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Sample records for milk production line

  1. Genetic comparison of milk production and composition in three maternal rabbit lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Gamal Fawzy EL Nagar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare 3 Spanish maternal rabbit lines (A, V and LP in terms of milk production and composition. These lines were founded on different criteria but selected for litter size at weaning. A total of 194 mature does in their third or higher parity were used. The milk yield of does was recorded at 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 9, 10, 11, 15, 16 and 17 d post-partum (dpp. The milk production traits studied were weekly milk yield (WMY; g/wk and milk conversion ratio (MCR; grams of litter gain per grams of milk suckled during the first 21  dpp. The milk composition traits studied were fat (%, protein  (%, ash (%, lactose (% and total solids (%. The milk samples to be analysed were collected from each doe at 18 dpp. Data were analysed using single trait mixed and fixed models with and without covariates; the covariates were number born alive (NBA and doe weight at kindling (DW. The overall mean of WMY, during the first 3 wk, was 1547±16 g/wk. Milk yields during the different lactation weeks were for line A 872±39, 1503±39 and 1865±39 g for first, second and third lactation weeks, respectively. In line V, the corresponding values were 919±35, 1633±35 and 2004±35  g, and in line LP, they were 1043±36, 1819±36 and 2254±36  g. Means of MCR were 0.41±0.01, 0.41±0.01 and 0.42±0.01 for A, V and LP lines, respectively. Overall means of fat, protein, ash, lactose and total solids (% were 14.62±0.17, 11.10±0.07, 1.89±0.04, 2.67±0.12 and 30.27±0.24, respectively. The differences between lines for milk production traits were significant except for MCR, while the differences between lines for milk composition traits were not significant. NBA had significant effects on all milk yield traits but had no significant effects on milk composition traits. DW only had a significant effect on weekly milk yield. The parity order had no significant effect either for milk production traits or milk composition traits in multiparous does, except

  2. Mediterranean milk and milk products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinrichs, Jörg

    2004-03-01

    Milk and dairy products are part of a healthy Mediterranean diet which, besides cow's milk, also consists of sheep's, goat's and buffalo's milk--alone or as a mixture---as raw material. The fat and protein composition of the milk of the various animal species differs only slightly, but in every case it has a high priority in human nutrition. The milk proteins are characterized by a high content of essential amino acids. Beyond that macromolecules,which have various biological functions, are available or may be formed by proteolysis in milk. Taking this into consideration, the technology of different well-known Italian and German cheese types is presented and the differences as well as correspondences regarding nutrition are discussed. Especially Ricotta and Mascarpone are discussed in detail. Ricotta represents a special feature as this cheese is traditionally made of whey and cream. Thus the highly valuable whey proteins which contain a higher amount of the amino acids lysine, methionine and cysteic acid in comparison to casein and, additionally, to soy protein, are made usable for human nutrition. Finally, it is pointed out on the basis of individual examples that technologies to enrich whey proteins in cheese are already available and in use. Thus, the flavor of low fat cheese is improved and the nutritional value is increased.

  3. Milk Production in Croatia

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    Petar Bosnić

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years Croatian economy is restructuring through the processes of market liberalization and closing to EU, which is demanding some significant changes. Agriculture is in the process of reforms on the basis of CAP (Common Agricultural Policy policies of the EU, and those changes are producing different effects in each agricultural sector. The most sensitive area is livestock production, especially cattle and milking cows (production of meat and milk. This sector has insufficient production. More precise, domestic production in Croatia can satisfy around 80% of one-year consumption. This study shows economic position of production and processing of milk with the emphasis on primary milk production, processing of milk, domestic market and export-import situation. The goal is to consider the situation, position and possibilities for development of this sector.

  4. Milk Production in Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiumei Ji; Tsam You; Zhang Oiang

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes milk production and livestock production in Tibet.Some information of market demand has also been presented.There has been very little information published in Tibetan journals on production and nutrition of cattle.This review provides a brief introduction to feeding systems and feeding resources.Many studies on milk production have been done in isolation,and do not go beyond the basic and practical level.Compared with dairy cattle research in other parts of China,large gaps in knowledge still exist in cattle production science,particularly related to nutrition,and systems approaches for the development of a dairy industry.

  5. Colostrum and milk production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quesnel, H; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2015-01-01

    for the sow. More specifically, fetal growth, mammary growth, colostrum production and sow maintenance require substantial amounts of nutrients during late gestation. After parturition, nutrients are mainly required for milk synthesis and sow maintenance, but the regressing uterus supplies considerable...... becomes catabolic due to the high priority of milk production and to current feeding practices. Indeed, feed is changed from a gestation to a lactation diet for most sows and the feed supply typically goes from a restricted supply to an ad libitum allowance. In addition, transition sows are often exposed...... to shifts in housing, and in Europe, this shift is now associated with a change from loose group housing to individual housing. Around parturition, colostrum is being secreted and milk synthesis is initiated in the mammary glands. After the onset of lactation, milk composition changes, especially during...

  6. Simulation and Flexibility Analysis of Milk Production Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Hongyuan; Friis, Alan

    In this work, process simulation method is used to simulate pasteurised market milk production line. A commercial process simulation tool - Pro/II from Simulation Science Inc. is used in the simulation work. In the simulation, a new model is used to calculate the thermal property of milk....... In this work, a simulator is obtained for the milk production line. Using the simulator, different milk processing situation can be quantitatively simulated investigated, such as different products production, capacity changes, fat content changes in raw milk, energy cost at different operation conditions etc....... As the pasteurised market milk production line involves typical milk processing steps, such as pasteurisation, centrifugal separation, standardisation, the simulator can be modified to simulate similar milk processing lines. In many cases, the rapidly changed market requires a flexible milk production line...

  7. THE ANALYSIS OF CORRELATIONS BETWEEN THE MAIN TRAITS OF WOOL PRODUCTION ON PALAS SHEEP LINE FOR MEAT, MILK AND HIGH PROLIFICACY

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    ANA ENCIU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to analyze the coefficient of phenotypic correlation and regression between main wool production traits for the sheep belonging to the Palas line specialized for meat, milk and with high prolificacy. The study was performed on a 10 years interval, the phenotypic correlation and the regression being determined for age groups and body weight classes for the following traits: raw wool production, the staple length, wool diameter and body weight at shearing. The obtained results are showing that for the specialized sheep lines the efficiency of wool production is also higher for the sheep with moderate body weights but for these sheep lines the selection for body weight will be done based on the morphoproductive parameters specific to the purpose of exploitation (milk production, meat production or high prolificacy.

  8. Selenium content of milk and milk products of Turkey. II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanardağ, R; Orak, H

    1999-04-01

    Selenium content of 1028 milk and milk products of Turkey are presented in this study. The selenium content of human milk (colostrum, transitional, and mature milk), various kinds of milk [cow, sheep, goat, buffalo, paper boxes (3%, 1.5%, 0.012% fat), bottled milk, condensed milk (10% fat), mineral added milk (1.6%), and banana, strawberry, and chocolate milk] and milk products (kefir, yogurt, Ayran, various cheese, coffee cream, ice cream, butter, margarine, milk powder, and fruit yogurt) in Turkey were determined by a spectrofluorometric method. The selenium levels of cow milks collected from 57 cities in Turkey were also determined. Selenium levels in cow milk varied with geographical location in Turkey and were found to be lowest for Van and highest for Aksaray. The results [milk (cow, sheep, goat, buffalo and human) and milks products] were compared with literature data from different countries.

  9. 9 CFR 94.16 - Milk and milk products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... products, including dry whole milk, nonfat dry milk, dried whey, dried buttermilk, and formulations which... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Milk and milk products. 94.16 Section... VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY: PROHIBITED AND RESTRICTED IMPORTATIONS § 94.16...

  10. Mineral content of dairy products. I. Milk and milk products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, N P; LaCroix, D E; Alford, J A

    1978-03-01

    Sixteen kinds of dairy products were analyzed for five major minerals and four trace minerals. Commercial samples of fluid milk, cream, concentrated milks, cultured products, butter, and frozen desserts were also analyzed for fat, solids, protein, and minerals. Calcium, magnesium, sodium, and potassium were determined by atomic absorption, and phosphorus was determined colorimetrically. Flameless atomic absorption was used to determine iron, zinc, copper, and manganese. The data generally agreed with most recently published values. However, for the trace minerals, the data differed widely in some instances. Manufacturing practices and added ingredients produced considerable variations in mineral content of market samples. These variations, however, could be limited by selection of products, so that they would not preclude the use of dairy products in diets in which mineral composition must be controlled. The coefficients of variation, which indicate the variability that can be expected for each product, generally were high for sherbet and ice milk and low for low-fat milk and skim milk.

  11. World production and quality of cow's milk

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    Petar Bosnić

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available World milk production has a great economical effect being in the function of human food production and nutrition. Milk is obtained from cows, buffalos, sheeps, goats, camels and donkey with cow's milk production dominating. The world milk production in 2000 was 568.480 thousands of tons of all types of milk of which 484.895 thousands tons are cow's milk with a total of 85.30 % of the world milk production. Buffalo's milk production is on the second place with 61.913 thousands of tonnes (10.89 % production capacity. On the three continents (Europe, North America and Asia 81.82 % of total cow's milk production is located. Developed countries produce 50 % of total milk production, while higher milk production is forecast for the developing countries. The EU countries participate with 23.72 % in the world milk production and with 55.60 % on the European area. High annual lactation production, under selected cow's milk production, of above 6000 kg is located in developed countries, where annual participation of Israel accounts for over 10000 kg of milk per cow. Commercial milk production of genetics cattle accounts from 80 % to 85 %. Milk quality, with regard to milk fat and proteincontent, in developed countries is above an average value. With the annual milk production of 7000 kg of cow's milk, up to 294 kg of milk fat and 238 kg of protein are produced. Due to milk characteristics as agro-food product, milk and dairy products manufacture and transportation are in details regulated with existing quality standards. 95 % of the EU milk producers fulfil international hygienic rules on milk safety standards (somatic cells, microorganisms. With regard to long term development, until 2030, changes on herd management (outdoor and indoor exposure, between continents, will occur. In 2030, the world milk production is forecast to increase by 64%, with cow's milk production of 765.9 million tonnes.

  12. production lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingshan Li

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, serial production lines with finished goods buffers operating in the pull regime are considered. The machines are assumed to obey Bernoulli reliability model. The problem of satisfying customers demand is addressed. The level of demand satisfaction is quantified by the due-time performance (DTP, which is defined as the probability to ship to the customer a required number of parts during a fixed time interval. Within this scenario, the definitions of DTP bottlenecks are introduced and a method for their identification is developed.

  13. Simulation and Flexibility Analysis of Milk Production Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Hongyuan; Friis, Alan

    . In this work, a simulator is obtained for the milk production line. Using the simulator, different milk processing situation can be quantitatively simulated investigated, such as different products production, capacity changes, fat content changes in raw milk, energy cost at different operation conditions etc...... processing conditions are investigated through the simulator. A flexible operation range or ‘operation window’ is obtained from the simulation for the milk production line. The study gives both the operation feasibility and detailed operation cost.......In this work, process simulation method is used to simulate pasteurised market milk production line. A commercial process simulation tool - Pro/II from Simulation Science Inc. is used in the simulation work. In the simulation, a new model is used to calculate the thermal property of milk...

  14. Associations between milk protein polymorphisms and milk production traits.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovenhuis, H.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Korver, S.

    1992-01-01

    Associations between milk protein genotypes and milk production traits were estimated from 6803 first lactation records. Exact tests of associated hypotheses and unbiased estimates of genotype effects were from an animal model. Milk protein genotype effects were estimated using a model in which each

  15. Digital Prototyping of Milk Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Nielsen, Otto Højager Attermann; Skytte, Jacob Lercke

    2012-01-01

    of most foods make them much more challenging to visualise and simulate realistically. We present models and methods that take steps toward digital prototyping of milk products and other food colloids. To simulate the dynamics of liquid products that only exist digitally, we use deformable simplicial...... or asymmetry parameter) are the input needed for a Monte Carlo based graphical rendering. We have developed a model for predicting the optical properties of milk as a function of its fat and protein contents [4]. However, the model has only been validated to a limited extent. We suggest that diffuse...... reflectance measurements can be used for more extensive validation and for gathering data that can be used to extend our current model such that it can also predict how the optical properties develop during fermentation or acidification of milk to yogurt. A well-established way of measuring optical properties...

  16. Milk products and intestinal health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Meer, R; Bovee-Oudenhoven, IMJ; Sesink, ALA; Kleibeuker, JH

    1998-01-01

    Milk products may improve intestinal health by means of the cytoprotective effects of their high calcium phosphate (CaPi) content. We hypothesized that this cytoprotection may increase host defenses against bacterial infections as well as decrease colon cancer risk. This paper summarizes our studies

  17. 21 CFR 139.120 - Milk macaroni products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., evaporated milk, dried milk, and a mixture of butter with skim milk, concentrated skim milk, evaporated skim... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Milk macaroni products. 139.120 Section 139.120... Noodle Products § 139.120 Milk macaroni products. (a) Milk macaroni products are the class of food,...

  18. Associations between milk protein polymorphisms and milk production traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovenhuis, H; Van Arendonk, J A; Korver, S

    1992-09-01

    Associations between milk protein genotypes and milk production traits were estimated from 6803 first lactation records. Exact tests of associated hypotheses and unbiased estimates of genotype effects were from an animal model. Milk protein genotype effects were estimated using a model in which each milk protein gene was analyzed separately (single-gene analysis) and a model in which all milk protein genes were analyzed simultaneously (multigene analysis). The results of the two models indicate that some effects ascribed to certain milk protein genes in the single-gene analysis are not effects of the milk protein gene itself but of linked genes. Results from this study and from literature indicate that the kappa-casein gene or a very closely linked gene affects protein percentage, and the beta-lactoglobulin gene or a very closely linked gene affects fat percentage. Furthermore, effects of beta-casein genotypes on milk production, fat percentage, and protein yield were significant, and beta-lactoglobulin genotypes had significant effects on milk production and protein yield. It is less clear whether those effects are due to effects of milk protein genes themselves or to effects of linked genes.

  19. Pesticides Residue in Milk and Milk Products: Mini Review

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    Shazia Akhtar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Livestock is an important sub-sector of agriculture that plays a key role in economy of a country by contributing to GDP (Gross Domestic Product and in total export. Pakistan is the 5th largest milk producer in the world with a total milk production of about 46.44 billion liters per anum. Almost 68% milk is produced by buffalo and 27% by cow. Pesticides used in agriculture sector may transfer to animal bodies through feed and fodder. A pesticide found in water is another source of residues in milk through drinking water. External control of parasites on animal body, insect control in cattle yard and sheds are direct sources of pesticides exposure for dairy animals. Due to its nutritional and supplementary value, milk is being consumed by people of different age groups therefore, issue of pesticide residues attain the immediate attention of researcher. Pesticide residues levels in raw dairy milk are discussed here in few selected developing and developed countries. It is concluded that human health is associated with exposure to organo phosphorus (OPPs, organo chlorine (OCPs, pyrethroids and carbamate (CB pesticides via milk or milk products and this issue deserve more attention. Different classes of pesticides OPPs, OCPs, pyrethroids and CBs etc. were reported in raw dairy milk in different countries and also in Pakistan. The results of this review demonstrate the need to establish pesticide residue monitoring programs for milk analysis for human consumption to improve food safety and decrease exposure risks to consumers.

  20. Development of an immunochromatographic strip test for rapid detection of melamine in raw milk, milk products, and animal feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    A simple, rapid and sensitive immunogold chromatographic strip test based on a monoclonal antibody was developed for the detection of melamine (MEL) residues in raw milk, milk products and animal feed. The limit of detection was estimated to be 0.05 µg/mL in raw milk, since the detection test line ...

  1. Structured products are milk with vegetable fillings

    OpenAIRE

    L. V. Golubeva; O. I. Dolmatova; E. I. Bocharova; G. S. Dolmatova

    2012-01-01

    Organized work on creation of new technology outline keeping of milk product, containing milk dried fat-free, substitute dried cream, water drinking, stabilizer, BAD “Shlemnik’s extract", sugar or sugar replacer. Got outline keeping of milk products differ the good organileptic factors, are characterized by high food value and original composition of the fillers.

  2. Structured products are milk with vegetable fillings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Golubeva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Organized work on creation of new technology outline keeping of milk product, containing milk dried fat-free, substitute dried cream, water drinking, stabilizer, BAD “Shlemnik’s extract", sugar or sugar replacer. Got outline keeping of milk products differ the good organileptic factors, are characterized by high food value and original composition of the fillers.

  3. Automatic milking systems, farm size, and milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotz, C A; Coiner, C U; Soder, K J

    2003-12-01

    Automatic milking systems (AMS) offer relief from the demanding routine of milking. Although many AMS are in use in Europe and a few are used in the United States, the potential benefit for American farms is uncertain. A farm-simulation model was used to determine the long-term, whole-farm effect of implementing AMS on farm sizes of 30 to 270 cows. Highest farm net return to management and unpaid factors was when AMS were used at maximal milking capacity. Adding stalls to increase milking frequency and possibly increase production generally did not improve net return. Compared with new traditional milking systems, the greatest potential economic benefit was a single-stall AMS on a farm size of 60 cows at a moderate milk production level (8600 kg/cow). On other farm sizes using single-stall type robotic units, losses in annual net return of 0 dollars to 300 dollars/cow were projected, with the greatest losses on larger farms and at high milk production (10,900 kg/cow). Systems with one robot serving multiple stalls provided a greater net return than single-stall systems, and this net return was competitive with traditional parlors for 50- to 130-cow farm sizes. The potential benefit of AMS was improved by 100 dollars/cow per year if the AMS increased production an additional 5%. A 20% reduction in initial equipment cost or doubling milking labor cost also improved annual net return of an AMS by up to 100 dollars/cow. Annual net return was reduced by 110 dollars/cow, though, if the economic life of the AMS was reduced by 3 yr for a more rapid depreciation than that normally used with traditional milking systems. Thus, under current assumptions, the economic return for an AMS was similar to that of new parlor systems on smaller farms when the milking capacity of the AMS was well matched to herd size and milk production level.

  4. The Milk and Milk Products Value Chain in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Drost (Sarah); J.C.A.C. van Wijk (Jeroen)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis report investigates the dynamics of a multi-stakeholder platform (named: Coordination Group, or CG) for stakeholders of the milk and milk products value chains in Ethiopia. The CG was initiated by the Dutch development organisation SNV in 2005 as part of a broader programme to

  5. Relationships of growth hormone gene and milk protein polymorphisms to milk production traits in Simmental cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falaki, M; Prandi, A; Corradini, C; Sneyers, M; Gengler, N; Massart, S; Fazzini, U; Burny, A; Portetelle, D; Renaville, R

    1997-02-01

    The importance of milk proteins and the positive effect of administration of growth hormone (GH) on milk production, and the presence in some dairy cattle lines of greater GH concentrations prompted us to examine the presence of restriction fragment length polymorphism at the GH gene using the restriction enzyme TaqI and to investigate associations between this polymorphism in Simmental cows and bulls, as well as milk protein variants in Simmental cows, and milk production traits. Blood and milk were sampled from 279 Italian Simmental cows and semen was collected from 148 bulls of the same breed. Two fragment bands, denoted A and B, of 6200 and 5200 bp respectively, were examined and three patterns, AA, AB and BB, were found in both animal samples. All variants previously reported in other studies, for kappa, beta, and alpha s1-caseins, and beta-lactoglobulin, were found in the cows' samples. For the cows' samples, a BLUP (Best Linear Unbiased Predictor) analysis of results was performed using a REML (Restricted Maximum Likelihood) program and known heritabilities, whereas for bulls we have performed a General Linear Model analysis. The effect of GH gene polymorphism, using TaqI restriction enzyme, on milk production traits was not significant, but bulls of BB pattern had a higher breeding value for milk yield than AA bulls (P casein genotypic effects, cows of AB genotype gave milk with 1.53 +/- 0.70 g/kg less fat than cows of AA genotype. In addition, breeding values for milk protein content were significantly higher in BB bulls, with 0.87 +/- 0.32 and 0.71 +/- 0.34 g/kg more milk protein than AA and AB bulls respectively. Thus, our results revealed a GH gene polymorphism and indicated significant effects of milk protein polymorphisms on milk production traits in the Italian Simmental breed.

  6. OFF-FLAVOURS IN MILK AND MILK PRODUCTS

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    Oğuz GÜRSOY

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Flavour is the main factor determining the purchase of food and it also effects to consumer preferences. Therefore, flavour problems usually come to light as a result of consumers' complaints, and flavour defects in food are a major cause of consumer rejection of the food product including milk and milk products. Flavour and off-flavour in milk and milk products have been the subject of active research in the last decade; there have been developments in the analytical techniques used to monitor flavour development, flavour and off-flavour compounds in many dairy product have now been investigated. The chemicals responsible for unacceptable flavours in milk and milk products can originate incidental contamination from environmental sources, from animal feeding, from chemical reactions occuring within the food material itself and from other sources. The objectives of this paper comprise, after definitions, summarizing the possible sources and specific compounds of off-flavours, and discussing different approaches for off-flavour concept in milk and dairy products.

  7. 7 CFR 1160.107 - Fluid milk product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid milk product. 1160.107 Section 1160.107... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Definitions § 1160.107 Fluid milk product. Fluid milk product means any product that meets...

  8. Production and milk quality of Pag sheep

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    Zoran Vukašinović

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available eep milk production and processing in last ten years show significant increase in Croatia. Market has recognized the product quality of sheep milk, so today even more number of cheese producers is interested for obtaining the protected geographical indication of products. Because of specific climate conditions on island Pag, as well as specific herbal cover, numerous aromatic plant varieties, milk, i.e. cheese, has specific taste and smell which consumers recognize, search and appreciate. Because of milk production increase and achieving better quality, production regularly controls and chemical composition analyzes and hygiene quality of sheep milk are conducted. In that propose during 2003 and 2004 years, research was carried out, which had for aim to explore milk quality of Pag sheep and to determine influence of paragenetic factors (year - climate on production, chemical composition (milk fat and proteins content and hygiene milk quality (number of somatic cells count, in two herds (A and B. Climate characteristics in 2003 and 2004 were different, regarding precipitations quantity and vegetation. Milking capacity control was carried out according to AT method. Chemical composition analyzes and hygiene quality of milk was carried out with infrared spectrometry and fluoro-opto-electronic method. During milking period in 2004, on island Pag, there were considerably more precipitations and due to the fact, vegetation was exuberant, which influenced on bigger total milk production in lactation (P<0.01 regarding to 2003. Average milk fat content (% in milk was in 2003 on family farm A, higher regarding on family farm B (P<0.01. However, because of higher quantities of produced milk on family farm B, total yield of milk fat (9.43 kg was higher (P<0.01 regarding to family farm A (7,93 kg. During 2004, differences in milk fat yield were very small and were not significant. Average daily milk quantity was from 689 mL (year 2003 to 940 mL (year 2004 on

  9. Milk production characteristics in Southern Brazil

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    Tony Picoli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to describe milk production in Southern Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil, and to identify factors that affect milk quality at this region. The average age of regional dairy farmers is 49, and 67.9% has not concluded elementary school. Dairy farming is carried out on properties with an average of 26.06 hectares and 8.4 lactating cows. Most of them (32.83% yield 50 to 100 L/day. Among the properties, 13.21% yield up to 30 L/day, and only 1.89% produces over 500 milk liters a day. Average yield was 6.8 L/day. Regarding to milking procedure, 39.3% farmers milk manually the animals, only 14.2% performed pre-milking teat disinfection, and 53.9% uses a single cloth to dry all animal teats. For infrastructure, 52.8% milks animals in wooden cowsheds. We observed that the average somatic cell count (SCC was within legal parameters, presenting negative correlation with milk production (r = -0.23 and lactose content (r = -0.39. However, the total bacterial count (TBC was above legal parameters. Education level seems to interfere in management and milk quality, because the less educated groups are, the less adequate are infrastructure, management, and product quality. Data show that there is a lower quality milk production where poor management techniques are adopted and owner education level affects milk quality.

  10. Major advances in fresh milk and milk products: fluid milk products and frozen desserts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, H D; Griffiths, M W

    2006-04-01

    Major technological advances in the fluid milk processing industry in the last 25 yr include significant improvements in all the unit operations of separation, standardization, pasteurization, homogenization, and packaging. Many advancements have been directed toward production capacity, automation, and hygienic operation. Extended shelf-life milks are produced by high heat treatment, sometimes coupled with microfiltration or centrifugation. Other nonthermal methods have also been investigated. Flavored milk beverages have increased in popularity, as have milk beverages packaged in single-service, closeable plastic containers. Likewise, the frozen dairy processing industry has seen the development of large-capacity, automated processing equipment for a wide range of products designed to gain market share. Significant advancements in product quality have been made, many of these arising from improved knowledge of the functional properties of ingredients and their impact on structure and texture. Incidents of foodborne disease associated with dairy products continue to occur, necessitating even greater diligence in the control of pathogen transmission. Analytical techniques for the rapid detection of specific types of microorganisms have been developed and greatly improved during this time. Despite tremendous technological advancements for processors and a greater diversity of products for consumers, per capita consumption of fluid milk has declined and consumption of frozen dairy desserts has been steady during this 25-yr period.

  11. 7 CFR 1150.113 - Fluid milk products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid milk products. 1150.113 Section 1150.113... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1150.113 Fluid milk products. Fluid milk products means those milk products...

  12. 7 CFR 1000.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... nonfat milk solids, and whey; and (2) The quantity of skim milk equivalent in any modified product... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid milk product. 1000.15 Section 1000.15 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL PROVISIONS OF FEDERAL MILK MARKETING...

  13. Mineral elements in milk and dairy products

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    Šimun Zamberlin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Mineral elements occur in milk and dairy products as inorganic ions and salts, as well as part of organic molecules, such as proteins, fats, carbohydrates and nucleic acids. The chemical form of mineral elements is important because it determines their absorption in the intestine and their biological utilization. The mineral composition of milk is not constant because it depends on lactation phase, nutritional status of the animal, and environmental and genetic factors. The objective of this research is to point out the research results of chemical form, content and nutritional importance of individual mineral elements that are present in various milks and dairy products.

  14. Spoilage microorganisms in milk and dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Skelin

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Spoilage microorganisms cause changes of primary characteristics and properties of milk and dairy products. The product defects depends on the specific species and number of microorganisms involved in pre- and post- technological processing. Most often, these changes are related to single undesirable sensory characteristic, smell, flavour or conistency. However, in the case of heavier microbial contamination all these undesirable characteristics can occur simultaneously. Besides, even small changes caused by presence of spoilage microorganisms lead to decreased quality of milk and various dairy products. Despite of the importance for the overall quality, the control of spoilage microorganisms for dairy industry is not obligated and therefore, only a few producers control them. Therefore, the present study describes the undesirable effect of spoilage microorganisms on quality of raw, pasteurized and sterilized milk, fermented milk, butter, sour cream and cheeses with the intention to emphasize the importance and significance of their control in the dairy industry.

  15. [Milk and milk products: food sources of calcium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farré Rovira, Rosaura

    2015-04-07

    The importance of calcium in human nutrition, the mechanisms of absorption and excretion of the element, and the factors affecting them with special reference to dietary factors are described. After reviewing daily dietary intakes of calcium and the main contributors in European and Spanish population, recommended intakes in Spain, the Nordic countries and the United States are mentioned. In relation to the dietary sources of calcium it has to be noted that the value of a given food as a source of a nutrient depends on its content in the food, the bioavailability of the nutrient and the usual food consumption. The calcium contents of potential food sources of the element are reported and its value is estimated according to the potential absorbability of the calcium they contain. The benefits of milk and dairy products as sources of calcium are also highlighted. Populations such as children or elderly may require fortified foods or supplements to satisfy their high calcium needs, so some examples of the efficacy of this supplementation are discussed. It is concluded that food and drinks are the best choice to obtain calcium. Taking into account the calcium content, the usual portion size and the consumption habits milk and dairy products, nuts, green leafy vegetables and legumes can provide adequate amounts of calcium. However, milk and dairy products constitute the best dietary source thanks to the bioavailability of the calcium they contain.

  16. Economic viability of the third milking in systems of production using closed-circuit mechanical milking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Aurélio Lopes

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the economic viability of the third milking in production systems using mechanical milking in a closed circuit, aiming to provide technicians and farmers with information to assist them in decision-making. Specifically, it intended: (a to estimate the cost of one milking; (b to estimate the cost of the third milking; (c to develop a mathematical equation to estimate the minimum amount of milk produced with two milkings, from which it would be economically feasible to do the third milking. Data were collected from three dairy farms, from November 2010 to March 2011, keeping a twice-a-day milking frequency, with three data collections in each farm, totalizing nine collections. Considering the average data, it would be feasible to do the third milking if the average milk yield per day of lactating cows in a twice-a-day milking frequency was greater than or equal to 24.43 kg of milk.

  17. 21 CFR 1240.61 - Mandatory pasteurization for all milk and milk products in final package form intended for direct...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... pasteurization for all milk and milk products in final package form intended for direct human consumption. (a) No... for sale or other distribution after shipment in interstate commerce any milk or milk product in final... ingredients (milk or milk products) that have all been pasteurized, except where alternative procedures...

  18. Variation in retinol and carotenoid content of milk and milk products in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulshof, P.J.M.; Roekel-Jansen, van G.C.; Bovenkamp, van de P.; West, C.E.

    2006-01-01

    Retinol and carotenoids were measured in Dutch milk and dairy products using a validated approach based on complete extraction of fat, followed by mild saponification and analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography. Raw milk, full fat milk, semi-skimmed milk and butter contain about 10 ¿g

  19. Milk production and chemical composition of milk of Ukrainian mountain Carpathian sheep in pasture period

    OpenAIRE

    CHOKAN T.

    2011-01-01

    The comparative analysis of the milk chemical composition depending on milk productivity of Ukrainian Mountain Carpathian sheep during the pasture period were studied. It was found changes of milk composition (increasing of protein content, fat, dry matter and nutritive value) with a decrease of milk yield in the end period of lactation.

  20. Variation in retinol and carotenoid content of milk and milk products in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulshof, P.J.M.; Roekel-Jansen, van G.C.; Bovenkamp, van de P.; West, C.E.

    2006-01-01

    Retinol and carotenoids were measured in Dutch milk and dairy products using a validated approach based on complete extraction of fat, followed by mild saponification and analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography. Raw milk, full fat milk, semi-skimmed milk and butter contain about 10 ¿g ret

  1. 7 CFR 1001.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid milk product. 1001.15 Section 1001.15 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE NORTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1001.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  2. 7 CFR 1131.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid milk product. 1131.15 Section 1131.15 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE ARIZONA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1131.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  3. 7 CFR 1005.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid milk product. 1005.15 Section 1005.15 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE APPALACHIAN MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1005.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  4. 7 CFR 1030.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid milk product. 1030.15 Section 1030.15 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE UPPER MIDWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1030.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  5. 7 CFR 1124.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid milk product. 1124.15 Section 1124.15 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  6. 7 CFR 1033.15 - Fluid milk products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid milk products. 1033.15 Section 1033.15... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE MIDEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1033.15 Fluid milk products. See § 1000.15....

  7. 7 CFR 1006.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid milk product. 1006.15 Section 1006.15 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE FLORIDA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1006.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  8. 7 CFR 1126.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid milk product. 1126.15 Section 1126.15 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1126.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  9. 7 CFR 1007.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid milk product. 1007.15 Section 1007.15 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1007.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  10. 7 CFR 1032.15 - Fluid milk product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid milk product. 1032.15 Section 1032.15 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1032.15 Fluid milk product. See § 1000.15....

  11. Nisin Production Utilizing Skimmed Milk Aiming to Reduce Process Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozala, Angela Faustino; de Andrade, Maura Sayuri; de Arauz, Luciana Juncioni; Pessoa, Adalberto; Penna, Thereza Christina Vessoni

    Nisin is a natural additive for conservation of food, pharmaceutical, and dental products and can be used as a therapeutic agent. Nisin inhibits the outgrowth of spores, the growth of a variety of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. This study was performed to optimize large-scale nisin production in skimmed milk and subproducts aiming at low-costs process and stimulating its utilization. Lactococcus lactis American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 11454 was developed in a rotary shaker (30°C/36 h/100 rpm) in diluted skimmed milk and nisin activity, growth parameters, and media components were also studied. Nisin activity in growth media was expressed in arbitrary units (AU/mL) and converted to standard nisin concentration (Nisaplin®, 25 mg of pure nisin is 1.0×106 AU/mL). Nisin activity in skimmed milk 2.27 gtotal solids was up to threefold higher than transfers in skimmed milk 4.54 gtotal solids and was up to 85-fold higher than transfers in skimmed milk 1.14 gtotal solids. L. lactis was assayed in a New Brunswick fermentor with 1.5 L of diluted skimmed milk (2.27 gtotal solids) and airflow of 1.5 mL/min (30°C/36/200 rpm), without pH control. In this condition nisin activity was observed after 4 h (45.07 AU/mL) and in the end of 36 h process (3312.07 AU/mL). This work shows the utilization of a low-cost growth medium (diluted skimmed milk) to nisin production with wide applications. Furthermore, milk subproducts (milk whey) can be exploited in nisin production, because in Brazil 50% of milk whey is disposed with no treatment in rivers and because of high organic matter concentrations it is considered an important pollutant. In this particular case an optimized production of an antimicrobial would be lined up with industrial disposal recycling.

  12. Awassi sheep reproduction and milk production: review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talafha, Abdelsalam Q; Ababneh, Mohammed M

    2011-10-01

    Awassi is the local breed of sheep in Jordan and is the most important breed in the semi-arid regions of the near east countries. Awassi ram and ewe lambs reach puberty at around 8 and 9 months of age, respectively. The breeding season of Awassi ewes starts as early as April and lasts through September. After puberty, Awassi rams are sexually active throughout the year. The normal estrous cycle in Awassi ewes is 15-20 days (average 17 days). Estrus ranges from 16-59 h (average 29 h) during the breeding season. The reproductive performance of unimproved Awassi sheep has been low while improved Awassi has the highest fertility and milk production and are the heaviest among all Awassi populations. The gestation length varies from 149 to 155 days (average 152 days). Hormones that are commonly used for induction and synchronization of estrus in Awassi ewes include progestins, gonadotropins and PGF2α. An Awassi ewe produces 40-60 and 70-80 kg of milk per 150-day lactation period under traditional and improved production systems, respectively, in addition to the suckled milk left for lambs until weaning. The improved Awassi has the highest milk production among all Awassi populations and may reach 506 L over 214-day lactation period. The objective of this review is to summarize the reproductive pattern and milk production of Awassi sheep in the Middle East region.

  13. Attributional and consequential LCA of milk production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomassen, M.A.; Dalgaard, P.; Heijungs, R.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Background, aim and scope Different ways of performing a life cycle assessment (LCA) are used to assess the environmental burden of milk production. A strong connection exists between the choice between attributional LCA (ALCA) and consequential LCA (CLCA) and the choice of how to handle co-products

  14. 21 CFR 139.121 - Nonfat milk macaroni products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nonfat milk macaroni products. 139.121 Section 139... and Noodle Products § 139.121 Nonfat milk macaroni products. (a) Each of the macaroni products made... used in an amount such that the finished macaroni product made with nonfat milk contains by weight...

  15. The fermented milk product of functional destination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Golubeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As a flavor component selected syrup made from viburnum. This berry is widely used in various forms in the food industry including the dairy. Particular attention should be paid to the fact that the viburnum is a wild plant, and does not need to land and cultivation costs. Viburnum is rich in biologically active substances and raw materials is a drug. Fruits of Viburnum is rich in organic acids, in particular valeric acid. From berries contain minerals: manganese, zinc, iron, phosphorus, copper, chromium, iodine, selenium. Mass fraction of iron in Kalina in 2–3 times higher compared to other berries. The Kalina 70% more than the C vitamin, than lemon, it also contains vitamins A, E, P and K. In berries contains tannin, pectin, tannins, coumarins, resinous esters, glycoside viburnin (very useful in the composition of Viburnum, namely it makes bitter berries. It is suggested the use of syrup of viburnum in the production of fermented milk product. Since the biologically active substances is not destroyed by freezing and processing was freeze berries and added sucrose. The syrup had the gray edge-ruby color and a pleasant taste. Fermented milk product functionality produced reservoir method. Technological process of obtaining a fermented milk product is different from the traditional operations of preparation components and their introduction in the finished product. The consumption of 100 g of fermented milk product with a vitamin premix meets the daily requirement of vitamins A, B complex, C, D, E 40–50%. According to the research developed formulation of dairy products, assessed their quality. Production of fermented milk product thus expanding the range of dairy products functional orientation.

  16. Factors affecting Import Shares of Powdered Milk and other Milk Products and their Implications in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Bogahawatte, C.; Herath, Janaranjana

    2006-01-01

    Import shares of liquid milk, powdered milk, condensed milk and other milk products were estimated to determine their relative competitiveness. The change of import shares with changes of exchange rate and world price of milk. The analysis based on yearly data between 1975-2006 showed that relative CIF prices and incomes were important factors influencing the market shares of milk and milk products. The results also showed that imported milk powder is price inelastic and a weak substitute for...

  17. Radionuclides accumulation in milk and its products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marmuleva, N.I.; Barinov, E.Y.; Petukhov, V.L. [Novosibirsk State Agrarian University (Russian Federation)

    2003-05-01

    The problem of radioactive pollution is extremely urgent in Russia in connection with presence of territories polluted by radionuclides on places of nuclear tests, in zones around the enterprises on production, processing and storage of radioactive materials, and also in areas of emergency pollution (Barakhtin, 2001). The aim of our investigation was a determination of the levels of the main radioactive elements - {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr in diary products. 363 samples of milk, dry milk, butter, cheese and yogurt from Novosibirsk region were examined. {sup 137}Cs level was 3.7 to 9.2 times higher than {sup 90}Sr one in milk, cheese and yogurt. At the same time the level of these radio-nuclides in butter was identical (8.03 Bk/kg). (authors)

  18. Radionuclides accumulation in milk and its products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmuleva, N. I.; Barinov, E. Ya.; Petukhov, V. L.

    2003-05-01

    The problem of radioactive pollution is extremely urgent in Russia in connection with presence of territories polluted by radionuclides on places of nuclear tests, in zones around the enterprises on production, processing and storage of radioactive materials, and also in areas of emergency pollution (Barakhtin, 2001). The aim of our investigation was a determination of the levels of the main radioactive elements - Cs-137 and Sr-90 in diary products. 363 samples of milk, dry milk, butter, cheese and yogurt from Novosibirsk region were examined. Cs-137 level was 3.7...9.2 times higher than Sr-90 one in milk, cheese and yogurt. At the same time the level of these radio nuclides in butter was identical (8.03 Bk/kg).

  19. Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in raw bovine milk and milk products from central highlands of Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyoum, Eyasu Tigabu; Woldetsadik, Daniel Asrat; Mekonen, Tesfu Kassa; Gezahegn, Haile Alemayehu; Gebreyes, Wondwossen Abebe

    2015-11-30

    Listeria monocytogenes is of major significance in human and veterinary medicine. Most human Listeria infections are foodborne and the association of contaminated milk and dairy produce consumption with human listeriosis is noteworthy. In Ethiopia, there is limited data regarding the prevalence of L. monocytogenes in raw bovine milk and dairy products. The aim of this study was, therefore, to determine the prevalence of L. monocytogenes in raw bovine milk and dairy produce. A total of 443 milk and milk product samples were microbiologically analyzed following methods recommended by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Bacteriological Analytical Manual to isolate Listeria spp. The overall prevalence of Listeria spp. was 28.4% and specifically that of L. monocytogenes was 5.6%. Taking the prevalence of Listeria spp. into consideration, cheese was found to be highly contaminated at 60%, followed by pasteurized milk samples (40%), raw milk (18.9%) and yoghurt (5%). Considering the prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes only, raw milk had the lowest contamination while cheese had the highest, followed by pasteurized milk and yoghurt. Raw milk and milk products produced in urban and peri-urban areas of central Ethiopia were contaminated with pathogenic bacteria, L. monocytogenes. The detection of this pathogen in raw milk and milk products warrants an urgent regulatory mechanism to be put in place and also the potential role of milk processing plants in the contamination of dairy products should be investigated.

  20. The use of sanitation products in milk and cheese production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Kalit

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering hygienic conditions in cheese production the aim of thispaper was to investigate the influence of using some sanitation* products in milk and cheese production on family farms. This investigation was a part of the project “Improving the quality of Tounj cheese produced on family farms”. By use of the sanitation products, during milk production, significant (P<0.01 decrease of geometrical mean of total bacterial count from 3.54 x 105 to 8 x 103 in mL of milk, as well as significant (P<0.01 decrease of geometric mean of somatic cell count from 3.1 x 105 to 2.4 x 105 in mL of milk was observed. The ratio of hygienically unacceptable cheeses, according to the Regulations of microbial standards for foods (NN 46/94., significantly (P<0.01 decreased as well. Because of the new requests and standards, the sanitation products are more in use in both milk and cheese production on family farms. Investigated sanitation products were suitable for use in milk and Tounj cheese production.

  1. 7 CFR 58.627 - Milk and dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Milk and dairy products. 58.627 Section 58.627..., GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR APPROVED PLANTS AND STANDARDS FOR GRADES OF DAIRY PRODUCTS 1 General... Material § 58.627 Milk and dairy products. To produce ice cream and related products the raw milk and...

  2. 7 CFR 58.235 - Modified dry milk products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Modified dry milk products. 58.235 Section 58.235... Materials § 58.235 Modified dry milk products. Dry milk products to which approved neutralizing agents or... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) GRADING AND...

  3. 21 CFR 139.122 - Enriched nonfat milk macaroni products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enriched nonfat milk macaroni products. 139.122... Macaroni and Noodle Products § 139.122 Enriched nonfat milk macaroni products. (a) Each of the enriched macaroni products made with nonfat milk for which a definition and standard of identity is prescribed...

  4. 9 CFR 94.2 - Fresh (chilled or frozen) products (other than meat), and milk and milk products of ruminants and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (other than meat), and milk and milk products of ruminants and swine. 94.2 Section 94.2 Animals and... (other than meat), and milk and milk products of ruminants and swine. (a) The importation of fresh (chilled or frozen) products (other than meat and milk and milk products) derived from ruminants or swine...

  5. Assessing greenhouse gas emissions of milk production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, Patricia; Groen, Evelyne A.; Berg, Werner; Prochnow, Annette; Bokkers, Eddie A.M.; Heijungs, Reinout; Boer, de Imke J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Life cycle assessment (LCA) studies of food products, such as dairy, require many input parameters that are affected by variability and uncertainty. Moreover, correlations may be present between input parameters, e.g. between feed intake and milk yield. The purpose of this study was to iden

  6. Enzymatic production of human milk oligosaccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Yao

    Enzymatic treatment of biomass is an environmentally friendly method to obtain a range of value- added products, such as biofuels, animal feed or food ingredients. The objective of this PhD study was to biocatalytically produce biofunctional food ingredients – human milk oligosaccharides decorated...

  7. Bioavailability of folate from fortified milk products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwei, M.

    2004-01-01

    The gap between actual intake and recommended intake of folate could be bridged by the consumption of fortified food products. Milk is considered as a potential food matrix for folate fortification in countries (such as theMicrobiological quality of milk and dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidija Kozačinski

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work microbiological acceptability has been determined for 802 samples of consume milk and dairy products produced in Križevci region, by 11 producers from northwest Croatia. From the total number of analysed samples the requirements for microbiological acceptability did not fulfilled 147 (18.33% samples: 42.86% goat’s milk, 36.36% fruit yoghurt, 20.51% consume milk, 33.33% sweet cream, 31.51% sour cream, 26.77% soft (fresh cheeses, 20% cheese spreads, 15% semi-hard cheeses, 2.63% butters, 1.72% processed cheese, and 1.16% yoghurts. The main reasons for microbiological not-acceptability of the samples were higher number of enterobacteriae, yeast and moulds, higher number of total bacteria, E. coli and Staphyloccocus aureus. In the same samples Streptococcus faecalis, S. pyogenes and Pseudomonas were found.

  8. Aflatoxin M1 Contamination in Milk and Milk Products in Iran: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kazemi Darsanaki

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of molds and have adverse effects on humans, animals, and crops. Those can cause illnesses and economic losses. Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 is one of the mycotoxins produced from the hydroxylated metabolite of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1. It can be found in milk or milk products obtained from livestock that have ingested contaminated feed. In this paper, recent studies were reviewed in aflatoxin M1 contamination in milk and milk products in Iran.

  9. Aflatoxin M1 Contamination in Milk and Milk Products in Iran: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kazemi Darsanaki

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of molds and have adverse effects on humans, animals, and crops. Those can cause illnesses and economic losses. Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 is one of the mycotoxins produced from the hydroxylated metabolite of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1. It can be found in milk or milk products obtained from livestock that have ingested contaminated feed. In this paper, recent studies were reviewed in aflatoxin M1 contamination in milk and milk products in Iran.

  10. The importance of milk and diary products in human nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Maroušková, Nela

    2016-01-01

    Milk and dairy products become integral part of human nutrition and belong to common food. Milk is very valuable because it contains complete proteins. Its disaccharide lactose is a source of energy. Butterfat is easily digestible. Besides potassium, sodium, magnesium, chlorine and sulfur milk contains also dietary elements like calcium and phosphorus. Milk also contains many trace elements like iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, manganese, fluorine, chromium, cobalt, and molybdenum. Milk is a...

  11. Using Bacteriocins in Milk and Dairy Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim Güneş Altuntaş

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriocins produced by bacteria are ribosomally synthesed and antimicrobial peptides. Lots of strains of bacteria can produce bacteriocin. There are lots of researchs on using bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB which are known as safe (GRAS in foods. With this respect bacteriocin experiments have been generally in meat and dairy products where can become spoilage easily. It is allowed to use nisin in cheese a dairy product, and with cheese the experiments about using nisin, pediocin, lacticin, variacin etc. are going on the other dairy products. In this review some experiments on using bacteriocins and their results on milk and dairy products are reported.

  12. A Qualitative Investigation of Adults' Perceived Benefits, Barriers and Strategies for Consuming Milk and Milk Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Mary E.; Mistry, Chetan; Bourne, Jessica E.; Perrier, Marie-Josee; Martin Ginis, Kathleen A.; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Milk and milk products provide important nutrients and have been associated with numerous health benefits in addition to bone health, including a healthy weight and a reduction of risk for certain conditions such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease and colorectal cancer. Nonetheless, consumption of milk and milk…

  13. The effect of monensin on milk production, milk urea nitrogen and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    Keywords: Monensin, milk production, milk composition, blood urea nitrogen, milk urea nitrogen, cow. *Present ..... Feedstuffs 68, 14. ... Lowe, L.B., Ball, G.J., Carruthers, V.R., Dobos, R.C., Lynch, G.A., Moate, P.R., Poole, P.R. & Valentine,.

  14. Vegetable milks and their fermented derivative products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neus Bernat

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The so-called vegetable milks are in the spotlight thanks to their lactose-free, animal protein-free and cholesterol-free features which fit well with the current demand for healthy food products. Nevertheless, and with the exception of soya, little information is available about these types of milks and their derivatives. The aims of this review, therefore, are to: highlight the main nutritional benefits of the nut and cereal vegetable milks available on the market, fermented or not; describe the basic processing steps involved in their manufacturing process; and analyze the major problems affecting their overall quality, together with the current feasible solutions. On the basis of the information gathered, vegetable milks and their derivatives have excellent nutritional properties which provide them a high potential and positive market expectation. Nevertheless, optimal processing conditions for each raw material or the application of new technologies have to be researched in order to improve the quality of the products. Hence, further studies need to be developed to ensure the physical stability of the products throughout their whole shelf-life. These studies would also allow for a reduction in the amount of additives (hydrocolloids and/or emulsifiers and thus reduce the cost of the products. In the particular case of fermented products, the use of starters which are able to both improve the quality (by synthesizing enhanced flavors and providing optimal textures and exert health benefits for consumers (i.e. probiotics is the main challenge to be faced in future studies.

  15. Milk Production and Processing in Romania – Characteristics and Tendencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabita Cornelia Adamov

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Milk and its derived products are a staple food in human nutrition. A suitable food system does not accept food rations which provide milk and milk products in their structure. These considerations have led to increased consumption of milk and its derivatives. For the future, it is predicts that both milk and milk products will occupy an important place in daily human consumption compared with other animal products. Occupying second place, in importance, the Romanian agriculture, after meat production, milk and milk products sector is one of the most important sectors of Romanian agriculture, representing in 2007, 25.03% of total agricultural production and 9.59% from animal production. The restructuring of Romanian agriculture has as a result reducing or even destroying the material base both in agriculture and processors industries. Also, reduction of livestock has like result the reduction of agricultural production animals - an important part of raw material in food industry. Milk production, a major component of animal production, it has faced such problems. Thus explains the decreasing trend in milk production for processing in the period 1990-2000, following a restructuring of the dairy sector industrialization, oversized compared to the productions obtained.

  16. Determination of Urea in Milk and Milk Products by In-line Dialysis-Flow lnj ection-Spectrophotometry%在线透析-流动注射光度法测定奶及奶制品中尿素含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵立晶; 闫杰; 马东升; 范志影; 肖靖泽; 赵萍

    2011-01-01

    建立了在线透析-流动注射光度法测定奶及奶制品中尿素的方法.加人三氯乙酸使样品中蛋白质沉淀,离心过滤去除沉淀的蛋白质,在线透析去除剩余的脂肪及大分子,避免干扰光度分析.在Fe3+存在时,尿素与二乙酰一肟在酸性溶液中水解生成的二乙酰反应生成红色化合物,在534 nm处测量吸光度,加入硫代氨基脲提高显色强度.实验对试剂的浓度、在线透析模块的结构、混合环的长度均进行了优化.在最佳的分析条件下,尿素浓度在0~500 mg/kg的范围内,可获得良好的线性(r≥0.999).方法的检出限为1.3mg/kg;相对标准偏差为0.91%~1.95%;样品测定频率分别为22样/h;牛奶及奶制品的加标回收率为94.1%~109.8%.%An in-line dialysis flow-injection-spectrophotometric method was developed to determine urea in milk and milk products. Protein was precipitated from a sample portion by the addition of trichloroacetic acid solution. The precipitated milk protein was removed by centrifuging and filtration.Remaining protein and fat which could interfere with the subsequent analysis was removed by in-line dialysis. The spectrophotometric method was based on the reaction of urea with diacetyl which was produced from diacetylmonoxime hydrolysis in acid solution when the Fe3+co-existed in solution. The red compound obtained from the said reaction was measured at 534 nm. To enhance the intensity of the color, aminothiourea was added. Experimental parameters, including the reagent concentration,on-line dialysis unit structure, the length of the mixing coil, were optimized. Under optimized conditions,the linear calibration curves were obtained for the concentration range of 0- 500. 0 mg/kg (r≥0.999). The proposed method had low detection limit of 1.3 mg/kg urea. The relative standard deviation was 0.9%-2.0% with the sample throughput of 22 samples/h. The urea was determined various milk products with the standard addition

  17. Movements of dams milked for fermented horse milk production in Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bat-Oyun, Tserenpurev; Ito, Takehiko Y; Purevdorj, Yadamjav; Shinoda, Masato; Ishii, Satomi; Buho, Hoshino; Morinaga, Yuki

    2017-08-18

    Airag, (Fermented horse milk) is a traditional milk product in Mongolia. Herders separate foals from their dams and tie them at a milking site during the daytime to produce airag. To evaluate the effects of horse management on the movement of dams, we tracked three dams in a herd in camp 1 during summer and camp 2 during autumn of 2013 and analyzed their movements during the milking (daytime) and non-milking (nighttime) periods in an area famous for its high-quality airag. Dams were gathered every 1.7 ± 0.0 h between 07.46 and 15.47 hours at the milking sites and milked 4.6 ± 0.2 times/day during the study period (86 days). Daily cumulative and maximum linear distances from the milking sites were longer (P < 0.01) during the non-milking period than during the milking period. Daily home ranges were 91 and 26 times greater during the non-milking period (P < 0.001) in camps 1 and 2, respectively. The greater range during the non-milking period would reflect the spatial distributions of water, salt and forage. The dams initially used similar areas and gradually shifted their daily home ranges after several days. This shift suggests that the dams grazed farther afield as forage availability declined around the milking site. For better airag production and sustainable pasture use, our results provide insights useful for evaluating the effects of milking management on vegetation and soil in those pastures, for selecting the appropriate milking times and frequency, and for choosing the right timing to shift milking sites. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  18. Microorganism Utilization for Synthetic Milk Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birmele, Michele; Morford, Megan; Khodadad, Christina; Spencer, Lashelle; Richards, Jeffrey; Strayer, Richard; Caro, Janicce; Hummerick, Mary; Wheeler, Ray

    2014-01-01

    A desired architecture for long duration spaceflight, such as aboard the International Space Station (ISS) or for future missions to Mars, is to provide a supply of fresh food crops for the astronauts. However, some crops can create a high proportion of inedible plant waste. The main goal of this project was to produce the components of milk (sugar, lipid, protein) from inedible plant waste by utilizing microorganisms (fungi, yeast, bacteria). Of particular interest was utilizing the valuable polysaccharide, cellulose, found in plant waste, to naturally fuel- through microorganism cellular metabolism- the creation of sugar (glucose), lipid (milk fat), and protein (casein) to produce a synthetic edible food product. Environmental conditions such as pH, temperature, carbon source, aeration, and choice microorganisms.

  19. Developing Green Line Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muñoz-Marin, Ana Maria; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann; Poulsen, Søren Bolvig

    2011-01-01

    This publication is based on the Master thesis “User-driven ecoinnovation process: Towards the implementation of the Green product line at JELD-WEN” written by Ana Maria Muñoz-Marin as her Graduation Project for the MSc. Global Innovation Management degree. The company-based experiment was carried...... out during February 1st and May 31st 2011. The Master thesis is developed as part of the InnoDoors research project at Aalborg University, and in close collaboration with the companies related to this project. Additionally data collected from workshops with companies and qualitative and quantitative...

  1. Development of an immunochromatographic strip test for rapid detection of melamine in raw milk, milk products and animal feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangmei; Luo, Pengjie; Tang, Shusheng; Beier, Ross C; Wu, Xiaoping; Yang, Lili; Li, Yanwei; Xiao, Xilong

    2011-06-01

    A simple, rapid and sensitive immunogold chromatographic strip test based on a monoclonal antibody was developed for the detection of melamine (MEL) residues in raw milk, milk products and animal feed. The limit of detection was estimated to be 0.05 μg/mL in raw milk, since the detection test line on the strip test completely disappeared at this concentration. The limit of detection was 2 μg/mL (or 2 μg/g) for milk drinks, yogurt, condensed milk, cheese, and animal feed and 1 μg/g for milk powder. Sample pretreatment was simple and rapid, and the results can be obtained within 3-10 min. A parallel analysis of MEL in 52 blind raw milk samples conducted by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed comparable results to those obtained from the strip test. The results demonstrate that the developed method is suitable for the onsite determination of MEL residues in a large number of samples.

  2. Milk production, raw milk quality and fertility of dromedary camels (Camelus Dromedarius) under intensive management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Péter; Thomas, Sonia; Markó, Orsolya; Juhász, Jutka

    2013-03-01

    In many arid countries, dromedaries play an important role as a milk source in rural areas. However, the milk and meat production potential of this species is not well understood and documented. A large-scale camel dairy farm was established in 2006 in the United Arab Emirates. This study summarises the most important data on milk production, raw milk quality and reproductive efficiency collected on this farm during the first three years of operation. The average daily milk production, the mean length of lactation and the mean total milk production per lactation of 174 dromedaries were 6.0 ± 0.12 kg (± SEM), 586 ± 11.0 days (± SEM) and 3314 ± 98.5 kg (± SEM), respectively. The lactation curve reached its peak during the 4th month after parturition (mean ± SEM, 8.9 ± 0.04 kg), then it declined gradually, falling to 50% of the maximum by the 16th month postpartum (mean ± SEM, 4.3 ± 0.06 kg). Milking three times a day did not increase daily milk production compared to two times milking. Mean total viable bacterial count (TVC) and mean somatic cell count (SCC, ± SEM) of bulk raw camel milk were 4,403 ± 94 CFU/cm3 and 392,602 ± 5,999 cells/cm3 for a one-year period, respectively. There was a significant difference among months (P dromedary camel, under an intensive management system.

  3. [The effect of milk products consumption in mothers during breastfeeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza-Lira, Sebastián; Uribe-Medina, Aída; Ogando-Suárez, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Several studies indicate that milk products consumption by mothers during the nursing period induce colic in the newborns. However, when mothers interrupt milk consumption, the colic of the newborns disappears. to analyze milk composition in Mexican women according to maternal milk products consumption. Seven women were studied in puerperal period, three of them consumed milky products and four not. All were healthy; they gave a five cc milk sample, which was frozen until the moment of the analysis. A double dimension electrophoresis in polyacrilamide gels was carried out. The protein levels were determined by Lowry's method. Total lipid extraction and cromatography in thin plaque was carried out. Total carbohydrate content was quantified. No differences were found in protein electrophoresis neither in the chromatographic lipid analysis. Carbohydrate content was similar in both groups. Colic in newborn depends on the idiosyncrasy of each one, and not in the supposed induced modifications of milk products on maternal milk consumption.

  4. (Flavomycin ) on milk production and milk urea nitrogen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    Flavomycin addition only reduced the milk urea nitrogen (MUN) ... chemistry, primary antibacterial spectrum, mode of action of bacterial inhibition, ... March) and limited irrigated annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) grazing plus maize silage in ...

  5. Strategic production line synchronisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hattingh, Teresa

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted at the sole global producer of suspension struts for a particular vehicle manufacturer. This supplier is currently able to meet customer demand. However, it does so because of a large finished goods and work-in-progress (WIP inventory. The plant operates two production processes that are separated by a large buffer of WIP, which essentially decouples the production processes. This study aimed to reduce this WIP buffer; this would require the processes to become synchronised, bearing in mind that the reliability of delivery should not decrease. A tool that considers time, quality, and machine capacity was developed to assess the impact of line synchronisation on company performance figures. It was found that line synchronisation produced several benefits for the supplier, including batch size reduction, lower inventory levels, and associated shorter lead times. This further allowed the supplier to improve flow in the plant by introducing a pull system. Improved visual oversight could lead to further improved problem-solving and innovation.

  6. MILK PRODUCTION IN INTEGRATED SYSTEMS: REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. Z. Biavatti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The pasture degradation and thermic stress are in economic trouble for milk producers. The use of silvopastoral system (SSP is an important tool to minimize this loss, since it combines the production and conservation of natural resources, furthermore, provides the producer the potential to diversify the source of income of rural property, it is possible sale or own use of the products generated by the trees as timber, firewood and fruit. With the implementation of the SSP is possible to attenuate the effects of high temperatures caused by direct solar incidence on the animals, providing an ideal thermal comfort zone, resulting in increased production, it will expend less energy so that the animals are able to be as close as possible the necessary thermal comfort. Besides, with the adoption of this system, occurs a minor pasture degradation by promoting the formation of a microclimate favoring their establishment and maintenance, in addition to stabilizing soils, unpacked action of roots and preventing erosion. The purpose of this work was study the main aspects that affect the production of milk, proposing the use of integrated systems to minimize losses from thermal stress and degradation of pastures.

  7. Microbiological quality of goat's milk obtained under different production systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Kyozaire

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the safety of milk produced by smallholder dairy goat farms, a farm-based research study was conducted on commercial dairy goat farms to compare the microbiological quality of milk produced using 3 different types of dairy goat production systems (intensive, semi-intensive and extensive. A survey of dairy goat farms in and around Pretoria carried out by means of a questionnaire revealed that most of the smallholder dairy goat farms surveyed used an extensive type of production system. The method of milking varied with the type of production system, i.e. machine milking; bucket system machine milking and hand-milking, respectively. Udder half milk samples (n=270 were analysed, of which 31.1 % were infected with bacteria. The lowest intra-mammary infection was found amongst goats in the herd under the extensive system (13.3 %, compared with 43.3 % and 36.7 % infection rates under the intensive and semi-intensive production systems, respectively. Staphylococcus intermedius (coagulase positive, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus simulans (both coagulase negative, were the most common cause of intramammary infection with a prevalence of 85.7 % of the infected udder halves. The remaining 14.3 % of the infection was due to Staphylococcus aureus. Bacteriology of bulk milk samples on the other hand, showed that raw milk obtained by the bucket system milking machine had the lowest total bacterial count (16 450 colony forming units (CFU/mℓ compared to that by pipeline milking machine (36 300 CFU/mℓ or handmilking (48 000 CFU/mℓ. No significant relationship was found between the somatic cell counts (SCC and presence of bacterial infection in goat milk. In comparison with the herds under the other 2 production systems, it was shown that dairy goat farming under the extensive production system, where hand-milking was used, can be adequate for the production of safe raw goat milk.

  8. Income Optimization of Dairy Farm to Increase National Milk Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uka Kusnadi

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The program to improve national milk production over the past years has not been well targeted. This is indicated by the slow increase of dairy population and milk production that could not meet the increasing demand. It should be apparently focus on income generation of dairy farmers to increase their welfare so that they are willing to improve their dairy business that will affect national milk production. Implementation of economical dairy management and technology, could increase milk production, hence improve the farmer’s income. This could be done through several ways, i.e.: economical dairy composition, optimization of dry period and improvement milk hygiene. All these aspects including technical aspect are discussed in this paper. Apart from above, income optimalization could also be done by reducing the price of feed concentrate, raising only productive dairy cows and managing milk cooperative efficiently.

  9. Evaluation of Microbial load and quality of milk & milk based dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvra Das

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Milk has an importance as valuable & nutritious food product. So, it is essential to evaluate their microbiological quality before consumption. Our study was carried out to examine the microbial load and quality of milk & milk based products. Total 87 samples of 13 different types of milk & dairy foods were collected from different locations in Dhaka city, Bangladesh were taken to the laboratory and stored for analysis. Total viable counts, Total coliform count and fungus count was analyzed & average count of these parameters were compared to FDA microbiological standards to evaluate their quality.

  10. Constructing the Virtual Production Line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙连胜; 宁汝新

    2003-01-01

    In order to study the constructing technology of virtual production line, the structure model of virtual production line was presented, and the object-oriented technique was used to establish its basic classes and relevant models, including solid model, behavior model and object-oriented Petri net based control model, and based on this, the constructing of virtual production line was realized. The application proved that the virtual production line had many good characteristics, such as visualization, interaction, multi-layer and reusability, and it's an efficient tool of analyzing and modeling for layout planning and rapidly reconfiguring of production line.

  11. Prevalence of Campylobacter species in milk and milk products, their virulence gene profile and antibiogram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivani Modi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: During the last decades, number of food poisoning cases due to Campylobacter occurred, immensely. After poultry, raw milk acts as a second main source of Campylobacter. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to detect the prevalence of Campylobacters in milk and milk products and to know the antibiotic sensitivity and virulence gene profile of Campylobacter spp. in Anand city, Gujarat, India. Materials and Methods: A total of 240 samples (85 buffalo milk, 65 cow milk, 30 cheese, 30 ice-cream and 30 paneer were collected from the different collection points in Anand city. The samples were processed by microbiological culture method, and presumptive isolates were further confirmed by genus and species-specific polymerase chain reaction using previously reported primer. The isolates were further subjected to antibiotic susceptibility assay and virulence gene detection. Result: Campylobacter species were detected in 7 (2.91% raw milk samples whereas none of the milk product was positive. All the isolate identified were Campylobacter jejuni. Most of the isolates showed resistance against nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, and tetracyclin. All the isolates have three virulence genes cadF, cdtB and flgR whereas only one isolate was positive for iamA gene and 6 isolates were positive for fla gene. Conclusion: The presence of Campylobacter in raw milk indicates that raw milk consumption is hazardous for human being and proper pasteurization of milk and adaptation of hygienic condition will be necessary to protect the consumer from this zoonotic pathogen.

  12. UHT Skim Coconut Milk Production and Its Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuenpet Krittiya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study is based upon the potential value of low-fat coconut milk in market due to increasing health concerns in people nowadays. Skim coconut milk can be used as a food ingredient that requires coconut milk flavor but excluding fat. The fundamental objectives of this study were to examine the methods for skim coconut milk production and comparison of its quality with normal coconut milk. The results of this study indicated that the UHT skim coconut milk can be prepared by separating fat through a cream separator, adding CMC and Montanox 60 at 0.6 and 0.6 %w/v respectively, two-stage homogenizing at 1,500/500 psi, and then UHT sterilizing at 140 °C for 4 s (Fo ≈ 5 min. It appeared that the remaining fat content in skim coconut milk was less than 1%. The addition of the CMC and Montanox 60 could obviously raise the stability of coconut milk emulsion and caused the increase of viscosity of the skim coconut milk specimen. The skim coconut milk had higher specific gravity and obviously darker than the higher-fat samples. The sensorial characteristic of skim coconut milk samples were different from the normal coconut milk.

  13. Body measures and milk production, milk fat globules granulometry and milk fatty acid content in Cabannina cattle breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Communod

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study was to achieve scientific information about body measures and milk production of Cabannina cattle, a local breed reared in northern Italy. Fourteen body measures and five morphologic indexes were recorded from 86 heads enrolled in the herd book. Low differences between males and females of the same age-class were shown. Body measures were generally greater than those reported in previous studies, probably due to recent crosses. With reference to milk production, 991 test-day records from 128 lactations of 59 cows were analysed. Average milk daily production was 8 kg/d in 1st lactation to 10.61 in 3rd (P<0.05; the parameters of the Wood equation draw atypical curves with the exception of curves from spring calving cows. Only 74.5% of lactations with an adjusted R2 >0.75 showed a standard curve, with low persistence (7.7%, high value of d at peak (103 d and peak production of 20.18 kg of milk. Moreover, 100 milk samples (40 to 220 d of lactation were submitted to a granulometric survey by laser scatter technique in order to evaluate the dimensions of fat globules; then milk fat was analyzed by gas chromatography, and desaturase indexes were determined. Cabannina cows showed small fat globules with high specific surface. Furthermore mean diameter of milk fat globules decreased during lactation then rose. Milk fat contained high levels of cis-MUFA, and high desaturase indexes. In conclusion, the low size of Cabannina cattle orients for a limited meat production. Instead milk production has a higher economic potential, aimed at cheese production and human nutrition.

  14. Effect on feed intake, milk production and milk composition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-09-22

    Sep 22, 2014 ... The effect of replacing maize grain with wheat as an energy source in total mixed ... in the diets of dairy cows change the bacterial population in the rumen, .... protein and lactose content, as well as milk urea nitrogen (MUN) at ...

  15. Detection of Melamine Residue in Raw Milk and Milk Related Products by UV spectrophotometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.ANANTHAKUMAR

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Melamine is a toxic triazine used as an adulterant in milk & milk related products to increase the protein content. Spectrophotometric method has been developed using 0.1M sodium hydroxide as solvent to detect the melamine residue in raw milk and milk related products. As the amount of melamine residue present in samples would be of nanogram level which is beyond detection by UV spectrophotometer, standard addition method was adopted. The melamine was extracted by precipitation of milk protein at its isoelectric point with dilute acids. Samples were purified by using membrane filter of 0.45μm pore size, a known concentration of melamine standard solution was added to this filtrate and the absorbance was measured spectrophotometrically. The linearity curve was constructed for the concentration of melamine ranging from 3 - 8μg/ml.The correlation coefficient was found to be 0.9926. In this study 31 milk samples (raw milk and milk related product were analysed by standard addition method. It was observed that all the 31samples were found to contain melamine residue. This is the first study to confirm the existence of melamine residue in pasteurized milk marketed in Tamilnadu.

  16. Process audits versus product quality monitoring of bulk milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthuis, A.G.J.; Asseldonk, van M.A.P.M.

    2011-01-01

    The aim was to investigate whether on-line somatic cell count (SCC) assessment, when combined with electrical conductivity (EC), should be implemented at the udder quarter or at the cow level. Data were collected from 3 farms with automatic milking systems, resulting in 3,191 quarter milkings used i

  17. MILK PRODUCTION AND MODIFICATION OF MILK FATTY ACID OF DAIRY COWS FED PUFA-CONCENTRATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sulistyowati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Some fatty acid supplements in concentrate containing Curcuma xanthorrhiza, ROXB wereevaluated for effects on milk yield, milk fat and protein, including milk fatty acid. Four lactating (4 ± 1.5months Fries Holland (FH cows were allocated into four treatments of concentrate containing 4.5%palm oil (CP0, 4.5% corn oil (CP1, 4.5% roasted ground corn (CP2, and 1.5% corn oil and 3% roastedground corn (CP3, respectively, in 4 x 4 Latin Square experimental design with 3 d-period. Resultsshowed that there were no significant (P>0.05 effects on milk yield, milk fat and protein, and milk fattyacid. However, the highest average of milk production was found in CP2 (8.63 kg/d. Milk fat wasdecreasing to 3.81% in conjunction with the more potential total PUFA (71.81% in CP3 with corn oiland roasted ground corn. Ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 in milk was the same in both, CP2 and CP3, itwas 2.14. However , since the objective of this research was to improve milk yield as well as milkcomponents and health concern, therefore the CP2 with roasted ground corn was considered as theoptimal one.

  18. Milk cow feed intake and milk production and distribution estimates for Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, D.M.; Darwin, R.F.; Erickson, A.R.; Eckert, R.L.

    1992-04-01

    This report provides initial information on milk production and distribution in the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project Phase I study area. The Phase I study area consists of eight countries in central Washington and two countries in northern Oregon. The primary objective of the HEDR Project is to develop estimates of the radiation doses populations could have received from Hanford operations. The objective of Phase I of the project was to determine the feasibility of reconstructing data, models, and development of preliminary dose estimates received by people living in the ten countries surrounding Hanford from 1944 to 1947. One of the most important contributors to radiation doses from Hanford during the period of interest was radioactive iodine. Consumption of milk from cows that ate vegetation contaminated with iodine is likely the dominant pathway of human exposure. To estimate the doses people could have received from this pathway, it is necessary to estimate the amount of milk that the people living in the Phase I area consumed, the source of the milk, and the type of feed that the milk cows ate. The objective of the milk model subtask is to identify the sources of milk supplied to residents of each community in the study area as well as the sources of feeds that were fed to the milk cows. In this report, we focus on Grade A cow's milk (fresh milk used for human consumption).

  19. Milk Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rash, often around the mouth Colic, in babies Milk allergy or milk intolerance? A true milk allergy differs from milk ... Question ingredients when ordering in restaurants. Sources of milk products Obvious sources of allergy-causing milk proteins ...

  20. MILK FAT FATTY ACIDS IN RELATION TO MILK PRODUCTION AND QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Foltys

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Milk fat is from a nutritional point of view of the negative evaluation because of the dominant content of saturated fatty acid with high atherogenic index. Intake of milk fat in the diet is important because of the content of monounsaturated fatty acids, acting favorably against cardiovascular diseases and especially of essential fatty acids, linoleic, alpha linolenic and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, which is found only in meat and milk of ruminants. These are precursors of biologically active substances - hormones and enzymes. The analysis of relations of fatty acids in milk fat to qualitative-production parameters of milk shows that the correlations of fatty acids with lactation stage and qualitative-production parameters of milk are quite weak in dairy cows with stable type of nutrition in form of whole-the-year feeding mixed feed ration in lowland agricultural area. Changes in milk fat composition are caused by the change in the ratio of de novo and depot fatty acids. Relation of fatty acids to the evaluated parameters lies with their metabolic origin and neither acid nor group underlies the specific influence of the studied parameters, by the means of which it would be possible to influence its proportion in milk fat. And so it is not possible to influence some group or a desirable fatty acid, e.g. CLA, without the influence on total milk fat.

  1. Nutrition Knowledge and Milk and Milk Product Consumption in a Group of Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster-Coull, Lisa; Sabry, Jean Henderson

    1993-01-01

    To examine the relationship between nutrition knowledge and milk/milk product consumption by women, data were collected from 457 female office employees. Statistically significant relationships were found between level of nutrition knowledge and age, education, and occupation. No statistically significant relationships between nutrition knowledge…

  2. Intensification to reduce the carbon footprint of smallholder milk production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Udo, Henk; Weiler, Viola; Modupeore, Ogun; Viets, Theo; Oosting, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Will the intensification of cattle-keeping lower the carbon footprint of milk production in resource-poor environments? The authors included the multiple functions of cattle in carbon footprint estimates of milk production in farming systems with different degrees of intensification in Kenya. The

  3. Sequencing the transcriptome of milk production: milk trumps mammary tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Lemay, Danielle G; Hovey, Russell C.; Hartono, Stella R; Hinde, Katie; Smilowitz, Jennifer T.; Ventimiglia, Frank; Schmidt, Kimberli A; Lee, Joyce WS; Islas-Trejo, Alma; Silva, Pedro Ivo; Korf, Ian; Medrano, Juan F.; Barry, Peter A.; German, J. Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Studies of normal human mammary gland development and function have mostly relied on cell culture, limited surgical specimens, and rodent models. Although RNA extracted from human milk has been used to assay the mammary transcriptome non-invasively, this assay has not been adequately validated in primates. Thus, the objectives of the current study were to assess the suitability of lactating rhesus macaques as a model for lactating ...

  4. Associations between paratuberculosis milk ELISA result, milk production, and breed in Canadian dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorge, U S; Lissemore, K; Godkin, A; Hendrick, S; Wells, S; Kelton, D

    2011-02-01

    The 3 objectives of this study were (1) to quantify milk production differences among cows with different paratuberculosis (ParaTB) milk ELISA results; (2) to determine if production differences existed in lactations preceding the test among cows with different ParaTB milk ELISA results; and (3) to assess whether Channel Island breeds were more likely to test positive with the ParaTB milk ELISA than other dairy breeds. Current and completed lactation records from 35,591 dairy cows in Ontario and western Canada that had been tested with a commercial ParaTB milk ELISA were included in the analysis. The first occurrence of the highest categorical test result was used to classify the cow. Cows were then grouped by the lactation in which the first high-positive (HTP), low-positive, or negative milk ELISA occurred, and comparisons were made within lactation groups. High test-positive cows were defined as those that had an optical density ≥ 1.0 on at least 1 ParaTB milk ELISA. The associations between ParaTB milk ELISA status and milk production, as measured by the 305-d milk yield, were assessed with a series of linear mixed models. The effect of breed on the likelihood of testing positive with the milk ELISA was assessed using a logistic mixed model for the lactation in which the first negative or positive ParaTB milk ELISA occurred. Test-positive cows produced on average 2.9 to 6.8% less milk than negative herdmates in the lactation in which they were tested. The HTP cows produced on average 466, 514, and 598 kg less milk than low-positive herdmates in lactations 1, 2, and 4, respectively. Cows testing low-positive in their second lactation had, on average, a 218-kg higher milk yield in their first lactation than their test-negative herdmates. Otherwise, no association was found between test result and milk production in preceding lactations. Differences in milk production among negative, test-positive, and HTP cows increased with increasing parity. Cows of the

  5. Associations between lameness and production, feeding and milking attendance of Holstein cows milked with an automatic milking system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Alex; Dinarés, Martí; Devant, Maria; Carré, Xavier

    2007-02-01

    A longitudinal study involving 73 primiparous (PP) and 47 multiparous (MP) Holstein cows was conducted over an 8-month period to assess the associations between locomotion score (LCS) and milk production, dry matter intake (DMI), feeding behaviour, and number of visits to an automatic milking system (AMS). Twice weekly, all cows were locomotion scored (scale 1-5) by the same observer. Individual eating behaviour and individual feed consumption at each cow visit to the feed troughs, individual milk production, the time of milking, and the number of milkings for each cow were recorded for the day of locomotion scoring and the day before and after. Dependent variables, such as milk yield, DMI, etc. were modelled using a mixed-effects model with parity, LCS, days in milk (DIM), the exponential of -0.05 DIM, and the interaction between parity and LCS, as fixed effects and random intercepts and random slopes for the linear and the exponential of -0.05DIM effects within cow. LCS did not affect time of attendance at feed troughs, but affected the location that cows occupied in the feed troughs. The time devoted to eating and DMI decreased with increasing LCS. Milk production decreased with LCS>3. The number of daily visits to the AMS also decreased with increasing LCS. The cows with high LCS were fetched more often than the cows with low LCS. Overall, PP cows were more sensitive to the effects of increasing LCS than were MP cows. The decrease in milk production observed with increasing LCS seemed to be affected similarly by the decrease in DMI and by the decrease in number of daily visits to the AMS. A further economic loss generated by lame cows with AMS will be associated with the additional labour needed to fetch them.

  6. RESEARCH ON THE TRENDS IN MILKING LIVESTOCK AND MILK PRODUCTION IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agatha POPESCU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the paper was to analyze the main trends in the milking livestock and milk production in Romania during the period 20072-012 and to establish the forecast for the 2013-2015 horizon, based on the empirical data provided by the National Institute of Statistics and Eurostat. The methods used in this study were: the fixed basis index, average change method, and comparison method. While the number of dairy cows declined by 30 %, accounting for 1,265 thou heads in 2012, the number of female sheep and goats increased by 45 % reaching 8,726 thou heads. The farm size is very small, 1-2 cows/farm for 59 % holdings, 3-9 cows/farm for 38 % holdings and over 10 cows for only 3 % farms and the extensive technology is the most practiced one. Milk production declined by 20 %, accounting for 44,172 thou hl in 2012, of which 86 % is produced by cows. Milk production value contributes by 32 % to agricultural production value. Cow milk yield is small, only 3,417 kg/cow in 2012 and in decline. Only about 22 % of milk is delivered to dairies and the remaining is consumed on farm and directly sold in the market because of the low milk farm gate price and milk quality. The producer's price is the lowest in the EU, accounting for Euro 29.84/100 milk kg. As a conclusion, to rehabilitate the sector of milk producing, the farmers' associative forms are required to join the capital and financial resources, to apply for EU funding to modernize the farms, to produce a higher production and assure a high profitability and competitiveness.

  7. Role of milk protein-based products in some quality attributes of goat milk yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gursel, A; Gursoy, A; Anli, E A K; Budak, S O; Aydemir, S; Durlu-Ozkaya, F

    2016-04-01

    Goat milk yogurts were manufactured with the fortification of 2% (wt/vol) skim goat milk powder (SGMP), sodium caseinate (NaCn), whey protein concentrate (WPC), whey protein isolate (WPI), or yogurt texture improver (YTI). Yogurts were characterized based on compositional, microbiological, and textural properties; volatile flavor components (with gas chromatography); and sensory analyses during storage (21d at 5 °C). Compared with goat milk yogurt made by using SGMP, the other goat milk yogurt variants had higher protein content and lower acidity values. Goat milk yogurts with NaCn and WPC, in particular, had better physical characteristics. Using WPI caused the hardest structure in yogurt, leading to higher syneresis values. Acetaldehyde and ethanol formation increased with the incorporation of WPI, WPC, or YTI to yogurt milk. The tyrosine value especially was higher in the samples with NaCn and YTI than in the samples with WPC and WPI. Counts of Streptococcus thermophilus were higher than the counts of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, possibly due to a stimulatory effect of milk protein-based ingredients other than SGMP on the growth of S. thermophilus. Yogurt with NaCn was the best accepted among the yogurts. For the parameters used, milk protein-based products such as NaCn or WPC have promising features as suitable ingredients for goat milk yogurt manufacture.

  8. Short communication: Milk ELISA status for bovine leukosis virus infection is not associated with milk production in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorge, U S; Lissemore, K; Cantin, R; Kelton, D F

    2011-10-01

    The objective of this study was to assess whether the milk ELISA status for antibodies against bovine leukemia virus was associated with 305-d milk production in Canadian dairy cattle. Test results and test-day production data from 19,785 dairy cows were available for analysis. A linear mixed model was used with the estimated 305-d milk production as the outcome and lactation number, somatic cell count, calving season, days in milk, and breed as fixed effects. Herd nested in province was included as random effect. In conclusion, bovine leukemia virus antibody milk ELISA status was not associated with milk production.

  9. [Hydrolyzed lactose contained in the ultrafiltrate of milk or milk products in an enzymatic membrane reactor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger, L; Maubois, J L; Thapon, J L; Brule, G

    1978-01-01

    Milk and milk by-products with a low lactose content, very interesting from a nutritional and technological point of view, were obtained by the application of the enzymatic membrane reactor technique. A previous separation of the aqueous phase of milk or ultrafiltrate was necessary and realized by ultrafiltration. The enzyme, a commercial beta-galactosidase, was maintained in solution in the retentate part of the membrane reactor. The optimal conditions of the lactose hydrolysis in milk and whey ultrafiltrates were determined. The behaviour of the aqueous phase of milk in membrane reactor, specially of mineral salts, was studied. Three possibilities were proposed to avoid a calcium-phosphate deposit on the surface of (and in) the reactor membranes: a precipitation of calcium salts by heating, a partial demineralization by electrodialysis or ion exchange, a calcium complexation by addition of sodium citrate. A continuous process for the lactose hydrolysis of milk and demineralized whey or milk ultrafiltrate was proposed. The organoleptic quality of low lactose milk, before and after heat treatment, was evaluated by a tasting panel. High sweeting syrup, were obtained by concentration of lactose hydrolyzed and demineralized ultrafiltrates. Nutritional aspects of these products are discussed specially from the toxicological point of view of galactose.

  10. Goat Production in El Salvador: A Focus on Animal Health, Milking Hygiene, and Raw Milk Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Linderot de Cardona

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Often referred to as “the poor man’s cow,” goats are important livestock in developing countries and in El Salvador goat management and milk are growing in popularity. This study focuses on the general health of Salvadoran goats and national husbandry systems as well as goat products and milking hygiene. The survey was submitted in western and central parts of the country: 191 goat owners were interviewed on animal management and production, 434 goats underwent a basic clinical exam, and raw milk samples were taken from 60 lactating does. Milk samples were examined for total plate count, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli, and Listeria monocytogenes. The majority of goats were managed under a traditional husbandry system naming milk production as their main purpose. Based on the physical exam, the overall goat health was acceptable but in need of improvement. The results of the raw milk samples did not indicate a mayor microbial contamination. Development programs and education of Salvadoran goat owners are recommended to improve goats’ health and productivity in El Salvador. Further studies on the microbial quality on raw goat’s milk are necessary to determine the health risk when consumed. The information obtained in this investigation will serve as a base for future projects.

  11. QUANTITATIVE DETERMINATION OF SIALIC ACID IN INDIAN MILK AND MILK PRODUCTS

    OpenAIRE

    D.Karunanithi; V.M.Biju; A.Radhakrishna

    2013-01-01

    Background: Sialic acids are acidic sugars with a 9-carbon backbone, expressed as terminal residue on mammalian glycoconjugates. Sialic acid was found in two forms as N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) and N-Glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) in meat and milk products. Neu5Ac is important for the brain and neuro development while Neu5Gc is suspected as human carcinogen. There is no data reported on sialic acid content in Indian milk and milk based products. Objective: To determine sialic acid (Ne...

  12. Production of selenium-enriched milk and dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csapó J.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Until the middle of the last century, selenium was considered to be toxic, but recently it turned out to be a micronutrient with important physiological effects, whose lack impedes the functioning of several enzymes, while in the case of a prolonged deficiency, disease processes can also occur in the body. Hungary belongs to the selenium-deficient regions in Europe; therefore, our aim was to contribute to the improvement of selenium supply of the population through increasing the selenium content of milk and dairy products. A daily supplementation of 1-6 mg organic selenium to the feed of dairy cows increases the selenium content of milk from the value of 18 μg/kg to 94 μg/kg in 8 weeks, decreasing again to the initial value in 6 weeks after stopping the supplementation.

  13. Effect of protein degradability on milk production of dairy ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikolayunas-Sandrock, C; Armentano, L E; Thomas, D L; Berger, Y M

    2009-09-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the effect of protein degradability of dairy sheep diets on milk yield and protein utilization across 2 levels of milk production. Three diets were formulated to provide similar energy concentrations and varying concentrations of rumen-degradable protein (RDP) and rumen-undegradable protein (RUP): 12% RDP and 4% RUP (12-4) included basal levels of RDP and RUP, 12% RDP and 6% RUP (12-6) included additional RUP, and 14% RDP and 4% RUP (14-4) included additional RDP. Diets were composed of alfalfa-timothy cubes, whole and ground corn, whole oats, dehulled soybean meal, and expeller soybean meal (SoyPlus, West Central, Ralston, IA). Estimates of RDP and RUP were based on the Small Ruminant Nutrition System model (2008) and feed and orts were analyzed for Cornell N fractions. Eighteen multiparous dairy ewes in midlactation were divided by milk yield (low and high) into 2 blocks of 9 ewes each and were randomly assigned within block (low and high) to 3 pens of 3 ewes each. Dietary treatments were arranged in a 3 x 3 Latin square within each block and applied to pens for 14-d periods. We hypothesized that pens consuming high-RUP diets (12-6) would produce more milk and milk protein than the basal diet (12-4) and pens consuming high-RDP diets (14-4) would not produce more milk than the basal diet (12-4). Ewes in the high-milk-yield square consumed more dry matter and produced more milk, milk fat, and milk protein than ewes in the low-milk-yield square. There was no effect of dietary treatment on dry matter intake. Across both levels of milk production, the 12-6 diet increased milk yield by 14%, increased milk fat yield by 14%, and increased milk protein yield by 13% compared with the 14-4 and 12-4 diets. Gross N efficiency (milk protein N/intake protein N) was 11 and 15% greater in the 12-6 and 12-4 diets, respectively, compared with the 14-4 diet. Milk urea N concentration was greater in the 12-6 diet and tended to be

  14. Composition and fatty acid distribution of bovine milk phospholipids from processed milk products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallier, Sophie; Gragson, Derek; Cabral, Charles; Jiménez-Flores, Rafael; Everett, David W

    2010-10-13

    The aim of this work was to assess the accuracy of different extraction methods of phospholipids and to measure the effect that processing has on phospholipid composition. Four methods of extracting phospholipids from buttermilk powder were compared to optimize recovery of sphingomyelin. Using the optimal method, the phospholipid profile of four dairy products (raw milk, raw cream, homogenized and pasteurized milk, and buttermilk powder) was determined. A total lipid extraction by the Folch method followed by a solid-phase extraction using the Bitman method was the most efficient technique to recover milk sphingomyelin. Milk processing (churning, centrifuging, homogenization, spray-drying) affected the profile of milk phospholipids, leading to a loss of sphingomyelin and phosphatidylcholine after centrifugation for cream separation. A corresponding decrease in the saturation content of the raw cream phospholipids and a loss of phosphatidylethanolamine after spray-drying to produce buttermilk powder were also observed.

  15. Milk production and compositions in female mountain and crossbred goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moutaz ZARKAWI

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out on female goats (Syrian Mountain: Jabali and crossbred: Damascus x Syrian Mountain to determine daily milk production (morning, evening and total and milk compositions (protein, fat, lactose and total solids. Thirty female goats from each breed, aged about two years were used in their first lactation season for a period of 165 days, starting 60 days after kidding. There were huge variations among individuals within the same breed in terms of milk production. Average daily milk production/doe was 929 and 958 g for Syrian Mountain and crossbred does, respectively, with no significant (P>0.05 differences between them. The highest daily milk production /doe was 1555 and 1800 g, and the lowest production was 280 and 240 g for Syrian Mountain and crossbred does, respectively. Results also indicated that there were no significant (P>0.05 differences in milk compositions between the two breeds, with overall averages (% for protein content 3.42, and 3.42, fat 4.64 and 4.74, lactose 4.23 and 4.21, and total solids 13.00 and 13.04 for Syrian Mountain and crossbred does, respectively. However, significant (P<0.05 increases in the percentage of fat and total solids were recorded in the morning milking in the does of the two breeds. In crossbred does, lactose content was significantly higher (P<0.05 in the evening milking than the morning one, whereas, in Syrian Mountain does, protein content was significantly higher (P<0.05 in the morning milking as compared to the evening one. Comparing the milk production and composition obtained in the present study with those reported from other goat breeds, it could be noticed that the tested components were within the normal values with no difference between the two studied breeds.

  16. Dairy stock development and milk production with smallholders.

    OpenAIRE

    de Jong,

    1996-01-01

    My work in technical development cooperation and missions in developing countries, touched often upon worldwide dairy development, and stimulated my interest in comparative analysis of technical and economic progress in the sector. This did not only deal with milk production, but increasingly in the course of time with the development of dairy stock as the basis for enhanced andlor expanded milk production. Dairy production, generally performed on more specialized farms in industrialized coun...

  17. PRODUCTION ECONOMY OF ORGANIC AND CONVENTIONAL MILK: PRODUCTION, CONSUMPTION AND MARKETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peterková Jana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the breeding of dairy cows in organic farming systems in the Czech Republic in the years 2010–2014, an evaluation of the organic milk production and a comparison of the production economy of organic milk and milk produced in the conventional manner. The growing popularity of organic milk is reflected in the increasing number of organic dairy farmers and thereby also in increasing production of organic milk. The sad fact is that the growth of this industry is currently driven mainly by an interest occurring in foreign countries, where organic milk can be marketed as an organic product and simultaneously it is possible to achieve a better evaluation. Although the number of businesses breeding cows and the organic milk production are growing, with regards to both scale of production and economic importance, the production of organic milk can be characterised as less important. The increase of interest in producing organic milk is primarily a matter of the production economy, which is unfavourable. The market price of milk even with aid has not covered production costs. In 2014, as estimated, the production economy of organic milk improved.

  18. FLUORIDE CONTENT OF COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE SOY MILK PRODUCTS IN THAILAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rirattanapong, Opas; Rirattanapong, Praphasri

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. In Thailand, the consumption of soy milk products is common but there is limited data about their fluoride content. The purpose of this study was to es- timate the fluoride content of soy milk products available in Thailand. Fluoride content was determined for 76 brands of soy milk using a F-ion-specific electrode. The fluoride concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 3.78 μg/ml. The fluoride content was not related to sugar content, soy bean content or the sterilization process. Among 3 brands of soy milk containing tea powder extract, the fluoride content was high (1.25 to 3.78 μg/ml). Most brands of soy milk tested in our study had fluoride content below the optimal daily intake but brands containing tea powder extract if consumed by children may increase their risk for fluorosis.

  19. Milk hydrolysis products may retain their allergenic reactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, Katrine Lindholm; Barkholt, Vibeke; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard

    was to investigate some extensively hydrolyzed milk whey products for their ability to retain sensitizing and reacting activity in a Brown Norway (BN) rat model. Method: BN rats were immunized i.p. three times without the use of adjuvant with 200 µg of either PBS (control), intact β-lactoglobulin (BLG), enzyme...... and PEPTIGEN had no sensitizing capacity. However, antibodies from all rats immunized with the intact BLG could still react with both hydrolyzed BLG and PEPTIGEN in a manner that was statistically significant. Conclusion: The extensively hydrolyzed milk whey products investigated in this study showed......Background: Milk allergy is one of the most common allergies in small children. Extensively hydrolyzed milk formulas are therefore an important source of nutrients for infants being predisposed for allergy and not being breastfeed and to infants with cows milk allergy. The aim of this study...

  20. Connection Between Body Composition and Milk Production of Lacaune Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tímea Ms. Kupai

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Five, non-related, female and male progeny groups of rams were qualified in their body composition and milk production characteristics. Body composition characteristics (fat tissue, muscle tissue and water dense substances were examined on 38 rams-to-be in 38-48 live weight with CT. Milk production data were collected from the half-sisters (n=106. According to our judgement the influence of rams can be proven statistically in both production characteristics. As we have found close (in order: r = -0,786 and r = 0,721; P<0,05 connection between daily milk production and the areas of muscle tissue and water dense substances of the carcass measured by CT, we suggest taking the correlation between them into consideration in the selection of milk production. To get a precise prediction equation, further examinations are needed.

  1. Milk fat triacylglycerols and their relations with milk fatty acid composition, DGAT1 K232A polymorphism, and milk production traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tzompa-Sosa, D.A.; Valenberg, van H.J.F.; Aken, van G.A.; Bovenhuis, H.

    2016-01-01

    Milk fat (MF) triacylglycerols (TAG) determine the physical and functional properties of butter and products rich in MF. To predict these properties, it is necessary to understand the variability of fatty acids, TAG, their associations, and their effect on milk productive traits, days in milk (DI

  2. Impact of Climate change on Milk production of Murrah buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ashutosh

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Global warming is likely to impact productivity of buffaloes due to their sensitivity to temperature changes. Air temperature, humidity, wind velocity and solar radiation are the main climate variables that affect buffalo production in tropical climate. In the present study sensitivity of lactating Murrah buffaloes to sudden temperature (Tmax, Tmin change and THI have been analyzed from milk production and climatic records (1994-2004 of Karnal. Algorithms were developed and validated on lactating buffaloes during 2005-2006 at the Institute. A sudden change (rise or fall in Maximum/Minimum temperature during summer and winter was observed to affect milk production. The decline in minimum temperature (>3°C during winter and increase (>4°C during summer than normal were observed to negatively impact milk production upto 30% on the next or subsequent days after extreme event. The return to normal milk production depended on severity and time period of thermal stress/ event occurrence. The R² was very low for cool period observed during Feb- April/Sept-Nov and actual effect on milk production was minimum. This indicated that low THI had a relatively small effect on milk production performance. The lactation period of animals are shortened during extreme summer when THI were more than 80 and reproductive functions were also adversely affected. Thermal stressed buffaloes did not exhibit estrus or exhibited estrus for short period. The potential direct effects of possible climate change and global warming on summer season milk production of Murrah buffaloes were evaluated using widely known global circulation model UKMO to represent possible scenarios of future climate. Both milk production and reproductive functions of Murrah buffaloes are likely to be affected due to warming effects.

  3. Detection of E.coli and Staphylococcus in Milk and Milk Products in and around Pantnagar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Kumar and Amit Prasad

    Full Text Available The study was designed with the aim to isolate Staphylococcus and E.coli from milk (dairy farm, vendors and house and milk products (viz; Dahi, Ice cream, Gulabjamun, Burfi, Khoa and Butter. All samples were inoculated on different bacteriological media and various biochemical tests were performed for the confirmation of isolates. The result of the present study revealed that out of 135 samples, 25 samples were found contaminated with Staphylococcus (14 and E.coli (11. The highest rate of contamination was recorded in Burfi (5 while the lowest was recorded in Ice cream (1. These enteropathogenic bacteria may cause problems due to improper handling and processing of milk and milk products. These organisms are significant from public health point of view as they have been associated with the onset of food poisoning in human beings. [Veterinary World 2010; 3(11.000: 495-496

  4. Milk: the new white gold? Milk production options for smallholder farmers in Southern Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ridder, N; Sanogo, O M; Rufino, M C; van Keulen, H; Giller, K E

    2015-07-01

    Until the turn of the century, farmers in West Africa considered cotton to be the 'white gold' for their livelihoods. Large fluctuations in cotton prices have led farmers to innovate into other business including dairy. Yet the productivity of cows fed traditional diets is very poor, especially during the long dry season. This study combines earlier published results of farmer participatory experiments with simulation modelling to evaluate the lifetime productivity of cows under varying feeding strategies and the resulting economic performance at farm level. We compared the profitability of cotton production to the innovation of dairy. The results show that milk production of the West African Méré breed could be expanded if cows are supplemented and kept stall-fed during the dry season. This option seems to be profitable for better-off farmers, but whether dairy will replace (some of) the role of cotton as the white gold for these smallholder farmers will depend on the cross price elasticity of cotton and milk. Farmers may (partly) replace cotton production for fodder production to produce milk if the price of cotton remains poor (below US$0.35/kg) and the milk price relatively strong (higher than US$0.38/kg). Price ratios need to remain stable over several seasons given the investments required for a change in production strategy. Furthermore, farmers will only seize the opportunity to engage in dairy if marketing infrastructure and milk markets are further developed.

  5. Effect of Milking Frequency in Early Lactation on Milk Production, some Blood Metabolites and Reproductive Performance of Holstein Dairy Cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Kiani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different milking frequencies in the first 6 weeks of lactation on milk production and milk constituents, blood metabolic profiles and reproductive performance of fresh dairy cows. The milking frequencies imposed were three times daily milking for 42 days (3X, six times daily milking for the first 21 days of lactation and three times daily subsequently (6X-3X and six times daily milking for 42 days. For this purpose 21 multiparous Holstein dairy cows were allocated to three groups based on BCS, parity, and body weight. Results showed that the mean of milk and FCM production was significantly higher for 6X than 3X cows in first and second 21 days and in the entire period. Among milk constituent only fat production was affected by milking frequencies. The milking frequency had no effect on mean DMI. Weight loss of the cows was higher for 6X cows (-32 kg than those the 6X-3X (-29 kg and 3X (-29.1 kg. Blood concentration of NEFA was affected by milking frequencies and it was significantly higher for 6X compared to 3X. The mean concentration of blood progesterone and reproductive parameters was not affected by milking frequencies. It was concluded that 6 time milking per day in a short term period may inrease Holstein dairy cows’ performance without any adverse effect on their reproductive parameters.

  6. Milk production potential of South African Boer and Nguni goats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    and the relatively high maintenance costs of cattle, make goat farming an alternative proposition for meat and milk production. Goats are hardy, less labor intensive and have less maintenance nutritional requirements .... Beijing, China. pp132.

  7. Q fever through consumption of unpasteurised milk and milk products - a risk profile and exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, P; Kelly, L; Mearns, R; Duggan, J; Snary, E L

    2015-05-01

    Q fever is a zoonotic disease caused by the bacterium Coxiella burnetii which is endemic in cattle, sheep and goats in much of the world, including the United Kingdom (UK). There is some epidemiological evidence that a small proportion of cases in the developed world may arise from consumption of unpasteurised milk with less evidence for milk products such as cheese. Long maturation at low pH may give some inactivation in hard cheese, and viable C. burnetii are rarely detected in unpasteurised cheese compared to unpasteurised milk. Simulations presented here predict that the probability of exposure per person to one or more C. burnetii through the daily cumulative consumption of raw milk in the UK is 0·4203. For those positive exposures, the average level of exposure predicted is high at 1266 guinea pig intraperitoneal infectious dose 50% units (GP_IP_ID50 ) per person per day. However, in the absence of human dose-response data, the case is made that the GP_IP_ID50 unit represents a very low risk through the oral route. The available evidence suggests that the risks from C. burnetii through consumption of unpasteurised milk and milk products (including cheese) are not negligible but they are lower in comparison to transmission via inhalation of aerosols from parturient products and livestock contact.

  8. Modification of the analysis of parathyroid hormone-related protein in milk and concentrations of this protein in commercial milk and milk products in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onda, K; Yamaguchi, M; Ohashi, M; Sato, R; Ochiai, H; Iriki, T; Wada, Y

    2010-05-01

    Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP), which causes hypercalcemia associated with malignant tumors, is known to be present in milk. Gene expression of PTHrP in the mammary gland increases markedly during parturition and with the onset of lactation. Even when circulating PTHrP levels are extremely low or below the detection limit, milk PTHrP levels are remarkably high. Parathyroid hormone-related protein derived from the mammary gland is assumed to play a role in maintaining the maternal calcium homeostasis and calcium transport from blood to milk. In previous studies that determined the PTHrP concentrations in milk, the pretreatments and diluent composition were not standardized. Here, we investigated the effect of various pretreatment procedures and diluent constitutions and the consequent PTHrP concentrations in commercial milk and milk products in Japan. Significant differences were found in PTHrP concentrations in raw milk samples subjected to different combinations of pretreatments (mixing, centrifugation, acidification, and heating) and diluents (0pM standard solution of PTHrP, plasma treated with protease inhibitors, and original diluent). We measured the PTHrP concentrations in normal liquid milk, processed milk, milk drinks, formulated milk powders, and skim milk powder by using the appropriate combination of pretreatment (acidification) and diluent (plasma treated with protease inhibitors). The PTHrP concentration in normal liquid milk, processed milk, and skim milk powder was as high as that in raw milk (>5nM), whereas that in milk drinks differed considerably. The PTHrP concentration in infant formulas (PTHrP is ingested when milk and milk products are consumed. Copyright 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Mycotoxins in Bovine Milk and Dairy Products: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker-Algeri, Tania Aparecida; Castagnaro, Denise; de Bortoli, Kennidy; de Souza, Camila; Drunkler, Deisy Alessandra; Badiale-Furlong, Eliana

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a literature review of the occurrence of several mycotoxins in bovine milk and dairy products, because it is the main type of milk produced and marketed worldwide. Mycotoxins are produced by different genera of filamentous fungi and present serious health hazards such as carcinogenicity and mutagenicity. Under favorable growth conditions, toxigenic fungi produce mycotoxins which contaminate the lactating cow's feedstuff. During metabolism, these mycotoxins undergo biotransformation and are secreted in milk. Data show that there is a seasonal trend in the levels of mycotoxins in milk, with these being higher in the cold months probably due to the prolonged storage required for the cattle feeds providing favorable conditions for fungal growth. Good agricultural and storage practices are therefore of fundamental importance in the control of toxigenic species and mycotoxins. Although aflatoxins (especially aflatoxin M1 ) are the mycotoxins of greater incidence in milk and dairy products, this review shows that other mycotoxins, such as fumonisin, ochratoxin A, trichothecenes, zearalenone, T-2 toxin, and deoxynivalenol, can also be found in these products. Given that milk is widely consumed and is a source of nutrients, especially in childhood, a thorough investigation of the occurrence of mycotoxins as well the adoption of measures to minimize their contamination of milk is essential.

  10. Influence of milk products on fluoride bioavailability in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekstrand, J; Ehrnebo, M

    1979-09-01

    The effect of milk products on the gastrointestinal absorption of fluoride from sodium fluoride tablets was studied in five healthy subjects. Two different diets were tested: (1) 250 ml standardized milk (3% fat) and (2) 500 ml of milk, 3 pieces of white bread with cheese and 150 ml of yoghurt. The 100% bioavailability of sodium fluoride tablets during fasting was greatly decreased by coadministration of milk products: with Diet 1 the absolute bioavailability calculated from combined plasma and urine data was in the range 50--79% and with Diet 2 it ranged from 50--71%. It is suggested that the decreased bioavailability produced by dairy products should be taken into account when establishing flouride dosage regimens for prophylaxis of caries.

  11. Productive effects of whole milk and milk replacement formula in calves feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Klarić

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Determination of correct feeding regimes for calves is very important as it directly influences calves’ productive and reproductive traits, as well as duration of adult animal exploitation period. As the liquid feed is the most expensive component, its importance also has an economic aspect in calves rearing. The experiment was carried out on 30 Holstein calves with the aim to determine productive, economic and health effects of feeding calves with whole milk in different periods. Calves were divided into three equal groups (10 calves in each group. Experiment was carried out in the period from calving up to the 60th day of calf ’s age. All groups were given whole milk, however, duration of whole milk feeding differed among groups. Group 1 consumed whole milk from birth up to the 30th day of age, group 2 from birth up to the 20th day of age and group 3 from birth up to the 10th day of age. Afterwards, all groups were fed with milk replacement formula up to the 60th day of age. Suggested technological solutions in calves feeding within this experiment were analyzed through evaluation of basic fattening characteristics, monitoring of diarrhea occurrences and calculating costs per kg of weight gain per each group. Statistical analysis referring to calves body weight, daily gain and liquid feed conversion during the 1st month of experiment proved the best values for group 1, which were statistically highly significant (P<0.01 if compared to other groups. Examination of health status of calves determined that diarrhea occurred less frequently in group 1, which led to conclusion that feeding whole milk to calves should be given priority with respect to its nutritive and health benefits. By analyzing economic aspect of feeding whole milk to calves in their 1st month of age, the lowest costs were obtained for group 1, which supports the fact that feeding calves with whole milk is cost effective.

  12. In Vitro Apoptosis Triggering in the BT-474 Human Breast Cancer Cell Line by Lyophilised Camel's Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasson, Sidgi S A A; Al-Busaidi, Juma Zaid; Al-Qarni, Zahra A M; Rajapakse, S; Al-Bahlani, Shadia; Idris, Mohamed Ahmed; Sallam, Talal A

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is a global health concern and is a major cause of death among women. In Oman, it is the most common cancer in women, with an incidence rate of 15.6 per 100,000 Omani females. Various anticancer remedies have been discovered from natural products in the past and the search is continuing for additional examples. Cytotoxic natural compounds may have a major role in cancer therapy either in potentiating the effect of chemotherapy or reducing its harmful effects. Recently, a few studies have reported advantages of using crude camel milk in treating some forms of cancer. However, no adequate data are available on the lyophilised camel's milk responsibility for triggering apoptosis and oxidative stress associated with human breast cancer. The present study aimed to address the role of the lyophilised camel's milk in inducing proliferation repression of BT-474 and HEp-2 cells compared with the non-cancer HCC1937 BL cell line. Lyophilized camel's milk fundamentally repressed BT-474 cells growth and proliferation through the initiation of either the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways as indicated by both caspase-3 mRNA and its action level, and induction of death receptors in BT-474 but not the HEp-2 cell line. In addition, lyophilised camel's milk enhanced the expression of oxidative stress markers, heme-oxygenase-1 and reactive oxygen species production in BT-474 cells. Increase in caspase-3 mRNA levels by the lyophilised camel's milk was completely prevented by the actinomycin D, a transcriptional inhibitor. This suggests that lyophilized camel's milk increased newly synthesized RNA. Interestingly,it significantly (pmilk might instigate apoptosis through initiation of an alternative apoptotic pathway.

  13. Relationships between Milk Progesterone Profiles and Genetic Merit for Milk Production, Milking Frequency, and Feeding Regimen in Dairy Cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Windig, J.J.; Beerda, B.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    2008-01-01

    Milk progesterone profiles were determined from samples obtained twice weekly for 100 d postpartum in 100 Holstein primiparous cows at a Dutch experimental farm. Three treatments were applied in a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial arrangement with high-low genetic merit for overall production, high-low caloric

  14. Sustainability of milk production in the Netherlands - A comparison between raw organic, pasteurised organic and conventional milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asselt, van E.D.; Capuano, E.; Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.

    2015-01-01

    Consumer preferences are changing, resulting in an increased demand for both organic milk and raw milk due to their perceived higher nutritional value and positive contribution to animal welfare. To compare the advantages and disadvantages of these products with conventional pasteurised milk, a sust

  15. A MILK PRODUCTION STRATEGY FOR SOUTHERN AFRICA M.N. ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sary to question the production of wool on the highveld and of products such as ..... in many countries that the free flow of all milk must be made possible. A statement like this is normally met ... on cash crop production on our inigation schemes.

  16. Milk and dairy products: a unique micronutrient combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaucheron, Frédéric

    2011-10-01

    Milk and dairy products contain micronutrients such as minerals and vitamins, which contribute to multiple and different vital functions in the organism. The mineral fraction is composed of macroelements (Ca, Mg, Na, K, P, and Cl) and oligoelements (Fe, Cu, Zn, and Se). From a physicochemical point of view, the chemical forms, the associations with other ions or organic molecules, and the location of macroelements such as Ca, Mg, Na, K, P, and Cl in milk are relatively well described and understood. Thus, it is admitted that these macroelements are differently distributed into aqueous and micellar phases of milk, depending on their nature. K, Na, and Cl ions are essentially in the aqueous phase, whereas Ca, P, and Mg are partly bound to the casein micelles. About one third of the Ca, half of the P, and two thirds of the Mg are located in the aqueous phase of milk. Dairy products are more or less rich in these different minerals. In cheeses, mineral content depends mainly on their processing. The Ca content is strongly related to the acidification step. Moreover, if acidification is associated with the draining step, the Ca content in the cheese will be reduced. Thus, the Ca content varies in the following increasing order: milks/fermented milks/fresh cheeses dairy products are important sources of Ca, Mg, Zn, and Se. The vitamin fraction of milk and dairy products is composed of lipophilic (A, D, E, and K) and hydrophilic (B(1), B(2), B(3), B(5), B(6), B(8), B(9), B(12), and C) vitamins. Because of their hydrophobic properties, the lipophilic vitamins are mainly in the milk fat fraction (cream, butter). The hydrophilic vitamins are in the aqueous phase of milk. For one part of these vitamins, the concentrations described in the literature are not always homogenous and sometimes not in accordance between them; these discrepancies are due to the difficulty of the sample preparation and the use of appropriate methods for their quantification. However, there is no

  17. Comparison of the activity of human and bovine milk on two cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocoví, Coloma; Conesa, Celia; Barbana, Chockry; Pérez, María D; Calvo, Miguel; Sánchez, Lourdes

    2009-08-01

    The activity of human milk on cell growth has been evaluated on two cell lines, MDCK and Caco-2. The proportion of human milk samples that reduced by half the growth of MDCK cells was of 36%. This inhibitory activity was associated with casein and not the whey fraction. Great variability was found in the degree of inhibitory activity depending on the milk sample. The susceptibility of Caco-2 cells to milk inhibitory activity was lower than that of MDCK. Bovine milk did not have any effect on cell growth, either as skimmed milk or as whey or casein. Morphology of cells incubated with active human casein showed abnormal features, such as chromatin condensation, reduced cellular volume and apoptotic bodies, and also fragmented DNA, which are all features of apoptosis.

  18. Seasonal cows’ milk productivity in the outdoor rest places barns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Lipiński

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors assumed that, keeping high productive dairies outside a cowshed might reduce the seasonal character of milk production in Poland, which decrease is being observed in the summer. The attempt was made to determine the hierarchy of negative influences on dairies’ productivity, such as: average daily air temperature and maximum daily temperature and average daily relative humidity. The standard regression methods and artificial neural network were applied in the research. It appeared that allowing the dairies spend all-year-round outside the cowshed, might protect them against the heat stress in the summer. The strongest stimulus which reduces milk production is the level of maximum air temperature.

  19. Milk and Dairy Products : A Unique Micronutrient Combination

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Milk and dairy products contain micronutrients such as minerals and vitamins, which contribute to multiple and different vital functions in the organism. The mineral fraction is composed of macroelements (Ca, Mg, Na, K, P, and Cl) and oligoelements (Fe, Cu, Zn, and Se). From a physicochemical point of view, the chemical forms, the associations with other ions or organic molecules, and the location of macroelements such as Ca, Mg, Na, K, P, and Cl in milk are relatively well described and unde...

  20. The impact of feeding line on dairy production revenue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Očić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Republic of Croatia declining trend in the number of milk suppliers is registered, (69.3 % decline in the year 2010 compared to the 2002. Since the EU expects to abolish production quotas in the future (after the years 2014/2015, and reduce different protections for milk producers, there will be a decrease in the price of European milk. According to some predictions price will decrease for 5-15 % in the most of the EU countries, and this will be subsequently reflected in the Republic of Croatia. Mentioned facts will force milk producers to maximize business rationalization. At dairy farm, the highest cost is for animal feed, it is an ideal starting point for the implementation of business rationalization procedures. Previous studies show that the production of own animal feed can reduce the feeding cost by 30-50 %, compared to purchased fodder. Therefore, this study seeks to determine the effect of different forage courses on dairy farm profitability and cost of milk per kg. To create a technological-economic model, which is used to calculate basic economic and technological parameters for the three types of commercial farms in Croatia, data from 210 farms from the Pannonian regions of Croatia was used. The existing forage feeding line and four recommended by experts (technologists were taken into consideration. The results were used as input data for AHP multi-criteria analysis, which rankes feeding line. According to the overall feeding lines priorities for all three types of dairy farms, the rank will start with feeding line 3, which consists of a mixture of peas and grains, corn silage, barley, Italian ryegrass and DTS, while the worst option is existing feeding line.

  1. Enzymatic production of human milk oligosaccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Jesper; Jers, Carsten; Michalak, Malwina;

    2014-01-01

    Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are a group of complex glycans that are abundant in human breastmilk. Breastfeeding infants is linked to several beneficial effects like promotion of bifidogenic growth,anti‐adhesive effects by blocking pathogens, and sialylated HMOs are moreover involved...

  2. Major advances in concentrated and dry milk products, cheese, and milk fat-based spreads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, D R; Baer, R J; Hassan, A N; Dave, R

    2006-04-01

    Advances in dairy foods and dairy foods processing since 1981 have influenced consumers and processors of dairy products. Consumer benefits include dairy products with enhanced nutrition and product functionality for specific applications. Processors convert raw milk to finished product with improved efficiencies and have developed processing technologies to improve traditional products and to introduce new products for expanding the dairy foods market. Membrane processing evolved from a laboratory technique to a major industrial process for milk and whey processing. Ultra-filtration and reverse osmosis have been used extensively in fractionation of milk and whey components. Advances in cheese manufacturing methods have included mechanization of the making process. Membrane processing has allowed uniform composition of the cheese milk and starter cultures have become more predictable. Cheese vats have become larger and enclosed as well as computer controlled. Researchers have learned to control many of the functional properties of cheese by understanding the role of fat and calcium distribution, as bound or unbound, in the cheese matrix. Processed cheese (cheese, foods, spreads, and products) maintain their importance in the industry as many product types can be produced to meet market needs and provide stable products for an extended shelf life. Cheese delivers concentrated nutrients of milk and bio-active peptides to consumers. The technologies for the production of concentrated and dried milk and whey products have not changed greatly in the last 25 yr. The size and efficiencies of the equipment have increased. Use of reverse osmosis in place of vacuum condensing has been proposed. Modifying the fatty acid composition of milkfat to alter the nutritional and functional properties of dairy spread has been a focus of research in the last 2 decades. Conjugated linoleic acid, which can be increased in milkfat by alteration of the cow's diet, has been reported to have

  3. Evaluation of different lactation curve models fitted for milk viscosity recorded by an automated on-line California Mastitis Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neitzel, Anne-Christin; Stamer, Eckhard; Junge, Wolfgang; Thaller, Georg

    2015-05-01

    Laboratory somatic cell count (LSCC) records are usually recorded monthly and provide an important information source for breeding and herd management. Daily milk viscosity detection in composite milking (expressed as drain time) with an automated on-line California Mastitis Test (CMT) could serve immediately as an early predictor of udder diseases and might be used as a selection criterion to improve udder health. The aim of the present study was to clarify the relationship between the well-established LSCS and the new trait,'drain time', and to estimate their correlations to important production traits. Data were recorded on the dairy research farm Karkendamm in Germany. Viscosity sensors were installed on every fourth milking stall in the rotary parlour to measure daily drain time records. Weekly LSCC and milk composition data were available. Two data sets were created containing records of 187,692 milkings from 320 cows (D1) and 25,887 drain time records from 311 cows (D2). Different fixed effect models, describing the log-transformed drain time (logDT), were fitted to achieve applicable models for further analysis. Lactation curves were modelled with standard parametric functions (Ali and Schaeffer, Legendre polynomials of second and third degree) of days in milk (DIM). Random regression models were further applied to estimate the correlations between cow effects between logDT and LSCS with further important production traits. LogDT and LSCS were strongest correlated in mid-lactation (r = 0.78). Correlations between logDT and production traits were low to medium. Highest correlations were reached in late lactation between logDT and milk yield (r = -0.31), between logDT and protein content (r = 0.30) and in early as well as in late lactation between logDT and lactose content (r = -0.28). The results of the present study show that the drain time could be used as a new trait for daily mastitis control.

  4. Specification of Products and Product Lines

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez, Ariel; 10.4204/EPTCS.15.4

    2010-01-01

    The study of variability in software development has become increasingly important in recent years. A common mechanism to represent the variability in a product line is by means of feature models. However, the relationship between these models and UML design models is not straightforward. UML statecharts are extended introducing variability in their main components, so that the behavior of product lines can be specified. The contribution of this work is the proposal of a rule-based approach that defines a transformation strategy from extended statecharts to concrete UML statecharts. This is accomplished via the use of feature models, in order to describe the common and variant components, in such a way that, starting from different feature configurations and applying the rule-based method, concrete state machines corresponding to different products of a line can be obtained.

  5. Camel milk triggers apoptotic signaling pathways in human hepatoma HepG2 and breast cancer MCF7 cell lines through transcriptional mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korashy, Hesham M; Maayah, Zaid H; Abd-Allah, Adel R; El-Kadi, Ayman O S; Alhaider, Abdulqader A

    2012-01-01

    Few published studies have reported the use of crude camel milk in the treatment of stomach infections, tuberculosis and cancer. Yet, little research was conducted on the effect of camel milk on the apoptosis and oxidative stress associated with human cancer. The present study investigated the effect and the underlying mechanisms of camel milk on the proliferation of human cancer cells using an in vitro model of human hepatoma (HepG2) and human breast (MCF7) cancer cells. Our results showed that camel milk, but not bovine milk, significantly inhibited HepG2 and MCF7 cells proliferation through the activation of caspase-3 mRNA and activity levels, and the induction of death receptors in both cell lines. In addition, Camel milk enhanced the expression of oxidative stress markers, heme oxygenase-1 and reactive oxygen species production in both cells. Mechanistically, the increase in caspase-3 mRNA levels by camel milk was completely blocked by the transcriptional inhibitor, actinomycin D; implying that camel milk increased de novo RNA synthesis. Furthermore, Inhibition of the mitogen activated protein kinases differentially modulated the camel milk-induced caspase-3 mRNA levels. Taken together, camel milk inhibited HepG2 and MCF7 cells survival and proliferation through the activation of both the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways.

  6. Camel Milk Triggers Apoptotic Signaling Pathways in Human Hepatoma HepG2 and Breast Cancer MCF7 Cell Lines through Transcriptional Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham M. Korashy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Few published studies have reported the use of crude camel milk in the treatment of stomach infections, tuberculosis and cancer. Yet, little research was conducted on the effect of camel milk on the apoptosis and oxidative stress associated with human cancer. The present study investigated the effect and the underlying mechanisms of camel milk on the proliferation of human cancer cells using an in vitro model of human hepatoma (HepG2 and human breast (MCF7 cancer cells. Our results showed that camel milk, but not bovine milk, significantly inhibited HepG2 and MCF7 cells proliferation through the activation of caspase-3 mRNA and activity levels, and the induction of death receptors in both cell lines. In addition, Camel milk enhanced the expression of oxidative stress markers, heme oxygenase-1 and reactive oxygen species production in both cells. Mechanistically, the increase in caspase-3 mRNA levels by camel milk was completely blocked by the transcriptional inhibitor, actinomycin D; implying that camel milk increased de novo RNA synthesis. Furthermore, Inhibition of the mitogen activated protein kinases differentially modulated the camel milk-induced caspase-3 mRNA levels. Taken together, camel milk inhibited HepG2 and MCF7 cells survival and proliferation through the activation of both the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways.

  7. Rapid determination of cholesterol in milk and milk products by direct saponification and capillary gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletouris, D J; Botsoglou, N A; Psomas, I E; Mantis, A I

    1998-11-01

    A simple method is described for the determination of cholesterol in milk and milk products. Samples (0.2 g) are saponified in capped tubes with 0.5 M methanolic KOH solution by heating for 15 min at 80 degrees C. Water is added to the mixtures, and the unsaponifiable fractions are extracted with hexane to be further analyzed by capillary gas chromatography. Because of the rapid sample preparation and gas chromatographic procedures, a single sample can be analyzed in 30 min. Overall recovery was 98.6%, and the linearity was excellent for the fortification range examined. Precision data that were based on the variation within and between days suggested an overall relative standard deviation value of 1.4%. The method has been successfully applied to quantitate cholesterol in a variety of milk products.

  8. Origin of haloacetic acids in milk and dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardador, Maria Jose; Gallego, Mercedes

    2016-04-01

    Haloacetic acids (HAAs) are formed during the process of water disinfection. Therefore their presence in foods can be correlated with the addition of or contact with treated water. To determine the origin of HAAs in milk and dairy products, firstly a chromatographic method was developed for their determination. The sample treatment involves deproteination of milk followed by derivatization/extraction of the HAAs in the supernatant. About 20% of the foods analyzed contained two HAAs - which in no case exceeded 2 μg L(-1), that can be ascribed to contamination from sanitizers usually employed in the dairy industry. The process of boiling tap water (containing HAAs) for the preparation of powdered infant formula did not remove them; therefore it would be advisable to prepare this type of milk with mineral water (free of HAAs). In addition, it is possible to establish if the milk has been adulterated with treated water through the determination of HAAs.

  9. Immunofluorescence detection of milk protein in meat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Petrášová

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays there are various vegetable protein additives intended for the manufacture of meat products in the food industry. These ingredients include both, plant-origin as well as animal-origin proteins. The most common vegetable additives include various types of flour, starch, fiber and plant protein. Among animal proteins, the most commonly used are plasma, collagen or milk protein. Milk protein is added to meat products due to its functional properties, such as emulsifying fats, improving the holding capacity of meat, improving juiciness, gel-forming capacity and affecting the taste of the product. Usage of these proteins, however, is currently limited by the effective legislation, not only in order to prevent consumer deception, but also because of their potential impact on consumers' health of. Thus, this issue has received considerable attention not only in the Czech Republic, but also globally. The main risk is the impossibility of selecting a suitable foodstuff for individuals with potential allergic reactions. The only option for allergic consumers to protect themselves is to strictly exclude the given allergen from their diet. Although the number of studies dealing with the reduction or loss of allergenicity is increasing, yet these practices are not common. Most of the population suffering from food allergies is thus still dependent on strict exclusion of foodstuffs causing adverse allergic reactions from their diet. Detection of allergens in foodstuffs is unfortunately quite difficult due to the fact that they occur in trace amounts and are often masked by different parts of the foodstuff. This research dealt with the detection of milk protein in meat products purchased in the market network of the Czech Republic, whereas declaration given by the manufacturer on the packaging for the small meat products purchased from the market was used to verify the detection of milk protein by the immunofluorescence method. 20 products were

  10. [Milk and dairy products for human nutrition: contribution of technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maubois, Jean-Louis

    2008-04-01

    The complex composition of milk has led to the development of innovative technological processes such as membrane separation. The dairy industry is now able to offer consumers safe classical products (liquid milk, raw-milk cheeses) with little or no heat treatment. Indeed, heat treatment undermines the organoleptic qualities and bioactivity of many molecules found in milk. New technologies, and especially membrane microfiltration, have allowed researchers to identify two groups of milk proteins in terms of their human absorption kinetics: slow micellar casein and fast whey proteins. The highly purified products thus obtained are used for infant foods and slimming aids, and as functional ingredients. The same technologies have been applied to colostrum, yielding a sterile "serocolostrum" containing biologically active immunoglobulins, growth factors, and polypeptides. Combined with other separation techniques, membrane technologies should soon allow the separation and purification of minor milk proteins described as having essential roles in bone calcium uptake and vitamin transport, for example. The use of enzymatic membrane reactors has led to the identification of several bioactive peptides, such as--kappa-caseinomacropeptide, which induces CCK (cholecystokinin) secretion and thus regulates food intake and lipid assimilation,--alpha(S1) CN (91-100), a compound with benzodiazepine activity,-- kappaCN (106-116), which has anti-thrombotic activity by inhibiting blood platelet binding to fibrinogen, and--alpha(S) and beta casein phosphopeptides, which are thought to increase iron and calcium absorption.

  11. Milk production capacity of prolific Priangan sheep: Preweaning performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bess Tiesnamurti

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to investigate the milk production capacity and preweaning performance of the prolific Priangan sheep, at sheep breeding station of the Research Institute for Animal production, Bogor using 126 ewes during three lambing periods in three consecutive years. The milk production was estimated weekly, started at day 7 after lambing date, till lambs were weaned at 90 days of age. The results showed that total milk production was significantly affected (P<0.05 by parity and the number of lambs born with average daily milk production of 519.5 g head-1 day-1. Estimated total milk production was 43.6 kg/lactation (N = 126; SD = 7.8; CV = 19.4%; range = 28.7-53.6 kg. According to the dam parity, the highest milk production was estimated at third parity (40.1 kg head-1 lactation-1, whereas on the basis of litter size, ewes with twin born lamb had the highest production (39.9 kg head-1 lactation-1. The preweaning lamb performance (weaning weight and preweaning daily gain was significantly affected (P<0.05 by ewe parity, sex, litter size and type of birth and weaned, with the average weaning weight of 10.62 kg (N = 208; SD = 3.37; CV = 25.08% and 130.9 + 41.8 g head-1 day-1 (N = 208; SD = 33.5; CV = 31.26%, respectively. Where as lamb birth weight was significantly affected (P<0.05 by ewe parity, sex and the number of lambs bornwith average of 2.39 kg (N = 208; SD = 0.66; CV = 9.8%.

  12. PRESENCE OF ARCOBACTER SPP. IN IN-LINE MILK FILTERS: AN EMERGING AND SIGNIFICANT MICROBIOLOGICAL HAZARD IN FOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Giacometti

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available While a study on the presence of foodborne pathogens in in-line milk filters of Italian dairy farms authorized for production and sale of raw milk was in progress, we fortuitously detected and isolated some Arcobacter spp. during routine analysis for thermotolerant Campylobacter. This observation suggested that extraordinary and non-standardized growth conditions for detection and identification were needed to provide more information and data on this poorly known emergent zoonotic pathogen. The presence of Arcobacter butzleri and Arcobacacter cryaerophilus in milk filters of dairy farms authorized for production and sale of raw milk poses a risk for public health and rather suggests that raw milk samples should also be examined for Arcobacter contamination. While the role of Arcobacter spp. in human disease awaits further evaluation, a precautionary approach is advisable and control measures to prevent or to eliminate the hazard of Arcobacter spp. in food and from the human food chain should be encouraged as well as more epidemiological studies. With this article, we review the literature of this organism in order to focus the relevant information to food safety.

  13. Software product lines : Organizational alternatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, J

    2001-01-01

    Software product lines enjoy increasingly wide adoption in the software industry. Most authors focus on the technical and process aspects and assume an organizational model consisting of a domain engineering unit and several application engineering units. In our cooperation with several software dev

  14. Software product lines : Organizational alternatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, J

    2001-01-01

    Software product lines enjoy increasingly wide adoption in the software industry. Most authors focus on the technical and process aspects and assume an organizational model consisting of a domain engineering unit and several application engineering units. In our cooperation with several software

  15. Software product lines : Organizational alternatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, J

    2001-01-01

    Software product lines enjoy increasingly wide adoption in the software industry. Most authors focus on the technical and process aspects and assume an organizational model consisting of a domain engineering unit and several application engineering units. In our cooperation with several software dev

  16. CONSIDERATIONS UPON MILK AND DAIRY PRODUCT PRODUCTION IN THE U.S.A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AGATHA POPESCU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to present the evolution of milk production and dairy products in the USA during the period 2004-2006, based on USDA Statistics. The USA is a top produce of milk and dairy products in the world. Milk production accounted for 181,798 Millions Pounds in the year 2006. Its continuously increase during the last years has been positively influenced by the increasing number of dairy cows and average milk yield . The top states are California, Wisconsin, New York, Idaho and Pennsylvania, which all together achieve about 54 % of the country milk production. Over 99.37 % of Milk Production is marketed. Considering all milk marketings, Million USD 23,422 cash receiptscould be obtained from a dairy farm in the year 2006. The average return per Cwt was about USD 13 in 2006 . Milk is processed by about 1,000 manufacturing plants in a large variety of dairy products. Cheese production was about 9.5 Billion Pounds in the last analyzed years. The US also produces important amounts of butter , yogurt, ice cream etc. About 8.3 % of the US dairy products are exported, the most markets being Japan, Mexico and Canada.

  17. Partial Characterisation of Bacteriocins Produced by Bacillus cereus Isolates from Milk and Milk Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojana Bogović Matijašić

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty one (19.2 % out of 161 Bacillus cereus isolates from raw milk and milk products were found to produce proteinaceous substances which inhibit the growth of other B. cereus isolates. The detection of antibacterial activity depended on medium and method used. Bactericidal activity was detected in 23 (14 % or 19 (12 % of the tested strains on the triptic soya agar and brain-heart infusion with glucose, respectively, while 11 (7 % of the strains produced bactericidal substances on both media. Nineteen percent of isolates from raw milk and 20 % of isolates from milk products were found to produce bacteriocins. Four B. cereus isolates inhibited the growth of individual test strains belonging to B. licheniformis, B. subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Lactobacillus helveticus and L. casei species. The bacteriocins of four B. cereus isolates were studied in more detail. The production and activity of these substances were detected in stationary- phase of bacterial culture. Two of them were stable after heating at 60 °C, while only one was stable after heating at 75 °C for 15 minutes. All of them were active over a range of pH=3–10. The apparent molecular weights of four bacteriocins detected by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis were in the range of 1 to 8 kDa.

  18. Milk hydrolysis products may retain their allergenic reactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, Katrine Lindholm; Barkholt, Vibeke; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard

    was to investigate some extensively hydrolyzed milk whey products for their ability to retain sensitizing and reacting activity in a Brown Norway (BN) rat model. Method: BN rats were immunized i.p. three times without the use of adjuvant with 200 µg of either PBS (control), intact β-lactoglobulin (BLG), enzyme...... and PEPTIGEN had no sensitizing capacity. However, antibodies from all rats immunized with the intact BLG could still react with both hydrolyzed BLG and PEPTIGEN in a manner that was statistically significant. Conclusion: The extensively hydrolyzed milk whey products investigated in this study showed...

  19. Simulation of Production Lines Supply within Internal Logistics Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čujan, Zdeněk

    2016-11-01

    Supplying of production lines is a complex logistic process, which is very difficult with regards to the requirements of its operation and scheduling. For this reason, this supplying process demands an increased attention. Application of a computer simulation is an efficient tool suitable for solution of the supplying logistic questions. In this paper the application possibilities of the software Tecnomatix Plant Simumlation specified for simulation of the supplying process by means of the system Milk Run will be presented.

  20. [Vitamin B12 supplementation and milk production on farms with 'chronic wasting' cattle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, M F; Verhoeff, J; Holzhauer, M; Bartels, C J; van Wuijckhuise, L; Vellema, P

    2001-03-15

    From early 1999 onwards, cattle health problems accompanied by chronic wasting of unknown aetiology were reported on a number of dairy farms. An association between these health problems and the compulsory use of gE-negative marker vaccines against bovine herpesvirus 1 was presumed by farmers. On one dairy farm an increased milk production of 50% was reported within a few days after parenteral vitamin B12 treatment. Therefore, the current study was designed to determine the effect of parenteral vitamin B12 treatment on the milk production of dairy herds with wasting cattle. A randomized blind trial was performed in five problem herds and two control herds. On each farm five lactating cows were injected intramuscularly with 20 mg vitamin B12 and paired with five untreated lactating cows. The milk production of treated and untreated animals was measured for 19 days following treatment and compared to pre-treatment production. No effect of vitamin B12 treatment on milk production was established on either problem farms or control farms. Neither was a difference detected in the response to vitamin B12 treatment between problem herds and control herds. In a second experiment, parenteral vitamin B12 treatment was applied in three problem herds by local veterinary practitioners. The results of this experiment were in line with the results of the first experiment.

  1. MULTIVARIATE STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF CONSUMERS’ PREFERENCE AT THE RUSSIAN MARKET OF CULTURED MILK PRODUCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyubov V. Ruchinskaya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Methodological and methodical basis of the developed methods of the multivariate statistical analysis of consumers’ preferences at the Russian market of cultured milk products is considered. The author carried out segmentation of consumers of the cultured milk production based on methods of multidimensional classification and allowing optimizing structure of production of milk production by domestic producers.

  2. Review of present knowledge on machine milking and intensive milk production in dromedary camels and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Peter; Juhasz, Judit

    2016-06-01

    The camel dairy industry has gone through major development in the last decade. The world's first large-scale camel dairy farm was established 10 years ago in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, and since then, several commercial and scientific projects have been started, and more studies have been published demonstrating increasing interest in camel milk. The aims of this paper are to summarize relevant published data on factors influencing milk production under intensive management, compare those with our own observations obtained from Emirates Industry for Camel Milk and Products (EICMP), and highlight areas of research that are indispensable for further development. As in other species, the most important factors influencing milk yield are genetic and individual variation, age, parity, stage of lactation, nutrition, management, season, photoperiod, etc. However, the precise role of the various factors has not been thoroughly studied in camels and based on our understanding of the basic physiological processes, endocrine control is minimal. In addition, machine milking of dromedaries is still at early stage and requires research for improvement of the technology and defining factors affecting and improving milk ejection. The role of environment (like photoperiod, nutrition) should also be investigated as there is significant annual variation both in milk quantity and quality that might influence the processing characteristics of raw camel milk. The large pool of animals and thoroughly recorded data at EICMP provide an excellent opportunity for increasing milk production and improving milk quality using various methods, like feeding, management, reproduction, selection, and breeding.

  3. Quantitative trait loci underlying milk production traits in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Gil, B; El-Zarei, M F; Alvarez, L; Bayón, Y; de la Fuente, L F; San Primitivo, F; Arranz, J-J

    2009-08-01

    Improvement of milk production traits in dairy sheep is required to increase the competitiveness of the industry and to maintain the production of high quality cheese in regions of Mediterranean countries with less favourable conditions. Additional improvement over classical selection could be reached if genes with significant effects on the relevant traits were specifically targeted by selection. However, so far, few studies have been undertaken to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) in dairy sheep. In this study, we present a complete genome scan performed in a commercial population of Spanish Churra sheep to identify chromosomal regions associated with phenotypic variation observed in milk production traits. Eleven half-sib families, including a total of 1213 ewes, were analysed following a daughter design. Genome-wise multi-marker regression analysis revealed a genome-wise significant QTL for milk protein percentage on chromosome 3. Eight other regions, localized on chromosomes 1, 2, 20, 23 and 25, showed suggestive significant linkage associations with some of the analysed traits. To our knowledge, this study represents the first complete genome scan for milk production traits reported in dairy sheep. The experiment described here shows that analysis of commercial dairy sheep populations has the potential to increase our understanding of the genetic determinants of complex production-related traits.

  4. Bacteriological quality of raw milk used for production of a Brazilian farmstead raw milk cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa Sobrinho, Paulo de Souza; Marçal de Faria, Camila Andreata; Silva Pinheiro, Julia; Gonçalves de Almeida, Héllen; Vieira Pires, Christiano; Silva Santos, Aline

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the bacteriological quality of raw cow's milk utilized for the production of Traditional Minas Serro cheese, a Brazilian farmstead raw milk cheese. Raw milk samples were collected from six farmstead cheese operations manufacturing raw milk cheese from cow's milk. Coliform count (CC) and Escherichia coli counts were determined using Petrifilm™ EC plates, and Staphylococcus aureus counts were determined using Petrifilm™ Staph Express count plates. The standard plate count (SPC) was determined using plate count agar. The somatic cell count (SCC) was determined with a DeLaval cell counter. The detection of Listeria monocytogenes was based in the ISO 11290-1 protocol. A total of 165 samples were analyzed, and the SPC was 1.85-7.88 log CFU/mL. Coliform were detected in 140 (84.8%) of the 165 samples, with counts of 1-6.39 log CFU/mL. E. coli was detected in 17 (10.3%) samples, with counts of 1-2.18 log CFU/mL. The SCC in raw milk was 10,000-1,390,000 cells per mL, with mean and geometric mean values of 247,000 and 162,181, respectively. The SCC did not differ significantly between the seasons (p>0.05), but differed between different farms (pcount was 1.47-5.03 log CFU/mL. The median of SPC, CC, and S. aureus counts differed significantly between seasons and between farms (pbacterial (including pathogenic) presence.

  5. Association between Dictyocaulus viviparus status and milk production parameters in Dutch dairy herds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dank, M.; Holzhauer, M.; Veldhuis, A.; Frankena, K.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the association between Dictyocaulus viviparus bulk tank milk (BTM) test results and milk production and milk composition parameters in adult Dutch dairy cattle herds. Bulk tank milk samples were collected in August and November 2013, and ELISA tests were

  6. Production of ethanol and biomass starting to present lactose in the milk whey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angeles-Ramirez, K.; Arana-cuenca, A.; Tellez-Jurado, A.

    2009-07-01

    Milk whey is a by-product of the milk industry, a highly polluting waste due to the quantity of COD and BOD that it contains. The contamination caused by milk whey is mostly due to its lactose content. The fermentation of milk whey to ethanol is a possible road to reduce the polluting effect. (Author)

  7. Variability issues in software product lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, J; Florijn, G; Greefhorst, D; Kuusela, J; Obbink, JH; Pohl, K; VanderLinden, F

    2002-01-01

    Software product lines (or system families) have achieved considerable adoption by the software industry. A software product line captures the commonalities between a set of products while providing for the differences. Differences are managed by delaying design decisions, thereby introducing

  8. Milk and dairy products in hotel daily menue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta Krešić

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine the portion of milk and dairyproducts as a source of macronutrients, energy, vitamins and minerals in average hotel menus for some category of hotel guests. For this purpose the evaluation of 66 whole day meals (breakfast, lunch and supper on daily menus was made. Meals were therefore mathematically and statistically analysed and compared with recommendations (RDA and DRI for middle aged and elderly guests, both genders. The obtained results indicated that the meals should be balanced according to nutritional principles, because of too high energy share derived from fats (average 47.95% while just about 37.57% of daily energy was from carbohydrates origin. The energy values were much higher than recommendations for both genders, respectively. The energy share from milk and dairy products origin was 11% of total energy what should be considered as a suitable. The most served dairy product was milk while the ice-cream took the second place. It is necessary to increase the yogurt and similar fermented products consumption, especially for the elderly guests. With milk and dairy products consumption males and females fulfill 92% RDA for calcium, and 61.80 % DRI for elderly, respectively.

  9. Quantitative aspects of crystalline lactose in milk products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roetman, K.

    1982-01-01

    The occurrence of crystalline lactose in milk products and its influence on their physical properties are briefly reviewed. The importance of the quantitive determination of crystalline lactose for scientific and industrial purposes is indicated, and a summary is given of our earlier work. This refe

  10. Quantitative aspects of crystalline lactose in milk products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roetman, K.

    1982-01-01

    The occurrence of crystalline lactose in milk products and its influence on their physical properties are briefly reviewed. The importance of the quantitive determination of crystalline lactose for scientific and industrial purposes is indicated, and a summary is given of our earlier work. This

  11. Dairy stock development and milk production with smallholders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de R.

    1996-01-01

    My work in technical development cooperation and missions in developing countries, touched often upon worldwide dairy development, and stimulated my interest in comparative analysis of technical and economic progress in the sector. This did not only deal with milk production, but increasingly in the

  12. Energy saving potential of emerging technologies in milk powder production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moejes, S.N.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2017-01-01

    Background

    The food industry has a large potential for energy reduction which, with an eye on the future, has to be exploited. Milk powder production consists of many thermal processes and is responsible for 15% of the total energy use in the dairy industry. A reduction in energy consumptio

  13. Review: Production and functionality of active peptides from milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muro Urista, C; Álvarez Fernández, R; Riera Rodriguez, F; Arana Cuenca, A; Téllez Jurado, A

    2011-08-01

    In recent years, research on the production of active peptides obtained from milk and their potential functionality has grown, to a great extent. Bioactive peptides have been defined as specific protein fragments that have a positive impact on body functions or conditions, and they may ultimately have an influence on health. Individual proteins of casein or milk-derived products such as cheese and yogurt have been used as a protein source to study the isolation and activity of peptides with several applications. Currently, the milk whey waste obtained in the production of cheese also represents a protein source from which active peptides could be isolated with potential industrial applications. The active properties of milk peptides and the results found with regard to their physiological effects have led to the classification of peptides as belonging to the group of ingredients of protein nature, appropriate for use in functional foods or pharmaceutical formulations. In this study, the main peptides obtained from milk protein and the past research studies about its production and biological activities will be explained. Second, an analysis will be made on the methods to determinate the biological activities, the separation of bioactive peptides and its structure identification. All of these form the base required to obtain synthetic peptides. Finally, we explain the experimental animal and human trials done in the past years. Nevertheless, more research is required on the design and implementation of equipment for the industrial production and separation of peptides. In addition, different authors suggest that more emphasis should therefore be given to preclinical studies, proving that results are consistent and that effects are demonstrated repeatedly by several research human groups.

  14. Epigenetic regulation of milk production in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kuljeet; Erdman, Richard A; Swanson, Kara M; Molenaar, Adrian J; Maqbool, Nauman J; Wheeler, Thomas T; Arias, Juan A; Quinn-Walsh, Erin C; Stelwagen, Kerst

    2010-03-01

    It is well established that milk production of the dairy cow is a function of mammary epithelial cell (MEC) number and activity and that these factors can be influenced by diverse environmental influences and management practises (nutrition, milk frequency, photoperiod, udder health, hormonal and local effectors). Thus, understanding how the mammary gland is able to respond to these environmental cues provides a huge potential to enhance milk production of the dairy cow. In recent years our understanding of molecular events within the MEC underlying bovine lactation has been advanced through mammary microarray studies and will be further advanced through the recent availability of the bovine genome sequence. In addition, the potential of epigenetic regulation (non-sequence inheritable chemical changes in chromatin, such as DNA methylation and histone modifications, which affect gene expression) to manipulate mammary function is emerging. We propose that a substantial proportion of unexplained phenotypic variation in the dairy cow is due to epigenetic regulation. Heritability of epigenetic marks also highlights the potential to modify lactation performance of offspring. Understanding the response of the MEC (cell signaling pathways and epigenetic mechanisms) to external stimuli will be an important prerequisite to devising new technologies for maximising their activity and, hence, milk production in the dairy cow.

  15. Feeding management and milk production in organic and conventional buffalo farms

    OpenAIRE

    V. Proto; F. Grasso; De Rosa, G.; F. Masucci; A. Di Francia

    2010-01-01

    The feeding management, milk yield and milk composition were investigated in two adjacent buffalo farms, one organic certified (on average, 220 lactating buffalo cows) and one conventional (on average, 314 lactating buffalo cows) located in the Sele Plain (southern Italy). Milk samples from the two farm were collected twice a month during the period from June to November 2006. Milk production was also recorded. The investigated milk components were the content of protein, fat, lactose, urea a...

  16. Milk production increase in a dairy farm under a six-year Brucellosis control program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Enrique; Palomares, Gabriela; Díaz-Aparicio, Efrén

    2008-12-01

    The present work aims to quantify milk production in a bovine dairy herd during a 6-year brucellosis control program in Hidalgo, Mexico, where bovine brucellosis is endemic. This 6-year longitudinal pilot study comprised 74 monthly samplings to determine the incidence of brucellosis and to quantify daily milk production. To determine the monthly incidence of brucellosis, an average of 346 Holstein cows was examined each month with the card and Rivanol tests. These animals had been vaccinated as calves with the normal dose of Brucella abortus RB51 and were revaccinated annually with a reduced dose. Brucellosis is endemic in Mexico, where the control programs include vaccination and diagnosis; nevertheless, it is uncommon to carry out other essential control practices, such as separation and elimination of positive cows. In this herd, the cows positive to the card and rivanol tests were separated in specific units, especially at the moment of delivery. These cows were placed at the end of the line for milking and were eliminated from the herd at the end of their productive cycle. In this dairy herd, cows were milked three times a day and there was a monthly average of 300 cows in production. At the beginning of this study the prevalence of brucellosis was 8.43%; from days 180-330 the incidence was from 0.51% to 0.90%. Between days 360-570, the incidence diminished to 0%; between days 600 to 1140, it increased to 4.46%; and from days 1440 to 2220 the incidence was kept beneath 1%. The average of dairy milk production for each cow per day started with 24 L, increasing in direct proportion to the decrease in the presence of new cases of brucellosis: in the subsequent years, the production increased successively to 25, 27, 28, 29, and 30 L. The daily average per year of milk production in the herd was also quantified: at the beginning of the study it was 7220 L and in subsequent years was 7470, 7710, 8340, 8790, 8970, and 9150 L, respectively. We conclude that a direct

  17. Effect of milking interval on alveolar versus cisternal milk accumulation and milk production and composition in dairy ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKusick, B C; Thomas, D L; Berger, Y M; Marnet, P G

    2002-09-01

    Cisternal and alveolar milk fractions were measured in East Friesian crossbred dairy ewes (n = 32) after 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, or 24 h of milk accumulation in a 6 x 6 Latin square design by administration of an oxytocin receptor antagonist for recuperation of cisternal milk followed by injection of oxytocin to remove the alveolar fraction. Less than half (38 to 47%) of the total milk yield was stored within the cistern for the first 12 h of udder filling compared with up to 57% after 24 h of udder filling. Subsequent milk yield was significantly reduced following the 16-, 20-, and 24-h treatments. Cisternal milk fat percentage, but not milk protein percentage, was lower than in alveolar milk (4.49 vs. 7.92% milk fat, respectively), indicating that casein micelles pass more freely from the alveoli to the cistern between milkings compared with fat globules. Alveolar compared to cisternal somatic cell count was higher for the 16-, 20-, and 24-h treatments. Significant increases in cisternal milk yield and milk composition observed for the 24-h compared with the 20-h treatment demonstrated the importance of the cistern as a storage space when the alveoli and small intramammary ducts became full. The main difference between cisternal and alveolar milk fractions is the poor fat content of cisternal milk, which is an important reason for the milk ejection reflex to be present during machine milking of dairy ewes. In a second experiment, milking every 16 h compared with every 12 h during mid- to late-lactation did not effect milk yield, milk composition, and quality, or lactation length; however, a 25% savings in labor was achieved with the longer milking interval.

  18. The costs of seasonality and expansion in Ireland’s milk production and processing

    OpenAIRE

    Heinschink K.; Shalloo L.; Wallace M

    2016-01-01

    Ireland’s milk production sector relies on grass-based spring-calving systems, which facilitates cost advantages in milk production but entails a high degree of supply seasonality. Among other implications, this supply seasonality involves extra costs in the processing sector including elevated plant capacities and varying levels of resource utilisation throughout the year. If both the national raw milk production increased substantially (e.g. post-milk quota) and a high degree of seasonality...

  19. Effect of Oxytocin Administration before Milking on Milk Production, Somatic Cells Count and fat Contents in Milk of Nili-Ravi Buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Saleem Akhtar*, Laeeq Akbar Lodhi1, Abdul Asim Farooq, M. Mazhar Ayaz, Maqbool Hussain, Mushtaq Hussain Lashari and Zafar Iqbal Chaudhary

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was escorted to know the effect of oxytocin administration before milking on milk production, somatic cells count and fat contents in milk of buffaloes. Twenty lactating Nili-Ravi buffaloes were randomly divided into two groups. Group A (n = 10 buffaloes were treated intramuscularly with 30 IU of oxytocin daily before the start of milking for the period of 7 days, whereas group B (n = 10 buffaloes were given no treatment and served as control. Milk samples were collected from all buffaloes 7 days before (Phase I, during (Phase II and after (Phase III the treatment. There were significantly higher (P<0.05 milk production (liters during phase-II in group A (8.57±0.07 liters buffaloes as compare to group B (8.40±0.04 liters whereas non-significant differences were recorded in the mean milk production between group A and B during phase-I (8.46 vs 8.43 liters and III (8.54 liters. Somatic cells count varied from 72.96 to 97.01 × 103 and 71.86 to 77.14 × 103 cells per ml in group A and B, respectively. Mean somatic cells count were significantly higher (P<0.05 in group A as compared to group B during phases II of study. During phase I, II and III, there were non-significant differences in fat percentage between two groups of buffaloes. It was concluded that milk production and somatic cells count in milk of Nili-Ravi buffalo were affected by oxytocin injection before milking whereas there was no effect of oxytocin on milk fat percentage.

  20. Isolation and identification of Staphylococcus aureus from milk and milk products and their drug resistance patterns in Anand, Gujarat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Brahmbhatt

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was carried out with aim to isolate Staphylococcus aureus from milk and milk products (pedha and curd and determine antibiogram pattern of S. aureus isolates. Materials and Methods: During 9 months duration of study a total of 160 milk and milk product samples (pedha and curd were collected from different places in and around Anand city such as milk collection centre of Co-operative milk dairies, cattle farms, individual household, milk vendors and sweet shops. The samples were collected under aseptic precautions and were enriched in Peptone Water (PW followed by direct plating on selective media viz. Baird-Parker Agar. The presumptive S. aureus isolates were identified by biochemical tests. Antibiogram pattern of S. aureus to antimicrobial agents were evaluated by disk diffusion method. Results: Analysis of result revealed that out of total 160 samples of milk (100 and milk products i.e. curd (30 and pedha (30 resulted in the isolation of 10 isolates (6.25 % of S. aureus. In the present study S. aureus isolates were found variably resistant to the antibiotics tested. The S. aureus isolates showed highest sensitivity towards cephalothin (100.00 %, co-trimoxazole (100.00 %, cephalexin (100.00 % and methicillin (100.00 % followed by gentamicin (90.00 %, ciprofloxacin (80.00 %, oxacillin (70.00 %, streptomycin (60.00 % and ampicillin (60.00 %. The pattern clearly indicated that the overall high percent of S. aureus isolates were resistant to Penicillin-G (100.00 % followed by ampicillin (40.00 %, oxytetracycline and oxacillin (20.00 % and streptomycin and gentamicin (10.00 % Conclusions: Results clearly suggested a possibility of potential public health threat of S. aureus resulting from contamination of milk and milk products with pathogenic bacteria is mainly due to unhygienic processing, handling and unhygienic environment. [Vet World 2013; 6(1.000: 10-13

  1. Issue Relating to The Production and Sale of Milk Products to SC Helvetika Milk SRL Pecica, Arad County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana Ioana Merce

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Food quality and human health influences contemporary life. Today more than ever, quality products to be safe in terms of food to meet the needs and innocuity became major values ​​for all producers, processors, distributors, especially for food consumers who are becoming more aware that their health depends on the quality of the food they consume. The paper recently a case study in a Romanian company in the dairy industry and the manufacture of dairy products, and all commercial operations the object of transaction milk and milk products, a small company that combines managed but we consider traditionalism ( the products we offer to the market modernism ( European requirements, quick marketing, producer - client relationship etc. This paper analyzes the emergence and development aspects of the company, implementing and upgrading production technology, issues related to the introduction of quality management, promotion and sale of products, customer relations, etc. We believe that SC HELVETICA MILK SRL, the constant concern of food safety, raw material procurement stage till marketing - customer satisfaction by offering quality products and thereby ensure customer loyalty. In conclusion, we believe the company is a successful example of business succces Romanian food industry.

  2. Lipases and proteinases in milk : occurrence, heat inactivation, and their importance for the keeping quality of milk products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, F.M.

    1983-01-01

    The occurrence and heat inactivation of native and bacterial lipases and proteinases in milk were studied.

    Production of these enzymes by Gram-negative psychrotrophic bacteria in milk was found to take place towards the end of exponential growth and in the stationary growth

  3. Lipases and proteinases in milk : occurrence, heat inactivation, and their importance for the keeping quality of milk products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, F.M.

    1983-01-01

    The occurrence and heat inactivation of native and bacterial lipases and proteinases in milk were studied.Production of these enzymes by Gram-negative psychrotrophic bacteria in milk was found to take place towards the end of exponential growth and in the stationary growth phase.Kinetics of heat ina

  4. Lipases and proteinases in milk : occurrence, heat inactivation, and their importance for the keeping quality of milk products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, F.M.

    1983-01-01

    The occurrence and heat inactivation of native and bacterial lipases and proteinases in milk were studied.

    Production of these enzymes by Gram-negative psychrotrophic bacteria in milk was found to take place towards the end of exponential growth and in the stationary growth phase.

  5. Whey and dry milk products as feedstocks for ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommer, T C

    1979-10-01

    Surplus whey and dry milk could have supplied about 1,383,723,000 lbs of lactose in 1978 for conversion to approximately 84,632,171 gallons of ethanol. This would be about .00085% of the total gasoline used in the US, or .0085% of the ethanol needed to produce a 10% ethanol/gasoline blend nationwide. To the extent that these are surpluses not desired for food purposes, whey and dry milk can contribute to ethanol supply in a small way. However, no energy or economic assessment has been made so the cost/benefit relationship is unknown.

  6. Greenhouse gas emissions in milk and dairy product chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flysjö, Anna Maria

    Reducing greenhouse gas emissions from dairy products is one important step towards a more sustainable dairy sector. To ensure effective mitigation, reliable assessment methods are required. The present PhD thesis focuses on some of the most critical methodological aspects influencing the carbon...... footprint (CF) of milk and dairy products, namely; estimating CH4 and N2O emissions; accounting for land use change; co-product handling; and defining the functional unit. In addition, the CF is calculated for different types of dairy products, and suggestions on various mitigation measures are presented...

  7. Milk and Dairy Products Labeling in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgescu Cecilia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present communication contains research and experimental investigations regarding the labelling process of dairy products in tight relation with the national and European legislative requirements. Two methods have been used during the marketing research regarding the information present on the labels of alimentary products: the method based on documentation-observation and comparative analysis of data and information collected from the consume market in Sibiu. The method based on documentation and observation has been carried out using the observation sheet and contained the following analysis criteria: The name of the product, Country origin of the product (location of the producer. Synthesizing the results and the conclusions emerged as a result of the marketing research carried out with the purpose of contouring a labelling model of alimentary products, it can be stated that the dynamics of the alimentary products market in Romania is moderate and restrained by the economical and social factors and even by the still reduces promotion of a healthy alimentary education, with the complementary protection of human health and environment.

  8. Aspects of microbial quality of some milk products in Abuja Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Purpose: To assess the microbiological quality of some milk products in ... milk was determined using the antibiotic sensitivity test (zones of inhibition). ... Visual inspection of packages, quality assessment of diary plants/vessels and ...

  9. ANALYSIS OF INTENSITY OF COMPETITION IN MILK AND MILK PRODUCTS SECTOR IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radko RADEV

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The following paper presents the results of an analysis of the intensity of competition in the milk and milk products sector in Bulgaria. The analysis is performed by adapting the Porter’s five forces model and based on the specific features of the sector concerned. For this purpose the author accepts the industrial concept of interpretation of competition: two levels of consideration of the competition intensity are differentiated - product class as a whole and separate product categories. Although not going into greater depth, the study reports the need of deepening the analysis by individual product groups, price levels and specific segments. The author proposes a methodological framework by which an analysis of the intensity of competition is conducted. Due to volume limitations of the publication, the emphasis of the paper is on the intensity of competition between existing companies; the barriers to enter and exit the sector are also presented; substitute products are marked briefly. The remaining forces from the five forces model are marked without going into details.

  10. [Investigation of the residue of the fasciolicide nitroxynil in milk and dairy products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeba, K; Matsumoto, M

    1992-02-01

    A sensitive gas chromatographic method with electron capture detection of the fasciolicide, nitroxynil, in milk and dairy products was developed and was applied to assess nitroxynil concentration in cow's milk after subcutaneous injection of three lactating cows. The level of nitroxynil in cow's milk reached a maximum (0.25-0.26 micrograms/ml) in 6-30 hours, and was undetectable within 8 weeks. Analysis of nitroxynil concentrations in cream, skimmed milk, curd and whey prepared from nitroxynil excreting cow's milk showed that the chemical became concentrated in cream and curd. Nitroxynil appeared to be stable at temperature used in LTLT and HTST pasteurization with the rate of degradation in milk being less than 10%. Investigation of nitroxynil residues in milk (raw, liquid whole, processed) and dairy products (processed cheese, natural cheese, butter, sweetened condensed milk, evaporated skimmed milk, skimmed milk powder, formulated milk powder) was performed during 1976-1979. Nitroxynil was detected in 20% of milk samples at a maximum level of 39 ng/ml, with one formulated milk powder at level of 0.34 ng/g. Confirmation of nitroxynil was performed by GCMS. The results of this investigation were promptly reported to the government. Since then administrative guidance was provided leading to appropriated use of nitroxynil thereafter. The ordinance controlling dairy production amended in 1979 revised the withdrawal time for medicines administrated to cows from "three days" to "the period when medicine remains in the milk". There was no mutagenicity of nitroxynil evident by the Ames test.

  11. Evaluation of milk and dairy products by electronic tongue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Hruškar

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The concept of electronic tongue or taste sensor has been developed rapidly in the last decade due to their large potential in food quality control. The electronic tongue is based on electrochemical sensors combined with multivariate data analysis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the discriminating ability of the electronic tongue for the recognition of different milk and yoghurt samples from different producers and various dairy products from one producer. The results were evaluated by multivariate data analysis - Principal components analysis. The electronic tongue α-ASTREE (Alpha M.O.S has successfully distinguished five brands of milk purchased on the Croatian market, five brands of yoghurt also purchased on Croatian market and differentiated among various products from one dairy producer.

  12. Environmental assessment of the milk life cycle: the effect of packaging selection and the variability of milk production data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, Montse; Pasqualino, Jorgelina; Castells, Francesc

    2012-09-30

    Milk is a very important part of our diet, which is why there is a wide variety of packaging alternatives with considerable local variants on the market. This study assesses the environmental impact of the commonest packaging options on the Spanish market and evaluates (from the point of view of global warming and acidification) the production of the various packaging materials and sizes and their final disposal (landfilling, incineration and recycling). For the two indicators studied (global warming and acidification) larger aseptic carton packages and recycling disposal have the best environmental impact. The global warming and acidification potential of the milk life cycle were also studied: milk production, transport (local conditions), packaging production and packaging disposal. Of the two indicators studied, the milk production stage has the largest impact on the milk life cycle. It should be taken into account that the impact of the milk production stage can vary considerably and has a significant influence on the global warming and acidification potential of the milk life cycle.

  13. Adoption of technology, management practices, and production systems in US milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, A R; Gillespie, J; MacDonald, J

    2010-12-01

    The introduction of new technology, management practices, and alternative production systems has resulted in rapid structural change in the US dairy industry. This paper examines adoption rates and adopter characteristics for the following dairy technologies, practices, and systems: holding pen with an udder washer, milking units with automatic take-offs, genetic selection technologies, recombinant bovine somatotropin, membership in the Dairy Herd Improvement Association, computerized feed delivery systems, computerized milking systems, use of a nutritionist to design feed rations, grazing, milking cows 3 times daily, and milking parlors. Four of these were used on a greater percentage of farms in 2005 than in 2000, but increased farm sizes and the interaction of farm size with adoption suggest a greater percentage of milk being produced under each, with the exception of grazing. Except for grazing, technologies were generally complementary.

  14. Meat and milk products in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weidema, Bo Pedersen; Hermansen, John Erik; Eder, P.

    2009-01-01

    The overall environmental impacts from consumption of meat and dairy products in EU-27 have been assessed by the use of hybrid life cycle assessment (input-output data supplemented by specific process data). For the impact assessment, we applied a flexible model that allows results to be presented...

  15. Distribution of animal drugs between skim milk and milk fat fractions in spiked whole milk: Understanding the potential impact on commercial milk products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seven animal drugs [penicillin G (PENG), sulfadimethoxine (SDMX), oxytetracycline (OTET), erythromycin (ERY), ketoprofen (KETO), thiabendazole (THIA) and ivermectin (IVR)] were used to evaluate drug distribution between milk fat and skim milk fractions of cow milk. Greater than 90% of radioactivity...

  16. Scenarios for the milk production chain in Brazil in 2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Giovinazzo Spers

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian milk production has grown steadily and in 2004 the country became self-sufficient in dairy production. This article develops possible scenarios for the milk production chain in Brazil for the year 2020 in order to contribute to decisions that must be made by stakeholders. A literature review on foresight and the use of scenarios was conducted, and a scenario writing approach based on Wright and Spers (2006 was adopted, which includes the use of the Delphi method, Michael Porter's Five Competitive Forces model, Interpretative Structural Modeling (ISM (WRIGHT, 1991 and quantitative projections. This methodology provided four scenarios, with quantitative and qualitative elements: two exploratory scenarios ("milk, the new agribusiness star" and "a wasted future", a most probable scenario ("continuous but uneven growth" and a desired scenario ("competitive family agriculture". Overall, it is possible to note many market opportunities, as well as niche markets and the strengthening of cooperatives. Future prospects are also favorable to the dairy industry in general, but nearly all scenarios point to a concentration in the industrial sphere.

  17. Short communication: Monitoring nutritional quality of Amiata donkey milk: effects of lactation and productive season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Mina; Altomonte, Iolanda; Salari, Federica; Caroli, Anna M

    2014-11-01

    Milk nutritional characteristics are especially interesting when donkey milk is aimed at consumption by children and the elderly. The aim of this study was to monitor the nutritional quality of Amiata donkey milk during lactation and productive season to provide information on the milk characteristics and to study action plans to improve milk yield and quality. Thirty-one pluriparous jennies belonging to the same farm were selected. Individual samples of milk from the morning milking were taken once per month starting from the d 30 of lactation until d 300. Milk yield and dry matter, fat, and ash content were constant throughout the experimental period. Milk total protein content showed a progressive decrease during the first 6 mo of lactation; after this period, the protein percentages remained constant (1.50%). Caseins and lactose were lower until d 60 of lactation and remained constant thereafter. During summer and autumn, milk yield and casein and lactose contents were higher, whereas during the spring season, higher protein and ash contents were found. The percentages of fat and dry matter were stable as were most of the minerals in the milk, except for calcium, which was higher in the spring. In conclusion, Amiata donkey milk was found to be relatively stable during lactation. This is an advantage in terms of the production and trade of a food product with consistent characteristics. The different milk yield and quality during the productive seasons were probably related to better adaptability of the animals to warm and temperate periods.

  18. Suitability of high pressure-homogenized milk for the production of probiotic fermented milk containing Lactobacillus paracasei and Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrignani, Francesca; Burns, Patricia; Serrazanetti, Diana; Vinderola, Gabriel; Reinheimer, Jorge; Lanciotti, Rosalba; Guerzoni, M Elisabetta

    2009-02-01

    High pressure homogenization (HPH) is one of the most promising alternatives to traditional thermal treatment for food preservation and diversification. In order to evaluate its potential for the production of fermented milks carrying probiotic bacteria, four types of fermented milks were manufactured from HPH treated and heat treated (HT) milk with and without added probiotics. Microbiological, physicochemical and organoleptic analyses were carried out during the refrigerated period (35 d at 4 degrees C). HPH application to milk did not modify the viability of the probiotic cultures but did increase the cell loads of the starter cultures (ca. 1 log order) compared with traditional products. The coagula from HPH-milk was significantly more compacted (Pmilk, and it had the highest values of consistency, cohesiveness and viscosity indexes compared with fermented milks produced without HPH treatment. All the samples received high sensory analysis scores for each descriptor considered. HPH treatment of milk can potentially diversify the market for probiotic fermented milks, especially in terms of texture parameters.

  19. Production and chemical composition of two dehydrated fermented dairy products based on cow or goat milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Fernández, Jorge; Díaz-Castro, Javier; Alférez, Maria J M; Hijano, Silvia; Nestares, Teresa; López-Aliaga, Inmaculada

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the differences between the main macro and micronutrients including proteins, fat, minerals and vitamins in cow and goat dehydrated fermented milks. Fermented goat milk had higher protein and lower ash content. All amino acids (except for Ala), were higher in fermented goat milk than in fermented cow milk. Except for the values of C11:0, C13:0, C16:0, C18:0, C20:5, C22:5 and the total quantity of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, all the other fatty acid studied were significantly different in both fermented milks. Ca, Mg, Zn, Fe, Cu and Se were higher in fermented goat milk. Fermented goat milk had lower amounts of folic acid, vitamin E and C, and higher values of vitamin A, D3, B6 and B12. The current study demonstrates the better nutritional characteristics of fermented goat milk, suggesting a potential role of this dairy product as a high nutritional value food.

  20. Fresh cow mastitis monitoring on day 3 postpartum and its relationship to subsequent milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, K L; Correa, M T; Allen, A; Rodriguez, R R

    2010-12-01

    The purpose was to determine the association of milk California Mastitis Test (CMT), somatic cell concentration (SCC), and milk differential cell count results on day 3 postcalving with subsequent lactation production and health events. On d 3 postcalving, the CMT was performed and quarter milk samples were collected from 130 dairy cows. Quarter SCC and milk differential cell counts were determined. Microbiology on duplicate quarter milk samples was used to determine the presence of intramammary infection by major or minor pathogens. Production measures obtained using Dairy Herd Improvement Association testing were 150-d standardized and summit milks. Milk culture results on a cow basis included 82 (63.1%) samples with no growth, 31 (23.9%) with major pathogens, and 17 (13.1%) with minor pathogens. Milk culture results comparing cows with no growth to those with any growth (major or minor pathogens) were not associated with statistically significant differences in milk production. Milk culture results comparing cows with major pathogens to those with no growth and minor pathogens combined were associated with statistically significant differences in 150 d milk. Milk production did not differ for cows with CMT results above and below a cut-off of trace, and for SCC results above and below cut-offs of 200,000, 300,000, and 400,000/mL, respectively. Statistically significant differences in milk production were found for cows above and below cut-offs for percentage neutrophils in milk and for absolute neutrophil counts. Associations were found for milk production and number of quarters (0, 1, 2, or 3 and 4 combined) above respective cut-offs for SCC, percentage neutrophils in milk, and absolute numbers of neutrophils in milk, but not for CMT. Milk production differed for cows experiencing any health event versus those with no health event. The most commonly recorded health event was clinical mastitis. Statistically significant associations were detected between health

  1. Meat and milk products in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weidema, Bo Pedersen; Hermansen, John Erik; Eder, P.

    2009-01-01

    The overall environmental impacts from consumption of meat and dairy products in EU-27 have been assessed by the use of hybrid life cycle assessment (input-output data supplemented by specific process data). For the impact assessment, we applied a flexible model that allows results to be presented...... both in 15 traditional environmental midpoint indicators (global warming potentials, photochemical ozone creation potential, etc.) and in monetary units (Euro). Specifically for this project, a damage model for aquatic eutrophication was developed. We identified and quantified the improvement options...

  2. DETERMINANTS OF MILK PRODUCTION IN EURO-REGIONS WITH VERY BIG MILK FARMS AFTER 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Śmigla

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the paper was to determine the diversity and factors deciding about the variation in milk production in selected EU macro-regions. Differentiation was determined using cluster analysis, which allowed for the creation of five homogeneous groups of regions. Based on the results of factor analysis factors having a decisive influence on the processes of economic adjustment of very large dairy farms were identified. Additionally, the European macro-regions that developed most after 2004 were mentioned, alongside with those that worsened their competitive position.

  3. Comparison of Salmonella species recovered from Irish liquid milk production holdings with temporal clinical veterinary isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Brenda P; Buckley, James F; O'Connor, Elizabeth M; Gilroy, Deirdre; Fanning, Séamus

    2008-07-01

    The presence of microbiological hazards in foodstuffs including, Salmonella, form a major source of food-borne diseases in humans. In-line milk filters from 97 liquid milk production holdings in Cork, the largest dairy region in Ireland, were surveyed for the presence of Salmonella species at herd level over a 2-year period (September 2001-September 2003). Each dairy farm was visited 6 times at 4 monthly intervals (denoted by cycles A-F). Six of the 97 herds (6%) were positive. Ten isolates were detected based on culture methods. These included five (5%) Salmonella Typhimurium DT104, 4 (4%) Salmonella Dublin, and 1 (1%) Salmonella Agona from a total of 556 filters. During cycle C, in addition to the milk filters, a bulk tank milk (BTM) sample was procured from each dairy holding and analysed but no Salmonella were isolated. For comparison purposes a further 26 temporal veterinary clinical isolates (21 S. Typhimurium of varying phage type, and 5 S. Dublin) were procured from the Cork Veterinary Clinical Diagnostic Laboratory, Cork. The study collection showed resistance to one or more antimicrobial agents. During the study, Salmonella spp. were isolated from five of the herds prior to any clinical signs in the farm animals. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profiles indicated clonality among the isolates pre- and post-clinical illness. A phenotypic and genotypic database for Salmonella spp. has been developed and used for comparative purposes.

  4. Presence of Campylobacter and Arcobacter species in in-line milk filters of farms authorized to produce and sell raw milk and of a water buffalo dairy farm in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serraino, A; Florio, D; Giacometti, F; Piva, S; Mion, D; Zanoni, R G

    2013-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the presence of Campylobacter spp. and Arcobacter spp. in dairy herds authorized for the production and sale of raw milk and in a water buffalo dairy farm, and to test the antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates. A total of 196 in-line milk filters were collected from 14 dairy farms (13 bovine and 1 water buffalo) for detection of Campylobacter spp. and Arcobacter spp. by microbiological culture. For each farm investigated, 1 isolate for each Campylobacter and Arcobacter species isolated was tested using the Etest method (AB Biodisk, Solna, Sweden) to evaluate the susceptibility to ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, ampicillin, erythromycin, and gentamicin. A total of 52 isolates were detected in 49 milk filters in 12 farms (85.7%) out of 14 and the isolates were identified as Campylobacter jejuni (6), Campylobacter hyointestinalis ssp. hyointestinalis (8), Campylobacter concisus (1), Campylobacter fetus ssp. fetus (1), Arcobacter butzleri (22), and Arcobacter cryaerophilus (14). The small number of isolates tested for antimicrobial susceptibility precludes any epidemiological consideration but highlights that all Campylobacter isolates were susceptible to macrolides, which are the first-choice drugs for the treatment of campylobacteriosis, and that resistance to fluoroquinolones and tetracycline was detected; for Arcobacter isolates, resistance to ampicillin and chloramphenicol was detected. The sale of raw milk for human consumption by self-service automatic vending machines has been allowed in Italy since 2004 and the presence of C. jejuni in in-line milk filters confirms that raw milk consumption is a significant risk factor for human infection. The high occurrence of emerging Campylobacter spp. and Arcobacter spp. discovered in dairy farms authorized for production and sale of raw milk represents an emerging hazard for human health.

  5. Attributional and consequential LCA of milk production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Marlies A; Dalgaard, Randi; Heijungs, Reinout

    2008-01-01

    , quality and availability of data. Results  Total environmental burdens were lower when using CLCA compared with ALCA. Major hotspots for the different impact categories when using CLCA and ALCA were similar, but other hotspots differed in contributions, order and type. As experienced by the authors, ALCA...... within CLCA. Outcomes of CLCA are more sensitive to uncertainties compared with ALCA, due to the inclusion of market prospects. The amount of data required within CLCA is similar compared with ALCA. Discussion  The main cause of these differences between ALCA and CLCA is the fact that different systems...... are modelled. The goal of the study or the research question to be answered defines the system under study. In general, the goal of CLCA is to assess environmental consequences of a change in demand, whereas the goal of ALCA is to assess the environmental burden of a product, assuming a status-quo situation...

  6. Organization of lipids in milks, infant milk formulas and various dairy products: role of technological processes and potential impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Christelle; Cauty, Chantal; Guyomarc'h, Fanny

    The microstructure of milk fat in processed dairy products is poorly known despite its importance in their functional, sensorial and nutritional properties. However, for the last 10 years, several research groups including our laboratory have significantly contributed to increasing knowledge on the organization of lipids in situ in dairy products. This paper provides an overview of recent advances on the organization of lipids in the milk fat globule membrane using microscopy techniques (mainly confocal microscopy and atomic force microscopy). Also, this overview brings structural information about the organization of lipids in situ in commercialized milks, infant milk formulas and various dairy products (cream, butter, buttermilk, butter serum and cheeses). The main mechanical treatment used in the dairy industry, homogenization, decreases the size of milk fat globules, changes the architecture (composition and organization) of the fat/water interface and affects the interactions between lipid droplets and the protein network (concept of inert vs active fillers). The potential impacts of the organization of lipids and of the alteration of the milk fat globule membrane are discussed, and technological strategies are proposed, in priority to design biomimetic lipid droplets in infant milk formulas.

  7. Implementation of HACCP system in production of UHT milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Jeličić

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Regulation of the Croatian Food Law (NN 46/07 which demands implementation of food safety management system based on HACCP principles became mandatory at the January 01st 2009. According to that regulation all subjects in food production and retail sector including the dairy industry too are obligant to implement HACCP system in their production processes. In the process of HACCP implementation many problems occur which result in delaying the implementation, scarce performance of assigned monitoring actions and inadequate maintenance and improvement of the system. All of the latter mentioned problems disable proactive functioning and may lead to disturbance of food safety of the end product. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the interpretation of each steps that have to be taken in the process of implementation of HACCP system in the production of UHT milk. Thereby many practical informations and examples have been gathered while reviewing the HACCP system in KIM d.d. Dairy industry, Karlovac, Croatia. This paper contains the examples of all indentified hazards, all assigned control actions, hazard analysis and critical control point determination for the process of UHT milk production in KIM d.d. Dairy industry, Karlovac. Furthermore, also examples and ideas for the traceability, verification and validation, product recall and withdrawal procedures are given.

  8. Lactose hydrolysis and milk powder production: technological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansen Kelis Ferreira Torres

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The food industry has the challenge and the opportunity to develop new products with reduced or low lactose content in order to meet the needs of a growing mass of people with lactose intolerance. The manufacture of spray dried products with hydrolyzed lactose is extremely challenging. These products are highly hygroscopic, which influence the productivity and conservation of the powders, not to mention the undesirable and inevitable technological problem of constant clogging of drying chambers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different levels (0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and > 99% of enzymatic lactose hydrolysis on the production and storage of whole milk powder. The samples were processed in a pilot plant and characterized in relation to their composition analysis; to their degree of hydrolysis of lactose; and to their sorption isotherms. The results indicated the hydrolysis of lactose may affect the milk powder production due to a higher extent of powder adhesion within the spray dryer chambers and due to a higher tendency to absorb water during storage.

  9. Influence of milking number and frequency on milk production in Martina Franca breed asses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Martemucci

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were carried out in Martina Franca asses in order to study milk yield and udder healthy conditions in relation to daily milking number and frequency. Experiment I - A total of 15 asses were subdivided into three groups (N.5 corresponding to: one milking per day, after a 3 hour interval from foal separation by dams (Group A; three milkings per day with 3 hour frequency (Group B; three milkings per day with 2 hour frequency (Group 3M. Experiment II - Evaluation was made of the effect of a schedule of 6 milkings per day with frequency of 2 hours on milk yield (Group 6M; N. 5, compared to Group 3M. Healthy udder conditions in relation to the number of milking per day was monitored in 3M and 6M Groups, by somatic cell count. Average yield per milking was highest (P<0.01 following 3 rather 1 milkings per day and with milking frequency of 3 hours rather than 2 hours (P<0.01. A schedule of six milkings per day did not improve mean milk yield and determined an increase in somatic cell count compared to 3 daily milkings regimen (63.2 vs 17.5 x 1000/mL; P<0.05.

  10. Effect of Zinc Methionine or Zinc Sulfate Supplementation on Milk Production and Composition of Milk in Lactating Dairy Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sobhanirad, Saeid; Carlson, Dorthe; Kashani, Reza Bahari

    2010-01-01

     Zn/kg of dry matter (DM) as zinc sulfate monohydrate (ZnS) and basal diet plus 500 mg Zn/kg of DM as zinc methionine (ZnM). Results showed that milk and fat-corrected milk yield in dairy cows were not significantly affected by Zn source although a numerical increase was observed. The percentages of protein......Eighteen lactating dairy cows were used to compare the effects of organic and inorganic Zn supplements on milk production and chemical composition of milk. Animals received three diets in a randomized block design: basal diet with no supplemental Zn (control, 42 mg Zn/kg), basal diet plus 500 mg......, lactose, fat, solid nonfat, total solid, and density of milk were not significantly different between treatments. However, dairy cows that received ZnM tended to produce more milk and fat-corrected milk with a lower somatic cell count as compared to controls. The zinc concentration in milk in the Zn...

  11. Communication Strategies and Product Line Design

    OpenAIRE

    J. Miguel Villas-Boas

    2004-01-01

    When selling a product line, a firm has to consider the costs of communicating about the different products to the consumers. This may affect the product line design in general, and which products or services are offered in particular. The problem is that firms have to communicate to consumers, possibly through advertising, to make them consider buying the products that firms are selling. This results in the firm offering a smaller number of products than is optimal when advertising has no co...

  12. The interaction between milk and beef production and emissions from land use change – critical considerations in life cycle assessment and carbon footprint studies of milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flysjö, Anna Maria; Cederberg, Christel; Henriksson, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Two most critical factors to address in environmental system analysis of future milk production are 1) the link between milk and beef production, and 2) the competition for land, possibly leading to land use change (LUC) with greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and loss of biodiversity as important...... implications. Different methodological approaches concerning these factors, in studies on environmental impacts of dairy production, sometimes lead to contradictory results. Increasing milk yield per cow is often one of the solutions discussed in order to reduce GHG emissions from milk production. However......, when also accounting for other systems affected (e.g. beef production) it is not certain that an increase in milk yield per cow leads to a reduction in total GHG emissions per kg milk. In the present study the correlation between carbon footprint (CF) of milk and the amount of milk delivered per cow...

  13. Effect of amount of concentrate offered in automatic milking systems on milking frequency, feeding behavior, and milk production of dairy cattle consuming high amounts of corn silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, A; Iglesias, C; Calsamiglia, S; Devant, M

    2007-11-01

    The objective was to evaluate whether the amount of concentrate offered in an automatic milking systems (AMS) would modify milking frequency, feeding behavior, and milk production. One hundred fifteen lactating cows were used in a cross-over design with 2 periods of 90 d each and 2 treatments: low concentrate (LC; up to 3 kg/d of concentrate at the AMS) or high concentrate (HC; up to 8 kg/d of concentrate at the AMS). Cows were evenly distributed in 2 symmetrical pens, each containing 1 AMS and about 50 cows at any given time. All cows received the same total ration (28% corn silage, 1.67 Mcal of net energy for lactation/kg, 16.5% crude protein, DM basis), but a different amount of concentrate from this ration was offered at the AMS depending on treatment. The concentrate at the AMS had the same composition in both treatments. Cows were fetched when time elapsed, because last milking was greater than 12 h. The amount of concentrate offered at the AMS was proportional to the time elapsed since last visit (125 and 333 g/h for LC and HC, respectively). Milk production, total number of daily milkings, number of cows fetched, or number of voluntary milkings were not affected by treatments. The consumption of basal ration was greater in LC than in HC, but this difference was compensated by a greater consumption of concentrate at the AMS in HC than LC cows. Total dry matter intake tended to be lower, therefore, in HC than in LC cows. Eating rate of the basal ration was greater in LC than in HC, but the total amount of time that cows devoted to eat was similar between treatments. Offering high amounts of concentrate to the AMS feeding a basal ration rich in corn silage did not diminish the need for fetching cows and did not increase the number of daily milkings nor milk production.

  14. Dairy product production and lactose demand in New Zealand and Ireland under different simulated milk product-processing portfolios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sneddon N.W.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Maximising dairy industry profitability involves maximising product returns for a specific set of costs or minimising costs for a certain level of output. A strategy currently utilised by the New Zealand dairy industry to optimise the value of exports is to incorporate imported lactose along with local milk to maximise the production of whole milk powder (WMP while complying with the Codex Alimentarius (Codex standards, in addition to increasing the exported product for every litre of milk. This study investigated the impact of different product portfolio strategies on lactose requirements for the Irish and New Zealand dairy industries for current and predicted 2020 milk output projections. A mass balance processing sector model that accounts for all inputs, outputs and losses involved in dairy processing was used to simulate the processing of milk into WMP, skim milk powder (SMP, cheese, butter and fluid milk of different proportions. All scenarios investigated projected an increase in production and revenue from 2012 to 2020. Higher cheese production reduced industry lactose demand through whey processing, while scenarios reliant on an increase in the proportion of WMP were associated with increased lactose deficits.

  15. Improving Buffalo Milk Production to Sustain the Production of Dadih by Small Farmers in West Sumatera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wirdahayati R B

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The swamp buffalo which is found in many Asian regions is mainly raised for meat and draft purposes. However, in West Sumatera, it is also milked and the milk is mostly consumed as “dadih“, a well known traditional product from this area. Dadih is actually a product made from fresh buffalo milk, which is kept in bamboo tube for about 2-3 days under room temperature, without any application or addition of bacteria starter although the end product of this fermentation contains various bacteria, mould and khamir. As the natural fermented milk product, dadih is white in colour and the curd texture like tofu, tastes like yoghurt, and it is generally served as a complementing meal in some traditional occasion as well as delicacy from West Sumatera. Dadih is highly nutritive product, protein and fat contents are higher than those of yoghurt, rich in amino acids and bacteria such as Lactobacillus sp. and low in cholesterol. The raw material for dadih is limited due to the low productivity of fresh buffalo milk which is generally collected for about 0.5 – 2.0 litres/head/day. The effort in sustaining “dadih product“ is directed to the improving the management of the buffalo condition particularly those in lactating period. Feeding improvement is recommended in order to provide an adequate milk for raising its calf and to be milked for making dadih and to support the optimal reproductive activity of the buffalo dam. In future, the assessment on “dadih“ should also include the packaging improvement which can improve and prolong the storage time for the benefit of marketing purposes.

  16. Effect of dietary supplementation with malt extracts on milk production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Formigoni

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The transition period of a cow is characterized by marked changes in metabolism as the cow prepares for parturition and lactogenesis. Aim of the present study was the evaluation of the effect of feeding dairy cows with malt extracts on milk production. Ten days before calving, 22 multiparous Holstein dairy cows were divided in two groups and received for four months the same base diet added with an experimental concentrate (1.5kg/cow/day containing either corn starch and malt extracts (ME or only corn starch (CS as the main energy source. Dry matter intake was not influenced by treatment and averaged 21.7kg of DM/cow/day. The use of malt extracts determined a numerical increase of milk yield (+0.7kg/cow/day, i.e. +2.5% but this difference did not reach the significance level. Milk quality parameters were not influenced by treatment. Further studies will be needed to assess if feeding diets rich in very high fermentable carbohydrates to transition dairy cows can be a valuable strategy.

  17. HPLC-MS Analysis of Chloramphenicol Residues in Milk and Powdered Milk Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bošnir, J.

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Chloramphenicol (CAP is a broad-spectrum antibiotic with bacteriostatic action but also has toxic properties, which is why its presence in food and feed is prohibited in Croatia and the European Union.In the aim of consumer protection it is essential to develop a sensitive analytical method for detection of CAP fractions lower than w = 0.3 µg kg-1. For the efficient control and monitoring of CAP, a rapid, sensitive, and selective method for its identification and quantification, using highperformance liquid chromatography in combination with mass spectrometry LC-MS, has been developed.The cleaning procedure was based on the AOAC official method 993.32. HPLC-MS analysis used the ODS Hypersile column and the water/acetonitrile gradient. Electrospray negative ionization (neg ESI was used before single ion monitoring (SIM detection of three m/z 321, 323 and 325. As additional criteria, the ratio between these masses in real and spiked milk samples was also investigated in accordance with theoretical values of the isotope pattern for 2 chlorine atoms present in the analyte.The detection limit of 0.1 µg kg-1 was achieved. The mean value of recovery was 94 %, the correlation coefficient of the calibration curves calculated for 2 m/z values was higher than 0.99.Fourty samples of milk and milk products were tested with the HPLC-MS method, and obtained results showed that samples had CAP 0.37, 0.29, 0.39 µg kg-1, respectively. All the other analysed samples contained CAP concentrations below the detection limit.

  18. RESEARCH ON THE TRENDS IN MILK PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agatha POPESCU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper was to analyze the main trends in the milk and dairy products market in Romania in the period 2007-2012 and to set up the forecast for the 2013-2015 horizon, based on the empirical data provided by the National Institute of Statistics and Eurostat and using the fixed basis index, average change method, and comparison method. Milk production for consumption reached 210 thou tons in 2012 registering a descending trend. Despite that milk production decreased in the period 2007-2012, the production diversification applied by dairies supported the growth of dairy products output as follows: by 13.54 % for milk, by 3.45 % for sour cream, and by 13 % for butter. The forecast for the year 2015 provides that the production of dairy products will account for: 223,936.6 tons milk for consumption, 48,709.4 tons sour cream, 166,674.2 tons acidulated milk, 9,937.6 tons butter and 66,584.4 tons cheese. The development of milk processing imposes the improvement of production technologies, products quality, efficiency and competitiveness. Due to the unbalanced demand/offer ratio, after the elimination of milk quota, the Romanian milk and dairy products market will be invaded by foreign products.

  19. [The thermophilic streptomycetes flora in milk powders and condensed milk products (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkowski, J

    1978-08-01

    247 specimens of powdered milk and 165 of condensed milk were tested for their contamination with thermophile Streptomycetes. Colonies of these contaminants were isolated from all specimens of powdered milk and from 73 samples of condensed sweeted milk. The isolated strains corresponded with the following species of thermophilic Streptomycetes: Thermoactinomyces vulgaris, Tsiklinsky 1899, Thermoactinomyces vulgaris, Tsiklinsky 1899 "giant colonies", Micromonospora sp. (Agre et al., 1).

  20. An effective increase in milk production through triticale feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derbal, Nora; Benbelkacem, A; Dib, Y

    2014-01-01

    Since the first studies in Algeria in 1999, 2002 and 2005, triticale has been used in arid and semi-arid areas mainly for livestock production. Efforts have been done for the utilization of triticale as hay, silage and hole grain to feed dairy cattle and small ruminants (sheep). Studies have shown that triticale could be easily integrated in the existing crop-livestock system of northern Algeria. In spite of the good results in the yield performance and adaptation to diverse environments, decision makers are not giving the necessary attention to triticale. Dairy cattle holders that tested the crop have adopted it quickly and developed it in an informal way. Now, more than 90% of the triticale seed business is in the hands of private farmers without any help or subsidies nor a good price policy to develop strongly this crop. The utilization of triticale in Algeria is roughly as follow: human consumption 5%, forage crop (hay or silage) 60% and 30% as feed grain, the remaining 5% are kept for sowing seed. In our studies we have compared different feed sources (barley, triticale, concentrate diet and mixtures) to dairy cattle and sheep. Triticale showed highly significantly better results for meat production and gave also an amazing response for dairy and sheep milk production in Algeria. Milk production of animals fed with triticale over exceeded the other feed sources by 26% to 53%; mean weight gain exhibited the same rates.

  1. Effect of oilseeds rich in linoleic and linolenic acids on milk production and milk fatty acid composition in dairy cows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanxia GAO; Tao SUN; Jianguo LI

    2009-01-01

    Nine multiparous cows averaging 93±13 days in milk production (DIM) were used in a triple 3×3 Latin square design to determine the effects of feeding them whole roasted flaxseed, cracked roasted soybean and fresh alfalfa in the diet on milk production, milk fatty acid profiles and the digestibility of nutrients. Each experimental period lasted 30 d and a sample collection was performed during the last 7 d. The cows were fed on the control basal diet (CON) or diets containing whole roasted flaxseed (FLA) or cracked roasted soybean (SOY). All diets were fed as a total mixed ration (TMR) and had similar concentrations of crude protein (CP), Net Energy Lactation (NEL), acid detergent fibre (ADF) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF). The dry matter intake (DMI) was not significantly different (P>0.05), but tended to increase in FLA and SOY diets compared with the control (P > 0.05). Cows in all treatments had a similar milk yield, although 4% fat corrected milk (FCM) yield was higher on the FLA and SOY diets than on the CON diet. Milk fat percentage (3.45%) increased in the FLA diet compared with the control (3.31%) and SOY diets (3.39%). Milk protein percentages were similar among the diets (P > 0.05). There were similar digestibilities of DM, CP and ADF among the treatments and lower digestibilities of NDF and ether extract in the SOY diet compared with the CON diet. Feeding various oilseeds significantly increased the concentrations of C18:1, C18:3 and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). The FLA diet decreased the ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty-acids in the milk, which would improve the nutritive value of the milk.

  2. Life Cycle Assessment modeling of milk production in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamzeh Soltanali

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Livestock units are known as one of the most influential sectors in the environment pollution. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the environmental impacts of milk production in Guilan province of Iran through Life Cycle Assessment (LCA methodology. The primary data were collected from 45 units of milk production through a field survey with the help of a structured questionnaire. The reliability was assessed using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient and was estimated an acceptable value of 0.91. The consumption of resources and emissions were allocated to a functional unit (FU of one ton of milk. Impacts of emissions in five impact categories of global warming, acidification, eutrophication, photochemical oxidation and depletion of resources were investigated. The results showed that the characterization index for these impact categories were 1831 kg CO2 eq, 7.97 kg SO2 eq, 3.42 kg PO4−3 eq, 0.21 kg C2H4 eq and 838.39 MJ, respectively. Final indices for these impact categories were calculated as 0.24, 0.28, 0.076, 0.017 and 0.046, respectively. Environmental index (EcoX and resources depletion index (RDI were obtained 0.61 and 0.04, respectively. In this study, the highest potential for environmental impacts of production revealed for acidification and followed by global warming impact category.

  3. Association between product quality control and process quality control of bulk milk

    OpenAIRE

    Velthuis, A.; Asseldonk, van, M.M.L.

    2010-01-01

    Assessment of dairy-milk quality is based on product quality control (testing bulk-milk samples) and process quality control (auditing dairy farms). It is unknown whether process control improves product quality. To quantify possible association between product control and process control a statistical analysis was conducted. The analysis comprised 64.373 audit results on 26,953 dairy farms and all conducted lab tests of bulk-milk samples two, six or 12 months before the audit. Lab results in...

  4. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 in milk and milk products in Ogun State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhigbe Ivbade

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC O157 is a major cause of food-borne illnesses in humans. This study investigated the presence of STEC O157 in milk and milk products in Ogun State, Nigeria. Of a total of 202 samples 10 (5% were positive for STEC O157 including 1 (2% of 50 raw milk samples, 3 (6% of 50 samples of fresh local cheese, 1 (2% of 50 samples of fried local cheese and 5 (9.6% of 52 fermented milk samples. There was no significant difference (p>0.05 in the prevalence of STEC O157 among the sample types. Of 10 isolates, shiga toxin 1 gene (stx1 was detected only in 2 samples (20%, shiga toxin 2 (stx2 was extracted only in 6 samples (60%, stx1 /stx2 in 2 samples (20.0%, intimin gene (eaeA in 5 samples (50%, and enterohaemolysin (E-hlyA gene was isolated in 7 (70% samples. Rates of resistance of the STEC O157 isolates were: amoxicillin/clavulanic acid 100%, ampicillin 100%, chloramphenicol 60%, nalidixic acid 20%, norfloxacin 10%, streptomycin 30%, sulphamethoxazole/trimethprim 20%, and tetracycline 90%. The isolates were all susceptible to ciprofloxacin and neomycin. The presence of virulent multidrug resistant E. coli O157 strains in milk and milk products as revealed by this study unveils a risk of human exposure to these potentially fatal pathogens following consumption of contaminated products.

  5. Effect of dietary supplementation with malt extracts on milk production

    OpenAIRE

    A. Formigoni; PEZZI, P.; I. Fusari; Biagi, G

    2010-01-01

    The transition period of a cow is characterized by marked changes in metabolism as the cow prepares for parturition and lactogenesis. Aim of the present study was the evaluation of the effect of feeding dairy cows with malt extracts on milk production. Ten days before calving, 22 multiparous Holstein dairy cows were divided in two groups and received for four months the same base diet added with an experimental concentrate (1.5kg/cow/day) containing either corn starch and malt extracts (ME) o...

  6. Biodiesel Production from Waste Coconut Oil in Coconut Milk Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop a 3 step biodiesel production from waste coconut oil taken from a wastewater pond in a coconut milk manufacturing plant. Special attention was paid to optimizing the first step, acid catalyzed hydrolysis, to convert the waste coconut oil into high free fatty acid oil, 83.32 wt%. The first step was the acid hydrolysis, in order to produce high free fatty acid oil. The optimum condition in acid hydrolysis was 5 % by mass of hydrochloric acid, in order...

  7. SANITARY EVALUATION OF MILK PRODUCTS IN MOUNTAIN DAIRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mioni

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available between 2006 and 2007 881 samples of “malga” (little mountain dairies milk products were analysed to estimate their hygienic characteristics. Several samples showed high counts for Escherichia coli and coagulase-positive staphylococci, while Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. were absent in all of the samples; 0,9% of cheese samples, 4,1% of butter samples and 4,7% of “ricotta” samples were positive for Listeria monocytogenes, so as 14,7% of cheese samples for staphylococcal enterotoxins.

  8. [recovery Of Staphylococcus Aureus After Acid Injury In Milk Products].

    OpenAIRE

    Assis, E M; CARVALHO, E.P. de; E.R. Asquieri; Robbs, P G

    2015-01-01

    The growth behavior of Staphylococcus aureus in fresh Cheese (Minas and Muzzarella) during their shelf-life was studied. The possible injury of this microorganism caused by the increasing acidity was also investigated. Raw milk was inoculated with 10(6) cells/ml (S. aureus FRIA-100) and the cheese production was performed according to normal procedures. Minas and muzzarella cheese were stored at 7 degrees C for 40 and 60 days, respectively. At 2-3 days intervals, the following analysis were p...

  9. Cheesemaking in highland pastures: Milk technological properties, cream, cheese and ricotta yields, milk nutrients recovery, and products composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamaschi, M; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Stocco, G; Valorz, C; Bazzoli, I; Sturaro, E; Ramanzin, M; Bittante, G

    2016-12-01

    Summer transhumance of dairy cows to high Alpine pastures is still practiced in many mountainous areas. It is important for many permanent dairy farms because the use of highland pastures increases milk production and high-priced typical local dairy products often boost farm income. As traditional cheese- and ricotta-making procedures in Alpine pastures are central to this dairy system, the objective of this study was to characterize the quality and efficiency of products and their relationships with the quality and availability of grass during the grazing season. The milk from 148 cows from 12 permanent farms reared on a temporary farm located in Alpine pastures was processed every 2wk during the summer (7 cheesemakings from late June to early September). During each processing, 11 dairy products (4 types of milk, 2 by-products, 3 fresh products, and 2 ripened cheeses) were sampled and analyzed. In addition, 8 samples of fresh forage from the pasture used by the cows were collected and analyzed. At the beginning of the pasture season the cows were at 233±90d in milk, 2.4±1.7 parities, and produced 23.6±5.7kg/d of milk. The milk yield decreased with the move from permanent to temporary farms and during the entire summer transhumance, but partly recovered after the cows returned to the permanent farms. Similar trends were observed for the daily yields of fat, protein, casein, lactose, and energy, as we found no large variations in the quality of the milk, with the exception of the first period of Alpine pasture. The somatic cell counts of milk increased during transhumance, but this resulted from a concentration of cells in a lower quantity of milk rather than an increase in the total number of cells ejected daily from the udder. We noted a quadratic trend in availability of forage (fresh and dry matter weight per hectare), with a maximum in late July. The quality of forage also varied during the summer with a worsening of chemical composition. The evening milk

  10. Impact of industrial production and packaging processes on the concentration of per- and polyfluorinated compounds in milk and dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Still, Mona; Schlummer, Martin; Gruber, Ludwig; Fiedler, Dominik; Wolz, Gerd

    2013-09-25

    Perfluorinated alkylated compounds (PFAA) have been identified in milk and dairy products at sub ppb levels, however, knowledge on the impact of industrial milk processing on PFAA levels is rare. This study examined industrial milk processing first by analytical screening of products of a cooperating dairy, which varied in kind and number of processing steps. Second, amounts of PFAA in raw milk, cream, skim milk, butter milk, and butter were mass balanced in industrial production. For migration testing, unpacked butter was sampled from the production and exposed to original packaging at 5 °C for 45 days. Screening identified dairy products with high fat contents to bear higher loads of PFAA. The mass balance of butter production revealed a significant impact of phase separation processes on concentrations in fat rich and aqueous phases. Storage of butter in packaging coated with a fluorinated polymer increased butter levels of both PFAA and FTOH.

  11. Microbiological detection of probiotic microorganisms in fermented milk products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radka Burdychová

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of health benefits have been claimed for probiotic bacteria such as Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus rhamnosus. Because of the potential health benefits, these organisms are increasingly incorporated into dairy foods. However, to reach health benefits, the concentration of probiotics have to be 106 CFU/g of a product. For assessing of required probiotic bacteria quantity, it is important to have a working method for selective enumeration of these probiotic bacteria. Five bacteriological media were evaluated to assess their suitability to selectively enumerate Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium spp. Bacteriological media evaluated included Streptococcus thermophilus agar, pH modified MRS agar, MRS-vancomycine agar and BSM (Bifidus selective medium agar under different culture conditions.Seven selected fermented milk products with probiotic culture were analyzed for their bacterial populations using the described selective bacteriological media and culture conditions. All milk products contained probiotic microorganisms claimed to be present in declared quantity (106–107/g.

  12. Association between Dictyocaulus viviparus status and milk production parameters in Dutch dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dank, M; Holzhauer, M; Veldhuis, A; Frankena, K

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the association between Dictyocaulus viviparus bulk tank milk (BTM) test results and milk production and milk composition parameters in adult Dutch dairy cattle herds. Bulk tank milk samples were collected in August and November 2013, and ELISA tests were performed. Two hundred BTM positive (BTM+) and 200 BTM negative (BTM-) herds were selected based on their BTM test result of November 2013, obtained from a list of farms that participated in the Dutch GD Animal Health voluntary monitoring program for controlling nematode infections. The relationship between D. viviparus BTM status and 3 production parameters (milk production, milk fat %, and milk protein %) in summer (June to August 2013) and autumn (September and October 2013) was investigated using generalized linear mixed models. Production data were available for 126 BTM- herds and 109 BTM+ herds. Results showed that a positive D. viviparus status was associated with decreased milk production (June: -1.01, July: -1.19, August: -1.68, September and October: -1.33kg/cow per d). Milk fat percentage was 0.14% and 0.08% lower during summer and autumn, respectively, in BTM+ herds. No significant association was demonstrated between a positive BTM test result and milk protein percentage. Because a strong correlation was present between the BTM status for D. viviparus and that for Ostertagia ostertagi, these losses cannot be attributed to one of the two parasites. However, it is clear that these parasite infections have a considerable effect on production.

  13. Greenhouse gas emissions in milk and dairy product chains: Improving the carbon footprint of dairy products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flysjoe, A.M.

    2012-11-01

    The present PhD project has focused on some of the most critical methodological aspects influencing GHG emission estimates of milk and dairy products and how the methodology can be improved. In addition, the Carbon Footprint (CF) for different types of dairy products has been analysed. Based on these results, mitigation options have been identified along the entire dairy value chain. The key methodological challenges analysed in the present study are: estimation of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emissions, assessment of CO{sub 2} emissions from land use change (LUC), co-product handling, and definition of the functional unit. Estimates of the biogenic emissions CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O are associated with large uncertainties due to the complexity and natural variation in biological processes. Accounting for these variations resulted in a {+-}30-50% variation in the CF for milk in Sweden and New Zealand (excluding emissions from LUC). The inclusion of emissions from LUC can drastically affect the CF of dairy products, and different models can even provide contradictory results. Thus, it is suggested that emissions associated with LUC are reported separately and that underlying assumptions are clearly explained. Accounting for the by-product beef is decisive for the CF of milk, and when designing future strategies for the dairy sector, milk and meat production needs to be addressed in an integrated approach. It is shown that an increase in milk yield per cow does not necessarily result in a lower CF of milk, when taking into account the alternative production of the by-product beef. This demonstrates that it is important to investigate interactions between different product chains, i.e. to apply system thinking. The CF of dairy products from Arla Foods analysed in the present study range from: 1.2-5.5 kg CO{sub 2}e per kg fresh dairy products, 7.3-10.9 kg CO{sub 2}e per kg butter and butter blends, 4.5-9.9 kg CO{sub 2}e per kg cheese, and 1.0-17.4 kg CO{sub 2}e per kg milk

  14. Effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Pimpinella anisum L. seeds on milk production in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Hossein; Tafaghodi, Mohsen; Abedzadeh, Shirin; Taghiabadi, Elahe

    2014-08-01

    Pimpinella anisum L. (P. anisum) is used as a galactagogue in traditional medicine; hence, the effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of P. anisum seeds on milk production in rats was evaluated. The milk production was assessed by measuring the pups' weights during the suckling period. The intraperitoneal LD(50) values of P. anisum aqueous and ethanolic extracts were 4.93 and 3.77 g/kg, respectively. The aqueous (1 g/kg) and ethanolic extracts (1 g/kg) increased the milk production significantly (p anisum aqueous and ethanolic extracts can increase milk production in rats.

  15. Association between product quality control and process quality control of bulk milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthuis, A.; Asseldonk, van M.A.P.M.

    2010-01-01

    Assessment of dairy-milk quality is based on product quality control (testing bulk-milk samples) and process quality control (auditing dairy farms). It is unknown whether process control improves product quality. To quantify possible association between product control and process control a statisti

  16. Investigation of the migration of triclabendazole residues to milk products manufactured from bovine milk, and stability therein, following lactating cow treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, C; Danaher, M; Sayers, R; O'Brien, B; Clancy, C; Furey, A; Jordan, K

    2013-10-01

    Triclabendazole (TCB) is a flukicide used in the treatment of liver fluke in cattle; however, its use is currently prohibited in lactating dairy cows. In this study, following administration of 10% Fasinex (triclabendazole, Novartis Animal Health UK Ltd., Camberley, UK) the milk of 6 animals was used to manufacture dairy products, to ascertain if TCB residues in milk migrate into dairy products. The detection limit of the ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method used was 0.67 μg/kg. The highest concentrations of TCB residue measured, within the individual cow milk yield, was 1,529 ± 244 µg/kg (n=6), on d 2 posttreatment. Days 2 and 23 posttreatment represented high and low residue concentrations, respectively. At each of these 2 time points, the milk was pooled into 2 independent aliquots and refrigerated. Milk products, including cheese, butter, and skim milk powder were manufactured using pasteurized and unpasteurized milk from each aliquot. The results for high residue milks demonstrated that TCB residues concentrated in the cheese by a factor of 5 (5,372 vs. 918 µg/kg for cheese vs. milk) compared with the starting milk. Residue concentrations are the sum of TCB and its metabolites, expressed as keto-TCB. Residues were concentrated in the butter by a factor of 9 (9,177 vs. 1,082 μg/kg for butter vs. milk) compared with the starting milk. For milk, which was separated to skim milk and cream fractions, the residues were concentrated in the cream. Once skim milk powder was manufactured from the skim milk fraction, the residue in powder was concentrated 15-fold compared with the starting skim milk (7,252 vs. 423 µg/kg for powder vs. skim milk), despite the high temperature (185 °C) required during powder manufacture. For products manufactured from milk with low residue concentrations at d 23 posttreatment, TCB residues were detected in butter, cheese, and skim milk powder, even though there was no detectable residue in the

  17. Influence of dairy farming method and other production factors on lipid metabolism and quality parameters of cow's milk

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Hoang Phuong Trinh

    2015-01-01

    Organic milk has been popularly developed in western dairy industry. This milk was believed to bring better health benefits than conventional milk and thus, receiving high attention from consumers in recent years. The chemical composition of organic milk versus conventional milk remains an attractive research direction in order to improve knowledge using advanced techniques such as metabolic profiling. On the other hand, milk constituents could vary with other production factors as well as pr...

  18. LINE BALANCING ANALYSIS OF TUNER PRODUCT MANUFACTURING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAERYIP SIHOMBING,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The processing time and the number of operators have strong relationship with the productivity of production lines. In the tuner production line, three significant factors related to productivity through using of line balancing method are the number of operator, production tools/equipment, and production process. This studyperformed the line balancing method through simulation model in order to reduce the line unbalancing causes and relocate the workforce associated to idle time, eliminating the bottleneck, and at the same time maintaining/ improving the productivity. To analyze the production line, we use a develop simulation tool, called Fact-Model, to modeling the production line (with the graph of critical path network and working time and the works estimated (related to the cycle time, takt time, non-value added activities, quantity, and cost. Fact-Model is facilitated with the features that enable the user to depict the real production flows by using their owned realpictures/photos taken into their simulation model.

  19. Supporting Product Line Evolution with Framed Aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loughran, Neil; Rashid, Awais; Zhang, Weishan

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses how evolution in software product lines can be supported using framed aspects: a combination of aspect-oriented programming and frame technology. Product line architectures and assets are subject to maintenance and evolution throughout their lifetime due to the emergence of n...

  20. Safety in the redesigning of production lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyhrberg, Mette Bang; Broberg, Ole; Jacobsen, Peter

    2006-01-01

    This paper is a case study report on how safety considerations were handled in the process of redesigning a production line. The design process was characterized as a specification and negotiation process between engineers from the company and the supplier organization. The new production line...

  1. Factors Effecting of Milk Productions in Select Herds of Slovak Spotted Breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Bujko

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim this work was analyse factors effecting on the milk production in select breeding herds of the Slovak spotted breed. Data were analysed using the Statistical Analysis System version 9.3.1 and linear model with fixed effects of herd-year-season of calving, genetic group, father, number of lactation and cod of milk production. Average of traits of milk production was 5266.4 kg of milk, 222.19 kg of fat, 177.79 kg of proteins and 251.37 kg of lactose. The linear model to represent coefficient determination R2 = 0.598099 for milk production with all fixed effects. The analysis by the effect was the highest effect of herd-years-season of calving (0.3724 than effect of father (0.3017. Correlation coefficients between milk, fat, protein, lactose in kgs (r=0.90826, r= 0.98260, r= 0.98830, were statistically high significant.

  2. Cleaner production opportunity assessment for a milk processing facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbay, A; Demirer, G N

    2007-09-01

    Possible cleaner production (CP) opportunities for a milk processing facility were examined in this study. The CP concept and its key tools of implementation were used to assess the potential CP opportunities in the facility studied. The general production process and its resulting environmental loads were investigated by taking possible CP opportunities as the basis of study. The methodology developed for CP opportunity assessment in the milk processing facility covered two major steps: preparation of checklists to assist auditing and CP opportunity assessment, and implementation of the mass-balance analysis. For mass-balance analysis, measurements and experimental analysis of the mass flows were utilized to determine the inputs and outputs. Prepared checklists were utilized to determine waste reduction options that could be implemented. Selected opportunities were evaluated considering their environmental benefits and economic feasibility. The results of the study indicated that 50% of the service water used, 9.3% of the current wastewater (WW) discharge, 65.36% of the chemical use and the discharge of 181.9 kg/day of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 20.7 kg/day of total suspended solids (TSS) could be eliminated and 19.6% of the service water used could be recycled/reused.

  3. Palmitic acid increased yields of milk and milk fat and nutrient digestibility across production level of lactating cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piantoni, P; Lock, A L; Allen, M S

    2013-01-01

    The effects of palmitic acid supplementation on feed intake, digestibility, and metabolic and production responses were evaluated in dairy cows with a wide range of milk production (34.5 to 66.2 kg/d) in a crossover design experiment with a covariate period. Thirty-two multiparous Holstein cows (151 ± 66 d in milk) were randomly assigned to treatment sequence within level of milk production. Treatments were diets supplemented (2% of diet DM) with palmitic acid (PA; 99% C16:0) or control (SH; soyhulls). Treatment periods were 21 d, with the final 4 d used for data and sample collection. Immediately before the first treatment period, cows were fed the control diet for 21 d and baseline values were obtained for all variables (covariate period). Milk production measured during the covariate period (preliminary milk yield) was used as covariate. In general, no interactions were detected between treatment and preliminary milk yield for the response variables measured. The PA treatment increased milk fat percentage (3.40 vs. 3.29%) and yields of milk (46.0 vs. 44.9 kg/d), milk fat (1.53 vs. 1.45 kg/d), and 3.5% fat-corrected milk (44.6 vs. 42.9 kg/d), compared with SH. Concentrations and yields of protein and lactose were not affected by treatment. The PA treatment did not affect dry matter (DM) intake or body weight, tended to decrease body condition score (2.93 vs. 2.99), and increased feed efficiency (3.5% fat-corrected milk/DM intake; 1.60 vs. 1.54), compared with SH. The PA treatment increased total-tract digestibility of neutral detergent fiber (39.0 vs.35.7%) and organic matter (67.9 vs. 66.2%), but decreased fatty acid (FA) digestibility (61.2 vs. 71.3%). As total FA intake increased, total FA digestibility decreased (R(2) = 0.51) and total FA absorbed increased (quadratic R(2) = 0.82). Fatty acid yield response, calculated as the additional FA yield secreted in milk per unit of additional FA intake, was 11.7% for total FA and 16.5% for C16:0 plus cis-9 C16:1 FA

  4. Improving the sustainability of global meat and milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Andrew M

    2017-02-01

    Global demand for meat and dairy products has increased dramatically in recent decades and, through a combination of global population growth, increased lifespan and improved economic prosperity in the developing world will inevitably continue to increase. The predicted increases in livestock production will put a potentially unsustainable burden on global resources, including land for production of crops required for animal feed and fresh water. Furthermore, animal production itself is associated with greenhouse gas production, which may speed up global warming and thereby impact on our ability to produce food. There is, therefore, an urgent need to find methods to improve the sustainability of livestock production. This review will consider various options for improving the sustainability of livestock production with particular emphasis on finding ways to replace conventional crops as sources of animal feeds. Alternatives, such as currently underutilised crops (grown on a marginal land) and insects, reared on substrates not suitable for direct consumption by farm animals, represent possible solutions. Coupled with a moderation of excessive meat consumption in wealthier countries, such strategies may secure the long-term sustainability of meat and milk production and mitigate against the adverse health effects of excessive intake.

  5. Influence of raw milk quality on processed dairy products: How do raw milk quality test results relate to product quality and yield?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Steven C; Martin, Nicole H; Barbano, David M; Wiedmann, Martin

    2016-12-01

    This article provides an overview of the influence of raw milk quality on the quality of processed dairy products and offers a perspective on the merits of investing in quality. Dairy farmers are frequently offered monetary premium incentives to provide high-quality milk to processors. These incentives are most often based on raw milk somatic cell and bacteria count levels well below the regulatory public health-based limits. Justification for these incentive payments can be based on improved processed product quality and manufacturing efficiencies that provide the processor with a return on their investment for high-quality raw milk. In some cases, this return on investment is difficult to measure. Raw milks with high levels of somatic cells and bacteria are associated with increased enzyme activity that can result in product defects. Use of raw milk with somatic cell counts >100,000cells/mL has been shown to reduce cheese yields, and higher levels, generally >400,000 cells/mL, have been associated with textural and flavor defects in cheese and other products. Although most research indicates that fairly high total bacteria counts (>1,000,000 cfu/mL) in raw milk are needed to cause defects in most processed dairy products, receiving high-quality milk from the farm allows some flexibility for handling raw milk, which can increase efficiencies and reduce the risk of raw milk reaching bacterial levels of concern. Monitoring total bacterial numbers in regard to raw milk quality is imperative, but determining levels of specific types of bacteria present has gained increasing importance. For example, spores of certain spore-forming bacteria present in raw milk at very low levels (e.g., products to levels that result in defects. With the exception of meeting product specifications often required for milk powders, testing for specific spore-forming groups is currently not used in quality incentive programs in the United States but is used in other countries (e.g., the

  6. Profitability indicators of milk production cost center in intensive systems of production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauber dos Santos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to estimate some profitability indicators of dairy cost center farms with a high volume of daily production in feedlot. The Intended was also to identify the components that had the greatest influence on the operational cost. We used data from three milk systems production, with the origin of the purebred Holsteins. It was considered as a milk cost center production all expenses related in lactating and dry cows. The methodology used total cost and operating cost in profitability analysis. A production system, by presenting gross margin, net positive result, was able to produce short, medium and long term. Another production system had a positive gross margin and net, with conditions to survive in the short and medium term. Finally, the third system of production has shown a negative gross margin presenting decapitalizing and entering into debt, as revenues were not enough to pay operating expenses even effective. The component items of the effective operational cost that exercised higher “impact” cost and income from milk were, in decreasing order, the feeding, labor, miscellaneous expenses, sanitation, energy, milking, reproduction, equipment rental, BST and taxes.

  7. AN ECONOMIC MODEL OF U.S. IMPORTS OF BUTTER AND MILK FAT PRODUCTS

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, Kenneth W.; Wu, Zhen

    2005-01-01

    This study developed a model to explain monthly imports of butter and butter substitutes. The U.S. imports butter and other high milk fat products that can substitute for a strict definition of butter. These products include dairy spreads, butter substitutes, anhydrous milk fat, and food preparations. The U.S. imports these high milk fat products under a tariff-rate quota system (TRQ) implemented by the World Trade Organization (WTO). This study quantified all the milk fat contained in U.S. b...

  8. Optimizing product lines and assortments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooderkerk, R.P.

    2007-01-01

    How should manufacturers and retailers optimize the sets of products they offer? Increasing product proliferation forces firms to solve these complex optimization problems ever more frequently. While the existing literature has made some headway in solving these problems, the three essays in this

  9. Optimizing product lines and assortments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooderkerk, R.P.

    2007-01-01

    How should manufacturers and retailers optimize the sets of products they offer? Increasing product proliferation forces firms to solve these complex optimization problems ever more frequently. While the existing literature has made some headway in solving these problems, the three essays in this di

  10. Staphylococcus aureus reservoirs during traditional Austrian raw milk cheese production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walcher, Georg; Gonano, Monika; Kümmel, Judith; Barker, Gary C; Lebl, Karin; Bereuter, Othmar; Ehling-Schulz, Monika; Wagner, Martin; Stessl, Beatrix

    2014-11-01

    Sampling approaches following the dairy chain, including microbiological hygiene status of critical processing steps and physicochemical parameters, contribute to our understanding of how Staphylococcus aureus contamination risks can be minimised. Such a sampling approach was adopted in this study, together with rapid culture-independent quantification of Staph. aureus to supplement standard microbiological methods. A regional cheese production chain, involving 18 farms, was sampled on two separate occasions. Overall, 51·4% of bulk milk samples were found to be Staph. aureus positive, most of them (34·3%) at the limit of culture-based detection. Staph. aureus positive samples >100 cfu/ml were recorded in 17·1% of bulk milk samples collected mainly during the sampling in November. A higher number of Staph. aureus positive bulk milk samples (94·3%) were detected after applying the culture-independent approach. A concentration effect of Staph. aureus was observed during curd processing. Staph. aureus were not consistently detectable with cultural methods during the late ripening phase, but >100 Staph. aureus cell equivalents (CE)/ml or g were quantifiable by the culture-independent approach until the end of ripening. Enterotoxin gene PCR and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing provided evidence that livestock adapted strains of Staph. aureus mostly dominate the post processing level and substantiates the belief that animal hygiene plays a pivotal role in minimising the risk of Staph. aureus associated contamination in cheese making. Therefore, the actual data strongly support the need for additional sampling activities and recording of physicochemical parameters during semi-hard cheese-making and cheese ripening, to estimate the risk of Staph. aureus contamination before consumption.

  11. Cheese production using kefir culture entrapped in milk proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrellou, Dimitra; Kandylis, Panagiotis; Kourkoutas, Yiannis; Koutinas, Athanasios A; Kanellaki, Maria

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the use of kefir culture entrapped in casein and in whey protein as starter cultures for the production of Feta-type cheese. Microbiological analysis showed that counts of enterobacteria, coliforms, and staphylococci were significantly reduced due to kefir culture. In addition, the effect of kefir culture on the formation of volatile compounds, such as esters, organic acids, alcohols, carbonyl compounds, and lactones, was also investigated using the SPME GC/MS technique. Cheese samples produced with kefir culture entrapped in milk proteins presented improved profile of aroma-related compounds. Principal component analysis of the results indicated that the volatile composition of the different cheese types was dependent on the nature of the starter culture. Finally, the sensory evaluation showed that the products produced with kefir culture had a soft, fine taste, and were of improved quality.

  12. Tool for assessing the intervention effect on milk production in an evolutionary operation setup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stygar, Anna Helena; Krogh, Mogens Agerbo; Østergaard, Søren

    2016-01-01

    Modern dairy herds resemble factories. Cows, organized in production units, are manufacturing milk from many components (e.g. concentrates, silage). However, both production units and components can greatly differ between each other. Therefore, production optimization based on general recommendat......Modern dairy herds resemble factories. Cows, organized in production units, are manufacturing milk from many components (e.g. concentrates, silage). However, both production units and components can greatly differ between each other. Therefore, production optimization based on general...

  13. Development of parmesan cheese production from local cow milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliwarga, Lienda; Christianti, Elisabeth Novi; Lazarus, Chrisella

    2017-05-01

    Parmesan cheese is one of the dairy products which is used in various foods, such as pasta, bakery product, and pizza. It has a hard texture due to aging process for at least two years. Long aging period inhibited the production of parmesan cheese while consumer demands were increasing gradually. This research was conducted to figure out the effect of starter culture and rennet dose to the production of parmesan cheese. This research consists of (1) pasteurization of 1,500 ml milk at 73°C; and (2) main cheese making process that comprised of fermentation process and the addition of rennet. In latter stage, milk was converted into curd. Variations were made for the dose of bacteria culture and rennet. Both variables correlated to the fermentation time and characteristics of the produced cheese. The analysis of the produced cheese during testing stage included measured protein and cheese yield, whey pH, water activity, and moisture content. Moreover, an organoleptic test was done in a qualitative manner. The results showed that the dose of bacteria culture has a significant effect to the fermentation time, protein yield, and cheese yield. Meanwhile, rennet dose significantly affected cheese yield, pH of whey, and water activity. The highest protein yield (93.1%) was obtained at 0.6 ml of culture and 0.5 ml of rennet while the maximum cheese yield (6.81%) was achieved at 0.4 ml of culture and 0.1 ml of rennet. The water activity of produced cheeses was lower compared to the water activity of common parmesan cheese (ca. 0.6). For the organoleptic test, 0.4 ml of bacterial culture and 0.5 ml of rennet produced the most preferred cheese flavor compared to other variations.

  14. Microbes from raw milk for fermented dairy products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, J.T.M.; Ayad, E.H.E.; Hugenholtz, J.; Smit, G.

    2002-01-01

    Milk has a high nutritive value, not only For the new-born mammal and for the human consumer, but also for microbes. Raw milk kept at roam temperature will be liable to microbial spoilage. After some days, the milk will spontaneously become sour. This is generally due to the activity of lactic acid

  15. Perceptions of Dairy Farmers of Gadag district in northwestern part of Karnataka state, India regarding Clean Milk Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivakumar K. Radder and S.K. Bhanj

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Clean milk production is one important aspect in enhancing the quality of milk. It is important to know farmers' perception about it. With this view, present study was undertaken with the objective of understanding perception of dairy farmers about clean milk production. The study was conducted in six villages of Gadag district of Karnataka state. A total of 180 respondents were interviewed. Perceptions of the farmers regarding family manpower involved in dairy farming, personnel involved in milking, dairy income, intention to produce clean milk, price dependence for following clean milk production, reasons for following cleanliness measures in milk production, sale price received for milk and satisfaction for the price they received for milk were studied. Most of the dairy farmers expressed their willingness to follow clean milk production measures. Further, most of them were ready to follow such measures even if they were not paid more price for milk. Farmers practiced clean milk production measures mainly to follow regulations at the dairy co-operative society followed by to avoid spoilage of milk. Dairy farmers largely neglected impact of cleanliness on animals' udder and health, about milk contamination causing health hazards. Milking was mainly a domain of women. For over 80 % farmers, dairy farming provided a moderate income as portion of their total family income. Majority of the producers were not satisfied with price they were getting for milk. Hence, the study recommends, requisite facilities and guidelines from the agencies concerned are needed to be provided to the dairy farmers to adopt clean milk production practices. Proper education to the farmers regarding importance of clean milk production from health, marketing and animal health point of views needs to be given. There is need to give more importance to women in dairy farmers' trainings. The study also suggests offering satisfactory price for milk to hasten the process of

  16. Evaluating the links between intake of milk/dairy products and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas, Carlos E A; Rogero, Marcelo M; Martini, Lígia A

    2012-05-01

    Milk and dairy products are widely recommended as part of a healthy diet. These products, however, can contain hormones such as insulin-like growth factor 1, and some studies have suggested that a high intake of milk and dairy products may increase the risk of cancer. This review examines recent studies on this topic, with the evidence suggesting that the recommended intake of milk and dairy products (3 servings/day) is safe and, importantly, does not seem to increase the risk of cancer. On the basis of the studies included in this review, cultured milk, yogurt, and low-fat dairy products should be preferred as the milk and dairy products of choice.

  17. Short communication: economics of sex-biased milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettema, J F; Østergaard, S

    2015-02-01

    In a recent data study using 2.4 million lactations of 1.5 million cows, it was reported that gestation of a female calf in the first parity increases cumulative milk production by approximately 445kg over the first 2 lactations. The reported effect in this study is large and remarkable because it has not been found before. To our knowledge, the economic implications of this or any other sex bias have not been studied. The objective of the current study was to quantify the reported influence of fetal sex across lactations by using a simulation model of a dairy herd including youngstock. Two scenarios were evaluated and compared with a scenario in which cows and heifers were exclusively bred with conventional (nonsexed) semen. In the first scenario, sexed semen was used moderately-on 30% of all heifers and 30% of the first parity cows. A second scenario was studied in which sexed semen was used intensively-on all heifers and 50% of the first-parity cows. The simulated proportion of cows giving birth to 2 consecutive heifers increased from 23% when using exclusively conventional semen up to 31 and 48% when using sexed semen moderately and intensively, respectively. The proportion of cows having 2 consecutive bulls decreased from 27% (conventional semen only) to 20 and 8% when using sexed semen moderately and intensively, respectively. When incorporating the sex bias in the simulation model, the simulated milk yield in the scenario in which sexed semen was used moderately increased by 48kg of energy-corrected milk (ECM) per cow/yr, compared with only 36kg of ECM when not incorporating the sex bias in the model. For the scenario in which sexed semen was used intensively, milk yield increased by 66 and 99kg of ECM when excluding and including the sex bias, respectively. The economic implications of the assumed sex bias were €4.0 and €9.9 per cow/yr, in the scenarios in which sexed semen was used moderately and intensively, respectively. Copyright © 2015 American

  18. Continuous lactation in dairy cows: Effect on milk production and mammary nutrient supply and extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, T. G.; Nielsen, M. O.; Andersen, Jens Bech

    2008-01-01

    function may be achievable in continuously milked high-yielding dairy cows as a result of the genetic selection for lactation performance and hence longevity of mammary epithelial cells. The milk production and mammary nutrient uptake in response to omission of the dry period for cows with an expected peak...... milk yield higher than 45 kg/d were studied in 28 Holstein dairy cows managed without bovine somatotropin. Performance and metabolic parameters were followed in late gestation and in the following early lactation. Fourteen cows were milked continuously throughout late gestation, and another 14 dairy...... triggered by as yet unknown local mechanisms. Milk protein content was elevated by 0.4 percentage units in the continuously milked cows. The underlying reason is unknown, but given the current pricing system for milk, it deserves to be further investigated....

  19. Psychrotrophic bacteria and their negative effects on milk and dairy products quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šimun Zamberlin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of bacterial populations in raw milk at the time of processing has a significant influence on shelf-life, organoleptic quality, spoilage and yields of raw milk, processed milk as well as on the other dairy products. Unfortunately, cold and extended storage of raw milk, as a common practice in dairy sector today, favour the growth of psychrotrophic bacteria. Therefore, their count in the refrigerated milk is more than the ideal limit of 10 % of the mesophilic count. Psychrotrophic bacteria are generally able to form extracellular or intracellular thermo-resistant enzymes (proteases, lipases, phospolipases which can contribute to milk and dairy products spoilage. In addition, besides exhibiting spoilage features, some species belonging to the psychrotrops are considered as emerging pathogens that carry innate resistance to antibiotics or produce toxins. In sense of quality, psychrotrophic bacteria have become major problem for today’s dairy industry as leading cause in spoilage of cold-storage milk and dairy products. This review article focuses on the impact of psychrotrops on quality problems associated with raw milk as well as on th final dairy products. Means of controlling the dominant psychrotrophic species responsible for undesirable activities in milk and dairy products were also discussed.

  20. Life cycle assessment of conventional and organic milk production in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomassen, M.A.; Calker, van K.J.; Smits, M.C.J.; Iepema, G.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Production of milk causes environmental side effects, such as emission of greenhouse gases and nutrient enrichment in surface water. Scientific evidence that shows differences in integral environmental impact between milk production systems in the Netherlands was underexposed. In this paper, two Dut

  1. Life cycle assessment of conventional and organic milk production in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomassen, M.A.; Calker, van K.J.; Smits, M.C.J.; Iepema, G.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Production of milk causes environmental side effects, such as emission of greenhouse gases and nutrient enrichment in surface water. Scientific evidence that shows differences in integral environmental impact between milk production systems in the Netherlands was underexposed. In this paper, two

  2. 75 FR 61418 - Milk for Manufacturing Purposes and Its Production and Processing; Requirements Recommended for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ... market milk or of processing plants to produce dairy products in their State. AMS is publishing this... Agricultural Marketing Service Milk for Manufacturing Purposes and Its Production and Processing; Requirements...: Notice; request for comments. SUMMARY: This document proposes to amend the recommended manufacturing...

  3. Product line management: organization makes the difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, D J; Thompson, K A

    1987-02-01

    Three dominant models of product line management are emerging in the healthcare industry today--market management, distribution management, and strategic business unit management. These models offer unique benefits for the healthcare organization. It is important to use the model that best fits the needs of the institution. Therefore, an analytical framework has been developed to help the organization evaluate and implement the proper model to ensure successful organizational change. This article is the second in a three-past series on product line management in health care. The first article dealt with the question of whether product line management will work in the healthcare industry.

  4. Optimisation of minimal media for production of aroma compounds typical for fermented milk products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevenka Mazić

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to optimize the composition of minimalgrowth media containing lactose and milk, in which lactic acid bacteria (LAB would produce the maximum amount of volatile aroma compounds typical for fermented milk products. Ingredients used for the preparation of media were casein, tri-sodium-citrate, lactose, milk minerals, whey proteins and milk with 1.5% fat. The several prepared media differed mainly in the amount of citrate and whey proteins. Fermentation was carried out at room temperature until the media reached pH value of 5. Samples were evaluated for sensory characteristics using quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA. In all media the target pH was reached after 68-71 hours of fermentation, depending on citrate level. Fermentation and the production of aroma compounds were more intensive in media that contained whey proteins compared to media with only casein. Increased citrate level had a positive influence on the aroma production. Citrate increased the initial pH of the media and acted as a buffer during fermentation, which lead to longer fermentation and prolonged production of aroma compounds. At pH around 5, the desired cultured aroma was the most intensive, whereas sour taste was less dominant. The substrate with 0.25% citrate and 0.1% whey proteins, at pH 5, was rated as best regarding its sensory characteristics.

  5. Effect of oregano and caraway essential oils on the production and flavor of cow milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lejonklev, Johan; Kidmose, U.; Jensen, S.

    2016-01-01

    of essential oils, 0.2 and 1.0 g of oil/kg of dry matter, were added to the feed of lactating cows for 24 d. No effects on feed consumption, milk production, and methane emissions were observed. The amount and composition of volatile terpenes were altered in the produced milk based on the terpene content....... Essential oils from caraway (Carum carvi) seeds and oregano (Origanum vulgare) plants were included in dairy cow diets to study the effects on terpene composition and sensory properties of the produced milk, as well as feed consumption, production levels of milk, and methane emissions. Two levels...

  6. How does co-product handling affect the carbon footprint of milk? Case study of milk production in New Zealand and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flysjö, Anna Maria; Cederberg, Christel; Henriksson, Maria

    2011-01-01

    for handling co-products, no agreed understanding on applicable methods is available. In the present study, the greenhouse gases (GHG) associated with the production of 1 kg of energy-corrected milk (ECM) at farm gate is investigated considering co-product handling. Materials and methods Two different milk......Purpose This paper investigates different methodologies of handling co-products in life cycle assessment (LCA) or carbon footprint (CF) studies. Co-product handling can have a significant effect on final LCA/CF results, and although there are guidelines on the preferred order for different methods...... production systems were used as case studies in the investigation of the effect of applying different methodologies in co-product handling: (1) outdoor grazing system in New Zealand and (2) mainly indoor housing system with a pronounced share of concentrate feed in Sweden. Since the cows produce milk, meat...

  7. Agronomic performance of sorghum seed production lines.

    OpenAIRE

    Flores-Naveda, Antonio; Valdés-Lozano, Ciro G.S; Francisco ZAVALA-GARCÍA; Olivares-Saénz, Emilio; Gutiérrez-Díez, Adriana; Vázquez-Badillo, Mario Ernesto

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the agronomic performance of A, B isogenic lines and R grain sorghum lines which restore androfertility of sorghum for grain production. This work was performed during the spring-summer 2010 in Marin Nuevo Leon under drip irrigation. Days to flowering, seed yield per plant, brix degrees and weight of 1000 seeds were measured. The statistical analysis with the benchmark test of averages with independent samples was realized in A, B sorghum lines to da...

  8. Simulation of milk production by dairy cows fed sugarcane top-based diets with locally available supplements under Indian condition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Behera, U.K.; Kebreab, E.; Dijkstra, J.; Assis, A.G.; France, J.

    2005-01-01

    A model of sugarcane digestion was applied to indicate the suitability of various locally available supplements for enhancing milk production of Indian crossbred dairy cattle. Milk production was calculated according to simulated energy, lipogenic, glucogenic and aminogenic substrate availability. T

  9. Detection of IL-6 in human milk and its involvement in IgA production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, S; Maruyama, M; Kato, Y; Moriyama, I; Ichijo, M

    1991-09-01

    A large amount of interleukin-6 (IL-6) was found to be contained in human whey. The concentration of IL-6 in colostrum was significantly higher than that in serum or in milk taken 1 month after parturition. Colostrum contained many more mononuclear cells than late milk. In terms of the proportion of monocytes, T cells and B cells, however, there is no difference between colostrum and late milk. There is a significantly positive correlation between the concentration of IL-6 and the number of mononuclear cells in milk. This demonstrates that IL-6 in whey is derived in part from mononuclear cells. Stimulation of human milk mononuclear cells by Staphylococcus aureus Cowan I in the presence of anti-IL-6 antibody markedly decreased the production of IgA. This suggests that IL-6 contained in milk is closely associated with the local production of IgA in the breast.

  10. Use of Lactobacillus helveticus BGRA43 for Manufacturing Fermented Milk Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanka Lukic

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus helveticus BGRA43 isolated from human intestines shows antimicrobial activity against foodborne pathogens and during fermentation in milk releases peptides with demonstrated anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, it was found that strain BGRA43 exhibits antimicrobial activity against human pathogens Yersinia enterocolitica, Shigella sonnei, S. flexneri and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Strain BGRA43 was able to survive in simulated gastric juice containing milk and retained cell number stability during the incubation in simulated intestinal conditions. In addition, LC/MS/MS analysis showed the ability of BGRA43 to hydrolyze β-lactoglobulin. Abundant growth of strain BGRA43 occurred in the presence of prebiotics inulin or concentrated oat bran β-glucan (Nutrim®, even when used as the sole carbon source. Similarly, strain BGRA43 grew satisfactorily in pure cow's or goat's milk as well as in the milk containing inulin or Nutrim®. Using the probiotic strain BGRA43 as a single starter strain, fermented milk products obtained from cow's or goat's milk with or without inulin or Nutrim® contained about 107 CFU/mL. The products were homogeneous and viscous and the best sensory scores were observed for fermented milk beverage made from reconstituted skimmed milk, whole cow's milk and whole goat's milk supplemented with 1 % inulin.

  11. [Recovery of Staphylococcus aureus after acid injury in milk products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assis, E M; De Carvalho, E P; Asquieri, E R; Robbs, P G

    1994-01-01

    The growth behavior of Staphylococcus aureus in fresh Cheese (Minas and Muzzarella) during their shelf-life was studied. The possible injury of this microorganism caused by the increasing acidity was also investigated. Raw milk was inoculated with 10(6) cells/ml (S. aureus FRIA-100) and the cheese production was performed according to normal procedures. Minas and muzzarella cheese were stored at 7 degrees C for 40 and 60 days, respectively. At 2-3 days intervals, the following analysis were performed: acidity, pH, S. aureus counting using agar Baird Parker by the traditional methods and by the method recommended by the American Public Health Association to evaluate the reparation of injured cells. We had a secure indication of the presence of injured S. aureus when acidity was in the range of 0.7 to 0.8% expressed in lactic acid and when the cycle was 1.3 log higher than the traditional one.

  12. Identification and quantification of bovine protein lactosylation sites in different milk products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milkovska-Stamenova, Sanja; Hoffmann, Ralf

    2016-02-16

    The microbiological safety of milk is typically guaranteed by thermal treatments, such as pasteurization and ultra high temperature (UHT) treatment, whereas infant formula (IF) is often produced at even harsher conditions including a drying process. Thermal treatments have raised concerns, as they may denature proteins and initiate protein modifications. Previous studies identified already many lactosylation sites in milk and showed that the lactosylation degree of some proteins correlates to thermal treatment conditions. Here, we studied the glycation degrees of 124 lactosylation sites in 28 bovine milk proteins in raw milk, three brands of pasteurized milk, three brands of UHT milk, and five brands of IF. Whereas, the glycation degree of many lactosylation sites increased from raw milk, to pasteurized milk, UHT milk, and IF, several modification sites showed a different behavior indicating that global measures do not correctly reflect the reactivity of distinct sites. Interestingly, the glycation degrees varied considerably among the brands of UHT milk and IF indicating that specific production processes of a company have to be considered and not only the classification of milk as pasteurized or UHT. Thus, proper adjustments of the technical processes should allow reducing the lactosylation levels in both UHT milk and IF. It is well established that thermal treatment of milk triggers protein modifications, such as lactosylation of lysine residues in several proteins, although the extent of lactosylation has not been quantitatively compared for a broad panel of protein lactosylation sites among different commercial products. The current study extends previous reports by relatively quantifying 124 confirmed lactosylation sites in 28 bovine milk proteins including several low abundant proteins. Whereas, glycation is generally assumed to be an unspecific chemical reaction with the modification degrees depending on the protein and sugar concentrations, we could show

  13. Association between difficulty initiating sleep in older adults and the combination of leisure-time physical activity and consumption of milk and milk products: a cross-sectional study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kitano, Naruki; Tsunoda, Kenji; Tsuji, Taishi; Osuka, Yosuke; Jindo, Takashi; Tanaka, Kiyoji; Okura, Tomohiro

    2014-01-01

    .... This study investigates whether participating in LTPA in conjunction with consuming milk and milk products has a beneficial association with difficulty initiating sleep (DIS) among older adults...

  14. Experimental Determination of Thermal Condutivity of Various Milk and Vegetable Oil Products

    OpenAIRE

    Özkal, Sami Gökhan; Tülek, Yahya

    2001-01-01

    Thermal conductivity values of various milk and vegetable oil products were determined over a temperature range of 25o-75oC. Thermal conductivity of milk samples having higher solid content were found to be less than those having lower solid content. Thermal conductivity values of milk samples increased with increasing temperature. Thermal conductivity of oil samples was found to be similar and not to change with the increasing temperature. Also, mathematical models for the pre...

  15. Sustainability evaluation of pasteurized milk production with a life cycle assessment approach: An Iranian case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafiee, Shahin, E-mail: shahinrafiee@ut.ac.ir [Department of Agricultural Machinery Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural, Engineering and Technology, University of Tehran, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khoshnevisan, Benyamin, E-mail: b_khoshnevisan@ut.ac.ir [Department of Agricultural Machinery Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural, Engineering and Technology, University of Tehran, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Environmental Specialist Research Team (ESRTeam), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohammadi, Issa; Aghbashlo, Mortaza; Musazadeh, Hossein [Department of Agricultural Machinery Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural, Engineering and Technology, University of Tehran, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Clark, Sean [Agriculture and Natural Resources Program, Berea College, Berea, KY (United States)

    2016-08-15

    Agro-food systems play a significant role in the economies of all nations due to energy use and the resulting environmental consequences. The sustainability of these systems is determined by a multitude of interacting economic, social and environmental factors. Dairy production presents a relevant example of the sustainability trade-offs that occur within such systems. On the one hand, dairy production constitutes an important part of the human diet, but it is also responsible for significant emissions of potent greenhouse gases and other pollutants. In this study, the environmental aspects of pasteurized milk production in Iran were investigated using a life-cycle approach. Three sub-systems, namely feed production, dairy farm and dairy factory, were taken into account to determine how and where Iranian pasteurized milk production might be made more environmentally friendly and energy efficient. The results clearly demonstrate that the feed production stage was the hot spot in pasteurized milk production in terms of energy consumption, environmental burdens and economic costs. The largest share of the total production costs belonged to animal feeds (43%), which were part of the feed production stage. The largest consumers of energy in the production of raw milk were alfalfa (30.3%), concentrate (24%), straw (17.8%) and maize (10.9%) for cows, followed by diesel fuel (6.6%) and electricity (5.6%). The global warming potential for the production of 1000 kg of raw milk at the dairy-farm gate was estimated at 457 kg CO{sub 2,eq}. Thus, more than 69% of the total impact at the milk-processing gate resulted from the previous two sub-systems (feed production and dairy farm), with the feed-production stage accounting for the largest fractions of the environmental burdens. - Highlights: • Environmental aspects of milk production in Iran were investigated using LCA. • Feed production, dairy farm and dairy factory were taken into account. • Feed production stage was

  16. Effects of increasing milking frequency during the last 28 days of gestation on milk production, dry matter intake, and energy balance in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastani, R R; Del Rio, N Silva; Gressley, T F; Dahl, G E; Grummer, R R

    2007-04-01

    Forty-eight Holstein cows were used in a randomized block design to evaluate different dry period lengths and prepartum milking frequencies (MF) on subsequent milk production, milk composition, solids-corrected milk production, dry matter intake (DMI), and energy balance. Lactating cows, milked 2 times/d, began a 7-d covariate period 35 d prior to the expected calving date. Cows were milked 0 times/d (0x), 1 time/d (1x), and 4 times/d (4x) for the last 28 d of gestation. If milk production decreased to less than 0.5 kg/milking or 1 kg/d, milking via machine ceased; however, teat stimulation continued 1 or 4 times/d according to the treatment assignment. All cows were milked 2 times/d postpartum (wk 1 to 10). Prepartum DMI tended to be greater for 1x and 4x compared with 0x. Prepartum, cows milked 1x produced 17% less milk than cows milked 4x (5.9 and 7.1 kg/d, respectively). There were no differences in prepartum and postpartum body condition scores, body weights, and DMI. Postpartum milk production by cows following their third or greater gestation was greater for 0x and 4x compared with 1x. Postpartum milk production by cows following their second gestation was significantly decreased with increased MF (0x vs. 1x and 4x). Regardless of parity, postpartum solids-corrected milk was greater for 0x compared with 1x and 4x. Postpartum fat yield was greater for 0x vs. 4x, with 1x being intermediate. Postpartum protein yield was greater for 0x vs. 4x, whereas 0x tended to have greater protein yield than 1x. Postpartum energy balance was greater for 1x and 4x relative to 0x. Continuous milking (1x and 4x) resulted in a loss of milk production in the subsequent lactation for cows following their second gestation; however, for cows following their third or greater gestation, increasing the MF from 1x to 4x in the last 28 d of gestation alleviated the loss in milk production.

  17. The Halal status of additives in milk and dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Midhat Jašić

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The market of halal products in the world keeps growing and there are more and more requests for certifying and proving the halal status of a food product. Halal in Islamic regulations means allowed for eating. Islamic laws related to the food, strictly forbid the use of food originating from pork, alcohol, blood and other products that are not in accordance with Islamic rules. In order to get the halal status, dairy products have to prove that they do not contain raw mater and additives that are forbidden. Level of allowance is related with their status which can be Halal (permitted, Haram (forbidden and Mashbuh (suspected. In establishing the system for Halal foodprocessing, proactive preventive process approach is used. In validation of the process there are analytical methods to prove the origin of the food. Specially difficult is to prove the presence of additives which during the process experience chemical transformations. The ELISA PCR, HLPC methods are used for the validation. This paper presents additives that are the most common in milk processing and can have Haram (forbidden by Islamic rules and Mashbuh (suspected origin.

  18. The contribution of milk and milk products to micronutrient density and affordability of the U.S. diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewnowski, Adam

    2011-10-01

    To be successful, dietary guidance needs to identify foods that are nutrient rich, affordable, and appealing. Analyses of dietary surveys on "what we eat in America" can now be supplemented by analyses of nutrient density as well as nutrient cost. To explore the relative contribution of 9 food groups to energy and nutrient intakes and to assess the relative cost of selected nutrients by major food group. Dietary intake data were provided by the 4 cycles of the continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2001-2002, 2003-2004, 2005-2006, and 2007-2008). Research on the nutritive value and cost of U.S. foods was made possible by the merging of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food and Nutrition Database for Dietary Studies (FNDDS 2.0) with the USDA food prices database. Nutrient densities were calculated per 100 kcal. Nutrient costs were calculated as the dollar cost of meeting 10% daily value for a given nutrient. Despite their low energy contribution (10%-13% of energy), milk and milk products contributed 47% of calcium, 42% of retinol, and 65% of vitamin D to the diets of children and adults. Milk and milk products were among the top sources of riboflavin, phosphorous, and vitamin B(12). Cost analyses showed that milk and milk products were by far the lowest-cost source of dietary calcium and were among the lowest-cost sources of riboflavin and vitamin B(12). Vegetables and fruit were the lowest-cost sources of vitamin C, whereas dry beans and legumes were the lowest-cost sources of fiber. The nutrients-per-calorie and nutrient cost metrics can help identify affordable nutrient-rich foods.

  19. Modern internet technologies in market promotion of dairy products and milk

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ye.V. Krykavskyi; O.M. Stets

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the article. Special relevancy of the dairy products promotion system on Ukrainian milk and dairy products market, along with traditional instruments such as availability of goods in time and territorial aspects...

  20. Valuation of milk composition and genotype in cheddar cheese production using an optimization model of cheese and whey production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, H A; Parvin, L; Garnett, I; DePeters, E J; Medrano, J F; Fadel, J G

    2007-02-01

    A mass balance optimization model was developed to determine the value of the kappa-casein genotype and milk composition in Cheddar cheese and whey production. Inputs were milk, nonfat dry milk, cream, condensed skim milk, and starter and salt. The products produced were Cheddar cheese, fat-reduced whey, cream, whey cream, casein fines, demineralized whey, 34% dried whey protein, 80% dried whey protein, lactose powder, and cow feed. The costs and prices used were based on market data from March 2004 and affected the results. Inputs were separated into components consisting of whey protein, ash, casein, fat, water, and lactose and were then distributed to products through specific constraints and retention equations. A unique 2-step optimization procedure was developed to ensure that the final composition of fat-reduced whey was correct. The model was evaluated for milk compositions ranging from 1.62 to 3.59% casein, 0.41 to 1.14% whey protein, 1.89 to 5.97% fat, and 4.06 to 5.64% lactose. The kappa casein genotype was represented by different retentions of milk components in Cheddar cheese and ranged from 0.715 to 0.7411 kg of casein in cheese/kg of casein in milk and from 0.7795 to 0.9210 kg of fat in cheese/kg of fat in milk. Milk composition had a greater effect on Cheddar cheese production and profit than did genotype. Cheese production was significantly different and ranged from 9,846 kg with a high-casein milk composition to 6,834 kg with a high-fat milk composition per 100,000 kg of milk. Profit (per 100,000 kg of milk) was significantly different, ranging from $70,586 for a high-fat milk composition to $16,490 for a low-fat milk composition. However, cheese production was not significantly different, and profit was significant only for the lowest profit ($40,602) with the kappa-casein genotype. Results from this model analysis showed that the optimization model is useful for determining costs and prices for cheese plant inputs and products, and that it can

  1. Relationships of efficiency to reproductive disorders in Danish milk production: a stochastic frontier analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, L G; Bruun, J; Coelli, T; Agger, J F; Lund, M

    2004-01-01

    Relationships of various reproductive disorders and milk production performance of Danish dairy farms were investigated. A stochastic frontier production function was estimated using data collected in 1998 from 514 Danish dairy farms. Measures of farm-level milk production efficiency relative to this production frontier were obtained, and relationships between milk production efficiency and the incidence risk of reproductive disorders were examined. There were moderate positive relationships between milk production efficiency and retained placenta, induction of estrus, uterine infections, ovarian cysts, and induction of birth. Inclusion of reproductive management variables showed that these moderate relationships disappeared, but directions of coefficients for almost all those variables remained the same. Dystocia showed a weak negative correlation with milk production efficiency. Farms that were mainly managed by young farmers had the highest average efficiency scores. The estimated milk losses due to inefficiency averaged 1142, 488, and 256 kg of energy-corrected milk per cow, respectively, for low-, medium-, and high-efficiency herds. It is concluded that the availability of younger cows, which enabled farmers to replace cows with reproductive disorders, contributed to high cow productivity in efficient farms. Thus, a high replacement rate more than compensates for the possible negative effect of reproductive disorders. The use of frontier production and efficiency/inefficiency functions to analyze herd data may enable dairy advisors to identify inefficient herds and to simulate the effect of alternative management procedures on the individual herd's efficiency.

  2. Factors Effecting of the Milk Production in Select Herd of Slovak Spotted Breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Hric

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim this study was analyse factors effecting on the milk production in select herd of the Slovak spotted breed. Data were analysed using the Statistical Analysis System version 9.3.1 and linear model with fixed effects of herdyear- season of calving, breeding type, father, number of lactation. Average of traits of milk production was 3 539.82 kg of milk, 143.59 kg of fat, 115.94 kg of proteins and 168.13 kg of lactose, 4.05 % fat, 3.28 % proteins and 4.75 % lactose. The linear model to represent coefficient determination R2 = 0.3783 for milk production with all fixed effects. The analysis by the effect was the highest effect of herd-yearsseason of calving (0.2515 than effect of number of lactation (0.1133. In assessing of individual various sources of variability on production traits had statistically most significant effect on milk production herd - year - season, father and order of lactation sources of variability P≤ 0.001. Statistically not significant impact had order of breeding type source P> 0.05. Correlation coefficients between kgs of milk and fat, kgs milk and proteins and kgs milk and lactose (r=0.90032, r= 0.97531, r= 0.98905, were statistically high significant.

  3. Influence of paragenetic factors on production and chemical composition of Paška sheep milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubravka Samaržija

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the produced Paška sheep milk is entirely processed in Pag cheese, it is of great importance to ensure a uniform milk production of prescribed chemical composition and hygienic quality. In addition to genotype, as the most important factor, the production and quality of sheep milk is affected by numerous physiological factors, so the aim of this research was to determine the influence of paragenetic factors (stage and number of lactation on daily milk yield and chemical composition (total solids, milk fat, protein, casein, lactose, total solids non fat of Paška sheep milk. Three herds were chosen by random selection within the areas of Kolan and Caska, and survey was conducted on a total of 213 Paška sheep. Stage of lactation was divided to: the beginning (to 50th-day, the middle (from 51st till 100thday and the end (101st -day till dry out of lactation. Depending on the number of lactation, sheep were grouped into five groups (1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th and others. A significant influence of stage and number of lactation on average daily milk yield and analysed chemical composition parameters was determined. The Paška sheep had the highest daily milk production in the mid lactation (773 g, and the third lactation (712 g recorded. At the end of lactation, total solids, milk fat, protein, casein, total solids non fat in milk were significantly higher than at the beginning and middle of lactation. The highest share of total solids, milk fat, protein and casein was determined in Paška sheep milk at 5th lactation and other lactations. Between the individual parameters significantcorrelation coefficients were determined.

  4. Perception of Not Having Enough Milk and Actual Milk Production of First-Time Breastfeeding Mothers: Is There a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galipeau, Roseline; Dumas, Louise; Lepage, Mario

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to determine the relationship between perceived insufficient milk supply (PIMS) and actual insufficient milk supply (AIMS) and the relative contributions of physiological and psychosocial variables on both PIMS and AIMS of first-time breastfeeding mothers. Data were collected among 123 breastfeeding mothers at a Canadian, French-speaking maternal care hospital. Birth events, breastfeeding practices, infant and maternal capacities, and PIMS and AIMS were collected at 48 hours after birth, postnatal weeks 2 and 6. No significant relationship was found between PIMS and AIMS. Maternal breastfeeding self-efficacy and number of feeds were related to PIMS at week 2, and skin-to-skin contact at birth and number of feeds were related to AIMS as measured by 24-hour milk production at week 2. Maternal breastfeeding self-efficacy impacts PIMS. Interventions should be directed to increase maternal confidence in breastfeeding, which in turn influences breastfeeding duration.

  5. The content of melamine in milk based products, and milk powders analyzed by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachmawati S

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Melamine is a white crystal of organic compound has a molecular weight of 126.12, difficult to solve in water. Cases of illegally adding melamine in milk powder is subjected to increase the nitrogen content of milk, because melamine contains high nitrogen (66%, so when milk is tested, seems contains high protein. This paper presented data the content of melamine in products based milk, and milk powders which entered and marketed in Indonesia. Melamine analysis is done by LC- MS 2010 EV, Shimadzu. Confirmation and validation tests indicate that melamine scanning found at m/z = 127, suitable system of analysis with relative standard deviation (RSD given of 1,18% (< 2,0%. Accuracy test gave the average of 89.1% recovery, detection limit of 5 ppb and limit of quantition 7 ppb. About 91.3% samples (n = 46 collected from animal quarantine Tanjung Priok contained melamine in the range of 6.7 ppb to 61.5 ppb which is 1/49 to 1/16 times less than standard limit. Whereas about 40%, 14 out of 35 samples collected from Bandung and Jakarta supermarket was not detected of melamine, and 60% samples positive contain melamine in the range of 5,1 to 26,5 ppb (1/200 to 1/38 standard limit. However, all the samples analyzed contain melamine below the standard limit of 1 ppm determined by WHO/FAO.

  6. Production and composition of Iberian sow's milk and use of milk nutrients by the suckling Iberian piglet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguinaga, M A; Gómez-Carballar, F; Nieto, R; Aguilera, J F

    2011-08-01

    Sixteen purebred Iberian (IB) sows were used in two consecutive trials to determine the efficiency of conversion of sow's milk into piglet body weight (BW) gain and the relationship between milk protein and body protein retention and between milk energy yield and body energy retention in the nursing IB piglet. In each trial, four sows were selected in order to evaluate their milk production, litter growth and nutrient balance measurements, together with four additional sows for milk sampling. Litter size was equalized to six piglets. Daily milk yield (MY) was determined weekly by the weigh-suckle-weigh technique over a 34-day lactation period. Piglets were weighed individually at birth and then weekly from day 5 of lactation. Milk samples were collected on days 5, 12, 19, 26 and 34 post partum. The comparative slaughter procedure was used to determine piglet nutrient and energy retention. One piglet from each litter was slaughtered at birth and four on the morning of day 35. Total MY was on average 5.175 ± 0.157 kg/day. The average chemical composition (g/kg) of the milk was 179 ± 4 dry matter, 53.4 ± 1.0 CP, 58.5 ± 3.8 fat, 10.4 ± 0.3 ash and 56.9 ± 2.3 lactose. Milk gross energy (GE) was 4.626 ± 0.145 MJ/kg. Milk intake per piglet tended to increase in trial 2 (832 v. 893 g/day; P = 0.066). Piglet BW gain contained (g/kg) 172.1 ± 1.3 protein, 151.5 ± 3.5 fat, 41.4 ± 0.6 ash and 635 ± 3 water and 10.127 ± 0.126 MJ GE/kg. Throughout the 34-day nursing period, the piglets grew at an average rate of 168 ± 3 g/day. The ratio of daily piglet BW gain to daily MY was 0.195 ± 0.002 g/g and the gain per MJ milk GE intake was 41.9 ± 0.5 g/MJ. The overall efficiency of protein accretion (g CP gain/g CP milk intake) was low and declined in trial 2 (0.619 v. 0.571; P = 0.016). Nutrient and energy deposition between birth and weaning were 27.4 ± 0.5 g/day protein, 24.2 ± 0.8 g/day fat and 1615 ± 40 kJ/day energy. Piglet energy requirements for maintenance were

  7. POSTIMPACT OF DIFFERENT FEEDSTUFFS ON GOAT MILK PRODUCTIVITY IN ORGANIC FARMING

    OpenAIRE

    Sprūžs, Jāzeps; Šeļegovska, Elita

    2015-01-01

    Goats fed on high-quality and valuable forage provides the production of high quality milk and dairy products. In organic farming improper and poor feeding during lactation period reduce milk yield and quality of products. The goal of our research was to ascertain the post impact of different feedstuffs (oat meal, wheat bran, sunflower cake, rapeseed cake) on goat milk productivity and quality indices. The trial was carried out in farm “Bērzi”, Talsi district in autumn period for 60 days tota...

  8. Milk and Dairy Products in Romania Before and After EU Accession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Nistor

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides an analysis and documentation in the dairy supply. The dairy sector is of great importance to the European Union (EU in a variety of ways. Its most striking feature is that milk is produced in every single EU Member State without exception. Milk production is on the second place in Romania’s agriculture after meat production. Romanian milk and dairy production and consumption registered significant changes over the last years and it is foreseen to be emphasizing in the next period. The most important event which influences the production and consumption is the integration of Romania in European Union.

  9. Feeding management and milk production in organic and conventional buffalo farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Proto

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The feeding management, milk yield and milk composition were investigated in two adjacent buffalo farms, one organic certified (on average, 220 lactating buffalo cows and one conventional (on average, 314 lactating buffalo cows located in the Sele Plain (southern Italy. Milk samples from the two farm were collected twice a month during the period from June to November 2006. Milk production was also recorded. The investigated milk components were the content of protein, fat, lactose, urea and the number of somatic cells. The following features about the feeding management of lactating buffalo cows were recorded during monthly farm visits: feed used, herbage utilization, ration composition. Fat and protein correct milk yield was higher in conventional farm than in organic one, but milk components were similar between the farms. The greatest differences were found in the somatic cell count, lower in organic milk than in conventional one, and the urea content, which was higher in organic milk than in conventional farm, but still within the normal range reported for buffalo milk.

  10. Intraprocedural Dataflow Analysis for Software Product Lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Claus; Ribeiro, Márcio; Tolêdo, Társis;

    2013-01-01

    Software product lines (SPLs) developed using annotative approaches such as conditional compilation come with an inherent risk of constructing erroneous products. For this reason, it is essential to be able to analyze such SPLs. However, as dataflow analysis techniques are not able to deal with SPLs...

  11. Increased milk production by Holstein cows consuming endophyte-infected fescue seed during the dry period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergot alkaloids in endophyte-infected grasses inhibit prolactin (PRL) secretion and may reduce milk production of cows consuming endophyte-infected grasses. We hypothesized that consumption of endophyte-infected fescue during the dry period inhibits mammary differentiation and subsequent milk produ...

  12. Effect of dietary cation-anion balance on milk production and blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-09-06

    Sep 6, 2010 ... production and blood mineral of Holstein cows during the last two .... .68. *. Milk Fat (g/kg). 31.3. 30.9. 31.5 .51. NS. Milk Protein (g/kg). 27. 26.5 .... Goff JP, Horst RL, Mueller FJ, Miller JK, Kiess GA, Dowlen HH (1991). Addition ...

  13. Statistical Model Checking for Product Lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ter Beek, Maurice H.; Legay, Axel; Lluch Lafuente, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    average cost of products (in terms of the attributes of the products’ features) and the probability of features to be (un)installed at runtime. The product lines must be modelled in QFLan, which extends the probabilistic feature-oriented language PFLan with novel quantitative constraints among features......We report on the suitability of statistical model checking for the analysis of quantitative properties of product line models by an extended treatment of earlier work by the authors. The type of analysis that can be performed includes the likelihood of specific product behaviour, the expected...... and on behaviour and with advanced feature installation options. QFLan is a rich process-algebraic specification language whose operational behaviour interacts with a store of constraints, neatly separating product configuration from product behaviour. The resulting probabilistic configurations and probabilistic...

  14. Milk production, grazing behavior and nutritional status of dairy cows grazing two herbage allowances during winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ruiz-Albarran

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Winter grazing provides a useful means for increasing the proportion of grazed herbage in the annual diet of dairy cows. This season is characterized by low herbage growth rate, low herbage allowance, and low herbage intake and hence greater needs for supplements to supply the requirements of lactating dairy cows. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of herbage allowance (HA offered to autumn calving dairy cows grazing winter herbage on milk production, nutritional status, and grazing behavior. The study took 63 d using 32 multiparous Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. Prior to experimental treatment, milk production averaged 20.2 ± 1.7 kg d-1, body weight was 503 ± 19 kg, and days in milking were 103 ± 6. Experimental animals were randomly assigned to two treatments according to HA offered above ground level: low (17 kg DM cow-1 d-1 vs. high HA (25 kg DM cow¹ d¹. All cows were supplemented with grass silage supplying daily 6.25 and 4.6 kg DM of concentrate (concentrate commercial plus high corn moisture. Decreasing HA influenced positively milk production (+25%, milk protein (+20 kg, and milk fat (+17 kg per hectare; however no effects on milk production per cow or energy metabolic status were observed in the cows. In conclusion, a low HA showed to be the most significant influencing factor on milk and milk solids production per hectare in dairy cows grazing restricted winter and supplemented with grass silage and concentrate; but no effect on the milk production per cow was found.

  15. Biodiesel Production from Waste Coconut Oil in Coconut Milk Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujinna KARNNASUTA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to develop a 3 step biodiesel production from waste coconut oil taken from a wastewater pond in a coconut milk manufacturing plant. Special attention was paid to optimizing the first step, acid catalyzed hydrolysis, to convert the waste coconut oil into high free fatty acid oil, 83.32 wt%. The first step was the acid hydrolysis, in order to produce high free fatty acid oil. The optimum condition in acid hydrolysis was 5 % by mass of hydrochloric acid, in order to produce high free fatty acid oil that could be used as raw material for biodiesel production. The second step was the acid esterification, in order to reduce the FFA and convert FFA to methyl ester. The reduction of the FFA from 83.32 % in high free fatty acid oil to less than 2 % required 3 % by mass of hydrochloric acid, a molar ratio of methanol to oil of 10: 1, and a reaction time of 60 min. The alkaline transesterification in the third step was used triglyceride at 1.0wt% of KOH for catalysis, a molar ratio of methanol to oil of 6:1, and a reaction time of 60 min. The waste coconut oil biodiesel was further evaluated by determining its fuel quality, and most of the properties were well within ASTM and EN standards.

  16. Determination of Yeasts Antimicrobial Activity in Milk and Meat Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.B. Roostita

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was arranged to isolate yeasts from livestock products and then the yeasts antimicrobial activity was tested towards putrefaction and pathogenic bacteria. Yeasts isolated from livestock products using Malt Extract Agar (MEA, the total yeasts population counted with using total plate count method, antimicrobial activity tested using diffusion methods against Pseudomonas aerugenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli and then the chosen isolate identified with using 18s RNA method. The results have shown that the total yeasts population on pasteurized cow’s milk were 1.2×106 cfu/g, fruit yoghurt 5.4×106 cfu/g, lamb meat 1×105 cfu/g, beef 1×105 cfu/g and beef sausages 1×106 cfu/g total yeasts population. Fruit yoghurt isolate shown the best antimicrobial activity with 35 mm clear zone diameter against Pseudomonas aerugenes, 8 mm clear zone diameter against Staphylococcus aureus and 10 mm clear zone diameter against Escherichia coli. The 18 s RNA test shown that fruit yoghurt isolate was 100% (FR3-F primer and 99% (FR3-R primer identical with Candida parapsilosis.

  17. Milk production and composition responds to dietary neutral detergent fiber and starch ratio in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Meng; Bu, Dengpan; Wang, Jiaqi; Zhou, Xiaoqiao; Zhu, Dan; Zhang, Ting; Niu, Junli; Ma, Lu

    2016-06-01

    This study was designed to investigate whether dietary neutral detergent fiber (NDF) : starch ratio could be considered as a nutritional indicator to evaluate carbohydrate composition and manipulate milk production and composition synthesis. Eight primiparous dairy cows were assigned to four total mixed rations with NDF : starch ratios of 0.86, 1.18, 1.63 and 2.34 from T1 to T4 in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. Dry matter intake and milk production were decreased from T1 to T4. Digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, NDF and crude protein were linearly decreased from T1 to T4. As NDF : starch ratio increased, milk protein content and production, and milk lactose content and production were linearly reduced. However, milk fat content was linearly increased from T1 to T4. Quadratic effect was observed on milk fat production with the highest level in T3. Averaged rumen pH was linearly increased from T1 to T4, and subacute rumen acidosis occurred in T1. Ruminal propionate and butyrate concentration were linearly decreased, and microbial crude protein and metabolizable protein decreased from T1 to T4. It is concluded that NDF : starch ratio can be considered as a potential indicator to evaluate dietary carbohydrate composition and manipulate milk production and composition synthesis.

  18. Production of human lactoferrin and lysozyme in the milk of transgenic dairy animals: past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Caitlin A; Maga, Elizabeth A; Murray, James D

    2015-08-01

    Genetic engineering, which was first developed in the 1980s, allows for specific additions to animals' genomes that are not possible through conventional breeding. Using genetic engineering to improve agricultural animals was first suggested when the technology was in the early stages of development by Palmiter et al. (Nature 300:611-615, 1982). One of the first agricultural applications identified was generating transgenic dairy animals that could produce altered or novel proteins in their milk. Human milk contains high levels of antimicrobial proteins that are found in low concentrations in the milk of ruminants, including the antimicrobial proteins lactoferrin and lysozyme. Lactoferrin and lysozyme are both part of the innate immune system and are secreted in tears, mucus, and throughout the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Due to their antimicrobial properties and abundance in human milk, multiple lines of transgenic dairy animals that produce either human lactoferrin or human lysozyme have been developed. The focus of this review is to catalogue the different lines of genetically engineered dairy animals that produce either recombinant lactoferrin or lysozyme that have been generated over the years as well as compare the wealth of research that has been done on the in vitro and in vivo effects of the milk they produce. While recent advances including the development of CRISPRs and TALENs have removed many of the technical barriers to predictable and efficient genetic engineering in agricultural species, there are still many political and regulatory hurdles before genetic engineering can be used in agriculture. It is important to consider the substantial amount of work that has been done thus far on well established lines of genetically engineered animals evaluating both the animals themselves and the products they yield to identify the most effective path forward for future research and acceptance of this technology.

  19. CLIMATE CHANGES AS THE RISK FACTOR IN MILK PRODUCTION IN WIELKOPOLSKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Chaberski

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The pilot researches were conducted in Wielkopolska. They aimed initial identifi cation of cows reaction on changing of THI, which are likened to temperature and humidity conditions of air. The subjected cows characterize with high productivity, exceeding 40kg of milk per day, independently from lactation stages. The results display that the day s production of raw milk, as well as fat and protein content, do not only depend on lactation stage but also on the value of THI factors. Higher THI is accompanied by loss in the weight of milk and drop in its technological utility. The climate warming may escalate the risk of production loss during the heats.

  20. Appraisement on Contributive Ratio of Scientific and Technical Progresses in Milk Productive Enterprises by Model C2GS2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Futian; SUN Liqun; YANG Guanglin

    2008-01-01

    Scientific and technical progress has been the driving forces of enterprises development. Milk productive enterprises are developing faster and growing better. It is very important to measure the contributive ratio of scientific and technical progress in milk productive enterprises. And the appraisement could help to develop milk productive enterprises. The model C2GS2 was established to appraise the contributive ratio of scientific and technical progress in milk productive enterprises in the research. And the appraisement on the contributive ratio of scientific and technical progress in milk productive enterprises was made by the model. In the results of appraisement, science and technology play a main role in milk productive enterprises. It is shown that our milk productive enterprises are developed by scientific and technical progress while not by input of productive factors.

  1. The costs of seasonality and expansion in Ireland’s milk production and processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinschink K.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ireland’s milk production sector relies on grass-based spring-calving systems, which facilitates cost advantages in milk production but entails a high degree of supply seasonality. Among other implications, this supply seasonality involves extra costs in the processing sector including elevated plant capacities and varying levels of resource utilisation throughout the year. If both the national raw milk production increased substantially (e.g. post-milk quota and a high degree of seasonality persisted, extra processing capacities would be required to cope with peak supplies. Alternatively, existing capacities could be used more efficiently by distributing the milk volume more evenly during the year. In this analysis, an optimisation model was applied to analyse the costs and economies arising to an average Irish milk-processing business due to changes to the monthly distribution of milk deliveries and/or the total annual milk pool. Of the situations examined, changing from a seasonal supply prior to expansion to a smoother pattern combined with an increased milk pool emerged as the most beneficial option to the processor because both the processor’s gross surplus and the marginal producer milk price increased. In practice, it may however be the case that the extra costs arising to the producer from smoothing the milk intake distribution exceed the processor’s benefit. The interlinkages between the stages of the dairy supply chain mean that nationally, the seasonality trade-offs are complex and equivocal. Moreover, the prospective financial implications of such strategies will be dependent on the evolving and uncertain nature of international dairy markets in the post-quota environment.

  2. Using Goat's Milk, Barley Flour, Honey, and Probiotic to Manufacture of Functional Dairy Product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Magdy Mohamed; Hamad, Mohamed Farid; Elraghy, Esraa Mohamed

    2017-08-23

    Stirred yogurt manufactured using probiotic culture which usually called Rayeb milk in the Middle East region is one of the most important functional fermented milk products. To increase the health and functionality properties to this product, some ingredients like fruits, cereal, and whey protein are used in production. This study was carried out to prepare functional Rayeb milk from goat's milk, barley flour (15%) and honey (4%) mixtures using ABT culture. Also, vanilla and cocoa powder were used as flavorings. Adding barley flour and honey to goat's milk increased curd tension and water-holding capacity and decreased coagulation time and susceptibility to syneresis. The values of carbohydrate, total solids, dietary fiber, ash, total protein, water soluble nitrogen, total volatile fatty acids, unsaturated fatty acids, oleic, linoleic, α-linolenic acids, and antioxidant activity were higher in Rayeb milk supplemented with barley flour and honey than control. The viabilities of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 (Chr. Hansen's Lab A/S) increased in fortified Rayeb milk. The recommended level of 10(7) cfu g(-1) of bifidobacteria as a probiotic was exceeded for these samples. Addition of vanilla (0.1%) or cocoa powder (0.5%) improved the sensory properties of fortified Rayeb milk.

  3. BENCHMARKS FOR MILK PRODUCTION SYSTEMS IN THE PERNAMBUCO AGRESTE REGION, NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARLA CONCEIÇÃO OLIVEIRA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to identify and assess the technological, zootechnical and socioeconomic profiles and identify and quantify benchmarks for dairy cattle production systems, in a non-experimental approach, aiming to contribute to the sustainability and competitiveness of dairy farming in the Pernambuco Agreste region, northeastern Brazil. Thirty-six milk production systems of family and corporate farming were evaluated during twelve months, in order to identify and quantify the benchmarks. The systems were characterized regarding their size and technological, zootechnical and economic profiles. The correlation coefficients of the return rate on invested capital were assessed and regression equations were developed for each indicator, according to four scenarios of annual return rates (4, 6, 8 and 10%. The indicators evaluated were milk production per dairy cows, milk production per area, average price of milk, effective operational cost, total operating cost, total cost per price of milk and profitability. The dairy farming in the Pernambuco Agreste region pays the production costs, but tends to a not adequate remuneration of family labor and a need of external capital input for replacement of the assets. The productivity of production factors area and animals showed higher correlation with cost-effectiveness, denoting the need for increase the production through increases in land area and milk productivity per dairy cow. The identification and quantification of benchmarks may help to identify the weak points of dairy farming in the Agreste region, making it sustainable and competitive.

  4. Technology and potential applications of probiotic encapsulation in fermented milk products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iravani, Siavash; Korbekandi, Hassan; Mirmohammadi, Seyed Vahid

    2015-08-01

    Fermented milk products containing probiotics and prebiotics can be used in management, prevention and treatment of some important diseases (e.g., intestinal- and immune-associated diseases). Microencapsulation has been used as an efficient method for improving the viability of probiotics in fermented milks and gastrointestinal tract. Microencapsulation of probiotic bacterial cells provides shelter against adverse conditions during processing, storage and gastrointestinal passage. Important challenges in the field include survival of probiotics during microencapsulation, stability of microencapsulated probiotics in fermented milks, sensory quality of fermented milks with microencapsulated probiotics, and efficacy of microencapsulation to deliver probiotics and their controlled or targeted release in the gastrointestinal tract. This study reviews the current knowledge, and the future prospects and challenges of microencapsulation of probiotics used in fermented milk products. In addition, the influence of microencapsulation on probiotics viability and survival is reviewed.

  5. Oxidative Stability and Sensory Attributes of Fermented Milk Product Fortified with Fish Oil and Marine Phospholipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Henna Fung Sieng; Thomsen, Birgitte Raagaard; Hyldig, Grethe;

    2013-01-01

    to be the main factor that influenced the lipid oxidation in the marine PL emulsion and fermented milk system. In addition, both oxidative stability and sensory acceptability of fortified products varied depending on the quality of the marine PL used for fortification.......Marine phospholipids (PL) are potential ingredients for food fortification due to its numerous advantages. The main objective of this study was to investigate whether a fermented milk product fortified with a mixture of marine PL and fish oil had better oxidative stability than a fermented milk...... product fortified with fish oil alone. Fortification of a fermented milk product with marine PL was performed by incorporating 1 % w/w lipids, either in the form of neat oil or in the form of a pre-emulsion. Lipid oxidation was investigated in the neat emulsions and fortified products by the measurements...

  6. Milk production capacity of priangan prolific sheep: II. The lactation curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Tiesnamurti

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available A calculation was made for the lactation curve of Priangan sheep using Wood equation to find out how much differences actual milk production of uncorrected ewes compared to those corrected using parity and litter size born. Milk production was measured using weighing of the lambs before and shortly after suckling, with average of daily and total milk production were 519.5 g/head and 43.6 kg head-1 lactation-1, respectively. The average of parameter a, which reflected milk production at the beginning of the lactation period was 6.296 that equivalent to 571.5 g/head and significantly affected (P<0.05 by parity. The b parameter which reflected the rate of milk increment at the beginning of the lactation period was found to be 0.528 and significantly affected (P<0.05 by parity. The c parameter which reflected the rate of milk decline at the end of lactation period was found to be -0.20 and significantly affected (P<0.05 by parity. The average persistency which reflected the duration of maximum milk production was found to be 22.58 days without any significant contribution of parity and the number of lamb born. The average time to reach maximum milk production was found to be at week 3.5 after lambing without any significant contribution of parity and litter size. The average estimation of maximum milk production was 708.4 g/head and significantly affected (P<0.05 by ewe parity.

  7. Integrating fasciolosis control in the dry cow management: the effect of closantel treatment on milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlier, Johannes; Hostens, Miel; Jacobs, Jos; Van Ranst, Bonny; Duchateau, Luc; Vercruysse, Jozef

    2012-01-01

    The liver fluke Fasciola hepatica is a parasite of ruminants with a worldwide distribution and an apparent increasing incidence in EU member states. Effective control in dairy cattle is hampered by the lack of flukicides with a zero-withdrawal time for milk, leaving the dry period as the only time that preventive treatment can be applied. Here, we present the results of a blinded, randomized and placebo-controlled trial on 11 dairy herds (402 animals) exposed to F. hepatica to 1) assess the effect of closantel treatment at dry-off (or 80-42 days before calving in first-calving heifers) on milk production parameters and 2) evaluate if a number of easy-to-use animal parameters is related to the milk production response after treatment. Closantel treatment resulted in a noticeable decrease of anti-F. hepatica antibody levels from 3-6 months after treatment onwards, a higher peak production (1.06 kg) and a slightly higher persistence (9%) of the lactation, resulting in a 305-day milk production increase of 303 kg. No effects of anthelmintic treatment were found on the average protein and fat content of the milk. Milk production responses after treatment were poor in meagre animals and clinically relevant higher milk production responses were observed in first-lactation animals and in cows with a high (0.3-0.5 optical density ratio (ODR)), but not a very high (≥ 0.5 ODR) F. hepatica ELISA result on a milk sample from the previous lactation. We conclude that in dairy herds exposed to F. hepatica, flukicide treatment at dry-off is a useful strategy to reduce levels of exposure and increase milk production in the subsequent lactation. Moreover, the results suggest that treatment approaches that only target selected animals within a herd can be developed based on easy-to-use parameters.

  8. Integrating fasciolosis control in the dry cow management: the effect of closantel treatment on milk production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Charlier

    Full Text Available The liver fluke Fasciola hepatica is a parasite of ruminants with a worldwide distribution and an apparent increasing incidence in EU member states. Effective control in dairy cattle is hampered by the lack of flukicides with a zero-withdrawal time for milk, leaving the dry period as the only time that preventive treatment can be applied. Here, we present the results of a blinded, randomized and placebo-controlled trial on 11 dairy herds (402 animals exposed to F. hepatica to 1 assess the effect of closantel treatment at dry-off (or 80-42 days before calving in first-calving heifers on milk production parameters and 2 evaluate if a number of easy-to-use animal parameters is related to the milk production response after treatment. Closantel treatment resulted in a noticeable decrease of anti-F. hepatica antibody levels from 3-6 months after treatment onwards, a higher peak production (1.06 kg and a slightly higher persistence (9% of the lactation, resulting in a 305-day milk production increase of 303 kg. No effects of anthelmintic treatment were found on the average protein and fat content of the milk. Milk production responses after treatment were poor in meagre animals and clinically relevant higher milk production responses were observed in first-lactation animals and in cows with a high (0.3-0.5 optical density ratio (ODR, but not a very high (≥ 0.5 ODR F. hepatica ELISA result on a milk sample from the previous lactation. We conclude that in dairy herds exposed to F. hepatica, flukicide treatment at dry-off is a useful strategy to reduce levels of exposure and increase milk production in the subsequent lactation. Moreover, the results suggest that treatment approaches that only target selected animals within a herd can be developed based on easy-to-use parameters.

  9. Estimation of milk, dairy products and calcium intake in nutrition of the celiac patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Panjkota Krbavčić

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Celiac disease is a digestive disease that damages the small intestine and interferes with absorption of nutrients from food. People who have celiac disease cannot tolerate a protein called gluten, which is found in wheat, rye, barley and possibly oats. The smallest amount of gluten in food damages the small intestine of these patients. In Croatia there is no data about nutrition and dietary habits of people with celiac disease. In celiac disease there is one and only cure: a gluten-free diet. Milk and dairy products are major source of calcium, and this population, because of malapsorptive syndrome is especially sensitive and predisposed for osteoporosis and osteopenya. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to establish milk, dairy products and calcium intake in celiac patients nutrition. Milk and dairy products was determined by using 3-day-dietary record (3DD combined with food frequency questionnaire (FFQ in 15 celiac patients. Energy share of milk and dairy products were 11,82 % kJ, twice less than recommendation. Average daily intake of calcium was also below the recommendation (62,64 % DRI, and 67 % of examinees did not achieve neither 2/3 of daily recommendation intake (DRI for calcium. From milk and dairy group examinees use milk and pudding the most, yoghurt and fruit yoghurt less. It is necessary to increase intake of calcium from milk and dairy products group because they are the best source of this nutrient.

  10. Effects of high concentrations of dietary crude glycerin on dairy cow productivity and milk quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezequiel, J M B; Sancanari, J B D; Machado Neto, O R; da Silva, Z F; Almeida, M T C; Silva, D A V; van Cleef, F O S; van Cleef, E H C B

    2015-11-01

    An increasing worldwide interest in alternative fuel sources and in a more diversified energy matrix has provided incentives for the biodiesel industry, generating large amounts of the by-product crude glycerin, a potential alternative feed for dairy cows. A replicated 3×3 Latin square study was conducted to evaluate the effects of high concentrations of crude glycerin on dry matter intake, milk yield and composition, milk fatty acid profile, and blood metabolites of medium-yield cows. Ruminally cannulated Holstein cows (n=6; 587 ± 39 kg of body weight; 114 ± 29 d in milk; and 20 ± 1.5 kg/d milk yield) were used in the study. The experimental period included 2 wk for adaptation and 1 wk for data collection. Cows were fed diets containing 0 (control), 15, or 30% crude glycerin (83% glycerol). Cows were milked, milk weights were recorded twice daily, and milk samples were collected for milk quality analyses at d 18 and 19 in each experimental period. Feeding cows with crude glycerin linearly decreased dry-matter intake, the 3.5% fat-corrected milk, and the solid-corrected milk yield. Hepatic enzymes were not affected by dietary treatments, except gamma-glutamyl transferase, which was decreased with the 15% crude glycerin diet. Serum glucose and albumin showed quadratic effect with increasing inclusion of crude glycerin. Plasma cholesterol as well as total protein linearly decreased with increasing inclusion of crude glycerin. Milk fat concentration and yield showed a quadratic effect of treatments. Solid yield decreased linearly with increasing inclusion of crude glycerin. Odd-chain fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid in milk fat linearly increased with addition of crude glycerin in the diets. Together, these results suggest that crude glycerin has potential to replace corn; however, feeding diets in which corn is replaced with crude glycerin at 30% of dietary DM greatly reduces animal performance.

  11. Estrone and 17beta-estradiol concentrations in pasteurized-homogenized milk and commercial dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pape-Zambito, D A; Roberts, R F; Kensinger, R S

    2010-06-01

    Some individuals fear that estrogens in dairy products may stimulate growth of estrogen-sensitive cancers in humans. The presence of estrone (E(1)) and 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) in raw whole cow's milk has been demonstrated. The objectives of this study were to determine if pasteurization-homogenization affects E(2) concentration in milk and to quantify E(1) and E(2) concentrations in commercially available dairy products. The effects of pasteurization-homogenization were tested by collecting fresh raw milk, followed by pasteurization and homogenization at 1 of 2 homogenization pressures. All treated milks were tested for milk fat globule size, percentages of milk fat and solids, and E(2) concentrations. Estrone and E(2) were quantified from organic or conventional skim, 1%, 2%, and whole milks, as well as half-and-half, cream, and butter samples. Estrone and E(2) were quantified by RIA after organic solvent extractions and chromatography. Pasteurization-homogenization reduced fat globule size, but did not significantly affect E(2), milk fat, or milk solids concentrations. Estrone concentrations averaged 2.9, 4.2, 5.7, 7.9, 20.4, 54.1 pg/mL, and 118.9 pg/g in skim, 1%, 2%, and whole milks, half-and-half, cream, and butter samples, respectively. 17Beta-estradiol concentrations averaged 0.4, 0.6, 0.9, 1.1, 1.9, 6.0 pg/mL, and 15.8 pg/g in skim, 1%, 2%, whole milks, half-and-half, cream, and butter samples, respectively. The amount of fat in milk significantly affected E(1) and E(2) concentrations in milk. Organic and conventional dairy products did not have substantially different concentrations of E(1) and E(2). Compared with information cited in the literature, concentrations of E(1) and E(2) in bovine milk are small relative to endogenous production rates of E(1) and E(2) in humans.

  12. Concentration of nutritional important minerals in Croatian goat and cow milk and some dairy products made of these

    OpenAIRE

    Slačanac, V.; Hardi, J.; Lučan, Mirela; Koceva Komlenić, Daliborka; Krstanović, V.; Jukić, M.

    2011-01-01

    The concentration of the minerals (Ca, Mg and P) and trace elements (Zn, Fe) were determined in goat and cow’s dairy products. The aim of this work was to determine the concentrations of mentioned minerals and trace elements in fermented dairy products made of goat milk, as well as in East Croatia traditional White Slice goat cheese. Obtained results show that goat milk and dairy products from goat milk had higher concentration of Mg and Fe than these of cow milk. Goat milk and dairy products...

  13. Carbon footprint of dairy goat milk production in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Kimberly; Symes, Wymond; Garnham, Malcolm

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the cradle-to-farm gate carbon footprint of indoor and outdoor dairy goat farming systems in New Zealand, identifying hotspots and discussing variability and methodology. Our study was based on the International Organization for Standardization standards for life cycle assessment, although only results for greenhouse gas emissions are presented. Two functional units were included: tonnes of CO2-equivalents (CO2e) per hectare (ha) and kilograms of CO2e per kilogram of fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM). The study covered 5 farms, 2 farming systems, and 3yr. Two methods for the calculation of enteric methane emissions were assessed. The Lassey method, as used in the New Zealand greenhouse gas inventory, provided a more robust estimate of emissions from enteric fermentation and was used in the final calculations. The alternative dry matter intake method was shown to overestimate emissions due to use of anecdotal assumptions around actual consumption of feed. Economic allocation was applied to milk and co-products. Scenario analysis was performed on the allocation method, nitrogen content of manure, manure management, and supplementary feed choice. The average carbon footprint for the indoor farms (n=3) was 11.05 t of CO2e/ha and 0.81kg of CO2e/kg of FPCM. For the outdoor farms (n=2), the average was 5.38 t of CO2e/ha and 1.03kg of CO2e/kg of FPCM. The average for all 5 farms was 8.78 t of CO2e/ha and 0.90kg of CO2e/kg of FPCM. The results showed relatively high variability due to differences in management practices between farms. The 5 farms covered 10% of the total dairy goat farms but may not be representative of an average farm. Methane from enteric fermentation was a major emission source. The use of supplementary feed was highly variable but an important contributor to the carbon footprint. Nitrous oxide can contribute up to 18% of emissions. Indoor goat farming systems produced milk with a significantly higher carbon

  14. Index selection of beef cattle for growth and milk production using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Index selection of beef cattle for growth and milk production using computer ... model was expanded to include basic concepts of quantitative genetics. The traits ... to compare different selection strategies and evaluate different breeding plans.

  15. EVo: Net Shape RTM Production Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Torstrick

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available EVo research platform is operated by the Center for Lightweight-Production-Technology of the German Aerospace Center in Stade. Its objective is technology demonstration of a fully automated RTM (Resin Transfer Molding production line for composite parts in large quantities. Process steps include cutting and ply handling, draping, stacking, hot-forming, preform-trimming to net shape, resin injection, curing and demolding.

  16. Effect on milk production of vaccination with a bovine herpesvirus 1 gene-deleted vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, J C; Frankena, K; van Oirschot, J T

    1997-02-22

    A field trial was conducted to determine the effect of vaccination with an inactivated bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV1) gE-negative marker vaccine on the milk production of dairy cows. The daily milk yield of 455 cows in six herds was measured electronically from six days before vaccination until 14 days after vaccination. The treatment consisted of two injections with either vaccine or placebo, both at an interval of four weeks. There was a small, but significant (P < 0.05), decrease of about 1.4 litres per cow in milk production after a double vaccination, the negative effect being slightly greater after the second vaccination.

  17. Production of staphylococcal enterotoxins in microbial broth and milk by Staphylococcus aureus strains harboring seh gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Justyna; Podkowik, Magdalena; Bystroń, Jarosław; Bania, Jacek

    2016-10-17

    Twenty Staphylococcus aureus strains harboring seh gene, including one carrying also sec gene and 11 sea gene, were grown in BHI+YE broth and milk and were tested for SEA, SEC and SEH production. All strains decreased pH of BHI+YE broth at 24h and increased them at 48h. Seventeen S. aureus strains grown in milk changed pH for no >0.3 unit until 48h. Three other S. aureus strains significantly decreased pH during growth in milk. All S. aureus produced SEH in BHI+YE broth in amounts ranging from 95 to 1292ng/ml, and from 170 to 4158ng/ml at 24 and 48h, respectively. SEH production in milk by 17 strains did not exceed 23ng/ml at 24h and 36ng/ml at 48h. Three S. aureus strains able to decrease milk pH produced 107-3029ng/ml and 320-4246ng/ml of SEH in milk at 24 and 48h, respectively. These strains were grown in milk and BHI+YE broth with pH stabilized at values near neutral leading to a significant decrease of SEH production. Representative weak SEH producers were grown in milk at reduced pH resulting in moderate increase in SEH production. SEA was produced in milk by 10S. aureus strains at 24-151ng/ml at 24h, and 31-303ng/ml at 48h. SEA production in milk was higher or comparable as in BHI+YE broth in 3 strains and lower for remaining strains. Production of SEC by sec-positive S. aureus strains was lower in milk than in BHI+YE broth, ranging from 131 to 2319ng/ml at 24 and 48h in milk and 296-30,087ng/ml in BHI+YE at 24 and 48h. Both lacE and lacG transcripts involved in lactose metabolism were significantly up-regulated in milk in strong SEH producers. In these strains hld, rot and sarA transcripts were up-regulated in milk as compared to weak SEH producers. Stabilization of milk pH at a value of raw milk significantly down-regulated hld, rot and sarA RNA in strong SEH producers. Milk was generally found unfavorable for enterotoxin production. However, certain S. aureus strains were not restricted in SEH and SEA expression in milk, unlike SEC which remained down

  18. Framework for Evolving Software Product Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami OUALI

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Software product line engineering is an approach that develops and maintains families ofproducts while taking advantage of their common aspects and predicted variabilities. Indeed, softwareproduct lines (SPL are an important means for implementing software variability which is the ability ofa system to be efficiently extended, changed, customized or configured for use in a particular context.Variability needs in software are constantly increasing because variability moves from mechanics andhardware to software and design decisions are delayed as long as economically feasible. Numerous SPLconstruction approaches are proposed. Different in nature, these approaches have nevertheless somecommon disadvantages. We have proceeded to an in-depth analysis of existing approaches for theconstruction of Software Product Line within a comparison framework in order to identify theirdrawbacks. We suggest overcoming these drawbacks by an improvement of the tool support for theseapproaches and for their interactivity with their users. We propose to study a particular software productline which is ERP as experimentation.

  19. The Future of Product Line Development at NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Robyn R.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews NASA's software production in the light of a product line similar to a commercial product line. The authors propose to identify, investigate, evaluate and apply product-line engineering techniques to NASA's product lines in order to improve the timeliness, robustness and effectiveness of these future systems.

  20. The dopamine antagonist domperidone increases prolactin concentration and enhances milk production in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacasse, P; Ollier, S

    2015-11-01

    In previous studies, our team showed that the inhibition of prolactin (PRL) secretion by the dopamine agonist quinagolide reduces milk production in dairy cows. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of administration of a dopamine antagonist on basal and milking-induced PRL concentrations in blood and on milk production during positive energy balance and feed restriction in dairy cows. Eighteen mid-lactation Holstein cows received daily s.c. injections of either domperidone (300 mg, DOMP, n=9) or the vehicle, canola oil (CTL, n=9), for 5 wk. During wk 5, all cows were fed at 65% of their dry matter intake in the previous week. Blood and milk samples were collected before (for blood) and during (for milk) the a.m. milking thrice weekly from d -9 to 41 (8d after the last injection). In addition, blood samples were collected during the a.m. milking on d -1 (before the first injection), and on d 1, 28, and 34. Basal PRL concentration was similar in both groups before the start of the treatments. Domperidone injections caused a gradual increase in basal PRL concentration. Feed restriction reduced basal PRL concentration in both the CTL and DOMP cows, but PRL concentration remained higher in the DOMP cows. Prolactin concentration remained elevated in the DOMP cows 7d after the last injection. The milk concentration of PRL increased during the DOMP treatment, but the increase was smaller than that observed in serum. In the CTL cows, the milking-induced PRL release above the premilking concentration was similar on d -1, 1, and 28 but was reduced during feed restriction. In the DOMP cows, the milking-induced PRL release was similar on d -1 and 1 but was reduced on d 28 and 34. Milk production was similar for both groups before the treatments started but was greater in the DOMP cows during the treatment period, at 2.9 ± 0.6 and 2.4 ± 0.6 kg/d greater during wk 3 and 4 of treatment, respectively. Milk production declined in both groups during feed

  1. Environmental assessment of Ultra-High Pressure Homogenisation for milk and fresh cheese production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valsasina, Lucia; Pizzol, Massimo; Smetana, Sergiy

    2015-01-01

    Temperature (UHT) treatment and, at the same time, to lower energy consumptions through the combination of pasteurisation and homogenisation in a single process. Furthermore, the use of UHPH treated milk for the production of fresh cheese has been proven to increase shelf life days and increase yield...... This study provides an LCA of UHPH and UHT processing of milk and fresh cheese production from processing to end-of-life....

  2. On-line monitoring of milk electrical conductivity by fuzzy logic technology to characterise health status in dairy goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Zaninelli

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Intramammary infection affects the quality and quantity of dairy goat milk. Health status (HS and milk quality can be monitored by electrical conductivity (EC. The aim of the study was to determine the detection potential of EC when measured on-line on a daily basis and compared with readings from previous milkings. Milk yields (MYs were investigated with the same approach. To evaluate these relative traits, a multivariate model based on fuzzy logic technology – which provided interesting results in cows – was used. Two foremilk samples from 8 healthy Saanen goats were measured daily over the course of six months. Bacteriological tests and somatic cells counts were used to define the HS. On-line EC measurements for each gland and MYs were also considered. Predicted deviations of EC and MY were calculated using a moving-average model and entered in the fuzzy logic model. The reported accuracy has a sensitivity of 81% and a specificity of 69%. Conclusions show that fuzzy logic is an interesting approach for dairy goats, since it offered better accuracy than other methods previously published. Nevertheless, specificity was lower than in dairy cows, probably due to the lack of a significant decrease of MY in diseased glands. Still, results show that the detection of the HS characteristics with EC is improved, when measured on-line, daily and compared with the readings from previous milkings.

  3. Milking hygiene: new issues and opportunities from automatic milking

    OpenAIRE

    Lotte Bach Larsen; Morten Dam Rasmussen

    2010-01-01

    Automatic milking offers the opportunity of in-line measurements of milk components, check of milking and cleaning procedures,and surveillance through the management program. These advantages may directly benefit the milk quality.Diversion of abnormal milk at time of milking is critical to the milk quality. It is proposed to define abnormal milk as milkbeing visibly changed in homogeneity or colour from that of normal milk. Several enzymes and other milk componentsmay be involved in the forma...

  4. Carbon footprint assessment for a local branded pure milk product: a lifecycle based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui ZHAO

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper provides a simplified life cycle based assessment for a local branded pure milk product, to measure its related carbon footprint, including production of raw milk, dairy processing, transportation of milk product and disposal of packaging waste. The results show that the total carbon footprint of the pure milk is 1120g CO2/L. The production of raw milk is identified as the major contributor to the carbon footprint. This contribution has amounted to 843 g of CO2 per liter of pure milk, accounted for 75.27% of the total carbon footprint. The carbon footprint of product transportation is 38 g of CO2 per liter, which accounts for 3.39% of the total. The carbon footprint related to the dairy processing and disposal of waste packaging is 173 g of CO2 per liter and 66 g of CO2 per liter, accounting for 15.45% and 5.89% of the total, respectively. The carbon footprint assessment intends to help dairy enterprises identify the intensive sectors of carbon emissions, and provides insight into improvement of product environmental performances.

  5. The carbon footprint of integrated milk production and renewable energy systems - A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vida, Elisabetta; Tedesco, Doriana Eurosia Angela

    2017-12-31

    Dairy farms have been widely acknowledged as a source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The need for a more environmentally friendly milk production system will likely be important going forward. Whereas methane (CH4) enteric emissions can only be reduced to a limited extent, CH4 manure emissions can be reduced by implementing mitigation strategies, such as the use of an anaerobic digestion (AD). Furthermore, implementing a photovoltaic (PV) electricity generation system could mitigate the fossil fuels used to cover the electrical needs of farms. In the present study to detect the main environmental hotspots of milk production, a Life Cycle Assessment was adopted to build the Life Cycle Inventory according to ISO 14040 and 14044 in a conventional dairy farm (1368 animals) provided by AD and PV systems. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change tiered approach was adopted to associate the level of emission with each item in the life cycle inventory. The functional unit refers to 1kg of fat-and-protein-corrected-milk (FPCM). In addition to milk products, other important co-products need to be considered: meat and renewable energy production from AD and PV systems. A physical allocation was applied to attribute GHG emissions among milk and meat products. Renewable energy production from AD and PV systems was considered, discounting carbon credits due to lower CH4 manure emissions and to the minor exploitation of fossil energy. The CF of this farm scenario was 1.11kg CO2eq/kg FPCM. The inclusion of AD allowed for the reduction of GHG emissions from milk production by 0.26kg CO2eq/kg FPCM. The PV system contribution was negligible due to the small dimensions of the technology. The results obtained in this study confirm that integrating milk production with other co-products, originated from more efficient manure management, is a successful strategy to mitigate the environmental impact of dairy production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Milking of microalgae: Production and selective extraction of Beta-carotene in two-phase bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hejazi, M.

    2003-01-01

    The low productivity of photobioreactors used for production of high-value compounds from microalgae is a big bottleneck in commercialization. "Milking" of microalgae for the production of high-value compounds in which the produced biomass is reused for production can be a solutio

  7. Milking of microalgae: Production and selective extraction of Beta-carotene in two-phase bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hejazi, M.

    2003-01-01

    The low productivity of photobioreactors used for production of high-value compounds from microalgae is a big bottleneck in commercialization. "Milking" of microalgae for the production of high-value compounds in which the produced biomass is reused for production can be a

  8. Genetic mapping of quantitative trait loci for milk production in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateescu, R G; Thonney, M L

    2010-10-01

    A backcross pedigree using dairy East Friesian rams and non-dairy Dorset ewes was established specifically to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting milk production in sheep. Ninety nine microsatellite markers of an initial set of 120 were successfully genotyped and informative on 188 animals of this backcross pedigree. Test-day milk records on individual ewes were used to estimate several milk yield related traits, including peak milk yield and cumulative milk yield to 50 (MY50), 100 (MY100) and 250 days (MY250). These traits, as well as estimated breeding value of backcross ewes extracted from the genetic evaluation file of the entire flock, were used in interval mapping. Ovine chromosomes 2, 12, 18, 20 and 24 were identified to harbour putative QTL for different measures of milk production. The QTL on Ovis aries chromosomes (OAR) 2 and 20 mapped to locations where similar trait QTL have already been mapped in other studies, whereas QTL on OAR 12, 18 and 24 were unique to our backcross pedigree and have not been reported previously. In addition, all identified QTL regions were syntenic with bovine chromosomal segments revealed to harbour QTL affecting milk production traits, providing supporting evidence for the QTL identified here.

  9. The antioxidant activity of kombucha fermented milk products with stinging nettle and winter savory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitas Jasmina S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the antioxidant activity of fermented milk products obtained by kombucha fermentation. Two starter cultures were used as follows: starter obtained after kombucha fermentation on sweetened stinging nettle extract; as well as starter obtained after kombucha fermentation on sweetened winter savory extract. The starters were added to milk with 0.8, 1.6 and 2.8% milk fat. Fermentation was carried out at 37, 40 and 43oC and stopped when the pH reached 4.5. Antioxidant activity to hydroxyl and DPPH radicals was monitored using response surface methodology. Kombucha fermented milk products with stinging nettle (KSN and with winter savory (KWS showed the same antioxidant response to hydroxyl and different response to DPPH radicals. Synergetic effect of milk fat and fermentation temperature to antioxidant activity to hydroxyl radicals for both types of kombucha fermented milk products (KSN and KWS was established. Optimum processing conditions in term of antioxidant activity are: milk fat around 2.8% and process temperature around 41 and 43°C for KSN and KWS respectively.

  10. Food safety in raw milk production: risk factors associated to bacterial DNA contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerva, Cristine; Bremm, Carolina; Reis, Emily Marques dos; Bezerra, André Vinícius Andrade; Loiko, Márcia Regina; Cruz, Cláudio Estêvão Farias da; Cenci, Alexander; Mayer, Fabiana Quoos

    2014-06-01

    While human illness from milkborne pathogens may be linked to contamination of the product after pasteurization or improper pasteurization, such diseases are usually associated with consumption of raw milk or its by-products. Molecular biology tools were applied to investigate contamination by Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., some pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli, and Campylobacter jejuni in 548 raw milk samples from 125 dairy farms established in two regions from southern Brazil. Moreover, 15 variables were evaluated for their association with raw milk contamination levels, and the risk factors were determined by multiple regression analysis. Salmonella spp. were more frequently detected, followed by pathogenic E. coli. There was difference in contamination index between the regions, in which risk factors such as temporary cattle confinement, low milk production, low milking machine cleaning frequency, and milk storage area without tile walls were identified. The risk factors were specific to each region studied. Nevertheless, the data can be used to improve milk quality of dairy farms/herds with similar management practices.

  11. The role of milk proteins in the structure formation of dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Rybak

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The structure of dairy products is a complex of proteins, fat, minerals and water that determines the texture and sensory properties of the product. Material and methods. The fermented milks (using the example of yogurt, cheese, ice cream, aerated milk and frozen fruit desserts have been researched. Scientific articles, published during 2000 and 2014 years, as well as theses and monographs of dairy science have been analysed too. Methodology of the investigation is based upon the use of the methods of analysis, comparison and synthesis. Results and discussion. The scientific understanding of the milk proteins’ role in the structure formation of dairy product has been summarized. Negligible changes of structure as a result of compositional or technological changes can lead to shifts in the stability, texture and rheology of products, which are closely related to each other. The allowance of these properties has significant influence on the manufacturing. Acid coagulation is a major functional property of milk proteins, which used in the structure formation of cheese and fermented dairy products. However, the form and properties of milk curd depend on the heat treatment of milk before fermentation. Milk proteins exhibit other functional properties (emulsification and partial coalescence of fat globules, aeration and foam stability during a churning, viscosity increasing of external phase in the development of structure in the ice cream, aerated milk and frozen fruit desserts. Conclusions. It is expedient to use results into a further study of the structure formation mechanism of dairy products and the development of recommendations in order to an efficient production.

  12. The role of milk proteins in the structure formation of dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Rybak

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The structure of dairy products is a complex of proteins, fat, minerals and water that determines the texture and sensory properties of the product. Material and methods. The fermented milks (using the example of yogurt, cheese, ice cream, aerated milk and frozen fruit desserts have been researched. Scientific articles, published during 2000 and 2014 years, as well as theses and monographs of dairy science have been analysed too. Methodology of the investigation is based upon the use of the methods of analysis, comparison and synthesis. Results and discussion. The scientific understanding of the milk proteins’ role in the structure formation of dairy product has been summarized. Negligible changes of structure as a result of compositional or technological changes can lead to shifts in the stability, texture and rheology of products, which are closely related to each other. The allowance of these properties has significant influence on the manufacturing. Acid coagulation is a major functional property of milk proteins, which used in the structure formation of cheese and fermented dairy products. However, the form and properties of milk curd depend on the heat treatment of milk before fermentation. Milk proteins exhibit other functional properties (emulsification and partial coalescence o f fatglobules, aeration and foam stability during a churning, viscosity increasing of external phase in the development of structure in the ice cream, aerated milk and frozen fruit desserts. Conclusions.It is expedient to use results into a further study of the structure formation mechanism of dairy products and the development of recommendations in order to an efficient production.

  13. The role of milk proteins in the structure formation of dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Rybak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The structure of dairy products is a complex of proteins, fat, minerals and water that determines the texture and sensory properties of the product. Material and methods. The fermented milks (using the example of yogurt, cheese, ice cream, aerated milk and frozen fruit desserts have been researched. Scientific articles, published during 2000 and 2014 years, as well as theses and monographs of dairy science have been analysed too. Methodology of the investigation is based upon the use of the methods of analysis, comparison and synthesis. Results and discussion. The scientific understanding of the milk proteins’ role in the structure formation of dairy product has been summarized. Negligible changes of structure as a result of compositional or technological changes can lead to shifts in the stability, texture and rheology of products, which are closely related to each other. The allowance of these properties has significant influence on the manufacturing. Acid coagulation is a major functional property of milk proteins, which used in the structure formation of cheese and fermented dairy products. However, the form and properties of milk curd depend on the heat treatment of milk before fermentation. Milk proteins exhibit other functional properties (emulsification and partial coalescence of fat globules, aeration and foam stability during a churning, viscosity increasing of external phase in the development of structure in the ice cream, aerated milk and frozen fruit desserts. Conclusions. It is expedient to use results into a further study of the structure formation mechanism of dairy products and the development of recommendations in order to an efficient production.

  14. Effects of partly replacing dietary starch with fiber and fat on milk production and energy partitioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerman, J P; Potts, S B; VandeHaar, M J; Lock, A L

    2015-10-01

    The effects of partly replacing dietary starch with fiber and fat to provide a diet with similar net energy for lactation (NEL) density on yields of milk and milk components and on energy partitioning were evaluated in a crossover design experiment. Holstein cows (n = 32; 109 ± 22 d in milk, mean ± standard deviation) were randomly assigned to treatment sequence. Treatments were a high-starch diet containing 33% corn grain (mixture of dry ground and high-moisture corn; HS) or a high-fiber, high-fat diet containing 2.5% palmitic acid-enriched fatty acid (FA) supplement (HFF). Diets contained corn silage, alfalfa silage, and wheat straw as forage sources; HS contained 32% starch, 3.2% FA, and 25% neutral detergent fiber, whereas HFF contained 16% starch, 5.4% FA, and 33% neutral detergent fiber. Compared with HS, the HFF treatment reduced milk yield, milk protein concentration, and milk protein yield, but increased milk fat concentration, milk fat yield, milk energy output, and milk to feed ratio (energy-corrected milk/dry matter intake). The HFF treatment reduced the yield of de novo synthesized ( 16-carbon) milk FA was not different. The HFF treatment increased plasma concentrations of triglycerides and nonesterified fatty acids, but decreased plasma concentration of insulin. Compared with HS, the HFF treatment reduced body weight gain, change in body condition score, and fat thickness over the rump and rib. Calculated body energy gain, as a fraction of NEL use, was less for HFF than HS, whereas milk energy as a fraction of NEL use was increased for HFF. We concluded that the 2 treatments resulted in similar apparent NEL densities and intakes, but the HS treatment partitioned more energy toward body gain whereas the HFF treatment partitioned more energy toward milk. A high-fiber, high-fat diet might diminish the incidence of over conditioning in mid-lactation cows while maintaining high milk production. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association

  15. Dietary Protected Feed Supplement to Increase Milk Production and Quality of Dairy Cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramono, A.; Handayanta, E.; Widayati, D. T.; Putro, P. P.; Kustono

    2017-04-01

    The efforts to improve and optimize productivity of dairy cows require sufficient availability of nutrients, especially high energy in the early period of lactation. Increasing energy intake in dairy cows can be conducted by increasing the density of energy. The research aimed to evaluate dietary protected feed supplement on milk production and quality, including: fat, protein, and lactose content of Friesian Holstein dairy cow milk. Protected feed supplement was produced from sardine fish oil, through saponification and microencapsulation protection methods. The experiment consists of two treatments i.e. P0: basal diet (control) and P1: basal diet + 3 % protected feed supplement. Each treatment was repeated 15 times. Data were analyzed by independent samples t-test analysis. Results showed that supplementation of protected sardine fish oil had no effect on lactose content, but increased milk yield production (p<0.01), milk fat content (p<0.05), and protein content (p<0.05).

  16. Mapping Quantitative Trait Loci Controlling Milk Production in Dairy Cattle by Exploiting Progeny Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georges, M.; Nielsen, D.; Mackinnon, M.; Mishra, A.; Okimoto, R.; Pasquino, A. T.; Sargeant, L. S.; Sorensen, A.; Steele, M. R.; Zhao, X.; Womack, J. E.; Hoeschele, I.

    1995-01-01

    We have exploited ``progeny testing'' to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying the genetic variation of milk production in a selected dairy cattle population. A total of 1,518 sires, with progeny tests based on the milking performances of > 150,000 daughters jointly, was genotyped for 159 autosomal microsatellites bracketing 1645 centimorgan or approximately two thirds of the bovine genome. Using a maximum likelihood multilocus linkage analysis accounting for variance heterogeneity of the phenotypes, we identified five chromosomes giving very strong evidence (LOD score >/= 3) for the presence of a QTL controlling milk production: chromosomes 1, 6, 9, 10 and 20. These findings demonstrate that loci with considerable effects on milk production are still segregating in highly selected populations and pave the way toward marker-assisted selection in dairy cattle breeding. PMID:7713441

  17. Mapping quantitative trait loci controlling milk production in dairy cattle by exploiting progeny testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georges, M.; Nielsen, D.; Mackinnon, M.; Mishra, A.; Okimoto, R.; Sargeant, L.S.; Steele, M.R.; Zhao, X. [Genmark Inc., Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Pasquino, A.T. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    We have exploited {open_quotes}progeny testing{close_quotes} to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying the genetic variation of milk production in a selected dairy cattle population. A total of 1,518 sires, with progeny tests based on the milking performances of >150,000 daughters jointly, was genotyped for 159 autosomal microsatellites bracketing 1645 centimorgan or approximately two thirds of the bovine genome. Using a maximum likelihood multilocus linkage analysis accounting for variance heterogeneity of the phenotypes, we identified five chromosomes giving very strong evidence (LOD score {ge} 3) for the presence of a QTL controlling milk production: chromosomes 1, 6, 9, 10 and 20. These findings demonstrate that loci with considerable effects on milk production are still segregating in highly selected populations and pave the way toward marker-assisted selection in dairy cattle breeding. 44 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Estimation of milk production in hair ewes by two methods of measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Peniche G

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective. The objective of the current study was to compare two methods to estimate daily milk production in crossbred hair ewes. Materials and methods. Eight multiparous, crossbred (Pelibuey x Katahdin lactating hair ewes were used in a completely randomized design with repeated measurements, for 56 days. Ewes were fed ad libitum with a diet based on concentrate. Milk production was estimated twice a week for each ewe by both methods, suckled-hand (SH and weigh-suckle-weigh (WSW method. Results. Milk production (p>0.05 means were 031.9±95.6 and 1119.0±95.6 g/day/ewe for SH and WSW method, respectively. Conclusions. No significant differences (p>0.05 were found between methods for milk yield.

  19. Modulation of Mammary Gland Development and Milk Production by Growth Hormone Expression in GH Transgenic Goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Zekun; Lin, Jian; Ye, Lulu; Zhang, Qiang; Chen, Jianquan; Yang, Qian; Yu, Qinghua

    2016-01-01

    Mammary gland development during puberty and reconstruction during pregnancy and lactation is under the control of circulating endocrine hormones, such as growth hormone, which are released from the pituitary. In this study, we explored the influence of overexpression of growth hormone in the mammary gland on breast development and milk production in goats. Using transcriptome sequencing, we found that the number of highly expressed genes was greater in GH transgenic goats than non-transgenic goats. Furthermore, KEGG pathway analysis showed that the majority of the genes belonged to the MAPK signaling pathway and the ECM-receptor interaction pathway. The expression of genes related to breast development was further confirmed using qRT-PCR. Interestingly, both milk production and milk quality were increased. The results of these experiments imply that overexpression of growth hormone in the breast may stimulate breast development and enhances milk production by modulating alveolar cell proliferation or branching through the MAPK signaling pathway.

  20. Greater Mortality and Morbidity in Extremely Preterm Infants Fed a Diet Containing Cow Milk Protein Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schanler, Richard J.; Lee, Martin L.; Rechtman, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Provision of human milk has important implications for the health and outcomes of extremely preterm (EP) infants. This study evaluated the effects of an exclusive human milk diet on the health of EP infants during their stay in the neonatal intensive care unit. Subjects and Methods: EP infants <1,250 g birth weight received a diet consisting of either human milk fortified with a human milk protein-based fortifier (HM) (n=167) or a diet containing variable amounts of milk containing cow milk-based protein (CM) (n=93). Principal outcomes were mortality, necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), growth, and duration of parenteral nutrition (PN). Results: Mortality (2% versus 8%, p=0.004) and NEC (5% versus 17%, p=0.002) differed significantly between the HM and CM groups, respectively. For every 10% increase in the volume of milk containing CM, the risk of sepsis increased by 17.9% (p<0.001). Growth rates were similar between groups. The duration of PN was 8 days less in the subgroup of infants receiving a diet containing <10% CM versus ≥10% CM (p<0.02). Conclusions: An exclusive human milk diet, devoid of CM-containing products, was associated with lower mortality and morbidity in EP infants without compromising growth and should be considered as an approach to nutritional care of these infants. PMID:24867268

  1. Relationship between gene polymorphism and milk production traits in Teleorman Black Head sheep breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gras MA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study is a preliminary step of a larger national program aimed to develop a strategy for “in situ” preservation of Teleorman Black Head sheep population. In this paper we estimated the effect of β-lactoglobulin, casein and prolactin on some quantitative and qualitative milk traits in this local sheep population. Material and methods. Genotyping methodology included PCR for CSN3 (A and B alleles and PCR-RFLP for LGB (A and B alleles and PRL (T and C alleles, respectively. Repeated milking and milk composition analysis were used for the polymorphism effect estimation. Results. No association between CSN3 polymorphism and milk traits was found. Effect of LGB on production traits was quite constant. Genotype AA performed better than BB. PRL marker effect showed small differences than LGB. Concerning milk, fat and protein yield, AA genotype for PRL had a smaller positive impact than AA genotype for LGB. Regarding fat and protein content, PRL showed a negative effect for AA and positive for BB genotype, respectively. Conclusions. Positive association between LGB and milk yield and composition recommend this candidate gene like marker for a future MAS program. Although PRL gene is also associated with an increased milk quantity, inverse response over milk composition must be considered in MAS strategy. Our study demonstrated that both LGB and PRL markers could became an advent of MAS utilization in Romanian dairy sheep breeding industry.

  2. Bioactive Peptides in Milk and Dairy Products: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young Woo; Nam, Myoung Soo

    2015-01-01

    Functionally and physiologically active peptides are produced from several food proteins during gastrointestinal digestion and fermentation of food materials with lactic acid bacteria. Once bioactive peptides (BPs) are liberated, they exhibit a wide variety of physiological functions in the human body such as gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, immune, endocrine, and nervous systems. These functionalities of the peptides in human health and physiology include antihypertensive, antimicrobial, antioxidative, antithrombotic, opioid, anti-appetizing, immunomodulatory and mineral-binding activities. Most of the bioactivities of milk proteins are latent, being absent or incomplete in the original native protein, but full activities are manifested upon proteolytic digestion to release and activate encrypted bioactive peptides from the original protein. Bioactive peptides have been identified within the amino acid sequences of native milk proteins. Due to their physiological and physico-chemical versatility, milk peptides are regarded as greatly important components for health promoting foods or pharmaceutical applications. Milk and colostrum of bovine and other dairy species are considered as the most important source of natural bioactive components. Over the past a few decades, major advances and developments have been achieved on the science, technology and commercial applications of bioactive components which are present naturally in the milk. Although the majority of published works are associated with the search of bioactive peptides in bovine milk samples, some of them are involved in the investigation of ovine or caprine milk. The advent of functional foods has been facilitated by increasing scientific knowledge about the metabolic and genomic effects of diet and specific dietary components on human health.

  3. Operability and flexibility of a milk production line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Hongyuan; Friis, Alan

    2007-01-01

    parameters. The operability and flexibility of the nominal operating points were evaluated with a minimization of the process pasteurization and cooling temp. through vertex enumeration. The simulation procedure provides a quantitative method for developing a flexible process in dairy industry applications...

  4. Efficiency of utilization of dietary energy for milk production in lactating crossbred cattle (Bos Indicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debashis Saha

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted on efficiency of utilization of dietary energy for milk production in lactating crossbred cattle. 18 lactating crossbred cattle of early to mid-lactation, approximate body weight (375.39±23.43 kg, milk yield, parity and stage of lactation were divided into three groups of six animals each and were fed 0, 50 and 100% diammonium phosphate (DAP in the mineral mixture of concentrates for 120 days. The chaffed mixed roughage (berseem + wheat straw and concentrate mixture was fed to supply about nearly 18:82 concentrate to roughage ratio on dry matter basis. Tap water was available to the animals twice daily. A metabolism trial of seven days was conducted at the end of experiment to study digestibility of organic nutrients and balances of energy. DAP did not affect the nutrient intake, body weight changes, digestibility of Dry matter (DM, Crude protein (CP, Ether extract (EE, Crude fiber (CF, Nitrogen free extract (NFE and daily milk yield. It was concluded that the at 46.07 Mcal Gross energy intake level the losses in feces, urine, methane and heat production was 45.82%, 5.40%, 4.31% and 33.01%, respectively, and net energy retention for milk production was 11.43%. The gross efficiency of conversion of metabolic energy ME for milk production was 35.69% and the net efficiency of conversion of ME for milk production was 39.56%.

  5. Influence of oral administration of Salix babylonica extract on milk production and composition in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelfattah Z.M. Salem

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A 3×3 Latin Square design was used to evaluate effects of 0, 150 and 300 mL of Salix babylonica (SB extract mixed into the diet on daily milk production and composition in cows. Three Brown Swiss dairy cows (420±30.3 kg body weight, at late lactation (220±25.1 d in milk, were fed a diet with a restricted amount of concentrate and oat hay ad libitum twice daily in equal amounts. The SB extract was mixed daily with a small amount of concentrate and fed to the cows. In vitro gas production of the diet fed to the cows was recorded at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h of incubation with 0, 0.6, 1.2 and 1.8 mL SB/g DM. Intake of oat hay was increased (P<0.05 by 11.5% with the SB addition at 150 mL/d. Milk production was also increased with extract addition at 150 or 300 mL/d by about 13.3 and 8.9% respectively, compared with control. Milk fat was lower (P<0.05 with SB addition, while milk protein and lactose were not affected by the extract addition. Milk efficiency was improved (P<0.05 with extract addition versus control. In vitro gas production of the diet increased (P<0.05 dramatically with increasing levels of extract addition with a short lag time and high rate of gas production per hour vs control. Addition of SB extract at 150 mL/d improved milk production by 13.3%, while it decreased its fat content and improved milk efficiency.

  6. Assessment of dietary ratios of red clover and corn silages on milk production and milk quality in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorby, J M; Ellis, N M; Davies, D R

    2016-10-01

    Twenty-four multiparous Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were used in a replicated 3×3 Latin square changeover design experiment to test the effects of changing from corn (Zea mays) silage to red clover (Trifolium pratense) silage in graded proportions on feed intakes, milk production, and whole-body N and P partitioning. Three dietary treatments with ad libitum access to 1 of 3 forage mixtures plus a standard allowance of 4kg/d dairy concentrates were offered. The 3 treatment forage mixtures were, on a dry matter (DM) basis: (1) R10: 90% corn silage and 10% red clover silage, (2) R50: 50% corn silage and 50% red clover silage, and (3) R90: 10% corn silage and 90% red clover silage. In each of 3 experimental periods, there were 21d for adaptation to diets, and 7d for measurements. Diet crude protein intakes increased, and starch intakes decreased, as the silage mixture changed from 90% corn to 90% red clover, although the highest forage DM intakes and milk yields were achieved on diet R50. Although milk fat yields were unaffected by diet, milk protein yields were highest with the R 0250 diet. Whole-body partitioning of N was measured in a subset of cows (n=9), and both the daily amount and proportion of N consumed that was excreted in feces and urine increased as the proportion of red clover silage in the diet increased. However, the apparent efficiency of utilization of feed N for milk protein production decreased from 0.33g/g for diet R10 to 0.25g/g for diet R90. The urinary excretion of purine derivatives (sum of allantoin and uric acid) tended to increase, suggesting greater flow of microbial protein from the rumen, as the proportion of red clover silage in the diet increased, and urinary creatinine excretion was affected by diet. Fecal shedding of E. coli was not affected by dietary treatment. In conclusion, even though microbial protein flow may have been greatest from the R 0450 diet, optimum feed intakes and milk yields were achieved on a diet that contained a

  7. Software Product Lines: Report of the 2009 U.S. Army Software Product Line Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    Teclmical Probe:oM (PL1P SM). 1his activity involves exam - ining an organization’s readiness to adq>t or ability to succeed with a software procilct line...benefits of a software product line approach: • SOA (Service Oriented Architecture) is starting to become important in his organization’s work, and many...issues about adopting SOA have already been dealt with in the product line work (e.g., reuse, acquisition culture, and budget issues). • The product

  8. Genetic Parameters of Milk β-Hydroxybutyric Acid and Acetone and Their Genetic Association with Milk Production Traits of Holstein Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, SeokHyun; Cho, KwangHyun; Park, MiNa; Choi, TaeJung; Kim, SiDong; Do, ChangHee

    2016-11-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the genetic parameters of β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) and acetone concentration in milk by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy along with test-day milk production traits including fat %, protein % and milk yield based on monthly samples of milk obtained as part of a routine milk recording program in Korea. Additionally, the feasibility of using such data in the official dairy cattle breeding system for selection of cows with low susceptibility of ketosis was evaluated. A total of 57,190 monthly test-day records for parities 1, 2, and 3 of 7,895 cows with pedigree information were collected from April 2012 to August 2014 from herds enrolled in the Korea Animal Improvement Association. Multi-trait random regression models were separately applied to estimate genetic parameters of test-day records for each parity. The model included fixed herd test-day effects, calving age and season effects, and random regressions for additive genetic and permanent environmental effects. Abundance of variation of acetone may provide a more sensitive indication of ketosis than many zero observations in concentration of milk BHBA. Heritabilities of milk BHBA levels ranged from 0.04 to 0.17 with a mean of 0.09 for the interval between 4 and 305 days in milk during three lactations. The average heritabilities for milk acetone concentration were 0.29, 0.29, and 0.22 for parities 1, 2, and 3, respectively. There was no clear genetic association of the concentration of two ketone bodies with three test-day milk production traits, even if some correlations among breeding values of the test-day records in this study were observed. These results suggest that genetic selection for low susceptibility of ketosis in early lactation is possible. Further, it is desirable for the breeding scheme of dairy cattle to include the records of milk acetone rather than the records of milk BHBA.

  9. New immunosensor for Lactoferrin determination in human milk and several pharmaceutical dairy milk products recommended for the unweaned diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanella, Luigi; Martini, Elisabetta; Tomassetti, Mauro

    2008-09-29

    Thorough research was carried out on Lactoferrin immunosensor development. Furthermore, two different competitive procedures were used for Lactoferrin determination, in which either the antigen (Lactoferrin) or the antibody (anti-Lactoferrin) was, respectively, conjugated with horseradish peroxidase enzyme using a biotinylation process. The biotinylation of Lactoferrin and the subsequently used competition procedure for the immunosensor measurement were to get ready. Three different kinds of immunosensors were implemented, in all cases using the peroxidase enzyme as marker and hydrogen peroxide as substrate, but alternatively using as transducers one of the following sensors: (i) an amperometric electrode for H2O2, (ii) a Clark electrode and (iii) an iodide electrode. After optimizing the "competitive" measurement procedures and the transducer, the new Lactoferrin immunosensor was used for the determination of Lactoferrin content in human milk and in different types of dried milks or other dairy products, specifically produced and sold in chemist's shops to feed unweaned children in the first few months of life.

  10. Milk production parameters in early lactiation: potential risk factors of cystic ovarian disease in Dutch dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooijer, G.A.; Oijen, van M.A.A.J.; Frankena, K.; Noordhuizen, J.P.T.M.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this field study was to investigate whether the incidence of cystic ovarian disease (COD) in dairy cows was related to milk production parameters (milk yield, milk fat and protein) in early lactation with special emphasis on the negative energy balance (NEB). The diagnosis of COD was made

  11. Effect of butaphosphan and cyanocobalamin on postpartum metabolism and milk production in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, R A; Silveira, P A S; Montagner, P; Schneider, A; Schmitt, E; Rabassa, V R; Pfeifer, L F M; Del Pino, F A B; Pulga, M E; Corrêa, M N

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of butaphosphan and cyanocobalamin (BTPC) supplementation on plasma metabolites and milk production in postpartum dairy cows. A total of fifty-two Holstein cows were randomly assigned to receive either: (1) 10 ml of saline (NaCl 0.9%, control group); (2) 1000 mg of butaphosphan and 0.5 mg of cyanocobalamin (BTPC1 group); and (3) 2000 mg of butaphosphan and 1.0 mg of cyanocobalamin (BTPC2 group). All cows received injections every 5 days from calving to 20 days in milk (DIM). Blood samples were collected every 15 days from calving until 75 DIM to determine serum concentration of glucose, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), cholesterol, urea, calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg), aminotransferase aspartate (AST) and γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT). The body condition score (BCS) and milk production were evaluated from calving until 90 DIM. Increasing doses of BTPC caused a linear reduction in plasma concentrations of NEFA and cholesterol. Supplementation of BTPC also reduced concentrations of BHB but it did not differ between the two treatment doses. Milk yield and milk protein had a linear increase with increasing doses of BTPC. A quadratic effect was detected for milk fat and total milk solids according to treatment dose, and BTPC1 had the lowest mean values. Concentrations of glucose, urea, P, Mg, AST, GGT, milk lactose and BCS were not affected by treatment. These results indicate that injections of BTPC during the early postpartum period can reduce NEFA and BHB concentrations and increase milk production in Holstein cows.

  12. Sustainability evaluation of pasteurized milk production with a life cycle assessment approach: An Iranian case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiee, Shahin; Khoshnevisan, Benyamin; Mohammadi, Issa; Aghbashlo, Mortaza; Mousazadeh, Hossein; Clark, Sean

    2016-08-15

    Agro-food systems play a significant role in the economies of all nations due to energy use and the resulting environmental consequences. The sustainability of these systems is determined by a multitude of interacting economic, social and environmental factors. Dairy production presents a relevant example of the sustainability trade-offs that occur within such systems. On the one hand, dairy production constitutes an important part of the human diet, but it is also responsible for significant emissions of potent greenhouse gases and other pollutants. In this study, the environmental aspects of pasteurized milk production in Iran were investigated using a life-cycle approach. Three sub-systems, namely feed production, dairy farm and dairy factory, were taken into account to determine how and where Iranian pasteurized milk production might be made more environmentally friendly and energy efficient. The results clearly demonstrate that the feed production stage was the hot spot in pasteurized milk production in terms of energy consumption, environmental burdens and economic costs. The largest share of the total production costs belonged to animal feeds (43%), which were part of the feed production stage. The largest consumers of energy in the production of raw milk were alfalfa (30.3%), concentrate (24%), straw (17.8%) and maize (10.9%) for cows, followed by diesel fuel (6.6%) and electricity (5.6%). The global warming potential for the production of 1000kg of raw milk at the dairy-farm gate was estimated at 457kg CO2,eq. Thus, more than 69% of the total impact at the milk-processing gate resulted from the previous two sub-systems (feed production and dairy farm), with the feed-production stage accounting for the largest fractions of the environmental burdens.

  13. The Biodiversity of the Microbiota Producing Heat-Resistant Enzymes Responsible for Spoilage in Processed Bovine Milk and Dairy Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Solimar G.; Baglinière, François; Marchand, Sophie; Van Coillie, Els; Vanetti, Maria C. D.; De Block, Jan; Heyndrickx, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Raw bovine milk is highly nutritious as well as pH-neutral, providing the ideal conditions for microbial growth. The microbiota of raw milk is diverse and originates from several sources of contamination including the external udder surface, milking equipment, air, water, feed, grass, feces, and soil. Many bacterial and fungal species can be found in raw milk. The autochthonous microbiota of raw milk immediately after milking generally comprises lactic acid bacteria such as Lactococcus, Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, and Leuconostoc species, which are technologically important for the dairy industry, although they do occasionally cause spoilage of dairy products. Differences in milking practices and storage conditions on each continent, country and region result in variable microbial population structures in raw milk. Raw milk is usually stored at cold temperatures, e.g., about 4°C before processing to reduce the growth of most bacteria. However, psychrotrophic bacteria can proliferate and contribute to spoilage of ultra-high temperature (UHT) treated and sterilized milk and other dairy products with a long shelf life due to their ability to produce extracellular heat resistant enzymes such as peptidases and lipases. Worldwide, species of Pseudomonas, with the ability to produce these spoilage enzymes, are the most common contaminants isolated from cold raw milk although other genera such as Serratia are also reported as important milk spoilers, while for others more research is needed on the heat resistance of the spoilage enzymes produced. The residual activity of extracellular enzymes after high heat treatment may lead to technological problems (off flavors, physico-chemical instability) during the shelf life of milk and dairy products. This review covers the contamination patterns of cold raw milk in several parts of the world, the growth potential of psychrotrophic bacteria, their ability to produce extracellular heat-resistant enzymes and the consequences for

  14. The Biodiversity of the Microbiota Producing Heat-Resistant Enzymes Responsible for Spoilage in Processed Bovine Milk and Dairy Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Solimar G; Baglinière, François; Marchand, Sophie; Van Coillie, Els; Vanetti, Maria C D; De Block, Jan; Heyndrickx, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Raw bovine milk is highly nutritious as well as pH-neutral, providing the ideal conditions for microbial growth. The microbiota of raw milk is diverse and originates from several sources of contamination including the external udder surface, milking equipment, air, water, feed, grass, feces, and soil. Many bacterial and fungal species can be found in raw milk. The autochthonous microbiota of raw milk immediately after milking generally comprises lactic acid bacteria such as Lactococcus, Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, and Leuconostoc species, which are technologically important for the dairy industry, although they do occasionally cause spoilage of dairy products. Differences in milking practices and storage conditions on each continent, country and region result in variable microbial population structures in raw milk. Raw milk is usually stored at cold temperatures, e.g., about 4°C before processing to reduce the growth of most bacteria. However, psychrotrophic bacteria can proliferate and contribute to spoilage of ultra-high temperature (UHT) treated and sterilized milk and other dairy products with a long shelf life due to their ability to produce extracellular heat resistant enzymes such as peptidases and lipases. Worldwide, species of Pseudomonas, with the ability to produce these spoilage enzymes, are the most common contaminants isolated from cold raw milk although other genera such as Serratia are also reported as important milk spoilers, while for others more research is needed on the heat resistance of the spoilage enzymes produced. The residual activity of extracellular enzymes after high heat treatment may lead to technological problems (off flavors, physico-chemical instability) during the shelf life of milk and dairy products. This review covers the contamination patterns of cold raw milk in several parts of the world, the growth potential of psychrotrophic bacteria, their ability to produce extracellular heat-resistant enzymes and the consequences for

  15. Factors affecting the milk production of dairy cattle in northern rural areas of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Begum

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A cross sectional study was conducted to observe the factors affecting the productive performance of dairy cattle from northern rural areas of Bangladesh during July and September 2013. Data of 105 cows, 85 (80.95% from local and 20 (19.05% cows from cross breed, were randomly selected for the study. A binary logistic regression, expressed by odds ratio with 95% confidence interval, was done to determine the association of daily milk production categorized into ≤ 2 and > 2 liters (L, based on median, with the significant explanatory variables of body weight, age at first calving, lactation period, vitamin use, type of floor and milking person. The result demonstrated that the probability of milk production of >2 L was 6.16, 4.5, 20.65 and 5.7 times higher from the with animal body weight of >140 kg, age at first calving of >36 m, lactation period of >8 m and vitamin use than that of body weight of 140 kg, age at first calving of ≤36 m, lactation period of ≤ 8 m, and not vitamin used respectively. The chance of milk production of > 2 L was 0.25 and 0.22 times lower for mud floor, and owner milking than that of brick floor and gowala (professional milking person respectively.

  16. Safety in the design of production lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyhrberg, Mette Bang; Broberg, Ole; Jacobsen, Peter

    2006-01-01

    This paper is a case study report on how safety considerations were handled in the process of redesigning a production line. The design process was characterized as a specification and negotiation process between engineers from the company and the supplier organization. The new production line...... became safer, but not as a result of any intentional plan to integrate safety aspects into the design process. Instead, the supplier’s design of a new piece of equipment had a higher built-in safety level. The engineering team in the company was aware of the importance of safety aspects neither...... a ‘history workshop’ with the engineering team. The workshop clarified the sequence of events and discussions that took place during the design process and opened for a discussion of the role of safety aspects. During the workshop new insights emerged into the question of how to integrate safety aspects...

  17. Introduction to Software Product Lines (Slides)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    2014 by Carnegie Mellon University Software Engineering Institute Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, PA 15213 Introduction to...valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 01 OCT 2014 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Introduction to Software...298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 © 2014 Carnegie Mellon University Introduction to Software Product Lines 2 Copyright 2014 Carnegie

  18. Recent Advances in Phospholipids from Colostrum, Milk and Dairy By-Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vito Verardo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Milk is one of the most important foods for mammals, because it is the first form of feed providing energy, nutrients and immunological factors. In the last few years, milk lipids have attracted the attention of researchers due to the presence of several bioactive components in the lipid fraction. The lipid fraction of milk and dairy products contains several components of nutritional significance, such as ω-3 and ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, CLA, short chain fatty acids, gangliosides and phospholipids. Prospective cohort evidence has shown that phospholipids play an important role in the human diet and reinforce the possible relationship between their consumption and prevention of several chronic diseases. Because of these potential benefits of phospholipids in the human diet, this review is focused on the recent advances in phospholipids from colostrum, milk and dairy by-products. Phospholipid composition, its main determination methods and the health activities of these compounds will be addressed.

  19. Recent Advances in Phospholipids from Colostrum, Milk and Dairy By-Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verardo, Vito; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana Maria; Arráez-Román, David; Hettinga, Kasper

    2017-01-01

    Milk is one of the most important foods for mammals, because it is the first form of feed providing energy, nutrients and immunological factors. In the last few years, milk lipids have attracted the attention of researchers due to the presence of several bioactive components in the lipid fraction. The lipid fraction of milk and dairy products contains several components of nutritional significance, such as ω-3 and ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, CLA, short chain fatty acids, gangliosides and phospholipids. Prospective cohort evidence has shown that phospholipids play an important role in the human diet and reinforce the possible relationship between their consumption and prevention of several chronic diseases. Because of these potential benefits of phospholipids in the human diet, this review is focused on the recent advances in phospholipids from colostrum, milk and dairy by-products. Phospholipid composition, its main determination methods and the health activities of these compounds will be addressed. PMID:28106745

  20. Intraprocedural Dataflow Analysis for Software Product Lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Claus; Ribeiro, Márcio; Tolêdo, Társis

    2013-01-01

    Software product lines (SPLs) developed using annotative approaches such as conditional compilation come with an inherent risk of constructing erroneous products. For this reason, it is essential to be able to analyze such SPLs. However, as dataflow analysis techniques are not able to deal with SPLs......, developers must generate and analyze all valid products individually, which is expensive for non-trivial SPLs. In this paper, we demonstrate how to take any standard intraprocedural dataflow analysis and automatically turn it into a feature-sensitive dataflow analysis in five different ways where the last...... is a combination of the other four. All analyses are capable of analyzing all valid products of an SPL without having to generate all of them explicitly. We have implemented all analyses using SOOT’s intraprocedural dataflow analysis framework and experimentally evaluated four of them according to their performance...

  1. Comparison of contaminant and residue levels in organic and conventional milk and meat products from northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghidini, S; Zanardi, E; Battaglia, A; Varisco, G; Ferretti, E; Campanini, G; Chizzolini, R

    2005-01-01

    Due to the growing interest in organic products, a comparison between the chemical safety of organic and conventional products was undertaken. Milk and meat were the products chosen for study. The parameters evaluated to assess chemical safety were organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), lead, cadmium and mycotoxin contamination. Pesticides and PCBs residues in both organic and conventional milk and meat were lower than legal limits. Lead and cadmium residues were very low and did not differ between organic and conventional products. However, aflatoxin M1 contamination in some but not all samples of organic milk was significantly higher than those of conventional milk, although factors other than organic production might be implicated.

  2. Outbreak of staphylococcal food intoxication after consumption of pasteurized milk products, June 2007, Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Daniela; Fretz, Rainer; Winter, Petra; Mann, Michaela; Höger, Gerda; Stöger, Anna; Ruppitsch, Werner; Ladstätter, Johann; Mayer, Norbert; de Martin, Alfred; Allerberger, Franz

    2009-01-01

    On June 13, 2007, the public health authority informed the Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety about 40 children from two neighboring elementary schools who had fallen ill with abdominal cramps and vomiting on June 8. School milk products consumed on June 8 were suspected as the source of the outbreak. On June 8, the milk products provided by local dairy X to eight elementary schools and two nurseries. The short incubation period - all cases fell ill on the day on which the products were consumed - and the short duration of illness (1-2 days) strongly suggested intoxication. In order to identify the causative pathogen, its reservoir and the mode of transmission, a descriptive-epidemiological and microbiological investigation and a retrospective cohort study were conducted. Six of the 10 institutions served by dairy X completed questionnaires on demographics and food consumption. One school had a 79% response rate (203/258) and was chosen as the basis for our cohort study. A total of 166 of the 1025 children (16.2%) at the 10 institutions fulfilled the case definition. Consumption of milk, cacao milk or vanilla milk originating from dairy X was associated with a 37.8 times higher risk of becoming a case (95% CI: 2.3-116.5). Unopened milk products left over at the affected institutions yielded staphylococcal enterotoxins A and D. Six out of 64 quarter milk samples from three of 16 cows producing milk for dairy X tested positive for S. aureus. The isolates produced enterotoxins A and D, yielded genes encoding enterotoxins and D, and showed spa type t2953. S. aureus isolated from the nasal swab of the dairy owner harbored genes encoding enterotoxins C, G, H and I, and showed spa type t635. Our investigation revealed that the milk products produced in dairy X on June 7 were the source of the outbreak on June 8. The cows - not the dairy owner - the likely reservoir of the enterotoxin-producing S. aureus. From the risk assessment of the production process at the

  3. Economic values for milk production and quality traits in south and southeast regions of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lucia Cardoso

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to calculate economic values for milk (MY, protein (PY and fat productions (FY and somatic cell count (SCC which could be used to compose an economic index to rank animals involved in an international genetic evaluation program of Holstein cattle used in the commercial dairy population in Brazil. The main milk production systems (MPS prevailing in the South and Southeast were defined based on the feeding management and production level of herds. To calculate feeding costs, energy requirements for the production of one kg of milk with the respective average protein and fat contents of each MPS were calculated. Feeding costs were obtained based on the regional prices of the diets' components. To calculate revenues, milk prices were obtained from the payment tables practiced by seven milk industries. Economic values were calculated from the marginal differences between revenues and costs, for the interest of maximizing the profit, assuming a fixed number of animals in the herd. The average economic values (R$ for MY, PY and FY were 0.51, 6.41 and 1.94, respectively. The economic impact of increasing the original SCC values in the individual records of cows in the population by 1% was -R$ 1.40 per cow, per year. Due to changes observed in the last years in the milk market in Brazil, selection for milk components became economically advantageous. As a result, the calculation of economic values and the proposition of an economic index based on these traits became feasible. Somatic cell count does have an economic impact on the final price of milk and consequently on the annual profit of herds. It has also been used in breeding programs as an indicator of mastitis resistance and should not be neglected in breeding programs of dairy cattle.

  4. Effect of feed supplement on Milk Production, Fat % Total Serum Protein and Minerals in Lactating Buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.K. Verma

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to see the effect of feed supplement “Khurak” on milk yielding buffalo. The buffaloes were divided in two group. One group was offered “Khurak” as feed supplement for 7 days. Significant increase was observed in milk production, Total serum protein and calcium in khurak supplemented group (Treatment group. [Vet. World 2009; 2(5.000: 193-194

  5. Development of a non-dairy probiotic fermented product based on almond milk and inulin

    OpenAIRE

    Bernat Pérez, Neus; Cháfer Nácher, María Teresa; Chiralt Boix, Mª Amparo; González Martínez, María Consuelo

    2015-01-01

    A new fermented almond milk that combined the properties of both almonds and probiotics was considered to cover the current versatile health-promoting foods' demand. Almond milk fermentation with probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri and Streptococcus thermophilus was studied by using a Central Composite design with response surface methodology, and different factors (glucose, fructose, inulin and starters) were optimised to assure high probiotic survivals in the final product. The optimal formulat...

  6. Technology and potential applications of probiotic encapsulation in fermented milk products

    OpenAIRE

    Iravani, Siavash; Korbekandi, Hassan; Mirmohammadi, Seyed Vahid

    2014-01-01

    Fermented milk products containing probiotics and prebiotics can be used in management, prevention and treatment of some important diseases (e.g., intestinal- and immune-associated diseases). Microencapsulation has been used as an efficient method for improving the viability of probiotics in fermented milks and gastrointestinal tract. Microencapsulation of probiotic bacterial cells provides shelter against adverse conditions during processing, storage and gastrointestinal passage. Important c...

  7. CONCURRENT PRODUCT PORTFOLIO PLANNING AND MIXED PRODUCT ASSEMBLY LINE BALANCING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BRYAN April; HU S Jack; KOREN Yoram

    2007-01-01

    Reconfigurable products and manufacturing systems have enabled manufacturers to provide "cost effective" variety to the market. In spite of these new technologies, the expense of manufacturing makes it infeasible to supply all the possible variants to the market for some industries. Therefore, the determination of the right number of product variants to offer in the product portfolios becomes an important consideration. The product portfolio planning problem had been independently well studied from marketing and engineering perspectives. However, advantages can be gained from using a concurrent marketing and engineering approach. Concurrent product development strategies specifically for reconfigurable products and manufacturing systems can allow manufacturers to select best product portfolios from marketing, product design and manufacturing perspectives. A methodology for the concurrent design of a product portfolio and assembly system is presented. The objective of the concurrent product portfolio planning and assembly system design problem is to obtain the product variants that will make up the product portfolio such that oversupply of optional modules is minimized and the assembly line efficiency is maximized. Explicit design of the assembly system is obtained during the solution of the problem. It is assumed that the demand for optional modules and the assembly times for these modules are known a priori. A genetic algorithm is used in the solution of the problem. The basic premise of this methodology is that the selected product portfolio has a significant impact on the solution of the assembly line balancing problem. An example is used to validate this hypothesis. The example is then further developed to demonstrate how the methodology can be used to obtain the optimal product portfolio. This approach is intended for use by manufacturers during the early design stages of product family design.

  8. Molecular Characterization and Phylogenetic Analysis of Listeria monocytogenes Isolated from Milk and Milk Products in Kaduna, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, J.; Olonitola, O. S.; Radu, S.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, Listeria (L.) monocytogenes isolated from milk and milk products in Kaduna, Nigeria, were subjected to a multiplex PCR assay to identify virulence-associated genes (such as prf A, inl A, hly A, act A, and iap). Of the 36 isolates, 9 (25%) were positive for one or two virulence-associated genes. Based on the sample type, 6 (16.9%) of the isolates that possessed virulence-associated genes were obtained from raw milk, 2 (3.2%) from “Manshanu,” and 1 (2.8%) from “Kindrimo.” Sequence and phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA revealed that Nigerian L. monocytogenes isolates (NGA 34A, NGA 35A, NGA 41A, and NGA 38A), when compared with reference L. monocytogenes, were grouped into two distinct clusters, A and B, with sequence (NGA 34A, NGA 35A, and NGA 41A) phylogenetically closer to J1776; N1-011A; R2-502; J1816; and J2-031, whereas L. monocytogenes isolate (NGA 38A) clustered with EDG; J1-220; J1926; J1817; and J2-1091. The separation of the Nigerian L. monocytogenes isolates into linage A (responsible for epidemic listeriosis) and lineage B (responsible for sporadic cases of listeriosis) is of public health concern and that local isolates might have potentials for human food borne listeriosis based on the virulence factors so far identified. PMID:27597873

  9. Molecular Characterization and Phylogenetic Analysis of Listeria monocytogenes Isolated from Milk and Milk Products in Kaduna, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. B. Usman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Listeria (L. monocytogenes isolated from milk and milk products in Kaduna, Nigeria, were subjected to a multiplex PCR assay to identify virulence-associated genes (such as prf A, inl A, hly A, act A, and iap. Of the 36 isolates, 9 (25% were positive for one or two virulence-associated genes. Based on the sample type, 6 (16.9% of the isolates that possessed virulence-associated genes were obtained from raw milk, 2 (3.2% from “Manshanu,” and 1 (2.8% from “Kindrimo.” Sequence and phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA revealed that Nigerian L. monocytogenes isolates (NGA 34A, NGA 35A, NGA 41A, and NGA 38A, when compared with reference L. monocytogenes, were grouped into two distinct clusters, A and B, with sequence (NGA 34A, NGA 35A, and NGA 41A phylogenetically closer to J1776; N1-011A; R2-502; J1816; and J2-031, whereas L. monocytogenes isolate (NGA 38A clustered with EDG; J1-220; J1926; J1817; and J2-1091. The separation of the Nigerian L. monocytogenes isolates into linage A (responsible for epidemic listeriosis and lineage B (responsible for sporadic cases of listeriosis is of public health concern and that local isolates might have potentials for human food borne listeriosis based on the virulence factors so far identified.

  10. (igf1/igf1r) with milk production tr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gosia

    2016-06-15

    Jun 15, 2016 ... differences in milk, fat and protein yields, without further ... The insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) system plays a key role in the regulation of growth, ... However, an autocrine/paracrine IGF1 can be produced locally in a tissue-specific ... Regardless of its origin, most of the functional effects of IGF1 are ...

  11. Evaluation of growth, milk and manure production in Norwegian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    2017-02-20

    Feb 20, 2017 ... Animals with ≥75% NL genetic make-up produced more milk and showed longer LL and higher ... The history of crossbreeding dairy goats in Tanzania dates back to the ...... GM, VSS, GCK and PN designed the experiments.

  12. The Effect of Udder Measurements on Somatic Cell Count and Daily Milk Production in Holstein Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayhan Ceyhan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the effect of udder measurements group on somatic cell count (SCC and daily milk production. Milk samples and udder measurements were collected monthly from 79 lactating Holstein cows on commercial dairy in the province of Niğde. In the study, front teat length (FTL, rear teat length (RTL, front teat diameter (FTD, rear teat diameter (RTD, distance between front teats (DBFT, distance between rear teats (DBRT, front udder height, (FTH, rear udder height (RUH, distance between front and rear teats (DBST were obtained in before afternoon milking. Udder measurements were divided into 5 groups according to the measurements. The effect of DBFT, DBRT, FTH, RTD, FTD and DBRT groups on daily milk production were statistically significant, while FTH, RUH and DBRT were found non-significant. The effect of udder measurements groups on SCC was found not significant, except rear teat diameter (RTD. Average daily milk production and SCC were estimated as 28.25 kg/day and 274.90 cell/ml, respectively. In conclusion, it can be said that the distance between teats, teat’s diameter and front udder height of Holstein cattle is important factor for milk yield of Holstein dairy cattle. Also, SCC is effected by rear teat diameter.

  13. Organochlorine pesticide distribution in an organic production system for cow's milk in Chiapas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murga, María N; Gutiérrez, Rey; Vega, Salvador; Pérez, José J; Ortiz, Rutilio; Schettino, Beatriz; Yamasaki, Alberto; Ruíz, Jorge L

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of organochlorine pesticides in samples of forage, soil, water, and milk in four units of an organic production system for cow´s milk (samples of forage, milk, soil, and water) in Tecpatan, Chiapas, Mexico. The organochlorine pesticides were extracted from forage, soil and water based on the USEPA (2005) guideline and from milk based on the IDF 1991 guideline. The pesticides were identified and quantified by gas chromatography with electron capture detector (CG-ECD). In general, the highest average concentration of total pesticides was found in the samples of milk and forage (311 ± 328 and 116.5 ±77 ng g(-1) respectively). Although, the production systems analyzed are organic, organochlorine pesticides were detected in all environmental samples (forage, soil, water, and organic milk). Although no values surpassed the defined limits of Mexican and International regulation it is advisable that a monitoring program of contaminants in these production systems is continued.

  14. Effects of Bacillus subtilis natto on milk production, rumen fermentation and ruminal microbiome of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, P; Wang, J Q; Deng, L F

    2013-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of Bacillus subtilis natto, which was initially isolated from fermented soybeans on milk production, rumen fermentation and ruminal microbiome in dairy cows. In Experiment 1, 36 early lactation Chinese Holstein dairy cows (56 ± 23 days in milk) were randomly assigned to three groups: Control, cows were fed total mixed ration (TMR); BSNLOW, TMR plus 0.5 × 1011 colony-forming units (cfu) of B. subtilis natto/cow per day; and BSNHIGH, TMR plus 1.0 × 1011 cfu of B. subtilis natto/cow per day. During the 70-day treatment period, daily milk production and daily milk composition were determined in individual cows. The results showed that supplementing dairy cows with 0.5 × 1011 and 1.0 × 1011 cfu of B. subtilis natto linearly increased (P subtilis natto from days 8 to 21 (trial period) and rumen samples were collected on days 20 and 21. B. subtilis natto was discontinued from days 22 to 28 (post-trial period) and rumen samples were collected on days 27 and 28. Compared with the pre- and post-periods, ruminal pH decreased by 2.7% to 3.0% during the trial period (P subtilis natto improves milk production and milk components yield, decreases SCC and promotes the growth of total ruminal bacteria, proteolytic and amylolytic bacteria, which indicate that B. subtilis natto has potential to be applied as a probiotic for dairy cows.

  15. The effect of bovine milk lactoferrin on human breast cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, D C; Nicolau, A; Teixeira, J A; Rodrigues, L R

    2011-01-01

    The evidence that biologically active food components are key environmental factors affecting the incidence of many chronic diseases is overwhelming. However, the full extent of such components in our diet is unknown, as is our understanding of their mechanisms of action. Beyond the interaction of these food components with the gut and intestinal immune functions, whey proteins such as lactoferrin are being tested as anticancer agents. Lactoferrin is an iron-binding protein that has been reported to inhibit several types of cancer. In the present work, the effects of bovine milk lactoferrin on human breast cancer HS578T and T47D cells were studied. The cells were either untreated or treated with lactoferrin concentrations ranging from 0.125 to 125 μM. Lactoferrin decreased the cell viability of HS578T and T47D by 47 and 54%, respectively, and increased apoptosis about 2-fold for both cell lines. Proliferation rates decreased by 40.3 and 63.9% for HS578T and T47D, respectively. For the T47D line, cell migration decreased in the presence of the protein. Although the mechanisms of action are not fully known, the results gathered in this work suggest that lactoferrin interferes with some of the most important steps involved in cancer development.

  16. How can farming intensification affect the environmental impact of milk production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bava, L; Sandrucci, A; Zucali, M; Guerci, M; Tamburini, A

    2014-07-01

    The intensification process of the livestock sector has been characterized in recent decades by increasing output of product per hectare, increasing stocking rate, including more concentrated feed in the diet, and improving the genetic merit of the breeds. In dairy farming, the effects of intensification on the environmental impact of milk production are not completely clarified. The aim of the current study was to assess the environmental impacts of dairy production by a life cycle approach and to identify relations between farming intensity and environmental performances expressed on milk and land units. A group of 28 dairy farms located in northern Italy was involved in the study; data collected during personal interviews of farmers were analyzed to estimate emissions (global warming potential, acidification, and eutrophication potentials) and nonrenewable source consumption (energy and land use). The environmental impacts of milk production obtained from the life cycle assessment were similar to those of other recent studies and showed high variability among the farms. From a cluster analysis, 3 groups of farms were identified, characterized by different levels of production intensity. Clusters of farms showed similar environmental performances on product basis, despite important differences in terms of intensification level, management, and structural characteristics. Our study pointed out that, from a product perspective, the most environmentally friendly way to produce milk is not clearly identifiable. However, the principal component analysis showed that some characteristics related to farming intensification, such as milk production per cow, dairy efficiency, and stocking density, were negatively related to the impacts per kilogram of product, suggesting a role of these factors in the mitigation strategy of environmental burden of milk production on a global scale. Considering the environmental burden on a local perspective, the impacts per hectare were

  17. Formulation of a Production Strategy for a Software Product Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    individual assets. 4. Be acquisitive. Acquire as much of the software as possible [ Bergey 2006]. This strategy affects the development of core...requires more up-front investment than more manual development strategies. Complex operations such as building the product can be repeated quickly and...Architecture in Practice. Addison-Wesley Profes- sional, 2003. [ Bergey 2006] Bergey , J. & Cohen, S. Product Line Acquisition in a DoD Organization

  18. Milk and dairy products presence in boarding school meals in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasenka Gajdoš Kljusurić

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutritive quality and variety of food intake are the most important issues for young people growing and developing. Nutritional habits of each individual are also very important. High values of proteins, mineral matters and vitamins in milk show the importance of milk consumption in meals for children and young people.In order to gain a precise insight into nutritive status of young people in Croatian boarding schools, a "closed type group" was selected. The examined groups included girls and boys at the age of 14-18 years, accommodated in 39 boarding schools. The questionnaires, organised in order to determine preferences in consumption of different food groups including milk and dairy products, are conducted as well. From the meals analysed one can recommend the improvements in meal preferences. Average values per day showed that 52 % of girls and 63 % of boys consume milk and dairy products only if includedin boarding school meals. Only 27 % of girls and 21 % of boys consumed milk or dairy products on daily basis. Results of milk and dairy product preferences are different with regards to different regions of Croatia. Region 3, Lika and Gorski Kotar, shows the highest values of dairy products consumption. The aim of the work is to determine quality of the energy and nutritive intake by nutrition analysis, and to determine nutritional irregularities with a special reference to milk and dairy products consumption. Furthermore, nutritional improvements, by including the results of meal preferences in accordance with the needs and DRI recommendations considering gender and age, are proposed.

  19. Milk production responses to different strategies for feeding supplements to grazing dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auldist, M J; Marett, L C; Greenwood, J S; Wright, M M; Hannah, M; Jacobs, J L; Wales, W J

    2016-01-01

    Milk production responses of grazing cows offered supplements in different ways were measured. Holstein-Friesian cows, averaging 45 d in milk, were allocated into 8 groups of 24, with 2 groups randomly assigned to each of 4 feeding strategies. These were control: cows grazed a restricted allowance of perennial ryegrass pasture supplemented with milled wheat grain fed in the milking parlor and alfalfa hay offered in the paddock; FGM: same pasture and allowance as the control supplemented with a formulated grain mix containing wheat grain, corn grain, and canola meal fed in the parlor and alfalfa hay fed in the paddock; PMRL: same pasture and allowance as the control, supplemented with a PMR consisting of the same FGM but mixed with alfalfa hay and presented on a feed pad after each milking; and PMRH: same PMR fed in the same way as PMRL but with a higher pasture allowance. For all strategies, supplements provided the same metabolizable energy and grain:forage ratio [75:25, dry matter (DM) basis]. Each group of 24 cows was further allocated into 4 groups of 6, which were randomly assigned to receive 8, 12, 14, or 16 kg of DM supplement/cow per d. Thus, 2 replicated groups per supplement amount per dietary strategy were used. The experiment had a 14-d adaptation period and a 14-d measurement period. Pasture allowance, measured to ground level, was approximately 14 kg of DM/d for control, FGM, and PMRL cows, and 28 kg of DM/d for the PMRH cows, and was offered in addition to the supplement. Positive linear responses to increasing amounts of supplement were observed for yield of milk, energy-corrected milk, fat, and protein for cows on all 4 supplement feeding strategies. Production of energy-corrected milk was greatest for PMRH cows, intermediate for FGM and PMRL cows, and lowest for control cows. Some of these differences in milk production related to differences in intake of pasture and supplement. Milk fat concentration decreased with increasing amount of supplement

  20. Meta-analysis of the impact of stocking rate on the productivity of pasture-based milk production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, B; Delaby, L; Pierce, K M; Journot, F; Horan, B

    2011-04-01

    The objective of this study is to quantify the milk production response per cow and per hectare (ha) for an incremental stocking rate (SR) change, based on a meta-analysis of published research papers. Suitable experiments for inclusion in the database required a comparison of at least two SRs under the same experimental conditions in addition to details on experimental length and milk production results per cow and per ha. Each additional increased SR treatment was also described in terms of the relative milk production change per cow and per ha compared to the lower base SR (b_SR). A database containing 109 experiments of various lengths with 131 comparisons of SR was sub-divided into Type I experiments (common experimental lengths) and Type II experiments (variable experimental lengths). Actual and proportional changes in milk production according to SR change were analysed using linear mixed model procedures with study included as a random effect in the model. Low residual standard errors indicated a good precision of the predictive equations with the exception of proportional change in milk production per cow. For all milk yield variables analysed, the results illustrate that while production per cow is reduced, a strong positive relationship exists between SR and milk production per ha. An SR increase of one cow/ha resulted in a decrease in daily milk yield per cow of 7.4% and 8.7% for Type I and Type II data, respectively, whereas milk yield per ha increased by 20.1% and 19.6%, respectively. Within the Type II data set, a one cow/ha increase in SR also resulted in a 15.1% reduction in lactation length (equivalent to 42 days). The low predictability of proportional change in milk production per cow according to the classical SR definition of cows per ha over a defined period suggests that SR may be more appropriately defined in terms of the change in available feed offered per animal within each treatment.

  1. Intraprocedural dataflow analysis for software product lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Claus; Ribeiro, Márcio; Tolêdo, Társis

    2013-01-01

    Software product lines (SPLs) developed using annotative approaches such as conditional compilation come with an inherent risk of constructing erroneous products. For this reason, it is essential to be able to analyze such SPLs. However, as dataflow analysis techniques are not able to deal with SP...... and memory characteristics on five qualitatively different SPLs. On our benchmarks, the combined analysis strategy is up to almost eight times faster than the brute-force approach....... is a combination of the other four. All analyses are capable of analyzing all valid products of an SPL without having to generate all of them explicitly. We have implemented all analyses using SOOT’s intraprocedural dataflow analysis framework and experimentally evaluated four of them according to their performance...

  2. Tactile stimulation of dairy heifers: effects on behavior and milk production after calving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. R. M. Néri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The positive management of primiparous heifers before calving through tactile stimulation may have beneficial effects on behavior during routine milking. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of tactile stimulation in dairy heifers and its effects on behavior and milk production after calving. Ten primiparous Holstein heifers were used. Half the group received training with tactile stimulation of all body regions, while the other group did not receive stimulation (control group. The training period was divided into three phases: early, days 1 to 6 of training; intermediate: days 7 to 12, and final, days 13 to 23. During training, movement and displacement scores were obtained over a period of 5 minutes. Physiological parameters were also recorded [respiratory rate (FR and minimum eye temperature (ETmin measured with a thermal imaging camera]. After calving, the heifers were submitted to first milking when the evaluations were started for the first 10 days of milking (20 consecutive milkings. The behavior of the animals was evaluated by attributing a reactivity score of 1 (desirable behaviors or 2 (undesirable behaviors: entry into the pen, teat disinfection, milking one or two jets of milk for mastitis testing, attachment of teat cups, and removal of milk, as well as the amount of milk produced. Mean ETmin and FR decreased over the training period. A significant difference was observed for displacement score (P=0.019, with a reduction in displacement from the early to the final period (from 60.0% to 25.7%. During the attachment of teat cups, stimulated heifers were less reactive (P=0.002, characterized by a lower frequency of undesirable behaviors (12.0%, than unstimulated heifers (30.2%. The average milk yield during the first 60 days of lactation was higher for the group of stimulated heifers (Ln y=2.20–0.0102t+0.331lnt, R2=0.76 compared to unstimulated heifers (Ln y=1.54–0.0191x+0.578lnx, R2=0.79, with this difference being

  3. S100B protein, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor in human milk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruisong Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human milk contains a wide variety of nutrients that contribute to the fulfillment of its functions, which include the regulation of newborn development. However, few studies have investigated the concentrations of S100B protein, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF in human milk. The associations of the concentrations of S100B protein, BDNF, and GDNF with maternal factors are not well explored. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To investigate the concentrations of S100B protein, BDNF, and GDNF in human milk and characterize the maternal factors associated with their levels in human milk, human milk samples were collected at days 3, 10, 30, and 90 after parturition. Levels of S100B protein, BDNF, and GDNF, and their mRNAs in the samples were detected. Then, these concentrations were compared with lactation and other maternal factors. S100B protein levels in human milk samples collected at 3, 10, 30, and 90 d after parturition were 1249.79±398.10, 1345.05±539.16, 1481.83±573.30, and 1414.39±621.31 ng/L, respectively. On the other hand, the BDNF concentrations in human milk samples were 10.99±4.55, 13.01±5.88, 13.35±6.43, and 2.83±5.47 µg/L, while those of GDNF were 10.90±1.65, 11.38±1., 11.29±3.10, and 11.40±2.21 g/L for the same time periods. Maternal post-pregnancy body mass index was positively associated with S100B levels in human milk (r = 0.335, P = 0.030<0.05. In addition, there was a significant correlation between the levels of S100B protein and BDNF (z = 2.09, P = 0.037<0.05. Delivery modes were negatively associated with the concentration of GDNF in human milk. CONCLUSIONS: S100B protein, BDNF, and GDNF are present in all samples of human milk, and they may be responsible for the long term effects of breast feeding.

  4. ECONOMICS ANALYSIS OF OPTIMAL MILK PRODUCTION IN SMALL-SCALE DAIRY FARMING IN YOGYAKARTA, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himawan Arif

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Dairy farm, which produces calf and milk jointly, is expected to raise household’s income in rural areas where potential resources are available. This study aims at examing the optimal production of milk and calf by estimating a relationship between both productions. The study was conducted in Sleman,Yogyakartawhere dairy farms exist. Theory used in this study is economies scope in joint production. The results of study indicate that the level of joint production is still low such that there is no degree in economies of scope. Consequently, household’s income generated from this farm has not been maximised. To increase the income, it can be conducted by two consecutive steps. First, is to increase the production milk and calf jointly until the degree of economies of scope reached. Second, is to produce milk and calf in the best combination after reaching economies of scope. Recently, the best way to maximise income is to produce calf as low as possible, and to increase the period of producing milk.  

  5. Importance of Decision Support Systems About Food Safety in Raw Milk Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ecem Akan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In raw milk production decision support systems for control of food safety hazards has not been developed but main points of this system are available. The decision support systems’ elements include data identification at critical points in the milk supply chain, an information management system and data exchange. Decision supports systems has been developed on the basis of these elements. In dairy sector decision support systems are significant for controlling of food safety hazards and preferred by producers. When these systems are implemented in the milk supply chain, it can be prevented unnecessary sampling and analysis. In this article it will be underlined effects of decision support system elements on food safety of raw milk.

  6. Development of Genetic Evaluation on Dairy Cattle Based on Milk Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heni Indrijani

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed to review the development of genetic evaluation on dairy cattle based on milk production, including recording system, mathematical model of the milk curve, genetic parameters, and genetic model for predicting breeding values. Test day is the best system to record milk yield as it can be used to predict lactation curve and genetic parameters. Ali-Schaeffer curve was the best curve to estimate milk yield (r > 0.99. Fixed and random regression models have been widely used to give more advantages in breeding program. The models are able to analyse the records measured at different stage of lactation, and to predict a total breeding value from incomplete and part records. For practically used, fixed regression model (MRT is suggested because it does not have numerical problem and is easier to be used.

  7. The highlight of the main microbiologic parameters in buffalo milk and the final product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelia Coroian

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Research initially envisioned the determination of microbiologic parameters in buffalo milk andthe finished product. The average for coliform bacteria was 4.96±0.47, while for the total number ofyeasts and moulds, it was 633.47±20.01. Escherichia coli was present in three samples out of the 23buffalo milk samples under analysis and presented the following values: 1.5 E.coli x 103/ml, 1.1 E.coli x103/ml, respectively 2.9 E.coli x 103/ml. In addition, the total number of germs and number of somaticcells according to two categories (milk from family exploitations and milk from an ecologic farm weredetermined. Selective isolations were conducted, of different dilutions of the pure culture on Levin agar(dilutions and incubation for 24 h at 37oC. The determination of the number of coliform bacteria wasconducted using Mac-Crady tables.

  8. Human milk fat substitute from butterfat: production by enzymatic interesterification and evaluation of oxidative stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; Xu, Xuebing; Zhang, Long;

    2010-01-01

    Recent data have suggested that the fatty acid composition and molecular structure of fats in infant formulas should be as similar to human milk fat as possible to obtain optimal fat and calcium absorption from the infant formula. This work investigated the possibilities of using enzyme technology...... and butterfat as a material to produce a fat similar to human milk fat with respect to the above parameters. Moreover, the oxidative stability of the enzyme modified human milk fat substitute (HMFS) was compared to the fat blend used for the production of HMFS. Using a combination of enzyme technology......, fractionation and batch deodorization and with butterfat in combination with soybean oil and rapeseed oil as raw materials it was possible to produce HMFS with a molecular structure and fatty acid composition that was very similar to that of human milk fat. The oxidative stability of the HMFS oil was lower than...

  9. Investigating the genetic polymorphism of sheep milk proteins: a useful tool for dairy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaggi, Maria; Laudadio, Vito; Dario, Cataldo; Tufarelli, Vincenzo

    2014-12-01

    Sheep is the second most important dairy species after cow worldwide, and especially in the Mediterranean and Middle East regions. In some countries, the difficult environmental conditions require a peculiar adaptation and, in these contexts, sheep are able to provide higher quality protein than cattle. In the least-developed countries, the amount of dairy sheep and ovine milk production is progressively increasing. In order to improve dairy productions, in particular those with local connotations, it is necessary to obtain in-depth information regarding milk quality and rheological properties. The genetic polymorphisms of milk proteins are often associated with quantitative and qualitative parameters in milk and are potential candidate markers that should be included in breeding strategies similar to those already available for cattle. Due to the current and growing interest in this topic and considering the large amount of new information, the aim of this study was to review the literature on sheep milk protein polymorphisms with a particular emphasis on recent findings in order to give scientists useful support. Moreover, the effects of different protein variants on milk yield and composition are discussed.

  10. Evaluation and Determination of Toxic Metals, Lead and Cadmium, in Incoming Raw Milk from Traditional and Industrial Farms to Milk Production Factories in Arak, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Delavar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Milk is regarded as a unique source of food for all ages. When milk is exposed to various contaminants, including lead and cadmium, it is considered a risk to humans. The presence of some metal pollutants, especially Cd and Pb, facilitates their entry into the food chain and thus increases the possibility of their toxic effects on humans and animals. Therefore, we decided to check lead and cadmium levels in incoming raw milk in milk production factories in Arak city, Iran. Methods: In this study, 48 samples of milk were obtained from 28 industrial and 20 traditional farms. After the digestion process, at first, the metals were extracted with complexing agents, APDC, and MIBK solvent. Then atomic absorption method with graphite furnace was applied. Results: The results were analyzed by analytical tests such as Npar, Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis, and t-test using SPSS software and it was specified that the means of lead and cadmium were equal to 16.0456 and 20.09 ppb in raw milk. P-values equal to 0.009 and 0.002 ppb were considered significant for lead and cadmium, respectively. The standard levels for lead and cadmium in milk were 1000 and 100 ppb, respectively. In all milk samples, lead and cadmium pollution were less than the standard limit. Conclusion: The amounts of toxic metals (lead and cadmium in raw milk produced in traditional and industrial farms in all seasons were lower than the standard limits. Also, the mean amounts of lead and cadmium in all milk samples were less than the standard limits for milk.

  11. Detecção de adulterações em produtos alimentares contendo leite e/ou proteínas lácteas Detection of adulterations in food products containing milk and/or milk proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina A. Veloso

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available A critical review of the most relevant analytical methodologies for quality and authenticity control of dairy products and foods containing milk proteins is presented. Chromatographic, electrophoretic and immunological methods are used for: detection of cow's milk in ewe and goat milks, detection of whey added to milk, detection of caseins and/or whey proteins in non-lactic foods and study compounds resulting from milk proteins degradation. Techniques based on polimerase chain reaction are also suitable for detection of cow's milk on cheeses of ewe and goat milks.

  12. Relationships between production, quality of milk and udder health status of ewes during machine milking Zvislost medzi produkciou, kvalitou mlieka a zdravotnm stavom vemena bahnc pocas strojovho dojenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margetin MARGETN

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The chosen traits of production, composition and quality of milk (analysis of 255 milk samples were evaluated in ewes on the 1st to 3rd lactation (n=64 during milking period (4 control measurements CM and in the machine milking conditions. Udder health status of the ewes (UHS; n=255 was evaluated by means of 5 point linear scale subjectively at the same time. The ewes of three pure breeds (Tsigai T, Improved Valachian IV and Lacaune LC and two crossbreds (TxLC and IVxLC were involved in the experiment. The machine milked milk (milk production at CM (0.462 kg, the proportion of machine stripped milk (25.19 % and also UHS (1.65 were significantly affected by the genotype group (P<0.001. The basic components of milk, somatic cell count (SCC=452.2 thousands and somatic cell score (SCS=2.32 were not significantly affected by the genotype group. UHS of the ewes was effected by the genotype group and lactation order (P<0.001. The content of fat (7.72 %; F, lactose (4.62 %; L and protein (5.68 %; P were significantly affected by the CM (P<0.001, P<0.001 and P<0.05 respectively. The significant phenotype and residual correlations we determined between L and SCS (r = -0.372 and -0.399 respectively; P<0.001. The ewes with the worst UHS had on the basis of phenotype and residual correlations significantly lower lactose content in the milk (r = -0.206 and -0.194 respectively; P<0.001 and P<0.01 respectively. Between SCC and UHS and between SCS and UHS we found only weak phenotype and residual correlations (P<0.05 and P>0.05 respectively.

  13. Short communication: The water footprint of dairy products: case study involving skim milk powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridoutt, B G; Williams, S R O; Baud, S; Fraval, S; Marks, N

    2010-11-01

    In the context of global water scarcity and food security concerns, water footprints are emerging as an important sustainability indicator in the agriculture and food sectors. Using a recently developed life cycle assessment-based methodology that takes into account local water stress where operations occur, the normalized water footprints of milk products from South Gippsland, one of Australia's major dairy regions, were 14.4 L/kg of total milk solids in whole milk (at farm gate) and 15.8 L/kg of total milk solids in skim milk powder (delivered to export destination). These results demonstrate that dairy products can be produced with minimal potential to contribute to freshwater scarcity. However, not all dairy production systems are alike and the variability in water footprints between systems and products should be explored to obtain strategic insights that will enable the dairy sector to minimize its burden on freshwater systems from consumptive water use. Copyright © 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Digestibility, Milk Production, and Udder Health of Etawah Goats Fed with Fermented Coffee Husk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Badarina

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to assess the utilization of coffee husk fermented by Pleurotus ostreatus as feed supplement by measuring the digestibility, milk production and udder health of Etawah goats suffered from subclinical mastitis (+1. There were three experimental diets consisted of T0 (control diet/basal diet without fermented coffee husk, T1 (basal diet with 6% fermented coffee husk and T2 (basal diet with 6% fermented coffee husk soaked in crude palm oil for an hour before using. Basal diet consisted of napier grass (60% and concentrate (40%. The results showed that supplementation of lactating Etawah does with fermented coffee husk did not affect the palatability of the diets, but increased the protein and crude fiber consumption (P<0.05. There was no significant effect on nutrient digestibility and milk production while milk composition (protein, fat, total solid increased in supplemented groups (P<0.05. The persistency of milk production and the somatic cells count were not different. There was an improvement of somatic cells count on supplemented groups. In conclusion, fermented coffee husk could be used as feed supplement without any negative effects on digestibility and milk production. The positive effects to udder health could be expected from including fermented coffee husk in diets.

  15. Study the nature of changes in the dynamic viscosity of milk and fruit products

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    A. N. Ostrikov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The variation of the dynamic viscosity of dairy products and fruit puree with the free run-off on the vertical wall of the vacuum chamber with a two-stage vacuum evaporation was studied. The effect of evaporation temperature and product moisture on the rheological properties of milk and fruit blends was investigated.

  16. Milk production response to feeding alfalfa silage inoculated with Lactobacillus plantarum

    Science.gov (United States)

    In mini-silo trials, silages treated with a Lactobacillus plantarum silage inoculant (Ecosyl, Yorkshire, UK) had increased in vitro rumen microbial biomass production compared to untreated. Our objective was to determine if alfalfa silage treated with this inoculant could produce a milk production r...

  17. Cattle management practices and milk production on mixed smallholder organic pineapple farms in Central Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nalubwama, S; Kabi, F; Vaarst, M;

    2016-01-01

    A longitudinal study to assess animal management practices and milk production was conducted for a period of 12 months on 30 smallholder farms keeping dairy cattle and certified organic pineapple production in Luwero and Kayunga districts, based on questionnaire and on-farm collected data. Farm...

  18. Derivation of economic values for veal, beef and milk production traits using profit equations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekman, H.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    1993-01-01

    In this study profit equations for milk, veal and beef bull production were developed to obtain economic values for different traits. Veal and beef production were described in terms of fat and protein daily gain. For categorical traits, dystocia and carcass quality traits, economic values were deri

  19. Waste reuse and disposal practices in milk production in Paraná

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    Ferenc Istvan Bánkuti

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is among the six largest producers of milk cow in the world. In 2010, Brazilian milk production reached 30.7 billion liters, corresponding to 4.8% of total world production, according to official data from IBGE. As stated by an IPARDES report in 2010, Paraná state has 114,488 milk producers, being responsible for an increased production of 71% between 1997 and 2006. Besides such remarkable figures, there are still important challenges to be surpassed in milk chain, which includes environmental adequation of livestock production. According to a study published by Banco do Brasil Foundation and Interamerican Institute for Agricultural Cooperation – IICA in 2010, social and environmental sustainability are among factors restricting milk chain competitiveness. The aim of this paper is to verify waste reuse and disposal in dairy cattle farming in Paraná. Methodological procedures in this research comprised: (a literature review on milk agribusiness system and environmental adequation; (b formulation of semi-structured questionnaires, including questions about environmental practices in 2011; (c data analysis through descriptive statistics. Random sampling included milk producers in Santa Izabel do Oeste and Marechal Candido Rondon, in southwestern Paraná. Eighty producers were interviewed, equally sampled in both places, resulting in 79 valid interviews. As results, 79.4% of milk producers informed they have day-to-day practices to reuse wastes internally produced in farming. Main practice highlighted was the use of manure waste in agriculture. Only one producer in the sample adopted the use of poultry manure. Considering correct disposal of pesticide packaging, 84.4% of producers are in accordance to legal requirements; 10.1% of total interviewed producers do not follow legal requirement for packaging disposal, and 5% do not use pesticides at all, so not being concerned to that practice. Concerning appropriate disposal of medical

  20. Effect of stocking rate on pasture production, milk production, and reproduction of dairy cows in pasture-based systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, K A; Penno, J W; Lancaster, J A S; Roche, J R

    2008-05-01

    Ninety-four cows were randomly allocated to 1 of 5 stocking rates (2.2, 2.7, 3.1, 3.7, and 4.3 cows/ha) in a completely randomized design for 3 years. Herds were seasonal calving, with only minor differences in grazing management to optimize the profitability of each stocking rate (SR). Pasture production and quality data, milk and milk component data, and reproduction data were collected, averaged for SR treatment, and linear and quadratic contrasts on SR were evaluated. In addition, the Wilmink exponential model (y(t) = a + b x e((-0.05t) )+ c x t) was fitted to milk yield within lactation, and the parameters were averaged by SR treatment and analyzed as above. The median variation explained by the function for individual lactations was 84%. The amount of pasture grown tended to increase, and the quality of the pasture on offer increased linearly with increasing SR, reducing some of the negative impact of SR on the availability of pasture per cow. Milk production per cow declined linearly with increasing SR, although there was a tendency for most production variables to decline quadratically, with the negative effect of SR declining with increasing SR. The effect on milk production per cow was primarily because of a lower peak milk yield and a greater post-peak decline (less persistent milk profile), although a decline in lactation length with increasing SR was responsible for 24% of the effect of SR on milk yield. Milk production per hectare increased linearly with increasing SR, and there was only a small difference (approximately 3%/cow per ha) in the efficiency of converting feed dry matter into milk energy. Stocking rate did not affect reproductive success. The data are consistent with the need for a more robust measure of SR than cows per hectare because farms will differ in the genetic merit of their cows and in the potential to produce pasture. We introduce the concept of a comparative SR, whereby the carrying capacity of the farm is defined by the BW of

  1. Special steel production on common carbon steel production line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Huachun; Han, Jingtao; Hu, Haiping; Bian, Ruisheng; Kang, Jianjun; Xu, Manlin

    2004-06-01

    The equipment and technology of small bar tandem rolling line of Shijiazhuang Iron & Steel Co. in China has reached the 90's international advanced level in the 20th century, but products on the line are mostly of common carbon steel. Currently there are few steel plants in China to produce 45 steel bars for cold drawing, which is a kind of shortage product. Development of 45 steel for cold drawing has a wide market outlook in China. In this paper, continuous cooling transformation (CCT) curve of 45 steel for cold drawing used for rolling was set out first. According to the CCT curve, we determined some key temperature points such as Ac3 temperature and Ac1 temperature during the cooling procedure and discussed the precipitation microstructure at different cooling rate. Then by studying thermal treatment process of 45 steel bars for cold drawing, the influence of cooling time on microstructure was analyzed and the optimum cooling speed has been found. All results concluded from the above studies are the basis of regulating controlled cooling process of 45 steel bars for cold drawing. Finally, the feasible production process of 45 steel bars for cold drawing on common carbon steel production line combined with the field condition was recommended.

  2. Simulation Study of a Vehicle Production Line for Productivity Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F.F. Ab Rashid

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the study of a motorcycle frame production line in a particular company in Malaysia. Due to the high demand, the company needs to increase its production by at least 12% compared with current output. In order to improve productivity, the production-floor data was collected and simulated using the discrete event simulation approach. Later, a number of suggestions for improvement were simulated to identify the effect of the suggestions on productivity. In addition, cost analysis was also undertaken to identify the profit margin for a particular period of time for each suggestion. Simulation results indicate that there are three suggestions that are able to fulfill the 12% volume increment. In the short term, the suggestion to hire an assistant line leader will give instant effect to the profit. Meanwhile, for the medium term, Poka-yoke will give higher profit compared with the others, while in the long term, SOP (standard operating procedure implementation will yield a better profit margin. In future, the simulation of a dynamic demand model for this product is suggested to cope with new trends in the market.

  3. Effects of pistachio by-products on digestibility, milk production, milk fatty acid profile and blood metabolites in Saanen dairy goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedighi-Vesagh, R; Naserian, A A; Ghaffari, M H; Petit, H V

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of pistachio by-products (PBP) on nutrient digestibility, blood metabolites and milk fatty acid (FA) profile in Saanen dairy goats. Nine multiparous lactating Saanen goats (on day 90 post-partum, 45 ± 2/kg BW) were randomly assigned to a 3 × 3 Latin square design with three treatment diets: 1) control diet (alfalfa hay based), 2) 32% PBP and 3) 32% PBP + polyethylene glycol (PEG-4000; 1 g/kg dry matter). Each period lasted 21 days, including 14 day for treatment adaptation and 7 day for data collection. Pistachio by-products significantly decreased (p < 0.01) crude protein (CP) digestibility compared with the control diet (64.4% vs. 58.7%), but PEG addition did not differ for CP digestibility of goats fed 32% PBP + PEG and those fed the two other diets. The digestibility of NDF tended (p = 0.06) to decrease for goats fed PBP compared with those fed the control diet. Yields of milk and 4% fat-corrected milk were not affected by dietary treatments. Compared with the control diet, PBP supplementation appreciably changed the proportions of almost all the milk FA measured; the main effects were decreases (p < 0.01) in FA from 8:0 to 16:0 and increases (p < 0.01) proportions of cis-9, trans-11 18:2 and trans-11 18:1, monounsaturated FA, polyunsaturated FA and long-chain FA. The saturated FA, short-chain FA and medium-chain FA proportions were lower (p < 0.01) in goats fed the two PBP supplemented diet than in those fed the control diet and PEG addition led to intermediate proportions of saturated FA, unsaturated and monounsaturated FA. Inclusion of PBP in the diet decreased (p < 0.01) plasma concentrations of glucose and urea nitrogen compared with the control diet. It was concluded that PBP can be used as forage in the diet of dairy goats without interfering with milk yield. Inclusion of 32% PBP in the diet of dairy goats had beneficial effects on milk FA profile but PEG addition to PBP

  4. Short communication: Effect of oregano and caraway essential oils on the production and flavor of cow milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejonklev, J; Kidmose, U; Jensen, S; Petersen, M A; Helwing, A L F; Mortensen, G; Weisbjerg, M R; Larsen, M K

    2016-10-01

    Many essential oils and their terpene constituents display antimicrobial properties, which may affect rumen metabolism and influence milk production parameters. Many of these compounds also have distinct flavors and aromas that may make their way into the milk, altering its sensory properties. Essential oils from caraway (Carum carvi) seeds and oregano (Origanum vulgare) plants were included in dairy cow diets to study the effects on terpene composition and sensory properties of the produced milk, as well as feed consumption, production levels of milk, and methane emissions. Two levels of essential oils, 0.2 and 1.0g of oil/kg of dry matter, were added to the feed of lactating cows for 24d. No effects on feed consumption, milk production, and methane emissions were observed. The amount and composition of volatile terpenes were altered in the produced milk based on the terpene content of the essential oils used, with the total amount of terpenes increasing when essential oils were added to the diet. Sensory properties of the produced milk were altered as well, and milk samples from animals receiving essential oil treatment were perceived as having a fresher aroma and lower stored aroma and flavor. The levels of essential oils used in this study mimic realistic levels of essential oils in herbs from feed, but were too low to affect milk production and methane emissions, and their inclusion in the animal diet did not adversely affect milk flavor. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of a combination butaphosphan and cyanocobalamin product and insulin on ketosis resolution and milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, J L; Duffield, T F; Herdt, T H; Kelton, D F; Neuder, L; LeBlanc, S J

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of butaphosphan-cyanocobalamin (B+C), glargine insulin, and propylene glycol on resolution of ketosis and average daily milk yield after treatment. Cows from 16 herds in Ontario, Canada, and 1 herd in Michigan were tested at weekly intervals between 3 and 16 DIM. Ketosis was defined as blood β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) ≥1.2 mmol/L. All ketotic cows were given a baseline treatment of 3 d of 300 g of propylene glycol orally. Animals were then randomly assigned to treatment with 3 doses of either 25 mL of B+C or 25 mL of saline placebo and 1 dose of either 2 mL (200 IU) of glargine insulin or 2 mL of saline placebo in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Outcomes of interest on all farms were ketosis cure (blood BHB <1.2 mmol/L 1 wk postenrollment), maintenance of ketosis cure (blood BHB <1.2 mmol/L 1 and 2 wk postenrollment), and blood BHB concentrations at 1 and 2 wk postenrollment. Milk weights were collected daily in 1 large freestall herd. Repeated measures ANOVA was used to evaluate blood BHB concentrations 2 wk after treatment and milk production for 30 d after treatment. Poisson regression was used to examine the effect of treatment on cure and maintenance of cure. Due to a regulatory delay causing temporary unavailability of B+C in Canada, data were analyzed in 2 sets of models: one for insulin and the corresponding placebo (n = 620) and one for the full trial (n = 380). Animals with blood glucose concentrations ≤2.2 mmol/L at the time of ketosis diagnosis were 2.1 times more likely (95% CI = 1.2 to 3.7) to be cured if treated with B+C. Animals in lactation 3 or higher that had blood glucose concentrations <2.2 mmol/L at enrollment produced 4.2 kg/d (95% CI = 1.4 to 7.1) more milk if treated with insulin versus placebo and 2.8 kg/d (95% CI = 0.9 to 4.7) more milk if treated with B+C versus placebo. Animals in lactation 3 or higher with blood glucose ≥2.2 mmol/L that were treated with insulin produced 2

  6. Milk production from silage: comparison of grass, legume and maize silages and their mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Dewhurst

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The high rates of rumen fermentation, physical breakdown and passage rates from the rumen of legume silages lead to higher intakes than for grass silages of comparable digestibility. Although total tract digestibilities for legume silages and maize silages are often lower than for grass silages, milk yields are usually higher. A further benefit of legumes and maize is the reduced rate of decline in digestibility. Legume silages often lead to a reduction in milk fat concentration and increased levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids, 18:2 n-6 and 18:3 n-3. This latter effect is related to reduced rumen biohydrogenation as a consequence of increased rumen passage rates or the effects of polyphenol oxidase. There is quite a wide range of maturities (300 – 350 g kg-1 DM that leads to maximum dry matter intakes and milk production from maize silage; milk production is reduced with immature or over–mature maize crops. Forage chop length exerts a number of effects, both in the silo and in the rumen, but effects on rumen function, feed intake and milk production have been inconsistent. The high protein content and high N degradability of most legume silages is associated with a low efficiency of converting dietary N into milk N, with a concomitant increase in urine N. Reducing N intake by inclusion of maize silage in mixtures with legume silages leads to a marked reduction in urine N without loss of production potential. It is predicted, on the basis of their chemical composition and rumen kinetics, that legume silages and maize silages would reduce methane production relative to grass silage, though in vivo measurements are lacking. Extensive fermentation in the silo reduces the amount of fermentable substrate, and reduced methane production in comparison with grass silage where fermentation had been restricted by high levels of acid additive.

  7. High blood pressure-lowering and vasoprotective effects of milk products in experimental hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Pauliina I; Kivimäki, Anne S; Turpeinen, Anu M; Korpela, Riitta; Vapaatalo, Heikki

    2011-11-01

    Milk casein-derived angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory tripeptides isoleucine-proline-proline (Ile-Pro-Pro) and valine-proline-proline (Val-Pro-Pro) have been shown to have antihypertensive effects in human subjects and to attenuate the development of hypertension in experimental models. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of a fermented milk product containing Ile-Pro-Pro and Val-Pro-Pro and plant sterols on already established hypertension, endothelial dysfunction and aortic gene expression. Male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) with baseline systolic blood pressure (SBP) of 195 mmHg were given either active milk (tripeptides and plant sterols), milk or water ad libitum for 6 weeks. SBP was measured weekly by the tail-cuff method. The endothelial function of mesenteric arteries was investigated at the end of the study. Aortas were collected for DNA microarray study (Affymetrix Rat Gene 1.0 ST Array). The main finding was that active milk decreased SBP by 16 mmHg compared with water (178 (SEM 3) v. 195 (SEM 3) mmHg; P 1.2 and P < 0.05, the most affected (down-regulated) signalling pathways were hedgehog, chemokine and leucocyte transendothelial migration pathways. ACE expression was also slightly decreased (fc 0.86; P = 0.047). In conclusion, long-term treatment with fermented milk enriched with tripeptides and plant sterols decreases SBP, improves endothelial dysfunction and affects signalling pathways related to inflammatory responses in SHR.

  8. HEAT STRESS AND MILK PRODUCTION IN THE FIRST PARITY HOLSTEINS – THRESHOLD DETERMINATION IN EASTERN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Gantner

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the light of increasingly rapid climate change worldwide, one of the primary goals is to reduce financial losses of dairy farmers and to enable the sustainable farming. In order to realize those goals, the necessity of implementation of breeding values for heat resistance in breeding strategies, have become more and more pronounced. Estimation of breeding values requires determination of temperaturehumidity index (THI threshold value. Therefore, the objective of this research was to determine the THI threshold value for the first parity Holsteins in environmental conditions in Eastern Croatia. With that purpose individual test-day records of the first parity Holsteins with records of ambient temperature and relative humidity in the barns were analysed. Data were collected in regular milk recording from January 2006 to December 2012. The THI threshold values for daily milk yield were determined by least square analyses of variance for each given THI value (from 65 to 76 using the PROC MIXED (SAS. The THI< 68 did not cause significant change in daily milk production of the first parity Holsteins. Significant decrease of daily milk yield was observed at THI ≥ 68 with estimated drop from 0.240 to 0.716 kg milk/day (THI from 68 to 76. The THI=68, as the lowest value at which significant decrease in daily milk yield was determined, was taken as the threshold value for the first parity Holsteins in Eastern Croatia.

  9. The trace metal levels in milk and dairy products consumed in middle Anatolia-Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayar, Ahmet; Sert, Durmuş; Akin, Nihat

    2009-05-01

    In this study, aluminium (Al), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), selenium (Se) and arsenic (As) contents in milk and different dairy product samples were measured. Pb, Cd, As, Al and Se contents in the milk and different dairy products ranged from 0.054 mg/kg (milk powder)-1.100 mg/kg (Kaşar cheese), 0.009 mg/kg (whey powder and yogurt)-0.051 mg/kg (Tulum cheese), 0.010 mg/kg (whey powder)-0.146 mg/kg (butter), 2.848 mg/kg (ice cream)-8.778 (drained yogurt) and n.d. (ice cream, milk and whey powder, yogurt, ayran and Lor cheese)-0.434 mg/kg (Tulum cheese), respectively. The 75% of White and Kaşar cheeses, 50% of Lor and 12.5% of Tulum cheese samples contained higher Pb according to the legal limits established by the Turkish Food Codex and European Communities regulation and 12.5% of Tulum cheese sample contained Cd. It was concluded that Pb contents of milk and dairy products from this region might be highly hazardous to human.

  10. Consumption of fermented milk products and breast cancer: a case-control study in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van't Veer, P; Dekker, J M; Lamers, J W; Kok, F J; Schouten, E G; Brants, H A; Sturmans, F; Hermus, R J

    1989-07-15

    In a case-control study in The Netherlands, we observed a significantly lower consumption of fermented milk products (predominantly yogurt and buttermilk) among 133 incident breast cancer cases as compared to 289 population controls (mean +/- SD among users only, 116 +/- 100 versus 157 +/- 144 g/day; P less than 0.01). The age-adjusted odds ratio of daily consumption of 1.5 glasses (greater than or equal to 225 g) of fermented milk versus none was 0.50 (95% confidence interval, 0.23-1.08). When fermented milk was entered as a continuous variable (per g) in either age-adjusted or multivariate analysis, the odds ratio expressed per 225 g was 0.63 (multivariate-adjusted 95% confidence interval, 0.41-0.96). After multivariate adjustment for intake of fat and other confounders, a statistically significant decrease in breast cancer risk was also observed for increasing intake of Gouda cheese. The multivariate-adjusted odds ratio expressed per 60 g of this fermented product was 0.56 (95% confidence interval, 0.33-0.95). For daily intake of milk, no statistically significant differences were observed between cases and controls. These results support the hypothesis that high consumption of fermented milk products may protect against breast cancer.

  11. Mastitis therapy and control - Automatic on-line detection of abnormal milk.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogeveen, H.

    2011-01-01

    Automated online detection of mastitis and abnormal milk is an important subject in the dairy industry, especially because of the introduction of automatic milking systems and the growing farm sizes with consequently less labor available per cow. Demands for performance, which is expressed as sensit

  12. The effective factors on the structure of butter and other milk fat-based products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønholt, Stine; Mortensen, Kell; Knudsen, Jes Christian

    2013-01-01

    Butter and other milk fat-based products are valuable products for the dairy industry due to their unique taste, their textural characteristics, and nutritional value. However, an increased consumer demand for low-fat-based products increases the need for an increased essential understanding...... of the effective factors governing the structure of milk fat-based products. Today, 2 manufacturing techniques are available: the churning method and the emulsification method. The first is typically used for production of butter with a globular structure, which has become increasingly popular to obtain low....... Parameters such as thermal treatment of cream prior to butter making, water content, and chemical composition influence not only crystal polymorphism, but also the number and sizes of fat crystals. The number of crystal–crystal interactions formed within the products is related to product hardness. During...

  13. Real-time PCR detection of Paenibacillus spp. in raw milk to predict shelf life performance of pasteurized fluid milk products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranieri, Matthew L; Ivy, Reid A; Mitchell, W Robert; Call, Emma; Masiello, Stephanie N; Wiedmann, Martin; Boor, Kathryn J

    2012-08-01

    Psychrotolerant sporeformers, specifically Paenibacillus spp., are important spoilage bacteria for pasteurized, refrigerated foods such as fluid milk. While Paenibacillus spp. have been isolated from farm environments, raw milk, processing plant environments, and pasteurized fluid milk, no information on the number of Paenibacillus spp. that need to be present in raw milk to cause pasteurized milk spoilage was available. A real-time PCR assay targeting the 16S rRNA gene was designed to detect Paenibacillus spp. in fluid milk and to discriminate between Paenibacillus and other closely related spore-forming bacteria. Specificity was confirmed using 16 Paenibacillus and 17 Bacillus isolates. All 16 Paenibacillus isolates were detected with a mean cycle threshold (C(T)) of 19.14 ± 0.54. While 14/17 Bacillus isolates showed no signal (C(T) > 40), 3 Bacillus isolates showed very weak positive signals (C(T) = 38.66 ± 0.65). The assay provided a detection limit of approximately 3.25 × 10(1) CFU/ml using total genomic DNA extracted from raw milk samples inoculated with Paenibacillus. Application of the TaqMan PCR to colony lysates obtained from heat-treated and enriched raw milk provided fast and accurate detection of Paenibacillus. Heat-treated milk samples where Paenibacillus (≥1 CFU/ml) was detected by this colony TaqMan PCR showed high bacterial counts (>4.30 log CFU/ml) after refrigerated storage (6°C) for 21 days. We thus developed a tool for rapid detection of Paenibacillus that has the potential to identify raw milk with microbial spoilage potential as a pasteurized product.

  14. An On-line Galvanic Cell Generated Electrochemiluminescence and Flow Injection Determination of Calcium in Milk and Vegetable

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    An on-line Ag/Al galvanic cell is investigated and employed to generateelectrochemiluminescence (ECL). The potential of the galvanic cell could be adjusted by varyingthe components of flow reagent. The cell performed perfect capability of supplying a stablepotential for ECL generation. Based on the weak ECL ofcalcein blue could be greatly sensitizedby the presence of calcium in alkaline solution, calcium contents in milk samples and in cabbagewere assayed and the results were compared with those from ICP-AES method.

  15. Acute allergic reactions in Vietnamese children after drinking a new milk product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Thuan Huu; Le, Ninh Hoang; Patel, Mahomed Said; Phan, Lan Trong; Tran Minh, Nhu Nguyen

    2012-02-01

    In early October 2009, pediatricians in hospitals in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) reported an unusual increase in the number of children presenting with an acute onset of itchy rash and some with breathing difficulties shortly after drinking milk products. The pediatricians considered the illness to be an allergic reaction to milk. The objective of our investigation was to identify the cause of this acute illness. Following early case reports, all hospitals in HCMC were requested to report cases of this illness. Parents were advised to take children with symptoms to a hospital immediately. A case-series was conducted to generate hypotheses on the possible causes of the illness and was followed by a case-control study to test the hypothesis. Parents of all cases and controls were interviewed face-to-face. The association between food items and the allergy was tested using conditional logistics regression. From 9 to 28 October 2009, 19 cases fulfilled the case definition, and 16 of the 17 cases included in the study had consumed milk supplemented with galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) shortly before the onset of illness. Fifty age-matched, neighborhood controls were enrolled into the case control study. Of the 30 food items consumed by study participants in the preceding 24 h, only the odds ratio (OR) of milk supplemented with GOS was statistically significant: OR=34.0 (95% CI=3.9, 294.8). Laboratory tests of this milk product did not reveal any unusual properties, chemicals, or other toxic substances. This is the first report of an acute allergic reaction to fresh milk supplemented with GOS. However, the specific allergen in this product was not identified. Further cases were not reported once this product was withdrawn from sale. Vietnam's food safety authorities should expand laboratory capacity to detect allergens in food products.

  16. Milk and dairy products in adolescent diet according to sex and

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Colić Barić

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the portion of the milk and dairy products as source of energy, macronutrients and calcium in average daily diet of adolescents according to sex and living area. A group of four hundred and forty one adolescents (46 % from rural, and 54 % from urban area in Croatia, both sexes, between 15 to 18 years of age, who attended high school represented the study subject. Weight and height were determined using standard techniques and following the norms of the WHO. Food frequencyquestionnaire (FFQ for mass and frequency as well as energy and nutritional components of dairy products intake were used. The results indicated that adolescents in urban area consumed statistically significant (p<0.05 higher amount of milk and dairy products. Higher intake of energy, protein and calcium from milk and dairy products among adolescents in urban area was also observed. Average intake of calcium according to recommendation (RDA is adequate for sex and age among subjects in urban are. Lower calcium intake was observed among the girls. In terms of food types, higher fat content dairy products were consumed among adolescents in both living areas, while according to sex, girls mostly consumed less fat milk and dairy products. According to body mass index (BMI adolescents in both living areas were nourished well.

  17. Managing Variation in Services in a Software Product Line Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    Oriented Domain Analysis ( FODA ) Feasibility Study (CMU/SEI-90-TR-021, ADA235785). Software Engineering Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, 1990...the systems in the product line, and a plan for building the systems. Product line scope and product line analysis define the boundaries and...systems, as well as expected ways in which they may vary. Product line analysis applies established modeling techniques to engineer the common and

  18. Improved Fuzzy Logic System to Evaluate Milk Electrical Conductivity Signals from On-Line Sensors to Monitor Dairy Goat Mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaninelli, Mauro; Tangorra, Francesco Maria; Costa, Annamaria; Rossi, Luciana; Dell'Orto, Vittorio; Savoini, Giovanni

    2016-07-13

    The aim of this study was to develop and test a new fuzzy logic model for monitoring the udder health status (HS) of goats. The model evaluated, as input variables, the milk electrical conductivity (EC) signal, acquired on-line for each gland by a dedicated sensor, the bandwidth length and the frequency and amplitude of the first main peak of the Fourier frequency spectrum of the recorded milk EC signal. Two foremilk gland samples were collected from eight Saanen goats for six months at morning milking (lactation stages (LS): 0-60 Days In Milking (DIM); 61-120 DIM; 121-180 DIM), for a total of 5592 samples. Bacteriological analyses and somatic cell counts (SCC) were used to define the HS of the glands. With negative bacteriological analyses and SCC 1,000,000 cells/mL, glands were classified as not healthy (NH). For each EC signal, an estimated EC value was calculated and a relative deviation was obtained. Furthermore, the Fourier frequency spectrum was evaluated and bandwidth length, frequency and amplitude of the first main peak were identified. Before using these indexes as input variables of the fuzzy logic model a linear mixed-effects model was developed to evaluate the acquired data considering the HS, LS and LS × HS as explanatory variables. Results showed that performance of a fuzzy logic model, in the monitoring of mammary gland HS, could be improved by the use of EC indexes derived from the Fourier frequency spectra of gland milk EC signals recorded by on-line EC sensors.

  19. Improved Fuzzy Logic System to Evaluate Milk Electrical Conductivity Signals from On-Line Sensors to Monitor Dairy Goat Mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Zaninelli

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop and test a new fuzzy logic model for monitoring the udder health status (HS of goats. The model evaluated, as input variables, the milk electrical conductivity (EC signal, acquired on-line for each gland by a dedicated sensor, the bandwidth length and the frequency and amplitude of the first main peak of the Fourier frequency spectrum of the recorded milk EC signal. Two foremilk gland samples were collected from eight Saanen goats for six months at morning milking (lactation stages (LS: 0–60 Days In Milking (DIM; 61–120 DIM; 121–180 DIM, for a total of 5592 samples. Bacteriological analyses and somatic cell counts (SCC were used to define the HS of the glands. With negative bacteriological analyses and SCC < 1,000,000 cells/mL, glands were classified as healthy. When bacteriological analyses were positive or showed a SCC > 1,000,000 cells/mL, glands were classified as not healthy (NH. For each EC signal, an estimated EC value was calculated and a relative deviation was obtained. Furthermore, the Fourier frequency spectrum was evaluated and bandwidth length, frequency and amplitude of the first main peak were identified. Before using these indexes as input variables of the fuzzy logic model a linear mixed-effects model was developed to evaluate the acquired data considering the HS, LS and LS × HS as explanatory variables. Results showed that performance of a fuzzy logic model, in the monitoring of mammary gland HS, could be improved by the use of EC indexes derived from the Fourier frequency spectra of gland milk EC signals recorded by on-line EC sensors.

  20. 78 FR 11791 - Flavored Milk; Petition to Amend the Standard of Identity for Milk and 17 Additional Dairy Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-20

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 131 Flavored Milk; Petition... allow optional characterizing flavoring ingredients used in milk (e.g., chocolate flavoring added to... lower-calorie flavored milk would particularly benefit school children who, according to IDFA and NMPF...

  1. Effects of calcium montmorillonite clay and aflatoxin exposure on dry matter intake, milk production, and milk composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fifteen primiparous crossbred dairy cows that were 114 ± 14 d in milk and weighed 533 ± 56 kg were used in a replicated 5×5 Latin square to test the efficacy of NovaSil Plus (NSP) for the reduction of aflatoxin (AF) metabolite (AFM1) in milk and the effect of NSP on milk composition. Cows were hous...

  2. Economic values of production and functional traits, including residual feed intake, in Finnish milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hietala, P; Wolfová, M; Wolf, J; Kantanen, J; Juga, J

    2014-02-01

    Improving the feed efficiency of dairy cattle has a substantial effect on the economic efficiency and on the reduction of harmful environmental effects of dairy production through lower feeding costs and emissions from dairy farming. To assess the economic importance of feed efficiency in the breeding goal for dairy cattle, the economic values for the current breeding goal traits and the additional feed efficiency traits for Finnish Ayrshire cattle under production circumstances in 2011 were determined. The derivation of economic values was based on a bioeconomic model in which the profit of the production system was calculated, using the generated steady state herd structure. Considering beef production from dairy farms, 2 marketing strategies for surplus calves were investigated: (A) surplus calves were sold at a young age and (B) surplus calves were fattened on dairy farms. Both marketing strategies were unprofitable when subsidies were not included in the revenues. When subsidies were taken into account, a positive profitability was observed in both marketing strategies. The marginal economic values for residual feed intake (RFI) of breeding heifers and cows were -25.5 and -55.8 €/kg of dry matter per day per cow and year, respectively. The marginal economic value for RFI of animals in fattening was -29.5 €/kg of dry matter per day per cow and year. To compare the economic importance among traits, the standardized economic weight of each trait was calculated as the product of the marginal economic value and the genetic standard deviation; the standardized economic weight expressed as a percentage of the sum of all standardized economic weights was called relative economic weight. When not accounting for subsidies, the highest relative economic weight was found for 305-d milk yield (34% in strategy A and 29% in strategy B), which was followed by protein percentage (13% in strategy A and 11% in strategy B). The third most important traits were calving

  3. Yersinia enterocolitica infections associated with improperly pasteurized milk products: southwest Pennsylvania, March-August, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longenberger, A H; Gronostaj, M P; Yee, G Y; Johnson, L M; Lando, J F; Voorhees, R E; Waller, K; Weltman, A C; Moll, M; Lyss, S B; Cadwell, B L; Gladney, L M; Ostroff, S M

    2014-08-01

    In July 2011, a cluster of Yersinia enterocolitica infections was detected in southwestern Pennsylvania, USA. We investigated the outbreak's source and scope in order to prevent further transmission. Twenty-two persons were diagnosed with yersiniosis; 16 of whom reported consuming pasteurized dairy products from dairy A. Pasteurized milk and food samples were collected from this dairy. Y. enterocolitica was isolated from two products. Isolates from both food samples and available clinical isolates from nine dairy A consumers were indistinguishable by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Environmental and microbiological investigations were performed at dairy A and pasteurization deficiencies were noted. Because consumption of pasteurized milk is common and outbreaks have the potential to become large, public health interventions such as consumer advisories or closure of the dairy must be implemented quickly to prevent additional cases if epidemiological or laboratory evidence implicates pasteurized milk as the outbreak source.

  4. Milk progesterone enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay as a tool to investigate ovarian cyclicity of water buffaloes in relation to body condition score and milk production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Turgish A

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Application of assisted reproductive technologies in buffaloes is limited to some extent by farmers’ inability to detect oestrus because of its poor expression. The present study aimed at investigating reliability of a milk progesterone enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA to assess the ovarian cyclicity during post partum, oestrus and post-breeding periods in water buffaloes. Methods Progesterone concentrations were measured by an ELISA in milk of 23 postpartum buffaloes in relation to oestrus, pregnancy, body condition score (BCS and milk production. Two milk samples were taken at 10 days intervals, every month starting from day 30 and continued to day 150 post partum. BCS and milk production were recorded during sample collection. Milk samples from bred buffaloes were collected at Day 0 (day of breeding, Days 10–12 and Days 22–24. Defatted milk was preserved at −80°C until analysis. Pregnancy was confirmed by palpation per rectum on Days 70–90. Results Seventeen buffaloes had 47 ovulatory cycles, one to four in each, 13 were detected in oestrus once (28 % oestrus detection rate. Progesterone concentration ≥1 ng/ml in one of the two 10-day-interval milk samples reflected ovulation and corpus luteum formation. The intervals between calving to first luteal activity and to first detected oestrus varied from 41 to 123 days (n = 17 and 83 to 135 (n = 13 days, respectively. Eight buffaloes were bred in the course of the study and seven were found pregnant. These buffaloes had a progesterone profile of low (P P  Conclusions Milk progesterone ELISA is a reliable tool for monitoring ovarian cyclicity and good BCS may be an indicator of resuming cyclicity in water buffalo.

  5. Change impact analysis for software product lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihen Maâzoun

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A software product line (SPL represents a family of products in a given application domain. Each SPL is constructed to provide for the derivation of new products by covering a wide range of features in its domain. Nevertheless, over time, some domain features may become obsolete with the apparition of new features while others may become refined. Accordingly, the SPL must be maintained to account for the domain evolution. Such evolution requires a means for managing the impact of changes on the SPL models, including the feature model and design. This paper presents an automated method that analyzes feature model evolution, traces their impact on the SPL design, and offers a set of recommendations to ensure the consistency of both models. The proposed method defines a set of new metrics adapted to SPL evolution to identify the effort needed to maintain the SPL models consistently and with a quality as good as the original models. The method and its tool are illustrated through an example of an SPL in the Text Editing domain. In addition, they are experimentally evaluated in terms of both the quality of the maintained SPL models and the precision of the impact change management.

  6. Effects of shortening the dry period of dairy cows on milk production, energy balance, health, and fertility: A systemtic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knegsel, van A.T.M.; Drift, van der S.G.A.; Cermáková, J.; Kemp, B.

    2013-01-01

    A dry period of 6–8 weeks for dairy cows is generally thought to maximise milk production in the next lactation. However, the value of such a long dry period is increasingly questioned. In particular, shortening the dry period shifts milk production from the critical period after calving to the

  7. Effects of shortening the dry period of dairy cows on milk production, energy balance, health, and fertility: A systemtic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knegsel, van A.T.M.; Drift, van der S.G.A.; Cermáková, J.; Kemp, B.

    2013-01-01

    A dry period of 6–8 weeks for dairy cows is generally thought to maximise milk production in the next lactation. However, the value of such a long dry period is increasingly questioned. In particular, shortening the dry period shifts milk production from the critical period after calving to the week

  8. Study on isolation, molecular detection of virulence gene and antibiotic sensitivity pattern of Escherichia coli isolated from milk and milk products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Brahmbhatt

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was undertaken to isolate pathogenic E. coli from milk and various milk products, detection of virulence gene using Polymerase chain reaction (PCR and investigate their antibiotic sensitivity pattern. Materials and Methods: Altogether 250 milk and various milk products samples consisting of raw milk (50, cheese (50, ice-cream (50, mawa (50 and dahi (50 were collected from milk vendors, retail shops located in Anand city, under aseptic precautions. For the enrichment of the organism from the collected samples, MacConkey broth was used and inoculation was carried out on MacConkey agar and EMB agar. Later on, to confirm the isolates, various biochemical tests such as IMViC test, Urease test were performed. Evaluation of antibiotic sensitivity pattern of E. coli was assessed by disk diffusion method. Finally the E. coli isolates were screened for the presence of virulence associated genes by PCR . Results: The prevalence of E. coli was observed 32 % in the samples comprising of milk (52.00%, cheese (28.00%, icecream (20.00%, mawa (44.00%, and dahi (16.00%. Antibiotic sensitivity was recorded high for Co-trimoxazole (100% followed by Gentamicin (96.73%, Trimithoprime (93.47% and Doxycycline hydochloride (92.39%. Least sensitivity was recorded for Ampicillin (8.69%. In this study, out of 80 E. coli isolates, 25 isolates (31.25% were positive for stx genes, of which 7 (8.75% isolates were positive for stx1 gene only, while 12 (15.00% isolates were positive for stx2 gene only and 5 (6.25% isolates were positive for both stx1 and stx2, 7 isolates (8.75% were positive for eaeA gene and all the isolate were negetive for rfb O157 gene. Conclusions: Current study supports the finding that raw milk and various milk products can be regarded as critical source of pathogenic E. coli This explains the need of strict monitoring and surveillance for effective measures of hygiene and sanitary practice during production of milk and various milk

  9. Intravaginal probiotics modulated metabolic status and improved milk production and composition of transition dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Q; Odhiambo, J F; Farooq, U; Lam, T; Dunn, S M; Ametaj, B N

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this investigation was to evaluate whether intravaginal infusion of probiotics (a lactic acid bacteria cocktail) around parturition would influence metabolic status and increase milk production of transition dairy cows. One hundred pregnant Holstein dairy cows were assigned to 1 of the 3 experimental groups receiving intravaginal infusion of probiotics or carrier (i.e., sterile skim milk) once a week at wk -2, -1, and +1 relative to calving as follows: 2 consecutive probiotics before parturition and 1 carrier dose after parturition (TRT1), 3 consecutive probiotics doses around parturition (TRT2), and 3 consecutive carrier doses around parturition (CTR). The probiotics were a lyophilized culture mixture composed of FUA3089 and FUA3138 and FUA3140 with a cell count of 10 to 10 cfu/dose. Blood was sampled from wk -2 to +3 and milk was sampled on the third day in milk (DIM) and from wk +1 to +5 on a weekly basis. Feed intake and milk production was monitored until wk +8. Results showed that the TRT2 group (366.12 ± 49.77 μmol/L) had a lower ( = 0.01) concentration of NEFA in the serum than the CTR group (550.85 ± 47.16 μmol/L). The concentrations of IgG in the milk were 32.71 ± 3.00 mg/mL in the TRT1 group, 17.47 ± 4.54 mg/mL in the TRT2 group, and 6.73 ± 3.43 mg/mL in the CTR group at 3 DIM ( < 0.01). Meanwhile, both the TRT1 and the TRT2 group had lower haptoglobin in the milk compared with the CTR group at 3 DIM ( < 0.01). The TRT1 group had greater milk protein content than the CTR group (2.99 ± 0.04 vs. 2.82 ± 0.04%; = 0.02), whereas the TRT2 group tended to have greater lactose content compared with the CTR group (4.53 ± 0.03 vs. 4.44 ± 0.03%; = 0.05). The effect of treatment interacted with parity with regards to milk production and feed efficiency. Multiparous cows in the TRT1 and TRT2 groups had greater milk production and feed efficiency than those in the CTR group ( < 0.01 and = 0.02, respectively). Among primiparous cows, those

  10. Occurrence of Disease Causing Organisms Including Bacteriophages in Indigenous Fermented Milk Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. J.S.Ghosh

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this investigation is to focus on such microbial changes, which are a consequence of unhygienic practices during production, incomplete fermentation and poor storage conditions. In India different fermented products are prepared from milk. These products are mostly intended primarily to conserve the nutritional values of milk. However, since most of these products are flavored and sweetened, these are mostly consumed during festival seasons. Like m ilk these products not only provide nutrients, but also are excellent media for the growth of microorganisms. Microbial growth is seen in the results, which involves successive changes with enteric or food related factors leading to incidence of food poisoning and deterioration of product. Isolation of coliphages is an indication of presence of other phages which could be aetiology of certain improper fermentation due to lack of proper inoculum.

  11. Molecular Serotyping and Pathogenic Potential of Listeria monocytogenes Isolated from Milk and Milk Products in Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, Raman; Gunasekaran, Paramasamy; Rajendhran, Jeyaprakash

    2015-06-01

    Listeria monocytogenes, an important bacterial pathogen, is responsible for foodborne illnesses worldwide. Examination of food samples for the presence of L. monocytogenes and assessment of their pathogenicity is usually an effective strategy in the prevention of listeriosis. In the present study, we have tested 307 samples of milk and milk products from various places in Tamil Nadu, India for the presence of L. monocytogenes using ISO 11290 and U.S. Food and Drug Administration Bacteriological Analytical Manual methods. 16S rDNA sequencing and duplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for prs and iap genes were used to identify L. monocytogenes at the species level. Fifteen of the 307 samples screen tested positive for L. monocytogenes. Molecular serotyping of the L. monocytogenes isolates by multiplex PCR revealed the predominance of the serogroups 1/2a and 4b. Fourteen of the 15 isolates contained all the virulence genes (inlA, inlB, hlyA, and plcA) screened for using multiplex PCR. Only one isolate of L. monocytogenes was negative for the plcA gene and in vitro phosphatidylinositol-phospholipase C activity. L. monocytogenes strains that belong to the serogroup 4b exhibited higher nematocidal activity against Caenorhabditis elegans than the serogroup 1/2a. Worms infected with L. monocytogenes were symptomatic with aberrant contraction of body muscles, loss of pharyngeal pumping, and decreased locomotion, which highlights the pathogenic potential of the L. monocytogenes isolates.

  12. East and West African milk products are reservoirs for human and livestock-associated Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jans, Christoph; Merz, Axel; Johler, Sophia; Younan, Mario; Tanner, Sabine A; Kaindi, Dasel Wambua Mulwa; Wangoh, John; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Meile, Leo; Tasara, Taurai

    2017-08-01

    Staphylococcus aureus frequently isolated from milk products in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is a major pathogen responsible for food intoxication, human and animal diseases. SSA hospital-derived strains are well studied but data on the population structure of foodborne S. aureus required to identify possible staphylococcal food poisoning sources is lacking. Therefore, the aim was to assess the population genetic structure, virulence and antibiotic resistance genes associated with milk-derived S. aureus isolates from Côte d'Ivoire, Kenya and Somalia through spa-typing, MLST, and DNA microarray analysis. Seventy milk S. aureus isolates from the three countries were assigned to 27 spa (7 new) and 23 (12 new) MLST sequence types. Milk-associated S. aureus of the three countries is genetically diverse comprising human and livestock-associated clonal complexes (CCs) predominated by the CC5 (n = 10) and CC30 (n = 9) isolates. Panton-Valentine leukocidin, toxic shock syndrome toxin and enterotoxin encoding genes were predominantly observed among human-associated CCs. Penicillin, fosfomycin and tetracycline, but not methicillin resistance genes were frequently detected. Our findings indicate that milk-associated S. aureus in SSA originates from human and animal sources alike highlighting the need for an overarching One Health approach to reduce S. aureus disease burdens through improving production processes, animal care and hygienic measures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Early Determination of Animals with Favorable Genes in Milk Production for Profitable Private Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela E. Ilie

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The primary goal of dairy industry has been to identify an efficient and economical way of increasing milk production and its constituents without increasing the size of the dairy herd. The use of milk protein polymorphisms as detectable molecular markers has been studied intensively because of their effect on the yield and processing properties of milk and its products. Thus, molecular markers are promising alternative to the current methods of trait selection once these genes are proven to be associated with traits of interest in animals. Kappa-casein (CSN3 and beta-lactoglobulin (BLG are two of the most important proteins in the milk of mammals that play a crucial role in the milk quality and coagulation, an essential process for cheese and butter. The A and B variant of k-casein and β-lactoglobulin were distinguished by Polymerase Chain Reaction and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP analysis in 108 Romanian Simmental and 60 Holstein Friesian cattle.

  14. Colostrum and milk production of sows is affected by dietary conjugated linoleic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Uffe; Flummer, Christine; Jensen, Søren Krogh;

    2012-01-01

    (cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12) from day 108 of gestation until weaning (4 wk after parturition) to evaluate whether dietary CLA affects the yield and composition of colostrum, time for initiation of milk production, and sow milk yield. Sows fed CLA tended to produce more colostral fat (6.3 vs...... was more than double in the CLA group (17.6 vs. 7.8%, respectively; P = 0.04). Copious milk production was initiated 33 h (CLA) and 34 h (CON) after parturition and was not affected by dietary treatments (P = 0.41). Sow milk yield was improved by the CLA treatment from days 7 to 14 of lactation (P = 0.......03). Weight at birth (1.40 kg for both groups; P = 0.98) and at weaning [8.2 kg (CLA) and 8.0 kg (CON); P = 0.52] was not statistically different. In conclusion, colostrum yield was inhibited but milk yield was stimulated by dietary inclusion of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLA and indicates that sow...

  15. Short communication: Effect of oregano and caraway essential oils on the production and flavor of cow milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lejonklev, Johan; Kidmose, Ulla; Jensen, Sidsel

    2016-01-01

    of essential oils, 0.2 and 1.0 g of oil/kg of dry matter, were added to the feed of lactating cows for 24 d. No effects on feed consumption, milk production, and methane emissions were observed. The amount and composition of volatile terpenes were altered in the produced milk based on the terpene content....... Essential oils from caraway (Carum carvi) seeds and oregano (Origanum vulgare) plants were included in dairy cow diets to study the effects on terpene composition and sensory properties of the produced milk, as well as feed consumption, production levels of milk, and methane emissions. Two levels...

  16. Effect of sensor systems for cow management on milk production, somatic cell count, and reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steeneveld, W; Vernooij, J C M; Hogeveen, H

    2015-06-01

    To improve management on dairy herds, sensor systems have been developed that can measure physiological, behavioral, and production indicators on individual cows. It is not known whether using sensor systems also improves measures of health and production in dairy herds. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of using sensor systems on measures of health and production in dairy herds. Data of 414 Dutch dairy farms with (n=152) and without (n=262) sensor systems were available. For these herds, information on milk production per cow, days to first service, first calving age, and somatic cell count (SCC) was provided for the years 2003 to 2013. Moreover, year of investment in sensor systems was available. For every farm year, we determined whether that year was before or after the year of investment in sensor systems on farms with an automatic milking system (AMS) or a conventional milking system (CMS), or whether it was a year on a farm that never invested in sensor systems. Separate statistical analyses were performed to determine the effect of sensor systems for mastitis detection (color, SCC, electrical conductivity, and lactate dehydrogenase sensors), estrus detection for dairy cows, estrus detection for young stock, and other sensor systems (weighing platform, rumination time sensor, fat and protein sensor, temperature sensor, milk temperature sensor, urea sensor, β-hydroxybutyrate sensor, and other sensor systems). The AMS farms had a higher average SCC (by 12,000 cells/mL) after sensor investment, and CMS farms with a mastitis detection system had a lower average SCC (by 10,000 cells/mL) in the years after sensor investment. Having sensor systems was associated with a higher average production per cow on AMS farms, and with a lower average production per cow on CMS farms in the years after investment. The most likely reason for this lower milk production after investment was that on 96% of CMS farms, the sensor system investment occurred

  17. Foods for Special Dietary Needs: Non-dairy Plant-based Milk Substitutes and Fermented Dairy-type Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkinen, Outi Elina; Wanhalinna, Viivi; Zannini, Emanuele; Arendt, Elke Karin

    2016-01-01

    A growing number of consumers opt for plant-based milk substitutes for medical reasons or as a lifestyle choice. Medical reasons include lactose intolerance, with a worldwide prevalence of 75%, and cow's milk allergy. Also, in countries where mammal milk is scarce and expensive, plant milk substitutes serve as a more affordable option. However, many of these products have sensory characteristics objectionable to the mainstream western palate. Technologically, plant milk substitutes are suspensions of dissolved and disintegrated plant material in water, resembling cow's milk in appearance. They are manufactured by extracting the plant material in water, separating the liquid, and formulating the final product. Homogenization and thermal treatments are necessary to improve the suspension and microbial stabilities of commercial products that can be consumed as such or be further processed into fermented dairy-type products. The nutritional properties depend on the plant source, processing, and fortification. As some products have extremely low protein and calcium contents, consumer awareness is important when plant milk substitutes are used to replace cow's milk in the diet, e.g. in the case of dairy intolerances. If formulated into palatable and nutritionally adequate products, plant-based substitutes can offer a sustainable alternative to dairy products.

  18. Effect of Nigella sativa meal in native milking cows rations on milk production and its composition and the digestion coefficient of the nutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Nasser

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Two groups of Sharabi cows were examined, each consisted of four cows during the first month of labor, having aboutequal live body weight and milk production. The cows in the first group were fed individually on concentrated ration containing 5% of soybean meal in an enough amount for maintenance and milk production according to N.R.C., 1984. Wheat straw was given in an amount equal to 1.25% of cow’s weight. The cows in the second group were fed on the same ration except that 70% of the protein of the soybean meal was replaced with protein of Nigella sative meal when it was added as 5% of the ration. The feeding process was continued for 6 weeks during which the amounts of milk production were checked and samples of milk were weekly taken for laboratory analysis. The cross over design was used for second 6 weeks. At the end of each feeding period the feces produced from each cow was collected for five successive days and samples for chemical analysis were taken. There were no significant differences between the cows of the two groups regarding to the amount of the milk 9.1 and 9.7 kg milk/cow/day with 3.5 and 3.3% of fat, respectively. Also the results indicated that there are no any significant differences in milk composition regarding crude protein, lactose, ash and total solid compounds percentages, as well as no significant differences between the two groups to produce one kg of normal or 4% fat adjusted milk. Where the values were 1.32, 1.48 and 1.43, 1.66 kg ration/kg milk produced respectively. The results showed a significant (P<0.01 improvement in all digestion coefficient, for nutrient of the experimental rations. Our conclusion is that the Nigella sativa meal could be used at 5% level of concentrate rations for native milking cows to cover 70% of the protein from soybean meal without any negative effects on milk production or its composition and improve nutrients digestion coefficient of these rations.

  19. Genetic parameters for milk production traits and breeding goals for Gir dairy cattle in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prata, M A; Faro, L E; Moreira, H L; Verneque, R S; Vercesi Filho, A E; Peixoto, M G C D; Cardoso, V L

    2015-10-19

    To implement an animal breeding program, it is important to define the production circumstances of the animals of interest to determine which traits of economic interest will be selected for the breeding goal. The present study defined breeding goals and proposed selection indices for milk production and quality traits of Gir dairy cattle. First, a bioeconomic model was developed to calculate economic values. The genetic and phenotypic parameters were estimated based on records from 22,468 first-lactation Gir dairy cows and their crosses for which calving occurred between 1970 and 2011. Statistical analyses were carried out for the animal model, with multitrait analyses using the restricted maximum likelihood method. Two situations were created in the present study to define the breeding goals: 1) including only milk yield in the breeding goal (HGL1) and 2) including fat and protein in addition to the milk yield (HGL2). The heritability estimates for milk, protein, and fat production were 0.33 ± 0.02, 0.26 ± 0.02, and 0.24 ± 0.02, respectively. All phenotypic and genetic correlations were highly positive. The economic values for milk, fat, and protein were US$0.18, US$0.27, and US$7.04, respectively. The expected economic responses for HGL2 and for HGL1 were US$126.30 and US$79.82, respectively. These results indicate that milk component traits should be included in a selection index to rank animals evaluated in the National Gir Dairy Breeding Program developed in Brazil.

  20. Conditions of milk production of family farms located in the municipality of Alegre – ES, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Carvalho Nascimento Neta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to assess the conditions and practices of production of raw milk used by farmers, as well as the conditions of storage and of the facilities and structures of the locations of the four collective cooling tanks, in the municipality of Alegre – ES. Data on sanitization procedures and physical structure of barns, source and treatment of water, hygiene practices and health status of milkers, udder cleaning and disinfection procedures and sanitary control of the herd was collected. The physical structure of the locations of the tanks was also assessed. The barns were ventilated, protected from moisture and had covers, and few had cemented floor and milking parlor. A low percentage of producers performed pre (21% and post (6% dipping procedures. Only 1/4 of the farmers used the mug test. All equipment and tools were washed after milking, but few farmers (5% used sanitizers and 94% of the farms used untreated water. Only 8% of the milkers had the habit of washing their hands before milking, and 9% of them were aware of IN 62 regulation of the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Supply. None of the facilities had protection against the entrance of insects, rodents and environmental contaminants. They were poorly sized, did not allow the application of adequate sanitary measures and sanitary conditions were deficient. The high level of nonconformities regarding good manufacturing practices for milk production reinforced the need for the implementation of Good Agricultural Practices in rural farms for the purpose of obtaining milk produced according to the quality standards, preventing losses and ensuring the sustainability of dairy production in the region.

  1. Milk and Dairy Products Consumers Behavior and Preferences in Vojvodina – Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinu Gavojdian

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the current research was to evaluate milk and dairy derived consumer’s behaviour and preferences in Vojvodina (Central Banat District from the Republic of Serbia, in order to be able to further formulate advice and strategies to farmers, farm-advisors and policy makers, to help improve the overall farmer’s competiveness and increase the economic returns of dairy enterprises. Data was collected following questionnaire based-interviews, between January and June 2016. There were 76 persons who answered a face-to-face interview, and had to answer to a 15 questions based questionnaire, all respondents were from Vojvodina (Central Banat District, Republic of Serbia. The main five categories of products purchased were pasteurized milk (11.33%, yogurts (23.44%, sour cream (18.75%, butter (10.55% and cheeses (21.48%. The least dairy derived products categories purchased and consumed were UHT milk (4.30%, refrigerated milk (3.91%, raw milk (5.86% and frozen milk (0.00%. The most important selection criterions of the surveyed consumers were ‘freshness’ (21.72%, expiring date (13.64%, taste characteristics (10.10%, price/quality ratio (13.13% and nutritive value (16.16%.  Results of the current study should be taken into consideration by both farmers and dairy factories, in order to possible identify niche markets, in order to add value to the food chain and improve their economic returns by producing and selling products that have among higher demands from consumers.

  2. Draft Genome Sequence of Clostridium tyrobutyricum Strain DIVETGP, Isolated from Cow's Milk for Grana Padano Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soggiu, Alessio; Piras, Cristian; Gaiarsa, Stefano;

    2015-01-01

    We announce the draft genome sequence of Clostridium tyrobutyricum strain DIVETGP. This strain was isolated from cow's milk used for Grana Padano cheese production. The genome was obtained using Illumina HiSeq technology and comprises 45 contigs for 3,018,999 bp, with a G+C content of 30.8%....

  3. Modeling a production scale milk drying process: parameter estimation, uncertainty and sensitivity analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferrari, A.; Gutierrez, S.; Sin, Gürkan

    2016-01-01

    A steady state model for a production scale milk drying process was built to help process understanding and optimization studies. It involves a spray chamber and also internal/external fluid beds. The model was subjected to a comprehensive statistical analysis for quality assurance using sensitiv...

  4. DCT-Based Characterization of Milk Products Using Diffuse Reflectance Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharifzadeh, Sara; Skytte, Jacob Lercke; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder;

    2013-01-01

    We propose to use the two-dimensional Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) for decomposition of diffuse reflectance images of laser illumination on milk products in different wavelengths. Based on the prior knowledge about the characteristics of the images, the initial feature vectors are formed at ea...

  5. Draft Genome Sequence of Clostridium tyrobutyricum Strain DIVETGP, Isolated from Cow's Milk for Grana Padano Production

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    We announce the draft genome sequence of Clostridium tyrobutyricum strain DIVETGP. This strain was isolated from cow’s milk used for Grana Padano cheese production. The genome was obtained using Illumina HiSeq technology and comprises 45 contigs for 3,018,999 bp, with a G+C content of 30.8%.

  6. Draft Genome Sequence of Clostridium tyrobutyricum Strain DIVETGP, Isolated from Cow's Milk for Grana Padano Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soggiu, Alessio; Piras, Cristian; Gaiarsa, Stefano; Bendixen, Emøke; Panitz, Frank; Bendixen, Christian; Sassera, Davide; Brasca, Milena; Bonizzi, Luigi; Roncada, Paola

    2015-03-26

    We announce the draft genome sequence of Clostridium tyrobutyricum strain DIVETGP. This strain was isolated from cow's milk used for Grana Padano cheese production. The genome was obtained using Illumina HiSeq technology and comprises 45 contigs for 3,018,999 bp, with a G+C content of 30.8%.

  7. Environmental assessment of Ultra-High Pressure Homogenisation for milk and fresh cheese production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valsasina, Lucia; Pizzol, Massimo; Smetana, Sergiy

    2015-01-01

    This study analyses the application of Ultra High Pressure Homogenisation (UHPH), an innovative technology for food sterilisation that relies on pressure up to 400MPa, for the treatment of cow milk. The technology is forseen to provide equal or higher quality products compared to Ultra High...

  8. Environmental profile and critical temperature effects on milk production of Holstein cows in desert climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igono, M. O.; Bjotvedt, G.; Sanford-Crane, H. T.

    1992-06-01

    The environmental profile of central Arizona is quantitatively described using meteorological data between 1971 and 1986. Utilizing ambient temperature criteria of hours per day less than 21° C, between 21 and 27° C, and more than 27° C, the environmental profile of central Arizona consists of varying levels of thermoneutral and heat stress periods. Milk production data from two commercial dairy farms from March 1990 to February 1991 were used to evaluate the seasonal effects identified in the environmental profile. Overall, milk production is lower during heat stress compared to thermoneutral periods. During heat stress, the cool period of hours per day with temperature less than 21° C provides a margin of safety to reduce the effects of heat stress on decreased milk production. Using minimum, mean and maximum ambient temperatures, the upper critical temperatures for milk production are 21, 27 and 32° C, respectively. Using the temperature-humidity index as the thermal environment indicator, the critical values for minimum, mean and maximum THI are 64, 72 and 76, respectively.

  9. The sfe corn mutant: a new approach to improve fiber digestibility and milk production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross linking of lignin to hemicellulose by ferulates limits in vitro rumen fiber digestibility of grasses. Impact of ferulate cross linking on feed intake, milk production, and in vivo digestibility was investigated in a dairy cow feeding study using the low-ferulate sfe corn mutant. Silages of fiv...

  10. Meat and milk production scenarios and the associated land footprint in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosire, C.K.; Krol, M.S; Mekonnen, M.M.; Ogutu, J.O.; Leeuw, de J.; Lannerstad, M.; Hoekstra, A.Y.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing demands for meat and milk in developing countries and the associated production growth are driving the expansion of agriculture at the expense of environmental conservation and other land uses. While considerable attention has been directed at improving crop yields to alleviate the pressu

  11. Towards a decision support system for control of multiple food safety hazards in raw milk production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiegel, van der M.; Sterrenburg, P.; Haasnoot, W.; Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.

    2013-01-01

    Decision support systems (DSS) for controlling multiple food safety hazards in raw milk production have not yet been developed, but the underlying components are fragmentarily available. This article presents the state-of-the-art of essential DSS elements for judging food safety compliance of raw mi

  12. Isolation and Evaluation Virulence Factors of Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella enteritidis in Milk and Dairy Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shima Shaigan nia

    2014-06-01

    Conclusions: To our best knowledge the present study is the first prevalence report of Salmonella spp., Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium in raw sheep and goat samples in Iran. Consumption of pasteurized milk and dairy products can reduce the risk of salmonellosis.

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of Enterococcus mundtii QAUEM2808, Isolated from Dahi, a Fermented Milk Product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah, N; Mehdi, A; Soomro, S I; Soomro, N I; Tareb, R; Desmasures, N; Vernoux, J P; Bakhtiar, S M; Imran, M

    2016-09-15

    Enterococcus mundtii QAUEM2808 has been isolated from dahi, an indigenous fermented milk product of Pakistan. Here, we report the draft genome sequence for this strain, which consists of 160 contigs corresponding to 2,957,514 bp and a G+C content of 38.5%.

  14. Meat and milk production scenarios and the associated land footprint in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosire, Caroline; Krol, Martinus S.; Mekonnen, Mesfin; Ogutu, J.O.; de Leeuw, J.; Lannerstad, M.; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2016-01-01

    Increasing demands for meat and milk in developing countries and the associated production growth are driving the expansion of agriculture at the expense of environmental conservation and other land uses. While considerable attention has been directed at improving crop yields to alleviate the pressu

  15. Goal Model Integration for Tailoring Product Line Development Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arfan Mansoor

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Many companies rely on the promised benefits of product lines, targeting systems between fully custom made software and mass products. Such customized mass products account for a large number of applications automatically derived from a product line. This results in the special importance of product lines for companies with a large part of their product portfolio based on their product line. The success of product line development efforts is highly dependent on tailoring the development process. This paper presents an integrative model of influence factors to tailor product line development processes according to different project needs, organizational goals, individual goals of the developers or constraints of the environment. This model integrates goal models, SPEM models and requirements to tailor development processes.

  16. Algorithm of actions to identify and reduce risks in the production of milk and plant products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. Glagoleva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Foods with a new generation of functional and improved consumer properties, corresponds to the modern concepts of nutrition science and consumer needs. functional food production is a major global trend in food science and the subject of innovation. One of the important trends is the use of plant complexes and plant food systems. Using the plant complexes (PC and plant food systems (PFS provides a number of benefits: improved consumer properties of the product, do not need to change the process, it is possible to control directional rheological properties and consistency of the finished products, reduced the number of risk points in the production cycle. This paper describes the development of an algorithm of action to identify and mitigate risks in the production of milk and plant products. Also conducted a risk analysis, identified and assessed the risks in the process of production, installed capacity of available resources to reduce the level of risk. Established and submitted to the critical control points in production processes, as well as the critical limits for each critical control points, and the procedure for corrective action in case of violations of the past. During the study, measured changes in the quantitative and qualitative composition of microflora of semi-finished and Quantity of Mesophilic Aerobic and Facultative Anaerobic Microorganisms (QMAFAnM. To determine QMAFAnM samples were taken: 1 – cheesecakes (control, 2 – cheesecakes with RPS. Microbiological studies analyzed frozen-conjugated semi-finished products was determined within 90 days. It is clear from the data that the cottage cheese with semi-finished products have a lower RPM 11.7%. Analyzing the data, it is possible to conclude that the physico-chemical, organoleptic and microbiological indicators of products was developed to set standards on cheese semi-finished products. multilevel structure that characterizes the quality indicators has been developed and is

  17. Evaluation of commercial probes for on-line electrical conductivity measurements during goat gland milking process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Gema; Díaz, Jose Ramon; Sabater, Jose Maria; Perez, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    The measurement of the milk electrical conductivity (EC) during mechanical milking has been widely studied for mastitis detection on cows because its improving of welfare and animal health, although research about small ruminants is scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of three commercial conductimeters to be used during mechanical milking of small ruminant halves, especially Murciano-Granadina goats. The objective of this research was to integrate the probes on the milking unit and to check the suitability of the probe selected. The results presented in this research have guided authors to discard the commercial probes and to establish the requirements of a new probe design that is briefly outlined in the conclusions of this contribution.

  18. Evaluation of Commercial Probes for On-Line Electrical Conductivity Measurements during Goat Gland Milking Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Gema; Díaz, Jose Ramon; Sabater, Jose Maria; Perez, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    The measurement of the milk electrical conductivity (EC) during mechanical milking has been widely studied for mastitis detection on cows because its improving of welfare and animal health, although research about small ruminants is scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of three commercial conductimeters to be used during mechanical milking of small ruminant halves, especially Murciano-Granadina goats. The objective of this research was to integrate the probes on the milking unit and to check the suitability of the probe selected. The results presented in this research have guided authors to discard the commercial probes and to establish the requirements of a new probe design that is briefly outlined in the conclusions of this contribution. PMID:22666042

  19. Cow's milk and goat's milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turck, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    Cow's milk is increasingly suggested to play a role in the development of chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders whereas goat's milk is advocated as having several health benefits. Cow's milk is a rich and cheap source of protein and calcium, and a valuable food for bone health. Despite their high content in saturated fats, consumption of full-fat dairy products does not seem to cause significant changes in cardiovascular disease risk variables. Early introduction of cow's milk is a strong negative determinant of iron status. Unmodified cow's milk does not meet nutritional requirements of infants although it is acceptable to add small volumes of cow's milk to complementary foods. Cow's milk protein allergy has a prevalence ranging from 2 to 7%, and the age of recovery is usually around 2-3 years. The evidence linking cow's milk intake to a later risk of type 1 diabetes or chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders (obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, hypertension) is not convincing. Milk probably protects against colorectal cancer, diets high in calcium are a probable cause of prostate cancer, and there is limited evidence suggesting that high consumption of milk and dairy products increases the risk for prostate cancer. There is no evidence to support the use of a cow's milk-free diet as a primary treatment for individuals with autistic spectrum disorders. Unmodified goat's milk is not suitable for infants because of the high protein and minerals content and of a low folate content. Goat's milk has no clear nutritional advantage over cow's milk and is not less allergenic. The European Food Safety Authority recently stated that proteins from goat's milk can be suitable as a protein source for infant and follow-on formula, provided the final product complies with the compositional criteria laid down in Directive 2006/141/EC.

  20. Concentrations of volatile 4-alkyl-branched fatty acids in sheep and goat milk and dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaffarnik, Stefanie; Kayademir, Yasemin; Heid, Carolina; Vetter, Walter

    2014-11-01

    Goat and sheep milk and dairy products thereof are characterized by a strong and unique flavor. In this context, the volatile minor fatty acid 4-ethyloctanoic acid plays a prominent role along with 4-methyloctanoic acid when both are present in free form. Using a novel GC/MS method in the selected ion-monitoring mode, previously developed for sheep subcutaneous adipose tissue, we were able to analyze the total concentrations of these flavor-relevant minor fatty acids as methyl esters in goat and sheep milk as well as in their products. Differences between the concentrations and ratios of 4-methyloctanoic acid and 4-ethyloctanoic acid in goat milk (n = 4), goat cheese (n = 4), sheep milk (n = 2), and sheep cheese (n = 4) were observed. Goat milk and cheese resulted in higher concentrations for both fatty acids (190 to 480 μg/g milk fat) and smaller 4-Me-8:0 to 4-Et-8:0 ratios (1.4 to 2.7) compared to sheep milk and cheese (78 to 220 μg/g milk fat; 4-Me-8:0 to 4-Et-8:0 ratio: 15 to 42). In all samples, the concentration of 4-Me-8:0 exceeded the one of 4-Et-8:0. However, due to its lower flavor threshold value the contribution of 4-Et-8:0 to the flavor was generally >76%. The calculated flavor values were >1400 for goat milk and cheeses and >200 for sheep milk and cheeses. In goat milk and its products, only a proportion of milk and sheep samples would be sufficient to generate the characteristic goaty flavor. Parameters that promote or prevent the release of 4-Me-8:0, and especially 4-Et-8:0, will be decisive for the flavor in the resulting dairy product.

  1. Fine Mapping QTLs Affecting Milk Production Traits on BTA6 in Chinese Holstein with SNP Markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Rui; SUN Dong-xiao; WANG Ya-chun; YU Ying; ZHANG Yi; CHEN Hui-yong; ZHANG Qin; ZHANG Sheng-li; ZHANG Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Our previous studies demonstrated that the region around markers BMS470 and BMS1242 on BTA6 showed a linkage to 305-d milk yield and composition traits in the Chinese Holstein population. We herein focused on such narrow region to fine map milk production QTLs with 15 SNPs across 25 Mb with each SNP in 1 Mb within most regions in a Chinese Holstein population with daughter design. 1 449 Holstein cows and 11 sires were genotyped for such SNPs by using TaqMan probe and RFLP assays. Multipoint linkage analysis across family revealed a QTL affecting milk yield between PPARGC1A C4075T and SLC34A2 T1713C. Meanwhile, within family analysis found three milk yield QTLs (two in CR T60984131G-CEP135 C501T and one in PDLIM5 A106C-OPN T3907, a fat yield QTL in UGDH T1670C-CR T60984131G region, and two protein yield QTLs in TBC1D1 G501C-UGDH T1670C and PPARGC1A C4075T-SLC34A2 T1713C, respectively. Associations between aforementioned significant SNP markers and milk production traits were further implemented. We found significant associations of PPARGC1A C4075T, SLC34A2 T1713C with milk yield (P<0.05, P<0.01, P<0.01), UGDH T1670C, and CR T60984131G with fat yield (P<0.01, P<0.01), and PPARGC1A C4075T, SLC34A2 T1713C, UGDH T1670C and OPN T3907 with protein yield (P<0.01, P<0.01, P<0.01, P<0.01). Our findings implied that QTLs affecting milk production traits on BTA6 were pleictropism or multigenic effect and PPARGC1A and OPN may be the causal mutations behind milk production QTLs on BTA6 in the Chinese Holstein population.

  2. Preterm milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, J D

    1980-03-01

    This editorial addresses the question of how best to feed the low birth weight infant. A study by Atkinson et al. on the composition of preterm mothers' milk found the nitrogen concentration in preterm milk to be considerably higher than in term milk. Preterm milk may be uniquely suited to the growth requirements of preterm infants. With the exception of calcium and phosphorus, preterm milk fits the requirements for preterm infant growth. Because of the difficulties of sustaining lactation without the infant sucking at the breast, partly due to the mother's motivation in the face of all the difficulties of having a baby in a Special Care Baby Unit, and partly due to the associated socioeconomic disadvantages, it is not possible for all mothers who deliver preterm babies to sustain their lactation. The composition of preterm milk should be used as a guide for the preparation of a human milk formula built from human milk products from a milk bank. The development of a human milk formula must take into account variations in the absorption of nutrients in low birth weight infants which may be affected by the processing of the milk, and variations in fat absorption in preterm infants which occur even when they are fed their mothers' fresh unprocessed milk.

  3. Effect of omission of machine stripping on milk production and parlor throughput in East Friesian dairy ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKusick, B C; Thomas, D L; Berger, Y M

    2003-02-01

    Due to the large cisternal storage capacity and non-vertical teat placement in most dairy ewes, machine stripping is commonly performed to remove milk not obtained by the machine. However, stripping requires individual manual intervention, lengthens the milking routine, and could inadvertently lead to overmilking of other ewes in the parlor. The objective of the present experiment was to estimate the effect of omission of machine stripping on milk production and parlor throughput. East Friesian crossbred dairy ewes that had been machine milked and stripped twice daily from d 0 to 79 postpartum, were randomly assigned to two stripping treatments for the remainder of lactation: normal stripping (S, n = 24), or no stripping (NS, n = 24). The NS ewes yielded 14% less commercial milk during the experiment, but had similar lactation length, milk composition, and somatic cell count compared to S ewes. Average machine milk yield (amount of milk obtained without manual intervention) tended to be greater for NS compared to S ewes. Average machine-on time for S ewes was longer than for NS ewes because of stripping, which may have resulted in over-milking of many ewes in the S group. Results from a milking simulation indicated that parlor throughput would increase by 33%, and overmilking would not occur when stripping was omitted from the milking routine. These results collectively suggest that residual milk left in the udder as a result of omission of machine stripping does not negatively influence milk quality and the loss in commercial milk yield could be compensated for by improved parlor throughput.

  4. GWA Analysis for Milk Production Traits in Dairy Sheep and Genetic Support for a QTN Influencing Milk Protein Percentage in the LALBA Gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García-Gámez, Elsa; Gutiérrez-Gil, Beatriz; Sahana, Goutam

    2012-01-01

    -sib families with available records for milk yield (MY), milk protein and fat yields (PY and FY) and milk protein and fat contents (PP and FP). The most significant association identified reached experiment-wise significance for PP and FP and was located on chromosome 3 (OAR3). These results confirm......In this study, we used the Illumina OvineSNP50 BeadChip to conduct a genome-wide association (GWA) analysis for milk production traits in dairy sheep by analyzing a commercial population of Spanish Churra sheep. The studied population consisted of a total of 1,681 Churra ewes belonging to 16 half...... identified was located within the coding gene sequence (LALBA_g.242T.C) and was predicted to cause an amino acid change in the protein (Val27Ala). Different approaches, including GWA analysis, a combined linkage and linkage disequilibrium study and a concordance test with the QTL segregating status...

  5. Dystocia in Friesian cows and its effects on postpartum reproductive performance and milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaafar, H M A; Shamiah, Sh M; El-Hamd, M A Abu; Shitta, A A; El-Din, M A Tag

    2011-01-01

    A total of 1,243 records for 585 dairy Friesian cows from 1997-2004 were used to study the factors affecting dystocia and its effects on reproductive performance and milk production. The overall incidence of dystocia was 6.9%. The percentage of dystocia decreased with increasing live body weight, age, and parity of cows (P dystocia was detected in winter season, but the least percentage was in summer season (P dystocia was significantly (P dystocia was significantly (P dystocia had adverse effects on reproductive performance and milk yield. The service interval, service period, days open, and calving interval were significantly (P dystocia compared to normal cows. The conception rate was lower (P dystocia compared to normal cows (60.5% vs. 73.0% and 3.4 vs. 2.7, respectively). Average daily milk yield was lower (P dystocia compared to normal cows.

  6. Epidemiology and effects of gastrointestinal nematode infection on milk productions of dairy ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suarez V.H.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available 66 Pampinta breed ewes were studied during milking to evaluate the infection and the effect of gastrointestinal nematode on milk production sheep system. Naturally infected ewes on pasture were randomly allocated to two groups: TG, suppressively treated group every four weeks with levamisole and UG, untreated group. Faecal nematode egg counts and larval differentiation were conducted monthly. Successive groups of worm free tracer lambs were grazed with ewes and then slaughtered for worm counts. Test-day milk yield of individual ewes was recorded and ewe machine-milking period length (MPL were estimated. Faecal egg counts and tracer nematode numbers increased towards midsummer and declined sharply toward the end of the study. TG (188.0 ± 60 liters produced more (p < 0.066 milk liters than UG (171.9 ± 52.2 and TG had significantly more extended (p < 0.041 MPL than those of UG. The present study showed that dairy sheep were negatively affected by worms, even when exposed to short periods of high acute nematode (mainly Haemonchus contortus infection.

  7. Effect of raw sunflower seeds on goat milk production in different farming systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Rapetti

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to test the effect of raw sunflower seeds on goat milk production. Two farms with different farming systems (intensive and semi-intensive participated to the trial. In each farm about 60 mid-lactation Alpine goats were divided in two groups during spring-summer time. A diet containing 5-6% of sunflower seeds on DM basis was compared with a control diet in a change-over design. In the semi-intensive farm milk yield of goats fed sunflower was 3.46 kg/d compared to 3.58 kg/d of goats fed control diet, whereas in the intensive farm milk yield was 4.60 kg/d vs 4.66 kg/d. Fat content increased significantly from 2.99% to 3.23% only in the intensive farm. The research in the intensive farm investigated also milk and cheese fatty acids composition. Medium and short chain fatty acids (C8-C16 content dropped and long chain fatty acids content increased when sunflower was added. In conclusion raw sunflower seed inclusion in dairy goat diets can be useful, in order to limit the inversion of fat and protein percentages in milk.

  8. Association of genetic polymorphism in GH gene with milk production traits in Beijing Holstein cows

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Guo Li Zhou; Hai Guo Jin; Chen Liu; Shan Li; Qi Zhu; Yu Hou Wu

    2005-12-01

    Associations were analysed between polymorphisms of the growth hormone gene (GH-MspI) (localized in intron 3) and milk production traits of Beijing Holstein cows (a total of 543 cows). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method was used for identification of various genotypes. Frequencies of genotypes were 0.77, 0.21 and 0.02 for A/A, A/B and B/B, respectively. The frequency of the allele is 0.875. The results of the least squares means show that in all three lactations, the GH A/A cows yielded more milk ( < 0.01 for lactation I and < 0.05 for lactations II and III), whereas A/B cows showed higher milk fat content than A/A individuals ( < 0.05 for lactations I and II, and < 0.01 for lactation III). The A/A cows yielded more fat than A/B individuals ( < 0.01 only in lactation I). The A/A cows yielded more milk protein than A/B individuals ( < 0.01 for lactations I, II, and III). The A/A cows produced milk of higher protein content than of A/B individuals ( < 0.05 only in lactation II).

  9. Effects of fat supplementations on milk production and composition, ruminal and plasma parameters of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Bailoni

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects on milk yield and quality caused by the same amount (325 g/d/cow of lipids provided by 3 different fat sources (hydrogenate palm fat, HF; calcium salt palm fat, CaSF; full-fat toasted soybean, TS, top dressed to a common total mixed ration, were investigated. Supplementations did not affect feed intake and milk yield, but markedly changed the acidic profile of milk fat. CaSF and TS significantly increased the proportions of unsaturated fatty acids of milk fat with respect to control and to HF. The 3 fat sources did not affect the concentrations of ammonia and VFA of rumen fluid. TS only slightly increased (P<0.10 plasma urea content because of a higher dietary protein supply, with respect to the other treatments. The use of a low amount of toasted and cracked full fat soybean seem to be interesting to increase the energy concentration of diets in replacement to commercial fat products and it can be use to modify the milk fat quality increasing the fraction with benefit effects on human health.

  10. Evaluation of feeding steam treated bagasse pith on milk production and blood parameters of dairy buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.M. Kasiri

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding steam treated baggase pith of sugar cane (STP in feeding of buffalos. Eight milking buffaloes with the average live weight 541 ±47.5 kg were used in a complete randomized design with 4 treatments and 4 replications during 84 days. Diets contained forage: concentrate ratio 45:55. Concentrates were included amounts of 0,10,20 and 30 percent of steam treated pith bagasse (STP witch replaced with beet pulp sugar. Results indicted that, there were significant differences (P<0.05 affected by the diets. Diets included 20 and 30% STP had greater milk production with no differences in milk composition. Buffaloes fed 0 % STP had low milk fat and protein where as buffaloes had 30% had higher milk yield. The mean rumination times between treatment diets were significantly different (P<0.05. However, significant differences (P<0.05 were observed in plasma glucose and cholesterol concentrations in the experimental buffaloes cow. Buffaloes fed 30% STP had higher plasma insulin concentrates in response to a glucose challenge.

  11. Effect of pregnancy and embryonic mortality on milk production in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, P; Faigl, V; Reiczigel, J; Juhasz, J

    2015-02-01

    The main objective of the present study was to compare milk production in pregnant versus nonpregnant dromedary camels. In addition, we described the effect of embryonic mortality on lactation and measured serum progesterone levels until d 60 to 90 of gestation. Twenty-five multiparous camels were selected in midlactation for 2 studies in consecutive years. Camels were mated naturally when the size of the dominant follicle reached 1.2 to 1.5cm. Pregnancy was diagnosed by ultrasonography and progesterone determination. In the first experiment (Exp 1), 8 of 11 animals conceived at 284±21.5d postpartum. Three pregnant dromedaries were given PGF2α to induce luteolysis and pregnancy loss on d 62 and spontaneous embryonic loss was detected in 2 camels (on d 27 and 60). Animals were allotted to 3 groups retrospectively: nonpregnant camels (group 1, n=4), pregnant camels (group 2; n=3), and camels with embryonic loss after d 55 (group 3; n=4). In the second study (Exp 2), 14 dromedaries were mated during midlactation. Seven of them failed to conceive (group 1) and 7 became pregnant (group 2). No embryonic loss was detected in Exp 2. Turning points in milk production were identified by change point analysis. In nonpregnant dromedaries (group 1), milk decreased slowly over time without significant change point. In pregnant camels (group 2), a gradual decline until 4 wk after mating was followed by a sudden drop, and the change point model resulted in one breakpoint at d 28±7 and 35±3 of gestation in Exp 1 and Exp 2, respectively. In camels with embryonic mortality (group 3, Exp 1), milk yield started to decline similarly as in pregnant animals, but milk production increased gradually after embryonic loss and reached similar levels as in their nonpregnant herdmates. Change point analysis for group 3 resulted in 2 turning points at 30±4 and 48±4d after conception. Mean length of lactation was shorter by 230 (34.2%) and by 249d (37.6%) and mean total lactation production

  12. Milking liquid nano-droplets by an IR laser: a new modality for the visualization of electric field lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vespini, Veronica; Coppola, Sara; Grilli, Simonetta; Paturzo, Melania; Ferraro, Pietro

    2013-04-01

    Liquid handling at micron- and nano-scale is of paramount importance in many fields of application such as biotechnology and biochemistry. In fact, the microfluidics technologies play an important role in lab-on-a-chip devices and, in particular, the dispensing of liquid droplets is a required functionality. Different approaches have been developed for manipulating, dispensing and controlling nano-droplets under a wide variety of configurations. Here we demonstrate that nano-droplets can be drawn from liquid drop or film reservoirs through a sort of milking effect achieved by the absorption of IR laser radiation into a pyroelectric crystal. The generation of the pyroelectric field induced by the IR laser is calculated numerically and a specific experiment has been designed to visualize the electric field stream lines that are responsible for the liquid milking effect. The experiments performed are expected to open a new route for the visualization, measure and characterization procedures in the case of electrohydrodynamic applications.

  13. RESEARCH ON THE MILK PRODUCTION DIFFERENCES DETERMINED BY THE CALVING MONTH OF THE DAIRY COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agatha POPESCU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to assess the effect of the calving month on milk production and to correct the biases determined by this environmental factor in order to increase the precision in the breeding value estimation and assure a better evaluation of candidate cows as mothers of sires and bulls used in the artificial insemination to improve genetic gain in the dairy herds. A specific mathematical model, xij=m . ai . eij, where xij – the milk record of the daughter „j” in the month „i” (i=1,2,....12, m – a constant factor, ai –multiplicative effect of the month „i”, eij – the residual multiplicative effect, was used to process the data regarding milk yield and fat yield by month of calving collected from 4,100 Friesian dairy cows under milk testing. In order to eliminate the biases âi, adequate multiplicative adjusting factors were calculated as 1/âi.. The conclusion was that the calvings carried out in the fall-winter months recorded a milk yield by 3.5 % higher in January, by 5.4 % in September, by 6.3 % in December and by 10.5 % in November. The cows with early spring calving have been distadvantaged by 0.4 % in February, by 1.8 % in August up to 7.9 % in May. Therefore, correction factors are imposed to be used in order to increase precision in milk production estimation and finnaly to assure an accurate breeding value for dairy cows and bulls.

  14. Assessment of Small-scale Buffalo Milk Dairy Production-A Premise for a Durable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian MIHAIU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Buffalo husbandry is an important source of income for a number of small-scale producers in Romania that is why an assessment of its products quality is much needed for improvement and evaluation of their vulnerability to international competition. In order to ascertain possible developments in the buffalo dairy sector and to broadly identify areas of intervention that favor small-scale dairy producers, the study examined the potential to improve buffalo milk production by evaluating its authenticity and hygienic quality. The methods used involved the molecular testing (PCR-technique for identifying cow, sheep or goat DNA in the dairy products samples collected from the small-scale producers market. The hygienic quality of these samples was determined through classical microbiology methods, highly developed techniques (Trek System and PCR for bacterial species confirmation. The results showed that a high percent (65%, from the products found were adulterated with other species milk, mostly cow milk. The most commonly falsified buffalo dairy products were the cheese and the traditional product telemea. The prevalence of the bacterial species identified belonged to Listeria innocua and Listeria welshmeri. The conclusion of this study is the need of a durable development system in this particular dairy chain to improve and assure the authenticity and quality of the small-scale producers products and their reliability for the consumers.

  15. Milk: the new white gold? Milk production options for smallholder farmers in Southern Mali

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridder, de N.; Sanogo, O.; Rufino, M.C.; Keulen, van H.; Giller, K.E.

    2015-01-01

    Until the turn of the century, farmers in West Africa considered cotton to be the ‘white gold’ for their livelihoods. Large fluctuations in cotton prices have led farmers to innovate into other business including dairy. Yet the productivity of cows fed traditional diets is very poor, especially duri

  16. Survival of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis in yoghurt and in commercial fermented milk products containing probiotic cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Brandt, L; Coudijzer, K; Herman, L; Michiels, C; Hendrickx, M; Vlaemynck, G

    2011-05-01

    To assess the survival of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in yoghurt and commercial fermented milk products containing probiotic strains. Whole and skimmed UHT milk artificially inoculated with MAP were used to manufacture yoghurt, using two different yoghurt starter cultures. Five commercial fermented milk products were inoculated with MAP. Two different MAP strains were studied. The survival of MAP in all products was monitored by culture over a 6-week storage period at 6°C. In yoghurt, MAP counts did not change appreciably during the storage period. Fat content and type of yoghurt starter culture had no consistent effect on the survival of MAP. In the fermented milk products, survival patterns varied but resulted in a 1·5 to ≥3·8 log reduction for the Niebüll strain and a 1·2-2·2 log reduction for the NIZO strain after 6 weeks, depending on the probiotic starters present in the product. MAP easily survived in yoghurt but MAP numbers decreased in fermented milk products containing probiotic cultures. The results contribute to the lack of knowledge on the behaviour of MAP in yoghurt and fermented milk products containing probiotic cultures. This knowledge is valuable in the context of the risk of MAP transmission to humans via yoghurt and the possible contribution of probiotic fermented milk products to the elimination of MAP. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. Triennial Lactation Symposium: Opportunities for improving milk production efficiency in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, E E; Hutchison, J L; Olson, K M; Norman, H D

    2012-05-01

    Increasing feed costs and the desire to improve environmental stewardship have stimulated renewed interest in improving feed efficiency of livestock, including that of US dairy herds. For instance, USDA cost projections for corn and soybean meal suggest a 20% increase over 2010 pricing for a 16% protein mixed dairy cow ration in 2011, which may lead to a reduction in cow numbers to maintain profitability of dairy production. Furthermore, an October 2010 study by The Innovation Center for US Dairy to assess the carbon footprint of fluid milk found that the efficiency of feed conversion is the single greatest factor contributing to variation in the carbon footprint because of its effects on methane release during enteric fermentation and from manure. Thus, we are conducting research in contemporary US Holsteins to identify cows most efficient at converting feed to milk in temperate climates using residual feed intake (RFI), a measure used successfully to identify the beef cattle most efficient at converting feed to gain. Residual feed intake is calculated as the difference between predicted and actual feed intake to support maintenance and production (e.g., growth in beef cattle, or milk in dairy cattle). Heritability estimates for RFI in dairy cattle reported in the literature range from 0.01 to 0.38. Selection for a decreased RFI phenotype can reduce feed intake, methane production, nutrient losses in manure, and visceral organ weights substantially in beef cattle. We have estimated RFI during early lactation (i.e., to 90 d in milk) in the Beltsville Agricultural Research Center Holstein herd and observed a mean difference of 3.7 kg/d (P 0.20) in mean BW, ADG, or energy-corrected milk exhibited between the 2 groups. These results indicate promise for using RFI in dairy cattle to improve feed conversion to milk. Previous and current research on the use of RFI in lactating dairy cattle are discussed, as well as opportunities to improve production efficiency of dairy

  18. Environmental impact assessment of conventional and organic milk production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de I.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    Organic agriculture addresses the public demand to diminish environmental pollution of agricultural production. Until now, however, only few studies tried to determine the integrated environmental impact of conventional versus organic production using life cycle assessment (LCA). The aim of this

  19. Relationship of goat milk flow emission variables with milking routine, milking parameters, milking machine characteristics and goat physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, G; Panzalis, R; Ruegg, P

    2017-04-10

    The aim of this paper was to study the relationship between milk flow emission variables recorded during milking of dairy goats with variables related to milking routine, goat physiology, milking parameters and milking machine characteristics, to determine the variables affecting milking performance and help the goat industry pinpoint farm and milking practices that improve milking performance. In total, 19 farms were visited once during the evening milking. Milking parameters (vacuum level (VL), pulsation ratio and pulsation rate, vacuum drop), milk emission flow variables (milking time, milk yield, maximum milk flow (MMF), average milk flow (AVMF), time until 500 g/min milk flow is established (TS500)), doe characteristics of 8 to 10 goats/farm (breed, days in milk and parity), milking practices (overmilking, overstripping, pre-lag time) and milking machine characteristics (line height, presence of claw) were recorded on every farm. The relationships between recorded variables and farm were analysed by a one-way ANOVA analysis. The relationships of milk yield, MMF, milking time and TS500 with goat physiology, milking routine, milking parameters and milking machine design were analysed using a linear mixed model, considering the farm as the random effect. Farm was significant (Pvariables. Milk emission flow variables were similar to those recommended in scientific studies. Milking parameters were adequate in most of the farms, being similar to those recommended in scientific studies. Few milking parameters and milking machine characteristics affected the tested variables: average vacuum level only showed tendency on MMF, and milk pipeline height on TS500. Milk yield (MY) was mainly affected by parity, as the interaction of days in milk with parity was also significant. Milking time was mainly affected by milk yield and breed. Also significant were parity, the interaction of days in milk with parity and overstripping, whereas overmilking showed a slight tendency

  20. Influence of milk quality and production protocol on proteolysis and lipolysis in Monti Dauni Meridionali Caciocavallo cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albenzio, Marzia; Santillo, Antonella; Russo, Donatella Esterina; Caroprese, Mariangela; Marino, Rosaria; Sevi, Agostino

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of milk source and of cheese production protocol on proteolytic and lipolytic pattern of cheese during ripening. The study involved six dairy factories located in Monti Dauni Meridionali area of Southern Italy; three dairy factories processed the milk produced by their own cow herds, while the other three dairy factories processed the milk collected in other dairy farms located in the neighbouring area. Cow milk processed to cheese had different nutritional parameters and hygienic quality. Caciocavallo cheese showed differences in the evolution of proteolysis during ripening and in the intensity of the lipolytic process detected at the end of ripening. The main factors influencing Caciocavallo cheese features were the quality of the starting milk, differences in technological steps such as milk heating, type of starter cultures and coagulant used.

  1. Similarities and differences among fluid milk products: traditionally produced, extended shelf life and ultrahigh-temperature processed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, N T; Ahlfeld, B; Brix, A; Hagemann, A; von Münchhausen, C; Klein, G

    2013-06-01

    Extended shelf life milk is a relatively new kind of fluid milk, generally manufactured by high-temperature treatment and/or micro-filtration. Being advertised as 'pasteurized milk with an extended shelf life', its flavour, compositional quality and labelling was questioned. Extended shelf life (high-temperature treatment), pasteurized ('traditionally produced') and ultrahigh-temperature milk were, therefore, compared at the beginning and end of shelf life. In triangle tests, panellists distinguished clearly between all products. High-temperature treatment milk's flavour was closer to ultrahigh-temperature and traditionally produced milk in the beginning and at the end of shelf life, respectively. Physicochemically and bacteriologically, all three types could be distinguished. Since 'extended shelf life' comprises many process varieties (each affecting flavour differently), consumer information and appropriate package labelling beyond 'long-lasting' is necessary, e.g. by mentioning the heat treatment applied.

  2. Effects of addition of essential oils and monensin premix on digestion, ruminal fermentation, milk production, and milk composition in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benchaar, C; Petit, H V; Berthiaume, R; Whyte, T D; Chouinard, P Y

    2006-11-01

    Four ruminally cannulated, lactating Holstein cows were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design (28-d periods) with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to study the effects of dietary addition of essential oils (0 vs. 2 g/d; EO) and monensin (0 vs. 350 mg/d; MO) on digestion, ruminal fermentation characteristics, milk production, and milk composition. Intake of dry matter averaged 22.7 kg/d and was not significantly affected by dietary additives. Apparent digestibilities of dry matter, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, and starch were similar among treatments. Apparent digestibility of acid detergent fiber was increased when diets were supplemented with EO (48.9 vs. 46.0%). Apparent digestibility of crude protein was higher for cows fed MO compared with those fed no MO (65.0 vs. 63.6%). Nitrogen retention was not changed by additive treatments and averaged 27.1 g/d across treatments. Ruminal pH was increased with the addition of EO (6.50 vs. 6.39). Ruminal ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) concentration was lower with MO-supplemented diets compared with diets without MO (12.7 vs. 14.3 mg/100 mL). No effect of EO and MO was observed on total volatile fatty acid concentrations and molar proportions of individual volatile fatty acids. Protozoa counts were not affected by EO and MO addition. Production of milk and 4% fat-corrected milk was similar among treatments (33.6 and 33.4 kg/d, respectively). Milk fat content was lower for cows fed MO than for cows fed diets without MO (3.8 vs. 4.1%). The reduced milk fat concentration in cows fed MO was associated with a higher level of trans-10 18:1, a potent inhibitor of milk fat synthesis. Milk urea nitrogen concentration was increased by MO supplementation, but this effect was not apparent when MO was fed in combination with EO (interaction EO x MO). Results from this study suggest that feeding EO (2 g/d) and MO (350 mg/d) to lactating dairy cows had limited effects on digestion, ruminal fermentation characteristics, milk

  3. Effect of daily milk production on the economic impact of mastitits in cattle herds

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    Fabiana Alves Demeu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to analyze and quantify the effect of daily productivity per animal on the economic impact of mastitis in dairy cattle herds. A simulation study was conducted using the CU$TO MASTITE computational program. Dairy herds with an average production of 10, 20 and 30 liters of milk/day were considered. As preventive measures, expenses with mastitis incidence monitoring (culture and antibiogram, somatic cell count in the tank and somatic cells count per animal, pre and post dipping, vaccination, and treatment of dry cows were computed. Treatments of clinical cases, which corresponded to 7% of all lactating cows, were considered as curative measures. The impact of mastitis was estimated as total losses (reduction in production and milk disposal during treatment and antibiotic withdrawal period plus expenses with prevention and treatment of clinical cases. An increase in daily productivity per animal reduced the economic impact of mastitis. Higher productivity was associated with lower economic impact values, per liter of commercialized milk, due to optimization of the products and materials used per animal, reducing operating expenses. The expenses with preventive treatment corresponded to a maximum of 13.5% of economic impact. This percentage was lower than the economic impact of expenses with curative treatment. These results demonstrate the advantages of investing in preventive treatment, which will contribute to reduce the economic impact of mastitis.

  4. Milk proteins-derived bioactive peptides in dairy products: molecular, biological and methodological aspects

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    Bartłomiej Dziuba

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Proteins are one of the primary components of the food, both in terms of nutrition and function. They are main source of amino acids, essential for synthesis of proteins, and also source of energy. Additionally, many proteins exhibit specifi c biological activities, which may have effect on functional or pro-health properties of food products. These proteins and their hydrolysis products, peptides, may infl uence the properties of food and human organism. The number of commercially available food products containing bioactive peptides is very low, apart from that milk proteins are their rich source. It could be supposed that number of available products with declared activity will rise in near future because of observed strong uptrend on interest in such products. Molecular and biological properties of milk proteins, as precursors of bioactive peptides was characterised in the work. Therefore, the strategy of research and obtaining of such peptides both in laboratory and industrial scale, as well as the range of their commercial application, was presented. Several examples of research efforts presenting high potential to develop new products containing bioactive peptides from milk proteins and predetermined as nutraceuticals was described.

  5. Milk proteins-derived bioactive peptides in dairy products: molecular, biological and methodological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziuba, Bartłomiej; Dziuba, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Proteins are one of the primary components of the food, both in terms of nutrition and function. They are main source of amino acids, essential for synthesis of proteins, and also source of energy. Additionally, many proteins exhibit specific biological activities, which may have effect on functional or pro-health properties of food products. These proteins and their hydrolysis products, peptides, may influence the properties of food and human organism. The number of commercially available food products containing bioactive peptides is very low, apart from that milk proteins are their rich source. It could be supposed that number of available products with declared activity will rise in near future because of observed strong uptrend on interest in such products. Molecular and biological properties of milk proteins, as precursors of bioactive peptides was characterised in the work. Therefore, the strategy of research and obtaining of such peptides both in laboratory and industrial scale, as well as the range of their commercial application, was presented. Several examples of research efforts presenting high potential to develop new products containing bioactive peptides from milk proteins and predetermined as nutraceuticals was described.

  6. Effect of casein genes - beta-LGB, DGAT1, GH, and LHR - on milk production and milk composition traits in crossbred Holsteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molee, A; Poompramun, C; Mernkrathoke, P

    2015-03-30

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of a single gene and composite genotype of the casein gene family, including the beta-lactoglobulin gene (beta-LGB), acyl-CoA: diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 gene (DGAT1), growth hormone gene (GH), and luteinizing hormone receptor gene (LHR) on milk yield, milk composition, the percentage of fat, protein, solids-not-fat, and total solid in crossbred Holsteins. A total of 231 crossbred Holstein cows were examined for the study. The genotype of the beta-casein gene was analyzed by allele-specific polymerase chain reaction, while the alpha-S1, alpha-S2, kappa-casein, DGAT1, beta-LGB, and GH genes were analyzed using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. The association between genes and milk yield and milk composition was analyzed. Three pairs of genes, for which significant associations were detected, were beta + kappa-casein, DGAT1 + beta-casein, and GH + beta-LGB. In the single-gene model, most loci are significantly associated with traits. A significant association between the composite genotype and the traits was detected in all composite genotypes. GH + beta-LGB appears to be the most suitable variants for improving milk production and percentage of milk protein. Overall, the effects of the composite genotype and single gene were different. A physical or functional relationship between genes is necessary for investigating gene markers.

  7. A Scheduling Method for Painting Line under Pull Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jae Kyu; Shinbo, Kojiro; Shimizu, Yoshiaki

    This paper concerns with a scheduling method for painting (preceding) line with much longer production lead-time than assembly (subsequent) line. In general, production schedule of the painting line is made independently based on the forecasted job requirement at the assembly line. When the job requirement changes at the assembly line by virtue of the change of customer order, therefore, production balance is destroyed between the both lines. To avoid the tardiness caused by such unbalance, we need to have many inventories for the painting line. Such countermeasure is taken place in many companies actually. Thus, to avoid the tardiness while keeping small inventory, we propose a scheduling method that makes a Pseudo-Pull production possible for the painting line. We have evaluated the proposed method through computer simulations.

  8. Mid-infrared prediction of bovine milk fatty acids across multiple breeds, production systems, and countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyeurt, H; Dehareng, F; Gengler, N; McParland, S; Wall, E; Berry, D P; Coffey, M; Dardenne, P

    2011-04-01

    Increasing consumer concern exists over the relationship between food composition and human health. Because of the known effects of fatty acids on human health, the development of a quick, inexpensive, and accurate method to directly quantify the fatty acid (FA) composition in milk would be valuable for milk processors to develop a payment system for milk pertinent to their customer requirements and for farmers to adapt their feeding systems and breeding strategies accordingly. The aim of this study was (1) to confirm the ability of mid-infrared spectrometry (MIR) to quantify individual FA content in milk by using an innovative procedure of sampling (i.e., samples were collected from cows belonging to different breeds, different countries, and in different production systems); (2) to compare 6 mathematical methods to develop robust calibration equations for predicting the contents of individual FA in milk; and (3) to test interest in using the FA equations developed in milk as basis to predict FA content in fat without corrections for the slope and the bias of the developed equations. In total, 517 samples selected based on their spectral variability in 3 countries (Belgium, Ireland, and United Kingdom) from various breeds, cows, and production systems were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC). The samples presenting the largest spectral variability were used to calibrate the prediction of FA by MIR. The remaining samples were used to externally validate the 28 FA equations developed. The 6 methods were (1) partial least squares regression (PLS); (2) PLS+repeatability file (REP); (3) first derivative of spectral data+PLS; (4) first derivative+REP+PLS; (5) second derivative of spectral data+PLS; and (6) second derivative+REP+PLS. Methods were compared on the basis of the cross-validation coefficient of determination (R2cv), the ratio of standard deviation of GC values to the standard error of cross-validation (RPD), and the validation coefficient of determination (R2

  9. Use of whey powder and skim milk powder for the production of fermented cream

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    Ceren AKAL

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study is about the production of fermented cream samples having 18% fat by addition of starter cultures. In order to partialy increase non-fat solid content of fermented cream samples, skim milk powder and demineralized whey powder in two different rates (50% and 70% were used. Samples were analyzed for changes in their biochemical and physicochemical properties (total solid, ash, fat, titratable acidity, pH value, total nitrogen, viscosity, tyrosine, acid number, peroxide and diacetyl values during 29-day of storage period. Samples tested consisted of 7 different groups; control group (without adding any powder, skim milk powder, 50% demineralized whey powder and 70% demineralized whey powder samples were in two different addition rate (2% and 4%. Also samples were analyzed for sensory properties. According to the results obtained, the addition of milk powder products affected titratable acidity and tyrosine values of fermented cream samples. Although powder addition and/or storage period didn’t cause significant variations in total solid, ash, fat, pH value, viscosity, acid number, peroxide, tyrosine and diacetyl values; sensory properties of fermented cream samples were influenced by both powder addition and storage period. Fermented cream containing 2% skim milk powder gets the top score of sensory evaluation among the samples.

  10. Genes influencing milk production traits predominantly affect one of four biological pathways

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    Goddard Michael

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study we introduce a method that accounts for false positive and false negative results in attempting to estimate the true proportion of quantitative trait loci that affect two different traits. This method was applied to data from a genome scan that was used to detect QTL for three independent milk production traits, Australian Selection Index (ASI, protein percentage (P% and fat percentage corrected for protein percentage (F% – P%. These four different scenarios are attributed to four biological pathways: QTL that (1 increase or decrease total mammary gland production (affecting ASI only; (2 increase or decrease lactose synthesis resulting in the volume of milk being changed but without a change in protein or fat yield (affecting P% only; (3 increase or decrease protein synthesis while milk volume remains relatively constant (affecting ASI and P% in the same direction; (4 increase or decrease fat synthesis while the volume of milk remains relatively constant (affecting F% – P% only. The results indicate that of the positions that detected a gene, most affected one trait and not the others, though a small proportion (2.8% affected ASI and P% in the same direction.

  11. Periconceptional Heat Stress of Holstein Dams Is Associated with Differences in Daughter Milk Production and Composition during Multiple Lactations.

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    Britni M Brown

    Full Text Available Heat stress at the time of conception affects the subsequent milk production of primiparous Holstein cows; however, it is unknown whether these effects are maintained across multiple lactations. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to examine the relationship between periconceptional heat stress and measurements of milk production and composition in cows retained within a herd for multiple lactations. National Dairy Herd Improvement Association data was obtained from Dairy Records Management Systems. Records included milk production data and milk composition data from over 75,000 and 44,000 Holstein cows, respectively, born between 2000 and 2010 in Florida, Georgia, and Texas. Conception dates were calculated by subtracting 276 d from the recorded birth date. Records for cows conceived within the months of June, July, and August were retained as heat stress conceived (HSC cows; cows conceived within the months of December, January, and February were retained as thermoneutral conceived (TNC contemporaries. Adjusted 305-d mature equivalent milk, protein percent and fat percent were evaluated with a mixed model ANOVA using SAS. Milk production was significantly affected by periconceptional heat stress. When a significant difference or tendency for a difference was detected between the HSC and TNC cows, the TNC produced more milk in all but one comparison. The advantage in milk production for the TNC cows over the HSC cows ranged from 82 ± 42 to 399 ± 61 kg per lactation. Alterations in fat and protein percentage were variable and most often detected in first lactations (first > second or third. Overall, the most striking result of this study is the consistency of the relationship between HSC and milk production. The nature of this relationship suggests that heat stress at or around the time of conception impairs cow milk yield throughout her lifetime.

  12. Periconceptional Heat Stress of Holstein Dams Is Associated with Differences in Daughter Milk Production and Composition during Multiple Lactations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Britni M.; Stallings, Jon W.; Clay, John S.; Rhoads, Michelle L.

    2015-01-01

    Heat stress at the time of conception affects the subsequent milk production of primiparous Holstein cows; however, it is unknown whether these effects are maintained across multiple lactations. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to examine the relationship between periconceptional heat stress and measurements of milk production and composition in cows retained within a herd for multiple lactations. National Dairy Herd Improvement Association data was obtained from Dairy Records Management Systems. Records included milk production data and milk composition data from over 75,000 and 44,000 Holstein cows, respectively, born between 2000 and 2010 in Florida, Georgia, and Texas. Conception dates were calculated by subtracting 276 d from the recorded birth date. Records for cows conceived within the months of June, July, and August were retained as heat stress conceived (HSC) cows; cows conceived within the months of December, January, and February were retained as thermoneutral conceived (TNC) contemporaries. Adjusted 305-d mature equivalent milk, protein percent and fat percent were evaluated with a mixed model ANOVA using SAS. Milk production was significantly affected by periconceptional heat stress. When a significant difference or tendency for a difference was detected between the HSC and TNC cows, the TNC produced more milk in all but one comparison. The advantage in milk production for the TNC cows over the HSC cows ranged from 82 ± 42 to 399 ± 61 kg per lactation. Alterations in fat and protein percentage were variable and most often detected in first lactations (first > second or third). Overall, the most striking result of this study is the consistency of the relationship between HSC and milk production. The nature of this relationship suggests that heat stress at or around the time of conception impairs cow milk yield throughout her lifetime. PMID:26496650

  13. Effect of flaxseed supplementation rate and processing on the production, fatty acid profile, and texture of milk, butter, and cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeffner, S P; Qu, Y; Just, J; Quezada, N; Ramsing, E; Keller, M; Cherian, G; Goddick, L; Bobe, G

    2013-02-01

    Health and nutrition professionals advise consumers to limit consumption of saturated fatty acids and increase the consumption of foods rich in n-3 fatty acids. Researchers have previously reported that feeding extruded flaxseed, which is high in C18:3n-3, improves the fatty acid profile of milk and dairy products to less saturated fatty acids and to more C18:3n-3. Fat concentrations in milk and butter decreased when cows were fed higher concentrations of extruded flaxseed. The objective of this study was to determine the optimal rate of flaxseed supplementation for improving the fatty acid profile without decreasing production characteristics of milk and dairy products. By using a double 5 × 5 Latin square design, 10 mid- to late-lactation Holstein cows were fed extruded (0, 0.91, 1.81, and 2.72 kg/d) and ground (1.81 kg/d) flaxseed as a top dressing for 2-wk periods each. At the end of each 2-wk treatment period, milk and serum samples were taken. Milk was subsequently manufactured into butter and fresh Mozzarella cheese. Increasing supplementation rates of extruded flaxseed improved the fatty acid profile of milk, butter, and cheese gradually to less saturated and atherogenic fatty acids and to more C18:3n-3 by increasing concentrations of C18:3n-3 in serum. The less saturated fatty acid profile was associated with decreased hardness and adhesiveness of refrigerated butter, which likely cause improved spreadability. Supplementation rates of extruded flaxseed did not affect dry matter intake of the total mixed ration, milk composition, and production of milk, butter, or cheese. Flaxseed processing did not affect production, fatty acid profile of milk, or texture of butter and cheese. Feeding up to 2.72 kg/d of extruded flaxseed to mid- to late-lactation Holstein cows may improve nutritional and functional properties of milk fat without compromising production parameters.

  14. Production of polyhydroxyalcanoates (PHAs) using milk whey and dairy wastewater activated sludge production of bioplastics using dairy residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosco, Francesca; Chiampo, Fulvia

    2010-04-01

    The production of polyhydroxyalcanoates (PHAs), which are biodegradable plastics, was studied using milk whey and dairy wastewater activated sludge to define a suitable C/N ratio, the pre-treatments required to reduce the protein content, and the effect of pH correction. The results show good production of PHAs at a C/N=50 and without pH correction. The use of dairy wastewater activated sludge has the advantage of not requiring aseptic conditions.

  15. Growth performance of FH male calves fed milk replacer made of local ingredients for veal production

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    Elizabeth Wina

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available The research was designed to evaluate the local feedstuff to be used in milk replacer (MP and its utilization for veal production . Fifteen male calves of the Friesian Holstein breed, 5-6 weeks old were used in the experiment lasting for 8 weeks. The treatments were (i commercial milk replacer (SPK, (ii local (SPL-1 and (iii mixture ofSPK and SPL-1 (SPKL. The amount of dry matter offerred is 3 % of live weight each and was given twice daily (in the morning and late afternoon . Elephant grass (0 .5 kg was offerred at noon . The observed parameters were average daily gain (ADG, dry matter (DM and crude protein (CP intake, carcass percentage, weight of carcass components, physical and chemical characteristics of meat. The results show that feed consumptions were 1,981, 1,613 and 1,050 g1day and ADGs were 897,496 and 73 g for treatments SPK, SPKL and SPL, respectively . Carcass percentage was 56.84 and 58 .76% with protein content was 87 .47 and 84 .78% for treatments SPK and SPKL, respectively . The benefit per head of calf was higher when fed mixture of local and commercial MP than fed only commercial MP but the benefit per day was higher when fed commercial MP than mixture of local and commercial. In conclusion, a cheaper milk replacer with less milk protein content resulting in a lower gain but higher benefit per head of calf than a commercial milk replacer containing high milk protein content

  16. Simultaneous Determination of Melamine, Ammelide, Ammeline, and Cyanuric Acid in Milk and Milk Products by Gas Chromatography-tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HONG MIAO; SAI FAN; YONG-NING WU; LEI ZHANG; PING-PING ZHOU; JING-GUANG LI; HUI-JING CHEN; YUN-FENG ZHAO

    2009-01-01

    Objective To develop an analytical method for simultaneously qualitative and quantitative determination of melamine and triazine-related by-products including ammelide, ammeline, and cyanuric acid in milk and milk products by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). Methods Melamine and triazine-related by-products namely ammelide, ammeline and cyanuric acid in the samples were extracted in a solvent mixture of diethylamine, water, and acetonitrile (10:40:50, V/V/V). After centrifugation, an aliquot of the supernatant was evaporated to dryness under a gentle stream of nitrogen gas, and then melamine and triazine-related by-products were derivatized using BSTFA with 1% TMCS. The derivatives of melamine and its analogues were determined by gas chromatography/ tandem mass spectrometry using multiple reactional monitoring (MRM) with 2, 6-Diamino-4-chloropyrimidine (DACP) being used as an internal standard. Results The linear detectable ranges were from 0.004 mg/kg to 1.6 mg/kg for melamine, ammelide, ammeline, and cyanuric acid with a correlation coefficient no less than 0.999. The recovery rates of the four compounds in spiked blank milk powder at concentrations 0.5, 1, 2 mg/kg were between 61.4%-117.2%, and the relative standard deviation was no more than 11.5% (n=6). The detection limits of melamine, ammelide, ammeline and cyanuric acid in milk powder were 0.002 mg/kg with a ratio of signal to noise of 3. Conclusion This GC-MS/MS method for simultaneous determination of melamine, ammelide, ammeline, and cyanuric acid in milk and milk products is sensitive and specific.

  17. Improved milk production performance of smallholder farms in West Java (Indonesia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sembada, Pria; Duteurtre, Guillaume; Purwanto, Bagus Priyo; Suryahadi

    2016-04-01

    In Indonesia, because of the rapidly growing demand for dairy products, the development of milk production in rural communities can play a strong role in reducing poverty. However, the development of smallholder dairy production requires adequate support from the government, development organizations, and private firms. To assess the needs and situations of poor dairy farmers, we conducted a study in Ciater sub-district in West Java Province to compare the current situation with the situation that prevailed 4 years ago, i.e., before the implementation of a dairy development project. Data were collected from 61 farms in June 2014. The average number of cows on the farms surveyed was three to four, and each relied on cultivating an average of 0.4 ha of forage. Results showed that thanks to the project activities, milk productivity per cow and net income from milk production increased by 25% between 2010 and 2014. These results underline the importance of providing training and technical support for the development of the livelihoods of dairy smallholders.

  18. Assessment of Small-scale Buffalo Milk Dairy Production-A Premise for a Durable Development

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    Marian MIHAIU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Buffalo husbandry is an important source of income for a number of small-scale producers in Romania that is why an assessment of its� product�s quality is much needed for improvement and evaluation of their vulnerability to international competition. In order to ascertain possible developments in the buffalo dairy sector and to broadly identify areas of intervention that favor small-scale dairy producers, the study examined the potential to improve buffalo milk production by evaluating its authenticity and hygienic quality. The methods used involved the molecular testing (PCR-technique for identifying cow, sheep or goat DNA in the dairy products� samples collected from the small-scale producers market. The hygienic quality of these samples was determined through classical microbiology methods, highly developed techniques (Trek System and PCR for bacterial species confirmation. The results showed that a high percent (65%, from the products found were adulterated with other species milk, mostly cow milk. The most commonly falsified buffalo dairy products were the cheese and the traditional product �telemea�. The prevalence of the bacterial species identified belonged to Listeria innocua and Listeria welshmeri. The conclusion of this study is the need of a durable development system in this particular dairy chain to improve and assure the authenticity and quality of the small-scale producers� products and their reliability for the consumers.

  19. Evaluation of raw milk quality in different production systems and periods of the year

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    Marcos Inácio Marcondes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of raw milk in different production systems and its variation throughout the year. The data were collected from 943 dairy farms in the South, Central-West and Central regions of the state of Minas Gerais, and in Vale do Paraíba, in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The data were collected in the period from January 2009 to September 2011, in a total of 18,206 samples. The properties were divided into confinement, semi-confinement and extensive production systems. The evaluated factors were somatic cell count (SCC, total bacterial count (TBC and protein and fat contents. There was no effect of production system on the contents of protein, fat and SCC. Total bacterial count, however, was affected by production. Seasonal variations were found for SCC, TBC, protein and fat; the highest protein values were found from March to June; the highest fat contents were obtained from May to August; and TBC and SCC, from December to March. The production system does not interfere with the percentage of fat and protein and SCC of the milk. However, confinement systems present a better TBC content. Both month and year are factors that interfere with TBC, SCC, protein and milk fat, and the best patterns are found in the coldest periods of the year.

  20. Harnessing natural product assembly lines: structure, promiscuity, and engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladner, Christopher C; Williams, Gavin J

    2016-03-01

    Many therapeutically relevant natural products are biosynthesized by the action of giant mega-enzyme assembly lines. By leveraging the specificity, promiscuity, and modularity of assembly lines, a variety of strategies has been developed that enables the biosynthesis of modified natural products. This review briefly summarizes recent structural advances related to natural product assembly lines, discusses chemical approaches to probing assembly line structures in the absence of traditional biophysical data, and surveys efforts that harness the inherent or engineered promiscuity of assembly lines for the synthesis of non-natural polyketides and non-ribosomal peptide analogues.