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Sample records for milk fat substitutes

  1. Human milk fat substitute from butterfat: production by enzymatic interesterification and evaluation of oxidative stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; Xu, Xuebing; Zhang, Long

    2010-01-01

    Recent data have suggested that the fatty acid composition and molecular structure of fats in infant formulas should be as similar to human milk fat as possible to obtain optimal fat and calcium absorption from the infant formula. This work investigated the possibilities of using enzyme technology...... and butterfat as a material to produce a fat similar to human milk fat with respect to the above parameters. Moreover, the oxidative stability of the enzyme modified human milk fat substitute (HMFS) was compared to the fat blend used for the production of HMFS. Using a combination of enzyme technology......, fractionation and batch deodorization and with butterfat in combination with soybean oil and rapeseed oil as raw materials it was possible to produce HMFS with a molecular structure and fatty acid composition that was very similar to that of human milk fat. The oxidative stability of the HMFS oil was lower than...

  2. New human milk fat substitutes from butterfat to improve fat absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yanqi; Mu, Huiling; Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov

    2010-01-01

    , or (3) the reference oil without LCPUFA. The apparent fat absorption after intake of butterfat-based HMFS (95.9% +/- 1.8%) was significantly higher than the other two groups, indicating that much less calcium soap was formed after feeding butterfat-based HMFS. Calcium contents in urines and faeces from...

  3. Substituting sugar-sweetened beverages with water or milk is inversely associated with body fatness development from childhood to adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Miaobing; Rangan, Anna; Olsen, Nanna Julie

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the association between different types of beverage intake and substitution of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) by water, milk, or 100% fruit juice in relation to 6-y change in body fatness. METHODS: A cohort of 9-y-old children (N = 358) who...... participated in the Danish part of the European Youth Heart Study was followed for development of body fatness over 6 y. Multivariate linear regression was used to examine the associations between beverage intake at baseline and change in body fatness (body mass index z score [BMIz]), waist circumference (WC......), and sum of four skinfolds (Σ4SF) over 6 y with adjustment for potential confounders. Substitution models were used to evaluate various beverages as alternatives to SSBs. RESULTS: SSB intake at age 9 y, but not intake of other beverages, was directly associated with subsequent 6-y changes in BMIz (β = 0...

  4. Human Milk Fat Substitute Produced by Enzymatic Interesterification of Vegetable Oil Blend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semra Turan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil, palm kernel oil, olive oil, sunflower oil, and marine oil blend, formulated in the mass ratio of 4.0:3.5:1.0:1.5:0.2, was subjected to interesterification catalyzed by lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosa (Lipozyme® TL IM for obtaining a product that contains similar triacylglycerol (TAG structure to that of human milk fat (HMF. Reactions were carried out in a double jacketed glass vessel equipped with magnetic stirrer at 60 °C for 2, 4, 6, 8, 12 and 24 h. The blend was analyzed for fatty acid composition of both total fatty acids and those at the sn-2 position after pancreatic lipase hydrolysis. After interesterification, TAGs were purified by thin layer chromatography and TAG species were determined according to the carbon number (CN by high-temperature gas chromatography. Enzymatic interesterification generated significant differences for all TAG species from CN30 to CN54. Concentrations of some TAG species (CN30, 32, 34, 36, 38, 50, 52 and 54 decreased, while some (CN40 to 48 increased after 24 h. TAG species with higher CN reached maximum levels at the end of 6 h of reaction time. The predominant TAGs of the reaction product after 24 h were CN46, 48, 50, 52 and 54 with ratios of 13.8, 18.2, 13.9, 17.8, and 12.1 %, respectively. These TAG species contain mainly 1,3-diunsaturated-2-saturated structure, like HMF.

  5. Human periodontal ligament cell viability in milk and milk substitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Robert M; Liewehr, Frederick R; West, Leslie A; Patton, William R; McPherson, James C; Runner, Royce R

    2003-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of several milk substitutes compared to whole milk in maintaining the viability of human periodontal ligament (PDL) cells on avulsed teeth. PDL cells were obtained from freshly extracted, healthy third molars and cultured in Eagle's minimal essential media (EMEM). The cells were plated onto 24-well culture plates and allowed to attach for 24 h. EMEM was replaced with refrigerated whole milk (positive control), reconstituted powdered milk, evaporated milk, or one of two baby formulas (Similac or Enfamil). Tap water served as the negative control. Tissue culture plates were incubated with the experimental media at 37 degrees C for 1, 2, 4, or 8 h. Cell viability was determined by a cell proliferation assay (CellTiter 96 AQ Assay), with absorbance read at 450 nM. A two-way ANOVA (p effect on PDL cell viability between any of the materials and whole milk. At 2 h, Enfamil and Similac performed significantly better than whole milk, whereas evaporated milk performed worse. At 4 h, Enfamil performed better than whole milk, whereas all other milk substitutes performed worse. At 8 h, all substitutes performed worse than whole milk. These results suggest that Enfamil, which is supplied in powder form that does not require special storage and has a shelf life of 18 months, is a more effective storage medium for avulsed teeth than pasteurized milk for at least 4 h.

  6. Milk fat threshold determination and the effect of milk fat content on consumer preference for fluid milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, K S; Lopetcharat, K; Drake, M A

    2017-03-01

    Milk consumption in the United States has been in decline since the 1960s. Milk fat plays a critical role in sensory properties of fluid milk. The first objective of this study was to determine the change in percent milk fat needed to produce a detectable or just noticeable difference (JND) to consumers in skim, 1%, 2%, and whole milks. The second objective was to evaluate how milk fat affected consumer preferences for fluid milk. Threshold tests were conducted to determine the JND for each reference milk (skim, 1%, 2%, and whole milk), with a minimum of 60 consumers for each JND. The JND was determined for milks by visual appearance without tasting and tasting without visual cues. Serving temperature effect (4, 8, or 15°C) on tasting JND values were also investigated. The established JND values were then used to conduct ascending forced-choice preference tests with milks. Consumers were assigned to 3 groups based on self-reported milk consumption: skim milk drinkers (n = 59), low-fat milk drinkers (consumed 1% or 2% milk, n = 64), and whole milk drinkers (n = 49). Follow-up interviews were conducted where consumers were asked to taste and explain their preference between milks that showed the most polarization within each consumer segment. Descriptive sensory analysis was performed on the milks used in the follow-up interviews to quantify sensory differences. Visual-only JND were lower than tasting-only JND values. Preference testing revealed 3 distinct preference curves among the consumer segments. Skim milk drinkers preferred skim milk and up to 2% milk fat, but disliked milk higher in fat due to it being "too thick," "too heavy," "flavor and texture like cream," "too fatty," and "looks like half and half." Low-fat milk drinkers preferred 2% milk up to 3.25% (whole milk), but then disliked higher milk fat content. Whole milk drinkers preferred whichever milk was higher in milk fat regardless of how high the fat content was, distinct from skim and low-fat milk

  7. Genetic variation in bovine milk fat composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoop, W.M.

    2009-01-01

    In her thesis, Stoop shows that there is considerable genetic variation in milk fat composition, which opens opportunities to improve milk fat composition by selective breeding. Short and medium chain fatty acids had high heritabilities, whereas variation due to herd (mainly feed effects) was

  8. Detection of non-milk fat in milk fat by gas chromatography and linear discriminant analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, R; Vega, S; Díaz, G; Sánchez, J; Coronado, M; Ramírez, A; Pérez, J; González, M; Schettino, B

    2009-05-01

    Gas chromatography was utilized to determine triacylglycerol profiles in milk and non-milk fat. The values of triacylglycerol were subjected to linear discriminant analysis to detect and quantify non-milk fat in milk fat. Two groups of milk fat were analyzed: A) raw milk fat from the central region of Mexico (n = 216) and B) ultrapasteurized milk fat from 3 industries (n = 36), as well as pork lard (n = 2), bovine tallow (n = 2), fish oil (n = 2), peanut (n = 2), corn (n = 2), olive (n = 2), and soy (n = 2). The samples of raw milk fat were adulterated with non-milk fats in proportions of 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20% to form 5 groups. The first function obtained from the linear discriminant analysis allowed the correct classification of 94.4% of the samples with levels <10% of adulteration. The triacylglycerol values of the ultrapasteurized milk fats were evaluated with the discriminant function, demonstrating that one industry added non-milk fat to its product in 80% of the samples analyzed.

  9. Seasonal and Milking-to-Milking Variations in Cow Milk Fat, Protein and Somatic Cell Counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Raluca PAVEL

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The first objective of this study was to examine milking-to-milking variations in milk fat, protein and SCC (somatic cell count. The second objective of this study was to examine variations of milk components (fat, protein and SCC over a period of six months (April-September 2010 at Agricultural Research Development Station Simnic. A total of 128 milk samples (64 morning milking and 64 evening milking ones from milk bulk tank commingled from 904 Holstein cows, were collected and analyzed for fat, protein and SCC. Data suggested that milking period effects milk fat, making the fat percentage lower in the morning compared with the evening milking period, effect which was not similar in protein content. Seasonal differences in milk fat and protein were also investigated. The season of year had influenced SCC, fat and protein: SCC increased, while fat and protein decreased. The period of the day when milking took place and the season influenced fat, protein and SCC, but the composition of milk, as well as its hygienic quality, fell within the aplicabile standards for raw milk.

  10. Seasonal and Milking-to-Milking Variations in Cow Milk Fat, Protein and Somatic Cell Counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Raluca PAVEL

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The first objective of this study was to examine milking-to-milking variations in milk fat, protein and SCC (somatic cell count. The second objective of this study was to examine variations of milk components (fat, protein and SCC over a period of six months (April-September 2010 at Agricultural Research Development Station Simnic. A total of 128 milk samples (64 morning milking and 64 evening milking ones from milk bulk tank commingled from 90�4 Holstein cows, were collected and analyzed for fat, protein and SCC. Data suggested that milking period effects milk fat, making the fat percentage lower in the morning compared with the evening milking period, effect which was not similar in protein content. Seasonal differences in milk fat and protein were also investigated. The season of year had influenced SCC, fat and protein: SCC increased, while fat and protein decreased. The period of the day when milking took place and the season influenced fat, protein and SCC, but the composition of milk, as well as its hygienic quality, fell within the aplicabile standards for raw milk.

  11. Bioelectrical impedance analysis of bovine milk fat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, E. A.; Bertemes-Filho, P.

    2012-12-01

    Three samples of 250ml at home temperature of 20°C were obtained from whole, low fat and fat free bovine UHT milk. They were analysed by measuring both impedance spectra and dc conductivity in order to establish the relationship between samples related to fat content. An impedance measuring system was developed, which is based on digital oscilloscope, a current source and a FPGA. Data was measured by the oscilloscope in the frequency 1 kHz to 100 kHz. It was showed that there is approximately 7.9% difference in the conductivity between whole and low fat milk whereas 15.9% between low fat and free fat one. The change of fatness in the milk can be significantly sensed by both impedance spectra measurements and dc conductivity. This result might be useful for detecting fat content of milk in a very simple way and also may help the development of sensors for measuring milk quality, as for example the detection of mastitis.

  12. Bioelectrical impedance analysis of bovine milk fat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veiga, E A; Bertemes-Filho, P [Department of Electrical Eng., State University of Santa Catarina, Joinville (Brazil)

    2012-12-20

    Three samples of 250ml at home temperature of 20 Degree-Sign C were obtained from whole, low fat and fat free bovine UHT milk. They were analysed by measuring both impedance spectra and dc conductivity in order to establish the relationship between samples related to fat content. An impedance measuring system was developed, which is based on digital oscilloscope, a current source and a FPGA. Data was measured by the oscilloscope in the frequency 1 kHz to 100 kHz. It was showed that there is approximately 7.9% difference in the conductivity between whole and low fat milk whereas 15.9% between low fat and free fat one. The change of fatness in the milk can be significantly sensed by both impedance spectra measurements and dc conductivity. This result might be useful for detecting fat content of milk in a very simple way and also may help the development of sensors for measuring milk quality, as for example the detection of mastitis.

  13. Bioelectrical impedance analysis of bovine milk fat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veiga, E A; Bertemes-Filho, P

    2012-01-01

    Three samples of 250ml at home temperature of 20°C were obtained from whole, low fat and fat free bovine UHT milk. They were analysed by measuring both impedance spectra and dc conductivity in order to establish the relationship between samples related to fat content. An impedance measuring system was developed, which is based on digital oscilloscope, a current source and a FPGA. Data was measured by the oscilloscope in the frequency 1 kHz to 100 kHz. It was showed that there is approximately 7.9% difference in the conductivity between whole and low fat milk whereas 15.9% between low fat and free fat one. The change of fatness in the milk can be significantly sensed by both impedance spectra measurements and dc conductivity. This result might be useful for detecting fat content of milk in a very simple way and also may help the development of sensors for measuring milk quality, as for example the detection of mastitis.

  14. ENSAYO Y FUNCIONALIDAD DE UN SUSTITUYENTE DE SÓLIDOS NO GRASOS LÁCTEOS EN UNA MEZCLA PARA HELADO ESSAY AND FUNCTIONALITY OF A NON FAT MILK SOLIDS SUBSTITUTE IN AN ICE CREAM MIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francy Nataly López Barón

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio tuvo como objeto ensayar y evaluar la influencia de dos formulaciones de sólidos no grasos lácteos (F1 y F2, sobre las características fisicoquímicas de mezclas de helado. Mediante criterios bromatológicos (contenido de proteína se seleccionó la formulación F1, ya que una prueba sensorial que se aplicó simultáneamente, no aportó diferencias entre ambas formulaciones. Posteriormente se usaron tres niveles de la mezcla escogida, sustituyendo 20% (T2, el 40% (T3 y el 60% (T4, de los sólidos no grasos lácteos de la formulación, a los cuales se les realizaron pruebas de calidad física, química y sensorial, comparándolos contra una mezcla testigo sin sustitución (T1. El valor de viscosidad de los tratamientos, varió en un intervalo 398,7 cP a 1108,6 cP a una temperatura de 4 °C, siendo este aumento directamente proporcional al porcentaje de sustitución. Los valores de acidez titulable de la mezcla oscilaron entre 0,17% a 0,12% con un valor más alto (P This study was designed to test and evaluate the influence of two non fat milk solids formulations F1 and F2 on the physicochemical characteristics of ice cream mixes. By bromatological analysis (protein content, formulation F1 was selected, since a sensory test that was applied simultaneously, did not provide differences between the two formulations. Later, three levels of the chosen mixture were used, replacing 20% (T2, 40% (T3 and 60% (T4 of the non fat milk solids in the formulation, to which physical, chemical and sensorial quality tests were conducted and were compared against a control mixture without replacement (T1. The viscosity value of the treatments differ between 398.7 cP to 1108.6 cP at 4 °C, being this increase directly proportional to the percentage of substitution. The ice cream values for acidity were in a range of 0.17% to 0.12% with a highest value (P <0.05 for T1. Treatment T3 presented the following results: pH 6.84; P 542.2 mg/kg; Ca 717.2 mg

  15. Analysis association of milk fat and protein percent in quantitative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis association of milk fat and protein percent in quantitative trait locus ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... Protein and fat percent as content of milk are high-priority criteria for financial aims and selection of programs in dairy cattle.

  16. Modified broken rice starch as fat substitute in sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Maria Limberger

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The demand for low-fat beef products has led the food industry to use fat substitutes such as modified starch. About 14% of broken rice is generated during processing. Nevertheless, this by-product contains high levels of starch; being therefore, great raw material for fat substitution. This study evaluated the applicability of chemically and physically modified broken rice starch as fat substitute in sausages. Extruded and phosphorylated broken rice was used in low-fat sausage formulation. All low-fat sausages presented about 55% reduction in the fat content and around 28% reduction in the total caloric value. Fat replacement with phosphorylated and extruded broken rice starch increased the texture acceptability of low-fat sausages, when compared to low-fat sausages with no modified broken rice. Results suggest that modified broken rice can be used as fat substitute in sausage formulations, yielding lower caloric value products with acceptable sensory characteristics.

  17. The overall and fat composition of milk of various species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Gantner

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Milk, an essential source of offspring nourishment, varies in it’s composition and properties significantly across species. In human nutrition, fresh milk and dairy products are valuable sources of protein, fat and energy, and are an important part of daily meals. Most of the world’s milk production (85 % comes from cows followed by buffaloes, goats, ewes, mares and donkeys. However milk related food allergies in infants may be a reason for health problems and may cause a decrease in milk. The objective of this paper was to give an overview of the overall composition of milk and fat from different species in comparison to women milk. Regarding the overall milk composition remarkable differences in energy content, fat, lactose, protein and ash of the various milks were found, but also some similarities among milk from ruminants and non-ruminants were detected. The structures of fat globule membranes were similar among non-ruminants and women milk, while the milk fat globule structure in ruminants differed significantly. The size of fat globules was significantly different between species and highly correlated to the milk fat content, regardless of the specie. The amount of triacylglycerols was notably higher, while the amount of free fatty acids and phospholipids was notably lower in milk from ruminants and women compared to milk from mares and donkeys. The triacylglycerol structure in women and non-ruminantsˈ was similar. The percentage of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids was lower, while the unsaturated fatty acid content was higher in milk from non-ruminants, with a remarkably higher percentage of C-18:2 and C-18:3. The cholesterol content was similar in women and ruminantsˈ milk, but lower in that of non-ruminants. This review indicates that milk from non-ruminants could be more suitable for human nourishment than milk from ruminants.

  18. Effect of gamma irradiation on the properties of various kinds of milk fat. II. Fatty acids composition of milk fat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girgis, E.S.; Rady, A.H.; Kamal, T.H.; Shehata, T.E.; Ibrahim, M.K.

    1986-01-01

    Fresh cow's, buffalo's and goat's milk fat were subjected to ascendent doses of 8-rays of 250, 500 and 750 K.rad as compared to raw milk samples (control). The methyl esters of fats separated from these samples were analyzed using gas liquid chromatographic technique. Total saturated fatty acids (T.S.F.A.) were 70.46%, 67.44% and 72.85%, while total unsaturated fatty acid (T.U.F.A.) were 29.51%, 32.54% and 27.15% for cow's buffalo's and goat's raw milk fats, respectively. Water insoluble volatile fatty acids (W.I.V.F.A.) were much higher in goat's raw milk fat (23.24%) than in cows (6.34%) and buffaloes (5.25%) ones. Palmitic acid represents the predominant saturated fatty acid, while oleic acid represents the major unsaturated fatty acids in the three kinds of milk fat. Linoleic acid was present only in buffalo's and goat's raw milk fat. The exposure of buffalo's and goat's milk to 8-rays doses increased TSFA and decreased TUFA of their fats. Meanwhile the same doses induced a minor change in both TSFA and TUFA of cow's milk one. Also, 8-irradiation increased the relative percentage of Palmitic acid in the three types of milk fat, while linoleic acid decreased in buffalo's and goat's milk fat. Besides, W.I.V.F.A. showed a gradual decrease, when the three types of milk were exposed to ascendent doses of 8-rays

  19. Evaluation of whey, milk, and delactosed permeates as salt substitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S T; Metzger, L; Drake, M A

    2016-11-01

    Whey and milk permeates are by-products of high-protein dairy powder manufacture. Previous work has shown that these permeates contribute to salty taste without contributing significantly to sodium content. The objective of this study was to explore the sensory characteristics and compositional analysis of permeates from different milk and whey streams and a low-sodium product application made from them. Skim milk, Cheddar, cottage, and Mozzarella cheese whey permeates were manufactured in triplicate, and delactosed whey permeate was obtained in triplicate. Composition (protein, fat, solids, minerals) was conducted on permeates. Organic acid composition was determined using HPLC. Volatile compounds were extracted from permeates by solid phase microextraction with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A trained sensory panel documented sensory attributes of permeates and cream of broccoli soups with and without salt or permeates followed by consumer acceptance testing (n=105) on the soups. Cottage cheese whey permeate contained a higher lactic acid content than other permeates, which has been shown to contribute to a higher salty taste. Cottage cheese whey permeate also contained potato or brothy and caramel flavors and sour and salty tastes, whereas delactosed whey permeate had high intensities of cardboard and beefy or brothy flavors and salty taste. Milk, Cheddar, and Mozzarella cheese whey permeates were characterized by sweet taste and cooked milky flavor. Permeates with higher cardboard flavor had higher levels of aldehydes. All permeates contributed to salty taste and to salty taste perception in soups; although the control soup with added salt was perceived as saltier and was preferred by consumers over permeate soups. Soup with permeate from cottage cheese was the least liked of all soups, likely due to its sour taste. All other permeate soups scored at parity for liking. These results demonstrate the potential for milk, whey, and delactosed permeates from

  20. Genes involved in bovine milk-fat composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schennink, A.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the research described in this thesis was to identify genes that underlie the genetic variation in bovine milk-fat composition. The fat composition of milk samples from approximately 2,000 Dutch Holstein Friesian cows in their first lactation was measured by gas chromatography.

  1. Distribution of animal drugs between skim milk and milk fat fractions in spiked whole milk: Understanding the potential impact on commercial milk products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seven animal drugs [penicillin G (PENG), sulfadimethoxine (SDMX), oxytetracycline (OTET), erythromycin (ERY), ketoprofen (KETO), thiabendazole (THIA) and ivermectin (IVR)] were used to evaluate drug distribution between milk fat and skim milk fractions of cow milk. Greater than 90% of radioactivity...

  2. Conjugated linoleic acid in ewe milk fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Pilar; Fontecha, Javier; Juárez, Manuela; de la Fuente, Miguel Angel

    2005-11-01

    Ewe milk fat from five different herds was studied to determine the content of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers. Research was carried out by combining gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) and 4,4-dimethyloxazolyne derivatives (DMOX) with silver ion-high performance liquid chromatography (Ag+-HPLC). Reconstructed mass spectral profiles of CLA characteristic ions from DMOX were used to identify positional isomers and Ag+-HPLC to quantify them. Total CLA content varied from 0.57 to 0.97 g/100 g of total fatty acids. FAME and DMOX were separated into a complex mixture of minor isomers and major rumenic acid (9-cis 11-trans C18:2) by GC-MS using a 100-m polar capillary column. Rumenic acid would represent more than 75% of total CLA. 11-trans 13-trans, 11-13 cis/trans plus trans/cis and 7-9 cis/trans plus trans/cis were the main CLA isomers after rumenic acid. Minor amounts of 8-10 and 10-12 C18:2 isomers were also found. Although most of the isomers were present in each herd's milk, differences in content were observed for some CLA species.

  3. 21 CFR 163.155 - Milk chocolate and vegetable fat coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Milk chocolate and vegetable fat coating. 163.155... § 163.155 Milk chocolate and vegetable fat coating. (a) Description. Milk chocolate and vegetable fat... label declaration of ingredients for milk chocolate in § 163.130 or skim milk chocolate in § 163.140...

  4. Animal factors affecting fatty acid composition of cow milk fat: A review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , cow individuality, parity and stage of lactation) on fatty acid (FA) composition of milk fat. Genetic parameters affecting the composition of the FAs in milk are reviewed and the possibilities for altering milk fat composition are discussed.

  5. The overall and fat composition of milk of various species

    OpenAIRE

    Vesna Gantner; Pero Mijić; Mirjana Baban; Zoran Škrtić; Alka Turalija

    2015-01-01

    Milk, an essential source of offspring nourishment, varies in it’s composition and properties significantly across species. In human nutrition, fresh milk and dairy products are valuable sources of protein, fat and energy, and are an important part of daily meals. Most of the world’s milk production (85 %) comes from cows followed by buffaloes, goats, ewes, mares and donkeys. However milk related food allergies in infants may be a reason for health problems and may cause a decrease in milk. T...

  6. MILK FAT FATTY ACIDS IN RELATION TO MILK PRODUCTION AND QUALITY

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    Vladimír Foltys

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Milk fat is from a nutritional point of view of the negative evaluation because of the dominant content of saturated fatty acid with high atherogenic index. Intake of milk fat in the diet is important because of the content of monounsaturated fatty acids, acting favorably against cardiovascular diseases and especially of essential fatty acids, linoleic, alpha linolenic and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, which is found only in meat and milk of ruminants. These are precursors of biologically active substances - hormones and enzymes. The analysis of relations of fatty acids in milk fat to qualitative-production parameters of milk shows that the correlations of fatty acids with lactation stage and qualitative-production parameters of milk are quite weak in dairy cows with stable type of nutrition in form of whole-the-year feeding mixed feed ration in lowland agricultural area. Changes in milk fat composition are caused by the change in the ratio of de novo and depot fatty acids. Relation of fatty acids to the evaluated parameters lies with their metabolic origin and neither acid nor group underlies the specific influence of the studied parameters, by the means of which it would be possible to influence its proportion in milk fat. And so it is not possible to influence some group or a desirable fatty acid, e.g. CLA, without the influence on total milk fat.

  7. Triacylglycerol and melting profiles of milk fat from several species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smiddy, M.A.; Huppertz, T.; Ruth, van S.M.

    2012-01-01

    Gas chromatography and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used to differentiate the fats of cow, goat, sheep, water buffalo, donkey, horse and camel milk (n = 20 for each species). Principal component analysis of triacylglycerol (TAG) composition allowed classification into groups

  8. Fat substitutes in processing of sausages using piramutaba waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fátima Henriques Lourenço, Lúcia; Dos Santos Galvão, Giane Célia; da Conceição Amaral Ribeiro, Suezilde; de Fátima Amaral Ribeiro, Carmelita; Park, Kil Jin

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate fat substitute in processing of sausages prepared with surimi of waste from piramutaba filleting. The formulation ingredients were mixed with the fat substitutes added according to a fractional planning 2(4-1), where the independent variables, manioc starch (Ms), hydrogenated soy fat (F), texturized soybean protein (Tsp) and carrageenan (Cg) were evaluated on the responses of pH, texture (Tx), raw batter stability (RBS) and water holding capacity (WHC) of the sausage. Fat substitutes were evaluated in 11 formulations and the results showed that the greatest effects on the responses were found to Ms, F and Cg, being eliminated from the formulation Tsp. To find the best formulation for processing piramutaba sausage was made a complete factorial planning of 2(3) to evaluate the concentrations of fat substitutes in an enlarged range. The optimum condition found for fat substitutes in the sausages formulation were carrageenan (0.51%), manioc starch (1.45%) and fat (1.2%).

  9. Alfalfa silage ratios and full fat extruded soybeans on milk

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-08-16

    Aug 16, 2010 ... Treatments were arranged in a 2 × 3 factorial with 0 or 5% full fat extruded soybeans meal (dry matter basis) and ... Milk fat and lactose were not affected by replacing corn .... The oven temperature was initially 180°C for 45.

  10. Distribution of Spiked Drugs between Milk Fat, Skim Milk, Whey, Curd, and Milk Protein Fractions: Expansion of Partitioning Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupton, Sara J; Shappell, Nancy W; Shelver, Weilin L; Hakk, Heldur

    2018-01-10

    The distributions of eight drugs (acetaminophen, acetylsalicylic acid/salicylic acid, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, flunixin, phenylbutazone, praziquantel, and thiamphenicol) were determined in milk products (skim milk, milk fat, curd, whey, and whey protein) and used to expand a previous model (from 7 drugs to 15 drugs) for predicting drug distribution. Phenylbutazone and praziquantel were found to distribute with the lipid and curd phases (≥50%). Flunixin distribution was lower but similar in direction (12% in milk fat, 39% in curd). Acetaminophen, ciprofloxacin, and praziquantel preferentially associated with casein proteins, whereas thiamphenicol and clarithromycin associated preferentially to whey proteins. Regression analyses for log [milk fat]/[skim milk] and log [curd]/[whey] had r 2 values of 0.63 and 0.67, respectively, with p of <0.001 for 15 drugs (7 previously tested and 8 currently tested). The robustness of the distribution model was enhanced by doubling the number of drugs originally tested.

  11. Substitution of saturated fat in processed meat products: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ospina-E, J C; Sierra-C, A; Ochoa, O; Pérez-Álvarez, J A; Fernández-López, J

    2012-01-01

    The food industry is increasingly directing its efforts to produce and commercialize functional foods where the reduction or even elimination of saturated fat is an important goal. This situation arises from the concern of many institutions and individuals worldwide on the growth of non-transmissible diseases, particularly cardiovascular ones. This article presents a revision of the most important research carried out on processed meat products production and looks at the topic from two principal points of view: the nutritional and technological function of fat and the way in which it is gradually being replaced in the above-mentioned products. Many ingredients have been used to substitute fat but while the results concerning the nutritional composition of the final products are generally acceptable, the sensory aspects are not completely solved. This review emphasizes the use of plastic fats because they allow the highest fat substitution levels during its process and consumption without affecting the product behavior.

  12. Proteolysis of milk fat globule membrane proteins during in vitro gastric digestion of milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, A; Cui, J; Singh, H

    2011-06-01

    The influence of gastric proteolysis on the physicochemical characteristics of milk fat globules and the proteins of the milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) in raw milk and cream was examined in vitro in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) containing various pepsin concentrations at pH 1.6 for up to 2h. Apparent flocculation of the milk fat globules occurred in raw milk samples incubated in SGF containing pepsin, but no coalescence was observed in either raw milk samples or cream samples. The changes in the particle size of the fat globules as a result of the flocculation were dependent on the pepsin concentration. Correspondingly, the physical characteristics of the fat globules and the composition of the MFGM proteins in raw milk changed during incubation in SGF containing pepsin. The major MFGM proteins were hydrolyzed at different rates by the pepsin in the SGF; butyrophilin was more resistant than xanthine oxidase, PAS 6, or PAS 7. Peptides with various molecular weights, which altered with the time of incubation and the pepsin concentration, were present at the surfaces of the fat globules. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Chromatography methods and chemometrics for determination of milk fat adulterants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trbović, D.; Petronijević, R.; Đorđević, V.

    2017-09-01

    Milk and milk-based products are among the leading food categories according to reported cases of food adulteration. Although many authentication problems exist in all areas of the food industry, adequate control methods are required to evaluate the authenticity of milk and milk products in the dairy industry. Moreover, gas chromatography (GC) analysis of triacylglycerols (TAGs) or fatty acid (FA) profiles of milk fat (MF) in combination with multivariate statistical data processing have been used to detect adulterations of milk and dairy products with foreign fats. The adulteration of milk and butter is a major issue for the dairy industry. The major adulterants of MF are vegetable oils (soybean, sunflower, groundnut, coconut, palm and peanut oil) and animal fat (cow tallow and pork lard). Multivariate analysis enables adulterated MF to be distinguished from authentic MF, while taking into account many analytical factors. Various multivariate analysis methods have been proposed to quantitatively detect levels of adulterant non-MFs, with multiple linear regression (MLR) seemingly the most suitable. There is a need for increased use of chemometric data analyses to detect adulterated MF in foods and for their expanded use in routine quality assurance testing.

  14. Replacement of milk fat by mixed vegetable oils in manufacturing soft cheese treated by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afifi, E.A.; Anwar, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    This investigation aimed to study the possibility of substituting milk fat by using blended vegetable oils in manufacturing soft cheese with low salt content, in addition, lo utilize gamma irradiation to prolong the shelf-life of the new manufactured product. Therefore, one hundred (lOOKg) from fresh buffaloes milk containing 5 % milk fal and 3 % salt were divided into tow parts , the first part was used for manufacturing control soft cheese sample (containing milk fat ), while the second part was skimmed, blended with blended vegetable oils and homogenized. The skim homogenized milk containing 5% mixed vegetable oils used for manufacturing soft cheese ( new product filled ). The obtained soft cheese was subjected to 1, 2 and 3 kGy y-irradiation, and stored at refrigerator temperature. During cold storage, the sensory, microbial and chemical properties of control soft cheese and treated one were evaluated. The obtained results indicated that the replacement of milk fat by mixed vegetable oils in the manufacturing soft cheese had no effect on chemical composition and sensory properties except white color and slight oily flavor which have been noticed in treated filled cheese. In addition, irradiation dose of 3 kGy prolonged the shelf-life of treated filled cheese to 42 days compared to 18 days for control sample and scqueiitly, the new product high percentage of iinsaluraled fatly acid and no cholesterol compared with cheese made from natural milk and can be recommended as a healthy food especially for those who need to low or free cholesterol foods

  15. Milk fat globule membrane and buttermilks: from composition to valorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanderghem, C.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Buttermilk, the by-product from butter manufacture, is low cost and available in large quantities but has been considered for many years as invaluable. However, over the last two decades it has gained considerable attention due to its specific composition in proteins and polar lipids from the milk fat globule membrane (MFGM. The aim of this review is to take stock of current buttermilk knowledge. Firstly, the milk fat globule membrane composition and structure are described. Secondly, buttermilk and its associated products are defined according to the milk fat making process. Structure and mean composition of these products are summarized from recent dairy research data and related to technological properties, especially the emulsifying properties provided by MFGM components. Finally, new applications are presented, leading to promising valorizations of buttermilk and its derivate products.

  16. Milk production and composition in Danish Holstein, Danish Red, and Danish Jersey cows supplemented with saturated or unsaturated fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Larsen, Mette Krogh; Hymøller, Lone

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the experiment was to study the response in milk production and composition of substituting barley with either saturated or unsaturated fat in mixed rations (MR) for dairy cows. The experiment included 35 Danish Holstein (DH), 39 Danish Red (DR), and 31 Danish Jersey (DJ) cows from...

  17. Shelf life of pasteurized microfiltered milk containing 2% fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Z; Barbano, D M

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this research was to produce homogenized milk containing 2% fat with a refrigerated shelf life of 60 to 90 d using minimum high temperature, short time (HTST) pasteurization in combination with other nonthermal processes. Raw skim milk was microfiltered (MF) using a Tetra Alcross MFS-7 pilot plant (Tetra Pak International SA, Pully, Switzerland) equipped with Membralox ceramic membranes (1.4 μm and surface area of 2.31 m(2); Pall Corp., East Hills, NY). The unpasteurized MF skim permeate and each of 3 different cream sources were blended together to achieve three 2% fat milks. Each milk was homogenized (first stage: 17 MPa, second stage: 3 MPa) and HTST pasteurized (73.8°C for 15s). The pasteurized MF skim permeate and the 3 pasteurized homogenized 2% fat milks (made from different fat sources) were stored at 1.7 and 5.7°C and the standard plate count for each milk was determined weekly over 90 d. When the standard plate count was >20,000 cfu/mL, it was considered the end of shelf life for the purpose of this study. Across 4 replicates, a 4.13 log reduction in bacteria was achieved by MF, and a further 0.53 log reduction was achieved by the combination of MF with HTST pasteurization (73.8°C for 15s), resulting in a 4.66 log reduction in bacteria for the combined process. No containers of MF skim milk that was pasteurized after MF exceeded 20,000 cfu/mL bacteria count during 90 d of storage at 5.7°C. The 3 different approaches used to reduce the initial bacteria and spore count of each cream source used to make the 2% fat milks did not produce any shelf-life advantage over using cold separated raw cream when starting with excellent quality raw whole milk (i.e., low bacteria count). The combination of MF with HTST pasteurization (73.8°C for 15s), combined with filling and packaging that was protected from microbial contamination, achieved a refrigerated shelf life of 60 to 90 d at both 1.7 and 5.7°C for 2% fat milks. Copyright © 2013 American

  18. Body measures and milk production, milk fat globules granulometry and milk fatty acid content in Cabannina cattle breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Communod

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study was to achieve scientific information about body measures and milk production of Cabannina cattle, a local breed reared in northern Italy. Fourteen body measures and five morphologic indexes were recorded from 86 heads enrolled in the herd book. Low differences between males and females of the same age-class were shown. Body measures were generally greater than those reported in previous studies, probably due to recent crosses. With reference to milk production, 991 test-day records from 128 lactations of 59 cows were analysed. Average milk daily production was 8 kg/d in 1st lactation to 10.61 in 3rd (P<0.05; the parameters of the Wood equation draw atypical curves with the exception of curves from spring calving cows. Only 74.5% of lactations with an adjusted R2 >0.75 showed a standard curve, with low persistence (7.7%, high value of d at peak (103 d and peak production of 20.18 kg of milk. Moreover, 100 milk samples (40 to 220 d of lactation were submitted to a granulometric survey by laser scatter technique in order to evaluate the dimensions of fat globules; then milk fat was analyzed by gas chromatography, and desaturase indexes were determined. Cabannina cows showed small fat globules with high specific surface. Furthermore mean diameter of milk fat globules decreased during lactation then rose. Milk fat contained high levels of cis-MUFA, and high desaturase indexes. In conclusion, the low size of Cabannina cattle orients for a limited meat production. Instead milk production has a higher economic potential, aimed at cheese production and human nutrition.

  19. Survivability of probiotics in symbiotic low fat buffalo milk yogurt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In present study, symbiotic low fat buffalo milk yogurt prototypes (plain and blueberry) were developed using a commercial starter containing probiotics. Samples were analyzed for physicochemical and microbiological properties, and the survivability of probiotics during 10 weeks of storage. Gross composition results were: ...

  20. Analysis association of milk fat and protein percent in quantitative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-05-14

    May 14, 2014 ... African Journal of Biotechnology. Full Length ... quantitative trait locus (QTLs) on chromosomes 1, 6, 7 and 20 in ... Protein and fat percent as content of milk are high-priority criteria for financial aims and selection of programs ...

  1. Effect of package light transmittance on the vitamin content of milk, part 3: Fortified UHT low-fat milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saffert, A.; Pieper, G.; Jetten, J.

    2009-01-01

    This work is the third and last part of a milk study evaluating the effect of package light transmittance on the vitamin content of milk, in this case on fortified UHT low-fat milk. The milk was stored under light with an intensity of 700 lux in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles with varying

  2. Type of milk typically consumed, and stated preference, but not health consciousness affect revealed preferences for fat in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakke, Alyssa J; Shehan, Catherine V; Hayes, John E

    2016-04-01

    Fat is an important source of both pleasure and calories in the diet. Dairy products are a major source of fat in the diet, and understanding preferences for fat in fluid milk can potentially inform efforts to change fat consumption patterns or optimize consumer products. Here, patterns of preference for fat in milk were determined in the laboratory among 100 free living adults using rejection thresholds. Participants also answered questions relating to their health concerns, the type of fluid milk typically consumed, and their declared preference for type of milk (in terms of fat level). When revealed preferences in blind tasting were stratified by these measures, we observed striking differences in the preferred level of fat in milk. These data indicate a non-trivial number of consumers who prefer low-fat milk to full fat milk, a pattern that would have been overshadowed by the use of a group mean. While it is widely assumed and claimed that increasing fat content in fluid milk universally increases palatability, present data demonstrate this is not true for a segment of the population. These results underscore the need to go look beyond group means to understand individual differences in food preference.

  3. Does fat in milk, butter and and cholesterol differently?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tholstrup, T,; Høy, Carl-Erik; Andersen, L.N.

    2004-01-01

    and 8 hours following intake of the meals. Results: Fasting LDL cholesterol concentration was significantly higher after butter than cheese diet (p 0.037), with a borderline significant difference in total cholesterol (p = 0.054) after the experimental periods of three weeks. Postprandial glucose showed...... a higher response after cheese diet than after milk diet (p = 0.010, diet X time interaction). Conclusions: A different effect of fat in milk and butter could not be confirmed in this study. The moderately lower LDL cholesterol after cheese diet compared to butter diet should be investigated further....

  4. Utilization of nitrogen and energy from diets containing protein and fat derived from either goat milk or cow milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, Laura Sanz; Morales, Eva Ramos; Martínez, Luis Pérez; Extremera, Francisca Gil; Sampelayo, M Remedios Sanz

    2009-11-01

    Consumption of whole milk and related dairy products has decreased considerably as a result of negative aspects associated with the consumption of saturated fats. The main difference between the composition of goat milk and cow milk concerns the composition of the fat, that of goat milk containing a larger proportion of medium-chain triglycerides. The metabolic utilization of these compounds is fundamentally oriented towards their use as sources of energy, and they may even contribute to the synthesis of proteins. This study was carried out, using 40 rats at weaning, in order to determine whether, on the basis of their fat and protein composition, there is any difference between the nutritional utilization of the N and the energy from goat and cow milk. Eight animals were killed on arrival at the laboratory, and the rest were divided into four groups of eight animals and killed at the end of the experiment. Each group was given a different diet: diet 1 contained fat and protein from goat milk; diet 2 had fat from cow milk and protein from goat milk; diet 3 had fat from goat milk and protein from cow milk; diet 4 had fat and protein from cow milk. The animals were allowed to feed ad libitum for 30 d and a balance assay was performed during the final 7 d to determine N and energy utilization. At the same time and by the comparative slaughter method, the protein and fat deposition for each group was established. It was concluded that goat milk protein is more digestible than that of cow milk. Moreover, the metabolic utilization of digestible N was found to be dependent on the sources of both the protein and the fat in the diet; a higher degree of utilization was recorded for the digestible N obtained using diets with protein or fat from goat milk. Consumption of diets with goat milk fat led to a lower level of thermogenesis associated with protein oxidation and a higher one for that associated with fat oxidation, which in turn implied a protein-sparing effect of the

  5. Influence of soybean and corn gluten proteins as substitutes for milk protein in milk replacers on growth, liver and thyroid functions in buffalo calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelaal, A.E.; EL-Ashry, M.A.; Ibrahim, I.I.; Fekry, A.E.; Elwan, K.M.

    1991-01-01

    Twenty suckling buffalo calves (3 weeks old) were allotted to four nutritional groups: Control group, fed 100% skim milk based replacer (Group a); and in the other three groups 50% of milk protein was substituted by american soybean flour (Group B) Egyptian soybean meal (Group C) and corn gluten (Group D). Fat was added to all replacers at the rate of 20% on dry basis. Calf starter and hay were offered ad libitum with the liquid diets from the fourth week. Body weight was recorded weekly. Serum proteins, cholesterol, T 4, T 3, and the enzymic activities of GOT, GPT and alkaline phosphatase were determined at 6, 9 and 12 weeks of age. The use of american soybean and corn gluten proteins resulted, approximately, in the same body weight gain as in skim milk fed group (A), indicating that whole milk can be reserved from human consumption and the calves can be reared on milk replacers containing plant proteins. Substitution of milk protein with soybean and corn gluten protein resulted in a significant increase in each of serum globulins, A/G ratio and cholesterol, significant decrease in serum total proteins and GPT activity, and no change in growth rate and thyroid function

  6. Effect of gamma irradiation on the unsaponifiable matter components of cows, buffaloes and goats milk fat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rady, A.H.

    1986-01-01

    Fresh cow's, buffalo's and goat's milk were treated with gamma-irradiation from a cobalt-60 source at safe doses (250, 500 and 750 krad) in addition to raw milk of the same types. Results indicate that total hydrocarbon was much lower in unsaponifiable matter (unsap. m) of goat's raw milk fat than that of cow's and buffalo's. Unsap. m of cow's milk fat consisted of ten hydrocarbon compounds, while it consisted of eight hydrocarbon compounds in both buffaloes and goats ones. Moreover, the unsap. m of goat's milk had the highest total sterols followed by buffalo's and cow's, respectively. Cholesterol represents the predominant sterol compound of the unsap. m in all kinds of raw milk fat. The application of ascendent doses of gamma irradiation increased total hydrocarbons and decreased total sterols (particularly cholesterol compounds) of unsap. m of both buffalo's and goat's milk fats, while the reverse trend occurred with cow's milk fat

  7. Effect of Safflower Oil on Concentration of Conjugated Linoleic Acid of Kefir Prepared by Low-fat Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsad-Naeimi, Alireza; Imani, Saeid; Arefhosseini, Seyed R; Alizadeh, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a special fatty acid in dairy products with unique antioxidant and anti-cancerous effects. Kefir, a milk product, comprises normalized homogenized cow's milk, the fructose and lactulose syrup as well as a symbiotic starter which has improved probiotic characteristics. The study was aimed to discuss patents and to examine the effect of different safflower oil concentrations on CLA content of the kefir drink prepared by low-fat milk. Safflower oil was added at 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5% (V/V) to low-fat cow's milk and six formulations of kefir samples were prepared. The CLA content of the kefir products was measured at pH=6.0 and pH=6.8 by gas chromatography. Acid and bile tolerance of bacterial microenvironment in the products were also determined. Substitution of natural fat content of milk with safflower oil resulted in proportional increase in the CLA contents of kefir in a dose dependent manner. The highest concentration of CLA was found under 0.5% (V/V) of safflower oil at pH 6.0 and temperature of 37 °C. Adding the Safflower oil into milk used for kefir production, increased CLA content from 0.123 (g/100 g) in pure safflower free samples to 0.322 (g/100 g) in samples with 0.5% (V/V) of safflower oil. The current study revealed that substitution of safflower oil with natural fat of cow's milk may help the production of kefir samples with remarkable increase in CLA content of final product.

  8. DSC of Milk Fats from Various Animals with High Levels of Medium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    fatty acid on milk fat crystallization, than is possible with dietary changes, other species as well as non-ruminant species may be studied. Apart from the commercially exploited mammals, we were only able to locate work on crystallization of camel. (Camelus dromedarius) milk fat.20 It was found that the camel milk.

  9. Higher milk fat content is associated with higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderhout, Shelley M; Birken, Catherine S; Parkin, Patricia C; Lebovic, Gerald; Chen, Yang; O'Connor, Deborah L; Maguire, Jonathon L

    2016-05-01

    Current guidelines for cow's milk consumption in children older than age 2 years suggest 1% or 2% milk to reduce the risk of obesity. Given that milk is the main dietary source of vitamin D for North American children and that vitamin D is fat soluble, we hypothesized 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration to be positively associated with the fat content of milk. The objective was to determine the relationship between the fat content of milk consumed and the serum 25(OH)D concentration; our secondary objective was to explore the role that the volume of milk consumed played in this relationship. We completed a cross-sectional study of children aged 12-72 months in the TARGetKids! research network. Multivariable linear regression was used to test the association between milk fat content and child 25(OH)D, adjusted for clinically relevant covariates. The interaction between volume of milk and fat content was examined. Two thousand eight hundred fifty-seven children were included in the analysis. The fat content of milk was positively associated with 25(OH)D (p = 0.03), and the interaction between the volume of milk consumed and the milk fat content was statistically significant (p = 0.005). Children who drank 1% milk needed 2.46 cups (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.38-2.54) of milk to have a 25(OH)D concentration similar to that of children who drank 1 cup of homogenized milk (3.25% fat). Children who consumed 1% milk had 2.05 (95% CI 1.73-2.42) times higher odds of having a 25(OH)D concentration <50 nmol/L compared with children who consumed homogenized milk. In conclusion, recommendations for children to drink lower-fat milk (1% or 2%) may compromise serum 25(OH)D levels and may require study to ensure optimal childhood health.

  10. Potential Population-Level Nutritional Impact of Replacing Whole and Reduced-Fat Milk With Low-Fat and Skim Milk Among US Children Aged 2–19 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Colin D.; Drewnowski, Adam; Monsivais, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Objective Dietary guidance emphasizes plain low-fat and skim milk over whole, reduced-fat, and flavored milk (milk eligible for replacement [MER]). The objective of this study was to evaluate the population-level impact of such a change on energy, macronutrient and nutrient intakes, and diet cost. Design Cross-sectional modeling study. Setting Data from the 2001–2002 and 2003–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Participants A total of 8,112 children aged 2–19 years. Main Outcome Measures Energy, macronutrient, and micronutrient intake before and after replacement of MER with low-fat or skim milk. Analysis Survey-weighted linear regression models. Results Milk eligible for replacement accounted for 46% of dairy servings. Among MER consumers, replacement with skim or low-fat milk would lead to a projected reduction in energy of 113 (95% confidence interval [CI], 107–119) and 77 (95% CI, 73–82) kcal/d and percent energy from saturated fat by an absolute value of 2.5% of total energy (95% CI, 2.4–2.6) and 1.4% (95% CI, 1.3–1.5), respectively. Replacement of MER does not change diet costs or calcium and potassium intake. Conclusions Substitution of MER has the potential to reduce energy and total and saturated fat intake with no impact on diet costs or micronutrient density. The feasibility of such replacement has not been examined and there may be negative consequences if replacement is done with non-nutrient–rich beverages. PMID:25528079

  11. Potential population-level nutritional impact of replacing whole and reduced-fat milk with low-fat and skim milk among US children aged 2-19 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Colin D; Drewnowski, Adam; Monsivais, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Dietary guidance emphasizes plain low-fat and skim milk over whole, reduced-fat, and flavored milk (milk eligible for replacement [MER]). The objective of this study was to evaluate the population-level impact of such a change on energy, macronutrient and nutrient intakes, and diet cost. Cross-sectional modeling study. Data from the 2001-2002 and 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A total of 8,112 children aged 2-19 years. Energy, macronutrient, and micronutrient intake before and after replacement of MER with low-fat or skim milk. Survey-weighted linear regression models. Milk eligible for replacement accounted for 46% of dairy servings. Among MER consumers, replacement with skim or low-fat milk would lead to a projected reduction in energy of 113 (95% confidence interval [CI], 107-119) and 77 (95% CI, 73-82) kcal/d and percent energy from saturated fat by an absolute value of 2.5% of total energy (95% CI, 2.4-2.6) and 1.4% (95% CI, 1.3-1.5), respectively. Replacement of MER does not change diet costs or calcium and potassium intake. Substitution of MER has the potential to reduce energy and total and saturated fat intake with no impact on diet costs or micronutrient density. The feasibility of such replacement has not been examined and there may be negative consequences if replacement is done with non-nutrient-rich beverages. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Low-fat Milk Consumption among Children and Adolescents in the United States, 2007-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the National Technical Information Service NCHS Low-fat Milk Consumption Among Children and Adolescents in the United ... Survey How frequently do children and adolescents drink milk? During the preceding 30 days, girls reported daily ...

  13. Gamma-ray decontamination of a milk substitute for calf feeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasco, M. I.; Roberti, A.; Horak, Celina I.; Narvaiz, Patricia; Kairiyama, Eulogia

    1999-01-01

    A contaminated milk substitute for calf feeding has been irradiated to reduce the content of bacteria and fungi. The results of microbiological, chemical and physico-chemical studies demonstrate that an irradiation doses of 7 kGy reduce to an acceptable level the content of contaminants without damaging the milk substitute. (author)

  14. Thermal properties of milk fat, xanthine oxidase, caseins and whey proteins in pulsed electric field-treated bovine whole milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pankaj; Oey, Indrawati; Everett, David W

    2016-09-15

    Thermodynamics of milk components (milk fat, xanthine oxidase, caseins and whey proteins) in pulsed electric field (PEF)-treated milk were compared with thermally treated milk (63 °C for 30 min and 73 °C for 15s). PEF treatments were applied at 20 or 26 kV cm(-1) for 34 μs with or without pre-heating of milk (55 °C for 24s), using bipolar square wave pulses in a continuous mode of operation. PEF treatments did not affect the final temperatures of fat melting (Tmelting) or xanthine oxidase denaturation (Tdenaturation), whereas thermal treatments increased both the Tmelting of milk fat and the Tdenaturation for xanthine oxidase by 2-3 °C. Xanthine oxidase denaturation was ∼13% less after PEF treatments compared with the thermal treatments. The enthalpy change (ΔH of denaturation) of whey proteins decreased in the treated-milk, and denaturation increased with the treatment intensity. New endothermic peaks in the calorimetric thermograms of treated milk revealed the formation of complexes due to interactions between MFGM (milk fat globule membrane) proteins and skim milk proteins. Evidence for the adsorption of complexes onto the MFGM surface was obtained from the increase in surface hydrophobicity of proteins, revealing the presence of unfolded hydrophobic regions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Milk fat globules: fatty acid composition, size and in vivo regulation of fat liquidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmen, H; Patton, S

    1988-07-01

    Populations of large and small milk fat globules were isolated and analyzed to determine differences in fatty acid composition. Globule samples were obtained by centrifugation from milks of a herd and of individual animals produced under both pasture and barn feeding. Triacylglycerols of total globule lipids were prepared by thin layer chromatography and analyzed for fatty acid composition by gas chromatography. Using content of the acids in large globules as 100%, small globules contained fewer short-chain acids, -5.9%, less stearic acid, -22.7%, and more oleic acids, +4.6%, mean values for five trials. These differences are consistent with alternative use of short-chain acids or oleic acid converted from stearic acid to maintain liquidity at body temperature of milk fat globules and their precursors, intracellular lipid droplets. Stearyl-CoA desaturase (EC 1.14.99.5), which maintains fluidity of cellular endoplasmic reticulum membrane, is suggested to play a key role in regulating globule fat liquidity. Possible origins of differences between individual globules in fatty acid composition of their triacylglycerols are discussed.

  16. Free fat and physical structure of spray-dried whole milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buma, T.J.

    1971-01-01

    Many workers have observed that under standardized conditions only part of the fat present in spray-dried milk can be extracted by fat solvents. This fat is usually called 'free fat' and has been related to other powder properties which are of practical importance.

    Contradictory results

  17. Influence of animal fat substitution by vegetal fat on Mortadella-type products formulated with different hydrocolloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick Saldaña

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Meat has played a crucial role in human evolution and is an important component of a healthy and well-balanced diet on account of its nutritional properties, its high biological value as a source of protein, and the vitamins and minerals it supplies. We studied the effects of animal fat reduction and substitution by hydrogenated vegetal fat, sodium alginate and guar gum. Fatty acid composition, lipid oxidation, color and instrumental texture as well as the sensorial difference between low, substituted-fat and the traditional formulations for mortadella-type products were analyzed. Both substitution and reduction of animal fat decreased the saturated fatty acids percentage from 40% down to 31%. A texture profile analysis showed differences between the formulations. Furthermore, lipid oxidation values were not significant for treatments as regards the type and quantity of fat used while the use of sodium alginate and guar gum reduced the amounts of liquid released after cooking. Animal fat substitution does cause, however, a difference in overall sensorial perception compared with non-substituted products. The results confirm the viability of substituting vegetal fat for animal fat.

  18. Major advances in concentrated and dry milk products, cheese, and milk fat-based spreads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, D R; Baer, R J; Hassan, A N; Dave, R

    2006-04-01

    Advances in dairy foods and dairy foods processing since 1981 have influenced consumers and processors of dairy products. Consumer benefits include dairy products with enhanced nutrition and product functionality for specific applications. Processors convert raw milk to finished product with improved efficiencies and have developed processing technologies to improve traditional products and to introduce new products for expanding the dairy foods market. Membrane processing evolved from a laboratory technique to a major industrial process for milk and whey processing. Ultra-filtration and reverse osmosis have been used extensively in fractionation of milk and whey components. Advances in cheese manufacturing methods have included mechanization of the making process. Membrane processing has allowed uniform composition of the cheese milk and starter cultures have become more predictable. Cheese vats have become larger and enclosed as well as computer controlled. Researchers have learned to control many of the functional properties of cheese by understanding the role of fat and calcium distribution, as bound or unbound, in the cheese matrix. Processed cheese (cheese, foods, spreads, and products) maintain their importance in the industry as many product types can be produced to meet market needs and provide stable products for an extended shelf life. Cheese delivers concentrated nutrients of milk and bio-active peptides to consumers. The technologies for the production of concentrated and dried milk and whey products have not changed greatly in the last 25 yr. The size and efficiencies of the equipment have increased. Use of reverse osmosis in place of vacuum condensing has been proposed. Modifying the fatty acid composition of milkfat to alter the nutritional and functional properties of dairy spread has been a focus of research in the last 2 decades. Conjugated linoleic acid, which can be increased in milkfat by alteration of the cow's diet, has been reported to have

  19. Effects of induced subacute ruminal acidosis on milk fat content and milk fatty acid profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enjalbert, F; Videau, Y; Nicot, M C; Troegeler-Meynadier, A

    2008-06-01

    Two lactating dairy cows fitted with a rumen cannula received successively diets containing 0%, 20%, 34% and again 0% of wheat on a dry matter basis. After 5, 10 and 11 days, ruminal pH was measured between 8:00 and 16:00 hours, and milk was analysed for fat content and fatty acid profile. Diets with 20% and 34% wheat induced a marginal and a severe subacute ruminal acidosis respectively. After 11 days, diets with wheat strongly reduced the milk yield and milk fat content, increased the proportions of C8:0 to C13:0 even- or odd-chain fatty acids, C18:2 n-6 and C18:3 n-3 fatty acids but decreased the proportions of C18:0 and cis-9 C18:1 fatty acids. Wheat also increased the proportions of trans-5 to trans-10 C18:1, the latter exhibiting a 10-fold increase with 34% of wheat compared with value during the initial 0% wheat period. There was also an increase of trans-10, cis-12 C18:2 fatty acid and a decrease of trans-11 to trans-16 C18:1 fatty acids. The evolution during adaptation or after return to a 0% wheat diet was rapid for pH but much slower for the fatty acid profile. The mean ruminal pH was closely related to milk fat content, the proportion of odd-chain fatty acids (linear relationship) and the ratio of trans-10 C18:1/trans-11 C18:1 (nonlinear relationship). Such changes in fatty acid profile suggested a possible use for non-invasive diagnosis of subacute ruminal acidosis.

  20. Full fat milk consumption protects against severe childhood obesity in Latinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy L. Beck

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of non- or low-fat dairy products is recommended as a strategy to lower the risk of childhood obesity. However, recent evidence suggests that consumption of whole fat dairy products may, in fact, be protective against obesity. Our objective was to determine the association between milk fat consumption and severe obesity among three-year-old Latino children, a population with a disproportionate burden of obesity and severe obesity. 24-hour-dietary recalls were conducted to determine child intake in San Francisco based cohort recruited in 2006–7. Mother-child dyads were weighed and measured. The 24-hour recall data was analyzed to determine participants' consumption of whole milk, 2% milk, and 1% milk. The milk consumption data was used to calculate grams of milk fat consumed. The cross-sectional association between milk fat intake and severe obesity (BMI ≥ 99th percentile was determined using multivariable logistic regression. Data were available for 145 children, of whom 17% were severely obese. Severely obese children had a lower mean intake of milk fat (5.3 g vs. 8.9 g and fewer drank any milk (79% versus 95% for not severely obese children (p < 0.01. Among the potential confounders assessed, maternal BMI and maternal marital status were associated with severe obesity and were included in a multivariate model. In the multivariate model, higher milk fat consumption was associated with lower odds of severe obesity (OR 0.88 CI 0.80–0.97. Higher milk fat consumption is associated with lower odds of severe obesity among Latino preschoolers. These results call into question recommendations that promote consumption of lower fat milk. Keywords: Preschoolers, Dairy products, Latinos, Nutrition policy, Health disparities

  1. Studies on acetate, propionate and glucose utilization for milk fat and other milk components in buffalo and cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahal, C.K.; Varma, A.; Singh, U.B.; Ranjhan, S.K.

    1974-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on two lactating buffaloes and two lactating cows, to study the differences in the utilization of 14 C-acetate, 14 C-propionate and 3 H-glucose for the synthesis of milk fat, milk casein and milk lactalbumin. The animals were maintained on identical condition of feed. Single infusion technique was used throughout the course of investigation. Samples of milk were collected at different time intervals between 0 to 48 h and the radioactivity was determined in different milk fractions after separation. (author)

  2. Studies on acetate, propionate and glucose utilization for milk fat and other milk components in buffalo and cows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahal, C K; Varma, A; Singh, U B; Ranjhan, S K [Indian Veterinary Research Inst., Izatnagar. Div. of Animal Nutrition

    1974-12-01

    Experiments were conducted on two lactating buffaloes and two lactating cows, to study the differences in the utilization of /sup 14/C-acetate, /sup 14/C-propionate and /sup 3/H-glucose for the synthesis of milk fat, milk casein and milk lactalbumin. The animals were maintained on identical condition of feed. Single infusion technique was used throughout the course of investigation. Samples of milk were collected at different time intervals between 0 to 48 h and the radioactivity was determined in different milk fractions after separation.

  3. Triacylglycerol Profile of Summer and Winter Bovine Milk Fat and the Feasibility of Triacylglycerol Fragmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tzompa-Sosa, Daylan A.; Meurs, Pim P.; Valenberg, van Hein J.F.

    2018-01-01

    Bovine milk fat (MF) is considered to be one of the most complex fats, as it can consist of 400 FA which are non-randomly esterified into the TAG molecule. This study aims to determine specific differences on MF TAG profile between summer and winter cow's milk, and to study the feasibility of TAG

  4. Relationship between fat globule size and chemical and fatty acid composition of cow's milk in mid lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosima Scolozzi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The milk in 57 Italian Fresian cows in mid lactation was analysed in order to define the relationship between some qualitative milk parameters and the size of milk fat globules. The study focused on the morphometric evaluation of milk fat globules, chemical parameteres and fatty acid composition of the milk. The results show that a prevalence of milk fat globules with a diameter 6 um was associated (P<0.01 with greater milk yield nad a higher percentage of lactose, non-fat dry matter and ash............

  5. Relationship between fat globule size and chemical and fatty acid composition of cow's milk in mid lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Martini

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The milk in 57 Italian Fresian cows in mid lactation was analysed in order to define the relationship between some qualitative milk parameters and the size of milk fat globules. The study focused on the morphometric evaluation of milk fat globules, chemical parameteres and fatty acid composition of the milk. The results show that a prevalence of milk fat globules with a diameter 6 um was associated (P<0.01 with greater milk yield nad a higher percentage of lactose, non-fat dry matter and ash............

  6. Olive oil increases the magnitude of postprandial chylomicron remnants compared to milk fat and safflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashi, K; Ishikawa, T; Shige, H; Tomiyasu, K; Yoshida, H; Ito, T; Nakajima, K; Yonemura, A; Sawada, S; Nakamura, H

    1997-10-01

    The acute effects of olive oil, milk fat and safflower oil on postprandial lipemia and remnant lipoprotein metabolism were investigated. Eight Healthy male volunteers randomly underwent three types of oral fat-vitamin A loading tests. The test drink was a mixture of retinyl palmitate (RP)(50,000 IU of aqueous vitamin A/m2 body surface area) and one of the three types of oils (40 g of fat/m2 body surface area): olive oil (70.7% oleic acid of total fatty acids); milk fat (69.3% saturated fatty acid); safflower oil (74.2% linoleic acid). Olive oil significantly increased plasma triacylglycerol and RP concentrations 4 hours after fat loading, as compared to other fats. Increases of remnant like particle concentrations were higher after olive oil than after the other two fats. These results show that olive oil increases the magnitude of postprandial chylomicrons and chylomicron remnants compared to milk fat and safflower oil.

  7. Effects of ratio of milk fat to soy bean oil and whipping time on qualities of milk ice cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukrit Thaiudom

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Qualities of ice cream are based on air cells, ice crystals and fat particles, which are the important parts to build up a good structure of ice cream. Ice cream whipping time also affects the ice cream qualities.This study focused on effects of ratio of milk fat to soy bean oil, whipping time, and their interaction on ice cream mix viscosity, overrun, air cell size, fat destabilization, hardness, melting rate, and shape retention ofice cream. Ice creams with ratio of milk fat to soy bean oil at 100:0, 50:50, 0:100 and whipping time at 15 and 20 min were produced and determined for their qualities. The results showed that ratio of milk fat to soybean oil affected all qualities of ice cream, while duration of whipping time influenced the overrun and air cell size. The interaction of ratio of milk fat to soy bean oil and whipping time affected only overrun. Ice creammix with ratio of milk fat to soy bean oil 100:0 showed the highest apparent viscosity and hardness and the biggest air cell size. Whipping time of ice cream for 20 min showed a bigger size of air cells than the whippingtime for 15 min (p < 0.05. These results can be applied to the manufacture of modified ice cream.

  8. Function of SREBP1 in the Milk Fat Synthesis of Dairy Cow Mammary Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Li

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs belong to a family of nuclear transcription factors. The question of which is the most important positive regulator in milk fat synthesis in dairy cow mammary epithelial cells (DCMECs between SREBPs or other nuclear transcription factors, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ, remains a controversial one. Recent studies have found that mTORC1 (the mammalian target of rapamycin C1 regulates SREBP1 to promote fat synthesis. Thus far, however, the interaction between the SREBP1 and mTOR (the mammalian target of rapamycin pathways in the regulation of milk fat synthesis remains poorly understood. This study aimed to identify the function of SREBP1 in milk fat synthesis and to characterize the relationship between SREBP1 and mTOR in DCMECs. The effects of SREBP1 overexpression and gene silencing on milk fat synthesis and the effects of stearic acid and serum on SREBP1 expression in the upregulation of milk fat synthesis were investigated in DCMECs using immunostaining, Western blotting, real-time quantitative PCR, lipid droplet staining, and detection kits for triglyceride content. SREBP1 was found to be a positive regulator of milk fat synthesis and was shown to be regulated by stearic acid and serum. These findings indicate that SREBP1 is the key positive regulator in milk fat synthesis.

  9. Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) for the determination of the milk fat fatty acid profile of goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-Sánchez, N; Martínez-Marín, A L; Polvillo, O; Fernández-Cabanás, V M; Carrizosa, J; Urrutia, B; Serradilla, J M

    2016-01-01

    Milk fatty acid (FA) composition is important for the goat dairy industry because of its influence on cheese properties and human health. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the feasibility of NIRS reflectance (oven-dried milk using the DESIR method) and transflectance (liquid milk) analysis to predict milk FA profile and groups of fats in milk samples from individual goats. NIRS analysis of milk samples allowed to estimate FA contents and their ratios and indexes in fat with high precision and accuracy. In general, transflectance analysis gave better or similar results than reflectance mode. Interestingly, NIRS analysis allowed direct prediction of the Atherogenicity and Thrombogenicity indexes, which are useful for the interpretation of the nutritional value of goat milk. Therefore, the calibrations obtained in the present work confirm the viability of NIRS as a fast, reliable and effective analytical method to provide nutritional information of milk samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Gravity separation of fat, somatic cells, and bacteria in raw and pasteurized milks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Z; Melilli, C; Barbano, D M

    2013-04-01

    The objective of experiment 1 was to determine if the extent of gravity separation of milk fat, bacteria, and somatic cells is influenced by the time and temperature of gravity separation or the level of contaminating bacteria present in the raw milk. The objective of experiment 2 was to determine if different temperatures of milk heat treatment affected the gravity separation of milk fat, bacteria, and somatic cells. In raw milk, fat, bacteria, and somatic cells rose to the top of columns during gravity separation. About 50 to 80% of the fat and bacteria were present in the top 8% of the milk after gravity separation of raw milk. Gravity separation for 7h at 12°C or for 22h at 4°C produced equivalent separation of fat, bacteria, and somatic cells. The completeness of gravity separation of fat was influenced by the level of bacteria in the milk before separation. Milk with a high bacterial count had less (about 50 to 55%) gravity separation of fat than milk with low bacteria count (about 80%) in 22h at 4°C. Gravity separation caused fat, bacteria, and somatic cells to rise to the top of columns for raw whole milk and high temperature, short-time pasteurized (72.6°C, 25s) whole milk. Pasteurization at ≥76.9°C for 25s prevented all 3 components from rising, possibly due to denaturation of native bovine immunoglobulins that normally associate with fat, bacteria, and somatic cells during gravity separation. Gravity separation can be used to produce reduced-fat milk with decreased bacterial and somatic cell counts, and may be a critical factor in the history of safe and unique traditional Italian hard cheeses produced from gravity-separated raw milk. A better understanding of the mechanism of this natural process could lead to the development of new nonthermal thermal technology (that does not involve heating the milk to high temperatures) to remove bacteria and spores from milk or other liquids. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by

  11. The effect of milk processing on the microstructure of the milk fat globule and rennet induced gel observed using confocal laser scanning microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, L; Dagastine, R R; Kentish, S E; Gras, S L

    2010-04-01

    Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) was successfully used to observe the effect of milk processing on the size and the morphology of the milk fat globule in raw milk, raw ultrafiltered milk, and standardized and pasteurized milk prepared for cheese manufacture (cheese-milk) and commercial pasteurized and homogenized milk. Fat globule size distributions for the milk preparations were analyzed using both image analysis and light scattering and both measurements produced similar data trends. Changes to the native milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) were tracked using a MFGM specific fluorescent stain that allowed MFGM proteins and adsorbed proteins to be differentiated on the fat globule surface. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis confirmed the identity of native MFGM proteins isolated from the surface of fat globules within raw, UF retentate, and cheese-milk preparations, whereas only casein was detected on the surface of fat globules in homogenized milk. The microstructure, porosity, and gel strength of the rennet induced gel made from raw milk and cheese-milk was also found to be comparable and significantly different to that made from homogenized milk. Our results highlight the potential use of CLSM as a tool to observe the structural details of the fat globule and associated membrane close to its native environment.

  12. Effect of substituting barley with glycerol as energy feed on feed intake, milk production and milk quality in dairy cows in mid or late lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaillard, Charlotte; Sørensen, Martin Tang; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2018-01-01

    The experiment reported in this research paper aimed to determine the level at which glycerol can substitute barley in grass-clover silage-based ration for dairy cows in mid or late lactation, without affecting milk production, milk composition, milk free fatty acid (FFA) profile, and milk sensor...

  13. Effects of fat supplementations on milk production and composition, ruminal and plasma parameters of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Bailoni

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects on milk yield and quality caused by the same amount (325 g/d/cow of lipids provided by 3 different fat sources (hydrogenate palm fat, HF; calcium salt palm fat, CaSF; full-fat toasted soybean, TS, top dressed to a common total mixed ration, were investigated. Supplementations did not affect feed intake and milk yield, but markedly changed the acidic profile of milk fat. CaSF and TS significantly increased the proportions of unsaturated fatty acids of milk fat with respect to control and to HF. The 3 fat sources did not affect the concentrations of ammonia and VFA of rumen fluid. TS only slightly increased (P<0.10 plasma urea content because of a higher dietary protein supply, with respect to the other treatments. The use of a low amount of toasted and cracked full fat soybean seem to be interesting to increase the energy concentration of diets in replacement to commercial fat products and it can be use to modify the milk fat quality increasing the fraction with benefit effects on human health.

  14. Evaluation of energy status of dairy cows using milk fat, protein and urea concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirovski Danijela

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Energy status of dairy cows may be estimated using results for concentrations of fat, protein and urea (MUN in milk samples obtained from bulk tank or individual cows. Using individual cow milk samples is recommended on dairy farms in our geografical region due to the unhomogenity of cows in the herds in respect to their genetic potential for milk production. Depression of milk fat occurs as a consequence of heat stress, underfeeding of peripartal cows, overfeeding concentrate with reduced ration fiber levels or overfeeding with dietary fat. High milk fat content is usually combined with severe negative energy balance. Nutrition and feeding practices have great impact on milk protein level. A deficiency of crude protein in the ration may depress protein in milk. Feeding excessive dietary protein does not significantly increase milk protein. MUN analyses point out potential problems in feeding program on dairy farm. High MUN values may reflect excessive dietary crude protein and/or low rumen degradable non fiber carbohydrates intake. Also, MUN levels is impacted by heat stress since its value is increased during the summer season. Low MUNs indicate a possible dietary protein deficiency. Additionally, low MUNs concentration may indicate excess in dietary nonstructural carbohydrates. On the bases on the interrelationships between protein and urea concentrations, as well as protein and fat concentrations in individual milk sample, estimation of energy balance of dairy cows may be done more accurately.

  15. Effect of substituting fresh-cut perennial ryegrass with fresh-cut white clover on bovine milk fatty acid profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stergiadis, Sokratis; Hynes, Deborah N; Thomson, Anna L; Kliem, Kirsty E; Berlitz, Carolina Gb; Günal, Mevlüt; Yan, Tianhai

    2018-03-06

    Including forage legumes in dairy systems can help address increasing environmental/economic concerns about perennial ryegrass monoculture pastures. This work investigated the effect of substituting fresh-cut grass with increasing quantities of fresh-cut white clover (WC) on milk fatty acid (FA) profile and transfer efficiency of dietary linoleic (LA) and α-linolenic (ALNA) acids to milk fat. Three groups of three crossbred dairy cows were used in a 3 × 3 crossover design. Dietary treatments were 0 g kg -1 WC + 600 g kg -1 grass, 200 g kg -1 WC + 400 g kg -1 grass, and 400 g kg -1 WC + 200 g kg -1 grass. All treatments were supplemented with 400 g kg -1 concentrates on a dry matter basis. Cows had a 19-day adaptation period to the experimental diet before a 6-day measurement period in individual tie stalls. Increasing dietary WC did not affect dry matter intake, milk yield or milk concentrations of fat, protein or lactose. Milk polyunsaturated FA concentrations (total n-3, total n-6, LA and ALNA) and transfer efficiency of LA and ALNA were increased with increasing dietary WC supply. Inclusion of WC in pastures may increase concentrations of nutritionally beneficial FA, without influencing milk yield and basic composition, but any implications on human health cannot be drawn. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture published by JohnWiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture published by JohnWiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Separation of milk fat globules via microfiltration: Effect of diafiltration media and opportunities for stream valorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jukkola, A; Partanen, R; Rojas, O J; Heino, A

    2016-11-01

    Milk fat globule membranes (MFGM) sourced in buttermilk have gained recent interest given their nutritional value and functional properties. However, production of isolated MFGM has been challenging given their size similarity with casein micelles, which limits attempts toward fractionation by size exclusion techniques. Therefore, the hypothesis underpinning this study is that the removal of proteins from cream before butter-making facilitates MFGM isolation. As such, milk fat globules were separated from raw whole milk via microfiltration (1.4-µm pore diameter and 0.005-m 2 filtration surface area) by using 3 diafiltration media; namely, skim milk ultrafiltration permeate, saline, and water. Their effects on the stability of the milk fat globules and protein permeation was elucidated. Whereas a substantial reduction in protein concentration was achieved with all diafiltration media (~90% reduction), water and saline produced negligible membrane fouling with better filtration performance. Moreover, diafiltration with skim milk ultrafiltration permeate exhibited reduced permeate flux. Colloidal stability of the resultant milk decreased with all diafiltration solutions due to changing composition and reduced apparent viscosity. Overall, microfiltration was found to be an efficient method for separation of milk fat globules from whole milk, leading to increased MFGM fragment concentration in buttermilk dry matter, thus making it more suitable for industrial utilization. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Ultrasonication, lyophilization, freezing and storage effects on fat loss during mechanical infusion of expressed human milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhar, J.; Davidson, A.G.F.; Martinez, F.E.; Barr, S.; Desai, I.D.; Nakai, S.

    1995-01-01

    Ultrasonic homogenization was extended to situations where expressed human milk needs to be stored before being administered. We investigated whether the effect of ultrasonication would persist during storage in the frozen or lyophilized form. Recovery of fat was higher in ultrasonicated and frozen milk (stored for both 1 and 4 mo), than in milk stored following ultrasonication and lyophilization. The low tat recovery from stored lyophilized milk was increased by ultrasonicating the milk after storage and reconstitution (instead of prior to storage). Protein recovery was virtually complete with both methods

  18. Palm kernel expeller increases milk fat content when fed to grazing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    van Wyngaard, Josef

    2017-03-13

    Mar 13, 2017 ... blocks to one of four treatment concentrates: PKE0, PKE10, PKE20, and PKE30, .... Milk fat, protein, lactose, and milk urea nitrogen (MUN) content were ... added heat-stable alpha-amylase (protein enzyme EC 3.2.1.1) (1 ...

  19. Infrared analyzers for breast milk analysis: fat levels can influence the accuracy of protein measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Celia; Fusch, Gerhard; Bahonjic, Aldin; Rochow, Niels; Fusch, Christoph

    2017-10-26

    Currently, there is a growing interest in lacto-engineering in the neonatal intensive care unit, using infrared milk analyzers to rapidly measure the macronutrient content in breast milk before processing and feeding it to preterm infants. However, there is an overlap in the spectral information of different macronutrients, so they can potentially impact the robustness of the measurement. In this study, we investigate whether the measurement of protein is dependent on the levels of fat present while using an infrared milk analyzer. Breast milk samples (n=25) were measured for fat and protein content before and after being completely defatted by centrifugation, using chemical reference methods and near-infrared milk analyzer (Unity SpectraStar) with two different calibration algorithms provided by the manufacturer (released 2009 and 2015). While the protein content remained unchanged, as measured by elemental analysis, measurements by infrared milk analyzer show a difference in protein measurements dependent on fat content; high fat content can lead to falsely high protein content. This difference is less pronounced when measured using the more recent calibration algorithm. Milk analyzer users must be cautious of their devices' measurements, especially if they are changing the matrix of breast milk using more advanced lacto-engineering.

  20. Effect of substituting barley with glycerol as energy feed on feed intake, milk production and milk quality in dairy cows in mid or late lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaillard, Charlotte; Sørensen, Martin Tang; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2018-01-01

    intake, and milking frequency were recorded daily, while milk composition and milk FA daily were analyzed weekly. Milk sensory analysis was performed on fresh and 7 d stored samples for the four diets. The PMR intake increased almost 1 kg from Gly0 to Gly12, and decreased by approximately 1 kg from Gly12......The experiment reported in this research paper aimed to determine the level at which glycerol can substitute barley in grass-clover silage-based ration for dairy cows in mid or late lactation, without affecting milk production, milk composition, milk free fatty acid (FFA) profile, and milk sensory...... quality. Forty Holstein cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square experimental design. Crude glycerol substituted barley in the partially mixed ration (PMR) of the cows at inclusion levels of 0% (Gly0), 6% (Gly6), 12% (Gly12), and 18% (Gly18) of dietary dry matter (DM). Individual milk production, feed...

  1. Violations of the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes: Indonesia context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayana, Irma; Februhartanty, Judhiastuty; Parady, Vida A

    2017-01-01

    To measure compliance with the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes ('the Code') in Indonesia. The study was a cross-sectional survey using the Interagency Group on Breastfeeding Monitoring protocol. Public and private health facilities in six provinces on Java island in Indonesia. A total of 874 women (382 pregnant women and 492 breast-feeding mothers of infants below 6 months) and seventy-seven health workers were recruited from eighteen participating health facilities. The study also analysed a total of forty-four labels of breast-milk substitute products, twenty-seven television commercials for growing-up milk (for children >12 months) of nine brands and thirty-four print advertisements of fourteen brands. The study found that 20 % of the women had received advice and information on the use of breast-milk substitutes and 72 % had seen promotional materials for breast-milk substitutes. About 15 % reported receiving free samples and 16 % received gifts. Nearly a quarter of the health workers confirmed receiving visits from representatives of breast-milk substitute companies. Two health workers reported having received gifts from the companies. The most common labelling violations found were statements or visuals that discouraged breast-feeding and the absence of mention about the consideration of local climate in the expiration date. Violations of the Code by health workers, breast-milk substitute companies and their representatives were found in all provinces studied. A regular monitoring system should be in place to ensure improved compliance with and enforcement of the Code.

  2. The Impact of Marketing of Breast-Milk Substitutes on WHO-Recommended Breastfeeding Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piwoz, Ellen G; Huffman, Sandra L

    2015-12-01

    Suboptimal breastfeeding results in 800 000 child deaths annually. There are multiple causes of suboptimal breastfeeding, including marketing of breast-milk substitutes. To describe sales and marketing of breast-milk substitutes and their influence on World Health Organization-recommended breastfeeding behaviors, focusing on low- and middle-income countries. Literature review. Global sales of breast-milk substitutes reached US$40 billion in 2013. Growth in sales exceeds 10% annually in many low- and middle-income countries, while it is close to stagnant in high-income countries. Breast-milk substitutes are marketed directly to consumers via mass media and print advertisements and indirectly via incentives, free supplies, and promotions to and through health workers and facilities, retailers, and policy makers. Internet marketing via company web sites and social media is on the rise. Marketing influences social norms by making formula use seem to be extensive, modern, and comparable to or better than breast milk. Clear evidence of a negative impact is found when breast-milk substitutes are provided for free in maternity facilities and when they are promoted by health workers and in the media. Influences through other channels are plausible, but rigorous studies are lacking. It was not possible with the data available to quantify the impact of marketing relative to other factors on suboptimal breastfeeding behaviors. Marketing remains widespread even in countries that have adopted the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes to restrict such activities. Adoption of stricter regulatory frameworks coupled with independent, quantitative monitoring and compliance enforcement are needed to counter the impacts of formula marketing globally. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Impact of variation at the FTO locus on milk fat yield in Holstein dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielke, Lea G; Bortfeldt, Ralf H; Reissmann, Monika; Tetens, Jens; Thaller, Georg; Brockmann, Gudrun A

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the biological role of the Fat Mass and Obesity associated (FTO) gene locus on milk composition in German Holstein cattle. Since FTO controls energy homeostasis and expenditure and the FTO locus has repeatedly shown association with obesity in human studies, we tested FTO as a candidate gene in particular for milk fat yield, which represents a high amount of energy secreted during lactation. The study was performed on 2,402 bulls and 860 cows where dense milk composition data were available. Genetic information was taken from a 2 Mb region around FTO. Five SNPs and two haplotype blocks in a 725 kb region covering FTO and the neighboring genes RPGRIP1L, U6ATAC, and 5 S rRNA were associated with milk fat yield and also affected protein yield in the same direction. Interestingly, higher frequency SNP alleles and haplotypes within the FTO gene increased milk fat and protein yields by up to 2.8 and 2.2 kg per lactation, respectively, while the most frequent haplotype in the upstream block covering exon 1 of FTO to exon 15 of RPGRIP1L had opposite effects with lower fat and milk yield. Both haplotype blocks were also significant in cows. The loci accounted for about 1% of the corresponding trait variance in the population. The association signals not only provided evidence for at least two causative mutations in the FTO locus with a functional effect on milk but also milk protein yield. The pleiotropic effects suggest a biological function on the usage of energy resources and the control of energy balance rather than directly affecting fat and protein synthesis. The identified effect of the obesity gene locus on milk energy content suggests an impact on infant nutrition by breast feeding in humans.

  4. Impact of variation at the FTO locus on milk fat yield in Holstein dairy cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea G Zielke

    Full Text Available This study explores the biological role of the Fat Mass and Obesity associated (FTO gene locus on milk composition in German Holstein cattle. Since FTO controls energy homeostasis and expenditure and the FTO locus has repeatedly shown association with obesity in human studies, we tested FTO as a candidate gene in particular for milk fat yield, which represents a high amount of energy secreted during lactation. The study was performed on 2,402 bulls and 860 cows where dense milk composition data were available. Genetic information was taken from a 2 Mb region around FTO. Five SNPs and two haplotype blocks in a 725 kb region covering FTO and the neighboring genes RPGRIP1L, U6ATAC, and 5 S rRNA were associated with milk fat yield and also affected protein yield in the same direction. Interestingly, higher frequency SNP alleles and haplotypes within the FTO gene increased milk fat and protein yields by up to 2.8 and 2.2 kg per lactation, respectively, while the most frequent haplotype in the upstream block covering exon 1 of FTO to exon 15 of RPGRIP1L had opposite effects with lower fat and milk yield. Both haplotype blocks were also significant in cows. The loci accounted for about 1% of the corresponding trait variance in the population. The association signals not only provided evidence for at least two causative mutations in the FTO locus with a functional effect on milk but also milk protein yield. The pleiotropic effects suggest a biological function on the usage of energy resources and the control of energy balance rather than directly affecting fat and protein synthesis. The identified effect of the obesity gene locus on milk energy content suggests an impact on infant nutrition by breast feeding in humans.

  5. Bovine milk fat enriched in conjugated linoleic and vaccenic acids attenuates allergic airway disease in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanwar, R K; Macgibbon, A K; Black, P N; Kanwar, J R; Rowan, A; Vale, M; Krissansen, G W

    2008-01-01

    It has been argued that a reduction in the Western diet of anti-inflammatory unsaturated lipids, such as n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, has contributed to the increase in the frequency and severity of allergic diseases. We investigated whether feeding milk fat enriched in conjugated linoleic acid and vaccenic acids (VAs) ('enriched' milk fat), produced by supplementing the diet of pasture-fed cows with fish and sunflower oil, will prevent development of allergic airway responses. C57BL/6 mice were fed a control diet containing soybean oil and diets supplemented with milk lipids. They were sensitized by intraperitoneal injection of ovalbumin (OVA) on days 14 and 28, and challenged intranasally with OVA on day 42. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, lung tissues and serum samples were collected 6 days after the intranasal challenge. Feeding of enriched milk fat led to marked suppression of airway inflammation as evidenced by reductions in eosinophilia and lymphocytosis in the airways, compared with feeding of normal milk fat and control diet. Enriched milk fat significantly reduced circulating allergen-specific IgE and IgG1 levels, together with reductions in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of IL-5 and CCL11. Treatment significantly inhibited changes in the airway including airway epithelial cell hypertrophy, goblet cell metaplasia and mucus hypersecretion. The two major components of enriched milk fat, cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid and VA, inhibited airway inflammation when fed together to mice, whereas alone they were not effective. Milk fat enriched in conjugated linoleic and VAs suppresses inflammation and changes to the airways in an animal model of allergic airway disease.

  6. Effects of goat milk or milk replacer diet on meat quality and fat composition of suckling goat kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bañón, S; Vila, R; Price, A; Ferrandini, E; Garrido, M D

    2006-02-01

    The effects of a diet with goat milk "GM" or milk replacer "MR" on the meat quality and fat composition of suckling Murciano-Granadina kids were studied. MR consisted of powdered skimmed milk, coconut oil and fat, and cereal products and by-products. Raw meat quality (moisture, protein, lipids, ash, collagen, cholesterol, haem pigments, CIELab colour, pH and water retention capacity), fatty acid "FA" composition and eating quality of cooked meat (odour, flavour and texture) were determined. Diet had only a slight effect on raw meat quality but had a pronounced effect on fatty acid composition and eating quality of cooked meat. MR diet increased the water/protein proportion in the muscle. The saturated/unsaturated FA ratio in GM and MR fat was 0.94 and 2.27, respectively. The major FA in GM and MR fat were C16:0 and C18:1, respectively. Short-chain C4-C12 hardly accumulated in the adipose tissue of suckling kid, increasing the relative percentages of C14-C20. This effect was more pronounced in MR fat, due to the fact that MR contained more short-chain fatty acids than GM. MR diet gave cooked meat a more intense characteristic goat meat odour and flavour, more tenderness and more juiciness than the natural suckling diet. This fact could be related to differences in meat and fat composition.

  7. Feeding Unprotected CLA Methyl Esters Compared to Sunflower Seeds Increased Milk CLA Level but Inhibited Milk Fat Synthesis in Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Dohme-Meier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to compare the effect of the same amount of 18:2 offered either as 18:2n-6 or as a mixture of unprotected 18:2c9t11 and 18:2t10c12 on feed intake, milk components as well as plasma and milk fatty acid profile. Fifteen cows were blocked by milk yield and milk fat percentage and within block assigned randomly to 1 of 3 treatments (n = 5. Each cow passed a 12-d adjustment period (AP on a basal diet. After the AP cows received 1 of 3 supplements during an 18-d experimental period (EP. The supplements contained either 1.0 kg ground sunflower seeds (S, 0.5 kg conjugated linoleic acid (CLA-oil (C or 0.75 kg of a mixture of ground sunflower seeds and CLA-oil (2:1; SC. All 3 supplements contained the same amount of 18:2 either as CLA (∑18:2c9t11+18:2t10c12, 1:1 or as 18:2c9c12. During the last 2 d of AP and the last 4 d of EP feed intake and milk yield were recorded daily and milk samples were collected at each milking. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein on d 11 of AP and d 15 and 18 of EP. The 18:2 intake increased in all treatments from AP to EP. Regardless of the amount of supplemented CLA, the milk fat percentage decreased by 2.35 and 2.10%-units in treatment C and SC, respectively, whereas in the treatment S the decrease was with 0.99%-unit less pronounced. Thus, C and SC cows excreted daily a lower amount of milk fat than S cows. The concentration of trans 18:1 in the plasma and the milk increased from AP to EP and increased with increasing dietary CLA supply. While the concentration of 18:2c9t11 and 18:2t10c12 in the plasma and that of 18:2t10c12 in the milk paralleled dietary supply, the level of 18:2c9t11 in the milk was similar in C and CS but still lower in S. Although the dietary concentration of CLA was highest in treatment C, the partial replacement of CLA by sunflower seeds had a similar inhibitory effect on milk fat synthesis. Comparable 18:2c9t11 levels in the milk in both CLA treatments

  8. Milk minerals modify the effect of fat intake on serum lipid profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Janne Kunchel; Jensen, Søren Krogh; Astrup, Arne

    2014-01-01

    Despite a high content of saturated fat, evidence from observational studies indicates that the consumption of dairy products may have a neutral effect or may be inversely associated with the risk of CVD. We aimed to examine whether milk minerals modify the effect of saturated fat on serum lipid...

  9. Sensory perception and lubrication properties of milk: Influence of fat content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chojnicka-Paszun, A.; de Jongh, H.H.J.; de Kruif, C.G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073609609

    2012-01-01

    The sensory perception of homogenized milk with a fat content between 0.06 and 8% was correlated with its friction coefficient and viscosity. Above a threshold of 1% fat, there was a strong decrease in friction coefficient at low speeds, which is associated with shear-induced coalescence. Creamy

  10. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure processing on in vitro digestion of milk proteins and fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of high hydrostatic pressure processing (HPP) is increasing in popularity in the food industry. Its ability to modify milk proteins and fats suggests that it may be useful in creating foods that suppress appetite; however, its effect on the digestibility of proteins and fats is unclear. The...

  11. Comparative Analysis of the miRNome of Bovine Milk Fat, Whey and Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ran; Dudemaine, Pier-Luc; Zhao, Xin; Lei, Chuzhao; Ibeagha-Awemu, Eveline Mengwi

    2016-01-01

    Abundant miRNAs have been identified in milk and mammary gland tissues of different species. Typically, RNA in milk can be extracted from different fractions including fat, whey and cells and the mRNA transcriptome of milk could serve as an indicator of the transcriptome of mammary gland tissue. However, it has not been adequately validated if the miRNA transcriptome of any milk fraction could be representative of that of mammary gland tissue. The objectives of this study were to (1) characterize the miRNA expression spectra from three milk fractions- fat, whey and cells; (2) compare miRNome profiles of milk fractions (fat, whey and cells) with mammary gland tissue miRNome, and (3) determine which milk fraction miRNome profile could be a better representative of the miRNome profile of mammary gland tissue. Milk from four healthy Canadian Holstein cows in mid lactation was collected and fractionated. Total RNA extracted from each fraction was used for library preparation followed by small RNA sequencing. In addition, miRNA transcripts of mammary gland tissues from twelve Holstein cows in our previous study were used to compare our data. We identified 210, 200 and 249 known miRNAs from milk fat, whey and cells, respectively, with 188 universally expressed in the three fractions. In addition, 33, 31 and 36 novel miRNAs from milk fat, whey and cells were identified, with 28 common in the three fractions. Among 20 most highly expressed miRNAs in each fraction, 14 were expressed in common and 11 were further shared with mammary gland tissue. The three milk fractions demonstrated a clear separation from each other using a hierarchical cluster analysis with milk fat and whey being most closely related. The miRNome correlation between milk fat and mammary gland tissue (rmean = 0.866) was significantly higher than the other two pairs (p whey/mammary gland tissue (rmean = 0.755) and milk cell/mammary gland tissue (rmean = 0.75), suggesting that milk fat could be an

  12. Microstructure and Composition of Full Fat Cheddar Cheese Made with Ultrafiltered Milk Retentate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Lydia; Dagastine, Raymond R.; Kentish, Sandra E.; Gras, Sally L.

    2013-01-01

    Milk protein is often standardised prior to cheese-making using low concentration factor ultrafiltration retentate (LCUFR) but the effect of LCUFR addition on the microstructure of full fat gel, curd and Cheddar cheese is not known. In this work, Cheddar cheeses were made from cheese-milk with or without LCUFR addition using a protein concentration of 3.7%–5.8% w/w. The fat lost to sweet whey was higher in cheese made from cheese-milk without LCUFR or from cheese-milk with 5.8% w/w protein. At 5.8% w/w protein concentration, the porosity of the gel increased significantly and the fat globules within the gel and curd tended to pool together, which possibly contributed to the higher fat loss in the sweet whey. The microstructure of cheese from cheese-milk with a higher protein concentration was more compact, consistent with the increased hardness, although the cohesiveness was lower. These results highlight the potential use of LCUFR for the standardization of protein concentration in cheese-milk to 4%–5% w/w (equivalent to a casein to total protein ratio of 77%–79% w/w) to increase yield. Beyond this concentration, significant changes in the gel microstructure, cheese texture and fat loss were observed. PMID:28239117

  13. Role of adult fat body and milk gland in larval nourishment of Glossina morsitans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langley, P.A.; Bursell, E.

    1980-01-01

    The Glossina larva is nourished entirely in utero by 'milk' composed of equal parts lipid and protein or protein-derivatives, produced by the adult female accessory gland or milk gland. A series of experiments in which activities of the female fat body and milk gland were studied separately, showed that during early pregnancy fat body synthesized and stored triglyceride and, to a lesser extent, protein, utilizing either 14 C leucine or 14 C palmitate in the process. Late in the pregnancy cycle, synthetic activity of the fat body was reduced whereas that of the milk gland increased, both lipid and protein synthesis being conspicuous at this time. There was apparently a switch in mid-pregnancy at which time the milk gland became the dominant organ for synthesis of nutrient substances. Results support the hypothesis that the adult fat body provides the major store, derived from blood meals ingested during early pregnancy, from which the milk gland obtains the lipid component of the milk. The gland itself synthesizes the bulk of the protein components from digested blood meals ingested during the latter half of pregnancy. Control of the processes identified, and their cyclical nature, suggests a neuroendocrine involvement. Identification of this involvement, and the underlying control mechanisms for hormone synthesis and degradation, may well lead to more specific methods of vector control acting through disruption of larval nutrition. (author)

  14. Determination of fat and total protein content in milk using conventional digital imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kucheryavskiy, Sergey; Melenteva, Anastasiia; Bogomolov, Andrey

    2014-01-01

    into account spatial distribution of light, diffusely transmitted through a sample. The proposed method has been tested on two sample sets prepared from industrial raw milk standards, with variable fat and protein content. Partial Least-Squares (PLS) regression on the features calculated from images......The applicability of conventional digital imaging to quantitative determination of fat and total protein in cow’s milk, based on the phenomenon of light scatter, has been proved. A new algorithm for extracting features from digital images of milk samples has been developed. The algorithm takes...... of monochromatically illuminated milk samples resulted in models with high prediction performance when analysed the sets separately (best models with cross-validated R2=0.974 for protein and R2=0.973 for fat content). However when analysed the sets jointly the obtained results were significantly worse (best models...

  15. Full fat milk consumption protects against severe childhood obesity in Latinos

    OpenAIRE

    Amy L. Beck; Melvin Heyman; Cewin Chao; Janet Wojcicki

    2017-01-01

    Consumption of non- or low-fat dairy products is recommended as a strategy to lower the risk of childhood obesity. However, recent evidence suggests that consumption of whole fat dairy products may, in fact, be protective against obesity. Our objective was to determine the association between milk fat consumption and severe obesity among three-year-old Latino children, a population with a disproportionate burden of obesity and severe obesity. 24-hour-dietary recalls were conducted to determin...

  16. Processing effects on physicochemical properties of creams formulated with modified milk fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolling, J C; Duncan, S E; Eigel, W N; Waterman, K M

    2005-04-01

    Type of thermal process [high temperature, short time pasteurization (HTST) or ultra-high temperature pasteurization (UHT)] and homogenization sequence (before or after pasteurization) were examined for influence on the physicochemical properties of natural cream (20% milk fat) and creams formulated with 20% low-melt, fractionated butteroil emulsified with skim milk, or buttermilk and butter-derived aqueous phase. Homogenization sequence influenced physicochemical makeup of the creams. Creams homogenized before pasteurization contained more milk fat surface material, higher phospholipid levels, and less protein at the milk fat interface than creams homogenized after pasteurization. Phosphodiesterase I activity was higher (relative to protein on lipid globule surface) when cream was homogenized before pasteurization. Creams formulated with skim milk and modified milk fat had relatively more phospholipid adsorbed at the milk fat interface. Ultra-high-temperature-pasteurized natural and reformulated creams were higher in viscosity at all shear rates investigated compared with HTST-pasteurized creams. High-temperature, short time-pasteurized natural cream was more viscous than HTST-pasteurized reformulated creams at most shear rates investigated. High-temperature, short time-pasteurized creams had better emulsion stability than UHT-pasteurized creams. Cream formulated with buttermilk had creaming stability most comparable to natural cream, and cream formulated with skim milk and modified butteroil was least stable to creaming. Most creams feathered in a pH range of 5.00 to 5.20, indicating that they were moderately stable to slightly unstable emulsions. All processing sequences yielded creams within sensory specifications with the exception of treatments homogenized before UHT pasteurization and skim milk formulations homogenized after UHT pasteurization.

  17. Some quality attributes of low fat ice cream substituted with hulless barley flour and barley ß-glucan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Haleem, Amal M H; Awad, R A

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate some quality attributes of low fat ice cream (LFIC) substituted with hulless barley flour (HBF) and barley ß-glucan (BBG). The methodology included in this paper is based on adding HBF (1, 2, 3 and 4 %) as a partial substitution of skim milk powder (SMP) and BBG (0.40 %) as a complete substitution of carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC). All mixes and resultant ice cream samples were evaluated for their physicochemical properties as well as the sensory quality attributes.The results indicated that substitution of SMP with HBF significantly increased total solids (TS), fat and crude fiber, while crude protein and ash significantly decreased in ice cream mixes. BBG exhibited the same manner of control. Specific gravity was gradually increased with adding HBFand BBG in the mixes and therefore the overrun percent was significantly changed in the resultant ice cream. Adding HBF in ice cream formula led to significant decrease in acidity with higher freezing point and the product showed higher ability to meltdown. BBG treatment showed the same trend of control. Values of flow time and viscosity significantly increased with increasing HBF in the ice cream mixes, but these values significantly decreased in BBG mix. The time required to freeze ice cream mixes was decreased with increasing the ratio of HBF but, increased in BBG treatment. The substitution of SMP with 1 and 2 % HBF significantly (P ≤ 0.05) enhanced sensory attributes of ice cream samples. While, BBG treatment achieved mild score and acceptability.

  18. Effect of silage type and energy concentration on conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in milk fat from dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, T.S.; Sejrsen, K.; Andersen, H.R

    2004-01-01

    40 lactating cows were fed either clovergrass or maize silage and a low or high dietary energy concentration in a 2x2 factorial design. The maize silage diets rich in starch and linoleic acid resulted in a higher content of c9t11 and t10c12 CLA in milk fat than the grass silage diets. A high energy...... concentration plus maize silage led to a pronounced shift in the biohydrogenation pathway of linoleic acid, the highest t10c12 CLA content and lowest milk fat percentage. Energy concentration had no effect on milk fat CLA content or milk fat percentage in grass silage fed cows....

  19. INFLUENCE OF MILK FAT IN THE RESISTANCE OF Mycobacterium fortuitum TO SLOW PASTEURIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Ramirez Starikoff

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ortuitum. Milk samples were divided into two portions, whole and skimmed, each part was inoculated with M. fortuitum and then distributed in tubes for quantification of the agent during pasteurization, in a water bath. As samples were diluted and plated on Lowenstein-Jensen (37 °C/5 days, the count results were expressed as log10 CFU/mL. The heat treatment reduced 4.4 log10 CFU/mL for goat whole milk (2.8% fat, 4.9 log10 CFU/mL for skim goat milk (0.3%, 3.9 log10 CFU/ml for whole bovine milk (5.9%, and 5.4 log10 CFU/mL for skim bovine milk (0.2%, without significant difference, possibly because of the low number of samples. Values of D65 °C were, respectively, 10.51 minutes, 8.61 minutes, 18.02 minutes, and 7.82 minutes and the low R2 value of the straight line equations indicated that other factors, in addition to the ones studied, influenced the heat death of the agent. The results suggest a trend of influence by fat milk, and by the animal species on the decay rate of M. fortuitum, and that pasteurization was less effective over M. fortuitum in whole bovine milk. Keywords: fat content;

  20. Lipolytic Changes in the Milk Fat of Raw Milk and Their Effects on the Quality of Milk Products

    OpenAIRE

    Kirst, E.

    1986-01-01

    Lipolytic changes in milk rat affect sensory attributes and techno logicaI properties of milk and milk products. They are affectcd by physiologal, thermal . and biochemical factors as well as by the mechanics of fluids Lipolytic processes in milk are intensified by modern processing methods. In this review. special attention has been paid to runinant- related feeding of dairy cows. foaming of milk. mechanical and thermal influences and the growth of psycllrotrophic bacteria. Feeds defic...

  1. The effect of paternal bull on milk fat composition of dairy cows of different breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Kirchnerová

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Intake of milk fat in human nutrition is important because of unsaturated and especially essential fatty acids (FAs, linoleic and α-linolenic acid, and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, which is found only in meat and milk of ruminants. The objective of our study was to investigate the effect of paternal bulls on fatty acids composition in milk fat of dairy cows of different breeds. The milk samples were taken in total from 299 dairy cows from 11 dairy farms. In experiment Holstein (H, n = 105, Red Holstein (R, n = 120 and Pinzgau (P, n = 74 breeds originated from different bulls were used. Individual milk samples were analyzed for fatty acids in milk fat using gas chromatography (apparatus GC Varian 3800, Techtron, USA, using FID detector in capillary column Omegawax 530; 30 m. In the chromatography records there were identified 54 fatty acids inclusive of particular isomers. Their relative proportions were expressed in percent's (%. Among the studied breeds, the highest content of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA - 0.67%, essential FAs (EFA - 2.98%, monounsaturated FAs (MUFA - 25.84% and the lowest atherogenic index (AI - 3.10 was at breed P. Within this breed there was high variability and daughters of bull COS1 achieved significant above-average values of CLA content 1.07%, EFA 3.71%, MUFA 29.93% and under breed average AI = 2.40. The group of daughters of NOB3 was significant lower in CLA, 0.50% as compared with an average of P breed. . From the breed H bull MTY2 showed significantly higher value of 0.62% CLA, EFA 3.42%, 34.29% MUFA and lower value of AI, 1.9 as compared to H breed average. Statistically significantly lower levels of CLA 0.29% and 21.46% MUFA and higher AI 3.72 in milk fat of his daughters, bull STY3 may be considered as potential worser of these properties. At the breed R bull MOR506 showed in compar to the breed average significantly higher value of the EFA 3.80% and also the higher content of CLA 0.50% and MUFA 25

  2. The potential of avocado paste (Persea americana) as fat substitute in non-dairy ice cream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ervina; Surjawan, I.; Abdillah, E.

    2018-01-01

    Consumer preferences towards plant-based food have shifted significantly due to sustainable and healthy reasons. Dairy products consist of high Saturated Fatty Acid (SFA) and overconsumption of SFA could lead to cardiovascular diseases. Avocado contains high levels of fat dominated by Monounsaturated Fatty Acid (MUFA) and phytosterol that have the potential as a plant-based fat source to substitute dairy-fat in ice cream. The objective of this study was to analyze the physicochemical, rheological and sensorial properties of ice cream substituted with different concentrations of avocado paste ranging from 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% respectively against dairy fat to produce non-dairy fat ice cream. The psychochemical properties and total fat were determined. Sensorial quality and hedonic attributes of ice cream were investigated using 60 semi-trained panelists. There were significant differences (p0.05). The addition of 50% avocado paste was the most preferred among the panelists. Avocado could provide a potential substitution for dairy-fat in ice cream.

  3. Influence of Homogenization and Thermal Processing on the Gastrointestinal Fate of Bovine Milk Fat: In Vitro Digestion Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Li; Qi, Ce; Wang, Xingguo; Jin, Qingzhe; McClements, David Julian

    2017-12-20

    Dairy lipids are an important source of energy and nutrients for infants and adults. The dimensions, aggregation state, and interfacial properties of fat globules in raw milk are changed by dairy processing operations, such as homogenization and thermal processing. These changes influence the behavior of fat globules within the human gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The gastrointestinal fate of raw milk, homogenized milk, high temperature short time (HTST) pasteurized milk, and ultrahigh temperature (UHT) pasteurized milk samples was therefore determined using a simulated GIT. The properties of particles in different regions of the GIT depended on the degree of milk processing. Homogenization increased the initial lipid digestion rate but did not influence the final digestion extent. Thermal processing of homogenized milk decreased the initial rate and final extent of lipid digestion, which was attributed to changes in interfacial structure. These results provide insights into the impact of dairy processing on the gastrointestinal fate of milk fat.

  4. The effects of low fat chocolate milk on postexercise recovery in collegiate athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaccarotella, Kim J; Andzel, Walter D

    2011-12-01

    Spaccarotella, KJ and Andzel, WD. The effects of low fat chocolate milk on postexercise recovery in collegiate athletes. J Strength Cond Res 25(12): 3456-3460, 2011-Drinking chocolate milk between exercise sessions may improve recovery. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of low fat chocolate milk vs. a carbohydrate-electrolyte beverage (CE) on recovery between preseason practice sessions among 5 male and 8 female Division III soccer players. The study used a randomized crossover design: between morning and afternoon practices, athletes received either an amount of chocolate milk that provided 1 g carbohydrate per kilogram body weight or an equal volume of CE (mean volume of 615 ± 101 ml). After their afternoon practice, they completed a shuttle run to fatigue. Data were analyzed using the Wilcoxon paired rank-sign test (for shuttle run time) and the paired samples t-test (for dietary intake). No significant differences in run time were reported for the group. For the men only, there was a trend of increased time to fatigue with chocolate milk compared with the CE (exact p = 0.03). Low fat chocolate milk may therefore be as good as a CE at promoting recovery between training sessions during preseason.

  5. Temperature effects on the ultrasonic separation of fat from natural whole milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Thomas; Juliano, Pablo; Johansson, Linda; Mawson, Raymond; McArthur, Sally L; Manasseh, Richard

    2014-11-01

    This study showed that temperature influences the rate of separation of fat from natural whole milk during application of ultrasonic standing waves. In this study, natural whole milk was sonicated at 600kHz (583W/L) or 1MHz (311W/L) with a starting bulk temperature of 5, 25, or 40°C. Comparisons on separation efficiency were performed with and without sonication. Sonication using 1MHz for 5min at 25°C was shown to be more effective for fat separation than the other conditions tested with and without ultrasound, resulting in a relative change from 3.5±0.06% (w/v) fat initially, of -52.3±2.3% (reduction to 1.6±0.07% (w/v) fat) in the skimmed milk layer and 184.8±33.2% (increase to 9.9±1.0% (w/v) fat) in the top layer, at an average skimming rate of ∼5g fat/min. A shift in the volume weighted mean diameter (D[4,3]) of the milk samples obtained from the top and bottom of between 8% and 10% relative to an initial sample D[4,3] value of 4.5±0.06μm was also achieved under these conditions. In general, faster fat separation was seen in natural milk when natural creaming occurred at room temperature and this separation trend was enhanced after the application of high frequency ultrasound. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of homogenization and heat treatment on the behavior of protein and fat globules during gastric digestion of milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Aiqian; Cui, Jian; Dalgleish, Douglas; Singh, Harjinder

    2017-01-01

    The effects of homogenization and heat treatment on the formation and the breakdown of clots during gastric digestion of whole milk were investigated using a human gastric simulator. Homogenization and heat treatment led to formation of coagula with fragmented and crumbled structures compared with the coagulum formed from raw whole milk, but a larger fraction of the protein and more fat globules were incorporated into the coagula induced by action of the milk-clotting enzyme pepsin. The fat globules in the whole milk appeared to be embedded in the clots as they formed. After formation of the clot, the greater numbers of pores in the structures of the clots formed with homogenized milk and heated whole milk led to greater rates of protein hydrolysis by pepsin, which resulted in faster release of fat globules from the clots into the digesta. Coalescence of fat globules occurred both in the digesta and within the protein clots no matter whether they were in homogenized or heated milk samples. The formation of clots with different structures and hence the changes in the rates of protein hydrolysis and the release of milk fat into the digesta in the stomach provide important information for understanding the gastric emptying of milk and the potential to use this knowledge to manipulate the bioavailability of fat and other fat-soluble nutrients in dairy products. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The effects of feeding triacylglcerols on milk fat composition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    concentrations of C18:1 - C18:3 acids compared to the low-fat diet, chow, or the coconut oil-supplemented diets. Compared with the low-fat control diet, all the other dietary regimes suppressed overall fatty acid synthesis in both the lactating mammary gland and liver, with the highest suppression being produced by the olive ...

  8. Effects of emulsion droplet sizes on the crystallisation of milk fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Tuyen; Bansal, Nidhi; Sharma, Ranjan; Palmer, Martin; Bhandari, Bhesh

    2014-02-15

    The crystallisation properties of milk fat emulsions containing dairy-based ingredients as functions of emulsion droplet size, cooling rate, and emulsifier type were investigated using a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). Anhydrous milk fat and its fractions (stearin and olein) were emulsified with whey protein concentrate, sodium caseinate, and Tween80 by homogenisation to produce emulsions in various size ranges (0.13-3.10 μm). Particle size, cooling rate, and types of emulsifier all had an influence on the crystallisation properties of fat in the emulsions. In general, the crystallisation temperature of emulsified fats decreased with decreasing average droplet size and was of an exponent function of size, indicating that the influence of particle size on crystallisation temperature is more pronounced in the sub-micron range. This particle size effect was also verified by electron microscopy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Filter-aided sample preparation with dimethyl labeling to identify and quantify milk fat globule membrane proteins.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, J.; Boeren, J.A.; Vries, de S.C.; Valenberg, van H.J.F.; Vervoort, J.J.M.; Hettinga, K.A.

    2011-01-01

    Bovine milk is a major nutrient source in many countries and it is produced at an industrial scale. Milk is a complex mixture of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals. The composition of the bovine milk samples can vary depending on the genetic makeup of the bovine species as well as

  10. Amiata donkeys: fat globule characteristics, milk gross composition and fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Martini

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Amiata donkeys are a native breed reared in central Italy. Safeguarding native donkey breeds represents an opportunity for the development of marginal areas, especially given that donkey milk is now appearing on the market due to its potential benefits for human health. To date, only a few studies have focused on the characteristics of the milk fat globules (MFGs in the donkey species. The aim of this study was to assess the morphometric characteristics of the fat globules, gross composition and fatty acid classes in milk from Amiata donkeys reared according to the typical farming and feeding systems of the area of origin. Individual milk samples, collected from 28 Amiata donkeys between 90 and 150 days of lactation, showed the following average composition (g/100 mL: 9.47 dry matter, 1.63 protein, 0.78 casein, 0.53 fat, 7.12 lactose, and 0.36 ash. The unsaturated:saturated fatty acids ratio in milk was close to 1. The percentage of short chains was 12.29, and the percentage of long chain fatty acids was 47.64. The donkey MFGs showed an average diameter of 1.92 μm, and a number of 2.18*109/mL. Regarding MFG distribution, 70% of the globules donkey of milk are smaller than 2 μm. In conclusion, the gross composition and fatty acids of Amiata donkey milk showed similarities with milk from other Italian donkey breeds, with the exception of the monounsaturated fatty acid values which were slightly higher. Donkey MFGs had a smaller diameter and were fewer than in the ruminant species.

  11. Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of fat-free goat milk yogurt with added stabilizers and skim milk powder fortification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruzantin, F P; Daniel, J L P; da Silva, P P M; Spoto, M H F

    2016-05-01

    Goat milk yogurt has a less consistent coagulum compared with cow milk yogurt; furthermore, the presence of goat milk in foodstuffs imparts a characteristic flavor that can restrict its acceptance by consumers. This study aimed to assess and compare the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of fat-free goat milk yogurts with added stabilizers or bovine skim milk powder to improve the final product. Four treatment additions were evaluated: (1) a mixture of 0.1% (wt/vol) carrageenan and 0.1% (wt/vol) pectin (treatment CR); (2) 0.5% (wt/vol) pectin (treatment PE); (3) 4.65% (wt/vol) bovine skim milk powder (treatment BM); and (4) control (no stabilizer; treatment CT). The physicochemical parameters were investigated at on d 1 and 5 of storage. The BM treatment presented higher pH and titratable acidity values, resulting in a buffering capacity effect. The total crude protein (CP) and solids-not-fat (SNF) contents were also higher in BM compared with the other evaluated treatments because of the addition of bovine skim milk powder. We detected a reduction in pH values for all treatments. Lower SNF contents were present in the CR and CT treatments, which might be related to a syneresis process during storage; moreover, an increase in total CP was observed for all treatments due to the proteolytic action of the starter culture. Sensory attributes, including appearance (color, consistency, and presence of lumps), texture (consistency, viscosity, and presence of lumps), flavor (bitter, sweet, and characteristic of commercial plain nonfat yogurt), and overall impression were evaluated by quantitative descriptive analysis. The addition of 0.5% (wt/vol) of pectin (PE treatment) strengthened the curd; however, the visual and oral presence of lumps and a higher bitterness score were noted by trained panelists, which resulted in the lowest overall impression score for the PE treatment. In several sensory attributes, the CR treatment was considered similar to the control

  12. The effect of milk fat globules on adherence and internalization of Salmonella Enteritidis to HT-29 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guri, A; Griffiths, M; Khursigara, C M; Corredig, M

    2012-12-01

    Milk fat globules were extracted from bovine and goat milk and incubated with HT-29 human adenocarcinoma cells to assess the attachment and internalization of Salmonella Enteritidis. Because the expression of bacterial adhesins is highly affected by the presence of antibiotic, the attachment was studied with and without antibiotic in the cell growth medium. Although no inhibitory effect of the fat globules was observed in the presence of the antibiotic, milk fat globules significantly inhibited the binding and internalization of Salmonella in medium free of antibiotic. The fat globules from both bovine and goat milk markedly reduced bacterial binding and invasion compared with controls, and the cells treated with goat milk-derived fat globules demonstrated greater protective properties than those derived from bovine milk. The effect of heat treatment on bovine fat globules was also investigated, and it was shown that the fat globules from heated milk had a higher degree of inhibition than those from unheated milk. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Dietary milk fat globule membrane reduces the incidence of aberrant crypt foci in Fischer-344 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Dallin R; Jimenez-Flores, Rafael; Ward, Robert E; Cambell, Jesse; Young, Michael J; Nemere, Ilka; Hintze, Korry J

    2010-02-24

    Milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) is a biopolymer composed primarily of membrane proteins and lipids that surround the fat globules in milk. Although it is considered to have potential as a bioactive ingredient, few feeding studies have been conducted to measure its potential benefits. The aim of this investigation was to determine if dietary MFGM confers protection against colon carcinogenesis compared to diets containing corn oil (CO) or anhydrous milk fat (AMF). Male, weanling Fischer-344 rats were randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments that differed only in the fat source: (1) AIN-76A diet, corn oil; (2) AIN-76A diet, AMF; and (3) AIN-76A diet, 50% MFGM, 50% AMF. Each diet contained 50 g/kg diet of fat. With the exception of the fat source, diets were formulated to be identical in macro and micro nutrient content. Animals were injected with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine once per week at weeks 3 and 4, and fed experimental diets for a total of 13 weeks. Over the course of the study dietary treatment did not affect food consumption, weight gain or body composition. After 13 weeks animals were sacrificed, colons were removed and aberrant crypt foci (ACF) were counted by microscopy. Rats fed the MFGM diet (n = 16) had significantly fewer ACF (20.9 +/- 5.7) compared to rats fed corn oil (n = 17) or AMF (n = 16) diets (31.3 +/- 9.5 and 29.8 +/- 11.4 respectively; P < 0.05). Gene expression analysis of colonic mucosa did not reveal differential expression of candidate colon cancer genes, and the sphingolipid profile of the colonic mucosa was not affected by diet. While there were notable and significant differences in plasma and red blood cell lipids, there was no relationship to the cancer protection. These results support previous findings that dietary sphingolipids are protective against colon carcinogenesis yet extend this finding to MFGM, a milk fat fraction available as a food ingredient.

  14. Characterization of goat milk and potentially symbiotic non-fat yogurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Fernanda Paz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Combining prebiotics and probiotic microorganisms improve quality in the formulation of foods. In this paper, the characteristics of goat milk and symbiotic yogurt were studied. Raw goat milk was analyzed and the skimming process was optimized. For the formulation of a potentially non-fat symbiotic yogurt made with skimmed goat milk, inulin, gelatin, sugar, and Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnoshus. Chemical characteristics, acceptability, and viability of lactic acid bacteria and probiotic culture were assessed. The protein and fat content of the raw milk was 2.90 and 3.56 g/100 mL, respectively. The optimum skimming process was obtained at 9,800 rpm and 4 °C for 15 minutes. The product formulated had a protein and fat content of 4.04 to 0.04 g/100 mL, good sensory properties, and acceptability of 95%. The lactic bacteria count was 9 × 10(7 CFU mL- 1, and probiotic culture count was higher than 1 × 10(6 CFU mL- 1, which guarantees their effect and capacity to survive in the digestive tract and spread in the intestine. The yogurt was stable during the 21 days of storage. Therefore, this study shows that goat milk yogurt is an adequate delivery vehicle of the probiotic culture L. casei and inulin.

  15. Phospholipids in Milk Fat: Composition, Biological and Technological Significance, and Analytical Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Contarini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids are quantitatively the most important phospholipids (PLs in milk. They are located on the milk fat globule membrane (MFGM and in other membranous material of the skim milk phase. They include principally phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylserine, while sphingomyelin is the dominant species of sphingolipids There is considerable evidence that PLs have beneficial health effects, such as regulation of the inflammatory reactions, chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic activity on some types of cancer, and inhibition of the cholesterol absorption. PLs show good emulsifying properties and can be used as a delivery system for liposoluble constituents. Due to the amphiphilic characteristics of these molecules, their extraction, separation and detection are critical points in the analytical approach. The extraction by using chloroform and methanol, followed by the determination by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC, coupled with evaporative light scattering (ELSD or mass detector (MS, are the most applied procedures for the PL evaluation. More recently, nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry (NMR was also used, but despite it demonstrating high sensitivity, it requires more studies to obtain accurate results. This review is focused on milk fat phospholipids; their composition, biological activity, technological properties, and significance in the structure of milk fat. Different analytical methodologies are also discussed.

  16. Determination of fat and total protein content in milk using conventional digital imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucheryavskiy, Sergey; Melenteva, Anastasiia; Bogomolov, Andrey

    2014-04-01

    The applicability of conventional digital imaging to quantitative determination of fat and total protein in cow's milk, based on the phenomenon of light scatter, has been proved. A new algorithm for extracting features from digital images of milk samples has been developed. The algorithm takes into account spatial distribution of light, diffusely transmitted through a sample. The proposed method has been tested on two sample sets prepared from industrial raw milk standards, with variable fat and protein content. Partial Least-Squares (PLS) regression on the features calculated from images of monochromatically illuminated milk samples resulted in models with high prediction performance when analysed the sets separately (best models with cross-validated R(2)=0.974 for protein and R(2)=0.973 for fat content). However when analysed the sets jointly with the obtained results were significantly worse (best models with cross-validated R(2)=0.890 for fat content and R(2)=0.720 for protein content). The results have been compared with previously published Vis/SW-NIR spectroscopic study of similar samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Understanding Reduced-Fat Milk Consumption among Male Adolescents Using the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Nada O.; Lee, Jerry W.

    2005-01-01

    This study identifies factors that influences reduced-fat milk consumption among 560 male students, ages 13-18 years, attending North Los Angeles County public high schools. Participants completed a group-administered Theory of Planned Behavior-based questionnaire. The majority of the participants, 94.8%, reported that they currently drank some…

  18. Mangaba (Hancornia speciosa Gomez ice cream prepared with fat replacers and sugar substitutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazielle Gebrim Santos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of replacing shortening and sugar on the physical and chemical properties of mangaba ice cream and its acceptability were evaluated. Ice cream formulations were tested with the following fat replacers: Selecta Light, Litesse, and Dairy Lo and the following sugar substitutes: Lactitol and Splenda. All formulations were subjected to physical, chemical, and microbiological analyses and evaluated by acceptability tests. In the sensory analysis, it was observed a larger acceptance of the formulations containing Selecta Light (SL and the combination of Litesse, Lactiol, and Splenda (LLS. The largest reduction in total energetic value (50% was observed in the formulation LLS. The use of fat and/or sugar substitutes caused a reduction in the air incorporation (overrun and affected viscosity. The highest melting speed was observed in the formulation with Dairy-Lo, Lactitol, and Splenda. All formulations showed good levels of global acceptability and appearance. The substitution of shortening for fat replacers caused a reduction in air incorporation and changes in ice-cream viscosity. The low-fat mangaba ice-cream elaborated with Selecta Light was the best formulation in terms of viscosity and air incorporation when compared with the control. It also showed a good level of acceptability and low fat content.

  19. Foods for Special Dietary Needs: Non-dairy Plant-based Milk Substitutes and Fermented Dairy-type Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkinen, Outi Elina; Wanhalinna, Viivi; Zannini, Emanuele; Arendt, Elke Karin

    2016-01-01

    A growing number of consumers opt for plant-based milk substitutes for medical reasons or as a lifestyle choice. Medical reasons include lactose intolerance, with a worldwide prevalence of 75%, and cow's milk allergy. Also, in countries where mammal milk is scarce and expensive, plant milk substitutes serve as a more affordable option. However, many of these products have sensory characteristics objectionable to the mainstream western palate. Technologically, plant milk substitutes are suspensions of dissolved and disintegrated plant material in water, resembling cow's milk in appearance. They are manufactured by extracting the plant material in water, separating the liquid, and formulating the final product. Homogenization and thermal treatments are necessary to improve the suspension and microbial stabilities of commercial products that can be consumed as such or be further processed into fermented dairy-type products. The nutritional properties depend on the plant source, processing, and fortification. As some products have extremely low protein and calcium contents, consumer awareness is important when plant milk substitutes are used to replace cow's milk in the diet, e.g. in the case of dairy intolerances. If formulated into palatable and nutritionally adequate products, plant-based substitutes can offer a sustainable alternative to dairy products.

  20. Effects of various forms of mastitis, in the progesterone concentrations of cow milk and milk fat, as determined by RIA and EIA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoedemaker, M.

    1982-01-01

    The progesterone concentration in milk fat was determined in milk samples taken from 39 cows with a corpus luteum and an average blood plasma progesterone concentration of 15.35 ± 6.26 nmole/l. The samples were collected mornings and evenings from each of the four quarters at the end of milking. 29 animals had healthy as well as diseased udder quarters. In 10 animals all four quarters were affected. There was no statistically significant difference in the progesterone concentration in the milk and in the milk fat, between the normal and affected secretion. There was also no correlation between the various forms of mastitis, causative agent, secretion findings or leucocyte content and the clinical finding in the udder quarter. Of a total of 156 samples investigated with the milk progesterone test (normal as well as affected secretion), 9 samples contained less than 5 ng progesterone/ml milk, which was set as the lower limit for evidence of the presence of an active corpus luteum. Using this lower limit, 5.8% were false negative results when compared with the actual status of the ovary. Eight of the nine secretion samples with less than 5 ng progesterone/ml milk from cows with an active corpus luteum, were from udder quarters affected with mastitis. It is probable that there is a causal relationship between the mastitis and the low progesterone content in the milk. The milk fat progesterone determination was carried out by means of the RIA and EIA. A comparison of the progesterone concentration in the milk fat and in the milk from the milk samples taken in the morning and evening demonstrated no statistically significant differences. (orig.) [de

  1. Determination of the conjugated linoleic acid-containing triacylglycerols in New Zealand bovine milk fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, N P; MacGibbon, A K

    2000-07-01

    Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet (UV) detection at 233 nm was used to separate, quantify, and identify the triacylglycerols (TAG) of milk fat that contain conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). The absorbance at 233 nm was substantially due to CLA-TAG (chromatography of some representative TAG devoid of CLA, such as tripalmitin and triolein, showed poor responses at 233 nm, 1/800th that of CLA-TAG). A CLA molar extinction coefficient at 233 nm of 23,360 L mol(-1) cm(-1) and an HPLC UV response factor were obtained from a commercially available cis-9,trans-11-CLA standard. This molar extinction coefficient was only 86% of reported literature values. Summation of all chromatographic peaks absorbing at 233 nm using the corrected response factor gave good agreement with independent determinations of total CLA by gas chromatography and UV spectrophotometry. This agreement allowed quantification of individual CLA-TAG peaks in the HPLC separation of a typical New Zealand bovine milk fat. Three CLA-containing TAG, CLA-dipalmitin, CLA-oleoyl-palmitin and CLA-diolein, were prepared by interesterification of tripalmitin with the respective fatty acid methyl esters and used to assign individual peaks in the reversed-phase chromatography of total milk fat, of which CLA-oleoyl-palmitin was coincident with the largest UV peak. Band fractions from argentation thin-layer chromatography of total milk fat were similarly employed to identify five predominant CLA-TAG groups in total milk fat: CLA-disaturates, CLA-oleoyl-saturates, CLA-vaccenyl-saturates, CLA-vaccenyl-olein, and CLA-diolein.

  2. Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of goat and cow milk ice cream made with vegetable fat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Chacón-Villalobos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the amount of goat and cow milk over the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of ice cream flavored with vegetable fat. In Costa Rica in 2010, three inclusion percentages of milk (100% goat, 100% cow, and a mixture of both 50%: 50% were evaluated, as well as the inclusion of different flavors (strawberry, strawberry with topping, and vanilla on the overrun, texture, melting, color, and acceptance of ice cream with vegetable fat. No parameters depended on the type of milk (p>0.05, while overrun varied between batches (p<0.05. There was a flavor*milk interaction for melting rate, texture, and pH attributable to the addition of topping. There was a significant effect on the colorimetric measurement based on the variables of the CIE system L*, a* and C*, on flavor (p<0.05, and an interaction type of milk*flavor for parameters b* and °h (tint or hue was attributed to topping and colorants. Both vegetable fat and topping increased the content of total solids in the mixture; it was associated to a lower rate of aeration, a low melting time, and a more consistency. A cluster analysis for sensory liking, distinguished between three groups: group 1 (15.25%, which liked all products, group 2 (62.71% that moderately liked them all, and group 3 (22.03% who neither show like nor dislike. Groups 2 and 3 showed greater liking for products with topping. The results of the sensory panel as well as the physicochemical and instrumental characterizations show that the type of milk used to make ice cream is not a determining factor, so it is feasible to produce goat milk ice cream and obtain a quality product with good acceptance.

  3. Total milk fat extraction and quantification of polar and neutral lipids of cow, goat, and ewe milk by using a pressurized liquid system and chromatographic techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Gómez, M P; Rodriguez-Alcalá, L M; Calvo, M V; Romero, J; Mendiola, J A; Ibañez, E; Fontecha, J

    2014-11-01

    Although milk polar lipids such as phospholipids and sphingolipids located in the milk fat globule membrane constitute 0.1 to 1% of the total milk fat, those lipid fractions are gaining increasing interest because of their potential beneficial effects on human health and technological properties. In this context, the accurate quantification of the milk polar lipids is crucial for comparison of different milk species, products, or dairy treatments. Although the official International Organization for Standardization-International Dairy Federation method for milk lipid extraction gives satisfactory results for neutral lipids, it has important disadvantages in terms of polar lipid losses. Other methods using mixtures of solvents such as chloroform:methanol are highly efficient for extracting polar lipids but are also associated with low sample throughput, long time, and large solvent consumption. As an alternative, we have optimized the milk fat extraction yield by using a pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) method at different temperatures and times in comparison with those traditional lipid extraction procedures using 2:1 chloroform:methanol as a mixture of solvents. Comparison of classical extraction methods with the developed PLE procedure were carried out using raw whole milk from different species (cows, ewes, and goats) and considering fat yield, fatty acid methyl ester composition, triacylglyceride species, cholesterol content, and lipid class compositions, with special attention to polar lipids such as phospholipids and sphingolipids. The developed PLE procedure was validated for milk fat extraction and the results show that this method performs a complete or close to complete extraction of all lipid classes and in less time than the official and Folch methods. In conclusion, the PLE method optimized in this study could be an alternative to carry out milk fat extraction as a routine method. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by

  4. IDENTIFICATION OF THE MASS DISTRIBUTIONS OF THE MILK FAT PHASE USING UNIVERSAL PEARSON DISTRIBUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Khvostov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider the problem of approximating the experimental values of the coefficient of attenuation of ultrasonic oscillations and the mass distribution of the fat globules in the milk and milk products. The analysis of experimental data in terms of the choice of the method of approximation was done. A approximating dependence is based on the solution of Pearson differential equations. The advantages of the proposed method for the type of approximation of the experimental data obtained. An algorithm for constructing a mathematical model describing the relaxation spectrum and mass distribution of the fat globules in the milk and milk products was implemented. As a result, a family of Pearson approximation curves of the experimental data shows the ability to qualitatively correctly describe the change in the distribution of the fat phase in the process of homogenization. It estimates the error of approximating dependence, which amounted to 18 %. It is shown that during of the process of homogenization of dairy products changes shape of the curve describing the distribution of the fat globules, in view of the fact that there is a local extremum, caused by the presence of the non-homogenized fat globules. The accuracy of the selected mathematical model is significantly reduced. At the same time, it loses its physical meaning and its parameters. To address the identified deviations in the proposed mass distribution of fat globules as a function with two modes. It is proved that the complexity of the model is not only doubles the number of its parameters, but also complicates the interpretation of measurement results in a control system, and makes it difficult to analyze the obtained parameters of approximation by decision-maker. As a result of approximation of experimental data suggested to use statistical moments of the distribution for problem decision.

  5. A case study of infant health promotion and corporate marketing of milk substitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Roger Lee

    2012-06-01

    The mismatch between the demand for, and supply of, health products has led to the increasing involvement of courts worldwide in health promotion and marketing. This study critically examines the implementation of one country's Milk Code within the framework of the International Code of Marketing of Breast-Milk Substitutes, and the efficacy of the judicial process in balancing corporate marketing and state regulatory objectives. Drawing upon the Philippine experience with its own Milk Code, it evaluates the capacities of courts to determine policy costs and risks against the benefits of delineating and containing corporate marketing strategies for milk substitutes and supplements. The study finds that the methodological and information-based challenges faced by courts in resolving multi-dimensional health issues may not be overcome without serious questions concerning the legitimacy of the judicial process itself. Despite the deficiencies of litigation and adjudication, the study notes the catalytic potential of a judicial decision in opening up vital policy space for future renegotiations among rival parties and interests. Third-party intervention is explored relative to this catalytic function.

  6. Effect of organic sources of minerals on fat-corrected milk yield of dairy cows in confinement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Antonio Del Valle

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effects of organic and inorganic sources of minerals in diets for mid-lactation dairy cows on milk yield and composition, intake and total apparent digestibility of dry matter and nutrients, blood parameters, microbial protein synthesis, and energy and protein balances. Twenty Holstein cows averaging 146.83±67.34 days in milk and weighing 625.30±80.37 kg were used. The experimental design was a crossover. Diets were composed of corn silage (50%, ground grain corn, and soybean meal, differing with regard to the sources of trace minerals, plus an organic and inorganic mix. The organic mineral source increased milk fat and fat-corrected milk yield without changing milk yield, intake, or total apparent digestibility. Blood parameters, microbial protein synthesis, and energy and protein balances were not affected by the sources of minerals. Organic sources of minerals improve milk fat yield without affecting other parameters.

  7. Reactions to a Low-Fat Milk Social Media Intervention in the US: The Choose 1% Milk Campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert John

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: Social media has increased in importance as a primary source of health communication but has received little academic attention. The purpose of this study was to conduct a content analysis of Facebook comments made in response to a five-week statewide social media intervention promoting use of 1% low-fat milk. Formative research identified health messages to promote, and 16 health messages consistent with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans were posted. During the intervention, 454 Facebook users posted 489 relevant comments; (2 Methods: The themes of user comments were identified using mixed-methods with qualitative identification of themes supplemented by cluster analysis; (3 Results: Six broad themes with 19 sub-themes are identified: (a sugar, fat, and nutrients, (b defiant, (c watery milk, (d personal preference, (e evidence and logic, and (f pure and natural; (4 The subject of milk is surprisingly controversial, a contested terrain in the mind of the consumer with a variety of competing perspectives that influence consumption. Public reactions to a social media nutrition education intervention are useful in understanding audience psychographics toward the desired behavior, require continual efforts to monitor and manage the social media campaign, but provide an opportunity to maximize the utility of real-time interactions with your audience.

  8. Effect of Phytosterols on the Crystallization Behavior of Oil-in-Water Milk Fat Emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zychowski, Lisa M; Logan, Amy; Augustin, Mary Ann; Kelly, Alan L; Zabara, Alexandru; O'Mahony, James A; Conn, Charlotte E; Auty, Mark A E

    2016-08-31

    Milk has been used commercially as a carrier for phytosterols, but there is limited knowledge on the effect of added plant sterols on the properties of the system. In this study, phytosterols dispersed in milk fat at a level of 0.3 or 0.6% were homogenized with an aqueous dispersion of whey protein isolate (WPI). The particle size, morphology, ζ-potential, and stability of the emulsions were investigated. Emulsion crystallization properties were examined through the use of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Synchrotron X-ray scattering at both small and wide angles. Phytosterol enrichment influenced the particle size and physical appearance of the emulsion droplets, but did not affect the stability or charge of the dispersed particles. DSC data demonstrated that, at the higher level of phytosterol addition, crystallization of milk fat was delayed, whereas, at the lower level, phytosterol enrichment induced nucleation and emulsion crystallization. These differences were attributed to the formation of separate phytosterol crystals within the emulsions at the high phytosterol concentration, as characterized by Synchrotron X-ray measurements. X-ray scattering patterns demonstrated the ability of the phytosterol to integrate within the milk fat triacylglycerol matrix, with a concomitant increase in longitudinal packing and system disorder. Understanding the consequences of adding phytosterols, on the physical and crystalline behavior of emulsions may enable the functional food industry to design more physically and chemically stable products.

  9. Breast milk fat content of mothers to small-for-gestational-age infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domany, K Armoni; Mandel, D; Kedem, M Hausman; Lubetzky, R

    2015-06-01

    Little is known about the composition of human milk (HM) expressed by mothers of asymmetrically growth-restricted infants. To test the null hypothesis that lactating mothers of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants produce milk with fat content similar to that of lactating mothers of infants whose growth is appropriate for gestational age (AGA). Fifty-six lactating mothers of newborns (26 SGA and 30 AGA) were recruited within the first 3 days of delivery. Creamatocrit (CMT) levels in HM were measured at 72 h, 7 days and 14 days postdelivery in capillary tubes after centrifugation at 9000 r.p.m. for 5 min. The groups did not differ in terms of maternal age, body mass index, gestational age (GA), pregnancy weight gain and parity. They differed significantly in terms of infant's birth weight by design. The mean CMT levels at the three time points were similar for the two groups. This remained true when timing of the sample (colostrum, transitional, mature milk) was introduced as a confounder in the analysis of variance (general linear model). Fat content of HM is not affected by fetal growth status. We suggest that mothers of SGA infants may be reassured that their milk contains adequate amount of fat that is appropriate for the growth of their infants.

  10. [Odd- and branched-chain fatty acids in milk fat--characteristic and health properties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamska, Agata; Rutkowska, Jarosława

    2014-08-22

    This review analyzes the current state of knowledge on odd- and branched-chain fatty acids present in milk fat. Special attention is devoted to the characteristic, synthesis in ruminants, factors affecting their content in milk fat and pro-health properties of these compounds. The group of odd- and branched-chain fatty acids includes mainly saturated fatty acids with one or more methyl branches in the iso or anteiso position. These fatty acids are largely derived from ruminal bacteria and they have been transferred to ruminant tissue (milk and meat). For that reason they have been used as biomarkers of rumen fermentation. Odd- and branched-chain fatty acids are exogenous products for humans, and therefore have specific properties. The results of research from recent decades show that odd- and branched-chain fatty acids have anti-cancer activity. Branched-chain fatty acids may reduce the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis. Additionally, these compounds have a beneficial effect on proper tissue function and on functioning and development of the infant gut, whereas odd-chain fatty acids are considered as biomarkers of milk fat intake by humans. So far, not all the mechanisms of activity of these compounds are known thoroughly. They should be more carefully studied for application of their biological effects in prevention and treatment.

  11. Odd- and branched-chain fatty acids in milk fat – characteristic and health properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Adamska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This review analyzes the current state of knowledge on odd- and branched-chain fatty acids present in milk fat. Special attention is devoted to the characteristic, synthesis in ruminants, factors affecting their content in milk fat and pro-health properties of these compounds. The group of odd- and branched-chain fatty acids includes mainly saturated fatty acids with one or more methyl branches in the iso or anteiso position. These fatty acids are largely derived from ruminal bacteria and they have been transferred to ruminant tissue (milk and meat. For that reason they have been used as biomarkers of rumen fermentation. Odd- and branched-chain fatty acids are exogenous products for humans, and therefore have specific properties. The results of research from recent decades show that odd- and branched-chain fatty acids have anti-cancer activity. Branched-chain fatty acids may reduce the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis. Additionally, these compounds have a beneficial effect on proper tissue function and on functioning and development of the infant gut, whereas odd-chain fatty acids are considered as biomarkers of milk fat intake by humans. So far, not all the mechanisms of activity of these compounds are known thoroughly. They should be more carefully studied for application of their biological effects in prevention and treatment.

  12. Using confocal laser scanning microscopy to probe the milk fat globule membrane and associated proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallier, Sophie; Gragson, Derek; Jiménez-Flores, Rafael; Everett, David

    2010-04-14

    The bovine milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) is an important, biologically relevant membrane due to its functional and health properties. Its composition has been thoroughly studied, but its structure, especially the lateral organization of its components, still remains unclear. We have used confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) to investigate the surface structure of the MFGM in globules with different degrees of processing using two types of fluorescently labeled phospholipid probes and a protein dye. Using this technique, we have observed heterogeneities in the distribution of MFGM lipids and proteins relating to the processing and size of the globules. The effect of pretreating the milk (centrifugation, pasteurization-homogenization and churning) was studied by double-staining the surface of the milk fat globules, followed by observation using CLSM, and by determining the phospholipid profile of raw milk, raw cream, processed milk and buttermilk powder. Our findings agree with other techniques by showing that the composition of the MFGM changes with processing through the loss of phospholipids and the adsorption of caseins and whey proteins onto the surface.

  13. Solubilization methods and reference 2-DE map of cow milk fat globules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Laura; Puglia, Michele; Landi, Claudia; Matteoni, Silvia; Perini, Daniele; Armini, Alessandro; Verani, Margherita; Trombetta, Claudia; Soldani, Patrizia; Roncada, Paola; Greppi, Gianfranco; Pallini, Vitaliano; Bini, Luca

    2009-07-21

    Milk fat globules (MFGs) are secretory vesicles assembled and secreted by mammary epithelial cells during lactation. They consist of fat globules surrounded by a lipid bilayer membrane which is derived from the apical membrane of the lactating cells. MFGs contain, besides lipids, proteins from the apical plasma membrane and from the cytoplasmatic material. Their peculiar vesicle nature makes them a suitable and easily available source of biological material in monitoring the physiopathological state of the mammary gland. Unfortunately, the conspicuous lipidic component of MFGs consistently limits protein extraction and purification for MFG proteomic investigations. This work deals with the development of a suitable procedure for protein extraction from the cow MFGs in order to qualitatively and quantitatively improve 2-D electropherograms of the MFG. MFGs were purified from raw milk by centrifugation and then delipidated/precipitated. The resulting protein pellets were solubilised using four different 2-D SDS PAGE compatible lysis buffers. Applied methodological procedures for protein extraction and evaluation of the resulting 2-D protein-pattern are presented and discussed. Using these procedures a reference 2-D map of cow milk fat globules is also reported. The majority of the obtained identifications was represented by proteins involved in lipid synthesis or in fat globule secretion.

  14. Effect of maize, rumen-protected fat and whey permeate on energy utilisation and milk fat composition in lactating goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Battelli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of utilisation of diets with different proportions of energy sources (starch, fat, lactose was studied with three pairs of lactating Saanen goats; the animals were fed, in a Latin square design, 3 silage-based diets containing (on DM basis the following energy sources: 32% maize meal (diet M; 4.7% rumen-protected fat (Megalac® and 23.5% maize meal (diet F; 9.8% milk whey permeate powder and 22.3% maize meal (diet W. During each of the three experimental periods, 8 days of total collection balance trials were conducted during which goats were allocated for 72 h (three 24 h cycles in open circuit respiration chambers to determine methane and heat production and, hence, the energy balance. Diet F, in comparison with diets M and W, significantly increased the milk fat content (4.13 vs 3.11 and 3.14%, P<0.001 and the 4%-FCM yield (3367 vs 2927 and 3055 g/d, P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively, while no relevant changes were observed for milk protein content and yield. Energy digestibility was equal in diets F and W. Megalac® did not decrease fibre digestibility. The partition of the gross energy intake (EI differed significantly between diets: diet M had lower DE (72.4 vs 74.3 and 74.3%; P<0.01 and ME (62.1 vs 64.7 and 63.5%; P<0.05 in comparison with diets F and W, respectively. Energy lost as methane was not significantly decreased by the inclusion of rumen- protected fat in the diet, although a trend for a reduction of methanogenesis was observed. Heat production deter- mined by treatment F was lower in comparison with the other treatments. This difference was almost significant (P=0.056 when expressed as a percentage of the ME. Milk energy output increased significantly (+12%, P<0.001 by including fat in the diet, as compared with treatments M and W: 21.4 vs 19.1 and 19.0% of the EI. The net ener- gy content of the protected fat was 27.94 MJ NEl/kg DM (+340% vs maize meal; its kl value resulted 0.77. The corresponding values for whey

  15. The effect of stage of lactation on daily milk yield, and milk fat and protein content in Tsigai and Improved Valachian ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Oravcová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyse the effect of stage of lactation on daily milk yield, and milk fat and protein content in Tsigai and Improved Valachian ewes. Breed lactation curves for daily milk yield, and milk fat and protein content were modelled as a sub-model of the three-trait animal model based on repeated test-day records that were collected by the Breeding Services of the Slovak Republic between 1995 and 2010. Data included 188403 (Tsigai and 352094 (Improved Valachian ewe’s performance records. Pedigree file included 35484 (Tsigai and 66994 (Improved Valachian animals with genetic ties to ewes with milk performance data. The fixed part of the model included parity, litter size and stage of lactation. The effect of days in milk (i.e. stage of lactation was fitted using Ali and Schaeffer lactation curve. The random part of the model included flock-test day effect, direct additive genetic effect, and permanent environmental effect of ewe nested within lactation. Due to limited number of test-day records in the first and the eighth month of lactation and related difficulties in modelling milk traits in these phases of lactation, the lactation curves were plotted between days 30 and 210. During lactation period the daily milk yield curves were decreasing, while milk fat and protein content were increasing. Because of higher changes at the beginning of lactation balanced with higher changes at the end of lactation in Tsigai and smaller changes at the beginning of lactation balanced with smaller changes at the end of lactation in Improved Valachian, 150d milk yield and average milk fat and protein content were almost the same in both breeds.

  16. Organoleptic, physical, and chemical tests of artificial feed for milk fish substituted by earthworm meal (Lumbricus sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Aslamyah

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Earthworms meal (Lumbricus sp. is very prospective as milkfish feed raw materials to substitute fish meal. Type of raw material and the exact composition will generate artificial feed quality with high levels of water stability, desirable, and safe for the fish. The purpose of this study to evaluate the quality of milkfish feed at different levels of fish meal substitution with earthworms (Lumbricus sp. based on organoleptic, physical, and chemical tests. The treatments tested levels of substitution of fish meal with earthworms meal in artificial feed milkfish, namely: feed A (0%; feed B (34,62%; feed C (65,38% and feed D (100%. The organoleptic and physical test showed that all the feed has a smooth texture, pungent aroma, and brown in color, with good water stability (rupture velocity ranged from 91,25±1,47 up to 92,87±1,67 minutes and dispersion of solids 11,14±1,55 up to 11,87±1,3%, hardness 84±0,18 up to 84,71±1,24%, sinking velocity 5,07±0,68 up to 5,64±0,17 cm/sec, the level of homogeneity of 81,34±0,17 up to 85,68±1,85%, the allure of 0,62±0,58 up to 0,65±0,12 cm/sec and delicious power of 0,059±0,024 up to 0,067±0,032 g/fish weight/day. The quality of feed is chemically with moisture content ranging from 8,4–9,1%, 16,7–19,46% ash, 31,07–32,37%, protein, 6,67–7,58% fat, crude fiber 7,45–7,87%, NFE (nitrogen free extracts 35,35–35,48%. Results show that different levels of substitution of fish meal with earthworms meal (Lumbricus sp. produces the same feed quality and contains nutrients in a range requirement milkfish. Accordingly, earthworms meal (Lumbricus sp. can be substituted for fish meal in fish milk feed artificial up to 100%.Keywords: substitution, fish meal, earthworms meal (Lumbricus sp., artificial feed, milkfish

  17. Novel determination of protein, fat, and lactose of milk by liquid scintillation counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noble, R.C.; Shand, J.H.; West, I.G.

    1981-01-01

    A method for routine determination of protein, fat, and lactose contents of milk is based on the ability of a scintillation counter to measure coloration or opalescence through attenuation of photons emitted from sealed miniature carbon-14 and hydrogen-3 radioactive standards. A series of simplified and accurate analytical procedures enable full advantage to be taken of the automatic facilities on the modern liquid scintillation counter. The methods provide several advantages over existing procedures. Accuracy of quantification was high as assessed by comparing the results with those derived by recommended Kjeldahl, Gerber, and colorimetric procedures for protein, fat, and lactose determinations, respectively

  18. Sensorial and fatty acid profile of ice cream manufactured with milk of crossbred cows fed palm oil and coconut fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradini, S A S; Madrona, G S; Visentainer, J V; Bonafe, E G; Carvalho, C B; Roche, P M; Prado, I N

    2014-11-01

    This work was carried out to study the nutritional quality of milk of cows fed palm oil (PAL) or coconut fat (COC), and the use of that milk as raw material for ice cream production. Three treatments were tested with 23 healthy cows: control (CON), PAL, and COC. The milk was collected at d 21 and 36 of the experimental diet. Proximate composition (moisture, ash, fat, protein, and carbohydrates) and fatty acid composition were evaluated on milk and ice cream, and sensorial analysis, color (lightness, green/red, and blue/yellow), overrun, and texture were evaluated on the ice cream. Fatty acids present in milk and ice cream were determined by gas chromatography. Sensory analysis results showed that the ice cream acceptability index was above 70%. No difference was observed for proximate composition in milk and ice cream. Chromatographic analysis showed an increase in saturated fatty acid concentration in CON and lower levels in PAL; polyunsaturated fatty acid concentration was higher in PAL and lower in CON, in milk and ice cream; monounsaturated fatty acid concentration in milk was higher in PAL and lower in CON but no difference was found in ice cream. Comparing n-3 content in milk and ice cream, we observed that PAL had higher levels than CON and COC. The results indicate that it is feasible to add sources of fat to the animal feed for fatty acid composition modulation of milk and ice cream. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Efficacy Study of Metho-Chelated Organic Minerals preparation Feeding on Milk Production and Fat Percentage in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somkuwar A.P.1

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to compare the effect of feeding different mineral based formulation on dairy cow production performance, namely milk yield and fat percentage. The trial was conducted with dairy cows across various stages of lactation (Early, Mid and Late stage with 30 cows per stage. The experimental treatments included: Bestmin Gold (Metho-chelated organic minerals, given 30 gms per day, Inorganic mineral preparation (Inorg. Mineral, @ 50 gms/day/ cow and control. The study lasted from 0 to 40 days. Milk yield and fat percentage of cows were measured individually on Days 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 40. The Bestmin Gold treated group (Metho-chelated organic minerals improved the milk yield, net gain in milk and the milk fat percentage of animals across the various stages of lactation as compared to in control and inorganic mineral treated group of animals. [Veterinary World 2011; 4(1.000: 19-21

  20. Lack of efficacy of a salience nudge for substituting selection of lower-calorie for higher-calorie milk in the work place.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Amy L; Bogomolova, Svetlana; Buckley, Jonathan D

    2015-06-02

    Obesity is a major burden on healthcare systems. Simple, cost effective interventions that encourage healthier behaviours are required. The present study evaluated the efficacy of a salience nudge for promoting a change in milk selection from full-cream to low-fat (lower calorie) in the kitchen of a university-based research institute that provided full-cream and low-fat milk free of charge. Milk selection was recorded for 12 weeks (baseline). A sign with the message "Pick me! I am low calorie" was then placed on the low-fat milk and consumption was recorded for a further 12 weeks. During baseline, selection of low-fat milk was greater than selection of full-cream milk (p = 0.001) with no significant milk-type × time interaction (p = 0.12). During the intervention period overall milk selection was not different from baseline (p = 0.22), with low-fat milk consumption remaining greater than full-cream milk selection (p nudging promoted a transient increase in low-fat milk consumption, but also increased selection of full-cream milk, indicating that nudging was not effective in promoting healthier milk choices.

  1. Lack of Efficacy of a Salience Nudge for Substituting Selection of Lower-Calorie for Higher-Calorie Milk in the Work Place

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Amy L.; Bogomolova, Svetlana; Buckley, Jonathan D.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a major burden on healthcare systems. Simple, cost effective interventions that encourage healthier behaviours are required. The present study evaluated the efficacy of a salience nudge for promoting a change in milk selection from full-cream to low-fat (lower-calorie) in the kitchen of a university-based research institute that provided full-cream and low-fat milk free of charge. Milk selection was recorded for 12 weeks (baseline). A sign with the message “Pick me! I am low calorie” was then placed on the low-fat milk and selection was recorded for a further 12 weeks. During baseline, selection of low-fat milk was greater than selection of full-cream milk (p = 0.001) with no significant milk-type × time interaction (p = 0.12). During the intervention period overall milk selection was not different from baseline (p = 0.22), with low-fat milk selection remaining greater than full-cream milk selection (p nudging promoted a transient increase in low-fat milk selection, but also increased selection of full-cream milk, indicating that nudging was not effective in promoting healthier milk choices. PMID:26043033

  2. Lack of Efficacy of a Salience Nudge for Substituting Selection of Lower-Calorie for Higher-Calorie Milk in the Work Place

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy L. Wilson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a major burden on healthcare systems. Simple, cost effective interventions that encourage healthier behaviours are required. The present study evaluated the efficacy of a salience nudge for promoting a change in milk selection from full-cream to low-fat (lower calorie in the kitchen of a university-based research institute that provided full-cream and low-fat milk free of charge. Milk selection was recorded for 12 weeks (baseline. A sign with the message “Pick me! I am low calorie” was then placed on the low-fat milk and consumption was recorded for a further 12 weeks. During baseline, selection of low-fat milk was greater than selection of full-cream milk (p = 0.001 with no significant milk-type × time interaction (p = 0.12. During the intervention period overall milk selection was not different from baseline (p = 0.22, with low-fat milk consumption remaining greater than full-cream milk selection (p < 0.001 and no significant milk-type × time interaction (p = 0.41. However, sub-analysis of the first two weeks of the intervention period indicated an increase in selection of both milk types (p = 0.03, but with a greater increase in low-fat milk selection (p = 0.01, milk-type × time interaction. However, milk selection then returned towards baseline during the rest of the intervention period. Thus, in the present setting, salience nudging promoted a transient increase in low-fat milk consumption, but also increased selection of full-cream milk, indicating that nudging was not effective in promoting healthier milk choices.

  3. Synchrotron Study on Crystallization Kinetics of Milk Fat under Shear Flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzanti, G.; Marangoni, A.; Idziak, S.

    2009-01-01

    A detailed synchrotron X-ray diffraction study on the kinetics of crystallization of anhydrous milk fat (AMF) and milk fat triacylglycerols (MFT) was done in a Couette cell at 17 C, 17.5 C and 20 C under shear rates between 0 and 2880 s-1. We observed shear-induced acceleration of the transition from phase ? to ?? and the presence of crystalline orientation, but no effect of shear on the onset time of phase ? was observed. A two stage regime was observed for the growth of phase ??. The first stage follows a series-parallel system of differential equations describing the conversion between liquid and crystalline phases. The second stage follows a diffusion-controlled regime. These mechanisms are consistent with the crystalline orientation, the growth of the crystalline domains and the observed displacement of the diffraction peak positions. The absence of the polar lipids explains the faster kinetics of MFT.

  4. Genetic Architecture of Milk, Fat, Protein, Mastitis and Fertility Studied using NGS Data in Holstein Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahana, Goutam; Janss, Luc; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt

    The use of genomic information in genetic evaluation has revolutionized dairy cattle breeding. It remains a major challenge to understand the genetic basis of variation for quantitative traits. Here, we study the genetic architecture for milk, fat, protein, mastitis and fertility indices in dairy...... cattle using NGS variants. The analysis was done using a linear mixed model (LMM) and a Bayesian mixture model (BMM). The top 10 QTL identified by LMM analyses explained 22.61, 23.86, 10.88, 18.58 and 14.83% of the total genetic variance for these traits respectively. Trait-specific sets of 4,964 SNPs...... from NGS variants (most ‘associated’ SNP for each 0.5 Mbp bin) explained 81.0, 81.6, 85.0, 60.4 and 70.9% of total genetic variance for milk, fat, protein, mastitis and fertility indices when analyzed simultaneously by BMM...

  5. Shear and Rapeseed Oil Addition Affect the Crystal Polymorphic Behavior of Milk Fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaufmann, Niels; Kirkensgaard, Jacob Judas Kain; Andersen, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    The effect of shear on the crystallization kinetics of anhydrous milk fat (AMF) and blends with 20 and 30 % w/w added rapeseed oil (RO) was studied. Pulse 1H NMR was used to follow the a to b0 polymorphic transition. The NMR method was confirmed and supported by SAXS/WAXS experiments. Samples were...... faster in the presence of RO allowing more room for the conformational changes to occur. Final SFC decreased with increasing RO content. Shear applied in 20 and 30 % blends caused the destruction of b0-related 3L structure leaving only 2L packing. In AMF and statically crystallized samples, both 3L and 2......L packing existed. Shear did not affect the amount of b crystals formed. The study shows that both shear and RO affect the polymorphic behavior of milk fat, and that 1H NMR is able to detect polymorphic transition in blends with up to 30 % w/w RO....

  6. Food intake regulation in children. Fat and sugar substitutes and intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, L L; Fisher, J O

    1997-05-23

    A series of experiments exploring children's responsiveness to manipulations of energy density and macronutrient content of foods have been reviewed to assess the nutritional impact of macronutrient substitutes on children's intake. In these experiments, the focus is on the extent to which the energy content of foods was a salient factor influencing children's food intake, and macronutrient substitutes were used as tools to investigate this issue. Therefore, although several different macronutrient substitutes have been used in this research, we do not have a parametric set of experiments systematically assessing the impact of a variety of macronutrient substitutes. Given this, what can we conclude from the existing data? When the energy density and macronutrient content of foods is altered through the use of macronutrient substitutes that reduce the energy content of foods, children tend to adjust for the missing energy, although this adjustment may be partial and incomplete. This suggests the possibility that when macronutrient substitutes are used to reduce the energy content of foods, children's energy intake may be reduced. This adjustment, however, will most likely be less than a "calorie for calorie" reduction. In addition, even among young children, there are individual differences in the extent to which children adjust their intake in response to macronutrient and energy manipulations. The data are more extensive and particularly clear for cases in which CHO manipulations are used to alter energy density, but there is evidence for adjustments in energy intake in response to alterations of the fat content of the diet. The compensation for energy is not macronutrient specific; that is, when the fat content of food is reduced to reduce energy density of foods, children do not selectively consume fat in subsequent meals. This means that manipulations of macronutrient content of foods that reduce foods' energy content may not result in alterations of energy

  7. Dietary prebiotics, milk fat globule membrane and lactoferrin affects structural neurodevelopment in the young piglet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austin T Mudd

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Milk fat globule membrane (MFGM and lactoferrin have been identified as two components that have potential to affect neurodevelopment. While concentrations of some MFGM constituents in infant formulas are within human milk range, they may not be present at optimal or clinically effective levels. However, lactoferrin levels of infant formulas are consistently reported to be lower than human milk. This study sought to provide a novel combination of prebiotics, bovine-derived milk fat globule membrane and lactoferrin and assess their influence on neurodevelopment. Methods: Twenty-four male piglets were provided either TEST (n=12 or CONT (n=12 diet from 2 to 31 d of age. Piglets underwent spatial T-maze assessment starting at 17 d of age, were subjected to magnetic resonance imaging at 30 d of age, and were euthanized for tissue collection at 31 d of age. Results: Diffusion tensor imaging revealed differences in radial (P = 0.032 and mean (P = 0.028 diffusivities in the internal capsule, where CONT piglets had higher rates of diffusion compared with TEST piglets. Voxel-based morphometry indicated larger (P < 0.05 differences in cortical grey and white matter concentrations, with CONT piglets having larger tissue clusters in these regions compared with TEST piglets. In the spatial T-maze assessment, CONT piglets exhibited shorter latency to choice compared with TEST piglets on d 2 of acquisition and d 3 and 4 of reversal. Conclusion: Observed differences in microstructure maturation of the internal capsule and cortical tissue concentrations suggest that piglets provided TEST diet were more advanced developmentally than piglets provided CONT diet. Therefore, supplementation of infant formula with prebiotics, milk fat globule membrane and lactoferrin may support neurodevelopment in human infants.

  8. Short communication: Effect of conjugated linoleic acid on concentrations of fat-soluble vitamins in milk of lactating ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitz, J O; Most, E; Eder, K

    2015-10-01

    Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) are well known as milk fat-reducing feed supplements in diets for lactating ruminants. However, their effects on milk concentrations of fat-soluble vitamins are unknown. This study was performed to investigate the hypothesis that CLA affect the concentrations of retinol and tocopherol in ewe milk. For that purpose, group-housed Merino ewes (101 ± 13.7 kg) nursing twin lambs and fed with a hay:concentrate diet were supplemented with either 45 g of a rumen-protected CLA supplement containing 3.4 g of cis-9,trans-11-CLA and 3.4 g of trans-10,cis-12-CLA (CLA group, n=11) or with 45 g of a hydrogenated vegetable fat (control group, n=12) per ewe per day during the first 6 wk of lactation. Feed intake was recorded daily (concentrate) or weekly (hay) per group. Milk spot samples were collected at the beginning of the experiment (5 ± 2.4 d postpartum) and then weekly after lambs had been separated for 2 h from their mothers. The milk fat content was determined and feed and milk were analyzed for concentrations of α-, γ-, and δ-tocopherol and for retinol by HPLC. Dietary intake of tocopherol and retinol was similar in both groups. Feeding CLA decreased milk fat concentration by 23% on average, and during the first 3 wk of the study milk tocopherol concentration tended to be increased by feeding CLA (+17%), but retinol concentrations were not influenced. When related to milk fat, CLA feeding significantly increased both milk tocopherol (+40%) and retinol (+32%) and these effects were evident during the whole experimental period corresponding to the first half of lactation. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Effect of Substrat Ratio Fish Oil and Milk Fat on Synthesis of Structured Lipid by Enzimatic Transesterification

    OpenAIRE

    Subroto, Edy; Tensiska, Tensiska; Indiarto, Rossi; Hidayat, Chusnul

    2013-01-01

    Structured lipid with saturated fatty acid (SFA) at outer position and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) at sn-2 position has good dietary and stabilized characteristics. In this research structured lipids was synthesized by enzymatic transesterification between fish oil and milk fat. The reaction was catalyzed by lipase from Candida antartica that has randomized specificity to inter esterification. The factor substrat ratio of fish oil and milk fat were studied. Reaction operated at 40 oC fo...

  10. Ultrasonically enhanced fractionation of milk fat in a litre-scale prototype vessel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Thomas; Johansson, Linda; Mawson, Raymond; McArthur, Sally L; Manasseh, Richard; Juliano, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    The ultrasonic fractionation of milk fat in whole milk to fractions with distinct particle size distributions was demonstrated using a stage-based ultrasound-enhanced gravity separation protocol. Firstly, a single stage ultrasound gravity separation was characterised after various sonication durations (5-20 min) with a mass balance, where defined volume partitions were removed across the height of the separation vessel to determine the fat content and size distribution of fat droplets. Subsequent trials using ultrasound-enhanced gravity separation were carried out in three consecutive stages. Each stage consisted of 5 min sonication, with single and dual transducer configurations at 1 MHz and 2 MHz, followed by aliquot collection for particle size characterisation of the formed layers located at the bottom and top of the vessel. After each sonication stage, gentle removal of the separated fat layer located at the top was performed. Results indicated that ultrasound promoted the formation of a gradient of vertically increasing fat concentration and particle size across the height of the separation vessel, which became more pronounced with extended sonication time. Ultrasound-enhanced fractionation provided fat enriched fractions located at the top of the vessel of up to 13 ± 1% (w/v) with larger globules present in the particle size distributions. In contrast, semi-skim milk fractions located at the bottom of the vessel as low as 1.2 ± 0.01% (w/v) could be produced, containing proportionally smaller sized fat globules. Particle size differentiation was enhanced at higher ultrasound energy input (up to 347 W/L). In particular, dual transducer after three-stage operation at maximum energy input provided highest mean particle size differentiation with up to 0.9 μm reduction in the semi-skim fractions. Higher frequency ultrasound at 2 MHz was more effective in manipulating smaller sized fat globules retained in the later stages of skimming than 1 MHz. While 2 MHz

  11. Standardization of Fat:SNF ratio of milk and addition of sprouted wheat fada (semolina) for the manufacture of halvasan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Apurva H; Patel, H G; Prajapati, P S; Prajapati, J P

    2015-04-01

    Traditional Indian Dairy Products such as Halvasan are manufactured in India using an age old practice. For manufacture of such products industrially, a standard formulation is required. Halvasan is a region specific, very popular heat desiccated milk product but has not been studied scientifically. Fat and Solids-not-fat (SNF) plays an important role in physico-chemical, sensory, textural characteristics and also the shelf life of any milk sweet. Hence for process standardization of Halvasan manufacture, different levels of Fat:SNF ratios i.e. 0.44, 0.55, 0.66 and 0.77 of milk were studied so that an optimum level yielding best organoleptic characteristics in final product can be selected. The product was made from milk standardized to these ratios of Fat:SNF and the product was manufactured as per the method tentatively employed on the basis of characterization of market samples of the product in laboratory. Based on the sensory results obtained, a Fat:SNF ratio of 0.66 for the milk has been selected. In the similar way, for standardizing the rate of addition of fada (semolina); 30, 40, 50 and 60 g fada (semolina) per kg of milk were added and based on the sensory observations, the level of fada (semolina) addition @50 gm/kg of milk was adjudged the best for Halvasan manufacture and hence selected.

  12. The heritability of milk yield and fat percentage in the Friesian cattle in the province of Friesland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El-Shimy, S.A.F.

    1956-01-01

    The heritability of milk yield and fat percentage was calculated of herd-registered cattle in Friesland. The estimates were based on daughter-dam comparisons. Comparisons covered the first three lactations. The average heritability estimates of milk yield within sires, and according to the different

  13. The effect of replacing lactose by starch on protein and fat digestion in milk-fed veal calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pluschke, A.M.; Gilbert, M.S.; Williams, B.A.; Borne, van den J.J.G.C.; Schols, H.A.; Gerrits, W.J.J.

    2016-01-01

    Replacing dairy components from milk replacer (MR) with vegetable products has been previously associated with decreased protein and fat digestibility in milk-fed calves resulting in lower live weight gain. In this experiment, the major carbohydrate source in MR, lactose, was partly replaced with

  14. Genome-wide association and biological pathway analysis for milk-fat composition in Danish Holstein and Danish Jersey cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buitenhuis, Bart; Janss, Luc L G; Poulsen, Nina Aagaard

    2014-01-01

    provide new possibilities to change the milk fat composition by selective breeding. In this study a genome wide association scan (GWAS) in the DH and DJ was performed for a detailed milk fatty acid (FA) profile using the HD bovine SNP array and subsequently a biological pathway analysis based on the SNP...

  15. Compliance status of product labels to the international code on marketing of breast milk substitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergin, Ahmet; Hatipoğlu, Celile; Bozkurt, Ali Ihsan; Erdoğan, Aslı; Güler, Serdar; Ince, Gülberat; Kavurgacı, Nuran; Oz, Ahmet; Yeniay, Mustafa K

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the compliance status of product labels regarding Article 9 of the International Code on Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes (the Code) in Denizli province, Turkey. A cross-sectional study design was employed to determine the compliance status. The product labels were obtained from a convenience sample of five supermarkets, one store and 5 pharmacies in the City centre and district of Honaz. Using a data collection form prepared by previously published studies, data were collected between July 26, 2010 and August 06, 2010. Data collection form included 13 criteria. In addition, we checked the boxes for the availability of a Turkish written label. Forty product labels of 7 companies were reached and evaluated. These products consisted of 83.0% of the products marketed by these companies in Turkey. Thirty seven (92.5%) of the labels violated Article 9 of the Code in terms of one or more criteria. Thirty four (85.0%) of the labels had photos or pictures idealizing the use of infant formula. Nine (22.5%) had a photo, a picture or any representation of an infant, and five (12.5%) had text which idealize the use of infant formula or discouraging breastfeeding. Eight (20%) did not state that breastfeeding is the best. Four (10%) had a term such as 'similar to breast milk or human milk'. In conclusion, the majority of the product labels of breast milk substitutes marketed in our country violate the Code. It is appropriate that the Turkish Ministry of Health, medical organizations, companies, and NGOs work more actively to increase awareness of this issue.

  16. The distribution of environmental contaminants and pharmaceuticals among skim milk, milk fat, curd, whey, and milk protein fractions through milk processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenty-seven environmental contaminants and pharmaceuticals encompassing a wide range of physicochemical properties were utilized to determine the effects of milk processing on xenobiotic distribution among milk fractions. Target compounds included radiolabeled antibiotics [ciprofloxacin (CIPR), cl...

  17. Studies on preparation of medium fat liquid dairy whitener from buffalo milk employing ultrafiltration process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatkar, Sunil Kumar; Gupta, Vijay Kumar; Khatkar, Anju Boora

    2014-09-01

    A study was conducted to develop good quality medium fat liquid dairy whitener from buffalo milk employing ultrafiltration (UF) process. The buffalo skim milk was UF concentrated to 4.05 to 4.18 (23.63 ± 0.30 % TS) fold and standardized to 10 % fat (on Dry Matter Basis) (i.e. formulation) and homogenized at 175.76 kg/cm(2). The addition of 0.4 % mixture of monosodium and disodium phosphate (2:1 w/w) improved the heat stability of homogenized formulation to an optimum of 66 min. The bland flavour of homogenized formulation with added 0.4 % mixture of monosodium phosphate and disodium phosphate (2:1 w/w) and 18 % sugar (on DMB) (i.e. medium fat liquid dairy whitener) was improved significantly (P coffee was significantly (P market dairy whitener samples. At 2 % solids level, standardized medium fat liquid dairy whitener in tea/coffee fetched significantly (P market sample at 3 % solids level. There could be clear 33 % solids quantity saving in case of developed product compared to market dairy whitener sample.

  18. Milk Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... contain blood Abdominal cramps Runny nose Watery eyes Colic, in babies Milk allergy or milk intolerance? A ... fat milk, skim milk, buttermilk Butter Yogurt Ice cream, gelato Cheese and anything that contains cheese Half- ...

  19. Type of homogenization and fat loss during continuous infusion of human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Lara, Nadia Raquel; Escuder-Vieco, Diana; Alonso Díaz, Clara; Vázquez Román, Sara; De la Cruz-Bértolo, Javier; Pallás-Alonso, Carmen Rosa

    2014-11-01

    Substantial fat loss may occur during continuous feeding of human milk (HM). A decrease of fat loss has been described following homogenization. Well-established methods of homogenization of HM for routine use in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) would be desirable. We compared the loss of fat based on the use of 3 different methods for homogenizing thawed HM during continuous feeding. Sixteen frozen donor HM samples were thawed, homogenized with ultrasound and separated into 3 aliquots ("baseline agitation," "hourly agitation," and "ultrasound"), and then frozen for 48 hours. Aliquots were thawed again and a baseline agitation was applied. Subsequently, aliquots baseline agitation and hourly agitation were drawn into a syringe, while ultrasound was applied to aliquot ultrasound before it was drawn into a syringe. The syringes were loaded into a pump (2 mL/h; 4 hours). At hourly intervals the hourly agitation infusion was stopped, the syringe was disconnected and gently shaken. During infusion, samples from the 3 groups were collected hourly for analysis of fat and caloric content. The 3 groups of homogenization showed similar fat content at the beginning of the infusion. For fat, mean (SD) hourly changes of -0.03 (0.01), -0.09 (0.01), and -0.09 (0.01) g/dL were observed for the hourly agitation, baseline agitation, and ultrasound groups, respectively. The decrease was smaller for the hourly agitation group (P homogenization is used. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Evaluation of increased vitamin D fortification in high-temperature, short-time-processed 2% milk, UHT-processed 2% fat chocolate milk, and low-fat strawberry yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, A L; Metzger, L E

    2010-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of increased vitamin D fortification (250 IU/serving) of high-temperature, short-time (HTST)-processed 2% fat milk, UHT-processed 2% fat chocolate milk, and low-fat strawberry yogurt on the sensory characteristics and stability of vitamin D during processing and storage. Three replicates of HTST pasteurized 2% fat milk, UHT pasteurized 2% fat chocolate milk, and low-fat strawberry yogurt were manufactured. Each of the 3 replicates for all products contained a control (no vitamin D fortification), a treatment group with 100 IU vitamin D/serving (current level of vitamin D fortification), and a treatment group with 250 IU vitamin D/serving. A cold-water dispersible vitamin D(3) concentrate was used for all fortifications. The HTST-processed 2% fat milk was stored for 21 d, with vitamin D analysis done before processing and on d 0, 14, and 21. Sensory analysis was conducted on d 14. The UHT-processed 2% fat chocolate milk was stored for 60 d, with vitamin D analysis done before processing and on d 0, 40, and 60. Sensory analysis was conducted on d 40. Low-fat strawberry yogurt was stored for 42 d, with vitamin D analysis done before processing, and on d 0, 28, and 42. Sensory analysis was conducted on d 28. Vitamin D levels in the fortified products were found to be similar to the target levels of fortification (100 and 250 IU vitamin D per serving) for all products, indicating no loss of vitamin D during processing. Vitamin D was also found to be stable over the shelf life of each product. Increasing the fortification of vitamin D from 100 to 250 IU/serving did not result in a change in the sensory characteristics of HTST-processed 2% fat milk, UHT-processed 2% fat chocolate milk, or low-fat strawberry yogurt. These results indicate that it is feasible to increase vitamin D fortification from 100 to 250 IU per serving in these products. Copyright 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc

  1. Comparative proteomics of milk fat globule membrane proteins from transgenic cloned cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunchao Sui

    Full Text Available The use of transgenic livestock is providing new methods for obtaining pharmaceutically useful proteins. However, the protein expression profiles of the transgenic animals, including expression of milk fat globule membrane (MFGM proteins, have not been well characterized. In this study, we compared the MFGM protein expression profile of the colostrum and mature milk from three lines of transgenic cloned (TC cattle, i.e., expressing recombinant human α-lactalbumin (TC-LA, lactoferrin (TC-LF or lysozyme (TC-LZ in the mammary gland, with those from cloned non-transgenic (C and conventionally bred normal animals (N. We identified 1, 225 proteins in milk MFGM, 166 of which were specifically expressed only in the TC-LA group, 265 only in the TC-LF group, and 184 only in the TC-LZ group. There were 43 proteins expressed only in the transgenic cloned animals, but the concentrations of these proteins were below the detection limit of silver staining. Functional analysis also showed that the 43 proteins had no obvious influence on the bovine mammary gland. Quantitative comparison revealed that MFGM proteins were up- or down-regulated more than twofold in the TC and C groups compared to N group: 126 in colostrum and 77 in mature milk of the TC-LA group; 157 in colostrum and 222 in mature milk of the TC-LF group; 49 in colostrum and 98 in mature milk of the TC-LZ group; 98 in colostrum and 132 in mature milk in the C group. These up- and down-regulated proteins in the transgenic animals were not associated with a particular biological function or pathway, which appears that expression of certain exogenous proteins has no general deleterious effects on the cattle mammary gland.

  2. The effect of inulin as a fat substitute on the physicochemical and sensory properties of chicken sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaei, Fereshteh; Hojjatoleslamy, Mohammad; Hashemi Dehkordi, Seyyed Majid

    2018-03-01

    Due to its high thermal resistance and compatibility with the sausage emulsion system, the long-chain inulin can be used as a fat substitute in the formulation of this product. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of inulin on the physicochemical, textural, and sensory properties of chicken sausages. The study included treatments of 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% substitution. After preparing the samples, their physicochemical, textural, calorimetric, and sensory properties were evaluated. The treatment of 100% substitution of inulin had the maximum amount of sugar (29.90%), moisture (72.63%), protein (51.34), ash (6.95%), and salt (4.02%) (dry basis). The fat content was decreased with the increased levels of inulin substitution (p inulin reduced hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, and stringiness, but increased springiness and chewiness up to the 25% substitution of inulin. The highest color difference and hue angle were related to 100% substitution treatment. The sensory evaluation of the samples showed that with the increase in the amount of inulin, the mean scores of the factors including color, appearance, and texture were increased, but the mean scores of smell and mouthfeel were decreased. Overall, the substitution of the entire fat existing in the formulation of the sausage with inulin led to the best physicochemical, textural, colorimetric, and sensory results. The use of inulin could be recommended as a fat substitute in the formulation of chicken sausages.

  3. Supplementation with bypass fat in silvopastoral systems diminishes the ratio of milk saturated/unsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahecha, L; Angulo, J; Salazar, B; Cerón, M; Gallo, J; Molina, C H; Molina, E J; Suárez, J F; Lopera, J J; Olivera, M

    2008-04-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate if supplementing bypass fat to cows under silvopastoral systems, increases the concentration of unsaturated fatty acids in milk, thus improving the saturated/ unsaturated ratio without a negative effect on total milk yield in fat or protein. Two concentrations of two different sources of bypass fat were evaluated for 40 days, each in a group of 24 multiparous Lucerna (Colombian breed) cows. A cross-over design of 8 Latin squares 3 x 3 was used. The variables submitted to analysis were body condition, daily milk production and milk composition. Body condition, milk yield and milk quality were not different but there was a significant decrease in the amount of saturated fatty acid in both experiments while the unsaturated fat increased significantly in experiment 1 and remained stable in experiment 2. Results, such as these have as far as we know, not been reported previously and they provide an approach for the improvement of milk as a "functional food".

  4. Variations in protein and fat contents and their fractions in milk from two species fed different forages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholif, S M; El-Shewy, A A; Morsy, T A; Abd El-Rahman, H H

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed at determining the variations in milk constituents which could be varied by feed and animal species. To achieve this goal, two groups of homoparity Baladi cows and Egyptian buffaloes (n = 20 per species) were used. Each group was divided into two subgroups (n = 10): subgroup I received legume forage (Egyptian clover) and subgroup II received grass forage (sorghum forage). All experimental animals were fed the diet consisting of concentrate, forage and rice straw as 50, 25 and 25% of dry matter intake respectively. Milk samples were taken for analysis. The trial lasted until the 3rd month of parturition. The main results indicated that lactating cattle fed legume forage significantly (p ≤ 0.01) had more content of casein nitrogen (513 mg/100 ml milk), lower content of glutamic acid (23.56 g/100 g milk protein) and more content of cis-9, trans-11 18:2 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) (0.77 g/100 g milk fat) compared with 433, 26.67 and 0.53, respectively, for cattle fed grass forage. With regard to the species effect, results showed that buffalo milk appeared to contain significantly higher (p ≤ 0.01) contents of casein nitrogen, phenylalanine, glutamic and arachidonic acid compared with cow's milk. However, the latter was significantly (p ≤ 0.01) more in the cis-9, trans-11CLA (0.59 g/100 g milk fat) than that in buffalo milk (0.47 g/100 g milk fat). The results revealed that not only forage type played a critical role in determining the variations of milk nitrogen distribution, milk amino acids and fatty acids but also animal species had a significant effect on these parameters. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Effects of fat content, pasteurization method, homogenization pressure, and storage time on the mechanical and sensory properties of bovine milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y; Joyner, H S; Carter, B G; Drake, M A

    2018-04-01

    Fluid milk may be pasteurized by high-temperature short-time pasteurization (HTST) or ultrapasteurization (UP). Literature suggests that UP increases milk astringency, but definitive studies have not demonstrated this effect. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the effects of pasteurization method, fat content, homogenization pressure, and storage time on milk sensory and mechanical behaviors. Raw skim (fat), 2%, and 5% fat milk was pasteurized in duplicate by indirect UP (140°C, 2.3 s) or by HTST pasteurization (78°C, 15 s), homogenized at 20.7 MPa, and stored at 4°C for 8 wk. Additionally, 2% fat milk was processed by indirect UP and homogenized at 13.8, 20.7, and 27.6 MPa and stored at 4°C for 8 wk. Sensory profiling, instrumental viscosity, and friction profiles of all milk were evaluated at 25°C after storage times of 1, 4, and 8 wk. Sodium dodecyl sulfate PAGE and confocal laser scanning microscopy were used to determine protein structural changes in milk at these time points. Fresh HTST milk was processed at wk 7 for wk 8 evaluations. Ultrapasteurization increased milk sensory and instrumental viscosity compared with HTST pasteurization. Increased fat content increased sensory and instrumental viscosity, and decreased astringency and friction profiles. Astringency, mixed regimen friction profiles, and sensory viscosity also increased for UP versus HTST. Increased storage time showed no effect on sensory viscosity or mechanical viscosity. However, increased storage time generally resulted in increased friction profiles and astringency. Sodium dodecyl sulfate PAGE and confocal laser scanning microscopy showed increased denatured whey protein in UP milk compared with HTST milk. The aggregates or network formed by these proteins and casein micelles likely caused the increase in viscosity and friction profiles during storage. Homogenization pressure did not significantly affect friction behaviors, mechanical viscosity, or astringency; however

  6. Structural changes of bovine milk fat globules during in vitro digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallier, S; Ye, A; Singh, H

    2012-07-01

    An in vitro digestion model that simulated gastric and intestinal fasting conditions was used to monitor the physical, chemical, and structural changes of fat globules from raw bovine milk. During in vitro gastric digestion, the fat globules were stable under low-acidic conditions. Some peptides and β-lactoglobulin were resistant to proteolysis by pepsin. Phospholipids, proteins, and peptides stabilized the globules in the stomach model. During in vitro intestinal digestion, most of the β-lactoglobulin and residual peptides were hydrolyzed by trypsin and chymotrypsin, and the lipolytic products, released from the hydrolysis of the triglyceride core of the globules, led to destabilization and coalescence of the globules. By accumulating at the surface of the fat globules, the lipolytic products formed a lamellar phase and their solubilization by bile salts resulted in the formation of disk-shaped micelles. This study brings new interesting insights on the digestion of bovine milk. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Shredded beet pulp substituted for corn silage in diets fed to dairy cows under ambient heat stress: Feed intake, total-tract digestibility, plasma metabolites, and milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi, N; Ghorbani, G R; Sadeghi-Sefidmazgi, A; Nasrollahi, S M; Beauchemin, K A

    2016-11-01

    The effects of substituting increasing concentrations of dried, shredded beet pulp for corn silage on dry matter intake, nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation, blood metabolites, and milk production of lactating dairy cows was evaluated under conditions of ambient heat stress. Four multiparous (126±13d in milk) and 4 primiparous (121±11d in milk) Holstein cows were used in a 4×4 Latin square design experiment with 4 periods of 21d. Each period had 14d of adaptation and 7d of sampling, and parity was the square. Dietary treatments were (dry matter basis): 16% of dietary dry matter as corn silage without BP (0BP, control diet); 8% corn silage and 8% beet pulp (8BP); 4% corn silage and 12% beet pulp (12BP); and 0% corn silage and 16% beet pulp (16BP). Alfalfa hay was included in all diets (24% dietary dry matter). Dietary concentrations of forage neutral detergent fiber and nonfiber carbohydrates were 21.3 and 39.2% (0BP), 16.5 and 40.9% (8BP), 14.1 and 42.2% (12BP), and 11.7 and 43.4% (16BP), respectively (dry matter basis). The ambient temperature-humidity index indicated that the cows were in heat stress for almost the entire duration of the study. Dry matter intake and nutrient digestibilities were similar across treatments and between multi- and primiparous cows. Mean rumen pH tended to decrease with increasing proportions of beet pulp in the diet. Also, increasing proportions of beet pulp in the diet linearly decreased acetate and butyrate concentrations in the rumen and increased propionate concentrations, leading to a linear decrease in acetate:propionate ratio. Milk yield linearly increased (38.5, 39.3, 40.9, and 39.6kg/d for 0BP, 8BP, 12BP, and 16BP, respectively), but fat content linearly decreased (3.46, 3.47, 3.27, and 2.99), such that we observed no effect on fat-corrected milk. Substituting beet pulp for corn silage increased the neutral detergent insoluble crude protein content of the diet, leading to a decrease in rumen concentration of

  8. Milk fat globule membrane isolate induces apoptosis in HT-29 human colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanabria, Romina; Tellez, Angela M; Griffiths, Mansel; Corredig, Milena

    2013-02-01

    A native milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) isolate obtained from raw milk was assessed for its anticarcinogenic capacity using a colon cancer cell line (HT-29). To prevent microbial contamination and eliminate the presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the milk used for MFGM isolation, the milk was obtained from the mammary glands of cows using a catheter. Cell proliferation assays demonstrated a reduction of exponentially growing cancer cells of up to 53%, expressed as DNA synthesis (BrdU test), after 72 h stimulation with 100 μg of MFGM protein per mL. Using a similar MFGM concentration, the sulforhodamine B assay resulted in 57% reduction of cell density after 48 h incubation. This bioactivity was comparable to that of known anticancer drugs, 0.1 mM melphalan and 20 μM C2-ceramide, which achieved a cell division reduction of 25 and 40%, respectively, under the same experimental conditions. The toxic effect of the MFGM extracts on HT-29 cells was confirmed by the significant reduction in lactate dehydrogenase enzyme (LDH) by the residual viable cells. An increase of caspase-3 activity (up to 26%) led to the conclusion that MFGM has an apoptotic effect on HT-29 cancer cells.

  9. Characteristics and fatty acid composition of milk fat from Saudi Aradi goat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sbihi, H. M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Goat milk is the second most prevalent edible milk in Saudi Arabia and is one of the most prominently produced milks in the world. Few studies have focused on the physicochemical properties of goat milk fat (GMF. Samples of Saudi Aradi goat milk were obtained during the spring dairy season to determine the physicochemical characteristics and fatty acid composition of the GMF. The physicochemical properties of Saudi Aradi GMF were as follows: iodine value, 23.2 g of I2·100 g−1 of fat; saponification value, 213.2 mg KOH·g−1 of fat; refractive index (25 °C, 1.4583; unsaponifiable matter, 0.54%; acidity, 0.52%; and peroxide value, 2.07 meq O2·kg−1 of fat. α-Tocopherol was the major tocol (70.9%, followed by β-tocopherol (22.02%. GMF had significant contents of polyunsaturated fatty acid (FA (6.16%, conjugated linolenic acid (0.36%, saturated FA (67.04% and branched FA (1.98%. The thermal profiles of the Saudi Aradi GMF samples were examined using a thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. Saudi Aradi GMF showed some absorbance in the UV-C range. This study demonstrated that the milk fat from the Saudi goat has physically and chemically favorable properties, as well as good nutritional properties, as a source of essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamin E.La leche de cabra es la segunda leche comestible predominante en Arabia Saudí y es una de las leches de mayor producción en el mundo. Pocos estudios se han centrado en las propiedades físico-químicas de la grasa de leche de cabra (GLC. Muestras de leche de cabra Arabia Saudí fueron obtenidas durante la temporada de mayor producción lechera, durante la primavera, y se determinaron sus características físico- químicas y la composición de ácidos grasos de la GLC. Las propiedades fisicoquímicas determinadas de la GLC de Arabia Aradi fueron las siguientes: índice de yodo, 23,2 g de I2·100 g−1 de grasa; índice de saponificación: 213

  10. Stability of milk fat globule membrane proteins toward human enzymatic gastrointestinal digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, T T; Van de Wiele, T; Do, T N H; Debyser, G; Struijs, K; Devreese, B; Dewettinck, K; Van Camp, J

    2012-05-01

    The milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) fraction refers to the thin film of polar lipids and membrane proteins that surrounds fat globules in milk. It is its unique biochemical composition that renders MFGM with some beneficial biological activities, such as anti-adhesive effects toward pathogens. However, a prerequisite for the putative bioactivity of MFGM is its stability during gastrointestinal digestion. We, therefore, subjected MFGM material, isolated from raw milk, to an in vitro enzymatic gastrointestinal digestion. Sodium dodecyl sulfate PAGE, in combination with 2 staining methods, Coomassie Blue and periodic acid Schiff staining, was used to evaluate polypeptide patterns of the digest, whereas mass spectrometry was used to confirm the presence of specific MFGM proteins. Generally, it was observed that glycoproteins showed higher resistance to endogenous proteases compared with non-glycosylated proteins. Mucin 1 displayed the highest resistance to digestion and a considerable part of this protein was still detected at its original molecular weight after gastric and small intestine digestion. Cluster of differentiation 36 was also quite resistant to pepsin. A significant part of periodic acid Schiff 6/7 survived the gastric digestion, provided that the lipid moiety was not removed from the MFGM material. Overall, MFGM glycoproteins are generally more resistant to gastrointestinal digestion than serum milk proteins and the presence of lipids, besides glycosylation, may protect MFGM glycoproteins from gastrointestinal digestion. This gastrointestinal stability makes MFGM glycoproteins amenable to further studies in which their putative health-promoting effects can be explored. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Short communication: Genetic study of methane production predicted from milk fat composition in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Engelen, S; Bovenhuis, H; Dijkstra, J; van Arendonk, J A M; Visker, M H P W

    2015-11-01

    Dairy cows produce enteric methane, a greenhouse gas with 25 times the global warming potential of CO2. Breeding could make a permanent, cumulative, and long-term contribution to methane reduction. Due to a lack of accurate, repeatable, individual methane measurements needed for breeding, indicators of methane production based on milk fatty acids have been proposed. The aim of the present study was to quantify the genetic variation for predicted methane yields. The milk fat composition of 1,905 first-lactation Dutch Holstein-Friesian cows was used to investigate 3 different predicted methane yields (g/kg of DMI): Methane1, Methane2, and Methane3. Methane1 was based on the milk fat proportions of C17:0anteiso, C18:1 rans-10+11, C18:1 cis-11, and C18:1 cis-13 (R(2)=0.73). Methane2 was based on C4:0, C18:0, C18:1 trans-10+11, and C18:1 cis-11 (R(2)=0.70). Methane3 was based on C4:0, C6:0, and C18:1 trans-10+11 (R(2)=0.63). Predicted methane yields were demonstrated to be heritable traits, with heritabilities between 0.12 and 0.44. Breeding can, thus, be used to decrease methane production predicted based on milk fatty acids. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A social marketing campaign to promote low-fat milk consumption in an inner-city Latino community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wechsler, H; Wernick, S M

    1992-01-01

    The authors proposed the Lowfat Milk Campaign, a multifaceted social marketing campaign to promote the use of low-fat milk in the Washington Heights-Inwood neighborhood of New York City, a low-income, inner-city, Latino community. The campaign was designed for implementation by the Washington Heights-Inwood Health Heart Program, a community-based cardiovascular disease prevention agency. The first phase of the campaign began in November 1990. A followup phase for the period 1991-92 is in progress. The campaign focuses on a clear, relatively easily accomplished behavioral change, a switch by consumers of whole milk to low-fat milk, which may significantly reduce the fat consumption of persons in such a population, particularly children. The campaign strategy featured a mix of traditional health education methods, intensive local information media publicity, and innovative marketing techniques. In addition to increasing consumer demand for low-fat milk, the campaign successfully promoted institutional changes that are expected to facilitate healthy dietary choices in the future by members of the study population. Schools and other institutions that serve milk have been persuaded to begin offering low-fat milk in addition to, or instead of, whole milk. An essential component of campaign strategy was building support from key community organizations and leaders. Significant assistance was provided by the local school district, parents associations, churches, newspapers, radio stations, fraternal organizations, and a coalition of child care agencies. The campaign demonstrates a cost effective and culturally sensitive approach to promoting important cardiovascular health behavior changes by an underserved population.

  13. Shifts in bacterial community composition in the rumen of lactating dairy cows under milk fat-depressing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimer, P J; Stevenson, D M; Mertens, D R

    2010-01-01

    Eighteen ruminally cannulated dairy cattle were fed a series of diets (in 28-d periods) designed to elicit different degrees of milk fat depression (MFD) for the purpose of relating MFD to ruminal bacterial populations. Cows were fed a TMR containing 25% starch (DM basis) supplied as corn silage, a slowly fermented starch (SFS treatment, period 1), then switched to a TMR containing 27% starch, much of it supplied as ground high-moisture corn, a rapidly fermented starch (RFS treatment, period 2). In period 3, the RFS diet was amended with 13.6 mg of monensin/kg of DM (RFS/Mon treatment), and in period 4, the cows were returned to the RFS diet without monensin (RFS/Post treatment). Effect of both starch source and monensin on milk fat percentage varied by cow, and cluster analysis identified 4 pairs of cows having distinct milk fat patterns. Archived ruminal liquors and solids from the 4 pairs were processed to isolate bacterial DNA, which was subjected to automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis followed by correspondence analysis to visualize bacterial community composition (BCC). One pair of cows (S-responsive) showed MFD on RFS feeding, but displayed no additional MFD upon monensin feeding and a fat rebound upon monensin withdrawal. The second pair of cows (M-responsive) showed no MFD upon switch from the SFS diet to the RFS diet, but displayed strong MFD upon monensin feeding and no recovery after monensin withdrawal. Both groups displayed major shifts in BCC upon dietary shifts, including dietary shifts that both did and did not change milk fat production. The third pair of cows (SM-responsive) displayed reduction of milk fat on both RFS and RFS/Mon diets, and fat returned to the levels on the RFS diet upon monensin withdrawal; these cows showed a more gradual shift in BCC in response to both starch source and monensin. The fourth pair of cows (nonresponsive) did not display changes in milk fat percentage with dietary treatment and showed only minor

  14. Milk and social media: online communities and the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahams, Sheryl W

    2012-08-01

    The advent of social networking sites and other online communities presents new opportunities and challenges for the promotion, protection, and support of breastfeeding. This study examines the presence of infant formula marketing on popular US social media sites, using the World Health Organization International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes (the Code) as a framework. We examined to what extent each of 11 infant formula brands that are widely available in the US had established a social media presence in popular social media venues likely to be visited by expectant parents and families with young children. We then examined current marketing practices, using the Code as a basis for ethical marketing. Infant formula manufacturers have established a social media presence primarily through Facebook pages, interactive features on their own Web sites, mobile apps for new and expecting parents, YouTube videos, sponsored reviews on parenting blogs, and other financial relationships with parenting blogs. Violations of the Code as well as promotional practices unforeseen by the Code were identified. These practices included enabling user-generated content that promotes the use of infant formula, financial relationships between manufacturers and bloggers, and creation of mobile apps for use by parents. An additional concern identified for Code enforcement is lack of transparency in social media-based marketing. The use of social media for formula marketing may demand new strategies for monitoring and enforcing the Code in light of emerging challenges, including suggested content for upcoming consideration for World Health Assembly resolutions.

  15. Gamma-ray decontamination of a milk substitute for calf feeding; Descontaminacion de un sustituto lacteo para terneros por radiaciones gamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blasco, M I [Canale SA, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Roberti, A [Universidad Nacional de Lujan (Argentina); Horak, Celina I; Narvaiz, Patricia; Kairiyama, Eulogia [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Ezeiza (Argentina). Dept. de Aplicaciones Tecnologicas y Agropecuarias

    1999-07-01

    A contaminated milk substitute for calf feeding has been irradiated to reduce the content of bacteria and fungi. The results of microbiological, chemical and physico-chemical studies demonstrate that an irradiation doses of 7 kGy reduce to an acceptable level the content of contaminants without damaging the milk substitute. (author)

  16. Fat content, energy value and fatty acid profile of donkey milk during lactation and implications for human nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martemucci Giovanni

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and aims Milk contains numerous nutrients. The content of n-3 fatty acids, the n-6/n-3 ratio, and short- and medium-chain fatty acids may promote positive health effects. In Western societies, cow’s milk fat is perceived as a risk factor for health because it is a source of a high fraction of saturated fatty acids. Recently, there has been increasing interest in donkey’s milk. In this work, the fat and energetic value and acidic composition of donkey’s milk, with reference to human nutrition, and their variations during lactation, were investigated. We also discuss the implications of the acidic profile of donkey’s milk on human nutrition. Methods Individual milk samples from lactating jennies were collected 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180 and 210days after foaling, for the analysis of fat, proteins and lactose, which was achieved using an infrared milk analyser, and fatty acids composition by gas chromatography. Results The donkey’s milk was characterised by low fat and energetic (1719.2kJ·kg-1 values, a high polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA content of mainly α-linolenic acid (ALA and linoleic acid (LA, a low n-6 to n-3 FA ratio or LA/ALA ratio, and advantageous values of atherogenic and thrombogenic indices. Among the minor PUFA, docosahesaenoic (DHA, eicosapentanoic (EPA, and arachidonic (AA acids were present in very small amounts ( The fatty acid patterns were affected by the lactation stage and showed a decrease (P Conclusions The high level of unsaturated/saturated fatty acids and PUFA-n3 content and the low n-6/n-3 ratio suggest the use of donkey’s milk as a functional food for human nutrition and its potential utilisation for infant nutrition as well as adult diets, particular for the elderly.

  17. Protective Effect of Whole and Fat-Free Fluoridated Milk, Applied before or after Acid Challenge, against Dental Erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassiano, Luiza P S; Charone, Senda; Souza, Juliana G; Leizico, Ligia C; Pessan, Juliano P; Magalhães, Ana Carolina; Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo

    2016-01-01

    This study analysed in vitro the effect of milk against dental erosion, considering three factors: the type of milk (bovine whole/fat-free), the presence of different fluoride concentrations and the time of application (before/after erosive challenge). Bovine enamel (n = 15/group) and root dentine (n = 12/group) specimens were submitted to the following treatments: after the first erosive challenge - 0.9% NaCl solution (negative control), whole milk with 0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 ppm F, fat-free milk with 0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 ppm F, and 0.05% NaF solution (positive control); before the first erosive challenge - whole milk with 0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 ppm F, fat-free milk with 0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 ppm F, and 0.05% NaF solution (positive control). Specimens were submitted to demineralisation-remineralisation regimes 4 times/day for 5 days. The response variables were enamel and dentine loss (in micrometres). Data were analysed using Kruskal-Wallis/Dunn's test (p erosive challenge, was the most protective treatment, but with no significant difference compared with the same treatment carried out after the erosive challenge. For dentine, whole fluoridated milk (all concentrations, after), fat-free 10 ppm F milk (after, before) and whole milk with or without F (except 2.5 ppm F, all before) significantly reduced dentine erosion. It seems that the presence of fluoride, especially at 10 ppm, is the most important factor in reducing dental erosion. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. A rumen unprotected conjugated linoleic acid supplement inhibits milk fat synthesis and improves energy balance in lactating goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldin, M; Gama, M A S; Dresch, R; Harvatine, K J; Oliveira, D E

    2013-07-01

    Feeding trans-10, cis-12 CLA supplements in a rumen-protected form has been shown to cause milk fat depression (MFD) in cows, ewes, and goats. Methyl esters of CLA were shown to be as effective as FFA in inducing MFD when infused postruminally, but their efficacy as a feed supplement has not been addressed in studies with lactating ruminants. In the present study, we investigated the effects of an unprotected trans-10, cis-12 CLA supplement as methyl esters on performance, milk composition, and energy status of dairy goats. Eighteen multiparous Toggenburg goats were randomly assigned to dietary treatments in a crossover experimental design (14 d treatment periods separated by a 7 d washout interval): 30 g/d of calcium salts of fatty acids (Control) or 30 g/d of a rumen unprotected CLA supplement containing 29.9% of trans-10, cis-12 CLA as methyl esters (CLA). Lipid supplements were mixed into a concentrate and fed individually to animals 3 times a day as a total mixed ration component. The DMI, milk yield, milk protein and lactose content and secretion, and somatic cell count were unaffected by CLA treatment. On the other hand, milk fat content and yield were reduced by 19.9 and 17.9% in CLA-fed goats. Reduced milk fat yield in CLA-fed goats was a consequence of a lower secretion of both preformed and de novo synthesized fatty acids. The CLA treatment also changed the milk fatty acid profile, which included a reduction in the concentration of SFA (2.5%), increased MUFA and PUFA (5.6 and 5.4%, respectively), and a pronounced increase (1576%) in milk fat trans-10, cis-12 CLA. Consistent with the high milk fat trans-10, cis-12 CLA content, all desaturase indexes were reduced in milk fat from CLA-fed goats. The MFD induced by CLA reduced the energy required for milk production by 22%, which was accompanied by an improvement in the estimated energy balance (P rumen biohydrogenation and indirect comparisons with data obtained from other studies suggest equivalent MFD

  19. Enhanced creaming of milk fat globules in milk emulsions by the application of ultrasound and detection by means of optical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliano, P; Kutter, A; Cheng, L J; Swiergon, P; Mawson, R; Augustin, M A

    2011-09-01

    The effects of application of ultrasonic waves to recombined milk emulsions (3.5% fat, 7% total solids) and raw milk on fat destabilization and creaming were examined. Coarse and fine recombined emulsions (D[4,3]=9.3 μm and 2.7 μm, respectively) and raw milk (D[4,3]=4.9 μm) were subjected to ultrasound for 5 min at 35°C and 400 kHz or 1.6 MHz (using a single transducer) or 400 kHz (where the emulsion was sandwiched between two transducers). Creaming, as calculated from Turbiscan measurements, was more evident in the coarse recombined emulsion and raw milk compared to that of the recombined fine emulsion. Micrographs confirmed that there was flocculation and coalescence in creamed layer of emulsion. Coalescence was confirmed by particle size measurement. These results imply that ultrasound has potential to pre-dispose fat particles in milk emulsions to creaming in standing wave systems and in systems with inhomogeneous sound distributions. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. [Determination of fat, protein and DM in raw milk by portable short-wave near infrared spectrometer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-yun; Wang, Jia-hua; Huang, Ya-wei; Han, Dong-hai

    2011-03-01

    Near infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy calibrations of fat, protein and DM in raw milk were studied with partial least-squares (PLS) regression using portable short-wave near infrared spectrometer. The results indicated that good calibrations of fat and DM were found, the correlation coefficients were all 0.98, the RMSEC were 0.187 and 0.217, RMSEP were 0.187 and 0.296, the RPDs were 5.02 and 3.20 respectively; the calibration of protein needed to be improved but can be used for practice, the correlation coefficient was 0.95, RMSEC was 0.105, RMSEP was 0.120, and RPD was 2.60. Furthermore, the measuring accuracy was improved by analyzing the correction relation of fat and DM in raw milk This study will probably provide a new on-site method for nondestructive and rapid measurement of milk.

  1. Comparison of gravimetric, creamatocrit and esterified fatty acid methods for determination of total fat content in human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jian; Gay, Melvin C L; Lai, Ching Tat; Trengove, Robert D; Hartmann, Peter E; Geddes, Donna T

    2017-02-15

    The gravimetric method is considered the gold standard for measuring the fat content of human milk. However, it is labor intensive and requires large volumes of human milk. Other methods, such as creamatocrit and esterified fatty acid assay (EFA), have also been used widely in fat analysis. However, these methods have not been compared concurrently with the gravimetric method. Comparison of the three methods was conducted with human milk of varying fat content. Correlations between these methods were high (r(2)=0.99). Statistical differences (Pmethods. Overall, stronger correlation with lower mean (4.73g/L) and percentage differences (5.16%) was observed with the creamatocrit than the EFA method when compared to the gravimetric method. Furthermore, the ease of operation and real-time analysis make the creamatocrit method preferable. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Substitutos do leite materno: passado e presente Breast-milk substitutes: past and present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Ferreira Rea

    1990-06-01

    Full Text Available Apresenta-se revisão da evolução histórica da substituição do leite de peito por produtos industrializados cujas origens remontam ao século XVIII. Destaca-se a estratégia de promoção comercial de fórmulas infantis, já neste século, atribuindo-se as diferentes formas de comercialização utilizadas à necessidade de busca de novos mercados nos países do Terceiro Mundo. Frente às indicações precisas que os chamados substitutos do leite materno têm, chama-se a atenção para o processo de conscientização dos profissionais de saúde e grupos de consumidores sobre as conseqüências do abuso da utilização desses substitutos, processo este que levou a Organização Mundial da Saúde e o United Nations Children's Fund a recomendarem a regulamentação de suas práticas comerciais, e o Brasil a adotá-la.The historical development of industrialized products used as breast-milk, substitutes a process begun in the 18th century, is studied. The marketing strategy currently adopted infant formula companies is stressed and the different commercial practices used in the search for new markets in third world countries are described. A warning is given as to the precise instructions giver for the use of the socalles breast-milk substitutes, and the attention of health professionals and consumer groups is called to the low level of awareness regarding this subject, a factor which led the World Health Organization and United Nations Children's Fund to recommend the preparation of an appropriate marketing code and to its adoption by Brazil.

  3. Milk Fat Globules Hamper Adhesion of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli to Enterocytes: In Vitro and in Vivo Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Douëllou

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC; E. coli are food-borne agents associated with gastroenteritis, enterocolitis, bloody diarrhea and the hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS. Bovine milk glycans have been shown to contain oligosaccharides which are similar to host epithelial cell receptors and can therefore prevent bacterial adhesion. This study aimed to describe interactions between EHEC O157:H7 EDL933 and O26:H11 21765 and milk fat globules (MFGs in raw milk and raw milk cheese, and the impact of MFGs on EHEC strains adhesion to the intestinal tract in vitro and in vivo. Both EHEC serotypes clearly associated with native bovine MFGs and significantly limited their adhesion to a co-culture of intestinal cells. The presence of MFGs in raw milk cheese had two effects on the adhesion of both EHEC serotypes to the intestinal tracts of streptomycin-treated mice. First, it delayed and reduced EHEC excretion in mouse feces for both strains. Second, the prime implantation site for both EHEC strains was 6 cm more proximal in the intestinal tracts of mice fed with contaminated cheese containing less than 5% of fat than in those fed with contaminated cheese containing 40% of fat. Feeding mice with 40% fat cheese reduced the intestinal surface contaminated with EHEC and may therefore decrease severity of illness.

  4. Maternal stress and high-fat diet effect on maternal behavior, milk composition, and pup ingestive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Ryan H; Sun, Bo; Pass, Lauren L; Power, Michael L; Moran, Timothy H; Tamashiro, Kellie L K

    2011-09-01

    Chronic variable prenatal stress or maternal high-fat diet results in offspring that are significantly heavier by the end of the first postnatal week with increased adiposity by weaning. It is unclear, however, what role maternal care and diet play in the ontogenesis of this phenotype and what contributions come from differences already established in the rat pups. In the present studies, we examined maternal behavior and milk composition as well as offspring ingestive behavior. Our aim was to better understand the development of the obese phenotype in offspring from dams subjected to prenatal stress and/or fed a high-fat (HF) diet during gestation and lactation. We found that dams maintained on a HF diet through gestation and lactation spent significantly more time nursing their pups during the first postnatal week. In addition, offspring of prenatal stress dams consumed more milk at postnatal day (PND) 3 and offspring of HF dams consume more milk on PND 7 in an independent ingestion test. Milk from HF dams showed a significant increase in fat content from PND 10-21. Together these results suggest that gestational dietary or stress manipulations can alter the rat offspring's developmental environment, evidence of which is apparent by PND 3. Alterations in maternal care, milk composition, and pup consumption during the early postnatal period may contribute to long-term changes in body weight and adiposity induced by maternal prenatal stress or high-fat diet. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Freezing and thawing effects on fat, protein, and lactose levels of human natural milk administered by gavage and continuous infusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea D. Abranches

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to analyze the changes in human milk macronutrients: fat, protein, and lactose in natural human milk (raw, frozen and thawed, after administration simulation by gavage and continuous infusion. METHOD: an experimental study was performed with 34 human milk samples. The infrared spectrophotometry using the infrared analysis equipment MilkoScan Minor(r (Foss, Denmark equipment was used to analyze the macronutrients in human milk during the study phases. The analyses were performed in natural (raw samples and after freezing and fast thawing following two steps: gavage and continuous infusion. The non-parametric Wilcoxon test for paired samples was used for the statistical analysis. RESULTS: the fat content was significantly reduced after administration by continuous infusion (p < 0.001 during administration of both raw and thawed samples. No changes in protein and lactose content were observed between the two forms of infusion. However, the thawing process significantly increased the levels of lactose and milk protein. CONCLUSION: the route of administration by continuous infusion showed the greatest influence on fat loss among all the processes required for human milk administration.

  6. Freezing and thawing effects on fat, protein, and lactose levels of human natural milk administered by gavage and continuous infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abranches, Andrea D; Soares, Fernanda V M; Junior, Saint-Clair G; Moreira, Maria Elisabeth L

    2014-01-01

    to analyze the changes in human milk macronutrients: fat, protein, and lactose in natural human milk (raw), frozen and thawed, after administration simulation by gavage and continuous infusion. an experimental study was performed with 34 human milk samples. The infrared spectrophotometry using the infrared analysis equipment MilkoScan Minor® (Foss, Denmark) equipment was used to analyze the macronutrients in human milk during the study phases. The analyses were performed in natural (raw) samples and after freezing and fast thawing following two steps: gavage and continuous infusion. The non-parametric Wilcoxon test for paired samples was used for the statistical analysis. the fat content was significantly reduced after administration by continuous infusion (praw and thawed samples. No changes in protein and lactose content were observed between the two forms of infusion. However, the thawing process significantly increased the levels of lactose and milk protein. the route of administration by continuous infusion showed the greatest influence on fat loss among all the processes required for human milk administration. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  7. Milk yield, feed efficiency and metabolic profiles in Jersey and Holstein cows assigned to different fat supplementation strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Lene; Nielsen, M.O.; Lund, Peter

    2015-01-01

    , compared to their lowest recorded weight after calving. Subsequently, the cows were randomly assigned to one of the four treatments until the end of lactation. There was no effect of feeding strategy on DM intake during week 9–40 of lactation. Fat supplemented rations (WCR; RPF) increased yield of milk...... energy efficiency in Jersey cows but increased energy efficiency in Holstein cows. Because fat supplementation reduced dietary protein concentration and increased milk production, protein intake was lower and N efficiency was higher on WCR and RPF than on CON. Metabolite concentrations in jugular vein...

  8. Data from proteomic characterization and comparison of mammalian milk fat globule proteomes by iTRAQ analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxin Yang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Milk fat globules memebrane (MFGM-enriched proteomes from Holstein, Jersey, yak, buffalo, goat, camel, horse, and human were extracted and identified by an iTRAQ quantification proteomic approach. Proteomes data were analyzed by bioinformatic and multivariate statistical analysis and used to present the characteristic traits of the MFGM proteins among the studied mammals. The data of this study are also related to the research article “Proteomic characterization and comparison of mammalian milk fat globule proteomes by iTRAQ analysis” in the Journal of Proteomics [1].

  9. The influence of ultra-pasteurization by indirect heating versus direct steam injection on skim and 2% fat milks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, A P; Barbano, D M; Drake, M A

    2017-03-01

    Fluid milk is traditionally pasteurized by high temperature, short time (HTST) pasteurization, which requires heating to at least 72°C for 15 s. Ultra-pasteurization (UP) extends milk shelf life and is defined as heating to at least 138°C for 2 s. The UP process can be done by indirect heating (IND) or by direct steam injection (DSI). The influence of these 2 UP methods on milk flavor has not been widely investigated. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of HTST, IND-UP, and DSI-UP on sensory perception of fluid milk. Raw skim and standardized 2% milks were pasteurized at 140°C for 2.3 s by IND or DSI or by HTST (78°C, 15 s) and homogenized at 20.7 MPa. The processed milks were stored in light-shielded opaque high-density polyethylene containers at 4°C and examined by descriptive analysis and microbial analysis on d 3, 7, and 14. Furosine and serum protein denaturation analyses were performed on d 0 and 14 as an indicator of heat treatment. Last, consumer acceptance testing was conducted at d 10, with adults (n = 250) and children (ages 8 to13 y, n = 100) who were self-reported consumers of skim or 2% milk; consumers only received samples for either skim or 2% milk. The entire experiment was repeated in triplicate. Milks treated by HTST had lower cooked flavor than either UP milk. Milks heated by DSI-UP were characterized by sulfur or eggy and cooked flavors, whereas IND-UP milks had higher sweet aromatic and sweet taste compared with DSI-UP milk. Aromatic flavor intensities of all milks decreased across 14 d of storage. Furosine concentrations and serum protein denaturation were highest for the IND treatments, followed by DSI and HTST. Furosine content in both skim and 2% milk increased with time, but the increase was faster in IND-UP skim milk. Adult and child consumers preferred HTST milk over either UP milk, regardless of fat content. Ultra-pasteurization by IND or DSI did not affect consumer acceptance at 10 d postprocessing, but

  10. The rapid determination of fat and protein content in fresh raw milk using the laser light scattering technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Qi; Zhi Ling, Hou; Jian Long, Tian; Zhu, Yu

    2006-08-01

    The aim was to develop a simple and rapid method for determination of fat and protein content in milk. Based on the laser light scattering theory, the ratio of the scattered light (at 90±0.05° scattering angles) intensity to the transmitted light intensity, which is called scattered-transmitted-ratio method, is adopted as the optical parameter representing the milk fat content and the protein content. In this way, the influence of the fluctuation of the power of the light source is eliminated and the accuracy of determination is improved accordingly. The system we use is real-time and can satisfy the challenging requirements of dairy farming. Results of this study indicate the feasibility of using this technology for fresh milk fat and protein analysis. The fat contents and protein contents of 50 milk samples determined by this method were consistent with the values obtained by the reference methods based on Rose-Gottlieb method and Kjeldahl determination of N method. In this paper, the operating principle of the instrument is introduced and the influence of the environmental conditions, such as the homogenization pressure and homogenization temperature, etc. on the result of the test is analyzed. Through data analysis, the concrete schemes for testing the fat using the curve fitting and testing the protein using the surface fitting technique are determined. Finally, the difference from the reference values of the test is discussed.

  11. Design parameters for the separation of fat from natural whole milk in an ultrasonic litre-scale vessel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Thomas; Johansson, Linda; Juliano, Pablo; Mawson, Raymond; McArthur, Sally; Manasseh, Richard

    2014-07-01

    The separation of milk fat from natural whole milk has been achieved by applying ultrasonic standing waves (1 MHz and/or 2 MHz) in a litre-scale (5L capacity) batch system. Various design parameters were tested such as power input level, process time, specific energy, transducer-reflector distance and the use of single and dual transducer set-ups. It was found that the efficacy of the treatment depended on the specific energy density input into the system. In this case, a plateau in fat concentration of ∼20% w/v was achieved in the creamed top layer after applying a minimum specific energy of 200 kJ/kg. In addition, the fat separation was enhanced by reducing the transducer reflector distance in the vessel, operating two transducers in a parallel set-up, or by increasing the duration of insonation, resulting in skimmed milk with a fat concentration as low as 1.7% (w/v) using raw milk after 20 min insonation. Dual mode operation with both transducers in parallel as close as 30 mm apart resulted in the fastest creaming and skimming in this study at ∼1.6 g fat/min. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Interaction between milk allowance and fat content of the starter feed on performance of Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, G; Terré, M; Bach, A

    2014-10-01

    Sixty-six Holstein male calves [42 ± 6.0 kg of body weight (BW) and 12 ± 3.1 d of age] were housed individually and allocated to 1 of 4 treatments following a 2 × 2 factorial complete randomized design to assess the potential interaction between milk replacer (MR) allowance and fat content in the starter feed. Thus, 4 treatments were evaluated: a low-fat (4.1% fat; LF) starter feed offered along with 4 L/d of MR (4 LF), a high-fat (11.2% fat; HF) starter feed plus 4 L/d of MR (4 HF), a LF starter feed offered with 6 L/d of MR (6LF), and an HF starter feed offered with 6 L/d of MR (6 HF). Calves were fed either 4 or 6 L/d of MR (25% crude protein and 19.2% fat) in 2 offers (0800 and 1630 h) and had ad libitum access to either an LF or an HF starter feed (21.4 and 22.3% crude protein). Calves were weaned at wk 6 of study by halving the daily MR allowance for 1 wk. Individual MR and starter feed intakes were recorded daily and BW was determined weekly. A glucose tolerance test was performed on d 30 of study to evaluate the effects of increased energy provision on glucose metabolism. Apparent feed digestibility was measured for the last 5 d of study. Overall, fat content of starter feed had no effect on solid feed intake. However, during wk 8 of study (after weaning), calves in the LF treatment had greater starter feed intake than HF calves. Calves on 6 L/d of MR had greater BW than calves fed 4 L/d from the second week of study until weaning. After weaning, 6 LF calves had lesser BW than 6 HF calves. Calves on 6 L/d of MR had greater average daily gain than calves fed 4 L/d, and 6 HF calves tended to have the greatest average daily gain. Glucose clearance rate tended to be lesser for HF than for LF calves. In conclusion, offering 6 L/d of MR increased growth performance before weaning and, when offering 6 L/d of MR, feeding a high-fat starter feed resulted in the greatest BW after weaning. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier

  13. RNA sequencing of the human milk fat layer transcriptome reveals distinct gene expression profiles at three stages of lactation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle G Lemay

    Full Text Available Aware of the important benefits of human milk, most U.S. women initiate breastfeeding but difficulties with milk supply lead some to quit earlier than intended. Yet, the contribution of maternal physiology to lactation difficulties remains poorly understood. Human milk fat globules, by enveloping cell contents during their secretion into milk, are a rich source of mammary cell RNA. Here, we pair this non-invasive mRNA source with RNA-sequencing to probe the milk fat layer transcriptome during three stages of lactation: colostral, transitional, and mature milk production. The resulting transcriptomes paint an exquisite portrait of human lactation. The resulting transcriptional profiles cluster not by postpartum day, but by milk Na:K ratio, indicating that women sampled during similar postpartum time frames could be at markedly different stages of gene expression. Each stage of lactation is characterized by a dynamic range (10(5-fold in transcript abundances not previously observed with microarray technology. We discovered that transcripts for isoferritins and cathepsins are strikingly abundant during colostrum production, highlighting the potential importance of these proteins for neonatal health. Two transcripts, encoding β-casein (CSN2 and α-lactalbumin (LALBA, make up 45% of the total pool of mRNA in mature lactation. Genes significantly expressed across all stages of lactation are associated with making, modifying, transporting, and packaging milk proteins. Stage-specific transcripts are associated with immune defense during the colostral stage, up-regulation of the machinery needed for milk protein synthesis during the transitional stage, and the production of lipids during mature lactation. We observed strong modulation of key genes involved in lactose synthesis and insulin signaling. In particular, protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, F (PTPRF may serve as a biomarker linking insulin resistance with insufficient milk supply. This

  14. Substitutions of dairy product intake and risk of stroke: a Danish cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, Anne Sofie Dam; Dahm, Christina Catherine; Johnsen, Søren Paaske; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre

    2018-02-01

    Low fat dairy products are part of dietary guidelines to prevent stroke. However, epidemiological evidence is inconclusive with regard to the association between dairy products and stroke. We therefore investigated associations for substitutions between dairy product subgroups and risk of total stroke and stroke subtypes. We included 55,211 Danish men and women aged 50-64 years without previous stroke. Baseline diet was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire. Cases were identified through a national register and subsequently verified. The associations were analyzed using Cox proportional hazard regression. During a median follow-up of 13.4 years, we identified 2272 strokes, of which 1870 were ischemic (318 large artery atherosclerotic, 839 lacunar, 102 cardioembolic, 98 other determined types, 513 of unknown type), 389 were hemorrhages (273 intracerebral, 116 subarachnoid) and 13 of unknown etiology. Substitution of semi-skimmed fermented milk or cheese for whole-fat fermented milk was associated with a higher rate of ischemic stroke [semi-skimmed fermented milk: hazard ratio (HR) = 1.20 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.99-1.45), cheese: HR = 1.14 (95% CI 0.98-1.31) per serving/day substituted] and substitutions of whole-fat fermented milk for low-fat milk, whole-fat milk or buttermilk were associated with a lower rate [low-fat milk: HR = 0.85 (95% CI 0.74-0.99), whole-fat milk: HR = 0.84 (95% CI 0.71-0.98) and buttermilk: HR = 0.83 (95% CI 0.70-0.99)]. We observed no associations for substitutions between dairy products and hemorrhagic stroke. Our results suggest that intake of whole-fat fermented milk as a substitution for semi-skimmed fermented milk, cheese, buttermilk or milk, regardless of fat content, is associated with a lower rate of ischemic stroke.

  15. Effect of homogenisation in formation of thermally induced aggregates in a non- and low- fat milk model system with microparticulated whey proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celigueta Torres, Isabel; Nieto, Gema; Nylander, Tommy

    2017-01-01

    in the formation of protein aggregates were studied by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and the final complexes visualised by darkfield microscopy. Homogenisation of non-fat milk systems led to partial adsorption of caseins onto microparticles, independently of the type of microparticle. On the contrary...... are responsible for the formation of heat-induced aggregates that influence the texture and sensory characteristics of the final product. The formation of heat-induced complexes was studied in non- and low-fat milk model systems, where microparticulated whey protein (MWP) was used as fat replacer. Five MWP types......, homogenisation of low-fat milk resulted in preferential adsorption of caseins onto fat globules, rather than onto microparticles. Further heating of the milk, led to the formation of heat induced complexes with different sizes and characteristics depending on the type of MWP and the presence or not of fat...

  16. Effect of milk fat content on the performance of ohmic heating for inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S-S; Kang, D-H

    2015-08-01

    The effect of milk fat content on ohmic heating compared to conventional heating for inactivation of food-borne pathogens was investigated. Sterile cream was mixed with sterile buffered peptone water and adjusted to 0, 3, 7, 10% (w/v) milk fat content. These samples with varying fat content were subjected to ohmic and conventional heating. The effect of milk fat on temperature increase and electrical conductivity were investigated. Also, the protective effect of milk fat on the inactivation of foodborne pathogens was studied. For conventional heating, temperatures of samples increased with time and were not significantly (P > 0.05) different regardless of fat content. Although the inactivation rate of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium and L. monocytogens decreased in samples of 10% fat content, a protective effect was not observed for conventional heating. In contrast with conventional heating, ohmic heating was significantly affected by milk fat content. Temperature increased more rapidly with lower fat content for ohmic heating due to higher electrical conductivity. Nonuniform heat generation of nonhomogeneous fat-containing samples was verified using a thermal infrared camera. Also, the protective effect of milk fat on E. coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes was observed in samples subjected to ohmic heating. These results indicate that food-borne pathogens can survive in nonhomogeneous fat-containing foods subjected to ohmic heating. Therefore, more attention is needed regarding ohmic heating than conventional heating for pasteurizing fat-containing foods. The importance of adequate pasteurization for high milk fat containing foods was identified. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. Effect of Lenient Steam Injection (LSI) heat treatment of bovine milk on the activities of some enzymes, the milk fat globule and pH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dickow, Jonatan A.; Nielsen, Martin Thorup; Hammershøj, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of Lenient Steam Injection (LSI) treatment at temperatures 70–150 C on the enzymatic activities of the indigenous milk enzymes alkaline phosphatase, lactoperoxidase (LPO), xanthine oxidase (XO), lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and plasmin in comparison with two...... reference heat treatments of 63 C for 30 s and of 72 C for 15 s by indirect heating. Milk fat globule (MFG) size distributions and pH were also monitored. Alkaline phosphatase, LPO, XO and LPL activities decreased with increasing LSI temperature. Plasmin activity was increased at temperatures

  18. [Study of the contents in fat, in protein and in vitamin D of powdered milk varieties sold in Dakar].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndiaye, B; Fall, M; Fall, D; Sarr, S O; Faye, D; Diop, A; Diop, Y M

    2008-01-01

    The powdered milk is a much appreciated food in Senegal. However no particular control is realized by authorities on the various marks of milk imported before their marketing. In the concern to protect the health of the consumers, but especially in front of the very big variety of the sources of supply in this product we determined the contents in fat, in protein and in vitamin D main variety show of marketed powdered milk Dakar. Chemical methods were operated to determine the fat contents and in proteins. The liquid chromatography in high performance was used to identify and measure the vitamin D. The obtained results profits showed that all the studied samples of milk had contents in fat included between 25 and 31 g %, those in proteins were included between 23 and 25 g %. As regards the dosage of the vitamin D, a single sample had content weaker than that mentioned on the packaging by the manufacturer. The results of this study allowed to notice most of the variety varieties of powdered milk marketed in Dakar were in accordance with the standards established for this food and are consequently good quality.

  19. Differences in milk fat composition predicted by mid-infrared spectrometry among dairy cattle breeds in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maurice - Van Eijndhoven, M.H.T.; Bovenhuis, H.; Soyeurt, H.; Calus, M.P.L.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate breed differences in milk fatty acid (FA) profile among 5 dairy cattle breeds present in the Netherlands: Holstein-Friesian (HF), Meuse-Rhine-Yssel (MRY), Dutch Friesian (DF), Groningen White Headed (GWH), and Jersey (JER). For this purpose, total fat percentage

  20. Effect of 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio)butanoate (HMTBa) on risk of biohydrogenation-induced milk fat depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet-induced milk fat depression (MFD) is a multifactorial condition resulting from the interaction of numerous risk factors including diet fermentability and unsaturated fatty acids (FA) concentration, feed additives, and individual cow effects. 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio)butanoate (HMTBa) is a methio...

  1. Association of total-mixed-ration chemical composition with milk, fat, and protein yield lactation curves at the individual level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caccamo, M.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Licitra, G.; Petriglieri, R.; Terra, La F.; Pozzebon, A.; Ferguson, J.D.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of the chemical composition of a total mixed ration (TMR) tested quarterly from March 2006 through December 2008 for milk, fat, and protein yield curves for 27 herds in Ragusa, Sicily. Before this study, standard yield curves were generated on

  2. In vivo digestion of bovine milk fat globules: effect of processing and interfacial structural changes. II. Upper digestive tract digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallier, Sophie; Zhu, Xiang Q; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Ye, Aiqian; Moughan, Paul J; Singh, Harjinder

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this research was to study the effect of milk processing on the in vivo upper digestive tract digestion of milk fat globules. Fasted rats were serially gavaged over a 5h period with cream from raw, pasteurised, or pasteurised and homogenised milk. Only a few intact dietary proteins and peptides were present in the small intestinal digesta. Significantly (Praw (448 mg g(-1) digesta dry matter (DDM)) and homogenised creams (528 mg g(-1) DDM), as compared to pasteurised and homogenised cream (249 mg g(-1) DDM). Microscopy techniques were used to investigate the structural changes during digestion. Liquid-crystalline lamellar phases surrounding the fat globules, fatty acid soap crystals and lipid-mucin interactions were evident in all small intestinal digesta. Overall, the pasteurised and homogenised cream appeared to be digested to a greater extent. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Lipolysis and proteolysis profiles of fresh artisanal goat cheese made with raw milk with 3 different fat contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Macías, D; Morales-Delanuez, A; Moreno-Indias, I; Hernández-Castellano, L E; Mendoza-Grimón, V; Castro, N; Argüello, A

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the proteolysis and lipolysis profiles in goat cheese made in the Canary Islands (Spain) using raw milk with 3 different fat contents (0.5, 1.5, and 5%) and ripened for 1, 7, 14, and 28 d. β-Casein was the most abundant protein in all cheeses and at all ripening times. Quantitative analysis showed a general decrease in caseins as ripening progressed, and degradation rates were higher for α(S1)-casein than for β-casein and α(S2)-casein. Furthermore, the degradation rate during the experimental time decreased with lower fat contents. The α(S2)-casein and α(S1)-casein levels that remained in full-fat and reduced-fat cheeses were less than those in low-fat cheese. In contrast, β-casein also showed degradation along with ripening, but differences in degradation among the 3 cheese types were not significant at 28 d. The degradation products increased with the ripening time in all cheeses, but they were higher in full-fat cheese than in reduced-fat and low-fat cheeses. The free fatty acid concentration per 100g of cheese was higher in full-fat cheese than in reduced- and low-fat cheese; however, when the results were expressed as milligrams of free fatty acids per gram of fat in cheese, then lipolysis occurred more rapidly in low-fat cheese than in reduced- and full-fat cheeses. These results may explain the atypical texture and off-flavors found in low-fat goat cheeses, likely the main causes of non-acceptance. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Bovine milk fat globule membrane affects virulence expression in Escherichia coli O157:H7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellez, A; Corredig, M; Guri, A; Zanabria, R; Griffiths, M W; Delcenserie, V

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of the bovine milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) on the virulence of Escherichia coli O157:H7. The MFGM was extracted from raw or heat-treated milk, resulting in 2 preparations differing in protein composition. Both heated and raw MFGM exerted an inhibitory effect on Shiga toxin gene expression by E. coli O157:H7 (ratios of -7.69 and -5.96, respectively). Interestingly, the effect was stronger with heated MFGM, with a larger decrease in expression of the virulence gene fliC (ratio of -9.43). The difference in effect observed between heated and raw MFGM could be explained by the difference in protein composition between the 2 preparations. These results show, for the first time, a specific effect of MFGM on expressionof Shiga toxin genes as well as genes involved in the motility of E. coli O157:H7. This may offer a new approach to mitigate the adverse health effects caused by E. coli O157:H7 infections. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Soy-Milk Waste with Soybean Meal Dietary Substitution: Effects on Growth Performance and Meat Quality of Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. D. Dono

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sixty male broiler chickens was used to investigate the effects of dietary soybean meal (SBM with soy-milk waste (SMW substitution using growth performance, protein-energy efficiency ratio, and physical meat quality as response criteria. The birds were given control diet (SMW-0, or a control diets with 5% (SMW-1, 10% (SMW-2, and 15% (SMW-3 soy-milk waste substitutions. Each treatment was replicate 3 times, with 5 birds per replication. The obtained data were subjected to Oneway arrangement of ANOVA, and continued subsequently with Duncan’s new Multiple Range Test. Results showed that substituting SBM with SMW did not influence protein and energy consumption, as well as feed consumption and energy efficiency ratio. However, dietary substitution with 10% SMW improved (P<0.05 protein efficiency ratio, body weight gain, and slaughter weight, resulting in lower (P<0.05 feed conversion ratio. The meat pH, water holding capacity, cooking loss, and tenderness values did not influence by 5-15% SMW substitution.

  6. Marketing of breast-milk substitutes in Zambia: evaluation of compliance to the international regulatory code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funduluka, P; Bosomprah, S; Chilengi, R; Mugode, R H; Bwembya, P A; Mudenda, B

    2018-03-01

    We sought to assess the level of non-compliance with the International Code of Marketing breast-milk substitutes (BMS) and/or Statutory Instrument (SI) Number 48 of 2006 of the Laws of Zambia in two suburbs, Kalingalinga and Chelstone, in Zambia. This was a cross sectional survey. Shop owners (80), health workers (8) and mothers (214) were interviewed. BMS labels and advertisements (62) were observed. The primary outcome was mean non-compliance defined as the number of article violations divided by the total 'obtainable' violations. The score ranges from 0 to 1 with 0 representing no violations in all the articles and one representing violations in all the articles. A total of 62 BMS were assessed. The mean non-compliance score by manufacturers in terms of violations in labelling of BMS was 0.33 (SD = 0.28; 95% CI: 0.26, 0.40). These violations were mainly due to labels containing pictures or graphics representing an infant. 80 shops were also assessed with mean non-compliance score in respect of violations in tie-in-sales, special display, and contact with mothers at the shop estimated as 0.14 (SD = 0.14; 95% CI: 0.11, 0.18). Non-compliance with the Code and/or the local SI is high after 10 years of domesticating the Code.

  7. The influence of casein haplotype on morphometric characteristics of fat globules and fatty acid composition of milk in Italian Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Annamaria; Intaglietta, Immacolata; Simonetti, Amalia; Gambacorta, Emilio

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of casein haplotypes (αS1-, β-, and κ-caseins) on morphometric characteristics of fat globules and fatty acid composition of Italian Holstein milk. Casein haplotypes were determined by isoelectric focusing; milk fat globule size was measured by using a fluorescence microscope; and fatty acid profile was determined by gas chromatography. Casein haplotype significantly affected the fat globule size, the percentage incidence of each globule size class on total measured milk fat globules, and fatty acid composition. A higher incidence of smaller milk fat globules was associated with the BB-A(2)A(2)-BB genotype (αS1-, β-, and κ-casein haplotypes, respectively), whereas small globules were not detected in BB-A(2)A(1)-AA milk, but that milk had the highest percentage of large globules. A higher content of monounsaturated fatty acids was associated with the BB-A(2)A(2)-AB genotype, whereas higher contents of conjugated linoleic acid and docosahexaenoic acid were detected in BB-A(1)A(1)-AA milk. Our results indicate that casein haplotype could affect fat characteristics and, therefore, the nutritional and technological quality of milk. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Antioxidant and Antihypertensive Potential of Protein Fractions from Flour and Milk Substitutes from Canary Seeds (Phalaris canariensis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, María Elena; Orona-Tamayo, Domancar; Nieto-Rendón, Blanca; Paredes-López, Octavio

    2017-03-01

    Canary seed (Phalaris canariensis) is used to feed birds but it has been recently considered a promising cereal with nutraceutical potential for humans. The aim of this work was to analyze the protein fractions from canary seed flour and from milk substitutes (prepared by soaking the seeds in water 12 and 24 h), and to evaluate antioxidant and antihypertensive capacity of peptides obtained after in vitro digestion. Prolamins were the major protein fraction, followed by glutelins. After digestion, albumins and prolamins fractions from milks presented higher levels of peptides than flour, globulins showed more peptides in flour and glutelins were found in similar concentrations in all samples; 24 h milk prolamins had the highest concentration of peptides. Purification by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), sequencing of peptides, in vitro antioxidant ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis, 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) assays, and antihypertensive capacity (angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) assay), indicated that peptides from canary seed prolamins were the most efficient compounds with antioxidant and antihypertensive activity. Canary seeds may be considered an accessible and cheap source to prepare milk substitutes with high contents of bioactive peptides with remarkable functional properties to promote better human health and healthy ageing.

  9. Milk Fat Globule Membrane Attenuates High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity by Inhibiting Adipogenesis and Increasing Uncoupling Protein 1 Expression in White Adipose Tissue of Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiange Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Milk fat globule membrane (MFGM, a protein-lipid complex surrounding the fat globules in milk, has many health benefits. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether MFGM could prevent obesity through inhibiting adipogenesis and promoting brown remodeling of white adipose tissue (WAT in mice fed with high-fat diet. C57BL/6 mice were fed a normal diet (ND, high-fat diet (HFD, HFD plus MFGM at 100 mg/kg BW, 200 mg/kg BW or 400 mg/kg BW for 8 weeks. Results showed that MFGM suppressed body weight gain induced by HFD, reduced white adipose tissue (WAT mass accompanied with the decrease in adipocyte sizes. MFGM was found to have partially improved serum lipid profiles, as well as to have suppressed HFD-induced adipogenesis as shown by reduced expression of peroxisome proliferators-activator receptor-γ (PPARγ, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-α (C/EBPα and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c. MFGM also markedly increased the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC, showing activation of AMPK pathway. Moreover, MFGM promoted browning of inguinal WAT by upregulation the protein expression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1 in HFD mice. Taken together, these findings provide evidence that MFGM may protect against diet-induced adiposity by suppressing adipogenesis and promoting brown-like transformation in WAT.

  10. Feeding barley grain steeped in lactic acid modulates rumen fermentation patterns and increases milk fat content in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, S; Zebeli, Q; Mazzolari, A; Bertoni, G; Dunn, S M; Yang, W Z; Ametaj, B N

    2009-12-01

    The objectives of the present in vivo and in situ trials were to evaluate whether feeding barley grain steeped in lactic acid (LA) would affect rumen fermentation patterns, in situ dry matter (DM) degradation kinetics, and milk production and composition in lactating dairy cows. The in vivo trial involved 8 rumen-fistulated Holstein cows fed once daily a total mixed ration containing rolled barley grain (27% in DM) steeped for 48 h in an equal quantity of tap water (CTR) or in 0.5% LA (TRT) in a 2 x 2 crossover design. The in situ trials consisted of incubation of untreated rolled barley grain in cows fed CTR or TRT diets and of incubation of 3 different substrates including CTR or barley grain steeped in 0.5% or 1.0% LA (TRT1 and TRT2, respectively) up to 72 h in the rumen. Results of the in vivo trial indicated that cows fed the TRT diet had greater rumen pH during most intensive fermentation phases at 10 and 12 h post-feeding. The latter effect was associated with a shorter duration in which rumen pH was below 5.8 for cows fed the TRT diet (2.4 h) compared with CTR diet (3.9 h). Furthermore, cows fed the TRT diet had lower concentrations of volatile fatty acids at 2 and 4 h post-feeding. In addition, concentrations of preprandial volatile fatty acids were lower in the rumen fluid of cows fed the TRT diet. Results also showed that molar proportion of acetate was lower, whereas propionate tended to increase by feeding cows the TRT diet. Cows fed the TRT diet demonstrated greater rumen in situ lag time of substrate DM degradation and a tendency to lower the fractional degradation rate. Other in situ results indicated a quadratic effect of LA on the effective rumen degradability of substrates whereby the latter variable was decreased from CTR to TRT1 but increased for TRT2 substrate. Although the diet did not affect actual milk yield, fat-corrected milk, percentages of milk protein, and lactose and concentration of milk urea nitrogen, cows fed the TRT diet increased

  11. Implementation of international code of marketing breast-milk substitutes in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Aihua; Dai, Yaohua; Xie, Xiaohua; Chen, Li

    2014-11-01

    Breastmilk is the best source of nourishment for infants and young children, and breastfeeding is one of the most effective ways to ensure child health and survival. In May 1981, the World Health Assembly adopted the International Code of Marketing Breast-Milk Substitutes. Since then several subsequent resolutions have been adopted by the World Health Assembly, which both update and clarify the articles within the International Code (herein after the term "Code" refers to both the International Code and all subsequent resolutions). The Code is designed to regulate "inappropriate sales promotion" of breastmilk substitutes and instructs signatory governments to ensure the implementation of its aims through legislation. The Chinese Regulations of the Code were adopted by six government sectors in 1995. However, challenges in promotion, protection, and support of breastfeeding remain. This study aimed to monitor the implementation of the Code in China. Six cities were selected with considerable geographic coverage. In each city three hospitals and six stores were surveyed. The International Baby Food Action Network Interview Form was adapted, and direct observations were made. Research assistants administered the questionnaires to a random sample of mothers of infants under 6 months old who were in the outpatient department of the hospitals. In total, 291 mothers of infants, 35 stores, 17 hospitals, and 26 companies were surveyed. From the whole sample of 291 mothers, the proportion who reported exclusively breastfeeding their infant was 30.9%; 69.1% of mothers reported feeding their infant with commercially available formula. Regarding violations of the Code, 40.2% of the mothers reported receiving free formula samples. Of these, 76.1% received the free samples in or near hospitals. Among the stores surveyed, 45.7% were found promoting products in a way that violates the Code. Also, 69.0% of the labeling on the formula products did not comply with the regulations set

  12. Milk fat globule membrane coating of large lipid droplets in the diet of young mice prevents body fat accumulation in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baars, Annemarie; Oosting, Annemarie; Engels, Eefje; Kegler, Diane; Kodde, Andrea; Schipper, Lidewij; Verkade, Henkjan J; van der Beek, Eline M

    2016-06-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated protective effects of breast-feeding on childhood obesity. Differences between human milk and infant milk formula (IMF) in dietary lipid structure may contribute to this effect. In our mouse model, feeding a diet containing large lipid droplets coated with phospholipids (PL) (Nuturis®; PL of milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) fraction origin) in early life protected against excessive body fat accumulation following a diet challenge in adult life. We now set out to determine the relevance of increased droplet size and/or MFGM lipid droplet coating to the observed anti-obesogenic effects in adult life. From day 16 to 42, male mouse pups were exposed to diets with small (S) or large (L) lipid droplets (0·3 v. 2·9 µm average mode diameter, respectively), either without MFGM or with MFGM coating around the lipid droplet, resulting in four groups: S (control diet), L, Scoating and Lcoating (Nuturis® IMF diet). Mice were subsequently challenged with a Western-style diet until dissection at postnatal day 98. A non-challenged group served as reference (REF). We repeatedly determined body composition between postnatal day 42 and 98. At day 98 plasma and gene expression measurements were performed. Only the Nuturis® IMF diet (Lcoating) in early life containing MFGM-coated large lipid droplets reduced body fat mass to a level comparable with the REF group. These data support the notion that the structural aspects of lipids in human milk, for example, both lipid droplet size as well as the MFGM coating, may contribute to its reported protective effect against obesity in later life.

  13. Lack of Efficacy of a Salience Nudge for Substituting Selection of Lower-Calorie for Higher-Calorie Milk in the Work Place

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Amy L.; Bogomolova, Svetlana; Buckley, Jonathan D.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a major burden on healthcare systems. Simple, cost effective interventions that encourage healthier behaviours are required. The present study evaluated the efficacy of a salience nudge for promoting a change in milk selection from full-cream to low-fat (lower calorie) in the kitchen of a university-based research institute that provided full-cream and low-fat milk free of charge. Milk selection was recorded for 12 weeks (baseline). A sign with the message “Pick me! I am low calor...

  14. Volatile compounds of Domiati cheese made from buffaloe's milk with different fat content.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Mageed, Magda A. Abd

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Buffaloe's milk was manufactured to Domiati cheese with different fat content in the cheese milk (1%, 3.5% and 7%. Results obtained during the ripening period revealed that the low fat cheese (Karish is not able to long period storage, while half cream cheese had a good quality and flavour along the ripening period. The full cream cheese did not exceed the first month of ripening, then it deteriorated. The main components found were acrolein (propenal, heptanal, acetone, butan-2 one, ethanol, butan-2 ol, 2-methylpropan- 1-ol, 3-methyl butan-1-ol, ethyl propionate, propyl propionate, pentane and octane. Methyl mercaptan, methyl thiopropionate, and dimethyl trisulfide together with propyl butyrate, were existed in the samples which are characterized as bad cheese samples. Most of the previous compounds were developed after 1 month of ripening period.

    La leche de búfalo fue procesada para obtener queso Domiati con diferente contenido graso en la cuajada (1%, 3.5% y 7%. Los resultados obtenidos durante el período de maduración revelaron que el queso con bajo contenido en grasa (Karish no permite un largo período de almacenamiento, mientras que el queso con un contenido medio en grasa tuvo una buena calidad y flavor durante el período de maduración. El queso con alto contenido graso no duró más que el primer mes de maduración, deteriorándose posteriormente. Los principales componentes encontrados fueron acroleína (propenal, heptanal, acetona, butan-2-ona, etanol, butan-2-ol, 2- metil-propan-1-ol, 3 metil butan-1-ol, propionato de etilo, propionate de propilo, pentano y octano. Metil mercaptol, tiopropionato de metilo y trisulfuro de dimetilo Junto con butirato de propilo se encontraron en muestras que fueron caracterizadas como muestras de quesos malos. La mayoría de los compuestos anteriores se produjeron después de un mes de período de maduración.

  15. Behavior of silver nanoparticles and ions in food simulants and low fat cow milk under migration conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jokar, Maryam; Correia, Manuel; Löschner, Katrin

    2018-01-01

    , 50% ethanol preserved the AgNPs, while acetic acid induced dissolution of AgNPs. Dissolution of the PEG-AgNPs obeyed pseudo-first-order reaction kinetics. PEG-AgNPs showed similar behavior in low fat cow milk during storage at 4 °C for 5 days as in the corresponding food simulant, 50% ethanol....... Addition of sodium chloride to ultrapure water led to enhanced dissolution. The potential reduction of silver ions to NPs in food simulants, low fat milk and in alkaline conditions in the presence of reducing agents was studied. Based on the obtained results, it is unlikely that AgNPs are formed from Ag...

  16. Effect of safflower oil, flaxseed oil, monensin, and vitamin E on concentration of conjugated linoleic acid in bovine milk fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, J A; Griinari, J M; Kennelly, J J

    2006-02-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) refers to a mixture of conjugated octadecadienoic acids of predominantly ruminant origin. The main isomer in bovine milk fat is the cis-9, trans-11 CLA. Interest in CLA increased after the discovery of its health-promoting properties, including potent anticarcinogenic activity. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate dietary strategies aimed at increasing the concentration of CLA in bovine milk fat. Both experiments were organized as a randomized complete block design with a repeated measures treatment structure. In Experiment 1, 28 Holstein cows received either a control diet or one of 3 treatments for a period of 2 wk. The control diet consisted of 60% forage (barley silage, alfalfa silage, and alfalfa hay) and 40% concentrate on a dry matter (DM) basis, fed as a total mixed ration (TMR). The concentrate was partially replaced in the treatment groups with 24 ppm of monensin (MON), 6% of DM safflower oil (SAFF), or 6% of DM safflower oil plus 24 ppm of monensin (SAFF/M). Average cis-9, trans-11 CLA levels in milk fat after 2 wk of feeding were 0.45, 0.52, 3.36, and 5.15% of total fatty acids for control, MON, SAFF, and SAFF/M, respectively. In Experiment 2, 62 Holstein cows received either a control diet or one of 5 treatment diets for a period of 9 wk. The control diet consisted of 60% forage (barley silage, alfalfa silage, and alfalfa hay) and 40% concentrate on a DM basis, fed as a TMR. The concentrate was partially replaced in the treatment groups with 6% of DM safflower oil (SAFF), 6% of DM safflower oil plus 150 IU of vitamin E/kg of DM (SAFF/E), 6% of DM safflower oil plus 24 ppm of monensin (SAFF/M), 6% of DM safflower oil plus 24 ppm of monensin plus 150 IU of vitamin E/kg of DM (SAFF/ME), or 6% of DM flaxseed oil plus 150 IU of vitamin E/kg of DM (FLAX/E). Average cis-9, trans-11 CLA levels during the treatment period were 0.68, 4.12, 3.48, 4.55, 4.75, and 2.80% of total fatty acids for control, SAFF, SAFF/E, SAFF

  17. Substituting milk for apple juice does not increase kidney stone risk in most normocalciuric adults who form calcium oxalate stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, L K; Kynast-Gales, S A

    1998-03-01

    Increasing intake of dietary calcium from less than 400 mg to 800 mg daily may decrease the absorption of dietary oxalate, which in turn would decrease urinary oxalate excretion. The effect of substituting milk for apple juice on urine composition and risk of calcium oxalate precipitability was studied. Twenty-one normocalciuric adults with a history of at least 1 calcium oxalate stone and urinary oxalate excretion exceeding 275 micromol/day on their self-selected diet. Randomized crossover trial. Each participant consumed two moderate-oxalate (2,011 micromol/day) study diets, which were identical except that one contained 360 mL milk and the other contained 540 mL apple juice as the beverage with meals. Four days free-living then 2 days in the metabolic unit of a university nutrition department. Tiselius risk index for calcium oxalate precipitability calculated from urine composition. Paired t tests. Twenty-four hour urinary oxalate excretion was 18% lower (Pjuice diet: 423 vs 514 micromol, respectively. Calcium excretion was 17% higher (Pjuice diet: 4.7 vs 3.9 mmol, respectively. Urinary magnesium and citrate excretion, volume, and Tiselius risk index did not differ between diets. Substituting 360 mL milk daily for apple juice with meals in a diet containing moderate amounts of dietary oxalate from whole grains, legumes, fruits, and vegetables does not increase the risk index of calcium oxalate precipitability in most normocalciuric adults who form stones.

  18. Evaluation of highly polar ionic liquid gas chromatographic column for the determination of the fatty acids in milk fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmonte, Pierluigi; Fardin-Kia, Ali Reza; Kramer, John K G; Mossoba, Magdi M; Sidisky, Len; Tyburczy, Cynthia; Rader, Jeanne I

    2012-04-13

    The SLB-IL111, a new ionic liquid capillary column for gas chromatography available from Supelco Inc., was recently shown to provide enhanced separation of unsaturated geometric and positional isomers of fatty acid (FAs) when it was compared to cyanopropylsiloxane (CPS) columns currently recommended for the analysis of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs). A 200 m SLB-IL111 capillary column, operated under a combined temperature and eluent flow gradient, was successfully used to resolve most of the FAs contained in milk fat in a single 80 min chromatographic separation. The selected chromatographic conditions provided a balanced, simultaneous separation of short-chain (from 4:0), long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and most of the unsaturated FA positional/geometric isomers contained in milk fat. Among the monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), these conditions separated t11-18:1 and t10-18:1 FAs, the two most abundant trans fatty acids (t-FA) contained in most dairy products. These t-FAs reportedly have different biological activities. The conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers commonly found in dairy products were separated from each other, including t7,c9-18:2 from c9,t11-18:2, which eliminated the need for their complementary silver ion HPLC analysis. The application of the SLB-IL111 column provided a complementary elution profile of FAMEs to those obtained by CPS columns, allowing for a more comprehensive FA analysis of total milk fat. The FAMEs were identified by the use of available reference materials, previously synthesized and characterized reference mixtures, and prior separations of the milk fat FAMEs by silver ion chromatography based on the number/geometry of double bonds. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Fat content affects bioaccessibility and efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of lutein esters added to milk and yogurt

    OpenAIRE

    Xavier, Ana Augusta Odorissi; Mercadante, Adriana Zerlotti; Garrido-Fernández, Juan; Pérez-Gálvez, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Addition of lutein to dairy products is an alternative that widens the range of foods which could be lutein sources. However, bioaccessibility is an essential aspect to be considered during the development of products with added bioactive substances. We evaluated the in vitro bioaccessibility of lutein esters added to milk and yogurt with different fat contents, and determined the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of the esters during digestion. Bioaccessibility of lutei...

  20. Neutral cleanup procedure for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin residues in bovine fat and milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, P W; Meselson, M S; Baughman, R W

    1978-05-01

    A neutral cleanup method for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in milk and animal tissue was developed involving solvent extraction and liquid adsorption chromatography on magnesia-Celite 545, alumina, and Florisil. Cleaned up extracts were subjected to dual-ion analysis in a direct probe high resolution mass spectrometer, interfaced to a multi-channel analyzer for signal averaging. Calibration experiments were carried out with bovine milk and beef fat samples containing added TCDD. The 37CI isotopic isomer of TCDD was added as an internal standard. The response was linear for concentrations in the ppt range, with recoveries about 80%. Milk from a cow fed TCDD was cleaned up by the neutral procedure or, alternatively, a base-acid extraction procedure. The TCDD recoveries for both procedures were essentially the same. Recoveries of TCDD from liver samples of a rat given 14C-TCDD intraperitoneally, subjected to neutral cleanup and radioactive counting, were about 70%.

  1. Low-fat meat sausages with fish oil: optimization of milk proteins and carrageenan contents using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, L; Andrés, S C; Califano, A N

    2014-03-01

    Response surface methodology was used to analyze the effect of milk proteins and 2:1 κ:ι-carrageenans on cooking loss (CL), weight lost by centrifugation (WLC) and texture attributes of low-fat meat sausages with pre-emulsified fish oil. A central-composite design was used to develop models for the objective responses. Changes in carrageenans affected more the responses than milk proteins levels. Convenience functions were calculated for CL, WLC, hardness, and springiness of the product. Responses were optimized simultaneously minimizing CL and WLC; ranges for hardness and springiness corresponded to commercial products (20 g of pork fat/100 g). The optimum corresponded to 0.593 g of carrageenans/100 g and 0.320 g of milk proteins and its total lipid content was 6.3 g/100 g. This formulation was prepared and evaluated showing a good agreement between predicted and experimental responses. These additives could produce low-fat meat sausages with pre-emulsified fish oil with good nutritional quality and similar characteristics than traditional ones. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Curcumin liposomes prepared with milk fat globule membrane phospholipids and soybean lecithin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hong-Hao; Lu, Qun; Jiang, Jian-Guo

    2016-03-01

    Using thin film ultrasonic dispersion method, the curcumin liposomes were prepared with milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) phospholipids and soybean lecithins, respectively, to compare the characteristics and stability of the 2 curcumin liposomes. The processing parameters of curcumin liposomes were investigated to evaluate their effects on the encapsulation efficiency. Curcumin liposomes were characterized in terms of size distribution, ζ-potential, and in vitro release behavior, and then their storage stability under various conditions was evaluated. The curcumin liposomes prepared with MFGM phospholipids had an encapsulation efficiency of about 74%, an average particle size of 212.3 nm, and a ζ-potential of -48.60 mV. The MFGM liposomes showed higher encapsulation efficiency, smaller particle size, higher absolute value of ζ-potential, and slower in vitro release than soybean liposomes. The retention rate of liposomal curcumin was significantly higher than that of free curcumin. The stability of the 2 liposomes under different pH was almost the same, but MFGM liposomes displayed a slightly higher stability than soybean liposomes under the conditions of Fe(3+), light, temperature, oxygen, and relative humidity. In conclusion, MFGM phospholipids have potential advantages in the manufacture of curcumin liposomes used in food systems. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Investigation of solubility of carbon dioxide in anhydrous milk fat by lab-scale manometric method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Tuyen; Palmer, Martin; Bansal, Nidhi; Bhandari, Bhesh

    2017-12-15

    This study aims to examine the solubility of CO 2 in anhydrous milk fat (AMF) as functions of partial pressure, temperature, chemical composition and physical state of AMF. AMF was fractionated at 21°C to obtain stearin and olein fractions. The CO 2 solubility was measured using a home-made experimental apparatus based on changes of CO 2 partial pressures. The apparatus was found to be reliable as the measured and theoretical values based on the ideal gas law were comparable. The dissolved CO 2 concentration in AMF increased with an increase in CO 2 partial pressure (0-101kPa). The apparent CO 2 solubility coefficients (molkg -1 Pa -1 ) in the AMF were 5.75±0.16×10 -7 , 3.9±0.19×10 -7 and 1.19±0.14×10 -7 at 35, 24 and 4°C, respectively. Higher liquid oil proportions resulted in higher CO 2 solubility in the AMF. There was insignificant difference in the dissolved CO 2 concentration among the AMF, stearin and olein fractions in their liquid state at 40°C. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Consumption of Yogurt, Low-Fat Milk, and Other Low-Fat Dairy Products Is Associated with Lower Risk of Metabolic Syndrome Incidence in an Elderly Mediterranean Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babio, Nancy; Becerra-Tomás, Nerea; Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Corella, Dolores; Estruch, Ramon; Ros, Emilio; Sayón-Orea, Carmen; Fitó, Montserrat; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Arós, Fernando; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa M; Lapetra, José; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Fiol, Miguel; Díaz-López, Andrés; Sorlí, José V; Martínez, J Alfredo; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2015-10-01

    The association between consumption of dairy products and the risk of developing metabolic syndrome (MetS) is unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the associations between consumption of dairy products (total and different subtypes) and incident MetS in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular disease risk. We prospectively analyzed 1868 men and women (55-80 y old) without MetS at baseline, recruited from different PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) centers between October 2003 and June 2009 and followed up until December 2010. MetS was defined according to updated, harmonized criteria. At baseline and yearly thereafter, we determined anthropometric variables, dietary habits by a 137-item validated food-frequency questionnaire, and blood biochemistry. Multivariable-adjusted HRs of MetS or its components were estimated for each of the 2 upper tertiles (vs. the lowest one) of mean consumption of dairy products during the follow-up. During a median follow-up of 3.2 y, we documented 930 incident MetS cases. In the multivariable-adjusted model, HRs (95% CIs) of MetS for the comparison of extreme tertiles of dairy product consumption were 0.72 (0.61, 0.86) for low-fat dairy, 0.73 (0.62, 0.86) for low-fat yogurt, 0.78 (0.66, 0.92) for whole-fat yogurt, and 0.80 (0.67, 0.95) for low-fat milk. The respective HR for cheese was 1.31 (1.10, 1.56). Higher consumption of low-fat dairy products, yogurt (total, low-fat, and whole-fat yogurt) and low-fat milk was associated with a reduced risk of MetS in individuals at high cardiovascular disease risk from a Mediterranean population. Conversely, higher consumption of cheese was related to a higher risk of MetS. This trial was registered at controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN35739639. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  5. Non-digestible carbohydrates in infant formula as substitution for human milk oligosaccharide functions: Effects on microbiota and gut maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkerman, Renate; Faas, Marijke M; de Vos, Paul

    2018-01-15

    Human milk (HM) is the golden standard for nutrition of newborn infants. Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are abundantly present in HM and exert multiple beneficial functions, such as support of colonization of the gut microbiota, reduction of pathogenic infections and support of immune development. HMO-composition is during lactation continuously adapted by the mother to accommodate the needs of the neonate. Unfortunately, for many valid reasons not all neonates can be fed with HM and are either totally or partly fed with cow-milk derived infant formulas, which do not contain HMOs. These cow-milk formulas are supplemented with non-digestible carbohydrates (NDCs) that have functional effects similar to that of some HMOs, since production of synthetic HMOs is challenging and still very expensive. However, NDCs cannot substitute all HMO functions. More efficacious NDCs may be developed and customized for specific groups of neonates such as pre-matures and allergy prone infants. Here current knowledge of HMO functions in the neonate in view of possible replacement of HMOs by NDCs in infant formulas is reviewed. Furthermore, methods to expedite identification of suitable NDCs and structure/function relationships are reviewed as in vivo studies in babies are impossible.

  6. Evaluation of tilapia skin gelatin as a mammalian gelatin replacer in acid milk gels and low-fat stirred yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Zhihua; Deeth, Hilton; Yang, Hongshun; Prakash, Sangeeta; Bansal, Nidhi

    2017-05-01

    Tilapia skin gelatin (TSG) was studied in a 3-stage process (cooling, annealing, and heating) for pure gelatin gels and in a 4-stage process (acidification, cooling, annealing, and heating) for acid milk gels and cultured yogurt. The aim was to evaluate the use of TSG as a replacement for mammalian gelatin in yogurt. In pure TSG gels, stronger gels with higher melting temperatures were formed with increasing TSG concentrations. Compared with bovine gelatin (BG), which gelled at a concentration of 2.5%, TSG gels had lower gelling (14.1°C) and melting (24°C) temperatures but comparable storage moduli during annealing. In acid milk gels, addition of TSG increased the firmness of the gels with increasing concentration. Gelling and melting points of TSG in milk gels were observed at sufficient concentrations during cooling and heating. Strands and sheets were observed in the electron micrographs of milk gels with 1% TSG and a very dense structure was observed with 2.5% TSG. Yogurt with 0.4% TSG had similar viscosity, consistency, pseudoplasticity, and thixotropy as yogurt containing 0.4% BG; no difference was perceived by sensory panelists according to a triangle test. Addition of 0.4% TSG completely prevented whey separation from the acid milk gel and yogurt. The results suggest that TSG could be a suitable replacement for mammalian gelatin in low-fat stirred yogurt. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Partial fat and sugar replacement with soy milk, inulin and sucralose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thai Pandanus custard samples replaced with coconut milk, and sugar with soy milk, inulin and sucralose, were compared with quality characteristics of the regular formulation (control). With increasing levels of coconut milk replacement, the product pH and redness increased, whereas there was no significant difference in ...

  8. The effect of replacing lactose by starch on protein and fat digestion in milk-fed veal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluschke, A M; Gilbert, M S; Williams, B A; van den Borne, J J G C; Schols, H A; Gerrits, W J J

    2016-08-01

    Replacing dairy components from milk replacer (MR) with vegetable products has been previously associated with decreased protein and fat digestibility in milk-fed calves resulting in lower live weight gain. In this experiment, the major carbohydrate source in MR, lactose, was partly replaced with gelatinized corn starch (GCS) to determine the effect on protein and fat digestibility in milk-fed calves. In total, 16 male Holstein-Friesian calves received either MR with lactose as the carbohydrate source (control) or 18% GCS at the expense of lactose. In the adaptation period, calves were exposed to an increasing dose of GCS for 14 weeks. The indigestible marker cobalt ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid was incorporated into the MR for calculating apparent nutrient digestibility, whereas a pulse dose of chromium (Cr) chloride was fed with the last MR meal 4 h before slaughter as an indicator of passage rates. The calves were anesthetized and exsanguinated at 30 weeks of age. The small intestine was divided in three; small intestine 1 and 2 (SI1 and SI2, respectively) and the terminal ileum (last ~100 cm of small intestine) and samples of digesta were collected. Small intestinal digesta was analysed for α-amylase, lipase and trypsin activity. Digestibility of protein was determined for SI1, SI2, ileum and total tract, whereas digestibility of fat was determined for SI1, SI2 and total tract. Apparent protein digestibility in the small intestine did not differ between treatments but was higher in control calves at total tract level. Apparent crude fat digestibility tended to be increased in SI1 and SI2 for GCS calves, but no difference was found at total tract level. Activity of α-amylase in SI2 and lipase in both SI1 and SI2 was higher in GCS calves. Activity of trypsin tended to be higher in control calves and was higher in SI1 compared with SI2. A lower recovery of Cr in SI2 and a higher recovery of Cr in the large intestine suggest an increased rate of passage for GCS

  9. A canonical discriminant analysis to study the association between milk fatty acids of ruminal origin and milk fat depression in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, G; Dimauro, C; Serra, A; Macciotta, N P P; Mele, M

    2018-04-04

    Although milk fat depression (MFD) has been observed and described since the beginning of the last century, all the molecular and biochemical mechanisms involved are still not completely understood. Some fatty acids (FA) originating during rumen biohydrogenation have been proposed as causative elements of MFD. However, contradictory results were obtained when studying the effect of single FA on MFD. An alternative could be the simultaneous evaluation of the effect of many FA using a multivariate approach. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between individual milk FA of ruminal origin and MFD using canonical discriminant analysis, a multivariate technique able to distinguish 2 or more groups on the basis of a pool of variables. In a commercial dairy herd, a diet containing 26% starch on a DM basis induced an unintentional MFD syndrome in 14 cows out of 40. Milk yielded by these 14 animals showed a fat content lower than 50% of the ordinary value, whereas milk production and protein content were normal. The remaining 26 cows secreted typical milk fat content and therefore were considered the control group, even though they ate the same diet. The stepwise discriminant analysis selected 14 milk FA of ruminal origin most able to distinguish the 2 groups. This restricted pool of FA was used, as variables, in a run of the canonical discriminant analysis that was able to significantly discriminate between the 2 groups. Out of the 14 FA, 5 conjugated linoleic acid isomers (C18:2 trans-10,trans-12, C18:2 trans-8,trans-10, C18:2 trans-11,cis-13, C18:2 cis-9,cis-11, C18:2 cis-10,cis-12) and C15:0 iso were more related to the control group, whereas C18:2 trans-10,cis-12, C16:1 trans-6-7, C16:1 trans-9, C18:1 trans-6-8, C18:1 trans-9, C18:1 trans-10, C18:1 cis-11, and C18:3n-3 were positively associated with the MFD group, allowing a complete discrimination. On the basis of these results, we can conclude that (1) the shift of ruminal biohydrogenation from C18

  10. Infant food marketing strategies undermine effective regulation of breast-milk substitutes: trends in print advertising in Australia, 1950-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Julie; Blake, Miranda

    2013-08-01

    This study addresses the issue of whether voluntary industry regulation has altered companies' marketing of breast-milk substitutes in Australia since the adoption of the World Health Organization (WHO) International Code on the Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes 1981. Print advertisements marketing breast-milk substitutes were systematically sampled from the Australian Women's Weekly (AWW) magazine and the Medical Journal of Australia (MJA) for the 61 years from 1950 to 2010. Breast-milk substitute advertising in both the MJA and the AWW peaked and began declining before the introduction of the WHO Code in 1981. Although there was almost no infant formula advertising in AWW after 1975-79, other breast-milk substitute advertising has been increasing since 1992, in particular for baby food, toddler formula and food and brand promotion. Companies have adopted strategies to minimise the effects of the Code on sales and profit in Australia, including increasing toddler formula and food advertisements, increasing brand promotion to the public, and complying with more limited voluntary regulatory arrangements. Comprehensive regulation is urgently required to address changed marketing practices if it is to protect breastfeeding in Australia. © 2013 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2013 Public Health Association of Australia.

  11. Effects of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation and feeding level on dairy performance, milk fatty acid composition, and body fat changes in mid-lactation goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazal, S; Berthelot, V; Friggens, N C; Schmidely, P

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this trial was to study the interaction between the supplementation of lipid-encapsulated conjugated linoleic acid (CLA; 4.5 g of cis-9,trans-11 C18:2 and 4.5 g of trans-10,cis-12 C18:2) and feeding level to test if milk performance or milk fatty acid (FA) profile are affected by the interaction between CLA and feeding level. Twenty-four dairy goats were used in an 8-wk trial with a 3-wk adaptation to the experimental ration that contained corn silage, beet pulp, barley, and a commercial concentrate. During the third week, goats were assigned into blocks of 2 goats according to their dry matter intake (DMI), raw milk yield, and fat yield. Each block was randomly allocated to control (45 g of Ca salt of palm oil/d) or CLA treatment. Within each block, one goat was fed to cover 100% (FL100) of the calculated energy requirements and the other was fed 85% of the DMI of the first goat (FL85). Individual milk production and composition were recorded weekly, and milk FA composition was analyzed in wk 3, 5, and 7. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation reduced milk fat content and fat yield by 17 and 19%, respectively, independent of the feeding level. It reduced both the secretion of milk FA synthesized de novo, and those taken up from the blood. No interaction between CLA and feeding level was observed on milk secretion of any group of FA. The CLA supplementation had no effect on DMI, milk yield, protein, and lactose yields but it improved calculated net energy for lactation balance. Goats fed the FL100 × CLA diet tended to have the highest DMI and protein yield. The interaction between CLA and feeding level was not significant for any other variables. Compared with the goats fed FL100, those fed FL85 had lower DMI, lower net energy for lactation balance, and lower digestible protein in the intestine balance. The body weight; milk yield; milk fat, protein, and lactose yields; and fat, protein, lactose, and urea contents in milk were not affected by

  12. Effects of fat source and dietary sodium bicarbonate plus straw on the conjugated linoleic acid content of milk of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troegeler-Meynadier, Annabelle; Nicot, Marie-Claude; Enjalbert, Francis

    2007-10-01

    The effects of fat source (0.7 kg of fatty acids from extruded soybeans or palmitic acid), of sodium bicarbonate (0.3 kg) plus straw (1 kg) and the interaction of these treatments on the content of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in the milk of dairy cows were examined. During nine weeks a group of 10 cows received a ration with palmitic acid and bicarbonate plus straw (ration PAB). During three periods of three weeks a second group of 10 cows received successively a ration with extruded soybeans and bicarbonate plus straw (ration ESB), a ration with palmitic acid without bicarbonate or straw (ration PA), and a ration with extruded soybeans without bicarbonate or straw (ration ES). Rations ES and ESB increased the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk, but decreased milk fat content, compared to rations PAB and PA. Ration ESB led to the greatest milk CLA content, by a synergy between the high amount of dietary fat, and the action of bicarbonate plus straw, favouring trans11 isomers of CLA and C18:1, presumably via a ruminal pH near neutrality. Ration ES favoured trans10 isomers, not desaturated in the mammary gland, so that the milk CLA content was lower than with ration ESB, and resulted in the lowest milk fat content. In conclusion, a ration supplemented with both extruded soybeans and bicarbonate plus straw, was an efficient way to increase the CLA content in the milk of dairy cows.

  13. Recommendations for Adopting the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes Into U.S. Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldavini, Jessica; Taillie, Lindsey Smith

    2017-08-01

    In 1981, the World Health Organization adopted the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes ( International Code), with subsequent resolutions adopted since then. The International Code contributes to the safe and adequate provision of nutrition for infants by protecting and promoting breastfeeding and ensuring that human milk substitutes, when necessary, are used properly through adequate information and appropriate marketing and distribution. Despite the World Health Organization recommendations for all member nations to implement the International Code in its entirety, the United States has yet to take action to translate it into any national measures. In 2012, only 22.3% of infants in the United States met the American Academy of Pediatrics recommendation of at least 6 months of exclusive breastfeeding. Countries adopting legislation reflecting the provisions of the International Code have seen increases in breastfeeding rates. This article discusses recommendations for translating the International Code into U.S. policy. Adopting legislation that implements, monitors, and enforces the International Code in its entirety has the potential to contribute to increased rates of breastfeeding in the United States, which can lead to improved health outcomes in both infants and breastfeeding mothers.

  14. Who's keeping the code? Compliance with the international code for the marketing of breast-milk substitutes in Greater Glasgow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnes, Rhona J; Wright, Charlotte; Haq, Shogufta; McGranachan, Margaret

    2007-07-01

    To evaluate compliance with the World Health Organization's International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes in primary care, after the introduction of strict local infant feeding guidelines. An audit form was sent to all community-based health professionals with an infant feeding remit. Walking tours were conducted in a random sample of community care facilities. Greater Glasgow Primary Care Division. (1) Primary-care staff with an infant feeding remit; (2) community health-care facilities. Contact with manufacturers of breast-milk substitutes (BMS) and BMS company personnel, free samples or incentives, and advertising of BMS. Contact with company personnel was minimal, usually unsolicited and was mainly to provide product information. Free samples of BMS or feeding equipment were rare but childcare or parenting literature was more prevalent. Staff voiced concerns about the lack of relevant information for bottle-feeding mothers and the need to support the mother's feeding choice. One-third of facilities were still displaying materials non-compliant with the Code, with the most common materials being weight conversion charts and posters. Contact between personnel from primary care and BMS companies was minimal and generally unsolicited. The presence of materials from BMS companies in health-care premises was more common. Due to the high level of bottle-feeding in Glasgow, primary-care staff stated a need for information about BMS.

  15. Meta-analysis of sequence-based association studies across three cattle breeds reveals 25 QTL for fat and protein percentages in milk at nucleotide resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pausch, Hubert; Emmerling, Reiner; Gredler-Grandl, Birgit; Fries, Ruedi; Daetwyler, Hans D; Goddard, Michael E

    2017-11-09

    Genotyping and whole-genome sequencing data have been generated for hundreds of thousands of cattle. International consortia used these data to compile imputation reference panels that facilitate the imputation of sequence variant genotypes for animals that have been genotyped using dense microarrays. Association studies with imputed sequence variant genotypes allow for the characterization of quantitative trait loci (QTL) at nucleotide resolution particularly when individuals from several breeds are included in the mapping populations. We imputed genotypes for 28 million sequence variants in 17,229 cattle of the Braunvieh, Fleckvieh and Holstein breeds in order to compile large mapping populations that provide high power to identify QTL for milk production traits. Association tests between imputed sequence variant genotypes and fat and protein percentages in milk uncovered between six and thirteen QTL (P < 1e-8) per breed. Eight of the detected QTL were significant in more than one breed. We combined the results across breeds using meta-analysis and identified a total of 25 QTL including six that were not significant in the within-breed association studies. Two missense mutations in the ABCG2 (p.Y581S, rs43702337, P = 4.3e-34) and GHR (p.F279Y, rs385640152, P = 1.6e-74) genes were the top variants at QTL on chromosomes 6 and 20. Another known causal missense mutation in the DGAT1 gene (p.A232K, rs109326954, P = 8.4e-1436) was the second top variant at a QTL on chromosome 14 but its allelic substitution effects were inconsistent across breeds. It turned out that the conflicting allelic substitution effects resulted from flaws in the imputed genotypes due to the use of a multi-breed reference population for genotype imputation. Many QTL for milk production traits segregate across breeds and across-breed meta-analysis has greater power to detect such QTL than within-breed association testing. Association testing between imputed sequence variant genotypes and

  16. Substantial replacement of lactose with fat in a high-lactose milk replacer diet increases liver fat accumulation but does not affect insulin sensitivity in veal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantophlet, A J; Gerrits, W J J; Vonk, R J; van den Borne, J J G C

    2016-12-01

    In veal calves, the major portion of digestible energy intake originates from milk replacer (MR), with lactose and fat contributing approximately 45 and 35%, respectively. In veal calves older than 4 mo, prolonged high intakes of MR may lead to problems with glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity, ultimately resulting in sustained insulin resistance, hepatic steatosis, and impaired animal performance. The contribution of each of the dietary energy sources (lactose and fat) to deteriorated glucose homeostasis and insulin resistance is currently unknown. Therefore, an experiment was designed to compare the effects of a high-lactose and a high-fat MR on glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity in veal calves. Sixteen male Holstein-Friesian calves (120±2.8kg of BW) were assigned to either a high-lactose (HL) or a high-fat (HF) MR for 13 consecutive weeks. After at least 7 wk of adaptation, whole-body insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion were assessed by euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic and hyperglycemic clamps, respectively. Postprandial blood samples were collected to assess glucose, insulin, and triglyceride responses to feeding, and 24-h urine was collected to quantify urinary glucose excretion. At the end of the trial, liver and muscle biopsies were taken to assess triglyceride contents in these tissues. Long-term exposure of calves to HF or HL MR did not affect whole-body insulin sensitivity (averaging 4.2±0.5×10 -2 [(mg/kg∙min)/(μU/mL)]) and insulin secretion. Responses to feeding were greater for plasma glucose and tended to be greater for plasma insulin in HL calves than in HF calves. Urinary glucose excretion was substantially higher in HL calves (75±13g/d) than in HF calves (21±6g/d). Muscle triglyceride content was not affected by treatment and averaged 4.5±0.6g/kg, but liver triglyceride content was higher in HF calves (16.4±0.9g/kg) than in HL calves (11.2±0.7g/kg), indicating increased hepatic fat accumulation. We conclude that

  17. Are fat acids of human milk impacted by pasteurization and freezing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgo, Luiz Antônio; Coelho Araújo, Wilma Maria; Conceição, Maria Hosana; Sabioni Resck, Inês; Mendonça, Márcio Antonio

    2014-10-03

    The Human Milk Bank undergo human milk to pasteurization, followed by storage in a freezer at -18° C for up to six months to thus keep available the stocks of this product in maternal and infant hospitals. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of processing on the lipid fraction of human milk. A sample of human milk was obtained from a donor and was subdivided into ten sub-samples that was subjected to the following treatments: LC = raw milk; T0 = milk after pasteurization; T30 = milk after pasteurization and freezing for 30 days; T60 = milk after pasteurization and freeze for 60 days, and so on every 30 days until T240 = milk after pasteurization and freezing for 240 days, with 3 repetitions for each treatment. Lipids were extracted, methylated and fatty acid profiles determined by gas chromatography. The fatty acids were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance and functional groups were identified by infrared spectroscopy. There were variations in the concentration of fatty acids. For unsaturated fatty acids there was increasing trend in their concentrations. The IR and NMR analyze characterized and identified functional groups presents in fatty acids. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  18. Genetic parameters estimate for milk and mozzarella cheese yield, fat and protein percentage in dairy buffaloes in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Tonhati

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was analyze the (covariance components and genetic and phenotypic relationships in the following traits: accumulated milk yield at 270 days (MY270, observed until 305 days of lactation; accumulated milk yield at 270 days (MY270/ A and at 305 days (MY305, observed until 335 days of lactation; mozzarella cheese yield (MCY and fat (FP and protein (PP percentage, observed until 335 days of lactation. The (covariance components were estimated by Restricted Maximum Likelihood methodology in analyses single, two and three-traits using animal models. Heritability estimated for MY270, MY270/A, MY305, MCY, FP and PP were 0.22; 0.24, 0.25, 0.14, 0.29 and 0.40 respectively. The genetic correlations between MCY and the variables MY270, MY270/A, MY305, PP and FP was: 0.85; 1.00; 0.89; 0.14 and 0.06, respectively. This way, the selection for the production of milk in long period should increase MCY. However, in the search of animals that produce milk with quality, the genetic parameters suggest that another index should be composed allying these studied traits.

  19. Substitution rate and milk yield response to corn silage supplementation of late-lactation dairy cows grazing low-mass pastures at 2 daily allowances in autumn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Prieto, L A; Peyraud, J L; Delagarde, R

    2011-07-01

    Feed costs in dairy production systems may be decreased by extending the grazing season to periods such as autumn when grazing low-mass pastures is highly probable. The aim of this autumn study was to determine the effect of corn silage supplementation [0 vs. 8 kg of dry matter (DM) of a mixture 7:1 of corn silage and soybean meal] on pasture intake (PI), milk production, and grazing behavior of dairy cows grazing low-mass ryegrass pastures at 2 daily pasture allowances (PA; low PA=18 vs. high PA=30 kg of DM/cow above 2.5 cm). Twelve multiparous Holstein cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with 14-d periods. Pre-grazing pasture mass and pre-grazing plate meter pasture height averaged 1.8 t of DM/ha (above 2.5 cm) and 6.3 cm, respectively. The quality of the offered pasture (above 2.5 cm) was low because of dry conditions before and during the experiment (crude protein=11.5% of DM; net energy for lactation=5.15 MJ/kg of DM; organic matter digestibility=61.9%). The interaction between PA and supplementation level was significant for PI but not for milk production. Supplementation decreased PI from 11.6 to 7.6 kg of DM/d at low PA and from 13.1 to 7.3 kg of DM/d at high PA. The substitution rate was, therefore, lower at low than at high PA (0.51 vs. 0.75). Pasture intake increased with increasing PA in unsupplemented treatments, and was not affected by PA in supplemented treatments. Milk production averaged 13.5 kg/d and was greater at high than at low PA (+1.4 kg/d) and in supplemented than unsupplemented treatments (+5.2 kg/d). Milk fat concentration averaged 4.39% and was similar between treatments. Milk protein concentration increased from 3.37 to 3.51% from unsupplemented to supplemented treatments, and did not vary according to PA. Grazing behavior parameters were only affected by supplementation. On average, daily grazing time decreased (539 vs. 436 min) and daily ruminating time increased (388 vs. 486 min) from 0 to 8 kg of supplement DM. The PI

  20. Fat reduction and alternatives for its substitution un emulsified meat products, a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Natalia Rivera Ruiz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Animal fat employed in emulsified meat products elaboration is important for the flavor and texture characteristics. Nonetheless, the association of this kind of saturated fats with cardiovascular disease is a negative factor against their consumption. Different alternatives had been studied to reduce their content, replacing the fat with water, hydrocolloids, gums, proteins and/or vegetable oils. This modifies the meat products functional properties like yield, cocking stability and water retention, affecting moisture content and oxidative rancidity, texture and color. All these alternatives had advantages and disadvantages in their use and application, but the particular needs will determinate the optimum formulation for healthier meat products.

  1. Short communication: Feeding linseed oil to dairy goats with competent reticular groove reflex greatly increases n-3 fatty acids in milk fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Marín, A L; Gómez-Cortés, P; Carrión Pardo, D; Núñez Sánchez, N; Gómez Castro, G; Juárez, M; Pérez Alba, L; Pérez Hernández, M; de la Fuente, M A

    2013-01-01

    A crossover experiment was designed to compare the effects of 2 ways of feeding linseed oil on milk fat fatty acid (FA) composition. Ten lactating goats, trained to keep competent their inborn reticular groove reflex, received a daily dose of linseed oil (38 g/d) either with their solid (concentrate) feed (CON) or emulsified in skim milk and bottle-fed (BOT). Two groups of 5 goats received alternative and successively each of the treatments in two 15-d periods. α-Linolenic acid in milk fat rose up to 13.7% in the BOT versus 1.34% in the CON treatment. The n-6 to n-3 FA ratio was significantly reduced in goats receiving bottle-fed linseed oil (1.49 vs. 0.49). Contents of rumen biohydrogenation intermediates of dietary unsaturated FA were high in milk fat of goats under the CON treatment but low in those in the BOT treatment. These results point to a clear rumen bypass of the bottle-fed linseed oil. This strategy allows obtaining milk fat naturally very rich in n-3 FA and very low in trans FA. Translating this approach into practical farm conditions could enable farmers to produce milk enriched in specific FA. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Fatty acid composition, fat soluble vitamin concentrations and oxidative stability in bovine milk produced on two pastures with different botanical composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler, S A; Dahl, A V; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2013-01-01

    to oxidation. Two groups of 8 multiparous Norwegian Red dairy cows [mean (standard deviation); 599 (45.1) kg body weight, 73 (15.0) d in milk, 29.9 (2.90) kg milk/d at experiment start] grazed either a short-term pasture (SP) or a long-term pasture (LP). Both pastures were organically managed, meaning......Previous research has shown that grazing pastures compared to feeding preserved forages has large impact on milk fatty acid (FA) composition, but differences between grazing red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) or white clover (Trifolium repens L.) are small, whereas the herbage proportions...... of dicotyledon botanical families is positively correlated with the milk-fat proportions of total polyunsaturated FA when grazing pastures in the Alps. The objective of the present study was to investigate the influence of botanically different pastures on bovine milk composition and milk susceptibility...

  3. Effect of homogenisation in formation of thermally induced aggregates in a non- and low- fat milk model system with microparticulated whey proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Isabel Celigueta; Nieto, Gema; Nylander, Tommy; Simonsen, Adam Cohen; Tolkach, Alexander; Ipsen, Richard

    2017-05-01

    The objective of the research presented in this paper was to investigate how different characteristics of whey protein microparticles (MWP) added to milk as fat replacers influence intermolecular interactions occurring with other milk proteins during homogenisation and heating. These interactions are responsible for the formation of heat-induced aggregates that influence the texture and sensory characteristics of the final product. The formation of heat-induced complexes was studied in non- and low-fat milk model systems, where microparticulated whey protein (MWP) was used as fat replacer. Five MWP types with different particle characteristics were utilised and three heat treatments used: 85 °C for 15 min, 90 °C for 5 min and 95 °C for 2 min. Surface characteristics of the protein aggregates were expressed as the number of available thiol groups and the surface net charge. Intermolecular interactions involved in the formation of protein aggregates were studied by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and the final complexes visualised by darkfield microscopy. Homogenisation of non-fat milk systems led to partial adsorption of caseins onto microparticles, independently of the type of microparticle. On the contrary, homogenisation of low-fat milk resulted in preferential adsorption of caseins onto fat globules, rather than onto microparticles. Further heating of the milk, led to the formation of heat induced complexes with different sizes and characteristics depending on the type of MWP and the presence or not of fat. The results highlight the importance of controlling homogenisation and heat processing in yoghurt manufacture in order to induce desired changes in the surface reactivity of the microparticles and thereby promote effective protein interactions.

  4. In vivo digestion of bovine milk fat globules: effect of processing and interfacial structural changes. I. Gastric digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallier, Sophie; Cui, Jack; Olson, Trent D; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Ye, Aiqian; Moughan, Paul J; Singh, Harjinder

    2013-12-01

    The aim was to study the in vivo gastric digestion of fat globules in bovine cream from raw, pasteurised or pasteurised and homogenised milk. Fasted rats were gavaged once and chyme samples were collected after 30, 120 and 180 min post-gavage. Proteins from raw (RC) and pasteurised (PC) creams appeared to be digested faster and to a greater extent. Free fatty acids (FAs) increased throughout the 3h postprandial period. Short and medium chain FAs were released more rapidly than long chain FAs which were hydrolysed to a greater degree from PC. The size of the fat globules of all creams increased in the stomach. Protein aggregates were observed in pasteurised and homogenised cream chyme. Protrusions, probably caused by the accumulation of insoluble lipolytic products, appeared at the surface of the globules in RC and PC chyme. Overall, PC proteins and lipids appeared to be digested to a greater extent. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. 1% low-fat milk has perks!: An evaluation of a social marketing intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnell, Karla Jaye; John, Robert; Thompson, David M

    2017-03-01

    This study evaluated the effect of a 12-week social marketing intervention conducted in 2012 promoting 1% milk use relying on paid advertising. Weekly milk sales data by type of milk (whole, 2%, 1%, and nonfat milk) were collected from 80 supermarkets in the Oklahoma City media market, the intervention market, and 66 supermarkets in the Tulsa media market (TMM), the comparison market. The effect was measured with a paired t -test. A mixed segmented regression model, controlling for the contextual difference between supermarkets and data correlation, identified trends before, during, and after the intervention. Results show the monthly market share of 1% milk sales changed from 10.0% to 11.5%, a 15% increase. Evaluating the volume sold, the monthly mean number of gallons of 1% milk sold increased from 890.5 gal ( SD  = 769.8) per supermarket from before the intervention to 1070.7 gal ( SD  = 922.5) following the intervention (t(79) = 9.4, p  = 0.000). Moreover, average weekly sales of 1% milk were stable prior to the intervention (b = - 0.2 gal/week, 95% CI [- 0.6 gal/week, 0.3 gal/week]). During each additional week of the intervention, 1% milk sales increased by an average of 4.1 gal in all supermarkets (95% CI [3.5 gal/week, 4.6 gal/week]). Three months later, albeit attenuated, a significant increase in 1% milk sales remained. In the comparison market, no change in the market share of 1% milk occurred. Paid advertising, using the principles of social marketing, can be effective in changing an entrenched and habitual nutrition habit.

  6. 1% low-fat milk has perks!: An evaluation of a social marketing intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Jaye Finnell

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of a 12-week social marketing intervention conducted in 2012 promoting 1% milk use relying on paid advertising. Weekly milk sales data by type of milk (whole, 2%, 1%, and nonfat milk were collected from 80 supermarkets in the Oklahoma City media market, the intervention market, and 66 supermarkets in the Tulsa media market (TMM, the comparison market. The effect was measured with a paired t-test. A mixed segmented regression model, controlling for the contextual difference between supermarkets and data correlation, identified trends before, during, and after the intervention. Results show the monthly market share of 1% milk sales changed from 10.0% to 11.5%, a 15% increase. Evaluating the volume sold, the monthly mean number of gallons of 1% milk sold increased from 890.5 gal (SD = 769.8 per supermarket from before the intervention to 1070.7 gal (SD = 922.5 following the intervention (t(79 = 9.4, p = 0.000. Moreover, average weekly sales of 1% milk were stable prior to the intervention (b = −0.2 gal/week, 95% CI [−0.6 gal/week, 0.3 gal/week]. During each additional week of the intervention, 1% milk sales increased by an average of 4.1 gal in all supermarkets (95% CI [3.5 gal/week, 4.6 gal/week]. Three months later, albeit attenuated, a significant increase in 1% milk sales remained. In the comparison market, no change in the market share of 1% milk occurred. Paid advertising, using the principles of social marketing, can be effective in changing an entrenched and habitual nutrition habit.

  7. The neuroprotective effects of milk fat globule-EGF factor 8 against oligomeric amyloid β toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Endong

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phosphatidylserine receptor is a key molecule that mediates the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells. Milk fat globule-EGF factor 8 (MFG-E8 is a phosphatidylserine receptor that is expressed on various macrophage lineage cells, including microglia in the central nervous system (CNS. Targeted clearance of degenerated neurons by microglia is essential to maintain healthy neural networks. We previously showed that the CX3C chemokine fractalkine is secreted from degenerated neurons and accelerates microglial clearance of neuronal debris via inducing the release of MFG-E8. However, the mechanisms by which microglia produce MFG-E8 and the precise functions of MFG-E8 are unknown. Methods The release of MFG-E8 from microglia treated with conditioned medium from neurons exposed to neurotoxic substances, glutamate or oligomeric amyloid β (oAβ was measured by ELISA. The neuroprotective effects of MFG-E8 and MFG-E8 − induced microglial phagocytosis of oAβ were assessed by immunocytochemistry. The effects of MFG-E8 on the production of the anti-oxidative enzyme hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1 were determined by ELISA and immunocytochemisty. Results MFG-E8 was induced in microglia treated with conditioned medium from neurons that had been exposed to neurotoxicants, glutamate or oAβ. MFG-E8 significantly attenuated oAβ-induced neuronal cell death in a primary neuron − microglia coculture system. Microglial phagocytosis of oAβ was accelerated by MFG-E8 treatment due to increased CD47 expression in the absence of neurotoxic molecule production, such as tumor necrosis factor-α, nitric oxide, and glutamate. MFG-E8 − treated microglia induced nuclear factor E(2 − related factor 2 (Nrf2 − mediated HO-1 production, which also contributed to neuroprotection. Conclusions These results suggest that microglia release MFG-E8 in response to signals from degenerated neurons and that MFG-E8 protects oAβ-induced neuronal cell death

  8. Conjugated linolenic acid (CLnA), conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and other biohydrogenation intermediates in plasma and milk fat of cows fed raw or extruded linseed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akraim, F; Nicot, M C; Juaneda, P; Enjalbert, F

    2007-07-01

    Thirty lactating dairy cows were used in a 3 × 3 Latin-square design to investigate the effects of a raw or extruded blend of linseed and wheat bran (70:30) on plasma and milk fatty-acids (FA). Linseed diets, containing 16.6% linseed blend on a dry-matter basis, decreased milk yield and protein percentage. They decreased the proportions of FA with less than 18 carbons in plasma and milk and resulted in cis-9, cis-12, cis-15 18:3 proportions that were more than three and four times higher in plasma and milk, respectively, whereas cis-9, cis-12 18:2 proportions were decreased by 10-15%. The cis-9, trans-11, cis-15 18:3 isomer of conjugated linolenic acid was not detected in the milk of control cows, but was over 0.15% of total FA in the milk fat of linseed-supplemented cows. Similarly, linseed increased plasma and milk proportions of all biohydrogenation (BH) intermediates in plasma and milk, including the main isomer of conjugated linoleic acid cis-9, trans-11 18:2, except trans-4 18:1 and cis-11, trans-15 18:2 in plasma lipids. In milk fat, compared with raw linseed, extruded linseed further reduced 6:0-16:0 even-chain FA, did not significantly affect the proportions of 18:0, cis-9 18:1 and cis-9, cis-12 18:2, tended to increase cis-9, cis-12, cis-15 18:3, and resulted in an additional increase in the proportions of most BH intermediates. It was concluded that linseed addition can improve the proportion of conjugated linoleic and linolenic acids, and that extrusion further increases the proportions of intermediates of ruminal BH in milk fat.

  9. Adapting a 1% or less milk campaign for a Hispanic/Latino population: the Adelante Con Leche Semi-descremada 1% experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkle, Arnell J; Mistry, Ritesh; McCarthy, William J; Yancey, Antronette K

    2008-01-01

    Describe and evaluate a media campaign to encourage 1% or nonfat milk consumption. Uncontrolled pre/post test. One largely rural (Santa Paula) and one urban (East Los Angeles) California community. Community residents and milk vendors in primarily low-income Latino/Hispanic communities. The "1% or Less" milk campaign, which promotes substitution of 2% fat or whole milk with 1% or less fat milk was adapted and implemented. Comparison of post-campaign milk sales with pre-campaign sales. Chi-square tests of independence used to compare precampaign and postcampaign sales. There were decreases in the proportion of whole milk sold and increases in the proportion of reduced-fat, low-fat, and nonfat milk sold in the weeks following each campaign (Santa Paula: p = .0165; East Los Angeles: p Latino/Hispanic communities is not evident.

  10. Polychlorinated biphenyl residues in food and human milk: determination of co-planar and mono-ortho substituted congeners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, V.; Schulte, E.; Thier, H.P.

    1993-01-01

    An analytical method is described for determining the residues of coplanar as well as mono-ortho substituted PCB congeners both exhibiting toxicological relevance, in foods of animal origin and in human milk. The unsophisticated procedure, convenient for routine analyses, includes the extraction of lipids, clean-up steps using liquid/liquid partition and column chromatography, fractionation of the congeners using HPLC on a special carbon column with an optimal gradient elution, and capillary column gas chromatography with electron capture or mass spectrometric detection. As preliminary results indicate, the low-chlorinated PCB technical products contribute more to the actual contamination of environment and foods than has been estimated so far. Obviously the co-planar congeners are accumulated during the food chain in a portion different from that found for the other congeners. (orig.)

  11. The Impact of a Low-Fat Diet and the Use of Fat Substitutes on Fat Preferences Among Overweight Women Seeking Weight Loss Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    psychological stress (Ruderman, 1985), and physical threats, such as 27 DIETARY ADHERENCE AND FAT PREFERENCE an anticipated electric shock...effects of stress and eating. Health Psychology, 11(2), 97-100. Guinard, J.X., Sechevich, P.J., Meaker, K., Jonnalagadda, S.S., & Kris-Etherton, P...ounces each) 1/4 cup chicken or vegetable stock 2 tablespoons lemon juice 1/2 teaspoon fennel seeds, crushed 1/4 teaspoon cumin 1/4 teaspoon

  12. Fatness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Katrine Kleberg

    In 1727, the English physician Thomas Short wrote: “I believe no Age did ever afford more instances of Corpulency than our own.” Even in the 18th century, fatness was addressed as an issue of special contemporary concern. This thesis probes concepts and perceptions of fatness in Western European...... Medicine c. 1700–1900. It has been written with particular attention to whether and how fatness has been regarded as a disease during that period in history. One purpose of the thesis is to investigate the immediate period before fatness allegedly became problematized. Another purpose has been to grasp...

  13. Effect of feed supplement on Milk Production, Fat % Total Serum Protein and Minerals in Lactating Buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.K. Verma

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to see the effect of feed supplement “Khurak” on milk yielding buffalo. The buffaloes were divided in two group. One group was offered “Khurak” as feed supplement for 7 days. Significant increase was observed in milk production, Total serum protein and calcium in khurak supplemented group (Treatment group. [Vet. World 2009; 2(5.000: 193-194

  14. Inclusão de silagem de rama de mandioca em substituição à pastagem na alimentação de vacas em lactação: produção, qualidade do leite e da gordura Substitution of pasture by cassava foliage silage in the diet of dairy cows: production and quality of milk and milkfat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.C. Modesto

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito da substituição da pastagem pela silagem de rama de mandioca (SRM sobre a produção e constituintes do leite e sobre a qualidade da gordura do leite de vacas da raça Holandesa. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi um duplo quadrado latino 4x4, e para o fator níveis de suplementação, foi usado regressão. A dieta-controle foi 50% concentrado e 50% volumoso, e as proporções de substituição do volumoso foram 0, 20, 40 e 60% com base na matéria seca. Todas as dietas eram isoprotéicas. Foram analisados: produção de leite (PL, PL corrigida a 4% (PLC, acidez, gordura (%, densidade, proteína, lactose, sólidos totais, contagem de células somáticas (CCS, ureia e perfil dos ácidos graxos da gordura do leite. Houve efeito linear decrescente da substituição do volumoso pela SRM sobre a PL, PLC e ureia no leite, e efeito (PThe effect of a partial substitution of pasture for cassava foliage silage (CFS on milk production and composition on fat quality of Holstein cow milk was studied using a replicated 4 X 4 Latin square design with four treatments. Regression was used for the comparison of nutrition levels. The control diet contained 50% pasture and 50% concentrate on a dry matter basis. The substitution levels of pasture for CFS were 0, 20, 40, or 60% of the forage dry matter. All diets were isonitrogenous. The analyzed parameters were: milk production (MP; 4% fat-corrected milk production (FCM; acidity; density; concentrations of fat, protein, lactose, urea, and total solids; somatic cell counts (SCC, and milk fatty acids profile. There was a linear decrease effect (P<0.05 in MP, FCM, and urea content with increasing levels of CFS in the diet. Concentrations of gamma linolenic and palmitic acids in milk fat linearly increased (P<0.05 with higher proportions of CFS in the diet. Other contents of milk fatty acids remained similar among treatments as well as acidity; density; concentrations of protein, fat

  15. Flow behaviour of inulin-milk beverages: Influence of inulin chain length and of milk fat content

    OpenAIRE

    Villegas, Beatriz; Costell, Elvira

    2003-01-01

    Inulin is used either as a macronutrient substitute or as a supplement added in foods mainly for its nutritional properties. Chemically, inulin consists of a long chain made up of fructose molecules and one glucose molecule at one end. The fructose molecules are connected by β-(2-1) bonds and the last fructose is linked with a glucose by an α-(1-2) bond as in sucrose [1, 2]. The average molecular weight and degree of polymerisation of inulin depend on the source of inulin, the time of harvest...

  16. Influence of casein as a percentage of true protein and protein level on color and texture of milks containing 1 and 2% fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misawa, Noriko; Barbano, David M; Drake, MaryAnne

    2016-07-01

    Combinations of fresh liquid microfiltration retentate of skim milk, ultrafiltered retentate and permeate produced from microfiltration permeate, cream, and dried lactose monohydrate were used to produce a matrix of 20 milks. The milks contained 5 levels of casein as a percentage of true protein of about 5, 25, 50, 75, and 80% and 4 levels of true protein of 3.0, 3.76, 4.34, and 5.0% with constant lactose percentage of 5%. The experiment was replicated twice and repeated for both 1 and 2% fat content. Hunter color measurements, relative viscosity, and fat globule size distribution were measured, and a trained panel documented appearance and texture attributes on all milks. Overall, casein as a percentage of true protein had stronger effects than level of true protein on Hunter L, a, b values, relative viscosity, and fat globule size when using fresh liquid micellar casein concentrates and milk serum protein concentrates produced by a combination of microfiltration and ultrafiltration. As casein as a percentage of true protein increased, the milks became more white (higher L value), less green (lower negative a value), and less yellow (lower b value). Relative viscosity increased and d(0.9) generally decreased with increasing casein as a percentage of true protein. Panelists perceived milks with increasing casein as a percentage of true protein as more white, more opaque, and less yellow. Panelists were able to detect increased throat cling and mouthcoating with increased casein as a percentage of true protein in 2% milks, even when differences in appearance among milks were masked. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Solid fat content as a substitute for total polar compound analysis in edible oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    The solid fat contents (SFC) of heated edible oil samples were measured and found to correlate positively with total polar compounds (TPC) and inversely with triglyceride concentration. Traditional methods for determination of total polar compounds require a laboratory setting and are time intensiv...

  18. Adequacy of the measurement capability of fatty acid compositions and sterol profiles to determine authenticity of milk fat through formulation of adulterated butter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soha, Sahel; Mortazavian, Amir M.; Piravi-Vanak, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    In this research a comparison has been made between the fatty acid and sterol compositions of Iranian pure butter and three samples of adulterated butter. These samples were formulated using edible vegetable fats/oils with similar milk fat structures including palm olein, palm kernel and coconut...... butter (B1), and 97.61%, 98.48% and 97.98% of the total sterols in the samples adulterated with palm olein, palm kernel and coconut oil (B2, B3, and B4), respectively. Contents of the main phytosterol profiles such as β-sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol were also determined. The β...... oil to determine the authenticity of milk fat. The amount of vegetable fats/oils used in the formulation of the adulterated butter was 10%. The adulterated samples were formulated so that their fatty acid profiles were comforted with acceptable levels of pure butter as specified by the Iranian...

  19. Analyses of genetic relationships between linear type traits, fat-to-protein ratio, milk production traits, and somatic cell count in first-parity Czech Holstein cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zink, V; Zavadilová, L; Lassen, Jan

    2014-01-01

    . The number of animals for each linear type trait was 59 454, except for locomotion, for which 53 424 animals were recorded. The numbers of animals with records of milk production data were 43 992 for milk yield, fat percentage, protein percentage, and fat-to-protein percentage ratio and 43 978 for fat yield...... and protein yield. In total, 27 098 somatic cell score records were available. The strongest positive genetic correlation between production traits and linear type traits was estimated between udder width and fat yield (0.51 ± 0.04), while the strongest negative correlation estimated was between body......Genetic and phenotypic correlations between production traits, selected linear type traits, and somatic cell score were estimated. The results could be useful for breeding programs involving Czech Holstein dairy cows or other populations. A series of bivariate analyses was applied whereby (co...

  20. The effective factors on the structure of butter and other milk fat-based products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønholt, Stine; Mortensen, Kell; Knudsen, Jes Christian

    2013-01-01

    . Parameters such as thermal treatment of cream prior to butter making, water content, and chemical composition influence not only crystal polymorphism, but also the number and sizes of fat crystals. The number of crystal–crystal interactions formed within the products is related to product hardness. During...... storage, however, postcrystallization increases the solid fat content and strengthens the fat crystal network. The fat crystal network is strengthened by the formation of more and stronger crystal–crystal interactions due to mechanically interlinking of fat crystals, which occurs during crystal growth....... Postcrystallization is directly linked to chemical composition. The initially observed microstructural difference causing different rheological behavior will disappear during storage due to postcrystallization and formation of more crystal–crystal interactions....

  1. Inactivation of Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Lactobacillus brevis in Low-fat Milk by Pulsed Electric Field Treatment: A Pilot-scale Study

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Gun Joon; Han, Bok Kung; Choi, Hyuk Joon; Kang, Shin Ho; Baick, Seung Chun; Lee, Dong-Un

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effects of a pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment on microbial inactivation and the physical properties of low-fat milk. Milk inoculated with Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, or Lactobacillus brevis was supplied to a pilot-scale PEF treatment system at a flow rate of 30 L/h. Pulses with an electric field strength of 10 kV/cm and a pulse width of 30 ?s were applied to the milk with total pulse energies of 50-250 kJ/L achieved by varying the pulse frequency. The ...

  2. Use of test day milk fat and milk protein to detect subclinical ketosis in dairy cattle in Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffield, T F; Kelton, D F; Leslie, K E; Lissemore, K D; Lumsden, J H

    1997-01-01

    Serum beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) levels were determined for 1333 dairy cows in various stages of lactation and parity on 93 dairy farms in Ontario. The data were collected in a cross-sectional manner, as part of the 1992 Ontario Dairy Monitoring and Analysis Program. The median serum BHB was 536 mumol/L for all cows, with a range of 0 to 5801 mumol/L. When subclinical ketosis was defined as a serum BHB level of 1200 mumol/L or higher, the prevalence of ketosis for cows in early lactation ( 149 DIM), and dry cows were 5.3%, 3.2%, and 1.6%, respectively. The mean serum BHB was significantly higher in the early group compared with each of the other 3 groups (P ketosis. However, test-day fat percent and test-day protein percent, used alone or in combination, were not useful screening tests for identifying cows with subclinical ketosis. PMID:9360791

  3. Major losses of fat, carbohydrates and energy content of preterm human milk frozen at -80°C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev, H M; Ovental, A; Mandel, D; Mimouni, F B; Marom, R; Lubetzky, R

    2014-05-01

    Long-term storage of human milk (HM) requires freezing at low temperatures, the consequences of which upon macronutrients are unclear. To test the null hypothesis that HM freezing and storage for a range of 1 to 10 weeks at -80 °C does not affect HM fat, protein, lactose and energy contents. Samples of HM were obtained from 20 mothers (60 samples) of preterm infants (25 to 35 weeks gestation), who routinely expressed their milk, every 3 h, using an electric pump, from the second to the seventh week after delivery. All samples were frozen at -80 °C for 8 to 83 days (43.8 days average). After thawing and homogenization, energy and macronutrient contents were measured using an HM analyzer. Fat, carbohydrates and energy contents were significantly lower in thawed HM than in fresh HM (fat, fresh vs thawed: 3.72±1.17 vs 3.36±1.19 g/100 ml, Pcarbohydrates, fresh vs thawed: 5.86±0.71 vs 4.09±0.96 g/100 ml, Pvs thawed: 64.93±12.97 vs 56.63±16.82 kcal/100 ml, Pvs thawed: 1.14±0.36 vs 1.15±0.37 g/100 ml, P=0.7). The decline in carbohydrates content but not in fat and energy correlated significantly with freezing duration. Freezing at -80 °C significantly decreases the energy content of HM, both from fat and carbohydrates. Since quantitatively the decrease in macronutrients was much higher than that published for HM storage at -20 °C, our results do not support freezing HM at -80 °C as the gold standard for long-term storage. We suggest that caloric intake calculations in preterm infants cannot be established based upon fresh HM data.

  4. Effect of feed intake on heat production and protein and fat deposition in milk-fed veal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labussiere, E; Maxin, G; Dubois, S; van Milgen, J; Bertrand, G; Noblet, J

    2009-04-01

    Energy requirements for veal calves have not been updated recently despite the increased age at slaughter and the predominance of the Prim'Holstein breed in Europe. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of four feeding levels (FLs) on protein and fat deposition and heat production in milk-fed calves at three stages of fattening and to determine energy requirements of calves. At each stage, 16 Prim'Holstein male calves (mean body weight (BW): 73.4, 151.6 and 237.4 kg) were fed a milk replacer at 79%, 87%, 95% or 103% of a reference FL. Measurements for one stage were conducted over 4 successive weeks in two open-circuit respiration chambers and consisted of a 6-day nitrogen and energy balance followed by a fasting day for estimating fasting heat production (FHP) of the calves. Heat production (HP) measurements were analyzed using a modeling approach to partition it between HP due to physical activity (AHP), feed intake (thermic effect of feeding (TEF)) and FHP. There was no effect of FL and stage on apparent digestibility coefficients, except for a tendency for increased digestibility coefficient of fat as animals got older. The metabolizable energy (ME)/digestible energy (DE) ratio did not depend on FL but decreased (P intake, respectively. The FHP, expressed per kg BW0.85, increased with increasing FL, suggesting that also ME requirement for maintenance (MEm) may depend on FL. For an average intake of 625 kJ ME/kg BW0.85 per day (95% of the reference FL), FHP was 298 kJ/kg BW0.85 per day. Energy retention as protein and fat increased with increasing FL resulted in higher BW gain. But the rate of increase depended on stage of growth. The slope relating protein deposition to FL was lower in the finishing phase than in the growing phase, while the slope for lipid deposition was greater. Protein and fat contents of BW gain were not affected by FL but increased as animals got older. From these results, the energy requirements of veal calves are

  5. Effect of ultraviolet light on water- and fat-soluble vitamins in cow and goat milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guneser, O; Karagul Yuceer, Y

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate and compare the effects of UV light and heat treatment on vitamins A, B(2), C, and E in cow and goat milk. Vitamins were analyzed by reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography. Ultraviolet and pasteurization treatments caused loss in vitamin C in milk. Pasteurization did not have any significant effect on vitamin B(2). However, UV light treatment decreased the amount of vitamin B(2) after several passes of milk through the UV system. In addition, UV light treatment decreased the amount of vitamins A and E. Vitamins C and E are more sensitive to UV light. UV light sensitivities of vitamins were C>E>A>B(2). These results show that UV light treatment decreases the vitamin content in milk. Also, the number of passes through the UV system and the initial amount of vitamins in milk are important factors affecting vitamin levels. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Milk minerals modify the effect of fat intake on serum lipid profile: results from an animal and a human short-term study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzen, Janne K; Jensen, Søren K; Astrup, Arne

    2014-04-28

    Despite a high content of saturated fat, evidence from observational studies indicates that the consumption of dairy products may have a neutral effect or may be inversely associated with the risk of CVD. We aimed to examine whether milk minerals modify the effect of saturated fat on serum lipid profile. We present data from two studies. Study I had a randomised, blinded, parallel design (n 24 pigs) with a 10 d adaptation period during which a high-fat diet was fed to the pigs and a 14 d intervention period during which the same diet either enriched with milk minerals (MM group) or placebo (control group) was fed to the pigs. Study II had a randomised cross-over design (n 9 men) where the subjects were fed either a high-fat diet enriched with milk minerals (MM period) or a regular diet (control period). In both the studies, blood variables were measured before and after the intervention and faecal and urine samples were collected at the end of the dietary periods. The increase in plasma total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol concentrations but not in HDL-cholesterol concentration was markedly lowered by milk minerals in both the studies. In the animal study, baseline adjusted total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol concentrations in the MM group were 11% (P = 0.004) and 13% (P = 0.03) lower compared with those in the control group after the intervention. Similarly in the human study, baseline adjusted total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol concentrations were 6% (P = 0.002) and 9% (P = 0.03) lower after the MM period compared with those in the control period. HDL-cholesterol concentration was not lowered by milk minerals. These short-term studies indicate that the addition of milk minerals to a high-fat diet to some extent attenuates the increase in total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol concentrations, without affecting HDL-cholesterol concentration.

  7. Effect of substituting soybean meal and canola cake with grain-based dried distillers grains with solubles as a protein source on feed intake, milk production, and milk quality in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaillard, Charlotte; Sørensen, Martin Tang; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2017-01-01

    corn) appear to be relevant sources of feed and protein for dairy cows. To date, most of the studies investigating DDGS have been performed with corn-based DDGS. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of the proportion of gDDGS in the diet on feed intake, milk production, and milk...... of soybean meal, canola cake, and beet pulp. Dry matter intake and energy-corrected milk yield were not affected by the proportion of gDDGS in the diet. Daily milk yield decreased with the H diet compared with the L and M diets. The percentage of fat in milk was higher when cows were fed the H diet compared...... by the proportion of gDDGS in the diet or when milk was stored for 7 d. Linoleic acid and conjugated linoleic acid cis-9,trans-11 in milk increased with increasing proportion of gDDGS. To conclude, gDDGS can replace soybean meal and canola cake as a protein source in the diet of dairy cows. Up to 13.5% of the diet...

  8. Authors' financial relationships with the food and beverage industry and their published positions on the fat substitute olestra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Jane; Gussow, Joan Dye; Hastings, Diane; Eccher, Amy

    2003-04-01

    This study examined the association between authors' published positions on the safety and efficacy in assisting with weight loss of the Procter & Gamble (P&G) fat substitute olestra and their financial relationships with the food and beverage industry. Journal articles about olestra, and their authors, were classified as supportive, critical, or neutral with respect to its use. Authors not known to have industry affiliations were surveyed about their financial relationships. Supportive authors were significantly more likely than critical or neutral authors to have financial relationships with P&G (80% vs 11% and 21%, respectively; P <.0001). All authors disclosing an affiliation with P&G were supportive. Because authors' published opinions were associated with their financial relationships, obtaining noncommercial funding may be more essential to maintaining objectivity than disclosing personal financial interests.

  9. Authors’ Financial Relationships With the Food and Beverage Industry and Their Published Positions on the Fat Substitute Olestra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Jane; Gussow, Joan Dye; Hastings, Diane; Eccher, Amy

    2003-01-01

    Objectives. This study examined the association between authors’ published positions on the safety and efficacy in assisting with weight loss of the Procter & Gamble (P&G) fat substitute olestra and their financial relationships with the food and beverage industry. Methods. Journal articles about olestra, and their authors, were classified as supportive, critical, or neutral with respect to its use. Authors not known to have industry affiliations were surveyed about their financial relationships. Results. Supportive authors were significantly more likely than critical or neutral authors to have financial relationships with P&G (80% vs 11% and 21%, respectively; P < .0001). All authors disclosing an affiliation with P&G were supportive. Conclusions. Because authors’ published opinions were associated with their financial relationships, obtaining noncommercial funding may be more essential to maintaining objectivity than disclosing personal financial interests. PMID:12660215

  10. SOUR MILK FORMULAS IN NUTRITION OF INFANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.F. Lukushkina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Health-giving properties of fermented food are related to the fact, that acid medium improves assimilation of protein and fat, increases absorption of iron and zinc, improves digestion. But the kefir and other sour milk food based on the whole milk can’t be used in nutrition of infants as human milk substitute because of high content of protein, high osmolarity, deficiency of vitamins and microelements. The article describes the results of clinical approbation of new modern sour milk formula «NAN sour milk», containing proper amount of high-quality protein (OptiPro, enriched with lactalbumin and all sufficient vitamins and microelements. This mixture contains also probiotics (B. lactis, providing high functionality of this food. Key words: infants, sour milk formula, nutrition.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2010;9(1:136-141

  11. Comprehensive profiling of carotenoids and fat-soluble vitamins in milk from different animal species by LC-DAD-MS/MS hyphenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentili, Alessandra; Caretti, Fulvia; Bellante, Simona; Ventura, Salvatore; Canepari, Silvia; Curini, Roberta

    2013-02-27

    This paper describes a novel and efficient analytical method to define the profile of fat-soluble micronutrients in milk from different animal species. Overnight cold saponification was optimized as a simultaneous extraction procedure. Analytes were separated by nonaqueous reversed-phase (NARP) chromatography: carotenoids on a C(30) column and fat-soluble vitamins on a tandem C(18) column system. Besides 12 target analytes for which standards are available (all-trans-lutein, all-trans-zeaxanthin, all-trans-β-cryptoxanthin, all-trans-β-carotene, all-trans-retinol, α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol, δ-tocopherol, ergocalciferol, cholecalciferol, phylloquinone, and menaquinone-4), the DAD-MS combined detection allowed the provisional identification of other carotenoids on the basis of the expected retention times, the absorbance spectra, and the mass spectrometric data. Retinol and α-tocopherol were the most abundant fat-soluble micronutrients and the only ones found in donkey's milk along with γ-tocopherol. Ewe's milk also proved to be a good source of vitamin K vitamers. Bovine milk showed a large variety of carotenoids that were absent in milk samples from other species with the only exception of all-trans-lutein and all-trans-zeaxanthin.

  12. Small-angle reflectometry of milk protein (β -casein) at the air/serum interface and its conformational changes due to fat content and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidari, R.; White, J.W.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The surface structure of dispersed emulsions play a key role in stability of the system. Proteins being one of the most important surface-active components in foods stabilise interfaces by self-interaction, resulting in a stiff visco-elastic adsorbed layer. These interactions are sensitive to disruptive effects of lipids. Previous kinetics studies by the group 1 using the X-ray reflectivity method to investigate the surface adsorption of milk proteins indicate that β -casein had a stronger affinity for the air-liquid interface compared to whey proteins. It has been shown that initially a dense protein layer, with the thickness of 20 Angstroms is formed then a second more diffuse layer with lower volume density of protein follows. Here we report the conformational changes (with particular emphasise on the β -casein tail) occurred at the air-milk serum interface due to the effects of milk fat content, temperature and the milk preparation technique (ie homogenisation vs microfluidisation). In the effect of fat content on the adsorption of protein into the interface the key conclusion is that at lower temperatures the surface composition remains unchanged. The compositional changes, however, become significant at room temperature indicating adsorption of less reflective-water-soluble components into the surface layer. Repulsive interactions between casein aggregates are also involved. Microfluidised samples having the advantage of smaller particle size prove to be more stable to fat or temperature effects compared to the corresponding homogenised milks

  13. the utilization of milk diets with different fat content by the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    day bulk samples were stored for analysis and dried to constant weight before ... to dry three quantities of each urine sample in the same crucible in order to .... fect on thc digestibility of the differ€nt milk diets" Thb b in accordance with the ...

  14. Extreme antagonistic pleiotropy effects of DGAT1 on fat, milk and protein yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    A large-scale analysis using 294,079 first lactation Holstein cows, as well as a group of contemporary Holsteins and a Holstein line unselected since 1964, were used to study the genetic architecture associated with a mutation in the DGAT1 gene that has large effects on milk production. The ‘G’ alle...

  15. Studies on test-day and lactation milk, fat and protein yield of dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilmink, J.B.M.

    1987-01-01

    Data of milk recording provides the basis to control herd management and genetic improvement of cows. Different management guides can be presented to dairy farmers. Breeding values are predicted for 305-day yields in order to select bulls and cows. However, breeding values should be

  16. Effects of different fat sources, technological forms and characteristics of the basal diet on milk fatty acid profile in lactating dairy cows - a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterk, A.R.; Vuuren, van A.M.; Hendriks, W.H.; Dijkstra, J.

    2012-01-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted to study milk fatty acid (FA) profile in dairy cows in response to changes in dietary nutrient composition in relation to supplementation of fat sources, their technological form, addition of fish oil and main forage type in the basal diet. Data comprised 151 treatment

  17. Control of powdery mildew on glasshouse-grown roses and tomatoes in the Netherlands using anhydrous milk fat and soybean oil emulsions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wurms, K.V.; Hofland-Zijlstra, Jantineke

    2015-01-01

    Powdery mildew (PM) is a very serious disease affecting glasshouse-grown roses and tomatoes in the Netherlands. Control is limited because of resistance to existing fungicides. Anhydrous milk fat (AMF) and soybean oil (SBO) emulsions were evaluated for control of PM in roses and tomatoes. Both

  18. Use of multiple-trait animal models for genetic evaluation of milk, fat and protein lactation yields of dairy cattle in Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Coenraets

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparison of computation time between single-trait and multiple-trait evaluations showed that with the use of the canonicat transformation associated with multiple diagonalization of (covariance matrices, multiple-trait analysis for milk, fat and protein yields is not more expensive than three single-trait analyzes. Rank correlations between breeding values for 54,820 cows with records (for their 1,406 sires estimated with the single-trait and multiple-trait models were over .98 (.99 in fat yield and over .99 (.99 in milk and protein yields. The relative gain expressed as reduction in mean prediction error variance was 3% (1% in milk yield, 6% (3% in fat yield, and .4% (.2% in protein yield for cows (for sires. Relative genetic gains were 3% (1%, 6% (2% and .5% (.2% respectively in milk, fat and protein yields for cows (for sires. The use of multiple-trait models bas therefore the advantages of improved precision and reduced selection bics. Multiple-trait analysis could be extended for the analyzes of test-day records. Results show that this or similar multiple-trait animal model could be implemented immediately in Belgium at low computing cost, using the proposed algorithme and could be the first step to new, more advanced evaluation methods.

  19. Short Communication: Elevated Concentrations of Oleic Acid and Long-Chain Fatty Acids in Milk Fat of Multiparous Subclinical Ketotic Cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haelst, van Y.N.T.; Beeckman, A.; Knegsel, van A.T.M.; Fievez, V.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether concentrations of specific fatty acids in milk fat are a candidate for the early detection of subclinical ketosis. The case study included multiparous cows fed a lipogenic diet or a mixed glucogenic:lipogenic diet during the first 9 wk of

  20. Measures of self-efficacy and norms for low-fat milk consumption are reliable and related to beverage consumption among 5th graders at school lunch

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective was to determine the reliability and validity of scales measuring low-fat milk consumption self-efficacy and norms during school lunch among a cohort of 5th graders. Two hundred seventy-five students completed lunch food records and a psychosocial questionnaire measuring self-efficacy ...

  1. Media audit reveals inappropriate promotion of products under the scope of the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes in South-East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinje, Kristine Hansen; Phan, Linh Thi Hong; Nguyen, Tuan Thanh; Henjum, Sigrun; Ribe, Lovise Omoijuanfo; Mathisen, Roger

    2017-06-01

    To review regulations and to perform a media audit of promotion of products under the scope of the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes ('the Code') in South-East Asia. We reviewed national regulations relating to the Code and 800 clips of editorial content, 387 advertisements and 217 Facebook posts from January 2015 to January 2016. We explored the ecological association between regulations and market size, and between the number of advertisements and market size and growth of milk formula. Cambodia, Indonesia, Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam. Regulations on the child's age for inappropriate marketing of products are all below the Code's updated recommendation of 36 months (i.e. 12 months in Thailand and Indonesia; 24 months in the other three countries) and are voluntary in Thailand. Although the advertisements complied with the national regulations on the age limit, they had content (e.g. stages of milk formula; messages about the benefit; pictures of a child) that confused audiences. Market size and growth of milk formula were positively associated with the number of newborns and the number of advertisements, and were not affected by the current level of implementation of breast-milk substitute laws and regulations. The present media audit reveals inappropriate promotion and insufficient national regulation of products under the scope of the Code in South-East Asia. Strengthened implementation of regulations aligned with the Code's updated recommendation should be part of comprehensive strategies to minimize the harmful effects of advertisements of breast-milk substitutes on maternal and child nutrition and health.

  2. Inactivation of Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Lactobacillus brevis in Low-fat Milk by Pulsed Electric Field Treatment: A Pilot-scale Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bok Kung; Choi, Hyuk Joon; Kang, Shin Ho; Baick, Seung Chun

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effects of a pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment on microbial inactivation and the physical properties of low-fat milk. Milk inoculated with Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, or Lactobacillus brevis was supplied to a pilot-scale PEF treatment system at a flow rate of 30 L/h. Pulses with an electric field strength of 10 kV/cm and a pulse width of 30 μs were applied to the milk with total pulse energies of 50-250 kJ/L achieved by varying the pulse frequency. The inactivation curves of the test microorganisms were biphasic with an initial lag phase (or shoulder) followed by a phase of rapid inactivation. PEF treatments with a total pulse energy of 200 kJ/L resulted in a 4.5-log reduction in E. coli, a 4.4-log reduction in L. brevis, and a 6.0-log reduction in S. cerevisiae. Total pulse energies of 200 and 250 kJ/L resulted in greater than 5-log reductions in microbial counts in stored PEF-treated milk, and the growth of surviving microorganisms was slow during storage for 15 d at 4℃. PEF treatment did not change milk physical properties such as pH, color, or particle-size distribution (pelectric-field strength of 10 kV/cm can be used to pasteurize low-fat milk. PMID:26877640

  3. Inactivation of Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Lactobacillus brevis in Low-fat Milk by Pulsed Electric Field Treatment: A Pilot-scale Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gun Joon; Han, Bok Kung; Choi, Hyuk Joon; Kang, Shin Ho; Baick, Seung Chun; Lee, Dong-Un

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effects of a pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment on microbial inactivation and the physical properties of low-fat milk. Milk inoculated with Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, or Lactobacillus brevis was supplied to a pilot-scale PEF treatment system at a flow rate of 30 L/h. Pulses with an electric field strength of 10 kV/cm and a pulse width of 30 μs were applied to the milk with total pulse energies of 50-250 kJ/L achieved by varying the pulse frequency. The inactivation curves of the test microorganisms were biphasic with an initial lag phase (or shoulder) followed by a phase of rapid inactivation. PEF treatments with a total pulse energy of 200 kJ/L resulted in a 4.5-log reduction in E. coli, a 4.4-log reduction in L. brevis, and a 6.0-log reduction in S. cerevisiae. Total pulse energies of 200 and 250 kJ/L resulted in greater than 5-log reductions in microbial counts in stored PEF-treated milk, and the growth of surviving microorganisms was slow during storage for 15 d at 4℃. PEF treatment did not change milk physical properties such as pH, color, or particle-size distribution (ppasteurize low-fat milk.

  4. Evaluation of six sample preparation procedures for qualitative and quantitative proteomics analysis of milk fat globule membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongxin; Anderson, Elizabeth; Zhang, Sheng

    2018-04-12

    Proteomic analysis of membrane proteins is challenged by the proteins solubility and detergent incompatibility with MS analysis. No single perfect protocol can be used to comprehensively characterize the proteome of membrane fraction. Here, we used cow milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) proteome analysis to assess six sample preparation procedures including one in-gel and five in-solution digestion approaches prior to LC-MS/MS analysis. The largest number of MFGM proteins were identified by suspension trapping (S-Trap) and filter-aided sample preparation (FASP) methods, followed by acetone precipitation without clean-up of tryptic peptides method. Protein identifications with highest average coverage was achieved by Chloroform/MeOH, in-gel and S-Trap methods. Most distinct proteins were identified by FASP method, followed by S-Trap. Analyses by Venn diagram, principal-component analysis, hierarchical clustering and the abundance ranking of quantitative proteins highlight differences in the MFGM fraction by the all sample preparation procedures. These results reveal the biased proteins/peptides loss occurred in each protocol. In this study, we found several novel proteins that were not observed previously by in-depth proteomics characterization of MFGM fraction in milk. Thus, a combination of multiple procedures with orthologous properties of sample preparation was demonstrated to improve the protein sequence coverage and expression level accuracy of membrane samples. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Feeding dried distillers grains with solubles to lactating beef cows: impact of excess protein and fat on cow performance, milk production and pre-weaning progeny growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shee, C N; Lemenager, R P; Schoonmaker, J P

    2016-01-01

    Multiparous Angus×Simmental cows (n=54, 5.22±2.51 years) with male progeny were fed one of two diets supplemented with either dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) or soybean meal (CON), from calving until day 129 postpartum (PP) to determine effects of excess protein and fat on cow performance, milk composition and calf growth. Diets were formulated to be isocaloric and consisted of rye hay and DDGS (19.4% CP; 8.76% fat), or corn silage, rye hay and soybean meal (11.7% CP; 2.06% fat). Cow-calf pairs were allotted by cow and calf age, BW and breed. Cow BW and body condition score (BCS; P⩾0.13) were similar throughout the experiment. A weigh-suckle-weigh was performed on day 64 and day 110±10 PP to determine milk production. Milk was collected on day 68 and day 116±10 PP for analysis of milk components. Milk production was unaffected (P⩾0.75) by dietary treatments. Milk urea nitrogen was increased at both time points in DDGS compared with CON cows (Pcows on day 68 PP. Compared to CON, DDGS decreased medium chain FA (Pcows, which resulted in an increase (Pcows fed DDGS compared with cows fed CON (Pcows did not change cow BW or BCS, but did improve TAI rates and altered milk composition compared with CON. As a result, male progeny from cows fed DDGS during lactation had greater average daily gain and were heavier at day 129 and at weaning compared with male progeny from cows fed a control diet.

  6. The effect of partial substitution of pork back fat with vegetable oils and walnuts on chemical composition, texture profile and sensorial properties of meatloaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Dănuţ MOCANU

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the effects of the partial substitution of the pork back fat with different vegetable oils (sea buckthorn, walnut and sunflower and walnuts on the chemical composition, texture profile and sensory characteristics of meatloaves. The dry matter and ash content of meatloaf with vegetable oils and walnuts were higher than the control sample (P < 0.05. The cooking loss, energy values and lipid oxidation for the samples with walnuts and vegetable oils were lower than the control sample. The meatloaf sample containing walnuts and sea buckthorn oil had the highest total antioxidant capacity. The partial substitution of pork back fat showed a positive effect on textural and sensorial characteristics. Results reveal that the incorporation of vegetable oils and walnuts has successfully reduced the animal fat content in the finite products while improving the quality characteristics.

  7. Mechanisms of the intestinal effects of dietary fats and milk products on colon carcinogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VanderMeer, R; Lapre, JA; Govers, MJAP; Kleibeuker, JH

    1997-01-01

    Dietary fat may promote colon cancer by increasing fatty acids (FA) and secondary bile acids (BA) in the colonic lumen. These cytotoxic surfactants can damage colonic epithelial cells and thus induce a compensatory hyperproliferation of crypt Cells. Our studies show that the hyperproliferative

  8. Differences in perception of the WHO International Code of Marketing of Breast Milk Substitutes between pediatricians and obstetricians in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macnab Iona

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The World Health Organization International Code of Marketing of Breast-Milk Substitutes (WHO Code aims to protect and promote breastfeeding. Japan ratified the WHO Code in 1994, but most hospitals in Japan continue to receive free supplies of infant formula and distribute discharge packs to new mothers provided by infant formula companies. The aim of this study was to explore the knowledge and attitudes of pediatricians and obstetricians in Japan to the WHO Code. Methods A self-completion questionnaire was sent to 132 pediatricians in the 131 NICUs which belonged to the Neonatal Network of Japan, and to 96 chief obstetricians in the general hospitals in the Kanto area of Japan, in 2004. Results Responses were received from 68% of pediatricians and 64% of obstetricians. Sixty-six percent of pediatricians agreed that "Breastmilk is the best", compared to only 13% of obstetricians. Likewise, pediatricians were more likely to be familiar with the WHO Code (51% than obstetricians (18%. Conclusion In Japan, pediatricians and obstetricians, in general, have low levels of support for breastfeeding and low levels of familiarity with the WHO Code. To increase the breastfeeding rates in Japan, both pediatricians and obstetricians need increased knowledge about current infant feeding practices and increased awareness of international policies to promote breastfeeding.

  9. A Social Marketing Approach to 1% Milk Use: Resonance Is the Key.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnell, Karla Jaye; John, Robert

    2018-05-01

    The U.S. Dietary Guidelines recommend low-fat milk consumption, and Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Education (SNAP-Ed) programs follow these guidelines to develop health education programs for SNAP recipients. This study evaluated a multilevel media intervention promoting low-fat milk use among Oklahoma SNAP recipients, a population often missed. Behavior change was measured with pre- and postintervention telephone interviews with SNAP recipients ( n = 860). Immediately following the intervention, self-reported purchases of 1% milk, the focus of behavior change, significantly increased to 7.9% from 4.1%-a relative improvement of 92.7%, χ 2 (1, n = 824) = 5.8, p = .02. Milk nutrition knowledge scores significantly improved as well, t(846) = 2.9, p = .004, and low-fat milk users exhibited more milk nutrition knowledge than high-fat milk users, t(437) = 4.0, p = .000. The intervention, which resonated with the priority audience, was well received ( Mdn = 6, 1, 7). Factors contributing to its success included a gain-based message strategy and clearly articulating the desired behavior. Salient messages personalized the issues and concerns raised by the priority audience-all the vitamins and minerals without the fat. Findings suggest that matching gender and ethnicity mediated the effect among those most resistant to substituting low-fat for high-fat milk.

  10. Randomized, double-blind, controlled, comparative trial of formula food containing soy protein vs. milk protein in visceral fat obesity. FLAVO study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahira, Masaya; Noda, Keita; Fukushima, Mikio; Zhang, Bo; Mitsutake, Ryoko; Uehara, Yoshinari; Ogawa, Masahiro; Saku, Keijiro; Kakuma, Tatsuyuki

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to clarify the efficacy of soy at reducing visceral fat. A randomized, double-blind, controlled, comparative trial was carried out to compare formula food containing soy protein (SP) to the same food in which soy was replaced with milk protein (MP). Forty-eight participants were enrolled for the treatment of visceral fat obesity (visceral fat area >100 cm 2 on computed tomography). The SP formula contained 12 g of SP, 9 g of MP, and other nutrients, and was given for 20 weeks in the morning, while in the MP formula SP was replaced with MP. During the 20 weeks of the trial period, visceral fat area and subcutaneous fat area in the MP group were significantly reduced, while those in the SP group did not change as assessed on analysis of covariance. Although waist circumference was reduced in both the SP and MP groups, body weight and body mass index were significantly reduced only in the MP group. Based on a mixed-effects model, the difference in log-transformed visceral fat profiles between the 2 groups was statistically significant (P<0.05), while a negative relationship was observed between the changes in visceral fat and adiponectin in the MP group (P<0.001), but not in the SP group. Formula food containing MP is superior to that containing SP for reducing visceral and subcutaneous fat. (author)

  11. Flow-mediated vasodilation is not impaired when HDL-cholesterol is lowered by substituting carbohydrates for monounsaturated fat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Roos, NM; Bots, ML; Siebelink, E; Katan, MB

    Low-fat diets, in which carbohydrates replace some of the fat, decrease serum cholesterol. This decrease is due to decreases in LDL-cholesterol but in part to possibly harmful decreases in HDL-cholesterol. High-oil diets, in which oils rich in monounsaturated fat replace some of the saturated fat,

  12. Milk production and composition, and progeny performance in young ewes with high merit for rapid growth and muscle and fat accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales Nieto, C A; Ferguson, M B; Macleay, C A; Briegel, J R; Wood, D A; Martin, G B; Bencini, R; Thompson, A N

    2018-02-26

    In ewe lambs, acceleration of growth and accumulation of both muscle and fat leads to earlier sexual maturity and better reproductive performance. The next stage in the development of this theme is to test whether these aspects of growth in young ewes affect milk production in their first lactation and the growth of their first progeny. We studied 75 young Merino ewes that had known phenotypic values for depth of eye muscle (EMD) and fat (FAT), and known Australian Sheep Breeding Values for post-weaning weight (PWT) and depths of eye muscle (PEMD) and fat (PFAT). They lambed for the first time at 1 year of age. Their lambs were weighed weekly from birth to weaning at 10 weeks to determine live weight gain and weaning weight. Progeny birth weight was positively associated with live weight gain and weaning weight (P0.05). The PWT of the sire was positively associated with live weight gain (P0.05). The concentrations of fat, protein, lactose and total solids in the milk were not affected by the phenotype or genotype of the mothers or of the sires of the mothers, or by the sex of the progeny (P>0.05). We conclude that selection of young Merino ewes for better growth, and more rapid accumulation of muscle and fat, will lead to progeny that are heavier at birth, grow faster and are heavier at weaning. Moreover, milk production and composition do not seem to be affected by the genetic merit of the mother for post-weaning live weight or PEMD or PFAT. Therefore, Merino ewes can lamb at 1 year of age without affecting the production objectives of the Merino sheep industry.

  13. Identification and dissection of four major QTL affecting milk fat content in the German Holstein-Friesian population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolong Wang

    Full Text Available Milk composition traits exhibit a complex genetic architecture with a small number of major quantitative trait loci (QTL explaining a large fraction of the genetic variation and numerous QTL with minor effects. In order to identify QTL for milk fat percentage (FP in the German Holstein-Friesian (HF population, a genome-wide association study (GWAS was performed. The study population consisted of 2327 progeny-tested bulls. Genotypes were available for 44,280 SNPs. Phenotypes in the form of estimated breeding values (EBVs for FP were used as highly heritable traits. A variance components-based approach was used to account for population stratification. The GWAS identified four major QTL regions explaining 46.18% of the FP EBV variance. Besides two previously known FP QTL on BTA14 (P = 8.91×10-(198 and BTA20 (P = 7.03×10(-12 within DGAT1 and GHR, respectively, we uncovered two additional QTL regions on BTA5 (P = 2.00×10(-13 and BTA27 (P = 9.83×10(-5 encompassing EPS8 and GPAT4, respectively. EPS8 and GPAT4 are involved in lipid metabolism in mammals. Re-sequencing of EPS8 and GPAT4 revealed 50 polymorphisms. Genotypes for five of them were inferred for the entire study population. Two polymorphisms affecting potential transcription factor binding sites of EPS8 (P = 1.40×10(-12 and GPAT4 (P = 5.18×10(-5, respectively, were highly significantly associated with the FP EBV. Our results provide evidence that alteration of regulatory sites is an important aspect of genetic variation of complex traits in cattle.

  14. Goat Milk Kefir Supplemented with Porang Glucomannan Improves Lipid Profile and Haematological Parameter in Rat Fed High Fat and High Fructose Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurliyani

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Diet with a high fat and high sugar is associated with an increased incindence of the metabolic syndrome. Kefir has been known as a natural probiotic, while glucomannan from porang (Amorphophallus oncophyllus tuber was demonstrated as prebiotic in vivo. Probiotics and prebiotics can be used adjuvant nutritional therapy for metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of goat milk kefir supplemented with porang glucomannan on the lipid profile and haematological parameters in rats fed with a high-fat/high-fructose (HFHF diet.

  15. Compliance with the International Code of Marketing of breast-milk substitutes: an observational study of pediatricians' waiting rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodgson, Joan E; Watkins, Amanda L; Bond, Angela B; Kintaro-Tagaloa, Cheryl; Arellano, Alondra; Allred, Patrick A

    2014-04-01

    Abstract The importance of breastmilk as a primary preventative intervention is widely known and understood by most healthcare providers. The actions or non-actions that heathcare providers take toward promoting and supporting breastfeeding families make a difference in the success and duration of breastfeeding. Recognizing this relationship, the World Health Organization developed the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes (the Code), which defines best practices in breastfeeding promotion, including physicians' offices. The pediatric practices' waiting rooms are often a family's first experience with pediatric care. The specific aims of this study were to describe (1) Code compliance, (2) the demographic factors affecting the Code compliance, and (3) the amount and type of breastfeeding-supportive materials available in the pediatricians' waiting rooms. An observational cross-sectional design was used to collect data from 163 (82%) of the pediatric practices in Maricopa County, Arizona. None of the 100 waiting rooms that had any materials displayed (61%) was found to be completely Code compliant, with 81 of the offices having formula-promotional materials readily available. Waiting rooms in higher income areas offered more non-Code-compliant materials and gifts. Breastfeeding support information and materials were lacking in all but 18 (18%) offices. A positive relationship (t97=-2.31, p=0.02) occurred between the presence of breastfeeding educational materials and higher income areas. We were able to uncover some practice-related patterns that impact families and potentially undermine breastfeeding success. To move current practices toward breastfeeding-friendly physicians' offices, change is needed.

  16. Overlap in genomic variation associated with milk fat composition in Holstein Friesian and Dutch native dual-purpose breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurice-Van Eijndhoven, M H T; Bovenhuis, H; Veerkamp, R F; Calus, M P L

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to identify if genomic variations associated with fatty acid (FA) composition are similar between the Holstein-Friesian (HF) and native dual-purpose breeds used in the Dutch dairy industry. Phenotypic and genotypic information were available for the breeds Meuse-Rhine-Yssel (MRY), Dutch Friesian (DF), Groningen White Headed (GWH), and HF. First, the reliability of genomic breeding values of the native Dutch dual-purpose cattle breeds MRY, DF, and GWH was evaluated using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) effects estimated in HF, including all SNP or subsets with stronger associations in HF. Second, the genomic variation of the regions associated with FA composition in HF (regions on Bos taurus autosome 5, 14, and 26), were studied in the different breeds. Finally, similarities in genotype and allele frequencies between MRY, DF, GWH, and HF breeds were assessed for specific regions associated with FA composition. On average across the traits, the highest reliabilities of genomic prediction were estimated for GWH (0.158) and DF (0.116) when the 8 to 22 SNP with the strongest association in HF were included. With the same set of SNP, GEBV for MRY were the least reliable (0.022). This indicates that on average only 2 (MRY) to 16% (GWH) of the genomic variation in HF is shared with the native Dutch dual-purpose breeds. The comparison of predicted variances of different regions associated with milk and milk fat composition showed that breeds clearly differed in genomic variation within these regions. Finally, the correlations of allele frequencies between breeds across the 8 to 22 SNP with the strongest association in HF were around 0.8 between the Dutch native dual-purpose breeds, whereas the correlations between the native breeds and HF were clearly lower and around 0.5. There was no consistent relationship between the reliabilities of genomic prediction for a specific breed and the correlation between the allele frequencies of this breed

  17. Test-day somatic cell score, fat-to-protein ratio and milk yield as indicator traits for sub-clinical mastitis in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamrozik, J; Schaeffer, L R

    2012-02-01

    Test-day (TD) records of milk, fat-to-protein ratio (F:P) and somatic cell score (SCS) of first-lactation Canadian Holstein cows were analysed by a three-trait finite mixture random regression model, with the purpose of revealing hidden structures in the data owing to putative, sub-clinical mastitis. Different distributions of the data were allowed in 30 intervals of days in milk (DIM), covering the lactation from 5 to 305 days. Bayesian analysis with Gibbs sampling was used for model inferences. Estimated proportion of TD records originated from cows infected with mastitis was 0.66 in DIM from 5 to 15 and averaged 0.2 in the remaining part of lactation. Data from healthy and mastitic cows exhibited markedly different distributions, with respect to both average value and the variance, across all parts of lactation. Heterogeneity of distributions for infected cows was also apparent in different DIM intervals. Cows with mastitis were characterized by smaller milk yield (down to -5 kg) and larger F:P (up to 0.13) and SCS (up to 1.3) compared with healthy contemporaries. Differences in averages between healthy and infected cows for F:P were the most profound at the beginning of lactation, when a dairy cow suffers the strongest energy deficit and is therefore more prone to mammary infection. Residual variances for data from infected cows were substantially larger than for the other mixture components. Fat-to-protein ratio had a significant genetic component, with estimates of heritability that were larger or comparable with milk yield, and was not strongly correlated with milk and SCS on both genetic and environmental scales. Daily milk, F:P and SCS are easily available from milk-recording data for most breeding schemes in dairy cattle. Fat-to-protein ratio can potentially be a valuable addition to SCS and milk yield as an indicator trait for selection against mastitis. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Building global models for fat and total protein content in raw milk based on historical spectroscopic data in the visible and short-wave near infrared range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melenteva, Anastasiia; Galyanin, Vladislav; Savenkova, Elena; Bogomolov, Andrey

    2016-07-15

    A large set of fresh cow milk samples collected from many suppliers over a large geographical area in Russia during a year has been analyzed by optical spectroscopy in the range 400-1100 nm in accordance with previously developed scatter-based technique. The global (i.e. resistant to seasonal, genetic, regional and other variations of the milk composition) models for fat and total protein content, which were built using partial least-squares (PLS) regression, exhibit satisfactory prediction performances enabling their practical application in the dairy. The root mean-square errors of prediction (RMSEP) were 0.09 and 0.10 for fat and total protein content, respectively. The issues of raw milk analysis and multivariate modelling based on the historical spectroscopic data have been considered and approaches to the creation of global models and their transfer between the instruments have been proposed. Availability of global models should significantly facilitate the dissemination of optical spectroscopic methods for the laboratory and in-line quantitative milk analysis. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Prediction of milk, fat and protein yields in first lactation from serum ß-lactoglobulin concentrations during gestation in Italian Brown heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Superchi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Authors report the results of a study carried out on 23 pregnant Italian Brown heifers, with the aim to determine the relationships between blood serum ß-lactoglobulin (ß-LG concentrations during first gestation and subsequent milk production and quality in first lactation, in order to obtain an improved selection method for replacement heifers. At weeks 20, 26 and 32 of gestation, ß-LG concentrations (±SE were 706±78, 753±66 and 772±63 ng/ml, respectively (P>0.05. High and significant (P≤0.05 correlation coefficients were observed only between ß-LG content at week 32 and total milk and protein yields in first lactation. Prediction equations of milk, fat and protein production in first lactation from log10 ß-LG content at week 32 of gestation, from parent average genetic indexes and from both were calculated by means of multiple regression analysis. When the contribution of both ß-LG content and predicted genetic indexes were considered, the regression equations gave generally a better estimate of the production parameters in first lactation (higher R2, lower SE of estimate than the above mentioned parameters alone. These results suggest that it is valuable to pre-estimate milk, fat and protein production in Italian Brown first lactating cows by means of the analysis of serum ß-LG content during gestation.

  20. Physiochemical properties, microstructure, and probiotic survivability of nonfat goats' milk yogurt using heat-treated whey protein concentrate as fat replacer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tiehua; McCarthy, James; Wang, Guorong; Liu, Yanyan; Guo, Mingruo

    2015-04-01

    There is a market demand for nonfat fermented goats' milk products. A nonfat goats' milk yogurt containing probiotics (Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Bifidobacterium spp.) was developed using heat-treated whey protein concentrate (HWPC) as a fat replacer and pectin as a thickening agent. Yogurts containing untreated whey protein concentrate (WPC) and pectin, and the one with only pectin were also prepared. Skim cows' milk yogurt with pectin was also made as a control. The yogurts were analyzed for chemical composition, water holding capacity (syneresis), microstructure, changes in pH and viscosity, mold, yeast and coliform counts, and probiotic survivability during storage at 4 °C for 10 wk. The results showed that the nonfat goats' milk yogurt made with 1.2% HWPC (WPC solution heated at 85 °C for 30 min at pH 8.5) and 0.35% pectin had significantly higher viscosity (P yogurts and lower syneresis than the goats' yogurt with only pectin (P yogurt samples did not change much throughout storage. Bifidobacterium spp. remained stable and was above 10(6) CFU g(-1) during the 10-wk storage. However, the population of Lactobacillus acidophilus dropped to below 10(6) CFU g(-1) after 2 wk of storage. Microstructure analysis of the nonfat goats' milk yogurt by scanning electron microscopy revealed that HWPC interacted with casein micelles to form a relatively compact network in the yogurt gel. The results indicated that HWPC could be used as a fat replacer for improving the consistency of nonfat goats' milk yogurt and other similar products. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. Modelling lactation curve for milk fat to protein ratio in Iranian buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) using non-linear mixed models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossein-Zadeh, Navid Ghavi

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare seven non-linear mathematical models (Brody, Wood, Dhanoa, Sikka, Nelder, Rook and Dijkstra) to examine their efficiency in describing the lactation curves for milk fat to protein ratio (FPR) in Iranian buffaloes. Data were 43 818 test-day records for FPR from the first three lactations of Iranian buffaloes which were collected on 523 dairy herds in the period from 1996 to 2012 by the Animal Breeding Center of Iran. Each model was fitted to monthly FPR records of buffaloes using the non-linear mixed model procedure (PROC NLMIXED) in SAS and the parameters were estimated. The models were tested for goodness of fit using Akaike's information criterion (AIC), Bayesian information criterion (BIC) and log maximum likelihood (-2 Log L). The Nelder and Sikka mixed models provided the best fit of lactation curve for FPR in the first and second lactations of Iranian buffaloes, respectively. However, Wood, Dhanoa and Sikka mixed models provided the best fit of lactation curve for FPR in the third parity buffaloes. Evaluation of first, second and third lactation features showed that all models, except for Dijkstra model in the third lactation, under-predicted test time at which daily FPR was minimum. On the other hand, minimum FPR was over-predicted by all equations. Evaluation of the different models used in this study indicated that non-linear mixed models were sufficient for fitting test-day FPR records of Iranian buffaloes.

  2. Pulsed electric field processing preserves the antiproliferative activity of the milk fat globule membrane on colon carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, S; Walkling-Ribeiro, M; Griffiths, M W; Corredig, M

    2015-05-01

    The present work evaluated the effect of processing on the antiproliferative activities of milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) extracts. The antiproliferative activity on human adenocarcinoma HT-29 cells of untreated MFGM extracts were compared with those extracted from pasteurized cream, thermally treated cream, or cream subjected to pulsed electrical field (PEF) processing. The PEF with a 37 kV/cm field strength applied for 1,705μs at 50 and 65°C was applied to untreated cream collected from a local dairy. Heating at 50 or 65°C for 3min (the passage time in the PEF chamber) was also tested to evaluate the heating effect during PEF treatments. The MFGM extracted from pasteurized cream did not show an antiproliferative activity. On the other hand, isolates from PEF-treated cream showed activity similar to that of untreated samples. It was also shown that PEF induced interactions between β-lactoglobulin and MFGM proteins at 65°C, whereas the phospholipid composition remained unaltered. This work demonstrates the potential of PEF not only a means to produce a microbiologically safe product, but also as a process preserving the biofunctionality of the MFGM. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of plant sterol esters in skimmed milk and vegetable-fat-enriched milk on serum lipids and non-cholesterol sterols in hypercholesterolaemic subjects: a randomised, placebo-controlled, crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas-Agustench, Patricia; Serra, Mercè; Pérez-Heras, Ana; Cofán, Montserrat; Pintó, Xavier; Trautwein, Elke A; Ros, Emilio

    2012-06-01

    Plant sterol (PS)-supplemented foods are recommended to help in lowering serum LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C). Few studies have examined the efficacy of PS-enriched skimmed milk (SM) or semi-SM enriched with vegetable fat (PS-VFM). There is also insufficient information on factors predictive of LDL-C responses to PS. We examined the effects of PS-SM (0·1 % dairy fat) and PS-VFM (0·1 % dairy fat plus 1·5 % vegetable fat) on serum lipids and non-cholesterol sterols in hypercholesterolaemic individuals. In a placebo-controlled, crossover study, forty-three subjects with LDL-C>1300 mg/l were randomly assigned to three 4-week treatment periods: control SM, PS-SM and PS-VFM, with 500 ml milk with or without 3·4 g PS esters (2 g free PS). Serum concentrations of lipids and non-cholesterol sterols were measured. Compared to control, LDL-C decreased by 8·0 and 7·4 % (P synthesis and high cholesterol absorption predicted improved LDL-C responses to PS.

  4. Variations in the milk yield and milk composition of dairy cows during lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedö, S; Nikodémusz, E; Percsich, K; Bárdos, L

    1995-01-01

    Variations in the milk yield and milk composition of a dairy cow colony (n = 23) were analyzed during 11 months of lactation. Milk yield followed a characteristic decreasing pattern in negative correlations with solid components (milk protein, lactose, total solids, milk fat). Titrable acidity (degree SH) was significantly (p < 0.1) higher in the milk of fresh-milking cows and it correlated negatively with lactose and positively with milk protein, milk fat and total solids. The concentrations of Zn, Fe and Cu tended to decrease, while Mn showed insignificant variation during lactation. Milk vitamin A showed a significant positive whilst milk vitamin E had a negative correlation with milk fat.

  5. Microorganism Utilization for Synthetic Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morford, Megan A.; Khodadad, Christina L.; Caro, Janicce I.; Spencer, LaShelle E.; Richards, Jeffery T.; Strayer, Richard F.; Birmele, Michele N.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2014-01-01

    A desired architecture for long duration spaceflight, like aboard the International Space Station or for future missions to Mars, is to provide a supply of fresh food crops for the astronauts. However, some crops can create a high proportion of inedible plant waste. The main goal of the Synthetic Biology project, Cow in a Column, was to produce the components of milk (sugar, lipid, protein) from inedible plant waste by utilizing microorganisms (fungi, yeast, bacteria). Of particular interest was utilizing the valuable polysaccharide, cellulose, found in plant waste, to naturally fuel-through microorganism cellular metabolism- the creation of sugar (glucose), lipid (milk fat), and protein (casein) in order to produce a synthetic edible food product. Environmental conditions such as pH, temperature, carbon source, aeration, and choice microorganisms were optimized in the laboratory and the desired end-products, sugars and lipids, were analyzed. Trichoderma reesei, a known cellulolytic fungus, was utilized to drive the production of glucose, with the intent that the produced glucose would serve as the carbon source for milk fat production and be a substitute for the milk sugar lactose. Lipid production would be carried out by Rhodosporidium toruloides, yeast known to accumulate those lipids that are typically found in milk fat. Results showed that glucose and total lipid content were below what was expected during this phase of experimentation. In addition, individual analysis of six fatty acids revealed that the percentage of each fatty acid was lower than naturally produced bovine milk. Overall, this research indicates that microorganisms could be utilized to breakdown inedible solid waste to produce useable products. For future work, the production of the casein protein for milk would require the development of a genetically modified organism, which was beyond the scope of the original project. Additional trials would be needed to further refine the required

  6. Feeding dairy cows with full fat extruded or toasted soybean seeds as replacement of soybean meal and effects on milk yield, fatty acid profile and CLA content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Bittante

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the replacement of about 70% of soybean meal (SBM with extruded(ES or toasted (TS full-fat soybean seeds in diets for lactating cows on milk quality, fatty acid profile, and conjugatedlinoleic acid (CLA content. Eighteen lactating cows were assigned to 3 groups which received a basal diet, supplementedwith 1.8, 2.1 and 2.1 kg/head, respectively, of SBM, ES and TS. There was no significant effect on milk yield,calculated as the difference between daily yield during the experimental period and the mean of the last 5 days of adaptation(-1.65, -1.29 and -0.20 kg/d, respectively, for SBM, ES and TS; P>0.10 and milk quality parameters (fat, protein,urea and cheese making parameters among treatments. In the ES group there was a decrease in the short chainFA content (from C4 to C13 in milk fat (9.2 vs 11.0 and 10.8 g/100 g lipids, respectively, for ES, SBM and TS; PMedium chain FA (from C14 to C17 content in milk fat was lower for ES and TS groups compared with SBM (46.8 and48.0 vs 54.8 g/100 g lipids respectively; PSBM group compared to the others (34.3 vs 44.2 and 41.2 g/100 g lipids, respectively, for SBM, ES and TS; PThe replacement of SBM with ES enhanced oleic and linoleic acid and, particularly, CLA content. Intermediate values wereobserved for the TS group. CLA content (0.91, 0.62 and 0.56 g/100 g lipids, respectively, for ES, TS and SBM; Pincreased throughout the trial in all groups. ES also reduced the proportion of SFA with respect to SBM (65.2, 68.2 and70.9 g/100 g lipids, respectively, for ES, TS and SBM; Pin the same order; Pimproving the health-quality of milk. The various soybean products did not affect either metabolic profile (protein, urea,glucose, cholesterol, NEFA, triglycerides, liver parameters and mineral serum content or rumen parameters (pH, ammoniaand VFAs. The replacement of SBM with ES and TS permitted an improvement in the nutritional properties of milkwithout negatively

  7. Milk fat globule membrane coating of large lipid droplets in the diet of young mice prevents body fat accumulation in adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baars, Annemarie; Oosting, Annemarie; Engels, Eefje; Kegler, Diane; Kodde, Andrea; Schipper, Lidewij; Verkade, Henkjan J.; van der Beek, Eline M.

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated protective effects of breast-feeding on childhood obesity. Differences between human milk and infant milk formula (IMF) in dietary lipid structure may contribute to this effect. In our mouse model, feeding a diet containing large lipid droplets coated with

  8. Modeling the adequacy of dietary fiber in dairy cows based on the responses of ruminal pH and milk fat production to composition of the diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebeli, Q; Dijkstra, J; Tafaj, M; Steingass, H; Ametaj, B N; Drochner, W

    2008-05-01

    The main objective of this study was to develop practical models to assess and predict the adequacy of dietary fiber in high-yielding dairy cows. We used quantitative methods to analyze relevant research data and critically evaluate and determine the responses of ruminal pH and production performance to different variables including physical, chemical, and starch-degrading characteristics of the diet. Further, extensive data were used to model the magnitude of ruminal pH fluctuations and determine the threshold for the development of subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA). Results of this study showed that to minimize the risk of SARA, the following events should be avoided: 1) a daily mean ruminal pH lower than 6.16, and 2) a time period in which ruminal pH is content of physically effective neutral detergent fiber (peNDF) or the ratio between peNDF and rumen-degradable starch from grains in the diet increased up to 31.2 +/- 1.6% [dry matter (DM) basis] or 1.45 +/- 0.22, respectively, so did the daily mean ruminal pH, for which a asymptotic plateau was reached at a pH of 6.20 to 6.27. This study also showed that digestibility of fiber in the total tract depends on ruminal pH and outflow rate of digesta from reticulorumen; thereby both variables explained 62% of the variation of fiber digestibility. Feeding diets with peNDF content up to 31.9 +/- 1.97% (DM basis) slightly decreased DM intake and actual milk yield; however, 3.5% fat-corrected milk and milk fat yield were increased, resulting in greater milk energy efficiency. In conclusion, a level of about 30 to 33% peNDF in the diet may be considered generally optimal for minimizing the risk of SARA without impairing important production responses in high-yielding dairy cows. In terms of improvement of the accuracy to assessing dietary fiber adequacy, it is suggested that the content of peNDF required to stabilize ruminal pH and maintain milk fat content without compromising milk energy efficiency can be arranged based

  9. Hot topic: Enhancing omega-3 fatty acids in milk fat of dairy cows by using stearidonic acid-enriched soybean oil from genetically modified soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal-Santos, G; O'Donnell, A M; Vicini, J L; Hartnell, G F; Bauman, D E

    2010-01-01

    Very long chain n-3 fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) are important in human cardiac health and the prevention of chronic diseases, but food sources are limited. Stearidonic acid (SDA; 18:4n-3) is an n-3 fatty acid that humans are able to convert to EPA. In utilizing SDA-enhanced soybean oil (SBO) derived from genetically modified soybeans, our objectives were to examine the potential to increase the n-3 fatty acid content of milk fat and to determine the efficiency of SDA uptake from the digestive tract and transfer to milk fat. Three multiparous, rumen-fistulated Holstein cows were assigned randomly in a 3 x 3 Latin square design to the following treatments: 1) control (no oil infusion); 2) abomasal infusion of SDA-enhanced SBO (SDA-abo); and 3) ruminal infusion of SDA-enhanced SBO (SDA-rum). The SDA-enhanced SBO contained 27.1% SDA, 10.4% alpha-linolenic acid, and 7.2% gamma-linolenic acid. Oil infusions provided 57 g/d of SDA with equal amounts of oil infused into either the rumen or abomasum at 6-h intervals over a 7-d infusion period. Cow numbers were limited and no treatment differences were detected for DMI or milk production (22.9+/-0.5 kg/d and 32.3+/-0.9 kg/d, respectively; least squares means +/- SE), milk protein percentage and yield (3.24+/-0.04% and 1.03+/-0.02 kg/d), or lactose percentage and yield (4.88+/-0.05% and 1.55+/-0.05 kg/d). Treatment also had no effect on milk fat yield (1.36+/-0.03 kg/d), but milk fat percentage was lower for the SDA-rum treatment (4.04+/-0.04% vs. 4.30+/-0.04% for control and 4.41+/-0.05% for SDA-abo). The SDA-abo treatment increased n-3 fatty acids to 3.9% of total milk fatty acids, a value more than 5-fold greater than that for the control. Expressed as a percentage of total milk fatty acids, values (least squares means +/- SE) for the SDA-abo treatment were 1.55+/-0.03% for alpha-linolenic acid (18:3n-3), 1.86+/-0.02 for SDA, 0.23 +/- soybeans combined with proper ruminal protection to achieve

  10. Cow's milk and goat's milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turck, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    Cow's milk is increasingly suggested to play a role in the development of chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders whereas goat's milk is advocated as having several health benefits. Cow's milk is a rich and cheap source of protein and calcium, and a valuable food for bone health. Despite their high content in saturated fats, consumption of full-fat dairy products does not seem to cause significant changes in cardiovascular disease risk variables. Early introduction of cow's milk is a strong negative determinant of iron status. Unmodified cow's milk does not meet nutritional requirements of infants although it is acceptable to add small volumes of cow's milk to complementary foods. Cow's milk protein allergy has a prevalence ranging from 2 to 7%, and the age of recovery is usually around 2-3 years. The evidence linking cow's milk intake to a later risk of type 1 diabetes or chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders (obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, hypertension) is not convincing. Milk probably protects against colorectal cancer, diets high in calcium are a probable cause of prostate cancer, and there is limited evidence suggesting that high consumption of milk and dairy products increases the risk for prostate cancer. There is no evidence to support the use of a cow's milk-free diet as a primary treatment for individuals with autistic spectrum disorders. Unmodified goat's milk is not suitable for infants because of the high protein and minerals content and of a low folate content. Goat's milk has no clear nutritional advantage over cow's milk and is not less allergenic. The European Food Safety Authority recently stated that proteins from goat's milk can be suitable as a protein source for infant and follow-on formula, provided the final product complies with the compositional criteria laid down in Directive 2006/141/EC. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Effects of propylene glycol supplementation on blood indicators of hepatic function, body condition score, milk fat-protein concentration and reproductive performance of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviu Ionuţ Borş

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of propylene glycol on metabolic variables of hepatic function, body condition score, milk fat-protein concentration and reproductive performance of dairy cows after ending administration. Postparturient dairy cows (n = 200 of Holstein Friesian breed were divided into two groups of 100 individuals. The experimental group received during days 0-7 post partum an oral daily dose of 600 ml of propylene glycol; the control group was without any supplement. The hepatic enzymes, glucose, cholesterol and serum albumin were measured on days 10-15, 45-50 and 70 post partum. Reproduction indicators of dairy cows were calculated from the farm recording data and the milk data record from a regular dairy control (days 10, 20, 30, and 50 post partum. Animals that received propylene glycol in the first 7 days post partum had reduced activities of aspartate transaminase and gamma-glutamyl transferase, elevated cholesterol concentration (P 0.05 and low milk fat percentage (P P 0.05. Our results suggest that some blood indicators of hepatic function, milk fat concentration and calving to first oestrus interval can be improved for 70 days post partum by the use of propylene glycol drenching in the first 7 days post partum. The beneficial effect of this treatment could be evaluated by easily available data, which can be used by practitioners in the field to analyze fertility problems in dairy herds and more exactly to examine whether metabolic stress, among other factors, is involved in the fertility problem.

  12. Reference-free spectroscopic determination of fat and protein in milk in the visible and near infrared region below 1000nm using spatially resolved diffuse reflectance fiber probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogomolov, Andrey; Belikova, Valeria; Galyanin, Vladislav; Melenteva, Anastasiia; Meyer, Hans

    2017-05-15

    New technique of diffuse reflectance spectroscopic analysis of milk fat and total protein content in the visible (Vis) and adjacent near infrared (NIR) region (400-995nm) has been developed and tested. Sample analysis was performed through a probe having eight 200-µm fiber channels forming a linear array. One of the end fibers was used for the illumination and other seven - for the spectroscopic detection of diffusely reflected light. One of the detection channels was used as a reference to normalize the spectra and to convert them into absorbance-equivalent units. The method has been tested experimentally using a designed sample set prepared from industrial raw milk standards with widely varying fat and protein content. To increase the modelling robustness all milk samples were measured in three different homogenization degrees. Comprehensive data analysis has shown the advantage of combining both spectral and spatial resolution in the same measurement and revealed the most relevant channels and wavelength regions. The modelling accuracy was further improved using joint variable selection and preprocessing optimization method based on the genetic algorithm. The root mean-square errors of different validation methods were below 0.10% for fat and below 0.08% for total protein content. Based on the present experimental data, it was computationally shown that the full-spectrum analysis in this method can be replaced by a sensor measurement at several specific wavelengths, for instance, using light-emitting diodes (LEDs) for illumination. Two optimal sensor configurations have been suggested: with nine LEDs for the analysis of fat and seven - for protein content. Both simulated sensors exhibit nearly the same component determination accuracy as corresponding full-spectrum analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The effects of phytosterol in low fat milk on serum lipid levels among mild-moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Sukmaniah

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important risk factors for CHD is dyslipidemia, among others hypercholesterolemia or high LDL-cholesterol. Plant-sterols or phytosterols (PS are among dietary factors known to lower blood cholesterol as part of therapeutic life-style changes diet. This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of PS properly solubilized in a-partly vegetable oil-filled low fat milk, on serum lipid levels in mild-moderate hypercholesterolemic subjects. Randomized, two-arm parallel control group trial was conducted at Department of Nutrition-University of Indonesia in Jakarta from June to November 2006. Each subject was randomly assigned to receive dietary life-style changes counseling plus 1.2 g phytosterol/day in low-fat milk (PS-group or control group receiving the counseling alone for six weeks period. There were no significant changes of serum total and LDL-cholesterol of control group after a six week of dietary counseling (respectively 218.3 ± 18.6 mg/dL to 219.6 ± 24.3 mg/dL and 164.7±21.8 mg/dL to 160.0±26.4 mg/dL. There were a significant decreases of serum total and LDL-cholesterol (respectively p=0.01 and p=0.004 among subjects receiving PS after a six weeks observation period (respectively 233.5±24.6 mg/dL to 211.2±30.3 mg/dL and 176.9±24.7 mg/dL to 154.5±24.3 mg/dL. There was a significant difference in the LDL-lowering effects (p=0.024 among the PS-group after a six weeks (22.4±27.9 mg/dL as compared to the control group (4.7±17.2 mg/dL. No significant changes were found on serum HDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels in both groups. Although there was no significant difference found in daily nutrients intake between the-2 groups, however, significant reductions in body weight, body mass index and waist circumference were found only in the PS group (p=0.000; 0.000; 0.003, respectively. It is concluded that the lowering of total and LDL-cholesterol in those receiving life-style changes counseling plus 1.2 g PS daily for six

  14. Restoration of Circulating MFGE8 (Milk Fat Globule-EGF Factor 8) Attenuates Cardiac Hypertrophy Through Inhibition of Akt Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Ke-Qiong; Li, Jing; She, Zhi-Gang; Gong, Jun; Cheng, Wen-Lin; Gong, Fu-Han; Zhu, Xue-Yong; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Zhihua; Li, Hongliang

    2017-10-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy occurs in response to numerous stimuli like neurohumoral stress, pressure overload, infection, and injury, and leads to heart failure. Mfge8 (milk fat globule-EGF factor 8) is a secreted protein involved in various human diseases, but its regulation and function during cardiac hypertrophy remain unexplored. Here, we found that circulating MFGE8 levels declined significantly in failing hearts from patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. Correlation analyses revealed that circulating MFGE8 levels were negatively correlated with the severity of cardiac dysfunction and remodeling in affected patients. Deleting Mfge8 in mice maintained normal heart function at basal level but substantially exacerbated the hypertrophic enlargement of cardiomyocytes, reprogramming of pathological genes, contractile dysfunction, and myocardial fibrosis after aortic banding surgery. In contrast, cardiac-specific Mfge8 overexpression in transgenic mice significantly blunted aortic banding-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Whereas MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) pathways were unaffected in either Mfge8 -knockout or Mfge8 -overexpressing mice, the activated Akt/PKB (protein kinase B)-Gsk-3β (glycogen synthase kinase-3β)/mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) pathway after aortic banding was significantly potentiated by Mfge8 deficiency but suppressed by Mfge8 overexpression. Inhibition of Akt with MK-2206 blocked the prohypertrophic effects of Mfge8 deficiency in angiotensin II-treated neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. Finally, administering a recombinant human MFGE8 in mice in vivo alleviated cardiac hypertrophy induced by aortic banding. Our findings indicate that Mfge8 is an endogenous negative regulator of pathological cardiac hypertrophy and may, thus, have potential both as a novel biomarker and as a therapeutic target for treatment of cardiac hypertrophy. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. APA-style human milk fat analogue from silkworm pupae oil: Enzymatic production and improving storage stability using alkyl caffeates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xi; Wang, Xudong; Pang, Na; Zhu, Weijie; Zhao, Xingyu; Wang, Fangqin; Wu, Fuan; Wang, Jun

    2015-12-08

    Silkworm pupae oil derived from reeling waste is a rich source of α-linolenic acid (ALA), which has multipal applications. ALAs were added in sn-1, 3 positions in a triacylglycerol (TAG) to produce an APA-human milk fat analogues (APA-HMFAs, A: α-linolenic acid, P: palmitic acid). The optimum condition is that tripalmitin to free fatty acids of 1:12 (mole ratio) at 65 °C for 48 h using lipase Lipozyme RM IM. Results show that, the major TAG species that comprised APA-HMFAs were rich in ALA and palmitic acid, which contained 64.52% total unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) and 97.05% PA at the sn-2 position. The melting point of APA was -27.5 °C which is much lower than tripalmitin (40.5 °C) indicating more plastic character. In addition, the practical application of alkyl caffeates as liposoluble antioxidants in APA was developed. Alkyl caffeate showed a superior IC50 (1.25-1.66 μg/mL) compared to butyl hydroxy anisd (1.67 μg/mL) and L-ascorbic acid-6-palmitate (L-AP) (1.87 μg/mL) in DPPH analysis. The addition of ethyl caffeate to oil achieved a higher UFAs content (73.58%) at high temperatures. Overall, APA was obtained from silkworm pupae oil successfully, and the addition of caffeates extended storage ranges for APA-HMFAs.

  16. The incorporation of [1-14C] acetate into the methyl ketones that occur in steam-distillates of bovine milk fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, R C; Hawke, J C

    1966-01-01

    1. The (14)C-labelling of the fatty acids and the methyl ketones in steam-distillates of milk fat from a lactating cow that had been injected intravenously with [1-(14)C]acetate was determined. 2. The labelling patterns of the C(6)-C(16) fatty acids and the corresponding methyl ketones with one fewer carbon atoms were similar, particularly so for the C(5)-C(10) compounds at 9 and 22hr. after the injection of [1-(14)C]acetate. The isolation of (14)C-labelled methyl ketones in the range C(3)-C(15) is evidence that the beta-oxo acid precursors, which are glyceride-bound in the milk fat, are synthesized in the mammary gland from acetate. The absence of heptadecan-2-one in steam-distillates and the extremely low specific radioactivity of stearic acid are further evidence for this biosynthetic pathway. 3. The specific radioactivities of the C(5)-C(15) methyl ketones were higher (with the exception of C(9) methyl ketone in the second milking) than the specific activities of the corresponding fatty acids with one more carbon atom. This is consistent with the methyl ketone precursors' being formed during the biosynthesis of fatty acids rather than being products of beta-oxidation of fatty acids.

  17. Evaluation of the anti-adhesive effect of milk fat globule membrane glycoproteins on Helicobacter pylori in the human NCI-N87 cell line and C57BL/6 mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horemans, Tessa; Kerstens, Monique; Clais, Sofie; Struijs, Karin; van den Abbeele, Pieter; Van Assche, Tim; Maes, Louis; Cos, Paul

    2012-08-01

     The interest in non-antibiotic therapies for Helicobacter pylori infections in man has considerably grown because increasing numbers of antibiotic-resistant strains are being reported. Intervention at the stage of bacterial attachment to the gastric mucosa could be an approach to improve the control/eradication rate of this infection.  Fractions of purified milk fat globule membrane glycoproteins were tested in vitro for their cytotoxic and direct antibacterial effect. The anti-adhesive effect on H. pylori was determined first in a cell model using the mucus-producing gastric epithelial cell line NCI-N87 and next in the C57BL/6 mouse model after dosing at 400 mg/kg protein once or twice daily from day -2 to day 4 post-infection. Bacterial loads were determined by using quantitative real-time PCR and the standard plate count method.  The milk fat globule membrane fractions did not show in vitro cytotoxicity, and a marginal antibacterial effect was demonstrated for defatted milk fat globule membrane at 256 μg/mL. In the anti-adhesion assay, the results varied from 56.0 ± 5.3% inhibition for 0.3% crude milk fat globule membrane to 79.3 ± 3.5% for defatted milk fat globule membrane. Quite surprisingly, in vivo administration of the same milk fat globule membrane fractions did not confirm the anti-adhesive effects and even caused an increase in bacterial load in the stomach.  The promising anti-adhesion in vitro results could not be confirmed in the mouse model, even after the highest attainable exposure. It is concluded that raw or defatted milk fat globule membrane fractions do not have any prophylactic or therapeutic potential against Helicobacter infection. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. The International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes: lessons learned and implications for the regulation of marketing of foods and beverages to children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutter, Chessa K

    2013-10-01

    To identify lessons learned from 30 years of implementing the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes (‘the Code’) and identify lessons learned for the regulation of marketing foods and beverages to children. Historical analysis of 30 years of implementing the Code. Latin America and the Caribbean. None. Legislation to restrict marketing of breast-milk substitutes is necessary but not sufficient; equally important are the promulgation of implementing regulations, effective enforcement and public monitoring of compliance. A system of funding for regular monitoring of compliance with legislation should be explicitlyd eveloped and funded from the beginning. Economic sanctions, while important, are likely to be less effective than reports that affect a company’s public image negatively. Non-governmental organizations play a critical role in leveraging public opinion and galvanizing consumer pressure to ensure that governments adopt regulations and companies adhere to them. Continual clinical, epidemiological and policy research showing the link between marketing and health outcomes and between policy and better health is essential. Implementation of the Code has not come easily as it places the interests of underfinanced national governments and international and non-governmental organizations promoting breast-feeding against those of multinational corporations that make hundreds of millions of dollars annually marketing infant formulas. Efforts to protect, promote and support breast-feeding have been successful with indicators of breast-feeding practices increasing globally. The lessons learned can inform current efforts to regulate the marketing of foods and beverages to children.

  19. Effect of supplementation diets of slipery fish level fat on performance, milk yield and milk composition of F1 (Landrace X Yorkshire) sows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham, K.T.; Nghia, D.H.; Duc, N.L.; Huynh Thi Thanh Thuy,; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2014-01-01

    Twenty five F1 (Landrace x Yorkshire) sows parity of 2- 4 were used to determine the effect of catfish fat to late-pregnant and lactating sows on sow and their piglets’ performance. Sows were fed trial diets from 107 d of gestation until 21 d of lactation. Diets were: control without fish fat; 2%

  20. Interaction of unsaturated fat or coconut oil with monensin in lactating dairy cows fed 12 times daily. II. Fatty acid flow to the omasum and milk fatty acid profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveneau, C; Ribeiro, C V D M; Eastridge, M L; Firkins, J L

    2012-04-01

    Feeding animal-vegetable (AV) fat or medium-chain fatty acids (FA) to dairy cows can decrease ruminal protozoal counts. However, combining moderate to large amounts of AV fat with monensin (tradename: Rumensin, R) could increase the risk for milk fat depression (MFD), whereas it is not known if diets supplemented with coconut oil (CNO; rich in medium-chain FA) with R would cause MFD. In a 6 × 6 Latin square design with a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments, 6 rumen-cannulated cows were fed diets without or with R (12 g/909 kg) and either control (no fat), 5% AV fat, or 5% CNO. Diets were balanced to have 21.5% forage neutral detergent fiber, 16.8% crude protein, and 42% nonfiber carbohydrates. Omasal flows of FA were characterized by an increased percentage of trans 18:1 for AV fat and CNO diets compared with the control, a higher percentage of 12:0 and 14:0 for CNO, and higher cis 18:1 for AV fat. Milk FA composition reflected the changes observed for omasal FA digesta flow. The de novo FA synthesis in the mammary gland was decreased by the main effects of R compared without R (averaged over fat treatments) and for added fat (AV fat and CNO) versus control (averaged over R). The percentages of 6:0, 8:0, and 10:0 in milk fat were lower for R and for AV fat and CNO compared with the control. The percentage of trans 18:1 FA in milk fat also higher for AV fat and CNO compared with the control. Against our hypotheses, the feeding of CNO did not prevent MFD, and few interactions between R and fat source were detected. The feeding of CNO did compromise ruminal biohydrogenation, with accumulation of trans 18:1 in the rumen and in milk fat. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of silage type and concentrate level on conjugated linoleic acids, trans-C18 : 1 isomers and fat content in milk from dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Torben Skov; Straarup, Ellen Marie; Jungersen, Mogens Vestergaard

    2006-01-01

    to one of four diets in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments and a six week experimental period. Treatments were total mixed rations with maize (M) or grass (G) silage differing in polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) profile and starch content, combined with a high (H) or a low (L) level......:1 and reduced cis9, trans11-CLA and trans11-C18:1 when maize but not grass silage was provided. The results suggest that high levels of concentrate (grain) do not significantly alter the pattern of PUFA biohydrogenation in the rumen, the concentration of CLA and trans-C18:1 isomers in milk or cause milk fat...

  2. Measurement of fat in the ovine milk: comparative study of the results acquired by official methodology and by electr onic equipments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gustavo de Pellegrini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to perform a comparative study between the official method recommended by Brazilian laws and the electronic equipment of photometric measurement and ultrasound spectroscopy equipment for the quantification of total lipids of the ovine milk in order to check which equipment establishes the lipids level better. The experiment took place at Technology of Food Department in Santa Maria Federal University together with School Plant of Dairy products and Ovine culture Section of Zoo Technical Department. It was used twelve sheeps half Lacaune Lait blood, milked individually from the first to the tenth week of lactation. The milking was performed manually and the analyses took place after the refrigeration of the samples. Before executing the analyses, the samples were homogenized and soon after evaluated in terms of fat amount by three distinct methodologies: official Brazilian methodology through Gerber’s butyrometer (GB, electronic equipment of photometric measurement Milko-Tester® (MT and ultrasound spectroscopic equipment Lactoscan 90® (LS, which all analyses were performed in triple. The reproducibility of LS equipment was 100% for the analyzed samples, while MT equipment showed variability in most of the analyzed samples obtaining reproducibility of the results in just 22,5% of the samples. For the others samples the latter equipment obtained 50% of overrated values and 27,5% underrated values. Therefore, the results of this study let us to settle that the analysis of ovine Milk by ultrasound spectroscopy is efficient for the fat parameter when compared to the official Brazilian methodology.

  3. Prebiotic milk oligosaccharides prevent development of obese phenotype, impairment of gut permeability, and microbial dysbiosis in high fat-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, M Kristina; Ronveaux, Charlotte C; Rust, Bret M; Newman, John W; Hawley, Melissa; Barile, Daniela; Mills, David A; Raybould, Helen E

    2017-05-01

    Microbial dysbiosis and increased intestinal permeability are targets for prevention or reversal of weight gain in high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity (DIO). Prebiotic milk oligosaccharides (MO) have been shown to benefit the host intestine but have not been used in DIO. We hypothesized that supplementation with bovine MO would prevent the deleterious effect of HF diet on the gut microbiota and intestinal permeability and attenuate development of the obese phenotype. C57BL/6 mice were fed a control diet, HF (40% fat/kcal), or HF + prebiotic [6%/kg bovine milk oligosaccharides (BMO) or inulin] for 1, 3, or 6 wk. Gut microbiota and intestinal permeability were assessed in the ileum, cecum, and colon. Addition of BMO to the HF diet significantly attenuated weight gain, decreased adiposity, and decreased caloric intake; inulin supplementation also lowered weight gain and adiposity, but this did not reach significance. BMO and inulin completely abolished the HF diet-induced increase in paracellular and transcellular permeability in the small and large intestine. Both BMO and inulin increased abundance of beneficial microbes Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus in the ileum. However, inulin supplementation altered phylogenetic diversity and decreased species richness. We conclude that addition of BMO to the HF diet completely prevented increases in intestinal permeability and microbial dysbiosis and was partially effective to prevent weight gain in DIO. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This study provides the first report of the effects of prebiotic bovine milk oligosaccharides on the host phenotype of high-fat diet-induced obesity in mice. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  4. 1-O-alkyl-2-(omega-oxo)acyl-sn-glycerols from shark oil and human milk fat are potential precursors of PAF mimics and GHR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvigsen, Karsten; Ravandi, A.; Harkewicz, R.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the feasibility that peroxidation and lipolysis of 1-O-alkyl-2,3-diacyl-sn-glycerols (DAGE) found in shark liver oil and human milk fat constitutes a potential source of dietary precursors of platelet activating factor (PAF) mimics and of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB). Purified...... yielded 1-O-octadecyl-2-(9-oxo)nonanoyl-sn-glycerol, as the major core aldehyde. Because diradylglycerols with short fatty chains are absorbed in the intestine and react with cytidine diphosphate-choline in the enterocytes, it is concluded that formation of such PAF mimics as 1-O-alkyl-2-(omega...

  5. Camel milk and milk products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Brezovečki

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Camel milk and camel milk products have always been highly esteemed playing even today an important role in the diet of the population in the rural areas of Africa, Asia and the Middle East, with scarce agricultural areas, high temperatures and small amount of precipitation. In aggravated environmental circumstances, camels may produce more milk than any other species, while their demand for food is very modest. A camel produces between 1000 and 2000 L of milk during the lactation period of 8 to 18 months, while the daily production of milk is between 3 and 10 L. The goal of the overview is to present the chemical composition of camel milk, and products made from camel milk. On average camel milk contains 81.4-87 % water, 10.4 % dry matter, 1.2-6.4 % milk fat, 2.15-4.90 % protein, 1.63-2.76 % casein, 0.65-0.80 % whey protein, 2.90-5.80 % lactose and 0.60-0.90 % ash. Variations in the contents of camel milk may be attributed to several factors such as analytical methods, geographical area, nutrition conditions, breed, lactation stage, age and number of calvings. Camel milk is becoming an increasingly interesting product in the world, not only for its good nutritive properties, but also for its interesting and tasteful products.

  6. Genetic analysis of milk β-hydroxybutyrate and its association with fat-to-protein ratio, body condition score, clinical ketosis, and displaced abomasum in early first lactation of Canadian Holsteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeck, A; Jamrozik, J; Schenkel, F S; Moore, R K; Lefebvre, D M; Kelton, D F; Miglior, F

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for milk β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) in early first lactation of Canadian Holstein cows and to examine its genetic association with indicators of energy balance (fat-to-protein ratio and body condition score) and metabolic diseases (clinical ketosis and displaced abomasum). Data for milk BHBA recorded between 5 and 100 d in milk was obtained from Valacta (Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue, Québec, Canada), the Canadian Dairy Herd Improvement organization responsible for Québec and Atlantic provinces. Test-day milk samples were analyzed by mid-infrared spectrometry using previously developed calibration equations for milk BHBA. Test-day records of fat-to-protein ratio were obtained from the routine milk recording scheme. Body condition score records were available from the routine type classification system. Data on clinical ketosis and displaced abomasum recorded by producers were available from the national dairy cattle health system in Canada. Data were analyzed using linear animal models. Heritability estimates for milk BHBA at different stages of early lactation were between 0.14 and 0.29. Genetic correlations between milk BHBA were higher between adjacent lactation intervals and decreased as intervals were further apart. Correlations between breeding values for milk BHBA and routinely evaluated traits revealed that selection for lower milk BHBA in early lactation would lead to an improvement of several health and fertility traits, including SCS, calving to first service, number of services, first service to conception, and days open. Also, lower milk BHBA was associated with a longer herd life, better conformation, and better feet and legs. A higher genetic merit for milk yield was associated with higher milk BHBA, and, therefore, a greater susceptibility to hyperketonemia. Milk BHBA at the first test-day was moderately genetically correlated with fat-to-protein ratio (0.49), body condition score (-0.35), and

  7. Milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor-factor VIII attenuates sepsis-induced acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cen, Cindy; Aziz, Monowar; Yang, Weng-Lang; Zhou, Mian; Nicastro, Jeffrey M; Coppa, Gene F; Wang, Ping

    2017-06-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is most commonly caused by sepsis in critically ill patients, and it is associated with high morbidity and mortality. The pathophysiology of sepsis-induced AKI is generally accepted to include direct inflammatory injury, endothelial cell dysfunction, and apoptosis. Milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor-factor VIII (MFG-E8) is a secretory glycoprotein with a known role in the enhancement of apoptotic cell clearance and regulation of inflammation. We hypothesize that administration of recombinant mouse MFG-E8 (rmMFG-E8) can protect mice from kidney injuries caused by sepsis. Sepsis was induced in 8-wk-old male C57BL/6 mice by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). rmMFG-E8 or phosphate-buffered saline (vehicle) was injected intravenously at a dosage of 20 μg/kg body weight at time of CLP (n = 5-8 mice per group). After 20 h, serum and renal tissue were harvested for various analyses. The renal injury markers blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine were determined by enzymatic and chemical reactions, respectively. The gene expression analysis was carried out by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. At 20 h after CLP, serum levels of BUN and creatinine were both significantly increased in the vehicle group compared with the sham group, whereas the mice treated with rmMFG-E8 had a significant reduction in BUN and creatinine levels by 28% and 24.1%, respectively (BUN: 197.7 ± 23.6 versus 142.3 ± 20.7 mg/dL; creatinine: 0.83 ± 0.12 versus 0.63 ± 0.06 mg/dL; P sepsis through inhibiting the production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokine, as well as through the activation of endothelial cells. Thus, MFG-E8 may have a therapeutic potential for treating AKI induced by sepsis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Substituting poly- and mono-unsaturated fat for dietary carbohydrate reduces hyperinsulinemia in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perelman, Dalia; Coghlan, Nicole; Lamendola, Cindy; Carter, Susan; Abbasi, Fahim; McLaughlin, Tracey

    2017-04-01

    Hyperinsulinemia is a prevalent feature of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), contributing to metabolic and reproductive manifestations of the syndrome. Weight loss reduces hyperinsulinemia but weight regain is the norm, thus preventing long-term benefits. In the absence of weight loss, replacement of dietary carbohydrate (CHO) with mono/polyunsaturated fat reduces ambient insulin concentrations in non-PCOS subjects. The current study evaluated whether this dietary intervention could ameliorate hyperinsulinemia in women with PCOS. Obese women with PCOS (BMI 39 ± 7 kg/m 2 ) and insulin resistance completed a crossover study (Stanford University Clinical Research Center) comparing two isocaloric diets, prepared by research dietitians, containing 60% CHO/25% fat versus 40% CHO/45% fat (both 15% protein and ≤7% saturated fat). After 3 weeks on each diet, daylong glucose, insulin, and fasting lipid/lipoproteins were measured. Daylong glucose did not differ according to diet. Daylong insulin concentrations were substantially (30%) and significantly lower on the low CHO/higher fat diet. Beneficial changes in lipid profile were also observed. Replacement of dietary CHO with mono/polyunsaturated fat yields clinically important reductions in daylong insulin concentrations, without adversely affecting lipid profile in obese, insulin-resistant women with PCOS. This simple and safe dietary intervention may constitute an important treatment for PCOS. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00186459.

  9. Short communication. Effect of forage source (grazing vs. silage) on conjugated linoleic acid content in milk fat of Holstein-Friesian dairy cows from Galicia (NW Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roca-Fernandez, A. I.; Gonzalez-Rodriguez, A.; Vazquez-Yanez, O. P.; Fernandez-Casado, J. A.

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different feeding proportions of forage ?grazing vs. silage? on milk fatty acids (FA) profile and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content of autumn calving Holstein-Friesian cows (n = 61) at CIAM (Galicia, NW Spain). Three treatments (S, 100% silage; G/S, 50% grazing + 50% silage; G, 100% grazing) were set and milk FA profile of dairy cows was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The G group showed a decrease in short (p < 0.05) and medium chain FA (p < 0.001), with an increase in long chain FA (p < 0.001) in comparison to the G/S and S groups, which showed the lowest levels (p < 0.001) of mono- and polyunsaturated FA. The CLA content in milk fat increased (p < 0.001) linearly in relation to the increased proportion of fresh grass in the diet of dairy cows from 0.49 and 0.82 to 1.14 g/100 g FA for the treatments S, G/S and G, respectively. During spring and summer, the levels of CLA were three times higher (p < 0.001, +0.76 g/100 g FA) in milk from dairy cows at the G group than in cows at the S group and twice higher (p < 0.001, +0.40 g/100 g FA) than in cows at the G/S group. High proportion of grass in the diet of cows increased CLA content, with the highest levels of unsaturated FA and the lowest levels of saturated FA, increasing the added value of milk on grazing systems using available farm resources. (Author) 20 refs.

  10. Functional Role of Milk Fat Globule-Epidermal Growth Factor VIII in Macrophage-Mediated Inflammatory Responses and Inflammatory/Autoimmune Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Su Yi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation involves a series of complex biological processes mediated by innate immunity for host defense against pathogen infection. Chronic inflammation is considered to be one of the major causes of serious diseases, including a number of autoimmune/inflammatory diseases, cancers, cardiovascular diseases, and neurological diseases. Milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor 8 (MFG-E8 is a secreted protein found in vertebrates and was initially discovered as a critical component of the milk fat globule. Previously, a number of studies have reported that MFG-E8 contributes to various biological functions including the phagocytic removal of damaged and apoptotic cells from tissues, the induction of VEGF-mediated neovascularization, the maintenance of intestinal epithelial homeostasis, and the promotion of mucosal healing. Recently, emerging studies have reported that MFG-E8 plays a role in inflammatory responses and inflammatory/autoimmune diseases. This review describes the characteristics of MFG-E8-mediated signaling pathways, summarizes recent findings supporting the roles of MFG-E8 in inflammatory responses and inflammatory/autoimmune diseases, and discusses MFG-E8 targeting as a potential therapeutic strategy for the development of anti-inflammatory/autoimmune disease drugs.

  11. Effects of Preparation Conditions on Morphology of Polyacrylonitrile Micro/Ultrafiltration Membrane and Its Application in Protein and Fat Separation from Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ali Alavi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Polyacrylonitrile (PAN micro/ultrafiltration membranes were prepared by phase inversion method. The effects of various preparation conditions including polymeric solution concentration, evaporation time, temperature, composition and residence time of the coagulation bath were investigated. Various important membrane characteristics such as pore size, bulk porosity, and mechanical and morphological properties were taken into the consideration. The characterizations were performed by measuring the bubble point, water flux, tensile strength and scanning electron microscopy (SEM analyses. The results showed that by increasing the polymeric solution concentration from 13 to 17 wt%, the porosity and water flux were decreased. Moreover, the membrane skin layer was considerably thickened with a very significant decrease in its pore sizes which was achieved in ultrafiltration region. By increasing the evaporation time at atmospheric pressure, membrane skin layer was thickened and the pore sizes were decreased. Low coagulation bath temperatures (below 30°C resulted in lower pore size, water flux, and an increase in membrane mechanical strength. Introduction of isopropanol (IPA into the water coagulation bath led to lower coagulation rate and consequently, the formation of smaller pores became possible by using pure isopropanol as coagulation bath. Furthermore, by increasing the residence time in coagulation bath, a more porous structure with more uniform pore sizes were formed that showed better mechanical properties. Finally, the so-called ultrafiltration membranes were applied in concentration process of protein and milk fat. A protein rejection more than 93% was attained while a complete removal of milk fat was achieved.

  12. Breast-milk substitutes: a new old-threat for breastfeeding policy in developing countries. A case study in a traditionally high breastfeeding country.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert Barennes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Developing countries with traditionally breastfeeding are now experiencing the increasing pressure of formula milk marketing. This may endanger lives and undermine the efforts of national policies in achieving the objectives of the Millennium Development Goals. We examined the use of, and factors for use, of all available breast-milk substitutes (BMS in a country with a traditionally high rate of breastfeeding. METHODS: Randomised multi-stage sampling surveys in 90 villages in 12/17 provinces in Laos. PARTICIPANTS: 1057 mothers with infants under 24 months of age. TOOLS: 50-query questionnaire and a poster of 22 BMS (8 canned or powdered milk; 6 non-dairy; 6 formulas; 2 non-formulas. OUTCOME MEASURES INCLUDED: prevalence of use and age of starting BMS in relation to socio-demographic characteristics and information sources, by univariate and multivariate analyses. RESULTS: Of 1057 mothers: 72.5% currently breastfed; 25.4% gave BMS (10.6% infant formula; 19.6% gave BMS before 6 months of age (of them: 83% non-dairy or cereals; mean age: 2.9 months; 95% Confidence interval: 2.6-3.2. One formula and one non-formula product accounted for 85% of BMS. BMS were considered as milk by the majority of mothers. Thai TV was the main source of information on BMS for mothers. Lao Loum mothers (the main ethnic group living in concrete houses with good sanitary conditions, were more likely than others to use BMS before 6 months (OR: 1.79, (1.15-2.78, p<0.009. Mothers who fed their infants colostrum at birth were less likely to use BMS before 6 months of age (OR: 0.63, (0.41-0.99, p = 0.04. Unemployed mothers living in rural areas were less likely to consider BMS better than breast milk. CONCLUSION: In Laos, mothers with the highest socio-economic status are showing a tendency to give up breastfeeding. Successful educational strategies and advocacy measures should be urgently developed to promote and sustain breastfeeding in developing countries.

  13. Effect of substituting soybean meal and canola cake with dried distillers grains with solubles at 2 dietary crude protein levels on feed intake, milk production, and milk quality in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaillard, Charlotte; Sørensen, Martin Tang; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2017-01-01

    Dried distillers grain with solubles (DDGS) is an alternative source of feed protein for dairy cows. Previous studies found that DDGS, based on grains other than corn, can substitute for soybean meal and canola cake as a dietary protein source without reducing milk production or quality....... As societal concerns exist, and in many areas strict regulation, regarding nitrogen excretion from dairy cows, the dairy industry has focused on reducing dietary protein level and nitrogen excretion. In the present study, we investigated the use of DDGS as a protein source, at a marginally low dietary crude...... protein (CP) levels, in a grass-clover and corn silage-based ration. The experiment involved 24 Holstein cows and 2 protein sources (DDGS or soybean-canola mixture) fed at 2 levels of CP (14 or 16%) in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of both protein source...

  14. An integrated mechanical-enzymatic reverse osmosis treatment of dairy industry wastewater and milk protein recovery as a fat replacer: a closed loop approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Sarghini

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The dairy industry can be classified among the most polluting of the food industries in volume in regard to its large water consumption, generating from 0.2 to 10 L of effluent per liter of processed milk. Dairy industry effluents usually include highly dissolved organic matter with varying characteristics, and a correct waste management project is required to handle. In a framework of natural water resource availability and cost increase, wastewater treatment for water reuse can lower the overall water consumption and the global effluent volume of industrial plants. Moreover, correct dismissal of dairy industry wastewater is sometimes neglected by the operators , increasing the environmental impact due to the chemical and biological characteristics of such effluents. On the other hand, in the case of whey effluents, several by-products are still present inside, such as lactose and milk proteins. Membrane technology has some advantages including a high degree of reliability in removing dissolved, colloidal and particulate matter, like the selectivity in size of pollutants to be removed and the possibility of very compact treatment plants. For example, Reverse Osmosis (RO technology has been successfully applied for the treatment of dairy wastes (1, and as a technology for concentration and fractionation of whey. In this work a membrane treatment approach using reverse osmosis technology is investigated and implemented: the permeate obtained can be reused as clean warm water for cleaning and sanitation of production plants, while concentrated milk proteins are modified by using transglutaminase enzyme obtaining a high temperature resistant fat replacer to be used in different low-fat products like for example mozzarella cheese.

  15. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to fat-free yogurts and fermented milks complying with the specifications “fat free”, “low in sugars”, “high protein”, “source of calcium” and “source of vitamin D” for nutrition claims

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    2015-01-01

    substantiation of a health claim related to fat-free yogurts and fermented milks complying with the specifications “fat free”, “low in sugars”, “high protein”, “source of calcium” and “source of vitamin D” for nutrition claims and reduction of body and visceral fat while maintaining lean body mass in the context...... of an energy-restricted diet. The food that is the subject of the claim is fat-free yogurts and fermented milks complying with the specifications “fat free”, “low in sugars”, “high protein”, “source of calcium” and “source of vitamin D” for nutrition claims. The Panel considers that fat-free yogurts......-free yogurts and fermented milks complying with the specifications “fat free”, “low in sugars”, “high protein”, “source of calcium” and “source of vitamin D” for nutrition claims and reduction of body and visceral fat mass while maintaining lean body mass in the context of an energy-restricted diet....

  16. 'Dancing on a thin line': evaluation of an infant feeding information team to implement the WHO code of marketing of breast-milk substitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykes, Fiona; Richardson-Foster, Helen; Crossland, Nicola; Thomson, Gill

    2012-12-01

    to conduct an in-depth evaluation of the Infant Feeding Information Team (IFIT) to implement the WHO Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes in North West England. The evaluation included consultations with inter-disciplinary professionals to explore their perceptions of the IFIT and related contextual issues. a qualitative, descriptive study involving seven focus groups (n=34) and semi-structured, in-depth interviews (face to face or via telephone; n=68) with a total of 102 participants. Thematic networks analysis was conducted to generate global, organising and basic themes. two maternity/primary health-care facilities located in the North-West of England. six global themes were generated; this paper focuses upon one of these themes: 'Dancing on a thin line'. This reflects the difficulties health-care staff face in negotiating political, professional and socio-cultural influences on infant feeding practices and how they struggle to implement best available evidence, guidance and practice when they experience incomplete, conflicting and competing messages around infant feeding. IFIT offers an innovative means to sustain contact with the formula industry without their unprecedented access to health facilities or personnel. Focused training opportunities should be provided to enable health-care staff to appreciate the constituent limitations of artificial milks and provide consistent, sensitive and comprehensive infant feeding information. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Determination of isopropylthioxanthone (ITX) in milk, yoghurt and fat by HPTLC-FLD, HPTLC-ESI/MS and HPTLC-DART/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morlock, Gertrud; Schwack, Wolfgang

    2006-06-01

    Two new HPTLC methods for quantification of isopropyl-9H-thioxanthen-9-one (ITX) in milk, yoghurt and fat samples have been developed. Extraction of ITX from milk and yoghurt was performed with a mixture of cyclohexane and ethyl acetate by employment of accelerated solvent extraction (ASE). For soy bean oil and margarine, a simple partitioning of ITX into acetonitrile was used. ITX and 2,4-diethyl-9H-thioxanthen-9-one (DTX) used as internal standard have been separated on silica gel 60 HPTLC plates with a mixture of toluene and n-hexane (4:1, v/v) and on RP18 HPTLC plates with a mixture of acetonitrile and water (9:1, v/v). Development was performed anti-parallel from both plate sides leading to a throughput of 36 separations in 7 min. Fluorescence measurement at 254/>400 nm was used for quantification. Limits of detection (S/N of 3) have been established to be 64 pg for ITX and DTX on both types of HPTLC plates. In fatty matrix (spiked butter) LOD of ITX was determined to be 1 mug kg(-1). In the working range monitored (20-200 microg kg(-1)) polynomial regression of ITX showed a relative standard deviation (sdv) of +/-1.51 % (r = 0.99981). Starting with the limit of quantification the response was linear (sdv = +/-2.18 %, r = 0.99893). Regarding repeatability (n = 9) a coefficient of variation (CV) of 1.1 % was obtained for ITX at 32 ng on silica gel plates and of 2.9 % on reversed-phase plates. Repeatabilities (n = 4) of ITX determination at 20, 50 and 100 microg kg(-1) in milk, yoghurt, soybean oil and margarine showed CVs between +/-1.0 and 6.4 %. The results prove that modern planar chromatography is a rapid and cost-efficient alternative method to quantify ITX in milk-based or fatty matrices. Only positive results are confirmed by online ESI/MS in the SIM mode (LOQ 128 pg) and by DART/MS involving a minimal employment of the MS device, which is a further advantage of HPTLC. Overall mean recovery rates of ITX at 20 or 50 and 100 microg kg(-1) (n = 8) were 41

  18. Antimicrobial activity of Hibiscus sabdariffa aqueous extracts against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Staphylococcus aureus in a microbiological medium and milk of various fat concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginbotham, Kristen L; Burris, Kellie P; Zivanovic, Svetlana; Davidson, P Michael; Stewart, C Neal

    2014-02-01

    Hibiscus sabdariffa L. calyces are widely used in the preparation of beverages. The calyces contain compounds that exhibit antimicrobial activity, yet little research has been conducted on their possible use in food systems as antimicrobials. Aqueous extracts prepared from the brand "Mi Costenita" were sterilized by membrane filtration (0.22-μm pore size) or autoclaving (121 °C, 30 min) and tested for antimicrobial activity against the foodborne pathogens Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains ATCC 43894 and Cider and Staphylococcus aureus strains SA113 and ATCC 27708 in a microbiological medium and ultrahigh-temperature-processed milk with various fat percentages. Extracts heated by autoclaving exhibited greater activity than did filtered extracts in a microbiological medium. Against E. coli, results of 20 mg/ml filtered extract were not different from those of the control, whereas autoclaved extracts reduced viable cells ca. 3 to 4 log CFU/ml. At 60 mg/ml, both extracts inactivated cells after 24 h. There were reduced populations of both strains of S. aureus (ca. 2.7 and 3 log CFU/ml, respectively) after 24 h of incubation in 40 mg/ml filtered extracts. When grown in autoclaved extracts at 40 mg/ml, both strains of S. aureus were inactivated after 9 h. Autoclaved extracts had decreased anthocyanin content (2.63 mg/liter) compared with filtered extracts (14.27 mg/liter), whereas the phenolic content (48.7 and 53.8 mg/g) remained similar for both treatments. Autoclaved extracts were then tested for activity in milk at various fat concentrations (skim [3.25%]) against a 1:1 mixture of the two strains of E. coli O157:H7 and a 1:1 mixture of the two strains of S. aureus. Extracts at 40 mg/ml inactivated S. aureus after 168 h in skim and whole milk, and E. coli was inactivated after 96 h in 60 mg/ml extract in all fat levels. These findings show the potential use of Hibiscus extracts to prevent the growth of pathogens in foods and beverages.

  19. Identification of Imitation Cheese and Imitation Ice Cream Based on Vegetable Fat Using NMR Spectroscopy and Chemometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia B. Monakhova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable oils and fats may be used as cheap substitutes for milk fat to manufacture imitation cheese or imitation ice cream. In this study, 400 MHz nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy of the fat fraction of the products was used in the context of food surveillance to validate the labeling of milk-based products. For sample preparation, the fat was extracted using an automated Weibull-Stoldt methodology. Using principal component analysis (PCA, imitation products can be easily detected. In both cheese and ice cream, a differentiation according to the type of raw material (milk fat and vegetable fat was possible. The loadings plot shows that imitation products were distinguishable by differences in their fatty acid ratios. Furthermore, a differentiation of several types of cheese (Edamer, Gouda, Emmentaler, and Feta was possible. Quantitative data regarding the composition of the investigated products can also be predicted from the same spectra using partial least squares (PLS regression. The models obtained for 13 compounds in cheese (R2 0.75–0.95 and 17 compounds in ice cream (R2 0.83–0.99 (e.g., fatty acids and esters were suitable for a screening analysis. NMR spectroscopy was judged as suitable for the routine analysis of dairy products based on milk or on vegetable fat substitutes.

  20. Identification of Imitation Cheese and Imitation Ice Cream Based on Vegetable Fat Using NMR Spectroscopy and Chemometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monakhova, Yulia B.; Godelmann, Rolf; Andlauer, Claudia; Kuballa, Thomas; Lachenmeier, Dirk W.

    2013-01-01

    Vegetable oils and fats may be used as cheap substitutes for milk fat to manufacture imitation cheese or imitation ice cream. In this study, 400 MHz nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of the fat fraction of the products was used in the context of food surveillance to validate the labeling of milk-based products. For sample preparation, the fat was extracted using an automated Weibull-Stoldt methodology. Using principal component analysis (PCA), imitation products can be easily detected. In both cheese and ice cream, a differentiation according to the type of raw material (milk fat and vegetable fat) was possible. The loadings plot shows that imitation products were distinguishable by differences in their fatty acid ratios. Furthermore, a differentiation of several types of cheese (Edamer, Gouda, Emmentaler, and Feta) was possible. Quantitative data regarding the composition of the investigated products can also be predicted from the same spectra using partial least squares (PLS) regression. The models obtained for 13 compounds in cheese (R 2 0.75–0.95) and 17 compounds in ice cream (R 2 0.83–0.99) (e.g., fatty acids and esters) were suitable for a screening analysis. NMR spectroscopy was judged as suitable for the routine analysis of dairy products based on milk or on vegetable fat substitutes. PMID:26904597

  1. Effects of xanthosine on gene expression of mammary epithelial cells using RNA sequencing of goat milk fat globules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although intramammary xanthosine (XS) treatment was reported to increase the mammary stem cell population and milk yield in bovine and caprine, underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. The goal of this study was to evaluate effects of XS treatment on the mammary transcriptome in early lactati...

  2. Effect of dairy calcium from cheese and milk on fecal fat excretion, blood lipids, and appetite in young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karina Vejrum; Thorning, Tanja K; Astrup, Arne

    2014-01-01

    increased more with the consumption of both the milk (5.2 ± 0.4 g/d) and cheese (5.7 ± 0.4 g/d) diets than with the control diet (3.9 ± 0.3 g/d) (P triglycerides, and lipid ratios did not differ. CONCLUSIONS: Compared...

  3. Milk phospholipids: Organic milk and milk rich in conjugated linoleic acid compared with conventional milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreiro, T; Gayoso, L; Rodríguez-Otero, J L

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the phospholipid content of conventional milk with that of organic milk and milk rich in conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). The membrane enclosing the fat globules of milk is composed, in part, of phospholipids, which have properties of interest for the development of so-called functional foods and technologically novel ingredients. They include phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylserine (PS), and the sphingophospholipid sphingomyelin (SM). Milk from organically managed cows contains higher levels of vitamins, antioxidants, and unsaturated fatty acids than conventionally produced milk, but we know of no study with analogous comparisons of major phospholipid contents. In addition, the use of polyunsaturated-lipid-rich feed supplement (extruded linseed) has been reported to increase the phospholipid content of milk. Because supplementation with linseed and increased unsaturated fatty acid content are the main dietary modifications used for production of CLA-rich milk, we investigated whether these modifications would lead to this milk having higher phospholipid content. We used HPLC with evaporative light scattering detection to determine PE, PI, PC, PS, and SM contents in 16 samples of organic milk and 8 samples of CLA-rich milk, in each case together with matching reference samples of conventionally produced milk taken on the same days and in the same geographical areas as the organic and CLA-rich samples. Compared with conventional milk and milk fat, organic milk and milk fat had significantly higher levels of all the phospholipids studied. This is attributable to the differences between the 2 systems of milk production, among which the most influential are probably differences in diet and physical exercise. The CLA-rich milk fat had significantly higher levels of PI, PS, and PC than conventional milk fat, which is also attributed to dietary differences: rations for

  4. The Prediction of the Expected Current Selection Coefficient of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Associated with Holstein Milk Yield, Fat and Protein Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Sup Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Milk-related traits (milk yield, fat and protein have been crucial to selection of Holstein. It is essential to find the current selection trends of Holstein. Despite this, uncovering the current trends of selection have been ignored in previous studies. We suggest a new formula to detect the current selection trends based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP. This suggestion is based on the best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP and the Fisher’s fundamental theorem of natural selection both of which are trait-dependent. Fisher’s theorem links the additive genetic variance to the selection coefficient. For Holstein milk production traits, we estimated the additive genetic variance using SNP effect from BLUP and selection coefficients based on genetic variance to search highly selective SNPs. Through these processes, we identified significantly selective SNPs. The number of genes containing highly selective SNPs with p-value <0.01 (nearly top 1% SNPs in all traits and p-value <0.001 (nearly top 0.1% in any traits was 14. They are phosphodiesterase 4B (PDE4B, serine/threonine kinase 40 (STK40, collagen, type XI, alpha 1 (COL11A1, ephrin-A1 (EFNA1, netrin 4 (NTN4, neuron specific gene family member 1 (NSG1, estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1, neurexin 3 (NRXN3, spectrin, beta, non-erythrocytic 1 (SPTBN1, ADP-ribosylation factor interacting protein 1 (ARFIP1, mutL homolog 1 (MLH1, transmembrane channel-like 7 (TMC7, carboxypeptidase X, member 2 (CPXM2 and ADAM metallopeptidase domain 12 (ADAM12. These genes may be important for future artificial selection trends. Also, we found that the SNP effect predicted from BLUP was the key factor to determine the expected current selection coefficient of SNP. Under Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium of SNP markers in current generation, the selection coefficient is equivalent to 2*SNP effect.

  5. Mediterranean milk and milk products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinrichs, Jörg

    2004-03-01

    Milk and dairy products are part of a healthy Mediterranean diet which, besides cow's milk, also consists of sheep's, goat's and buffalo's milk--alone or as a mixture---as raw material. The fat and protein composition of the milk of the various animal species differs only slightly, but in every case it has a high priority in human nutrition. The milk proteins are characterized by a high content of essential amino acids. Beyond that macromolecules,which have various biological functions, are available or may be formed by proteolysis in milk. Taking this into consideration, the technology of different well-known Italian and German cheese types is presented and the differences as well as correspondences regarding nutrition are discussed. Especially Ricotta and Mascarpone are discussed in detail. Ricotta represents a special feature as this cheese is traditionally made of whey and cream. Thus the highly valuable whey proteins which contain a higher amount of the amino acids lysine, methionine and cysteic acid in comparison to casein and, additionally, to soy protein, are made usable for human nutrition. Finally, it is pointed out on the basis of individual examples that technologies to enrich whey proteins in cheese are already available and in use. Thus, the flavor of low fat cheese is improved and the nutritional value is increased.

  6. Dry milk-containing foods of healthy nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Ivkova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the development of the technology of new-generation canned milk, balanced by the composition of fatty acids and corresponding to the formula of healthy nutrition. This compliance is achieved by adjusting the fatty acid composition and replacing part of the animal fat with vegetable substitutes. Carrying out the analysis of dieticians recommendations on nutrition with the aim of preventing cardiovascular diseases, the main provisions were formulated, which are aimed at creating specialized milk products intended for feeding people under extreme conditions of existence. Based on the results obtained in the analysis of vegetable raw materials, energy value and organoleptic evaluation, as well as the economic feasibility of using plant components, optimal dosages of substituting animal fat for its substitutes were selected, and the areas of permissible values of the mass fractions of special products were determined. During the research, new specialized milk-based products were developed, which were conducted in the direction of creating scientifically sound formulas and technology of dry milk-containing canned food, as well as production inspection in industrial conditions and comparative studies aimed at studying the quality of products. The results confirmed that the developed products have high values of all the criteria studied in the work and can be recommended for diets of people who are in extreme conditions of existence as a full-fledged dairy-plant supplement, as well as prevention of cardiovascular and other diseases.

  7. Immunomodulatory potential of a brewers' spent grain protein hydrolysate incorporated into low-fat milk following in vitro gastrointestinal digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Damian; O'Callaghan, Yvonne; McCarthy, Aoife; Connolly, Alan; Piggott, Charles O; FitzGerald, Richard J; O'Brien, Nora M

    2015-01-01

    Brewers' spent grain (BSG) protein rich fraction was previously hydrolysed using Alcalase (U) and three additional fractions were prepared by membrane fractionation; a 5-kDa retentate (U > 5), a 5-kDa permeate (U milk, subjected to simulated gastrointestinal digestion (SGID) and their anti-inflammatory potential was investigated. The digestates caused a significant reduction (p RAW 264.7 cells. IL-2 and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) production in stimulated Jurkat T cells and IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) production in stimulated RAW 264.7 cells were not affected in the presence of the digestates. Results show that a SGID milk product supplemented with BSG hydrolysate and its associated ultrafiltered fractions can confer anti-inflammatory effects in Jurkat T cells.

  8. Differences in the microstructure and rheological properties of low-fat yoghurts from goat, sheep and cow milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hanh T H; Afsar, Saeedeh; Day, Li

    2018-06-01

    Goat and sheep milks have long been used to produce a range of dairy products due to their nutritional value and health benefits. Information about the microstructure and rheology of goat and sheep yoghurts, however, is scarce. In this study, the microstructure, texture and rheological properties of cow, goat and sheep yoghurts were investigated and compared. The results show that a longer fermentation and gelation time was required for goat yoghurt with a lower storage modulus compared to cow and sheep yoghurts. Cooling resulted in an increase in the storage modulus at different magnitudes for cow, goat and sheep yoghurts. Goat yoghurt had a smaller particle size and a softer gel, which is linked with a more porous microstructure. The results obtained here demonstrate the effect of different milk types on the properties of yoghurts and provide a better understanding into the link between the microstructure and physical properties of the product. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to fat-free yogurts and fermented milks with live yogurt cultures complying with the specifications “fat free”, “low in sugars”, “high protein”, “source of calcium” and “source of vitamin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    2015-01-01

    substantiation of a health claim related to fat-free yogurts and fermented milks with live yogurt cultures complying with the specifications “fat free”, “low in sugars”, “high protein”, “source of calcium” and “source of vitamin D” for nutrition claims and maintenance of lean body mass in the context...... of an energy-restricted diet. The Panel considers that the food that is the subject of the claim, fat-free yogurts and fermented milks complying with the specifications “fat free”, “low in sugars”, “high protein”, “source of calcium” and “source of vitamin D” for nutrition claims, is sufficiently characterised...... and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of fat-free yogurts and fermented milks with live yogurt cultures complying with the specifications “fat free”, “low in sugars”, “high protein”, “source of calcium” and “source of vitamin D” for nutrition claims and maintenance of lean...

  10. Comparison of Chamcham manufactured from cow milk and buffalo milk

    OpenAIRE

    Haque, M.A.; Rashid, M.H.; Kajal, M.F.I.; Istiak, M.S.

    2012-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to study quality of Chamcham manufactured from cow milk and to compare it with Chamcham manufactured from buffalo milk and mixture of cow and buffalo milk. Three types of Chamcham were prepared from cow milk(A), buffalo milk(B) and 50% cow +50% buffalo milk(C).In this experiment the quality of prepared Chamcham were evaluated with the help of chemical test. The moisture, total solids, protein, fat, ash and carbohydrate contents of cow milk and buffalo milk Chamch...

  11. Milk fat depression in dairy ewes fed fish oil: Might differences in rumen biohydrogenation, fermentation, or bacterial community explain the individual variation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frutos, P; Toral, P G; Belenguer, A; Hervás, G

    2018-07-01

    Dairy ewes show large individual variation in the extent of diet-induced milk fat depression (MFD) but reasons behind this variability remain uncertain. Previous results offered no convincing support for these differences being related to relevant changes in the milk fatty acid (FA) profile, including potentially antilipogenic FA, or in the transcript abundance of candidate genes involved in mammary lipogenesis. Therefore, we hypothesized that alterations in the processes of rumen biohydrogenation and fermentation, as well as in the bacterial community structure, might account for individual variation in fish oil-induced MFD severity. To test this explanation, 15 ewes received a total mixed ration without lipid supplementation (control; n = 5) or supplemented with 20 g of fish oil/kg of dry matter [10 animals divided into those showing a strong (RESPON+; -25.4%; n = 5) or a mild (RESPON-; -7.7%; n = 5) decrease in milk fat concentration] for 5 wk. Rumen fermentation parameters, biohydrogenation metabolites, and bacterial structure and diversity were analyzed in rumen samples collected before and after treatments. Although the fish oil supplementation increased the concentration of demonstrated or putative antilipogenic FA (e.g., cis-9 16:1, cis-11 18:1, or trans-10,cis-12 CLA), surprisingly, none of them differed significantly in relation to the extent of MFD (i.e., between RESPON- and RESPON+), and this was the case only for a few minor FA (e.g., cis-6+7 16:1 or 17:0 anteiso). Changes in total volatile FA, acetate, and propionate concentrations were associated with MFD severity, with higher decreases in more susceptible animals. Individual responses were not related to shifts in rumen bacterial structure but some terminal restriction fragments compatible with Clostridiales, Ruminococcaceae, Lachnospiraceae, and Succiniclasticum showed greater abundances in RESPON-, whereas some others that may correspond to Prevotella, Mogibacterium, and Quinella-related spp. were

  12. Utility of inline milk fat and protein ratio to diagnose subclinical ketosis and to assign propylene glycol treatment in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Nicholas T; Peña, Gustavo; Risco, Carlos; Barbosa, Carolina C; Vieira-Neto, Achilles; Galvão, Klibs N

    2015-08-01

    The objective was to identify a fat-to-protein ratio (FPR) cut-off to diagnose subclinical ketosis (SCK) and to evaluate the effect of propylene glycol (PPG) treatment of cows with high FPR. The optimized cut-off was > 1.42; sensitivity (Se) = 92%; specificity (Sp) = 65%. A cut-off > 1.5 was selected for the PPG trial for balanced Se-Sp. Fat-to-protein ratio cut-offs > 1.25, 1.35, 1.50, 1.60, and 1.70 resulted in Se-Sp of 100% to 49%, 96% to 59%, 75% to 78%, 33% to 90%, and 8% to 96%, respectively. The proportions of cows with FPR > 1.25, 1.35, 1.42, 1.50, 1.60, and 1.70 were 60%, 50%, 44%, 30%, 14%, and 6%, respectively. Incidences of clinical ketosis and milk yield were similar between cows that received 400 mL of PPG (n = 34) and control cows (n = 38). Prevalence of SCK at enrollment was 29.2%; therefore, FPR > 1.5 is not indicated for treatment. Lower cut-offs should be used for screening.

  13. Production of Volatile Compounds in Reconstituted Milk Reduced-Fat Cheese and the Physicochemical Properties as Affected by Exopolysaccharide-Producing Strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijun Wang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The application of the exopolysaccharide-producing strains for improving the texture and technical properties of reduced-fat cheese looks very promising. Streptococcus thermophilus TM11 was evaluated for production of reduced-fat cheese using reconstituted milk powder (CRMP. The physicochemical analysis of fresh and stored cheeses showed that this strain slightly increased moisture content resulting in cheese with higher yield and lower protein content compared to the direct acidified cheese. The volatiles of cheese were determined by SPME and GC equipped with a mass spectrometer. The results indicated that the major compounds included aldehydes, ketones and acids, whereas, alcohols and branched-chain aldehydes that contribute to exciting and harsh flavors were not found in CRMP. By the textural profile analysis, we found the cheese made with S. thermophilus TM11 had lower cohesiveness, resilience and higher adhesiveness than the direct acidified cheese, and had similar hardness. Further, S. thermophilus TM11 greatly changed the protein matrix with more opened cavities according to observation by scanning electron microscopy. Consequently, use of S. thermophilus TM11 could endow CRMP with the novel and suitable flavor properties and improved texture quality.

  14. Variation in retinol and carotenoid content of milk and milk products in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulshof, P.J.M.; Roekel-Jansen, van G.C.; Bovenkamp, van de P.; West, C.E.

    2006-01-01

    Retinol and carotenoids were measured in Dutch milk and dairy products using a validated approach based on complete extraction of fat, followed by mild saponification and analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography. Raw milk, full fat milk, semi-skimmed milk and butter contain about 10 ¿g

  15. Ethyl substituted β-cyclodextrin enhanced fluorimetric method for the determination of trace amounts of oxytetracycline in urine, serum, feed of chook and milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hongjian; Hou Faju; Jiang Chongqiu

    2005-01-01

    A simple sensitive spectrofluorimetric method was developed for the determination of oxytetracycline (OTC). Ethyl substituted β-cyclodextrin (DE-β-CD) can remarkably enhance the fluorescence intensity of the OTC-Eu 3+ complex at λ=612nm and the enhanced fluorescence intensity of Eu 3+ ion is in proportion to the concentration of OTC. Optimum conditions for the determination of OTC were also investigated. The linear range of this method for the determination of OTC is 8.28x10 -8 -1.73x10 -5 mol/L and the limit of detection is 6.76x10 -9 mol/L, respectively. The developed method is practical and relatively free interference from coexisting substances and can be successfully applied to determination of OTC in samples of urine, serum, feed of chook and milk. The enhancement of the fluorescence at λ em =612nm of Eu 3+ ion is because of the inclusion complex OTC-Eu 3+ -DE-β-CD

  16. Ethyl substituted {beta}-cyclodextrin enhanced fluorimetric method for the determination of trace amounts of oxytetracycline in urine, serum, feed of chook and milk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hongjian, Wang [Department of Chemistry, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250014 (China); Faju, Hou [Department of Chemistry, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250014 (China); Chongqiu, Jiang [Department of Chemistry, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250014 (China)

    2005-05-15

    A simple sensitive spectrofluorimetric method was developed for the determination of oxytetracycline (OTC). Ethyl substituted {beta}-cyclodextrin (DE-{beta}-CD) can remarkably enhance the fluorescence intensity of the OTC-Eu{sup 3+} complex at {lambda}=612nm and the enhanced fluorescence intensity of Eu{sup 3+} ion is in proportion to the concentration of OTC. Optimum conditions for the determination of OTC were also investigated. The linear range of this method for the determination of OTC is 8.28x10{sup -8}-1.73x10{sup -5}mol/L and the limit of detection is 6.76x10{sup -9}mol/L, respectively. The developed method is practical and relatively free interference from coexisting substances and can be successfully applied to determination of OTC in samples of urine, serum, feed of chook and milk. The enhancement of the fluorescence at {lambda}{sub em}=612nm of Eu{sup 3+} ion is because of the inclusion complex OTC-Eu{sup 3+}-DE-{beta}-CD.

  17. Substitution of carcinogenic solvent dichloromethane for the extraction of volatile compounds in a fat-free model food system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayot, Nathalie; Lafarge, Céline; Bou-Maroun, Elias; Cayot, Philippe

    2016-07-22

    Dichloromethane is known as a very efficient solvent, but, as other halogenated solvents, is recognized as a hazardous product (CMR substance). The objective of the present work is to propose substitution solvent for the extraction of volatile compounds. The most important physico-chemical parameters in the choice of an appropriate extraction solvent of volatile compounds are reviewed. Various solvents are selected on this basis and on their hazard characteristics. The selected solvents, safer than dichloromethane, are compared using the extraction efficiency of volatile compounds from a model food product able to interact with volatile compounds. Volatile compounds with different hydrophobicity are used. High extraction yields were positively correlated with high boiling points and high Log Kow values of volatile compounds. Mixtures of solvents such as azeotrope propan-2-one/cyclopentane, azeotrope ethyl acetate/ethanol, and mixture ethyl acetate/ethanol (3:1, v/v) gave higher extraction yields than those obtained with dichloromethane. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Influence of pumpkin seed cake and extruded linseed on milk production and milk fatty acid profile in Alpine goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klir, Z; Castro-Montoya, J M; Novoselec, J; Molkentin, J; Domacinovic, M; Mioc, B; Dickhoefer, U; Antunovic, Z

    2017-10-01

    The aim was to determine the effect of substituting pumpkin seed cake (PSC) or extruded linseed (ELS) for soya bean meal in goats' diets on milk yield, milk composition and fatty acids profile of milk fat. In total, 28 dairy goats were divided into three groups. They were fed with concentrate mixtures containing soya bean meal (Control; n=9), ELS (n=10) or PSC (n=9) as main protein sources in the trial lasting 75 days. Addition of ELS or PSC did not influence milk yield and milk gross composition in contrast to fatty acid profile compared with Control. Supplementation of ELS resulted in greater branched-chain fatty acids (BCFA) and total n-3 fatty acids compared with Control and PSC (PLA, C18:2n-6; 2.10 and 2.28 g/100 g fatty acids, respectively) proportions compared with Control (2.80 g/100 g fatty acids; PLA/ALA ratio (3.81 v. 7.44 or 6.92, respectively; Psoya bean meal with ELS in hay-based diets may increase beneficial n-3 fatty acids and BCFA accompanied by lowering LA/ALA ratio and increased C18:0. Pumpkin seed cake completely substituted soya bean meal in the diet of dairy goats without any decrease in milk production or sharp changes in fatty acid profile that may have a commercial or a human health relevancy.

  19. High somatic cell counts and changes in milk fat and protein contents around insemination are negatively associated with conception in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albaaj, Ahmad; Foucras, Gilles; Raboisson, Didier

    2017-01-15

    The fertility of dairy cows has decreased dramatically worldwide over the last few decades, and several causes of this trend have been reported. Several studies have associated compromised udder health with deteriorating reproduction performance. Subclinical ketosis (SCK) has also been reported to be a risk factor for decreased conception. The objective of the present study was to describe how SCK might interact with the reported association between udder health and conception in dairy cows. Data from the French Milk Control Program and data on 8,549,667 instances of artificial insemination (AI) and their corresponding preceding and subsequent test-days from 5,979,701 Holstein cows were examined over a 5-year period (2008-2012). The effect of udder health was evaluated through a low (L) or high (H) somatic cell count (SCC) before and after AI using a threshold of 200,000 cells/mL, and transformed into four groups (LL, LH, HL, and HH). Three proxies for defining SCK were proposed based on the milk fat and protein content (or their ratio) before AI. Statistical analysis first included a generalized additive model to help define the optimal threshold values. Next, a logistic regression with a Poisson correction was performed. On average, the risk of conception at first AI was reduced by 14% for LH or HH cows (relative risk [and 95% CI] = 0.86 [0.85-0.87]) when the SCC increased or remained high within 40 days before and after AI, relative to LL group. The reduction of conception success associated with SCK (fat and protein contents changes) varied from 3% to 17% depending on the used SCK proxy. Including the interaction term SCC ∗ SCK clearly showed that the association of increased SCC around AI with conception success was modified by the presence of SCK. A cow that already has SCK and experiences an increase in SCC around or after AI exhibits up to 2 times further decrease in conception success compared with a cow with a high SCC and no SCK. In conclusion

  20. Milk Fat Globule-Epidermal Growth Factor-8 Pretreatment Attenuates Apoptosis and Inflammation via the Integrin-β3 Pathway after Surgical Brain Injury in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yicai Xiao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Iatrogenic brain injury inevitably occurs in neurosurgical operations, leading to brain edema, ischemia, intracranial hematoma, and other postoperative complications, eventually worsening neurological outcomes of patients. If apoptotic cells are not rapidly eliminated by phagocytic engulfment, they may communicate with surrounding cells to undergo secondary necrosis and releasing toxic signals. Recent studies have shown that milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor-8 (MFGE8, which promotes phagocytosis and inhibits inflammation, is an endogenous protective factor in response to brain infarction, Alzheimer’s disease, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and prion disease. In the present study, we sought to investigate the different effects of both pretreated and posttreated recombinant milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor-8 (rhMFGE8 for the surgical brain injury (SBI rat model and potential involvement of its receptor integrin β3 for apoptosis and neuroinflammation after SBI. One hundred and sixty-seven male rats were employed in the preset study. Experiment 1 was performed to evaluate neurological scores and MFGE8, cleaved caspase-3 (CC3, and interleukine-1 beta (IL-1β levels at 3, 24, and 120 h after SBI. Experiment 2 was performed to evaluate the effects of rhMFGE8 pretreatment (10 min before SBI and rhMFGE8 posttreatment (6 h after SBI on brain edema at 24 and 72 h after SBI. Experiment 3 was performed to evaluate the potential anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects of rhMFGE8 pretreatment and posttreatment. Experiment 4 sought to investigate the involvement of the integrin-β3 signal in the effects of MFGE8 pretreatment. Our data showed rhMFGE8 pretreatment alleviated neurological deficits and decreased brain water content and apoptotic cells in the SBI model, which exhibited neurological dysfunction, apoptosis, and inflammation. Meanwhile, MFGE8 siRNA, which inhibited endogenous MFGE8 expression, significantly increased IL-1

  1. Genetic architecture of complex traits and accuracy of genomic prediction: coat colour, milk-fat percentage, and type in Holstein cattle as contrasting model traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben J Hayes

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Prediction of genetic merit using dense SNP genotypes can be used for estimation of breeding values for selection of livestock, crops, and forage species; for prediction of disease risk; and for forensics. The accuracy of these genomic predictions depends in part on the genetic architecture of the trait, in particular number of loci affecting the trait and distribution of their effects. Here we investigate the difference among three traits in distribution of effects and the consequences for the accuracy of genomic predictions. Proportion of black coat colour in Holstein cattle was used as one model complex trait. Three loci, KIT, MITF, and a locus on chromosome 8, together explain 24% of the variation of proportion of black. However, a surprisingly large number of loci of small effect are necessary to capture the remaining variation. A second trait, fat concentration in milk, had one locus of large effect and a host of loci with very small effects. Both these distributions of effects were in contrast to that for a third trait, an index of scores for a number of aspects of cow confirmation ("overall type", which had only loci of small effect. The differences in distribution of effects among the three traits were quantified by estimating the distribution of variance explained by chromosome segments containing 50 SNPs. This approach was taken to account for the imperfect linkage disequilibrium between the SNPs and the QTL affecting the traits. We also show that the accuracy of predicting genetic values is higher for traits with a proportion of large effects (proportion black and fat percentage than for a trait with no loci of large effect (overall type, provided the method of analysis takes advantage of the distribution of loci effects.

  2. Kefir drink causes a significant yet similar improvement in serum lipid profile, compared with low-fat milk, in a dairy-rich diet in overweight or obese premenopausal women: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi, Yasamin; Ghodrati, Naeimeh; Zibaeenezhad, Mohammad-Javad; Faghih, Shiva

    Controversy exists as to whether the lipid-lowering properties of kefir drink (a fermented probiotic dairy product) in animal models could be replicated in humans. To assess and compare the potential lipid-lowering effects of kefir drink with low-fat milk in a dairy-rich diet in overweight or obese premenopausal women. In this 8-week, single-center, multiarm, parallel-group, outpatient, randomized controlled trial, 75 eligible Iranian women aged 25 to 45 years were randomly allocated to kefir, milk, or control groups. Women in the control group received a weight-maintenance diet containing 2 servings/d of low-fat dairy products, whereas subjects in the milk and kefir groups received a similar diet containing 2 additional servings/d (a total of 4 servings/d) of dairy products from low-fat milk or kefir drink, respectively. At baseline and study end point, serum levels/ratios of total cholesterol (TC), low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC and HDLC), triglyceride, Non-HDLC, TC/HDLC, LDLC/HDLC, and triglyceride/LDLC were measured as outcome measures. After 8 weeks, subjects in the kefir group had significantly lower serum levels/ratios of lipoproteins than those in the control group (mean between-group differences were -10.4 mg/dL, -9.7 mg/dL, -11.5 mg/dL, -0.4, and -0.3 for TC, LDLC, non-HDLC, TC/HDLC, and LDLC/HDLC, respectively; all P < .05). Similar results were observed in the milk group. However, no such significant differences were found between the kefir and milk groups. Kefir drink causes a significant yet similar improvement in serum lipid profile, compared with low-fat milk, in a dairy-rich diet in overweight or obese premenopausal women. Copyright © 2016 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Physico-chemical and organoleptic comparison of buffalo, cow and goat milk and their yogurt samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, N.; Elahi, S. [Kinnaird College for Women, Lahore (Pakistan). Dept. of Biotechnology

    2014-09-15

    The physico-chemical and organoleptic properties of buffalo, cow and goat milk and their respective yogurt samples were analyzed. Milk samples, 200ml each, were inoculated with sucrose, skimmed milk powder, carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) along with varying concentrations of starter culture and incubated at 45 degree C for 5 hours for yogurt preparation. The physico-chemical parameters studied were pH, tritable acidity, ash, moisture, fat, solid-non fat, total solids, crude protein, specific gravity and total energy, whereas the organoleptic analysis included texture, taste, colour and odor. Results revealed that commercial starter culture, sucrose, CMC and skimmed milk powder, in the concentrations of 0.05%, 0.5%, 0.075% and 0.5% respectively, was the best composition for fermentation. The milk and yogurt of buffalo was found to be physico-chemically and organoleptically superior. However, results showed that goat milk and yogurt could be a valuable substitute, especially in comparison to cow milk and yogurt. goat, milk, yogurt, physico-chemical analysis, organoleptic analysis, carboxymethyl cellulose. (author)

  4. Physico-chemical and organoleptic comparison of buffalo, cow and goat milk and their yogurt samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, N.; Elahi, S.

    2014-01-01

    The physico-chemical and organoleptic properties of buffalo, cow and goat milk and their respective yogurt samples were analyzed. Milk samples, 200ml each, were inoculated with sucrose, skimmed milk powder, carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) along with varying concentrations of starter culture and incubated at 45 degree C for 5 hours for yogurt preparation. The physico-chemical parameters studied were pH, tritable acidity, ash, moisture, fat, solid-non fat, total solids, crude protein, specific gravity and total energy, whereas the organoleptic analysis included texture, taste, colour and odor. Results revealed that commercial starter culture, sucrose, CMC and skimmed milk powder, in the concentrations of 0.05%, 0.5%, 0.075% and 0.5% respectively, was the best composition for fermentation. The milk and yogurt of buffalo was found to be physico-chemically and organoleptically superior. However, results showed that goat milk and yogurt could be a valuable substitute, especially in comparison to cow milk and yogurt. goat, milk, yogurt, physico-chemical analysis, organoleptic analysis, carboxymethyl cellulose. (author)

  5. Enforcing the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes for Better Promotion of Exclusive Breastfeeding: Can Lessons Be Learned?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barennes, Hubert; Slesak, Guenther; Goyet, Sophie; Aaron, Percy; Srour, Leila M

    2016-02-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding, one of the best natural resources, needs protection and promotion. The International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes (the Code), which aims to prevent the undermining of breastfeeding by formula advertising, faces implementation challenges. We reviewed frequently overlooked challenges and obstacles that the Code is facing worldwide, but particularly in Southeast Asia. Drawing lessons from various countries where we work, and following the example of successful public health interventions, we discussed legislation, enforcement, and experiences that are needed to successfully implement the Code. Successful holistic approaches that have strengthened the Code need to be scaled up. Community-based actions and peer-to-peer promotions have proved successful. Legislation without stringent enforcement and sufficient penalties is ineffective. The public needs education about the benefits and ways and means to support breastfeeding. It is crucial to combine strong political commitment and leadership with strict national regulations, definitions, and enforcement. National breastfeeding committees, with the authority to improve regulations, investigate violations, and enforce the laws, must be established. Systematic monitoring and reporting are needed to identify companies, individuals, intermediaries, and practices that infringe on the Code. Penalizing violators is crucial. Managers of multinational companies must be held accountable for international violations, and international legislative enforcement needs to be established. Further measures should include improved regulations to protect the breastfeeding mother: large-scale education campaigns; strong penalties for Code violators; exclusion of the formula industry from nutrition, education, and policy roles; supportive legal networks; and independent research of interventions supporting breastfeeding. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. [Combine fats products: methodic opportunities of it identification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viktorova, E V; Kulakova, S N; Mikhaĭlov, N A

    2006-01-01

    At present time very topical problem is falsification of milk fat. The number of methods was considered to detection of milk fat authention and possibilities his difference from combined fat products. The analysis of modern approaches to valuation of milk fat authention has showed that the main method for detection of fat nature is gas chromatography analysis. The computer method of express identification of fat products is proposed for quick getting of information about accessory of examine fat to nature milk or combined fat product.

  7. Association of Genetic Variants of Milk Proteins with Milk Production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    For example, increasing the frequency of a milk protein genotype associated with ... date of milking, somatic cell count, daily milk yield, protein and fat ..... G sulla ripartizione percentuale delle caseine αS1, αS2, β e κ in vacche die razze. Bruna.

  8. Selective synthesis of human milk fat-style structured triglycerides from microalgal oil in a microfluidic reactor packed with immobilized lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Liu, Xi; Wang, Xu-Dong; Dong, Tao; Zhao, Xing-Yu; Zhu, Dan; Mei, Yi-Yuan; Wu, Guo-Hua

    2016-11-01

    Human milk fat-style structured triacylglycerols were produced from microalgal oil in a continuous microfluidic reactor packed with immobilized lipase for the first time. A remarkably high conversion efficiency was demonstrated in the microreactor with reaction time being reduced by 8 times, Michaelis constant decreased 10 times, the lipase reuse times increased 2.25-fold compared to those in a batch reactor. In addition, the content of palmitic acid at sn-2 position (89.0%) and polyunsaturated fatty acids at sn-1, 3 positions (81.3%) are slightly improved compared to the product in a batch reactor. The increase of melting points (1.7°C) and decrease of crystallizing point (3°C) implied higher quality product was produced using the microfluidic technology. The main cost can be reduced from $212.3 to $14.6 per batch with the microreactor. Overall, the microfluidic bioconversion technology is promising for modified functional lipids production allowing for cost-effective approach to produce high-value microalgal coproducts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Trans-10, cis 12-Conjugated Linoleic Acid-Induced Milk Fat Depression Is Associated with Inhibition of PPARγ Signaling and Inflammation in Murine Mammary Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil K. G. Kadegowda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Exogenous trans-10, cis-12-CLA (CLA reduces lipid synthesis in murine adipose and mammary (MG tissues. However, genomewide alterations in MG and liver (LIV associated with dietary CLA during lactation remain unknown. We fed mice (n=5/diet control or control + trans-10, cis-12-CLA (37 mg/day between d 6 and d 10 postpartum. The 35,302 annotated murine exonic evidence-based oligo (MEEBO microarray and quantitative RT-PCR were used for transcript profiling. Milk fat concentration was 44% lower on d 10 versus d 6 due to CLA. The CLA diet resulted in differential expression of 1,496 genes. Bioinformatics analyses underscored that a major effect of CLA on MG encompassed alterations in cellular signaling pathways and phospholipid species biosynthesis. Dietary CLA induced genes related to ER stress (Xbp1, apoptosis (Bcl2, and inflammation (Orm1, Saa2, and Cp. It also induced marked inhibition of PPARγ signaling, including downregulation of Pparg and Srebf1 and several lipogenic target genes (Scd, Fasn, and Gpam. In LIV, CLA induced hepatic steatosis probably through perturbations in the mitochondrial functions and induction of ER stress. Overall, results from this study underscored the role of PPARγ signaling on mammary lipogenic target regulation. The proinflammatory effect due to CLA could be related to inhibition of PPARγ signaling.

  10. Elevated serum milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor 8 levels in type 2 diabetic patients are suppressed by overweight or obese status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanyuan; Ran, Wenzhuo; Zhang, Jiaqiang; Chen, Shi; Li, Yihang; Luo, Deng; Wang, Chen; Jia, Weiping

    2017-02-01

    Inflammation is the most important link between obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Although milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor 8 (MFG-E8) is a key mediator in anti-inflammatory responses, its role in obesity and diabetes is not yet completely understood. We aimed to measure MFG-E8 serum levels and to explore the role of MFG-E8 in obesity and T2D. Fasting serum MFG-E8 levels were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for 168 individuals, whose oral glucose tolerance test was conducted, and levels of inflammatory factors, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and C-reactive protein, were measured. The participants were subdivided into 66 newly diagnosed T2D individuals, 44 impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) subjects and 58 healthy controls. Their characteristics were further classified as lean or nonlean for investigation. MFG-E8 levels were significantly higher in T2D subjects than in healthy controls (P = 0.028). Decreased levels of MFG-E8 were found in overweight or obese individuals, compared to those in lean subjects, in both the T2D and IGT groups (P obesity and T2D in the clinical setting. © 2017 IUBMB Life, 69(2):63-71, 2017. © 2017 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  11. Effect of CLA and other C18 unsaturated fatty acids on DGAT in bovine milk fat biosynthetic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Brent M; Chris Kazala, E; Murdoch, Gordon K; Keating, Aileen F; Cruz-Hernandez, Cristina; Wegner, Jochen; Kennelly, John J; Okine, Erasmus K; Weselake, Randall J

    2008-10-01

    Production of dairy products with increased amounts of nutraceutic FA such as conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) represents a recent approach for dairy producers and processors to increase the value of their products. The effect of CLA and other FA on the expression of diacylglycerol acyltransferase-1 (DGAT-1) and DGAT-2, and DGAT activity were investigated in bovine mammary gland epithelial (MAC-T) cells. DGAT gene expression analyses were also conducted using bovine mammary gland tissue from dairy cows. In the studies with MAC-T cells, there were no significant effects of CLA isomers or other FA on DGAT1 expression, whereas all FA tested showed enhanced DGAT2 expression (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001), with alpha-linolenic acid (alpha-18:3) having the greatest effect. Additionally, DGAT2 expression was co-ordinated with expression of lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase (LPAAT), an observation that was also apparent in mammary gland from lactating dairy cows. In contrast, treatment of MAC-T cells with trans-10, cis-12 18:2 or alpha-18:3 resulted in a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in overall DGAT enzyme activity, although the mechanisms resulting in these effects are unclear. Competition assays using microsomes from bovine mammary gland tissue and 1-[(14)C]oleoyl-CoA suggested that DGAT activity was more selective for oleoyl (cis-9 18:1)-CoA than cis-9, trans-11 18:2-, trans-10, cis-12 18:2- or cis-9, cis-12 18:2-CoA. Collectively, the results suggest the relationship between trans-10, cis-12 18:2 and reduced TAG production in bovine milk is not linked to the production of DGAT1 or DGAT2 transcripts, but probably involves effects of this CLA isomer at events beyond transcription, such as post-translational and/or enzyme activity effects.

  12. Influence of raw milk quality on fluid milk shelf life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbano, D M; Ma, Y; Santos, M V

    2006-03-01

    Pasteurized fluid milk shelf life is influenced by raw milk quality. The microbial count and somatic cell count (SCC) determine the load of heat-resistant enzymes in milk. Generally, high levels of psychrotrophic bacteria in raw milk are required to contribute sufficient quantities of heat-stable proteases and lipases to cause breakdown of protein and fat after pasteurization. Sanitation, refrigeration, and the addition of CO2 to milk are used to control both total and psychrotrophic bacteria count. It is not uncommon for total bacterial counts of raw milk to be milk processors have not focused much attention on milk SCC. Increased SCC is correlated with increased amounts of heat-stable protease (plasmin) and lipase (lipoprotein lipase) in milk. When starting with raw milk that has a low bacterial count, and in the absence of microbial growth in pasteurized milk, enzymes associated with high SCC will cause protein and fat degradation during refrigerated storage, and produce off-flavors. As the ability to kill, remove, or control microbial growth in pasteurized refrigerated milk continues to improve, the original milk SCC will be the factor limiting the time of refrigerated storage before development of an off-flavor in milk. Most healthy cows in a dairy herd have a milk SCC 200,000 cell/mL are usually due to the contribution of high SCC milk from a small number of cows in the herd. Technology to identify these cows and keep their milk out of the bulk tank could substantially increase the value of the remaining milk for use in fluid milk processing. To achieve a 60- to 90-d shelf life of refrigerated fluid milk, fluid processors and dairy farmers need to work together to structure economic incentives that allow farmers to produce milk with the SCC needed for extended refrigerated shelf life.

  13. Study of Chemical and Sensory properties of Functional Cheese made from Cow\\'s Milk and Soymilk blend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GR Yasaei Mehrjardi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In recent years, due to the prevalence of overweight, obesity and heart disease in community and its relationship with the increasing amount of fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol in the diet, production of functional food by reducing saturated fat and cholesterol using soybean has been taken into consideration. The use of soybean-derived products is cost effective and healthy for people due to absence of cholesterol and lactose, and presence of  isoflavonoids and unsaturated essential fatty acids. The present study has evaluated the chemical and sensory properties of functional Pre cheese made ​​from a mixture of cow’s milk and soy milk with different ratios. Methods: In this experimental study, soymilk at5 levels (0, 5, 10, 15, and 20% and calcium chloride 0.4% were mixed with cow’s milk and used for preparation of primary cheese. Chemical and sensory characteristics of the samples were determined according to national standards. The results were subjected to analysis of variance in a completely randomized design with factorial arrangement and by statistical software MinitabVersion16. The data were compared according to Duncan’s multiple-range test. Results: The results showed that with increasing substitution of soy milk, protein, fat, dry matter, un saturated fatty acids(oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids, and the tissue score of the produced cheese increased and the amount of cholesterol, saturated fatty acids, and the flavor and color scores of the samples decreased in comparison with the control sample. The sample containing84.6% cow’s milk, 15% soy milk, and 0.4% calcium chloride had more appropriate chemical and more acceptable sensory characteristics compared to the other samples. Conclusion: By selection of a proper substitution ratio of soy milk with cow’s milk, good quality and healthy cheese can be produced as a functional food for feeding people, especially the elderly.

  14. Milk production, nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance in lactating cows fed total mixed ration silages containing steam-flaked brown rice as substitute for steam-flaked corn, and wet food by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaji, Makoto; Matsuyama, Hiroki; Hosoda, Kenji; Nonaka, Kazuhisa

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of substituting brown rice grain for corn grain in total mixed ration (TMR) silage containing food by-products on the milk production, whole-tract nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance in dairy cows. Six multiparous Holstein cows were used in a crossover design with two dietary treatments: a diet containing 30.9% steam-flaked corn (corn TMR) or 30.9% steam-flaked brown rice (rice TMR) with wet soybean curd residue and wet soy sauce cake. Dietary treatment did not affect the dry matter intake, milk yield and compositions in dairy cows. The dry matter and starch digestibility were higher, and the neutral detergent fiber digestibility was lower for rice TMR than for corn TMR. The urinary nitrogen (N) excretion as a proportion of the N intake was lower for rice TMR than for corn TMR with no dietary effect on N secretion in milk and fecal N excretion. These results indicated that the replacement of corn with brown rice in TMR silage relatively reduced urinary N loss without adverse effects on feed intake and milk production, when food by-products such as soybean curd residue were included in the TMR silage as dietary crude protein sources. © 2013 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  15. Microstructure of milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fat and protein in milk may be examined by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and confocal laser scanning microscopy, and any bacteria present may be viewed by light microscopy. The fat exists as globules, the bulk of the protein is in the form of casein micelles, a...

  16. Factors affecting Import Shares of Powdered Milk and other Milk Products and their Implications in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Bogahawatte, C.; Herath, Janaranjana

    2006-01-01

    Import shares of liquid milk, powdered milk, condensed milk and other milk products were estimated to determine their relative competitiveness. The change of import shares with changes of exchange rate and world price of milk. The analysis based on yearly data between 1975-2006 showed that relative CIF prices and incomes were important factors influencing the market shares of milk and milk products. The results also showed that imported milk powder is price inelastic and a weak substitute for...

  17. Effects of extruded corn on milk yield and composition and blood parameters in lactating dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igino Andrighetto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available According to a 2x2 cross over design, fourteen Holstein dairy cows at 99±55 DIM were fed two diets containing 21.5% DM of either ground corn (GC or extruded corn (EC. Performance and metabolic profile were detected during the third week of each experimental period. DMI and milk yield were not affected by dietary treatments. Milk fat and protein percentage of EC diet were significantly (P<0.10 lower than those of GC diet. Probably the higher rumen degradability of starch from EC thesis modified the synthesis of specific fatty acids leading to a milk fat depression event. Diets did not influence blood parameters, except for lower values of total protein and glucose content in EC diet-fed cows. Results suggested that the dietary inclusion of extruded corn should not be used at the tested level of substitution.

  18. Milk fat globule membrane supplementation with voluntary running exercise attenuates age-related motor dysfunction by suppressing neuromuscular junction abnormalities in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Michiko; Minegishi, Yoshihiko; Sugita, Satoshi; Ota, Noriyasu

    2017-10-15

    Age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and function attenuates physical performance, and maintaining fine muscle innervation is known to play an important role in its prevention. We had previously shown that consumption of milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) with habitual exercise improves the muscle mass and motor function in humans and mice. Improvement of neuromuscular junction (NMJ) was suggested as one of the mechanisms underlying these effects. In this study, we evaluated the effect of MFGM intake combined with voluntary running (MFGM-VR) on morphological changes of NMJ and motor function in aging mice. Seven months following the intervention, the MFGM-VR group showed a significantly improved motor coordination in the rotarod test and muscle force in the grip strength test compared with the control group at 13 and 14months of age, respectively. In 14-month old control mice, the extensor digitorum longus muscle showed increased abnormal NMJs, such as fragmentation and denervation, compared with 6-month old young mice. However, such age-related deteriorations of NMJs were significantly suppressed in the MFGM-VR group. Increase in the expression of NMJ formation-related genes, such as agrin and LDL Receptor Related Protein 4 (LRP4), might contribute to this beneficial effect. Rotarod performance and grip strength showed significant negative correlation with the status of denervation and fragmentation of NMJs. These results suggest that MFGM intake with voluntary running exercise effectively suppresses age-related morphological deterioration of NMJ, thus contributing to improvement of motor function. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Physical Characteristics of Cocoa Butter and Palm Stearin Mixture in Milk Chocolate System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misnawi Jati

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Chocolate products for consumption in tropical areas frequently become soft and tend to bloom due to melting and migration of fat contained, the product becomes dully and less interesting. Fat fraction determines chocolate texture, appearance and its handling. Objective of this research is to study the characteristic of mixed fat of cocoa butter, milk fat and stearin; in which the latest was added into a chocolate formula expected to increase its physical characteristic. Response Surface Methodology design was used for the study at stearin concentration of 10–60 g kg-1 and lecithin of 1–7 g kg-1. Parameters of the study were fat melting point, chocolate hardness and preference on chocolate texture and overall acceptance. Result of the study showed that the stearin concentration significantly altered chocolate physical characteristic, where the lecithin concentration did not influence. The presence of stearin in milk chocolate system showed fat eutectic phenomenon. Substitution of cocoa butter with stearin up to concentration of 35 g kg-1 in the formulation showed a clear eutectic; however, at higher concentrations the phenomenon was compensated by the increase in stearin crystal seed which raised melting point and hardness. This result also clearly indicated that cocoa butter substitution with palm stearin to obtain resistant chocolate should be designed in a range of 43–60 g kg-1 in its formulation, equal to 15–18% from cocoa butter added.Key words : chocolate, cocoa butter, stearin, eutectic, solidifier, emulsifier, melting point, texture.

  20. Sphingosine basis in milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavica Ribar

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Sphingolipids are widespread membrane components that are found in all eukaryotic cells. They are defined as compounds having a long-chain sphingoid base as the backbone. The most frequent long-chain bases in most of the mammals are D-erythro-sphinganine and sphingosine. Sphingolipids can be expected in minor quantities in all food products. Milk fat contains a number of different sphingolipid classes. Originally they were presumed to contribute to the structural integrity of membranes, but there nowadays it is confirmed that they have an important physiological role. Dietary sphingolipids have gained attention because of their possibility to inhibit colon cancer. The aim of this study was to determine the concentrations of free and total sphinganine and sphingosine in milk (human, cow's, sheep’s, goat’s, soy’s Sphingolipids were extracted from milk. Free and total sphingoid bases were obtained by alkaline and acid hydrolysis respectively. Sphinganin and sphingosine were determined by means of high-performance liquid chromatography. The results of this research illustrate the differences between the concentrations of sphingoid bases in cow’s milk with various content of milk fat. The concentrations of free sphingosine and sphinganine in cow’s milk were lower than in human milk. In sheep’s and goat’s milk, the concentrations of total sphingoid bases were higher than in human and cow’s milk. Quantity of the most sphingoid bases decreased during pasteurization.

  1. Substitutions between dairy product subgroups and risk of type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Daniel B; Laursen, Anne Sofie D; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the associations for specified substitutions between different subgroups of dairy products and the risk of type 2 diabetes. We used data from the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort including 54 277 men and women aged 50-64 years at baseline. Information...... regarding intake of dairy products was obtained from a validated FFQ, and cases of type 2 diabetes were identified through the Danish National Diabetes Register. Cox proportional hazards regressions were used to estimate associations. During a median follow-up of 15·3 years, 7137 cases were identified. Low......-fat yogurt products in place of whole-fat yogurt products were associated with a higher rate of type 2 diabetes (hazard ratio (HR) 1·17; 95 % CI 1·06, 1·29) per serving/d substituted. Whole-fat yogurt products in place of low-fat milk, whole-fat milk or buttermilk were associated with a lower rate of type 2...

  2. World production and quality of cow's milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petar Bosnić

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available World milk production has a great economical effect being in the function of human food production and nutrition. Milk is obtained from cows, buffalos, sheeps, goats, camels and donkey with cow's milk production dominating. The world milk production in 2000 was 568.480 thousands of tons of all types of milk of which 484.895 thousands tons are cow's milk with a total of 85.30 % of the world milk production. Buffalo's milk production is on the second place with 61.913 thousands of tonnes (10.89 % production capacity. On the three continents (Europe, North America and Asia 81.82 % of total cow's milk production is located. Developed countries produce 50 % of total milk production, while higher milk production is forecast for the developing countries. The EU countries participate with 23.72 % in the world milk production and with 55.60 % on the European area. High annual lactation production, under selected cow's milk production, of above 6000 kg is located in developed countries, where annual participation of Israel accounts for over 10000 kg of milk per cow. Commercial milk production of genetics cattle accounts from 80 % to 85 %. Milk quality, with regard to milk fat and proteincontent, in developed countries is above an average value. With the annual milk production of 7000 kg of cow's milk, up to 294 kg of milk fat and 238 kg of protein are produced. Due to milk characteristics as agro-food product, milk and dairy products manufacture and transportation are in details regulated with existing quality standards. 95 % of the EU milk producers fulfil international hygienic rules on milk safety standards (somatic cells, microorganisms. With regard to long term development, until 2030, changes on herd management (outdoor and indoor exposure, between continents, will occur. In 2030, the world milk production is forecast to increase by 64%, with cow's milk production of 765.9 million tonnes.

  3. Physicochemical, microbial and sensory properties of milk, butter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study on the physicochemical, microbial load and sensory properties of milk, butter with or without garlic was carried out using fresh milk from white Fulani cow for eight weeks of the lactation. The milk used was milked manually by the Fulanis early in the morning. Fat content was highest in milk (4.13±0.16) and least in ...

  4. Is there a feeding strategy to increase milk casein content?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Formigoni

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Because more than 60% of milk produced in Italy is transformed into cheese, milk economical value strongly depends on cheese yield. Among the factors that influence cheese yield, milk casein and fat content plays a major role: when milk is converted into Grana Padano and Parmigiano reggiano, three grams of seasoned cheese are produced from one gram of milk casein.....

  5. Consumers' sensory and nutritional perceptions of three types of milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bus, A.E.M.; Worsley, A.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To identify consumer perceptions of whole milk, reduced-fat milk and soy milk, and to investigate demographic influences on perceptions and types of milk consumption. Design and setting: Questionnaires covering nutritional and sensory perceptions of three types of milk. Subjects: Three

  6. Impact of processing on the digestibility of milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Processing of milk by homogenization and pasteurization causes changes in the milk proteins and fats, but there is little information about whether these changes affect milk digestibility. In this study, whole and skim milk samples were processed and compared to raw milk after all samples had underg...

  7. Milk production and chemical composition of milk of Ukrainian mountain Carpathian sheep in pasture period

    OpenAIRE

    CHOKAN T.

    2011-01-01

    The comparative analysis of the milk chemical composition depending on milk productivity of Ukrainian Mountain Carpathian sheep during the pasture period were studied. It was found changes of milk composition (increasing of protein content, fat, dry matter and nutritive value) with a decrease of milk yield in the end period of lactation.

  8. Imaging of non-small cell lung cancers with a monoclonal antibody, KC-4G3, which recognizes a human milk fat globule antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dienhart, D.G.; Schmelter, R.F.; Lear, J.L.; Miller, G.J.; Glenn, S.D.; Bloedow, D.C.; Kasliwal, R.; Moran, P.; Seligman, P.; Murphy, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    To determine the role of lung cancer tumor imaging with monoclonal antibodies directed against high molecular weight human milk fat globule antigens, we administered i.v. 111In-KC-4G3 to 24 patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer. One mg of 111In-KC-4G3 was mixed with 0, 9, 49, 99, or 499 mg of unlabeled KC-4G3 and infused i.v. over 1 to 5 h. The mean 111In-KC-4G3 radiochemical purity was greater than 97% and the resultant immunoreactivity averaged 62%. Successful imaging of cancer sites was accomplished in 92% of 24 patients, and 57% of 91 total lesions were visualized. Successful localization of tumor sites related to size (P less than 0.001), with 81% of lesions greater than 3.0 cm in diameter, 50% of lesions 1.5 to 3 cm, and 6% of lesions less than 1.5 cm successfully imaging, and to location (P less than 0.05), with 69% of pulmonary lesions, 80% of soft tissue lesions, and only 32% of bone metastases being visualized. Nonspecific reticulo-endothelial uptake of radioactivity was a major problem. Approximately 35% of 111In was chelated to serum transferrin by 24 and 48 h after infusion. The mean t 1/2 beta for plasma radioisotope and immunoreactive KC-4G3 was 29 and 27 h, respectively. There was no correlation between total infused antibody dose and imaging success or between total dose and effect on 111In and KC-4G3 kinetics. Circulating free KC-4 antigen was measurable in all but one patient before study. Tumor biopsy following infusion could demonstrate antibody presence but not saturable antigen binding. We conclude that (a) 111In-KC-4G3 demonstrates successful tumor localization in non-small cell lung cancers bearing generally high expression of its antigen and (b) further investigations to diminish nonspecific radioactivity for imaging and utilization of high dose radiolabeled antibody for therapeutic intent are warranted

  9. Milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor-factor VIII-derived peptide MSP68 is a cytoskeletal immunomodulator of neutrophils that inhibits Rac1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Louie; Aziz, Monowar; Yang, Weng-Lang; Nicastro, Jeffrey; Coppa, Gene F; Symons, Marc; Wang, Ping

    2017-02-01

    Prolonged neutrophil infiltration leads to exaggerated inflammation and tissue damage during sepsis. Neutrophil migration requires rearrangement of their cytoskeleton. Milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor-factor VIII-derived short peptide 68 (MSP68) has recently been shown to be beneficial in sepsis-induced tissue injury and mortality. We hypothesize that MSP68 inhibits neutrophil migration by modulating small GTPase Rac1-dependent cytoskeletal rearrangements. Bone marrow-derived neutrophils (BMDNs) or whole lung digest isolated neutrophils were isolated from 8 to 10 wk old C57BL/6 mice by Percoll density gradient centrifugation. The purity of BMDN was verified by flow cytometry with CD11b/Gr-1 staining. Neutrophils were stimulated with N-formylmethionine-leucine-phenylalanine (f-MLP) (10 nM) in the presence or absence of MSP68 at 10 nM or cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) was used to induce sepsis, and MSP68 was administered at 1 mg/kg intravenously. Cytoskeletal organization was assessed by phalloidin staining, followed by analysis using fluorescence microscopy. Activity of the Rac1 GTPase in f-MLP or CLP-activated BMDN in the presence or absence of MSP68 was assessed by GTPase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activity was determined by western blot densitometry. BMDN treatment with f-MLP increased cytoskeletal remodeling as revealed by the localization of filamentous actin to the periphery of the neutrophil. By contrast, cells pretreated with MSP68 had considerably reduced filamentous actin polymerization. Cytoskeletal spreading is associated with the activation of the small GTPase Rac1. We found BMDN-treated with f-MLP or that were exposed to sepsis by CLP had increased Rac1 signaling, whereas the cells pretreated with MSP68 had significantly reduced Rac1 activation (P Rac1-MAP kinase-mediated neutrophil motility. Thus, MSP68 is a novel therapeutic candidate for regulating inflammation and tissue damage caused

  10. Effect on feed intake, milk production and milk composition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-09-22

    Sep 22, 2014 ... feed intake and milk yield parameters was determined for dairy cows. Three feeding ... therefore fat yield, was lower in the treatment containing only wheat as an energy source. .... paddocks for heat detection and grooming.

  11. Use of milk-based kombucha inoculum for milk fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolarov Ljiljana A.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation fermented milk beverages with 0.9% of milk fat were produced using 10 and 15% (v/v of traditional and milk-based kombucha inoculum by application of appropriate technological process. Milk fermentation using two types and concentrations of kombucha inoculum were stopped when the pH reached 4.5. Sigmoidal fermentation profiles were noticed with traditional kombucha inoculums and linear with milk-based kombucha inoculums. Chemical content and physico-chemical characteristics of kombucha fermented milk beverages were typical and yoghurt-like for all obtained products. The best textural and sensory characteristics possesed beverage obtained in fermentation of milk using 10% (v/v of milk-based kombucha inoculum.

  12. ANALYSIS OF MILK QUALITY AND ITS IMPORTANCE FOR MILK PROCESSORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AGATHA POPESCU

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to present some aspects regarding milk quality and its importance for milk processors , taking into account a study case at FLAV O’RICH DAIRY INC,USA. The study analyses how milk quality is checked from the bulk milk to final product according to the Milk Quality Program in force. The main aspects concerning raw milk selection criteria such as : antibiotic test, temperature, bacteria, organoleptic properties , acidity, somatic cell count , but also main milk components such as water, butterfat , total solids, protein, lactose , solids non fats , minerals, acids have been approached . Also a comparison for 7 butterfat producers for East Fluid Group has been done . Milk processing assures the destruction of human pathogens , the maintenance of product quality without significant loss of flavor, appearance, physical and nutritive properties and the selection of organisms which may produce unsatisfactory products.

  13. Localization of a membrane glycoprotein in benign fibrocystic disease and infiltrating duct carcinomas of the human breast with the use of a monoclonal antibody to guinea pig milk fat globule membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwalt, D. E.; Johnson, V. G.; Kuhajda, F. P.; Eggleston, J. C.; Mather, I. H.

    1985-01-01

    With monoclonal antibody D-274, raised against guinea pig milk fat globule membrane, the distribution of mucinlike glycoproteins of Mrs greater than or equal to 400,000 was determined in benign fibrocystic disease and infiltrating duct carcinoma of the human breast. These glycoproteins, called collectively PAS-I, were detected in 19 out of 20 cases of benign fibrocystic disease and in at least 26 out of 47 cases of infiltrating duct carcinoma. PAS-I was concentrated on luminal surfaces of ducts and alveoli in morphologically differentiated regions of the tumors. In areas where the glandular nature of the tissue was less evident in infiltrating duct carcinoma, the PAS-I determinant recognized by antibody D-274 was present on irregular luminal surfaces and in the cytoplasm. There was a negative correlation between the short-term recurrence (less than 2 years) of infiltrating duct carcinoma and the detection of strong positive staining with antibody D-274. The results are discussed with reference to recent studies on PAS-I in human breast tissue using monoclonal antibodies raised against human milk fat globule membrane. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:2579563

  14. Neurodevelopment, nutrition, and growth until 12 mo of age in infants fed a low-energy, low-protein formula supplemented with bovine milk fat globule membranes: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timby, Niklas; Domellöf, Erik; Hernell, Olle; Lönnerdal, Bo; Domellöf, Magnus

    2014-04-01

    Observational studies have indicated that differences in the composition of human milk and infant formula yield benefits in cognitive development and early growth for breastfed infants. The objective was to test the hypothesis that feeding an infant formula with reduced energy and protein densities and supplemented with bovine milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) reduces differences in cognitive development and early growth between formula-fed and breastfed infants. In a prospective, double-blind, randomized controlled trial, 160 infants Toddler Development, Third Edition, was significantly higher in the EF group than in the SF group (105.8 ± 9.2 compared with 101.8 ± 8.0; P = 0.008) but was not significantly different from that in the BFR group (106.4 ± 9.5; P = 0.73). The EF group ingested larger volumes of formula than did the SF group (864 ± 174 compared with 797 ± 165 mL/d; P = 0.022), fully compensating for the lower energy density. No significant differences in linear growth, weight gain, body mass index, percentage body fat, or head circumference were found between the EF and SF groups. MFGM supplementation to infant formula narrows the gap in cognitive development between breastfed and formula-fed infants. Between 2 and 6 mo of age, formula-fed term infants have the capacity to upregulate their ingested volumes when the energy density of formula is reduced from 66 to 60 kcal/100 mL.

  15. Bioactive Lipids in Dairy Fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellgren, Lars; Nordby, Pernille

    2017-01-01

    Milk fat is the most important energy source for the newborn infant beside its important role as energy source, milk fat also contain a range of bioactive lipids, that potentially can modulate the immune response and metabolic regulation in the child. In this chapter we review the literature on b...... on bioactive dairy fatty acids: conjugated linoleic acid, branched chained and odd chained fatty acids, as well as bioactive complex lipids such as sphingomyelin and gangliosides....

  16. Application of attenuated total reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) in MIR range coupled with chemometrics for detection of pig body fat in pure ghee (heat clarified milk fat)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Neelam; Jaiswal, Pranita; Jha, Shyam Narayan

    2018-02-01

    Pure ghee is superior to other fats and oils due to the presence of bioactive lipids and its rich flavor. Adulteration of ghee with cheaper fats and oils is a prevalent fraudulent practice. ATR-FTIR spectroscopy was coupled with chemometrics for the purpose of detection of presence of pig body fat in pure ghee. Pure mixed ghee was spiked with pig body fat @ 3, 4, 5, 10, 15% level. The spectra of pure (ghee and pig body fat) along with the spiked samples was taken in MIR from 4000 to 500 cm-1. Some wavenumber ranges were selected on the basis of differences in the spectra obtained. Separate clusters of the samples were obtained by employing principal component analysis at 5% level of significance on the selected wavenumber range. Probable class membership was predicted by applying SIMCA approach. Approximately, 90% of the samples classified into their respective class and pure ghee and pig body fat never misclassified themselves. The value of R2 was >0.99 for both calibration and validation sets using partial least square method. The study concluded that spiking of pig body fat in pure ghee can be detected even at a level of 3%.

  17. Composition of colostrum and milk of South African indigenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Samples of colostrum, early and late lactation milk from thirteen South African indigenous Nguni goats (SAING) were analysed for contents of total solids (TS), solids-not-fat (SNF), fat, protein, lactose, ash and energy. Relationships between colostrum or milk and some parameters such as litter size (LS), milk yield (MY) and ...

  18. Effect of cocoa fat content on wetting and surface energy of chocolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubomír Lapčík

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the quantification of the effect of the cocoa fat content on the wetting characteristics and surface free energy of different chocolate compositions. On the market, there are many different types of chocolate products which differ both in the sensory and physico-chemical properties together with their raw material compositions and the contents of the individual components. This paper focuses on differences in the use of different types of fats - cocoa butter, milk fat, equivalents or cocoa butter substitutes in chocolate products. Studied samples (prepared at Carla, Ltd. Company were followed by static contact angles of wetting measurements and by calculated surface free energies. There were investigated the effects of fat content and used fat types of the chocolate products on their final wettabilities and resulting surface free energies. There was found a linear dependence between total fat content and the surface free energy, which was gradually increasing with increasing fat content. Additionally, there were performed TG DTG and NIR spectrometry measurements of the tested materials with the aim to determine the melting point of studied fats used, as well as to determine and identify individual fat components of chocolate products which may affect the resulting value of surface free energy.

  19. The Effects of Herbs on Milk Yield and Milk Quality of Mastitis Dairy Cow

    OpenAIRE

    Nurdin, E; Amelia, T; Makin, M

    2011-01-01

    This experiment aimed to observe the effect of herbs (Black Cumin,Curcuma zeodharia,Curcuma mangga, and Curcuma aeruginosa) supplementation on milk yield and milk quality (milk fat, milk protein, milk lactosa and mastitis status) in lactating dairy cows suffering mastitis. Twenty cows in 2nd-4th lactation suspected mastitis subclinical (++) were used in the experiment. Completely randomized design was used in this experiment with 5 treatments (A. Non Herb; B. Black Cumin; C. Curcuma zeodharia...

  20. Dairy goat kids fed liquid diets in substitution of goat milk and slaughtered at different ages: an economic viability analysis using Monte Carlo techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knupp, L S; Veloso, C M; Marcondes, M I; Silveira, T S; Silva, A L; Souza, N O; Knupp, S N R; Cannas, A

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the economic viability of producing dairy goat kids fed liquid diets in alternative of goat milk and slaughtered at two different ages. Forty-eight male newborn Saanen and Alpine kids were selected and allocated to four groups using a completely randomized factorial design: goat milk (GM), cow milk (CM), commercial milk replacer (CMR) and fermented cow colostrum (FC). Each group was then divided into two groups: slaughter at 60 and 90 days of age. The animals received Tifton hay and concentrate ad libitum. The values of total costs of liquid and solid feed plus labor, income and average gross margin were calculated. The data were then analyzed using the Monte Carlo techniques with the @Risk 5.5 software, with 1000 iterations of the variables being studied through the model. The kids fed GM and CMR generated negative profitability values when slaughtered at 60 days (US$ -16.4 and US$ -2.17, respectively) and also at 90 days (US$ -30.8 and US$ -0.18, respectively). The risk analysis showed that there is a 98% probability that profitability would be negative when GM is used. In this regard, CM and FC presented low risk when the kids were slaughtered at 60 days (8.5% and 21.2%, respectively) and an even lower risk when animals were slaughtered at 90 days (5.2% and 3.8%, respectively). The kids fed CM and slaughtered at 90 days presented the highest average gross income (US$ 67.88) and also average gross margin (US$ 18.43/animal). For the 60-day rearing regime to be economically viable, the CMR cost should not exceed 11.47% of the animal-selling price. This implies that the replacer cannot cost more than US$ 0.39 and 0.43/kg for the 60- and 90-day feeding regimes, respectively. The sensitivity analysis showed that the variables with the greatest impact on the final model's results were animal selling price, liquid diet cost, final weight at slaughter and labor. In conclusion, the production of male dairy goat kids can be economically

  1. The analysis of milk components and pathogenic bacteria isolated from bovine raw milk in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Y K; Koo, H C; Kim, S H; Hwang, S Y; Jung, W K; Kim, J M; Shin, S; Kim, R T; Park, Y H

    2007-12-01

    Bovine mastitis can be diagnosed by abnormalities in milk components and somatic cell count (SCC), as well as by clinical signs. We examined raw milk in Korea by analyzing SCC, milk urea nitrogen (MUN), and the percentages of milk components (milk fat, protein, and lactose). The associations between SCC or MUN and other milk components were investigated, as well as the relationships between the bacterial species isolated from milk. Somatic cell counts, MUN, and the percentages of milk fat, protein, and lactose were analyzed in 30,019 raw milk samples collected from 2003 to 2006. The regression coefficients of natural logarithmic-transformed SCC (SCCt) on milk fat (-0.0149), lactose (-0.8910), and MUN (-0.0096), and those of MUN on milk fat (-0.3125), protein (-0.8012), and SCCt (-0.0671) were negative, whereas the regression coefficient of SCCt on protein was positive (0.3023). When the data were categorized by the presence or absence of bacterial infection in raw milk, SCCt was negatively associated with milk fat (-0.0172), protein (-0.2693), and lactose (-0.4108). The SCCt values were significantly affected by bacterial species. In particular, 104 milk samples infected with Staphylococcus aureus had the highest SCCt (1.67) compared with milk containing other mastitis-causing bacteria: coagulase-negative staphylococci (n = 755, 1.50), coagulase-positive staphylococci (except Staphylococcus aureus; n = 77, 1.59), Streptococcus spp. (Streptococcus dysgalactiae, n = 37; Streptococcus uberis, n = 12, 0.83), Enterococcus spp. (n = 46, 1.04), Escherichia coli (n = 705, 1.56), Pseudomonas spp. (n = 456, 1.59), and yeast (n = 189, 1.52). These results show that high SCC and MUN negatively affect milk components and that a statistical approach associating SCC, MUN, and milk components by bacterial infection can explain the patterns among them. Bacterial species present in raw milk are an important influence on SCC in Korea.

  2. SCAPIS Pilot Study: Sitness, Fitness and Fatness - Is Sedentary Time Substitution by Physical Activity Equally Important for Everyone's Markers of Glucose Regulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekblom-Bak, Elin; Ekblom, Örjan; Bolam, Kate A; Ekblom, Björn; Bergström, Göran; Börjesson, Mats

    2016-07-01

    Although moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) is mainly recommended for glucose control, light physical activity (LIPA) may also have the potential to induce favorable changes. We investigated sedentary time (SED) substitution with equal time in LIPA and MVPA, and the association with markers of glucose regulation and insulin sensitivity after stratification by waist circumference, fitness and fasting glucose levels. A total of 654 men and women, 50 to 64 years, from the SCAPIS pilot study were included. Daily SED, LIPA and MVPA were assessed using hip-worn accelerometers. Fasting plasma glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR were determined. Substituting 30 min of SED with LIPA was significantly associated with 3.0% lower fasting insulin values and 3.1% lower HOMA-IR values, with even lower levels when substituting SED with MVPA. Participants with lower fitness and participants with high fasting glucose levels benefited significantly more from substituting 30 min of SED with LIPA compared with participants with normal to high fitness levels and participants with normal glucose levels, respectively. LIPA, and not only MVPA, may have beneficial associations with glucose regulation. This is of great clinical and public health importance, not least because it may confer a higher compliance rate to regular PA.

  3. Robotic milking and milk quality: effects on the cheese-making properties of milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Pirlo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Robotic milking systems (RMS modify dairy herd management and therefore some aspects of production. The mainresults from scientific literature on RMS and cheese-making properties have been reported. The decrease in fat content,as a consequence of the increased milking frequency, is generally confirmed. The lack of specific studies on creamingproperties of milk from robotic milking experiences and with different milking frequencies has been highlighted.Indications on clotting features were obtained with a different milking frequency in a traditional milking parlour; theseresults showed an improvement in the casein index of milk from three daily milkings. A reduction of casein exposure tothe plasminogen-plasmin complex activity in the mammary gland between two consecutive milkings seems to explainthis result. The effect of RMS on milk quality for cheese-making purposes was first evaluated in a two-year monitoringstudy in a herd representative of Po Valley dairy farms. Preliminary results from laboratory tests on bulk milk samplesindicate that milk from RMS seems suitable for cheese-making processes.

  4. Casein SNP in Norwegian goats: additive and dominance effects on milk composition and quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The four casein proteins in goat milk are encoded by four closely linked casein loci (CSN1S1, CSN2, CSN1S2 and CSN3) within 250 kb on caprine chromosome 6. A deletion in exon 12 of CSN1S1, so far reported only in Norwegian goats, has been found at high frequency (0.73). Such a high frequency is difficult to explain because the national breeding goal selects against the variant's effect. Methods In this study, 575 goats were genotyped for 38 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP) located within the four casein genes. Milk production records of these goats were obtained from the Norwegian Dairy Goat Control. Test-day mixed models with additive and dominance fixed effects of single SNP were fitted in a model including polygenic effects. Results Significant additive effects of single SNP within CSN1S1 and CSN3 were found for fat % and protein %, milk yield and milk taste. The allele with the deletion showed additive and dominance effects on protein % and fat %, and overdominance effects on milk quantity (kg) and lactose %. At its current frequency, the observed dominance (overdominance) effects of the deletion allele reduced its substitution effect (and additive genetic variance available for selection) in the population substantially. Conclusions The selection pressure of conventional breeding on the allele with the deletion is limited due to the observed dominance (overdominance) effects. Inclusion of molecular information in the national breeding scheme will reduce the frequency of this deletion in the population. PMID:21864407

  5. Effects of different corn silage: Alfalfa silage ratios and full fat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Full fat extruded soybeans addition increased the ether extract in diets and content of conjugated linoleic acids in milk, but it had no effect on fat, protein and lactose content in milk. Milk fat and lactose were not affected by replacing corn silage with alfalfa silage in diets. Increasing alfalfa silage content in the diets increased ...

  6. Enzymatic cross-linking of soy proteins within non-fat set yogurt gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleymanpuori, Rana; Madadlou, Ashkan; Zeynali, Fariba; Khosrowshahi, Asghar

    2014-08-01

    Soy proteins as the health-promoting ingredients and candidate fat substitutes in dairy products are good substrates for the cross-linking action of the enzyme transglutaminase. Non-fat set yogurt samples were prepared from the milks enriched with soy protein isolate (SPI) and/or treated with the enzyme transglutaminase. The highest titrable acidity was recorded for the yogurt enriched with SPI and treated with the enzyme throughout the cold storage for 21 d. SPI-enrichment of yogurt milk increased the water holding capacity. Although enrichment with SPI did not influence the count of Streptococcus themophilus, increased that of Lactobacillus bulgaricus ∼3 log cycles. The enzymatic treatment of SPI-enriched milk however, suppressed the bacteria growth-promoting influence of SPI due probably to making the soy proteins inaccessible for Lactobacillus. SPI-enrichment and enzymatic treatment of milk decreased the various organic acids content in yoghurt samples; influence of the former was more significant. The cross-linking of milk proteins to soy proteins was confirmed with the gel electrophoresis results.

  7. Higher content of C18:1 trans fatty acids in early human milk fat of Roma breast-feeding women

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marhol, Petr; Dlouhý, P.; Rambousková, J.; Pokorný, R.; Wiererová, O.; Hrnčířová, D.; Procházka, B.; Anděl, M.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 5 (2007), s. 461-467 ISSN 0250-6807 Grant - others:GA Mzd(CZ) NJ6120 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : trans fatty acids * roma * human milk Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.831, year: 2007

  8. THE EFFECTS OF HERBS ON MILK YIELD AND MILK QUALITY OF MASTITIS DAIRY COW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Nurdin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This experiment aimed to observe the effect of herbs (Black Cumin,Curcuma zeodharia,Curcuma mangga, and Curcuma aeruginosa supplementation on milk yield and milk quality (milk fat, milk protein, milk lactosa and mastitis status in lactating dairy cows suffering mastitis. Twenty cows in 2nd-4th lactation suspected mastitis subclinical (++ were used in the experiment. Completely randomized design was used in this experiment with 5 treatments (A. Non Herb; B. Black Cumin; C. Curcuma zeodharia; D. Curcuma mangga, and E. Curcuma aeruginosa with four replicates per treatment. The collected data were analyzed by analysis of variance and difference between the treatment effects was tested by using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. The results showed that supplementation of herbs significantly increased (P<0.01 milk yield, milk protein, milk lactosa and significantly decreased mastitis status and did not significant affect milk fat.

  9. Quantitative milk genomics: estimation of variance components and prediction of fatty acids in bovine milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Kristian

    The composition of bovine milk fat, used for human consumption, is far from the recommendations for human fat nutrition. The aim of this PhD was to describe the variance components and prediction probabilities of individual fatty acids (FA) in bovine milk, and to evaluate the possibilities...

  10. Mangaba (Hancornia speciosa Gomez ice cream prepared with fat replacers and sugar substitutes Sorvete de mangaba (Hancornia speciosa Gomez preparado com substitutos de gordura e açúcar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazielle Gebrim Santos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of replacing shortening and sugar on the physical and chemical properties of mangaba ice cream and its acceptability were evaluated. Ice cream formulations were tested with the following fat replacers: Selecta Light, Litesse, and Dairy Lo and the following sugar substitutes: Lactitol and Splenda. All formulations were subjected to physical, chemical, and microbiological analyses and evaluated by acceptability tests. In the sensory analysis, it was observed a larger acceptance of the formulations containing Selecta Light (SL and the combination of Litesse, Lactiol, and Splenda (LLS. The largest reduction in total energetic value (50% was observed in the formulation LLS. The use of fat and/or sugar substitutes caused a reduction in the air incorporation (overrun and affected viscosity. The highest melting speed was observed in the formulation with Dairy-Lo, Lactitol, and Splenda. All formulations showed good levels of global acceptability and appearance. The substitution of shortening for fat replacers caused a reduction in air incorporation and changes in ice-cream viscosity. The low-fat mangaba ice-cream elaborated with Selecta Light was the best formulation in terms of viscosity and air incorporation when compared with the control. It also showed a good level of acceptability and low fat content.O efeito da substituição de gordura vegetal hidrogenada e sacarose nas propriedades físicas, químicas e aceitabilidade de sorvete com mangaba foi avaliado. As formulações de sorvete foram testadas com os substitutos de gordura: Selecta Light, Litesse e Dairy-Lo e os substitutos de sacarose: Lactitol e Splenda. As formulações foram submetidas às análises físicas, químicas, microbiológicas e teste de aceitação. Verificou-se no teste sensorial uma maior aceitação das formulações elaboradas com Selecta Light (SL e combinação de Litesse, Lactitol e Splenda (LLS. A maior redução do valor energético (50% foi observada na

  11. 7 CFR 58.430 - Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Milk. 58.430 Section 58.430 Agriculture Regulations of....430 Milk. The milk shall be fresh, sweet, pleasing and desirable in flavor and shall meet the requirements as outlined under §§ 58.132 through 58.138. The milk may be adjusted by separating part of the fat...

  12. Skimmed milk as a determinant of vitamin A deficiency

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UHT) whole milk (3.5% fat) and UHT skimmed ... in advertisements in various newspapers and magazines. A .... controlled studies on consumption patterns of skimmed milk in ... of hypovitaminosis A. Another factor that may increase consumer.

  13. Rapid capillary electrophoresis approach for the quantification of ewe milk adulteration with cow milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimboli, Francesca; Morittu, Valeria Maria; Cicino, Caterina; Palmieri, Camillo; Britti, Domenico

    2017-10-13

    The substitution of ewe milk with more economic cow milk is a common fraud. Here we present a capillary electrophoresis method for the quantification of ewe milk in ovine/bovine milk mixtures, which allows for the rapid and inexpensive recognition of ewe milk adulteration with cow milk. We utilized a routine CE method for human blood and urine proteins analysis, which fulfilled the separation of skimmed milk proteins in alkaline buffer. Under this condition, ovine and bovine milk exhibited a recognizable and distinct CE protein profiles, with a specific ewe peak showing a reproducible migration zone in ovine/bovine mixtures. Based on ewe specific CE peak, we developed a method for ewe milk quantification in ovine/bovine skimmed milk mixtures, which showed good linearity, precision and accuracy, and a minimum amount of detectable fraudulent cow milk equal to 5%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Comprehensive proteomic analysis of human milk-derived extracellular vesicles unveils a novel functional proteome distinct from other milk components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Herwijnen, Martijn J C; Zonneveld, Marijke I; Goerdayal, Soenita; Nolte-'t Hoen, Esther N M; Garssen, Johan; Stahl, Bernd; Altelaar, A F Maarten; Redegeld, Frank A; Wauben, Marca H M

    2016-01-01

    Breast milk contains several macromolecular components with distinctive functions, whereby milk fat globules and casein micelles mainly provide nutrition to the newborn, while whey contains molecules that can stimulate the newborn's developing immune system and gastrointestinal tract. Although

  15. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to fat-free yogurts and fermented milks with live yogurt cultures complying with the specifications ?fat free?, ?low in sugars?, ?high protein?, ?source of calcium? and ?source of vitamin D? for nutrition claims and maintenance of lean body mass in the context of an energy-restricted diet pursuant to Article 13.5 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA)

    2015-01-01

    Following an application from Federación Nacional de Industrias Lácteas (FeNIL), submitted pursuant to Article 13.5 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Spain, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to fat-free yogurts and fermented milks with live yogurt cultures complying with the specifications “fat free”, “low in sugars”, “high protein”, “source of ca...

  16. Effects of Substitution, and Adding of Carbohydrate and Fat to Whey-Protein on Energy Intake, Appetite, Gastric Emptying, Glucose, Insulin, Ghrelin, CCK and GLP-1 in Healthy Older Men—A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Giezenaar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein-rich supplements are used widely for the management of malnutrition in the elderly. We reported previously that the suppression of energy intake by whey protein is less in older than younger adults. The aim was to determine the effects of substitution, and adding of carbohydrate and fat to whey protein, on ad libitum energy intake from a buffet meal (180–210 min, gastric emptying (3D-ultrasonography, plasma gut hormone concentrations (0–180 min and appetite (visual analogue scales, in healthy older men. In a randomized, double-blind order, 13 older men (75 ± 2 years ingested drinks (~450 mL containing: (i 70 g whey protein (280 kcal; ‘P280’; (ii 14 g protein, 28 g carbohydrate, 12.4 g fat (280 kcal; ‘M280’; (iii 70 g protein, 28 g carbohydrate, 12.4 g fat (504 kcal; ‘M504’; or (iv control (~2 kcal. The caloric drinks, compared to a control, did not suppress appetite or energy intake; there was an increase in total energy intake (drink + meal, p < 0.05, which was increased most by the M504-drink. P280- and M504-drink ingestion were associated with slower a gastric-emptying time (n = 9, lower ghrelin, and higher cholecystokinin (CCK and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 than M280 (p < 0.05. Glucose and insulin were increased most by the mixed-macronutrient drinks (p < 0.05. In conclusion, energy intake was not suppressed, compared to a control, and particularly whey protein, affected gastric emptying and gut hormone responses.

  17. Bovine milk in human nutrition--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Anna; Høstmark, Arne T; Harstad, Odd M

    2007-09-25

    Milk and milk products are nutritious food items containing numerous essential nutrients, but in the western societies the consumption of milk has decreased partly due to claimed negative health effects. The content of oleic acid, conjugated linoleic acid, omega-3 fatty acids, short- and medium chain fatty acids, vitamins, minerals and bioactive compounds may promote positive health effects. Full-fat milk has been shown to increase the mean gastric emptying time compared to half-skimmed milk, thereby increasing the gastrointestinal transit time. Also the low pH in fermented milk may delay the gastric emptying. Hence, it may be suggested that ingesting full-fat milk or fermented milk might be favourable for glycaemic (and appetite?) regulation. For some persons milk proteins, fat and milk sugar may be of health concern. The interaction between carbohydrates (both natural milk sugar and added sugar) and protein in milk exposed to heat may give products, whose effects on health should be further studied, and the increasing use of sweetened milk products should be questioned. The concentration in milk of several nutrients can be manipulated through feeding regimes. There is no evidence that moderate intake of milk fat gives increased risk of diseases.

  18. Mare’s milk: composition and protein fraction in comparison with different milk species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krešimir Kuterovac

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The usage of the mare’s milk as functional food especial for children intolerant to cow’s milk, with neurodermitis, allergies and similar disorders desiring to improve the quality of life is fiercely debated for last decades but there were no scientific studies to suggest such use of mare’s milk based on scientific research. The objectives of this study were to determine similarities of mare’s milk in comparison with milk of ruminants (cattle, sheep and goat and human milk in terms of milk composition and protein fraction as whey proteins, caseins and micelles size. All differences were discussed regarding usage of mare’s milk in human diet and compared to milk which is usually used in human nutrition. Regarding composition, the mare’s milk is similar to human milk in of crude protein, salt and lactose content, but it has significantly lower content of fat. Fractions of main proteins are similar between human and mare’s milk, except nitrogen casein (casein N which has twice lower content in human than in mare’s milk. Content of casein N from all ruminants’ milk differ much more. Just for true whey N and non-protein nitrogen (NPN similar content as human and mare’s milk has also goat milk. The casein content is the lowest in human milk; this content is three times greater in mare’s milk and six to seven times greater in goat’s and cow’s milk, while in sheep’s milk it is more than 10 times grater. In many components and fractions mare’s milk is more similar to human milk than milk of ruminants. A detail comparison of protein fraction shows quite large differences between milk of different species. More study and clinical research are needed that can recommend usage of mare’s milk in human diet as functional food on scientific bases.

  19. Consumo, digestibilidade e produção de cabras leiteiras alimentadas com dietas contendo diferentes fontes de lipídios = Intake, digestibility and milk production of dairy goats fed with different fat sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme de Lira Sobral Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados 12 animais da raça Saanen, com peso vivo de 35 kg e produção leiteira de 1,2 kg, para avaliação da suplementação lipídica sobre o consumo, digestibilidade, produção e composição do leite e quatro animais fistulados no rúmen para observação do pH. Os tratamentos consistiram de uma dieta-controle e três dietas suplementadas com semente de faveleira, torta de faveleira e caroço de algodão. Os dados foram analisados em quadrados latinos 4 x 4, com três repetições e as análises estatísticas feitas pelo teste de Tukey a 5% de probabilidade. A suplementação lipídica diminuiu o consumo de matéria seca e da maioria dos nutrientes, com reflexo sobre a produção e composição do leite de cabras Saanen. A suplementação com torta de faveleira e com caroço de algodão pode ser considerada uma boa alternativa alimentar para cabras Saanen.This study used 12 Saanen goats with BW of 35 kg and daily milkproduction of 1.2 kg, in order to evaluate the effect of fat supplementation on the intake, digestibility and milk yield. Four animals were fistulated in the rumen for pH observation. The treatments consisted of a control diet and three diets supplemented with faveleira seed, faveleira cake and cotton seed. The data were analyzed in 4 x 4 chi squares, with three repetitions and the statistical analyses by Tukey's test at 5% probability. Fat supplementation decreases the intake of dry matter and of most nutrients, affecting milk yield and the composition of Saanen goat milk. Supplementation with faveleira cake and cotton seeds can be considered as an alternative feed for those animals.

  20. The effect of conjugated linoneic acid, a natural trans fat from milk and meat, on human blood pressure: results from a randomized crossover feeding study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engberink, M.F.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Wanders, A.J.; Brouwer, I.A.

    2012-01-01

    Cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a natural trans fatty acid that is largely restricted to ruminant fats and consumed in foods and supplements. Its role in blood pressure (BP) regulation is still unclear. We examined the effect of cis-9, trans-11 CLA on BP compared with oleic acid. A

  1. Milk Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Milk Allergy KidsHealth / For Teens / Milk Allergy What's in this ... to find out. What Happens With a Milk Allergy? Food allergies involve the body's immune system, which ...

  2. CONDUCTIVITY OF DONKEY MILK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Conte

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The electrical conductivity (EC of milk is considered as one of the most important parameters which supports the diagnosis of mastitis in cows.Milk ions have a considerable influence on EC and their concentrations vary depending on animal species, season, lactation stage, etc. Some components of milk can change the EC, e.g. lactose. A negative correlation between EC values and the concentration of lactose is noticed, as a consequence of the inverse relation between this disaccharide and the chlorine content in milk. Fat and casein contents exert some influence on the EC, too. This study provides preliminary results on the physiological EC values in donkey milk and aims to highlight any correlation with some of its chemical-physical parameters and Somatic Cell Count (SCC. Mean EC value in donkey milk was found to be 3.57 mS. Statistically significant correlations were found between EC and SCC (r = 0.57 , p < 0.01 and between EC and (r = 0.30 , p < 0.05. The EC and lactose were not correlated although a reduction of EC was often observed when the lactose content increased, as reported in the literature for bovine milk. According to the EC can be considered as a reliable parameter to identify any breast disorder, taking into account the physiological factors that influence EC.

  3. Mandatory trans fat labeling regulations and nationwide product reformulations to reduce trans fatty acid content in foods contributed to lowered concentrations of trans fat in Canadian women's breast milk samples collected in 2009-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnayake, Wm Nimal; Swist, Eleonora; Zoka, Rana; Gagnon, Claude; Lillycrop, William; Pantazapoulos, Peter

    2014-10-01

    Recent efforts in Canada to reduce industrial trans fatty acids (TFAs) in foods include mandated inclusion of TFA content on food labels and recommendations by Health Canada that encourage the food industry to voluntarily limit TFA content in all vegetable oils and soft margarines and in all other prepackaged foods to labeling regulations introduced in 2003 and recommendations by Health Canada in 2007 instructing the food manufacturers and restaurants to limit TFAs in foods have resulted in significant reductions in TFAs in the diets of Canadian breastfeeding mothers and their breast milk. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  4. THE EFFECTS OF HERBS ON MILK YIELD AND MILK QUALITY OF MASTITIS DAIRY COW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Nurdin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This experiment aimed to observe the effect of herbs (Black Cumin,Curcuma zeodharia,Curcumamangga, and Curcuma aeruginosa supplementation on milk yield and milk quality (milk fat, milkprotein, milk lactosa and mastitis status in lactating dairy cows suffering mastitis. Twenty cows in 2nd-4th lactation suspected mastitis subclinical (++ were used in the experiment. Completely randomizeddesign was used in this experiment with 5 treatments (A. Non Herb; B. Black Cumin; C. Curcumazeodharia; D. Curcuma mangga, and E. Curcuma aeruginosa with four replicates per treatment. Thecollected data were analyzed by analysis of variance and difference between the treatment effects wastested by using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. The results showed that supplementation of herbssignificantly increased (P<0.01 milk yield, milk protein, milk lactosa and significantly decreasedmastitis status and did not significant affect milk fat.

  5. Combining results of two GC separations partly achieves determination of all cis and trans 16:1, 18:1, 18:2 and 18:3 except CLA isomers of milk fat as demonstrated using Ag-ion SPE fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, John K G; Hernandez, Marta; Cruz-Hernandez, Cristina; Kraft, Jana; Dugan, Michael E R

    2008-03-01

    Milk fat is a complex mixture of geometric and positional isomers of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated, including short-, long- and branch-chain fatty acids (FAs). There has been partial success to resolve this mixture of FAs using different GC temperature programs, or a combination of GC isothermal and temperature programs. To overcome the problem associated with overlapping isomers prior silver-ion separation was recommended. However, this procedure is time consuming and not practical for routine analysis. In addition, previous methods focused mainly on the trans and cis isomers of 18:1. The present method takes advantage of differences in the relative elution times between different types of FAs. The method involved analyzing each milk fat using the same highly polar 100-m capillary column and GC instrument, and conducting two separations using temperature programs that plateau at 175 and 150 degrees C. The relative shift among the geometric and positional isomers at these two temperature settings was enough to permit identification of most of the trans and cis 16:1, 18:1 and 20:1, the c/t-18:2 and the c/c/t-18:3 isomers found in milk fat. The identity of these FAs was confirmed by prior separation of the total fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) of milk fat using Ag(+)-SPE columns, and comparing the fractions to the total milk fat. The Ag(+)-SPE technique was modified to obtain pure saturated, trans- and cis-monounsaturated and diunsaturated FAMEs. By combining the results from these two separate GC analyses, knowing the elution order, it was possible to determine most of the geometric and positional isomers of 16:1, 18:1, 20:1, 18:2 and 18:3 without a prior silver-ion separation. Only few minor FAs could not be resolved, notable the conjugated linoleic acid isomers that still required the complimentary Ag(+)-HPLC separation. The two GC temperature programs have been successfully used to routinely analyze most FA isomers in total milk and beef fats in about 200

  6. Relationship between udder morphology traits, alveolar and cisternal milk compartments and machine milking performances of dairy camels (Camelus dromedarius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ayadi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A total of 22 dairy dromedary camels under intensive conditions in late lactation (275±24 days were used to study the relationship between external and internal udder morphology and machine milking performances. Measurements of udder and teat morphology were obtained immediately before milking and in duplicate. Individual milk yield, lag time and total milking time were recorded during milking, and milk samples were collected and analyzed for milk composition thereafter. Cisternal and alveolar milk volumes and composition were evaluated at 9 h milking interval. Results revealed that dairy camels had well developed udders and milk veins, with medium sized teats. On average, milk yield as well as milk fat and protein contents were 4.80±0.50 L d-1, 2.61±0.16% and 3.08±0.05%, respectively. The low fat values observed indicated incomplete milk letdown during machine milking. Lag time, and total milking time were 3.0±0.3, and 120.0±8.9s, on average, respectively. Positive correlations (p<0.05 were observed between milk yield and udder depth (r=0.37, distance between teats (r=0.57 and milk vein diameter (r=0.28, while a negative correlation was found with udder height (r=-0.25, p<0.05. Cisternal milk accounted for 11% of the total udder milk. Positive correlations were observed between total milk yield and volume of alveolar milk (r=0.98; p<0.001 as well as with volume of cisternal milk (r=0.63, p<0.05. Despite the low udder milk storage capacity observed in dairy camels, our study concluded that the evaluated dromedary sample had adequate udder morphology for machine milking. Finally, positive relationships were detected between milk yield and udder morphology traits of dairy camels.

  7. Fortification of maternal milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Di Natale

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The beneficial effects of human milk (HM, well recognized for the term infant, extend to the feeding of premature infants, because their nutrition support must be designed to compensate for metabolic and gastrointestinal immaturity, immunologic compromise, and maternal psycosocial conditions. Studies show that preterm milk contains higher protein levels and more fat than term human milk. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommended that preterm neonates should receive sufficient nutrients to enable them to grow at a rate similar to that of fetuses of the same gestational age. There are no doubts about the fact that maternal milk is the best food for all neonates, but unfortified human breast milk may not meet the recommended nutritional needs of growing preterm infants. Human milk must therefore be supplemented (fortified with the nutrients in short supply. The objective of fortification is to increase the concentration of nutrients to such levels that at the customary feeding volumes infants receive amounts of all nutrients that meet the requirements. The are two different forms of fortification of human milk: standard and individualized. The new concepts and recommendations for optimization of human milk fortification is the “individualized fortification”. Actually, two methods have been proposed for individualization: the “targeted/tailored fortification” and the “adjustable fortification”. In summary, the use of fortified human milk produces adequate growth in premature infants and satisfies the specific nutritional requirements of these infants. The use of individualized fortification is recommended. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 23rd-26th, 2013 · Learned lessons, changing practice and cutting-edge research

  8. Color Changes of UHT Milk During Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Višnja M. Sikimić

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study measurements of color parameters of UHT milk were performed, by using a MOM-color 100 photoelectric tristimulus colorimeter. Colors of UHT milk samples containing 3.2% and 1.6% milk fat, processed under industrial conditions, packed in polyethylene terephtalate (PET based packages, and stored for 0, 15, 30, 45, 60 and 90 days at ambient temperature (20±5°C were examined. Results are shown in four different systems that define measurement of color parameters expressed in: CIE, CIE L*a*b*, Hünter and ANLAB – Adams Nickerson systems. Average value of mean reflectance of UHT milk determined in CIE system statistically is highly significantly changed, (p < 0.01 depending on duration of storaging, percentage of milk fat, as well as on the interaction of the mentioned factors. For the UHT milk with 1.6% milk fat statistically significant (p < 0.05 decrease of psychometric chroma b* occurs after 60 days, and for milk with 3.2% milk fat established on 45th day of storage.

  9. Regular-fat dairy and human health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Arne; Bradley, Beth H Rice; Brenna, J Thomas

    2016-01-01

    In recent history, some dietary recommendations have treated dairy fat as an unnecessary source of calories and saturated fat in the human diet. These assumptions, however, have recently been brought into question by current research on regular fat dairy products and human health. In an effort to......, cheese and yogurt, can be important components of an overall healthy dietary pattern. Systematic examination of the effects of dietary patterns that include regular-fat milk, cheese and yogurt on human health is warranted....

  10. Development of technology for production of reduced fat processed cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Torres Silva e Alves

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An increasing share of foods with reduced fat has been observed in the diet of the Brazilian population, a trend also seen in many other countries. In this context, our-aim was to study the manufacturing parameters and to develop a process to produce a spreadable processed cheese (requeijão cremoso with reduced fat content. In the first stage of this study, modifications were performed in the traditional manufacturing process of requeijão cremoso with regular fat content to produce a reduced fat product. During the second stage of this study, two reduced fat cheeses, with and withoutthe addition of whey protein concentrate (WPC were developed, both using JOHA S9 and JOHA PZ as emulsifying salts, resulting in four different formulations. The amounts of cream and water used in both products were calculated in order to obtain a final product with 10% fat and 33% total solids. The product which presented the best results was produced with curd obtained by direct acidification of skimmed milk heated at 68-70 ºC, using 1,3% emulsifying salt JOHA S9 in the melting process and 2% WPC 34% as a partial fat substitute, both calculated as a percentage of the amountof curd used as raw material. It was also important to add WPC 34% to the product at the first cooking step of the process (70 ºC, in order to obtain a final product withthe typical spreadable texture of the traditional requeijão cremoso.

  11. What Are the Types of Fat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Corn oil Safflower oil Walnuts Sunflower, sesame, and pumpkin seeds; flaxseed Fatty fish (salmon, tuna, mackerel, herring, ... pork) Chicken with the skin Whole-fat dairy products (cream/milk) Butter Palm and coconut oil (snack ...

  12. The effect of dietary cation-anion difference concentration and cation source on milk production and feed efficiency in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaniuk, M E; Weidman, A E; Erdman, R A

    2015-03-01

    Feed costs currently account for 55% or more of the total cost of milk production in US dairy herds, and dairy producers are looking for strategies to improve feed efficiency [FE; 3.5% fat-corrected milk (FCM) per dry matter (DM) intake]. Increasing dietary cation-anion difference [DCAD; Na+K-Cl (mEq/kg of DM)] has been shown to increase milk production, FCM, and FE. However, the optimal DCAD concentration for maximal FE has yet to be determined. The objectives of this research were to test the effects of DCAD concentration and cation source on dairy FE. Sixty Holstein dairy cows (20 cows per experiment) were used in three 4×4 Latin square design experiments with 3-wk experimental periods. In experiments 1 and 2, we tested the effect of DCAD concentration: cows were fed a basal diet containing ~250 mEq/kg of DM DCAD that was supplemented with potassium carbonate at 0, 50, 100, and 150 mEq/kg of DM or 0, 125, 250, and 375 mEq/kg of DM in experiments 1 and 2, respectively. In experiment 3, we tested the effect of cation source: sodium sesquicarbonate replaced 0, 33, 67, and 100% of the supplemental potassium carbonate (150 mEq/kg of DM DCAD). The DCAD concentration had no effect on milk production, milk protein concentration, or milk protein yield in experiments 1 and 2. Dry matter intake was not affected by DCAD concentration in experiment 1 or by cation source in experiment 3. However, DMI increased linearly with increasing DCAD in experiment 2. We detected a linear increase in milk fat concentration and yield with increasing DCAD in experiments 1 and 2 and by substituting sodium sesquicarbonate for potassium carbonate in experiment 3. Increased milk fat concentration with increasing DCAD led to increases in 3.5% FCM in experiments 1 and 2. Maximal dairy FE was achieved at a DCAD concentration of 426 mEq/kg of DM in experiments 1 and 2 and by substituting Na for K in experiment 3. The results of these experiments suggest that both DCAD concentration and the cation

  13. Cull Vegetables As Substitute For Conventional Forages In Goats Diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlSultan, S.I

    2007-01-01

    Comparison of certain responses of kids and nannies to a cull-vegetable diet as a substitute to the conventional diet (Barseem and Rhodes) was investigated. Kids after eight weeks of the experiment showed a significant increase in weight on all the three types of diet with more pronounced growth in the conventional diet containing Barseem and concentrate. On the other hand nannies exposed to the three types of diet following eight weeks of feeding displayed no significant increase in body weight as compared with the initial weight within each group or among the different groups. Similarly milk quality remained the same with no observable influence induced by the type of diet except that there was a slight increase in fat content of the cull -vegetable diet which require further investigation. (author)

  14. Interaction between genotype and climates for Holstein milk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to investigate the interaction between genotype and climate for milk and fat production traits of Iranian Holstein dairy herds. Milk and fat production data were grouped in 5 climates, on the basis of Extended De Martonne method. (Co)Variance components and genetic parameters of first lactation ...

  15. The effect of ewes relocation on milk composition and milk flow kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Jackuliaková

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of an influence of ewes relocation and milking in other parlour (treatment on milk flow kinetics, milkability and milk composition was the aim of this study. In total 34 ewes of two breeds and crosbreeds Tsigai (14 heads and Improved Valachian (20 heads with Lacaune were tested. Two weeks after lamb weaning the ewes were milked in parallel milking parlour (1x16 stalls under shelter. On the last evening milking (first experimental milking, EB before relocation of flock to another parlour, and during next three continuous evening milkings (E0 - second, E1 - third and E2 - fourth milking of exp. after relocation the milk flow kinetics were measured using electronic collection jar. On day E0 after morning milking the flock was moved on a pasture and milked in other parlour (1x24-stalls. During E0 we recorded a significant decrease of total milk yield in comparison with EB (0.527 ±0.04 and 0.647 ±0.04 L. Significant differences were also recorded in machine milk yield, machine stripping, milking time and in maximum milk flow rate. During E0 there was a higher number of nonbimodal and lower numbers of bimodal flow types. The response of ewe to E0 depended on its response to EB. Ewes with bimodal flow at EB responded more negatively to E0 than ewes with nonbimodal or plateau flow. During E2 there were significantly increased protein content and solids not fat in milk. Thus the treatment significantly influenced the milkability of ewes in a negative way, but more clear response was found out in ewes with bimodal flow response to machine milking before treatment. We could assume that relocation to other milking conditions caused only short-term changes in milk flow kinetic and milk yield. Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE

  16. Investigation of the radioactivity of cow milk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadchikov, S; Andreeva, O

    1957-01-01

    The highest concentration of radioactive /sup 131/I in milk was found in the fat. /sup 131/I of milk varied, however, from 1.5 x 10/sup -8/ c./1. and was from 13.8 to approximate 20.0 per cent of that emitted by the Pyatigorsk mineral waters.

  17. Lipase in milk, curd and cheese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, T.J.; Lettink, F.J.; Wouters, J.T.M.

    2003-01-01

    Presence of lipase in milk, curd, whey and cheese was studied. A small amount of the product was added to a large volume of lipase-free whole milk that had been made sensitive to lipolysis by homogenization. Increase of the acidity of the fat in the mixture, determined after incubation, was

  18. Protein, casein and micellar salts in milk: Current content and historical perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijl, E.; Valenberg, van H.J.F.; Huppertz, T.; Hooijdonk, van A.C.M.

    2013-01-01

    The protein and fat content of Dutch bulk milk has been monitored since the 1950s and has increased considerably, by 11 and 20%, respectively, whereas milk yield has more than doubled. The change in protein and fat content of milk is advantageous for the dairy industry, as these are the 2 most

  19. Effects of Substituting Palm Olein with Carbohydrates on Insulin Sensitivity: A Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim-Tiu, T.; Faun, C.L.

    2016-01-01

    The role of palm olein on insulin resistance, which predisposes to disease progression of type 2 diabetes, is unclear. This article summarises the effects of substituting palm olein with carbohydrates on insulin sensitivity. Two intervention studies have reported conflicting findings. The RISCK (Reading, Imperial, Surreys, Cambridge and King's) study suggested that saturated fat-enriched diet consisting of mainly palm oil and milk fat did not differ from both high and low glycemic carbohydrates on insulin sensitivity in subjects at risk of developing metabolic syndrome. However, another study reported reduced insulin sensitivity after a diet enriched with palm olein and butter compared with high carbohydrate intake. No epidemiological data exists in this context. More clinical trials using solely palm olein in this area are needed. Further well-controlled large scale studies are needed to furnish the information on palm olein replacement with carbohydrates in diabetes prevention. (author)

  20. Impact of automatic milking systems on dairy cattle producers' reports of milking labour management, milk production and milk quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, C; Barkema, H W; DeVries, T J; Rushen, J; Pajor, E A

    2018-04-04

    Automatic milking systems (AMS), or milking robots, are becoming widely accepted as a milking technology that reduces labour and increases milk yield. However, reported amount of labour saved, changes in milk yield, and milk quality when transitioning to AMS vary widely. The purpose of this study was to document the impact of adopting AMS on farms with regards to reported changes in milking labour management, milk production, milk quality, and participation in dairy herd improvement (DHI) programmes. A survey was conducted across Canada over the phone, online, and in-person. In total, 530 AMS farms were contacted between May 2014 and the end of June 2015. A total of 217 AMS producers participated in the General Survey (Part 1), resulting in a 41% response rate, and 69 of the respondents completed the more detailed follow-up questions (Part 2). On average, after adopting AMS, the number of employees (full- and part-time non-family labour combined) decreased from 2.5 to 2.0, whereas time devoted to milking-related activities decreased by 62% (from 5.2 to 2.0 h/day). Median milking frequency was 3.0 milkings/day and robots were occupied on average 77% of the day. Producers went to fetch cows a median of 2 times/day, with a median of 3 fetch cows or 4% of the herd per robot/day. Farms had a median of 2.5 failed or incomplete milkings/robot per day. Producers reported an increase in milk yield, but little effect on milk quality. Mean milk yield on AMS farms was 32.6 kg/cow day. Median bulk tank somatic cell count was 180 000 cells/ml. Median milk fat on AMS farms was 4.0% and median milk protein was 3.3%. At the time of the survey, 67% of producers were current participants of a DHI programme. Half of the producers who were not DHI participants had stopped participation after adopting AMS. Overall, this study characterized impacts of adopting AMS and may be a useful guide for making this transition.

  1. Visible light scatter as quantitative information source on milk constituents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melentiyeva, Anastasiya; Kucheryavskiy, Sergey; Bogomolov, Andrey

    2012-01-01

    analysis. The main task here is to extract individual quantitative information on milk fat and total protein content from spectral data. This is particularly challenging problem in the case of raw natural milk, where the fat globule sizes may essentially differ depending on source. Fig. 1. Spots of light...... designed set of raw milk samples with simultaneously varying fat, total protein and particle size distribution has been analyzed in the Vis spectral region. The feasibility of raw milk analysis by PLS regression on spectral data has been proved. The root mean-square errors below 0.10% and 0.04% for fat....... 3J&M Analytik AG, Willy-Messerschmitt-Strasse 8, 73457 Essingen, Germany. bogomolov@j-m.de Fat and protein are two major milk nutrients that are routinely analyzed in the dairy industry. Growing food quality requirements promote the dissemination of spectroscopic analysis, enabling real...

  2. School Nutrition Directors' Perspectives on Flavored Milk in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yon, Bethany A.; Johnson, Rachel K.; Berlin, Linda

    2013-01-01

    The offering of flavored milk in schools is a controversial topic. U.S. Department of Agriculture regulations now require that flavored milk in schools is fat-free. The perceptions, beliefs, and attitudes of 21 school nutrition directors (SNDs) about the offering and student acceptance of lower-calorie, flavored milk were explored using a focus…

  3. EVALUATION OF DIOXIN IN U.S. COW'S MILK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milk fat is likely to be among the highest dietary sources of exposure to persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic (PBT) contaminants, thus it is important to understand PBT levels in milk. Schaum had previously reported on concentrations of 21 PBTs in the United States milk suppl...

  4. The use of the milk progesterone assay in cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamberg, E.; Choi, H.S.; Moestl, E.

    1981-01-01

    The progesterone concentration in milk-fat was determined in samples from 167 cows in 51 herds taken on day 0, 6 and 20 after artificial insemination. The rectal palpation verified pregnancy in 85% of the cows classified on their milk-progesterone concentration as ''probably pregnant''. According to the milk progesterone concentration it was possible already three weeks after artificial insemination to classify 25% of all examined cows as ''non pregnant''. Seven cows were inseminated at an inappropriate time as revealed by a high progesterone concentration in milk-fat on the day of insemination. The relevance of milk progesterone determinations as an aid for veterinary surgeons is briefly discussed. (author)

  5. Influence of packaging information on consumer liking of chocolate milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M K; Lopetcharat, K; Drake, M A

    2013-08-01

    Chocolate milk varies widely in flavor, color, and viscosity, and liking is influenced by these properties. Additionally, package labels (declared fat content) and brand are some of the extrinsic factors that may influence consumer perception. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of packaging labels and brand name on consumer liking and purchase intent of chocolate milk. A consumer acceptance test, conjoint analysis survey, and Kano analysis were conducted. One hundred eight consumers evaluated 7 chocolate milks with and without brand or package information in a 2-d crossover design. A conjoint analysis survey and Kano analysis were conducted after the consumer acceptance test. Results were evaluated by 2-way ANOVA and multivariate analyses. Declared fat content and brand influenced overall liking and purchase intent for chocolate milks to differing degrees. A subsequent conjoint analysis (n=250) revealed that fat content was a driver of choice for purchasing chocolate milk followed by sugar content and brand. Brand name was less important for purchase intent of chocolate milk than fat or sugar content. Among fat content of chocolate milk, 2 and 1% fat level were most appealing to consumers, and reduced sugar and regular sugar were equally important for purchase intent. Kano analysis confirmed that fat content (whole milk, 1, or 2% fat chocolate milk) was an attractive attribute for consumer satisfaction, more so than brand. Organic labeling did not affect the purchase decision of chocolate milk; however, Kano results revealed that having an organic label on a package positively influenced consumer satisfaction. Findings from this study can help chocolate milk producers as well as food marketers better target their product labels with attributes that drive consumer choice of chocolate milk. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Shear induced orientation of edible fat and chocolate crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzanti, Gianfranco; Welch, Sarah E.; Marangoni, Alejandro G.; Sirota, Eric B.; Idziak, Stefan H. J.

    2003-03-01

    Shear-induced orientation of fat crystallites was observed during crystallization of cocoa butter, milk fat, stripped milk fat and palm oil. This universal effect was observed in systems crystallized under high shear. The minor polar components naturally present in milk fat were found to decrease the shear-induced orientation effect in this system. The competition between Brownian and shear forces, described by the Peclet number, determines the crystallite orientation. The critical radius size, from the Gibbs-Thomson equation, provides a tool to understand the effect of shear at the onset stages of crystallization.

  7. Effect on feed intake, milk production and milk composition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In each experiment, 10 randomly selected Holstein cows were fed the five diets according to a double 5 x 5 Latin square experimental design. ... In the trial using a 50 : 50 mixture of LH and OH as roughage source, the fat content of milk ...

  8. The effect of sweeteners and milk type on the rheological properties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was, to determine effects of sweeteners and milk type on the rheological and sensorial properties of reduced calorie salep drink. In addition to sugar, three different sweeteners; aspartame, saccharine and cyclamate as well as three different milk types; full-fat, low-fat and non-fat; were used for sample ...

  9. Interactions between milk protein ingredients and other milk components during processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Guanchen

    research in our group shown that, both MWP and NWP can give a higher viscosity and denser microstructure compared to WPC when used as fat replacer in low-fat yoghurt. In the thesis, we investigated how these two types of commercial whey protein particles interact with other milk components and how...... these interactions affect final acidified milk products. By detecting the properties of the whey protein aggregates, MWP and NWP showed low native whey protein content, low free thiol content and high surface hydrophobicity and were relatively stable at high temperature in the 5 % pure dispersions. When MWP and NWP...... were added to non-fat milk model systems (5% protein in total) and processed into chemically (glucono-delta-lactone) acidified milk gels, the formation of disulfide-linked structures was closely related to the increased particle size of heated milk model systems and the rheological behavior...

  10. Milk removal

    OpenAIRE

    Ferneborg, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Milk from dairy cows is a staple dietary component for humans all over the world. Regardless of whether milk is consumed in its purest, unaltered form or as high-end products such as fine cheese or ice cream, it needs to be of high quality when taken from the cow, produced at a low price and produced in a system that consider aspects such as animal health, animal welfare and sustainability. This thesis investigated the role of milk removal and the importance of residual milk on milk yield...

  11. A Comparison of Nutritional Antioxidant Content in Breast Milk, Donor Milk, and Infant Formulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Corrine; Lyden, Elizabeth; Furtado, Jeremy; Van Ormer, Matthew; Anderson-Berry, Ann

    2016-10-28

    Human milk is the optimal food for human infants, including infants born prematurely. In the event that a mother of a hospitalized infant cannot provide breast milk, donor milk is considered an acceptable alternative. It is known that the macronutrient composition of donor milk is different than human milk, with variable fat content and protein content. However, much less is known about the micronutrient content of donor milk, including nutritional antioxidants. Samples of breast milk from 12 mothers of infants hospitalized in the Newborn Intensive Care Unit until were collected and analyzed for concentrations of nutritional antioxidants, including α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, lutein + zeaxanthin, retinol, and α-tocopherol. Additionally, a homogenized sample of donor milk available from a commercial milk bank and samples of infant formulas were also analyzed. Concentrations of nutritional antioxidants were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. Compared to breast milk collected from mothers of hospitalized infants, commercially available donor milk had 18%-53% of the nutritional antioxidant content of maternal breast milk. As donor milk is becoming a common nutritional intervention for the high risk preterm infant, the nutritional antioxidant status of donor milk-fed premature infants and outcomes related to oxidative stress may merit further investigation.

  12. Enzymatic-fluorometric quantification of cholesterol in bovine milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    2012-01-01

    The present paper describes an enzymatic–fluorometric method for the determination of cholesterol in milk and other opaque matrices. The initial step of the method is to liberate chemically and physically bound cholesterol from the milk fat globule membrane by enzymatic action. The method is able...... to discriminate between esterified and free cholesterol in milk. The analysis is cost effective and is developed to work directly on whole, fresh milk thereby eliminating time consuming and tedious pre-treatment procedures of the sample. More than 1000 milk samples were analysed on the day of sampling. The total...... concentration of milk cholesterol ranged from 80 to 756 μM (n = 1068; mean 351 μM). Milk cholesterol was significantly correlated to milk fat concentration as analysed by mid-infra red spectrometry (r = 0.630; n = 853) and by an enzymatic–fluorometric method (triacylglycerol) (r = 0.611; n = 842)....

  13. Consumers' health perceptions of three types of milk: a survey in Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bus, A.E.M.; Worsley, A.

    2003-01-01

    A survey was conducted among 345 randomly selected shoppers in Melbourne, Australia, to identify their perceptions of the healthiness of whole milk, reduced fat milk and soy milk and to investigate demographic influences on health perceptions and types of milk consumption. The survey revealed major

  14. METHOD EVALUATION TO MEASURE PERSISTENT BIOACCUMULATIVE TOXIC POLLUTANTS IN COW MILK

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is important to understand the persistent and bioaccumulative toxic (PBT) levels in milk, as milk fat may be one of the highest dietary sources of PBT exposure. Analysis of milk also allows the opportunity to investigate geographic variability, as milk is produced and distrib...

  15. [Allergy to cow's milk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourrier, E

    1997-04-01

    After recalling the medical reluctance as well as the risks that there are in complete elimination of milk in infants, the author presents several clinical pictures and then a classification of the immunological types: Allergic shock of neonates, digestive and extra-digestive (skin and respiratory airways) symptoms finally the rare chronic gastro-enteritis to cow milk. Non-reaginic food allergies: Acute gastro-enteropathy to cow milk, with villous atrophy and Heiner's syndrome, delayed hypersensitivities are studied, of difficult diagnosis that may cover almost all pathologies. They may be found in the digestive system, respiratory, the kidneys and even in the organs of behaviour. Migraine of food origin must be remembered. Development in regressive rules is a function of the type of allergy and the suddenness of the symptoms. Diagnosis is above all by questioning and confirmation or not by skin and in vitro tests. Certainty can only be shown by tests of elimination and re-introduction. The diet, at the same time of both diagnostic and therapeutic value, is based on the replacement of cow milk by foods that contain the same amount of proteins. It is essential, especially in the very small, to have perfect match of food so as to avoid any risk of a dramatic hypoprotinemia, which may happen if the child does not like the suggested diet, or if the parents cannot buy the substitution products. In such conditions great care must be taken to avoid provoking a crisis. Care must be taken to decide: If the elimination of cow milk is always justified each time. If it is, always check that the substituted protein is properly made, the family may change the diet mistakenly.

  16. Myeloid-Epithelial-Reproductive Receptor Tyrosine Kinase and Milk Fat Globule Epidermal Growth Factor 8 Coordinately Improve Remodeling After Myocardial Infarction via Local Delivery of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howangyin, Kiave-Yune; Zlatanova, Ivana; Pinto, Cristina; Ngkelo, Anta; Cochain, Clément; Rouanet, Marie; Vilar, José; Lemitre, Mathilde; Stockmann, Christian; Fleischmann, Bernd K; Mallat, Ziad; Silvestre, Jean-Sébastien

    2016-03-01

    In infarcted heart, improper clearance of dying cells by activated neighboring phagocytes may precipitate the transition to heart failure. We analyzed the coordinated role of 2 major mediators of efferocytosis, the myeloid-epithelial-reproductive protein tyrosine kinase (Mertk) and the milk fat globule epidermal growth factor (Mfge8), in directing cardiac remodeling by skewing the inflammatory response after myocardial infarction. We generated double-deficient mice for Mertk and Mfge8 (Mertk(-/-)/Mfge8(-/-)) and challenged them with acute coronary ligature. Compared with wild-type, Mertk-deficient (Mertk(-/-)), or Mfge8-deficient (Mfge8(-/-)) animals, Mertk(-/-)/Mfge8(-/-) mice displayed greater alteration in cardiac function and remodeling. Mertk and Mfge8 were expressed mainly by cardiac Ly6C(High and Low) monocytes and macrophages. In parallel, Mertk(-/-)/Mfge8(-/-) bone marrow chimeras manifested increased accumulation of apoptotic cells, enhanced fibrotic area, and larger infarct size, as well as reduced angiogenesis. We found that the abrogation of efferocytosis affected neither the ability of circulating monocytes to infiltrate cardiac tissue nor the number of resident Ly6C(High) and Ly6C(How) monocytes/macrophages populating the infarcted milieu. In contrast, combined Mertk and Mfge8 deficiency in Ly6C(High)/Ly6C(Low) monocytes/macrophages either obtained from in vitro differentiation of bone marrow cells or isolated from infarcted hearts altered their capacity of efferocytosis and subsequently blunted vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) release. Using LysMCre(+)/VEGFA(fl/fl) mice, we further identified an important role for myeloid-derived VEGFA in improving cardiac function and angiogenesis. After myocardial infarction, Mertk- and Mfge8-expressing monocyte/macrophages synergistically engage the clearance of injured cardiomyocytes, favoring the secretion of VEGFA to locally repair the dysfunctional heart. © 2016 The Authors.

  17. The composition of cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osthoff, G; Hugo, A; de Wit, M

    2006-01-01

    Milk was obtained from two captive bred cheetahs. The nutrient content was 99.6 g protein; 64.8 g fat; and 40.21 g lactose per kg milk. Small amounts of oligosaccharides, glucose, galactose and fucose were noted. The protein fraction respectively consisted of 34.2 g caseins per kg milk and of 65.3 g whey proteins per kg milk. Very little variation in milk composition among the individual cheetahs was noted. Electrophoresis and identification of protein bands showed a similar migrating sequence of proteins as seen in lion's and cat's milk, with small differences in the beta-caseins. The lipid fraction contains 290.4 g saturated and 337.3 g mono-unsaturated fatty acids per kg milk fat respectively. The high content of 279.5 g kg(-1) milk fat of polyunsaturated fatty acids is due to a high content in alpha-linolenic acid. No short chain fatty acids, but substantial levels of uneven carbon chain fatty acids were observed.

  18. TAURINE DEFICIENCY IN COLLARED-ANTEATER (TAMANDUA TERTRADACTYLA FED WITH DOGS AND CATS MILK SUBSTITUTES DEFICIÊNCIA DE TAURINA EM FILHOTE DE TAMANDUÁ-MIRIM (Tamandua tetradactyla ALIMENTADO COM SUBSTITUTOS DE LEITE PARA CÃES E GATOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Otávio Cançado Motta

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available  The taurine is a sulphur amino acid that in most of the mammals produced in enough amounts in the liver, from metionine and cysteine, using the enzyme cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase. However, for felines are considered an essential amino acid, needing to be ingested as a supplement of the organism requirements. For anteaters the condition is not yet elucidated, but these animals have developed disease when fed with diet poor in this amino acid. The most frequent clinical sings observed in cats are dilated cardiomyopathy, retina degeneration, reproductive and development anomalies, increase of plaquetary aggregation, leucopenia and neurological disturbs. In the present case, a hand-hearing of collared-anteater (Tamandua tetradactyla feeding milk substitutes for dogs and cats, presented taurine deficiency, characterized mainly for loss of coats and seizures. The diagnosis was based in reply of the animal to the supplement, after which gad regression of the clinical sings without return.

    KEY WORDS: Collared-anteater, Tamandua tetradactyla, taurine. A taurina é um aminoácido sulfurado e, na maioria dos mamíferos, produzida em quantidades suficientes no fígado a partir de metionina e cisteína, utilizando a enzima decarboxilase do ácido cistéico sulfínico. Para felinos é considerado um aminoácido essencial, necessitando ser ingerido para suprimento às necessidades do organismo. Em tamanduás, esta condição não está bem definida, entretanto, animais alimentados com dietas carentes nesse aminoácido têm demonstrado sinais clínicos compatíveis com deficiência de taurina. Em gatos as alterações mais freqüentes são cardiomiopatia dilatada, degeneração da retina, anormalidades reprodutivas e de desenvolvimento, aumento da agregação plaquetária, leucopenia e distúrbios neurológicos. No presente caso, um filhote de tamanduá-mirim (Tamandua tetradactyla criado em cativeiro com substitutos de leite para c

  19. Avaliação físico-química e sensorial do iogurte natural produzido com leite de búfala contendo diferentes níveis de gordura Physico-chemical and sensory evaluation of plain yogurt manufactured from buffalo milk with different fat content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otaviano Carneiro Cunha Neto

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A elaboração de iogurtes pode ser considerada uma excelente alternativa para a utilização industrial do leite de búfala. Entretanto, alguns problemas de aceitação por parte dos consumidores podem ocorrer devido ao elevado conteúdo de gordura do leite original. Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar algumas características do iogurte natural batido elaborado com leite de búfala com os seguintes teores de gordura: integral, 3,0% (padronizado e 0,5% (desnatado. Os iogurtes foram embalados em frascos de polietileno de 1L e estocados a 5°C por 30 dias. Amostras foram colhidas nos dias 1, 15 e 30 e submetidas à análise de acidez, pH, viscosidade e avaliação sensorial. Os valores de acidez e pH não apresentaram diferenças (P > 0,05 entre os tratamentos, durante o período de estocagem. A viscosidade também não foi influenciada (P > 0,05 pelos níveis de gordura nos dias 1, 15 e 30. O iogurte produzido com leite padronizado apresentou notas maiores (P Yogurt can be considered an excellent alternative for utilization of buffalo milk. However, consumers may have some acceptance problems in relation to buffalo yogurt because of the original high fat content of the milk. The aim of the present study was to evaluate some characteristics of stirred plain yogurt produced from buffalo milk with the following fat levels: whole milk, 3.0% (standardized and 0.5% (skim. Yogurts were stored in 1L polyethylene bottles at 5°C for 30 days. Samples were collected at 1, 15 and 30 days of storage and submitted to the following analysis: acidity, pH, viscosity and sensorial evaluation. Acidity and pH values showed no differences (P > 0.05 among treatments during storage. Viscosity was not influenced (P > 0.05 by fat content in yogurts on days 1, 15 and 30 after manufacture. Standardized yogurt obtained higher scores (P < 0.05 for taste in sensorial analysis at 15 and 30 days storage. It is concluded that skimming of buffalo milk does not alter the

  20. Applicability of the CALUX bioassay for screening of dioxin levels in human milk samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laier, P.; Cederberg, Tommy Licht; Larsen, John Christian

    2003-01-01

    The CALUX (chemically activated luciferase expression) bioassay based on rat hepatoma (H4IIE) cells is a sensitive assay for the detection of Ah receptor agonists like 2,3,7,8-substituted chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and related PCBs. In this paper, the assay was optimized...... and applied for monitoring levels of dioxins in human milk samples. Combination effects of dioxin-like compounds were evaluated by testing potential mechanisms of interaction between seven of the major dioxin-like compounds in human milk using the isobole method. Results showed that the compounds acted...... lower REP in CALUX. The total dioxin-like activity was determined in 16 Danish human milk samples and was in the range 20.5-55.8 pg TEQ g(-1) fat. These values were compared with TEQs obtained from GC/MS analysis (range 14.8-43.6 pg TEQ-g(-1) fat) that overall were a little lower than CALUX TEQs...

  1. Results from raw milk microbiological tests do not predict the shelf-life performance of commercially pasteurized fluid milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, N H; Ranieri, M L; Murphy, S C; Ralyea, R D; Wiedmann, M; Boor, K J

    2011-03-01

    Analytical tools that accurately predict the performance of raw milk following its manufacture into commercial food products are of economic interest to the dairy industry. To evaluate the ability of currently applied raw milk microbiological tests to predict the quality of commercially pasteurized fluid milk products, samples of raw milk and 2% fat pasteurized milk were obtained from 4 New York State fluid milk processors for a 1-yr period. Raw milk samples were examined using a variety of tests commonly applied to raw milk, including somatic cell count, standard plate count, psychrotrophic bacteria count, ropy milk test, coliform count, preliminary incubation count, laboratory pasteurization count, and spore pasteurization count. Differential and selective media were used to identify groups of bacteria present in raw milk. Pasteurized milk samples were held at 6°C for 21 d and evaluated for standard plate count, coliform count, and sensory quality throughout shelf-life. Bacterial isolates from select raw and pasteurized milk tests were identified using 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing. Linear regression analysis of raw milk test results versus results reflecting pasteurized milk quality consistently showed low R(2) values (tests and results from tests used to evaluate pasteurized milk quality. Our findings suggest the need for new raw milk tests that measure the specific biological barriers that limit shelf-life and quality of fluid milk products. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Efeito de diferentes fontes de gordura na dieta de vacas Jersey sobre o consumo, a produção e a composição do leite Effects of different dietary fat sources on intake and milk yield and composition of Jersey cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Marta D'Almeida Duarte

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de investigar o efeito de diferentes fontes de gordura na dieta de vacas Jersey sobre os consumos de matéria seca (CMS, fibra em detergente neutro (CFDN e extrato etéreo (CEE, sobre a composição e a produção de leite (PL, foram utilizadas oito vacas Jersey, distribuídas em dois quadrados Latinos (4 x 4. Os tratamentos utilizados foram: C = concentrado sem gordura; SB = concentrado com sebo bovino; GP = concentrado com gordura protegida comercial (sais de cálcio + óleo de palma; e GS = concentrado com grão de soja. Não houve diferença para os CMS e CFDN. O CEE foi mais elevado nos tratamentos que incluíram gordura nas dietas. Os tratamentos GP e SB proporcionaram produção leiteira (PL e produção leiteira corrigida a 4% de gordura (PLCG4% semelhantes entre si (25,6 e 23,6 kg/vaca/dia e GP foi superior aos tratamentos C e GS, que resultaram em PLCG4% de 23,4 e 22,9 kg/vaca/dia, respectivamente. A eficiência da produção de leite (PLCG4%:CMS diferiu entre tratamentos. O tratamento GP apresentou a melhor eficiência de produção (1,50, apesar de semelhante ao tratamento C (1,38. Os teores de gordura (G, proteína total (P, caseína (C, sólidos totais (ST, sólidos totais desengordurados (STD, densidade (D e índice crioscópico (IC não diferiram entre os tratamentos. Os resultados indicam a viabilidade do uso de gordura nas dietas para vacas leiteiras de alta produção, observando-se aumento na produção e melhoria da eficiência de produção, sem alterações no consumo de alimentos e na composição do leite produzido.Eight high-yielding Jersey cows were randomly assigned to two 4x4 Latin squares to study the effects of different dietary fat sources on intakes of dry matter (DMI, neutral detergent fiber (NDFI, and ether extract (EEI as well as on milk yield and composition. The following treatments were used: concentrate with no added fat (control = C; concentrate plus tallow (T; concentrate plus commercial

  3. Viscosity and Analytical Differences between Raw Milk and UHT Milk of Czech Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumbár V.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Viscosity and analytical differences in four milk samples from Czech cows were described. Three samples of UHT milk (0.5%, 1.5%, and 3.5% fat and one sample of raw milk from a Czech bio-farm were analyzed. The following analytical properties were observed: titratable acidity, fat content, dry matter content, and protein content. Titratable acidity and dry matter content decreased in dependence upon the increasing milk fat content. The protein content ranged 3.51-3.57 g per 100 g milk. The milk flow behaviour represented by density, dynamic and kinematic viscosity, as well as the dependence of the milk flow behaviour on temperature were investigated. These properties were measured using a digital densitometer and a rotary viscometer. Milk density was studied at temperatures ranging 0-60 °C and dynamic viscosity at 0-100 °C. With increasing temperature, the density and dynamic viscosity of the studied milk samples decreased. The temperature dependence of dynamic viscosity was manifested in all samples. Kinematic viscosity was calculated from experimental data. Furthermore, mathematical models using Power law and Gaussian fitting were constructed. Determination coefficients achieved high values (0.843-0.997.

  4. A Comparison of Nutritional Antioxidant Content in Breast Milk, Donor Milk, and Infant Formulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrine Hanson

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Human milk is the optimal food for human infants, including infants born prematurely. In the event that a mother of a hospitalized infant cannot provide breast milk, donor milk is considered an acceptable alternative. It is known that the macronutrient composition of donor milk is different than human milk, with variable fat content and protein content. However, much less is known about the micronutrient content of donor milk, including nutritional antioxidants. Samples of breast milk from 12 mothers of infants hospitalized in the Newborn Intensive Care Unit until were collected and analyzed for concentrations of nutritional antioxidants, including α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, lutein + zeaxanthin, retinol, and α-tocopherol. Additionally, a homogenized sample of donor milk available from a commercial milk bank and samples of infant formulas were also analyzed. Concentrations of nutritional antioxidants were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. Compared to breast milk collected from mothers of hospitalized infants, commercially available donor milk had 18%–53% of the nutritional antioxidant content of maternal breast milk. As donor milk is becoming a common nutritional intervention for the high risk preterm infant, the nutritional antioxidant status of donor milk–fed premature infants and outcomes related to oxidative stress may merit further investigation.

  5. Effect of microbiological testing on subsequent mid-infrared milk component analysis of the same milk sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojciechowski, Karen L; Melilli, Caterina; Barbano, David M

    2014-09-01

    Our objectives were to determine if mixing and sampling of a raw milk sample at 4°C for determination of total bacteria count (TBC) and if incubation at 14°C for 18h and sampling for a preliminary incubation (PI) count influenced the accuracy of subsequent fat, protein, or lactose measurement by mid-infrared (IR) analysis of milk from the same sample container due to either nonrepresentative sampling or the presence of microbial metabolites produced by microbial growth in the milk from the incubation. Milks of 4 fat levels (2.2, 3, 4, and 5%) reflected the range of fat levels encountered in producer milks. If the portion of milk removed from a cold sample was not representative, then the effect on a milk component test would likely be larger as fat content increases. Within the milks at each fat level, 3 treatments were used: (1) 20 vials of the same milk sampled for testing TBC using a BactoScan FC and then used for a milk component test; (2) 20 vials for testing TBC plus PI count followed by component test; and (3) 20 vials to run for IR component test without a prior micro sampling and testing. This was repeated in 3 different weeks using a different batch of milk each week. No large effect on the accuracy of component milk testing [IR fat B (carbon hydrogen stretch) and fat A (carbonyl stretch)] due to the cold milk sample handling and mixing procedures used for TBC was detected, confirming the fact that the physical removal of milk from the vial by the BactoScan FC (Foss Electric, Hillerød, Denmark) was a representative portion of the milk. However, the representativeness of any other sampling procedure (manual or automated) of a cold milk sample before running milk component testing on the same container of milk should be demonstrated and verified periodically as a matter of routine laboratory quality assurance. Running TBC with a BactoScan FC first and then IR milk analysis after had a minimal effect on milk component tests by IR when milk bacteria counts

  6. Use of Donkey Milk in Children with Cow’s Milk Protein Allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Polidori

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Human breast milk is the best nutritional support that insures the right development and influences the immune status of the newborn infant. However, when it is not possible to breast feed, it may be necessary to use commercial infant formulas that mimic, where possible, the levels and types of nutrients present in human milk. Despite this, some formula-fed infant develops allergy and/or atopic disease compared to breast-fed infants. Cow’s milk allergy can be divided into immunoglobulin IgE mediated food allergy and non-IgE-mediated food allergy. Most infants with cow’s milk protein allergy (CMPA develop symptoms before 1 month of age, often within 1 week after introduction of cow’s milk-based formula. Donkey milk may be considered a good substitute for cow’s milk in feeding children with CMPA since its composition is very similar to human milk. Donkey milk total protein content is low (1.5–1.8 g/100 g, very close to human milk. A thorough analysis of the donkey milk protein profile has been performed in this study; the interest was focused on the milk proteins considered safe for the prevention and treatment of various disorders in humans. The content of lactoferrin, lactoperoxidase and lysozyme, peptides with antimicrobial activity, able to stimulate the development of the neonatal intestine, was determined. Donkey milk is characterized by a low casein content, with values very close to human milk; the total whey protein content in donkey milk ranges between 0.49 and 0.80 g/100 g, very close to human milk (0.68–0.83 g/100 g. Among whey proteins, α-lactalbumin average concentration in donkey milk is 1.8 mg/mL. The results of this study confirmed the possibility of using donkey milk in feeding children with CMPA.

  7. Effect of Zinc Methionine or Zinc Sulfate Supplementation on Milk Production and Composition of Milk in Lactating Dairy Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sobhanirad, Saeid; Carlson, Dorthe; Kashani, Reza Bahari

    2010-01-01

     Zn/kg of dry matter (DM) as zinc sulfate monohydrate (ZnS) and basal diet plus 500 mg Zn/kg of DM as zinc methionine (ZnM). Results showed that milk and fat-corrected milk yield in dairy cows were not significantly affected by Zn source although a numerical increase was observed. The percentages of protein......, lactose, fat, solid nonfat, total solid, and density of milk were not significantly different between treatments. However, dairy cows that received ZnM tended to produce more milk and fat-corrected milk with a lower somatic cell count as compared to controls. The zinc concentration in milk in the Zn...

  8. Physicochemical and Microbiological Properties of Yogurt-cheese Manufactured with Ultrafiltrated Cow's Milk and Soy Milk Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Na-Kyoung; Mok, Bo Ram; Jeewanthi, Renda Kankanamge Chaturika; Yoon, Yoh Chang; Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop yogurt-cheese using cow’s milk, ultrafiltrated cow’s milk, and soy milk. The addition of soy milk and ultrafiltrated milk increased the amount of protein in the yogurt-cheese. Yogurt-cheeses were made using cheese base using 10% and 20% soy milk with raw and ultrafiltrated cow’s milk, and stored at 4℃ during 2 wk. The yield of yogurt-cheeses made with added soy milk was decreased and the cutting point was delayed compared to yogurt-cheese made without soy milk. Yogurt-cheese made using ultrafiltrated cow’s milk showed the highest yield. However, yogurt-cheese made with added soy milk had higher protein content and titratable acidity than yogurt-cheese made using raw and ultrafiltrated cow’s milk. Fat and lactose contents in the yogurt-cheese made with added soy milk were lower. Yogurt-cheeses made with added soy milk contained several soy protein bands corresponding to the sizes of α2-, β-, and κ-casein band. Yogurt-cheese made with added soy milk had similar elasticity to yogurt-cheese made without soy milk but had lower cohesiveness. There was no significant difference in the number of lactic acid bacteria in the different cheeses, as all had over 8.0 Log CFU/g. Considering these data and the fact that proteins and fats of vegetable origin with high biological value were observed as well as unsaturated fats, yogurt-cheese made with added soy milk can be considered to be a functional food. PMID:26761829

  9. Substitutional analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Rutherford, Daniel Edwin

    2013-01-01

    Classic monograph, suitable for advanced undergraduates and graduate students. Topics include calculus of permutations and tableaux, semi-normal representation, orthogonal and natural representations, group characters, and substitutional equations. 1968 edition.

  10. Quantitative secretion and maximal secretion capacity of retinol, b-carotene and a-tocopherol into cows' milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Krogh; Kjær, Anna Kirstin Bjørnbak; Hermansen, John Erik

    1999-01-01

    Changes in the contents of retinol, a-tocopherol and b-carotene in plasma, milk and milk fat from 38 Holstein-Friesian cows were followed during their ®rst lactation, and the quantitative and kinetic relationships for secretion of a-tocopherol and b-carotene from blood into milk were determined....... The cows were assigned to three groups such that all cows in the same group had the same sire. Milk yield and milk fat content differed with stage of lactation, but not according to sire. The plasma concentrations of retinol, a-tocopherol and b-carotene differed with stage of lactation; in addition...... on increasing milk and milk fat yield will result in a steady dilution in the milk fat of these vitamins and antioxidants important for the immune defence of the cows and oxidative stability of milk products. The genetic variation found offers the possibility of utilizing these variations in breeding systems....

  11. Microwave-assisted Derivatization of Fatty Acids for Its Measurement in Milk Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Rojeet; Miura, Yusuke; Hirano, Ken-Ichi; Chen, Zhen; Okabe, Hiroaki; Chiba, Hitoshi; Hui, Shu-Ping

    2018-01-01

    Fatty acid (FA) profiling of milk has important applications in human health and nutrition. Conventional methods for the saponification and derivatization of FA are time-consuming and laborious. We aimed to develop a simple, rapid, and economical method for the determination of FA in milk. We applied a beneficial approach of microwave-assisted saponification (MAS) of milk fats and microwave-assisted derivatization (MAD) of FA to its hydrazides, integrated with HPLC-based analysis. The optimal conditions for MAS and MAD were determined. Microwave irradiation significantly reduced the sample preparation time from 80 min in the conventional method to less than 3 min. We used three internal standards for the measurement of short-, medium- and long-chain FA. The proposed method showed satisfactory analytical sensitivity, recovery and reproducibility. There was a significant correlation in the milk FA concentrations between the proposed and conventional methods. Being quick, economic, and convenient, the proposed method for the milk FA measurement can be substitute for the convention method.

  12. Elephant’s breast milk contains large amounts of glucosamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    TAKATSU, Zenta; TSUDA, Muneya; YAMADA, Akio; MATSUMOTO, Hiroshi; TAKAI, Akira; TAKEDA, Yasuhiro; TAKASE, Mitsunori

    2016-01-01

    Hand-reared elephant calves that are nursed with milk substitutes sometimes suffer bone fractures, probably due to problems associated with nutrition, exercise, sunshine levels and/or genetic factors. As we were expecting the birth of an Asian elephant (Elephas maximus), we analyzed elephant’s breast milk to improve the milk substitutes for elephant calves. Although there were few nutritional differences between conventional substitutes and elephant’s breast milk, we found a large unknown peak in the breast milk during high-performance liquid chromatography-based amino acid analysis and determined that it was glucosamine (GlcN) using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. We detected the following GlcN concentrations [mean ± SD] (mg/100 g) in milk hydrolysates produced by treating samples with 6M HCl for 24 hr at 110°C: four elephant’s breast milk samples: 516 ± 42, three cow’s milk mixtures: 4.0 ± 2.2, three mare’s milk samples: 12 ± 1.2 and two human milk samples: 38. The GlcN content of the elephant’s milk was 128, 43 and 14 times greater than those of the cow’s, mare’s and human milk, respectively. Then, we examined the degradation of GlcN during 0–24 hr hydrolyzation with HCl. We estimated that elephant’s milk contains >880 mg/100 g GlcN, which is similar to the levels of major amino acids in elephant’s milk. We concluded that a novel GlcN-containing milk substitute should be developed for elephant calves. The efficacy of GlcN supplements is disputed, and free GlcN is rare in bodily fluids; thus, the optimal molecular form of GlcN requires a further study. PMID:28049867

  13. Preparation and quality characterization of soy milk based non-dairy ice cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samreen Ahsan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Soy milk made from soybean has prospective to be used as a substitute of milk due to its health benefits. It is a rich source of iso-flavones, omega-3-fatty acid, dietary fiber, vitamin C, carotenoids, protein and oligosaccharides. The current study was designed to examine the effects of galacto-manan on ice cream by using commercially available (silk and locally prepared soy milk. Galacto-mannan (guar gum was used in different concentration (0.3, 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6% for the preparation of ice cream. Ice cream was analyzed for physico-chemical and sensory characteristics at 0, 30 and 60 days of storage interval. Overrun, meltdown, viscosity, total solids, pH and acidity were affected significantly by ice cream samples as well as storage. While non-significant effects of stabilizer and storage were found on fat, protein, and ash contents of ice cream. On organoleptic evaluation, the highest scores were awarded to the ice cream sample prepared with 0.5% of guar gum. Ice cream manufactured with locally prepared soy milk and guar gum revealed comparable quality with lower cost.

  14. Preparation and quality characterization of soy milk based non-dairy ice cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samreen Ahsan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Soy milk made from soybean has prospective to be used as a substitute of milk due to its health benefits. It is a rich source of iso-flavones, omega-3-fatty acid, dietary fiber, vitamin C, carotenoids, protein and oligosaccharides. The current study was designed to examine the effects of galacto-manan on ice cream by using commercially available (silk and locally prepared soy milk. Galacto-mannan (guar gum was used in different concentration (0.3, 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6% for the preparation of ice cream. Ice cream was analyzed for physico-chemical and sensory characteristics at 0, 30 and 60 days of storage interval. Overrun, meltdown, viscosity, total solids, pH and acidity were affected significantly by ice cream samples as well as storage. While non-significant effects of stabilizer and storage were found on fat, protein, and ash contents of ice cream. On organoleptic evaluation, the highest scores were awarded to the ice cream sample prepared with 0.5% of guar gum. Ice cream manufactured with locally prepared soy milk and guar gum revealed comparable quality with lower cost.