, T.; Vallittu, P.; Laurinen, T.; Ikonen, M. [Efore Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    Typical Telecom uninterruptible power supply system (UPS) comprises of parallel connected rectifiers and storage batteries supplying DC power for Telecom switching systems on fixed or mobile telephone networks. The requirement is most often of total uninterruptibility meaning high reliability and availability performance as a vital design and development goal. The Telecom systems must also meet stringent noise emission and immunity requirements stipulated by EMC and Low Voltage Directives, European Telecommunications Standard Institute (ETSI) as well as other global and local standards depending on the area they are to be used. This paper will describe in practice the vital features the rectifiers should contain as well as presents results from a practical equipment of 48 V, 500 W. (orig.) 27 refs.

  18. Proposal for a telecom quantum repeater with single atoms in optical cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uphoff, Manuel; Brekenfeld, Manuel; Niemietz, Dominik; Ritter, Stephan; Rempe, Gerhard

    2016-05-01

    Quantum repeaters hold the promise to enable long-distance quantum communication via entanglement generation over arbitrary distances. Single atoms in optical cavities have been shown to be ideally suited for the experimental realization of many tasks in quantum communication. To utilize these systems for a quantum repeater, it would be desirable to operate them at telecom wavelengths. We propose to use a cascaded scheme employing transitions at telecom wavelengths between excited states of alkali atoms for entanglement generation between a single photon at telecom wavelength and a single atom at the crossing point of two cavity modes. A cavity-assisted quantum gate can be used for entanglement swapping. We estimate the performance of these systems using numerical simulations based on experimental parameters obtained for CO2 laser-machined fiber cavities in our laboratory. Finally, we show that a quantum repeater employing the aforementioned scheme and current technology could outperform corresponding schemes based on direct transmission.

  19. Thermally-Reconfigurable Quantum Photonic Circuits at Telecom Wavelength by Femtosecond Laser Micromachining

    CERN Document Server

    Flamini, Fulvio; Rab, Adil S; Spagnolo, Nicolò; D'Ambrosio, Vincenzo; Mataloni, Paolo; Sciarrino, Fabio; Zandrini, Tommaso; Crespi, Andrea; Ramponi, Roberta; Osellame, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    The importance of integrated quantum photonics in the telecom band resides on the possibility of interfacing with the optical network infrastructure developed for classical communications. In this framework, femtosecond laser written integrated photonic circuits, already assessed for quantum information experiments in the 800 nm wavelength range, have great potentials. In fact these circuits, written in glass, can be perfectly mode-matched at telecom wavelength to the in/out coupling fibers, which is a key requirement for a low-loss processing node in future quantum optical networks. In addition, for several applications quantum photonic devices will also need to be dynamically reconfigurable. Here we experimentally demonstrate the high performance of femtosecond laser written photonic circuits for quantum experiments in the telecom band and we show the use of thermal shifters, also fabricated by the same femtosecond laser, to accurately tune them. State-of-the-art manipulation of single and two-photon states...

  20. Six Sigma Methodology Utilization in Telecom Sector for Quality Improvement- A DMAIC Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANISH BHARGAVA,

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents tools of Six Sigma for Telecom Industries; these can achieve powerful operational improvements that produce sustainable business benefits. Six Sigma Qualtec’s dedicated Six Sigma for Telecom practice is specifically designed to help traditional and modern telecommunications providers, become more efficient in their operating procedures. By learning and implementing improvements such as Voice of the Customer (VOC, , Six Sigma, Business Process Management Design for Six Sigma and Lean Enterprise principles, those companies will be able to dramatically improve the way they do business thus attracting and keeping customers in this hyper-competitive industry. This paper maps some of the changes in the telecom markets that resulted from competitive entry and givesan insight into the dynamics of competitive markets in relation to quality improvement. Additionally, the presentation seeks to demonstrate that in the quest for the particular competitive outcome via independent and transparent regulation.

  1. Euro area enlargement: dilemmas and strategies after the crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mărginean, S.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The main challenges for the New Member States after joining the European Union were Euro adoption and dealing with the economic crisis. This paper explores the impact of the economic crisis on the New Member States of European Union, both to the four NMS countries that joined the euro area, and also for the eight countries which intend to do this in the next few years. The paper begins with an overview of the current situation and analyses the economic performance of the 12 NMS of EU based on the Maastricht Treaty criteria. Finally, we are considering an answer he question: is it necessary to reshape the Euro – area entry rules?

  2. Testing the Asymmetry of Shocks with Euro Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius-Corneliu MARINAŞ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to identify the demand and supply shocks affecting 13 EU member states and to estimate their degree of correlation with the Euro area shocks. This research ensures identifying the asymmetry of shocks degree with the monetary union, depending on which it’s judging the desirability of adopting a single currency. The analysis is also useful for the economies outside the Euro area, because they are strongly commercial and financial integrated especially with the core economies from union. Applying the Blanchard and Quah methodology to estimate the shocks in the period from 1998:1- 2010:3, I have found a weak and negative correlation between demand shocks and a medium to high correlation of the supply shocks. The results obtained suggest the presence of a structural convergence process with the Euro area, in the context of domestic macroeconomic policies rather different, both inside and outside the monetary union.

  3. THE EUROPEAN FISCAL UNION. A SOLUTION TO SAVE THE EURO?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabau-Popa Diana Claudia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A monetary union with strong connections among banking systems but without a fiscal union may pose problems because the national governments may be tempted to increase inneficiently their public debts, which, in case of contagion, may have serious repercussions on other economies. One of the most widespread ideas among the political decision makers as well as among specialists is that in order to overcome the sovereign debts crisis, the Euro Area needs a fiscal integration which should double the monetary one. This article analyses the idea of fiscal integration in the Euro Area as a solution to overcome the sovereign debt crisis and save the euro. The situation has become critical for countries such as Greece, Portugal, Ireland, Spain. It will present as well the implications of the Treaty on Stability, Coordination and Governance in the Economic and Monetary Union signed on the 2nd of March 2012 by 25 EU member states.

  4. Euro-Integrations of Serbia: A Semiotic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Krstić

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the current process of euro-integrations of Serbia, from a semiotic perspective. Accordingly, based on data gathered from the media, euro-integrations are shaped into a narrative, which is subsequently analyzed from a semiotic point of view, primarily utilizing the methods of Algirdas Julien Greimas. Two levels of meaning will be analyzed in the paper: the semio-narrative (surface, syntagmatic, specific level will be explored using the transformational and actantial model, while the deep, abstract, paradigmatic and atemporal level will be analyzed using the semiotic square. The aim of the paper is to understand how knowledge and meaning are produced within the discourse of euro-integrations.

  5. In or Out: The Effect of Euro Membership on the Exercise of Real Business Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom; Pantzalis, Christos

    2011-01-01

    This empirical study of manufacturing firms (NAICS 33) in the EU15 countries goes beyond the trade statistics that have indicated only a small to negligible effect from the introduction of the Euro and shows that the introduction of the Euro has made Euro firms (firms based in one of the twelve...... Euro countries) more inclined than non-Euro firms (firms based in one of the three non-Euro countries: UK, Sweden and Denmark) to undertake various forms of real actions (exercise real business options) such as to establish alliances / partnerships, to enter new markets / market segments, to switch...

  6. Zone euro : coupée en deux

    OpenAIRE

    Céline Antonin; Christophe Blot; Sabine Le Bayon

    2011-01-01

    Après une progression du PIB de 1 % au deuxième trimestre, la croissance a ralenti en zone euro au second semestre 2010. Ce tassement s'explique essentiellement par le faux rebond de l'investissement et l'atonie de la consommation privée. En 2010, les écarts entre les trajectoires de croissance ont continué à se creuser inexorablement en zone euro. Aux difficultés des pays périphériques (Grèce, Irlande, Portugal et Espagne) s'oppose la réussite allemande. Alors que l'Allemagne affiche une cro...

  7. All-optical switching of magnetoresistive devices using telecom-band femtosecond laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Li; Chen, Jun-Yang; Wang, Jian-Ping; Li, Mo

    2015-09-01

    Ultrafast all-optical switching of the magnetization of various magnetic systems is an intriguing phenomenon that can have tremendous impact on information storage and processing. Here, we demonstrate all-optical switching of GdFeCo alloy films using a telecom-band femtosecond fiber laser. We further fabricate Hall cross devices and electrically readout all-optical switching by measuring anomalous Hall voltage changes. The use of a telecom laser and the demonstrated all-optical switching of magnetoresistive devices represent the first step toward integration of opto-magnetic devices with mainstream photonic devices to enable novel optical and spintronic functionalities.

  8. Euro-Islam or Islam in Europe the role of Muslims and their organizations in Germany, Great Britain and the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Struss, Karsten

    2011-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Almost twenty million Muslims live in Europe. These Muslims make up diverse ethnic, linguistic, and cultural communities, many of which are struggling to define their role within Europe's secular societies and the role of their religion in this environment. The concept of Euro-Islam is one option to promote a new European form of Islam that helps Muslim citizens and immigrants integrate into Europe's civic and political fabric. This s...

  9. Solar plan Mediterranean and Euro-Mediterranean energy integration; El plan solar Mediterraneo y la integracion energetica Euro-Mediterranea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin Quemada, J. M.; Escribano Frances, G.

    2010-07-01

    The Euro-mediterranean Partnership, the EU energy policy and the neighbourhood policy have shown their limits in fostering Euro-mediterranean energy integration. This article argues that an adequate design of the Mediterranean Solar Plan could offer a functioning driver for physical, and more importantly, normative integration of renewable energies that could subsequently ease the integration of conventional energies. In order to achieve such a result, it will be needed to develop well-defined and predictable regulatory mechanisms and institutional frameworks that facilitate investments. (Author) 33 refs.

  10. Baltic universities build on EuroFaculty's foundations / Gustav Kristensen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kristensen, Gustav

    2005-01-01

    Balti Nõukogu eestvedamisel EuroFaculty programmi raames on pärast taasiseseisvumist Balti riikide ülikoolides asutatud Euroteaduskondi. 13 aastat kestnud programmi eesmärgiks oli valmistada riike ette Euroopa Liiduga liitumiseks ja anda majandus-, poliitika- ja õigusalast haridus

  11. EuroCirCol: A key to New Physics

    CERN Multimedia

    Johannes Gutleber

    2015-01-01

    Monday 1 June saw the start of EuroCirCol, the EC-funded part of the FCC study that will develop the conceptual design for an energy-frontier hadron collider.   Attendees at the EuroCirCol meeting at CERN. The EuroCirCol kick-off event at CERN on 2 to 4 June brought together 62 participants to constitute governance bodies, commit to the project plan and align the organisation, structures and processes of 16 institutions from 10 countries. The goal of the project is to conceive a post-LHC research infrastructure around a 100 km circular energy-frontier hadron collider capable of reaching 100 TeV collisions. The project officially started on 1 June and will run for four years. The total estimated budget of 11.2 MEUR includes a 2.99 MEUR contribution from the Horizon 2020 programme dedicated to the development of new world-class research infrastructures. EuroCirCol will deliver a design for a hadron collider as part of the broader Future Circular Collider (FCC) study. It will provide input to an...

  12. Has the euro affected the choice of invoicing currency?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligthart, Jenny E.; Werner, Sebastian E. V.

    2012-01-01

    We present a new approach to study empirically the effect of the introduction of the euro on the pattern of currency invoicing. Our approach uses a compositional multinomial logit model, in which currency choice is explained by both currency-specific and country-specific determinants. We use unique

  13. The Term Structure of Credit Spreads on Euro Corporate Bonds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Landschoot, A.

    2003-01-01

    Although there is a broad literature on structural credit risk models, there has been little empirical testing of these models.In this paper we examine the term structure of credit spreads on euro corporate bonds and the empirical validation of structural credit risk models.The latter provide a fram

  14. Has the Euro Affected the Choice of Invoicing Currency?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligthart, J.E.; Werner, S.E.V.

    2010-01-01

    We present a new approach to study empirically the effect of the introduction of the euro on currency invoicing. Our approach uses a compositional multinomial logit model, in which currency choice depends on the characteristics of both the currency and the country. We use unique quarterly panel data

  15. Baltic universities build on EuroFaculty's foundations / Gustav Kristensen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kristensen, Gustav

    2005-01-01

    Balti Nõukogu eestvedamisel EuroFaculty programmi raames on pärast taasiseseisvumist Balti riikide ülikoolides asutatud Euroteaduskondi. 13 aastat kestnud programmi eesmärgiks oli valmistada riike ette Euroopa Liiduga liitumiseks ja anda majandus-, poliitika- ja õigusalast haridus

  16. Balance of payments adjustment mechanisms in the Euro area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel HNÁT

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article aims at analysing the current situation in the Euro area with respect to the balance of payments adjustment mechanism that should normally be at place. Internally, the Euro area membership represents a combination of the fixed exchange rate, capital mobility and no monetary policy autonomy; externally, the Euro area countries apply floating exchange rates with high capital mobility, and autonomous monetary policy. Member states thus cannot use the monetary instruments to prevent external influences; they can only use fiscal policies, which are limited by the Stability and Growth Pact and debt constraint. When external imbalance occurs (such as today, the economies of member states are exposed to the price and income adjustment processes as well as to their own fiscal and ECB policy impacts. This article shows that all these factors interfere and influence real effects of automatic adjustment mechanisms which in some cases cannot come forth at all. Factors within domestic economic policies that limit the restoration of external balance within the Euro area thus create an important outcome of this paper.

  17. Regime-dependent determinants of Euro area sovereign CDS spreads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blommestein, H.J.; Eijffinger, Sylvester; Qian, Zongxin

    2016-01-01

    We study the determinants of sovereign CDS spreads of five Euro area countries (Greece, Ireland, Italy, Portugal, and Spain) after the collapse of Lehman Brothers. We find that global and/or European Monetary Union (EMU)-wide factors are the main drivers of changes in the sovereign CDS spreads in ou

  18. EURO medi CAT: Safety of medication use in pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jordan, S.; Charlton, R.A.; Tingay, K.; Thayer, D.S.; Davies, G.I.; Morgan, M.; Tucker, D.; Watkins, A.; Wiesel, A.; Gini, R.; Pierini, A.; Garne, E.; Nybo, A.-M.; Puccini, A.; Neville, A.J.; Bos, Jens; De Jong-Van Den Berg, L.T.W.; De Vries, C.S.; Dolk, H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective / Background 1) animal studies are seriously limited in their ability to predict human teratogenesis. 2) pregnant women are excluded from pre-marketing clinical trials in humans. Aims In EURO medi CAT we aim to build a European system for reproductive safety evaluation: To identify systema

  19. Bosnia and Herzegovina’s Euro-Atlantic Integrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Filipović

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research paper is to highlight reasons of Bosnia and Herzegovina’s slow progress on its Euro-Atlantic path, in order to propose a final solution. The importance of this issue is relevant particularly now, because on the one hand, Bosnia and Herzegovina submitted its official application to join the European Union in February 2016, and on the other hand, it has been blocked since April 2010 on its NATO integration path due to the Dayton Peace Agreement Constitution’s paradoxes and historical disagreements. Many authors have previously written about Bosnia and Herzegovina’s Euro-Atlantic Integrations but not many of them published academic works after the Bosnian formal application for the European Union membership, which represents an important step for this post-war country. The main approach used is analytical; which includes academic research and understanding of Bosnian contemporary history as a root of current political, economic and social crisis. Finally, the result is that Bosnia and Herzegovina’s progress is not satisfactory and moreover, the only solution for the future of Euro-Atlantic Integrations is a reform of its current Constitution, but equally a change of the international community’s attitude towards Bosnia and Herzegovina. This paper aims to contribute to further academic research in the field of international relations regarding future integration of the Western Balkans in the Euro-Atlantic bloc.

  20. Confidence building on Euro convergence: evidence from currency options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, J.; Perotti, E.

    2011-01-01

    We study the evolution of investor confidence in 1992-1998 over the chance of individual currencies to converge to the Euro, using data on currency option prices. Convergence risk, which may reflect uncertainty over policy commitment as well as exogenous fundamentals, induces a level of implied vola

  1. Confidence building on Euro convergence: evidence from currency options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, J.; Perotti, E.

    2011-01-01

    We study the evolution of investor confidence in 1992-1998 over the chance of individual currencies to converge to the Euro, using data on currency option prices. Convergence risk, which may reflect uncertainty over policy commitment as well as exogenous fundamentals, induces a level of implied

  2. Euro-VO - Coordination of Virtual Observatory activities in Europe

    CERN Document Server

    Genova, Francoise; Arviset, Christophe; Lawrence, Andy; Pasian, Fabio; Solano, Enrique; Wambsganss, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    The European Virtual Observatory Euro-VO has been coordinating European VO activities through a series of projects co-funded by the European Commission over the last 15 years. The bulk of VO work in Europe is ensured by the national VO initiatives and those of intergovernmental agencies. VO activities at the European level coordinate the work in support of the three "pillars" of the Virtual Observatory: support to the scientific community, take-up by the data providers, and technological activities. Several Euro-VO projects have also provided direct support to selected developments and prototyping. This paper explains the methodology used by Euro-VO over the years. It summarizes the activities which were performed and their evolutions at different stages of the development of the VO, explains the Euro-VO role with respect to the international and national levels of VO activities, details the lessons learnt for best practices for the coordination of the VO building blocks, and the liaison with other European i...

  3. Zorgkosten van ongezond gedrag. Zorg voor euro's - 3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baal PHM van; Heijink R; Hoogenveen RT; Polder JJ; VTV

    2007-01-01

    Unhealthy behaviour is currently the focus of increasing interest. And not without reason. Smoking and overweight, for example, are important causes of ill-health, disease, and health care consumption. In 2003, throughout the Netherlands, well over two billion euros were spent on care that was relat

  4. L 'euro ha creato inflazione? Changeover e arrotondamenti dei prezzi al consumo in Italia nel 2002

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Franco Mostacci; Roberto Sabbatini

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to estimate the specific impact of the introduction of the euro on Italian consumer inflation that can be attributed solely to the rounding of prices to figures that are "attractive" in euro...

  5. Poland’s Public Finance Convergence with the Euro Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Kawecka-Wyrzykowska

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Situation of Poland's public finances has been improving. Helped by solid economic growth in 2011, Poland has reduced its budget deficit in line with the Commission's recommendations. Contrary to earlier forecasts, in 2012 it was slightly above the ceiling of 3% of GDP. It should be further reduced to reach in 2015 the level of 1% of GDP in terms structural deficit. The slowdown of the economy in 2012 and probably in 2013 will not make this task easy, however.Public debt has risen steadily over the past few years but level has been in recent times still well below the 60% of GDP ceiling.The national reform programme and the convergence programme were adopted by Poland’s Council of Ministers on 25 April 2012. The convergence programme outlined in an integrated manner the fiscal consolidation efforts, the key structural reforms and the reforms that underpin macroeconomic stabilisation.In the medium to long term, Poland is faced with a number of challenges. A very low labour force participation rate, in particular of women, and the poor quality of vocational training and education are major concerns given an ageing population. The low level of public and private R&D spending, weak links between science and industry and the poor innovation performance call for improvements.Apart from programme of national reforms, crucial for future sustained economic growth and good performance of public finances, an additional factor stimulating activities towards fiscal improvement should be Poland’s participation in a strengthened economic governance architecture recently introduced in the EU.Euro adoption remains an important goal of Polish government. The uncertain situation in the euro zone has, however, postponed adoption of a clear timetable of joining the euro zone. The government decided that an additional condition to join the euro zone, apart from meeting the nominal convergence criteria (and legal conditions not discussed here, is stabilisation of

  6. Evaluation of results in coronary surgery using EuroSCORE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihajlović Bogoljub

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation (EuroSCORE was developed in order to predict operative risk in cardiac surgery and to assess the quality of the cardio-surgical care. Introduction of the uniform terminology in result evaluation process leads to the significant improvement in measuring and evaluation of surgical treatment quality. Objective. The aim of the study was to evaluate our results in isolated coronary surgery using the EuroSCORE. Methods. The study was done respectively by analyzing predicted mortality according to the EuroSCORE model and observed operative risk in 4,675 coronary patients operated at our Clinic during the period 2001-2008. For statistical analyses, the Pearson, Chisquare and ANOVA tests were used. Results. The total postoperative mortality predicted by the EuroSCORE was 2.9±2.25, while the observed one was 2.2%. When the scoring system and observed results were compared over the years, a considerably lower observed mortality was found during the last 4 years. Overall average number of distal anastomoses was 2.62±0.84. During the period 2004-2008, the average number of coronary anastomoses increased over the years reaching the value of 2.77±0.88. The difference is at the level of statistical significance with the trend of further increase. Percentage of the patients with single or double graft myocardial revascularization decreases, while the number of the patients with triple or more bypasses increases. Conclusion. During the last years, the results in isolated coronary surgery have considerably improved. The EuroSCORE overestimates operative risk. In order to improve its predictive value, the model should be recalibrated.

  7. Simulation, Fabrication and Near-Field Characterization of Nanoantenna Couplers for Telecom Range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Zenin, Vladimir A.; Malureanu, Radu;

    2014-01-01

    We report a modified bow - tie antenna for light coupling to subwavelength plasmonic slot waveguide . Its effective area is 15 times larger than that of the bare waveguide terminatio n at the wavelength 1.55 μm . We demonstrate numerical simulation, fabrication and , for the first time, full ampl...... amplitude - phase near - field optical characterization of nanocoupler in telecom range ....

  8. New ways of innovation: an application of the Cyclical Innovation Model to the mobile telecom industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhout, A.J.G.; Van der Duin, P.

    2006-01-01

    New developments in the mobile telecom industry, such as growing transmisson bandwidth and sector-crossing business alliances, change the way in which mobile telco’s are innovating. Traditional innovation models, such as the well-known single-company linear model ('pipeline model'), do not describe

  9. PESTEL-Porter's Five Forces and SWOT Analysis of China Telecom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Hui

    2009-01-01

    In order to find a new area for China Telecom, some analysis are made in the following aspects: PESTEL analysis (the possible influence of macro environment for the new area), SWOT analysis and Porter's Five Force Model (the possible influence of microenvironment for the new area).

  10. Institutional logics driving enterprise systems tailoring strategies – a comparative case study of two telecom companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svejvig, Per; Carugati, Andrea

    is therefore to present a model for how institutional logics affect contemporary ES implementation strategies. We achieve this result drawing on and comparing two case studies of telecom companies implementing en enterprise systems. Our results show that three institutional logics play a role in how...

  11. Future Archaeology: Re-Animating Innovation in the Mobile Telecoms Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watts, Laura

    2015-01-01

    This paper unearths the zombie futures in the mobile telecoms industry, from the watchphone to the ever-pervasive notion of ‘ubiquity’ – all futures that never seem to die. It explores the practices by which the industry creates futures that endure over long periods of time, and points to different...

  12. Validación de EuroSCORE II en España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio García-Valentín

    2014-10-01

    Conclusiones: Los pacientes españoles presentan un perfil de riesgo alto. La mortalidad cruda es aceptable, más cercana al valor de EuroSCORE II que de EuroSCORE. Ambas escalas muestran mala calibración, EuroSCORE por sobreestimación y EuroSCORE II por infraestimación. El área bajo la curva ROC muestra buena discriminación para ambos modelos.

  13. SMS Still the Star of the Telecom Service

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    SMS continues to boom in China, as mobile phone users sent an arthritis-inducing 67.21 billion text messages during the first three months of this year. Every day, an,average of 750 million messages were tapped into handsets, sent through the ether, and!delivered to their eager recipients.

  14. The Vocal Euro-outsider: The UK in a Two-speed Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    The EU is divided between member states that have adopted the euro and those that have not. This article looks at the issue of differentiated integration with particular reference to eurozone integration and the euro-outsiders. I explore the recent public debate in the UK on euro-outsiderness, co...

  15. Detailed investigations and real-world emission performance of Euro 6 diesel passenger cars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kadijk, G.; Mensch, P. van; Spreen, J.S.

    2015-01-01

    A study conducted on behalf of the Dutch Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment reveals that NOx emissions of a number of tested Euro 6 diesel passenger vehicles are significantly higher under real-world conditions than would be expected on the basis of the Euro 6 standard. The Euro 6 standa

  16. One index fits none : The conundrum of euro area inflation-linked bonds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, I.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Recent empirical research has questioned the added value of inflation-linked bonds (ILBs) in a diversified portfolio, especially in the euro area. This paper relates this finding to the choice of price index. Euro area issuers of ILBs can choose between linking to a euro area or a national price

  17. Euro Adoption in Central Europe Laggards by Default and Laggards by Choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dandashly, Assem; Verdun, Amy

    2016-01-01

    How can we explain the politics of euro adoption in the Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland? How did the euro crisis influence their positions regarding euro adoption? This article builds on the domestic politics literature and argues: (i) countries that had joined the Exchange Rate Mechanism-2 early

  18. The Vocal Euro-outsider: The UK in a Two-speed Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    The EU is divided between member states that have adopted the euro and those that have not. This article looks at the issue of differentiated integration with particular reference to eurozone integration and the euro-outsiders. I explore the recent public debate in the UK on euro-outsiderness, co...

  19. Children Adrift: Educating China's Millions of Migrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Haili

    1999-01-01

    The population of migrants moving within China's borders has reached some 80 million, including 2-3 million school-aged children. As migrant workers flock to cities, their children strain urban school systems or receive no education. But independent schools for migrants are illegal and substandard. In some rural provinces, vocational training may…

  20. The Euro: Future Prospects and Consideration for Non-Euro Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Ghannadian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Many more Central and Eastern European Countries (CEEC have decided to adopt the euro. Given the attraction and uncertainties associated with moving into a common currency, the potential gains and losses of a currency adoption was of academic and political interest. The economic impact of implementing a common currency was examined by studying the before and after of those countries that have joined the currency union utilizing data from Eurostat. Approach: This preliminary research strengthened the hypothesis that currency unions improve macroeconomic indicators in countries that participate in them. There were several new European Union (EU members from the CEEC region on the path of achieving the same currency adoption goals as the former group of countries. Using statistical and econometric methods, the economic benefits that accrue to these countries in the pipeline were examined. This study isolated recessions and country-specific differences for the purpose of isolating the impact of the convergence criteria. Results: The study suggested that six out of the eight countries are boosting their macroeconomic variables by adopting the criteria required to join the EU currency. This study helps promote the idea of currency unions for countries interested in such transitions. Conclusions/ Recommendations: The regression analysis showed the values of the examined countries’ coefficients were negative suggesting that as the candidate countries progressed in the compliance with the convergence criteria, they would encounter positive economic growth. Therefore, this study suggested that candidate countries should focus on exchange rates stability above other targets as they focus on joining the monetary union.

  1. Heart valve surgery: EuroSCORE vs. EuroSCORE II vs. Society of Thoracic Surgeons score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Sharoz Rabbani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background This is a validation study comparing the European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation (EuroSCORE II with the previous additive (AES and logistic EuroSCORE (LES and the Society of Thoracic Surgeons’ (STS risk prediction algorithm, for patients undergoing valve replacement with or without bypass in Pakistan. Patients and Methods Clinical data of 576 patients undergoing valve replacement surgery between 2006 and 2013 were retrospectively collected and individual expected risks of death were calculated by all four risk prediction algorithms. Performance of these risk algorithms was evaluated in terms of discrimination and calibration. Results There were 28 deaths (4.8% among 576 patients, which was lower than the predicted mortality of 5.16%, 6.96% and 4.94% by AES, LES and EuroSCORE II but was higher than 2.13% predicted by STS scoring system. For single and double valve replacement procedures, EuroSCORE II was the best predictor of mortality with highest Hosmer and Lemmeshow test (H-L p value (0.346 to 0.689 and area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve (0.637 to 0.898. For valve plus concomitant coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG patients actual mortality was 1.88%. STS calculator came out to be the best predictor of mortality for this subgroup with H-L p value (0.480 to 0.884 and ROC (0.657 to 0.775. Conclusions For Pakistani population EuroSCORE II is an accurate predictor for individual operative risk in patients undergoing isolated valve surgery, whereas STS performs better in the valve plus CABG group.

  2. Life Cycle Assessment of Biochar - EuroChar Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rack, M.; Woods, J.

    2012-04-01

    One of the most significant challenges faced by modern-day society is that of global warming. An exclusive focus on reducing the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions will not suffice and therefore technologies capable of removing CO2 directly from the atmosphere at low or minimal cost are gaining increased attention. The production and use of biochar is an example of such an emerging mitigation strategy. However, as with any novel product, process and technology it is vital to conduct an assessment of the entire life cycle in order to determine the environmental impacts of the new concept in addition to analysing the other sustainability criteria. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), standardized by ISO (2006a), is an example of a tool used to calculate the environmental impacts of a product or process. Imperial College London will follow the guidelines and recommendations of the ISO 14040 series (ISO 2002, ISO 2006a-b) and the International Life Cycle Data System (ILCD) Handbook (EC JRC IES, 2010a-e), and will use the SimaPro software to conduct a LCA of the biochar supply chains for the EuroChar project. EuroChar ('biochar for Carbon sequestration and large-scale removal of GHG from the atmosphere') is a project funded by the European Commission under its Seventh Framework Programme (FP7). EuroChar aims to investigate and reduce uncertainties around the impacts of, and opportunities for, biochar and, in particular, explore a possible introduction into modern agricultural systems in Europe, thereby moving closer to the determination of the true potential of biochar. EuroChar will use various feedstocks, ranging from wheat straw to olive residues and poplar, as feedstocks for biochar production and will focus on two conversion technologies, Hydrothermal Carbonization (HTC) and Thermochemical Carbonization (TC), followed by the application of the biochar in crop-growth field trials in England, France and Italy. In April 2012, the EuroChar project will be at its halfway mark and

  3. Backlog at December 31, 2007: euro 39,8 billion, up by 55% from year-end 2006. 2007 sales revenue: euro 11.9 billion, up by 9.8% (+10.4% like-for-like); Carnet de commandes au 31 decembre 2007: 39,8 milliards d'euros, en progression de 55% par rapport a fin 2006. Chiffre d'affaires de l'exercice 2007: 11,9 milliards d'euros, en progression de 9,8% (+10,4% en donnees comparables)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-01-15

    The AREVA group's backlog reached a record level of euro 39.834 billion as of December 31, 2007, up by 55% from that of year-end 2006. In Nuclear, the backlog was euro 34.927 billion at year-end 2007 (+58%), due in particular to the signature of a contract in a record amount with the Chinese utility CGNPC. The series of agreements concluded provide among other things for the construction of two new-generation EPR nuclear islands and the supply of all of the materials and services needed for their operation through 2027. CGNPC also bought 35% of the production of UraMin, the mining company acquired by AREVA in August 2007. Industrial cooperation in the Back End of the cycle was launched with the signature of an agreement between China and France. In addition, the group signed several long-term contracts in significant amounts, particularly with KHNP of South Korea, EDF and Japanese utilities. The Transmission and Distribution division won several major contracts in Libya and Qatar at the end of the year approaching a total of euro 750 million. For the entire year, new orders grew by 34% to euro 5.816 billion. The backlog, meanwhile, grew by 40% to euro 4.906 billion at year-end. The group cleared sales revenue of euro 11.923 billion in 2007, up by 9.8% (+10.4% like-for-like) in relation to 2006 sales of euro 10.863 billion. Sales revenue for the 4. quarter of 2007 rose to euro 3.858 billion, for growth of 16.7% (+18.8% like-for-like) over one year. Sales revenue for the year was marked by: - Growth of 7.6% (+10.6% like-for-like) in Front End sales revenue, which rose to euro 3.140 billion. The division's Enrichment operations posted strong growth. - Sales were up by 17.5% (+15.2% like-for-like) to euro 2.717 billion in the Reactors and Services division. Sales revenue was driven in particular by the growth of Services operations, after weak demand in 2006, by progress on OL3 construction, and by the start of Flamanville 3, the second EPR. For the Back End

  4. «EURO 2008» - EUROPEAN FOOTBALL CHAMPIONSHIPS

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The Permanent Mission of Switzerland wishes to alert CERN to the potential impact of the three football matches to be staged at Geneva’s La Praille Stadium on 7, 11 and 15 June 2008 as part of the "Euro 2008" European Football Championships: hotel capacity and air, rail and road infrastructures will be heavily in demand, special security and transportation measures commensurate with the exceptional nature of this event will be put in place by the relevant authorities. The Mission recommends that these circumstances should be taken into account in the planning of meetings or other events which may take place over this period, and in particular that necessary hotel bookings be made as far in advance as possible. Further information can be found at the following website: http://www.geneve.ch/euro2008/ Relations with the Host States Service Tel.: 72848 relations.secretariat@cern.ch www.cern.ch/relations

  5. «EURO 2008» - European Football Championships

    CERN Multimedia

    DSU Department

    2008-01-01

    The Permanent Mission of Switzerland wishes to alert CERN to the potential impact of the three football matches to be staged at Geneva’s La Praille Stadium on 7, 11 and 15 June 2008 as part of the "Euro 2008" European Football Championships: hotel capacity and air, rail and road infrastructures will be heavily in demand, special security and transportation measures commensurate with the exceptional nature of this event will be put in place by the relevant authorities. The Mission recommends that these circumstances should be taken into account in the planning of meetings or other events which may take place over this period, and in particular that necessary hotel bookings be made as far in advance as possible. Further information can be found at the following website: http://www.geneve.ch/euro2008/ Relations with the Host States Service Tel.: 72848 mailto:relations.secretariat@cern.chhttp://www.cern.ch/relations

  6. Implications of the euro changeover on social policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitrache, V.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper is aimed at investigating the consequences that the Euro changeover has generated on social policies in the EU countries, both the developing and the developed ones. The sharpening of inequality within the most exposed developed economies is a fact. And at an European and global level it has caused the polarization of society. The paper identifies the means through which the Euro changeover has had negative or positive effects over the social indicators inside the European Union. By analyzing these indicators, the paper determines the effects that the changeover has on all social aspects, including those of social inequality. By doing so, it can therefore be established, if the changeover is a solution or yet another problem on the globalized European social market.

  7. «EURO 2008» - European Football Championships

    CERN Multimedia

    DSU Department

    2008-01-01

    The Permanent Mission of Switzerland wishes to alert CERN to the potential impact of the three football matches to be staged at Geneva’s La Praille Stadium on 7, 11 and 15 June 2008 as part of the "Euro 2008" European Football Championships: hotel capacity and air, rail and road infrastructures will be heavily in demand, special security and transportation measures commensurate with the exceptional nature of this event will be put in place by the relevant authorities. The Mission recommends that these circumstances should be taken into account in the planning of meetings or other events which may take place over this period, and in particular that necessary hotel bookings be made as far in advance as possible. Further information can be found at the following website: http://www.geneve.ch/euro2008/ Relations with the Host States Service Tel.: 72848 mailto:relations.secretariat@cern.chhttp://www.cern.ch/relations

  8. LABOUR MOBILITY AS AN ADJUSTMENT MECHANISM IN THE EURO AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Puiu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to assess the capacity of labour mobility in the euro area to act as an adjustment mechanism in the event of an asymmetric shock. According to the optimum currency area theory, labour mobility has been emphasized as one of the main adjustment mechanism. Given the present situation, where there are major concerns about the future of the euro area, it is necessary to study if the mechanism for stability works and if it can be improved. Considering the difficulty of quantifying the labour mobility, we have analyzed the net migration and the regulations regarding labour market. The empirical evidence shows that labour mobility does not act as a sufficient adjustment mechanism.

  9. BBC VERSUS EURO NEWS: DISCOURSE AND IDEOLOGY IN NEWS TRANSLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosseini, F.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to compare discursive strategies employed by two international news agencies including Euro News and BBC. Van Dijk’s (2004 model of CDA was adopted. Thirty pieces of news about internal affairs of Iran together with their Persian translations were downloaded from the corresponding website, i.e. 30 pieces of English news and their corresponding Persian translations from the Euro News website and 30 pieces of English news with their corresponding translations from the BBC website. The frequency of lexical items was observed to not differ significantly. Two sets of translations were compared to their source texts based on four discursive strategies of hyperbole, polarization, vagueness and euphemism. An independent-samples t-test was conducted to compare the frequency of strategies applied by the two news agencies. Results revealed no significant difference between the two agencies except for the discursive strategy of vagueness.

  10. Why does the Euro fail? The DCCA approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Paulo; Dionísio, Andreia; Zebende, G. F.

    2016-02-01

    The present crisis in the Euro is one of the most serious crises reported in history. The fact that different countries that adopted the Euro have different conditions to support asymmetric shocks in their economies could explain some of the consequences currently affecting the Eurozone. In this paper we apply detrended cross-correlation analysis and its cross correlation coefficient to evaluate the degree of financial integration of the first set of countries to adopt the common currency. Since time series used in these studies are known to be non-stationary, DCCA is suited to study it. It is the first time this methodology has been applied to study financial integration. We conclude that the degree of financial integration is unequal in several countries using the common currency. The fact that countries like Greece, Ireland or Portugal are the ones facing most problems in verification of the parity used in this paper could help to explain the present instability in the Eurozone.

  11. How Far Along is Euro Adoption in the Czech Republic? Benefits for Businesses Still Remain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojmír Helísek

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper is to assess the reasons for the current negative position of the Czech Government towardeuro adoption and to find out whether the expected benefits of euro adoption for Czech companies still remain. Thepostponement of euro adoption in the Czech Republic has mainly been caused by the current problems of the euroarea. The benefits arising from euro adoption are subject to the reduction of the exchange rate volatility and of thetransaction costs, whereas they also depend on the degree of integration with the euro area. These benefits may stillbe expected – neither the financial crisis nor the economic recession has affected them. The integration of the Czecheconomy with the euro area is high and still growing. Therefore, euro adoption will lead to the stimulation of mutual tradeof the Czech Republic and the euro area.

  12. 16 million [pounds] investment for 'virtual supercomputer'

    CERN Multimedia

    Holland, C

    2003-01-01

    "The Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council is to spend 16million [pounds] to create a massive computing Grid, equivalent to the world's second largest supercomputer after Japan's Earth Simulator computer" (1/2 page)

  13. Sharing Economic Fruits with 900 Million Farmers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAOTIANBI

    2005-01-01

    The current goal of the central government is to benefit China′s900 million farmers through the development of mrket economy,as there can be no harmonious society without the participation of its major body.

  14. Further Austerity and Wage Cuts Will Worsen the Euro Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Andini, Corrado; Cabral, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    This note argues that the solutions to the euro-area crisis proposed by the EU governing institutions in cooperation with the IMF, based on further austerity and wage cuts, will worsen the crisis. They are unlikely to reduce both sovereign and external debt ratios of countries experiencing these problems. Quite in contrary, they are likely to further reduce the real GDP growth of these countries.

  15. EuroTraining - Supporting University Programmes in Nanoelectronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ivan Ring; Bruun, Erik

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes how the EuroTraining project supports a timely introduction of new nanoelectronics university programmes in Europe. The provisions include training courses, training material and training roadmaps describing the structure and content of nanoelectronics curricula. In order...... to facilitate the European integration of the new curricula courses based on the ECTS system are offered and training material free of copyright and IPR is emphasized....

  16. The DHL EuroCup: shots on goal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemp, Paul

    2003-11-01

    Deutsche Post World Net, the German postal monopoly, faced significant challenges as it began the process of integrating three businesses: Deutsche Post Euro Express, its own ground-based parcel delivery service, and two companies it had acquired-DHL, the worldwide express delivery service, and Danzas, a worldwide air and ocean freight company. The cultural differences alone were imposing. For example, DHL was a privately held, entrepreneurial company in which most managers had international experience; Deutsche Post was until recently a state-owned monopoly in which few managers had worked outside their home country. Enter EuroCup. For 20 years, DHL employees had held a soccer tournament to strengthen company culture across national boundaries. Canceled the previous year due to budget constraints, the EuroCup tournament was revived in 2003-in part to help with the postmerger integration. But did the event really help? HBR senior editor Paul Hemp attended EuroCup 2003, joining nearly 2,500 DHL employees--about 600 of them players, the rest cheerleaders and other supporters--in the small Belgian town of Lommel. He set out to answer a number of questions relevant to any company staging an ambitious off-site intended to encourage teamwork and boost morale. How does a company determine whether such a large-scale event, even one that generates goodwill, is worth the investment? Does the team building extend to those back home who don't get to attend? Can intense competition between teams begin to overshadow the spirit of cooperation that such an event is meant to engender? In short, can a soccer tournament help a company achieve its corporate goal of creating a strong common culture?

  17. Financial services in the euro-mediterranean partnership : banking

    OpenAIRE

    Brack, Estelle; Elsen, Robert; Pons, Jean-François

    2009-01-01

    Towards the goal to gather a better understanding of the banking structure and the regulatory practices in place, the Working Group on Financial Services in the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership developed a survey. This survey is based on a questionnaire which was addressed to the States of the MEDA region. The questionnaire tackled various topics related to the banking regulation, supervisory institutions in charge and the prevalent market conditions such as current mark...

  18. Intraday dynamics of euro area sovereign CDS and bonds

    OpenAIRE

    Jacob Gyntelberg; Peter Hördahl; Kristyna Ters; Jörg Urban

    2013-01-01

    The recent sovereign debt crisis in the euro area has seen credit spreads on sovereign bonds and credit default swaps (CDS) surge for a number of member states. While these events have increased interest in understanding the dynamics of sovereign spreads in bond and CDS markets, there is little agreement in the literature as to whether one of the two markets is more important than the other in terms of price discovery of sovereign credit risk.

  19. Survey of the Euro Currency Fluctuation by Using Data Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Baan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Data mining or Knowledge Discovery in Databases (KDD is a new field in information technology thatemerged because of progress in creation and maintenance of large databases by combining statisticaland artificial intelligence methods with database management. Data mining is used to recognizehiddenpatterns and provide relevant information for decision making on complex problems where conventionalmethods are inecient or too slow. Data mining can be used as a powerful tool to predict future trends andbehaviors, and this prediction allows making proactive, knowledge-driven decisions in businesses. Sincethe automated prospective analyses offered by data mining move beyond theanalyses of past eventsprovided by retrospective tools, it can answer the business questions which are traditionally timeconsuming to resolve. Based on this great advantage, it provides more interest for the government,industry andcommerce. In this paper we have used this tool to investigate the Euro currency fluctuation.For this investigation, we have three different algorithms: K*, IBK and MLP and we have extractedEuro currency volatility by using the same criteria for all used algorithms. The used dataset has21,084 records and is collected from daily price fluctuations in the Euro currency in the periodof10/2006 to 04/2010

  20. Report on the Design, Development and Compilation of a Bilingual Multifunctional Intranet-based Convergence Telecom Lexinome at a Major Danish Telecoms Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Henrik Køhler

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses the conceptual considerations for the design and development of an Intranet-based lexicographic knowledge management system at Tele Danmark (TD). The Convergence Telecom Lexinome is thus the result of the interplay between theory and practice. The design and development of CTL...... are based on an analysis of the communicative environment and of end-users' skills and competencies. On the basis of this analysis, the CTL functions are identified, and the conclusion is drawn that multiple lexicographic and non-lexicographic data sources must be integrated and networked to solve...

  1.  Euro Membership as a Real Option Trigger: An Empirical Study of EU15 Manufacturing Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom

    ) to exercise real options such as to establish alliances / partnerships, to enter new markets / market segments, to switch suppliers, and to generally expand in the Euro-area. The results are robust after controlling for the size of the firms and their sales in the Euro-area. The results go beyond what......This empirical study of manufacturing firms (NAICS 33) in the EU15 countries shows that the introduction of the Euro has made Euro firms (firms based in one of the twelve Euro countries) more inclined than non-Euro firms (firms based in one of the three non-Euro countries: UK, Sweden and Denmark...

  2. Analyzing the role of the PPP in the development of the Vietnamese Telecoms market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Do Manh, Thai; Falch, Morten; Williams, Idongesit

    2016-01-01

    Private sector facilitation and financing of telecom infrastructure has always been touted as the best way of developing telecom infrastructure. This ideology reflects in the design of Public Private Partnerships. This idea is not practiced in every part of the world. In Vietnam PPPs are designed...... to facilitate Public-owned infrastructure. The market outcome in Vietnam negates the belief that private sector financing for infrastructure development is best practice. Using the Principal Agency theory, PPP in Vietnam is analyzed to understand the role of each segment in the facilitation of fixed......-line telephony, mobile telephony, broadband telephony and fixedline telephony. The outcome of the research indicates that the Vietnamese approach was innovative and not sustainable. Hence, PPPs favoring he private sector is proposed....

  3. A Scheme for Automation of Telecom Data Processing for Business Application

    CERN Document Server

    Nair, T R Gopalakrishnan; V., Suma; Maharajan, Ezhilarasan

    2012-01-01

    As the telecom industry is witnessing a large scale growth, one of the major challenges faced in the domain deals with the analysis and processing of telecom transactional data which are generated in large volumes by embedded system communication controllers having various functions. This paper deals with the analysis of such raw data files which are made up of the sequences of the tokens. It also depicts the method in which the files are parsed for extracting the information leading to the final storage in predefined data base tables. The parser is capable of reading the file in a line structured way and store the tokens into the predefined tables of data bases. The whole process is automated using the SSIS tools available in the SQL server. The log table is maintained in each step of the process which will enable tracking of the file for any risk mitigation. It can extract, transform and load data resulting in the processing.

  4. A telecom-wavelength atomic quantum memory in optical fiber for heralded polarization qubits

    CERN Document Server

    Jin, Jeongwan; Puigibert, Marcel li Grimau; Verma, Varun B; Marsili, Francesco; Nam, Sae Woo; Oblak, Daniel; Tittel, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Photon-based quantum information processing promises new technologies including optical quantum computing, quantum cryptography, and distributed quantum networks. Polarization-encoded photons at telecommunication wavelengths provide a compelling platform for practical realization of these technologies. However, despite important success towards building elementary components compatible with this platform, including sources of entangled photons, efficient single photon detectors, and on-chip quantum circuits, a missing element has been atomic quantum memory that directly allows for reversible mapping of quantum states encoded in the polarization degree of a telecom-wavelength photon. Here we demonstrate the quantum storage and retrieval of polarization states of heralded single-photons at telecom-wavelength by implementing the atomic frequency comb protocol in an ensemble of erbium atoms doped into an optical fiber. Despite remaining limitations in our proof-of-principle demonstration such as small storage eff...

  5. Telecom wavelength emitting single quantum dots coupled to InP-based photonic crystal microcavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kors, A.; Fuchs, K.; Yacob, M.; Reithmaier, J. P.; Benyoucef, M.

    2017-01-01

    Here we report on the fabrication and optical characterization of InP-based L3 photonic crystal (PhC) microcavities embedded with a medium density InAs/InP quantum dots (QDs) emitting at telecom wavelengths. The QDs are grown by solid source molecular beam epitaxy using a ripening technique. Micro-photoluminescence (μ-PL) measurements of PhC samples reveal sharp cavity modes with quality factors exceeding 8500. QDs emit highly linear-polarized light at telecom wavelengths with resolution-limited spectral linewidth below 50 μeV. Enhanced PL intensity of QDs in PhC is observed in comparison to the PL intensity of QDs in bulk semiconductors. The combination of excitation power-dependent and polarization-resolved μ-PL measurements reveal the existence of an exciton-biexciton system with a small fine-structure splitting.

  6. An integrable optical-fiber source of polarization entangled photon-pairs in the telecom band

    CERN Document Server

    Li, X; Kumar, P; Lee, K F; Liang, C; Voss, P L; Chen, Jun; Kumar, Prem; Lee, Kim Fook; Li, Xiaoying; Liang, Chuang; Voss, Paul L.

    2006-01-01

    We demonstrate an optical-fiber based source of polarization entangled photon-pairs with improved quality and efficiency, which has been integrated with off-the-shelf telecom components and is, therefore, well suited for quantum communication applications in the 1550\\,nm telecom band. Polarization entanglement is produced by simultaneously pumping a loop of standard dispersion-shifted fiber with two orthogonally-polarized pump pulses, one propagating in the clockwise and the other in the counter-clockwise direction. We characterize this source by investigating two-photon interference between the generated signal-idler photon-pairs under various conditions. The experimental parameters are carefully optimized to maximize the generated photon-pair correlation and to minimize contamination of the entangled photon-pairs from extraneously scattered background photons that are produced by the pump pulses for two reasons: i) spontaneous Raman scattering causes uncorrelated photons to be emitted in the signal/idler ba...

  7. Entanglement of light-shift compensated atomic spin waves with telecom light

    CERN Document Server

    Dudin, Y O; Zhao, R; Blumoff, J Z; Kennedy, T A B; Kuzmich, A

    2010-01-01

    Entanglement of a 795 nm light polarization qubit and an atomic Rb spin wave qubit for a storage time of 0.1 s is observed by measuring the violation of Bell's inequality (S = 2.65 \\pm 0.12). Long qubit storage times are achieved by pinning the spin wave in a 1064 nm wavelength optical lattice, with a magic-valued magnetic field superposed to eliminate lattice-induced dephasing. Four-wave mixing in a cold Rb gas is employed to perform light qubit conversion between near infra red (795 nm) and telecom (1367 nm) wavelengths, and after propagation in a telecom fiber, to invert the conversion process. Observed Bell inequality violation (S = 2.66 \\pm 0.09), at 10 ms storage, confirms preservation of memory/light entanglement through the two stages of light qubit frequency conversion.

  8. Recursive and non-linear logistic regression: moving on from the original EuroSCORE and EuroSCORE II methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poullis, Michael

    2014-11-01

    EuroSCORE II, despite improving on the original EuroSCORE system, has not solved all the calibration and predictability issues. Recursive, non-linear and mixed recursive and non-linear regression analysis were assessed with regard to sensitivity, specificity and predictability of the original EuroSCORE and EuroSCORE II systems. The original logistic EuroSCORE, EuroSCORE II and recursive, non-linear and mixed recursive and non-linear regression analyses of these risk models were assessed via receiver operator characteristic curves (ROC) and Hosmer-Lemeshow statistic analysis with regard to the accuracy of predicting in-hospital mortality. Analysis was performed for isolated coronary artery bypass grafts (CABGs) (n = 2913), aortic valve replacement (AVR) (n = 814), mitral valve surgery (n = 340), combined AVR and CABG (n = 517), aortic (n = 350), miscellaneous cases (n = 642), and combinations of the above cases (n = 5576). The original EuroSCORE had an ROC below 0.7 for isolated AVR and combined AVR and CABG. None of the methods described increased the ROC above 0.7. The EuroSCORE II risk model had an ROC below 0.7 for isolated AVR only. Recursive regression, non-linear regression, and mixed recursive and non-linear regression all increased the ROC above 0.7 for isolated AVR. The original EuroSCORE had a Hosmer-Lemeshow statistic that was above 0.05 for all patients and the subgroups analysed. All of the techniques markedly increased the Hosmer-Lemeshow statistic. The EuroSCORE II risk model had a Hosmer-Lemeshow statistic that was significant for all patients (P linear regression failed to improve on the original Hosmer-Lemeshow statistic. The mixed recursive and non-linear regression using the EuroSCORE II risk model was the only model that produced an ROC of 0.7 or above for all patients and procedures and had a Hosmer-Lemeshow statistic that was highly non-significant. The original EuroSCORE and the EuroSCORE II risk models do not have adequate ROC and Hosmer

  9. Telecom Infrastructure Sharing as a Strategy for Cost Optimization and Revenue Generation : A Case Study of MTN Nigeria/Zain Nigeria Collocation

    OpenAIRE

    Onuzuruike, Emeka

    2009-01-01

    There is a growing need for operators and providers in the Nigerian telecoms industry to drive down cost of capital assets or infrastructure deployed for telecom services. This has been expressed in recent times by many operators who now come, together , on basis of mutual, agreements , to consider sharing infrastructure. The telecom market in Nigeria is driven by growing demand for telecommunications services like voice, SMS, data services like internet, fax, etc as well as high broadband se...

  10. Reliance communications' flag telecom to provide ethernet link between CERN and TIFR

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    "Flag Telecom Group Limited (Flag), the undersea cable network arm of Anil Ambani-le Reliance Communications, has announced a landmark deal with CERn (Conseil Européen pour la Recheche Nucléaire), the European organisation for nuclear research based in Geneva, Switzerland and the Tata institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR) in Mumbai to provide gigabit Ethernet connectivity between the two." (1 page)

  11. New ways of innovation: an application of the Cyclical Innovation Model to the mobile telecom industry

    OpenAIRE

    Berkhout, A.J.G.; Van der Duin, P.

    2006-01-01

    New developments in the mobile telecom industry, such as growing transmisson bandwidth and sector-crossing business alliances, change the way in which mobile telco’s are innovating. Traditional innovation models, such as the well-known single-company linear model ('pipeline model'), do not describe anymore how innovation occurs in today's practice. An alternative way of looking at innovation is the boundary-crossing Cyclic Innovation Model (CIM). It views innovation processes as coupled 'cycl...

  12. Continuous wave terahertz systems exploiting 1.5 microm telecom technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartorius, B; Schlak, M; Stanze, D; Roehle, H; Künzel, H; Schmidt, D; Bach, H-G; Kunkel, R; Schell, M

    2009-08-17

    A fiber-assembled CW THz System operating at 1.5 microm is presented. High speed telecom photodiodes integrated with planar THz antennas serve as THz emitters with power up to 10 microW. Photoconductive antennas based on LT InGaAs/InAlAs multi-layer structures allow coherent detection. The system operates in a wide frequency range of 0.1 -1.6 THz.

  13. Bragg-Scattering conversion at telecom wavelengths towards the photon counting regime

    CERN Document Server

    Krupa, Katarzyna; Kozlov, Victor V; Couderc, Vincent; Di Bin, Philippe; Wabnitz, Stefan; Barthélémy, Alain; Labonté, Laurent; Tanzilli, Sébastien

    2012-01-01

    We experimentally study Bragg-scattering four-wave mixing in a highly nonlinear fiber at telecom wavelengths using photon counters. We explore the polarization dependence of this process with a continuous wave signal in the macroscopic and attenuated regime, with a wavelength shift of 23 nm. Our measurements of mean photon numbers per second under various pump polarization configurations agree well with the theoretical and numerical predictions based on classical models. We discuss the impact of noise under these different polarization configurations.

  14. Continual Education is the Motivation of Sustainable Development of a Telecom Enterprise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The continuous investment into manpower resource, is the radical power to assure the sustainable development of enterprises. The enterprises both at home and abroad attach high importance to the continuous education of their employees and consolidate training to inspire their employees. In order to face increasingly drastic global competition, the telecom enterprises in our country should consolidate continuous education, make training plans to adapt to the long-term development of the enterprises and establish the effective mechanism of encouragement of continuous education.

  15. Earnings Management Behaviour of Telecom India: A Review of MTNL and Bharti Airtel Ltd.

    OpenAIRE

    Sandeep Goel

    2014-01-01

    Earnings behaviour of the management is the key concern for every shareholder. This has assumed importance on account of increasing number of corporate frauds at the global level. It is identified by the level of accruals exercised by the management as it forms the basis of earnings management. Telecom sector being a part of service sector is more vulnerable to this discretionary earnings behaviour. Therefore, the present paper attempts to highlight earnings management behavior in Indian tele...

  16. Application of QFD and PPC for digital products in a brazilian company of mobile telecoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Barbosa Guimarães Cota Júnior

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The technological development in the area of informatics and telecoms has arised new concepts of economy and product, besides new patterns of organization to the companies dealing in this market. This work aims to assess the applicability of Product Development Management (PDM and Production Management (PM methods to digital products, and examines some particularities of the application in this field. Quality Function Deployment (QFD and Production Planning and Control (PPC, applied in two different types of digital goods, in the same company of the Mobile Telecoms segment, are underlined through the study. The results of the work are based in two projects developed under the strategy of action research in a Brazilian company of mobile telecoms. In the studied cases, it has been possible to distinguish, eventually, the phases of the process in which it was adequate to use the PDM approach, using QFD, and the PM approach. Based on the research results, we present also some similarities and differences between the application of these methods in the studied projects and the traditional application, found in literature.

  17. An Empirical Investigation into Human Resource Development Practices in Public Telecom Organisations in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser S. Al-Kahtani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of globalization and technological advancement, the Saudi Arabia has the largest and fastest growing market for telecommunication products and services in the Middle East. Since the human resource is the most important and indeed an essential imperative for an organization to prosper and grow, their development is certainly an issue of concern for the management of any organization who retain them.The present study was aimed to analyse some of these HRD practices which can help the public sector telecom companies of Saudi Arabia to combat the future challenges on the basis of these variables: Quality of Work Life and Welfare Measures, Organizational Development, Training and Development, Performance Appraisal and Rewards and Participative Management. The present study brings out the fact that appropriate HRD Practices provide an essential springboard for enhancing the Satisfaction and Commitment of the employees in the Telecom Industry. Appropriate Practices in HRD are subjective. What is best for one company may not be best for another. ‘Appropriate practices are not a set of discrete actions but rather a holistic approach to management. Thus, to study the appropriateness of the HRD Practices, an attempt was made to identify those HRD practices that are prevalent in the Telecom Sector.

  18. Competition and Innovation in Telecom Sector: Empirical Evidence from OECD Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheikh Taher ABU

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to analyze the effect of competition and innovation in OECD next-generation mobile phones (as a proxy for telecom sector by examining factors affecting the diffusion pattern. A rigorous econometric model is estimated using the mobile telecommunications panel dataset comprised with the 19 OECD countries where at least 80% data are covered. The econometric model categorizes the variables as: (1 GDP per capita income and mobile user cost, (2 competition policies (3 telecom infrastructure (4 technological innovations (5 others such as role of MVNO (mobile virtual network operators, multiple standards for 3G as for the appropriateness of the outcome. The study represents country specific influence in terms of mobile contents and technological innovations. A new and important empirical finding is that there are still many opportunities available for mobile network operators (MNO in this region by providing better telecom infrastructure to support technological innovations and to upheaval decreasing trend of average revenue per user (ARPU. Besides, the most important factors are identified as high speeds and necessary time require for porting mobile number.

  19. Brand Switching – A Case of Mobile Telecom Industry in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srivastava SHAILA

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Telecom is one of the fastest-growing and highly competitive industries in India. Due to number of factors such as customers’ low switching cost, price sensitivity, and availability of Mobile Number Portability (MNP, choices available to customers and there is increase in the brand switching by them across mobile networks. This increased competition among players set pressure on them to find ways and means to retain their customers. Hence it is important to explore the factors that make the consumer switch towards other cellular network brands. This research aims to explore the factors which lead to brand switching behaviour of consumer in telecom sector. The data for this research was gathered through use of a structured questionnaire which was duly filled by the users of various service providers in Mumbai area. The chi-square test is used to test research hypothesis and which was further supported by factor analysis. The findings reveal that price, network quality, loyalty, value added services and satisfaction directly influence switching behaviour among customers. The practical implication of the outcomes of the present study would be useful for the telecom companies in their marketing strategies aiming to keep customers loyalty and to discourage brand switching.

  20. Building highly available control system applications with Advanced Telecom Computing Architecture and open standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazakov, Artem; Furukawa, Kazuro

    2010-11-01

    Requirements for modern and future control systems for large projects like International Linear Collider demand high availability for control system components. Recently telecom industry came up with a great open hardware specification - Advanced Telecom Computing Architecture (ATCA). This specification is aimed for better reliability, availability and serviceability. Since its first market appearance in 2004, ATCA platform has shown tremendous growth and proved to be stable and well represented by a number of vendors. ATCA is an industry standard for highly available systems. On the other hand Service Availability Forum, a consortium of leading communications and computing companies, describes interaction between hardware and software. SAF defines a set of specifications such as Hardware Platform Interface, Application Interface Specification. SAF specifications provide extensive description of highly available systems, services and their interfaces. Originally aimed for telecom applications, these specifications can be used for accelerator controls software as well. This study describes benefits of using these specifications and their possible adoption to accelerator control systems. It is demonstrated how EPICS Redundant IOC was extended using Hardware Platform Interface specification, which made it possible to utilize benefits of the ATCA platform.

  1. EMBL pay settlement will cost millions

    CERN Multimedia

    Abott, A

    1999-01-01

    A labour dispute at EMBL, Heidelberg, was settled last week at a cost of at least DM4 million for the organisation's 16 member states. The lab has asked for clarification on whether the ruling from the IL0 refers simply to a salary adjustment from 1995 or also to a backdated implementation of higher salary scales. This second option would cost considerably more - 8 percent of the budget in back pay and DM3.5 million per annum (1/2 page).

  2. Foreclosed: Two Million Homeless Students and Counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKibben, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    This article reports that according to First Focus, a bipartisan advocacy organization for children and families, a predicted two million children will lose their homes over the next two years because of the foreclosure crisis. From an economy deep in recession, an entirely new population of homeless students has emerged. And with job losses at…

  3. Carleton to oversee $40 million lab grant

    CERN Multimedia

    Singer, Zev

    2003-01-01

    "Carleton University got a major gift yesterday, as the federal government announced the university will oversee a $40-million grant to run the world's deepest underground lab at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory. Five other universities are partners in the project" (1/2 page).

  4. 730 Million Farmers Freed from Agricultural Tax

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    About 730 million farmers will benefit from tax cuts totaling more than 20 billion yuan (US$2.4 billion) this year, as 26 of China's 31 provinces will terminate the Agricultural Tax, according to Vice Minister of Agriculture Fan Xiaojian.

  5. Clustering Millions of Faces by Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Charles; Wang, Dayong; Jain, Anil

    2017-03-07

    Given a large collection of unlabeled face images, we address the problem of clustering faces into an unknown number of identities. This problem is of interest in social media, law enforcement, and other applications, where the number of faces can be of the order of hundreds of million, while the number of identities (clusters) can range from a few thousand to millions. To address the challenges of run-time complexity and cluster quality, we present an approximate Rank-Order clustering algorithm that performs better than popular clustering algorithms (k-Means and Spectral). Our experiments include clustering up to 123 million face images into over 10 million clusters. Clustering results are analyzed in terms of external (known face labels) and internal (unknown face labels) quality measures, and run-time. Our algorithm achieves an F-measure of 0:87 on the LFW benchmark (13K faces of 5; 749 individuals), which drops to 0:27 on the largest dataset considered (13K faces in LFW + 123M distractor images). Additionally, we show that frames in the YouTube benchmark can be clustered with an F-measure of 0:71. An internal per-cluster quality measure is developed to rank individual clusters for manual exploration of high quality clusters that are compact and isolated.

  6. Euro NCAP公布最新测试结果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    2011年8月24日,Euro NCAP公布了最新一批10款车型的碰撞测试结果,本次共有奥迪A6、宝马X3、雪佛兰Aveo、雪佛兰Orlando、雪铁龙DS5、现代i40、起亚Picanto、欧宝Ampera、大众GolfCabriolet以及大众Jetta等10款新车型参加测试。

  7. Euro Area——Fiscal Squeeze,Export Boost

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Samra Al Harthy; Sarah Hewin

    2010-01-01

    @@ Europe's fiscat squeeze: how damaging? Tight fiscal versus loose monetary conditions The euro-area economy faces countervailing forces,and growth over the next two years is likely to be characterised by diverging trends among its member states.This divergence has been evident in the staggered return to growth within the region,with Germany and France back in positive territory by Q2-2009,while Spain pulled out of recession in Q1-2010.Business confidence surveys and purchasing managers indices point to buoyant growth for the region in Q2-2010,and strong orders should sustain the momentum in Q3.

  8. Bank Lending and Monetary Transmission in the Euro-Area

    OpenAIRE

    De Santis, Roberto A.; Surico, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    To what extent does the availability of credit depend on monetary policy? And, does this relationship vary with bank characteristics? Based on a common source of balance sheet data for the four largest economies of the euro area over the period 1999-2011, we uncover three main regularities. First, the effect of monetary policy on bank lending is significant and heterogeneous in Germany and Italy, which are characterised by a large number of banks; but it is very weak in Spain and more homogen...

  9. Germany's socio-economic model and the Euro crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Dauderstädt

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Germany's socio-economic model, the "social market economy", was established in West Germany after World War II and extended to the unified Germany in 1990. During a prolonged recession after the adoption of the Euro in 1998, major reforms (Agenda 2010 were introduced which many consider as the key of Germany's recent success. The reforms had mixed results: employment increased but has consisted to a large extent of precarious low-wage jobs. Growth depended on export surpluses based on an internal real devaluation (low unit labour costs which make Germany vulnerable to global recessions as in 2009. Overall inequality increased substantially.

  10. An Empirical Analysis of Romania’s Comovement with the Euro Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Dardac

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In light of adopting the euro in the near future, it is important to asses to which extent the Romanian business cycle evolves in a similar fashion with that of the euro zone. The present study is an empirical investigation of the degree of business cycle synchronization between Romania and the euro area, based on macroeconomic series that capture the cyclical features of the two economies. The results indicate that the most recent period, characterized by major economic and financial turmoil, has lead to an increase of the degree of comovement between of the Romanian economy with that of the euro area.

  11. Effects of the euro changeover on consumer behaviour: Introduction to the special issue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gärling, Tommy; Thøgersen, John

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces the special issue "Effects of the euro changeover on consumer behaviour" by briefly reviewing the contents of the included papers. The introduction follows the organization of the papers in three sections each focusing on a common set of issues. In the first section, research...... revealing the perceived and actual problems consumers face after the euro changeover is described. Research illuminating learning and adaptation to the euro changeover is the focus of the second section. A special problem is the misperception of inflation after the euro changeover. Research on this problem...

  12. PUBLIC SERVICES AND THE EURO-REGIONAL COOPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badulescu Alina

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Besides the goods and private services, covering the specific needs of individual or groups based on specific mechanisms of demand and supply, human needs can be addressed also through public services. They are designed to meet the general interests of members of a community or society at large and established by public authorities, subject to certain fundamental principles of organization and operation, such as: the principle of efficiency, the principle of equity, the principle of continuity, the principle of movability and the principle of decentralization. In the same time, public services involve in many areas of economic and social life is not just a national issue, but also have characteristics and provision ways at international, regional and euro-regional level. This paper underlines the main areas of euro-regional co-operation interest in the public services sectors, such as: the sectors of environment, agriculture and territorial planning, the sectors of transportation, security and telecommunication, the sector of the economy and labour force, the sector of cross-border populations: social protection and public health, the sectors of education, research and culture.

  13. Early winter cold spells over the Euro-Mediterranean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toreti, Andrea; Xoplaki, Elena; Luterbacher, Juerg

    2016-04-01

    In a changing climate context, temperature extremes are expected to heavily impact societies and economies. Projected changes in warm extremes have been extensively investigated, while less efforts are devoted to cold extremes. Despite the projected warming of the climate system, cold extremes could still occur and have an impact on several sectors, such as human health and agriculture. Here, we focus on cold spells that have a potential high impact, i.e. early winter cold spells occurring after a mild-to-warm autumn. Projected changes of these events over the Euro-Mediterranean region are analysed by using the latest Euro-Cordex simulations under the scenarios RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. In terms of spatial extension of cold spells, a significant reduction can be seen only at the end of the 21st century and under the RCP8.5 scenario. As for the changes in intensity in the mid-century, no consistency is found among models over large areas. At the end of the century, the north-eastern part of the domain and northern Africa are projected to be early-cold-spell free under the RCP4.5 scenario, while, almost the entire domain is projected to be early-cold-spell free under the RCP8.5 scenario.

  14. Emulating a million machines to investigate botnets.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudish, Donald W.

    2010-06-01

    Researchers at Sandia National Laboratories in Livermore, California are creating what is in effect a vast digital petridish able to hold one million operating systems at once in an effort to study the behavior of rogue programs known as botnets. Botnets are used extensively by malicious computer hackers to steal computing power fron Internet-connected computers. The hackers harness the stolen resources into a scattered but powerful computer that can be used to send spam, execute phishing, scams or steal digital information. These remote-controlled 'distributed computers' are difficult to observe and track. Botnets may take over parts of tens of thousands or in some cases even millions of computers, making them among the world's most powerful computers for some applications.

  15. Nearly Four Million Californians Are Food Insecure

    OpenAIRE

    Chaparro, M. Pia; Langellier, Brent; Birnbach, Kerry; Sharp, Kerry; Harrison, Gail

    2012-01-01

    Food insecurity has increased significantly among low-income Californians over the last decade. According to data from the 2009 California Health Interview Survey, 3.8 million adults in households with incomes at or below 200% of the Federal Poverty Level (FPL) could not afford enough food at least once in the previous year. Low-income households with children and Spanish-speaking households suffered from the worst levels of food insecurity. Expanding nutrition assistance programs, such as th...

  16. The Euro 6 engines in the modular diesel engine system of Volkswagen; Die Euro-6-Motoren des modularen Dieselbaukastens von Volkswagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neusser, Heinz-Jakob; Kahrstedt, Joern; Dorenkamp, Richard; Jelden, Hanno [Volkswagen AG, Wolfsburg (Germany)

    2013-06-01

    Following the introduction of the Euro 5 engines in the Volkswagen modular diesel engine system, the next step will be to implement additional internal engine measures and to integrate the deNO{sub x} exhaust emissions aftertreatment for Euro 6 engines. The modular basis was already designed with the additional engine measures in mind and also permits the choice of using the NO{sub x} storage catalytic converter or SCR technology. (orig.)

  17. Convergence and Heterogeneity in Euro Based Economies: Stability and Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Haynes

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cluster analysis is used to explore the performance of key macroeconomic variables in European countries that share the euro, from the inception of the currency in 2002 through to 2013. An original applied statistical approach searches for a pattern synthesis across a matrix of macroeconomic data to examine if there is evidence for country clusters and whether there is convergence of the cluster patterns over time. A number of different clusters appear and these change over time as the economies of the member states dynamically interact. This includes some new countries joining the currency during the period of examination. As found in previous research, Southern European countries tend to remain separate from other countries. The new methods used, however, add to an understanding of some differences between Southern European countries, in addition to replicating their broad similarities. Hypotheses are formed about the country clusters existing in 2002, 2006 and 2013, at key points in time of the euro integration process. These hypotheses are tested using the rigour of a bivariate analysis and the multivariate method of Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA. The results confirm the hypotheses of cluster memberships in all three periods. The confirmation analysis provides evidence about which variables are most influencing cluster memberships at each time point. In 2002 and 2006, differences between countries are influenced by their different Harmonised Index of Consumer Prices (HICP and labour productivity scores. In 2013, after the crisis, there is a noticeable change. Long term interest rates and gross government debt become key determinants of differences, in addition to the continuing influence of labour productivity. The paper concludes that in the last decade the convergence of countries sharing the euro has been limited, by the joining of new countries and the circumstances of the global economic crisis. The financial crisis has driven

  18. Challenges to the execution of the Euro III/IV emissions standards and proposals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    As widely known, execution of the Euro III/ IV emissions standards involve two critical matters: OBD techniques and active vehicles in line with the requirements (similar to the recall system in the US). For heavy duty trucks and buses, Euro III requires engine

  19. 26 CFR 1.1001-5 - European Monetary Union (conversion to the euro).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true European Monetary Union (conversion to the euro). 1.1001-5 Section 1.1001-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... § 1.1001-5 European Monetary Union (conversion to the euro). (a) Conversion of currencies....

  20. Money Overhang, Credit Overhang and Financial Imbalances in the Euro Area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kool, C.J.M.; de Regt, E.; van Veen, T.

    2014-01-01

    This paper focusses on the relation between external imbalances and domestic money and credit growth in the euro area. We compute money and credit overhang both for the euro area as a whole and for individual member countries. Our results show that both aggregate money and credit overhang have

  1. EuroSoil2012: Soil science for the benefit of mankind and environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    EuroSoil2012 was convened in Bari ITALY from 2-6 July 2012 as the 4th International Congress of the European Confederation of Soil Science Societies (ECSSS). The theme of EuroSoil2012 as “soil science for the benefit of mankind and environment” aimed to cover several broad aspects of soil science w...

  2. Euro on olnud edukas säästuvahendi rollis / Villu Zirnask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Zirnask, Villu, 1966-

    2007-01-01

    Autori sõnul on eurol läinud rahvusvahelisel areenil kõige edukamalt säästmisvahendina, ülemaailmse maksevahendi rollis jääb euro dollarile veel selgelt alla, veelgi nõrgem on euro positsioon olnud rahvusvahelises kaubanduses

  3. Eesti Pank ühisraha euro tulekus kindel / Rein Minka ; interv. Märt Kivine

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Minka, Rein, 1961-

    2005-01-01

    Eesti Panga asepresident vastab küsimustele, kas ta saab kinnitada, et Eesti võtab euro kasutusele 1. jaanuarist 2007, et Eesti jõuab õigeks ajaks üle võtta asjakohased õigusaktid ning EL ei nõua Eestilt põhiseaduse muutmist enne euro kasutuselevõttu

  4. Poliitikud muremõtteis euro kursi pärast / Erik Aru

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aru, Erik

    2007-01-01

    Eurokursi tõus kahandab Prantsusmaa, Itaalia, Hispaania konkurentsivõimet nii euroväliste riikide kui ka Saksamaa suhtes. Prantsusmaa president Nicolas Sarkozy on seisukohal, et euro liiga kõrget kurssi tuleb kunstlikult alandada. Professor Jan Kegeli, Financial Timesi kolumnisti Wolfgang Münchau seisukohti. Lisa: Aasiale euro tõenäoliselt ei istu

  5. Riik lubab euro tulekul hinnatõusu takistada / Eva Kübar, Kaire Uusen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kübar, Eva

    2005-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Infopress 9. sept. nr. 36 lk. 157. Rahandusministeerium tutvustas eurole ülemineku plaani, mis on aluseks euro kasutuselevõtu ettevalmistuste tegemisel. Eesti eurotsooniga liitumise oluliseks eelduseks on inflatsioonikriteeriumi täitmine. Rahandusminister Aivar Sõerdi sõnul ootab Eesti tarbijat eurole üleminekul 0,1-0,3-protsendiline hinnatõus. Lisa: Euro tulek

  6. Sticky prices in the euro area: a summary of new micro-evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alvarez, L.; Dhyne, E.; Hoeberichts, M.M.; Kwapil, C.; Le Bihan, H.; Lunnemann, P; Martins, F.; Sabbatini, R.; Stahl, H.; Vermeulen, P.; Vilmunen, J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper summarises the vast evidence on micro price-setting recently obtained for euro area countries. We consider studies with micro data on consumer and producer prices, as well as survey information. The main findings are: (1) prices in the euro area are sticky and stickier than in the US; (2)

  7. MANAGEMENT PRACTICES AND INFLUENCES ON IT ARCHITECTURE DECISIONS: A CASE STUDY IN A TELECOM COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Wen Hsing

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to analyze the IT architecture management practices associated with their degree of maturity and the influence of institutional and strategic factors on the decisions involved through a case study in a large telecom organization. The case study allowed us to identify practices that led the company to its current stage of maturity and identify practices that can lead the company to the next stage. The strategic influence was mentioned by most respondents and the institutional influence was present in decisions related to innovation and those dealing with a higher level of uncertainties.

  8. Orbit computation of the TELECOM-2D satellite with a Genetic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deleflie, Florent; Coulot, David; Vienne, Alain; Decosta, Romain; Richard, Pascal; Lasri, Mohammed Amjad

    2014-07-01

    In order to test a preliminary orbit determination method, we fit an orbit of the geostationary satellite TELECOM-2D, as if we did not know any a priori information on its trajectory. The method is based on a genetic algorithm coupled to an analytical propagator of the trajectory, that is used over a couple of days, and that uses a whole set of altazimutal data that are acquired by the tracking network made up of the two TAROT telescopes. The adjusted orbit is then compared to a numerical reference. The method is described, and the results are analyzed, as a step towards an operational method of preliminary orbit determination for uncatalogued objects.

  9. A CONFERENCE CONTROL MODEL BETWEEN A WEB SERVER AND A TELECOM APPLICATION SERVER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Kaixi; Yang Fangchun

    2008-01-01

    The paper proposes a conference control model between a web server and a telecom application server, referred to as the Conference Directed Graph (CDG), and describes an asynchronous communication mechanism between them. The Corba Interface Definition Language (IDL) interfaces are defined, and a message sequence chart is illustrated. This web conference control model provides conference users with a new approach to manage and control a conference and the participants. The performance of the system prototype is analyzed and verified in the 863 project named "The Multimedia and Mobile Services Enabled Soft-switch System".

  10. Traffic Measurement for Traffic Engineering in IP/MPLS Based Telecom Core Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Telecommunication networks will become IP-based networks with all voice, data and multimedia traffic carried as packets with appropriate quality and class of service for each traffic type. It is very important for service provider to apply Traffic Engineering (TE) with the dramatic growth of networks traffic. In this paper, we discuss traffic engineering based on IP/MPLS and emphasize traffic measurement in telecom core networks. We specify the technology and scientific principles of the measurement, modeling, characterization, and the traffic flow matrix. The paper concludes with a preliminary analysis of TE measurement and a discussion about the development of TE measurement.

  11. Microstructure-Fibre-Based Optical Parametric Amplification in Telecom Band with Ultra-High Gain Slope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wei; XIAO Li; ZHANG Lei; HUANG Yi-Dong; PENG Jiang-De

    2006-01-01

    @@ We report a microstructure-fibre-based parametric amplification experiment in telecom band with ultra-high gain slope. A peak on-off gain of 52.3 dB is achieved using 25 m high nonlinear microstructure fibre (MF) and only 5.3 W pump power. The parametric gain slope is up to 580dBW-1 km-1. From the experimental data, the linear coefficient of the MF is estimated to be about 66. 7 W-1 km-1. The experiment shows the great potential of MFs in practical fibre parametric amplifiers.

  12. Triangular metal wedges for subwavelength plasmon-polariton guiding at telecom wavelengths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boltasseva, Alexandra; Volkov, V.S.; Nielsen, Rasmus Bundgaard

    2008-01-01

    . Using scanning near-field optical imaging at the wavelengths in the range of 1.43 - 1.52 µm, we demonstrate low-loss (propagation length ~ 120 µm) and well-confined (mode width ≅ 1.3 µm) wedge plasmon-polariton guiding along triangular 6-µm-high and 70.5°- angle gold wedges. Experimental observations......We report on subwavelength plasmon-polariton guiding by triangular metal wedges at telecom wavelengths. A high-quality fabrication procedure for making gold wedge waveguides, which is also mass- production compatible offering large-scale parallel fabrication of plasmonic components, is developed...

  13. Frequency-doubled telecom fiber laser for a cold atom interferometer using optical lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theron, Fabien; Bidel, Yannick; Dieu, Emily; Zahzam, Nassim; Cadoret, Malo; Bresson, Alexandre

    2017-06-01

    A compact and robust frequency-doubled telecom laser system at 780 nm is presented for a rubidium cold atom interferometer using optical lattices. Adopting an optical switch at 1.5 μm and a dual-wavelength second harmonic generation system, only one laser amplifier is required for the laser system. Our system delivers a 900 mW laser beam with a detuning of 110 GHz for the optical lattice and a 650 mW laser beam with an adjustable detuning between 0 and -1 GHz for the laser cooling, the detection and the Raman transitions.

  14. Frequency doubled telecom fiber laser for a cold atom interferometer using optical lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Theron, Fabien; Dieu, Emily; Zahzam, Nassim; Cadoret, Malo; Zahzam, Nassim; Bresson, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    A compact and robust laser system, based on a frequency-doubled telecom laser, providing all the lasers needed for a rubidium cold atom interferometer using optical lattices is presented. Thanks to an optical switch at 1.5 \\mu m and a dual-wavelength second harmonic generation system, only one laser amplifier is needed for all the laser system. Our system delivers at 780 nm a power of 900 mW with a detuning of 110 GHz for the optical lattice and a power of 650 mW with an adjustable detuning between 0 and -1 GHz for the laser cooling, the detection and the Raman transitions.

  15. Interference with a quantum dot single-photon source and a laser at telecom wavelength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felle, M. [Toshiba Research Europe Limited, Cambridge Research Laboratory, 208 Cambridge Science Park, Milton Road, Cambridge CB4 0GZ (United Kingdom); Centre for Advanced Photonics and Electronics, University of Cambridge, J.J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom); Huwer, J., E-mail: jan.huwer@crl.toshiba.co.uk; Stevenson, R. M.; Skiba-Szymanska, J.; Ward, M. B.; Shields, A. J. [Toshiba Research Europe Limited, Cambridge Research Laboratory, 208 Cambridge Science Park, Milton Road, Cambridge CB4 0GZ (United Kingdom); Farrer, I.; Ritchie, D. A. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J.J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Penty, R. V. [Centre for Advanced Photonics and Electronics, University of Cambridge, J.J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom)

    2015-09-28

    The interference of photons emitted by dissimilar sources is an essential requirement for a wide range of photonic quantum information applications. Many of these applications are in quantum communications and need to operate at standard telecommunication wavelengths to minimize the impact of photon losses and be compatible with existing infrastructure. Here, we demonstrate for the first time the quantum interference of telecom-wavelength photons from an InAs/GaAs quantum dot single-photon source and a laser; an important step towards such applications. The results are in good agreement with a theoretical model, indicating a high degree of indistinguishability for the interfering photons.

  16. Million Dollar Baby (2004 and Palliative Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Elías García Sánchez

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The worst misfortune that can befall an old, tormented and fearful boxing trainer is that the pupil he is training and of whom he is very fond should have a lesion as serious as a quadriplegia. This is the crux of the plot in Million Dollar Baby. A person who suffers a quadriplegia sees how most of her physical and sensorial abilities disappear and habitually suffers psychological disturbances requiring palliative medical care. Relatives are subjected to great stress and suffering. All these aspects are reflected, in general accurately, in the film.

  17. Incidence of abacavir hypersensitivity reactions in euroSIDA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bannister, Wendy P; Friis-Møller, Nina; Mocroft, Amanda;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to investigate the incidence of abacavir-related hypersensitivity reaction (HSR) and associated deaths in EuroSIDA HIV-1-infected patients. METHODS: Poisson regression models were developed to compare incidence of abacavir discontinuation according to the line...... of therapy within which abacavir was received, geographical regions, calendar time and drug formulation (abacavir/lamivudine combination tablet versus abacavir as a single drug or abacavir/zidovudine/lamivudine combination). RESULTS: Of 3,278 patients that started abacavir, 2,101 (64.1%) discontinued....... Of these, 167 (5.1%) discontinued abacavir within 3 months due to HSR with an incidence of 22.1 (95% confidence interval [CI] 18.7-25.4) per 100 person-years of follow-up. After adjustment for gender, prior AIDS, hepatitis C serostatus, baseline CD4+ T-cell count, region and calendar time, HSR incidence...

  18. HUMAN RESOURCE PRACTICES IN THE EURO-MEDITERRANEAN REGION: TYPOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline SCOUARNEC

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Under the project “Agora RH”, we would like to propose a framework for theanalysis of Human Resource practices in the Euro-Mediterranean region.This article is theoretical; it is a reflection of the state of the art and thoughtswhich led to the construction of a framework for analysis, used for anempirical investigation currently being carried out in the eight countriesinvolved in this project (France, Spain, Italy, Portugal, Morocco, Algeria,Tunisia, and Slovenia. In this article, we will attempt to define key conceptsabout the evolution of the HR function. We propose in a forthcoming article toexpand on our work, presenting the theoretical foundations with particularemphasis on the possible cultural variables.

  19. UEFA EURO 2012™ in the Polish Sociopolitical Narration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaluk Tomasz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sport constitutes an increasingly popular language of discourse in modern societies, providing a (formal system of signs, which is easily used by, among others, businesses, media, public persons, and, particularly willingly, politicians. Thus, sport as a system of meanings can transfer any values, being at the same time a pragmatic way of arguing in the practice of social life. An example we analyze, are the events that took place after Poland (and Ukraine had been chosen to be host countries of UEFA EURO 2012™, as well as those which took place during the tournament itself. In these analyses, we use the concept of semiotics and, in particular, pragmatism as well as Charles Sanders Peirce’s triadic sign relation.

  20. Parallelization of MATLAB for Euro50 integrated modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Michael; Andersen, Torben E.; Enmark, Anita; Moraru, Dan; Shearer, Andrew

    2004-09-01

    MATLAB and its companion product Simulink are commonly used tools in systems modelling and other scientific disciplines. A cross-disciplinary integrated MATLAB model is used to study the overall performance of the proposed 50m optical and infrared telescope, Euro50. However the computational requirements of this kind of end-to-end simulation of the telescope's behaviour, exceeds the capability of an individual contemporary Personal Computer. By parallelizing the model, primarily on a functional basis, it can be implemented across a Beowulf cluster of generic PCs. This requires MATLAB to distribute in some way data and calculations to the cluster nodes and combine completed results. There have been a number of attempts to produce toolkits to allow MATLAB to be used in a parallel fashion. They have used a variety of techniques. Here we present findings from using some of these toolkits and proposed advances.

  1. Flussi migratori, religione e diritto nella polis euro-mediterranea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fortunato Freni

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Contributo sottoposto a valutazioneSOMMARIO: 1. L’incremento dell’immigrazione in Europa nell’attuale contesto politico e religioso - 2. La “Primavera araba” e le tensioni afferenti alla libertà religiosa nei nuovi equilibri geopolitici - 3. Gli odierni fermenti culturali e giuridici nell’Islam mediterraneo - 4. La prospettiva di una laicità inclusiva euro-mediterranea avverso gli esclusivi schemi “mondialatinizzanti” - 5. Il ruolo dell’Europa nel bacino del Mediterraneo - 6. Alcuni strumenti per estendere la libertà di coscienza a tutte le tendenze culturali: a il dialogo interreligioso - 7. Segue: b le normative concordate - 8. Il decentramento comunitario e l’esigenza di una duttile (ma anche non discriminatoria governance europea.

  2. Coordination of Multi-leaders and Multi-followers in Supply Chain of Value-Added Telecom Services

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dai Jianhua; Bai Xiuguang; Shu Huaying

    2011-01-01

    In order to study supply chain of the telecom value-added service,a multi-leaders and multifollowers Stackelberg game model with multiple telecom operators and multiple service providers whose income is composed of information fee division and advertisement was constructed.Then a demonstration was simulated,and the results were compared with the situation of service providers' income only from information fee division.The simulated and compared results indicate that,the enterprises in the supply chain have the nature of pursuing the maximum profits in capital markets; meanwhile,firstmover advantages and some enterprise can get more profits with the information asymmetry.

  3. MONEY: FROM STATISTICAL DEFINITION TO MONETARY POLICY FOR ADOPTING EURO.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zapodeanu Daniela

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The evolution of monetary aggregates is closely related to the economic cycle, especially the evolution of GDP. The study aims to analyse the primary monetary aggregates (M1, the secondary (M2 and the tertiary (M3 in three Central and Eastern European countries: Romania, Bulgaria and Poland. The countries were chosen as follows: Romania and Bulgaria on the basis of the economic and geographical closeness and Poland as a benchmark for the first group. The data used are money supply, monetary aggregates: primary, secondary and tertiary, in Romania, Poland and Bulgaria, for the period January 2004 - March 2011, the monthly series are obtained from central bank websites, Poland's Central Bank and Bulgarian National Statistical Institute. The evolution of monetary aggregates of the three countries was compared with the Euro area and it was noticed a high degree of similarity between countries more developed economically as compared to less developed countries. From the viewpoint of optimum currency areas, it is necessary that the countries that adopt the Euro would respond symmetrically to external shocks and also have similar economic behaviour. Our study aims, in this respect, to analyse the components and the characteristics of the monetary aggregates, as well as the trends existing within them. The analysis of the correlation between monetary aggregates will show how the way in which the monetary mass and aggregates behave and which the sense of connection established between these countries is. We find that Romania and Bulgaria have a similar comportment, the correlation between these being the highest, we observe some differences between Romania and Bulgaria versus Poland.

  4. LHC collars - 12 million high technology gems

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Some 12 million steel collars will keep the LHC dipole magnet structures rigid. Their production has just begun. A huge job began last week: the high speed manufacturing of twelve million steel collars for the 1250 dipole magnets of the future Large Hadron Collider, LHC. The challenge is not only a matter of quantity: these collars are very high technology components because of the important role they play in the way the collider works. One of the main difficulties with the accelerator is that the magnetic field that keeps particles in orbit must have the same configuration and intensity in all the dipoles. But when the 8.33 tesla magnetic field is on -100.000 times the earth magnetic field - it produces a very strong force that can deform the 'soft' parts of the magnets, such as superconducting coils. The force loading one metre of dipole is almost comparable with the weight of a Boeing 747 - about 400 tonnes - so a huge deformation would occur without a mechanical component to keep the whole structure rigid...

  5. Interactive Graph Layout of a Million Nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Mi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sensemaking of large graphs, specifically those with millions of nodes, is a crucial task in many fields. Automatic graph layout algorithms, augmented with real-time human-in-the-loop interaction, can potentially support sensemaking of large graphs. However, designing interactive algorithms to achieve this is challenging. In this paper, we tackle the scalability problem of interactive layout of large graphs, and contribute a new GPU-based force-directed layout algorithm that exploits graph topology. This algorithm can interactively layout graphs with millions of nodes, and support real-time interaction to explore alternative graph layouts. Users can directly manipulate the layout of vertices in a force-directed fashion. The complexity of traditional repulsive force computation is reduced by approximating calculations based on the hierarchical structure of multi-level clustered graphs. We evaluate the algorithm performance, and demonstrate human-in-the-loop layout in two sensemaking case studies. Moreover, we summarize lessons learned for designing interactive large graph layout algorithms on the GPU.

  6. Opositsioon püüab tõsta euro viibimise valimisteemaks / Lauri Linnamäe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Linnamäe, Lauri

    2007-01-01

    Isamaa ja Res Publica Liit ründas valitsust valitsuse infotunnis euro kasutuselevõtu viibimise pärast. Opositsioonipoliitikute ja rahandusminister Aivar Sõerdi arvamusi. Diagramm: Kõrge inflatsioon lükkas euro edasi

  7. Comparison of Logistic EuroSCORE and EuroSCORE Ⅱ in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery%Logistic EuroSCORE与EuroSCOREⅡ风险评分系统对冠状动脉旁路移植术后死亡风险预测的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王肇; 高长青; 肖苍松; 王嵘

    2014-01-01

    目的 对比分析Logistic EuroSCORE与EuroSCOREⅡ风险评分系统对冠状动脉旁路移植术后住院死亡风险预测的价值.方法 回顾性收集2012年1月~ 2013年12月在笔者医院行单纯冠状动脉旁路移植术的568例患者,分别用Logistic EuroSCORE与EuroSCOREⅡ计算患者的预测病死率,再与患者的实际住院病死率进行对比.使用Hosmer-Lemeshow拟和优度检验评价评分系统的校准度,使用受试者工作特征曲线(receiver operating characteristic,ROC)下面积(area under curve,RUC)评价评分系统的区分度.结果 568例患者住院死亡5例,实际住院病死率0.88%,Logistic EuroSCORE预测病死率5.37%,EuroSCOREⅡ预测病死率1.53%.Logistic EuroSCORE明显高估了住院病死率,EuroSCOREⅡ的预测值与实际住院病死率接近.Logistic EuroSCORE的Hosmer-Lemeshow拟和优度检验P=0.692,AUC=0.635;EuroSCOREⅡ的Hosmer-Lemeshow拟和优度检验P=0.993,AUC=0.758.Logistic EuroSCORE的区分度差,EuroSCOREⅡ区分度及校准度均较好.结论 EuroSCOREⅡ较适用于预测本中心冠脉旁路移植患者的住院死亡风险.

  8. The Impact of work-life connectivity on professional women: A case study of telecom industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahida Latif

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to test work life border theory against job/life satisfaction. The impact of work-life connectivity on professional women working in telecom industry was checked. This quantitative research was conducted by collecting secondary data gathered through world recognized questionnaires. A sample size of 285 respondents was collected through Qualtrics and self-administered questionnaires. This sample was adequate as using Power and Precision software a minimum sample of 175 was computed. Cluster sampling technique in combination with stratified sampling was used to collect data from women in Telecom Industry from major cities of Pakistan. Data collected was analyzed in SPSS and SEM was run on AMOS. Pearson r correlation and regression tests were run to study the effect of the understudy variables. The study found that both types of connectivity, work- to- family and family- to-work directly influence job and family satisfaction of women. The results suggest that family-friendly policies and organizational support can bring substantial benefits to women workers and the organization as a whole.

  9. Human Resource Management Practice and Organizational Performance: Case Study from Hormuud Telecom in Mogadishu-Somalia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulkadir Mohamud Dahie

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Organizational performance is getting more and more important, especially in a market with greater competition and dynamic. Organizational performance is measured through different indicators. It guarantees the continuity of the organization to be competitive in a global marketplace. Normally, the implementation of performance indicators achieved through human resources. Human resources are the key for keeping the organization in the market. These human resources need to be managed effectively to achieve the required performance of the organization. It is necessary to manage strategically the human resources and to adapt at its strategy with organizational strategy. The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of recruitment and selection on organizational performance, to examine the role of compensation and reward on organizational performance as well as the effect of performance appraisal management on organizational performance at Hormuud Telecom in Mogadishu-Somalia. The researcher utilized convenient sampling to collect 100 questionnaires from Hormuud Telecom in Mogadishu, Somalia. These respondents were provided a questionnaire with four main construct which measuring recruitment and selection, compensation and reward, performance appraisal management and organizational performance. However, using correlation coefficient, the study found that organizational performance (Dependent variable had significant positive influence with three dimensions of independent variable. The result of regression analysis found that three constructs had statistically significant, positive, and straight effects with organizational performance.

  10. MHz rate and efficient synchronous heralding of single photons at telecom wavelengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomarico, Enrico; Sanguinetti, Bruno; Guerreiro, Thiago; Thew, Rob; Zbinden, Hugo

    2012-10-08

    We report on the realization of a synchronous source of heralded single photons at telecom wavelengths with MHz heralding rates and high heralding efficiency. This source is based on the generation of photon pairs at 810 and 1550 nm via Spontaneous Parametric Down Conversion (SPDC) in a 1 cm periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) crystal pumped by a 532 nm pulsed laser. As high rates are fundamental for multi-photon experiments, we show that single telecom photons can be announced at 4.4 MHz rate with 45% heralding efficiency. When we focus only on the optimization of the coupling of the heralded photon, the heralding efficiency can be increased up to 80%. Furthermore, we experimentally observe that group velocity mismatch inside long crystals pumped in a pulsed mode affects the spectrum of the emitted photons and their fibre coupling efficiency. The length of the crystal in this source has been chosen as a trade off between high brightness and high coupling efficiency.

  11. Cavity enhanced telecom heralded single photons for spin-wave solid state quantum memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieländer, Daniel; Lenhard, Andreas; Mazzera, Margherita; de Riedmatten, Hugues

    2016-12-01

    We report on a source of heralded narrowband (≈ 3 MHz) single photons compatible with solid-state spin-wave quantum memories based on praseodymium doped crystals. Widely non-degenerate narrow-band photon pairs are generated using cavity enhanced down conversion. One photon from the pair is at telecom wavelengths and serves as heralding signal, while the heralded single photon is at 606 nm, resonant with an optical transition of Pr3+:Y2SiO5. The source offers a heralding efficiency of 28% and a generation rate exceeding 2000 pairs mW-1 in a single-mode. The single photon nature of the heralded field is confirmed by a direct antibunching measurement, with a measured antibunching parameter down to 0.010(4). Moreover, we investigate in detail photon cross- and autocorrelation functions proving non-classical correlations between the two photons. The results presented in this paper offer prospects for the demonstration of single photon spin-wave storage in an on-demand solid state quantum memory, heralded by a telecom photon.

  12. Low Noise Quantum Frequency Conversion from Rb Wavelengths to Telecom O-band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao; Solmeyer, Neal; Stack, Daniel; Quraishi, Qudsia

    2015-05-01

    Ideal quantum repeaters would be composed of long-lived quantum memories entangled with flying qubits. They are becoming essential elements to achieve quantum communication over long distances in a quantum network. However, quantum memories based on neutral atoms operate at wavelengths in the near infrared, unsuitable for long distance communication. The ability to coherently convert photons entangled with quantum memories into telecom wavelengths reduces the transmission loss in optical fibers and therefore dramatically improves the range of a quantum repeater. Furthermore, quantum frequency conversion (QFC) can enable entanglement and communication between different types of quantum memories, thus creating a versatile hybrid quantum network. A recent experiment has shown the conversion of heralded photons from Rb-based memories to the telecom C-band. We implement a setup using a nonlinear PPLN waveguide for the QFC into a wavelength region where the noise-floor would be limited by dark counts rather than pump photons. Our approach uses a pump laser at a much longer wavelength. It has the advantage that the strong pump itself and the broad background in the PPLN can be nearly completely filtered from the converted signal. Such low background level allows for the conversion to be done on the heralding photon, which enables the generated entanglement to be used in a scalable way to multiple nodes remotely situated and to subsequent protocols.

  13. Telecom-Wavelength Atomic Quantum Memory in Optical Fiber for Heralded Polarization Qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jeongwan; Saglamyurek, Erhan; Puigibert, Marcel. lí Grimau; Verma, Varun; Marsili, Francesco; Nam, Sae Woo; Oblak, Daniel; Tittel, Wolfgang

    2015-10-01

    Polarization-encoded photons at telecommunication wavelengths provide a compelling platform for practical realizations of photonic quantum information technologies due to the ease of performing single qubit manipulations, the availability of polarization-entangled photon-pair sources, and the possibility of leveraging existing fiber-optic links for distributing qubits over long distances. An optical quantum memory compatible with this platform could serve as a building block for these technologies. Here we present the first experimental demonstration of an atomic quantum memory that directly allows for reversible mapping of quantum states encoded in the polarization degree of freedom of a telecom-wavelength photon. We show that heralded polarization qubits at a telecom wavelength are stored and retrieved with near-unity fidelity by implementing the atomic frequency comb protocol in an ensemble of erbium atoms doped into an optical fiber. Despite remaining limitations in our proof-of-principle demonstration such as small storage efficiency and storage time, our broadband light-matter interface reveals the potential for use in future quantum information processing.

  14. Simulation and Implementation of Decoy State Quantum Key Distribution over 60km Telecom Fiber

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Y; Ma, X; Qi, B; Qian, L; Lo, Hoi-Kwong; Ma, Xiongfeng; Qi, Bing; Qian, Li; Zhao, Yi

    2006-01-01

    Decoy state quantum key distribution (QKD) has been proposed as a novel approach to improve dramatically both the security and the performance of practical QKD set-ups. Recently, many theoretical efforts have been made on this topic and have theoretically predicted the high performance of decoy method. However, the gap between theory and experiment remains open. In this paper, we report the first experiments on decoy state QKD, thus bridging the gap. Two protocols of decoy state QKD are implemented: one-decoy protocol over 15km of standard telecom fiber, and weak+vacuum protocol over 60km of standard telecom fiber. We implemented the decoy state method on a modified commercial QKD system. The modification we made is simply adding commercial acousto-optic modulator (AOM) on the QKD system. The AOM is used to modulate the intensity of each signal individually, thus implementing the decoy state method. As an important part of implementation, numerical simulation of our set-up is also performed. The simulation sh...

  15. Quantum teleportation from a telecom-wavelength photon to a solid-state quantum memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussières, Félix; Clausen, Christoph; Tiranov, Alexey; Korzh, Boris; Verma, Varun B.; Nam, Sae Woo; Marsili, Francesco; Ferrier, Alban; Goldner, Philippe; Herrmann, Harald; Silberhorn, Christine; Sohler, Wolfgang; Afzelius, Mikael; Gisin, Nicolas

    2014-10-01

    Quantum teleportation is a cornerstone of quantum information science due to its essential role in important tasks such as the long-distance transmission of quantum information using quantum repeaters. This requires the efficient distribution of entanglement between remote nodes of a network. Here, we demonstrate quantum teleportation of the polarization state of a telecom-wavelength photon onto the state of a solid-state quantum memory. Entanglement is established between a rare-earth-ion-doped crystal storing a single photon that is polarization-entangled with a flying telecom-wavelength photon. The latter is jointly measured with another flying polarization qubit to be teleported, which heralds the teleportation. The fidelity of the qubit retrieved from the memory is shown to be greater than the maximum fidelity achievable without entanglement, even when the combined distances travelled by the two flying qubits is 25 km of standard optical fibre. Our results demonstrate the possibility of long-distance quantum networks with solid-state resources.

  16. Growth scheme for quantum dots with low fine structure splitting at telecom wavelengths (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Tina; Skiba-Szymanska, Joanna; Stevenson, R. Mark; Varnava, Christiana; Felle, Martin; Huwer, Jan; Farrer, Ian; Krysa, Andrey B.; Spencer, Peter; Ritchie, David A.; Heffernan, Jon; Shields, Andrew J.

    2017-02-01

    Quantum dots based on InAs/InP hold the promise to deliver entangled photons with wavelength suitable for the standard telecom window around 1550 nm, which makes them predestined to be used in future quantum networks applications based on existing fiber optics infrastructure. A prerequisite for the generation of such entangled photons is a small fine structure splitting (FSS) in the quantum dot excitonic eigenstates, as well as the ability to integrate the dot into photonic structures to enhance and direct its emission. Using optical spectroscopy, we show that a growth strategy based on droplet epitaxy can simultaneously address both issues. Contrary to the standard Stranski-Krastanow technique, droplet epitaxy dots do not rely on material strains during growth, which results in a drastic improvement in dot symmetry. As a consequence, the average exciton FSS is reduced by more than a factor 4, which in fact makes all the difference between easily finding a dot with the required FSS and not finding one at all. Furthermore, we demonstrate that droplet epitaxy dots can be grown on the necessary surface (001) for high quality optical microcavities, which increases dot emission count rates by more than a factor of five. Together, these properties make droplet epitaxy quantum dots readily suitable for the generation of entangled photons at telecom wavelengths.

  17. Quantum teleportation from a telecom-wavelength photon to a solid-state quantum memory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bussieres, Felix [Group of Applied Physics, University of Geneva (Switzerland)

    2014-07-01

    Quantum teleportation is a cornerstone of quantum information science due to its essential role in several important tasks such as the long-distance transmission of quantum information using quantum repeaters. In this context, a challenge of paramount importance is the distribution of entanglement between remote nodes, and to use this entanglement as a resource for long-distance light-to-matter quantum teleportation. In this talk I will report on the demonstration of quantum teleportation of the polarization state of a telecom-wavelength photon onto the state of a solid-state quantum memory. Entanglement is established between a rare-earth-ion doped crystal storing a single photon that is polarization-entangled with a flying telecom-wavelength photon. The latter is jointly measured with another flying qubit carrying the polarization state to be teleported, which heralds the teleportation. The fidelity of the polarization state of the photon retrieved from the memory is shown to be greater than the maximum fidelity achievable without entanglement, even when the combined distances travelled by the two flying qubits is 25 km of standard optical fibre. This light-to-matter teleportation channel paves the way towards long-distance implementations of quantum networks with solid-state quantum memories.

  18. Enhancing the view of a million galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    Composite image hi-res Size hi-res: 851 KB Credits: ESA/Univ. of Leicester/I. Stewart and M. Watson XMM-Newton X-ray spectral colour composite image XMM-Newton X-ray spectral colour composite image of the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Field. The view gives an X-ray pseudo-colour representation of all the sources, coded according to their X-ray energy. More energetic sources are shown in blue and less energetic ones in red. This mosaic image, composed of 7 partially overlapping pointings, maps the full extent of the SXDF and corresponds to an exposure time exceeding one hundred hours. These data form the largest contiguous area over which deep X-ray observations have been performed. Composite image hi-res Size hi-res: 6215 KB Credits: NAOJ/Subaru Telescope XMM-Newton/Subaru colour composite image A colour composite image obtained by combining data taken with the Subaru Telescope in blue, red and near-infrared light. The image, worth over two hundred hours of exposure time, covers an area of sky seven times larger than the full moon. The images in blue light show details several hundred million times fainter than what can be seen with the naked eye. SXDS field hi-res Size hi-res: 448 KB Credits: NAOJ/Subaru Telescope SXDS field A particular of the SXDS field. The teardrop-shaped galaxy in the upper right portion of the frame is likely to have suffered from a collision with another galaxy. SXDS field hi-res Size hi-res: 358 KB Credits: NAOJ/Subaru Telescope SXDS field A particular of the SXDS field. The prominent spiral galaxy near the centre may be ineracting with a less-conspicuous dwarf galaxy to its lower right. One of the fundamental goals of modern astronomy is understanding the history of the Universe, and in particular learning about the processes that shape the formation and evolution of galaxies. To observe these processes as they unfold, astronomers must survey galaxies near and far, spanning a large enough volume of the Universe, so that local variations in the

  19. The novel EuroSCORE II algorithm predicts the hospital mortality of thoracic aortic surgery in 461 consecutive Japanese patients better than both the original additive and logistic EuroSCORE algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Takahiro; Sonoda, Hiromichi; Oishi, Yasuhisa; Tanoue, Yoshihisa; Nakashima, Atsuhiro; Shiokawa, Yuichi; Tominaga, Ryuji

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation (EuroSCORE) II was developed to improve the overestimation of surgical risk associated with the original (additive and logistic) EuroSCOREs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the significance of the EuroSCORE II by comparing its performance with that of the original EuroSCOREs in Japanese patients undergoing surgery on the thoracic aorta. METHODS We have calculated the predicted mortalities according to the additive EuroSCORE, logistic EuroSCORE and EuroSCORE II algorithms in 461 patients who underwent surgery on the thoracic aorta during a period of 20 years (1993–2013). RESULTS The actual in-hospital mortality rates in the low- (additive EuroSCORE of 3–6), moderate- (7–11) and high-risk (≥11) groups (followed by overall mortality) were 1.3, 6.2 and 14.4% (7.2% overall), respectively. Among the three different risk groups, the expected mortality rates were 5.5 ± 0.6, 9.1 ± 0.7 and 13.5 ± 0.2% (9.5 ± 0.1% overall) by the additive EuroSCORE algorithm, 5.3 ± 0.1, 16 ± 0.4 and 42.4 ± 1.3% (19.9 ± 0.7% overall) by the logistic EuroSCORE algorithm and 1.6 ± 0.1, 5.2 ± 0.2 and 18.5 ± 1.3% (7.4 ± 0.4% overall) by the EuroSCORE II algorithm, indicating poor prediction (P < 0.0001) of the mortality in the high-risk group, especially by the logistic EuroSCORE. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves of the additive EuroSCORE, logistic EuroSCORE and EuroSCORE II algorithms were 0.6937, 0.7169 and 0.7697, respectively. Thus, the mortality expected by the EuroSCORE II more closely matched the actual mortality in all three risk groups. In contrast, the mortality expected by the logistic EuroSCORE overestimated the risks in the moderate- (P = 0.0002) and high-risk (P < 0.0001) patient groups. CONCLUSIONS Although all of the original EuroSCOREs and EuroSCORE II appreciably predicted the surgical mortality for thoracic aortic surgery in Japanese patients, the Euro

  20. Impact of Raman Scattered Noise from Multiple Telecom Channels on Fiber-Optic Quantum Key Distribution Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    In this paper we analyze the impact of the spontaneous Raman scattered noise generated from multiple optical classical channels on a single quantum key distribution channel, all within the telecom C-band. We experimentally measure the noise generated from up to 14 continuous lasers with different wavelengths using the dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) standard, in both propagation directions in respect to the QKD channel, over different standard SMF-28 fiber lengths. We then simulate the expected secure key generation rate for a decoy-states-based system as a function of distance under the presence of simultaneous telecom traffic with different modulation techniques, and show a severe penalty growing with the number of classical channels present. Our results show that, for in-band coexistence, the telecom channels should be distributed as close as possible from the quantum channel to avoid the Raman noise peaks. Operation far from the zero dispersion wavelength of the fiber is also beneficial as it greatly reduces the generation of four-wave mixing inside the quantum channel. Furthermore, narrow spectral filtering on the quantum channels is required due to the harsh limitations of performing QKD under real telecom environments, with the quantum and several classical channels coexisting in the same ITU-T C-band.

  1. The Impact of a Sovereign Default within the Euro Zone on the Exchange Rate

    OpenAIRE

    Arne Breuer; Oliver Sauter

    2012-01-01

    We use quanto credit default swaps to analyse the impact of a credit event in the Eurozone on the Dollar-Euro exchange rate. In light of the European debt crisis, market participants are willing to pay more for protection against a sovereign credit event if it is denominated in US Dollars rather than in Euro, because they expect the Euro to depreciate in the wake of the credit event. We use this CDS price difference to calculate the implied exchange rate conditional on a credit event, i.e., t...

  2. [Demographic aspects of social security of elderly population in the Barents Euro-Arctic Region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilova, R I; Golubeva, E Iu; Emel'ianova, A S

    2010-01-01

    Social security of elderly people is discussed at different levels of the realization of the geronto-social policy in the Barents Euro-Arctic Region within the context of the Madrid Plan of Actions on Aging. There have been comparatively analyzed demographic indicators that show age structures of the regions which are parts of the Barents Euro-Arctic Region. There have been defined regional differences and trends of improvement of geronto-social policy for providing security of life activity of elderly people in the Russian part of the Barents Euro-Arctic Region.

  3. WISE photometry for 400 million SDSS sources

    CERN Document Server

    Lang, Dustin; Schlegel, David J

    2014-01-01

    We present photometry of images from the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE; Wright et al. 2010) of over 400 million sources detected by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS; York et al. 2000). We use a "forced photometry" technique, using measured SDSS source positions, star-galaxy separation and galaxy profiles to define the sources whose fluxes are to be measured in the WISE images. We perform photometry with The Tractor image modeling code, working on our "unWISE" coaddds and taking account of the WISE point-spread function and a noise model. The result is a measurement of the flux of each SDSS source in each WISE band. Many sources have little flux in the WISE bands, so often the measurements we report are consistent with zero. However, for many sources we get three- or four-sigma measurements; these sources would not be reported by the WISE pipeline and will not appear in the WISE catalog, yet they can be highly informative for some scientific questions. In addition, these small-signal measurements...

  4. Statistic analysis of millions of digital photos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wueller, Dietmar; Fageth, Reiner

    2008-02-01

    The analysis of images has always been an important aspect in the quality enhancement of photographs and photographic equipment. Due to the lack of meta data it was mostly limited to images taken by experts under predefined conditions and the analysis was also done by experts or required psychophysical tests. With digital photography and the EXIF1 meta data stored in the images, a lot of information can be gained from a semiautomatic or automatic image analysis if one has access to a large number of images. Although home printing is becoming more and more popular, the European market still has a few photofinishing companies who have access to a large number of images. All printed images are stored for a certain period of time adding up to several million images on servers every day. We have utilized the images to answer numerous questions and think that these answers are useful for increasing image quality by optimizing the image processing algorithms. Test methods can be modified to fit typical user conditions and future developments can be pointed towards ideal directions.

  5. Saving Euro by dividing Europe in multiple OCA’s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios K. Dapontas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available On the aftermath of the global credit crunch was made clear thatthe Euro countries debtcrisis shows that the EMU is far from being an Optimal Currency Area (OCA under its current form.The countries accepted bailouts from their counterparts and international organizations in order toprevent the Eurozone collapse spreading the crisis further. Can the breakup to multiple areas help asTootel(1990 suggested?Three possible sets of OCA scenarios are analyzed along with thedemolition scenario. The breakup of the Eurozone to two currencies consisting possible OCAs alongwith a second one adding all the EU members and a third one applying in small regions. Thescenarios are analyzed by using eleven equally weighted optimum area criteria to make Eurozone asingle or a set of sustainable OCAs. These type and extension scenarios are presented for the firsttime for EU countries finding possible sets of independent country groups. The results show that theasymmetries lead to the crisis persist in a possible two or more “euros” area and this scenario cost ishigher than uniondissolution’s. Europe cannot become in its current form a set of OCAs under anycircumstances.

  6. Real world NOx emissions of Euro V vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verbeek, R.; Vonk, W.A.; Verbeek, R.P.; Dekker, H. [TNO Science and Industry, Delft (Netherlands)

    2010-11-15

    In the past decade, vehicle emissions have been reduced substantially as a result of the European emission legislation. Air quality problems are still present, however, in particular in urban areas where local authorities have difficulty meeting European limits regarding air quality (mainly NO2). Therefore, the emission performance of vehicles under urban conditions is of increasing importance for air quality improvement in cities. In this context, TNO was commissioned by the Dutch Ministry of Environment (VROM) to investigate the real-world NOx emissions of Euro V trucks and buses during the past two years. The investigation has shown that, in general, there is a large variety in real-world emissions between different vehicles, in particular under urban conditions. Some vehicles demonstrate the possibility of achieving low emissions under urban conditions, but the results also clearly show that this is not the case for most of the trucks. This outcome is based on two lines of research. Firstly, the real world emissions of eleven trucks and one bus were measured on-road using a Portable Emission Measurement System (PEMS), under conditions typical of everyday use. Secondly, AdBlue consumption data for a number of Dutch vehicle fleets were analysed. AdBlue is the reagent that is used for NOx emission reduction in SCR systems (catalytic after treatment systems), and the amount of reagent used in daily practice is related to the real-world NOx emissions. Both lines of research support the general outcome.

  7. WISE Photometry for 400 Million SDSS Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Dustin; Hogg, David W.; Schlegel, David J.

    2016-02-01

    We present photometry of images from the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) of over 400 million sources detected by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We use a “forced photometry” technique, using measured SDSS source positions, star-galaxy classification, and galaxy profiles to define the sources whose fluxes are to be measured in the WISE images. We perform photometry with The Tractor image modeling code, working on our “unWISE” coaddds and taking account of the WISE point-spread function and a noise model. The result is a measurement of the flux of each SDSS source in each WISE band. Many sources have little flux in the WISE bands, so often the measurements we report are consistent with zero given our uncertainties. However, for many sources we get 3σ or 4σ measurements; these sources would not be reported by the “official” WISE pipeline and will not appear in the WISE catalog, yet they can be highly informative for some scientific questions. In addition, these small-signal measurements can be used in stacking analyses at the catalog level. The forced photometry approach has the advantage that we measure a consistent set of sources between SDSS and WISE, taking advantage of the resolution and depth of the SDSS images to interpret the WISE images; objects that are resolved in SDSS but blended together in WISE still have accurate measurements in our photometry. Our results, and the code used to produce them, are publicly available at http://unwise.me.

  8. WISE PHOTOMETRY FOR 400 MILLION SDSS SOURCES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, Dustin [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics and Dunlap Institute, University of Toronto, 50 Saint George Street, Toronto, ON, M5S 3H4 (Canada); Hogg, David W. [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Schlegel, David J., E-mail: dstndstn@gmail.com [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    We present photometry of images from the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) of over 400 million sources detected by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We use a “forced photometry” technique, using measured SDSS source positions, star–galaxy classification, and galaxy profiles to define the sources whose fluxes are to be measured in the WISE images. We perform photometry with The Tractor image modeling code, working on our “unWISE” coaddds and taking account of the WISE point-spread function and a noise model. The result is a measurement of the flux of each SDSS source in each WISE band. Many sources have little flux in the WISE bands, so often the measurements we report are consistent with zero given our uncertainties. However, for many sources we get 3σ or 4σ measurements; these sources would not be reported by the “official” WISE pipeline and will not appear in the WISE catalog, yet they can be highly informative for some scientific questions. In addition, these small-signal measurements can be used in stacking analyses at the catalog level. The forced photometry approach has the advantage that we measure a consistent set of sources between SDSS and WISE, taking advantage of the resolution and depth of the SDSS images to interpret the WISE images; objects that are resolved in SDSS but blended together in WISE still have accurate measurements in our photometry. Our results, and the code used to produce them, are publicly available at http://unwise.me.

  9. EuroQoL in assessment of the effect of pulmonary rehabilitation COPD patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringbaek, Thomas; Brøndum, Eva; Martinez, Gerd;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The effect of pulmonary rehabilitation on EuroQol in COPD patients has not been investigated previously. METHODS/MATERIALS: Two hundred and twenty nine consecutive COPD patients who had completed a 7-week pulmonary rehabilitation programme were assessed with EuroQol five-dimension que......BACKGROUND: The effect of pulmonary rehabilitation on EuroQol in COPD patients has not been investigated previously. METHODS/MATERIALS: Two hundred and twenty nine consecutive COPD patients who had completed a 7-week pulmonary rehabilitation programme were assessed with EuroQol five...... scale. At completion of the programme, statistical significant improvements were seen for ESWT 157.3s; ptotal score -2.8units; p....1%). CONCLUSIONS: In COPD patients receiving rehabilitation, responsiveness of EQ-5D utility was poor. One explanation might be a "ceiling effect" of this instrument....

  10. Euro on sama tähtis kui NATO ja Euroopa Liit / Vahur Kraft

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kraft, Vahur, 1961-

    2005-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Severnoje Poberezhje 3. juuni lk 2. Eesti Panga presidendi sõnul on euro aluseks oleva majandus- ja rahaliidu peamisteks eesmärkideks stabiilne majanduskasv ja madal inflatsioon. Väljavõte esinemisest Riigikogus

  11. Perceived value in food selection when dining out: comparison of African Americans and Euro-Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinci, Debra M; Philipp, Steven F

    2007-06-01

    This descriptive study compares African Americans' and Euro-Americans' perceived value of food selection pertaining to cost, portion size, and meal satisfaction when eating away from home. A stratified sample was drawn from a southern U.S. metropolitan area (N= 1,011; 486 African American, 525 Euro-American). Analysis showed no difference between African-American and Euro-American adults by sex or how often they dined out. These two groups significantly differed across years of education, age, and answering 14 of 18 rated statements on value perceptions. African-Americans' value perceptions were influenced more by lower cost foods and larger portion sizes than those of Euro-Americans. For meal satisfaction, African Americans were more likely to agree with statements that indicate preferring foods high in energy and low in essential micronutrient density. This study supports the need for more investigation.

  12. ROMANIA: CLIMBING THE LADDER FOR A BETTER FUTURE. WHEN WILL IT REACH EU AND EURO AREA?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Tatomir

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we assess the evolution of Romania’s economic convergence with the European Union (EU and Euro area, during the period 2000-2010. In order to determine the number of years required to reach the EU and Euro area average, we employ an economic convergence index, made up of real and structural convergence indexes. The analysis shows that Romania has been climbing the ladder in the process of catching-up with the EU and the Euro area until 2008 when, because of the international crisis, the economic convergence index started decreasing. We report that Romania will reach the EU average in April 2056 and the Euro area average in September 2062.As revealed by the analysis, it will take decadesto attain the European levels of economic convergence, this being the most important challenge for Romania on the long term.

  13. Regional differences in self-reported HIV care and management in the EuroSIDA study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laut, Kamilla Grønborg; Mocroft, Amanda; Lazarus, Jeffrey;

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: EuroSIDA has previously reported a poorer clinical prognosis for HIV-positive individuals in Eastern Europe (EE) as compared with patients from other parts of Europe, not solely explained by differences in patient characteristics. We explored regional variability in self-reported HIV...... management at individual EuroSIDA clinics, with a goal of identifying opportunities to reduce the apparent inequalities in health. METHODS: A survey (www.chip.dk/eurosida/csurvey) on HIV management was conducted in early 2014 in all currently active EuroSIDA clinics. Responders in EE were compared...... with clinics in all other EuroSIDA regions combined (non-EE). Characteristics were compared between regions using Fishers exact test. RESULTS: A total of 80/97 clinics responded (82.5%, 12/15 in EE, 68/82 in non-EE). Participating clinics reported seeing a total of 133,532 patients [a median of 1300 per clinic...

  14. Euro kasutuselevõtuks ametnikel töö tehtud / Piret Reiljan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Reiljan, Piret, 1983-

    2007-01-01

    Eesti eurole üleminekut ette valmistanud ametnike koostatud infomaterjalid ja tegevuskavad on valmis, ent euro saabumise aeg pole veel teada. Diagramm: Inflatsioonimäär. Kommenteerivad Jan Linden ja Klas Eklund

  15. The ECB’s survey of professional forecasters and financial market volatility in the euro area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, I.J.M.; Glasbeek, M.

    2011-01-01

    Since 1999, the European Central Bank (ECB) conducts a quarterly survey of the economic outlook in the euro area among professional forecasters. This article investigates the relationship between macroeconomic uncertainty, measured as the dispersion in economic forecasts across survey participants,

  16. Moderating Influence of Critical Psychological States on Work Engagement and Personal Outcomes in the Telecom Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold Andrew Patrick

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Organizations want their employees to be engaged with their work, exhibiting proactive behavior, initiative, and responsibility for personal development. Existing literature has a dearth of studies that evaluate all the three key variables that lead to optimal employee performance—critical psychological states (CPSs, work engagement, and personal outcomes. The present study attempts to fill that gap by linking the variable CPSs (which measures experienced meaningfulness, responsibility, and knowledge of results with the other two. The study surveyed 359 sales personnel in the Indian telecom industry and adopted standardized, valid, and reliable instruments to measure their work engagement, CPSs, and personal outcomes. Analysis was done using structural equation modeling (SEM. Findings indicated that CPSs significantly moderate the relationship between personal outcomes and work engagement.

  17. 2 GHz clock quantum key distribution over 260 km of standard telecom fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuang; Chen, Wei; Guo, Jun-Fu; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Li, Hong-Wei; Zhou, Zheng; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu

    2012-03-15

    We report a demonstration of quantum key distribution (QKD) over a standard telecom fiber exceeding 50 dB in loss and 250 km in length. The differential phase shift QKD protocol was chosen and implemented with a 2 GHz system clock rate. By careful optimization of the 1 bit delayed Faraday-Michelson interferometer and the use of the superconducting single photon detector (SSPD), we achieved a quantum bit error rate below 2% when the fiber length was no more than 205 km, and of 3.45% for a 260 km fiber with 52.9 dB loss. We also improved the quantum efficiency of SSPD to obtain a high key rate for 50 km length.

  18. 2-GHz clock quantum key distribution over 260 km of standard telecom fiber

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Shuang; Guo, Jun-Fu; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Li, Hong-Wei; Zhou, Zheng; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu; 10.1364/OL.37.001008

    2012-01-01

    We report a demonstration of quantum key distribution (QKD) over a standard telecom fiber exceeding 50 dB in loss and 250 km in length. The differential phase shift QKD protocol was chosen and implemented with 2 GHz system clock rate. By careful optimization of the 1-bit delayed Faraday-Michelson interferometer and the use of the super-conducting single photon detector (SSPD), we achieved a quantum bit error rate below 2% when the fiber length was no more than 205 km, and of 3.45% for the 260 km length fiber with 52.9 dB loss. We also improved the quantum efficiency of SSPD to obtain high key rate for 50 km length.

  19. On-chip, photon-number-resolving, telecom-band detectors for scalable photonic information processing

    CERN Document Server

    Gerrits, Thomas; Gates, James C; Lita, Adriana E; Metcalf, Benjamin J; Calkins, Brice; Tomlin, Nathan A; Fox, Anna E; Linares, Antía Lamas; Spring, Justin B; Langford, Nathan K; Mirin, Richard P; Smith, Peter G R; Walmsley, Ian A; Nam, Sae Woo

    2011-01-01

    Integration is currently the only feasible route towards scalable photonic quantum processing devices that are sufficiently complex to be genuinely useful in computing, metrology, and simulation. Embedded on-chip detection will be critical to such devices. We demonstrate an integrated photon-number resolving detector, operating in the telecom band at 1550 nm, employing an evanescently coupled design that allows it to be placed at arbitrary locations within a planar circuit. Up to 5 photons are resolved in the guided optical mode via absorption from the evanescent field into a tungsten transition-edge sensor. The detection efficiency is 7.2 \\pm 0.5 %. The polarization sensitivity of the detector is also demonstrated. Detailed modeling of device designs shows a clear and feasible route to reaching high detection efficiencies.

  20. On the Pricing of Step-Up Bonds in the European Telecom Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, David; Mortensen, Allan

    This paper investigates the pricing of step-up bonds, i.e. corporatebonds with provisions stating that the coupon payments increase as thecredit rating level of the issuer declines. To assess the risk-neutral ratingtransition probabilities necessary to price these bonds, we introduce...... a newcalibration method within the reduced-form rating-based model of Jarrow,Lando, and Turnbull (1997). We also treat split ratings and adjust forrating outlook. Step-up bonds have been issued in large amounts in theEuropean telecom sector, and we find that, through most of the sample,step-up bonds issued...... by the two largest issuers have traded at a discountrelative to comparable fixed-coupon bonds from the same issuers. Ourfindings cannot be attributed to traditional liquidity factors, and they suggestthat issuing step-up bonds increased the cost of capital for the issuers.Keywords: defaultable bonds, step...

  1. Scalable multiplexed detector system for high-rate telecom-band single-photon detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brida, G; Degiovanni, I P; Piacentini, F; Schettini, V; Polyakov, S V; Migdall, A

    2009-11-01

    We present an actively multiplexed photon-counting detection system at telecom wavelengths that overcomes the difficulties of photon-counting at high rates. We find that for gated detectors, the heretofore unconsidered deadtime associated with the detector gate is a critical parameter, that limits the overall scalability of the scheme to just a few detectors. We propose and implement a new scheme that overcomes this problem and restores full scalability that allows an order of magnitude improvement with systems with as few as 4 detectors. When using just two multiplexed detectors, our experimental results show a 5x improvement over a single detector and a greater than 2x improvement over multiplexed schemes that do not consider gate deadtime.

  2. CW-pumped telecom band polarization entangled photon pair generation in a Sagnac interferometer

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yan; Ding, Dong-Sheng; Shi, Bao-Sen

    2015-01-01

    A polarization entangled photon pair source is widely used in many quantum information processing applications such as teleportation, quantum swapping, quantum computation and high precision quantum metrology. Here, we report on the generation of a continuous-wave pumped degenerated 1550 nm polarization entangled photon pair source at telecom wavelength using a type-II phase-matched periodically poled KTiOPO4 crystal in a Sagnac interferometer. Hong-Ou-Mandel-type interference measurement shows the photon bandwidth of 2.4 nm. High quality of entanglement is verified by various kinds of measurements, for example two-photon interference fringes, Bell inequality and quantum states tomography. The wavelength of photons can be tuned over a broad range by changing the temperature of crystal or pump power without losing the quality of entanglement. This source will be useful for building up long-distance quantum networks.

  3. Customer Satisfaction Measurement and Analysis Using Six Sigma in Telecom Sector of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Imran Qureshi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Six Sigma has been considered as a powerful business strategy that employs a well structured continuous improvementmethodology to reduce process variability and waste within the business processes along with an effective application of statistical tools andtechniques. The objective of the study measures the customer satisfaction in Telecom sector of Khyber Pakhtoonkhawa (KPK province ofPakistan by using the six sigma methodology. The study further elaborates a mixture of tools and techniques within the Six Sigmamethodologies to achieve substantial financial benefits and customers’ satisfaction. The results of Pareto chart shows that there are numberof problems which are facing by the existing customers in the customer service centre i.e., network problems, sim registration problems,billing issues, sim blocking issues, etc.

  4. The LHC and the computing grid at the heart of ITU Telecom World 2009

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    ITU Telecom World 2009 took place at Geneva’s Palexpo, just down the road from CERN, from 5 to 9 October. This high-profile, internationally-renowned show organised by the ITU, the UN agency responsible for telecommunications, attracts visitors from both the public and private sectors sharing a common interest in information technologies and communication. 18,000 people passed through its gates in 2009. Visitors flocked to CERN’s stand, which proved to be one of the show’s most popular, keen to find out about the LHC restart and the communication technologies mobilised for this extraordinary endeavour. The CERN stand was located in the section supported by the Cantons of Vaud and Geneva called "Lake Geneva Region", covering over 700 m2 on two levels and promoting the region’s excellence by highlighting thirty innovative companies and organisations based there. A console similar to the one in the CERN Control Centre was presented. Equipped...

  5. Guided wave technology for a telecom wavelength heralded single photon source

    CERN Document Server

    Alibart, O; Ostrowsky, D B; Baldi, P; Alibart, Olivier; Tanzilli, Sebastien; Ostrowsky, Daniel Barry; Baldi, Pascal

    2004-01-01

    We report on a guided wave heralded photon source based on the creation of non-degenerate photon pairs by spontaneous parametric down conversion in a Periodically Poled Lithium Niobate waveguide. Using the signal photon at 1310 nm as a trigger, a gated detection process permits announcing the arrival of single photons at 1550 nm at the output of a single mode optical fiber with the best probability to date of 0.38. The multi-photon emission probability is reduced by a factor of 10 compared to poissonian light sources. Relying on guided wave technologies such as integrated optics and fiber optics components, our source offers stability, compactness and efficiency and can serve as a paradigm for guided wave devices applied to quantum communication and computation using existing telecom networks.

  6. Interfacing Superconducting Qubits and Telecom Photons via a Rare-Earth Doped Crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauk, Nikolai; O'Brien, Christopher; Blum, Susanne; Morigi, Giovanna; Fleischhauer, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Superconducting qubits (SCQ) are promising candidates for scalable quantum computation. However, they are essentially stationary, which makes them less suitable for quantum information transport. Interfacing short telecom photons with SCQ's would enable the combination of SCQ with low loss optical fiber networks and a fast, reliable quantum network could be realized. To this end, we propose and theoretically analyze a scheme for coupling optical photons to a SCQ, using a rare earth doped crystal (REDC) coupled to the microwave cavity as an interface. The idea is first to store an optical photon by mapping it to a spin excitation in a REDC and then transfer this excitation to a SCQ via a microwave cavity. Due to intrinsic and engineered inhomogeneous broadening of the optical and spin transitions employed in REDC for the storage of short optical photon pulses, we suggest and optimize a special transfer protocol using staggered π-pulses.

  7. Quantum storage of entangled telecom-wavelength photons in an erbium-doped optical fibre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saglamyurek, Erhan; Jin, Jeongwan; Verma, Varun B.; Shaw, Matthew D.; Marsili, Francesco; Nam, Sae Woo; Oblak, Daniel; Tittel, Wolfgang

    2015-02-01

    The realization of a future quantum Internet requires the processing and storage of quantum information at local nodes and interconnecting distant nodes using free-space and fibre-optic links. Quantum memories for light are key elements of such quantum networks. However, to date, neither an atomic quantum memory for non-classical states of light operating at a wavelength compatible with standard telecom fibre infrastructure, nor a fibre-based implementation of a quantum memory, has been reported. Here, we demonstrate the storage and faithful recall of the state of a 1,532 nm wavelength photon entangled with a 795 nm photon, in an ensemble of cryogenically cooled erbium ions doped into a 20-m-long silica fibre, using a photon-echo quantum memory protocol. Despite its currently limited efficiency and storage time, our broadband light-matter interface brings fibre-based quantum networks one step closer to reality.

  8. Monetary union and forest products trade- The case of the euro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph Buongiorno

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if the establishment of a monetary union in European countries had affected the international trade of forest products between the euro-using countries. A differential gravity model of bilateral trade flows was developed and estimated with panel data for the bilateral trade between 12 euro countries from 1988 to 2013, for...

  9. Exports and Capacity Constraints – A Smooth Transition Regression Model for Six Euro Area Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Belke, Ansgar; Oeking, Anne; Setzer, Ralph

    2013-01-01

    Traditional specifications of export equations incorporate foreign demand as a demand pull factor and the real exchange rate as a relative price variable. However, such standard export equations have failed to explain the export performance of euro area countries during the crisis period. In particular, the significant gains in export market shares in a number of vulnerable euro area crisis countries did not coincide with an appropriate improvement in price competitiveness. This paper argues ...

  10. Estimating simple fiscal policy reaction functions for the euro area countries

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    We formulate and estimate a simple fiscal policy reaction function for the euro area and individual euro area countries. Our reaction function allows for primary surpluses to feature three components: an anti-cyclical response of primary surpluses to the output gap, a response to the debt-GDP ratio, and an exogenous fiscal policy shifter. In line with the cyclical adjustment literature and in contrast with much of the previous time-series literature, we find a consistently strong anti-cyclica...

  11. A Novel Lightweight Main Memory Database for Telecom Network Performance Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Lan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Today telecom network are growing complex. Although the amount of network performance data increased dramatically, telecom network operators require better performance on network performance data collection and analysis. Database is the important component in modern network management model. Since main memory database (MMDB store data in main physical memory and provide very high-speed access, MMDB can suffice the requirements on data intensive and real time response in network performance management system. This paper presents a novel lightweight design on MMDB for network performance data persistence. This design improves data access performance in following aspects.  The data persistence mechanism employs user mode memory map provided by UNIX OS. To reduce the cost of data copy and data interpretation, the data storage format is designed as consistent with binary format in application memory. The database is provided as program library and the application can access data in shared memory to avoid the cost on inter-process communication. Once data is updated in memory, query application can get updated data without disk I/O cost. The data access methods adopt multi-level RB-Tree structure. In best case, the algorithm complexity is O(N. In worst case, the algorithm complexity is O(N*lgN. In real performance data distribution scenarios, the complexity is nearly O(N. The system approach has been tested in laboratory using benchmark data. The result shows the performances of the application fully meet the requirements of the product index. The CPU and memory consumption are also lower than network management system requirements.

  12. TRIPOLARISATION OF THE CURRENCIES IN THE WORLD ECONOMY: US DOLLAR – EURO – YEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona TOMA

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available At present, the world economy is dominated by three poles – the USA, the European Union and Japan – among which there should be real co-operation to ensure the international stability on all levels. The introduction of the euro was perceived by the experts as the beginning of the competition among the currencies on the international financial markets. The European Monetary Union was conceived to cause an internal, not an external change, with an economic and financial purpose and as a further step of the European integration. Moreover, the international monetary system does not allow the European single currency to make gains that might cause losses to the US dollar. Both currencies have room in the world economy, but the euro has been beneficial to both the euro area and the rest of the world. At present, the euro is stronger than the sum of the twelve former national currencies. The consolidation of the national economies of the euro area becomes stronger due to the impact on liquidities, to the various investment opportunities for the entities that manage the financial portfolios and the central banks that manage the foreign currency reserves. The competition among the currencies means more opportunities in the world economy: the euro is an international currency used along with the US dollar and the yen, not against them.

  13. Global cosmopolitan economics, the euro and the Portuguese economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Farto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite favourable external circumstances, in the last decade the Portuguese economy developed a model of imbalance and dependence based on the disparity between production and consumption, which was financed from the outside and led to anaemic growth, severe deficits and explosive debt, much similar to the Latin American populist models of the past. The restrictions related to the adoption of the euro and inadequate economic policies are the determinants of this process, and, simultaneously, the barriers that need to be overcome. The internal devaluation/recessionary policy, wrongly presented as a close replacement for external devaluation/expansionary policy, underestimates the recessive effects on demand and the way it gets aggravated amidst strong indebtedness, fostering a deflationary spiral that tends to undermine the policy of austerity that is essential to reduce the imbalances. Doubts about the benefits of the abatement of all obstacles (including those of a monetary nature to free trade among countries of very unequal development, long expressed by Friedrich List, are intensifying. In the absence of own currency, sovereignty and discretionary budgetary policy will be reduced in favour of prescribed rules, limiting economic policies to microeconomic and mesoeconomic frameworks. Due to the lack of an independent exchange rate mechanism, the exports sector sets the pace for the growth of the economy and of wages in the long term, while the impossibility to devaluate tends to lead to cumulative imbalances that are only offset by the occurrence of crises. Avoiding the latter requires paced wage and social policies, and increasing the rate of growth of the product and wages requires the development of an exports sector with high added value. This is the policy and strategy narrow path that Portuguese economy needs to tread.

  14. Source apportionment using LOTOS-EUROS: module description and evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kranenburg

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available To design effective mitigation strategies, the origin of emissions which produce air pollutants needs to be known. Contributors to air pollutants can be emission sources, like road traffic or industry, but also be more specified to emission from one location or from a specified time. Chemistry transport models can be used to assess the origin of air pollution across a large domain. However, in traditional simulations the information on origin is lost and brute force scenario studies are performed to assess the origin. Alternatively, one can trace the origin of air pollutants throughout a simulation using a labeling approach. In this paper we document and demonstrate a newly developed labeling module for the chemistry transport model LOTOS-EUROS which tracks the source allocation for all particulate matter components and precursor gases. Dedicated simulations confirmed that the new module functions correctly. The new module provides more accurate information about the source contributions than using a brute force approach with scenario runs as the chemical regime remains unchanged. An important advantage of the new module is the reduction of computation costs and analysis work associated with the calculations. The new module was applied to assess the origin of particulate nitrate across the Netherlands. Averaged across the Dutch territory, the main contributions to nitrate are derived from road and non-road transport as well as power plants. Overall, only one-fifth of the concentration derived from sources located inside the country. The new technology enables new research directions as improved information on pollution origin is desired for policy support as well as scientific applications.

  15. MIGRATION PROCESSES IN BARENTS EURO-ARCTIC REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia Aleksandrovna Afonkina

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the research is the analysis of migration processes in the Barents Euro-Arctic region (BEAR. The main focus is the balance of interests between ethnic immigrants and citizens of the accepting country as well as formation and dynamics of ethno-social structure.The research of the migration problems is done through socio-cultural focus. It implies that a research of nation’s constant norms, values and traditions creates a scientific basis for creation of poly-cultural society and it’s stable structure.The novelty of the work is the regional aspect. The transformational trends of modern society and specifics of the BEAR are taken into account and studied on the example of the Murmansk region which is characterized as a region of heavy migration.The study describes migration processes intertwined with the realities of the multi-cultural society in BEAR (with the example of Murmansk region. The factors of upkeep of ba-lanced inter-ethnic relationship and formation of poly-cultural society are highlighted. The role of each ethnic group and national diasporas within ethno-social processes is highlighted. Authors suggest that the success of socio-cultural adaptation of immigrants is not only due to knowledge of language and culture of the accepting society, but also is due to traditions and trends of poly-culture of the accepting nation.The results of the study may be used for managing solutions in stabilizing of ethno-cultural processes within BEAR but also within the framework of the study courses, such as «Ethno-sociology» or «Sociology of migration».

  16. Leadership through Innovation and Creativity in Marketing Strategies of Indian Telecom Sector:A Case Study of Airtel Using Factor Analysis Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Harsh Dwivedi; Leena Sharma

    2011-01-01

    The telecom sector have been touched and influenced by the process of liberalization and globalization in India. The customer is the king in the market. Telecom companies deal in intangible product that is the call service. With the entry of private players, the competition is becoming intense. In order to satisfy the customer, every company is trying to implement a program of marketing strategy. Keeping this in mind, the present study is designed to analyze the marketing strategy in Indian T...

  17. 500 Million Yuan Textile Machinery Project Located in Laiyang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Textile machinery project with 500 million Yuan investment was formally signed in Yantai Laiyang Development Zone on November 15, which is the l Oth project in the development zone with more than 100 million Yuan investment, and the 5th project in the development zone with more than 500 million Yuan investment.

  18. High-Speed Photonic Reservoir Computing Using a Time-Delay-Based Architecture: Million Words per Second Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Larger

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Reservoir computing, originally referred to as an echo state network or a liquid state machine, is a brain-inspired paradigm for processing temporal information. It involves learning a “read-out” interpretation for nonlinear transients developed by high-dimensional dynamics when the latter is excited by the information signal to be processed. This novel computational paradigm is derived from recurrent neural network and machine learning techniques. It has recently been implemented in photonic hardware for a dynamical system, which opens the path to ultrafast brain-inspired computing. We report on a novel implementation involving an electro-optic phase-delay dynamics designed with off-the-shelf optoelectronic telecom devices, thus providing the targeted wide bandwidth. Computational efficiency is demonstrated experimentally with speech-recognition tasks. State-of-the-art speed performances reach one million words per second, with very low word error rate. Additionally, to record speed processing, our investigations have revealed computing-efficiency improvements through yet-unexplored temporal-information-processing techniques, such as simultaneous multisample injection and pitched sampling at the read-out compared to information “write-in”.

  19. High-Speed Photonic Reservoir Computing Using a Time-Delay-Based Architecture: Million Words per Second Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larger, Laurent; Baylón-Fuentes, Antonio; Martinenghi, Romain; Udaltsov, Vladimir S.; Chembo, Yanne K.; Jacquot, Maxime

    2017-01-01

    Reservoir computing, originally referred to as an echo state network or a liquid state machine, is a brain-inspired paradigm for processing temporal information. It involves learning a "read-out" interpretation for nonlinear transients developed by high-dimensional dynamics when the latter is excited by the information signal to be processed. This novel computational paradigm is derived from recurrent neural network and machine learning techniques. It has recently been implemented in photonic hardware for a dynamical system, which opens the path to ultrafast brain-inspired computing. We report on a novel implementation involving an electro-optic phase-delay dynamics designed with off-the-shelf optoelectronic telecom devices, thus providing the targeted wide bandwidth. Computational efficiency is demonstrated experimentally with speech-recognition tasks. State-of-the-art speed performances reach one million words per second, with very low word error rate. Additionally, to record speed processing, our investigations have revealed computing-efficiency improvements through yet-unexplored temporal-information-processing techniques, such as simultaneous multisample injection and pitched sampling at the read-out compared to information "write-in".

  20. IS READY ROMANIA FOR EURO ADOPTION? FROM STRUCTURAL CONVERGENCE TO BUSINESS CYCLE SYNCHRONIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinas Marius - Corneliu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to identify gaps between economic and commercial structures between Romania and the euro area and to explain whether the results obtained justify recently decision to delay euro adoption beyond 2015. According to theory of optimum currency areas, the existence of similar economic structures, increasing trade integration and synchronization of business cycles with monetary union will provide greater symmetry of shocks between Romania and the euro area. If the shocks are more symmetrical, then common monetary policy of the European Central Bank will act as a tool to neutralize the shocks in the case of Romania, and the euro adoption would have fewer adverse effects. To meet the research objective, we have structured this paper into three parts. In the first part we referred to the importance of the proposed theme in the economic literature. In the second part, we used several statistical methods to identify how divergent is Romania relative to the euro area economies. The results obtained show increasing divergence between economic structures until 2009 year using the NACE 6 methodology. In fact, Romania has the most divergent structure in EU-27 countries, being characterized by lowest contribution of services to GDP. However, structural differences do not constitute an obstacle to euro adoption, as long as Romania becomes more commercially integrated with other European countries. Thus, Romania is the seventh economy in terms of trade with the EU-27 (73.3% of exports and 74.3% of imports, and the degree of convergence between the structure of exports and imports have increased significantly compared with 2000 year. In the third part, we estimated the degree of synchronization of business cycles between Romania and the euro area, based on Hodrick-Prescott filter. Results showed an increasing correlation of business cycles as a result of increasing industrial activity and export synchronization.

  1. The Impact of EuroSCORE II Risk Factors on Prediction of Long-Term Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barili, Fabio; Pacini, Davide; D'Ovidio, Mariangela; Dang, Nicholas C; Alamanni, Francesco; Di Bartolomeo, Roberto; Grossi, Claudio; Davoli, Marina; Fusco, Danilo; Parolari, Alessandro

    2016-10-01

    The European System for Cardiac Operation Risk Evaluation (EuroSCORE) II has not been tested yet for predicting long-term mortality. This study was undertaken to evaluate the relationship between EuroSCORE II and long-term mortality and to develop a new algorithm based on EuroSCORE II factors to predict long-term survival after cardiac surgery. Complete data on 10,033 patients who underwent major cardiac surgery during a 7-year period were retrieved from three prospective institutional databases and linked with the Italian Tax Register Information System. Mortality at follow-up was analyzed with time-to-event analysis. The Kaplan-Meier estimates of survival at 1 and 5 were, respectively, 95.0% ± 0.2% and 84.7% ± 0.4%. Both discrimination and calibration of EuroSCORE II decreased in the prediction of 1-year and 5-year mortality. Nonetheless, EuroSCORE II was confirmed to be an independent predictor of long-term mortality with a nonlinear trend. Several EuroSCORE II variables were independent risk factors for long-term mortality in a regression model, most of all very low ejection fraction (less than 20%), salvage operation, and dialysis. In the final model, isolated mitral valve surgery and isolated coronary artery bypass graft surgery were associated with improved long-term survival. The EuroSCORE II cannot be considered a direct estimator of long-term risk of death, as its performance fades for mortality at follow-up longer than 30 days. Nonetheless, it is nonlinearly associated with long-term mortality, and most of its variables are risk factors for long-term mortality. Hence, they can be used in a different algorithm to stratify the risk of long-term mortality after surgery. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. TELECOM BIG DATA FOR URBAN TRANSPORT ANALYSIS – A CASE STUDY OF SPLIT-DALMATIA COUNTY IN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Baučić

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Today, big data has become widely available and the new technologies are being developed for big data storage architecture and big data analytics. An ongoing challenge is how to incorporate big data into GIS applications supporting the various domains. International Transport Forum explains how the arrival of big data and real-time data, together with new data processing algorithms lead to new insights and operational improvements of transport. Based on the telecom customer data, the Study of Tourist Movement and Traffic in Split-Dalmatia County in Croatia is carried out as a part of the “IPA Adriatic CBC//N.0086/INTERMODAL” project. This paper briefly explains the big data used in the study and the results of the study. Furthermore, this paper investigates the main considerations when using telecom customer big data: data privacy and data quality. The paper concludes with GIS visualisation and proposes the further use of big data used in the study.

  3. Frequency conversion between UV and telecom wavelengths in a lithium niobate waveguide for quantum communication with Yb+ trapped ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasture, Sachin; Lenzini, Francesco; Haylock, Ben; Boes, Andreas; Mitchell, Arnan; Streed, Erik W.; Lobino, Mirko

    2016-10-01

    We study and demonstrate the frequency conversion of UV radiation, resonant with 369.5 nm transition in Yb+ ions to the C-band wavelength 1580.3 nm and vice-versa using a reverse proton-exchanged waveguide in periodically poled lithium niobate. Our integrated device can interface trapped Yb+ ions with a telecom infrastructure for the realization of an Yb+ based quantum repeater protocol and to efficiently distribute entanglement over long distances. We analyse the single photon frequency conversion efficiency from the 369.525 nm to the telecom wavelength and its dependence on pump power, device length and temperature. The single-photon noise generated by the spontaneous Raman scattering of the pump is also measured. From this analysis we estimate a single photon conversion efficiency of ∼9% is achievable with our technology with almost complete suppression of the Raman noise.

  4. Telecom Big Data for Urban Transport Analysis - a Case Study of Split-Dalmatia County in Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baučić, M.; Jajac, N.; Bućan, M.

    2017-09-01

    Today, big data has become widely available and the new technologies are being developed for big data storage architecture and big data analytics. An ongoing challenge is how to incorporate big data into GIS applications supporting the various domains. International Transport Forum explains how the arrival of big data and real-time data, together with new data processing algorithms lead to new insights and operational improvements of transport. Based on the telecom customer data, the Study of Tourist Movement and Traffic in Split-Dalmatia County in Croatia is carried out as a part of the "IPA Adriatic CBC//N.0086/INTERMODAL" project. This paper briefly explains the big data used in the study and the results of the study. Furthermore, this paper investigates the main considerations when using telecom customer big data: data privacy and data quality. The paper concludes with GIS visualisation and proposes the further use of big data used in the study.

  5. Frequency conversion between UV and telecom wavelengths in a lithium niobate waveguide for quantum communication with Yb+ trapped ions

    CERN Document Server

    Kasture, Sachin; Haylock, Ben; Boes, Andreas; Mitchell, Arnan; Streed, Erik W; Lobino, Mirko

    2016-01-01

    We study and demonstrate the frequency conversion of UV radiation, resonant with 369.5 nm transition in Yb+ ions to the C-band wavelength 1580.3 nm and vice-versa using a reverse proton-exchanged waveguide in periodically poled lithium niobate. Our integrated device can interface trapped Yb+ ions with telecom infrastructure for the realization of an Yb+ based quantum repeater protocol and to efficiently distribute entanglement over long distances. We analyse the single photon frequency conversion efficiency from the 369.525 nm to the telecom wavelength and its dependence on pump power, device length and temperature. The single-photon noise generated by spontaneous Raman scattering of the pump is also measured. From this analysis we estimate a single photon conversion efficiency of 9% is achievable with our technology with almost complete suppression of the Raman noise.

  6. Aberration-free ultra-thin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Aieta, Francesco; Kats, Mikhail A; Yu, Nanfang; Blanchard, Romain; Gaburro, Zeno; Capasso, Federico

    2012-01-01

    The concept of optical phase discontinuities is applied to the design and demonstration of aberration-free planar lenses and axicons, comprising a phased array of ultrathin subwavelength spaced optical antennas. The lenses and axicons consist of radial distributions of V-shaped nanoantennas that generate respectively spherical wavefronts and non-diffracting Bessel beams at telecom wavelengths. Simulations are also presented to show that our aberration-free designs are applicable to high numerical aperture lenses such as flat microscope objectives.

  7. Fully fibered polarization entangled photon pair source at a telecom wavelength for long distance Q-networking

    OpenAIRE

    Kaiser, Florian; Martin, Anthony; Labonté, Laurent; D'Auria, Virginia; De Micheli, Marc; Alibart, Olivier; Tanzilli, Sébastien

    2011-01-01

    International audience; In this paper we present the experimental results obtained on a new fully fibred polarization entangled photon- pair source at a telecom wavelength (1560 nm). Photon pairs are created using a type-0 interaction in a periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide, which has been shown to be the most efficient for non linear crystals. Polarization entanglement is then generated using a polarization dependent fibre delay line. Compared to a similar configuration reported pr...

  8. Incumbent response to disruptive innovation:The case of the Swedish-Finnish telecom operator TeliaSonera AB

    OpenAIRE

    Kaulio, Matti; Thorén, Kent; Rohrbeck, René

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a preliminary analysis of a retrospective longitudinal case study of an incumbent, the Swedish-Finnish Telecom operator TeliaSonera AB, with focus on its responses to technical and business model change. Findings nuance the general understanding of Telco’s as passive actors in relation to disruptive change. In relation to technical change the case company has successfully in transferred its technology from one generation to the next during more than 20 years. In relation...

  9. Tunable Room-Temperature Single-Photon Emission at Telecom Wavelengths from sp3 Defects in Carbon Nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackburn, Jeffrey L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ihly, Rachelle R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); He, Xiaowei [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hartmann, Nicolai F. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ma, Xuedan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gao, Weilu [Rice University; Kono, Junichiro [Rice University; Yomogida, Yohei [Tokyo Metropolitan University; Hirano, Atsushi [Tokyo Metropolitan University; Tanaka, Takeshi [Tokyo Metropolitan University; Kataura, Hiromichi [Tokyo Metropolitan University; Htoon, Han [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Doorn, Stephen K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kim, Younghee [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2017-07-31

    Generating quantum light emitters that operate at room temperature and at telecom wavelengths remains a significant materials challenge. To achieve this goal requires light sources that emit in the near-infrared wavelength region and that, ideally, are tunable to allow desired output wavelengths to be accessed in a controllable manner. Here, we show that exciton localization at covalently introduced aryl sp3 defect sites in single-walled carbon nanotubes provides a route to room-temperature single-photon emission with ultrahigh single-photon purity (99%) and enhanced emission stability approaching the shot-noise limit. Moreover, we demonstrate that the inherent optical tunability of single-walled carbon nanotubes, present in their structural diversity, allows us to generate room-temperature single-photon emission spanning the entire telecom band. Single-photon emission deep into the centre of the telecom C band (1.55 um) is achieved at the largest nanotube diameters we explore (0.936 nm).

  10. Telecom and scintillation first data analysis for DOMINO: laser communication between SOTA, onboard SOCRATES satellite, and MEO optical ground station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phung, D.-H.; Samain, E.; Maurice, N.; Albanesse, D.; Mariey, H.; Aimar, M.; M. Lagarde, G.; Artaud, G.; Issler, J.-L.; Vedrenne, N.; Velluet, M.-T.; Toyoshima, M.; Akioka, M.; Kolev, D.; Munemasa, Y.; Takenaka, H.; Iwakiri, N.

    2016-03-01

    In collaboration between CNES, NICT, Geoazur, the first successful lasercom link between the micro-satellite SOCRATES and an OGS in Europe has been established. This paper presents some results of telecom and scintillation first data analysis for 4 successful links in June & July 2015 between SOTA terminal and MEO optical ground station (OGS) at Caussols France. The telecom and scintillation data have been continuously recorded during the passes by using a detector developed at the laboratory. An irradiance of 190 nW/m2 and 430 nW/m2 has been detected for 1549 nm and 976 nm downlinks at 35° elevation. Spectrums of power fluctuation measured at OGS are analyzed at different elevation angles and at different diameters of telescope aperture to determine fluctuations caused by pointing error (due to satellite & OGS telescope vibrations) and caused by atmospheric turbulence. Downlink & Uplink budgets are analyzed, the theoretical estimation matches well to measured power levels. Telecom signal forms and bit error rates (BER) of 1549 nm and 976 nm downlink are also shown at different diameters of telescope aperture. BER is 'Error Free' with full-aperture 1.5m telescope, and almost in `good channel' with 0.4 m sub-aperture of telescope. We also show the comparison between the expected and measured BER distributions.

  11. Quantum Correlations between Single Telecom Photons and a Multimode On-Demand Solid-State Quantum Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seri, Alessandro; Lenhard, Andreas; Rieländer, Daniel; Gündoǧan, Mustafa; Ledingham, Patrick M.; Mazzera, Margherita; de Riedmatten, Hugues

    2017-04-01

    Quantum correlations between long-lived quantum memories and telecom photons that can propagate with low loss in optical fibers are an essential resource for the realization of large-scale quantum information networks. Significant progress has been realized in this direction with atomic and solid-state systems. Here, we demonstrate quantum correlations between a telecom photon and a multimode on-demand solid state quantum memory. This is achieved by mapping a correlated single photon onto a spin collective excitation in a Pr3 +:Y2SiO5 crystal for a controllable time. The stored single photons are generated by cavity-enhanced spontaneous parametric down-conversion and heralded by their partner photons at telecom wavelength. These results represent the first demonstration of a multimode on-demand solid state quantum memory for external quantum states of light. They provide an important resource for quantum repeaters and pave the way for the implementation of quantum information networks with distant solid state quantum nodes.

  12. Two-photon interference at telecom wavelengths for time-bin-encoded single photons from quantum-dot spin qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Leo; Natarajan, Chandra M.; Horikiri, Tomoyuki; Langrock, Carsten; Pelc, Jason S.; Tanner, Michael G.; Abe, Eisuke; Maier, Sebastian; Schneider, Christian; Höfling, Sven; Kamp, Martin; Hadfield, Robert H.; Fejer, Martin M.; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa

    2015-11-01

    Practical quantum communication between remote quantum memories rely on single photons at telecom wavelengths. Although spin-photon entanglement has been demonstrated in atomic and solid-state qubit systems, the produced single photons at short wavelengths and with polarization encoding are not suitable for long-distance communication, because they suffer from high propagation loss and depolarization in optical fibres. Establishing entanglement between remote quantum nodes would further require the photons generated from separate nodes to be indistinguishable. Here, we report the observation of correlations between a quantum-dot spin and a telecom single photon across a 2-km fibre channel based on time-bin encoding and background-free frequency downconversion. The downconverted photon at telecom wavelengths exhibits two-photon interference with another photon from an independent source, achieving a mean wavepacket overlap of greater than 0.89 despite their original wavelength mismatch (900 and 911 nm). The quantum-networking operations that we demonstrate will enable practical communication between solid-state spin qubits across long distances.

  13. Experimental Demonstration of a Hybrid-Quantum-Emitter Producing Individual Entangled Photon Pairs in the Telecom Band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Geng; Zou, Yang; Zhang, Wen-Hao; Zhang, Zi-Huai; Zhou, Zong-Quan; He, De-Yong; Tang, Jian-Shun; Liu, Bi-Heng; Yu, Ying; Zha, Guo-Wei; Ni, Hai-Qiao; Niu, Zhi-Chuan; Han, Yong-Jian; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can

    2016-05-01

    Quantum emitters generating individual entangled photon pairs (IEPP) have significant fundamental advantages over schemes that suffer from multiple photon emission, or schemes that require post-selection techniques or the use of photon-number discriminating detectors. Quantum dots embedded within nanowires (QD-NWs) represent one of the most promising candidate for quantum emitters that provide a high collection efficiency of photons. However, a quantum emitter that generates IEPP in the telecom band is still an issue demanding a prompt solution. Here, we demonstrate in principle that IEPPs in the telecom band can be created by combining a single QD-NW and a nonlinear crystal waveguide. The QD-NW system serves as the single photon source, and the emitted visible single photons are split into IEPPs at approximately 1.55 μm through the process of spontaneous parametric down conversion (SPDC) in a periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) waveguide. The compatibility of the QD-PPLN interface is the determinant factor in constructing this novel hybrid-quantum-emitter (HQE). Benefiting from the desirable optical properties of QD-NWs and the extremely high nonlinear conversion efficiency of PPLN waveguides, we successfully generate IEPPs in the telecom band with the polarization degree of freedom. The entanglement of the generated photon pairs is confirmed by the entanglement witness. Our experiment paves the way to producing HQEs inheriting the advantages of multiple systems.

  14. Main Economic Policies in order to Manage an Optimum Accession of Romania to the Euro Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian ANGHEL

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims at analysing several options concerning the economic policies Romania should adopt in the following years, in order to attenuate the long term vulnerabilities within the process of joining to the Euro zone, with the observation that, the economic policies proposed in the current work were selected mainly based on the decisive factors for the real equilibrium exchange rate in Romania. Fulfilling the nominal criteria for adhesion can prove itself to be more facile but not able to ensure, on a long term and in a sustainable manner, reaching an optimum for the economy that adheres irreversibly to the Euro zone. It is important to analyze how the competitiveness of other economies evolved prior and after joining the Euro zone, from the perspective of identifying some economic policies meant to ensure the accomplishment of the real convergence criteria to the Euro zone for Romania’s case, on a long term. The economic policies proposed by the authors try to help covering the greatest delays for Romania in comparison with other states in the Euro zone and which, unsolved, can create in time significant vulnerabilities on a long term, having a negative impact for many generations of Romanians from now on.

  15. Turismo lungo le aree costiere euro- mediterranee: dalla scoperta, al consumo, al progetto del paesaggio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Salizzoni

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The critical implications for the landscape which have been caused by seaside tourism are today evident along the Euro-Mediterranean coastal areas. This typology of demand for tourism, consolidating since the second half of the twentieth century, deeply alterated the coasts of Spain, France and Italy. The value and vulnerability of Euro-Mediterranean coastal landscapes as well as the expected growth of the number of tourists along these areas, highlight the need to develop policies able to manage such phenomenon, also by way of an enhancement of alternative tourism typologies. This is the main objective of the policies developed in the context of three Protected Landscapes situated along the Euro-Mediterranean coast, explicitly aimed at identifying specific forms of integration between tourism development and landscape conservation.

  16. Post-Keynesian alternative policies to curb macroeconomic imbalances in the Euro area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hein Eckhard

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we outline alternative post-Keynesian policy recommendations addressing the problems of differential inflation, divergence in competitiveness and associated current account imbalances within the Euro area. We provide a basic framework in order to systematically address the related issues making use of Anthony P. Thirlwall’s (1979, 2002 model of a “balance-of-payments-constrained growth rate” (BPCGR. Based on this framework, we outline the required stance for alternative economic policies and then we discuss the implications for alternative monetary, wage/incomes and fiscal policies in the Euro area as a whole, as well as the consequences for structural and regional policies in the Euro area periphery, in particular.

  17. Euro-FISH: A concerted action towards standardized translocation detection in pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijk, A. Van; Mason, D.; Leoncini, L.

    2007-01-01

    considered difficult and prone to mistakes. Since non-random chromosomal translocations are specifically involved in the different lymphoma types, the detection of these aberrations will be an increasingly important step in the correct identification. For that reason, the Euro-FISH program aimed...... at a validation of a robust, standardized FISH protocol. When implemented this procedure will be an aid in discriminating the most difficult to diagnose cases. Method: The Euro-FISH protocol is a useful tool in discerning the different types of lymphoma and available treatment options. The Euro-FISH project......, organized in three stages therefore has established a robust standardized FISH protocol, to be used in routine laboratories for diagnostically difficult lymphoma cases. For the evaluation of the protocol 16 split-signal FISH probes were tested on 10 different lymphoma categories (MCL, splenic MZL, gastric...

  18. Euro Area Scenarios and their Economic Consequences for Slovenia and Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Weyerstrass

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Since 1999, divergences in international competitiveness led to an accumulation of current account deficits in the south and surpluses in the north of the euro area. With the aid of macroeconometric models, this paper estimates the effects of an exit of Greece or of all GIIPS countries (Greece, Italy, Ireland, Portugal, Spain on the economies of Slovenia and Serbia. An exit of one or more countries would affect other economies via the trade channel and credit constraints. Euro area members would additionally suffer from an increase of public debt due to non-performing loans of the European Stability Mechanism and devaluations of public bonds purchased by the European Central Bank. An exit of Greece alone would only marginally affect the economies of Slovenia and Serbia. An exit of all GIIPS countries or a euro area breakup would have dramatic negative consequences for output, unemployment and public finances.

  19. [Effects of fuel properties on the performance of a typical Euro IV diesel engine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-miao; Wang, Jian-xin; Shuai, Shi-jin

    2008-09-01

    With the purpose of establishing diesel fuel standard for China National 4th Emission Standard, as one part of Beijing "Auto-Oil" programme, engine performance test has been done on a typical Euro IV diesel engine using eight diesel fuels with different fuel properties. Test results show that, fuel properties has little effect on power, fuel consumption, and in-cylinder combustion process of tested Euro IV diesel engine; sulfate in PM and gaseous SO2 emissions increase linearly with diesel sulfur content increase; cetane number increase cause BSFC and PM reduce and NOx increase; T90 decrease cause NOx reduce while PM shows trend of reduce. Prediction equations of tested Euro IV diesel engine's ESC cycle NOx and PM emissions before SCR response to diesel fuel sulfur content, cetane number, T90 and aromatics have been obtained using linear regression method on the base of test results.

  20. Adopting the euro: Romanian perspectives in the context of the global financial crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oros, A.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to examine Romania’s capacity to fulfil the nominal convergence criteria in the current context, in order to follow the calendar proposed for euro adoption in 2015. The paper analyzed the evolution of all five criteria under the impact of the current financial crisis and also looked at the forecast provided by national and international authorities. The study was conducted considering the relative situation with the euro area. The main finding is that the actual target for euro adoption could be complied with, provided further progress is made. We have also fond that the target should be achieved as it would represent a strong stimulus for the local government to implement additional measures to reduce public indebtedness and inflationary pressure.

  1. An evaluation of the EuroNCAP crash test safety ratings in the real world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segui-Gomez, Maria; Lopez-Valdes, Francisco J; Frampton, Richard

    2007-01-01

    We investigated whether the rating obtained in the EuroNCAP test procedures correlates with injury protection to vehicle occupants in real crashes using data in the UK Cooperative Crash Injury Study (CCIS) database from 1996 to 2005. Multivariate Poisson regression models were developed, using the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score by body region as the dependent variable and the EuroNCAP score for that particular body region, seat belt use, mass ratio and Equivalent Test Speed (ETS) as independent variables. Our models identified statistically significant relationships between injury severity and safety belt use, mass ratio and ETS. We could not identify any statistically significant relationships between the EuroNCAP body region scores and real injury outcome except for the protection to pelvis-femur-knee in frontal impacts where scoring "green" is significantly better than scoring "yellow" or "red".

  2. THE IMPLICATIONS OF SINGLE EURO PAYMENTS AREA (SEPA ON BANKING EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaita-Cosmin POPOVICI

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available With the creation of the euro by the Maastricht Treaty in 1992, European integration has deepened. Even with this step done the financial market is fragmented. In order to eliminate this disadvantage, the European Union has taken a number of measures. The first step is the Financial Services Action Plan in 2000, through the Lisbon Strategy. Second is the European Commission Regulation 2560/2001 to harmonise fees for cross border and domestic euro transactions. Third is the first pan-European Automated Clearing House in 2003. Last great step made is the Single Euro Payments Area (SEPA in 2008. In this paper, we want to research the degree of implementation of SEPA by using quantitative indicators: credit transfers, direct debits and payment cards, and the effects of this system on bank efficiency.

  3. Annual Offshore Oil Yield Tops 10 Million Tons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    @@ China's offshore oil output has already exceeded 10million tons in September, 1996, compared with last year's total 8.7 million tons. Oil industry executives said production for the whole year is likely to exceed 13 million tons or even 14 million tons. That means the China National Offshore Oil Corp. (CNOOC). established in 1982. will set a record in reaching such an annual output.The United States and the former Soviet Union spend 20and 25 years respectively toreach a similar output.

  4. Shock monetari e reali, ciclo economico e valore dell’euro (Monetary and Real Shocks, the Business Cycle and the Value of the Euro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Filosa

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The appreciation of the dollar in the aftermath of the euro launch came as a surprise to most observers; furthermore, the traditional models fail to capture its dynamics. Is this a confirmation of Mussa's, Meese's and Rogoff's results, according to which no structural model can perform better than a random walk? More optimistically, this study shows that a structural VAR model of the Mundell-Fleming type satisfactorily explains the behaviour of the euro and its relationships with the fundamentals. My estimates indicate that dollar appreciation is primarily due to the cyclical strength of US demand. By contrast, they do not support the often-voiced theory that dollar appreciation is to be accounted for with the "new economy." Finally, the model shows that monetary shocks have limited effects on the exchange rate and very strong effects on inflation. This justifies the emphasis placed by central banks on the pursuit of internal objectives rather than exchange rate stability.

  5. Waveguide based compact silicon Schottky photodetector with enhanced responsivity in the telecom spectral band.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goykhman, Ilya; Desiatov, Boris; Khurgin, Jacob; Shappir, Joseph; Levy, Uriel

    2012-12-17

    We experimentally demonstrate an on-chip compact and simple to fabricate silicon Schottky photodetector for telecom wavelengths operating on the basis of internal photoemission process. The device is realized using CMOS compatible approach of local-oxidation of silicon, which enables the realization of the photodetector and low-loss bus photonic waveguide at the same fabrication step. The photodetector demonstrates enhanced internal responsivity of 12.5mA/W for operation wavelength of 1.55µm corresponding to an internal quantum efficiency of 1%, about two orders of magnitude higher than our previously demonstrated results [22]. We attribute this improved detection efficiency to the presence of surface roughness at the boundary between the materials forming the Schottky contact. The combination of enhanced quantum efficiency together with a simple fabrication process provides a promising platform for the realization of all silicon photodetectors and their integration with other nanophotonic and nanoplasmonic structures towards the construction of monolithic silicon opto-electronic circuitry on-chip.

  6. Reliability considerations of a fuel cell backup power system for telecom applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serincan, Mustafa Fazil

    2016-03-01

    A commercial fuel cell backup power unit is tested in real life operating conditions at a base station of a Turkish telecom operator. The fuel cell system responds to 256 of 260 electric power outages successfully, providing the required power to the base station. Reliability of the fuel cell backup power unit is found to be 98.5% at the system level. On the other hand, a qualitative reliability analysis at the component level is carried out. Implications of the power management algorithm on reliability is discussed. Moreover, integration of the backup power unit to the base station ecosystem is reviewed in the context of reliability. Impact of inverter design on the stability of the output power is outlined. Significant current harmonics are encountered when a generic inverter is used. However, ripples are attenuated significantly when a custom design inverter is used. Further, fault conditions are considered for real world case studies such as running out of hydrogen, a malfunction in the system, or an unprecedented operating scheme. Some design guidelines are suggested for hybridization of the backup power unit for an uninterrupted operation.

  7. Interfacing transitions of different alkali atoms and telecom bands using one narrowband photon pair source

    CERN Document Server

    Schunk, Gerhard; Strekalov, Dmitry V; Förtsch, Michael; Sedlmeir, Florian; Schwefel, Harald G L; Göbelt, Manuela; Christiansen, Silke; Leuchs, Gerd; Marquardt, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Photon-atom coupling, in particular for proposed quantum repeater schemes, requires pure and versatile sources of quantum light. Here we demonstrate coupling to alkali dipole transitions in the near-infrared with a tunable source of photon pairs generated via spontaneous parametric down-conversion in a whispering-gallery mode resonator (WGMR). We have developed novel wavelength tuning mechanisms, which allow for a coarse step-wise central wavelength tuning from 790 nm to 1630 nm as well as continuous tuning with MHz resolution. We demonstrate the compatibility of our source with atomic transitions, such as the D1 line of rubidium at 795 nm (idler at 1608 nm) and cesium at 895\\,nm (idler at 1312 nm). At the cesium D1 transition, we exemplarily show a continuous scanning of the signal wavelength over the Doppler-broadened absorption line, and finally a heralded single photon spectroscopy of the atomic decay. Providing this flexibility in connecting various atomic transitions with telecom wavelengths, we demonst...

  8. Structural Analysis of a New Generation of Guyed Telecom Mast with a Wind Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Barsoum

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on the structural analysis and response of an innovative design of a guyed mast for the telecom industry in which the power is supplied mainly by attaching a wind turbine on the top. For this purpose a numerical model based on the finite element method (FEM was developed. The FEM model was validated with experiments conducted on one modular section of the mast, which was loaded in torsion. The model showed good agreement with the experimental results and revealed that failure in the modular section loaded in torsion is governed by non-linear buckling. The entire 57 m guyed mast structure was then modeled using the validated modeling procedure with applied loads corresponding to wind conditions resembling typical African landscape. The design wind loads were determined according to the Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA-22-G-1. Several structural design criteria were stipulated and the current design of the mast met all the requirements with a good margin of safety and hence making it a suitable product for the African market.

  9. An integrated quantum repeater at telecom wavelength with single atoms in optical fiber cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uphoff, Manuel; Brekenfeld, Manuel; Rempe, Gerhard; Ritter, Stephan

    2016-03-01

    Quantum repeaters promise to enable quantum networks over global distances by circumventing the exponential decrease in success probability inherent in direct photon transmission. We propose a realistic, functionally integrated quantum-repeater implementation based on single atoms in optical cavities. Entanglement is directly generated between the single-atom quantum memory and a photon at telecom wavelength. The latter is collected with high efficiency and adjustable temporal and spectral properties into a spatially well-defined cavity mode. It is heralded by a near-infrared photon emitted from a second, orthogonal cavity. Entanglement between two remote quantum memories can be generated via an optical Bell-state measurement, while we propose entanglement swapping based on a highly efficient, cavity-assisted atom-atom gate. Our quantum-repeater scheme eliminates any requirement for wavelength conversion such that only a single system is needed at each node. We investigate a particular implementation with rubidium and realistic parameters for Fabry-Perot cavities based on hbox {CO}_2 laser-machined optical fibers. We show that the scheme enables the implementation of a rather simple quantum repeater that outperforms direct entanglement generation over large distances and does not require any improvements in technology beyond the state of the art.

  10. Intensity and phase noise correlations in a dual-frequency VECSEL operating at telecom wavelength

    CERN Document Server

    De, Syamsundar; Bouchoule, Sophie; Alouini, Mehdi; Bretenaker, Fabien

    2015-01-01

    The amplitude and phase noises of a dual-frequency vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser (DF-VECSEL) operating at telecom wavelength are theoretically and experimentally investigated in detail. In particular, the spectral behavior of the correlation between the intensity noises of the two modes of the DF-VECSEL is measured. Moreover, the correlation between the phase noise of the radio-frequency (RF) beatnote generated by optical mixing of the two laser modes with the intensity noises of the two modes is investigated. All these spectral behaviors of noise correlations are analyzed for two different values of the nonlinear coupling between the laser modes. We find that to describe the spectral behavior of noise correlations between the laser modes, it is of utmost importance to have a precise knowledge about the spectral behavior of the pump noise, which is the dominant source of noise in the frequency range of our interest (10 kHz to 35 MHz). Moreover, it is found that the noise correlation also dep...

  11. Mudança de marca: o rebranding da Algar Telecom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Borges Kappel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available As alterações nas marcas (rebranding podem impactar consumidores e organizações. O objeto de estudo é a empresa CTBC, que está passando pelo processo de rebranding para Algar Telecom. São descritos e analisados os impactos organizacionais dessa mudança da marca segundo o modelo proposto por Muzellec e Lambkin (2006, no qual foram identificados fatores ligados à necessidade de realização do rebranding, objetivos destas mudanças e processos. Por intermédio do estudo de caso, com triangulação de dados (entrevistas individuais, análise de documentos e análise de registros em arquivos, os dados foram analisados segundo a técnica de análise de conteúdo (BARDIN, 1977 e pela técnica snowball sampling (BIERNACKI, WALDORF, 1981. Identificou-se como fator do rebranding a mudança na estratégia corporativa; como objetivo do rebranding, a reflexão de uma nova marca e a sua revolução; e, como o processo de rebranding, o foco nos colaboradores.

  12. Silicon photonic switch technology for optical networks in telecom and datacom areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Shigeru; Yanagimachi, Shigeyuki; Takeshita, Hitoshi; Tajima, Akio

    2017-01-01

    As a promising platform technology for optical switches, silicon photonics is recently attracting much attention. In this paper, we demonstrate compact 8 × 8 silicon photonic switch modules with low loss, low polarization sensitivity, and low cross-talk properties. An optical circuit including 152 thermo-optical switch elements and spot size converters were formed within a silicon chip size of 12 mm × 14 mm. The developed module where a silicon photonic chip was assembled with a fiber array showed about 6-dB average excess optical loss, including optical coupling loss, on all 64 paths of the 8 × 8 optical switch. Measured polarization dependent loss was about 0.6 dB on average over 64 paths and cross-talk was less than -35 dB. These optical switch modules are intended for applying to ROADMs in telecom optical networks, but, the port count extensibility using multiple compact modules and the faster switching capability of the optical switch are also useful for datacenter applications where hybrid network scheme with electronic packet switches and optical circuit switches is intensively investigated.

  13. Quantum storage of entangled telecom-wavelength photons in an erbium-doped optical fibre

    CERN Document Server

    Saglamyurek, Erhan; Verma, Varun B; Shaw, Matthew D; Marsili, Francesco; Nam, Sae Woo; Oblak, Daniel; Tittel, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    The realization of a future quantum Internet requires processing and storing quantum information at local nodes, and interconnecting distant nodes using free-space and fibre-optic links. Quantum memories for light are key elements of such quantum networks. However, to date, neither an atomic quantum memory for non-classical states of light operating at a wavelength compatible with standard telecom fibre infrastructure, nor a fibre-based implementation of a quantum memory has been reported. Here we demonstrate the storage and faithful recall of the state of a 1532 nm wavelength photon, entangled with a 795 nm photon, in an ensemble of cryogenically cooled erbium ions doped into a 20 meter-long silicate fibre using a photon-echo quantum memory protocol. Despite its currently limited efficiency and storage time, our broadband light-matter interface brings fibre-based quantum networks one step closer to reality. Furthermore, it facilitates novel tests of light-matter interaction and collective atomic effects in u...

  14. PAH, BTEX, carbonyl compound, black-carbon, NO2 and ultrafine particle dynamometer bench emissions for Euro 4 and Euro 5 diesel and gasoline passenger cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Cédric; Liu, Yao; Tassel, Patrick; Perret, Pascal; Chaumond, Agnès; André, Michel

    2016-09-01

    Although implementing Diesel particulate filters (DPF) and other novel aftertreatment technologies makes it possible to achieve significant reductions in particle mass emissions, it may induce the release of ultrafine particles and emissions of many other unregulated compounds. This paper focuses on (i) ultrafine particles, black carbon, BTEX, PAH, carbonyl compounds, and NO2 emissions from Euro 4 and Euro 5 Diesel and gasoline passenger cars, (ii) the influence of driving conditions (e.g., cold start, urban, rural and motorway conditions), and (iii) the impact of additive and catalysed DPF devices on vehicle emissions. Chassis dynamometer tests were conducted on four Euro 5 vehicles and two Euro 4 vehicles: gasoline vehicles with and without direct injection system and Diesel vehicles equipped with additive and catalysed particulate filters. The results showed that compared to hot-start cycles, cold-start urban cycles increased all pollutant emissions by a factor of two. The sole exception was NO2, which was reduced by a factor of 1.3-6. Particulate and black carbon emissions from the gasoline engines were significantly higher than those from the Diesel engines equipped with DPF. Moreover, the catalysed DPF emitted about 3-10 times more carbonyl compounds and particles than additive DPF, respectively, during urban driving cycles, while the additive DPF vehicles emitted 2 and 5 times more BTEX and carbonyl compounds during motorway driving cycles. Regarding particle number distribution, the motorway driving cycle induced the emission of particles smaller in diameter (mode at 15 nm) than the urban cold-start cycle (mode at 80-100 nm). The results showed a clear positive correlation between particle, black carbon, and BTEX emissions, and a negative correlation between particles and NO2.

  15. Euro-Argo: The European contribution to the global Argo ocean observations network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourcuff, Claire

    2017-04-01

    The international Argo programme is a major element of the global in-situ ocean observing system. More than 3900 floats are now globally measuring temperature and salinity throughout the global oceans, down to 2,000 meters depth and delivering data both in real time for operational users and after careful scientific quality control for climate change research and monitoring. Argo is the single most important in-situ observing system for the Copernicus Marine Service. The Euro-Argo research infrastructure organizes and federates European contribution to Argo. A legal and governance framework (Euro-Argo ERIC) was set up in May 2014; it allows European countries to consolidate and improve their contribution to Argo international. We will provide an overview of the development of Euro-Argo over the past years and present the now agreed Euro-Argo long term organization. The capability of the Euro-Argo infrastructure to organize Argo floats procurement, deployment and processing at European level and to conduct R&D driven by Copernicus needs will be highlighted. During the recent years, within the H2020 E-AIMS project, Euro-Argo carried R&D activities on new Argo floats, equipped with biogeochemical sensors or able to dive up to 4000m, from the floats design up to the analysis of their measurements. European Argo data centers were adapted so that they can handle the new data. Observing System Evaluations and Simulation Experiments were also conducted to provide robust recommendations for the next phase of Argo. One of the main challenges for Euro-Argo is now to implement the next phase of Argo with an extension towards biogeochemistry (e.g. oxygen, biology), the polar oceans, the marginal seas and the deep ocean. Meeting such challenges is essential for the long term sustainability and evolution of the Copernicus Marine Service. We will present Euro-Argo strategy and provide some highlights on the implementation-plan for the years to come and the Argo extensions for the

  16. Cyclical convergence of Central and Eastern European countries to the Euro area core. New methodological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana ALEXE

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The current paper develops an analysis on the degree of business cycle convergence of the new member states of the EU towards the Euro area core (Germany, France, Italy, Belgium, Netherlands and Luxembourg during 1996 – 2010.Unlike the previous research, the study takes into consideration the similarity of cycles, and not their synchronization. Furthermore, from the methodological point of view, it explores the use of survey indicators in the analysis of the cycles, thus in addition to the traditional approach that employs the GDP. The results obtained through clusterization show that the degree of convergence towards Euro area core remains modest.

  17. Primary surplus and debt projections based on estimated fiscal reaction functions for euro area countries

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    We project the path of the public debt and primary surpluses for a number of countries in the euro area under a fiscal rule based on a set of estimated fiscal policy reaction functions. Our fiscal rule represents a fiscal analogue to a well-known monetary policy rule, and it is calibrated using country-specific as well as euro area-wide parameter estimates. We then forecast the dynamics of the fiscal aggregates under different convergence, growth, and interest rate scenarios and investigate t...

  18. Primary balance and debt projections based on estimated fiscal reaction functions for euro area countries

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    We project the path of the public debt and primary balances for a number of countries in the euro area under a fiscal rule based on a set of estimated fiscal policy reaction functions. Our fiscal rule represents a fiscal analogue to a well-known monetary policy rule, and it is calibrated using country-specific as well as euro area-wide parameter estimates. We then forecast the dynamics of the fiscal aggregates under different convergence, growth, and interest rate scenarios and investigate th...

  19. Does bank competition influence the lending channel in the euro area?

    OpenAIRE

    Fungácová, Zuzana; Solanko, Laura; Weill, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines how bank competition influences the bank lending channel in the Euro area countries. Using a large panel of banks from 12 euro area countries over the period 2002-2010 we analyze the reaction of loan supply to monetary policy actions depending on the degree of bank competition. We find that the effect of monetary policy on bank lending is dependent on bank competition: the transmission of monetary policy through the bank lending channel is less pronounced for banks with ex...

  20. 电信业务运营的数字化服务转型%Digitized Service Transformation of Telecom Service Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵建; 童恩

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, both inner and outer environments of telecom industry have greatly changed. The market competition environment of domestic telecom operators becomes diversified and complex. Therefore, the deep transformation of telecom service has been strongly driven. In view of the situations, the digitalized service transformation of telecom operation was researched and analyzed in aspects of value connotation, terminal, network and service to provide a useful reference to the future development of telecom operation.%近年来电信行业的内外部环境发生了巨大的变化,国内电信运营商面临的市场竞争也变得多元化和复杂化,因而电信业务的深化转型有着强烈的驱动。基于此通过价值内涵、终端、网络和业务等层面对电信运营的数字化服务转型进行研究和分析,为电信运营的未来发展提供了相关参考。

  1. Tarim Oil Field Company Oil Output Exceeds 5 Million Tons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    PetroChina Tarim Oil Field Company (Tarim Oil Field), located in the hinterland of Takelamagan Desert in Northwest Xinjiang Autonomous Region,produced 5.006 million tons of crude oil in 2002,ranking it as the sixth largest onshore oil field in China. This is the first time Tarim Oil Field has topped 5 million tons for its crude production.

  2. Crude Production Tops 2 Million Tons at Qinghai Oil Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ The crude oil output of Qinghai Oil Field in Qaidam basin of the northwestern China's Qinghai Province topped two million tons at the end of 2000.This is the first time that the annual crude oil output of the oilfield has exceeded two millions, according to Huang Ligong, general manager of Qinghai Oil Field under PetroChina.

  3. L130-million cut to grants hits UK physical scientists

    CERN Multimedia

    Cressey, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    "UK physicists, still reeling from massive funding cuts announced earlier this year, have learnt of worse to come. Roughly L130 million (US$260 million)is being slashed from research grants awarded by the Engineering and Physical Scienes Research Council (EPSRC), it announced on 17 March." (2 pages)

  4. 26 CFR 1.985-8 - Special rules applicable to the European Monetary Union (conversion to euro).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-8 Special rules applicable to the European Monetary Union (conversion to euro). (a) Definitions—(1... euro is substituted for that legacy currency (in accordance with the Treaty on European Union); and (B... the national currency of Germany pursuant to the Treaty on European Union signed February 7,...

  5. Challenges in analysing data from a field operational test of advanced driver assistance systems: the euroFOT experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benmimoun, A.; Benmimoun, M.; Regan, M.A.; Noort, M. van; Wilmink, I.R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the challenges in analysing the data from the large scale field operational test (FOT) to be conducted within the EC euroFOT project. The euroFOT project aims to investigate the impacts of advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) and to encourage their deployment. Started withi

  6. European integration at the crossroads: Democratic deepening for stability, solidarity and social justice. EuroMemorandum 2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Becker (Joachim)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe euro area crisis threatens the future of European integration, but instead of challenging the power of the financial institutions which are driving the crisis, the European authorities have imposed austerity programmes on Greece and other peripheral euro area countries, and developed

  7. Euro plays : Canadian companies find success in England and France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsters, S.

    1998-09-01

    A growing list of Canadian companies are searching for oil and gas onshore in England and France. Cirque Energy Corp., Vermilion Resources Ltd., Morrison Middlefield Resources Ltd., and Bow Valley Energy Ltd., are among the companies that are taking advantage of the underexplored basins, little competition, availability of land, and (in the case of the United Kingdom) a superior fiscal regime. Cirque Energy Corp. entered the U.K. in 1995 and currently has a 220,000 acre land position in the East Midlands basin, 250 km north of London. The main producing reservoirs are Permo-Carboniferous in age. The geology is similar to that in the North Sea. In November 1998, Cirque plans to build a 2,500 metre, six inch pipeline to transport up to 1,500 gross bbls of oil per day. Vermilion Resources Ltd. acquired oil and gas assets in the Paris and Aquitaine basin. The company has executed a $10.1 million workover and recompletion program on 42 wells which has increased production to more than 6,000 BOE per day from the previous 4,000 BOE per day. 3 figs.

  8. Impact of bank competition on the interest rate pass-through in the euro area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leuvensteijn, M.; Kok Sørensen, C.; Bikker, J.A.; van Rixtel, A.A.R.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses the impact of loan market competition on the interest rates applied by euro area banks to loans and deposits during the 1994-2004 period, using a novel measure of competition called the Boone indicator. We find evidence that stronger competition implies significantly lower spread

  9. Euro-Mediterranean Partnership; State of affairs and key policy and research issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, M.H.; dell' Aquila, C.

    2004-01-01

    This study draws on a body of existing literature to take stock of the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership (EMP), which focuses on establishing a Mediterranean Free Trade Area. Despite considerable scope for reducing barriers on Mediterranean trade, current agreements are limited to a quasi-unilateral re

  10. Is there a Core of Macroeconomics that Euro Area Forecasters Believe In?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stadtmann, Georg; Pierdzioch, Christian; Ruelke, Jan

    2012-01-01

    The quantity theory of money, Okun’s law, and the Phillips curve are cornerstones of macroeconomic theory. But are they also of practical relevance? Using survey data for the euro area, we found that professional economists’ forecasts are consistent with a version of the quantity theory in which...

  11. The sport's mega event impact on the economy: the case of Euro 2012 staged in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Olik, Ewa

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the possible effects of Euro 2012 tournament on Polish economy. In fact the paper regards to four host cities, namely Gdansk, Poznan, Wroclaw and Warsaw. The Author cocentrates on the possible impact channels. These are: infrastructure, tourism and sport facilities.

  12. VLF observations of ionospheric disturbances in association with TLEs from the EuroSprite-2007 campaign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    NaitAmor, S.; AlAbdoadaim, M. A.; Cohen, M. B.

    2010-01-01

    Two Very Low Frequency (VLF) AWESOME remote sensing systems located at Algiers, Algeria (36.45°N, 3.28°E) and Sebha, Libya (27.02°N, 14.26°E) monitor VLF signal perturbations for evidence of ionospheric disturbances. During the EuroSprite-2007 campaign a number of Transient Luminous Events (TLEs...

  13. Võlakriisi lahendused ähvardavad euro püsimist / Hans-Werner Sinn

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sinn, Hans-Werner, 1948-

    2011-01-01

    Euro on ohus, sest viimastel aastatel on GIPS-riikide (Kreeka, Iirimaa, Portugal ja Hispaania) keskpangad raha juurde trükkinud. Lisaraha oli vajalik sisemise raharingluse tekitamiseks, et saaks kaubandusdefitsiiti säilitada ja hoida üleval kommertspankade varade väärtust

  14. Euro-Mediterranean Partnership; State of affairs and key policy and research issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, M.H.; dell' Aquila, C.

    2004-01-01

    This study draws on a body of existing literature to take stock of the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership (EMP), which focuses on establishing a Mediterranean Free Trade Area. Despite considerable scope for reducing barriers on Mediterranean trade, current agreements are limited to a quasi-unilateral re

  15. EuroFIR quality approach for managing food composition data; where are we in 2014?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westenbrink, Susanne; Roe, Mark; Oseredczuk, Marine; Castanheira, Isabel; Finglas, Paul

    2016-02-15

    A EuroFIR quality management framework was developed to assure data quality of food composition data, incorporating several recommendations developed or improved during the EuroFIR projects. A flow chart of the compilation process with standard operating procedures to assure critical steps was the starting point. Recommendations for food description, component identification, value documentation, recipe calculation, quality evaluation of values, guidelines to assess analytical methods, document and data repositories and training opportunities were harmonized as elements of the quality framework. European food composition database organizations reached consensus on the EuroFIR quality framework and started implementation. Peer reviews of the European compiler organizations were organized to evaluate the quality framework, focusing on what was achieved and on improvements needed. The reviews demonstrated that European food database compilers have made good use of standards and guidelines produced by EuroFIR, as well as a common understanding that a quality framework is essential to assure food composition data quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The EuroPrevall outpatient clinic study on food allergy : Background and methodology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernández-Rivas, Montserrat; Barreales, L.; Mackie, A. R.; Fritsche, P.; Vázquez-Cortés, S.; Jedrzejczak-Czechowicz, M.; Kowalski, M. L.; Clausen, M.; Gislason, D.; Sinaniotis, A.; Kompoti, E.; Le, T. M.; Knulst, A. C.; Purohit, A.; De Blay, F.; Kralimarkova, T.; Popov, T.; Asero, R.; Belohlavkova, S.; Seneviratne, S. L.; Dubakiene, R.; Lidholm, J.; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K.; Burney, P.; Crevel, R.; Brill, M.; Fernández-Pérez, C.; Vieths, S.; Clare Mills, E. N.; Van Ree, R.; Ballmer-Weber, B. K.

    2015-01-01

    Background The EuroPrevall project aimed to develop effective management strategies in food allergy through a suite of interconnected studies and a multidisciplinary integrated approach. To address some of the gaps in food allergy diagnosis, allergen risk management and socio-economic impact and to

  17. Asset Allocation in the Euro-Zone : Industry or Country Based?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eiling, E.; Gerard, B.; de Roon, F.A.

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the relative importance of country and industry factors as determinants of international equity returns in the Euro-zone over the period 1990 to 2003.We conduct our analysis from a portfolio performance perspective, using mean-variance spanning and efficiency tests as well as style

  18. Le "LHC", un défi scientifique à 6 milliards d'euros

    CERN Multimedia

    Féraud, Jean-Christope

    2006-01-01

    On the french-swiss border, CERN is building the LHC; this particle accelerator of 27km will be operational in autumn 2007; its goal: to go the heart of matter to discover the mysteries of the infinitely small. this technological challenge will cost 6 billions of euros. (2 pages)

  19. Structural changes in the Czech, Slovak and euro area economies during the Great Recession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tvrz Stanislav

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to identify and compare the most important changes in the structure of the Czech economy, as a small open economy with independent monetary policy, the Slovak economy, as a small open economy that entered monetary union, and the economy of the euro area, which has a common monetary policy, during the turbulent period of the Great Recession, the subsequent anaemic recovery and recent disinflationary period. Structural changes are identified with the help of nonlinear dynamic stochastic models of general equilibrium with time-varying parameters. The model parameters are estimated using Bayesian methods and a nonlinear particle filter. The results confirm the similarity of the Czech and Slovak economies and show that in certain respects the structure of the Czech economy might be closer to that of the euro area than that of Slovakia. The time-varying estimates reveal many similarities between the parameter changes in the Czech economy and those in the euro area. In Slovakia, the situation during the Great Recession was dominated by the country’s adoption of the euro, which caused large deviations in its Calvo parameters.

  20. Effects of the euro changeover on consumer behaviour: Introduction to the special issue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gärling, Tommy; Thøgersen, John

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces the special issue "Effects of the euro changeover on consumer behaviour" by briefly reviewing the contents of the included papers. The introduction follows the organization of the papers in three sections each focusing on a common set of issues. In the first section, research...

  1. NOx emissions of Euro 5 diesel vans - test results in the lab and on the road

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kadijk, G.; Ligterink, N.E.; Mensch, P. van; Smokers, R.T.M.

    2016-01-01

    This document contains results from emission tests, carried out by TNO in the period 2010-20151. The specific focus is on NOx emissions of Euro 5 light commercial vehicles (vans). The emission tests were carried out as part of a project conducted by TNO for the Dutch Ministry of Infrastructure and t

  2. Euro-Mediterranean Partnership; State of affairs and key policy and research issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, M.H.; dell' Aquila, C.

    2004-01-01

    This study draws on a body of existing literature to take stock of the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership (EMP), which focuses on establishing a Mediterranean Free Trade Area. Despite considerable scope for reducing barriers on Mediterranean trade, current agreements are limited to a quasi-unilateral

  3. Empirical Studies on Asset Pricing and Banking in the Euro Area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.A. Moerman (Gerard)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractEuropean capital markets have changed dramatically over the last couple of years. Due to the harmonization of monetary and policy rules and the elimination of exchange rate risk (through the introduction of the euro) countries in the European Monetary Union (EMU) are becoming more

  4. Aspects of the Current Fiscal - Budgetary Situation in Some Euro Area Countries. Implications for Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina Criste

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The financial and economic global crisis has exacerbated some of the imbalances existent in all EU Member States, in particular the fiscal-budgetary imbalances. For some countries whose currency is euro, the fiscal and budgetary challenges seem to threaten even the stability of the euro area. Thus, in the context of financial and economic global crisis, this article aims at identifying a number of negative aspects of the fiscal-budgetary situation of some euro area countries, more seriously affected (Greece, Italy, Portugal, Ireland, Spain and at revealing a series of possible implications of this phenomenon for Romania, thus giving originality of the conducted analysis. A fulcrum in this approach is the economic literature and the authors’ research work in the field of European integration. Through a comparative approach, the authors have identified some weaknesses of the Romanian economy generated by the current situation of some euro area countries. Given the place of the theme within the frame of present interest researches, the article’s results will be of interest for both academics and practitioners.

  5. Charity donations and the Euro introduction: some quasi-experimental evidence on money illusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooreman, P.; Faber, R.; Hofmans, H.

    2004-01-01

    We compare the revenues of a house-to-house collection for a charity before and after the introduction of the euro in a ceteris paribus setting. We find strong evidence of money illusion, supplementing earlier econometric, experimental, and survey evidence on its existence.

  6. Asset Allocation in the Euro-Zone : Industry or Country Based?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eiling, E.; Gerard, B.; de Roon, F.A.

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the relative importance of country and industry factors as determinants of international equity returns in the Euro-zone over the period 1990 to 2003.We conduct our analysis from a portfolio performance perspective, using mean-variance spanning and efficiency tests as well as style an

  7. External causes of euro zone inflation differentials : A re-examniation of the evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, I.J.M.; Verhoef, B.

    2004-01-01

    This article focuses on external causes of Euro Zone inflation differential. Persistent inflation differences may influence inflationary expectations and can amplify regional business cycles. With a uniform nominal interest rate, the domestic real interest rates will be lower in high inflation

  8. Corporate Image and the Establishment of Euro Disney: Mickey Mouse and the French Press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Janis

    1998-01-01

    Considers interweaving themes that characterized the construction of Euro Disney, drawing upon articles in the French press. Offers analysis of the historical context for and the implications of the park's construction, using the literature of French cultural studies and cross-cultural studies for support. Discusses possible consequences to the…

  9. On the impact of the global financial crisis on the euro area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, Xiaoli; Jacobs, Jan; Kuper, Gerard; Ligthart, Jenny

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses the impact of the Global Financial Crisis on the Euro area utilizing a simple dynamic macroeconomic model with interaction between monetary policy and fiscal policy. The model consists of an IS curve, a Phillips curve, a term structure relation, a debt accumulation equation and a

  10. Social and Cultural Integration in Germany: The European Union, the Euro, Immigration, and the School System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidheiser, James; Wolf, Gregory H.

    2003-01-01

    This article, based on the experiences of the authors at the 2002 AATG Summer seminar in Dusseldorf, explores the topic of integration in Germany on multiple levels: politically, financially, socially, and educationally. First, the authors discuss how the European Union and the Euro attempt to integrate Europe and Europeans, and how Germans have…

  11. Real-Time Effects of Central Bank Interventions in the Euro Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fatum, Rasmus; Pedersen, Jesper

    on a discretionary basis when considered necessary. Prior participation in ERM II is a requirement for adoption of the Euro. Therefore, our study is of particular relevance for the new European Union member states that are either currently participating in ERM II or expected to do so at a later date as well...

  12. DAF Euro-4 heavy-duty diesel engine with TNO EGR system and CRT particulates filter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, R.P.; Aken, M.G. van; Verkiel, M.

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of the TNO venturi EGR system and the Johnson Matthey CRT particulates trap on a DAF 355 kW engine. The results obtained indicate that this EGR-CRT combination is an effective means to achieve EURO-4 emission level, while maintaining good fuel economy. EGR strategy, inj

  13. Is there a Core of Macroeconomics that Euro Area Forecasters Believe In?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stadtmann, Georg; Pierdzioch, Christian; Ruelke, Jan

    2012-01-01

    The quantity theory of money, Okun’s law, and the Phillips curve are cornerstones of macroeconomic theory. But are they also of practical relevance? Using survey data for the euro area, we found that professional economists’ forecasts are consistent with a version of the quantity theory in which ...

  14. EuroFIR eBASIS: application for health claims submissions and evaluations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiely, M.; Black, L.J.; Plumb, J.; Kroon, P.; Hollman, P.C.H.; Larsen, J.C.; Speijers, G.; Kapsokefalou, M.; Sheehan, D.; Gry, J.; Finglas, P.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The European Food Information Resource (EuroFIR) network has established the eBASIS (Bioactive Substances in Food Information System) online food composition and biological effects database for plant-derived bioactive compounds (phytochemicals). On the basis of submitted evidence, the Eu

  15. THE SINGLE EURO PAYMENTS AREA - THE POTENTIAL OF CASHLESS PAYMENTS DEVELOPMENT IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Gabriela PALADE

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The creation of the single euro payments area is the natural outcome of the creation of the monetary union and the single currency adoption. This large project that aimed at standardizing and harmonizing the payments instruments, the legal framework, the business rules, etc might represent an opportunity for developing cashless payments in Romania.

  16. Confidence building on euro convergence: theory and evidence from currency options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, J.; Perotti, E.

    2003-01-01

    Using a new dataset of currency option prices, we study the evolution of investor confidence in 1992-1998 over the chance of individual currencies to converge to the Euro. Convergence risk, which may reflect uncertainty over policy commitment as well as exogenous fundamentals, induces a level of imp

  17. Confidence building on Euro conversion : theory and evidence from currency options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, J.J.A.G.; Perotti, E.C.

    2004-01-01

    Using a new dataset of currency option prices, we study the evolution of investor confidence in 1992-98 over the chance of individual currencies to converge to the euro. Convergence risk, which may reflect uncertainty over policy commitment as well as exogenous fundamentals, induces a level of impli

  18. Training aspects in the use and production of food composition databases. The EuroFIR experience.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollman, P.C.H.; Witthöft, C.; Busstra, M.C.; Elburg, L.; Hulshof, P.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    An increasing number of national food databases have been published on the internet. However, these internet databases can only be searched individually, and the data have been compiled at a national level, resulting in incompatibilities. To resolve these problems, the Network of Excellence EuroFIR

  19. Euro Feast for Estonia - Feast in Time of Plague? / Andres Arrak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Arrak, Andres, 1958-

    2010-01-01

    Autor leiab, et Eesti Pank ja valitsus peaksid selgitama rahvale euroga liitumise vajadust ajal, mil terve maailm kannatab majanduskriisi all ja euroala riigid ei suuda täita Maastrichti kriteeriume ning euro jaoks on saabunud rasked ajad. Kreeka majandusnäitajatest

  20. The Weight of Euro Coins: Its Distribution Might Not Be as Normal as You Would Expect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkedy, Ziv; Aerts, Marc; Callaert, Herman

    2006-01-01

    Classical regression models, ANOVA models and linear mixed models are just three examples (out of many) in which the normal distribution of the response is an essential assumption of the model. In this paper we use a dataset of 2000 euro coins containing information (up to the milligram) about the weight of each coin, to illustrate that the…

  1. Euro Feast for Estonia - Feast in Time of Plague? / Andres Arrak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Arrak, Andres, 1958-2017

    2010-01-01

    Autor leiab, et Eesti Pank ja valitsus peaksid selgitama rahvale euroga liitumise vajadust ajal, mil terve maailm kannatab majanduskriisi all ja euroala riigid ei suuda täita Maastrichti kriteeriume ning euro jaoks on saabunud rasked ajad. Kreeka majandusnäitajatest

  2. Kui euro saab saatuslikuks / Paul Krugman ; tõlkinud Priit Simson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Krugman, Paul, 1953-

    2010-01-01

    USA majandusprofessori hinnangul ei ole eelarvedistsipliin Euroopa hädade kogu põhjus, ka mitte Kreekas. Tegelik põhjus peitub poliitilises eliidis, mis survestas Euroopat eurole üle minema oluliselt varem, kui Euroopa selliseks katsetuseks valmis oli. Kriisi keskmes asetseb euro paindumatus, mitte eelarvedefitsiidini viiv kulutamine

  3. Läti tahab võtta "euro" asemel kasutusele nimetuse "eiro" / Krister Paris

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paris, Krister

    2006-01-01

    Läti seisab vastu Euroopa keskpanga nõudmisele võtta ametlikus asjaajamises Euroopa ühisraha nimetusena kasutusele sõna "euro". Haridusminister Ina Druviete sõnul on diftong "eu" läti keelele võõras, valitsuse hinnangul on kaalul rohkem kui pelgalt lingvistika. Ka Malta otsustas kasutada omakeelset sõna "ewro"

  4. Kui euro saab saatuslikuks / Paul Krugman ; tõlkinud Priit Simson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Krugman, Paul, 1953-

    2010-01-01

    USA majandusprofessori hinnangul ei ole eelarvedistsipliin Euroopa hädade kogu põhjus, ka mitte Kreekas. Tegelik põhjus peitub poliitilises eliidis, mis survestas Euroopat eurole üle minema oluliselt varem, kui Euroopa selliseks katsetuseks valmis oli. Kriisi keskmes asetseb euro paindumatus, mitte eelarvedefitsiidini viiv kulutamine

  5. Valitsus klammerdub euro-ootuse külge tugevamini kui varem / Andrus Karnau ; kommenteerinud Ruta Arumäe, Heido Vitsur, Andres Arrak, Eiki Nestor

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karnau, Andrus

    2009-01-01

    Rahandusministeeriumi prognoos lükkas ümber kõik lootused võtta 2011. aasta alguses kasutusele euro, peaminister Andrus Ansipi kinnitusel püsib Eesti euro kursil. Graafik: Majandus põrutab kuristikku

  6. 运营商大数据安全防护技术研究%Study on Big Data Protection Technology of Telecom Operators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶冶; 张云勇; 张尼

    2014-01-01

    Big data have brought not only opportunities, but also various kinds of security problems to the telecom operators. Protecting big data security becomes a key factor to ensure the development of big data business. Based on the analysis on the current situation of telecom operators’big data protection, it summarizes the big data protection solution and technology for Chinese telecom operators.%大数据给电信运营商带来巨大发展机遇的同时,也带来了各类型的安全隐患。保护大数据安全成为电信运营商大数据业务发展的关键。通过分析电信运营商大数据安全现状,总结国内运营商的大数据安全防护方案与技术。

  7. R316-million Richards Bay Coal Terminal expansions underway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-01

    Fabrication is underway on items critical to the R316-million expansion programme newly embarked upon by Richards Bay Coal Terminal (RBCT, South Africa), according to project manager SEMTEC. The expansion will increase the capacity of RBTC from 44 million tons of export quality coal a year to 53-million tons. The scope of work includes the design and fabrication of a tandem tippler, a stacker reclaimer, and new conveyors as well as upgrading the existing conveyor, terminal control and railway system and the supply of new locomotives.

  8. Estimating Economic Regional Effects of Euro 2012: Ex-ante and Ex-post Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Despiney

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In this paper we evaluate both ex-ante and ex-post macroeconomic impact of EURO 2012TM on Polish regions. Methodology: We start with modifying the Keynesian-style multiplier model to investigate the effects of Euro 2012-related spending on local economies. This specifi cation permits us, on the one hand, to easily investigate the impact on each demand component, and, on the other hand, to calculate the magnitudes of these multipliers in order to judge the credibility of potential regional welfare benefi ts. This analysis is strengthened by taking into account the regional supply constraints. The second part of our study is devoted to an econometric estimation of long-run macroeconomic impact. Findings: Our study does not provide a strong evidence of EURO 2012- specifi c effects. We fi nd the regional multipliers’ values ranging from 1,13 to 1,33 for four hosting regions. This translates into an uncommon statement of rather evenly developed regions. The ex-ante study also testifi es of an importance of public expenditure in convergence process. In case of ex-post analysis, the estimates of regional production function reveal a Modest positive effect of EURO 2012-related infrastructure spending. However, this effect is small, and there is no statistical evidence that hosting regions recorded an event-specifi c growth boost. Research limitations: Both ex-ante and ex-post studies are sensitive to regional data, therefore, some calculations may suffer from disaggregation error. Additionally, ex-post analysis needs to be repeated in order to gain more insights from historical data. Finally, authors plan to complement the analysis by the Ukrainian study. Originality: This is the fi rst paper to date addressing the EURO 2012 macroeconomic impact from the regional perspective.

  9. Is EuroSCORE applicable to Indian patients undergoing cardiac surgery?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik Madhur

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Indian patients undergoing cardiac surgery have different demographics, clinical profile as well as risk profile, compared to the western population. The purpose of this study was to validate the European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation (EuroSCORE risk stratification model in Indian patients undergoing cardiac surgery in a single cardiac center. Data from 1000 consecutive adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery (coronary artery bypass grafting or valve surgery were prospectively collected as per the EuroSCORE model. The model′s validity was assessed on the basis of its calibration power (Hosmer-Lemeshow test and discriminatory power [area under receiver operating characteristic curve]. The patients were divided into three risk groups on the basis of their EuroSCORE. The Hosmer-Lemeshow test revealed a good calibration power (P = 0.73 and the area under the ROC curve was 0.8278, suggesting a good discriminative power. The predicted mortality was similar to observed mortality in low- and moderate-risk patients but the observed mortality in high-risk patients (15.6% was double that of predicted mortality (7.5%. The risk factors prevalent in European population were not observed in Indian population. EuroSCORE accurately predicts mortality in low and moderate-risk Indian patients undergoing cardiac surgery but is less predictive for high-risk Indian patients. Updating and improvisation of EuroSCORE by incorporation of risk factors associated with rheumatic valvular heart disease which is more prevalent in India, may enable it to accurately predict mortality in high-risk patients also.

  10. Design of photonic crystal fibers with highly nonlinear glasses for four-wave-mixing based telecom applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanka, Jiri

    2008-12-08

    A fully-vectorial mode solver based on the finite element method is employed in a combination with the downhill simplex method the dispersion optimization of photonic crystal fibers made from highly nonlinear glasses. The nonlinear fibers are designed for telecom applications such as parametric amplification, wavelength conversion, ultra-fast switching and regeneration of optical signals. The optimization is carried in terms of the zero dispersion wavelength, dispersion magnitude and nonlinear coefficient and confinement loss in the wavelength range around 1.55 microm. We restrict our work to the index-guiding fiber structures a small number of hexagonally arrayed air holes.

  11. Application solution of China Telecom mobile payment%中国电信手机支付应用方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何南; 谷军

    2014-01-01

    At first, this paper introduced the several popular mobile payment technologies, and then focused on mobile technology China Telecom used, including the characteristics, function and card making process.%文章首先对中国手机支付中的几种流行技术进行介绍,然后重点论述中国电信采用的手机支付技术,包括其产品特色、产品功能和卡片制作流程。

  12. Research on Revenue Assurance Practice of Telecom Operators in China%国内电信运营商收入保障工作研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李卫; 张云勇; 郭志斌; 周巍

    2011-01-01

    本文引入TMF收入保障成熟度模型,结合国内情况建立本地化模型,在此基础上调研和评价国内电信运营商收入保障工作的开展情况及主要问题,并提出了运营商收入保障的发展建议.%This paper localizes TMF revenue assurance maturity model, then evaluates the revenue assurance maturity of domestic telecom operators and points out their major issues. Finally, some development suggestions of revenue assurance for telecom operators are given.

  13. Source laser intense pour le refroidissement du 87Rb par doublement de fr\\'equence d'un laser fibr\\'e t\\'el\\'ecom

    CERN Document Server

    Pottie, Paul-Eric; Delaporte, Julien; Desbuquois, Rémi; Liennard, Thomas; Lorent, Vincent; Perrin, Hélène

    2010-01-01

    We built a frequency-doubled laser for 87Rb laser cooling, from a Telecom fiber laser. Thanks to intense technological development, telecom fiber lasers exhibit outstanding properties regarding relative intensity noise and modulation bandwidth. The enhanced doubling efficiency of periodically poled crystals allowed to obtain up to 1.8 W at 780 nm from 10 W at 1560 nm, with a simple pass configuration in a 50-mm long crystal of ppLN:MgO. This technique can also be applied at the wavelength of potassium (767 nm) (Bourdel, 2009) and could be of great interest for the realization of dipole traps.

  14. Tuning InP self-assembled quantum structures to telecom wavelength: A versatile original InP(As) nanostructure "workshop"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mura, E. E.; Gocalinska, A.; Juska, G.; Moroni, S. T.; Pescaglini, A.; Pelucchi, E.

    2017-03-01

    The influence of hydride exposure on previously unreported self-assembled InP(As) nanostructures is investigated, showing an unexpected morphological variability with growth parameters, and producing a large family of InP(As) nanostructures by metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy, from dome and ring-like structures to double dot in a ring ensembles. Moreover, preliminary microphotoluminescence data are indicating the capped rings system as an interesting candidate for single quantum emitters at telecom wavelengths, potentially becoming a possible alternative to InAs QDs for quantum technology and telecom applications.

  15. Tobacco Use Costs World 6 Million Lives, $1 Trillion Annually

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prevention of noncommunicable diseases. Tobacco is a major cause of noncommunicable diseases including heart disease, cancer, diabetes and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Such preventable diseases account for about 16 million premature deaths (before age 70) worldwide every year, Bettcher and ...

  16. Monsanto Gives Washington U. $23.5 Million.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culliton, Barbara J.

    1982-01-01

    Reviews various provisions of a five-year, $23.5-million research agreement between Washington University and the Monsanto Company. The scientific focus of this venture will be on proteins and peptides which modify cellular behavior. (SK)

  17. Fourier spectroscopy with a one-million-point transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connes, J.; Delouis, H.; Connes, P.; Guelachvili, G.; Maillard, J.; Michel, G.

    1972-01-01

    A new type of interferometer for use in Fourier spectroscopy has been devised at the Aime Cotton Laboratory of the National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS), Orsay, France. With this interferometer and newly developed computational techniques, interferograms comprising as many as one million samples can now be transformed. The techniques are described, and examples of spectra of thorium and holmium, derived from one million-point interferograms, are presented.

  18. Chinese Poor Reduced to 26.1 Million

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The year 2004 saw the greatest reduction in the number of the poor over the past five years and the number of the poor decreased to 26.1 million,according to the latest statistics released by the Office of Poverty Alleviation under the State Council. In 2004, the number of people living in rural areas with an average per capita income of less than RMB668(dire poverty) was reduced by 2.9 million,

  19. Biodiversity Science In The Deep Sea: The ESF EuroDEEP Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonckheere, I. G.

    2007-12-01

    What little we know of deep-sea ecosystems indicates that they host one of the highest biodiversities on the planet as well as important mineral and biological resources, which are increasingly being exploited. Understanding deep-sea biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, from viruses to megafauna, is essential to assess the impact of natural and anthropogenic factors and provide management options. The aim of the multidisciplinary ESF EUROCORES Programme EuroDEEP, Ecosystem Functioning and Biodiversity in Deep Sea, is to further explore and identify the different deep-sea habitats, assessing both the abiotic and biotic processes that sustain and maintain deep-sea communities. The scope is to interpret variations of biodiversity within and between deep-sea habitats, and the interactions of the biota with the ecosystems in which they live. The resulting scientific data are a prerequisite for the sustainable use and the development of management and conservation options aiming at the sustainable use of marine resources that will benefit society as a whole. The Programme aims at providing the necessary framework and funding for the development of top-quality deep- sea research at the European level in a global context (Census of Marine Life and SCOR/IGBP). In particular, it builds on sharing of national large-scale resources, which are essential for deep-sea research (i.e. ships, ROVs, submersibles, AUVs, deep-towed vehicles, deep-sea sampling equipment, new sensors, etc.) as well as the coordination of efforts amongst scientists and laboratories from the countries involved and links with ongoing projects. EuroDEEP will participate in the development of new technologies as well as data management, analysis and modelling. Most of all, EuroDEEP will catalyse excellent research on what biodiversity exists in the deep sea, how it is generated and maintained by abiotic and biotic processes, and what the role of the deep-sea is in the biogeochemical processes affecting the

  20. Generation of a spectrum with high flatness and high bandwidth in a short length of telecom fiber using microchip laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Garcia, J. C.; Estudillo-Ayala, J. M.; Pottiez, O.; Rojas-Laguna, R.; Mata-Chavez, R. I.; Gonzalez-Garcia, A.

    2013-04-01

    In this work, we studied experimentally the generation of a supercontinuum spectrum induced in a piece of standard single-mode fiber using pulses from a microchip laser. For different values of fiber length, we obtained spectra with high flatness in visible and IR regions. The possibility to generate a spectrum with a high flatness and spectral width of more than ˜1100 nm (600 nm to over 1700 nm) in relatively short lengths of telecom fiber (˜57 m), using as the pump pulses with no more than a few kW peak power at a non-zero-dispersion wavelength, is attributed to the peculiar properties of the pulses generated by the pump source. The physical processes leading to the formation of the supercontinuum spectrum were studied by monitoring the growth of the spectrum while increasing the input power. The coupling efficiency between the microchip laser and the telecom fiber helped us obtain a very wide spectrum. This work shows that the use of conventional fiber for supercontinuum generation can be viewed as a cheap and efficient option, in particular for applications like optical metrology, coherence tomography and low noise sources for the characterization of devices.