WorldWideScience

Sample records for midlatitude regions final

  1. Global 3-D modeling of atmospheric ozone in the free troposphere and the stratosphere with emphasis on midlatitude regions. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brasseur, G.; Tie, X.; Walters, S.

    1999-03-01

    The authors have used several global chemical/transport models (1) to study the contribution of various physical, chemical, and dynamical processes to the budget of mid-latitude ozone in the stratosphere and troposphere; (2) to analyze the potential mechanisms which are responsible for the observed ozone perturbations at mid-latitudes of the lower stratosphere and in the upper troposphere; (3) to calculate potential changes in atmospheric ozone response to anthropogenic changes (e.g., emission of industrially manufactured CFCs, CO, and NO{sub x}) and to natural perturbations (e.g., volcanic eruptions and biomass burning); and (4) to estimate the impact of these changes on the radiative forcing to the climate system and on the level of UV-B radiation at the surface.

  2. PCA and vTEC climatology at midnight over mid-latitude regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natali, M. P.; Meza, A.

    2017-12-01

    remnant effect of the winter anomaly. Finally, the longitudinal variations of east-west differences, named longitudinal anomaly, show maximum values in March for North America, in December for South America and Oceania, and are not shown for Asia. Our results show that at mid-latitudes regions, the IRI model represents midnight ionospheric mean values with a similar spatial distribution, but the values are always lower than those obtained by GNSS. The differences between IRI and GNSS results include: the longitudinal anomaly is characterized by a stronger semiannual variation in both North America and South America, with a maximum in the equinoxes, while for the Asian region, the behavior is almost constant throughout the years, and finally, there is an absence of the winter anomaly remnant.

  3. Midlatitude D region variations measured from broadband radio atmospherics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Feng

    The high power, broadband very low frequency (VLF, 3--30 kHz) and extremely low frequency (ELF, 3--3000 Hz) electromagnetic waves generated by lightning discharges and propagating in the Earth-ionosphere waveguide can be used to measure the average electron density profile of the lower ionosphere (D region) across the wave propagation path due to several reflections by the upper boundary (lower ionosphere) of the waveguide. This capability makes it possible to frequently and even continuously monitor the D region electron density profile variations over geographically large regions, which are measurements that are essentially impossible by other means. These guided waves, usually called atmospherics (or sferics for short), are recorded by our sensors located near Duke University. The purpose of this work is to develop and implement algorithms to derive the variations of D region electron density profile which is modeled by two parameters (one is height and another is sharpness), by comparing the recorded sferic spectra to a series of model simulated sferic spectra from using a finite difference time domain (FDTD) code. In order to understand the time scales, magnitudes and sources for the midlatitude nighttime D region variations, we analyzed the sferic data of July and August 2005, and extracted both the height and sharpness of the D region electron density profile. The heights show large temporal variations of several kilometers on some nights and the relatively stable behavior on others. Statistical calculations indicate that the hourly average heights during the two months range between 82.0 km and 87.2 km with a mean value of 84.9 km and a standard deviation of 1.1 km. We also observed spatial variations of height as large as 2.0 km over 5 degrees latitudes on some nights, and no spatial variation on others. In addition, the measured height variations exhibited close correlations with local lightning occurrence rate on some nights but no correlation with local

  4. Modelling of the electron density height profiles in the mid-latitude ionospheric D-region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Y. Mukhtarov

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available A new mid-latitude D-region (50-105 km model of the electron density is presented obtained on the basis of a full wave theory and by a trial-and-error inversion method. Daytime (at different solar zenith angles absorption measurements by A3-technique made in Bulgaria yielded data with the aid of which the seasonal and diurnal courses of the Ne(h-profiles were derived. Special attention is drawn to the event diurnal asymmetry, or uneven formation of the ionosphere as a function of insulation. The latter is probably connected with the influence of the diurnal fluctuations in the local temperature on the chemistry involved in the electron loss rate, as well as the diurnal variations of the main ionizing agent (NO in the D-region. That is why the Ne(h-profiles in the midlatitude D-region are modelled separately for morning and afternoon hours.

  5. A Regional GPS Receiver Network For Monitoring Mid-latitude Total Electron Content During Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, A.; Cander, Lj. R.

    A regional GPS receiver network has been used for monitoring mid-latitude total elec- tron content (TEC) during ionospheric storms at the current solar maximum. Differ- ent individual storms were examined to study how the temporal patterns of changes develop and how they are related to solar and geomagnetic activity for parameter de- scriptive of plasmaspheric-ionospheric ionisation. Use is then made of computer con- touring techniques to produce snapshot maps of TEC for different study cases. Com- parisons with the local ionosonde data at different phases of the storms enable the storm developments to be studied in detail.

  6. Regional final energy consumptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This report comments the differences observed between the French regions and also between these regions and national data in terms of final energy consumption per inhabitant, per GDP unit, and per sector (housing and office building, transport, industry, agriculture). It also comments the evolutions during the last decades, identifies the most recent trends

  7. Study of midlatitude ionospheric irregularities and E- and F-region coupling based on rocket and radar observations from Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, M.

    2015-12-01

    We have been studying ionspheric irregularities in mid-latitude region by using radars, sounding rockets, etc. The mid-latitude ionosphere was considered much stable than those in the equatorial or polar region in the past, but our studies for years have revealed that there are much active variabilities. We found variety of wave-like structures that are specific in the mid-latitudes. One of the phenomena is quasi-periodic echoes (QP echoes) first observed by the MU radar that reflects horizontal plasma-density structures associated to sporadic-E layers. Another phenomenon is medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbance (MSTID) in the F-region. In the generation mechanism we think that Ionospheric E- and F-region coupling process is important. In this presentation, we will discuss nature of mid-latitude ionosphere based on our observations; the MU radar, sounding rocket campaigns of SEEK-1/2, and recent MSTID rocket experiment from JAXA Uchinoura Space Center in July 2013.

  8. Simulated East-west differences in F-region peak electron density at Far East mid-latitude region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Z.; Wan, W.

    2017-12-01

    In the present work, using Three-Dimensional Theoretical Ionospheric Model of the Earth in Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (TIME3D-IGGCAS), we simulated the east-west differences in Fregion peak electron density (NmF2) at Far East mid-latitude region.We found that, after removing the longitudinal variations of neutral parameters, TIME3D-IGGCAS can better represent the observed relative east-west difference (Rew) features. Rew is mainly negative (West NmF2 > East NmF2) at noon and positive (East NmF2 >West NmF2) at evening-night. The magnitude of daytime negative Rew is weak at local winter and strong at local summer, and the daytime Rew show two negative peaks around two equinoxes. With the increasing of solar flux level, the magnitude of Rew mainly become larger, and two daytime negative peaks slight shifts to June Solstice. With the decreasing of geographical latitude, Rew mainly become positive, and two daytime negative peaks slight shifts to June Solstice. Our simulation also suggested that the thermospheric zonal wind combined with the geomagnetic field configuration play a pivotal role in the formation of the ionospheric east-west differences at Far East midlatitude region.

  9. A Gigantic Jet Observed Over an Mesoscale Convective System in Midlatitude Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Sato, Mitsuteru; Liu, Ningyu; Lu, Gaopeng; Wang, Yu; Wang, Zhichao

    2018-01-01

    Gigantic jets (GJs) are mostly observed over summer tropical or tropical-like thunderstorms. This study reports observation of a GJ over a mesoscale convective system (MCS) in the midlatitude region in eastern China. The GJ is observed over a relatively weak radar reflectivity region ahead of the leading line, and the maximum radar echo top along the GJ azimuth was lower than the tropopause in the same region, significantly different from past studies that indicate summer GJs are usually associated with convective surges or overshooting tops. Also different from most of previous observations showing GJ-producing summer thunderstorms only produced GJ type of transient luminous events during their life cycles, two sprites were also captured in a time window of 15 min containing the GJ, indicating that the MCS provides favorable conditions not only for the GJ but also for the sprites. The balloon-borne soundings of the MCS show that there were large wind shears in the middle and upper levels of the thundercloud, which may have played important roles for the GJ production.

  10. Study of the mid-latitude ionospheric response to geomagnetic storms in the European region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berényi, Kitti Alexandra; Barta, Veronika; Kis, Arpad

    2016-07-01

    Geomagnetic storms affect the ionospheric regions of the terrestrial upper atmosphere through different physical and atmospheric processes. The phenomena that can be regarded as a result of these processes, generally is named as "ionospheric storm". The processes depend on altitude, segment of the day, the geomagnetic latitude and longitude, strength of solar activity and the type of the geomagnetic storm. We examine the data of ground-based radio wave ionosphere sounding measurements of European ionospheric stations (mainly the data of Nagycenk Geophysical Observatory) in order to determine how and to what extent a geomagnetic disturbance of a certain strength affects the mid-latitude ionospheric regions in winter and in summer. For our analysis we used disturbed time periods between November 2012 and June 2015. Our results show significant changing of the ionospheric F2 layer parameters on strongly disturbed days compared to quiet ones. We show that the critical frequencies (foF2) increase compared to their quiet day value when the ionospheric storm was positive. On the other hand, the critical frequencies become lower, when the storm was negative. In our analysis we determined the magnitude of these changes on the chosen days. For a more complete analysis we compare also the evolution of the F2 layer parameters of the European ionosonde stations on a North-South geographic longitude during a full storm duration. The results present the evolution of an ionospheric storm over a geographic meridian. Furthermore, we compared the two type of geomagnetic storms, namely the CME caused geomagnetic storm - the so-called Sudden impulse (Si) storms- and the HSS (High Speed Solar Wind Streams) caused geomagnetic storms -the so-called Gradual storms (Gs)- impact on the ionospheric F2-layer (foF2 parameter). The results show a significant difference between the effect of Si and of the Gs storms on the ionospheric F2-layer.

  11. More evidence for a planetary wave link with midlatitude E region coherent backscatter and sporadic E layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Schlegel

    Full Text Available Measurements of midlatitude E region coherent backscatter obtained during four summers with SESCAT, a 50 MHz Doppler system operating in Crete, Greece, and concurrent ionosonde recordings from the same ionospheric volume obtained with a CADI for one of these summers, are used to analyse the long-term variability in echo and Es occurrence. Echo and Es layer occurrences, computed in percent of time over a 12-h nighttime interval, take the form of time sequences. Linear power spectrum analysis shows that there are dominant spectral peaks in the range of 2–9 days, the most commonly observed periods appearing in two preferential bands, of 2–3 days and 4–7 days. No connection with geomagnetic activity was found. The characteristics of these periodicities compare well with similar properties of planetary waves, which suggests the possibility that planetary waves are responsible for the observed long-term periodicities. These findings indicate also a likely close relation between planetary wave (PW activity and the well known but not well understood seasonal Es dependence. To test the PW postulation, we used simultaneous neutral wind data from the mesopause region around 95 km, measured from Collm, Germany. Direct comparison of the long-term periodicities in echo and Es layer occurrence with those in the neutral wind show some reasonable agreement. This new evidence, although not fully conclusive, is the first direct indication in favour of a planetary wave role on the unstable midlatitude E region ionosphere. Our results suggest that planetary waves observation is a viable option and a new element into the physics of midlatitude Es layers that needs to be considered and investigated.Key words: Ionosphere (ionosphere irregularities; mid-latitude ionosphere – Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (waves and tides

  12. Titan’s mid-latitude surface regions with Cassini VIMS and RADAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomonidou, Anezina; Lopes, Rosaly M. C.; Coustenis, Athena; Malaska, Michael; Rodriguez, Sebastien; Maltagliati, Luca; Drossart, Pierre; Janssen, Michael; Lawrence, Kenneth; Jaumann, Ralf; Sohl, Frank; Stephan, Katrin; Brown, Robert H.; Bratsolis, Emmanuel; Matsoukas, Christos

    2015-11-01

    The Cassini-Huygens mission instruments have revealed Titan to have a complex and dynamic atmosphere and surface. Data from the remote sensing instruments have shown the presence of diverse surface terrains in terms of morphology and composition, suggesting both exogenic and endogenic processes [1]. We define both the surface and atmospheric contributions in the VIMS spectro-imaging data by use of a radiative transfer code in the near-IR range [2]. To complement this dataset, the Cassini RADAR instrument provides additional information on the surface morphology, from which valuable geological interpretations can be obtained [3]. We examine the origin of key Titan terrains, covering the mid-latitude zones extending from 50ºN to 50ºS. The different geological terrains we investigate include: mountains, plains, labyrinths, craters, dune fields, and possible cryovolcanic and/or evaporite features. We have found that the labyrinth terrains and the undifferentiated plains seem to consist of a very similar if not the same material, while the different types of plains show compositional variations [3]. The processes most likely linked to their formation are aeolian, fluvial, sedimentary, lacustrine, in addition to the deposition of atmospheric products though the process of photolysis and sedimentation of organics. We show that temporal variations of surface albedo exist for two of the candidate cryovolcanic regions. The surface albedo variations together with the presence of volcanic-like morphological features suggest that the active regions are possibly related to the deep interior, possibly via cryovolcanism processes (with important implications for the satellite’s astrobiological potential) as also indicated by new interior structure models of Titan and corresponding calculations of the spatial pattern of maximum tidal stresses [4]. However, an explanation attributed to exogenic processes is also possible [5]. We will report on results from our most recent

  13. Numerical simulation of mid-latitude ionospheric E-region based on SEEK and SEEK-2 observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Yokoyama

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Observational campaigns of the mid-latitude ionospheric E-region with sounding rockets and ground-based instruments were conducted in 1996 (SEEK and 2002 (SEEK-2. Both of them were successfully conducted to bring important findings about the mid-latitude E-region and quasi-periodic (QP VHF radar echoes. The observational results in the SEEK and the SEEK-2 are compared with numerical simulations and discussed in this paper. While sporadic-E (Es-layers are actually formed by the observed neutral wind, it is difficult for the constant wind shear to produce the sharp Es-layer gradient. However, once they are formed in the lower E-region, they cannot easily be dissipated by the simple diffusive motion. The polarization electric field, calculated under the condition at the rocket launch time, shows similar amplitude and structure to the measurement around the Es-layer altitude. The structure of the plasma density and the electric field above the Es-layer observed in the SEEK-2 showed a wave-like pattern up to an altitude of 150 km. Considering a mapping of the polarization electric field generated within the Es-layers, gravity waves are the possible source of the wave-like structure of the measured electric fields and sub-peaks of the electron density above the main Es-layers. Fluctuation of the measured magnetic field is reproduced by Hall or field-aligned current driven by the polarization electric field. The current theoretical models for QP echoes and the polarization electric field are basically verified by the discussion in this paper. Keywords. Ionospheric irregularities – Mid-latitude ionosphere – Numerical simulation studies

  14. Precursory enhancement of EIA in the morning sector: Contribution from mid-latitude large earthquakes in the north-east Asian region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Kwangsun; Oyama, Koh-Ichiro; Bankov, Ludmil; Chen, Chia-Hung; Devi, Minakshi; Liu, Huixin; Liu, Jann-Yenq

    2016-01-01

    To investigate whether the link between seismic activity and EIA (equatorial ionization anomaly) enhancement is valid for mid-latitude seismic activity, DEMETER observations around seven large earthquakes in the north-east Asian region were fully analyzed (M ⩾ 6.8). In addition, statistical analysis was performed for 35 large earthquakes (M ⩾ 6.0) that occurred during the DEMETER observation period. The results suggest that mid-latitude earthquakes do contribute to EIA enhancement, represented as normalized equatorial Ne , and that ionospheric change precedes seismic events, as has been reported in previous studies. According to statistical studies, the normalized equatorial density enhancement is sensitive and proportional to both the magnitude and the hypocenter depth of an earthquake. The mechanisms that can explain the contribution of mid-latitude seismic activity to EIA variation are briefly discussed based on current explanations of the geochemical and ionospheric processes involved in lithosphere-ionosphere interaction.

  15. Amplified warming projections for high altitude regions of the northern hemisphere mid-latitudes from CMIP5 models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangwala, Imtiaz; Sinsky, Eric; Miller, James R

    2013-01-01

    We use output from global climate models available from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) for three different greenhouse gas emission scenarios to investigate whether the projected warming in mountains by the end of the 21st century is significantly different from that in low elevation regions. To remove the effects of latitudinal variation in warming rates, we focus on seasonal changes in the mid-latitude band of the northern hemisphere between 27.5° N and 40° N, where the two major mountain systems are the Tibetan Plateau/Himalayas in Asia and the Rocky Mountains in the United States. Results from the multi-model ensemble indicate that warming rates in mountains will be enhanced relative to non-mountain regions at the same latitude, particularly during the cold season. The strongest correlations of enhanced warming with elevation are obtained for the daily minimum temperature during winter, with the largest increases found for the Tibetan Plateau/Himalayas. The model projections indicate that this occurs, in part, because of proportionally greater increases in downward longwave radiation at higher elevations in response to increases in water vapor. The mechanisms for enhanced increases in winter and spring maximum temperatures in the Rockies appear to be influenced more by increases in surface absorption of solar radiation owing to a reduced snow cover. Furthermore, the amplification of warming with elevation is greater for a higher greenhouse gas emission scenario. (letter)

  16. Tropospheric mid-latitude geopotential wave characteristics associated with strong wind events in the North Atlantic/European region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Simon; Simmonds, Ian; Leckebusch, Gregor C.

    2015-04-01

    The variability of strong synoptic scale wind events in the mid-latitudes have long been linked to baroclinic wave activity in the mid troposphere. Previous studies have also shown that greater amplitudes of planetary waves in the mid troposphere are likely to increase the occurrence of regional extremes in temperature and precipitation. In this study we examine whether characteristics of planetary and synoptic mid-latitude waves show systematic anomalies in the North Atlantic/ European region which can be related to the occurrence of a strong surface wind event. We will mainly focus on two questions: 1) Do amplitudes for waves with different wave lengths show a systematic anomaly when a strong wind event occurs? 2) Can phases of the individual wave components be detected that favour strong wind events? In order to decompose the mid-tropospheric flow into longitudinal waves we employ the fast Fourier transform to the meridional mean of the geopotential height in 500hPa between 35° and 60°N for i) the entire latitude belt and ii) for a North Atlantic/European sector (36°W to 36°E). Our definition of strong wind events is based on the Storm Severity Index (SSI) alongside a wind tracking algorithm identifying areas of exceedances of the local 98th percentile of the 10m wind speed. First results using ERA-Interim Reanalysis from 1979 - 2014 for the extended winter season (ONDJFM) for the 50 most intense strong wind systems with respect to the SSI reveal a greater amplitude for all investigated wave numbers. Especially waves with wave lengths below 2000km show an increase of about 25% of the daily standard deviation on average. The distribution of wave phases for the different wave numbers with respect to the location of a strong wind event shows a less homogenous picture. There is however a high proportion of events that can be associated with phases around 3π/4 and 5π/4 of waves with lengths of around 6000km, equivalent to wave number 5 on a planetary scale

  17. Investigation of the Effects of Solar and Geomagnetic Changes on the Total Electron Content: Mid-Latitude Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulukavak, Mustafa; Yalcinkaya, Mualla

    2016-04-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) is used as an important tool for ionosphere monitoring and obtaining the Total Electron Content (TEC). GPS satellites, positioned in the Earth's orbit, are used as sensors to investigate the space weather conditions. In this study, solar and geomagnetic activity variations were investigated between the dates 1 March-30 June 2015 for the mid-latitude region. GPS-TEC variations were calculated for each selected International GNSS Service (IGS) station in Europe. GNSS data was obtained from Crustal Dynamics Data and Information System (CDDIS) archive. Solar and geomagnetic activity indices (Kp, F10.7 ve Dst) were obtained from the Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Canadian Space Weather Forecast Centre (CSWFC) and Data Analysis Center for geomagnetism and Space Magnetism Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University (WDC) archives. GPS-TEC variations were determined for the quiet periods of the solar and geomagnetic activities. GPS-TEC changes were then compared with respect to the quiet periods of the solar and geomagnetic activities. Global Ionosphere Maps (GIM) IONEX files, obtained from the IGS analysis center, was used to check the robustness of the GPS-TEC variations. The investigations revealed that it is possible to use the GPS-TEC data for monitoring the ionospheric disturbances.

  18. Response of equatorial, low- and mid-latitude F-region in the American sector during the intense geomagnetic storm on 24-25 October 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jesus, R.; Sahai, Y.; Fagundes, P. R.; de Abreu, A. J.; Brunini, C.; Gende, M.; Bittencourt, J. A.; Abalde, J. R.; Pillat, V. G.

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, we present and discuss the response of the ionospheric F-region in the American sector during the intense geomagnetic storm which occurred on 24-25 October 2011. In this investigation ionospheric sounding data obtained of 23, 24, 25, and 26 October 2011 at Puerto Rico (United States), Jicamarca (Peru), Palmas, São José dos Campos (Brazil), and Port Stanley, are presented. Also, the GPS observations obtained at 12 stations in the equatorial, low-, mid- and high-mid-latitude regions in the American sector are presented. During the fast decrease of Dst (about ˜54 nT/h between 23:00 and 01:00 UT) on the night of 24-25 October (main phase), there is a prompt penetration of electric field of magnetospheric origin resulting an unusual uplifting of the F region at equatorial stations. On the night of 24-25 October 2011 (recovery phase) equatorial, low- and mid-latitude stations show h'F variations much larger than the average variations possibly associated with traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs) caused by Joule heating at high latitudes. The foF2 variations at mid-latitude stations and the GPS-VTEC observations at mid- and low-latitude stations show a positive ionospheric storm on the night of 24-25 October, possibly due to changes in the large-scale wind circulation. The foF2 observations at mid-latitude station and the GPS-VTEC observations at mid- and high-mid-latitude stations show a negative ionospheric storm on the night of 24-25 October, probably associated with an increase in the density of molecular nitrogen. During the daytime on 25 October, the variations in foF2 at mid-latitude stations show large negative ionospheric storm, possibly due to changes in the O/N2 ratio. On the night of 24-25, ionospheric plasma bubbles (equatorial irregularities that extended to the low- and mid-latitude regions) are observed at equatorial, low- and mid-latitude stations. Also, on the night of 25-26, ionospheric plasma bubbles are observed at equatorial

  19. Effect of TADs on the F-region of Low midlatitude ionosphere during intense geomagnetic storm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhayaya, Arun Kumar; Joshi, Shivani; Singh Dabas, Raj; Das, Rupesh M.; Yadav, Sneha

    Effect of TAD's on the F region ionosphere of low-mid latitude ionosphere during three intense storms of20 th Nov,2003(-422nT),30 th Oct 2003(-383nT),07Nov,2004(-373nT)respectively are studued using ionosonde data of Delhi(28ø N 77øE).It has been seen that the electon density profile in the F1 region are greatly influenced by the TAD's presence. Further the pre-existing F1 cusp become better devloped during the passage of TAD's.

  20. Enhanced antisunward convection and F region scintillations at mid-latitudes during storm onset

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, J.C.; Aarons, J.

    1988-01-01

    Millstone Hill radar observations over a wide span of latitudes detail the onset of 300 m/s antisunward (westward) convection at mid and low latitudes in the morning sector as a region of storm-enhanced sunward convection retreats poleward. Ring current observations reported by Lui et al. (1987) suggest that the magnetospheric shielding layer was coincident with the observed reversal between sunward and antisunward convection. A strong southward component of the F region neutral wind is observed at latitudes equatorward of the convection reversal. These observations are in agreement with the model of Spiro et al. (1988), who find that storm-enhanced neutrral winds at latitudes equatorward of the shielding layer can generate a long-lived perturbation electric field in the inner magnetosphere. The observations show the growth of the subauroral electric field as the shielding boundary moves poleward. They observe 136-MHz scintillations in both the auroral sunwarrd convection region and the region of subauroral antisunward convection when the convection electric fields exceed 5 mV/m

  1. Transition region of TEC enhancement phenomena during geomagnetically disturbed periods at mid-latitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Unnikrishnan

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale TEC perturbations/enhancements observed during the day sectors of major storm periods, 12-13 February 2000, 23 September 1999, 29 October 2003, and 21 November 2003, were studied using a high resolution GPS network over Japan. TEC enhancements described in the present study have large magnitudes (≥25×1016 electrons/m2 compared to the quiet-time values and long periods (≥120 min. The sequential manner of development and the propagation of these perturbations show that they are initiated at the northern region and propagate towards the southern region of Japan, with velocities >350 m/s. On 12 February 2000, remarkably high values of TEC and background content are observed at the southern region, compared to the north, because of the poleward expansion of the equatorial anomaly crest, which is characterized by strong latitudinal gradients near 35° N (26° N geomagnetically. When the TEC enhancements, initiating at the north, propagate through the region 39-34° N (30-25° N geomagnetically, they undergo transitions characterized by a severe decrease in amplitude of TEC enhancements. This may be due to their interaction with the higher background content of the expanded anomaly crest. However, at the low-latitude region, below 34° N, an increase in TEC is manifested as an enhanced ionization pattern (EIP. This could be due to the prompt penetration of the eastward electric field, which is evident from high values of the southward Interplanetary Magnetic Field component (IMF Bz and AE index. The TEC perturbations observed on the other storm days also exhibit similar transitions, characterized by a decreasing magnitude of the perturbation component, at the region around 39-34° N. In addition to this, on the other storm days, at the low-latitude region, below 34° N, an increase in TEC (EIP feature also indicates the repeatability of the above scenario. It is found that, the latitude and

  2. Transition region of TEC enhancement phenomena during geomagnetically disturbed periods at mid-latitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Unnikrishnan

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale TEC perturbations/enhancements observed during the day sectors of major storm periods, 12-13 February 2000, 23 September 1999, 29 October 2003, and 21 November 2003, were studied using a high resolution GPS network over Japan. TEC enhancements described in the present study have large magnitudes (≥25×1016 electrons/m2 compared to the quiet-time values and long periods (≥120 min. The sequential manner of development and the propagation of these perturbations show that they are initiated at the northern region and propagate towards the southern region of Japan, with velocities >350 m/s. On 12 February 2000, remarkably high values of TEC and background content are observed at the southern region, compared to the north, because of the poleward expansion of the equatorial anomaly crest, which is characterized by strong latitudinal gradients near 35° N (26° N geomagnetically. When the TEC enhancements, initiating at the north, propagate through the region 39-34° N (30-25° N geomagnetically, they undergo transitions characterized by a severe decrease in amplitude of TEC enhancements. This may be due to their interaction with the higher background content of the expanded anomaly crest. However, at the low-latitude region, below 34° N, an increase in TEC is manifested as an enhanced ionization pattern (EIP. This could be due to the prompt penetration of the eastward electric field, which is evident from high values of the southward Interplanetary Magnetic Field component (IMF Bz and AE index. The TEC perturbations observed on the other storm days also exhibit similar transitions, characterized by a decreasing magnitude of the perturbation component, at the region around 39-34° N. In addition to this, on the other storm days, at the low-latitude region, below 34° N, an increase in TEC (EIP feature also indicates the repeatability of the above scenario. It is found that, the latitude and time at which the decrease in magnitude

  3. Mid-Holocene paleoclimatic changes and solar activity in San'in District, mid-latitude North Pacific Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Y.; Seto, K.; Sakai, T.; Ooki, A.; yamada, K.; Dettman, D. L.

    2011-12-01

    Evidence shows that solar activity influences climate on a global scale. In the mid-latitude region, climate change is expected to change precipitation patterns. Concurrently, variation in solar activity may influence phytoplankton productivity. It seems that these changes should be recorded in sediment and organic matter deposits in coastal lagoons. In this study, we discuss the relationship between climate change and solar activity in the mid-Holocene in the northern hemisphere mid-latitude region based on grain size analysis, total organic carbon (TOC) content and organic carbon accumulation rates (Corg A.R.) in coastal lagoon sediment core samples. The INB core was drilled to produce a high resolution record of Holocene paleoenvironmental change in the San'in District, western Japan. The core is 19.17m in total length and is divided into Unit I~VII by lithofacies. Holocene sediment, primarily organic silt, forms Unit III and above in this core. Unit III was deposited from 8.4 to 5.4 ka, when sea level rose during the Jomon transgression; its depositional environment is a coastal lagoon. Progradation of the river mouth during the sea level rise lead to an increase in the C/N ratio of organic matter. Unit IV contains the volcanic Shigaku pyroclastic flow (the sixth stage of volcanic activity of the Sanbe volcano), and Unit V reflects deposition in a freshwater lake or swamp. Above this aggredational sediments were deposited by small rivers. This study focused on the coastal lagoon sediments of Unit III (8.4 to 5.4 ka); we carried out CNS elemental analysis and grain size analysis with a resolution of approximately five years. TOC content is variable and increases from 0.5 to 5%. Variation in TOC content is relatively well correlated with atmospheric radiocarbon 14C (Delta 14C) and therefore with solar activity, although the relationship is unclear in the upper portion of Unit III. The trend in Corg A.R. is different than TOC contents, about 40g/m/yr at ~8ka and

  4. Midlatitude atmospheric circulation responses under 1.5 and 2.0 °C warming and implications for regional impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the global response of the midlatitude atmospheric circulation to 1.5 and 2.0 °C of warming using the HAPPI (Half a degree Additional warming, Prognosis and Projected Impacts ensemble, with a focus on the winter season. Characterising and understanding this response is critical for accurately assessing the near-term regional impacts of climate change and the benefits of limiting warming to 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels, as advocated by the Paris Agreement of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC. The HAPPI experimental design allows an assessment of uncertainty in the circulation response due to model dependence and internal variability. Internal variability is found to dominate the multi-model mean response of the jet streams, storm tracks, and stationary waves across most of the midlatitudes; larger signals in these features are mostly consistent with those seen in more strongly forced warming scenarios. Signals that emerge in the 1.5 °C experiment are a weakening of storm activity over North America, an inland shift of the North American stationary ridge, an equatorward shift of the North Pacific jet exit, and an equatorward intensification of the South Pacific jet. Signals that emerge under an additional 0.5 °C of warming include a poleward shift of the North Atlantic jet exit, an eastward extension of the North Atlantic storm track, and an intensification on the flanks of the Southern Hemisphere storm track. Case studies explore the implications of these circulation responses for precipitation impacts in the Mediterranean, in western Europe, and on the North American west coast, paying particular attention to possible outcomes at the tails of the response distributions. For example, the projected weakening of the Mediterranean storm track emerges in the 2 °C warmer world, with exceptionally dry decades becoming 5 times more likely.

  5. Midlatitude atmospheric circulation responses under 1.5 and 2.0 °C warming and implications for regional impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Camille; Michel, Clio; Seland Graff, Lise; Bethke, Ingo; Zappa, Giuseppe; Bracegirdle, Thomas J.; Fischer, Erich; Harvey, Ben J.; Iversen, Trond; King, Martin P.; Krishnan, Harinarayan; Lierhammer, Ludwig; Mitchell, Daniel; Scinocca, John; Shiogama, Hideo; Stone, Dáithí A.; Wettstein, Justin J.

    2018-04-01

    This study investigates the global response of the midlatitude atmospheric circulation to 1.5 and 2.0 °C of warming using the HAPPI (Half a degree Additional warming, Prognosis and Projected Impacts) ensemble, with a focus on the winter season. Characterising and understanding this response is critical for accurately assessing the near-term regional impacts of climate change and the benefits of limiting warming to 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels, as advocated by the Paris Agreement of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The HAPPI experimental design allows an assessment of uncertainty in the circulation response due to model dependence and internal variability. Internal variability is found to dominate the multi-model mean response of the jet streams, storm tracks, and stationary waves across most of the midlatitudes; larger signals in these features are mostly consistent with those seen in more strongly forced warming scenarios. Signals that emerge in the 1.5 °C experiment are a weakening of storm activity over North America, an inland shift of the North American stationary ridge, an equatorward shift of the North Pacific jet exit, and an equatorward intensification of the South Pacific jet. Signals that emerge under an additional 0.5 °C of warming include a poleward shift of the North Atlantic jet exit, an eastward extension of the North Atlantic storm track, and an intensification on the flanks of the Southern Hemisphere storm track. Case studies explore the implications of these circulation responses for precipitation impacts in the Mediterranean, in western Europe, and on the North American west coast, paying particular attention to possible outcomes at the tails of the response distributions. For example, the projected weakening of the Mediterranean storm track emerges in the 2 °C warmer world, with exceptionally dry decades becoming 5 times more likely.

  6. Imaging observations of nighttime mid-latitude F-region field-aligned irregularities by an MU radar ultra-multi-channel system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Saito

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Mid-latitude F-region field-aligned irregularities (FAIs were studied by using the middle-and-upper atmosphere (MU radar ultra-multi-channel system with the radar imaging technique. On 12 June 2006, F-region FAI echoes with a period of about one hour were observed intermittently. These echoes were found to be embedded in medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (MSTIDs observed as variations of total electron content (TEC. The echoes drifting away from (toward the radar were observed in the depletion (enhancement phase of the MSTID. The Doppler velocity of the echoes is consistent with the range rates in the the range-time-intensity (RTI maps. Fine scale structures with a spatial scale of 10 km or less were found by the radar imaging analysis. Those structures with positive Doppler velocities (moving away from the radar appeared to drift north- (up- westward, and those with negative Doppler velocities south- (down- eastward approximately along the wavefronts of the MSTID. FAIs with positive Doppler velocities filling TEC depletion regions were observed.

  7. Heat stress increase under climate change twice as large in cities as in rural areas: A study for a densely populated midlatitude maritime region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, Hendrik; De Ridder, Koen; Poelmans, Lien; Willems, Patrick; Brouwers, Johan; Hosseinzadehtalaei, Parisa; Tabari, Hossein; Vanden Broucke, Sam; van Lipzig, Nicole P. M.; Demuzere, Matthias

    2017-09-01

    Urban areas are usually warmer than their surrounding natural areas, an effect known as the urban heat island effect. As such, they are particularly vulnerable to global warming and associated increases in extreme temperatures. Yet ensemble climate-model projections are generally performed on a scale that is too coarse to represent the evolution of temperatures in cities. Here, for the first time, we combine unprecedented long-term (35 years) urban climate model integrations at the convection-permitting scale (2.8 km resolution) with information from an ensemble of general circulation models to assess temperature-based heat stress for Belgium, a densely populated midlatitude maritime region. We discover that the heat stress increase toward the mid-21st century is twice as large in cities compared to their surrounding rural areas. The exacerbation is driven by the urban heat island itself, its concurrence with heat waves, and urban expansion. Cities experience a heat stress multiplication by a factor 1.4 and 15 depending on the scenario. Remarkably, the future heat stress surpasses everywhere the urban hot spots of today. Our results demonstrate the need to combine information from climate models, acting on different scales, for climate change risk assessment in heterogeneous regions. Moreover, these results highlight the necessity for adaptation to increasing heat stress, especially in urban areas.

  8. The first coordinated observations of mid-latitude E-region quasi-periodic radar echoes and lower thermospheric 557.7-nm airglow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ogawa

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available We present the first coordinated observations of quasi-periodic (QP radar echoes from sporadic-E (Es field-aligned irregularities (FAIs, OI 557.7-nm airglow, and neutral winds in a common volume over Shigaraki, Japan (34.9° N, 136.1° E on the night of 5 August 2002 during the SEEK-2 campaign. QP echo altitudes of 90-110 km were lower than usual by 10 km, enabling us to make a detailed comparison among QP echoes, airglow intensity, and neutral wind at around 96 km altitude. Eastward movement of the QP echo regions is consistent with the motions of neutral winds, airglow structures, and FAIs, suggesting that the electrodynamics of Es-layers is fundamentally controlled by the neutral atmospheric dynamics. During the QP echo event, the echo altitudes clearly went up (down in harmony with an airglow enhancement (subsidence that also moved to the east. This fact suggests that the eastward-moving enhanced airglow region included an upward (downward component of neutral winds to raise (lower the altitude of the wind-shear node responsible for the Es formation. The airglow intensity, echo intensity, and Doppler velocity of FAIs at around 96 km altitude fluctuated with periods from 10 min to 1h, indicating that these parameters were modulated with short-period atmospheric disturbances. Some QP echo regions below 100km altitude contained small-scale QP structures in which very strong neutral winds exceeding 100 m/s existed. The results are compared with recent observations, theories, and simulations of QP echoes. Keywords. Ionosphere (Ionosphere-atmosphere interactions; Ionospheric irregularities; Mid-latitude ionosphere

  9. Evaluating a Space-Based Indicator of Surface Ozone-NO x -VOC Sensitivity Over Midlatitude Source Regions and Application to Decadal Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiaomeng; Fiore, Arlene M; Murray, Lee T; Valin, Lukas C; Lamsal, Lok N; Duncan, Bryan; Boersma, K Folkert; De Smedt, Isabelle; Abad, Gonzalo Gonzalez; Chance, Kelly; Tonnesen, Gail S

    2017-10-16

    Determining effective strategies for mitigating surface ozone (O 3 ) pollution requires knowledge of the relative ambient concentrations of its precursors, NO x , and VOCs. The space-based tropospheric column ratio of formaldehyde to NO 2 (FNR) has been used as an indicator to identify NO x -limited versus NO x -saturated O 3 formation regimes. Quantitative use of this indicator ratio is subject to three major uncertainties: (1) the split between NO x -limited and NO x -saturated conditions may shift in space and time, (2) the ratio of the vertically integrated column may not represent the near-surface environment, and (3) satellite products contain errors. We use the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model to evaluate the quantitative utility of FNR observed from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument over three northern midlatitude source regions. We find that FNR in the model surface layer is a robust predictor of the simulated near-surface O 3 production regime. Extending this surface-based predictor to a column-based FNR requires accounting for differences in the HCHO and NO 2 vertical profiles. We compare four combinations of two OMI HCHO and NO 2 retrievals with modeled FNR. The spatial and temporal correlations between the modeled and satellite-derived FNR vary with the choice of NO 2 product, while the mean offset depends on the choice of HCHO product. Space-based FNR indicates that the spring transition to NO x -limited regimes has shifted at least a month earlier over major cities (e.g., New York, London, and Seoul) between 2005 and 2015. This increase in NO x sensitivity implies that NO x emission controls will improve O 3 air quality more now than it would have a decade ago.

  10. Snow nitrate photolysis in polar regions and the mid-latitudes: Impact on boundary layer chemistry and implications for ice core records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatko, Maria C.

    The formation and recycling of nitrogen oxides (NOx=NO+NO 2) associated with snow nitrate photolysis has important implications for air quality and the preservation of nitrate in ice core records. This dissertation examines snow nitrate photolysis in polar and mid-latitude regions using field and laboratory based observations combined with snow chemistry column models and a global chemical transport model to explore the impacts of snow nitrate photolysis on boundary layer chemistry and the preservation of nitrate in polar ice cores. Chapter 1 describes how a global chemical transport model is used to calculate the photolysis-driven flux and redistribution of nitrogen across Antarctica, and Chapter 2 presents similar work for Greenland. Snow-sourced NOx is most dependent on the quantum yield for nitrate photolysis as well as the concentration of photolabile nitrate and light-absorbing impurities (e.g., black carbon, dust, organics) in snow. Model-calculated fluxes of snow-sourced NOx are similar in magnitude in Antarctica (0.5--7.8x108 molec cm-2 s -1) and Greenland (0.1--6.4x108 molec cm-2 s-1) because both nitrate and light-absorbing impurity concentrations in snow are higher (by factors of 2 and 10, respectively) in Greenland. Snow nitrate photolysis influences boundary layer chemistry and ice-core nitrate preservation less in Greenland compared to Antarctica largely due to Greenland's proximity to NOx-source regions. Chapter 3 describes how a snow chemistry column model combined with chemistry and optical measurements from the Uintah Basin Winter Ozone Study (UBWOS) 2014 is used to calculate snow-sourced NOx in eastern Utah. Daily-averaged fluxes of snow-sourced NOx (2.9x10 7--1.3x108 molec cm-2 s-1) are similar in magnitude to polar snow-sourced NO x fluxes, but are only minor components of the Uintah Basin boundary layer NOx budget and can be neglected when developing ozone reduction strategies for the region. Chapter 4 presents chemical and optical

  11. Regional Assessment and Participative Evaluation: Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Roger L.; Gould, John A., Jr.

    The report surveys the occupational environment of the towns in the region within 30 to 45 minutes' commuting time of North Reading, Massachusetts. A random sample of manufacturing, wholesale and retail trade, service, and to a much lesser extent finance, insurance, real estate establishments was surveyed in person or by mail. Information…

  12. FY08 LDRD Final Report Regional Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bader, D C; Chin, H; Caldwell, P M

    2009-05-19

    An integrated, multi-model capability for regional climate change simulation is needed to perform original analyses to understand and prepare for the impacts of climate change on the time and space scales that are critical to California's future environmental quality and economic prosperity. Our intent was to develop a very high resolution regional simulation capability to address consequences of climate change in California to complement the global modeling capability that is supported by DOE at LLNL and other institutions to inform national and international energy policies. The California state government, through the California Energy Commission (CEC), institutionalized the State's climate change assessment process through its biennial climate change reports. The bases for these reports, however, are global climate change simulations for future scenarios designed to inform international policy negotiations, and are primarily focused on the global to continental scale impacts of increasing emissions of greenhouse gases. These simulations do not meet the needs of California public and private officials who will make major decisions in the next decade that require an understanding of climate change in California for the next thirty to fifty years and its effects on energy use, water utilization, air quality, agriculture and natural ecosystems. With the additional development of regional dynamical climate modeling capability, LLNL will be able to design and execute global simulations specifically for scenarios important to the state, then use those results to drive regional simulations of the impacts of the simulated climate change for regions as small as individual cities or watersheds. Through this project, we systematically studied the strengths and weaknesses of downscaling global model results with a regional mesoscale model to guide others, particularly university researchers, who are using the technique based on models with less complete

  13. Gulf of Mexico Regional Collaborative Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judd, Kathleen S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Judd, Chaeli [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Engel-Cox, Jill A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gulbransen, Thomas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Anderson, Michael G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Woodruff, Dana L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Thom, Ronald M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Guzy, Michael [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hardin, Danny [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Estes, Maury [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2007-12-01

    This report presents the results of the Gulf of Mexico Regional Collaborative (GoMRC), a year-long project funded by NASA. The GoMRC project was organized around end user outreach activities, a science applications team, and a team for information technology (IT) development. Key outcomes are summarized below for each of these areas. End User Outreach; Successfully engaged federal and state end users in project planning and feedback; With end user input, defined needs and system functional requirements; Conducted demonstration to End User Advisory Committee on July 9, 2007 and presented at Gulf of Mexico Alliance (GOMA) meeting of Habitat Identification committee; Conducted significant engagement of other end user groups, such as the National Estuary Programs (NEP), in the Fall of 2007; Established partnership with SERVIR and Harmful Algal Blooms Observing System (HABSOS) programs and initiated plan to extend HABs monitoring and prediction capabilities to the southern Gulf; Established a science and technology working group with Mexican institutions centered in the State of Veracruz. Key team members include the Federal Commission for the Protection Against Sanitary Risks (COFEPRIS), the Ecological Institute (INECOL) a unit of the National Council for science and technology (CONACYT), the Veracruz Aquarium (NOAA’s first international Coastal Ecology Learning Center) and the State of Veracruz. The Mexican Navy (critical to coastal studies in the Southern Gulf) and other national and regional entities have also been engaged; and Training on use of SERVIR portal planned for Fall 2007 in Veracruz, Mexico Science Applications; Worked with regional scientists to produce conceptual models of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) ecosystems; Built a logical framework and tool for ontological modeling of SAV and HABs; Created online guidance for SAV restoration planning; Created model runs which link potential future land use trends, runoff and SAV viability; Analyzed SAV

  14. North Central Regional Geologic Characterization Report. Executive summary. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    This Executive Summary of the final North Central Regional Geologic Characterization Report (RGCR) is issued primarily for public information purposes and provides a general overview of the report. The complete RGCR presents available regional geologic information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. For each of the states within the North Central Region, information is provided on the geologic disqualifying factor and the geologic regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening

  15. Northeastern Regional Geologic Characterization Report: executive summary. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    This Executive Summary of the final Northeastern Regional Geologic Characterization Report (RGCR) is issued primarily for public information purposes and provides a general overview of the report. The complete RGCR presents available regional geologic information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont. For each of the states within the Northeastern Region, information is provided on the geologic disqualifying factor and the geologic regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening. 5 refs., 3 figs

  16. Southeastern Regional Geologic Characterization Report. Executive summary. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    This Executive Summary of the final Southeastern Regional Geologic Characterization Report (RGCR) is issued primarily for public information purposes, and provides a general overview of the report. The complete RGCR presents available regional geologic information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in central Maryland; noncoastal Virginia, North Carolina, and South Carolina; and northern Georgia. For each of the states within the Southeastern Region, information is provided on the geologic disqualifying factor and the geologic regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening

  17. Northeastern Regional Environmental Characterization Report. Executive summary. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    This Executive Summary of the final Northeastern Regional Environmental Characterization Report (RECR) is issued primarily for public information purposes and provides a general overview of the report. The complete RECR presents available regional environmental information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont. For each of the states within the Northeastern Region, information is provided on the environmental disqualifying factors and the environmental regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening

  18. North Central regional environmental characterization report: executive summary - final

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    This Executive Summary of the final North Central Regional Environmental Characterization Report (RECR) is issued primarily for public information purposes and provides a general overview of the report. The complete RECR presents available regional environmental information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. For each of the States within the North Central Region, information is provided on the environmental disqualifying factors and the environmental regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening

  19. Southeastern Regional Environmental Characterization Report: executive summary. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    This Executive Summary of the final ''Southeastern Regional Environmental Characterization Report'' (RECR) is issued primarily for public information purposes and provides a general overview of the report. The complete RECR presents available regional environmental information pertinent to siting a repository or high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in central Maryland; noncoastal Virginia, North Carolina, and South Carolina; and northern Georgia. For each of the states within the Southeastern Region, information is provided on the environmental disqualifying factors and the environmental regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening

  20. Mask locations in the SLC final focus region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cence, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    The location of four sets of masks needed to shield against background in the final focus region of the SLC is shown. The main point of this note is to update the results of Miller and Sens taking into account the recent changes that have been made in the optics of the SLC beams. For the latest beam design we use the TRANSPORT output dated 5-13-83. This design assumes that the final bends will form an S about the interaction point and that the final quadrupoles will be superconducting and will be placed about 8 feet from the interaction point

  1. Comparison of midlatitude ionospheric F region peak parameters and topside Ne profiles from IRI2012 model prediction with ground-based ionosonde and Alouette II observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordiyenko, G. I.; Yakovets, A. F.

    2017-07-01

    The ionospheric F2 peak parameters recorded by a ground-based ionosonde at the midlatitude station Alma-Ata [43.25N, 76.92E] were compared with those obtained using the latest version of the IRI model (http://omniweb.gsfc.nasa.gov/vitmo/iri2012_vitmo.html). It was found that for the Alma-Ata (Kazakhstan) location, the IRI2012 model describes well the morphology of seasonal and diurnal variations of the ionospheric critical frequency (foF2) and peak density height (hmF2) monthly medians. The model errors in the median foF2 prediction (percentage deviations between the median foF2 values and their model predictions) were found to vary approximately in the range from about -20% to 34% and showed a stable overestimation in the median foF2 values for daytime in January and July and underestimation for day- and nighttime hours in the equinoctial months. The comparison between the ionosonde hmF2 and IRI results clearly showed that the IRI overestimates the nighttime hmF2 values for March and September months, and the difference is up to 30 km. The daytime Alma-Ata hmF2 data were found to be close to the IRI predictions (deviations are approximately ±10-15 km) in winter and equinoctial months, except in July when the observed hmF2 values were much more (from approximately 50-200 km). The comparison between the Alouette foF2 data and IRI predictions showed mixed results. In particular, the Alouette foF2 data showed a tendency to be overestimated for daytime in winter months similar to the ionosonde data; however, the overestimated foF2 values for nighttime in the autumn equinox were in disagreement with the ionosonde observations. There were large deviations between the observed hmF2 values and their model predictions. The largest deviations were found during winter and summer (up to -90 km). The comparison of the Alouette II electron density profiles with those predicted by the adapted IRI2012 model in the altitude range hmF2 of the satellite position showed a great

  2. Link between the Barents Oscillation and recent boreal winter cooling over the Asian midlatitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Qi; Qiao, Fangli; Song, Zhenya; Song, Yajuan

    2018-01-01

    The link between boreal winter cooling over the midlatitudes of Asia and the Barents Oscillation (BO) since the late 1980s is discussed in this study, based on five datasets. Results indicate that there is a large-scale boreal winter cooling during 1990-2015 over the Asian midlatitudes, and that it is a part of the decadal oscillations of long-term surface air temperature (SAT) anomalies. The SAT anomalies over the Asian midlatitudes are significantly correlated with the BO in boreal winter. When the BO is in its positive phase, anomalously high sea level pressure over the Barents region, with a clockwise wind anomaly, causes cold air from the high latitudes to move over the midlatitudes of Asia, resulting in anomalous cold conditions in that region. Therefore, the recent increasing trend of the BO has contributed to recent winter cooling over the Asian midlatitudes.

  3. Response of the mid-latitude D-region ionosphere to the total solar eclipse of 22 July 2009 studied using VLF signals in South Korean peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phanikumar, D. V.; Kwak, Y.-S.; Patra, A. K.; Maurya, A. K.; Singh, Rajesh; Park, S.-M.

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we analyze VLF signals received at Busan to study the the D-region changes linked with the solar eclipse event of 22 July 2009 for very short (∼390 km) transmitter-receiver great circle path (TRGCP) during local noon time 00:36-03:13 UT (09:36-12:13 KST). The eclipse crossed south of Busan with a maximum obscuration of ∼84%. Observations clearly show a reduction of ∼6.2 dB in the VLF signal strength at the time of maximum solar obscuration (84% at 01:53 UT) as compared to those observed on the control days. Estimated values of change in Wait ionospheric parameters: reflection height (h‧) in km and inverse scale height parameter (β) in km-1 from Long Wave Propagation Capability (LWPC) model during the maximum eclipse phase as compared to unperturbed ionosphere are 7 km and 0.055 km-1, respectively. Moreover, the D-region electron density estimated from model computation shows 95% depletion in electron density at the height of ∼71 km. The reflection height is found to increase by ∼7 km in the D-region during the eclipse as compared to those on the control days, implying a depletion in the Lyman-α flux by a factor of ∼7. The present observations are discussed in the light of current understanding on the solar eclipse induced D-region dynamics.

  4. Is It Possible to Distinguish Global and Regional Climate Change from Urban Land Cover Induced Signals? A Mid-Latitude City Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Wiesner

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The local climate in cities differs from the one in rural areas, most prominently characterized by increased surface and air temperatures, known as the “(surface urban heat island”. As climate has changed and continues to change in all areas of the world, the question arises whether the effects that are noticeable in urban areas are “homemade”, or whether some of them originate from global and regional scale climate changes. Identifying the locally induced changes of urban meteorological parameters is especially relevant for the development of adaptation and mitigation measures. This study aims to distinguish global and regional climate change signals from those induced by urban land cover. Therefore, it provides a compilation of observed and projected climate changes, as well as urban influences on important meteorological parameters. It is concluded that evidence for climate change signals is found predominantly in air temperature. The effect of urban land cover on local climate can be detected for several meteorological parameters, which are air and surface temperature, humidity, and wind. The meteorology of urban areas is a mixture of signals in which the influencing parameters cannot be isolated, but can be assessed qualitatively. Blending interactions between local effects and regional changes are likely to occur.

  5. Mid-latitude empirical model of the height distribution of atomic oxygen in the MLT region for different solar and geophysical conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenov, A.; Shefov, N.; Fadel, Kh.

    The model of altitude distributions of atomic oxygen in the region of the mesopause and lower thermosphere (MLT) is constructed on the basis of empirical models of variations of the intensities, temperatures and altitudes of maximum of the layers of the emissions of atomic oxygen at 557.7 nm, hydroxyl and Atmospheric system of molecular oxygen. An altitude concentration distribution of neutral components is determined on the basis of systematization of the long-term data of temperature of the middle atmosphere from rocket, nightglow and ionospheric measurements at heights of 30-110 km in middle latitudes. They include dependence on a season, solar activity and a long-term trend. Examples of results of calculation for different months of year for conditions of the lower and higher solar activity are presented. With increasing of solar activity, the height of a layer of a maximum of atomic oxygen becomes lower, and the thickness of the layer increases. There is a high correlation between characteristics of a layer of atomic oxygen and a maximum of temperature at heights of the mesopause and lower thermosphere. This work is supported by grant of ISTC No. 2274.

  6. Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances Observed by Midlatitude SuperDARN Radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frissell, N. A.; Baker, J. B.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.; West, M. L.; Bristow, W. A.

    2012-12-01

    Medium Scale Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances (MSTIDs) are wave-like perturbations of the F-region ionosphere with horizontal wavelengths on the order of 100-250 km and periods between ~15 - 60 min, and are generally thought to be the ionospheric manifestation of Atmospheric Gravity Waves (AGWs). High-latitude MSTIDs have been studied using SuperDARN radars since 1989, and are typically attributed to auroral sources and propagated by the Earth Reflected Wave (ERW) mode. Tropospheric sources and earthquakes are also known to be sources of MSTIDs. Observations of MSTIDs using both mid- and high- latitude SuperDARN radars are presented. North American radar data from November 2010 - November 2011 were searched for signatures of MSTIDs. Initial results suggest that MSTIDs are observed at high latitudes primarily in the fall/winter months, which is consistent with published results. This search also reveals that mid-latitude MSTIDs often appear concurrently with high-latitude MSTIDs and share similar wave parameters. During the fall/winter months, SuperDARN mid-latitude MSTIDs appear more often than high-latitude MSTIDs, likely due to calmer ionospheric conditions at mid-latitudes. In the springtime, SuperDARN-observed MSTIDs are less likely to be seen at high-latitudes, but still appear at mid-latitudes. Selected events are analyzed for wave parameters using the Multiple Signal Classification (MUSIC) technique.

  7. Mid-latitude afforestation shifts general circulation and tropical precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, Abigail L S; Fung, Inez Y; Chiang, John C H

    2012-01-17

    We show in climate model experiments that large-scale afforestation in northern mid-latitudes warms the Northern Hemisphere and alters global circulation patterns. An expansion of dark forests increases the absorption of solar energy and increases surface temperature, particularly in regions where the land surface is unable to compensate with latent heat flux due to water limitation. Atmospheric circulation redistributes the anomalous energy absorbed in the northern hemisphere, in particular toward the south, through altering the Hadley circulation, resulting in the northward displacement of the tropical rain bands. Precipitation decreases over parts of the Amazon basin affecting productivity and increases over the Sahel and Sahara regions in Africa. We find that the response of climate to afforestation in mid-latitudes is determined by the amount of soil moisture available to plants with the greatest warming found in water-limited regions. Mid-latitude afforestation is found to have a small impact on modeled global temperatures and on global CO(2), but regional heating from the increase in forest cover is capable of driving unintended changes in circulation and precipitation. The ability of vegetation to affect remote circulation has implications for strategies for climate mitigation.

  8. An introduction to mid-latitude ecotone: sustainability and environmental challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Moon

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The mid-latitude zone can be broadly defined as part of the hemisphere between 30°–60° latitude. This zone is home to over 50 % of the world population and encompasses about 36 countries throughout the principal region, which host most of the world’s development and poverty related problems. In reviewing some of the past and current major environmental challenges that parts of mid-latitudes are facing, this study sets the context by limiting the scope of mid-latitude region to that of Northern hemisphere, specifically between 30°–45° latitudes which is related to the warm temperate zone comprising the Mid-Latitude ecotone – a transition belt between the forest zone and southern dry land territories. The ongoing climate change reveals a substantial increase of temperature and simultaneous decrease in the amount of precipitation across vast continental regions in the mid-latitudes. According to climatic predictions, these tendencies will continue during the 21st century, which will likely increase the frequency and severity of droughts and water stress of vegetation. Along with climate change, ongoing land degradation and deforestation are observed in many regions of the mid-latitude region. For example, the Korean peninsula, which is divided into South and North Korea, is characterized by drastically different forest conditions. Deforestation in North Korea has been exacerbating at a noticeable pace due to excessive logging and human intervention. Such problems are not confined to Korean peninsula but are witnessed across vast regions of the mid-latitude region. Within this context – acquiring better understanding in the role of terrestrial ecosystems located at different latitudes is critical – for building resilience against the negative impact of climate change and for maintaining the stability of the environment and landscapes.

  9. Final report : Occupational gap analysis, volume 2 Wood Buffalo region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-06-01

    The general economy of the Wood Buffalo region of Alberta has improved in recent years due to the expansion of the oil sand industry. Many of the oil sands projects are situated in the southern part of the region and are serviced out of Lac LaBiche. This paper examines the implications of this economic growth for the regional supply and demand of workers in key occupational categories. In particular, it projects employment opportunities that are directly attributed to the regional economic expansion, and assesses whether there will be an adequate supply of workers to meet the demand for new and replacement employees. The report includes: an overview of the regional economy; a population forecast for the region and the demand for workers in selected occupations; an analysis of whether or not the new labour force entrants will choose the selected occupations; and, a supply and demand analysis. 7 tabs., 2 figs., 5 appendices

  10. Kaliningrad regional district heating network 2004-2006. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-06-15

    This report concerns: Kaliningrad Regional District Heating Network project which was implemented from 2004 to 2006. The task of the project was to establish and operate an association for district heating companies in the region in order to transfer and distribute district heating know-how to the sector and through activities strengthen the sector. The long term aim was to contribute to establishment of an association to continue as a real association for the heat supply companies in the region. (au)

  11. Northeastern Regional geologic characterization report. Volume 1. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    This report presents available geologic information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont. For each of the states within the Northeastern Region, information is provided on the geologic disqualifying factor and the geologic regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening. The geologic factor and variables include deep mines and quarries, rock mass extent, postemplacement faulting, suspected Quaternary faulting, seismicity, rock and mineral resources, major ground-water discharge zones, ground-water resources, state of stress, thickness of rock mass, and thickness of overburden. Information is presented on age, areal extent, shape, composition, texture, degree and type of alteration, thickness, and structural features associated with each rock body or complex. Regional seismic and tectonic information is presented, including patterns of earthquake occurrence, earthquake magnitudes, horizontal ground accelerations, and vertical crusal movements. Also included are discussions of the rock and mineral deposits or mines located within or near crystalline bodies; ground-water resources and regional hydrology; postulated changes in climate and the associated effects; and landforms, surface processes, and surficial materials on or near the rock bodies. A discussion is also presented on the relationship between the US Department of Energy (DOE) Siting Guidelines (10 CFR 960) and the geologic disqualifying factor and regional screening variables to be used in the region-to-area screening process

  12. North Central Regional geologic characterization report. Volume 1. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    This report presents available geologic information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. For each of the states within the North Central Region, information is provided on the geologic disqualifying factor and the geologic regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening. The geologic factor and variables include deep mines and quarries, rock mass extent, post-emplacement faulting, suspected Quaternary faulting, seismicity, rock and mineral resources, major groundwater discharge zones, groundwater resources, state of stress, thickness of rock mass, and thickness of overburden. Information is presented on age, areal extent, shape, composition, texture, degree and type of alteration, thickness, and structural features associated with each rock body or complex. Regional seismic and tectonic information is presented, including patterns of earthquake occurrence, earthquake magnitudes, horizontal ground accelerations, and vertical crustal movements. Also included are discussions of the rock and mineral deposits or mines located within or near crystalline rock bodies; groundwater resources and regional hydrology; postulated changes in climate and the associated effects; and landforms, surface processes, and surficial materials on or near the rock bodies. A discussion is also presented of the relationship between the US Department of Energy Siting Guidelines (10 CFR 960) and the geologic disqualifying factor and regional screening variables to be used in the region-to-area screening process. 43 figs., 15 tabs

  13. Final Scientific and Technical Report State and Regional Biomass Partnerships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handley, Rick; Stubbs, Anne D.

    2008-12-29

    The Northeast Regional Biomass Program successfully employed a three pronged approach to build the regional capacity, networks, and reliable information needed to advance biomass and bioenergy technologies and markets. The approach included support for state-based, multi-agency biomass working groups; direct technical assistance to states and private developers; and extensive networking and partnership-building activities to share objective information and best practices.

  14. North Central Regional environmental characterization report. Volume 1. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    This report presents available environmental information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. For each of the states within the North Central Region, information is provided on those environmental disqualifying factors and regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening. These environmental factors and variables include existing and proposed Federal-protected lands, proximity to Federal-protected lands, components of national forest lands, existing state-protected lands, proximity to state-protected lands, population density and distribution, proximity to highly populated areas or to 1-mile square areas with 1000 or more persons, national and state forest lands, designated critical habitats for threatened and endangered spcies, surface water bodies, and wetlands. In addition, supplementary descriptive information providing a general characterization of the region is presented, as is information on environmental parameters that will be of use at later phases of screening. Also included is a discussion of the relationship between the US Department of Energy Siting Guidelines (10CFR 960) and those environmental disqualifying factors and regional screening variables to be used in the region-to-area screening process

  15. Northeastern Regional environmental characterization report. Volume 1. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    This report presents available environmental information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, northeastern and southeastern New York, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, northern New Jersey, and eastern Pennsylvania. For each of the States within the Northeastern Region, information is provided on those environmental disqualifying factors and regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening. These environmental factors and variables include existing and proposed Federal-protected lands, components of National Forest Lands, proximity to Federal-protected lands, existing State-protected lands, proximity to State-protected lands, population density and distribution, proximity to highly populated areas, or to 1-mile-square areas with 1000 or more persons, National and State forest lands, designated critical habitats for threatened and endangered species, surface water bodies, and wetlands. In addition, supplementary descriptive information providing a general characterization of the region is presented, as is information on environmental parameters that will be of use at later phases of screening. Also included is a discussion of the relationship between the US Department of Energy Siting Guidelines (10 CFR 960) and those environmental disqualifying factors and regional screening variables to be used in the region-to-area screening process

  16. Southeastern Regional Environmental Characterization Report. Volume 1. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    This report presents available environmental information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in central Maryland; noncoastal Virginia, North Carolina, and South Carolina; and northern Georgia. For each of the States within the Southeastern Region, information is provided on those environmental disqualifying factors and regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening. These environmental factors and variables include existing and proposd Federal-protected lands, components of National Forest Lands, proximity to Federal-protected lands, existing State-protected lands, proximity to State-protected lands, population density and distribution, proximity to highly populated areas, or to 1-mile-square areas with 1000 or more persons, national and State forest lands, designated critical habitats for threatened and endangered species, surface water bodies, and wetlands. In addition, supplementary descriptive information providing a general characterization of the region is presented, as is information on environmental parameters that will be of use at later phases of screening. Also included is a discussion of the relationship between the US Department of Energy Siting Guidelines (10 CFR 960) and those environmental disqualifying factors and regional screening variables to be used in the region-to-area screening process

  17. Southeastern Regional geologic characterization report. Volume 1. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    This report presents available geologic information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in central Maryland; noncoastal Virginia, North Carolina, and South Carolina; and northern Georgia. For each of the states within the Southeastern Region, information is provided on the geological disqualifying factor and the geologic regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening. The geological factor and variables include deep mines and quarries, rock mass extent, postemplacement faulting, suspected Quaternary faulting, seismicity, rock and mineral resources, major ground-water discharge zones, ground-water resources, state of stress, thickness of rock mass, and thickness of overburden. Information is presented on the age, areal extent, shape, composition, texture, degree and type of alteration, thickness, and structural features associated with each rock body or complex. Regional seismic and tectonic information is presented, including patterns of earthquake occurrence, earthquake magnitudes, horizontal ground accelerations, and vertical crustal movements. Also included are discussions of the rock and mineral deposits or mines located within or near crystalline bodies; ground-water resources and regional hydrology; postulated changes in climate and the associated effects; and landforms, surface processes, and surficial materials on or near the rock bodies

  18. Regional environmental impacts of methanol-fueled vehicles. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belian, T.; Morris, R.E.; Ligocki, M.P.; Whitten, G.Z.

    1991-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to obtain, through simulation modeling, preliminary estimates of the regional environmental impacts methanol-fueled vehicles and to estimate the sensitivity of the model to important parameters and assumptions that affect the calculation of the impacts. The regional environmental effects of the use of M85 fuel (85 percent methanol and 15 percent gasoline) and M100 (neat methanol) relative to gasoline (an indoline blend) were estimated using a Lagrangian (trajectory) acid deposition model. The Comprehensive Chemistry Acid Deposition Model (CCADM), contains a detailed treatment of gas-phase and aqueous-phase chemistry and associated mass transfer, but provides for a less comprehensive representation of advection and diffusion. Two different meteorological regimes were analyzed: clear sky conditions and cloudy skies with a rain event. The study also included a review of gas- and aqueous-phase chemistry, with particular emphasis on methanol. The CCADM chemical mechanism was updated to include state-of-the-science (as of 1990) gas- and aqueous-phase chemistry including methanol chemistry. The CCADM was then used to analyze the regional environmental impacts from the use of methanol fuels. In performing such an analysis it was necessary to make several assumptions. The sensitivity of the analysis was examined through a series of simulations that varied key input parameters within their ranges of uncertainty

  19. RTSTEP regional transportation simulation tool for emergency planning - final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ley, H.; Sokolov, V.; Hope, M.; Auld, J.; Zhang, K.; Park, Y.; Kang, X. (Energy Systems)

    2012-01-20

    Large-scale evacuations from major cities during no-notice events - such as chemical or radiological attacks, hazardous material spills, or earthquakes - have an obvious impact on large regions rather than on just the directly affected area. The scope of impact includes the accommodation of emergency evacuation traffic throughout a very large area; the planning of resources to respond appropriately to the needs of the affected population; the placement of medical supplies and decontamination equipment; and the assessment and determination of primary escape routes, as well as routes for incoming emergency responders. Compared to events with advance notice, such as evacuations based on hurricanes approaching an affected area, the response to no-notice events relies exclusively on pre-planning and general regional emergency preparedness. Another unique issue is the lack of a full and immediate understanding of the underlying threats to the population, making it even more essential to gain extensive knowledge of the available resources, the chain of command, and established procedures. Given the size of the area affected, an advanced understanding of the regional transportation systems is essential to help with the planning for such events. The objectives of the work described here (carried out by Argonne National Laboratory) is the development of a multi-modal regional transportation model that allows for the analysis of different evacuation scenarios and emergency response strategies to build a wealth of knowledge that can be used to develop appropriate regional emergency response plans. The focus of this work is on the effects of no-notice evacuations on the regional transportation network, as well as the response of the transportation network to the sudden and unusual demand. The effects are dynamic in nature, with scenarios changing potentially from minute to minute. The response to a radiological or chemical hazard will be based on the time-delayed dispersion of

  20. Regional Infant and Child Mortality Review Committee--2011 final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Ann L; Sideras, James

    2012-12-01

    The 2011 annual report of the Regional Infant and Child Mortality Review Committee (RICMRC) is presented. Since 1997, the committee has reviewed 224 deaths to achieve its mission to "review infant and child deaths so that information can be transformed into action to protect young lives." In 2011, the committee reviewed 21 deaths (22 met the committee's criteria) of infants and children who were residents of Minnehaha, Turner, Lincoln, Hanson and Brookings counties in South Dakota. The manner of 12 of the reviewed deaths was natural with eight of these the result of progressive neurological diseases or conditions. In 2011 there were no deaths attributed to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS), though there were two deaths of infants during sleep. One of these infants was ruled accidental as the baby died of aspiration and the other death occurred in an unsafe environment with its manner determined to be undecided. Six deaths were accidental, one of which occurred as a result of a fire in a home without functional smoke alarms. One motor vehicle death occurred, through no fault of the teen age driver. Another death resulted from tubing over a low head dam on the Big Sioux River. One youth suicide occurred to a resident of the region.

  1. Final matches of the FIRST regional robotic competition at KSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Four robots vie for position on the playing field during the 1999 FIRST Southeastern Regional robotic competition held at KSC. Powered by 12-volt batteries and operated by remote control, the robotic gladiators spent two minutes each trying to grab, claw and hoist large, satin pillows onto their machines. Student teams, shown behind protective walls, play defense by taking away competitors' pillows and generally harassing opposing machines. Two of the robots have lifted their caches of pillows above the field, a movement which earns them points. Along with the volunteer referees, at the edge of the playing field, judges at right watch the action. FIRST is a nonprofit organization, For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology. The competition comprised 27 teams, pairing high school students with engineer mentors and corporations. The FIRST robotics competition is designed to provide students with a hands-on, inside look at engineering and other professional careers.

  2. Regional forecasting with global atmospheric models; Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crowley, T.J.; Smith, N.R. [Applied Research Corp., College Station, TX (United States)

    1994-05-01

    The purpose of the project was to conduct model simulations for past and future climate change with respect to the proposed Yucca Mtn. repository. The authors report on three main topics, one of which is boundary conditions for paleo-hindcast studies. These conditions are necessary for the conduction of three to four model simulations. The boundary conditions have been prepared for future runs. The second topic is (a) comparing the atmospheric general circulation model (GCM) with observations and other GCMs; and (b) development of a better precipitation data base for the Yucca Mtn. region for comparisons with models. These tasks have been completed. The third topic is preliminary assessments of future climate change. Energy balance model (EBM) simulations suggest that the greenhouse effect will likely dominate climate change at Yucca Mtn. for the next 10,000 years. The EBM study should improve rational choice of GCM CO{sub 2} scenarios for future climate change.

  3. Generating Low Beta Regions with Quadrupoles for Final Muon Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acosta, J. G. [Mississippi U.; Cremaldi, L. M. [Mississippi U.; Hart, T. L. [Mississippi U.; Oliveros, S. J. [Mississippi U.; Summers, D. J. [Mississippi U.; Neuffer, D. V. [Fermilab

    2017-05-01

    Muon beams and colliders are rich sources of new physics, if muons can be cooled. A normalized rms transverse muon emittance of 280 microns has been achieved in simulation with short solenoids and a betatron function of 3 cm. Here we use ICOOL, G4beamline, and MAD-X to explore using a 400 MeV/c muon beam and strong focusing quadrupoles to approach a normalized transverse emittance of 100 microns and finish 6D muon cooling. The low beta regions produced by the quadrupoles are occupied by dense, low Z absorbers, such as lithium hydride or beryllium, that cool the beam. Equilibrium transverse emittance is linearly proportional to the beta function. Reverse emittance exchange with septa and/or wedges is then used to decrease transverse emittance from 100 to 25 microns at the expense of longitudinal emittance for a high energy lepton collider. Work remains to be done on chromaticity correction.

  4. Tidal signatures of the thermospheric mass density and zonal wind at midlatitude: CHAMP and GRACE observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Xiong

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available By using the accelerometer measurements from CHAMP and GRACE satellites, the tidal signatures of the thermospheric mass density and zonal wind at midlatitudes have been analyzed in this study. The results show that the mass density and zonal wind at southern midlatitudes are dominated by a longitudinal wave-1 pattern. The most prominent tidal components in mass density and zonal wind are the diurnal tides D0 and DW2 and the semidiurnal tides SW1 and SW3. This is consistent with the tidal signatures in the F region electron density at midlatitudes as reported by Xiong and Lühr (2014. These same tidal components are observed both in the thermospheric and ionospheric quantities, supporting a mechanism that the non-migrating tides in the upper atmosphere are excited in situ by ion–neutral interactions at midlatitudes, consistent with the modeling results of Jones Jr. et al. (2013. We regard the thermospheric dynamics as the main driver for the electron density tidal structures. An example is the in-phase variation of D0 between electron density and mass density in both hemispheres. Further research including coupled atmospheric models is probably needed for explaining the similarities and differences between thermospheric and ionospheric tidal signals at midlatitudes.

  5. Intensity fluctuations of mid-latitude background VLF-noises and the interplanetary magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorshkov, Yu.N.; Klejmenova, N.G.

    1986-01-01

    Influence of interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) sector structure polarity and also variations of solar wind velocity and density on the intensity of mid-latitude VLF background noises are studied. For analysis continuous observations of VLF radiations in Magadan Observatory (phi=53.7 deg, L=2.7) from November, 1972 to June, 1973 were used. It is shown that IMF sector sign has no sufficient effect on the level of mid-latitude VLF background noises at the frequences f < 4-5 kHz. In magnetoperturbed periods when IMF Bsub(z)-component was directed to the South and the Earth was in the region of high-speed plasma flux, in mid-latitudes abatement of intensity of VLF background noises was seen

  6. Cayuga County Regional Digester: Vision Becomes Reality. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zadeh, Kamyar V. [Blue Electron Technology Solutions International LLC, Manlius, NY (United States); Young, Jim [Cayuga Soil and Water Conservation District, Auburn, NY (United States)

    2013-03-12

    With an average herd size of 113 mature cows, Cayuga County is home to 280 dairy farms and 31,500 dairy milking cows producing approximately 855 million gallons of milk per year. The Cayuga Dairy industry is a major contributor to the countys economy, employing nearly 1200 people, while generating $140,000,000 of revenue from sale of milk alone. At the same time, the Cayuga County dairy industry also produces 5.7 million gallons of manure daily: (a) Nearly 34% of this manure is produced on smaller farms. (b) Digesters are expensive pieces of equipment and require attention and care. ( c) The on-farm digester systems have fairly long payback (>10 years) even for larger CAFO farms (>1000 milking cows). In 2005, Cayuga County Soil and Water Conservation District (The District), a Public Agency under Cayuga County, decided to undertake a centralized community digester project. The primary goal of the project was to develop an economically sustainable model, under the auspices of The District to address manure management issues facing the smaller dairies, improve the water quality and improve the quality of life for Cayuga County residents. It is believed that the District has accomplished this goal by completing construction of Cayuga County Regional Digester on a parcel of land behind the Cayuga County Natural Resource Center located at 7413 County House Road in the Town of Sennett in Cayuga County, New York. The digester facility consists of the following major components. 1. Transfer Station: This an indoor truck bay, where 35,000 gallons of manure from three local farms, 8,500 gallons of liquid organic food-processor waste, and 1,200 gallons of brown grease are unloaded from tanker trucks and the digested slurry is loaded onto the tanker trucks for delivery back to the participating farms. 2. Anaerobic Digester: The project utilizes a hydraulic mix anaerobic digester, a unique design that has no internal moving parts for mixing. The digester, which operates at

  7. Midlatitude magnetometer chains during the IMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mcpherron, R.L.

    1982-01-01

    The International Magnetospheric Study (IMS) is an international program to study global problems of magnetospheric dynamics. A key element of the U.S. participation in this program was the establishment of a ground magnetometer network. This network included a number of arrays at high and low latitudes. This report describes three chains established at midlatitudes, including the IMS Midlatitude Chain, the AFGL Magnetometer Network, and the Bell Lab Conjugate Array. Descriptions of the type of equipment, station locations, types of data display, and availability of data for each chain are presented in this report. A major problem of the data analysis phase of the IMS will be reducing selected subsets of these data to a common format. Currently, there are no plans to do this in a systematic manner

  8. Model Orlando regionally efficient travel management coordination center (MORE TMCC), phase II : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    The final report for the Model Orlando Regionally Efficient Travel Management Coordination Center (MORE TMCC) presents the details of : the 2-year process of the partial deployment of the original MORE TMCC design created in Phase I of this project...

  9. REDI: The Regional Entrepreneurship and Development Index –Measuring regional entrepreneurship Final report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ortega Argiles, Raquel; Acs, Zoltan J.; Szerb, Laszlo; Autio, Erkko; Komlosi, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The main outcome of the project is a new index (REDI - Regional Entrepreneurship and Development Index) that describes the entrepreneurial process. The index takes into account both individual attitudes and characteristics and the regional context and, accordingly, not only whether people are

  10. New Particle Formation in the Mid-Latitude Upper Troposphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axisa, Duncan

    Primary aerosol production due to new particle formation (NPF) in the upper troposphere and the impact that this might have on cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentration can be of sufficient magnitude to contribute to the uncertainty in radiative forcing. This uncertainty affects our ability to estimate how sensitive the climate is to greenhouse gas emissions. Therefore, new particle formation must be accurately defined, parametrized and accounted for in models. This research involved the deployment of instruments, data analysis and interpretation of particle formation events during the Mid-latitude Airborne Cirrus Properties Experiment (MACPEX) campaign. The approach combined field measurements and observations with extensive data analysis and modeling to study the process of new particle formation and growth to CCN active sizes. Simultaneous measurements of O3, CO, ultrafine aerosol particles and surface area from a high-altitude research aircraft were used to study tropospheric-stratospheric mixing as well as the frequency and location of NPF. It was found that the upper troposphere was an active region in the production of new particles by gas-to-particle conversion, that nucleation was triggered by convective clouds and mixing processes, and that NPF occurred in regions with high relative humidity and low surface area. In certain cases, mesoscale and synoptic features enhanced mixing and facilitated the formation of new particles in the northern mid-latitudes. A modeling study of particle growth and CCN formation was done based on measured aerosol size distributions and modeled growth. The results indicate that when SO2 is of sufficient concentration NPF is a significant source of potential CCN in the upper troposphere. In conditions where convective cloud outflow eject high concentrations of SO2, a large number of new particles can form especially in the instance when the preexisting surface area is low. The fast growth of nucleated clusters produces a

  11. Mathematic model of regional economy development by the final result of labor resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitseva, Irina; Malafeev, Oleg; Strekopytov, Sergei; Bondarenko, Galina; Lovyannikov, Denis

    2018-04-01

    This article presents the mathematic model of regional economy development based on the result of labor resources. The solution of a region development-planning problem is considered for the period of long-lasting planning taking into account the beginning and the end of the planned period. The challenge is to find the distribution of investments in the main and additional branches of the regional economy, which will provide simultaneous transaction of all major sectors of the regional economy from the given condition to the predetermined final state.

  12. Tropical influence on boreal summer mid-latitude stationary waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douville, Herve [Meteo-France/CNRM-GAME, Toulouse (France); CNRM/GMGEC/VDR, Toulouse (France); Bielli, S.; Deque, M.; Tyteca, S.; Voldoire, A. [Meteo-France/CNRM-GAME, Toulouse (France); Cassou, C. [CNRS-Cerfacs, Toulouse (France); Hall, N.M.J. [CNES/LEGOS, Toulouse (France)

    2011-11-15

    While organized tropical convection is a well-known source of extratropical planetary waves, state-of-the-art climate models still show serious deficiencies in simulating accurately the atmospheric response to tropical sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies and the associated teleconnections. In the present study, the remote influence of the tropical atmospheric circulation is evaluated in ensembles of global boreal summer simulations in which the Arpege-Climat atmospheric General Circulation Model (GCM) is nudged towards 6-h reanalyses. The nudging is applied either in the whole tropical band or in a regional summer monsoon domain. Sensitivity tests to the experimental design are first conducted using prescribed climatological SST. They show that the tropical relaxation does not improve the zonal mean extratropical climatology but does lead to a significantly improved representation of the mid-latitude stationary waves in both hemispheres. Low-pass filtering of the relaxation fields has no major effect on the model response, suggesting that high-frequency tropical variability is not responsible for extratropical biases. Dividing the nudging strength by a factor 10 only decreases the magnitude of the response. Model errors in each monsoon domain contribute to deficiencies in the model's mid-latitude climatology, although an exaggerated large-scale subsidence in the central equatorial Pacific appears as the main source of errors for the representation of stationary waves in the Arpege-Climat model. Case studies are then conducted using either climatological or observed SST. The focus is first on summer 2003 characterized by a strong and persistent anticyclonic anomaly over western Europe. This pattern is more realistic in nudging experiments than in simulations only driven by observed SST, especially when the nudging domain is centred over Central America. Other case studies also show a significant tropical forcing of the summer mid-latitude stationary waves

  13. Report on Transparency. Final version CWE. IG Transparency. Electricity Regional Initiative Central Western Regional Electricity Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-12-01

    The Central Western Electricity Regional Energy Market (REM), which is a part of ERGEG's Electricity Regional Initiative, is engaged in harmonizing congestion management and transparency in the Central Western electricity market consisting of Belgium, France, Germany, Luxemburg and The Netherlands. his report contains transparency requirements based on the Congestion Management Guidelines (Commission Decision of 9 November 2006, 2006/770/EC, amending the Annex to Regulation (EC) 1228/2003 on conditions for access to transmission network for cross-border exchanges in electricity, hereinafter cited as CM Guidelines) but taking also into account ERGEG Guidelines of Good Practice on Information Management and Transparency (GGP-IMT). Generally, the basis for harmonization of the transparency rules within the Central Western REM is provided by this report. However, there are some restrictions, it has to be stressed that the report only refers to the information requirements set out in the CM Guidelines that are regularly updated. Also, national publication requirements which might go beyond what is prescribed here are not touched. Furthermore, the change of the market design or the legal background might require adoptions of the publication requirements foreseen in this report. One of the main impediments identified by the regulators was the data delivery from generation and consumption units located in the distribution grids. Market participants concerned (also generators and significant consumption units) are obliged to provide the TSOs responsible for publication of all relevant data concerning cross-border trade according to point 5.5 CM Guidelines, with the relevant data. Therefore, TSOs shall be able to get data from generators and significant consumption units connected to the transmission network. Consequently, it is proposed here that each NRA or other competent authority could oblige DSOs to provide data on generation connected to distribution grids to the TSOs

  14. The importance of moisture distribution for the growth and energetics of mid-latitude systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Pavan

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available A primitive equation model is used to study the sensitivity of baroclinic wave life cycles to the initial latitude-height distribution of humidity. Diabatic heating is parametrized only as a consequence of condensation in regions of large-scale ascent. Experiments are performed in which the initial relative humidity is a simple function of model level, and in some cases latitude bands are specified which are initially relatively dry. It is found that the presence of moisture can either increase or decrease the peak eddy kinetic energy of the developing wave, depending on the initial moisture distribution. A relative abundance of moisture at mid-latitudes tends to weaken the wave, while a relative abundance at low latitudes tends to strengthen it. This sensitivity exists because competing processes are at work. These processes are described in terms of energy box diagnostics. The most realistic case lies on the cusp of this sensitivity. Further physical parametrizations are then added, including surface fluxes and upright moist convection. These have the effect of increasing wave amplitude, but the sensitivity to initial conditions of relative humidity remains. Finally, 'control' and 'doubled CO2' life cycles are performed, with initial conditions taken from the time-mean zonal-mean output of equilibrium GCM experiments. The attenuation of the wave resulting from reduced baroclinicity is more pronounced than any effect due to changes in initial moisture.Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (climatology; convective processes; synoptic-scale meteorology

  15. The Impact of Upper Tropospheric Humidity from Microwave Limb Sounder on the Midlatitude Greenhouse Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hua; Liu, W. Timothy

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of upper tropospheric humidity, as measured by the Microwave Limb Sounder, and the impact of the humidity on the greenhouse effect in the midlatitudes. Enhanced upper tropospheric humidity and an enhanced greenhouse effect occur over the storm tracks in the North Pacific and North Atlantic. In these areas, strong baroclinic activity and the large number of deep convective clouds transport more water vapor to the upper troposphere, and hence increase greenhouse trapping. The greenhouse effect increases with upper tropospheric humidity in areas with a moist upper troposphere (such as areas over storm tracks), but it is not sensitive to changes in upper tropospheric humidity in regions with a dry upper troposphere, clearly demonstrating that there are different mechanisms controlling the geographical distribution of the greenhouse effect in the midlatitudes.

  16. Synoptic-scale circulation patterns during summer derived from tree rings in mid-latitude Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seim, Andrea; Schultz, Johannes A.; Leland, Caroline; Davi, Nicole; Byambasuren, Oyunsanaa; Liang, Eryuan; Wang, Xiaochun; Beck, Christoph; Linderholm, Hans W.; Pederson, Neil

    2017-09-01

    Understanding past and recent climate and atmospheric circulation variability is vital for regions that are affected by climate extremes. In mid-latitude Asia, however, the synoptic climatology is complex and not yet fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate dominant synoptic-scale circulation patterns during the summer season using a multi-species tree-ring width (TRW) network comprising 78 sites from mid-latitude Asia. For each TRW chronology, we calculated an atmospheric circulation tree-ring index (ACTI), based on 1000 hPa geopotential height data, to directly link tree growth to 13 summertime weather types and their associated local climate conditions for the period 1871-1993. Using the ACTI, three groups of similarly responding tree-ring sites can be associated with distinct large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns: 1. growth of drought sensitive trees is positively affected by a cyclone over northern Russia; 2. temperature sensitive trees show positive associations to a cyclone over northwestern Russia and an anticyclone over Mongolia; 3. trees at two high elevation sites show positive relations to a zonal cyclone extending from mid-latitude Eurasia to the West Pacific. The identified synoptic-scale circulation patterns showed spatiotemporal variability in their intensity and position, causing temporally varying climate conditions in mid-latitude Asia. Our results highlight that for regions with less pronounced atmospheric action centers during summer such as the occurrence of large-scale cyclones and anticyclones, synoptic-scale circulation patterns can be extracted and linked to the Northern Hemisphere circulation system. Thus, we provide a new and solid envelope for climate studies covering the past to the future.

  17. Nightside Quiet-Time Mid-Latitude Ionospheric Convection and Its Connection to Penetration Electric Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruohoniemi, J. M.; Maimaiti, M.; Baker, J. B.; Ribeiro, A. J.

    2017-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that during quiet geomagnetic conditions F-region subauroral ionospheric plasma exhibits drifts of a few tens of m/s, predominantly in the westward direction. However, the exact driving mechanisms for this plasma motion are still not well understood. Recent expansion of SuperDARN radars into the mid-latitude region has provided new opportunities to study subauroral ionospheric convection over large areas and with greater spatial resolution and statistical significance than previously possible. Mid-latitude SuperDARN radars tend to observe subauroral ionospheric backscatter with low Doppler velocities on most geomagnetically quiet nights. In this study, we have used two years of data obtained from the six mid-latitude SuperDARN radars in the North American sector to derive a statistical model of quiet-time nightside mid-latitude plasma convection between 52°- 58° magnetic latitude. The model is organized in MLAT-MLT coordinates and has a spatial resolution of 1°x 7 min with each grid cell typically counting thousands of velocity measurements. Our results show that the flow is predominantly westward (20 - 60 m/s) and weakly northward (0 -20 m/s) near midnight but with a strong seasonal dependence such that the flows tend to be strongest and most spatially variable in winter. These statistical results are in good agreement with previously reported observations from ISR measurements but also show some interesting new features, one being a significant latitudinal variation of zonal flow velocity near midnight in winter. In this presentation, we describe the derivation of the nightside quite-time subauroral convection model, analyze its most prominent features, and discuss the results in terms of the Ionosphere-Thermosphere coupling and penetration electric fields.

  18. Uranium development in the San Juan Basin region: a report on environmental issues. Final edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The goal of this study is to provide a regional analysis of the effect of uranium development on the human and natural environment of northwest New Mexico from the present until the year 2000. This report contains comments on the published draft of this study from representatives of federal and state agencies, public interest groups, local governments, leading citizens, and the uranium industry. Many of the comments led to substantial changes in the text and were carefully considered in the final edition of the study

  19. Anti pp annihilations into four- and five-pion final states in the T(2190) region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handler, T.; Jacques, P.; Jones, M.; Pandoulas, D.; Plano, R.J.; Preissner, H.; Sheng, A.P.; Watts, T.L.; Yamin, P.; Brucker, E.B.; Koller, E.L.; Taylor, S.; Stamer, P.; Sun, C.R.; Dhar, S.

    1975-01-01

    New data from a 600 000 picture exposure of the BNL 31 inch hydrogen bubble chamber to a separated antiproton beam have been analyzed to try to determine if the π + π - π + π - or π + π - π + π - π 0 final states contribute any broad or narrow structure in the T(2190) region. The resonance channel fractions determined by maximum likelihood fits are all consistent with smooth behavior through the T-region and therefore there is no significant evidence that any of these resonance channels contributes to the broad bump in the total cross section. The errors on some of the fractions, however, limit the sensitivity to approximately 0.5 mb for enhancements in these channels. (Auth.)

  20. The importance of moisture distribution for the growth and energetics of mid-latitude systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Pavan

    Full Text Available A primitive equation model is used to study the sensitivity of baroclinic wave life cycles to the initial latitude-height distribution of humidity. Diabatic heating is parametrized only as a consequence of condensation in regions of large-scale ascent. Experiments are performed in which the initial relative humidity is a simple function of model level, and in some cases latitude bands are specified which are initially relatively dry. It is found that the presence of moisture can either increase or decrease the peak eddy kinetic energy of the developing wave, depending on the initial moisture distribution. A relative abundance of moisture at mid-latitudes tends to weaken the wave, while a relative abundance at low latitudes tends to strengthen it. This sensitivity exists because competing processes are at work. These processes are described in terms of energy box diagnostics. The most realistic case lies on the cusp of this sensitivity. Further physical parametrizations are then added, including surface fluxes and upright moist convection. These have the effect of increasing wave amplitude, but the sensitivity to initial conditions of relative humidity remains. Finally, 'control' and 'doubled CO2' life cycles are performed, with initial conditions taken from the time-mean zonal-mean output of equilibrium GCM experiments. The attenuation of the wave resulting from reduced baroclinicity is more pronounced than any effect due to changes in initial moisture.

    Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (climatology; convective processes; synoptic-scale meteorology

  1. Dynamics and Morphology of Saturn’s North Polar Region During Cassini’s Final Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blalock, John J.; Sayanagi, Kunio M.; Ingersoll, Andrew P.; Dyudina, Ulyana A.; Ewald, Shawn; McCabe, Ryan M.; Gunnarson, Jacob; Garland, Justin; Gallego, Angelina

    2017-10-01

    We present an analysis of Saturn’s north polar region utilizing Cassini ISS images captured in visible and near-infrared wavelengths during late 2016 and 2017, including images captured during Cassini’s Grand Finale orbits. To measure the wind field in the region, we utilize the two-dimensional correlation imaging velocimetry (CIV) technique. We also calculate the relative vorticity and divergence from the wind field. To detect changes in the dynamics, we compare measurements of the wind, relative vorticity, and divergence in 2012 and 2013 with those from 2016/2017. We also compare cloud reflectivity between 2012/2013 and 2016/2017 in images that show the north pole under similar illumination conditions. To detect changes in cloud reflectivity, we utilize a Minnaert correction to calculate the zonal mean reflectivity as a function of latitude. Furthermore, we compare the winds and cloud reflectivity at several wavelengths in order to look for changes occurring at different altitudes. Our results indicate that while the dynamics of the north polar region have remained relatively stable, there have been significant morphology changes that have resulted in dramatic color changes. We hypothesize that these changes are a result of the seasonal cycle and linked to the increased production of photochemical hazes in the atmosphere. Our work has been supported by NASA PATM NNX14AK07G, NSF AAG 1212216, and NASA NESSF NNX15AQ70H.

  2. Diagnosing sea ice from the north american multi model ensemble and implications on mid-latitude winter climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elders, Akiko; Pegion, Kathy

    2017-12-01

    Arctic sea ice plays an important role in the climate system, moderating the exchange of energy and moisture between the ocean and the atmosphere. An emerging area of research investigates how changes, particularly declines, in sea ice extent (SIE) impact climate in regions local to and remote from the Arctic. Therefore, both observations and model estimates of sea ice become important. This study investigates the skill of sea ice predictions from models participating in the North American Multi-Model Ensemble (NMME) project. Three of the models in this project provide sea-ice predictions. The ensemble average of these models is used to determine seasonal climate impacts on surface air temperature (SAT) and sea level pressure (SLP) in remote regions such as the mid-latitudes. It is found that declines in fall SIE are associated with cold temperatures in the mid-latitudes and pressure patterns across the Arctic and mid-latitudes similar to the negative phase of the Arctic Oscillation (AO). These findings are consistent with other studies that have investigated the relationship between declines in SIE and mid-latitude weather and climate. In an attempt to include additional NMME models for sea-ice predictions, a proxy for SIE is used to estimate ice extent in the remaining models, using sea surface temperature (SST). It is found that SST is a reasonable proxy for SIE estimation when compared to model SIE forecasts and observations. The proxy sea-ice estimates also show similar relationships to mid-latitude temperature and pressure as the actual sea-ice predictions.

  3. The earthquakes of stable continental regions. Volume 2: Appendices A to E. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, A.C.; Kanter, L.R.; Coppersmith, K.J.; Cornell, C.A.

    1994-12-01

    The objectives of the study were to develop a comprehensive database of earthquakes in stable continental regions (SCRs) and to statistically examine use of the database for the assessment of large earthquake potential. We identified nine major and several minor SCRs worldwide and compiled a database of geologic characteristics of tectonic domains within each SCR. We examined all available earthquake data from SCRs, from historical accounts of events with no instrumental ground-motion data to present-day instrumentally recorded events. In all, 1,385 events were analyzed. Using moment magnitude 4.5 as the lower bound threshold for inclusion in the database, 870 were assigned to an SCR, 124 were found to be transitional to an SCR, and 391 were examined, but rejected. We then performed a seismotectonic analysis to determine what distinguishes seismic activity in SCRs from other types of crust, such as active plate margins or active continental regions. General observations are: (1) SCRs comprise nearly two-thirds of all continental crust of which 25% is considered to be extended (i.e., rifted); (2) the majority of seismic energy release and the largest earthquakes in SCRs have occurred in extended crust; and (3) active plate margins release seismic energy at a rate per unit area approximately 7,000 times the average for non-extended SCRs. Finally, results of a statistical examination of distributions of historical maximum earthquakes between different crustal domain types indicated that additional information is needed in order to adequately constrain estimates of maximum earthquakes for any given region. Thus, a Bayesian approach was developed in which statistical constraints from the database were used to develop a prior distribution, which may then be combined with source-specific information to constrain maximum magnitude assessments for use in probabilistic seismic hazard analyses

  4. Effects of Major Sudden Stratospheric Warmings Identified in Midlatitude Mesospheric Rayleigh-Scatter Lidar Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sox, L.; Wickwar, V. B.; Fish, C. S.; Herron, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    Mesospheric temperature anomalies associated with Sudden Stratospheric Warmings (SSWs) have been observed extensively in the polar regions. However, observations of these anomalies at midlatitudes are sparse. The very dense 11-year data set, collected between 1993-2004, with the Rayleigh-scatter lidar at the Atmospheric Lidar Observatory (ALO; 41.7°N, 111.8°W) at the Center for Atmospheric and Space Sciences (CASS) on the campus of Utah State University (USU), has been carefully examined for such anomalies. The temperatures derived from these data extend over the mesosphere, from 45 to 90 km. During this period extensive data were acquired during seven major SSW events. In this work we aim to determine the characteristics of the midlatitude mesospheric temperatures during these seven major SSWs. To do this, comparisons were made between the temperature profiles on individual nights before, during, and after the SSW events and the corresponding derived climatological temperature profiles (31-day by 11-year average) for those nights. A consistent disturbance pattern was observed in the mesospheric temperatures during these SSWs. A distinct shift from the nominal winter temperature pattern to a pattern more characteristic of summer temperatures was seen in the midlatitude mesosphere close to when the zonal winds in the polar stratosphere (at 10 hPa, 60° N) reversed from eastward to westward. This shift lasted for several days. This change in pattern included coolings in the upper mesosphere, comparable to those seen in the polar regions, and warmings in the lower mesosphere.

  5. Classification of Arctic, midlatitude and tropical clouds in the mixed-phase temperature regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Costa

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The degree of glaciation of mixed-phase clouds constitutes one of the largest uncertainties in climate prediction. In order to better understand cloud glaciation, cloud spectrometer observations are presented in this paper, which were made in the mixed-phase temperature regime between 0 and −38 °C (273 to 235 K, where cloud particles can either be frozen or liquid. The extensive data set covers four airborne field campaigns providing a total of 139 000 1 Hz data points (38.6 h within clouds over Arctic, midlatitude and tropical regions. We develop algorithms, combining the information on number concentration, size and asphericity of the observed cloud particles to classify four cloud types: liquid clouds, clouds in which liquid droplets and ice crystals coexist, fully glaciated clouds after the Wegener–Bergeron–Findeisen process and clouds where secondary ice formation occurred. We quantify the occurrence of these cloud groups depending on the geographical region and temperature and find that liquid clouds dominate our measurements during the Arctic spring, while clouds dominated by the Wegener–Bergeron–Findeisen process are most common in midlatitude spring. The coexistence of liquid water and ice crystals is found over the whole mixed-phase temperature range in tropical convective towers in the dry season. Secondary ice is found at midlatitudes at −5 to −10 °C (268 to 263 K and at higher altitudes, i.e. lower temperatures in the tropics. The distribution of the cloud types with decreasing temperature is shown to be consistent with the theory of evolution of mixed-phase clouds. With this study, we aim to contribute to a large statistical database on cloud types in the mixed-phase temperature regime.

  6. Classification of Arctic, midlatitude and tropical clouds in the mixed-phase temperature regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Anja; Meyer, Jessica; Afchine, Armin; Luebke, Anna; Günther, Gebhard; Dorsey, James R.; Gallagher, Martin W.; Ehrlich, Andre; Wendisch, Manfred; Baumgardner, Darrel; Wex, Heike; Krämer, Martina

    2017-10-01

    The degree of glaciation of mixed-phase clouds constitutes one of the largest uncertainties in climate prediction. In order to better understand cloud glaciation, cloud spectrometer observations are presented in this paper, which were made in the mixed-phase temperature regime between 0 and -38 °C (273 to 235 K), where cloud particles can either be frozen or liquid. The extensive data set covers four airborne field campaigns providing a total of 139 000 1 Hz data points (38.6 h within clouds) over Arctic, midlatitude and tropical regions. We develop algorithms, combining the information on number concentration, size and asphericity of the observed cloud particles to classify four cloud types: liquid clouds, clouds in which liquid droplets and ice crystals coexist, fully glaciated clouds after the Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen process and clouds where secondary ice formation occurred. We quantify the occurrence of these cloud groups depending on the geographical region and temperature and find that liquid clouds dominate our measurements during the Arctic spring, while clouds dominated by the Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen process are most common in midlatitude spring. The coexistence of liquid water and ice crystals is found over the whole mixed-phase temperature range in tropical convective towers in the dry season. Secondary ice is found at midlatitudes at -5 to -10 °C (268 to 263 K) and at higher altitudes, i.e. lower temperatures in the tropics. The distribution of the cloud types with decreasing temperature is shown to be consistent with the theory of evolution of mixed-phase clouds. With this study, we aim to contribute to a large statistical database on cloud types in the mixed-phase temperature regime.

  7. Management of water hyacinth: Final meeting and international conference. Working paper submitted by the Regional Coordinator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Full text: Final Meeting. This meeting will essentially make a terminal review of the project and register final records of work done on the various aspects, such as: - biology of the plant; - biological control; - biogas; - wastewater treatment; - papers and boards; - integrated systems, etc. We should have at the meeting a complete account of the work done in the project under each of the above headings. For example, under 'biogas' we should prepare one consolidated account of work carried out in all the three participating countries rather than individual country reports. Likewise on 'papers and boards', and the other items. To enable preparation of reports in this form there should naturally be prior consultations and contacts among the concerned investigators by correspondence and, if necessary, personal visits. These reports will then be edited and compiled by the Regional Coordinator in the form of a book or monograph on the Management of Water Hyacinth project as a whole. Contributors to chapters will be cited. International Conference. Independent of the consolidated reports, national coordinators may prepare papers for presentation at the proposed international conference. These papers could be prepared m the usual form and style for publication in international scientific journals. Although several papers could be prepared out of work done by us, we may consider the desirability of limiting the number, in order to give adequate opportunities for the other invited participants to the conference. There would be no bar on publication of these scientific papers after the conference in appropriate journals irrespective of whether a separate volume on proceedings of the conference is brought out or not. India would be happy to host the terminal review meeting to be followed by the conference. The likely period would be last week of January to first week in February, 1983. (author)

  8. Recent Basal Melting of a Mid-Latitude Glacier on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, Frances E. G.; Balme, M. R.; Gallagher, C.; Arnold, N. S.; Conway, S. J.; Hagermann, A.; Lewis, S. R.

    2017-12-01

    Evidence for past basal melting of young (late Amazonian-aged), debris-covered glaciers in Mars' mid-latitudes is extremely rare. Thus, it is widely thought that these viscous flow features (VFFs) have been perennially frozen to their beds. We identify an instance of recent, localized wet-based mid-latitude glaciation, evidenced by a candidate esker emerging from a VFF in a tectonic rift in Tempe Terra. Eskers are sedimentary ridges deposited in ice-walled meltwater conduits and are indicative of glacial melting. We compare the candidate esker to terrestrial analogues, present a geomorphic map of landforms in the rift, and develop a landsystem model to explain their formation. We propose that the candidate esker formed during a transient phase of wet-based glaciation. We then consider the similarity between the geologic setting of the new candidate esker and that of the only other candidate esker to be identified in association with an existing mid-latitude VFF; both are within tectonic graben/rifts proximal to volcanic provinces. Finally, we calculate potential basal temperatures for a range of VFF thicknesses, driving stresses, mean annual surface temperatures, and geothermal heat fluxes, which unlike previous studies, include the possible role of internal strain heating. Strain heating can form an important additional heat source, especially in flow convergence zones, or where ice is warmer due to elevated surface temperatures or geothermal heat flux. Elevated geothermal heat flux within rifts, perhaps combined with locally-elevated strain heating, may have permitted wet-based glaciation during the late Amazonian, when cold climates precluded more extensive wet-based glaciation on Mars.

  9. The Occurrence of Small-scale Irregularities in the Mid-latitude Ionosphere from SuperDARN HF Radar Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruohoniemi, J. M.; Baker, J. B.; Maimaiti, M.; Oksavik, K.; Erickson, P. J.; Scales, W.; Eltrass, A.

    2017-12-01

    The mid-latitude radars of the SuperDARN network routinely observe backscatter from nighttime decameter-scale F region irregularities at latitudes well equatorward of the auroral boundary. This Sub-Auroral Ionospheric Scatter (SAIS) is strongly distinguished from auroral and SAPS backscatter by low Doppler velocities ( tens m/s) and stable, long-lived ( hours) occurrence in discrete events that are extended in both latitude and longitude. Statistical and event studies of SAIS with the SuperDARN radars indicate that the subauroral F region ionosphere is replete with irregularities during events, at least poleward of the 50° Λ horizon of the North American mid-latitude radars, and that radar observation of SAIS backscatter is then primarily limited by the magnetic aspect condition. Joint experiments with incoherent scatter radar have furnished sets of plasma measurements suitable for testing theories of plasma instability. Modeling work stimulated by the observations has explored the temperature-gradient instability (TGI) and the gradient drift instability (GDI) as possible sources of the irregularities. In this talk we review the findings on the occurrence of the SAIS category of mid-latitude F region irregularities, summarize the results of the modeling work, and discuss future research directions.

  10. Using GPS TEC measurements to probe ionospheric spatial spectra at mid-latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay, E. H.; Parker, P. A.; Light, M. E.; Carrano, C. S.; Debchoudhury, S.; Haaser, R. A.

    2017-12-01

    The physics of how random ionospheric structure causes signal degradation is well understood as weak forward scattering through an effective diffraction grating created by plasma irregularities in the ionosphere. However, the spatial scale spectrum of those irregularities required for input into scintillation models and models of traveling ionospheric disturbances is poorly characterized, particularly at the kilometer to tens of kilometer scale lengths important for very-high-frequency (VHF) scintillation prediction. Furthermore, the majority of characterization studies have been performed in low-latitude or high-latitude regions where geomagnetic activity dominates the physical processes. At mid-latitudes, tropospheric and geomagnetic phenomena compete in disturbing the ionosphere, and it is not well understood how these multiple sources affect the drivers that influence the spatial spectrum. In this study, we are interested in mid-latitude electron density irregularities on the order of 10s of kilometers that would affect VHF signals. Data from the GPS networks Japan GEONET and the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO, UNAVCO) in the western United States were analyzed for this study. Japan GEONET is a dense network of GPS receivers (station spacing of tens of km), with fairly evenly spaced positions over all of Japan. The PBO, on the other hand, has several pockets of extremely dense coverage (station spacing within a few km), but is less dense on average. We analyze a day with a large solar storm (2015/03/17, St. Patrick's Day Storm) to allow high scintillation potential at mid-latitudes, a day with low geomagnetic activity and low thunderstorm activity (2016/01/31), and a day with low geomagnetic activity and high thunderstorm activity (2015/08/02). We then perform two-dimensional spatial analyses on the TEC data from these two networks on scale lengths of 20 to 200 km to infer the spatial scale spectra.

  11. Analysis of Mid-Latitude Plasma Density Irregularities in the Presence of Finite Larmor Radius Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotnikov, V. I.; Kim, T. C.; Mishin, E. V.; Kil, H.; Kwak, Y. S.; Paraschiv, I.

    2017-12-01

    Ionospheric irregularities cause scintillations of electromagnetic signals that can severely affect navigation and transionospheric communication, in particular during space storms. At mid-latitudes the source of F-region Field Aligned Irregularities (FAI) is yet to be determined. They can be created in enhanced subauroral flow channels (SAI/SUBS), where strong gradients of electric field, density and plasma temperature are present. Another important source of FAI is connected with Medium-scale travelling ionospheric disturbances (MSTIDs). Related shear flows and plasma density troughs point to interchange and Kelvin-Helmholtz type instabilities as a possible source of plasma irregularities. A model of nonlinear development of these instabilities based on the two-fluid hydrodynamic description with inclusion of finite Larmor radius effects will be presented. This approach allows to resolve density irregularities on the meter scale. A numerical code in C language to solve the derived nonlinear equations for analysis of interchange and flow velocity shear instabilities in the ionosphere was developed. This code will be used to analyze competition between interchange and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities in the mid-latitude region. The high-resolution simulations with continuous density and velocity profiles will be driven by the ambient conditions corresponding to the in situ data obtained during the 2016 Daejeon (Korea) and MU (Japan) radar campaign and data collected simultaneously by the Swarm satellites passed over Korea and Japan. PA approved #: 88ABW-2017-3641

  12. A Mid-Latitude Skywave Propagation Experiment: Overview and Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munton, D. C.; Calfas, R. S.; Gaussiran, T., II; Rainwater, D.; Flesichmann, A. M.; Schofield, J. R.

    2016-12-01

    We will describe a mid-latitude HF skywave propagation experiment conducted during 19-27 January, 2014. There were two primary goals to the experiment. First, we wanted to build an understanding of the impact that medium scale traveling ionospheric disturbances have on the angles of arrival of the HF signals. The second goal was to provide a diverse data set that could serve as a baseline for propagation model development and evaluation. We structured individual tests during the experiment to increase the knowledge of temporal and spatial length scales of various ionospheric features. The experiment was conducted during both day and night periods and spanned a wide range of ionospheric states. We conducted the experiment at White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico and in the surrounding area. As part of the experiment, we deployed a number of active HF transmitters, and an array of dipole antennas to provide angle of arrival measurements. We also deployed a smaller array of more novel compact electro-magnetic vector sensors (EMVSs). Other instrumentation specific to the remote sensing of the ionosphere included digisondes, GNSS receivers, beacon satellite receivers, and optical instruments. We will provide a complete description of the experiment configuration and the data products.Finally, we will provide a discussion of experimental results, focusing on ionospheric conditions during the angle-of-arrival determinations, and the impact ionospheric disturbances can have on these measurements. We use the angle-of-arrival determinations to estimate TID properties, including velocity and direction.This research is based upon work supported in part by the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI), Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA), via US Navy Contract N00024-07-D-6200. The views and conclusions contained herein are those of the authors and should not be interpreted as necessarily representing the official policies or endorsements

  13. Columbia River System Operation Review final environmental impact statement. Appendix Q: Regional forum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The System Operation Review (SOR) is a study and environmental compliance process being used by the three Federal agencies to analyze future operations of the system and river use issues. The goal of the SOR is to achieve a coordinated system operation strategy for the river that better meets the needs of all river users. This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. The SOR is currently developing a System Operating Strategy (SOS) that will guide the physical operations of the Columbia River system. The SOR is also addressing the institutional arrangements that must be in place to make needed changes to the SOS in the future, or make interpretations of the strategy in the light of changing water conditions or river needs. For convenience, this future institutional arrangement is referred to as ''The Columbia River Regional Forum,'' or simply ''the Forum,'' even though the nature of this institution is still to be determined. This appendix and the Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) identify the Forum as an administrative process that will not result in impacts to the environment and will not require analysis in a NEPA context. The composition of and procedures followed by a decision making body cannot--in and of themselves--be used to predict a particular decision with definable impacts on the environment. Nevertheless, because of the relationship to the other SOR actions, the SOR lead agencies have prepared this Technical Appendix to provide opportunities for review and comment on the Forum alternatives

  14. Students' participation in Hult Prize and their decision for entrepreneurship: Data gathered from Hult Prize 2018 regional finals in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwatobi, Stephen; Oshokoya, Damilare; Atayero, Aderemi; Oludayo, Olumuyiwa; Nsofor, Colette; Oyebode, Adeola

    2018-08-01

    This data article is an expression of data that reflects how students' participation in the Hult Prize 2018 regional finals affects their decision to become entrepreneurs. The primary data was sourced using a questionnaire developed with Google doc form. Out of 120 students that participated in the Hult Prize 2018 regional finals in Nigeria, 103 of them responded. Their responses are as presented in this article. Such will be relevant to researchers who want to find out why students desire to become entrepreneurs and the best approach and timing to enable them.

  15. Convenio "Andres Bello:" Informe Final [de la] Segunda Reunion de Ministros de Educacion de la Region Andina ("Andres Bello" Agreement: Final Report of the Second Meeting of the Andean Region Ministers of Education).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ministros de Educacion de la Region Andina, Lima (Peru).

    This final report of the second meeting of the Andean Region Ministers of Education subscribing to the Andres Bello Agreement on education and culture contains a resume of the individual sessions and the proposals approved during that meeting. The proposals cover various educational problems and issues and begin with the Declaration of Lima which…

  16. Developing an intelligent transportation systems (ITS) architecture for the KIPDA region : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-08-01

    This report describes the development of a regional Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) Architecture for the five-county urban area under the auspices of the Kentuckiana Regional Planning and Development Agency (KIPDA). The architecture developm...

  17. Observation of Intensified Lower Hybrid Noise in the Midlatitude Ionosphere

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Parrot, M.; Santolík, Ondřej; Brochot, J.; Y.; Berthelier, J. J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 4 (2008), s. 1164-1165 ISSN 0093-3813 Grant - others:CNRS/DREI(FR) PICS Grant 3725 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : lower hybrid frequency * midlatitude ionosphere * DEMETER spacecraft Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.447, year: 2008 http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?reload=true&arnumber=4553722

  18. Rocket measurements of energetic particles in the midlatitude precipitation zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, H. D.; Smith, L. G.; Braswell, F. M.

    1980-01-01

    Measurements of energetic ion and electron properties as a function of altitude in the midlatitude zone of nighttime energetic particle precipitation are reported. The measurements of particle fluxes, energy spectra and pitch angle distributions were obtained by a Langmuir probe, six energetic particle spectrometers and an electrostatic analyzer on board a Nike Apache rocket launched near the center of the midlatitude zone during disturbed conditions. It is found that the incident flux was primarily absorbed rather than backscattered, and consists of mainly energetic hydrogen together with some helium and a small energetic electron component. Observed differential energy spectra of protons having an exponential energy spectrum, and pitch angle distributions at various altitudes indicate that the energetic particle flux decreases rapidly for pitch angles less than 70 deg. An energetic particle energy flux of 0.002 ergs/sq cm per sec is calculated which indicates the significance of energetic particles as a primary nighttime ionization source for altitudes between 120 and 200 km in the midlatitude precipitation zone.

  19. Variety and regional economic growth in the Netherlands : final report to the Ministery of Economic Affairs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frenken, K.; Oort, van F.G.; Verburg, T.; Boschma, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    In economic theory, one can distinguish between variety as a source of regional knowledge spillovers, called Jacobs externalities, and variety as a portfolio protecting a region from external shocks. We argue that Jacobs externalities are best measured by related variety (within sectors), while the

  20. EPA Region 10 Climate Change and TMDL Pilot – South Fork Nooksack River, Washington Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    This final report provides an overarching summary of the pilot research project, including the methods used in and the findings of the quantitative and qualitative assessments. It is written to appeal to a wide audience of policy makers, managers, agency staff and the general pub...

  1. Midlatitude Cirrus Clouds Derived from Hurricane Nora: A Case Study with Implications for Ice Crystal Nucleation and Shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassen, Kenneth; Arnott, W. Patrick; O'C. Starr, David; Mace, Gerald G.; Wang, Zhien; Poellot, Michael R.

    2003-04-01

    Hurricane Nora traveled up the Baja Peninsula coast in the unusually warm El Niño waters of September 1997 until rapidly decaying as it approached southern California on 24 September. The anvil cirrus blowoff from the final surge of tropical convection became embedded in subtropical flow that advected the cirrus across the western United States, where it was studied from the Facility for Atmospheric Remote Sensing (FARS) in Salt Lake City, Utah, on 25 September. A day later, the cirrus shield remnants were redirected southward by midlatitude circulations into the southern Great Plains, providing a case study opportunity for the research aircraft and ground-based remote sensors assembled at the Clouds and Radiation Testbed (CART) site in northern Oklahoma. Using these comprehensive resources and new remote sensing cloud retrieval algorithms, the microphysical and radiative cloud properties of this unusual cirrus event are uniquely characterized.Importantly, at both the FARS and CART sites the cirrus generated spectacular halos and arcs, which acted as a tracer for the hurricane cirrus, despite the limited lifetimes of individual ice crystals. Lidar depolarization data indicate widespread regions of uniform ice plate orientations, and in situ particle replicator data show a preponderance of pristine, solid hexagonal plates and columns. It is suggested that these unusual aspects are the result of the mode of cirrus particle nucleation, presumably involving the lofting of sea salt nuclei in strong thunderstorm updrafts into the upper troposphere. This created a reservoir of haze particles that continued to produce halide-salt-contaminated ice crystals during the extended period of cirrus cloud maintenance. The inference that marine microbiota are embedded in the replicas of some ice crystals collected over the CART site points to the longevity of marine effects. Various nucleation scenarios proposed for cirrus clouds based on this and other studies, and the

  2. On final-state interaction in d - NN reaction in the (1236) - resonance region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aznauryan, I.G.; Nagorskaya, I.A.

    1975-01-01

    The spectator model is corrected due to scattering of particles in the final state. It is shown that the discrepancies between the data for γd→u 0 π + uu and γd→u 0 pn and the predictions from the spectator model are mainly due to the nucleon-nucleon scattering in the final state. By means of a generally used evaluation procedure for the experimental data it is shown that the reaction cross sections of γu→π 0 u and γu→ - p, which are obtained from the experiments with deuterons, are not very sensitive to these corrections will have no influence on conclusions concerning the exotic properties of the electromagnetic current

  3. Geology and recognition criteria for uraniferous humate deposits, Grants Uranium Region, New Mexico. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, S.S.; Saucier, A.E.

    1981-01-01

    The geology of the uraniferous humate uranium deposits of the Grants Uranium Region, northwestern New Mexico, is summarized. The most important conclusions of this study are enumerated. Although the geologic characteristics of the uraniferous humate deposits of the Grants Uranium Region are obviously not common in the world, neither are they bizarre or coincidental. The source of the uranium in the deposits of the Grants Uranium Region is not known with certainty. The depositional environment of the host sediments was apparently the mid and distal portions of a wet alluvial fan system. The influence of structural control on the location and accumulation of the host sediments is now supported by considerable data. The host sediments possess numerous important characteristics which influenced the formation of uraniferous humate deposits. Ilmenite-magnetite distribution within potential host sandstones is believed to be the simplest and most useful regional alteration pattern related to this type of uranium deposit. A method is presented for organizing geologic observations into what is referred to as recognition criteria. The potential of the United States for new districts similar to the Grants Uranium Region is judged to be low based upon presently available geologic information. Continuing studies on uraniferous humate deposits are desirable in three particular areas

  4. Final Report on the Audit of the Administration of the Contract Closeout Process at the Defense Contract Management Region, Dallas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-18

    This is our final report on the Audit of the Administration of the Contract Closeout Process at the Defense Contract Management Region, Dallas (DCMR... audit was made from January to October 1989. The objectives of the audit were to determine the timeliness of the contract closeout process, the validity...As part of the audit , we also evaluated internal controls over the contract closeout process. As of December 31, 1988, the Contract Administration

  5. Northeast Regional Biomass Program. Final progress report, July--September 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Connell, R.A.

    1991-11-01

    The management structure and program objectives for the Northeast Regional Biomass Program (NRBP) remain unchanged from previous years. Additional funding was provided by the Bonneville Power Administration Regional Biomass Program to continue the publication of articles in the Biologue. The Western Area Power Administration and the Council of Great Lakes Governors funded the project ``Characterization of Emissions from Burning Woodwaste``. A grant for the ninth year was received from DOE. The Northeast Regional Biomass Steering Committee selected the following four projects for funding for the next fiscal year. (1) Wood Waste Utilization Conference, (2) Performance Evaluation of Wood Systems in Commercial Facilities, (3) Wood Energy Market Utilization Training, (4) Update of the Facility Directory.

  6. Stochastic excitation of low frequency variability in the midlatitude atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioannou, P.J.; Farrell, B.F.

    1994-01-01

    Spectral analysis of the transient geopotential variance of the midlatitude atmosphere reveals a sharp peak in the wavenumber-period spectra concentrated at large scales (zonal wave numbers m 10 days). This is surprising because conventional baroclinic instability calculations predict a broad maximum of the variance at synoptic scale (8 < m < 12) with associated period of a few days. In this work we review the method for calculating the maintained variance and associated fluxes and then discuss some results pertaining to the interpretation of the EOF's which arise from the stochastic dynamics of non-normal dynamical systems

  7. Hazard risk and vulnerability assessment : Regional District of Nanaimo : final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    A Hazard Risk and Vulnerability Assessment (HRVA) is a mandated regulatory requirement in British Columbia that requires local authorities to prepare emergency plans that reflect the local authority's assessment of the relative risk of occurrence and the potential impact on people and property of the hazards, emergencies or disasters that could affect the jurisdictional area for which the local authority has responsibility. This report constituted an HRVA for the Regional District of Nanaimo, British Columbia. It presented the study scope and methodology and provided an overview of the Regional District of Nanaimo. This included information on the setting, demographics, and economy. Next, it discussed social vulnerability; critical response and recovery facilities; and critical infrastructure such as water, energy, telecommunications and transportation. A summary of the Regional District of Nanaimo's response capabilities that were considered when assessing the Regional District's overall risk to the hazards was also presented. Response capabilities were discussed with reference to fire and rescue; police; ambulance; and search and rescue. Emergency support and preparedness organizations were also identified. These included the Emergency Coordination Centre, environmental services, emergency social services, amateur radio and health authorities. Last, 33 hazards that could affect the Regional District of Nanaimo were identified and discussed. The study identified the following hazards as high risk: flooding; forest fires and wildland urban interface fires; and human diseases and pandemic. It was recommended that the advancement of business continuity planning in the Regional District of Nanaimo would help to reduce the impact of a possible human disease and pandemic risk outbreak affecting the population. 75 refs., 25 figs., 14 tabs., 2 appendices

  8. Rapid Water Transport by Long-Lasting Modon Eddy Pairs in the Southern Midlatitude Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Chris W.; Miller, Peter I.

    2017-12-01

    Water in the ocean is generally carried with the mean flow, mixed by eddies, or transported westward by coherent eddies at speeds close to the long baroclinic Rossby wave speed. Modons (dipole eddy pairs) are a theoretically predicted exception to this behavior, which can carry water to the east or west at speeds much larger than the Rossby wave speed, leading to unusual transports of heat, nutrients, and carbon. We provide the first observational evidence of such rapidly moving modons propagating over large distances. These modons are found in the midlatitude oceans around Australia, with one also seen in the South Atlantic west of the Agulhas region. They can travel at more than 10 times the Rossby wave speed of 1-2 cm s-1 and typically persist for about 6 months carrying their unusual water mass properties with them, before splitting into individual vortices, which can persist for many months longer.

  9. Application of Wuhan Ionospheric Oblique Backscattering Sounding System (WIOBSS) for the investigation of midlatitude ionospheric irregularities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin; Zhou, Xiaoming; Qiao, Lei; Gong, Wanlin

    2018-03-01

    An upgrade of Wuhan Ionospheric Backscattering Sounding System (WIOBSS) was developed in 2015. Based on the Universal Serial Bus (USB), and a high performance FPGA, the newly designed WIOBSS has a completely digital structure, which makes it portable and flexible. Two identical WIOBSSs, which were situated at Mile (24.31°N, 103.39°E) and Puer (22.74°N, 101.05°E) respectively, were used to investigate the ionospheric irregularities. The comparisons of group distance, Doppler shift and width between Mile-Puer and Puer-Mile VHF ionospheric propagation paths indicate that the reciprocity of the irregularities is satisfied at midlatitude region. The WIOBSS is robust in the detection of ionospheric irregularities.

  10. Cluster analysis of midlatitude oceanic cloud regimes: mean properties and temperature sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. D. Gordon

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Clouds play an important role in the climate system by reducing the amount of shortwave radiation reaching the surface and the amount of longwave radiation escaping to space. Accurate simulation of clouds in computer models remains elusive, however, pointing to a lack of understanding of the connection between large-scale dynamics and cloud properties. This study uses a k-means clustering algorithm to group 21 years of satellite cloud data over midlatitude oceans into seven clusters, and demonstrates that the cloud clusters are associated with distinct large-scale dynamical conditions. Three clusters correspond to low-level cloud regimes with different cloud fraction and cumuliform or stratiform characteristics, but all occur under large-scale descent and a relatively dry free troposphere. Three clusters correspond to vertically extensive cloud regimes with tops in the middle or upper troposphere, and they differ according to the strength of large-scale ascent and enhancement of tropospheric temperature and humidity. The final cluster is associated with a lower troposphere that is dry and an upper troposphere that is moist and experiencing weak ascent and horizontal moist advection.

    Since the present balance of reflection of shortwave and absorption of longwave radiation by clouds could change as the atmosphere warms from increasing anthropogenic greenhouse gases, we must also better understand how increasing temperature modifies cloud and radiative properties. We therefore undertake an observational analysis of how midlatitude oceanic clouds change with temperature when dynamical processes are held constant (i.e., partial derivative with respect to temperature. For each of the seven cloud regimes, we examine the difference in cloud and radiative properties between warm and cold subsets. To avoid misinterpreting a cloud response to large-scale dynamical forcing as a cloud response to temperature, we require horizontal and vertical

  11. North Central Regional geologic characterization report. Volume 2. Plates. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    Volume 8(2) contains the following maps: Geologic map of the Lake Superior Region (Minnesota, Wisconsin, and northern Michigan); Index Map; Overburden Thickness; Faults and Ground Acceleration; Rock and Mineral Resources; Ground Water Basins and Potential Major Discharge Zones; and Ground Water Resource Potential

  12. Physical Modeling of the Processes Responsible for the Mid-Latitude Storm Enhanced Plasma Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller-Rowell, T. J.; Maruyama, N.; Fedrizzi, M.; Codrescu, M.; Heelis, R. A.

    2016-12-01

    Certain magnetic local time sectors at mid latitudes see substantial increases in plasma density in the early phases of a geomagnetic storm. The St. Patrick's Day storms of 2013 and 2015 were no exception, both producing large increases of total electron content at mid latitudes. There are theories for the build up of the storm enhanced density (SED), but can current theoretical ionosphere-thermosphere coupled models actually reproduce the response for an actual event? Not only is it necessary for the physical model to contain the appropriate physics, they also have to be forced by the correct drivers. The SED requires mid-latitude zonal transport to provide plasma stagnation in sunlight to provide the production. The theory also requires a poleward drift perpendicular to the magnetic field to elevate the plasma out of the body of the thermosphere to regions of substantially less loss rate. It is also suggested that equatorward winds are necessary to further elevate the plasma to regions of reduced loss. However, those same winds are also likely to transport molecular nitrogen rich neutral gas equatorward, potentially canceling out the benefits of the neutral circulation. Observations of mid-latitude zonal plasma flow are first analyzed to see if this first necessary ingredient is substantiated. The drift observations are then used to tune the driver to determine if, with the appropriate electric field driver, the latest physical models can reproduce the substantial plasma build up. If it can, the simulation can also be used to assess the contribution of the equatorward meridional wind; are they an asset to the plasma build up, or does the enhanced molecular species they carry counteract their benefit.

  13. Effects of electric field methods on modeling the midlatitude ionospheric electrodynamics and inner magnetosphere dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yiqun; Jordanova, Vania K.; Ridley, Aaron J.; Toth, Gabor; Heelis, Roderick

    2017-05-01

    We report a self-consistent electric field coupling between the midlatitude ionospheric electrodynamics and inner magnetosphere dynamics represented in a kinetic ring current model. This implementation in the model features another self-consistency in addition to its already existing self-consistent magnetic field coupling with plasma. The model is therefore named as Ring current-Atmosphere interaction Model with Self-Consistent magnetic (B) and electric (E) fields, or RAM-SCB-E. With this new model, we explore, by comparing with previously employed empirical Weimer potential, the impact of using self-consistent electric fields on the modeling of storm time global electric potential distribution, plasma sheet particle injection, and the subauroral polarization streams (SAPS) which heavily rely on the coupled interplay between the inner magnetosphere and midlatitude ionosphere. We find the following phenomena in the self-consistent model: (1) The spatially localized enhancement of electric field is produced within 2.5 penetration as found in statistical observations. (2) The electric potential contours show more substantial skewing toward the postmidnight than the Weimer potential, suggesting the resistance on the particles from directly injecting toward the low-L region. (3) The proton flux indeed indicates that the plasma sheet inner boundary at the dusk-premidnight sector is located further away from the Earth than in the Weimer potential, and a "tongue" of low-energy protons extends eastward toward the dawn, leading to the Harang reversal. (4) SAPS are reproduced in the subauroral region, and their magnitude and latitudinal width are in reasonable agreement with data.

  14. BioMeeT. Planning of biomass based methanol energy combine - Trollhaettan region. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandberg, Aake; Hjortsberg, Hans; Saevbark, Bengt [Ecotraffic R and D AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Ekbom, Tomas; Hjerpe, Carl-Johan; Landaelv, Ingvar [Nykomb Synergetics AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2000-04-01

    The conversion of biomass in an energy combine based on primary gasification yields a gas that can be used as fuels gas, for synthesis of motor fuels (methanol or other) or for electric power production. The study gives examples of alternative product mixes. The conclusions of the study are: (1) Potential of new, not yet utilised biomass is available, and new areas of applications, where oil is presently used, are needed to develop the potential. Motor fuel production (methanol, DME) is a presumption in the BioMeeT-study. (2) Yield figures in the energy combine are comparable to those of now used bio-systems for power and co-generation. (3) Which one of the cases in the BioMeeT-project is the most favourable cannot be decided on a plant-to-plant basis alone but the entire system for supply energy carriers in the region has to be considered, as the all plants within the system may change. This would require further investigations. Moreover, the results will be different in various regions in Sweden and Europe due to the markets for all energy carriers. (4) At today's conditions in the Trollhaettan region it must be stated that there is only room for dedicated bio-methanol/DME production (provided such a market will come) with moderate addition to the district heating system as in the BAL-project. (5) In the longer term the future supply of all energy carriers, including new electric power and new bio-fuels, has to be considered for new plants and at renewals. In such a case an energy combine as in the BioMeeT-project may be a central conversion plant with gas deliveries to satellites such as local co-generation, district heat and industries in a regional system within a 50 - 100 km radius. This should be included in regional planning for the future. (6) Estimated investment costs per kW feedstock input is higher for the energy combine compared to present technologies (mature technologies for power and heat) but have to be judged for all plants taken together in the

  15. BioMeeT. Planning of biomass based methanol energy combine - Trollhaettan region. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandberg, Aake; Hjortsberg, Hans; Saevbark, Bengt [Ecotraffic R and D AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Ekbom, Tomas; Hjerpe, Carl-Johan; Landaelv, Ingvar [Nykomb Synergetics AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2000-04-01

    The conversion of biomass in an energy combine based on primary gasification yields a gas that can be used as fuels gas, for synthesis of motor fuels (methanol or other) or for electric power production. The study gives examples of alternative product mixes. The conclusions of the study are: (1) Potential of new, not yet utilised biomass is available, and new areas of applications, where oil is presently used, are needed to develop the potential. Motor fuel production (methanol, DME) is a presumption in the BioMeeT-study. (2) Yield figures in the energy combine are comparable to those of now used bio-systems for power and co-generation. (3) Which one of the cases in the BioMeeT-project is the most favourable cannot be decided on a plant-to-plant basis alone but the entire system for supply energy carriers in the region has to be considered, as the all plants within the system may change. This would require further investigations. Moreover, the results will be different in various regions in Sweden and Europe due to the markets for all energy carriers. (4) At today's conditions in the Trollhaettan region it must be stated that there is only room for dedicated bio-methanol/DME production (provided such a market will come) with moderate addition to the district heating system as in the BAL-project. (5) In the longer term the future supply of all energy carriers, including new electric power and new bio-fuels, has to be considered for new plants and at renewals. In such a case an energy combine as in the BioMeeT-project may be a central conversion plant with gas deliveries to satellites such as local co-generation, district heat and industries in a regional system within a 50 - 100 km radius. This should be included in regional planning for the future. (6) Estimated investment costs per kW feedstock input is higher for the energy combine compared to present technologies (mature technologies for power and heat) but have to be judged for all plants taken together in

  16. International workshop on final focus and interaction regions of next generation linear colliders: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The first day of the workshop was devoted to four plenary ''issues'' talks, one for each working group: Beam-Beam Interaction, Detector, Hardware, and Optical Design. The last day was devoted to plenary talks summarizing the activities of the working groups. Each of the three remaining days there,was a short morning plenary devoted to a brief summary of the preceding day and an announcement of planned working group discussions for that day. The transparencies for the ''issues'' and ''summary'' talks are included in this volume, along with some remarks from the working group chairpersons. Very briefly, the beam-beam group continued to address the quantitative study of QED induced backgrounds, and attempted to better understand the nature and prevalence of QCD millijets. The detector group attempted to identify the impact on masking and detector design of the beam-beam backgrounds, the synchrotron radiation induced backgrounds from beam halos and muon backgrounds produced primarily in collimators. Nanosecond timing elements needed in conjunction with multi-bunch operation were discussed. The hardware group addressed the problem of magnet design and support, especially the final doublet magnets suspended within the detector environment, and instrumentation issues, such as high resolution beam position monitors. The optics group discussed new final focus system ideas, collimator design, and improvement of beamline tolerances. If you were not here to participate, we hope that this volume will help you in your orientation to these problems

  17. Study of the regional potential for the development of small hydroelectricity - Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruillet, Mathieu; Buchet, Eric

    2005-01-01

    Whereas the potential of small hydroelectric plants in the eastern part of the PACA region, and more generally in the whole region appears to be promising to support energy supply safety, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and for local development, this study aimed at making an inventory of existing hydraulic plants (to be renewed or developed for a higher production), of existing weirs to be equipped, and of new sites to be possibly developed (non classified rives, irrigation canals, drinkable water networks). Another objective of this study was to propose a selection among the most promising sites or works. Moreover, the power for these existing or possible installations ranges from 100 kW to 10 MW. After a presentation of the adopted methodology, lists of sites are provided, as well as more detailed presentations of selected sites

  18. A Regionalization Approach to select the final watershed parameter set among the Pareto solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, G. H.; Micheletty, P. D.; Carney, S.; Quebbeman, J.; Day, G. N.

    2017-12-01

    The calibration of hydrological models often results in model parameters that are inconsistent with those from neighboring basins. Considering that physical similarity exists within neighboring basins some of the physically related parameters should be consistent among them. Traditional manual calibration techniques require an iterative process to make the parameters consistent, which takes additional effort in model calibration. We developed a multi-objective optimization procedure to calibrate the National Weather Service (NWS) Research Distributed Hydrological Model (RDHM), using the Nondominant Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II) with expert knowledge of the model parameter interrelationships one objective function. The multi-objective algorithm enables us to obtain diverse parameter sets that are equally acceptable with respect to the objective functions and to choose one from the pool of the parameter sets during a subsequent regionalization step. Although all Pareto solutions are non-inferior, we exclude some of the parameter sets that show extremely values for any of the objective functions to expedite the selection process. We use an apriori model parameter set derived from the physical properties of the watershed (Koren et al., 2000) to assess the similarity for a given parameter across basins. Each parameter is assigned a weight based on its assumed similarity, such that parameters that are similar across basins are given higher weights. The parameter weights are useful to compute a closeness measure between Pareto sets of nearby basins. The regionalization approach chooses the Pareto parameter sets that minimize the closeness measure of the basin being regionalized. The presentation will describe the results of applying the regionalization approach to a set of pilot basins in the Upper Colorado basin as part of a NASA-funded project.

  19. Regional power systems planning: a state of the art assessment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    The purpose of this report was to define regional power systems planning problems, the tools available and their shortcomings, and to document all of the above in a concise readable form. The approach consisted of a survey and literature search. The survey determined the tools being used by utilities, the tools they had rejected, and the tools they planned to try out. The literature search was conducted for the purpose of documenting the tools available, and performing a comparative analysis of these tools. The project included a mix of utility, university, and consulting organizations. Several organizations were consulted in the selection of the participants. A non-profit organization, The University of Oklahoma, was selected to manage the project. The results were reviewed in a series of four one day meetings by known authorities in each field. This report consists of the results of this project. Perhaps its major finding is that several aspects of the regional planning problem are not well defined, the roles of the various participants in regional planning is not clear, and certainly research is needed for the development of new methodology.

  20. Arctic-midlatitude weather linkages in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overland, James E.; Wang, Muyin

    2018-06-01

    There is intense public interest in whether major Arctic changes can and will impact midlatitude weather such as cold air outbreaks on the central and east side of continents. Although there is progress in linkage research for eastern Asia, a clear gap is conformation for North America. We show two stationary temperature/geopotential height patterns where warmer Arctic temperatures have reinforced existing tropospheric jet stream wave amplitudes over North America: a Greenland/Baffin Block pattern during December 2010 and an Alaska Ridge pattern during December 2017. Even with continuing Arctic warming over the past decade, other recent eastern US winter months were less susceptible for an Arctic linkage: the jet stream was represented by either zonal flow, progressive weather systems, or unfavorable phasing of the long wave pattern. The present analysis lays the scientific controversy over the validity of linkages to the inherent intermittency of jet stream dynamics, which provides only an occasional bridge between Arctic thermodynamic forcing and extended midlatitude weather events.

  1. Mid-latitude Narrowband Stimulated Electromagnetic Emissions (NSEE): New Observations and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nossa, E.; Mahmoudian, A.; Isham, B.; Bernhardt, P. A.; Briczinski, S. J., Jr.

    2017-12-01

    High power electromagnetic waves (EM) transmitted from the ground interact with the local plasma in the ionosphere and can produce Stimulated Electromagnetic Emissions (SEE) through the parametric decay instability (PDI). The classical SEE features known as wideband SEE (WSEE) with frequency offset of 1 kHz up to 100 kHz have been observed and studied in detail in the 1980s and 1990s. A new era of ionospheric remote sensing techniques was begun after the recent update of the HF transmitter at the HAARP. Sideband emissions of unprecedented strength have been reported during recent campaigns at HAARP, reaching up to 10 dB relative to the reflected pump wave which are by far the strongest spectral features of secondary radiation that have been reported. These emissions known as narrowband SEE (NSEE) are shifted by only up to a few tens of Hertz from radio-waves transmitted at several megahertz. One of these new NSEE features are emission lines within 100 Hz of the pump frequency and are produced through magnetized stimulated Brillouin scatter (MSBS) process. Stimulated Brillouin Scatter (SBS) is a strong SEE mode involving a direct parametric decay of the pump wave into an electrostatic wave (ES) and a secondary EM wave that sometimes could be stronger than the HF pump. SBS has been studied in laboratory plasma experiments by the interaction of high power lasers with plasmas. The SBS instability in magnetized ionospheric plasma was observed for the first time at HAARP in 2010. Our recent work at HAARP has shown that MSBS emission lines can be used to asses electron temperature in the heated region, ion mass spectrometry, determine minor ion species and their densities in the ionosphere, study the physics associated with electron acceleration and artificial airglow. Here, we present new observations of narrowband SEE (NSEE) features at the new mid-latitude heating facility at Arecibo. This includes the direct mode conversion of pump wave through MSBS process. Collected

  2. Classification of Arctic, Mid-Latitude and Tropical Clouds in the Mixed-Phase Temperature Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Anja; Afchine, Armin; Luebke, Anna; Meyer, Jessica; Dorsey, James R.; Gallagher, Martin W.; Ehrlich, André; Wendisch, Manfred; Krämer, Martina

    2016-04-01

    The degree of glaciation and the sizes and habits of ice particles formed in mixed-phase clouds remain not fully understood. However, these properties define the mixed clouds' radiative impact on the Earth's climate and thus a correct representation of this cloud type in global climate models is of importance for an improved certainty of climate predictions. This study focuses on the occurrence and characteristics of two types of clouds in the mixed-phase temperature regime (238-275K): coexistence clouds (Coex), in which both liquid drops and ice crystals exist, and fully glaciated clouds that develop in the Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen regime (WBF clouds). We present an extensive dataset obtained by the Cloud and Aerosol Particle Spectrometer NIXE-CAPS, covering Arctic, mid-latitude and tropical regions. In total, we spent 45.2 hours within clouds in the mixed-phase temperature regime during five field campaigns (Arctic: VERDI, 2012 and RACEPAC, 2014 - Northern Canada; mid-latitude: COALESC, 2011 - UK and ML-Cirrus, 2014 - central Europe; tropics: ACRIDICON, 2014 - Brazil). We show that WBF and Coex clouds can be identified via cloud particle size distributions. The classified datasets are used to analyse temperature dependences of both cloud types as well as range and frequencies of cloud particle concentrations and sizes. One result is that Coex clouds containing supercooled liquid drops are found down to temperatures of -40 deg C only in tropical mixed clouds, while in the Arctic and mid-latitudes no liquid drops are observed below about -20 deg C. In addition, we show that the cloud particles' aspherical fractions - derived from polarization signatures of particles with diameters between 20 and 50 micrometers - differ significantly between WBF and Coex clouds. In Coex clouds, the aspherical fraction of cloud particles is generally very low, but increases with decreasing temperature. In WBF clouds, where all cloud particles are ice, about 20-40% of the cloud

  3. Conceptual model for regional radionuclide transport from a basalt repository site. Final draft, technical memorandum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, W.C.; Voorhees, M.L.; Prickett, T.A.

    1980-05-23

    This technical memorandum was prepared to: (1) describe a typical basalt radionuclide repository site, (2) describe geologic and hydrologic processes associated with regional radionuclide transport in basalts, (3) define the parameters required to model regional radionuclide transport from a basalt repository site, and (4) develop a ''conceptual model'' of radionuclide transport from a basalt repository site. In a general hydrological sense, basalts may be described as layered sequences of aquifers and aquitards. The Columbia River Basalt, centered near the semi-arid Pasco Basin, is considered by many to be typical basalt repository host rock. Detailed description of the flow system including flow velocities with high-low hydraulic conductivity sequences are not possible with existing data. However, according to theory, waste-transport routes are ultimately towards the Columbia River and the lengths of flow paths from the repository to the biosphere may be relatively short. There are many physical, chemical, thermal, and nuclear processes with associated parameters that together determine the possible pattern of radionuclide migration in basalts and surrounding formations. Brief process descriptions and associated parameter lists are provided. Emphasis has been placed on the use of the distribution coefficient in simulating ion exchange. The use of the distribution coefficient approach is limited because it takes into account only relatively fast mass transfer processes. In general, knowledge of hydrogeochemical processes is primitive.

  4. Conceptual model for regional radionuclide transport from a basalt repository site. Final draft, technical memorandum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, W.C.; Voorhees, M.L.; Prickett, T.A.

    1980-01-01

    This technical memorandum was prepared to: (1) describe a typical basalt radionuclide repository site, (2) describe geologic and hydrologic processes associated with regional radionuclide transport in basalts, (3) define the parameters required to model regional radionuclide transport from a basalt repository site, and (4) develop a ''conceptual model'' of radionuclide transport from a basalt repository site. In a general hydrological sense, basalts may be described as layered sequences of aquifers and aquitards. The Columbia River Basalt, centered near the semi-arid Pasco Basin, is considered by many to be typical basalt repository host rock. Detailed description of the flow system including flow velocities with high-low hydraulic conductivity sequences are not possible with existing data. However, according to theory, waste-transport routes are ultimately towards the Columbia River and the lengths of flow paths from the repository to the biosphere may be relatively short. There are many physical, chemical, thermal, and nuclear processes with associated parameters that together determine the possible pattern of radionuclide migration in basalts and surrounding formations. Brief process descriptions and associated parameter lists are provided. Emphasis has been placed on the use of the distribution coefficient in simulating ion exchange. The use of the distribution coefficient approach is limited because it takes into account only relatively fast mass transfer processes. In general, knowledge of hydrogeochemical processes is primitive

  5. Beaufort Region Environmental Assessment and Monitoring program (BREAM). Final report for 1992/1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vonk, P.; Duval, W.; Thomas, D.

    1993-01-01

    The Beaufort Region Environmental Assessment and Monitoring (BREAM) program was established to identify environmental research and monitoring priorities related to future hydrocarbon development activities in the Beaufort Sea and Mackenzie Delta region. The activities occurring during the third year of BREAM focused on major oil spills. Three planning meetings were held: a Project Initiation Meeting and technical meetings of the Community-Based Concerns and Catastrophic Oil Spill Working Groups. The initiation meeting had goals that included identifying specific tasks to be completed by the two Working Groups, discussion of contents and scope of materials being prepared for an oil spill workshop, and determining project schedules. The Community-Based Concerns group focused its work on identifying ecological concerns related to oil spills and their cleanup, identifying community-based ecological issues and concerns, and incorporating local and traditional knowledge into the BREAM program. The group suggested changes to the wording of existing impact hypotheses and oil spill scenarios, and recommended changes in a list of valued ecosystem components. The oil spill group reviewed ecological concerns related to oil spills, and reviewed each oil spill scenario and impact hypothesis selected for an interdisciplinary workshop held in February 1993. The workshop evaluated four of the most important oil spill impact hypotheses (offshore platform blowout, river barge spill of diesel fuel, under-ice spill from a pipeline river crossing, and a pipeline spill affecting mammals). Further research and monitoring related to a number of impact hypotheses was recommended by workshop participants. 57 refs., 29 figs., 12 tabs

  6. Regional demand forecasting and simulation model: user's manual. Task 4, final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parhizgari, A M

    1978-09-25

    The Department of Energy's Regional Demand Forecasting Model (RDFOR) is an econometric and simulation system designed to estimate annual fuel-sector-region specific consumption of energy for the US. Its purposes are to (1) provide the demand side of the Project Independence Evaluation System (PIES), (2) enhance our empirical insights into the structure of US energy demand, and (3) assist policymakers in their decisions on and formulations of various energy policies and/or scenarios. This report provides a self-contained user's manual for interpreting, utilizing, and implementing RDFOR simulation software packages. Chapters I and II present the theoretical structure and the simulation of RDFOR, respectively. Chapter III describes several potential scenarios which are (or have been) utilized in the RDFOR simulations. Chapter IV presents an overview of the complete software package utilized in simulation. Chapter V provides the detailed explanation and documentation of this package. The last chapter describes step-by-step implementation of the simulation package using the two scenarios detailed in Chapter III. The RDFOR model contains 14 fuels: gasoline, electricity, natural gas, distillate and residual fuels, liquid gases, jet fuel, coal, oil, petroleum products, asphalt, petroleum coke, metallurgical coal, and total fuels, spread over residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation sectors.

  7. Measurement of attitudes toward commercial development of geothermal energy in Federal Region IX. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-06-01

    A survey was conducted of ten target study groups and subgroups for Klamath Falls, Oregon, and Susanville, California: local government, current and potential industry at the site, relocators to the site, current and potential financial community, regulators, and current and potential promoters and developers. The results of benchmark attitudinal measurement is presented separately for each target group. A literature review was conducted and Macro-environmental attitudes of a sample of local government and industry personnel at the sites were assessed. An assessment of capabilities was made which involved two measurements. The first was a measurement of a sample of promoters, developers, and industrial service companies active at the site to determine infrastructure capabilities required by industry for geothermal plants. The second measurement involved analyzing a sample of industry management in the area and defining their requirements for plant retrofit and expansion. Finally, the processes used by the study group to analyze information to reach commitment and regulatory decisions that significantly impact on geothermal energy projects at the site were identified and defined.

  8. Final report development of a regional nitrogen ceiling; Eindrapportage ontwikkeling regionaal stikstofplafond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bleeker, A.; Hensen, A. [ECN Environment and Energy Engineering, Petten (Netherlands); Rougoor, C. [Centrum voor Landbouw en Milieu CLM, Culemborg (Netherlands)

    2013-01-15

    The development of a methodology in which integrated nitrogen ceilings can be studied on a regional level is described. Next to the agricultural sector, also other sectors are taken into consideration (traffic, industry, etc.) with respect to the development of the nitrogen ceiling methodology. The study consists of two parts: the feasibility of a nitrogen ceiling system and the actual development of such a system [Dutch] Deze rapportage beschrijft de ontwikkeling van een methodiek waarbij integrale stikstofplafonds op gebiedsniveau kunnen worden bestudeerd. Dit onderzoek beschouwt, naast landbouw, ook andere sectoren (verkeer, industrie, etc.) voor het ontwikkelen van de stikstofplafond methodiek. Het onderzoek bestaat uit twee onderdelen: bestuderen van de haalbaarheid van een stikstofplafond systematiek en het feitelijke ontwikkelen van een dergelijke systematiek.

  9. Region-specific study of the electric utility industry. Phase I, final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wacaster, A.J.

    1985-07-01

    This report describes the financial background of the electric utility industry in VACAR, reports on the present condition of the industry and then assesses the future of this industry. The Virginia-Carolinas subregion (VACAR) of the Southeastern Electric Reliability Council (SERC) was selected for this regional study because of its cooperativeness and its representative mix of powerplants, for example coal, hydro, nuclear, oil. It was found that the supply of future economic electricity is in jeopardy because of the regulatory process, the increasing risk associated with large scale generating stations and the weakening of the nuclear option. A number of options for the future were considered, including deregulation, government ownership and retaining the present system with modifications. The option selected to improve the present condition of the electricity industry was to make the present system work. The present system is sound, and with modifications, problems could be solved within the existing framework. 8 figs., 4 tabs

  10. Trans-pacific glacial response to the Antarctic Cold Reversal in the southern mid-latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagredo, Esteban A.; Kaplan, Michael R.; Araya, Paola S.; Lowell, Thomas V.; Aravena, Juan C.; Moreno, Patricio I.; Kelly, Meredith A.; Schaefer, Joerg M.

    2018-05-01

    Elucidating the timing and regional extent of abrupt climate events during the last glacial-interglacial transition (∼18-11.5 ka) is critical for identifying spatial patterns and mechanisms responsible for large-magnitude climate events. The record of climate change in the Southern Hemisphere during this time period, however, remains scarce and unevenly distributed. We present new geomorphic, chronological, and equilibrium line altitude (ELA) data from a climatically sensitive mountain glacier at Monte San Lorenzo (47°S), Central Patagonia. Twenty-four new cosmogenic 10Be exposure ages from moraines provide a comprehensive glacial record in the mid-latitudes of South America, which constrain the timing, spatial extent and magnitude of glacial fluctuations during the Antarctic Cold Reversal (ACR, ∼14.5-12.9 ka). Río Tranquilo glacier advanced and reached a maximum extent at 13.9 ± 0.7 ka. Three additional inboard moraines afford statistically similar ages, indicating repeated glacier expansions or marginal fluctuations over the ACR. Our record represents the northernmost robust evidence of glacial fluctuations during the ACR in southern South America, documenting not only the timing of the ACR maximum, but also the sequence of glacier changes within this climate event. Based on ELA reconstructions, we estimate a cooling of >1.6-1.8 °C at the peak of the ACR. The Río Tranquilo record along with existing glacial reconstructions from New Zealand (43°S) and paleovegetation records from northwestern (41°S) and central-west (45°S) Patagonia, suggest an uniform trans-Pacific glacier-climate response to an ACR trigger across the southern mid-latitudes. We posit that the equatorial migration of the southern westerly winds provides an adequate mechanism to propagate a common ACR signal across the Southern Hemisphere.

  11. Anthropogenic Changes in Mid-latitude Storm and Blocking Activities from Observations and Climate Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D.

    2017-12-01

    Fingerprints of anthropogenic climate change can be most readily detected in the high latitudes of Northern Hemisphere, where temperature has been rising faster than the rest of the globe and sea ice cover has shrunk dramatically over recent decades. Reducing the meridional temperature gradient, this amplified warming over the high latitudes influences weather in the middle latitudes by modulating the jet stream, storms, and atmospheric blocking activities. Whether observational records have revealed significant changes in mid-latitude storms and blocking activities, however, has remained a subject of much debate. Buried deep in strong year-to-year variations, the long-term dynamic responses of the atmosphere are more difficult to identify, compared with its thermodynamic responses. Variabilities of decadal and longer timescales further obscure any trends diagnosed from satellite observations, which are often shorter than 40 years. Here, new metrics reflecting storm and blocking activities are developed using surface air temperature and pressure records, and their variations and long-term trends are examined. This approach gives an inkling of the changes in storm and blocking activities since the Industrial Revolution in regions with abundant long-term observational records, e.g. Europe and North America. The relationship between Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation and variations in storm and blocking activities across the Atlantic is also scrutinized. The connection between observed centennial trends and anthropogenic forcings is investigated using a hierarchy of numerical tools, from highly idealized to fully coupled atmosphere-ocean models. Pre-industrial control simulations and a set of large ensemble simulations forced by increased CO2 are analyzed to evaluate the range of natural variabilities, which paves the way to singling out significant anthropogenic changes from observational records, as well as predicting future changes in mid-latitude storm and

  12. FutureGen 2.0 Pipeline and Regional Carbon Capture Storage Project - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, Chris [Patrick Engineering Inc., Lisle, IL (United States); Wortman, David [Patrick Engineering Inc., Lisle, IL (United States); Brown, Chris [Battelle Memorial Inst., Richland, WA (United States); Hassan, Syed [Gulf Interstate Engineering, Houston, TX (United States); Humphreys, Ken [Futuregen Industrial Alliance, Inc., Washington, D.C. (United States); Willford, Mark [Futuregen Industrial Alliance, Inc., Washington, D.C. (United States)

    2016-03-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) FutureGen 2.0 Program involves two projects: (1) the Oxy-Combustion Power Plant Project and (2) the CO2 Pipeline and Storage Project. This Final Technical Report is focused on the CO2 Pipeline and Storage Project. The FutureGen 2.0 CO2 Pipeline and Storage Project evolved from an initial siting and project definition effort in Phase I, into the Phase II activity consisting permitting, design development, the acquisition of land rights, facility design, and licensing and regulatory approvals. Phase II also progressed into construction packaging, construction procurement, and targeted early preparatory activities in the field. The CO2 Pipeline and Storage Project accomplishments were significant, and in some cases unprecedented. The engineering, permitting, legal, stakeholder, and commercial learnings substantially advance the nation’s understanding of commercial-scale CO2 storage in deep saline aquifers. Voluminous and significant information was obtained from the drilling and the testing program of the subsurface, and sophisticated modeling was performed that held up to a wide range of scrutiny. All designs progressed to the point of securing construction contracts or comfort letters attesting to successful negotiation of all contract terms and willing execution at the appropriate time all major project elements – pipeline, surface facilities, and subsurface – as well as operations. While the physical installation of the planned facilities did not proceed in part due to insufficient time to complete the project prior to the expiration of federal funding, the project met significant objectives prior to DOE’s closeout decision. Had additional time been available, there were no known, insurmountable obstacles that would have precluded successful construction and operation of the project. Due to the suspension of the project, site restoration activities were developed and the work was accomplished. The site restoration

  13. Evaluation of the neutron cross sections of 235U in the thermal energy region. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, B.R. Jr.; Kottwitz, D.A.; Thompson, J.K.

    1976-02-01

    The objective of this work has been to improve the knowledge of the thermal cross sections of the fissile nuclei as a step toward providing a standard data base for the nuclear industry. The methodology uses a form of the Adler-Adler multilevel-fission theory and Breit-Wigner multilevel-scattering theory. It incorporates these theories in a general nonlinear least-squares (LSQ) fitting program SIGLEARNThe analysis methodology in this work was applied to the thermal data on 235 U. A reference data file has been developed which includes most of the known data of interest. The first important result of this work is the assessment of the shape uncertainties of the partial cross sections. The results of our studies lead to the following values and error estimates for 235 U g factors in a thermal (20.44 0 C) energy spectrum: g/sub f/ = 0.97751 (+-0.11%); g/sub γ/ = 0.98230 (+-0.14%). A second important result of this study is the development of a recommended set of 2200 m/s (0.0253 eV) values of the parameters and the probable range of further adjustment which might be made. The analysis also provides the result of a common interpretation of energy-dependent absolute cross-section data of different measurements to yield a consistent set of experimental 0.0253 eV values with rigorous error estimates. It also provides normalization factors for relative fission and capture cross sections on a common basis with rigorous error estimates. The results of these analyses provide a basis for deciding what new measurements would be most beneficial. The most important of these would be improved direct capture data in the thermal region

  14. Trapped waves on the mid-latitude β-plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paldor, Nathan; Sigalov, Andrey

    2008-08-01

    A new type of approximate solutions of the Linearized Shallow Water Equations (LSWE) on the mid-latitude β-plane, zonally propagating trapped waves with Airy-like latitude-dependent amplitude, is constructed in this work, for sufficiently small radius of deformation. In contrast to harmonic Poincare and Rossby waves, these newly found trapped waves vanish fast in the positive half-axis, and their zonal phase speed is larger than that of the corresponding harmonic waves for sufficiently large meridional domains. Our analysis implies that due to the smaller radius of deformation in the ocean compared with that in the atmosphere, the trapped waves are relevant to observations in the ocean whereas harmonic waves typify atmospheric observations. The increase in the zonal phase speed of trapped Rossby waves compared with that of harmonic ones is consistent with recent observations that showed that Sea Surface Height features propagated westwards faster than the phase speed of harmonic Rossby waves.

  15. Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, MP; Petersen, WA; Del Genio, AD; Giangrande, SE; Heymsfield, A; Heymsfield, G; Hou, AY; Kollias, P; Orr, B; Rutledge, SA; Schwaller, MR; Zipser, E

    2010-04-10

    The Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) will take place in central Oklahoma during the April–May 2011 period. The experiment is a collaborative effort between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission Ground Validation (GV) program. The field campaign leverages the unprecedented observing infrastructure currently available in the central United States, combined with an extensive sounding array, remote sensing and in situ aircraft observations, NASA GPM ground validation remote sensors, and new ARM instrumentation purchased with American Recovery and Reinvestment Act funding. The overarching goal is to provide the most complete characterization of convective cloud systems, precipitation, and the environment that has ever been obtained, providing constraints for model cumulus parameterizations and space-based rainfall retrieval algorithms over land that have never before been available.

  16. The Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Mark P.; Petersen, Walt A.; Bansemer, Aaron; Bharadwaj, Nitin; Carey, Larry; Cecil, D. J.; Collis, Scott M.; Del Genio, Anthony D.; Dolan, Brenda A.; Gerlach, J.; Giangrande, Scott; Heymsfield, Andrew J.; Heymsfield, Gerald; Kollias, Pavlos; Lang, T. J.; Nesbitt, Steve W.; Neumann, Andrea; Poellot, M. R.; Rutledge, Steven A.; Schwaller, Mathew R.; Tokay, Ali; Williams, C. R.; Wolff, D. B.; Xie, Shaocheng; Zipser, Edward J.

    2016-10-18

    The Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E), a field program jointly led by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program and the NASA Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission, was conducted in south-central Oklahoma during April – May 2011. MC3E science objectives were motivated by the need to improve understanding of midlatitude continental convective cloud system lifecycles, microphysics, and GPM precipitation retrieval algorithms. To achieve these objectives a multi-scale surface- and aircraft-based in situ and remote sensing observing strategy was employed. A variety of cloud and precipitation events were sampled during the MC3E, of which results from three deep convective events are highlighted. Vertical structure, air motions, precipitation drop-size distributions and ice properties were retrieved from multi-wavelength radar, profiler, and aircraft observations for an MCS on 11 May. Aircraft observations for another MCS observed on 20 May were used to test agreement between observed radar reflectivities and those calculated with forward-modeled reflectivity and microwave brightness temperatures using in situ particle size distributions and ice water content. Multi-platform observations of a supercell that occurred on 23 May allowed for an integrated analysis of kinematic and microphysical interactions. A core updraft of 25 ms-1 supported growth of hail and large rain drops. Data collected during the MC3E campaign is being used in a number of current and ongoing research projects and is available through the DOE ARM and NASA data archives.

  17. Design, Observing and Data Systems, and Final Installation of the NEPTUNE Canada Regional Cabled Ocean Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, C. R.; Best, M. M.; Johnson, F. R.; Phibbs, P.; Pirenne, B.

    2009-05-01

    NEPTUNE Canada (NC; www.neptunecanada.ca) will complete most of the installation of the world's first regional cabled ocean observatory in late 2009 off Canada's west coast. It will comprise five main observatory nodes (100-2700m water depths) linked by an 800km backbone cable delivering 10kVDC power and 10Gbps communications bandwidth to hundreds of sensors, with a 25-year design life. Infrastructure (100M) and initial operational funding (20M) is secured. University of Victoria (UVic) leads a consortium of 12 Canadian universities, hosts the coastal VENUS cabled observatory, with Ocean Networks Canada (ONC) providing management oversight. Observatory architecture has a trunk and branch topology. Installed in late 2007, the backbone cable loops from/to UVic's Port Alberni shore station. The wet plant's design, manufacture and installation was contracted to Alcatel-Lucent. Each node provides six interface ports for connection of science instrument arrays or extensions. Each port provides dual optical Ethernet links and up to 9kW of electrical power at 400VDC. Junction boxes, designed and built by OceanWorks support up to 10 instruments each and can be daisy- chained. They accommodate both serial and 10/100 Ethernet instruments, and provide a variety of voltages (400V, 48V, 24V, 15V). Backbone equipment has all been qualified and installed; shore station re-equipping is complete; junction boxes are manufactured. A major marine program will deploy nodes and instruments in July-September 2009; instruments to one node will probably be deferred until 2010. Observatory instruments will be deployed in subsurface (boreholes), on seabed, and buoyed through the water column. Over 130 instruments (over 40 different types) will host several hundred sensors; mobile assets include a tethered crawler and a 400m vertical profiler. Experiments will address: earthquake dynamics and tsunami hazards; fluid fluxes in both ocean crust and sediments, including gas hydrates; ocean

  18. A Lagrangian analysis of mid-latitude stratospheric ozone variability and long-term trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, G.; Wernli, H.; Staehelin, J.; Peter, T.

    2002-05-01

    A systematic Lagrangian investigation is performed of wintertime high-resolution stratospheric ozone soundings at Payerne, Switzerland, from January 1970 to March 2001. For every ozone sounding, 10-day backward trajectories have been calculated on 16 isentropic levels using NCEP reanalysis data. Both the minimum/maximum latitude and potential vorticity (PV) averaged along the trajectories are used as indicators of the air parcels' ``origin''. The importance of transport for the understandin g of single ozone profiles is confirmed by a statistical analysis which shows that negative/positive ozone deviations gener ally coincide with transport from regions with climatologically low/high ozone values. The stable relationship between PV and ozone for the 32 year period indicates either no direct chemical impact or no temporal change of this impact. In the upper layer the PV-ozone relationship changes significantly after 1987 and a separate trend analysis for air masses transported from the polar, midlatitude and subtropical regions shows negative ozone trends in all three categories (with a maximum for the polar region). This is not direct evidence for, but would be in agreement with, an increased chemical ozone depletion in the Arctic since the late 1980s. The reasons for the negative trend in the mid-stratospheric air masses with subtropical origin that are in qualitative agreement with recent satellite observations are presently unknown.

  19. Examining the controlling factors on Southern Ocean clouds and their radiative effects in the context of midlatitude weather systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelleher, M. K.; Grise, K. M.

    2017-12-01

    Clouds and their associated radiative effects are one of the largest sources of uncertainty in the present generation of global climate models. One region where model biases are especially large is over the Southern Ocean, where many models systematically underestimate the climatological shortwave cloud radiative effects (CRE) and/or misrepresent the relationship between shortwave CRE and atmospheric dynamics. Previous research has shown that two "cloud controlling factors", estimated inversion strength (EIS) and mid-tropospheric vertical velocity, are helpful in explaining the relationship between CRE and atmospheric dynamics on monthly timescales. For example, when the Southern Hemisphere midlatitude jet shifts poleward on monthly timescales, the high clouds and their associated longwave CRE shift poleward with the jet, consistent with a poleward shift of the storm track and the attendant vertical velocity anomalies. However, the observed changes in shortwave CRE with a poleward jet shift are small due to a trade-off between the competing effects of opposing EIS and vertical velocity anomalies. This study extends these previous findings to examine the relationship between Southern Ocean cloud controlling factors and CRE on daily timescales. On a daily timescale, the relationship of EIS and vertical velocity with CRE is more complex, due in part to the presence of transient weather systems. Composites of EIS, vertical velocity, longwave CRE, and shortwave CRE around extratropical cyclones and anticyclones are constructed to examine how the CRE anomalies vary in different sectors of midlatitude weather systems and the role that EIS and vertical velocity play in determining those anomalies. The relationships between the cloud controlling factors and CRE on daily timescales provide key insight into the underlying physical processes responsible for the relationships between midlatitude cloud controlling factors and CRE previously documented on monthly timescales.

  20. Changes on Mid-Latitude Cyclones due to Global Warming Simulated by a Global 20-km-mesh Atmospheric Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, K.

    2005-12-01

    I investigate how the intensity and the activity of mid-latitude cyclones change as a result of global warming, based on a time-slice experiment with a super-high resolution Atmospheric General Circulation Model (20-km mesh TL959L60 MRI/JMA AGCM). The model was developed by the RR2002 project "Development of Super High Resolution Global and Regional Climate Models" funded by the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. In this context, I use a 10-year control simulation with the climatological SST and a 10-year time-slice global warming simulation using the SST anomalies derived from the SRES A1B scenario run with the MRI-CGCM2.3 (T42L30 atmosphere, 0.5-2.0 x 2.5 L23 ocean) corresponding to the end of the 21st century. I have analyzed the sea-level pressure field and the kinetic energy field of the wind at the 500 hPa pressure level associated with mid-latitude transients from October through April. According to a comparison of 10-day average fields between present and future in the North Pacific, some statistically significant changes are found in a warmer climate for the both of sea-level pressure and the kinetic energy fields. In particular, from late winter through early spring, the sea-level pressure decreases on many parts of the whole Pacific. The kinetic energy of the wind becomes higher on center of the basin. Therefore, I suppose the Aleutian Low is likely to settle in longer by about one month than the present. Hereafter, I plan to investigate what kind of phenomena may accompany the changes on mid-latitude transients.

  1. Empirical studies of the microwave radiometric response to rainfall in the tropics and midlatitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, Grant W.; Katsaros, Kristina B.

    1989-01-01

    Results are presented from quantitative comparisons between satellite microwave radiometer observations and digital radar observations of equatorial convective cloud clusters and midlatitude frontal precipitation. Simultaneous data from the Winter Monsoon Experiment digital radar and the SMMR for December 1978 are analyzed. It is found that the most important differences between the microwave response to rainfall in the equatorial tropics and to stratiform rain in oceanic midlatitude fronts is caused by the different spatial characteristics of stratiform and convective rainfall and by the different background brightness temperature fields associated with tropical and midlatitude levels of atmospheric water vapor.

  2. Upper-Level Waves of Synoptic Scale at Midlatitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivest, Chantal

    1990-01-01

    Upper-level waves of synoptic scale are important dynamical entities at midlatitudes. They often induce surface cyclogenesis (cf. Peterssen and Smebye, 1971), and their life duration is typically longer than time scales for disruption by the ambient shear (Sanders, 1988). The objectives of the present thesis are to explain the maintenance and genesis of upper-level synoptic-scale waves in the midlatitude flow. We develop an analytical model of waves on generalized Eady basic states that have uniform tropospheric and stratospheric potential vorticity, but allow for the decay of density with height. The Eady basic state represents the limiting case of infinite stratospheric stability and constant density. We find that the Eady normal mode characteristics hold in the presence of realistic tropopause and stratosphere. In particular, the basic states studied support at the synoptic scale upper-level normal modes. These modes provide simple models for the dynamics of upper-level synoptic-scale waves, as waves supported by the large latitudinal gradients of potential vorticity at the tropopause. In the presence of infinitesimal positive tropospheric gradients of potential vorticity, the upper-level normal mode solutions no longer exist, as was demonstrated in Green (1960). Disappearance of the normal mode solution when a parameter changes slightly represents a dilemma that we seek to understand. We examine what happens to the upper-level normal modes in the presence of tropospheric gradients of potential vorticity in a series of initial -value experiments. Our results show that the normal modes become slowly decaying quasi-modes. Mathematically the quasi-modes consist of a superposition of singular modes sharply peaked in the phase speed domain, and their decay proceeds as the modes interfere with one another. We repeat these experiments in basic states with a smooth tropopause in the presence of tropospheric and stratospheric gradients, and similar results are obtained

  3. Multi-instrument observations of midlatitude summer nighttime anomaly from satellite and ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Mamoru; Thampi, Smitha V.; Liu, Huixin; Lin, Charles

    "Midlatitude Summer Nighttime Anomaly (MSNA)" is a phenomenon that the nighttime elec-tron densities exceed the daytime values on almost all days in summer over latitudes of 33-34N of more. We recently found the MSNA over the northeast Asian region from multi-instrument observations. The observations include the tomography analysis based on the chain of digital beacon receivers at Shionomisaki (33.45N, 135.8E), Shigaraki (34.85N, 136.1E), and Fukui (36.06N,136E), the ionosonde network over Japan (especially data from Wakkanai (45.4N, 141.7E)), ground-based GPS TEC observations using the GEONET. Also from satellites, CHAMP in situ electron density measurements, and Formosat3/COSMIC (F3/C) occultation measurements are useful to confirm the presence of MSNA over this region. In the presen-tation we show detailed features of the MSNA based on these multi-instrument, and discuss importance of the neutral atmosphere as a driver of the phenomenon.

  4. A survey of plasma irregularities as seen by the midlatitude Blackstone SuperDARN radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, A. J.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.; Baker, J. B. H.; Clausen, L. B. N.; Greenwald, R. A.; Lester, M.

    2012-02-01

    The Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) is a chain of HF radars that monitor plasma dynamics in the ionosphere. In recent years, SuperDARN has expanded to midlatitudes in order to provide enhanced coverage during geomagnetically active periods. A new type of backscatter from F region plasma irregularities with low Doppler velocity has been frequently observed on the nightside during quiescent conditions. Using three years of data from the Blackstone, VA radar, we have implemented a method for extracting this new type of backscatter from routine observations. We have statistically characterized the occurrence properties of the Sub Auroral Ionospheric Scatter (SAIS) events, including the latitudinal relationships to the equatorward edge of the auroral oval and the ionospheric projection of the plasmapause. We find that the backscatter is confined to local night, occurs on ≈70% of nights, is fixed in geomagnetic latitude, and is equatorward of both the auroral region and the plasmapause boundary. We conclude that SAIS irregularities are observed within a range of latitudes that is conjugate to the inner magnetosphere (plasmasphere).

  5. Prolonged effect of the stratospheric pathway in linking Barents-Kara Sea sea ice variability to the midlatitude circulation in a simplified model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pengfei; Wu, Yutian; Smith, Karen L.

    2018-01-01

    To better understand the dynamical mechanism that accounts for the observed lead-lag correlation between the early winter Barents-Kara Sea (BKS) sea ice variability and the later winter midlatitude circulation response, a series of experiments are conducted using a simplified atmospheric general circulation model with a prescribed idealized near-surface heating over the BKS. A prolonged effect is found in the idealized experiments following the near-surface heating and can be explicitly attributed to the stratospheric pathway and the long time scale in the stratosphere. The analysis of the Eliassen-Palm flux shows that, as a result of the imposed heating and linear constructive interference, anomalous upward propagating planetary-scale waves are excited and weaken the stratospheric polar vortex. This stratospheric response persists for approximately 1-2 months accompanied by downward migration to the troposphere and the surface. This downward migration largely amplifies and extends the low-level jet deceleration in the midlatitudes and cold air advection over central Asia. The idealized model experiments also suggest that the BKS region is the most effective in affecting the midlatitude circulation than other regions over the Arctic.

  6. Habitable periglacial landscapes in martian mid-latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, M.; Wagner, D.; Hauber, E.; de Vera, J.-P.; Schirrmeister, L.

    2012-05-01

    Subsurface permafrost environments on Mars are considered to be zones where extant life could have survived. For the identification of possible habitats it is important to understand periglacial landscape evolution and related subsurface and environmental conditions. Many landforms that are interpreted to be related to ground ice are located in the martian mid-latitudinal belts. This paper summarizes the insights gained from studies of terrestrial analogs to permafrost landforms on Mars. The potential habitability of martian mid-latitude periglacial landscapes is exemplarily deduced for one such landscape, that of Utopia Planitia, by a review and discussion of environmental conditions influencing periglacial landscape evolution. Based on recent calculations of the astronomical forcing of climate changes, specific climate periods are identified within the last 10 Ma when thaw processes and liquid water were probably important for the development of permafrost geomorphology. No periods could be identified within the last 4 Ma which met the suggested threshold criteria for liquid water and habitable conditions. Implications of past and present environmental conditions such as temperature variations, ground-ice conditions, and liquid water activity are discussed with respect to the potential survival of highly-specialized microorganisms known from terrestrial permafrost. We conclude that possible habitable subsurface niches might have been developed in close relation to specific permafrost landform morphology on Mars. These would have probably been dominated by lithoautotrophic microorganisms (i.e. methanogenic archaea).

  7. Movements of the mid-latitude ionospheric trough

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodger, A.S.; Pinnock, M.

    1982-01-01

    A new method for monitoring the position and movement of large ionospheric structures is described. The technique uses data from an ionosonde nominally operating at vertical incidence, but relies on there being present a significant gradient in electron concentration. The position and dynamics of the poleward edge of the mid-latitude trough over Halley Bay, Antarctica (L = 4.2) is investigated using this method. Analyses show that the trough moves rapidly equatorward over Halley Bay in the early evening hours, during geomagnetically active periods. For magnetically quiet periods, the trough is not observed till after midnight, when its equatorward motion is comparatively slow. These results showed marked differences from those predicted from published empirical relationships describing variations in trough position with time, particularly before midnight. Changes in the position of the plasma pause with time, determined from two theoretical models and from observations are compared with these results for the trough. Also, one case study is presented in which there is determination of the positions of both the trough and the plasmapause over a 7 h period. Similarities and differences in their relative positions and movements of the two features are identified and their possible causes are briefly discussed. (author)

  8. Cluster observations of mid-latitude hiss near the plasmapause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Masson

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available In the vicinity of the plasmapause, around the geomagnetic equator, the four Cluster satellites often observe banded hiss-like electromagnetic emissions (BHE; below the electron gyrofrequency but above the lower hybrid resonance, from 2kHz to 10kHz. We show that below 4kHz, these waves propagate in the whistler mode. Using the first year of scientific operations of WHISPER, STAFF and WBD wave experiments on Cluster, we have identified the following properties of the BHE waves: (i their location is strongly correlated with the position of the plasmapause, (ii no MLT dependence has been found, (iii their spectral width is generally 1 to 2kHz, and (iv the central frequency of their emission band varies from 2kHz to 10kHz. All these features suggest that BHE are in fact mid-latitude hiss emissions (MLH. Moreover, the central frequency was found to be correlated with the Kp index. This suggests either that these banded emissions are generated in a given f/fce range, or that there is a Kp dependent Doppler shift between the satellites and a possible moving source of the MLH.

  9. Multi-layer structure of mid-latitude sporadic-E observed during the SEEK-2 campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ono

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available In the mid-latitude ionospheric region, sporadic-E layers (Es layers have often been observed, revealing multiple layers. The Es layers observed during the SEEK-2 rocket campaign showed double electron density peaks; namely, there are stable lower peaks and relatively unstable upper peaks. We examined the effects of wind shear and the electric fields on the generation of the multiple layer structure, in comparison with the electron density profile, the neutral wind, and the DC electric field observed by the S310 rocket experiments. The results showed that the neutral wind shear is mainly responsible for the generation of the lower layer, while the DC electric field makes a significant contribution to the formation of the upper layer. The difference between the lower and upper layers was also explained by the enhanced AC electric field observed at about 103–105 km altitude. The external DC electric field intensity is expected to be ~5 mV/m, which is enough to contribute to generate the Es layers in the ionosphere. Keywords. Ionosphere (Electric fields; Ionospheric irregularities, Mid-latitude ionosphere

  10. Deep depletions of total electron content associated with severe mid-latitude gigahertz scintillations during geomagnetic storms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, T.; Kumagai, H.

    1985-01-01

    Using 136-MHz Faraday rotation data obtained at three closely spaced stations, we present evidence that severe nightime gigahertz scintillations, which appear rarely at mid-latitudes around Japan only during geomagnetic storm conditions, are closely associated with deep depletions of total electron content (TEC). The TEC depletions amount to 2--8 x 10 16 el/m 2 (10--30% of the background TEC), and their durations range from 10 min to 1 hour. These depletions move northeastward or eastward with velocities between 60 and 260 m/s. The depletions are probably not counterparts of the equatorial bubbles but seem to be formed in localized regions around Japan under complicated and peculiar ionospheric conditions. There is an indication that the oscillation of the F region caused by large-scale TID's propagating from north to south (approx.600 m/s) may initiate the generation of the depletion

  11. Interactions between tropical cyclones and mid-latitude systems in the Northeastern Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugo, A.; Abarca, S. F.; Raga, G. B.; Vargas, D. C.

    2014-12-01

    Major challenges in tropical meteorology include the short-term forecast of tropical cyclone (TC) intensity, which is defined as the maximum tangential wind. Several efforts have been made in order to reach this goal over the last decade: Among these efforts, the study of lightning in the TC inner core (the region inside a disc of 100 km radius from the center) as a proxy to deep convection, has the potential to be used as a predictor to forecast intensity (DeMaria et al, 2012, Mon. Wea. Rev., 140, 1828-1842).While most studies focus their objectives in studying the lightning flash density in the inner core, we study the probability of flash occurrence for intensifying and weakening cyclones. We have analyzed the trajectories of the observed 62 tropical cyclones that developed in the basin from 2006 to 2009, and classified them into separate clusters according to their trajectories. These clusters can broadly be described as having trajectories mostly oriented: East-West, towards the central Pacific, NW far from the Mexican coast, parallel to the Mexican coast and recurving towards the Mexican coast.We estimate that probability of inner core lightning occurrence increases as cyclones intensify but the probability rapidly decrease as the systems weaken. This is valid for cyclones in most of the clusters. However, the cyclones that exhibit trajectories that recurve towards the Mexican coast, do not present the same relationship between intensity and inner-core lightning probability, these cyclones show little or no decrease in the lightning occurrence probability as they weaken.We hypothesize that one of the reasons for this anomalous behavior is likely the fact that these cyclones interact with mid-latitude systems. Mid-latitude systems are important in determining the recurving trajectory but they may also influence the TC by advecting mid-level moisture towards the TC inner core. This additional supply of moisture as the system is approaching land may enhance deep

  12. It's the Physics: Organized Complexity in the Arctic/Midlatitude Weather Controversy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overland, J. E.; Francis, J. A.; Wang, M.

    2017-12-01

    There is intense scientific and public interest in whether major Arctic changes can and will impact mid-latitude weather. Despite numerous workshops and a growing literature, convergence of understanding is lacking, with major objections about possible large impacts within the scientific community. Yet research on the Arctic as a new potential driver in improving subseasonal forecasting at midlatitudes remains a priority. A recent review laid part of the controversy on shortcomings in experimental design and ill-suited metrics, such as examining the influence of only sea-ice loss rather than overall Arctic temperature amplification, and/or calculating averages over large regions, long time periods, or many ensemble members that would tend to obscure event-like Arctic connections. The present analysis lays the difficulty at a deeper level owing to the inherently complex physics. Jet-stream dynamics and weather linkages on the scale of a week to months has characteristics of an organized complex system, with large-scale processes that operate in patterned, quasi-geostrophic ways but whose component feedbacks are continually changing. Arctic linkages may be state dependent, i.e., relationships may be more robust in one atmospheric wave pattern than another, generating intermittency. The observational network is insufficient to fully initialize such a system and the inherent noise obscures linkage signals, leading to an underdetermined problem; often more than one explanation can fit the data. Further, the problem may be computationally irreducible; the only way to know the result of these interactions is to trace out their path over time. Modeling is a suggested approach, but at present it is unclear whether previous model studies fully resolve anticipated complexity. The jet stream from autumn to early winter is characterized by non-linear interactions among enhanced atmospheric planetary waves, irregular transitions between the zonal and meridional flows, and the

  13. Midlatitude Ice-Rich Ground on Mars: An Important Target for Science and In Situ Resource Utilization on Human Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoker, Carol; Heldmann, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    The region of ROI is characterized by proven presence of near surface ground ice and numerous periglacial features. Midlatitude ground ice on Mars is of significant scientific interest for understanding the history and evolution of ice stability on Mars, the impact that changes in insolation produced by variations in Mars’ orbital parameters has on the regions climate, and could provide human exploration with a reliable and plentiful in situ resource. For both science and exploration, assessing the astrobiological potential of the ice is important in terms of (1) understanding the potential for life on Mars and (2) evaluating the presence of possible biohazards in advance of human exploration. Heldmann et al. (2014) studied locations on Mars in the Amazonis Planitia region where near surface ground ice was exposed by new impact craters (Byrne et al. 2009). The study examined whether sites in this region were suitable for human exploration including reviewing the evidence for midlatitude ground ice, discussing the possible explanations for its occurrence, assessing its potential habitability for modern life, and evaluating the resource potential. They systematically analyzed remote-sensing data sets to identify a viable landing site. Five sites where ground ice was exposed were examined with HiRise imaging and were classified according to (1) presence of polygons as a proxy for subsurface ice, (2) presence and abundance of rough topographic obstacles (e.g., large cracks, cliffs, uneven topography), (3) rock density, (4) presence and abundance of large boulders, and (5) presence of craters. A suitable landing site was found having ground ice at only 0.15m depth, and no landing site hazards within a 25 km landing ellipse. This paper presents results of that study and examines the relevance of this ROI to the workshop goals.

  14. Performance of a regional study related to biomass energetic valorisation within the frame of the elaboration of the regional renewable energy scheme of the Languedoc-Roussillon region - March 20, 2011 - Final version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moundy, Pierre-Jean

    2011-01-01

    After a recall of national objectives related to the share of renewable energies in final energy consumption, and of the defined content of a regional renewable energy scheme (determination of quantitative and qualitative objectives in terms of valorisation of the renewable and fatal energy potential within the region territory), and a recall of the different origins of biomass, the objective of this report was to compare potential energy usages with the available biomass resource (the present one and by 2020), in order to support the definition of regional objectives of development of biomass energy in the different geographical areas of the Languedoc-Roussillon region. Wood resource is first analysed. Assessments and perspectives are discussed for the different origins: (forests, sawmill by-products, wood scraps, green wastes), and regional consumptions of wood under various forms are also commented. The next part addresses agricultural biomass, its origins (crops, trimming residues, other agricultural activities, and agri-food industries), and the case of energy-oriented crops. The next part addresses biomass from domestic wastes (resource type and destruction, disposal or valorisation processes). The last part discusses objectives and development opportunities by 2020 for biomass and for heat, and in terms of the role of agricultural cooperatives and industries. Development levers and tools are briefly discussed

  15. Midlatitude Plasma Bubbles Over China and Adjacent Areas During a Magnetic Storm on 8 September 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aa, Ercha; Huang, Wengeng; Liu, Siqing; Ridley, Aaron; Zou, Shasha; Shi, Liqin; Chen, Yanhong; Shen, Hua; Yuan, Tianjiao; Li, Jianyong; Wang, Tan

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents observations of postsunset super plasma bubbles over China and adjacent areas during the second main phase of a storm on 8 September 2017. The signatures of the plasma bubbles can be seen or deduced from (1) deep field-aligned total electron content depletions embedded in regional ionospheric maps derived from dense Global Navigation Satellite System networks, (2) significant equatorial and midlatitudinal plasma bite-outs in electron density measurements on board Swarm satellites, and (3) enhancements of ionosonde virtual height and scintillation in local evening associated with strong southward interplanetary magnetic field. The bubbles/depletions covered a broad area mainly within 20°-45°N and 80°-110°E with bifurcated structures and persisted for nearly 5 hr (˜13-18 UT). One prominent feature is that the bubbles extended remarkably along the magnetic field lines in the form of depleted flux tubes, reaching up to midlatitude of around 50°N (magnetic latitude: 45.5°N) that maps to an altitude of 6,600 km over the magnetic equator. The maximum upward drift speed of the bubbles over the magnetic equator was about 700 m/s and gradually decreased with altitude and time. The possible triggering mechanism of the plasma bubbles was estimated to be storm time eastward prompt penetration electric field, while the traveling ionospheric disturbance could play a role in facilitating the latitudinal extension of the depletions.

  16. Modelling geomagnetically induced currents in midlatitude Central Europe using a thin-sheet approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Rachel L.; Halbedl, Thomas S.; Schattauer, Ingrid; Römer, Alexander; Achleitner, Georg; Beggan, Ciaran D.; Wesztergom, Viktor; Egli, Ramon; Leonhardt, Roman

    2017-06-01

    Geomagnetically induced currents (GICs) in power systems, which can lead to transformer damage over the short and the long term, are a result of space weather events and geomagnetic variations. For a long time, only high-latitude areas were considered to be at risk from these currents, but recent studies show that considerable GICs also appear in midlatitude and equatorial countries. In this paper, we present initial results from a GIC model using a thin-sheet approach with detailed surface and subsurface conductivity models to compute the induced geoelectric field. The results are compared to measurements of direct currents in a transformer neutral and show very good agreement for short-period variations such as geomagnetic storms. Long-period signals such as quiet-day diurnal variations are not represented accurately, and we examine the cause of this misfit. The modelling of GICs from regionally varying geoelectric fields is discussed and shown to be an important factor contributing to overall model accuracy. We demonstrate that the Austrian power grid is susceptible to large GICs in the range of tens of amperes, particularly from strong geomagnetic variations in the east-west direction.

  17. Solar activity influence on climatic variations of stratosphere and mesosphere in mid-latitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taubenheim, J.; Entzian, G.; Voncossart, G.

    1989-01-01

    The direct modulation of temperature of the mid-latitude mesosphere by the solar-cycle EUV variation, which leads to greater heat input at higher solar activity, is well established. Middle atmosphere temperature modulation by the solar cycle is independently confirmed by the variation of reflection heights of low frequency radio waves in the lower ionosphere, which are regularly monitored over about 30 years. As explained elsewhere in detail, these reflection heights depend on the geometric altitude of a certain isobaric surface (near 80 k), and on the solar ionizing Lyman-alpha radiation flux. Knowing the solar cycle variation of Lyman-alpha how much the measured reflection heights would be lowered with the transition from solar minimum to maximum can be calculated, if the vertical baric structure of the neutral atmosphere would remain unchanged. Any discrepancy between expected and observed height change must be explained by an uplifting of the isobaric level from solar minimum to maximum, caused by the temperature rise in the mesosphere. By integrating the solar cycle temperature changes over the height region of the middle atmosphere, and assuming that the lower boundary (tropopause) has no solar cycle variation, the magnitude of this uplifting can be estimated. It is given for the Lidar-derived and for the rocket-measured temperature variations. Comparison suggests that the real amplitude of the solar cycle temperature variation in the mesosphere is underestimated when using the rocket data, but probably overestimated with the Lidar data

  18. Features of HF Radio Wave Attenuation in the Midlatitude Ionosphere Near the Skip Zone Boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denisenko, P. F.; Skazik, A. I.

    2017-06-01

    We briefly describe the history of studying the decameter radio wave attenuation by different methods in the midlatitude ionosphere. A new method of estimating the attenuation of HF radio waves in the ionospheric F region near the skip zone boundary is presented. This method is based on an analysis of the time structure of the interference field generated by highly stable monochromatic X-mode radio waves at the observation point. The main parameter is the effective electron collision frequency νeff, which allows for all energy losses in the form of equivalent heat loss. The frequency νeff is estimated by matching the assumed (model) and the experimentally observed structures. Model calculations are performed using the geometrical-optics approximation. The spatial attenuation caused by the influence of the medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances is taken into account. Spherical shape of the ionosphere and the Earth's magnetic field are roughly allowed for. The results of recording of the level of signals from the RWM (Moscow) station at a frequency of 9.996 MHz at point Rostov are used.

  19. Atmospheric water distribution in a midlatitude cyclone observed by the Seasat Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcmurdie, L. A.; Katsaros, K. B.

    1985-01-01

    Patterns in the horizontal distribution of integrated water vapor, integrated liquid water and rainfall rate derived from the Seasat Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) during a September 10-12, 1978 North Pacific cyclone are studied. These patterns are compared with surface analyses, ship reports, radiosonde data, and GOES-West infrared satellite imagery. The SMMR data give a unique view of the large mesoscale structure of a midlatitude cyclone. The water vapor distribution is found to have characteristic patterns related to the location of the surface fronts throughout the development of the cyclone. An example is given to illustrate that SMMR data could significantly improve frontal analysis over data-sparse oceanic regions. The distribution of integrated liquid water agrees qualitatively well with corresponding cloud patterns in satellite imagery and appears to provide a means to distinguish where liquid water clouds exist under a cirrus shield. Ship reports of rainfall intensity agree qualitatively very well with SMMR-derived rainrates. Areas of mesoscale rainfall, on the order of 50 km x 50 km or greater are detected using SMMR derived rainrates.

  20. Historical deforestation locally increased the intensity of hot days in northern mid-latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejeune, Quentin; Davin, Edouard L.; Gudmundsson, Lukas; Winckler, Johannes; Seneviratne, Sonia I.

    2018-05-01

    The effects of past land-cover changes on climate are disputed1-3. Previous modelling studies have generally concluded that the biogeophysical effects of historical deforestation led to an annual mean cooling in the northern mid-latitudes3,4, in line with the albedo-induced negative radiative forcing from land-cover changes since pre-industrial time reported in the most recent Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report5. However, further observational and modelling studies have highlighted strong seasonal and diurnal contrasts in the temperature response to deforestation6-10. Here, we show that historical deforestation has led to a substantial local warming of hot days over the northern mid-latitudes—a finding that contrasts with most previous model results11,12. Based on observation-constrained state-of-the-art climate-model experiments, we estimate that moderate reductions in tree cover in these regions have contributed at least one-third of the local present-day warming of the hottest day of the year since pre-industrial time, and were responsible for most of this warming before 1980. These results emphasize that land-cover changes need to be considered when studying past and future changes in heat extremes, and highlight a potentially overlooked co-benefit of forest-based carbon mitigation through local biogeophysical mechanisms.

  1. Theory and observations of the low- and mid-latitude ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandler, M.O.

    1982-01-01

    Measured and calculated values of electron concentration, electron temperature and ion temperature in the low- and mid-latitude ionosphere are presented and discussed. The existence of horizontal, spatial gradients in electron temperature on 13 September 1980 above Arecibo, Puerto Rico is shown. The gradients were northward with maximum values of about 1.5 km -1 . The ionosphere model presented by Young et al. (1979) was tested by comparison with another theoretical model and with observations. The tests show that the model values of electron concentration are in agreement with the observations, but that the model electron temperatures are too low. An increase in the model electron heating rate by a factor of 1.5 to 4 is shown to result in better agreement. The suggestion is made that the photoelectron transport equations are incorrect in calculating the photoelectron flux at low energies. The possibility of an error in the electron cooling rate due to interactions with positive ions could not be ruled out. The model is used to explain the observed electron temperature gradients. By assuming the existence of a poleward meridional neutral wind with a poleward velocity gradient, it is shown that the resulting change in the height of the F-region causes differences in electron temperature such as those observed at Arecibo on 13 September 1980. Comparisons of simultaneous measurements from the Arecibo and Millstone Hill observatories are presented. These observations show that significant differences existed in the electron temperature as a function of latitude on 27 June 1981

  2. Northern hemisphere mid-latitude geomagnetic anomaly revealed from Levantine Archaeomagnetic Compilation (LAC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaar, R.; Tauxe, L.; Agnon, A.; Ben-Yosef, E.; Hassul, E.

    2015-12-01

    The rich archaeological heritage of Israel and nearby Levantine countries provides a unique opportunity for archaeomagnetic investigation in high resolution. Here we present a summary of our ongoing effort to reconstruct geomagnetic variations of the past several millennia in the Levant at decadal to millennial resolution. This effort at the Southern Levant, namely the "Levantine Archaeomagnetic Compilation" (LAC), presently consists of data from over 650 well-dated archaeological objects including pottery, slag, ovens, and furnaces. In this talk we review the methodological challenges in achieving a robust master secular variation curve with realistic error estimations from a large number of different datasets. We present the current status of the compilation, including the southern and western Levant LAC data (Israel, Cyprus, and Jordan) and other published north-eastern Levant data (Syria and southern Turkey), and outline the main findings emerging from these data. The main feature apparent from the new compilation is an extraordinary intensity high that developed over the Levant region during the first two millennia BCE. The climax of this event is a double peak intensity maximum starting at ca. 1000 BCE and ending at ca. 735 BCE, accompanied with at least two events of geomagnetic spikes. Paleomagnetic directions from this period demonstrate anomalies of up to 20 degrees far from the averaged GAD field. This leads us to postulate that the maximum in the intensity is a manifestation of an intense mid-latitude local positive geomagnetic anomaly that persisted for over two centuries.

  3. Cosmic rays linked to rapid mid-latitude cloud changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Laken

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR flux on Earth's climate is highly uncertain. Using a novel sampling approach based around observing periods of significant cloud changes, a statistically robust relationship is identified between short-term GCR flux changes and the most rapid mid-latitude (60°–30° N/S cloud decreases operating over daily timescales; this signal is verified in surface level air temperature (SLAT reanalysis data. A General Circulation Model (GCM experiment is used to test the causal relationship of the observed cloud changes to the detected SLAT anomalies. Results indicate that the anomalous cloud changes were responsible for producing the observed SLAT changes, implying that if there is a causal relationship between significant decreases in the rate of GCR flux (~0.79 GU, where GU denotes a change of 1% of the 11-year solar cycle amplitude in four days and decreases in cloud cover (~1.9 CU, where CU denotes a change of 1% cloud cover in four days, an increase in SLAT (~0.05 KU, where KU denotes a temperature change of 1 K in four days can be expected. The influence of GCRs is clearly distinguishable from changes in solar irradiance and the interplanetary magnetic field. However, the results of the GCM experiment are found to be somewhat limited by the ability of the model to successfully reproduce observed cloud cover. These results provide perhaps the most compelling evidence presented thus far of a GCR-climate relationship. From this analysis we conclude that a GCR-climate relationship is governed by both short-term GCR changes and internal atmospheric precursor conditions.

  4. A numerical study of ionospheric profiles for mid-latitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.-R. Zhang

    1995-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a numerical model and results for the mid-latitude ionospheric profile below the peak of the F2-layer. The basis of the model is the solving of equations for four ionic species O+, NO+, O+2 and N+2, as well as the meta-stable O+(2D and O+(2P. Diffusion and wind-induced drifts and 21 photo-chemical reactions are also taken into account. Neutral atmospheric density and temperature are derived from the MSIS86 model and solar extreme ultraviolate irradiance from the EUV91 model. In an effort to obtain a more realistic ionospheric profile, the key point at foF2 and hmF2 is fitted from the simulation to observations. The model also utilizes the vertical drifts derived from ionosonde data with the help of the Servo model. It is shown that the ionospheric height of peak can be reproduced more accurately under the derived vertical drifts from the Servo theory than with the HWM90 model. Results from the simulation are given for Wuchang (30.5°N, 114.4°E and Wakkanai (45.6°N, 141.7°E, showing the profile changes with season and solar activity, and the E-F valley structure (the depth and the width. This simulation also reveals the importance of meta-stable ions and dynamical transport processes on the formation of the F1-ledge and F1-F2 valley.

  5. Transforming the representation of the boundary layer and low clouds for high-resolution regional climate modeling: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Alex [University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Joint Institute for Regional Earth System Science and Engineering

    2013-07-24

    Stratocumulus and shallow cumulus clouds in subtropical oceanic regions (e.g., Southeast Pacific) cover thousands of square kilometers and play a key role in regulating global climate (e.g., Klein and Hartmann, 1993). Numerical modeling is an essential tool to study these clouds in regional and global systems, but the current generation of climate and weather models has difficulties in representing them in a realistic way (e.g., Siebesma et al., 2004; Stevens et al., 2007; Teixeira et al., 2011). While numerical models resolve the large-scale flow, subgrid-scale parameterizations are needed to estimate small-scale properties (e.g. boundary layer turbulence and convection, clouds, radiation), which have significant influence on the resolved scale due to the complex nonlinear nature of the atmosphere. To represent the contribution of these fine-scale processes to the resolved scale, climate models use various parameterizations, which are the main pieces in the model that contribute to the low clouds dynamics and therefore are the major sources of errors or approximations in their representation. In this project, we aim to 1) improve our understanding of the physical processes in thermal circulation and cloud formation, 2) examine the performance and sensitivity of various parameterizations in the regional weather model (Weather Research and Forecasting model; WRF), and 3) develop, implement, and evaluate the advanced boundary layer parameterization in the regional model to better represent stratocumulus, shallow cumulus, and their transition. Thus, this project includes three major corresponding studies. We find that the mean diurnal cycle is sensitive to model domain in ways that reveal the existence of different contributions originating from the Southeast Pacific land-masses. The experiments suggest that diurnal variations in circulations and thermal structures over this region are influenced by convection over the Peruvian sector of the Andes cordillera, while

  6. New results on the mid-latitude midnight temperature maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Rafael L. A.; Meriwether, John W.; Makela, Jonathan J.; Fisher, Daniel J.; Harding, Brian J.; Sanders, Samuel C.; Tesema, Fasil; Ridley, Aaron J.

    2018-04-01

    (18 %). Also seen is a northwestward propagation of the MTM signature with a latitude-dependent amplitude. This behavior suggests either a latitudinal dependence of thermosphere tidal dissipation or a night-to-night variation of the composition of the higher-order tidal modes that contribute to the production of the MTM peak at mid-latitudes. Also presented in this paper is the perturbation on the divergence of the wind fields, which is associated with the passage of each MTM peak analyzed with the 2-D interpolation.

  7. Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, MP; Petersen, WA; Del Genio, AD; Giangrande, SE; Heymsfield, A; Heymsfield, G; Hou, AY; Kollias, P; Orr, B; Rutledge, SA; Schwaller, MR; Zipser, E

    2010-04-01

    Convective processes play a critical role in the Earth’s energy balance through the redistribution of heat and moisture in the atmosphere and subsequent impacts on the hydrologic cycle. Global observation and accurate representation of these processes in numerical models is vital to improving our current understanding and future simulations of Earth’s climate system. Despite improvements in computing power, current operational weather and global climate models are unable to resolve the natural temporal and spatial scales that are associated with convective and stratiform precipitation processes; therefore, they must turn to parameterization schemes to represent these processes. In turn, the physical basis for these parameterization schemes needs to be evaluated for general application under a variety of atmospheric conditions. Analogously, space-based remote sensing algorithms designed to retrieve related cloud and precipitation information for use in hydrological, climate, and numerical weather prediction applications often rely on physical “parameterizations” that reliably translate indirectly related instrument measurements to the physical quantity of interest (e.g., precipitation rate). Importantly, both spaceborne retrieval algorithms and model convective parameterization schemes traditionally rely on field campaign data sets as a basis for evaluating and improving the physics of their respective approaches. The Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) will take place in central Oklahoma during the April–May 2011 period. The experiment is a collaborative effort between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission Ground Validation (GV) program. The field campaign leverages the unprecedented observing infrastructure currently available in the central United States

  8. Classification of Global Land Development Phases by Forest and GDP Changes for Appropriate Land Management in the Mid-Latitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cholho Song

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available To implement appropriate land management strategies, it is essential to identify past and current land cover and land use conditions. In addition, an assessment of land development phases (LDPs in a human-dominated landscape coupled with an analysis of the water-food-ecosystem (WFE nexus can deepen our understanding of sustainable land management. In this study, we proposed the concept of land development phases (LDPs by forest and GDP changes using previously-applied theoretical and empirical approaches. The positive relationship between GDP growth and forest stock changes was used to analyze the timing of forest stock changes as five-year averages, which were aggregated over 20 years to classify LDPs. In addition, forest area changes compared with GDP and GDP per capita changes were analyzed to identify LDPs. Based on two conceptual approaches, we suggested global land into three LDPs: degradation, restoration and sustainability. Using this approach, most of Europe, North America and northeast Asia were classified as sustainability phases, while Africa and Central Asia in the Mid-Latitude region appeared to have degradation or restoration phases. The LDPs described could be improved with further incorporation of solid data analysis and clear standards, but even at this stage, these LDP classifications suggest points for implementing appropriate land management. In addition, indices from comparative analysis of the LDPs with the WFE nexus can be connected with socio-economic global indices, such as the Global Hunger Index, the Food Production Index and the Climate Change Performance Index. The LDPs have the potential to facilitate appropriate land management strategies through integrating WFE nexus and ecosystem services; we propose future research that uses this integration for the Mid-Latitude region and worldwide.

  9. The Transit-Time Distribution from the Northern Hemisphere Midlatitude Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orbe, Clara; Waugh, Darryn W.; Newman, Paul A.; Strahan, Susan; Steenrod, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The distribution of transit times from the Northern Hemisphere (NH) midlatitude surface is a fundamental property of tropospheric transport. Here we present an analysis of the transit time distribution (TTD) since air last contacted the northern midlatitude surface layer, as simulated by the NASA Global Modeling Initiative Chemistry Transport Model. We find that throughout the troposphere the TTD is characterized by long flat tails that reflect the recirculation of old air from the Southern Hemisphere and results in mean ages that are significantly larger than the modal age. Key aspects of the TTD -- its mode, mean and spectral width -- are interpreted in terms of tropospheric dynamics, including seasonal shifts in the location and strength of tropical convection and variations in quasi-isentropic transport out of the northern midlatitude surface layer. Our results indicate that current diagnostics of tropospheric transport are insufficient for comparing model transport and that the full distribution of transit times is a more appropriate constraint.

  10. 76 FR 13209 - United States and State of Texas v. United Regional Health Care System; Proposed Final Judgment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-10

    ... of Texas v. United Regional Health Care System, Civil Action No. 7:11-cv- 00030-O. On February 25..., ambulatory surgery center or radiology center in [a] 15 mile radius of United Regional Health Care System... 95% of billed charges for all inpatient and outpatient services at United Regional Health Care System...

  11. The effects of the final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel on regional economy; Kaeytetyn ydinpolttoaineen loppusijoituslaitoksen aluetaloudelliset vaikutukset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laakso, S. [Seppo Laakso Urban Research (Finland)

    1999-03-01

    The study deals with the economic effects of the final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel on the alternative location municipalities - Eurajoki, Kuhmo, Loviisa and Aeaenekoski - and their neighbouring areas (in Finland). The economic influence of the facility on industrials, employment, population, property markets, community structure and local public economics are analysed applying the approach of regional economics. The evaluation of the facility`s effects on employment is based on the input-output analysis. Both the direct and indirect effects of the construction and the functioning of the facility are taken into account in the analysis. According to the results the total increase in employment caused by the construction of the facility is about 350 persons annually, at national level. Some 150 persons of this are estimated to live in the wider region and 100-150 persons in the facility`s influence area consisting of the location municipality and neighbouring municipalities. This amount is reached at the top stage of construction (around the year 2018). At the production stage - after the year 2020 - the facility`s effects on employment will be concentrated significantly more on the location municipality and the rest of the influence area than on the rest of the country, compared with the construction stage. The estimated employment growth in the production stage is approximately 160 persons at national level of which 100-120 persons live in the candidate municipality and in the rest of the influence area. There is a direct link between local employment and population development. The growth of jobs attracts immigrants affecting the development of both the number and the structure of population. The facility`s effects on population development in the alternative location municipalities are analysed using comparative population forecasts based on demographic population projection methods. According to the results the job growth caused by the facility will

  12. Final Scientific Report for "The Interhemispheric Pattern in 20th Century and Future Abrupt Change in Regional Tropical Rainfall"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, John C. H. [University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Wehner, Michael F. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-10-29

    This is the final scientific report for grant DOE-FG02-08ER64588, "The Interhemispheric Pattern in 20th Century and Future Abrupt Change in Regional Tropical Rainfall."The project investigates the role of the interhemispheric pattern in surface temperature – i.e. the contrast between the northern and southern temperature changes – in driving rapid changes to tropical rainfall changes over the 20th century and future climates. Previous observational and modeling studies have shown that the tropical rainband – the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) over marine regions, and the summer monsoonal rainfall over land – are sensitive to the interhemispheric thermal contrast; but that the link between the two has not been applied to interpreting long-term tropical rainfall changes over the 20th century and future.The specific goals of the project were to i) develop dynamical mechanisms to explain the link between the interhemispheric pattern to abrupt changes of West African and Asian monsoonal rainfall; ii) Undertake a formal detection and attribution study on the interhemispheric pattern in 20th century climate; and iii) assess the likelihood of changes to this pattern in the future. In line with these goals, our project has produced the following significant results: 1.We have developed a case that suggests that the well-known abrupt weakening of the West African monsoon in the late 1960s was part of a wider co-ordinated weakening of the West African and Asian monsoons, and driven from an abrupt cooling in the high latitude North Atlantic sea surface temperature at the same time. Our modeling work suggests that the high-latitude North Atlantic cooling is effective in driving monsoonal weakening, through driving a cooling of the Northern hemisphere that is amplified by positive radiative feedbacks. 2.We have shown that anthropogenic sulfate aerosols may have partially contributed to driving a progressively southward displacement of the Atlantic Intertropical

  13. Jobs and Self-Sufficiency: Goals of the Project, "Technical Support Services to the Developmentally Disabled, Region III." Final Report, October 1976 to September 1979.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallik, Kalisankar; Shaver, Elaine M.

    The final report of a 3 year project to improve the quality of life of mentally retarded, cerebral palsied, and epileptic persons in Region III is presented. The first section details the efforts of the project staff in providing competitive employment opportunities or sheltered employment for 40 severely disabled persons. Equipment modification…

  14. Regional Meeting of Experts on Environmental Education in Africa, Brazzaville, People's Republic of the Congo, 11-16 September 1976. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Environmental Education Section.

    This is the final report on the background and proceedings of the Regional Meeting of Experts on Environmental Education in Africa, convened by UNESCO with the collaboration of the University of Brazzaville. This meeting was one of five similar ones held throughout the world as a follow-up to the UNESCO Conference held in Belgrade, Yugoslavia.…

  15. Application of the new requirements of safety of the IAEA for the previous management to the final disposal of radioactive waste in the region: a personal vision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sed, Luis Andres Jova

    2013-01-01

    The work includes the requirements for the responsibilities associated with the management prior to the final disposal of radioactive waste and as they are referred to in the Region. Also discusses the requirements for the main stages of the management prior to the final disposal of radioactive waste. A very important section of the new requirements is that establish requirements for safe operation of facilities management prior to the final disposal of radioactive wastes and the implementation of activities under conditions of safety and development. The work is emphatic on the importance of safety justification since the beginning of the development of a facility as a basis for the decision-making and approval process. Emphasis is also on the gradual approach which should provide for the collection, analysis and interpretation of the relevant technical data, plans for the design and operation, and the formulation of the justification of the security. This paper gives a personal view of the situation in the Region

  16. CO{sub 2}MPARE. CO2 Model for Operational Programme Assessment in EU Regions. Improved carbon management with EU Regional Policy. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hekkenberg, M. [ECN Policy Studies, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Schram, J. [Energies Demain, Montreuil Sous Bois (France); Amerighi, O. [Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development ENEA, Rome (Italy); Keppo, I. [University College London UCL, London (United Kingdom); Papagianni, S. [Centre for Renewable Energy Sources and Saving CRES, Pikermi Attiki (Greece); Ten Donkelaar, M. [ENVIROS, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2013-03-15

    The CO2MPARE model supports national and regional authorities in making balanced decisions for their investment portfolio under their regional development programmes, in particular under their Operational Programmes of EU Regional Policy. The EU's climate objectives require that investments across the EU are channeled towards low-carbon development. The carbon impacts of investments should therefore be seriously considered in the decision making process of regional development programmes. The CO2MPARE model informs national and regional authorities on the impacts that the investments under various Operational Programmes can have in terms of CO2 emissions. Knowing which investments lead either to additional emissions or rather to emission reductions, and what the overall impact of a programme is, represents the first step towards investment decisions that have decarbonisation co-benefits. CO2MPARE estimates the combined carbon impact of all activities that take place under a programme, and provides insights into the relative contributions of the different themes. Through its high aggregation level, it allows comparison of investment scenarios rather than individual projects. As such, it aims to support informed decisions on investment strategies rather than project investment decisions. In doing so, it also helps to build and develop a 'carbon culture' within the authorities directly or indirectly in charge of managing Regional Policy Operational Programmes. The model is primarily aimed at Operational Programmes co-financed by the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF)

  17. Evidence for long-lived polar vortex air in the mid-latitude summer stratosphere from in situ laser diode CH4 and H2O measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Durry

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A balloon borne diode laser spectrometer was launched in southern France in June 2000 to yield in situ stratospheric CH4 and H2O measurements. In the altitude region ranging from 20km to 25km, striking large spatial structures were observed in the vertical concentration profiles of both species. We suggest these patterns are due to the presence of long-lived remnants of the wintertime polar vortex in the mid-latitude summer stratosphere. To support this interpretation, a high resolution advection model for potential vorticity is used to investigate the evolution of the Arctic vortex after its breakdown phase in spring 2000.

  18. Problem of two-level hierarchical minimax program control the final state of regional social and economic system in the presence of risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shorikov, A. F.

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses a discrete-time dynamical system consisting of a set a controllable objects (region and forming it municipalities). The dynamics each of these is described by the corresponding vector nonlinear discrete-time recurrent vector equations and its control system consist from two levels: basic (control level I) that is dominating and subordinate level (control level II). Both levels have different criterions of functioning and united a priori by determined informational and control connections defined in advance. In this paper we study the problem of optimization of guaranteed result for program control by the final state of regional social and economic system in the presence of risks. For this problem we proposed in this work an economical and mathematical model of two-level hierarchical minimax program control the final state of regional social and economic system in the presence of risks and the general scheme for its solving

  19. Problem of two-level hierarchical minimax program control the final state of regional social and economic system in the presence of risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shorikov, A. F., E-mail: afshorikov@mail.ru [Ural Federal University, 19 S. Mira, Ekaterinburg, 620002, Russia Institute of Mathematics and Mechanics, Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, 16 S. Kovalevskaya, Ekaterinburg, 620990 (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-30

    This article discusses a discrete-time dynamical system consisting of a set a controllable objects (region and forming it municipalities). The dynamics each of these is described by the corresponding vector nonlinear discrete-time recurrent vector equations and its control system consist from two levels: basic (control level I) that is dominating and subordinate level (control level II). Both levels have different criterions of functioning and united a priori by determined informational and control connections defined in advance. In this paper we study the problem of optimization of guaranteed result for program control by the final state of regional social and economic system in the presence of risks. For this problem we proposed in this work an economical and mathematical model of two-level hierarchical minimax program control the final state of regional social and economic system in the presence of risks and the general scheme for its solving.

  20. A mechanism of midlatitude noontime foE long-term variations inferred from European observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailov, A. V.; Perrone, L.; Nusinov, A. A.

    2017-04-01

    Manually scaled June noontime monthly median foE values at three European stations Rome, Juliusruh, and Slough/Chilton were used to understand the mechanism of foE long-term variations. The 11 year running mean smoothed foE manifests long-term (for some solar cycles) variations with the rising phase at the end of 1960-1985 and the falling phase after 1985. A close relationship (even in details) between (foEave)11y and (R12)11y variations with the correlation coefficient of 0.996 (absolutely significant according to Fisher F criterion) suggests that the Sun is the source of these (foEave)11y long-term variations. After removing solar activity long-term variations the residual (foEave)11y trend is very small ( 0.029% per decade) being absolutely insignificant. This means that all (foEave)11y variations are removed with one solar activity index, (R12)11y, i.e., this means that long-term variations are fully controlled by solar activity. Theory of midlatitude daytime E region tells us that long-term variations of solar EUV in two lines λ = 977 Å (CIII) and λ = 1025.7 Å (HLyβ) and X-ray radiation with λ foE long-term variations have a natural (not anthropogenic) origin related to long-term variations of solar activity. No peculiarities in relation with the last deep solar minimum in 2008-2009 have been revealed.

  1. Accessibility-based evaluation of transportation and land-use planning : from laboratory to practice : USDOT Region V Regional University Transportation Center final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-16

    The concept of accessibility has made inroads into planning practice, largely at the system level. That is, accessibility is measured or modeled for current or future regional transportation and land-use scenarios for evaluation or broad policy guida...

  2. Decennial scheme of grid development 2016: National component + synthesis, Regional component, Regional sheets. Version 1 submitted to public consultation - December 2016, final version after public consultation - January 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-12-01

    Two versions of the same decennial scheme are gathered. The first one has been published before public consultation, and the second one after, and thus contains some evolutions. This decennial scheme presents an overview of the main electric power transport infrastructures envisaged for the ten years to come. It notably highlights the different orientations of the planned development: to streamline transits and to ease mutual supports between neighbouring countries, to streamline transits between French regions, to support consumption evolution in territories, to integrate electric power production means, and to ensure a safe operation of the power system. Main projects are more precisely presented while maps and synthetic tables propose a general overview. After this national approach, the report proposes syntheses for the different French regions. These syntheses address the present grid situation, and propose a list and a map of works which have been commissioned in 2016, a recall of regional ambitions regarding climate and energy (Climate-air-energy regional scheme, SRCAE) and renewable energies (regional scheme for the connection of renewable energies to the grid, S3REnR), a list and a map of planned projects, and a presentation of perspectives of grid development beyond a 10 year horizon

  3. Effects of High-Latitude Forcing Uncertainty on the Low-Latitude and Midlatitude Ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedatella, N. M.; Lu, G.; Richmond, A. D.

    2018-01-01

    Ensemble simulations are performed using the Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Electrodynamics General Circulation Model (TIE-GCM) in order to understand the role of high-latitude forcing uncertainty on the low-latitude and midlatitude ionosphere response to the April 2010 geomagnetic storm. The ensemble is generated by perturbing either the high-latitude electric potential or auroral energy flux in the assimilative mapping for ionosphere electrodynamics (AMIE). Simulations with perturbed high-latitude electric potential result in substantial intraensemble variability in the low-latitude and midlatitude ionosphere response to the geomagnetic storm, and the ensemble standard deviation for the change in NmF2 reaches 50-100% of the mean change. Such large intraensemble variability is not seen when perturbing the auroral energy flux. In this case, the effects of the forcing uncertainty are primarily confined to high latitudes. We therefore conclude that the specification of high-latitude electric fields is an important source of uncertainty when modeling the low-latitude and midlatitude ionosphere response to a geomagnetic storm. A multiple linear regression analysis of the results indicates that uncertainty in the storm time changes in the equatorial electric fields, neutral winds, and neutral composition can all contribute to the uncertainty in the ionosphere electron density. The results of the present study provide insight into the possible uncertainty in simulations of the low-latitude and midlatitude ionosphere response to geomagnetic storms due to imperfect knowledge of the high-latitude forcing.

  4. The cloud radiative feedback of a midlatitude squall line system and implication for climate study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, H.N.S.

    1992-01-01

    The main objectives of this study are (1) to study the impact of longwave and shortwave radiation on the thermodynamic and kinematic structure of a midlatitude squall line; and (2) to explore the influence of specifically including the ice phase in the cloud-radiation feedback mechanism for climate models

  5. Hydrological indications of aeolian salts in mid-latitude deserts of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hydrological indications of aeolian salts in mid-latitude deserts of northwestern China. B Q Zhu. Supplementary data. Figure S1. Photograph views of Quaternary and modern sediments of aeolian and lacustrine/fluvial facies that consisted of clay and sand/silt sand alternations in the Taklamakan and Badanjilin Deserts.

  6. The 'Blue-Shift' in midlatitude dynamics in a Changing Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, L. V.

    2013-12-01

    Global surface temperature variations and changes result from intricate interplay of phenomena varying on scales ranging from fraction of seconds (turbulence) to thousands of years (e.g. glaciations). To complicate these issues further, the contribution of the anthropogenic forcing on the observed changes in surface temperatures varies over time and is spatially non-uniform. While evaluating all individual bands of this broad spectrum is virtually impossible, the availability of global daily datasets in the last few decades from reanalyses and Global Climate Models (GCMs) simulations allows estimating the contribution of phenomena varying on synoptic-to-interannual timescales. Previous studies using GCM simulations for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment (IPCC AR4) have documented a consistent poleward shift in the storm tracks related to changes in baroclinicity resulting from global warming. However, our recent research (Cannon et al. 2013) indicated that the pattern of changes in the storm tracks observed in the last few decades is much more complex in both space and time. Complex terrain and the relative distribution of continents, oceans and icecaps play a significant role for changes in synoptic activity. Coupled modes such as the Northern and Southern annular modes, the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and respective teleconnections with changes in baroclinicity have been identified as relevant dynamical forcings for variations of the midlatitude storm tracks, increasing the uncertainties in future projections. Moreover, global warming has modified the amplitude of the annual cycles of temperature, moisture and circulation throughout the planet and there is strong indication that these changes have mostly affected the tropics and Polar Regions. The present study advances these findings by investigating the 'blue-shift' in the underlying dynamics causing surface temperature anomalies and investigates relationships with

  7. Construction of Improved Maps of Mercury's Crustal Magnetic Field at Northern Midlatitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, L. L.; Oliveira, J. S.

    2017-12-01

    We report progress toward the construction of a refined version of the northern midlatitude crustal magnetic field map of Hood [GRL, 2016], extended to cover latitudes from 35N to 80N and all longitudes. The main improvements include: (1) Combining MESSENGER magnetometer data from August and September of 2014 with that from February, March, and April of 2015 to provide the best overall input data set for mapping and the largest possible area of coverage; (2) improving the elimination of external and core field contamination by using a model for Mercury's core field and a more conservative high-pass filter length; and (3) improving the equivalent source dipole (ESD) mapping technique using an equidistant equivalent source dipole array and varying the depth, orientation, and resolution of the array to minimize the overall root mean square misfit. Combining data from the two time intervals allows the total latitude range of the final map to be increased by at least 5 degrees to 35N - 80N. Also, previous mapping has concentrated on the hemisphere from 90E to 270E; inclusion of all available data will allow the final maps to be extended to all longitudes, more than doubling the coverage reported by Hood [2016]. Previous work has demonstrated a concentration of relatively strong magnetic anomalies near and within the Caloris impact basin. A secondary concentration near Sobkou Planitia, which contains an older impact basin, was also found. The existence of anomalies within the Caloris rim implies that a steady magnetizing field, i.e., a core dynamo, was present when this basin formed. A major application of the improved map will be to investigate whether anomalies are concentrated near and within other impact basins. If some basins are found not to have concentrations of magnetic anomalies, this could imply a role of impactor composition (e.g., iron content) in producing the crustal materials that are most strongly magnetized, as has previously been proposed to be the

  8. The influence of environmental changes on local and regional vegetation patterns at Rieme (NW Belgium): implications for Final Palaeolithic habitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J.A.A.; Verbruggen, F.; Engels, S.; Crombé, P.

    2012-01-01

    Late-glacial vegetation changes were studied at Rieme, NW Belgium. Human occupation of this cover sand area occurred from the Final Palaeolithic onwards. The research area is situated on the northern side of a large cover sand ridge in an undulating landscape with small ridges and depressions. The

  9. Chromosome region-specific libraries for human genome analysis. Final progress report, 1 March 1991--28 February 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kao, F.T.

    1994-04-01

    The objectives of this grant proposal include (1) development of a chromosome microdissection and PCR-mediated microcloning technology, (2) application of this microtechnology to the construction of region-specific libraries for human genome analysis. During this grant period, the authors have successfully developed this microtechnology and have applied it to the construction of microdissection libraries for the following chromosome regions: a whole chromosome 21 (21E), 2 region-specific libraries for the long arm of chromosome 2, 2q35-q37 (2Q1) and 2q33-q35 (2Q2), and 4 region-specific libraries for the entire short arm of chromosome 2, 2p23-p25 (2P1), 2p21-p23 (2P2), 2p14-p16 (wP3) and 2p11-p13 (2P4). In addition, 20--40 unique sequence microclones have been isolated and characterized for genomic studies. These region-specific libraries and the single-copy microclones from the library have been used as valuable resources for (1) isolating microsatellite probes in linkage analysis to further refine the disease locus; (2) isolating corresponding clones with large inserts, e.g. YAC, BAC, P1, cosmid and phage, to facilitate construction of contigs for high resolution physical mapping; and (3) isolating region-specific cDNA clones for use as candidate genes. These libraries are being deposited in the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) for general distribution.

  10. Vinculacion Entre La Educacion Y El Mundo Del Trabajo: Informe Final. (Coloquio Regional Caracas, Venezuela, Septiembre 2-6, 1985) = The Linkage Between Education and Employment: Final Report of the Regional Colloquium (Caracas, Venezuela, September 2-6, 1985).

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Santiago (Chile). Regional Office for Education in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    At this regional colloquium 13 papers were presented concerning the relationship between education and employment. Themes addressed were: (1) the transformation of the workplace by technology and science; (2) the future of the disadvantaged population as a consequence of the technological revolution; and (3) the resulting changes in the education…

  11. Mid-latitude mesospheric clouds and their environment from SOFIE observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervig, Mark E.; Gerding, Michael; Stevens, Michael H.; Stockwell, Robert; Bailey, Scott M.; Russell, James M.; Stober, Gunter

    2016-11-01

    Observations from the Solar Occultation For Ice Experiment (SOFIE) on the Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) satellite are used to examine noctilucent clouds (NLC) and their environment at middle latitudes ( 56°N and 52°S). Because SOFIE is uniquely capable of measuring NLC, water vapor, and temperature simultaneously, the local cloud environment can be specified to examine what controls their formation at mid-latitudes. Compared to higher latitudes, mid-latitude NLCs are less frequent and have lower ice mass density, by roughly a factor of five. Compared to higher latitudes at NLC heights, mid-latitude water vapor is only 12% lower while temperatures are more than 10 K higher. As a result the reduced NLC mass and frequency at mid-latitudes can be attributed primarily to temperature. Middle and high latitude NLCs contain a similar amount of meteoric smoke, which was not anticipated because smoke abundance increases towards the equator in summer. SOFIE indicates that mid-latitude NLCs may or may not be associated with supersaturation with respect to ice. It is speculated that this situation is due in part to SOFIE uncertainties related to the limb measurement geometry combined with the non-uniform nature of NLCs. SOFIE is compared with concurrent NLC, temperature, and wind observations from Kühlungsborn, Germany (54°N) during the 2015 summer. The results indicate good agreement in temperature and NLC occurrence frequency, backscatter, and height. SOFIE indicates that NLCs were less frequent over Europe during 2015 compared to other longitudes, in contrast to previous years at higher latitudes that showed no clear longitude dependence. Comparisons of SOFIE and the Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV) indicate good agreement in average ice water column (IWC), although differences in occurrence frequency were often large.

  12. Scotland's forgotten carbon: a national assessment of mid-latitude fjord sedimentary carbon stocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Smeaton

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Fjords are recognised as hotspots for the burial and long-term storage of carbon (C and potentially provide a significant climate regulation service over multiple timescales. Understanding the magnitude of marine sedimentary C stores and the processes which govern their development is fundamental to understanding the role of the coastal ocean in the global C cycle. In this study, we use the mid-latitude fjords of Scotland as a natural laboratory to further develop methods to quantify these marine sedimentary C stores on both the individual fjord and national scale. Targeted geophysical and geochemical analysis has allowed the quantification of sedimentary C stocks for a number of mid-latitude fjords and, coupled with upscaling techniques based on fjord classification, has generated the first full national sedimentary C inventory for a fjordic system. The sediments within these mid-latitude fjords hold 640.7 ± 46 Mt of C split between 295.6 ± 52 and 345.1 ± 39 Mt of organic and inorganic C, respectively. When compared, these marine mid-latitude sedimentary C stores are of similar magnitude to their terrestrial equivalents, with the exception of the Scottish peatlands, which hold significantly more C. However, when area-normalised comparisons are made, these mid-latitude fjords are significantly more effective as C stores than their terrestrial counterparts, including Scottish peatlands. The C held within Scotland's coastal marine sediments has been largely overlooked as a significant component of the nation's natural capital; such coastal C stores are likely to be key to understanding and constraining improved global C budgets.

  13. Scotland's forgotten carbon: a national assessment of mid-latitude fjord sedimentary carbon stocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeaton, Craig; Austin, William E. N.; Davies, Althea L.; Baltzer, Agnes; Howe, John A.; Baxter, John M.

    2017-12-01

    Fjords are recognised as hotspots for the burial and long-term storage of carbon (C) and potentially provide a significant climate regulation service over multiple timescales. Understanding the magnitude of marine sedimentary C stores and the processes which govern their development is fundamental to understanding the role of the coastal ocean in the global C cycle. In this study, we use the mid-latitude fjords of Scotland as a natural laboratory to further develop methods to quantify these marine sedimentary C stores on both the individual fjord and national scale. Targeted geophysical and geochemical analysis has allowed the quantification of sedimentary C stocks for a number of mid-latitude fjords and, coupled with upscaling techniques based on fjord classification, has generated the first full national sedimentary C inventory for a fjordic system. The sediments within these mid-latitude fjords hold 640.7 ± 46 Mt of C split between 295.6 ± 52 and 345.1 ± 39 Mt of organic and inorganic C, respectively. When compared, these marine mid-latitude sedimentary C stores are of similar magnitude to their terrestrial equivalents, with the exception of the Scottish peatlands, which hold significantly more C. However, when area-normalised comparisons are made, these mid-latitude fjords are significantly more effective as C stores than their terrestrial counterparts, including Scottish peatlands. The C held within Scotland's coastal marine sediments has been largely overlooked as a significant component of the nation's natural capital; such coastal C stores are likely to be key to understanding and constraining improved global C budgets.

  14. Diabetes epidemic in the Asia Pacific region: has hemoglobin A1C finally earned its place as a diagnostic tool?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Bagley

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Two-third of the world's population lives in the Asia Pacific region where prevalence of diabetes has reached epidemic proportion. With China and India being the most populous nations on the globe, it is believed that over 150 million diabetes reside in the region with more than 95% being of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Furthermore, other Pacific islands in the region have high rates of T2DM including Tonga, Fiji, French Polynesia, and Nauru. The latter has the highest prevalence of T2DM per population in the world. Over the past two decades, in Australia and New Zealand, the prevalence of T2DM has more than doubled, mainly amongst the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and Maori peoples respectively. With the increasing prevalence of diabetes in the Asia Pacific region coupled with the limited number of resources, use of a reliable and effective mode of diagnosis for T2DM is warranted. Yet to date, only New Zealand has adopted the American Diabetes Association recommendation of using hemoglobin A1C in the diagnosis of the disease. The aim of this review is to discuss the clinical usefulness of hemoglobin A1C and highlight its diagnostic role in the Asia Pacific region where T2DM is increasingly encountered.

  15. SR 3218. Study and questioning of persons in regions with final repository activities in Germany. AS 3.2 Development of action strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brohmann, Bettina; Huenecke, Katja; Kallenbach-Herbert, Beate; Neles, Julia

    2011-01-01

    The report on the questioning of persons in regions with final repository activities in Germany includes the following chapters: (1) Introduction, (2) Assessment criteria. (3) Status and analysis of selected topics: information by the operator; communication and communication channels; participation - information exchange; cooperation; concerns and risks; compensation and compensatory payments. (4) Action strategies: superior aspects (credibility, reliance, public relations, resource conservation, aspects of information and communication); site-related action recommendations and summarized action strategies (Asse, Morsleben, Gorleben, Salzgitter).

  16. Management of low-level radioactive waste in the Southeast Compact Region: Volume 2, Management plan: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-07-01

    The Southeast Compact Commission for Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management has begun the development of a regional low-level radioactive waste management plan. They have reviewed and analyzed existing data on current low-level radioactive waste volumes shipped for disposal by generators in the Southeast region and have supplemented existing data by direct contact with State regulatory personnel, disposal site operators, and individual generators. The Commission has also projected the amounts and types of waste expected to require offsite disposal. This characterized data base and the projections of waste volumes and types through 1996 are included in this volume. Alternative disposal and treatment technologies were evaluated for management of the waste in the region. This evaluation consisted of a review of the literature concerning the several technologies in low level radioactive waste management. This information is summarized in Appendix A. 72 refs., 28 figs., 30 tabs

  17. Multi-model assessment of the impact of soil moisture initialization on mid-latitude summer predictability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardilouze, Constantin; Batté, L.; Bunzel, F.; Decremer, D.; Déqué, M.; Doblas-Reyes, F. J.; Douville, H.; Fereday, D.; Guemas, V.; MacLachlan, C.; Müller, W.; Prodhomme, C.

    2017-12-01

    Land surface initial conditions have been recognized as a potential source of predictability in sub-seasonal to seasonal forecast systems, at least for near-surface air temperature prediction over the mid-latitude continents. Yet, few studies have systematically explored such an influence over a sufficient hindcast period and in a multi-model framework to produce a robust quantitative assessment. Here, a dedicated set of twin experiments has been carried out with boreal summer retrospective forecasts over the 1992-2010 period performed by five different global coupled ocean-atmosphere models. The impact of a realistic versus climatological soil moisture initialization is assessed in two regions with high potential previously identified as hotspots of land-atmosphere coupling, namely the North American Great Plains and South-Eastern Europe. Over the latter region, temperature predictions show a significant improvement, especially over the Balkans. Forecast systems better simulate the warmest summers if they follow pronounced dry initial anomalies. It is hypothesized that models manage to capture a positive feedback between high temperature and low soil moisture content prone to dominate over other processes during the warmest summers in this region. Over the Great Plains, however, improving the soil moisture initialization does not lead to any robust gain of forecast quality for near-surface temperature. It is suggested that models biases prevent the forecast systems from making the most of the improved initial conditions.

  18. 78 FR 19879 - Final Order in Response to a Petition From Certain Independent System Operators and Regional...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-02

    ...'') \\1\\ from certain regional transmission organizations (``RTOs'') and independent system operators... include three RTOs (Midwest Independent Transmission System Operator, Inc. (``MISO''); ISO New England..., responsibilities and services of ISOs and RTOs are substantially similar.\\29\\ As described in the Proposed Order...

  19. Central interstate low-level radioactive waste compact region site exclusionary screening study. Phase I. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-06-01

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 assigns to the states the responsibility for disposal of the low-level radioactive waste generated within their boundaries. It also provides for regional compacts among states to address their needs on a broader basis and permits restriction of the use of regional disposal facilities after January 1, 1986, to generators of low-level waste within the region. Each state, either individually or as a member of a compact, must therefore consider the establishment of a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility within its borders. The states of Arkansas, Kansas, Louisiana, Nebraska, and Oklahoma adopted the Central Interstate Low-Level Waste Compact (CILLWC) and legislation was submitted to Congress for consent in June of 1983 legislation is being reintroduced in the 99th Congress. In August of 1984, the CILLWC selected and contracted Dames and Moore to conduct a Phase I-Site Suitability Screening Study for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility in the five-state region. This report presents the results of the Phase I Screening Study. Dames and Moore reported to the Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) of the CILLWC which provided guidance and comment on work progress and direction

  20. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 3): Paoli Rail Yard, Paoli, PA. (First remedial action), July 1992. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The 428-acre Paoli Rail Yard site is a maintenance, storage, and repair facility located north of Paoli in Chester County, Pennsylvania. Soil contamination in and around the car shop is attributed to releases of fuel oil and PCB-laden transformer fluid from rail cars during maintenance and repair activities. In 1985, EPA identified PCB contamination in soil and sediment, and on building surfaces. The rail companies agreed to address site clean-up activities, including erosion, sedimentation, and stormwater characteristics and control, decontamination, soil sampling, excavation of 3,500 cubic yards residential soil, and implementation of worker protection measures. The ROD provides a final remedy for contaminated soil (from the rail yard and residences), sediment, and structures at the Paoli Rail Yard, and contaminated ground water. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the soil, sediment, debris, and ground water are VOCs, including benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene, xylenes; and other organics, including PCBs. The selected remedial action for the site are included

  1. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 9): Nineteenth Avenue Landfill, Phoenix, AZ. (First remedial action), September 1989. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The 213-acre Nineteenth Avenue Landfill is in an industrial area of Maricopa County, Phoenix, Arizona. State permitted landfill operations were conducted from 1957 to 1979 during which time approximately nine million cubic yards of municipal refuse, solid and liquid industrial wastes, and some medical wastes and materials containing low levels of radioactivity were deposited in the landfill. The State ordered the landfill closed in 1979 due to the periodic inundation of the landfill by flood waters from the Salt River Channel. Subsequently, the city covered the site with fill, stockpiled soil for final capping, installed ground water monitoring wells, built berms around the landfill, and installed a methane gas collection system. The remedial action is designed to mitigate threats resulting from flooding of the landfill, which has occurred intermittently since 1965. The primary contaminants of concern in the soil/refuse include VOCs such as toluene and xylenes

  2. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 6): Oklahoma Refining Company, Cyril, OK. (First remedial action), June 1992. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The 160-acre Oklahoma Refining site is a petroleum refinery located on the eastern edge of Cyril, Oklahoma, in Caddo County. The facility included refinery process areas, bulk storage tanks, waste pits, wastewater treatment ponds, and a land treatment area. During the mid-1980's, EPA investigations revealed large-scale organic and heavy metal contamination of onsite soil and ground water. In 1990, EPA conducted a removal action, which included characterization and removal of drums, plugging wells, and wildlife protection measures. The ROD addresses the remediation of onsite contaminated soil, sediment, surface water, and ground water as a final remedy. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the soil, sediment, ground water, and surface water are VOCs, including benzene, toluene, and xylenes; other organics, including PAHs and phenols; and metals, including arsenic, chromium, and lead. The selected remedial action for the site is included

  3. Very high resolution UV and x-ray spectroscopy and imagery of solar active regions. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruner, M.; Brown, W.A.; Haisch, B.M.

    1987-01-01

    A scientific investigation of the physics of the solar atmosphere, which uses the techniques of high resolution soft x-ray spectroscopy and high resolution UV imagery, is described. The experiments were conducted during a series of three sounding rocket flights. All three flights yielded excellent images in the UV range, showing unprecedented spatial resolution. The second flight recorded the x-ray spectrum of a solar flare, and the third that of an active region. A normal incidence multi-layer mirror was used during the third flight to make the first astronomical x-ray observations using this new technique

  4. Management of low-level radioactive waste in the southeast compact region: Final report: Volume 3, Siting methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-07-01

    This report is a part of the designation process and provides technical criteria and procedures for use in the designation process. It also provides information related to data sources and methodology for applying the criteria. As part of the designation process, the Commissioners will weight the recommended criteria to reflect the relative importance of the various considerations to the goal of providing facilities that will allow for the safe, environmentally sound, and cost-effective management of low-level radioactive waste in the Southeast Region. One possible method for accomplishing this weighting is described in this report

  5. Ionospheric midlatitude electric current density inferred from multiple magnetic satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shore, R. M.; Whaler, K. A.; Macmillan, S.

    2013-01-01

    A method for inferring zonal electric current density in the mid-to-low latitude F region ionosphere is presented. We describe a method of using near-simultaneous overflights of the Ørsted and CHAMP satellites to define a closed circuit for an application of Ampère's integral law to magnetic data...... for estimates of main and crustal magnetic fields. Current density in the range ±0.1 μA/m2 is resolved, with the distribution of electric current largely matching known features such as the Appleton anomaly. The currents appear unmodulated at times of either high-negative Dst or high F10.7, which has...... implications for any future efforts to model their effects. We resolve persistent current intensifications between geomagnetic latitudes of 30 and 50° in the postmidnight, predawn sector, a region typically thought to be relatively free of electric currents. The cause of these unexpected intensifications...

  6. Beryllium-7 in near-surface atmospheric aerosols in mid-latitude (40 deg N) city Beijing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keyan Tan; Yongliang Yang; Xiaohua Zhu; Shu Chen; Xingchun Jiao; Nan Gai; Yi Huang

    2013-01-01

    A high-volume air sampler and a high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer have been used to measure the activity of 7 Be in near-surface atmospheric aerosols at sampling frequency of 3 days week for 1 year from August 2009 to July 2010 at Beijing in the mid-latitude region of East Asia monsoon. The measurements indicate that the average concentration of 7 Be was 8.39 ± 0.49 mBq m -3 , which was significantly higher than values reported for other cities in the East Asia monsoon region and in the world during the same period. The maximum and minimum of the weekly means of 7 Be concentration were observed in September and May, respectively. The 7 Be concentrations varied in accordance with the monsoon phases. Low but frequent wet precipitation may have caused lower 7 Be observed in July when southeasterly was prevailing. Higher seasonal mean of 7 Be concentrations in autumn could be attributed to the abnormal atmospheric circulation in autumn 2009. (author)

  7. The decommissioning of WWER type nuclear power plants. Final report on an IAEA regional technical co-operation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Numerous WWER-440 nuclear power plants are in operation in central and eastern Europe and a small number have already been shut down. In addition to reactors already shut down, many other reactors will reach the end of their design lifetime in a few years and become candidates for decommissioning. It is unfortunate that little consideration was devoted to decommissioning of WWER-440 reactors at the plant design and construction stage, and little emphasis was placed on planning for decommissioning. It is within this context that the IAEA launched a regional technical co-operation project in 1994 with the aim of providing guidance on planning and management of decommissioning for WWERs. The project, which had a duration of four years (1995-1998), included the organization of workshops and scientific visits to countries having WWERs and other countries where active decommissioning projects were under way. Eventually, participants suggested the consolidation of expert guidance and collective opinions into a TECDOC, which was drafted by both designated participants from project recipient countries and invited experts. The TECDOC has the aim of serving as a stimulus for all concerned parties in central and eastern European countries to initiate concrete decommissioning planning, including assessment of existing and required resources for the eventual implementation of decommissioning plans. In addition, the regional technical co-operation project has managed to bring together in this TECDOC a number of good practices that could be useful in WWER-440 decommissioning

  8. Ice exposures and landscape evolution in the Martian mid-latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dundas, C. M.; Bramson, A. M.; Ojha, L.; Wray, J. J.; Mellon, M. T.; Byrne, S.; McEwen, A. S.; Putzig, N. E.; Viola, D.; Sutton, S.

    2017-12-01

    The large-scale geographic distribution of Martian shallow ground ice is now relatively well-known, but the vertical structure of the ice is not as well understood. Here we report on erosional scarps in kilometer-scale pits near ±55-60 degrees latitude that expose cross-sections through ice-rich mantling deposits covering much of the mid-latitudes. HiRISE images of the scarps reveal ice-rich deposits (i.e., not regolith-pore-filling ice) that are >100 m thick and occur within 1 m of the top of the scarps. CRISM spectra confirm the presence of water ice through late summer, implying exposed ground ice rather than seasonal frost. SHARAD sounding radar data show some candidate reflectors similar to those inferred to be from the base of excess ice deposits elsewhere on Mars, but no internal structure is resolved. Ice-exposing impacts and thermokarst landforms convey information about excess ice abundance in the upper few meters, but not its deeper structure. The overall structure of the ice table is simple, with massive ice (sometimes layered) under a relatively thin lithic mantle, plus a boulder-rich interior lens in one scarp. The latter may be partly ice-cemented. The ice is commonly fractured. These observations demonstrate how deep ice sheets link with the shallow ice table, at least locally. The likely origin of the ice is accumulation of snow with some admixed dust during a different climate. This snow accumulation could be related to 370 ka changes observed at the poles [1] but some ice sheets may be tens of Myr old [2]. the origin of superposed boulder-sized rocks is puzzling; possible explanations include glacial flow, impact gardening, or some form of frost heave or cryoturbation. Repeat HiRISE observations demonstrate that the scarps are actively retreating, as boulders have fallen from one scarp and there are albedo changes elsewhere. This activity demonstrates that local sublimation is contributing to present-day Martian landscape evolution and is an

  9. The photochemistry and kinetics of chlorine compounds important to stratospheric mid-latitude ozone destruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb, Leah

    1997-09-01

    The catalytic destruction of stratospheric ozone via chlorinated species was first proposed in the 1970's. Since that time a decline in column ozone abundance in the polar regions as well as at mid-latitudes has been observed. Much of this reduction has been attributed to the increases in anthropogenic chlorine compounds such as CFCs. This study summarizes experimental results obtained using pulsed-photolysis resonance fluorescence and pulsed- photolysis long-path absorption methods to study processes important to chlorine-catalyzed ozone destruction: the quantum yields of the products in the dissociation of ClONO2 and the reactions of free radicals with ClONO2 and ClO. The quantum yields for the production of O, Cl and ClO from ClONO2 were studied at specific laser wavelengths (193, 222, 248, and 308 nm). Cl and ClO yields were comparable at nearly all the wavelengths, expect for 193 nm, where the O atom yield was appreciable. The yields at 308 nm (a wavelength available in the stratosphere) were 0.64 ± 0.17 for Cl, 0.37 ± 0.18 for ClO and product yield for the former reaction, previously unreported, was determined to be ~1. The kinetics of the reaction of O atoms with ClO were measured using a new experimental system built specifically to investigate such radical-radical reactions. A slight negative temperature dependence (E/B = -90 ± 30) was observed over the temperature range (227-363 K). From the measured Arrhenius equation the rate constant at 240 K is 4.1 × 10-11 cm3molecule-1s-1 which is in excellent agreement (l.4% greater) with the currently recommended value. This observation is significant, since this reaction is the rate limiting the dominate chlorine catalytic cycle that destroys O3 near 40 km. To analyze the implications of the kinetic and photochemical information from this work, a box model was constructed. The vertical profile of ozone concentrations and loss rates calculated by this simple model compare well with atmospheric measurements and

  10. The importance of resolution on the response of mid-latitude transients to enhanced CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senior, C.A.

    1994-01-01

    The impact of global warming on the activity of the mid-latitude transients is not well understood. Work with simple models suggests that there will be two competing effects on transient activity. Firstly, there will be a reduction in the baroclinicity due to a smaller pole-equator temperature gradient and secondly there will be increased moisture availability in a warmer atmosphere. A comparison of the mid-latitude transients from two versions of the Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research GCM run at different resolutions is presented and the importance of resolution on the simulation of the high and low frequency variability is discussed. At higher resolution, one of the largest responses of the model to a doubling of atmospheric CO 2 is an enhancement of the westerly flow in the North Atlantic, but this is much reduced at lower resolution. Consistency is sort between changes in the time mean flow and the transient behavior

  11. Application of the new requirements of safety of the IAEA for the previous management to the final disposal of radioactive waste in the region: a personal vision; Aplicacion de los nuevos requisitos de seguridad del OIEA para la gestion previa a la disposicion final de desechos radiactivos en la region: una vision personal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sed, Luis Andres Jova, E-mail: jovaluis@gmail.com [Centro Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear (CNSN), La Habana (Cuba)

    2013-07-01

    The work includes the requirements for the responsibilities associated with the management prior to the final disposal of radioactive waste and as they are referred to in the Region. Also discusses the requirements for the main stages of the management prior to the final disposal of radioactive waste. A very important section of the new requirements is that establish requirements for safe operation of facilities management prior to the final disposal of radioactive wastes and the implementation of activities under conditions of safety and development. The work is emphatic on the importance of safety justification since the beginning of the development of a facility as a basis for the decision-making and approval process. Emphasis is also on the gradual approach which should provide for the collection, analysis and interpretation of the relevant technical data, plans for the design and operation, and the formulation of the justification of the security. This paper gives a personal view of the situation in the Region.

  12. Contribution of large-scale midlatitude disturbances to hourly precipitation extremes in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbero, Renaud; Abatzoglou, John T.; Fowler, Hayley J.

    2018-02-01

    Midlatitude synoptic weather regimes account for a substantial portion of annual precipitation accumulation as well as multi-day precipitation extremes across parts of the United States (US). However, little attention has been devoted to understanding how synoptic-scale patterns contribute to hourly precipitation extremes. A majority of 1-h annual maximum precipitation (AMP) across the western US were found to be linked to two coherent midlatitude synoptic patterns: disturbances propagating along the jet stream, and cutoff upper-level lows. The influence of these two patterns on 1-h AMP varies geographically. Over 95% of 1-h AMP along the western coastal US were coincident with progressive midlatitude waves embedded within the jet stream, while over 30% of 1-h AMP across the interior western US were coincident with cutoff lows. Between 30-60% of 1-h AMP were coincident with the jet stream across the Ohio River Valley and southeastern US, whereas a a majority of 1-h AMP over the rest of central and eastern US were not found to be associated with either midlatitude synoptic features. Composite analyses for 1-h AMP days coincident to cutoff lows and jet stream show that an anomalous moisture flux and upper-level dynamics are responsible for initiating instability and setting up an environment conducive to 1-h AMP events. While hourly precipitation extremes are generally thought to be purely convective in nature, this study shows that large-scale dynamics and baroclinic disturbances may also contribute to precipitation extremes on sub-daily timescales.

  13. Height and critical frequency variations of the sporadic-E layer at midlatitudes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šauli, Petra; Bourdillon, A.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 70, č. 15 (2008), s. 1904-1910 ISSN 1364-6826 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300420704 Grant - others:European Union(XE) COST 296 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : Sporadic E * Planetary waves * Tidal waves * Mid-latitude ionosphere * Wavelet transform Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.667, year: 2008

  14. Regional Coordination and Analysis of OCRWM Transportation Program: Fourth Quarter and Final Report, January 15, 1998 - April 14, 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Western Interstate Energy Board

    1998-01-01

    This is the fourth quarter report on the activities of the High-Level Radioactive Waste Committee of the Western Interstate Energy Board. Together with the first three quarterly reports, this constitutes a final report. Over the course of the year, work under this contract has focused on: 1. Efforts to improved the Department's proposal to implement Section 180(c) of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act. (DOE has since suspended its efforts to implement this provision of the law.); 2. Advice to DOB on ways to conduct effective analysis of mode and routing options for spent fuel and high-level waste shipments under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act. (DOE has since suspended efforts to develop an effective mode and route selection process); 3. Advice to DOE on needed improvements in OCRWM's privatization initiative.; 4. Monitoring spent fuel and HLW developments that affect western state interests.; 5. Participating in DOE forums such as the Transportation External Coordination Working Group.; 6. Offering comments on documents related to NWPA transportation (e.g., the Navy's DELS for a container system for the management of spent nuclear fuel, DOE's Transportation Cask Quick Facts, DOE's report to Congress on the Price-Anderson Act)

  15. Investigation into avian mortality in the Playa Lakes region of southeastern New Mexico: Final Report - June 1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dein, F. Joshua; Baeten, Laurie A.; Moore, Melody K.; Samuel, Michael D.; Miller, Paul D.; Murphy, Christopher; Sissler, Steven; Jeske, Clinton W.; Jehl, Joseph R.; Yaeger, J. S.; Bauer, B.; Mahoney, Shiela A.

    1997-01-01

    This Final Report is a review of work on a cooperative study undertaken by the USGS Biological Resources Division's National Wildlife Health Center (NWHC) and National Wetlands Research Center (NWRC; formerly the Southern Science Center) from 1994 through 1997. The study was initiated at the request of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), through a request to the former National Biological Service. The Southeastern New Mexico Playa Lakes Coordinating Committee (SENMPLCC) played an important role in outlining the research needs. The initial Study Plan document, which outlines the background, objectives and methods for the first two years is available as Appendix 1. A letter indicating modifications to the Study Plan was sent to the SENMPLCC chair on April 25,1995, and is Appendix 2. An Interim Report, covering this work was completed and submitted in September 1995. The Literature Review section of the study was completed and presented to SENMPLCC in August, 1995. Following SENMPLCC review, NWHC was asked to develop a series of questions that could be posed from information gained in the initial phase (Appendix 3). The NWHC and NWRC were then directed to begin work to answer the top three questions, within the available fiscal resources. NWRC could continue with work outlined under the original Study Plan (Appendix 1), however an additional Study Plan for experiments performed by NWHC and collaborators and is available as Appendix 4.

  16. Isotope based assessment of groundwater renewal in water scarce regions. Proceedings of a final research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-10-01

    The isotopic composition and chemical constituents of water infiltrating through the soil zone (unsaturated zone, or zone of aeration) into groundwater can be employed to determine the moisture transport in the unsaturated zone, thus enabling estimation of the water infiltration rate to the underlying aquifer. This was the basis on which this CRP was initiated in 1996. The overall results obtained from three years of applied field research related to study of moisture transport dynamics and estimation of natural recharge through use of isotope/hydrochemical depth profiles of the soil moisture in the unsaturated zone were presented and discussed at the final Research Co-ordination Meeting held in Vienna from 18 to 21 October 1999. A total of 44 sites were involved in the project on which detailed information on physiography, lithology, rainfall, unsaturated moisture content and a variety of chemical and isotopic determinants is now available. This publication contains 11 individual reports presented by CRP participants at the Meeting. Each of the reports have been indexed separately

  17. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA region 5): Fultz Landfill, Byesville, OH. (First remedial action), September 1991. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The 30-acre Fultz Landfill site is a privately owned inactive sanitary landfill on the north slope of a ridge that overlies abandoned coal mines in Jackson Township, Guernsey County, Ohio. The site lies within the drainage basin of Wills Creek, which flows north adjacent to the site and is used by the city of Cambridge as the municipal water supply. The northern half of the landfill lies in an unreclaimed strip mine where surface mine spoil and natural soil form a shallow aquifer. During the 1970's, the landfill operator was cited for various violations. Investigations in 1988 by EPA indicated that ground water and leachate contaminants emanating from the site have contaminated the shallow aquifer and, to a lesser extent, the deep mine aquifer. The Record of Decision (ROD) addresses all contaminated media, and provides a final remedy for the site. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the soil, sediment, debris, ground water, and surface water are VOCs including benzene, PCE, TCE, toluene, and xylenes; other organics including PAHs and phenols; metals including arsenic, chromium, and lead; and other inorganics. The selected remedial action for this site is included

  18. Southeast Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant Facilities Improvements Project and Geysers Effluent Pipeline Project. Final EIR/EIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    On May 26, 1994, the Lake County Sanitation District and the US Bureau of Land Management released for public review a Draft Environmental Impact Report/Environmental Impact Statement (EIR/EIS) on the proposed Southeast Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant Facilities Improvements Project and Geysers Effluent Pipeline Project. A minimum 45-day review and comment period began on that date and notices were published in the Federal Register. The public review and comment period closed on July 26, 1994. Public hearings on the Draft EIMIS were held in Lakeport, CA, on June 30 and July 14, 1994. The first part of this document contains copies of the written comments submitted on the Draft EIR/EIS. It also contains summary paraphrased comments of the public hearings. The second part of this document contains responses to the comments

  19. Final disposal of spent fuels and high activity waste: the European model for a shared regional repository. Part 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herscovich de Pahissa, Marta

    2009-01-01

    Geological disposal is a essential element and the only available approach to the management strategy for spent nuclear fuel and high level radioactive waste from reprocessing and also for other long-lived waste from nuclear technology applications. It is technically feasible and offers the required long term safety. The growth of existing nuclear programmes and the expansion of nuclear technology to new countries will have effects on the fuel cycle because of the increased concern on proliferation and waste management. The crucial task is to ensure that all countries that use nuclear energy now or will do it in the future, have defined and agreed safety and security standards for all facilities and a credible waste disposal strategy , accepted by the community, when this become necessary. Multinational cooperation on essential aspects of fuel cycle, particularly the geological disposal, is required for several countries with relatively small nuclear energy programmes or small quantities of radioactive waste. For these countries, that can be in different stages of development, the possibility to share a deep geological repository could be convenient. The European Union SAPIERR project is described in this paper as an example of a regional multinational cooperation. (author) [es

  20. Air mass origins and troposphere-to-stratosphere exchange associated with mid-latitude cyclogenesis and tropopause folding inferred from Be-7 measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritz, Mark A.; Rosner, Stefan W.; Danielsen, Edwin F.; Selkirk, Henry B.

    1991-01-01

    The 1984 extratropical mission of NASA's Stratosphere-Troposphere Exchange Project (STEP) studied cross-jet transport in regions of cyclogenesis and tropopause folding. Correlations of Be-7, ozone, water vapor, and potential vorticity measured on a NASA U-2 research aircraft flying in high shear regions above the jet core are indicative of mixing between the cyclonic and the anticyclonic sides of the jet and are consistent with the hypothesis that small-scale entrainments of upper tropospheric air into the lower stratosphere during cyclogenesis are important in maintaining the vertical gradients of Be-7, ozone, water vapor and other trace constituents in the lower few kilometers of the midlatitude stratosphere. Correlations between Be-7, and ozone suggest a lower tropical stratospheric origin for the ozone-poor lamina observed above the jet core.

  1. Volcanic terrain and the possible periglacial formation of "excess ice" at the mid-latitudes of Utopia Planitia, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soare, R. J.; Horgan, B.; Conway, S. J.; Souness, C.; El-Maarry, M. R.

    2015-08-01

    At the mid-latitudes of Utopia Planitia (UP), Mars, a suite of spatially-associated landforms exhibit geomorphological traits that, on Earth, would be consistent with periglacial processes and the possible freeze-thaw cycling of water. The suite comprises small-sized polygonally-patterned ground, polygon-junction and -margin pits, and scalloped, rimless depressions. Typically, the landforms incise a dark-toned terrain that is thought to be ice-rich. Here, we investigate the dark-toned terrain by using high resolution images from the HiRISE as well as near-infrared spectral-data from the OMEGA and CRISM. The terrain displays erosional characteristics consistent with a sedimentary nature and near-infrared spectra characterised by a blue slope similar to that of weathered basaltic-tephra. We also describe volcanic terrain that is dark-toned and periglacially-modified in the Kamchatka mountain-range of eastern Russia. The terrain is characterised by weathered tephra inter-bedded with snow, ice-wedge polygons and near-surface excess ice. The excess ice forms in the pore space of the tephra as the result of snow-melt infiltration and, subsequently, in-situ freezing. Based on this possible analogue, we construct a three-stage mechanism that explains the possible ice-enrichment of a broad expanse of dark-toned terrain at the mid-latitudes of UP: (1) the dark-toned terrain accumulates and forms via the regional deposition of sediments sourced from explosive volcanism; (2) the volcanic sediments are blanketed by atmospherically-precipitated (H2O) snow, ice or an admixture of the two, either concurrent with the volcanic-events or between discrete events; and, (3) under the influence of high obliquity or explosive volcanism, boundary conditions tolerant of thaw evolve and this, in turn, permits the migration, cycling and eventual formation of excess ice in the volcanic sediments. Over time, and through episodic iterations of this scenario, excess ice forms to decametres of

  2. Climatology of medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances observed by the midlatitude Blackstone SuperDARN radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frissell, N. A.; Baker, J. B. H.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.; Gerrard, A. J.; Miller, E. S.; Marini, J. P.; West, M. L.; Bristow, W. A.

    2014-09-01

    A climatology of daytime midlatitude medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (MSTIDs) observed by the Blackstone Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) radar is presented. MSTIDs were observed primarily from fall through spring. Two populations were observed: a dominant population heading southeast (centered at 147° geographic azimuth, ranging from 100° to 210°) and a secondary population heading northwest (centered at -50° azimuth, ranging from -75° to -25°). Horizontal velocities ranged from 50 to 250 m s-1 with a distribution maximum between 100 and 150 m s-1. Horizontal wavelengths ranged from 100 to 500 km with a distribution peak at 250 km, and periods between 23 and 60 min, suggesting that the MSTIDs may be consistent with thermospheric gravity waves. A local time (LT) dependence was observed such that the dominant (southeastward) population decreased in number as the day progressed until a late afternoon increase. The secondary (northwestward) population appeared only in the afternoon, possibly indicative of neutral wind effects or variability of sources. LT dependence was not observed in other parameters. Possible solar-geomagnetic and tropospheric MSTID sources were considered. The auroral electrojet (AE) index showed a correlation with MSTID statistics. Reverse ray tracing with the HINDGRATS model indicates that the dominant population has source regions over the Great Lakes and near the geomagnetic cusp, while the secondary population source region is 100 km above the Atlantic Ocean east of the Carolinas. This suggests that the dominant population may come from a region favorable to either tropospheric or geomagnetic sources, while the secondary population originates from a region favorable to secondary waves generated via lower atmospheric convection.

  3. Explicit simulation of a midlatitude Mesoscale Convective System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, G.D.; Cotton, W.R. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    1996-04-01

    We have explicitly simulated the mesoscale convective system (MCS) observed on 23-24 June 1985 during PRE-STORM, the Preliminary Regional Experiment for the Stormscale Operational and Research and Meterology Program. Stensrud and Maddox (1988), Johnson and Bartels (1992), and Bernstein and Johnson (1994) are among the researchers who have investigated various aspects of this MCS event. We have performed this MCS simulation (and a similar one of a tropical MCS; Alexander and Cotton 1994) in the spirit of the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment Cloud Systems Study (GCSS), in which cloud-resolving models are used to assist in the formulation and testing of cloud parameterization schemes for larger-scale models. In this paper, we describe (1) the nature of our 23-24 June MCS dimulation and (2) our efforts to date in using our explicit MCS simulations to assist in the development of a GCM parameterization for mesoscale flow branches. The paper is organized as follows. First, we discuss the synoptic situation surrounding the 23-24 June PRE-STORM MCS followed by a discussion of the model setup and results of our simulation. We then discuss the use of our MCS simulation. We then discuss the use of our MCS simulations in developing a GCM parameterization for mesoscale flow branches and summarize our results.

  4. Magnetic storm effects on the mid-latitude plasmasphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.J.; Clilverd, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    Whistler mode group delays observed at Faraday, Antarctica (65 o S,64 0 W) decrease after the onset of magnetic storms, and slowly recover to normal levels in 1 or 2 days. This is interpreted as a decrease (typically of ∼50%) and recovery of the plasmaspheric electron density at L = 2.5. Within 1 day of the main phase of storms with K p (max) between 6 and 8, the number of observed whistler ducts increases by a factor of 2 or 3, recovering in a few days. During the most intense storms (K p > 8) the duct number decreases. The frequency of occurrence of observed whistler mode signals increases during storms, due probably to enhanced ionospheric propagation of the signals; the storm time dependence implies that there is no link with the apparent increase in duct numbers. The amplitudes of received whistler mode signals are increased by up to a factor of 10 during storms: this is interpreted in terms of magnetospheric amplification through wave-particle interactions, though the evidence suggests that amplification is not necessarily the mechanism by which increased duct numbers are observed. There appears to be a real increase in the duct formation rate, consistent with Walker's (1978) theory in which ring current penetration of the plasmasphere creates a preferential region for duct formation 1.5 R E inside the plasmapause. (author)

  5. Synoptic climate change as a driver of late Quaternary glaciations in the mid-latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rother, H.; Shulmeister, J.

    2006-05-01

    The relative timing of late Quaternary glacial advances in mid-latitude (40-55° S) mountain belts of the Southern Hemisphere (SH) has become a critical focus in the debate on global climate teleconnections. On the basis of glacial data from New Zealand (NZ) and southern South America it has been argued that interhemispheric synchrony or asynchrony of Quaternary glacial events is due to Northern Hemisphere (NH) forcing of SH climate through either the ocean or atmosphere systems. Here we present a glacial snow-mass balance model that demonstrates that large scale glaciation in the temperate and hyperhumid Southern Alps of New Zealand can be generated with moderate cooling. This is because the rapid conversion of precipitation from rainfall to snowfall drives massive ice accumulation at small thermal changes (1-4°C). Our model is consistent with recent paleo-environmental reconstructions showing that glacial advances in New Zealand during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and the Last Glacial Interglacial Transition (LGIT) occurred under very moderate cooling. We suggest that such moderate cooling could be generated by changes in synoptic climatology, specifically through enhanced regional flow of moist westerly air masses. Our results imply that NH climate forcing may not have been the exclusive driver of Quaternary glaciations in New Zealand and that synoptic style climate variations are a better explanation for at least some late Quaternary glacial events, in particular during the LGIT (e.g. Younger Dryas and/or Antarctic Cold Reversal).

  6. Synoptic climate change as a driver of late Quaternary glaciations in the mid-latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Rother

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The relative timing of late Quaternary glacial advances in mid-latitude (40-55° S mountain belts of the Southern Hemisphere (SH has become a critical focus in the debate on global climate teleconnections. On the basis of glacial data from New Zealand (NZ and southern South America it has been argued that interhemispheric synchrony or asynchrony of Quaternary glacial events is due to Northern Hemisphere (NH forcing of SH climate through either the ocean or atmosphere systems. Here we present a glacial snow-mass balance model that demonstrates that large scale glaciation in the temperate and hyperhumid Southern Alps of New Zealand can be generated with moderate cooling. This is because the rapid conversion of precipitation from rainfall to snowfall drives massive ice accumulation at small thermal changes (1-4°C. Our model is consistent with recent paleo-environmental reconstructions showing that glacial advances in New Zealand during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM and the Last Glacial Interglacial Transition (LGIT occurred under very moderate cooling. We suggest that such moderate cooling could be generated by changes in synoptic climatology, specifically through enhanced regional flow of moist westerly air masses. Our results imply that NH climate forcing may not have been the exclusive driver of Quaternary glaciations in New Zealand and that synoptic style climate variations are a better explanation for at least some late Quaternary glacial events, in particular during the LGIT (e.g. Younger Dryas and/or Antarctic Cold Reversal.

  7. Storm time electric field penetration observed at mid-latitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, H.C.; Foster, J.C.; Rich, F.J.; Swider, W.

    1991-01-01

    During the height of the February 8-9, 1986, magnetic storm the Millstone Hill radar was in the evening local time sector (1600-2200 MLT). Radar observations indicate that high speed (>1,000 m s -1 ) westward ion flow penetrated deeply below 50 degree invariant latitude (Λ) and persisted for 6 hours between 2100 UT on February 8 and 0300 UT on February 9. The double-peaked ion convection feature was pronounced throughout the period, and the separation in the dual maxima ranged from 4 degree to 10 degree. The latitude positions of the high-latitude ion drift peak and the convection reversal varied in unison. The low-latitude ion drift peak (∼49 degree Λ or L =2.3) did not show significant universal time/magnetic local time (UT/MLT) variation in its latitude location but showed a decrease in magnitude during the initial recovery phase of the storm. Using simultaneous particle (30 eV-30 keV) precipitation data from the DMSP F6 and F7 satellites, the authors find the high-latitude ion drift peak to coincide with the boundary plasma sheet/central plasma sheet transition in the high ionospheric conductivity (>15 mho) region. The low-latitude ion drift peak lay between the equatorward edges of the electron and soft ( + dominated ring current energy density in magnetic latitude. The low-latitude ion drift peak is the low-altitude signature of the electric field shielding effect associated with ring current penetration into the outer layer of the storm time plasmasphere

  8. Mid-Latitude versus Polar-Latitude Transitional Impact Craters: Geometric Properties from Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) Observations and Viking Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matias, A.; Garvin, J. B.; Sakimoto, S. E. H.

    1998-01-01

    One intriguing aspect of martian impact crater morphology is the change of crater cavity and ejecta characteristics from the mid-latitudes to the polar regions. This is thought to reflect differences in target properties such as an increasing presence of ice in the polar regions. Previous image-based efforts concerning martian crater morphology has documented some aspects of this, but has been hampered by the lack of adequate topography data. Recent Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) topographic profiles provide a quantitative perspective for interpreting the detailed morphologies of martian crater cavities and ejecta morphology. This study is a preliminary effort to quantify the latitude-dependent differences in morphology with the goal of identifying target-dependent and crater modification effects from the combined of images and MOLA topography. We combine the available MOLA profiles and the corresponding Viking Mars Digital Image Mosaics (MDIMS), and high resolution Viking Orbiter images to focus on two transitional craters; one on the mid-latitudes, and one in the North Polar region. One MOLA pass (MGS Orbit 34) traverses the center of a 15.9 km diameter fresh complex crater located at 12.8degN 83.8degE on the Hesperian ridge plains unit (Hvr). Viking images, as well as MOLA data, show that this crater has well developed wall terraces and a central peak with 429 m of relative relief. Three MOLA passes have been acquired for a second impact crater, which is located at 69.5degN 41degE on the Vastitas Borealis Formation. This fresh rampart crater lacks terraces and central peak structures and it has a depth af 579 m. Correlation between images and MOLA topographic profiles allows us to construct basic facies maps of the craters. Eight main units were identified, four of which are common on both craters.

  9. Final report on SIM Regional Key Comparison SIM.L-K1.2007: Calibration of gauge blocks by optical interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colín, C.; Viliesid, M.; Chaudhary, K. P.; Decker, J.; Dvorácek, F.; Franca, R.; Ilieff, S.; Rodríguez, J.; Stoup, J.

    2012-01-01

    This Key Comparison of gauge blocks (GB) calibration by optical interferometry was carried out to support this Calibration and Measurement Capability (CMC) of the National Measurement Institutes (NMI) from the SIM Region for this specific service and for those that rely on this kind of technique as required by the Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA). It provides evidence of the participant's technical competence and supports the uncertainties they state in their CMC. It is a Regional Key Comparison and should be linked to the upper level corresponding comparison CCL-K1. The comparison had nine participants, five from the SIM Region—NRC-CNRC, Canada; NIST, USA; CENAM, Mexico; INMETRO, Brazil; and INTI, Argentina— and four from other regions—CMI, Czech Rep.; CEM, Spain; NPLI, India; and NMISA South Africa. It included the circulation of fourteen GB—seven steel GB and seven ceramic GB. The circulation of the artifacts started on 2007-11-01 and ended on 2010-04-25. Some additional time was required to publish the results as the same artifacts were used thereafter for comparison SIM.L-S6, Calibration of GB by mechanical comparison, and the results could not be disclosed until the participants of the second circulation loop had sent their results. The final report of this comparison was sent out for review in May 2012 and the final version was approved in August 2012. The behavior of the artifacts throughout the circulation was good and therefore the results obtained were judged technically valid. The reference value was taken as arithmetic mean of the largest subset of consistent results. Most of participates obtained results in good agreement with the reference values with a few exceptions mentioned in the report. The corresponding NMIs are responsible for identifying the causes and taking corrective action. This makes the present comparison exercise valid to support the CMC claims of the participants in GB calibration by optical interferometry. Main text. To

  10. Seasonal ionospheric scintillation analysis during increasing solar activity at mid-latitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Wasiu Akande; Wu, Falin; Agbaje, Ganiyu Ishola; Ednofri, Ednofri; Marlia, Dessi; Zhao, Yan

    2017-09-01

    Monitoring of ionospheric parameters (such as Total Electron Content and scintillation) is of great importance as it affects and contributes to the errors encountered by radio signals. It thus requires constant measurements to avoid disastrous situation for space agencies, parastatals and departments that employ GNSS applications in their daily operations. The research objective is to have a better understanding of the behaviour of ionospheric scintillation at midlatitude as it threatens the performances of satellite communication, navigation systems and military operations. This paper adopts seasonal ionospheric scintillation scenario. The mid-latitude investigation of ionospheric effect of scintillation was conducted during the increasing solar activity from 2011-2015. Ionospheric scintillation data were obtained from four ionospheric monitoring stations located at mid-latitude (i.e Shenzhen North Station, Beijing Changping North Station Branch, Beijing North Station and Beijing Miyun ground Station). The data was collected from January 2011 to December 2015. There were absence of data due to software problem or system failure at some locations. The scintillation phenomenon was computed using Global Ionospheric Scintillation and TEC Monitoring Model. There are four seasons which existed in China namely: Spring, Summer, Autumn and Winter. The relationship between TEC, amplitude and phase scintillation were observed for each of these seasons. The results indicated that the weak amplitude scintillation was observed as against phase scintillation which was high. Phase scintillation was gradually enhanced from 2011 to 2012 and later declined till 2014. TEC was also at peak around 00:00-10:00 UT (08:00-18:00 LT). The seasonal events temporal density characteristics comply with solar cycle prediction as such it ascended from 2011 to 2013 and then scintillation parameters declined significantly afterwards.

  11. Delayed storm-time increases in the whistler rate at mid-latitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, M.K.

    1975-01-01

    The occurrence of whistlers during 105 magnetic storms in the period 1963 to 1968 is studied. Evidence that more whistlers occur during the storm recovery period is presented. Assuming that the increased whistler rate implies the presence of more ducts, similarities are noted between the storm-time duct population and the incidence of mid-latitude spread-F in both time and space. It is suggested that a fresh examination of the physical processes involved in spread-F may aid understanding of the formation of whistler ducts. (author)

  12. Statistical analysis of midlatitude spread F using multi-station digisonde observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaneja, P.; Earle, G. D.; Bullett, T. W.

    2018-01-01

    A comprehensive statistical study of midlatitude spread F (MSF) is presented for five midlatitude stations in the North American sector. These stations include Ramey AFB, Puerto Rico (18.5°N, 67.1°W, -14° declination angle), Wallops Island, Virginia (37.95°N, 75.5°W, -11° declination angle), Dyess, Texas (32.4°N, 99.8°W, 6.9° declination angle), Boulder, Colorado (40°N, 105.3°W, 10° declination angle), and Vandenberg AFB, California (34.8°N, 120.5°W, 13° declination angle). Pattern recognition algorithms are used to determine the presence of both range and frequency spread F. Data from 1996 to 2011 are analyzed, covering all of Solar Cycle 23 and the beginning of Solar Cycle 24. Variations with respect to season and solar activity are presented, including the effects of the extended minimum between cycles 23 and 24.

  13. Mid-latitude summer response of the middle atmosphere to short-term solar UV changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Keckhut

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Temperature and wind data obtained with Rayleigh lidar since 1979 and Russian rockets since 1964 are analyzed to deduce the summer response of the middle atmosphere to short-term solar UV changes. The equivalent width of the 1083 nm He I line is used as a proxy to monitor the short-term UV flux changes. Spectral analyses are performed on 108-day windows to extract the 27-day component from temperature, wind and solar data sets. Linear regressions between these spectral harmonics show some significant correlations around 45 km at mid-latitudes. For large 27-day solar cycles, amplitudes of 2 K and 6 m s-1 are calculated for temperature data series over the south of France (44°N, and on wind data series over Volgograd (49°N, respectively. Cross-spectrum analyses have indicated correlations between these atmospheric parameters and the solar proxy with a phase lag of less than 2 days. These statistically correlative results, which provide good qualitative agreement with numerical simulations, are both obtained at mid-latitude. However, the observed amplitudes are larger than expected, with numerical models suggesting that dynamical processes such as equatorial or gravity waves may be responsible.

  14. Mid-latitude summer response of the middle atmosphere to short-term solar UV changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Keckhut

    Full Text Available Temperature and wind data obtained with Rayleigh lidar since 1979 and Russian rockets since 1964 are analyzed to deduce the summer response of the middle atmosphere to short-term solar UV changes. The equivalent width of the 1083 nm He I line is used as a proxy to monitor the short-term UV flux changes. Spectral analyses are performed on 108-day windows to extract the 27-day component from temperature, wind and solar data sets. Linear regressions between these spectral harmonics show some significant correlations around 45 km at mid-latitudes. For large 27-day solar cycles, amplitudes of 2 K and 6 m s-1 are calculated for temperature data series over the south of France (44°N, and on wind data series over Volgograd (49°N, respectively. Cross-spectrum analyses have indicated correlations between these atmospheric parameters and the solar proxy with a phase lag of less than 2 days. These statistically correlative results, which provide good qualitative agreement with numerical simulations, are both obtained at mid-latitude. However, the observed amplitudes are larger than expected, with numerical models suggesting that dynamical processes such as equatorial or gravity waves may be responsible.

  15. Prominent Midlatitude Circulation Signature in High Asia's Surface Climate During Monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mölg, Thomas; Maussion, Fabien; Collier, Emily; Chiang, John C. H.; Scherer, Dieter

    2017-12-01

    High Asia has experienced strong environmental changes in recent decades, as evident in records of glaciers, lakes, tree rings, and vegetation. The multiscale understanding of the climatic drivers, however, is still incomplete. In particular, few systematic assessments have evaluated to what degree, if at all, the midlatitude westerly circulation modifies local surface climates in the reach of the Indian Summer Monsoon. This paper shows that a southward shift of the upper-tropospheric westerlies contributes significantly to climate variability in the core monsoon season (July-September) by two prominent dipole patterns at the surface: cooling in the west of High Asia contrasts with warming in the east, while moist anomalies in the east and northwest occur with drying along the southwestern margins. Circulation anomalies help to understand the dipoles and coincide with shifts in both the westerly wave train and the South Asian High, which imprint on air mass advection and local energy budgets. The relation of the variabilities to a well-established index of midlatitude climate dynamics allows future research on climate proxies to include a fresh hypothesis for the interpretation of environmental changes.

  16. Final Technical Report Interannual Variations in the Rate of Carbon Storage by a Mid-Latitude Forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wofsy, Steven; Munger, J W

    2012-07-31

    The time series of Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) of carbon by an entire forest ecosystem on time scales from hourly to decadal was measured by eddy-covariance supplemented with plot-level measurements of biomass and tree demography. The results demonstrate the response of forest carbon fluxes and long-term budgets to climatic factors and to successional change. The data from this project have been extensively used worldwide by the carbon cycle science community in support of model development and validation of remote sensing observations.

  17. The regional ground-based wind energy scheme of Pays-de-la-Loire: project, Assessment of the consultation on the regional wind energy project, final version, Prefect decree bearing approval of the regional ground-based wind energy scheme of Pays-de-la-Loire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-08-01

    This document first presents the regional wind energy scheme (SRE) as a framework for ground-based wind energy development, and as the wind energy component of the regional climate air energy scheme (SRCAE), briefly presents the elaboration approach, and indicates the legal scope of this scheme. The next part outlines the high rate development of wind energy in the Pays-de-la-Loire region. The third part reports the identification, analysis and assessment of areas of interest for the development of wind energy. Finally, the objective of this development by 2020 is estimated

  18. Temporal patterns of vegetation phenology and their responses to climate change in mid-latitude grasslands of the Northern Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, S.; Chen, X.; Qin, Q.; Zhang, Y.; Wu, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Grassland ecosystem is greatly sensitive to regional and global climate changes. In this study, the start (SOS) and end (EOS) date of growing season were extracted from NDVI data (1981 2014) across the mid-latitude (30°N 55°N) grasslands of Northern Hemisphere. We first validated their accuracy by ground observed phenological data and phenological metrics derived from gross primary production (GPP) data. And then, main climatic factors influencing the temporal patterns of SOS/EOS were explored by means of gridded meteorological data and partial correlation analysis. Based on the results of above statistical analysis, the similarities and differences of spring and autumn phenological responses to climate change among North American grasslands, Mid-West Asian grasslands, and Mongolian grasslands were analyzed. The main results and conclusions are as follows. First, a significant positive correlation was found between SOS/EOS and observed green-up/brown-off date (PSOS/EOS (PSOS/EOS can reflect temporal dynamics of terrestrial vegetation phenology. Second, SOS in Mid-West Asian grasslands showed a significant advancing trend (0.22 days/year, PSOS in North American grasslands and Mongolian grasslands was not significant. EOS in North American grasslands (0.31 dyas/year, PSOS/EOS inter-annual fluctuations and hydrothermal factors showed that a significant negative correlation was found between SOS and the pre-season temperature in 41.6% of pixels (PSOS and pre-season rainfall/snowfall in 14.6%/19.0% of pixels (PSOS and EOS are mainly affected by pre-season temperature and pre-season rainfall.

  19. Effects of sporadic E-layer characteristics on spread-F generation in the nighttime midlatitude ionosphere: A climatological study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C. C.; Chen, W. S.

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the effects of Es-layer characteristics on spread-F generation in the nighttime midlatitude ionosphere. The Es-layer parameters and spread-F appearance of the 23rd solar cycle (1996-2008) are recorded by the Kokubunji ionosonde. The Es-layer parameters are foEs (critical frequency of Es-layer), fbEs (blanketing frequency of Es-layer), and Δf (≡foEs-fbEs). In order to completely explore the effects, the pre-midnight and post-midnight data are classified by seasons, solar activities, and geomagnetic conditions. Results show that the spread-F occurs more frequently in post-midnight and in summer. And, the occurrence probabilities of spread-F are greater, when the solar activity is lower. For the occurrence probabilities of spread-F versus foEs and Δf under geomagnetic quiet-conditions, the trend is increasing, when the associated probabilities are significant. These indicate that the spread-F occurrence increases with increasing foEs and/or Δf. Further, the increasing trends demonstrate that polarization electric fields generated in Es-layer would be helpful to generate spread-F, through the electrodynamical coupling of Es-layer and F-region. Moreover, this electrodynamical coupling is efficient not only under quiet-conditions but under disturbed-conditions, since the significant increasing trend can also be found under disturbed-conditions. Regarding the occurrence probabilities of spread-F versus fbEs, the evident trends are not in the majority. This implies that fbEs might not be a major factor for the spread-F formation.

  20. Plasma flux and gravity waves in the midlatitude ionosphere during the solar eclipse of 20 May 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Wu, Chen; Huang, Xueqin; Zhao, Zhengyu; Zhong, Dingkun; Qi, Hao; Huang, Liang; Qiao, Lei; Wang, Jin

    2015-04-01

    The solar eclipse effects on the ionosphere are very complex. Except for the ionization decay due to the decrease of the photochemical process, the couplings of matter and energy between the ionosphere and the regions above and below will introduce much more disturbances. Five ionosondes in the Northeast Asia were used to record the midlatitude ionospheric responses to the solar eclipse of 20 May 2012. The latitude dependence of the eclipse lag was studied first. The foF2 response to the eclipse became slower with increased latitude. The response of the ionosphere at the different latitudes with the same eclipse obscuration differed from each other greatly. The plasma flux from the protonsphere was possibly produced by the rapid temperature drop in the lunar shadow to make up the ionization loss. The greater downward plasma flux was generated at higher latitude with larger dip angle and delayed the ionospheric response later. The waves in the foEs and the plasma frequency at the fixed height in the F layer are studied by the time period analytic method. The gravity waves of 43-51 min center period during and after the solar eclipse were found over Jeju and I-Cheon. The northward group velocity component of the gravity waves was estimated as ~108.7 m/s. The vertical group velocities between 100 and 150 km height over the two stations were calculated as ~5 and ~4.3 m/s upward respectively, indicating that the eclipse-induced gravity waves propagated from below the ionosphere.

  1. Large scale spatially explicit modeling of blue and green water dynamics in a temperate mid-latitude basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Liuying; Rajib, Adnan; Merwade, Venkatesh

    2018-07-01

    Looking only at climate change impacts provides partial information about a changing hydrologic regime. Understanding the spatio-temporal nature of change in hydrologic processes, and the explicit contributions from both climate and land use drivers, holds more practical value for water resources management and policy intervention. This study presents a comprehensive assessment on the spatio-temporal trend of Blue Water (BW) and Green Water (GW) in a 490,000 km2 temperate mid-latitude basin (Ohio River Basin) over the past 80 years (1935-2014), and from thereon, quantifies the combined as well as relative contributions of climate and land use changes. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is adopted to simulate hydrologic fluxes. Mann-Kendall and Theil-Sen statistical tests are performed on the modeled outputs to detect respectively the trend and magnitude of changes at three different spatial scales - the entire basin, regional level, and sub-basin level. Despite the overall volumetric increase of both BW and GW in the entire basin, changes in their annual average values during the period of simulation reveal a distinctive spatial pattern. GW has increased significantly in the upper and lower parts of the basin, which can be related to the prominent land use change in those areas. BW has increased significantly only in the lower part, likely being associated with the notable precipitation change there. Furthermore, the simulation under a time-varying climate but constant land use scenario identifies climate change in the Ohio River Basin to be influential on BW, while the impact is relatively nominal on GW; whereas, land use change increases GW remarkably, but is counterproductive on BW. The approach to quantify combined/relative effects of climate and land use change as shown in this study can be replicated to understand BW-GW dynamics in similar large basins around the globe.

  2. Lightning NOx influence on large-scale NOy and O3 plumes observed over the northern mid-latitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Gressent

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the NOy plumes originating from lightning emissions based on 4 yr (2001–2005 of MOZAIC measurements in the upper troposphere of the northern mid-latitudes, together with ground- and space-based observations of lightning flashes and clouds. This analysis is primarily for the North Atlantic region where the MOZAIC flights are the most frequent and for which the measurements are well representative in space and time. The study investigates the influence of lightning NOx (LNOx emissions on large-scale (300–2000 km plumes (LSPs of NOy. One hundred and twenty seven LSPs (6% of the total MOZAIC NOy dataset have been attributed to LNOx emissions. Most of these LSPs were recorded over North America and the Atlantic mainly in spring and summer during the maximum lightning activity occurrence. The majority of the LSPs (74% is related to warm conveyor belts and extra-tropical cyclones originating from North America and entering the intercontinental transport pathway between North America and Europe, leading to a negative (positive west to east NOy (O3 zonal gradient with −0.4 (+18 ppbv difference during spring and −0.6 (+14 ppbv difference in summer. The NOy zonal gradient can correspond to the mixing of the plume with the background air. On the other hand, the O3 gradient is associated with both mixing of background air and with photochemical production during transport. Such transatlantic LSPs may have a potential impact on the European pollution. The remaining sampled LSPs are related to mesoscale convection over Western Europe and the Mediterranean Sea (18% and to tropical convection (8%.

  3. High- and mid-latitude quasi-2-day waves observed simultaneouslyby four meteor radars during summer 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Merzlyakov

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Results from the analysis of MLT wind measurements at Dixon (73.5°N, 80°E, Esrange (68°N, 21°E, Castle Eaton (UK (53°N, 2°W, and Obninsk (55°N, 37°E during summer 2000 are presented in this paper. Using S-transform or wavelet analysis, quasi-two-day waves (QTDWs are shown to appear simultaneously at high- and mid-latitudes and reveal themselves as several bursts of wave activity. At first this activity is preceded by a 51–53h wave with S=3 observed mainly at mid-latitudes. After a short recess (or quiet time interval for about 10 days near day 205, we observe a regular sequence of three bursts, the strongest of them corresponding to a QTDW with a period of 47–48h and S=4 at mid-altitudes. We hypothesize that these three bursts may be the result of constructive and destructive interference between several spectral components: a 47–48h component with S=4; a 60-h component with S=3; and a 80-h component with S=2. The magnitudes of the lower (higher zonal wave-number components increase (decrease with increasing latitude. The S-transform or wavelet analysis indicates when these spectral components create the wave activity bursts and gives a range of zonal wave numbers for observed bursts from about 4 to about 2 for mid- and high-latitudes. The main spectral component at Dixon and Esrange latitudes is the 60-h oscillation with S=3. The zonal wave numbers and frequencies of the observed spectral components hint at the possible occurrence of the nonlinear interaction between the primary QTDWs and other planetary waves. Using a simple 3-D nonlinear numerical model, we attempt to simulate some of the observed features and to explain them as a consequence of the nonlinear interaction between the primary 47–48h and the 9–10day waves, and the resulting linear superposition of primary and secondary waves. In addition to the QTDW bursts, we also infer forcing of the 4-day wave with S=2 and the 6–7day wave with S=1, possibly arising from

  4. Balanced and Unbalanced Circulations in a Primitive Equation Simulation of a Midlatitude MCC. Part I: The Numerical Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Peter Q.; Cotton, William R.

    1997-02-01

    A midlatitude mesoscale convective complex (MCC), which occurred over the central United States on 23-24 June 1985, was simulated using the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS). The multiply nested-grid simulation agreed reasonably well with surface, upper-air, and satellite observations and ground-based radar plots. The simulated MCC had a typical structure consisting of a leading line of vigorous convection and a trailing region of less intense stratiform rainfall. Several other characteristic MCC circulations were also simulated: a divergent cold pool in the lower troposphere, midlevel convergence coupled with a relatively cool descending rear-inflow jet, and relatively warm updraft structure, and a cold divergent anticyclone in the tropopause region. Early in the MCC simulation, a mesoscale convectively induced vortex (MCV) formed on the eastern edge of the convective line. While frequently associated with MCCs and other mesoscale convective systems (MCSs), MCVs are more typically reported in the mature and decaying stages of the life cycle. Several hours later, a second MCV formed near the opposite end of the convective line, and by the mature phase of the MCC, these MCVs were embedded within a more complex system-wide vortical flow in the lower troposphere.Analysis of the first MCV during its incipient phase indicates that the vortex initially formed near the surface by convergence/stretching of the large low-level ambient vertical vorticity in this region. Vertical advection appeared largely responsible for the upward extension of this MCV to about 3.5 km above the surface, with tilting of horizontal vorticity playing a secondary role. This mechanism of MCV formation is in contrast to recent idealized high-resolution squall line simulations, where MCVs were found to result from the tilting into the vertical of storm-induced horizontal vorticity formed near the top of the cold pool.Another interesting aspect of the simulation was the development of a

  5. Studies of midlatitude mesospheric temperature variability and its relationship to gravity waves, tides, and planetary waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beissner, Kenneth C.

    1997-10-01

    Temperature observations of the middle atmosphere have been carried out from September 1993 through July 1995 using a Rayleigh backscatter lidar located at Utah State University (42oN, 111oW). Data have been analyzed to obtain absolute temperature profiles from 40 to 90 km. Various sources of error were reviewed in order to ensure the quality of the measurements. This included conducting a detailed examination of the data reduction procedure, integration methods, and averaging techniques, eliminating errors of 1-3%. The temperature structure climatology has been compared with several other mid-latitude data sets, including those from the French lidars, the SME spacecraft, the sodium lidars at Ft. Collins and Urbana, the MSISe90 model, and a high- latitude composite set from Andenes, Norway. In general, good agreement occurs at mid-latitudes, but areas of disagreement do exist. Among these, the Utah temperatures are significantly warmer than the MSISe90 temperatures above approximately 80 km, they are lower below 80 km than any of the others in summer, they show major year- to-year variability in the winter profiles, and they differ from the sodium lidar data at the altitudes where the temperature profiles should overlap. Also, comparisons between observations and a physics based global circulation model, the TIME-GCM, were conducted for a mid-latitude site. A photo-chemical model was developed to predict airglow intensity of OH based on output from the TIME-GCM. Many discrepancies between the model and observations were found, including a modeled summer mesopause too high, a stronger summer inversion not normally observed by lidar, a fall-spring asymmetry in the OH winds and lidar temperatures but not reproduced in the TIME-GCM equinoctial periods, larger winter seasonal wind tide than observed by the FPI, and a failure of the model to reverse the summertime mesospheric jet. It is our conclusion these discrepancies are due to a gravity wave parameterization in the

  6. Signal Region Optimisation Studies Based on BDT and Multi-Bin Approaches in the Context of Supersymmetry Searches in Hadronic Final States with the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2097636; Makovec, Nikola; Rúriková, Zuzana

    The searches for supersymmetric phenomena are mostly based on simple Cut & Count methods. One example is the search for squarks and gluinos in final states with multiple jets, missing transverse momentum and without leptons. This analysis, based on $36.1\\,\\text{fb}^{−1}$ of $pp$ collision data at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 13 TeV recorded with the ATLAS detector, uses Cut & Count based methods in the signal regions. In order to improve the analysis sensitivity, the use of sophisticated techniques, such as boosted decision trees (BDT) and Multi-Bin, is being investigated in this thesis. The focus of the study lies on squarks and gluino searches. These techniques are evaluated using Monte Carlo simulation. The goal is to find a new approach which is on the one hand simple but allows for a significant improvement. A gain up to approximately 200 GeV in the neutralino mass and an enhancement of about 200 GeV in the squark and gluino mass is achieved with these new techniques.

  7. Development of a regional concept for energy management for the region of Karlsruhe. Final report; Entwicklung eines regionalen Energiemanagement-Konzeptes und Anwendung auf die TechnologieRegion Karlsruhe. Endbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rentz, O.; Fichtner, W.; Frank, M. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). Inst. fuer Industriebetriebslehre und Industrielle Produktion; Wolf, M.A.; Rejman, M.; Eyerer, P. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Chemische Technologie (ICT) (Germany); Reimert, R.; Schulz, A.; Buren, V. v. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). Engler-Bunte-Institut Bereich 1 - Gas, Erdoel und Kohle; Schaefers, B.; Bernart, Y. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (DE). Institut fuer Soziologie (IfSoz) (Germany)

    2002-09-01

    Major objectives of this project are: to prepare a cross-disciplinary analysis of all characteristic aspects of the energy supply and demand patterns of a group of selected energy-intensive companies in the Karlsruhe and Rhine harbour area (5 industrial power consumers, 1 utility), to identify practical approaches for optimization and integration of energy and material flows, (networking), and to develop optimised investment and energy supply options within the framework of given conditions. The basis of the optimal solution and energy network presented and explained in detail is a new combined-cycle power plant running as a gas-fired CHP plant, substituting about 50% of the systems formerly used. (orig./CB) [German] Fragestellungen der Effizienzsteigerung und der Verwertung von Abfaellen und Abwaerme gewinnen an Relevanz vor dem Hintergrund der begrenzten Aufnahmekapazitaet der Umweltmedien fuer Schadstoffe. Im Rahmen des Projektes wurde am Beispiel der Region Karlsruhe (5 Industrieunternehmen und 1 EVU) die Entwicklung betriebsuebergreifender Energieversorgungssysteme (Netzwerke) interdisziplinaer analysiert und beschrieben. Zielsetzungen des Projekts waren unter anderem: Bestimmung von zukunftsfaehigen Optionen, intelligente Vernetzung von Energiestroemen, wirtschaftliche Optimierung betriebsuebergreifender Energiemanagement-Loesungen. Die optimale vorgestellte Loesung ist charakterisiert durch den Neubau einer zentralen, gasgefeuerten GuD-Anlage, die etwa die Haelfte der bisherigen Anlagen ersetzt und zusammen mit den weiterhin genutzten Anlagen die Energieversorgung der Unternehmen sicherstellt. (orig./CB)

  8. A comparison of the relative locations of the mid-latitude electron density trough and the scintillation boundary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tulunay, Y.K.; Demir, O.; Tauriainen, A.

    1976-01-01

    The mid-latitude electron density trough position and the scintillation boundary have been compared for magnetically quiet periods by using the data returned by Ariel 3 and Explorer 22 satellites. The scintillation boundary is found southward of the trough during daytime, but at night the positions are reversed. (author)

  9. Characterization of Nightside Mid-latitude Irregularities Observed with the Blackstone SuperDARN Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruohoniemi, J. M.; Ribeiro, A. J.; Baker, J. B.; Greenwald, R. A.; Newell, P. T.

    2009-12-01

    The new mid-latitude SuperDARN radars at Wallops Island and Blackstone observe strong coherent backscattering on an almost nightly basis from latitudes that appear to be subauroral. One study has demonstrated an excellent correlation with the occurrence of density and temperature gradients within the ionospheric projection of the plasmapause (Greenwald et al., Geophys. Res. Lett. [2006]). We have processed all the data collected with the Blackstone radar since its inception in February 2008 for a characterization of the occurrence and properties of ‘plasmapause’ scatter. We have determined the local time and Kp dependencies of the activity and the relation of the spatial distribution of the irregularities to magnetospheric boundaries and ionospheric density gradients. We establish that the irregularities are a feature of the quiet-time subauroral ionosphere and provide a valuable diagnostic of the electric fields in the inner magnetosphere.

  10. Wind structure during mid-latitude storms and its application in Wind Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsén, Xiaoli Guo; Du, Jianting; Bolanos, Rodolfo

    2015-01-01

    in Denmark. The extreme wind and wave conditions in the coastal area for wind energy application are important but have rarely been studied in the literature. Our experiments are done to the Danish coasts where the mid-latitude depression systems are causes of the extreme wind and wave conditions....... The numerical modeling is done through an atmosphere-wave coupled system, where the atmospheric model is the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and the wave model is the Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN) model. Measurements from offshore stations, Horns Rev and the FINO platform, as well as satellite...... and the modeling will be presented. Here the “key” is referring both to the application of wind energy and the wind-wave coupling system. The various parameterization of the interface parameter for the atmospheric and wave modeling, the roughness length, has been examined. Data analysis reveals the importance...

  11. Seasat microwave wind and rain observations in severe tropical and midlatitude marine storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, P. G.; Hawkins, J. D.; Gentry, R. C.; Cardone, V. J.

    1985-01-01

    Initial results of studies concerning Seasat measurements in and around tropical and severe midlatitude cyclones over the open ocean are presented, together with an assessment of their accuracy and usefulness. Complementary measurements of surface wind speed and direction, rainfall rate, and the sea surface temperature obtained with the Seasat-A Satellite Scatterometer (SASS), the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR), and the Seasat SAR are analyzed. The Seasat data for the Hurrricanes Fico, Ella, and Greta and the QE II storm are compared with data obtained from aircraft, buoys, and ships. It is shown that the SASS-derived wind speeds are accurate to within 10 percent, and the directions are accurate to within 20 percent. In general, the SASS estimates tend to measure light winds too high and intense winds too low. The errors of the SMMR-derived measurements of the winds in hurricanes tend to be higher than those of the SASS-derived measurements.

  12. Diurnal and Seasonal Variations in Mid-Latitude Geomagnetic Field During International Quiet Days: BOH Magnetometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junga Hwang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute researchers have installed and operated magnetometers at Bohyunsan Observatory to measure the Earth's magnetic field variations in South Korea. In 2007, we installed a fluxgate magnetometer (RFP-523C to measure H, D, and Z components of the geomagnetic field. In addition, in 2009, we installed a Overhauser proton sensor to measure the absolute total magnetic field F and a three-axis magneto-impedance sensor for spectrum analysis. Currently three types of magnetometer data have been accumulated. In this paper, we use the H, D, Z components of fluxgate magnetometer data to investigate the characteristics of mid-latitude geomagnetic field variation. To remove the temporary changes in Earth’s geomagnetic filed by space weather, we use the international quiet days’ data only. In other words, we performed a superposed epoch analysis using five days per each month during 2008-2011. We find that daily variations of H, D, and Z shows similar tendency compared to previous results using all days. That is, H, D, Z all three components’ quiet intervals terminate near the sunrise and shows maximum 2-3 hours after the culmination and the quiet interval start from near the sunset. Seasonal variations show similar dependences to the Sun. As it becomes hot season, the geomagnetic field variation’s amplitude becomes large and the quiet interval becomes shortened. It is well-known that these variations are effects of Sq current system in the Earth’s atmosphere. We confirm that the typical mid-latitude geomagnetic field variations due to the Sq current system by excluding all possible association with the space weather.

  13. Mid-latitude continental temperatures through the early Eocene in western Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, Gordon N.; Collinson, Margaret E.; Riegel, Walter; Wilde, Volker; Farnsworth, Alexander; Lunt, Daniel J.; Valdes, Paul; Robson, Brittany E.; Scott, Andrew C.; Lenz, Olaf K.; Naafs, B. David A.; Pancost, Richard D.

    2017-02-01

    Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) are increasingly used to reconstruct mean annual air temperature (MAAT) during the early Paleogene. However, the application of this proxy in coal deposits is limited and brGDGTs have only been detected in immature coals (i.e. lignites). Using samples recovered from Schöningen, Germany (∼48°N palaeolatitude), we provide the first detailed study into the occurrence and distribution of brGDGTs through a sequence of early Eocene lignites and associated interbeds. BrGDGTs are abundant and present in every sample. In comparison to modern studies, changes in vegetation type do not appear to significantly impact brGDGT distributions; however, there are subtle differences between lignites - representing peat-forming environments - and siliciclastic nearshore marine interbed depositional environments. Using the most recent brGDGT temperature calibration (MATmr) developed for soils, we generate the first continental temperature record from central-western continental Europe through the early Eocene. Lignite-derived MAAT estimates range from 23 to 26 °C while those derived from the nearshore marine interbeds exceed 20 °C. These estimates are consistent with other mid-latitude environments and model simulations, indicating enhanced mid-latitude, early Eocene warmth. In the basal part of the section studied, warming is recorded in both the lignites (∼2 °C) and nearshore marine interbeds (∼2-3 °C). This culminates in a long-term temperature maximum, likely including the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO). Although this long-term warming trend is relatively well established in the marine realm, it has rarely been shown in terrestrial settings. Using a suite of model simulations we show that the magnitude of warming at Schöningen is broadly consistent with a doubling of CO2, in agreement with late Paleocene and early Eocene pCO2 estimates.

  14. Modelling the development of mixing height in near equatorial region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samah, A.A. [Univ. of Malaya, Air Pollution Research Unit, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    1997-10-01

    Most current air pollution models were developed for mid-latitude conditions and as such many of the empirical parameters used were based on observations taken in the mid-latitude boundary layer which is physically different from that of the equatorial boundary layer. In the equatorial boundary layer the Coriolis parameter f is small or zero and moisture plays a more important role in the control of stability and the surface energy balance. Therefore air pollution models such as the OMLMULTI or the ADMS which were basically developed for mid-latitude conditions must be applied with some caution and would need some adaptation to properly simulate the properties of equatorial boundary layer. This work elucidates some of the problems of modelling the evolution of mixing height in the equatorial region. The mixing height estimates were compared with routine observations taken during a severe air pollution episodes in Malaysia. (au)

  15. Assessing and evaluating urban VOC emissions in mid-latitude megacities from intensive observations in Paris and Los Angeles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borbon, A.; Gilman, J. B.; Kuster, W. C.; McKeen, S. A.; Holloway, J. S.; Gros, V.; Gaimoz, C.; Beekmann, M.; De Gouw, J. A.

    2011-12-01

    Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) affect urban air quality and regional climate change by contributing to ozone formation and the build-up of Secondary Organic Aerosols (SOA). Quantification of VOC emissions is a first critical step to predict VOC environmental impacts and to design effective abatement strategies. Indeed, the quality of ozone and SOA forecasts strongly depends on an accurate knowledge of the primary VOC emissions. However, commonly used bottom-up approaches are highly uncertain due to source multiplicity (combustion processes, storage and distribution of fossil fuels, solvent use, etc.) because of numerous controlling factors (driving conditions, fuel type, temperature, radiation, etc.), and their great variability in time and space. Field observations of VOC and other trace gases can provide valuable top-down constraints to evaluate VOC emission inventories at urban scales. In addition, the implementation of emission reduction measures raises the question of the increasing importance of VOC sources other than traffic. Here, we will evaluate VOC emissions of two mid-latitude megacities in the Northern Hemisphere: the Greater Paris area (Europe) and Los Angeles (USA). In 2009 and 2010, three intensive field campaigns took place in Paris and Los Angeles in the framework of the MEGAPOLI (EU FP7) and CalNex-2010 projects, respectively. Very detailed measurements of aerosol composition and properties, and their gaseous VOC precursors were carried out at ground-based sites (urban center and suburban) and on various mobile platforms. This contribution uses a comprehensive suite of VOC measurements collected by GC-MS/FID techniques at ground-based sites in both cities by a source-receptor methodology. First, emission ratios were estimated from the observations (uncertainty of ± 20%) and compared regarding regional characteristics and European vs. Californian control policies. Then, determined emission ratios were used to assess the accuracy of up

  16. The effects of the final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel on regional and municipal economy assessment of socio economical impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laakso, S.; Kuisma, H.; Kilpelaeinen, P.; Kostiainen, E.

    2007-12-01

    The aim of this study is to give an up-to-date assessment of the effects the construction of the final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel in Eurajoki, based on latest knowledge. The disposal facility's effects on employment, population, housing construction, community structure and economy are estimated in the municipality of Eurajoki and in the wider region under the influence of the facility. The time-span of the report reaches from 2001 to the early 2020's when the facility will be in operation. The investment in research and construction of the disposal facility during the years 2004-2020 will be all together approximately 290 million euros. The estimation for the overall effect on national employment during the years 2001-2020 is circa 6 800 manyears, of which 4 200 man-years are from direct effects and 2 600 from indirect effects. The direct employment effects of the project will be at its highest approximately 325 man-year per year in 2020. The direct effect on employment during the operational period is estimated to be circa 130 man-years per year, of which the share of regular employees of Posiva is slightly over 100 man-years. At its highest, about 45 man-years per year of the total effect on employment (direct + indirect effects) will be directed to Eurajoki municipality. During the operational phase the share of Eurajoki is estimated to be circa 30 man-years per year. For the whole region, the effect of the disposal facility on employment will be significant, at its height in 2020, approximately 220 man-years per year. The disposal facility will also have an effect on the size and the structure of the population due to changes in employment and jobs. The estimation for the cumulative effect on the growth of the population caused by the facility is 80 more inhabitants in Eurajoki by 2020, which corresponds to 1,4 % of the municipality's current population. The growth of the population brought about by the facility in the whole region is estimated

  17. Atmospheric circulation changes and neoglacial conditions in the Southern Hemisphere mid-latitudes: insights from PMIP2 simulations at 6 kyr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Maisa; Moreno, Patricio I.

    2011-07-01

    Glacial geologic studies in the Southern Hemisphere (SH) mid-latitudes (40-54°S) indicate renewed glacial activity in southern South America (Patagonia) and New Zealand's (NZ) South Island starting at ˜7 kyr, the so-called neoglaciation. Available data indicate that neoglacial advances in these regions occurred during a rising trend in atmospheric CO2 and CH4 concentrations, lower-than-present but increasing summer insolation and seasonality contrasts. In this paper we examine the climatological context in which neoglaciations occurred through analysis of the complete Paleoclimate Modelling Inter-comparison Project (PMIP2) database of simulations at 6 kyr for the SH. We observe that the amplitude of the annual insolation cycle in the SH did not change significantly at 6 kyr compared to the pre-industrial values, the largest difference occurring in autumn (MAM, negative anomalies) and spring (SON, positive anomalies). The simulated changes in temperatures over the SH respond to the insolation changes, with a 1-2 month delay over the oceans. This results in a reduced amplitude of the annual cycle of temperature and precipitation over most continental regions, except over Patagonia and NZ, that show a slight increase. In contrast, large-scale circulation features, such as the low and upper level winds and the subtropical anticyclones show an amplified annual cycle, as a direct response to the increased/decreased insolation during the transitional seasons SON/MAM. In the annual mean, there is a small but consistent equatorward shift of the latitude of maximum wind speed of 1-3° over the entire SH, which results in a small increase of wind speed over the South Pacific and Atlantic Oceans north of ˜50°S and a widespread decline south of 50°S. PMIP2 simulations for 6 kyr, indicate that in the annual mean, the SH mid-latitudes were colder, wetter and with stronger winds north of about 50°S. These conditions are consistent with the observed neoglacial advances in the

  18. Atmospheric circulation changes and neoglacial conditions in the Southern Hemisphere mid-latitudes: insights from PMIP2 simulations at 6 kyr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas, Maisa [University of Chile, Department of Geophysics, Santiago (Chile); Moreno, Patricio I. [University of Chile, Department of Ecology, Santiago (Chile)

    2011-07-15

    Glacial geologic studies in the Southern Hemisphere (SH) mid-latitudes (40-54 S) indicate renewed glacial activity in southern South America (Patagonia) and New Zealand's (NZ) South Island starting at {proportional_to}7 kyr, the so-called neoglaciation. Available data indicate that neoglacial advances in these regions occurred during a rising trend in atmospheric CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} concentrations, lower-than-present but increasing summer insolation and seasonality contrasts. In this paper we examine the climatological context in which neoglaciations occurred through analysis of the complete Paleoclimate Modelling Inter-comparison Project (PMIP2) database of simulations at 6 kyr for the SH. We observe that the amplitude of the annual insolation cycle in the SH did not change significantly at 6 kyr compared to the pre-industrial values, the largest difference occurring in autumn (MAM, negative anomalies) and spring (SON, positive anomalies). The simulated changes in temperatures over the SH respond to the insolation changes, with a 1-2 month delay over the oceans. This results in a reduced amplitude of the annual cycle of temperature and precipitation over most continental regions, except over Patagonia and NZ, that show a slight increase. In contrast, large-scale circulation features, such as the low and upper level winds and the subtropical anticyclones show an amplified annual cycle, as a direct response to the increased/decreased insolation during the transitional seasons SON/MAM. In the annual mean, there is a small but consistent equatorward shift of the latitude of maximum wind speed of 1-3 over the entire SH, which results in a small increase of wind speed over the South Pacific and Atlantic Oceans north of {proportional_to}50 S and a widespread decline south of 50 S. PMIP2 simulations for 6 kyr, indicate that in the annual mean, the SH mid-latitudes were colder, wetter and with stronger winds north of about 50 S. These conditions are consistent

  19. Depositional environments and cyclo- and chronostratigraphy of uppermost Carboniferous-Lower Triassic -lacustrine deposits, southern Bogda Mountains, NW China - A terrestrfluvialial paleoclimatic record of mid-latitude NE Pangea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, W.; Feng, Q.; Liu, Yajing; Tabor, N.; Miggins, D.; Crowley, J.L.; Lin, J.; Thomas, S.

    2010-01-01

    semiarid–subhumid conditions from Sakamarian to Artinskian–Kungurian (?) and from middle Induan to end of Olenekian are in conflict with modern mid-latitude east coast meso- and macrothermal humid climate. Extreme continentality, regional orographic effect, and/or abnormal circulation of Paleo-Tethys maybe are possible causes. Our work serves as a rare data point at mid-latitude NE Pangea for climate modeling to seek explanations on the origin(s) of climate variability in NE Pangea from latest Carboniferous to Early Triassic.

  20. Does the bipolar seesaw extend to the terrestrial southern mid-latitudes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newnham, Rewi M.; Vandergoes, Marcus J.; Sikes, Elisabeth; Carter, Lionel; Wilmshurst, Janet M.; Lowe, David J.; McGlone, Matt S.; Sandiford, Anna

    2012-03-01

    High precision comparison of Greenland and Antarctic ice cores, suggesting a pervasive antiphased temperature relationship between the polar hemispheres during the last glaciation, lends strong support to the bipolar seesaw model (EPICA, 2006). The extent to which reorganisation of ocean-heat transport during abrupt climate change events affected the southern mid-latitudes remains unclear, however, owing to a paucity of well-dated records with robust climate proxies, variability between some records, and varying interpretations of their significance. Here we present temperature reconstructions for three key pollen records recognised by the NZ-INTIMATE (NZ-I) group which, along with the preliminary NZ-I climate event stratigraphy (Alloway et al., 2007) and published marine records, are compared with polar ice core records for the interval 30-10 cal. ka. We focus on key events within the context of Dansgard Oeschger cycles 4-1 and The Antarctic Cold Reversal/Younger Dryas intervals. The New Zealand records are broadly consistent with an extended bipolar seesaw whereby the oceanic southern mid-latitudes are warmed at times of MOC weakening or cessation in the North Atlantic, and vice versa. Variability between records indicate that other factors must be involved, however, and nor do these records refute alternative models that predict an antiphased inter-hemispheric pattern. Nevertheless an extended bipolar model may explain an early onset of LGM conditions in New Zealand and elsewhere in the Southern Hemisphere at a time when interstadials GI3 and GI4 kept Greenland warm. Similar inter-hemispheric dynamics have been invoked to explain an earlier termination of the LGM in Antarctica than in Greenland (Wolff et al., 2009) which is also evident in the New Zealand records. A prominent mid-LGM interstadial complex observed in several New Zealand records, connected by tephrochronology may represent another antiphased event although stronger chronological control is needed

  1. Towards a Theory of Tropical/Midlatitude Mass Exchange from the Earth's Surface through the Stratosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Dana

    1998-01-01

    associated solely with vortex PV anomalies are derived and their impact on the stratospheric subtropical circulation is evaluated. Combined PV inversion and Contour Advection (CA) calculations indicate that transient large scale disturbances of the polar vortex do have a far reaching impact that extends beyond the midlatitude surf zone all the way to the subtropics. This vortex influence is clearly non-local so that even simple wave 2 distortions that leave the vortex well confined within the midlatitudes are observed to excite subtropical waves. Treating subtropical PV as active tracers also showed that upon entrainment, these large scale tongues of low PV air also influenced the dynamics of their own poleward migration.

  2. Sea Surface Warming and Increased Aridity at Mid-latitudes during Eocene Thermal Maximum 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, D. T.; Zeebe, R. E.; Hoenisch, B.; Schrader, C.; Lourens, L. J.; Zachos, J. C.

    2017-12-01

    Early Eocene hyperthermals, i.e. abrupt global warming events characterized by the release of isotopically light carbon to the atmosphere, can provide insight into the sensitivity of the Earth's climate system and hydrologic cycle to carbon emissions. Indeed, the largest Eocene hyperthermal, the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), has provided one case study of extreme and abrupt global warming, with a mass of carbon release roughly equivalent to total modern fossil fuel reserves and a release rate 1/10 that of modern. Global sea surface temperatures (SST) increased by 5-8°C during the PETM and extensive evidence from marine and terrestrial records indicates significant shifts in the hydrologic cycle consistent with an increase in poleward moisture transport in response to surface warming. The second largest Eocene hyperthermal, Eocene Thermal Maximum 2 (ETM-2) provides an additional calibration point for determining the sensitivity of climate and the hydrologic cycle to massive carbon release. Marine carbon isotope excursions (CIE) and warming at the ETM-2 were roughly half as large as at the PETM, but reliable evidence for shifts in temperature and the hydrologic cycle are sparse for the ETM-2. Here, we utilize coupled planktic foraminiferal δ18O and Mg/Ca to determine ΔSST and ΔSSS (changes in sea surface temperature and salinity) for ETM-2 at ODP Sites 1209 (28°N paleolatitude in the Pacific) and 1265 (42°S paleolatitude in the S. Atlantic), accounting for potential pH influence on the two proxies by using LOSCAR climate-carbon cycle simulated ΔpH. Our results indicate a warming of 2-4°C at both mid-latitude sites and an increase in SSS of 1-3ppt, consistent with simulations of early Paleogene hydroclimate that suggest an increase in low- to mid-latitude aridity due to an intensification of moisture transport to high-latitudes. Furthermore, the magnitude of the CIE and warming for ETM-2 scales with the CIE and warming for the PETM, suggesting that

  3. Airborne measurements of aerosol optical properties related to early spring transport of mid-latitude sources into the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. de Villiers

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Airborne lidar and in-situ measurements of the aerosol properties were conducted between Svalbard Island and Scandinavia in April 2008. Evidence of aerosol transport from Europe and Asia is given. The analysis of the aerosol optical properties based on a multiwavelength lidar (355, 532, 1064 nm including volume depolarization at 355 nm aims at distinguishing the role of the different aerosol sources (Siberian wild fires, Eastern Asia and European anthropogenic emissions. Combining, first aircraft measurements, second FLEXPART simulations with a calculation of the PBL air fraction originating from the three different mid-latitude source regions, and third level-2 CALIPSO data products (i.e. backscatter coefficient 532 nm,volume depolarization and color ratio between 1064 and 532 nm in aerosol layers along the transport pathways, appears a valuable approach to identify the role of the different aerosol sources even after a transport time larger than 4 days. Optical depth of the aerosol layers are always rather small (<4% while transported over the Arctic and ratio of the total attenuated backscatter (i.e. including molecular contribution provide more stable result than conventional aerosol backscatter ratio. Above Asia, CALIPSO data indicate more depolarization (up to 15% and largest color ratio (>0.5 for the northeastern Asia emissions (i.e. an expected mixture of Asian pollution and dust, while low depolarization together with smaller and quasi constant color ratio (≈0.3 are observed for the Siberian biomass burning emissions. A similar difference is visible between two layers observed by the aircraft above Scandinavia. The analysis of the time evolution of the aerosol optical properties revealed by CALIPSO between Asia and Scandinavia shows a gradual decrease of the aerosol backscatter, depolarization ratio and color ratio which suggests the removal of the largest particles in the accumulation mode. A similar study conducted for a European

  4. Surface ozone seasonality under global change: Influence from dry deposition and isoprene emissions at northern mid-latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton, O.; Paulot, F.; Fiore, A. M.; Horowitz, L. W.; Malyshev, S.; Shevliakova, E.; Correa, G. J. P.; Lin, M.

    2017-12-01

    Identifying the contributions of nonlinear chemistry and transport to observed surface ozone seasonal cycles over land using global models relies on an accurate representation of ozone uptake by vegetation (dry deposition). It is well established that in the absence of ozone precursor emission changes, a warming climate will increase surface ozone in polluted regions, and that a rise in temperature-dependent isoprene emissions would exacerbate this "climate penalty". However, the influence of changes in ozone dry deposition, expected to evolve with climate and land use, is often overlooked in air quality projections. With a new scheme that represents dry deposition within the NOAA GFDL dynamic vegetation land model (LM3) coupled to the NOAA GFDL atmospheric chemistry-climate model (AM3), we simulate the impact of 21st century climate and land use on ozone dry deposition and isoprene emissions. This dry deposition parameterization is a version of the Wesely scheme, but uses parameters explicitly calculated by LM3 that respond to climate and land use (e.g., stomatal conductance, canopy interception of water, leaf area index). The parameterization includes a nonstomatal deposition dependence on humidity. We evaluate climatological present-day seasonal cycles of ozone deposition velocities and abundances with those observed at northern mid-latitude sites. With a set of 2010s and 2090s decadal simulations under a high climate warming scenario (RCP8.5) and a sensitivity simulation with well-mixed greenhouse gases following RCP8.5 but air pollutants held at 2010 levels (RCP8.5_WMGG), we examine changes in surface ozone seasonal cycles. We build on our previous findings, which indicate that strong reductions in anthropogenic NOx emissions under RCP8.5 cause the surface ozone seasonal cycle over the NE USA to reverse, shifting from a summer peak at present to a winter peak by 2100. Under RCP8.5_WMGG, we parse the separate effects of climate and land use on ozone dry

  5. The health status of adolescents living at mid-latitude or in the European North in relation to anthropogenic pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Kuznetsova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of health groups among 14-year-old adolescents (n = 707 living since birth under the conditions of mid-latitudes (the towns of Kirov and Yaransk and in the European North (the town of Ukhta and the settlement of Sedyu was compared to determine the impact of anthropogenic pollution at different latitudes on this indicator. It was shown that the conditions of the European North in the absence of anthropogenic pollution failed to affect the number of 14-year-old boys and girls having health groups I, II, III, IV, and V. Anthropogenic pollution was found to decline the number of health group I adolescents living in the European North, without influencing this indicator in those dwelling at mid-latitudes, but, in spite of the latitude of their residence, to increase that of persons with health group II, without having an impact on the number of persons with health groups III, IV, and V.

  6. Tropospheric ozone column retrieval at northern mid-latitudes from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument by means of a neural network algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sellitto

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring tropospheric ozone from space is of critical importance in order to gain more thorough knowledge on phenomena affecting air quality and the greenhouse effect. Deriving information on tropospheric ozone from UV/VIS nadir satellite spectrometers is difficult owing to the weak sensitivity of the measured radiance spectra to variations of ozone in the troposphere. Here we propose an alternative method of analysis to retrieve tropospheric ozone columns from Ozone Monitoring Instrument radiances by means of a neural network algorithm. An extended set of ozone sonde measurements at northern mid-latitudes for the years 2004–2008 has been considered as the training and test data set. The design of the algorithm is extensively discussed. Our retrievals are compared to both tropospheric ozone residuals and optimal estimation retrievals over a similar independent test data set. Results show that our algorithm has comparable accuracy with respect to both correlative methods and its performance is slightly better over a subset containing only European ozone sonde stations. Possible sources of errors are analyzed. Finally, the capabilities of our algorithm to derive information on boundary layer ozone are studied and the results critically discussed.

  7. Thermodynamic phase profiles of optically thin midlatitude cloud and their relation to temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naud, C. M.; Del Genio, Anthony D.; Haeffelin, M.; Morille, Y.; Noel, V.; Dupont, Jean-Charles; Turner, David D.; Lo, Chaomei; Comstock, Jennifer M.

    2010-06-03

    Winter cloud phase and temperature profiles derived from ground-based lidar depolarization and radiosonde measurements are analyzed for two midlatitude locations: the United States Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Southern Great Plains (SGP) site and the Site Instrumental de Recherche par Télédétection Atmosphérique (SIRTA) in France. Because lidars are attenuated in optically thick clouds, the dataset only includes optically thin clouds (optical thickness < 3). At SGP, 57% of the clouds observed with the lidar in the temperature range 233-273 K are either completely liquid or completely glaciated, while at SIRTA only 42% of the observed clouds are single phase, based on a depolarization ratio threshold of 11% for differentiating liquid from ice. Most optically thin mixed phase clouds show an ice layer at cloud top, and clouds with liquid at cloud top are less frequent. The relationship between ice phase occurrence and temperature only slightly changes between cloud base and top. At both sites liquid is more prevalent at colder temperatures than has been found previously in aircraft flights through frontal clouds of greater optical thicknesses. Liquid in clouds persists to colder temperatures at SGP than SIRTA. This information on the average temperatures of mixed phase clouds at both locations complements earlier passive satellite remote sensing measurements that sample cloud phase near cloud top and for a wider range of cloud optical thicknesses.

  8. Impacts of Early Summer Eurasian Snow Cover Change on Atmospheric Circulation in Northern Mid-Latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozawa, T.

    2016-12-01

    Recently, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) has developed a new long-term snow cover extent (SCE) product using Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data spanning from 1980's to date. This new product (JAXA/SCE) has higher spatial resolution and smaller commission error compared with traditional SCE dataset of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA/SCE). Continuity of the algorithm is another strong point in JAXA/SCE. According to the new JAXA/SCE dataset, the Eurasian SCE has been significantly retreating since 1980's, especially in late spring and early summer. Here, we investigate impacts of early summer Eurasian snow cover change on atmospheric circulation in Northern mid-latitudes, especially over the East Asia, using the new JAXA/SCE dataset and a few reanalysis data. We will present analyzed results on relationships between early summer SCE anomaly over the Eurasia and changes in atmospheric circulations such as upper level zonal jets (changes in strength, positions, etc.) over the East Asia.

  9. Equatorial Precession Drove Mid-Latitude Changes in ENSO-Scale Variation in the Earliest Miocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, B.; D'Andrea, W. J.; Lee, D. E.; Wilson, G. S.

    2014-12-01

    Foulden Maar is an annually laminated lacustrine diatomite deposit from the South Island of New Zealand. The deposit was laid down over ~100 kyr of the latest Oligocene and earliest Miocene, during the peak and deglaciation phase of the Mi-1 Antarctic glaciation event. At this time, New Zealand was located at approximately the same latitude as today (~45°S). Evidence from organic geochemical proxies (δD, δ13C) and physical properties (density, colour) indicates the presence of an 11-kyr cycle at the site. Although it is known that 11-kyr insolation (half-precession) cycles occur between the Tropics, this cycle is rarely seen in sedimentary archives deposited outside the immediate vicinity of the Equator. Records from Foulden Maar correlate well with the amplitude and phase of the modelled equatorial half-precession cycle for the earliest Miocene. High-resolution (50 µm) colour intensity measurements and lamina thickness measurements both indicate the presence of significant ENSO-like (2-8 year) variation in the Foulden Maar sediments. Early results from targeted lamina thickness measurements suggest that ENSO-band variation is modulated by the 11-kyr cycle, with power in the ENSO band increasing during periods of increased insolation at the Equator. This implies that equatorial half-precession had a significant effect on ENSO-like variation in the early Miocene, and that this effect was felt as far afield as the mid-latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere.

  10. MANGO Imager Network Observations of Geomagnetic Storm Impact on Midlatitude 630 nm Airglow Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, E. A.; Bhatt, A.

    2017-12-01

    The Midlatitude Allsky-imaging Network for GeoSpace Observations (MANGO) is a network of imagers filtered at 630 nm spread across the continental United States. MANGO is used to image large-scale airglow and aurora features and observes the generation, propagation, and dissipation of medium and large-scale wave activity in the subauroral, mid and low-latitude thermosphere. This network consists of seven all-sky imagers providing continuous coverage over the United States and extending south into Mexico. This network sees high levels of medium and large scale wave activity due to both neutral and geomagnetic storm forcing. The geomagnetic storm observations largely fall into two categories: Stable Auroral Red (SAR) arcs and Large-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (LSTIDs). In addition, less-often observed effects include anomalous airglow brightening, bright swirls, and frozen-in traveling structures. We will present an analysis of multiple events observed over four years of MANGO network operation. We will provide both statistics on the cumulative observations and a case study of the "Memorial Day Storm" on May 27, 2017.

  11. Development and field evaluation of animal feed supplementation packages. Proceedings of the final review meeting of an IAEA Technical Co-operation Regional AFRA Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-06-01

    Inadequate nutrition is one of the major constraints limiting livestock production in African countries. The ruminants in the smallholder sector depend on natural pasture and fibrous crop residues for their survival, growth, reproduction and production. Since quality and quantity of the natural pasture vary with season, animals dependent on it are subjected to nutritional stress in the dry season when feed resources are senesced and in short supply leading to decreased animal productivity. The main objective of the IAEA Technical Co-operation Regional AFRA Project 11-17 (RAF/5/041) was the improvement of ruminant livestock production in AFRA Member States. It had two main components: (a) the development and dissemination of cost-effective and sustainable feed supplementation packages which are based on locally available feed resources; and (b) establishment of the 'Self-coating Radioimmunoassay' technique for measuring progesterone in the milk and blood of ruminants. The project has developed a number of feed supplementation packages using feed resources available on-farm and by-products from agro-industrial processes. The packages involve the use of multi-nutrient blocks containing molasses and urea or poultry litter, ensilage of fibrous crop residues with poultry litter, leguminous fodder, mineral blocks etc. These packages have been evaluated on-station and on-farm to assess their potential to enhance productivity of ruminants. The cost-benefit ratio for feeding supplementation packages has been established. As a result of their use, income of the farmers has been shown to increase substantially. Needless to say, the scientists, agricultural extension officers, policy makers and the governments must work hand-in-hand to capitalize on this and ensure wider application and extension of the packages, and develop strategies for sustaining them. Radioimmunoassay for progesterone has been used in this project mainly for the assessment of ovarian activity in order to

  12. Model-Independent Analysis of the Neutron-Proton Final-State Interaction Region in the $\\pi\\pi \\to pn\\pi^+$ Reaction

    CERN Document Server

    Uzikov, Yu N

    2001-01-01

    Experimental data on the \\pi\\pi\\to pn\\pi^+ reaction measured in an exclusive two-arm experiment at 800 MeV show a narrow peak arising from the strong proton-neutron final-state interaction. It was claimed, within the framework of a certain model, that this peak contained up to a 25 % spin-singlet final-state contribution. By comparing the data with those of \\pi\\pi\\to d\\pi^+ in a largely model-independent way, it is here demonstrated that at all the angles measured the whole of the peak could be explained as being due to spin-triplet final states, with the spin-singlet being at most a few percent. Good qualitative agreement with the measured proton analysing power is also found within this approach.

  13. Diagnosis of the Tropical Moisture Exports to the Mid-Latitudes and the Role of Atmospheric Steering in the Extreme Precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengqian Lu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Three river basins, i.e., the Yangtze river, the Mississippi river and the Loire river, were presented as case studies to explore the association among atmospheric circulations, moisture exports and extreme precipitations in the mid-latitudes. The major moisture source regions in the tropics for the three river basins are first identified using the Tropical Moisture Exports (TMEs dataset. The space-time characteristics of their respective moisture sources are presented. Then, the trajectory curve clustering analysis is applied to the TMEs tracks originating from the identified source regions during each basin’s peak TMEs activity and flood seasons. Our results show that the moisture tracks for each basin can be categorized into 3 or 4 clusters with distinct spatial trajectory features. Our further analysis on these clustered trajectories reveals that the contributions of moisture release from different clusters are associated with their trajectory features and travel speeds. In order to understand the role of associated atmospheric steering, daily composites of the geopotential heights anomalies and the vertical integral of moisture flux anomalies from 7 days ahead to the extreme precipitation days (top 5% are examined. The evolutions of the atmospheric circulation patterns and the moisture fluxes are both consistent with the TMEs tracks that contribute more moisture releases to the study regions. The findings imply that atmospheric steering plays an important role in the moisture transport and release, especially for the extreme precipitations. We also find that the association between TMEs moisture release and precipitation is nonlinear. The extreme precipitation is associated with high TMEs moisture release for all of the three study regions.

  14. Tidal variations of O2 Atmospheric and OH(6-2 airglow and temperature at mid-latitudes from SATI observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. López-González

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Airglow observations with a Spectral Airglow Temperature Imager (SATI, installed at the Sierra Nevada Observatory (37.06° N, 3.38° W at 2900-m height, have been used to investigate the presence of tidal variations at mid-latitudes in the mesosphere/lower thermosphere region. Diurnal variations of the column emission rate and vertically averaged temperature of the O2 Atmospheric (0-1 band and of the OH Meinel (6-2 band from 5 years (1998-2003 of observations have been analysed. From these observations a clear tidal variation of both emission rates and rotational temperatures is inferred. It is found that the amplitude of the daily variation for both emission rates and temperatures is greater from late autumn to spring than during summer. The amplitude decreases by more than a factor of two during summer and early autumn with respect to the amplitude in the winter-spring months. Although the tidal modulations are preferentially semidiurnal in both rotational temperatures and emission rates during the whole year, during early spring the tidal modulations seem to be more consistent with a diurnal modulation in both rotational temperatures and emission rates. Moreover, the OH emission rate from late autumn to early winter has a pattern suggesting both diurnal and semidiurnal tidal modulations.

  15. Characteristics of mid-latitude planetary waves in the lower atmosphere derived from radiosonde data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Wang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The activities of mid-latitude planetary waves (PWs in the troposphere and lower stratosphere (TLS are presented by using the radiosonde data from 2000 to 2004 over four American stations (Miramar Nas, 32.9° N, 117.2° W; Santa Teresa, 31.9° N, 106.7° W; Fort Worth, 32.8° N, 97.3° W; and Birmingham, 33.1° N, 86.7° W and one Chinese station (Wuhan, 30.5° N, 114.4° E. Statistically, strong PWs mainly appear around subtropical jet stream in the troposphere and lower stratosphere. In the troposphere, the activities of the mid-latitude PWs are strong around the centre of the subtropical jet stream in winter and become small near the tropopause, which indicates that the subtropical jet stream may strengthen the propagation of PWs or even be one of the PW excitation sources. Among the three disturbance components of temperature, zonal and meridional winds, PWs at Wuhan are stronger in the temperature component, but weaker in the zonal wind component than at the other four American stations. While in the meridional wind component, the strengths of PW spectral amplitudes at the four American stations decrease from west to east, and their amplitudes are all larger than that of Wuhan. However, the PWs are much weaker in the stratosphere and only the lower frequency parts remain. The amplitudes of the PWs in the stratosphere increase with height and are strong in winter with the zonal wind component being the strongest. Using the refractive index, we found that whether the PWs could propagate upward to the stratosphere depends on the thickness of the tropopause reflection layer. In the case study of the 2000/2001 winter, it is observed that the quasi 16-day wave in the troposphere is a quasi standing wave in the vertical direction and propagates upward slowly with vertical wavelength greater than 24 km in the meridional component. It propagates eastward with the zonal numbers between 5 and 8, and the quasi 16-day wave at Wuhan is probably the same

  16. Collocated ionosonde and dense GPS/GLONASS network measurements of midlatitude MSTIDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherstyukov, R. O.; Akchurin, A. D.; Sherstyukov, O. N.

    2018-04-01

    To analyze midlatitude medium-scale travelling ionospheric disturbances (MSTIDs) over Kazan (55.5°N, 49°E), Russia, the sufficiently dense network of GNSS receivers (more than 150 ground-based stations) were used. For the first time, daytime MSTIDs in the form of their main signature (band structure) on high-resolution two-dimensional maps of the total electron content perturbation (TEC maps) are compared with ionosonde data with a high temporal resolution. For a pair of events, a relationship between southwestward TEC perturbations and evolution of F2 layer traces was established. So F2 peak frequency varied in antiphase to TEC perturbations. The ionograms show that during the movement of plasma depletion band (overhead ionosonde) the F2 peak frequency is the highest, and vice versa, for the plasma enhancement band, the F2 peak frequency is the lowest. One possible explanation may be a greater inclination of the radio beam from the vertical during the placement of a plasma enhancement band above the ionosonde, as evidenced by the absence of multiple reflections and the increased occurrence rate of additional cusp trace. Another possible explanation may be the redistribution of the electron content in the topside ionosphere with a small decrease in the F peak concentration of the layer with a small increase in TEC along the line-of-sight. Analysis of F2 peak frequency variation shows that observed peak-to-peak values of TEC perturbation equal to 0.4 and 1 TECU correspond to the values of ΔN/N equal to 13% and 28%. The need for further research is evident.

  17. Characteristics and direct radiative effect of mid-latitude continental aerosols: the ARM case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Iziomon

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A multi-year field measurement analysis of the characteristics and direct radiative effect of aerosols at the Southern Great Plains (SGP central facility of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM Program is presented. Inter-annual mean and standard deviation of submicrometer scattering fraction (at 550 nm and Ångström exponent å (450 nm, 700 nm at the mid-latitude continental site are indicative of the scattering dominance of fine mode aerosol particles, being 0.84±0.03 and 2.25±0.09, respectively. We attribute the diurnal variation of submicron aerosol concentration to coagulation, photochemistry and the evolution of the boundary layer. Precipitation does not seem to play a role in the observed afternoon maximum in aerosol concentration. Submicron aerosol mass at the site peaks in the summer (12.1±6.7mg m-3, with the summer value being twice that in the winter. Of the chemically analyzed ionic components (which exclude carbonaceous aerosols, SO4= and NH4+ constitute the dominant species at the SGP seasonally, contributing 23-30% and 9-12% of the submicron aerosol mass, respectively. Although a minor species, there is a notable rise in NO3- mass fraction in winter. We contrast the optical properties of dust and smoke haze. The single scattering albedo w0 shows the most remarkable distinction between the two aerosol constituents. We also present aircraft measurements of vertical profiles of aerosol optical properties at the site. Annually, the lowest 1.2 km contributes 70% to the column total light scattering coefficient. Column-averaged and surface annual mean values of hemispheric backscatter fraction (at 550 nm, w0 (at 550 nm and å (450 nm, 700 nm agree to within 5% in 2001. Aerosols produce a net cooling (most pronounced in the spring at the ARM site

  18. Aerosol midlatitude cyclone indirect effects in observations and high-resolution simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. T. McCoy

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol–cloud interactions are a major source of uncertainty in inferring the climate sensitivity from the observational record of temperature. The adjustment of clouds to aerosol is a poorly constrained aspect of these aerosol–cloud interactions. Here, we examine the response of midlatitude cyclone cloud properties to a change in cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC. Idealized experiments in high-resolution, convection-permitting global aquaplanet simulations with constant CDNC are compared to 13 years of remote-sensing observations. Observations and idealized aquaplanet simulations agree that increased warm conveyor belt (WCB moisture flux into cyclones is consistent with higher cyclone liquid water path (CLWP. When CDNC is increased a larger LWP is needed to give the same rain rate. The LWP adjusts to allow the rain rate to be equal to the moisture flux into the cyclone along the WCB. This results in an increased CLWP for higher CDNC at a fixed WCB moisture flux in both observations and simulations. If observed cyclones in the top and bottom tercile of CDNC are contrasted it is found that they have not only higher CLWP but also cloud cover and albedo. The difference in cyclone albedo between the cyclones in the top and bottom third of CDNC is observed by CERES to be between 0.018 and 0.032, which is consistent with a 4.6–8.3 Wm−2 in-cyclone enhancement in upwelling shortwave when scaled by annual-mean insolation. Based on a regression model to observed cyclone properties, roughly 60 % of the observed variability in CLWP can be explained by CDNC and WCB moisture flux.

  19. Evaluation of cloud resolving model simulations of midlatitude cirrus with ARM and A-Train observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehlbauer, A. D.; Ackerman, T. P.; Lawson, P.; Xie, S.; Zhang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    This paper evaluates cloud resolving model (CRM) and cloud system-resolving model (CSRM) simulations of a midlatitude cirrus case with comprehensive observations collected under the auspices of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program and with spaceborne observations from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) A-train satellites. Vertical profiles of temperature, relative humidity and wind speeds are reasonably well simulated by the CSRM and CRM but there are remaining biases in the temperature, wind speeds and relative humidity, which can be mitigated through nudging the model simulations toward the observed radiosonde profiles. Simulated vertical velocities are underestimated in all simulations except in the CRM simulations with grid spacings of 500m or finer, which suggests that turbulent vertical air motions in cirrus clouds need to be parameterized in GCMs and in CSRM simulations with horizontal grid spacings on the order of 1km. The simulated ice water content and ice number concentrations agree with the observations in the CSRM but are underestimated in the CRM simulations. The underestimation of ice number concentrations is consistent with the overestimation of radar reflectivity in the CRM simulations and suggests that the model produces too many large ice particles especially toward cloud base. Simulated cloud profiles are rather insensitive to perturbations in the initial conditions or the dimensionality of the model domain but the treatment of the forcing data has a considerable effect on the outcome of the model simulations. Despite considerable progress in observations and microphysical parameterizations, simulating the microphysical, macrophysical and radiative properties of cirrus remains challenging. Comparing model simulations with observations from multiple instruments and observational platforms is important for revealing model deficiencies and for providing rigorous benchmarks. However, there still is considerable

  20. Changes of benthic fauna in the Kattegat - An indication of climate change at mid-latitudes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göransson, Peter

    2017-07-01

    Several predictions point to changes in the marine benthic macrofauna associated with climate change, but so far only a few and minor changes have been reported. This study relates observed changes in the species composition to climate change by looking on the past decades in the Kattegat between Denmark and Sweden. A reduction of the total number species and a reduction of species with a northern range parallel to an increase of species with a southern range have been observed. The most likely explanation of the changes is the increase in temperature of the bottom water. Increased temperature could change the species distributions but also decrease primary production which impacts recruitment and growth. Hypoxia and bottom trawling could also act synergistic in this process. A sparse occurrence of previously encountered Arctic-Boreal species and critical foundation species, which gives the area its special character, suggests a change in biodiversity and might therefore be designated as early warning signals of a warmer climate. The northern fauna below the halocline with limited capacity of dispersal and low reproduction potential, can be considered as sensitive with low adaptive capacity to climate change. Therefore, not only tropical and high-latitude species, but also benthos on deep bottoms at mid-latitudes, could be vulnerable to warming. As many species live at the edge of their range in the Kattegat, and also are dependent of distant recruitment, large scale changes will probably be detected here at an early stage. It is important to protect relatively undisturbed reference areas in the Kattegat for future studies, but also for preserving a large number of ecosystem services, biotopes, habitats, and fish species.

  1. Observational Analysis of Cloud and Precipitation in Midlatitude Cyclones: Northern Versus Southern Hemisphere Warm Fronts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naud, Catherine M.; Posselt, Derek J.; van den Heever, Susan C.

    2012-01-01

    Extratropical cyclones are responsible for most of the precipitation and wind damage in the midlatitudes during the cold season, but there are still uncertainties on how they will change in a warming climate. An ubiquitous problem amongst General Circulation Models (GCMs) is a lack of cloudiness over the southern oceans that may be in part caused by a lack of clouds in cyclones. We analyze CloudSat, CALIPSO and AMSR-E observations for 3 austral and boreal cold seasons and composite cloud frequency of occurrence and precipitation at the warm fronts for northern and southern hemisphere oceanic cyclones. We find that cloud frequency of occurrence and precipitation rate are similar in the early stage of the cyclone life cycle in both northern and southern hemispheres. As cyclones evolve and reach their mature stage, cloudiness and precipitation at the warm front increase in the northern hemisphere but decrease in the southern hemisphere. This is partly caused by lower amounts of precipitable water being available to southern hemisphere cyclones, and smaller increases in wind speed as the cyclones evolve. Southern hemisphere cloud occurrence at the warm front is found to be more sensitive to the amount of moisture in the warm sector than to wind speeds. This suggests that cloudiness in southern hemisphere storms may be more susceptible to changes in atmospheric water vapor content, and thus to changes in surface temperature than their northern hemisphere counterparts. These differences between northern and southern hemisphere cyclones are statistically robust, indicating A-Train-based analyses as useful tools for evaluation of GCMs in the next IPCC report.

  2. Recent increased warming of the Alaskan marine Arctic due to midlatitude linkages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overland, James E.; Wang, Muyin; Ballinger, Thomas J.

    2018-01-01

    Alaskan Arctic waters have participated in hemispheric-wide Arctic warming over the last two decades at over two times the rate of global warming. During 2008-13, this relative warming occurred only north of the Bering Strait and the atmospheric Arctic front that forms a north-south thermal barrier. This front separates the southeastern Bering Sea temperatures from Arctic air masses. Model projections show that future temperatures in the Chukchi and Beaufort seas continue to warm at a rate greater than the global rate, reaching a change of +4°C by 2040 relative to the 1981-2010 mean. Offshore at 74°N, climate models project the open water duration season to increase from a current average of three months to five months by 2040. These rates are occasionally enhanced by midlatitude connections. Beginning in August 2014, additional Arctic warming was initiated due to increased SST anomalies in the North Pacific and associated shifts to southerly winds over Alaska, especially in winter 2015-16. While global warming and equatorial teleconnections are implicated in North Pacific SSTs, the ending of the 2014-16 North Pacific warm event demonstrates the importance of internal, chaotic atmospheric natural variability on weather conditions in any given year. Impacts from global warming on Alaskan Arctic temperature increases and sea-ice and snow loss, with occasional North Pacific support, are projected to continue to propagate through the marine ecosystem in the foreseeable future. The ecological and societal consequences of such changes show a radical departure from the current Arctic environment.

  3. Validation of Martilli's urban boundary layer scheme with measurements from two mid-latitude European cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdi, R.; Schayes, G.

    2007-08-01

    Martilli's urban parameterization scheme is improved and implemented in a mesoscale model in order to take into account the typical effects of a real city on the air temperature near the ground and on the surface exchange fluxes. The mesoscale model is run on a single column using atmospheric data and radiation recorded above roof level as forcing. Here, the authors validate Martilli's urban boundary layer scheme using measurements from two mid-latitude European cities: Basel, Switzerland and Marseilles, France. For Basel, the model performance is evaluated with observations of canyon temperature, surface radiation, and energy balance fluxes obtained during the Basel urban boundary layer experiment (BUBBLE). The results show that the urban parameterization scheme represents correctly most of the behavior of the fluxes typical of the city center of Basel, including the large heat uptake by the urban fabric and the positive sensible heat flux at night. For Marseilles, the model performance is evaluated with observations of surface temperature, canyon temperature, surface radiation, and energy balance fluxes collected during the field experiments to constrain models of atmospheric pollution and transport of emissions (ESCOMPTE) and its urban boundary layer (UBL) campaign. At both urban sites, vegetation cover is less than 20%, therefore, particular attention was directed to the ability of Martilli's urban boundary layer scheme to reproduce the observations for the Marseilles city center, where the urban parameters and the synoptic forcing are totally different from Basel. Evaluation of the model with wall, road, and roof surface temperatures gave good results. The model correctly simulates the net radiation, canyon temperature, and the partitioning between the turbulent and storage heat fluxes.

  4. An assessment of the Jenkinson and Collison synoptic classification to a continental mid-latitude location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spellman, Greg

    2017-05-01

    A weather-type catalogue based on the Jenkinson and Collison method was developed for an area in south-west Russia for the period 1961-2010. Gridded sea level pressure data was obtained from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) reanalysis. The resulting catalogue was analysed for frequency of individual types and groups of weather types to characterise long-term atmospheric circulation in this region. Overall, the most frequent type is anticyclonic (A) (23.3 %) followed by cyclonic (C) (11.9 %); however, there are some key seasonal patterns with westerly circulation being significantly more common in winter than summer. The utility of this synoptic classification is evaluated by modelling daily rainfall amounts. A low level of error is found using a simple model based on the prevailing weather type. Finally, characteristics of the circulation classification are compared to those for the original JC British Isles catalogue and a much more equal distribution of flow types is seen in the former classification.

  5. Report of the First Meeting of the Governing Board, SEAMEO Regional Centre for Education in Science and Mathematics (Penang, Malaysia, October 8-12, 1970). Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southeast Asian Ministers of Education Organization (Singapore). Regional Center for Education in Science and Mathematics.

    This report details the proceedings of the first meeting of the Governing Board of the SEAMEO Regional Centre for Education in Science and Mathematics held in Penang, Malaysia from October 8-12, 1970. Procedural matters detailed in the report include: (1) the election of officers; (2) the acceptance of the annual report of the events and…

  6. Weld region corrosion during chemical cleaning of PWR [pressurized-water reactor] steam generators: Volume 2, Tests and analyses: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barna, J.L.; Bozeka, S.A.; Jevec, J.M.

    1987-07-01

    The potential for preferential corrosion of steam generator weld regions during chemical cleaning using the generic SGOG solvents was investigated. The investigations included development and use of a corrosion assessment test facility which measured corrosion currents in a realistic model of the steam generator geometry in the vicinity of a specific weld during a simulated chemical dissolution of sludge consisting of essentially pure magnetite. A corrosion monitoring technique was developed and qualified. In this technique free corrosion rates measured by linear polarization techniques are added to corrosion rates calculated from galvanic current measured using a zero resistance ammeter to give an estimate of total corrosion rate for a galvanically corroding material. An analytic modeling technique was developed and proved useful in determining the size requirements for the weld region mockup used in the corrosion assessment test facility. The technique predicted galvanic corrosion rates consistent with that observed in a corrosion assessement test when polarization data used as model input were obtained on-line during the test. The test results obtained during this investigation indicated that chemical cleaning using the SGOG magnetite dissolution solvent can be performed with a small amount of corrosion of secondary side internals and pressure boundary welds. The maximum weld region corrosion measured during a typical chemical cleaning cycle to remove essentially pure magnetite sludge was about 8 mils. However, additional site specific weld region corrosion assessment testing and qualification will be required prior to chemical cleaning steam generators at a specific plant. Recommendations for site specific qualification of chemical cleaning processes and for use of process monitors and on-line corrosion instrumentation are included in this report

  7. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA region 2): Glen Ridge Radium site, Essex County, NJ. (Second remedial action), June 1990. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The 90-acre Glen Ridge Radium site is a residential community in the Borough of Glen Ridge, Essex County, New Jersey. The site is adjacent to another Superfund site, the Montclair/West Orange site. The Glen Ridge site includes a community of 274 properties serviced by surface reservoirs in northern New Jersey. In the early 1900s, a radium processing or utilization facility was located in the vicinity of the site. EPA investigations in 1981 and 1983 confirmed the presence of gamma radiation contamination in the Glen Ridge area and in several adjacent houses. The ROD complements the previous 1989 ROD for this site and provides a final remedy. The primary contaminant of concern affecting the soil is radium 226

  8. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 4): Maxey Flats Nuclear Disposal site, Fleming County, KY. (First remedial action), September 1991. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The 280-acre Maxey Flats Nuclear Disposal site is an inactive low-level radioactive waste disposal facility in Fleming County, Kentucky. The estimated 663 people who reside within 2.5 miles of the site use the public water supply for drinking purposes. From 1962 to 1977, Nuclear Engineering Company, Inc. (NECO), operated a solid by-product, source, and special nuclear material disposal facility under a license with the State. Several State investigations in the 1970's revealed that leachate contaminated with tritium and other radioactive substances was migrating from the disposal trenches to unrestricted areas. The Record of Decision (ROD) addresses final remediation of soil, debris, and associated leachate. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the soil and debris are VOCs including benzene, TCE, and toluene; metals including arsenic and lead; and radioactive materials. The selected remedial action for the site is included

  9. Mid-latitude Ozone Depletion Events Caused by Halogens from the Great Salt Lake in Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fibiger, D. L.; Goldberger, L.; Womack, C.; McDuffie, E. E.; Dube, W. P.; Franchin, A.; Middlebrook, A. M.; Thornton, J. A.; Brown, S. S.

    2017-12-01

    Halogens are highly reactive chemicals and play an important role in atmospheric chemistry. They can be involved in many cycles which influence the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere, including through destruction of ozone (O3). While the influence of halogens on O3 is well documented in the arctic, there are very few observations of O3 depletion driven by halogens in the mid-latitudes. To date, the most comprehensive study observed co-occurring plumes of BrO and depleted O3 near the Dead Sea in 1997. During the Utah Wintertime Fine Particulate Study (UWFPS) in winter 2017, simultaneous measurements of a comprehensive suite of halogen measurements by I- chemical ionization mass spectrometry and O3 from cavity ring-down spectroscopy, both at 1-second time resolution, were taken on a NOAA Twin Otter Aircraft over the Great Salt Lake and in the surrounding valleys. Many O3 depletion events were observed over the lake with O3 values sometimes below the instrument detection limit of 0.5 ppbv. Corresponding increases in BrO and/or ClO were observed. Many of these events were caused by extremely high levels of halogens (up to 1 ppmv Cl2) emitted from the U.S. Magnesium plant on the edge of the lake. The O3 depletion caused by U.S. Magnesium was usually isolated to a distinct vertical layer, but in other cases O3 depletion was vertically mixed and the origin of halogen activation was not immediately clear. The most complete O3 depletion was observed over the lake, but there were smaller events of a few ppbv observed in the adjacent valleys, including the highly populated Salt Lake Valley, with corresponding plumes of BrO and ClO, due to transport from the lake. Additionally, meteorology played a role in the observed O3 depletion. The strongest O3 depletion was observed during inversion events, when there is a low boundary layer and little mixing out of the air above the lake. During non-inversion conditions, only small depletions were observed, covering a much smaller

  10. Experimental observations of the spatial structure of wave-like disturbances generated in midlatitude ionosphere by high power radio waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunitsyn, V.; Andreeva, E.; Padokhin, A. M.; Nazarenko, M.; Frolov, V.; Komrakov, G.; Bolotin, I.

    2012-12-01

    We present the results of the experiments carried out in 2009-2012 on the Sura heating facility (Radio Physical Research Institute, N. Novgorod, Russia) on modification of the midlatitude ionosphere by powerful HF radiowaves. The experiments were conducted using O-mode radiowaves at frequencies lower than critical frequency of the ionospheric F2 layer both in daytime and nighttime ionosphere. Various schemes of the radiation of the heating wave were used including square wave modulation of the effective radiated power (ERP) at various frequencies and power stepping. Radio transmissions of the low- (Parus/Tsikada) and high-orbital (GPS/GLONASS) navigational satellites received at the mobile network of receiving sites were used for the remote sensing of the heated area of the ionosphere. The variations in the slant total electron content (TEC), which are proportional to the reduced phase of navigational signals, were studied for the satellite passes for which ionospheric penetration points crossed the disturbed area during HF heating. The variations in TEC caused by HF heating are identified in a number of examples. It is shown that the GNSS TEC spectra contain frequency components corresponding to the modulation periods of the ERP of the heating wave. The manifestations of the heating-induced variations in TEC are most prominent in the area of magnetic zenith of the pumping wave. Different behavior of TEC variations was observed during nighttime and daytime heating experiments. In daytime conditions the pump wave switched ON causes the increase of TEC while in the nighttime it causes a decrease in TEC. This can be explained by the different contribution of the processes responsible for the increase and decrease of TEC in daytime in nighttime conditions. In this work we also present the first time radiotomographic reconstructions of the spatial structure of the wave-like disturbances, generated in the ionosphere by high-power radio waves radiated by the Sura heater

  11. Climate impacts and adaptation in Germany. Phase 1. Regional climate scenarios for Germany. Final report; Klimaauswirkungen und Anpassung in Deutschland. Phase 1. Erstellung regionaler Klimaszenarien fuer Deutschland. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, Daniela; Goettel, Holger; Kotlarski, Sven; Lorenz, Philip; Sieck, Kevin [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie (MPI-M), Hamburg (Germany)

    2008-08-15

    The regional climate scenarios were evaluated using the climate model REMO. The model calculations were actualized and compared with observed data. The validation of the modeling results was performed using data sets concerning the temporal behavior, the precipitation amounts in several altitudes and the analysis of the probability density function of the air temperature. The results of different climate scenarios are discussed for the mean monthly values of precipitation and temperature. The model allows the prediction of the temporal development and number of summer days and extremely hot days. The change of further indices due to the climatic change caused by increasing greenhouse gas emissions is discussed.

  12. Cowichan Valley energy mapping and modelling. Report 4 - Analysis of opportunity costs and issues related to regional energy resilience. Final report. [Vancouver Island, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-06-15

    The driving force behind the Integrated Energy Mapping and Analysis project was the identification and analysis of a suite of pathways that the Cowichan Valley Regional District (CVRD) can utilise to increase its energy resilience, as well as reduce energy consumption and GHG emissions, with a primary focus on the residential sector. Mapping and analysis undertaken will support provincial energy and GHG reduction targets, and the suite of pathways outlined will address a CVRD internal target that calls for 75% of the region's energy within the residential sector to come from locally sourced renewables by 2050. The target has been developed as a mechanism to meet resilience and climate action target. The maps and findings produced are to be integrated as part of a regional policy framework currently under development. Based on the outputs from the first three tasks, a suite of coherent pathways towards the overall target of 75% residential local energy consumption was created, and the costs and benefits for the region were calculated. This was undertaken via a scenario analysis which also highlighted the risks and robustness of the different options within the pathways. In addition to a direct economic comparison between the different pathways, more qualitative issues were described, including potential local employment, environmental benefits and disadvantages, etc. The main tool utilised in this analysis was a tailor made Excel energy model that includes mechanisms for analysing improvements in the CVRD energy system down to an area level, for example renewable energy in residential buildings, renewable energy generation, and the effects of energy efficiency improvements. For the industrial, commercial, and transport sectors, simple and generic forecasts and input possibilities were included in the model. The Excel 'technology cost' and 'energy' models are accompanied with a user manual so that planners within the CVRD can become well

  13. Regional Operations Research Program for Commercialization of Geothermal Energy in the Rocky Mountain Basin and Range. Final Technical Report, January 1980--March 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-07-01

    This report describes the work accomplished from January 1980 to March 1981 in the Regional Operations Research efforts for the Rocky Mountain Basin and Range Geothermal Commercialization Program. The scope of work is as described in New Mexico State University Proposal 80-20-207. The work included continued data acquisition and extension of the data base, enhancement and refinement of the economic models for electric and direct use applications, site-specific and aggregated analyses in support of the state teams, special analyses in support of several federal agencies, and marketing assistance to the state commercialization teams.

  14. Control of water infiltration into near surface low-level waste disposal units. Final report on field experiments at a humid region site, Beltsville, Maryland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, R.K.; Ridky, R.W.; O'Donnell, E.

    1997-09-01

    This study''s objective was to assess means for controlling water infiltration through waste disposal unit covers in humid regions. Experimental work was carried out in large-scale lysimeters 21.34 m x 13.72 m x 3.05 m (70 ft x 45 ft x 10 ft) at Beltsville, Maryland. Results of the assessment are applicable to disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW), uranium mill tailings, hazardous waste, and sanitary landfills. Three kinds of waste disposal unit covers or barriers to water infiltration were investigated: (1) resistive layer barrier, (2) conductive layer barrier, and (3) bioengineering management

  15. Behavior of bowhead whales of the Davis Strait and Bering/Beaufort stocks versus regional differences in human activities. Final report on Phase 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.W.; Davis, R.A.; Richardson, W.J.

    1991-07-01

    The objectives were to determine (1) whether there are differences in behavior between the Bering/Chukchi/Beaufort and the Davis Strait/Baffin Bay populations and (2), if so, whether the differences might be attributable to the long-term cumulative effects of exposure to the presumed greater amount of human activity in the former area. Phase 1 showed that there are some differences in behavior. The Phase 2 report documents the relative amounts of human activity in the two areas in 1974-86, and evaluates whether regional differences in whale behavior and in human activities may be related. Activities considered include bowhead hunting and other subsistence activities, commercial fishing and shipping, marine seismic exploration, offshore oil exploration, and low-level aircraft flights. Bering/Beaufort bowheads were subjected to at least 3-5 times as much human activity in 1974-86. Most differences in behavior between the two stocks were better explained by environmental or biological factors than by disturbance. However, for bowheads migrating in autumn, regional differences in behavior may be related to the whaling that occurs in the Beaufort Sea in autumn

  16. KEY COMPARISONS: Final report: SIM regional comparison of ac-dc voltage transfer difference (SIM.EM.K6a, SIM.EM-K9 and SIM.EM-K11)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Sara; Filipski, Piotr; Izquierdo, Daniel; Afonso, Edson; Landim, Régis P.; Di Lillo, Lucas; Lipe, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Three comparisons of ac-dc voltage transfer difference held from January to December 2004 are reported. Six NMIs in the SIM region took part: NRC (Canada), NIST (United States of America), CENAM (Mexico), INTI (Argentina), UTE (Uruguay) and INMETRO (Brazil). The comparisons were proposed to assess the measurement capabilities in ac-dc voltage transfer difference of the NMIs in the SIM region. The test points were selected to link the results with the equivalent CCEM Key Comparisons, through three NMIs participating in both SIM and CCEM key comparisons. Additionally, a SIM.EM-Supplementary comparison was proposed, in support of the SIM NMIs' power/energy meter calibration capabilities. One technical protocol and one travelling standard were used, to economize on time and resources. The report shows the degree of equivalence in the SIM region and also the degree of equivalence with the corresponding CCEM reference value. The results of all participants support the values and uncertainties of the applicable CMC entries for ac-dc voltage transfer difference in the Key Comparison Database held at the BIPM. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCEM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  17. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 4): Ciba-Geigy Site (McIntosh Plant), Washington County, McIntosh, AL. (Third remedial action), July 1992. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The 1,500-acre Ciba-Geigy site is an active chemical manufacturer in an industrial area in McIntosh, Washington County, Alabama. A wetlands area borders the site property, and part of the site lies within the floodplain of the Tombigbee River. In 1985, EPA issued a RCRA permit that included a corrective action plan requiring Ciba-Geigy to remove and treat ground water and surface water contamination at the site. Further investigations by EPA revealed 11 former waste management areas of potential contamination onsite. These areas contain a variety of waste, debris, pesticide by-products and residues. The ROD addresses a final remedy for OU4, which includes contaminated soil and sludge in former waste management Area 8 and the upper dilute ditch. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the soil, sludge, and debris are VOCs, including benzene, toluene, and xylenes; other organics, including pesticides; metals, including arsenic, chromium, and lead; and inorganics, including cyanide. The selected remedial action for the site are included

  18. Habitat-specific bioaccumulation of methylmercury in invertebrates of small mid-latitude lakes in North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chetelat, John, E-mail: john.chetelat@ec.gc.c [Groupe de recherche interuniversitaire en limnologie, Departement de sciences biologiques, Universite de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7 (Canada); Amyot, Marc; Garcia, Edenise [Groupe de recherche interuniversitaire en limnologie, Departement de sciences biologiques, Universite de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7 (Canada)

    2011-01-15

    We examined habitat-specific bioaccumulation of methylmercury (MeHg) in aquatic food webs by comparing concentrations in pelagic zooplankton to those in littoral macroinvertebrates from 52 mid-latitude lakes in North America. Invertebrate MeHg concentrations were primarily correlated with water pH, and after controlling for this influence, pelagic zooplankton had significantly higher MeHg concentrations than littoral primary consumers but lower MeHg than littoral secondary consumers. Littoral primary consumers and pelagic zooplankton are two dominant prey for fish, and greater MeHg in zooplankton is likely sufficient to increase bioaccumulation in pelagic feeders. Intensive sampling of 8 lakes indicated that habitat-specific bioaccumulation in invertebrates (of similar trophic level) may result from spatial variation in aqueous MeHg concentration or from more efficient uptake of aqueous MeHg into the pelagic food web. Our findings demonstrate that littoral-pelagic differences in MeHg bioaccumulation are widespread in small mid-latitude lakes. - Methylmercury levels in dominant invertebrate prey for fish differ between littoral and pelagic habitats within a lake.

  19. Habitat-specific bioaccumulation of methylmercury in invertebrates of small mid-latitude lakes in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chetelat, John; Amyot, Marc; Garcia, Edenise

    2011-01-01

    We examined habitat-specific bioaccumulation of methylmercury (MeHg) in aquatic food webs by comparing concentrations in pelagic zooplankton to those in littoral macroinvertebrates from 52 mid-latitude lakes in North America. Invertebrate MeHg concentrations were primarily correlated with water pH, and after controlling for this influence, pelagic zooplankton had significantly higher MeHg concentrations than littoral primary consumers but lower MeHg than littoral secondary consumers. Littoral primary consumers and pelagic zooplankton are two dominant prey for fish, and greater MeHg in zooplankton is likely sufficient to increase bioaccumulation in pelagic feeders. Intensive sampling of 8 lakes indicated that habitat-specific bioaccumulation in invertebrates (of similar trophic level) may result from spatial variation in aqueous MeHg concentration or from more efficient uptake of aqueous MeHg into the pelagic food web. Our findings demonstrate that littoral-pelagic differences in MeHg bioaccumulation are widespread in small mid-latitude lakes. - Methylmercury levels in dominant invertebrate prey for fish differ between littoral and pelagic habitats within a lake.

  20. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurney, Kevin R. [Arizona Univ., Mesa, AZ (United States)

    2015-01-12

    This document constitutes the final report under DOE grant DE-FG-08ER64649. The organization of this document is as follows: first, I will review the original scope of the proposed research. Second, I will present the current draft of a paper nearing submission to Nature Climate Change on the initial results of this funded effort. Finally, I will present the last phase of the research under this grant which has supported a Ph.D. student. To that end, I will present the graduate student’s proposed research, a portion of which is completed and reflected in the paper nearing submission. This final work phase will be completed in the next 12 months. This final workphase will likely result in 1-2 additional publications and we consider the results (as exemplified by the current paper) high quality. The continuing results will acknowledge the funding provided by DOE grant DE-FG-08ER64649.

  1. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeTar, Carleton [P.I.

    2012-12-10

    This document constitutes the Final Report for award DE-FC02-06ER41446 as required by the Office of Science. It summarizes accomplishments and provides copies of scientific publications with significant contribution from this award.

  2. Program GICC, final report (March 2005), inventory of carbonaceous aerosol particles from 1860 to 2100 or which carbonaceous aerosol for a significant climatic regional/global impact?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cachier, H.; Guinot, B.; Criqui, P.; Mima, S.; Brignon, J.M.; Penner, J.; Carmichael, G.; Gadi, R.; Denier Van der Gon, H.; Gregoire, J.M.; Liousse, C.; Michel, C.; Guillaume, B.; Junker, C.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of our program is to determine past, present and future emission inventories of carbonaceous particles from 1860 to 2100 for fossil fuel and biofuel sources. Emission inventories for savannah and forest fires have been developed by using burnt area products given by satellite for Asia and Africa. The strong collaboration with the different groups attending this GICC program has allowed to develop the following results. 1- With the improvement of algorithms and new choices for emission factors, emission inventories for black carbon (BC), primary organic carbon (OCp) and total organic carbon (OCtot) have been constructed for the period 1950 to 1997 for fossil fuel and biofuel sources. With these new development, biofuel sources have been seen to be significant, especially in the developing countries. 2- Past inventories have been developed for fossil fuel and biofuel sources from 1860 to 1997 by taking into account the evolution of fuel consumption, fuel use and emission factors. 3- Savannah and forest fire inventories have been constructed based on burnt area products, for Africa (1981-1991, 2000) and Asia (2000-2001). These results show the importance of using real time data instead of statistics. 4-Future emission inventory of black carbon by fossil fuel sources has been constructed for 2100 following the IPCC scenario A2 (catastrophic case) and B1 (perfect world). 5-Characterization of biofuel emissions has been realized by organizing an experiment in a combustion chamber where indian and chinese biofuels (fuelwood, agricultural wastes, dung-cake etc..). were burnt, reproducing the burning methods used in these countries. 6-Finally, the differences between the existing inventories of carbonaceous aerosols has been explained. (A.L.B.)

  3. Butterflies, Black swans and Dragon kings: How to use the Dynamical Systems Theory to build a "zoology" of mid-latitude circulation atmospheric extremes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faranda, D.; Yiou, P.; Alvarez-Castro, M. C. M.

    2015-12-01

    A combination of dynamical systems and statistical techniques allows for a robust assessment of the dynamical properties of the mid-latitude atmospheric circulation. Extremes at different spatial and time scales are not only associated to exceptionally intense weather structures (e.g. extra-tropical cyclones) but also to rapid changes of circulation regimes (thunderstorms, supercells) or the extreme persistence of weather structure (heat waves, cold spells). We will show how the dynamical systems theory of recurrence combined to the extreme value theory can take into account the spatial and temporal dependence structure of the mid-latitude circulation structures and provide information on the statistics of extreme events.

  4. Final COMPASS results on the spin-dependent structure functions $g_1^p$ and $g_1^d$ in the deep-inelastic and nonperturbative regions

    CERN Document Server

    Badelek, Barbara

    2018-01-01

    This paper summarizes the COMPASS Collaboration legacy on measurements of the proton and deuteron spin-dependent structure functions, $g_1^p$ and $g_1^d$ at $Q^2 1$ (GeV/c)$^2$. In both regions and at the lowest measured $x, g^d_1 (x)$ is consistent with zero while $g^p_1 (x)$ is positive. This is the first time that the spin effects are observed at such low values of $x$. The NLO QCD fit of $g_1$ world data gives well constrained quark helicity distributions; gluons are poorly determined. Quark helicity contribution to nucleon spin is $0.26 < \\Delta \\Sigma < 0.36$. From the COMPASS data alone the Bjorken sum rule is verified to $9\\%$ accuracy and the extracted flavour-singlet axial charge is $a_0 (Q^2 = 3 (\\text{GeV/}c)^2) = 0.32 \\pm 0.02_{stat.} \\pm 0.04_{syst.} \\pm 0.05_{evol.}$.

  5. Final COMPASS results on the spin-dependent structure functions $g_1^p$ and $g_1^d$ in the deep-inelastic and nonperturbative regions

    CERN Document Server

    Badelek, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    This paper summarizes the COMPASS Collaboration legacy on measurements of the proton and deuteron spin-dependent structure functions, $g_1^p$ and $g_1^d$ at $Q^2 1$ (GeV/c)$^2$. In both regions and at the lowest measured $x, g^d_1 (x)$ is consistent with zero while $g^p_1 (x)$ is positive. This is the first time that the spin effects are observed at such low values of $x$. The NLO QCD fit of $g_1$ world data gives well constrained quark helicity distributions; gluons are poorly determined. Quark helicity contribution to nucleon spin is $0.26 < \\Delta \\Sigma < 0.36$. From the COMPASS data alone the Bjorken sum rule is verified to $9\\%$ accuracy and the extracted flavour-singlet axial charge is $a_0 (Q^2 = 3 (\\text{GeV/}c)^2) = 0.32 \\pm 0.02_{stat.} \\pm 0.04_{syst.} \\pm 0.05_{evol.}$.

  6. Analytic studies on pollutant deposition through domestic coal combustion -influence of the current structural change on pollution in an urban region. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engewald, W.; Knobloch, T.; Asperger, A.

    1996-01-01

    In the present paper the author reports on the continuation of an OEKOR part project in which he had undertaken a chemical characterisation of emissions from domestic brown coal combustion. On the basis of a partitioning by land use of the Greater Leipzig region he initiated long-term observations of local pollution levels for the various structural types of land. The aim of the work was to facilitate a comprehensive analysis of local air quality in terms of VOC levels. The current concern about VOCs results from the toxicological risk they have been proven to pose to the human organism and from their relevance to the chemistry of the atmosphere (e.g., as precursors of ground-level ozone and other oxidising agents). The task to be accomplished was broken down into the following main steps: Development and trial of a sampling and analysis method for determining an as wide a spectrum of environmental VOCs as possible; elaboration of a measuring strategy for obtaining results of high representativeness and power; installation and operation of pollution monitoring sites in selected structural types of area characteristic of Leipzig; execution of measuring campaigns of several weeks each at selected sites during both winter and summer periods. (orig./MSK) [de

  7. Using n-alkane records to constrain carbon cycle - hydrological cycle coupling: Case study from the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes during the PETM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, S.; Pagani, M.; Tipple, B. J.

    2010-12-01

    The early Eocene was a warmer world compared to the present and is characterized by rising temperatures interspersed with rapid hyperthermal events. During the largest of these rapid warming events; the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), proxy records suggest that sea surface temperatures (SST) rose by 3-5 deg. C in the tropics (Zachos et al., 2003, Tripati and Elderfield, 2004), >5 deg. C in the Arctic (Sluijs et al., 2006) and perhaps has high as 9 deg. C in some sub-Antarctic regions (Kennett and Stott, 1991; Thomas et al., 1999). This warming is believed to be the result of massive input of 13C-depleted carbon into the ocean-atmosphere system, evidenced by the large negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE) and carbonate dissolution associated with the event. However, there are several questions regarding the exact mechanism of warming and feedbacks between the carbon cycle and climate. Did climate shift prior to the main event that led to the release of isotopically light carbon? Do we observe consistent leads or lags between changes in carbon isotopes and hydrological conditions during warm intervals? This study aims to reconstruct hydrological changes in the in the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes during the PETM using terrestrial biomarkers. Terrestrial biomarkers, such leaf-wax lipids stored in sediments, have the unique advantage of recording carbon and hydrogen isotopic compositions of atmospheric CO2 (modified by plant fractionation) and precipitation (modified by plant fractionation and evapotranspiration), allowing evaluation of the relative timing of carbon and hydrogen isotopic (i.e., climate) shifts. In this study, we compile and present three mid-latitude PETM records from the Northern Hemisphere, i.e. Alamedilla (Spain), Cicogna and Forada (Italy). The Cicogna and Forada sections are located in the Belluno basin (~12 km apart). Preliminary results do not indicate any significant pre-excursion hydrogen isotope changes at Cicogna, while at

  8. Climate Risks - The Challenge for Alpine Regions. Final Scientific Report of the National Research Programme 'Climate Change and Natural Hazards', NRP 31

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bader, Stephan [Swiss Meteorological Institute, Zurich (Switzerland); Kunz, Pierre [Department of Mineralogy, University of Geneva (Switzerland)

    2000-07-01

    The international scientific community has come to the conclusion that human activities are a non negligible factor influencing the global climate. The leading Swiss climate researchers are supporting this statement. What is the impact of climate change in Switzerland ? After six years of scientific research, the results of the National Research Programme 'Climate Change and Natural Hazards' (NRP 31) are available now. They contribute to a better understanding of the complex nature of the global climate and its specific alpine aspects. This book provides the newest estimations about the impact of temperature and precipitation changes on the environment, the economy and infrastructures. It also describes the possibilities of political and social actions regarding these changes. In the introductory chapter the essential processes necessary to understand the climate system are explained, such as the role of ocean, mechanism of the greenhouse effect, ENSO, NAO, younger Dryas climate, Dansgaard/Oeschger and Heinrich events, to mention just a few. This chapter provides a good foundation for the later chapters which are dedicated to the history of observed climate changes in Switzerland, regionally specific future climate simulations with a high resolution model, impacts of climate changes on earth's surface processes, such as river discharges, glaciers, permafrost, land slides, forestry, agriculture and human activities. With its concrete proposal of a methodology to investigate the impacts of climate changes on human activities, the present volume will offer valuable information for decision makers, concerned citizens as well as teachers and students in climate and environmental sciences. The volume is supplemented by the conclusions of the accompanying group of experts and by a list of all reports published within the NRP 31.

  9. Narrative Finality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armine Kotin Mortimer

    1981-01-01

    Full Text Available The cloturai device of narration as salvation represents the lack of finality in three novels. In De Beauvoir's Tous les hommes sont mortels an immortal character turns his story to account, but the novel makes a mockery of the historical sense by which men define themselves. In the closing pages of Butor's La Modification , the hero plans to write a book to save himself. Through the thrice-considered portrayal of the Paris-Rome relationship, the ending shows the reader how to bring about closure, but this collective critique written by readers will always be a future book. Simon's La Bataille de Pharsale , the most radical attempt to destroy finality, is an infinite text. No new text can be written. This extreme of perversion guarantees bliss (jouissance . If the ending of De Beauvoir's novel transfers the burden of non-final world onto a new victim, Butor's non-finality lies in the deferral to a future writing, while Simon's writer is stuck in a writing loop, in which writing has become its own end and hence can have no end. The deconstructive and tragic form of contemporary novels proclaims the loss of belief in a finality inherent in the written text, to the profit of writing itself.

  10. Low and Mid-Latitude Ionospheric Irregularities Studies Using TEC and Radio Scintillation Data from the CITRIS Radio Beacon Receiver in Low-Earth-Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siefring, C. L.; Bernhardt, P. A.; Huba, J.; Krall, J.; Roddy, P. A.

    2009-12-01

    Unique data on ionospheric plasma irregularities from the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) CITRIS (Scintillation and TEC Receiver in Space) instrument will be presented. CITRIS is a multi-band receiver that recorded TEC (Total Electron Content) and radio scintillations from Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) on STPSat1. The 555+/5 km altitude 35° inclination orbit covers low and mid-latitudes. The measurements require propagation from a transmitter to a receiver through the F-region plasma. CITRIS used both 1) satellite beacons in LEO, such as the NRL CERTO (Coherent Electromagnetic Radio TOmography) beacons and 2) the global network of ground-based DORIS (Doppler Orbitography and Radiopositioning Integrated by Satellite) beacons. The TEC measurements allow for tracking of ionospheric disturbances and irregularities while the measurements of scintillations can simultaneously characterize their effects. CITRIS was operated in a complementary fashion with the C/NOFS (Communication/Navigations Outages Forecasting System) satellite during most of its first year of operations. C/NOFS carries a three-frequency 150/400/1067 MHz CERTO beacon and is dedicated to the study of Spread-F. In the case of Spread-F, ionospheric irregularities start with large scale size density gradients (100s of km) and cascade through complex processes to short scale sizes (10s of meters). It is typically the 100m-1km scale features that harm communication and navigation systems through scintillations. A multi-sensor approach is needed to completely understand this complex system, such as, the combination of CITRIS remote radio sensing and C/NOFS in-situ data. Several types of irregularities have been studied including Spread-F and the newly discovered dawn-side depletions. Comparisons with the physics based SAMI3 model are being performed to help our understanding of the morphology of the irregularities.

  11. Nevada Southwest Regional Geothermal Development Operations Research Project. Appendix 8 of regional operations research program for development of geothermal energy in the Southwest United States. Final technical report, June 1977--August 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Noel A.; Booth, G. Martin, III; Weber, Dorismae; Helseth, Barbara K.

    1979-01-01

    By the end of the first year of the Southwest Regional Geothermal Project, the Nevada State Team has defined over 300 geothermal sites. Because of the multitude of sites and data, scenarios for this first project-year have been completed for the twenty-six Nevada Geothermal Areas, which include all the specific sites. It is not improbable that fully one-third of the sites will eventually prove to be of high to intermediate temperature (i.e. > 150 C and 90-150 C) resources. Low temperature sites are also prominent, not only in number, but also in their distribution--each of Nevada's 17 counties has several such sites.

  12. Facetas del Bronce Final "regional" en el Alto Ebro y la zona oriental de la Submeseta Norte: manifesraciones arqueológicas y objetos sociales de La Solana (Modúbar de la Emparedada, Burgos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan MONTERO GUTIÉRREZ

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Partiendo de unas evidencias arqueológicas procedentes del yacimiento burgalés de La Solana de origen superficial, se efectúa una valoración de las entidades culturales pertenecientes al Bronce Final regional, en particular, del Valle Alto del Ebro y de la parte oriental de la Submeseta Norte. Dentro de este ámbito se examina la trama temporal de las entidades citadas a la luz de las nuevas aportaciones efectuadas por las dataciones calibradas; y se discute un planteamiento para explicar los elementos cerámicos y metálicos de raigambre continental y meridionales, en el marco de una trama social.ABSTRACT: Starting off with some archaeological findings on the surface of the site called "La Solana" in Burgos, an assessment can be carried out on the cultural entities belonging to the regional Final Bronze Age, in particular, of the highland valley of the Ebro river and the Eastern part of the North Plateau. Within this field, in the light of new data which had been contributed, the date of the objects is analysed. Moreover, the reason for the existence of the ceramic and metal utensils of continental and southern origins, in this area, as well as to how it came to be there, is discussed.

  13. Final Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Brohus, Henrik; Nielsen, Peter V.

    This final report for the Hybrid Ventilation Centre at Aalborg University describes the activities and research achievement in the project period from August 2001 to August 2006. The report summarises the work performed and the results achieved with reference to articles and reports published...

  14. A Systematic Exploration of the Local and Remote Climate Effects of Anthropogenic Aerosol Emissions from Key Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voulgarakis, A.; Kasoar, M.; Shawki, D.; Lamarque, J. F.; Shindell, D. T.; Faluvegi, G.; Bellouin, N.; Collins, W.; Tsigaridis, K.

    2016-12-01

    The radiative forcing of short-lived pollutants such as aerosols and tropospheric ozone is highly inhomogeneous and can therefore affect regional temperature, circulation and precipitation in a much more complicated way than the forcing of well-mixed greenhouse gases. Such effects have only recently started to be examined thoroughly and systematically from a global point of view, to understand regional interactions. Here, after outlining some key past work in this area, results from recent simulations with the UK Met Office's HadGEM3 global composition-climate model will be presented in which anthropogenic emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and black carbon in key regions (East Asia, South Asia, Europe, the US, and the northern mid-latitudes as a whole) have been removed. The linkages between emissions, concentrations, radiative forcing, temperature and precipitation responses will be discussed. A particular emphasis will be placed on non-local effects, i.e. how emissions over a certain region can affect other areas remotely. Finally, we will contrast our results with those from similar experiments pursued using the NASA GISS-E2 and the NCAR CESM1 models for US and East Asian SO2 emissions, and will discuss the large differences in the models' behaviour.

  15. Modeling solar flare induced lower ionosphere changes using VLF/LF transmitter amplitude and phase observations at a midlatitude site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitter, E. D.

    2013-04-01

    Remote sensing of the ionosphere bottom using long wave radio signal propagation is a still going strong and inexpensive method for continuous monitoring purposes. We present a propagation model describing the time development of solar flare effects. Based on monitored amplitude and phase data from VLF/LF transmitters gained at a mid-latitude site during the currently increasing solar cycle no. 24 a parameterized electron density profile is calculated as a function of time and fed into propagation calculations using the LWPC (Long Wave Propagation Capability). The model allows to include lower ionosphere recombination and attachment coefficients, as well as to identify the relevant forcing X-ray wavelength band, and is intended to be a small step forward to a better understanding of the solar-lower ionosphere interaction mechanisms within a consistent framework.

  16. Future C loss in mid-latitude mineral soils: climate change exceeds land use mitigation potential in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meersmans, Jeroen; Arrouays, Dominique; Van Rompaey, Anton J J; Pagé, Christian; De Baets, Sarah; Quine, Timothy A

    2016-11-03

    Many studies have highlighted significant interactions between soil C reservoir dynamics and global climate and environmental change. However, in order to estimate the future soil organic carbon sequestration potential and related ecosystem services well, more spatially detailed predictions are needed. The present study made detailed predictions of future spatial evolution (at 250 m resolution) of topsoil SOC driven by climate change and land use change for France up to the year 2100 by taking interactions between climate, land use and soil type into account. We conclude that climate change will have a much bigger influence on future SOC losses in mid-latitude mineral soils than land use change dynamics. Hence, reducing CO 2 emissions will be crucial to prevent further loss of carbon from our soils.

  17. The sub-auroral electric field as observed by DMSP and the new SuperDARN mid-latitude radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaat, E. R.; Sotirelis, T.; Hairston, M. R.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.; Greenwald, R. A.; Lester, M.

    2008-12-01

    In this paper we present analyses of the sub-auroral electric field environment as observed from both space and ground. We discuss the dependency of the configuration and strength of the sub-auroral electric field on IMF and geomagnetic activity, longitudinal, seasonal, and solar cycle variability. Primarily, e use ~20 years of electric field measurement dataset derived from the suite of DMSP ion drift meters. A major component of our analysis is correctly specifying the aurora boundary, as the behavior and magnitude of these fields will be drastically different away from the high-conductance auroral oval. As such, we use the coincident particle flux measurements from the DMSP SSJ4 monitors. We also present the solar minimum observations of the sub-auroral flow newly available from the mid-latitude SuperDARN radars at Wallops and Blackstone in Virginia. Preliminary comparisons between these flows and the DMSP climatology are discussed.

  18. A simple climatology of westerly jet streams in global reanalysis datasets part 1: mid-latitude upper tropospheric jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rikus, Lawrie

    2018-04-01

    A simple closed contour object identification scheme has been applied to the zonal mean monthly mean zonal wind fields from nine global reanalysis data sets for 31 years of the satellite era (1979-2009) to identify objects corresponding to westerly jet streams. The results cluster naturally into six individual jet streams but only the mid-latitude upper-tropospheric jets are considered here. The time series of the jet properties from all reanalyses are decomposed into seasonal means and anomalies, and correlations between variables are evaluated, with the aim of identifying robust features which can form the basis of evaluation metrics for climate model simulations of the twentieth century. There is substantial agreement between all the reanalyses for all jet properties although there are some systematic differences with particular data sets. Some of the results from the object identification applied to the reanalyses are used in a simple example of a model evaluation score for the zonal mean jet seasonal cycle.

  19. Longitudinal effect in the night-time mid-latitude ionosphere according to the Interkosmos-19 data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deminov, M.G.; Karpachev, A.T.

    1988-01-01

    Longitudinal effects in the night-time mid-latitude external ionosphere for summer and winter conditions of the high solar activity period are analysed. The high amplitude of longitudinal changes of the external ionosphere, including changes of the height (upto 150 km) and the concentration (7-8 times) of the F2-layer maximum, is shown to be provided under winter mid-night-time conditions with high values of the zone component of the wind velocity and strong latitude gradients and with longitudinal changes of the meridional projection of the wind velocity. N changes with the longitude before the Sun setting, when the zone component of the wind velocity is maximum, made the main contribution in summer to longitudinal changes of the electron concentration of the N night ionosphere. The wind velocity phase shift during the season lleads to the fact that the maximum amplitude of N longitudinal changes is observed till midnight in summer and after midnight in winter

  20. Electron density and plasma waves in mid-latitude sporadic-E layer observed during the SEEK-2 campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wakabayashi

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The SEEK-2 campaign was carried out over Kyushu Island in Japan on 3 August 2002, by using the two sounding rockets of S310-31 and S310-32. This campaign was planned to elucidate generation mechanisms of Quasi-Periodic Echoes (QPEs associated with mid-latitude sporadic-E (Es layers. Electron number densities were successfully measured in the Es layers by using the impedance probe on board two rockets. The plasma waves in the VLF and ELF ranges were also observed on board the S310-32 rocket. Results of electron density measurement showed that there were one or two major peaks in the Es layers along the rockets' trajectories near the altitude of about 10km. There were some smaller peaks associated with the main Es layers in the altitude range from 90 to 120 km. These density peaks were distributed in a very large extent during the SEEK-2 campaign. The Es layer structure is also measured by using the Fixed Bias Probe (FBP, which has a high spatial resolution of several meters (the impedance probe has an altitude resolution of about 400 m. The comparison with the total electron content (TEC measured by the Dual Band Beacon revealed that the Es layer was also modulated in the horizontal direction with the scale size of 30–40 km. It was shown that the QP echoes observed by the ground-based coherent radar come from the major density peak of the Es layer. The plasma wave instrument detected the enhancement of VLF and ELF plasma waves associated with the operation of the TMA release, and also with the passage of the Es layers. Keywords. Ionosphere (Ionospheric irregularities; Midlatitude ionosphere; Plasma temeperature and density

  1. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stinis, Panos [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-08-07

    This is the final report for the work conducted at the University of Minnesota (during the period 12/01/12-09/18/14) by PI Panos Stinis as part of the "Collaboratory on Mathematics for Mesoscopic Modeling of Materials" (CM4). CM4 is a multi-institution DOE-funded project whose aim is to conduct basic and applied research in the emerging field of mesoscopic modeling of materials.

  2. Regional Disease Surveillance Meeting - Final Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesperance, Ann M.; Mahy, Heidi A.

    2006-08-08

    On June 1, 2006, public health officials working in surveillance, epidemiological modeling, and information technology communities from the Seattle/Tacoma area and State of Washington met with members of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to discuss the current state of disease surveillance and gaps and needs to improve the current systems. The meeting also included a discussion of PNNL initiatives that might be appropriate to enhance disease surveillance and the current tools being used for disease surveillance. Participants broke out into two groups to identify critical gaps and needs for improving a surveillance system, and discuss the requirements for developing improved surveillance. Each group developed a list of key priorities summarizing the requirements for improved surveillance. The objective of this meeting was to work towards the development of an improved disease surveillance system.

  3. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooke, Stephen

    2014-08-31

    Uranium-containing and thorium-containing compounds have been produced using a laser ablation source. Spectral transitions from these compounds in the 6 GHz to 18 GHz frequency region have been recorded using advanced techniques in Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy. The pure rotational spectrum of thorium (II) oxide is particularly strong and rotational transitions have been observed in highly excited vibrational states. These measurements have allowed a further characterization of the molecules potential energy well.

  4. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2017-02-07

    This is the final report of our research program on electronic transport experiments on Topological Insulator (TI) devices, funded by the DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences. TI-based electronic devices are attractive as platforms for spintronic applications, and for detection of emergent properties such as Majorana excitations , electron-hole condensates , and the topological magneto-electric effect . Most theoretical proposals envision geometries consisting of a planar TI device integrated with materials of distinctly different physical phases (such as ferromagnets and superconductors). Experimental realization of physics tied to the surface states is a challenge due to the ubiquitous presence of bulk carriers in most TI compounds as well as degradation during device fabrication.

  5. Regionalism, Regionalization and Regional Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu C. Andrei

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sustained development is a concept associating other concepts, in its turn, in the EU practice, e.g. regionalism, regionalizing and afferent policies, here including structural policies. This below text, dedicated to integration concepts, will limit on the other hand to regionalizing, otherwise an aspect typical to Europe and to the EU. On the other hand, two aspects come up to strengthen this field of ideas, i.e. the region (al-regionalism-(regional development triplet has either its own history or precise individual outline of terms.

  6. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, Robert C. [Texas A& M University; Kamon, Teruki [Texas A& M University; Toback, David [Texas A& M University; Safonov, Alexei [Texas A& M University; Dutta, Bhaskar [Texas A& M University; Dimitri, Nanopoulos [Texas A& M University; Pope, Christopher [Texas A& M University; White, James [Texas A& M University

    2013-11-18

    Overview The High Energy Physics Group at Texas A&M University is submitting this final report for our grant number DE-FG02-95ER40917. This grant has supported our wide range of research activities for over a decade. The reports contained here summarize the latest work done by our research team. Task A (Collider Physics Program): CMS & CDF Profs. T. Kamon, A. Safonov, and D. Toback co-lead the Texas A&M (TAMU) collider program focusing on CDF and CMS experiments. Task D: Particle Physics Theory Our particle physics theory task is the combined effort of Profs. B. Dutta, D. Nanopoulos, and C. Pope. Task E (Underground Physics): LUX & NEXT Profs. R. Webb and J. White(deceased) lead the Xenon-based underground research program consisting of two main thrusts: the first, participation in the LUX two-phase xenon dark matter search experiment and the second, detector R&D primarily aimed at developing future detectors for underground physics (e.g. NEXT and LZ).

  7. A spectral study of the mid-latitude sporadic E layer characteristic oscillations comparable to those of the tidal and the planetary waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignalberi, A.; Pezzopane, M.; Zuccheretti, E.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper different spectral analyses are employed to investigate the tidal and planetary wave periodicities imprinted in the following two main characteristics of the sporadic E (Es) layer: the top frequency (ftEs) and the lowest virtual height (h‧Es). The study is based on ionograms recorded during the summertime of 2013, and precisely in June, July, August and September, by the Advanced Ionospheric Sounder by Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (AIS-INGV) ionosondes installed at Rome (41.8°N, 12.5°E) and Gibilmanna (37.9°N, 14.0°E), Italy. It was confirmed that the diurnal and semidiurnal atmospheric tides play a fundamental role in the formation of the mid-latitude Es layers, acting through their vertical wind-shear forcing of the long-living metallic ions in the lower thermosphere, and at the same time it was found that the planetary atmospheric waves might affect the Es layers acting through their horizontal wind-shear forcing with periods close to the normal Rossby modes, that is 2, 5, 10 and 16 days. The wavelet analysis shows also that the ftEs and h‧Es tidal oscillations undergo a strong amplitude modulation with periods of several days and with important differences between the two parameters. This amplitude modulation, characterizing markedly the first thirty days of the ftEs spectrogram, suggests that Es layers are affected indirectly by planetary waves through their nonlinear interaction with the atmospheric tides at lower altitudes. This study wants to be a continuation of the Haldoupis et al. (2004) work in order to verify their results for the foEs characteristic and on the other hand to extend the study also to the h‧Es characteristic not yet shown so far. Anyhow, the study confirms that ionosonde data, especially those registered in summertime, represent a powerful tool for studying tidal and planetary waves properties and their climatology in the mesosphere-low-thermosphere region.

  8. First airborne water vapor lidar measurements in the tropical upper troposphere and mid-latitudes lower stratosphere: accuracy evaluation and intercomparisons with other instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Schiller

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In the tropics, deep convection is the major source of uncertainty in water vapor transport to the upper troposphere and into the stratosphere. Although accurate measurements in this region would be of first order importance to better understand the processes that govern stratospheric water vapor concentrations and trends in the context of a changing climate, they are sparse because of instrumental shortcomings and observational challenges. Therefore, the Falcon research aircraft of the Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR flew a zenith-viewing water vapor differential absorption lidar (DIAL during the Tropical Convection, Cirrus and Nitrogen Oxides Experiment (TROCCINOX in 2004 and 2005 in Brazil. The measurements were performed alternatively on three water vapor absorption lines of different strength around 940 nm. These are the first aircraft DIAL measurements in the tropical upper troposphere and in the mid-latitudes lower stratosphere. Sensitivity analyses reveal an accuracy of 5% between altitudes of 8 and 16 km. This is confirmed by intercomparisons with the Fast In-situ Stratospheric Hygrometer (FISH and the Fluorescent Advanced Stratospheric Hygrometer (FLASH onboard the Russian M-55 Geophysica research aircraft during five coordinated flights. The average relative differences between FISH and DIAL amount to −3%±8% and between FLASH and DIAL to −8%±14%, negative meaning DIAL is more humid. The average distance between the probed air masses was 129 km. The DIAL is found to have no altitude- or latitude-dependent bias. A comparison with the balloon ascent of a laser absorption spectrometer gives an average difference of 0%±19% at a distance of 75 km. Six tropical DIAL under-flights of the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS on board ENVISAT reveal a mean difference of −8%±49% at an average distance of 315 km. While the comparison with MIPAS is somewhat less significant due to poorer

  9. Quantifying and Modelling the Effect of Cloud Shadows on the Surface Irradiance at Tropical and Midlatitude Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivalov, Sergey N.; Fitzjarrald, David R.

    2018-02-01

    Cloud shadows lead to alternating light and dark periods at the surface, with the most abrupt changes occurring in the presence of low-level forced cumulus clouds. We examine multiyear irradiance time series observed at a research tower in a midlatitude mixed deciduous forest (Harvard Forest, Massachusetts, USA: 42.53{°}N, 72.17{°}W) and one made at a similar tower in a tropical rain forest (Tapajós National Forest, Pará, Brazil: 2.86{°}S, 54.96{°}W). We link the durations of these periods statistically to conventional meteorological reports of sky type and cloud height at the two forests and present a method to synthesize the surface irradiance time series from sky-type information. Four classes of events describing distinct sequential irradiance changes at the transition from cloud shadow and direct sunlight are identified: sharp-to-sharp, slow-to-slow, sharp-to-slow, and slow-to-sharp. Lognormal and the Weibull statistical distributions distinguish among cloudy-sky types. Observers' qualitative reports of `scattered' and `broken' clouds are quantitatively distinguished by a threshold value of the ratio of mean clear to cloudy period durations. Generated synthetic time series based on these statistics adequately simulate the temporal "radiative forcing" linked to sky type. Our results offer a quantitative way to connect the conventional meteorological sky type to the time series of irradiance experienced at the surface.

  10. Biomass Smoke Influences on Deep Convection during the 2011 Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, X.; Logan, T.; Xi, B.

    2015-12-01

    Three deep convective cloud cases were selected during the 2011 Mid-Latitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E). Although biomass burning smoke advected from Mexico and Central America was the dominant source of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) for deep convective cloud formation, the 11 May, 20 May, and 23 May cases exhibited different convective characteristics. The convection in the 11 May and 23 May cases formed in smoke laden environments in the presence of convective available potential energy (CAPE) values exceeding 1000 m2 s-2 and 3000 m2 s-2 along with low-level (0-1 km) shear of 10.3 m s-1 and 5.1 m s-1, respectively. The 11 May case had linear convection while the 23 May case featured discrete supercells. The 20 May case featured elevated linear convection that formed in a more moist environment with cleaner aerosol conditions, weak CAPE (9 km) suggesting a warm rain suppression mechanism caused by a combination of strong aerosol loading, large CAPE, and weak low-level wind shear. The observed results for the 20 May and 23 May cases agree well with recent modeling studies that simulated the convection and precipitation in these cases. Furthermore, the modeling of the 11 May case is suggested since the abundant amount of smoke CCN did not greatly enhance the overall precipitation amount and could be a possible aerosol-induced precipitation suppression case.

  11. 18-year variability of ultraviolet radiation penetration in the mid-latitude coastal waters of the western boundary Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwahara, Victor S.; Nozaki, Sena; Nakano, Junji; Toda, Tatsuki; Kikuchi, Tomohiko; Taguchi, Satoru

    2015-07-01

    The 18-year time-series shows in situ ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) diffuse attenuation coefficient Kd(λ) have recurrent seasonal variability of high/low attenuation during summer/winter months, respectively, dependent on variability in water column stratification and concentrations of bio-optical properties. The mid-latitude coastal survey station displayed significant seasonality of the mixed layer depth (MLD) between 12 and 82 m which modified the distribution of chlorophyll a (4.6-24.9 mg m-2) and absorption of colored dissolved organic matter [aCDOM(320 nm) 0.043-1.34 m-1]. The median Kd(320 nm) displayed significant seasonality at 0.19-0.74 m-1 (C.V. = 44.1%) and seasonal variability within the euphotic layer [Z10%(320 nm) = 7-20%]. High attenuation of UVR with relatively moderate attenuation of PAR was consistently observed during the summer months when increased concentrations of terrestrially derived CDOM coupled with a shallow MLD were present. The winter season showed the opposite of low UVR and PAR attenuation due to a relatively deeper MLD coupled with low concentrations of bio-optical properties. Although the long term Kd(λ) did not vary significantly during the time-series, analysis of the interannual variability suggests there are positive and negative phases following the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) vis-a-vis variability in bio-optical properties (p < 0.001).

  12. Midlatitude ice-rich ground on mars as a target in the search for evidence of life and for in situ resource utilization on human missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldmann, J L; Schurmeier, L; McKay, C; Davila, A; Stoker, C; Marinova, M; Wilhelm, M B

    2014-02-01

    Midlatitude ground ice on Mars is of significant scientific interest for understanding the history and evolution of ice stability on Mars and is relevant for human exploration as a possible in situ resource. For both science and exploration, assessing the astrobiological potential of the ice is important in terms of (1) understanding the potential for life on Mars and (2) evaluating the presence of possible biohazards in advance of human exploration. In the present study, we review the evidence for midlatitude ground ice on Mars, discuss the possible explanations for its occurrence, and assess its potential habitability. During the course of study, we systematically analyzed remote-sensing data sets to determine whether a viable landing site exists in the northern midlatitudes to enable a robotic mission that conducts in situ characterization and searches for evidence of life in the ice. We classified each site according to (1) presence of polygons as a proxy for subsurface ice, (2) presence and abundance of rough topographic obstacles (e.g., large cracks, cliffs, uneven topography), (3) rock density, (4) presence and abundance of large boulders, and (5) presence of craters. We found that a suitable landing site exists within Amazonis Planitia near ground ice that was recently excavated by a meteorite impact.

  13. Mid-latitude trans-Pacific reconstructions and comparisons of coupled glacial/interglacial climate cycles based on soil stratigraphy of cover-beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alloway, B. V.; Almond, P. C.; Moreno, P. I.; Sagredo, E.; Kaplan, M. R.; Kubik, P. W.; Tonkin, P. J.

    2018-06-01

    South Westland, New Zealand, and southern Chile, are two narrow continental corridors effectively confined between the Pacific Ocean in the west and high mountain ranges in the east which impart significant influence over regional climate, vegetation and soils. In both these southern mid-latitude regions, evidence for extensive and repeated glaciations during cold phases of the Quaternary is manifested by arrays of successively older glacial drift deposits with corresponding outwash plain remnants. In South Westland, these variably aged glacial landforms are mantled by layered (multisequal) soils characterised by slow loess accretion and pedogenesis in an extreme leaching and weathering environment. These cover-bed successions have undergone repeated coupled phases of topdown and upbuilding soil formation that have been related to fluctuating cycles of interglacial/warm and glacial/cold climate during the Quaternary. In this study, we recognise multisequal soils overlying glacial landforms in southern continental Chile but, unlike the spodic (podzolic) soil sequences of South Westland, these are of dominantly volcanigenic (andic) provenance and are very similar to multisequal soils of andic provenance that predominate in, and adjacent to, areas of rhyolitic to andesitic volcanism in North Island, New Zealand. Here we develop a soil-stratigraphic model to explain the observed occurrence of multisequal soils mantling dominantly glacial landforms of southern continental Chile. Based on proxy data from southern Chile, we propose that persistent vegetation cover and high precipitation on the western side of the Andes, during colder-than-present episodes tended to suppress the widespread production of glacially-derived loessial materials despite the pervasive occurrence of glacial and glacio-fluvial deposits that have frequently inundated large tracts of this landscape during the Quaternary. Given the lack of loess cover-beds that have traditionally assisted in the

  14. The study of the midlatitude ionospheric response to geomagnetic activity at Nagycenk Geophysical Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berényi, Kitti; Kis, Árpád; Barta, Veronika; Novák, Attila

    2016-04-01

    Geomagnetic storms affect the ionospheric regions of the terrestrial upper atmosphere, causing several physical and chemical atmospheric processes. The changes and phenomena, which can be seen as a result of these processes, generally called ionospheric storm. These processes depend on altitude, term of the day, and the strength of solar activity, the geomagnetic latitude and longitude. The differences between ionospheric regions mostly come from the variations of altitude dependent neutral and ionized atmospheric components, and from the physical parameters of solar radiation. We examined the data of the ground-based radio wave ionosphere sounding instruments of the European ionospheric stations (mainly the data of Nagycenk Geophysical Observatory), called ionosonde, to determine how and what extent a given strength of a geomagnetic disturbance affect the middle latitude ionospheric regions in winter. We chose the storm for the research from November 2012 and March 2015. As the main result of our research, we can show significant differences between the each ionospheric (F1 and F2) layer parameters on quiet and strong stormy days. When we saw, that the critical frequencies (foF2) increase from their quiet day value, then the effect of the ionospheric storm was positive, otherwise, if they drop, they were negative. With our analysis, the magnitude of these changes could be determined. Furthermore we demonstrated, how a full strong geomagnetic storm affects the ionospheric foF2 parameter during different storm phases. It has been showed, how a positive or negative ionospheric storm develop during a geomagnetic storm. For a more completed analysis, we compared also the evolution of the F2 layer parameters of the European ionosonde stations on a North-South geographic longitude during a full storm duration. Therefore we determined, that the data of the ionosonde at Nagycenk Geophysical Observatory are appropriate, it detects the same state of ionosphere like the

  15. Mid-latitude Geomagnetic Field Analysis Using BOH Magnetometer: Preliminary Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junga Hwang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute researchers have installed and operated magnetometers at Mt. Bohyun Observatory to measure the Earth's magnetic field variations in South Korea. We, in 2007, installed a fluxgate magnetometer (RFP-523C to measure H, D, and Z components of the geomagnetic field. In addition, in 2009, we installed a Overhauser proton sensor to measure the absolute total magnetic field F and a three-axis magneto-impedance sensor for spectrum analysis. Currently three types of magnetometer data have been accumulated. In this paper, we provide the preliminary and the first statistical analysis using the BOH magnetometer installed at Mt. Bohyun Observatory. By superposed analysis, we find that daily variations of H, D, and Z shows similar tendency, that is, about 30 minutes before the meridian (11:28 a minimum appears and the time after about 3 hours and 30 minutes (15:28 a maximum appears. Also, a quiet interval start time (19:06 is near the sunset time, and a quiet interval end time (06:40 is near the sunrise time. From the sunset to the sunrise, the value of H has a nearly constant interval, that is, the sun affects the changes in H values. Seasonal variations show similar dependences to the sun. Local time variations show that noon region has the biggest variations and midnight region has the smallest variations. We compare the correlations between geomagnetic variations and activity indices as we expect the geomagnetic variation would contain the effects of geomagnetic activity variations. As a result, the correlation coefficient between H and Dst is the highest (r = 0.947, and other AL, AE, AU index and showed a high correlation. Therefore, the effects of geomagnetic storms and geomagnetic substorms might contribute to the geomagnetic changes significantly.

  16. Mid-latitude electron precipitation into the atmosphere and related geophysical phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Y.C.

    1976-01-01

    Balloon observations of the x-ray flux of photons with energies greater than 25 keV, measured at an atmospheric depth of 8 g/cm at Roberval, Quebec (L=4.2) and satellite observations of the flux of electrons with energies greater than 35 keV in the dawn sector from L=4.2 to L=5.3 were analyzed. A differently structured cross-correlation curve was found during the first five minutes immediately after the onset of enhancement of the X-ray intensity. The technique of power spectral analysis was used to investigate periodicities in the flux. A dominant peak at the period of 0.83 second was found in the power spectral density of the counting rate of the greater than 200 keV channel during a relatively quiet-period of time from the point of view of electron precipitation. The precipitation of intermediate energy (250-500 keV) electrons responsible for the greater than 200 keV X rays was modulated at the bounce period of low energy (65-90 keV) electrons. The mechanism for the precipitation was pitch angle diffusion due to the electron-whistler mode wave interaction. Waves generated by low energy electrons in the equatorial region propagated outside of the region of growth. These waves could interact with higher energy electrons and modulate the flux of these electrons. A correlation study of the enhancement seen in the low energy channels of the S 3 satellite electron detector with the enhancement of X-ray fluxes during a substorm was made. The satellite data were used to locate where and when the injections occurred. Two sets of enhancements observed by the satellite were found to be injected at different local times at the same time which was within a few minutes of the onset of geomagnetic bays at several near-midnight ground stations. A model based on convection due to a static westward electric field and azimuthal drift due to the gradient and curvature of B was used to explain the energy dispersion and time delay of the substorm associated observations

  17. Interaction region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    The Interaction Region Group addressed the basic questions of how to collide the SLC beams, how to maximize and monitor the luminosity, and how to minimize the detector backgrounds at the interaction region. In practice, five subgroups evolved to study these questions. The final focus group provided three alternative designs to acheive the 1 to 2 micron beam spot size required by the SLC, as well as studying other problems including: eta, eta' matching from the collider arcs, the implementation of soft bends near the interaction region, beam emittance growth, and magnet tolerances in the final focus. The beam position monitor group proposed two devices, a strip line monitor, and a beamstrahlung monitor, to bring the beams into collision. The luminosity monitor group reviewed the possible QED processes that would be insensitive to weak interaction (Z 0 ) effects. The beam dumping group proposed locations for kicker and septum magnets in the final focus that would achieve a high dumping efficiency and would meet the desired beam tolerances at the Moller scattering target in the beam dump line. Working with the Polarization Group, the Moller experiment was designed into the beam dump beam line. A beam dump was proposed that would maintain radiation backgrounds (penetrating muons) at acceptible levels. The detector backgrounds group proposed soft-bend and masking configurations to shield the detector from synchrotron radiation from the hard/soft bends and from the final focus quadrupoles and evaluated the effectiveness of these designs for the three final focus optics designs. Backgrounds were also estimated from: large angle synchrotron radiation, local and distant beam-gas interactions, 2-photon interactions, and from neutrons and backscattered photons from the beamstrahlung dump

  18. Impacts of northern Tibetan Plateau on East Asian summer rainfall via modulating midlatitude transient eddies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jiechun; Xu, Haiming; Shi, Ning; Zhang, Leying; Ma, Jing

    2017-08-01

    Roles of the Tibetan Plateau (TP) in forming and changing the seasonal Asian climate system have been widely explored. However, little is known about modulation effects of the TP on extratropical transient eddies (TEs) and subsequent synoptic responses of the East Asian rainfall. In this study, the Community Atmosphere Model version 5.1 coupled with a slab ocean model is employed to highlight the important role of the TP in regulating the upper-tropospheric transient wave train. Comparison between sensitivity experiments with and without the TP shows that the northern TP excites a strong anomalous anticyclone, which shifts the upper-level East Asian westerly jet northward and helps transfer barotropic and baroclinic energy from the mean flow to the synoptic TE flow. The transient wave train is primarily shifted northward by northern TP and is forced to propagate southeastward along the eastern flank of the TP until reaching eastern China. Before the strengthening of monsoonal southerlies, the TP-modulated transient wave train cools the troposphere, which decreases the static stability over northern China. Meanwhile, the associated anomalous warm advection induces ascending motion, leading to excessive rainfall by releasing unstable energy as the southerly strengthens. Due to the southeastward propagation of the wave train, anomalous heavy rainfall subsequently appears over eastern China from north to south, which increases day-to-day rainfall variation in this region. Additionally, occurrence of this upper-tropospheric transient wave train associated with low-level southerly peak is substantially increased by northern TP.

  19. East-west ion drifts at mid-latitudes observed by Dynamics Explorer 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heelis, R.A.; Coley, W.R.

    1992-01-01

    Zonal ion drifts measured from the polar orbiting DE 2 spacecraft are examined to determine the effects of dynamo electric fields and penetration of high latitude electric fields at middle latitudes. Construction of a local time distribution from satellite data results in a mixture of local time and season as well as a range of magnetic activity encompassing Kp ≤ 2 and Kp ≥ 3. Thus some combination of magnetospheric effects, expected to dominate during disturbed times, are seen during both quiet and disturbed times and solar tidal influences are most easily observed during quiet times. During quiet times, at invariant latitudes near 25 degrees, the solar diurnal tide dominates the local time distribution of the ion drift. At latitudes above 50 degrees a diurnal component of comparable magnitude is also present, but its magnetospheric origin produces a shift in phase of almost 180 degrees from the lower latitude diurnal tide. In the intervening region, between 20 degrees and 50 degrees invariant latitude, semidurnal and terdiurnal components in the local time distribution of the drift velocity are also seen. These components are generally larger than those seen by ground based radars during quiet times and may be attributable in part to a difference in solar activity and in part to a combination of the solar tides and magnetospheric penetration fields

  20. Source biases in midlatitude magnetotelluric transfer functions due to Pc3-4 geomagnetic pulsations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Benjamin S.; Egbert, Gary D.

    2018-01-01

    The magnetotelluric (MT) method for imaging the electrical conductivity structure of the Earth is based on the assumption that source magnetic fields can be considered quasi-uniform, such that the spatial scale of the inducing source is much larger than the intrinsic length scale of the electromagnetic induction process (the skin depth). Here, we show using EarthScope MT data that short spatial scale source magnetic fields from geomagnetic pulsations (Pc's) can violate this fundamental assumption. Over resistive regions of the Earth, the skin depth can be comparable to the short meridional range of Pc3-4 disturbances that are generated by geomagnetic field-line resonances (FLRs). In such cases, Pc's can introduce narrow-band bias in MT transfer function estimates at FLR eigenperiods ( 10-100 s). Although it appears unlikely that these biases will be a significant problem for data inversions, further study is necessary to understand the conditions under which they may distort inverse solutions.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  1. The neighbor enclosed area tracking algorithm and its application to cyclone merger in the midlatitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inatsu, Masaru; Amada, Shotarou; Satake, Yuya

    2010-05-01

    The neighbor enclosed area tracking (NEAT) algorithm is proposed as an alternative method to conventional point-to-point cyclone tracking approaches. Most automated Lagrangian tracking algorithms contain three procedures: cyclone identification, cyclone tracking, and quantification of cyclone intensity and activity. The cyclone identification was simply based on a comparison of neighboring grid points; cyclone tracking mainly employed a near-neighbor point search to neighbor-time cyclone-center datasets; and cyclone intensity and activity are mainly quantified as cyclone track density, and other accompanying products such as genesis and lysis densities, mean lifetime, average moving vector, and mean growth rate can also be obtained in the final procedure. But a crucial problem in the above technique is its requirement of some complicated connecting conditions for near-neighbor tracking. To overcome the problem, NEAT completes cyclone identification and cyclone tracking in a single process of equivalent labeling for spatiotemporally connected domains, i.e., if two spatially enclosed areas in a neighboring time frame overlap, they should be connected. NEAT enables us to count the genesis and tracks of individual cyclones as the conventional tracking. Moreover, NEAT has the ability to produce fruitful information on cyclone mergers and separations, cyclone shape, and material transport by individual eddies (the latter two features will be reported elsewhere). There are many possible applications of NEAT to meteorology and oceanography, but now we focus on the situation, well-known by Japanese synopticians, that two cyclones pass respectively over the north and south of Japan and then they frequently merge and are rapidly deepened in the western Pacific. For the case, the southern cyclones tend to be stimulated just above the sea surface temperature front to the north of oceanic western boundary currents, while the northern cyclones, moving eastward along the polar

  2. A Comprehensive Assessment of Radio Occultation Ionospheric Measurements at Mid-Latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keele, C.; Brum, C. G. M.; Rodrigues, F. S.; Aponte, N.; Sulzer, M. P.

    2015-12-01

    The GPS radio occultation (RO) has become a widely used technique for global measurements of the ionospheric electron density (Ne). To advance our understanding of the accuracy of the RO profiles at mid latitudes, we performed a comprehensive comparison of RO measurements made by the Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC) satellites and observations of Ne profiles made by the Arecibo Observatory incoherent scatter radar (ISR). COSMIC is formed by six satellites in circular, 800 km altitude low-Earth orbit (LEO) at 72° inclination. The satellites orbit in their own plane, approximately 24° apart in ascending node. The satellites are equipped with dual-frequency GPS receivers capable of making measurements of the total electron content (TEC) along the signal path and, therefore, RO observations. The Arecibo ISR, located at(18.35°N, 66.75°W; ˜28.25°N dip latitude), operates at a frequency of 430 MHz with a maximum bandwidth of about 1 MHz. The large collecting area provided by the 300 m dish antenna combined with high peak power transmitters (2.0-2.5 MW) allows the radar to make accurate Ne measurements throughout the entire ionospheric F-region and topside heights. We analyzed 74 and 89 days of line feed and Gregorian data, respectively, collected between 2006 and 2014. There were 638 RO profiles measured within 10° of latitude and 20° of longitude from Arecibo Observatory and within ±10 minutes of the radar measurements. Preliminary analyses of the observations show patterns in the relationship between densities measured by the Arecibo ISR and densities estimated from the COSMIC ROs. We will present and discuss the behavior of the patterns. We will also present results of a numerical model representing the patterns and discuss the possibility of using this model to improve RO estimates of density profiles.

  3. Life Cycle of Midlatitude Deep Convective Systems in a Lagrangian Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhe; Dong, Xiquan; Xie, Baike; McFarlane, Sally A.; Kennedy, Aaron; Lin, Bing; Minnis, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Deep Convective Systems (DCSs) consist of intense convective cores (CC), large stratiform rain (SR) regions, and extensive non-precipitating anvil clouds (AC). This study focuses on the evolution of these three components and the factors that affect convective AC production. An automated satellite tracking method is used in conjunction with a recently developed multi-sensor hybrid classification to analyze the evolution of DCS structure in a Lagrangian framework over the central United States. Composite analysis from 4221 tracked DCSs during two warm seasons (May-August, 2010-2011) shows that maximum system size correlates with lifetime, and longer-lived DCSs have more extensive SR and AC. Maximum SR and AC area lag behind peak convective intensity and the lag increases linearly from approximately 1-hour for short-lived systems to more than 3-hours for long-lived ones. The increased lag, which depends on the convective environment, suggests that changes in the overall diabatic heating structure associated with the transition from CC to SR and AC could prolong the system lifetime by sustaining stratiform cloud development. Longer-lasting systems are associated with up to 60% higher mid-tropospheric relative humidity and up to 40% stronger middle to upper tropospheric wind shear. Regression analysis shows that the areal coverage of thick AC is strongly correlated with the size of CC, updraft strength, and SR area. Ambient upper tropospheric wind speed and wind shear also play an important role for convective AC production where for systems with large AC (radius greater than 120-km) they are 24% and 20% higher, respectively, than those with small AC (radius=20 km).

  4. Glacial vs. Interglacial Period Contrasts in Midlatitude Fluvial Systems, with Examples from Western Europe and the Texas Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, M.

    2001-12-01

    Mixed bedrock-alluvial valleys are the conveyor belts for sediment delivery to passive continental margins. Mapping, stratigraphic and sedimentologic investigations, and development of geochronological frameworks for large midlatitude rivers of this type, in Western Europe and the Texas Coastal Plain, provide for evaluation of fluvial responses to climate change over the last glacial-interglacial period, and the foundations for future quantitative evaluation of long profile evolution, changes through time in flood magnitude, and changes in storage and flux of sediments. This paper focuses on two issues. First, glacial vs. interglacial period fluvial systems are fundamentally different in terms of channel geometry, depositional style, and patterns of sediment storage. Glacial-period systems were dominated by coarse-grained channel belts (braided channels in Europe, large-wavelength meandering in Texas), and lacked fine-grained flood-plain deposits, whereas Holocene units, especially those of late Holocene age, contain appreciable thicknesses of flood-plain facies. Hence, extreme overbank flooding was not significant during the long glacial period, most flood events were contained within bankfull channel perimeters, and fine sediments were bypassed through the system to marine basins. By contrast, extreme overbank floods have been increasingly important during the relatively short Holocene, and a significant volume of fine sediment is sequestered in flood-plain settings. Second, glacial vs. interglacial systems exhibit different amplitudes and frequencies of fluvial adjustment to climate change. High-amplitude but low-frequency adjustments characterized the long glacial period, with 2-3 extended periods of lateral migration and sediment storage puncuated by episodes of valley incision. Low-amplitude but high-frequency adjustments have been more typical of the short Holocene, when there has been little net valley incision or net changes in sediment storage, but

  5. Comparison of the decomposition VOC profile during winter and summer in a moist, mid-latitude (Cfb climate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shari L Forbes

    Full Text Available The investigation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs associated with decomposition is an emerging field in forensic taphonomy due to their importance in locating human remains using biological detectors such as insects and canines. A consistent decomposition VOC profile has not yet been elucidated due to the intrinsic impact of the environment on the decomposition process in different climatic zones. The study of decomposition VOCs has typically occurred during the warmer months to enable chemical profiling of all decomposition stages. The present study investigated the decomposition VOC profile in air during both warmer and cooler months in a moist, mid-latitude (Cfb climate as decomposition occurs year-round in this environment. Pig carcasses (Sus scrofa domesticus L. were placed on a soil surface to decompose naturally and their VOC profile was monitored during the winter and summer months. Corresponding control sites were also monitored to determine the natural VOC profile of the surrounding soil and vegetation. VOC samples were collected onto sorbent tubes and analyzed using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography--time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC-TOFMS. The summer months were characterized by higher temperatures and solar radiation, greater rainfall accumulation, and comparable humidity when compared to the winter months. The rate of decomposition was faster and the number and abundance of VOCs was proportionally higher in summer. However, a similar trend was observed in winter and summer demonstrating a rapid increase in VOC abundance during active decay with a second increase in abundance occurring later in the decomposition process. Sulfur-containing compounds, alcohols and ketones represented the most abundant classes of compounds in both seasons, although almost all 10 compound classes identified contributed to discriminating the stages of decomposition throughout both seasons. The advantages of GC × GC-TOFMS were

  6. Macrophysical and optical properties of midlatitude cirrus clouds from four ground-based lidars and collocated CALIOP observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupont, Jean-Charles; Haeffelin, M.; Morille, Y.; Noel, V.; Keckhut, P.; Winker, D.; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Chervet, P.; Roblin, A.

    2010-05-27

    Ground-based lidar and CALIOP datasets gathered over four mid-latitude sites, two US and two French sites, are used to evaluate the consistency of cloud macrophysical and optical property climatologies that can be derived by such datasets. The consistency in average cloud height (both base and top height) between the CALIOP and ground datasets ranges from -0.4km to +0.5km. The cloud geometrical thickness distributions vary significantly between the different datasets, due in part to the original vertical resolutions of the lidar profiles. Average cloud geometrical thicknesses vary from 1.2 to 1.9km, i.e. by more than 50%. Cloud optical thickness distributions in subvisible, semi-transparent and moderate intervals differ by more than 50% between ground and space-based datasets. The cirrus clouds with 2 optical thickness below 0.1 (not included in historical cloud climatologies) represent 30-50% of the non-opaque cirrus class. The differences in average cloud base altitude between ground and CALIOP datasets of 0.0-0.1 km, 0.0-0.2 km and 0.0-0.2 km can be attributed to irregular sampling of seasonal variations in the ground-based data, to day-night differences in detection capabilities by CALIOP, and to the restriction to situations without low-level clouds in ground-based data, respectively. The cloud geometrical thicknesses are not affected by irregular sampling of seasonal variations in the ground-based data, while up to 0.0-0.2 km and 0.1-0.3 km differences can be attributed to day-night differences in detection capabilities by CALIOP, and to the restriction to situations without lowlevel clouds in ground-based data, respectively.

  7. Long-term changes in lower tropospheric baseline ozone concentrations: Comparing chemistry-climate models and observations at northern midlatitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, D. D.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Naik, V.; Horowitz, L.; Shindell, D. T.; Staehelin, J.; Derwent, R.; Cooper, O. R.; Tanimoto, H.; Volz-Thomas, A.; Gilge, S.; Scheel, H.-E.; Steinbacher, M.; Fröhlich, M.

    2014-05-01

    Two recent papers have quantified long-term ozone (O3) changes observed at northern midlatitude sites that are believed to represent baseline (here understood as representative of continental to hemispheric scales) conditions. Three chemistry-climate models (NCAR CAM-chem, GFDL-CM3, and GISS-E2-R) have calculated retrospective tropospheric O3 concentrations as part of the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project and Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 model intercomparisons. We present an approach for quantitative comparisons of model results with measurements for seasonally averaged O3 concentrations. There is considerable qualitative agreement between the measurements and the models, but there are also substantial and consistent quantitative disagreements. Most notably, models (1) overestimate absolute O3 mixing ratios, on average by 5 to 17 ppbv in the year 2000, (2) capture only 50% of O3 changes observed over the past five to six decades, and little of observed seasonal differences, and (3) capture 25 to 45% of the rate of change of the long-term changes. These disagreements are significant enough to indicate that only limited confidence can be placed on estimates of present-day radiative forcing of tropospheric O3 derived from modeled historic concentration changes and on predicted future O3 concentrations. Evidently our understanding of tropospheric O3, or the incorporation of chemistry and transport processes into current chemical climate models, is incomplete. Modeled O3 trends approximately parallel estimated trends in anthropogenic emissions of NOx, an important O3 precursor, while measured O3 changes increase more rapidly than these emission estimates.

  8. Trends and variability of midlatitude stratospheric water vapour deduced from the re-evaluated Boulder balloon series and HALOE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Scherer

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an updated trend analysis of water vapour in the lower midlatitude stratosphere from the Boulder balloon-borne NOAA frostpoint hygrometer measurements and from the Halogen Occulation Experiment (HALOE. Two corrections for instrumental bias are applied to homogenise the frostpoint data series, and a quality assessment of all soundings after 1991 is presented. Linear trend estimates based on the corrected data for the period 1980–2000 are up to 40% lower than previously reported. Vertically resolved trends and variability are calculated with a multi regression analysis including the quasi-biennal oscillation and equivalent latitude as explanatory variables. In the range of 380 to 640 K potential temperature (≈14 to 25 km, the frostpoint data from 1981 to 2006 show positive linear trends between 0.3±0.3 and 0.7±0.1%/yr. The same dataset shows trends between −0.2±0.3 and 1.0±0.3%/yr for the period 1992 to 2005. HALOE data over the same time period suggest negative trends ranging from −1.1±0.2 to −0.1±0.1%/yr. In the lower stratosphere, a rapid drop of water vapour is observed in 2000/2001 with little change since. At higher altitudes, the transition is more gradual, with slowly decreasing concentrations between 2001 and 2007. This pattern is consistent with a change induced by a drop of water concentrations at entry into the stratosphere. Previously noted differences in trends and variability between frostpoint and HALOE remain for the homogenised data. Due to uncertainties in reanalysis temperatures and stratospheric transport combined with uncertainties in observations, no quantitative inference about changes of water entering the stratosphere in the tropics could be made with the mid latitude measurements analysed here.

  9. The transient behavior of whole-canopy fluxes during dynamic light conditions for midlatitude and tropical forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzjarrald, D. R.; Kivalov, S. N.

    2017-12-01

    Cloud shadows lead to alternating light and dark periods at the surface. Understanding how clouds affect whole-canopy fluxes suffer from two knowledge gaps that limit scaling from leaf to canopy scales, an effort currently done by assertion alone. First, there is a lack a clear quantitative definition of the incident light time series that occur on specific types of cloudy days. Second, the characteristic time scales for leaves to respond to for stomatal opening and closing is 1-10 minutes, a period too short to allow accurate eddy fluxes. We help to close the first gap by linking the durations of alternating light and dark periods statistically to conventional meteorological sky types at a midlatitude mixed deciduous forest (Harvard Forest, MA, USA: 42.53N, 72.17W) and in a tropical rain forest (Tapajós National Forest, Brazil; 2.86S, 54.96W). The second gap is narrowed by measuring the dynamic response whole canopy exchanges in the flux footprint at intervals of only a few seconds using the classical ensemble average method, keying on step changes in light intensity. Combining light and shadow periods of different lengths we estimate ensemble fluxes sensible heat (H), net ecosystem exchange (NEE), and latent heat (LE) fluxes initiated by abrupt radiation changes at intervals of 30 s over 20 minutes. We present composite results of the transient behavior of whole-canopy fluxes at each forest, showing distinct features of each forest type. Observed time constants and transient flux parameterizations are then used to force a simple model to yield NEE, LE, WUE, and Bowen ratio extrema under periodic shadow-light conditions and given cloud amount. We offer the hypothesis that, at least on certain types of cloudy days, the well-known correlation between diffuse light and WUE does not represent a causal connection at the canopy scale.

  10. A multi-platform investigation of midlatitude sporadic E and its ties to E–F coupling and meteor activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Helmboldt

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the results of a multi-platform observing campaign aimed at studying midlatitude sporadic E (Es and associated ionospheric phenomena. The assets used were the digisonde in Boulder, Colorado; the first station of the Long Wavelength Array, LWA1, in New Mexico; the transmitters of the radio station WWV in Colorado; and 61 continuously operating GPS receivers between LWA1 and WWV. The results show that southwestward-directed medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (MSTIDs were substantially more prevalent when Es was detected. The amplitudes of these correlate with a plasma frequency up to about 4.5 MHz. For fp ≳ 5 MHz, the MSTIDs become significantly weaker and basically vanish above  ∼ 6.5 MHz. The prevalence of meteor trail reflections observed with LWA1 also correlates with fp up to about 4.5 MHz; above this limit, the relationship exhibits a significant turnover. The observed intensity of coherent backscatter from Es field-aligned irregularities (FAIs also correlates with inferred plasma frequency. However, this trend continues to higher frequencies with a peak near 6 MHz, followed by a much more subtle turnover. The reflected power from Es structures observed with LWA1 is significantly more correlated on spatial scales between 10 and 40 km. The magnitude of this correlation increases with fp up to  ∼  6 MHz, above which it drops. These results are consistent with the following: (1 southwestward-directed MSTIDs are produced via E–F coupling; (2 this coupling is stronger when the Es layer, seeded by meteor ablation, is more dense; (3 the coupling is substantially diminished for Es layers harboring extremely dense structures (fp ≳ 5 MHz.

  11. Validation of the Martilli's Urban Boundary Layer Scheme with measurements from two mid-latitude European cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdi, R.; Schayes, G.

    2005-07-01

    The Martilli's urban parameterization scheme is improved and implemented in a mesoscale model in order to take into account the typical effects of a real city on the air temperature near the ground and on the surface exchange fluxes. The mesoscale model is run on a single column using atmospheric data and radiation recorded above roof level as forcing. Here, the authors validate the Martilli's urban boundary layer scheme using measurements from two mid-latitude European cities: Basel, Switzerland and Marseilles, France. For Basel, the model performance is evaluated with observations of canyon temperature, surface radiation, and energy balance fluxes obtained during the Basel urban boundary layer experiment (BUBBLE). The results show that the urban parameterization scheme is able to reproduce the generation of the Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect over urban area and represents correctly most of the behavior of the fluxes typical of the city center of Basel, including the large heat uptake by the urban fabric and the positive sensible heat flux at night. For Marseilles, the model performance is evaluated with observations of surface temperature, canyon temperature, surface radiation, and energy balance fluxes collected during the field experiments to constrain models of atmospheric pollution and transport of emissions (ESCOMPTE) and its urban boundary layer (UBL) campaign. At both urban sites, vegetation cover is less than 20%, therefore, particular attention was directed to the ability of the Martilli's urban boundary layer scheme to reproduce the observations for the Marseilles city center, where the urban parameters and the synoptic forcing are totally different from Basel. Evaluation of the model with wall, road, and roof surface temperatures gave good results. The model correctly simulates the net radiation, canyon temperature, and the partitioning between the turbulent and storage heat fluxes.

  12. Validation of Martilli's urban boundary layer scheme with measurements from two mid-latitude European cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Hamdi

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Martilli's urban parameterization scheme is improved and implemented in a mesoscale model in order to take into account the typical effects of a real city on the air temperature near the ground and on the surface exchange fluxes. The mesoscale model is run on a single column using atmospheric data and radiation recorded above roof level as forcing. Here, the authors validate Martilli's urban boundary layer scheme using measurements from two mid-latitude European cities: Basel, Switzerland and Marseilles, France. For Basel, the model performance is evaluated with observations of canyon temperature, surface radiation, and energy balance fluxes obtained during the Basel urban boundary layer experiment (BUBBLE. The results show that the urban parameterization scheme represents correctly most of the behavior of the fluxes typical of the city center of Basel, including the large heat uptake by the urban fabric and the positive sensible heat flux at night. For Marseilles, the model performance is evaluated with observations of surface temperature, canyon temperature, surface radiation, and energy balance fluxes collected during the field experiments to constrain models of atmospheric pollution and transport of emissions (ESCOMPTE and its urban boundary layer (UBL campaign. At both urban sites, vegetation cover is less than 20%, therefore, particular attention was directed to the ability of Martilli's urban boundary layer scheme to reproduce the observations for the Marseilles city center, where the urban parameters and the synoptic forcing are totally different from Basel. Evaluation of the model with wall, road, and roof surface temperatures gave good results. The model correctly simulates the net radiation, canyon temperature, and the partitioning between the turbulent and storage heat fluxes.

  13. Geomagnetic activity at Northern Hemisphere's mid-latitude ground stations: How much can be explained using TS05 model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Yvelice; Pais, Maria Alexandra; Fernandes, João; Ribeiro, Paulo; Morozova, Anna L.; Pinheiro, Fernando J. G.

    2017-12-01

    For the 2007 to 2014 period, we use a statistical approach to evaluate the performance of Tsyganenko and Sitnov [2005] semi-empirical model (TS05) in estimating the magnetospheric transient signal observed at four Northern Hemisphere mid-latitude ground stations: Coimbra, Portugal; Panagyurishte, Bulgary; Novosibirsk, Russia and Boulder, USA. Using hourly mean data, we find that the TS05 performance is clearly better for the X (North-South) than for the Y (East-West) field components and for more geomagnetically active days as determined by local K-indices. In ∼ 50% (X) and ∼ 30% (Y) of the total number of geomagnetically active days, correlation values yield r ≥ 0.7. During more quiet conditions, only ∼ 30% (X) and ∼ 15% (Y) of the number of analyzed days yield r ≥ 0.7. We compute separate contributions from different magnetospheric currents to data time variability and to signal magnitude. During more active days, all tail, symmetric ring and partial ring currents contribute to the time variability of X while the partial ring and field aligned currents contribute most to the time variability of Y. The tail and symmetric ring currents are main contributors to the magnitude of X. In the best case estimations when r ≥ 0.7, remaining differences between observations and TS05 predictions could be explained by global induction in the Earth's upper layers and crustal magnetization. The closing of field aligned currents through the Earth's center in the TS05 model seems to be mainly affecting the Y magnetospheric field predictions.

  14. Mid-latitude tropospheric ozone columns from the MOZAIC program: climatology and interannual variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Zbinden

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Several thousands of ozone vertical profiles collected in the course of the MOZAIC programme (Measurements of Ozone, Water Vapour, Carbon Monoxide and Nitrogen Oxides by In-Service Airbus Aircraft from August 1994 to February 2002 are investigated to bring out climatological and interannual variability aspects. The study is centred on the most frequently visited MOZAIC airports, i.e. Frankfurt (Germany, Paris (France, New York (USA and the cluster of Tokyo, Nagoya and Osaka (Japan. The analysis focuses on the vertical integration of ozone from the ground to the dynamical tropopause and the vertical integration of stratospheric-origin ozone throughout the troposphere. The characteristics of the MOZAIC profiles: frequency of flights, accuracy, precision, and depth of the troposphere observed, are presented. The climatological analysis shows that the Tropospheric Ozone Column (TOC seasonal cycle ranges from a wintertime minimum at all four stations to a spring-summer maximum in Frankfurt, Paris, and New York. Over Japan, the maximum occurs in spring presumably because of the earlier springtime sun. The incursion of monsoon air masses into the boundary layer and into the mid troposphere then steeply diminishes the summertime value. Boundary layer contributions to the TOC are 10% higher in New York than in Frankfurt and Paris during spring and summer, and are 10% higher in Japan than in New York, Frankfurt and Paris during autumn and early spring. Local and remote anthropogenic emissions, and biomass burning over upstream regions of Asia may be responsible for the larger low- and mid-tropospheric contributions to the tropospheric ozone column over Japan throughout the year except during the summer-monsoon season. A simple Lagrangian analysis has shown that a minimum of 10% of the TOC is of stratospheric-origin throughout the year. Investigation of the short-term trends of the TOC over the period 1995–2001 shows a linear increase 0.7%/year in

  15. Final DOE-ASR Report for the Project “Advancing our Understanding and the Remote Sensing of Ice Clouds”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, David [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Erfani, Ehsan [George Mason Univ., Fairfax, VA (United States); Garnier, Anne [Science Systems and Applications, Inc., Hampton, VA (United States); Lawson, Paul [SPEC, Inc., Boulder, CO (United States); Morrison, Hugh [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Avery, Melody [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States)

    2016-12-29

    tropics. Thus, the microphysical properties of cirrus clouds in the Polar Regions are much different than they are in the tropics; something unknown prior to this study. Moreover, the frequency of cirrus cloud occurrence in the Polar Regions varies strongly with season, peaking during winter in the Arctic and during spring in the Antarctic. Considering these seasonal changes in microphysics and inferred cloud coverage, this leads us to speculate that the buildup of Arctic cirrus during winter may significantly contribute to tropospheric heating in that region, possibly affecting winter jet-stream dynamics and mid-latitude weather patterns through the thermal-wind balance relationship. This cirrus cloud research provides essential guidance for realistically representing cirrus clouds in climate models; guidance previously unavailable. For example, mid-latitude hom cirrus were widespread during winter over or nearby mountainous terrain, evidently due to mountain-induced waves that produce strong updrafts at cirrus cloud levels. The treatment of turbulent mountain stress and gravity waves will likely need to be improved in climate models in order to adequately represent cirrus clouds outside the tropics. Another goal of this project was to develop a ground-based 94-GHz radar retrieval for winter snowstorms, based on (1) an improved analytical framework describing the interaction of radiation from radar with snowfall and (2) the development of a steady-state snow growth model that predicts the height-evolution of the ice particle size distribution through ice particle growth by vapor diffusion, aggregation and riming (i.e. the growth of snow through collisions with supercooled cloud droplets). Although activities (1) and (2) were completed, there was insufficient time to test and finalize the radar retrieval scheme. However, activity (2) provided a new method for relating ice particle mass “m” and projected area “A” to the ice particle maximum dimension “D”. The

  16. Metodología para la localización de un parque de tratamiento y disposición final de residuos sólidos de tipo regional desde una perspectiva multidimensional Methodology for the location of a treatment and solid waste disposal regional park, from a multidimensional perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Elizabeth Valencia Londoño

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available El manejo y disposición final de los residuos sólidos en el oriente antioqueño siempre ha sido una preocupación desde CORNARE y los entes territoriales.El artículo presenta los hallazgos de una investigación realizado por el grupo proyecto Ciudad de la facultad de Artes Integradas de la Universidad de San Buenaventura, cofinanciado por CORNARE, cuyo objetivo es presentar la metodología elaborada para la determinación de las áreas potenciales para el asentamiento de un parque de tratamiento y disposición final de residuos sólidos de tipo regional, teniendo como soporte la descripción, caracterización y análisis del ambiente (abiótico, biótico y socioeconómico en la subregión Valles de San Nicolás. Dicha propuesta se basa en un análisis matricial combinado con una herramienta SIG, que permitió evaluar diferentes sitios desde su viabilidad, ambiental, social, económica y física y entregar tanto a las Administraciones municipales como a la Corporación una estrategia metodológica que, incorporando lo planteado en el decreto 838, permita una toma de decisiones territoriales acertadas.The issue of handling and disposal of solid waste in eastern Antioquia has always been a topic of special concern and attention from CORNARE and local authorities. This article presents the findings of a project conducted by Universidad de San Buenaventura, School of Arts, City Project Group, founded by CORNARE, which aims to present the methodology developed for the identification of potential areas for the settlement of a park of Treatment and Disposal of Solid Waste Regional Type, having as support the description, characterization and analysis of (abiotic, biotic, and socio-economic environment in Valles de San Nicolás region. This proposal is based on a matrix analysis tool combined with GIS, which allowed us to evaluate different sites from its environmental, social, economic, and physical feasibility, and deliver to both local governments

  17. The mid-latitude ionosphere under quiet geomagnetic conditions: propagation analysis of SuperDARN radar observations from large ionospheric perturbations

    OpenAIRE

    De Larquier, Sebastien

    2013-01-01

    The Earth's ionosphere is a dynamic environment strongly coupled to the neutral atmosphere, magnetosphere and solar activity. In the context of this research, we restrict our interest to the mid-latitude (a.k.a., sub-auroral) ionosphere during quiet geomagnetic conditions. The Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) is composed of more than 30 low-power High Frequency (HF, from 8-18 MHz) Doppler radars covering the sub-auroral, auroral and polar ionosphere in both hemispheres. SuperDARN ...

  18. Cassini's Grand Finale Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilker, L. J.

    2017-12-01

    After 13 years in orbit, the Cassini-Huygens Mission to Saturn ended in a science-rich blaze of glory. Cassini sent back its final bits of unique science data on September 15, 2017, as it plunged into Saturn's atmosphere, vaporizing and satisfying planetary protection requirements. Cassini's final phase covered roughly ten months and ended with the first time exploration of the region between the rings and planet. In late 2016 Cassini transitioned to a series of 20 Ring Grazing orbits with peripases just outside Saturn's F ring, providing close flybys of tiny ring moons, including Pan, Daphnis and Atlas, and high-resolution views of Saturn's A and F rings. A final Titan flyby in late April 2017 propelled Cassini across Saturn's main rings and into its Grand Finale orbits. Comprised of 22 orbits, Cassini repeatedly dove between Saturn's innermost rings and upper atmosphere to answer fundamental questions unattainable earlier in the mission. The last orbit turned the spacecraft into the first Saturn atmosphere probe. The Grand Finale orbits provided highest resolution observations of both the rings and Saturn, and in-situ sampling of the ring particle composition, Saturn's atmosphere, plasma, and innermost radiation belts. The gravitational field was measured to unprecedented accuracy, providing information on the interior structure of the planet, winds in the deeper atmosphere, and mass of the rings. The magnetic field provided insight into the physical nature of the magnetic dynamo and structure of the internal magnetic field. The ion and neutral mass spectrometer sampled the upper atmosphere for molecules that escape the atmosphere in addition to molecules originating from the rings. The cosmic dust analyzer directly sampled the composition from different parts of the main rings for the first time. Fields and particles instruments directly measured the plasma environment between the rings and planet. Science highlights and new mysteries collected in the Grand

  19. Development of nuclear data library for nucleon-induced reactions on heavy nuclei in wide energy region. Final Project Technical Report on the work performed from 01.12.2003 to 30.04.2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yavshits, S G [V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2011-05-15

    The main goal of the project is to the development of nuclear data calculation technique for innovative hybrid nuclear technologies, first at all for technology of radioactive waste transmutation and energy production. Within the framework of the project two main problems were decided: - development of a reliable code enabling for calculation of main characteristics of nuclear reactions induced by nucleons in wide energy range; - development of nuclear data library containing complete transport files for hybrid accelerator- driven systems. The results of the project have both fundamental and applied character. Within the framework of the project the following main results were obtained: The analysis of experimental and theoretical data for all items in question of new data library; The development of new parameterization of global optical potential which is necessary for entrance channel simulation and development of appropriate subroutines for a code realizing method of coupled channels for reaction cross-section calculations; The updating of existing models and codes and the development of new ones for a fast reaction stage (intranuclear cascade model), preequilibrium stage (model with a multiple emission of particles) and final stage (statistical model of fission/particle emission competition) for reactions with intermediate energy nucleons; The development of model for fission barriers and fission products yield calculations; inclusion of the appropriate subroutines in a statistical code; The test calculations with the code system developed and analysis of the results and comparison with existing experimental data; The systematical calculations for reactions with protons and neutrons (20-1000 MeV) for a wide range of targets; For each reaction (fixed target + projectile (proton or neutron) for fixed energy) the nuclear data file in the ENDF-6 format has been developed, including: - total cross section, reaction cross section and cross section of elastic

  20. Evaluation of cloud-resolving model simulations of midlatitude cirrus with ARM and A-train observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhlbauer, A.; Ackerman, T. P.; Lawson, R. P.; Xie, S.; Zhang, Y.

    2015-07-01

    Cirrus clouds are ubiquitous in the upper troposphere and still constitute one of the largest uncertainties in climate predictions. This paper evaluates cloud-resolving model (CRM) and cloud system-resolving model (CSRM) simulations of a midlatitude cirrus case with comprehensive observations collected under the auspices of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program and with spaceborne observations from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration A-train satellites. The CRM simulations are driven with periodic boundary conditions and ARM forcing data, whereas the CSRM simulations are driven by the ERA-Interim product. Vertical profiles of temperature, relative humidity, and wind speeds are reasonably well simulated by the CSRM and CRM, but there are remaining biases in the temperature, wind speeds, and relative humidity, which can be mitigated through nudging the model simulations toward the observed radiosonde profiles. Simulated vertical velocities are underestimated in all simulations except in the CRM simulations with grid spacings of 500 m or finer, which suggests that turbulent vertical air motions in cirrus clouds need to be parameterized in general circulation models and in CSRM simulations with horizontal grid spacings on the order of 1 km. The simulated ice water content and ice number concentrations agree with the observations in the CSRM but are underestimated in the CRM simulations. The underestimation of ice number concentrations is consistent with the overestimation of radar reflectivity in the CRM simulations and suggests that the model produces too many large ice particles especially toward the cloud base. Simulated cloud profiles are rather insensitive to perturbations in the initial conditions or the dimensionality of the model domain, but the treatment of the forcing data has a considerable effect on the outcome of the model simulations. Despite considerable progress in observations and microphysical parameterizations, simulating

  1. Physical Validation of GPM Retrieval Algorithms Over Land: An Overview of the Mid-Latitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Walter A.; Jensen, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    The joint NASA Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) -- DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) was conducted from April 22-June 6, 2011, centered on the DOE-ARM Southern Great Plains Central Facility site in northern Oklahoma. GPM field campaign objectives focused on the collection of airborne and ground-based measurements of warm-season continental precipitation processes to support refinement of GPM retrieval algorithm physics over land, and to improve the fidelity of coupled cloud resolving and land-surface satellite simulator models. DOE ARM objectives were synergistically focused on relating observations of cloud microphysics and the surrounding environment to feedbacks on convective system dynamics, an effort driven by the need to better represent those interactions in numerical modeling frameworks. More specific topics addressed by MC3E include ice processes and ice characteristics as coupled to precipitation at the surface and radiometer signals measured in space, the correlation properties of rainfall and drop size distributions and impacts on dual-frequency radar retrieval algorithms, the transition of cloud water to rain water (e.g., autoconversion processes) and the vertical distribution of cloud water in precipitating clouds, and vertical draft structure statistics in cumulus convection. The MC3E observational strategy relied on NASA ER-2 high-altitude airborne multi-frequency radar (HIWRAP Ka-Ku band) and radiometer (AMPR, CoSMIR; 10-183 GHz) sampling (a GPM "proxy") over an atmospheric column being simultaneously profiled in situ by the University of North Dakota Citation microphysics aircraft, an array of ground-based multi-frequency scanning polarimetric radars (DOE Ka-W, X and C-band; NASA D3R Ka-Ku and NPOL S-bands) and wind-profilers (S/UHF bands), supported by a dense network of over 20 disdrometers and rain gauges, all nested in the coverage of a six-station mesoscale rawinsonde

  2. Use of imploding spheres: An alternative to explosives as acoustic sources at mid-latitude SOFAR channel depths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harben, P.E.; Boro, C.; Dorman, L.; Pulli, J.

    2000-05-01

    depths (500 meters - 1200 meters in mid-latitudes). A much thinner walled sphere, a special order modification of a standard 22 liter laboratory boiling flask made by the Kontes Glass Company, was also tested and found to fail in the desired manner, i.e. catastrophically. A test off the coast of California successfully initiated implosion of a Kontes sphere at 685 meters depth. The recorded signal showed a peak pressure slightly larger than that from 1 lb of high explosive detonated at the same depth. The signal spectra showed relatively broad band higher frequency energy with little signal below about 50 Hz and a broad peak in the amplitude spectra between about 200 and 800 Hz, similar to that from an explosive source detonated at the same depth. Although additional testing and development is needed, an imploding sphere source for hydroacoustic calibrations appears viable. Since the source spectra frequencies are generally higher than the frequency band used for nuclear explosion monitoring, low frequency signals (1-50 Hz) will be absent from the implosion source spectra. Calibration will have to be accomplished with frequencies above 50 Hz unless larger spheres, multiple spheres, or shallower implosion depths are used. (author)

  3. Seminario Tecnico Regional Sobre Alternativas de Educacion Basica de Adultos en el Marco de la REDALF del Proyecto Principal de Educacion en America Latina y el Caribe (Colonia Tovar, Venezuela, 29 de Septiembre al 3 de Octubre, 1986). Documento Final. (Regional Seminar on Alternatives for Basic Adult Education in the REDALF Project for Education in Latin America and the Caribbean (Colonia Tovar, Venezuela, September 29-October 3, 1986). Final Document.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Santiago (Chile). Regional Office for Education in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    The final report of a conference concerning adult basic education de Adultos en el Marco de la REDALF del related to innovative projects in adult education in nine countries. A wide spectrum of issues related to adult basic education, curriculum, methodology, evaluation, and research are analyzed in the context of educational planning. Among the…

  4. Ethical aspects of final disposal. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baltes, B.; Leder, W.; Achenbach, G.B.; Spaemann, R.; Gerhardt, V.

    2003-01-01

    In fulfilment of this task the Federal Environmental Ministry has commissioned GRS to summarise the current national and international status of ethical aspects of the final disposal of radioactive wastes as part of the project titled ''Final disposal of radioactive wastes as seen from the viewpoint of ethical objectives''. The questions arising from the opinions, positions and publications presented in the report by GRS were to serve as a basis for an expert discussion or an interdisciplinary discussion forum for all concerned with the ethical aspects of an answerable approach to the final disposal of radioactive wastes. In April 2001 GRS held a one-day seminar at which leading ethicists and philosophers offered statements on the questions referred to above and joined in a discussion with experts on issues of final disposal. This report documents the questions that arose ahead of the workshop, the specialist lectures held there and a summary of the discussion results [de

  5. Preparation of Neo-Literate Materials for Rural Development. Final Report of a Regional Workshop on the Preparation of Literacy Follow-Up Materials in Asia and the Pacific (6th, Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia, September 21-30, 1988).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asian Cultural Centre for UNESCO, Tokyo (Japan).

    The proceedings of the sixth regional workshop consist of a description of the project and the workshop; a description of the field survey, preparation, and field testing of materials by the group; five papers presented at the workshop; and notes on planned follow-up activities in the participating countries. The workshop culminated a project on…

  6. Impacts of microphysics, radiation and environmental winds in mid-latitude and tropical squall-line systems, and their climatic implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, Hung-Neng.

    1994-08-01

    Cloud-radiation feedback has been identified as the most important factor limiting general circulation models (GCMS) to further progress in climate change research (Cess et al., 1989). It is also regarded as a major uncertainty in estimating the impact of greenhouse gases on climate simulations. As a result, many GCMs showed high sensitivity to the treatment of clouds and cloud radiative properties. Therefore, a better understanding of cloud-radiation feedback on the large-scale environment is absolutely essential to improve the representation of cloud processes in GCMS. To this end, a cloud model with enhanced model physics is used to study the impact of cloud-radiation interactions on mesoscale convective systems (MCSs). Case studies representing a variety of convective systems are important to generalize the overall effects of anvil clouds on the large-scale environment. Our primary interesting is limited to the MCSs in an environment with substantial wind shear, such as squall-line systems, because they have longer lifetime and wider coverage to impact the earth radiation budget and climate. The objective of this study is to investigate the impacts of microphysics, radiation and environmental winds on mid-latitude continental and tropical oceanic squall-line systems. Comparisons between these two systems are presented. Recent studies indicated that the vertical shear of the environmental wind plays an important role in the formation of the anvil cloud through the tilting of MCSS. However, this process has not been represented in GCMS. A detailed investigation on the formation of anvil clouds and their relationship to cumulus portions of MCSs would help develop a better cloud parameterization for use in GCMS. Two important issues are addressed through these comparisons. First, what factors cause the differences between mid-latitude and tropical anvil clouds? Second, do these differences have climatic implications to improve our climate forecasting ability?

  7. Cassini's Grand Finale Science Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilker, Linda

    2017-10-01

    After 13 years in orbit, the Cassini-Huygens Mission to Saturn ended in a science-rich blaze of glory. Cassini returned its final bits of unique science data on September 15, 2017, as it plunged into Saturn's atmosphere satisfying planetary protection requirements. Cassini's Grand Finale covered a period of roughly five months and ended with the first time exploration of the region between the rings and planet.The final close flyby of Titan in late April 2017 propelled Cassini across Saturn’s main rings and into its Grand Finale orbits; 22 orbits that repeatedly dove between Saturn’s innermost rings and upper atmosphere making Cassini the first spacecraft to explore this region. The last orbit turned the spacecraft into the first Saturn upper atmospheric probe.The Grand Finale orbits provided highest resolution observations of both the rings and Saturn, and in-situ sampling of the ring particle composition, Saturn's atmosphere, plasma, and innermost radiation belts. The gravitational field was measured to unprecedented accuracy, providing information on the interior structure of the planet, winds in the deeper atmosphere, and mass of the rings. The magnetic field provided insight into the physical nature of the magnetic dynamo and structure of the internal magnetic field. The ion and neutral mass spectrometer sampled the upper atmosphere for molecules that escape the atmosphere in addition to molecules originating from the rings. The cosmic dust analyzer directly sampled the composition from different parts of the main rings for the first time. Fields and particles instruments directly measured the plasma environment between the rings and planet.Science highlights and new mysteries gleaned to date from the Grand Finale orbits will be discussed.The research described in this paper was carried out in part at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Copyright 2017

  8. Metodología para la localización de un parque de tratamiento y disposición final de residuos sólidos de tipo regional desde una perspectiva multidimensional

    OpenAIRE

    Valencia Londoño, Diana Elizabeth; Arias Muñoz, Carolina; Vanegas Ospino, Enrique

    2010-01-01

    El manejo y disposición final de los residuos sólidos en el oriente antioqueño siempre ha sido una preocupación desde CORNARE y los entes territoriales.El artículo presenta los hallazgos de una investigación realizado por el grupo proyecto Ciudad de la facultad de Artes Integradas de la Universidad de San Buenaventura, cofinanciado por CORNARE, cuyo objetivo es presentar la metodología elaborada para la determinación de las áreas potenciales para el asentamiento de un parque de tratamiento y ...

  9. Space Weather Research in the Equatorial Region: A Philosophical Reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukwuma, Victor; Odunaike, Rasaki; Laoye, John

    Investigations using radio waves reflected from the ionosphere, at high-and mid-latitudes indicate that ionospheric absorption can strongly increase following geomagnetic storms; which appears to suggest some definite relationship between ionospheric radio wave absorption and geomagnetic storms at these latitudes. However, corresponding earlier studies in the equatorial region did not appear to show any explicit relationship between ionospheric radio wave absorption and geomagnetic storm activity. This position appeared acceptable to the existing scientific paradigm, until in an act of paradigm shift, by a change of storm selection criteria, some more recent space weather investigations in the low latitudes showed that ionospheric radio wave absorption in the equatorial region clearly increases after intense storms. Given that these results in the equatorial region stood against the earlier results, this paper presently attempts to highlight their philosophical underpinning and posit that they constitute a scientific statement.

  10. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuur, Edward [Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff, AZ (United States); Luo, Yiqi [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This final grant report is a continuation of the final grant report submitted for DE-SC0006982 as the Principle Investigator (Schuur) relocated from the University of Florida to Northern Arizona University. This report summarizes the original project goals, as well as includes new project activities that were completed in the final period of the project.

  11. Final Report for Cloud-Aerosol Physics in Super-Parameterized Atmospheric Regional Climate Simulations (CAP-SPARCS)(DE-SC0002003) for 8/15/2009 through 8/14/2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, Lynn M; Somerville, Richard C.J.

    2012-11-05

    Improving the representation of local and non-local aerosol interactions in state-of-the-science regional climate models is a priority for the coming decade (Zhang, 2008). With this aim in mind, we have combined two new technologies that have a useful synergy: (1) an aerosol-enabled regional climate model (Advanced Weather Research and Forecasting Model with Chemistry WRF-Chem), whose primary weakness is a lack of high quality boundary conditions and (2) an aerosol-enabled multiscale modeling framework (PNNL Multiscale Aerosol Climate Model (MACM)), which is global but captures aerosol-convection-cloud feedbacks, and thus an ideal source of boundary conditions. Combining these two approaches has resulted in an aerosol-enabled modeling framework that not only resolves high resolution details in a particular region, but crucially does so within a global context that is similarly faithful to multi-scale aerosol-climate interactions. We have applied and improved the representation of aerosol interactions by evaluating model performance over multiple domains, with (1) an extensive evaluation of mid-continent precipitation representation by multiscale modeling, (2) two focused comparisons to transport of aerosol plumes to the eastern United States for comparison with observations made as part of the International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation (ICARTT), with the first being idealized and the second being linked to an extensive wildfire plume, and (3) the extension of these ideas to the development of a new approach to evaluating aerosol indirect effects with limited-duration model runs by nudging to observations. This research supported the work of one postdoc (Zhan Zhao) for two years and contributed to the training and research of two graduate students. Four peer-reviewed publications have resulted from this work, and ground work for a follow-on project was completed.

  12. IRIS Toxicological Review of Trichloroacetic Acid (Tca) (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has finalized the Toxicological Review of Trichloroacetic Acid: in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Now final, this assessment may be used by EPA’s program and regional offices to inform decisions to protect human health.

  13. Simulation of convection over the ocean in the region of the intertropical convergence zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levkov, L; Eppel, D; Grassl, H

    1986-01-01

    A parameterization scheme for the simulation of mid-latitude convective structures is incorporated into a three-dimensional hydrostatic mesoscale model using data from GATE 1974. The scheme gives realistic space extension and evolution time scales of tropical cloud clusters. The rainfall computed in the model agrees with the magnitude of the radar rainfall. According to the different treatment of the microphysics we have found considerable differences in the microphysical and dynamical evolution of the clouds but not considerable changes in the final mean vertical profiles after precipitation.

  14. Climate change and the Lower Weser region. Final report; Klimaaenderung und Unterweserregion (KLIMU) 'Fallstudie Weseraestuar'. Teilprojekt: Oekologischer Komplex. T. B: Klimasensitivitaet der Unterweser und ihrer Vorlaender. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osterkamp, S.; Schirmer, M.

    2000-12-01

    The climate sensitivity of the aquatic, amphibic and terrestrial compartments of the lower Weser region was analyzed. This region, located between Bremen and Bremerhaven in northern Germany, is part of a bigger natural reserve ('Unterwesermarsch'). Vegetation and land use were mapped at the biotype level, and forecasts of changes to be expected were attempted on the basis of a regionalised climate scenario. Climate-induced changes in the topology of the headlands and in the morphology of the lower Weser river could not be taken into account. [German] In der vorliegenden Arbeit (Teil B: 'Klimasensitivitaet der Unterweser und ihrer Vorlaender') des Teilprojektes Oekologischer Komplex wird die Klimasensitivitaet der aquatischen, amphibischen und terrestrischen Lebensraeume der Unterweserregion analysiert. (Die Ergebnisse der Untersuchungen der Klimasensitivitaet der Marschen sind im Abschlussbericht des Teilprojektes Oekologischer Komplex, Teil A, Kraft and Schirmer 2000 beschrieben). Das Untersuchungsgebiet, im Norden Deutschlands zwischen Bremen und Bremerhaven gelegen, stellt den inneren Teil des Naturraumes Unterwesermarsch dar. Die Vegetation und die Nutzung des Gebietes wurde flaechendeckend auf der Ebene von Biotoptypenkartierungen erfasst. Prognosen der Flaechenbilanzen und der kuenftigen Veraenderung der Biotoptypen und der Fauna des Vorlandes und der Unterweser wurden auf der Grundlage eines regionalisierten Klimaszenarios vorgenommen. Klimabedingte Veraenderungen der Topografie der Vorlandbereiche und der Morphologie der Unterweser konnten innerhalb der vorliegenden Studie nicht beruecksichtigt werden. (orig.)

  15. Regional reanalysis without local data: Exploiting the downscaling paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Storch, Hans; Feser, Frauke; Geyer, Beate; Klehmet, Katharina; Li, Delei; Rockel, Burkhardt; Schubert-Frisius, Martina; Tim, Nele; Zorita, Eduardo

    2017-08-01

    This paper demonstrates two important aspects of regional dynamical downscaling of multidecadal atmospheric reanalysis. First, that in this way skillful regional descriptions of multidecadal climate variability may be constructed in regions with little or no local data. Second, that the concept of large-scale constraining allows global downscaling, so that global reanalyses may be completed by additions of consistent detail in all regions of the world. Global reanalyses suffer from inhomogeneities. However, their large-scale componenst are mostly homogeneous; Therefore, the concept of downscaling may be applied to homogeneously complement the large-scale state of the reanalyses with regional detail—wherever the condition of homogeneity of the description of large scales is fulfilled. Technically, this can be done by dynamical downscaling using a regional or global climate model, which's large scales are constrained by spectral nudging. This approach has been developed and tested for the region of Europe, and a skillful representation of regional weather risks—in particular marine risks—was identified. We have run this system in regions with reduced or absent local data coverage, such as Central Siberia, the Bohai and Yellow Sea, Southwestern Africa, and the South Atlantic. Also, a global simulation was computed, which adds regional features to prescribed global dynamics. Our cases demonstrate that spatially detailed reconstructions of the climate state and its change in the recent three to six decades add useful supplementary information to existing observational data for midlatitude and subtropical regions of the world.

  16. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aristos Aristidou Natureworks); Robert Kean (NatureWorks); Tom Schechinger (IronHorse Farms, Mat); Stuart Birrell (Iowa State); Jill Euken (Wallace Foundation & Iowa State)

    2007-10-01

    The two main objectives of this project were: 1) to develop and test technologies to harvest, transport, store, and separate corn stover to supply a clean raw material to the bioproducts industry, and 2) engineer fermentation systems to meet performance targets for lactic acid and ethanol manufacturers. Significant progress was made in testing methods to harvest corn stover in a “single pass” harvest mode (collect corn grain and stover at the same time). This is technically feasible on small scale, but additional equipment refinements will be needed to facilitate cost effective harvest on a larger scale. Transportation models were developed, which indicate that at a corn stover yield of 2.8 tons/acre and purchase price of $35/ton stover, it would be unprofitable to transport stover more than about 25 miles; thus suggesting the development of many regional collection centers. Therefore, collection centers should be located within about 30 miles of the farm, to keep transportation costs to an acceptable level. These collection centers could then potentially do some preprocessing (to fractionate or increase bulk density) and/or ship the biomass by rail or barge to the final customers. Wet storage of stover via ensilage was tested, but no clear economic advantages were evident. Wet storage eliminates fire risk, but increases the complexity of component separation and may result in a small loss of carbohydrate content (fermentation potential). A study of possible supplier-producer relationships, concluded that a “quasi-vertical” integration model would be best suited for new bioproducts industries based on stover. In this model, the relationship would involve a multiyear supply contract (processor with purchase guarantees, producer group with supply guarantees). Price will likely be fixed or calculated based on some formula (possibly a cost plus). Initial quality requirements will be specified (but subject to refinement).Producers would invest in harvest

  17. Is There Evidence that Mid-Latitude Stratospheric Ozone Depletion Occurs in Conjunction with North American Monsoon Convection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenlof, K. H.; Ray, E. A.; Portmann, R. W.

    2017-12-01

    A recent study suggests that during the period of the summertime North American Monsoon (NAM), ozone depletion could occur as a result of catalytic ozone destruction associated with the cold and wet conditions caused by overshooting convection. Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) water vapor measurements do show that the NAM region is wetter than other parts of the globe in regards to both the mean and extremes. However, definitive evidence of ozone depletion occurring in that region has not been presented. In this study, we examine coincident measurements of water vapor, ozone, and tropospheric tracers from aircraft data taken during the Studies of Emissions and Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys (SEAC4RS) aircraft campaign looking specifically for ozone depletion in regions identified as impacted by overshooting convection. Although we do find evidence of lower ozone values in air impacted by convective overshoots, using tropospheric tracers we attribute those observations to input of tropospheric air rather than catalytic ozone destruction. Additionally, we explore the consequences of these lower ozone values on surface UV, and conclude that there is minimal impact on the UV index.

  18. World Cup Final

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    On July 9, hundreds of millions of fans worldwide will be glued to their television sets watching the final match of the 2006 FIFA World Cup, played in Berlin's Olympic stadium (Olympiastadion). The stadium was originally built for the 1936 Summer Olympics. The Olympic Stadium seats 76,000,; its roof rises 68 meters over the seats and is made up of transparent panels that allow sunlight to stream in during the day. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate. Size: 12.1 by 15.9 kilometers (7.5 by 9.5 miles) Location: 52.5 degrees North latitude, 13.3 degrees East longitude Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER bands 3, 2, and 1 Original Data Resolution: 15 meters (49.2 feet) Dates Acquired: October 15, 2005

  19. MTX final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooper, E.B. [ed.; Allen, S.L.; Brown, M.D.; Byers, J.A.; Casper, T.A.; Cohen, B.I.; Cohen, R.H.; Fenstermacher, M.E.; Foote, J.H.; Hoshino, K. [and others

    1994-01-01

    The MTX experiment was proposed in 1986 to apply high frequency microwaves generated by a free-electron laser (FEL) to electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) in a high field, high density tokamak. As the absorption of microwaves at the electron cyclotron resonance requires high frequencies, the opportunity of applying a free-electron laser has appeal as the device is not limited to frequencies in the microwave or long millimeter wavelength regions, in contrast to many other sources. In addition, the FEL is inherently a high power source of microwaves, which would permit single units of 10 MW or more, optimum for reactors. Finally, it was recognized early in the study of the application of the FEL based on the induction linear accelerator, that the nonlinear effects associated with the intense pulses of microwaves naturally generated would offer several unique opportunities to apply ECRH to current drive, MHD control, and other plasma effects. It was consequently decided to adapt the induction accelerator based FEL to heating and controlling the tokamak, and to conduct experiments on the associated physics. To this end, the Alcator C tokamak was moved from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory where it was installed in Building 431 and operated from March, 1989, until the conclusion of the experiment in October, 1992. The FEL, based on the ETA-11 accelerator and IMP wiggler was brought into operation by the LLNL Electron Beam Group and power injected into the tokamak during an experimental run in the Fall, 1989. Following an upgrade by the MTX group, a second experimental run was made lasting from the Winter, 1992 through the end of the experiment. Significant contributions to the ECRH experiments were made by the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI).

  20. MTX final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooper, E.B.; Allen, S.L.; Brown, M.D.; Byers, J.A.; Casper, T.A.; Cohen, B.I.; Cohen, R.H.; Fenstermacher, M.E.; Foote, J.H.; Hoshino, K.

    1994-01-01

    The MTX experiment was proposed in 1986 to apply high frequency microwaves generated by a free-electron laser (FEL) to electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) in a high field, high density tokamak. As the absorption of microwaves at the electron cyclotron resonance requires high frequencies, the opportunity of applying a free-electron laser has appeal as the device is not limited to frequencies in the microwave or long millimeter wavelength regions, in contrast to many other sources. In addition, the FEL is inherently a high power source of microwaves, which would permit single units of 10 MW or more, optimum for reactors. Finally, it was recognized early in the study of the application of the FEL based on the induction linear accelerator, that the nonlinear effects associated with the intense pulses of microwaves naturally generated would offer several unique opportunities to apply ECRH to current drive, MHD control, and other plasma effects. It was consequently decided to adapt the induction accelerator based FEL to heating and controlling the tokamak, and to conduct experiments on the associated physics. To this end, the Alcator C tokamak was moved from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory where it was installed in Building 431 and operated from March, 1989, until the conclusion of the experiment in October, 1992. The FEL, based on the ETA-11 accelerator and IMP wiggler was brought into operation by the LLNL Electron Beam Group and power injected into the tokamak during an experimental run in the Fall, 1989. Following an upgrade by the MTX group, a second experimental run was made lasting from the Winter, 1992 through the end of the experiment. Significant contributions to the ECRH experiments were made by the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI)

  1. Self-organizing map network-based precipitation regionalization for the Tibetan Plateau and regional precipitation variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nini; Yin, Jianchuan

    2017-12-01

    A precipitation-based regionalization for the Tibetan Plateau (TP) was investigated for regional precipitation trend analysis and frequency analysis using data from 1113 grid points covering the period 1900-2014. The results utilizing self-organizing map (SOM) network suggest that four clusters of precipitation coherent zones can be identified, including the southwestern edge, the southern edge, the southeastern region, and the north central region. Regionalization results of the SOM network satisfactorily represent the influences of the atmospheric circulation systems such as the East Asian summer monsoon, the south Asian summer monsoon, and the mid-latitude westerlies. Regionalization results also well display the direct impacts of physical geographical features of the TP such as orography, topography, and land-sea distribution. Regional-scale annual precipitation trend as well as regional differences of annual and seasonal total precipitation were investigated by precipitation index such as precipitation concentration index (PCI) and Standardized Anomaly Index (SAI). Results demonstrate significant negative long-term linear trends in southeastern TP and the north central part of the TP, indicating arid and semi-arid regions in the TP are getting drier. The empirical mode decomposition (EMD) method shows an evolution of the main cycle with 4 and 12 months for all the representative grids of four sub-regions. The cross-wavelet analysis suggests that predominant and effective period of Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) on monthly precipitation is around ˜12 months, except for the representative grid of the northwestern region.

  2. Spread-F occurrences and relationships with foF2 and h'F at low- and mid-latitudes in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Guo, Lixin; Zhao, Zhenwei; Ding, Zonghua; Lin, Leke

    2018-04-01

    Ionospheric irregularities are an important phenomenon in scientific studies and applications of radio-wave propagation. Spread-F echoes in ionograms are a type of high-frequency band irregularities that include frequency spread-F (FSF), range spread-F (RSF), and mixed spread-F (MSF) events. In this study, we obtained spread-F data from four ionosondes at low- and mid-latitudes near the 120°E chain in China during the 23rd solar cycle. We used these data to investigate spread-F occurrence percentages and variations with local time, season, latitude, and solar activity. The four ionosondes were located at Haikou (HK) (20°N, 110.34°E), Guangzhou (GZ) (23.14°N, 113.36°E), Beijing (BJ) (40.11°N, 116.28°E), and Changchun (CC) (43.84°N, 125.28°E). We also present possible correlations between spread-Fs and other ionospheric parameters, such as the critical frequency of the F2-layer (foF2) and the virtual height of the bottom-side F-layer (h'F). In particular, we investigated the possible threshold of the foF2 affecting the FSF and the relationship between the h'F and the RSF. The main conclusions are as follows: (a) the FSF occurrence percentages were anti-correlated with solar activity at all four sites; meanwhile, RSF occurrence rates increased with the increase in solar activity at HK, but not at the other three sites; (b) FSF occurrence rates were larger at the mid-latitudes than expected, while FSFs occurred more often after midnight; (c) the highest FSF occurrence rates mostly appeared during the summer months, while RSFs occurred mostly in the equinoctial months of 2000-2002 at HK and GZ; (d) a lower foF2 was suitable for FSF events; nevertheless, h'F and RSF occurrences satisfied the parabolic relationship; (e) the foF2 thresholds for FSFs were 15, 14, 7.6, and 7.8 MHz at HK, GZ, BJ, and CC, respectively. The h'Fs occurring between 240 and 290 km were more favorable for RSF occurrences. These results are important for understanding ionospheric

  3. Mesospheric OH layer altitude at midlatitudes: variability over the Sierra Nevada Observatory in Granada, Spain (37° N, 3° W)

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Comas, Maya; José López-González, María; González-Galindo, Francisco; de la Rosa, José Luis; López-Puertas, Manuel; Shepherd, Marianna G.; Shepherd, Gordon G.

    2017-10-01

    The mesospheric OH layer varies on several timescales, primarily driven by variations in atomic oxygen, temperature, density and transport (advection). Vibrationally excited OH airglow intensity, rotational temperature and altitude are closely interrelated and thus accompany each other through these changes. A correct interpretation of the OH layer variability from airglow measurements requires the study of the three variables simultaneously. Ground-based instruments measure excited OH intensities and temperatures with high temporal resolution, but they do not generally observe altitude directly. Information on the layer height is crucial in order to identify the sources of its variability and the causes of discrepancies in measurements and models. We have used SABER space-based 2002-2015 data to infer an empirical function for predicting the altitude of the layer at midlatitudes from ground-based measurements of OH intensity and rotational temperature. In the course of the analysis, we found that the SABER altitude (weighted by the OH volume emission rate) at midlatitudes decreases at a rate of 40 m decade-1, accompanying an increase of 0.7 % decade-1 in OH intensity and a decrease of 0.6 K decade-1 in OH equivalent temperature. SABER OH altitude barely changes with the solar cycle, whereas OH intensity and temperature vary by 7.8 % per 100 s.f.u. and 3.9 K per 100 s.f.u., respectively. For application of the empirical function to Sierra Nevada Observatory SATI data, we have calculated OH intensity and temperature SATI-to-SABER transfer functions, which point to relative instrumental drifts of -1.3 % yr-1 and 0.8 K yr-1, respectively, and a temperature bias of 5.6 K. The SATI predicted altitude using the empirical function shows significant short-term variability caused by overlapping waves, which often produce changes of more than 3-4 km in a few hours, going along with 100 % and 40 K changes in intensity and temperature, respectively. SATI OH layer wave effects

  4. Multispectral processing of ERTS-A (LANDSAT) data for uranium exploration in the Wind River Basin, Wyoming: a visible region ratio to enhance surface alteration associated with roll-type uraium deposits. Final report, June 1974--July 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmon, B.C.; Pillars, W.W.

    1975-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to document possible detection capabilities of the LANDSAT multispectral scanner data for use in exploration for uranium roll-type deposits. Spectral reflectivity, mineralogy, iron content, and color paramenters were measured for twenty natural surface samples collected from a semiarid region. The relationships of these properties to LANDSAT response-weighted reflectances and to reflectance ratios are discussed. It was found that the single ratio technique of multispectral processing is likely to be sensitive enough to separate hematitic stain, but not limonitic. A combination of the LANDSAT R/sub 5,4/ and R/sub 7,6/ ratios, and a processing technique sensitive to vegetative cover is recommended for detecting areas of limonitic stain. Digital level slicing of LANDSAT R/sub 5,4/ over the Wind River Basin, after geometric correction, resulted in adequate enhancement of Triassic redbeds and lighter red materials, but not for limonitic areas. No recommendations for prospects in the area were made. Information pertaining to techniques of evaluating laboratory reflectance spectra for remote sensing applications, ratio processing, and planimetric correction of LANDSAT data is presented qualitatively

  5. Relationship between urban structures for using areas and climatic conditions, using the example of the city of Leipzig region. Final report; Beziehungen zwischen urbanen Flaechennutzungsstrukturen und klimatischen Verhaeltnissen am Beispiel der Stadtregion Leipzig. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, U.

    1997-08-01

    Based on the continuous stationary measurements of climate carried out since the summer of 1992 at various sites in the Leipzig area and for mobile air temperature and humidity measurements carried out for in situ weather in the city area at selected test areas, relationships were carried out between urban structures for using areas and climatic conditions of the air layer near the ground in the city of Leipzig region. The data on the sealing of the functional types of structures obtained in the context of a further part project were used as an important indicator for the use of areas. A basic precondition for these city climate investigations is the preparation of the extensive data obtained in the form of tables and graphs. (orig./KW) [Deutsch] Auf der Basis der seit Sommer 1992 an verschiedenen Standorten im Raum Leipzig kontinuierlich vorgenommenen stationaeren Klimamessungen und bei autochthonen Wetterlagen im Stadtgebiet und in ausgewaehlten Testgebieten durchgefuehrten mobilen Lufttemperatur- und -feuchtemessungen wurden Beziehungen zwischen urbanen Flaechennutzungsstrukturen und klimatischen Verhaeltnissen der bodennahen Luftschicht in der Stadtregion Leipzig erarbeitet. Als wesentlicher Indikator fuer die Flaechennutzung fanden die im Rahmen eines weiteren Teilvorhabens gewonnenen Angaben zur Versiegelung der funktionalen Strukturtypen Verwendung. Eine Grundvoraussetzung fuer diese stadtklimatischen Untersuchungen stellt die Aufarbeitung des gewonnenen umfangreichen Datenmaterials in Form von Tabellen und Grafiken dar. (orig./KW)

  6. Common volume coherent and incoherent scatter radar observations of mid-latitude sporadic E-layers and QP echoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Hysell

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Common-volume observations of sporadic E-layers made on 14-15 June 2002 with the Arecibo incoherent scatter radar and a 30MHz coherent scatter radar imager located on St. Croix are described. Operating in dual-beam mode, the Arecibo radar detected a slowly descending sporadic E-layer accompanied by a series of dense E-region plasma clouds at a time when the coherent scatter radar was detecting quasi-periodic (QP echoes. Using coherent radar imaging, we collocate the sources of the coherent scatter with the plasma clouds observed by Arecibo. In addition to patchy, polarized scattering regions drifting through the radar illuminated volume, which have been observed in previous imaging experiments, the 30MHz radar also detected large-scale electrostatic waves in the E-region over Puerto Rico, with a wavelength of about 30km and a period of about 10min, propagating to the southwest. Both the intensity and the Doppler shifts of the coherent echoes were modulated by the wave.

  7. DIMEC - Final Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn

    1997-01-01

    Final report of the research project DIMEC - Danish InfoMechatronic Control supported by the Danish Technical Research Council, STVF.......Final report of the research project DIMEC - Danish InfoMechatronic Control supported by the Danish Technical Research Council, STVF....

  8. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glasser, Alan H. [Fusion Theory and Computation Inc., Kingston, WA (United States)

    2018-02-02

    Final technical report on DE-SC0016106. This is the final technical report for a portion of the multi-institutional CEMM project. This report is centered around 3 publications and a seminar presentation, which have been submitted to E-Link.

  9. Analytic studies on pollutant deposition through domestic coal combustion - influence of the current structural change on pollution in an urban region. Final report; Analytische Untersuchungen zum Schadstoffeintrag durch den Hausbrand - Auswirkungen des gegenwaertigen Strukturwandels auf die urbane Belastungssituation. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engewald, W.; Knobloch, T.; Asperger, A.

    1996-12-31

    In the present paper the author reports on the continuation of an OEKOR part project in which he had undertaken a chemical characterisation of emissions from domestic brown coal combustion. On the basis of a partitioning by land use of the Greater Leipzig region he initiated long-term observations of local pollution levels for the various structural types of land. The aim of the work was to facilitate a comprehensive analysis of local air quality in terms of VOC levels. The current concern about VOCs results from the toxicological risk they have been proven to pose to the human organism and from their relevance to the chemistry of the atmosphere (e.g., as precursors of ground-level ozone and other oxidising agents). The task to be accomplished was broken down into the following main steps: Development and trial of a sampling and analysis method for determining an as wide a spectrum of environmental VOCs as possible; elaboration of a measuring strategy for obtaining results of high representativeness and power; installation and operation of pollution monitoring sites in selected structural types of area characteristic of Leipzig; execution of measuring campaigns of several weeks each at selected sites during both winter and summer periods. (orig./MSK) [Deutsch] In Fortsetzung eines vom Berichterstatter bearbeiteten OeKOR-Teilprojekts zur chemischen Charakterisierung von Emissionen aus dem Hausbrand von Braunkohle galt es, auf der Basis einer an der Flaechennutzung ausgerichteten Untergliederung der Stadtregion Leipzig in unterschiedliche Strukturtypen langfristige Immissionsbeobachtungen zu beginnen mit dem Ziel, eine Zustandsanalyse des Umweltmediums Luft bezueglich des Gehalts an fluechtigen organischen Verbindungen (VOC) in ihrer gesamten Breite zu ermoeglichen. Das verstaerkte Interesse an diesen Verbindungen resultiert aus dem fuer eine Reihe von VOC belegten toxikologischen Gefahrenpotential fuer den menschlichen Organismus sowie ihrer atmosphaerenchemischen

  10. Delivery of parameterization schemes for the determination of the regional evapotranspiration of different land surfaces. Final report; Bereitstellung von Parameterisierungsverfahren zur Bestimmung der regionalen Verdunstung verschiedener Landoberflaechen. Abschlussbericht 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haenel, H.D.; Loepmeier, F.J.

    1998-03-01

    The task was the delivery of parameterization schemes for the calculation of the regional evapotranspiration of different land surfaces. The main weight was on the discussion of existing approaches and on the development of new ones for the calculation of evapotranspiration. After consideration of different concepts the well-known Penman-Monteith equation proved to the optimal basis of calculation. The surface resistance, respectively the related bulk-stomata resistance, is an important part of the resistance pattern (analogous to Ohm`s law) on which the Penman-Monteith equation is based. Under consideration of the dependence of these resistances of the spatial scale (leaf, canopy) as well as of the time scale (hour, day) possibilities for their estimation were discussed. An important step to determine the surface resistances from literature data of vegetation evapotranspiration was the development of a converting scheme of Haude`s factors to surface resistances. For bare soil an approach was developed which allows approximately to give a new interpretation to surface resistances from evapotranspiration courses, described in literature as proportional to the square root of time. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Aufgabenstellung bestand in der Bereitstellung von Parametrisierungsverfahren zur Bestimmung der regionalen Verdunstung verschiedener Landoberflaechen. Dabei lag das Schwergewicht auf der Diskussion bereits bestehender und der Entwicklung neuer Ansaetze zur Berechnung der Verdunstung. Nach der Betrachtung unterschiedlicher Konzepte erwies sich die bekannte Penman-Monteith-Gleichung als optimale Berechnungsgrundlage. Ein wesentlicher Bestandteil des der Penman-Monteith-Gleichung zugrundeliegenden Widerstandsschemas (Analogie zum Ohmschen Gesetz) ist der Oberflaechenwiderstand bzw. der damit verwandte Bulk-Stomatawiderstand. Unter Beruecksichtigung der Abhaengigkeit dieser Widerstaende sowohl von der raeumlichen Skala (Blatt/Bestand) als auch von der zeitlichen Skala

  11. The structure of the latidudinal total electron content (T.E.C.). Gradients over mid-latitude stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keroub, I.H.

    1976-01-01

    New results concerning the day gradients of Total Electron Contents (T.E.C.) in Haifa region were obtained by the method specific for the determination of TEC in the transverse zone. The latitudinal gradients thus obtained agree with the results obtained by topside sounding (Alouette 1 satellite). A quantitative explanation of the results yielded by the classical counting method is presented. Il implies that all day TEC data obtained by the counting methods in stations situated at middle geomagnetic latitudes such as Haifa, must be corrected

  12. Midlatitude ionospheric F2-layer response to eruptive solar events-caused geomagnetic disturbances over Hungary during the maximum of the solar cycle 24: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berényi, K. A.; Barta, V.; Kis, Á.

    2018-03-01

    In our study we analyze and compare the response and behavior of the ionospheric F2 and of the sporadic E-layer during three strong (i.e., Dst art digital ionosonde of the Széchenyi István Geophysical Observatory located at midlatitude, Nagycenk, Hungary (IAGA code: NCK, geomagnetic latitude: 46.17° geomagnetic longitude: 98.85°). The local time of the sudden commencement (SC) was used to characterize the type of the ionospheric storm (after Mendillo and Narvaez, 2010). This way two regular positive phase (RPP) ionospheric storms and one no-positive phase (NPP) storm have been analyzed. In all three cases a significant increase in electron density of the foF2 layer can be observed at dawn/early morning (around 6:00 UT, 07:00 LT). Also we can observe the fade-out of the ionospheric layers at night during the geomagnetically disturbed time periods. Our results suggest that the fade-out effect is not connected to the occurrence of the sporadic E-layers.

  13. Nonlinear response of hail precipitation rate to environmental moisture content: A real case modeling study of an episodic midlatitude severe convective event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingxin; Zhang, Fuqing; Zhang, Qinghong; Harrington, Jerry Y.; Kumjian, Matthew R.

    2017-07-01

    The dependence of hail production on initial moisture content in a simulated midlatitude episodic convective event occurred in northeast China on 10-11 June 2005 was investigated using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with a double-moment microphysics scheme where both graupel and hail are considered. Three sensitivity experiments were performed by modifying the initial water vapor mixing ratio profile to 90% ("Q-10%"), 105% ("Q+5%"), and 110% ("Q+10%") of the initial conditions used for the control simulation. It was found that increasing the initial water vapor content caused the hail and total precipitation rates to increase during the first 5 h. The precipitation response to increasing water vapor content was monotonic for this first episode; however, for the event's second episode, the hail precipitation rate responds to the initial water vapor profile nonlinearly, while the total precipitation rate responds mostly monotonically. In particular, simulation Q+5% achieves the largest hail production rate while simulation Q+10% has the largest total precipitation rate. In contrast, during the second episode simulation Q-10% has the strongest vertical motion, produces the most cloud ice and snow, but has the lowest hail production. Analysis shows that increasing the initial moisture content directly increases the precipitation during the first episode, which subsequently induces a stronger, longer-lasting cold pool that limits the development of deep convection during the second episode.

  14. Chemical characterization of organic aerosol above a mid-latitude forest reveals a complex mixture of highly-functionalized chemical species and diverse structural features with temporal variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentner, D. R.; Ditto, J.; Barnes, E.; Khare, P.

    2017-12-01

    Highly-functionalized organic compounds are known to be a major component of the complex mixture of the particle-phase compounds that comprise organic aerosol, yet little is known about the identity of many of these compounds, and their formation pathways and roles in atmospheric processes are poorly understood. We present results from the comprehensive chemical speciation of PM10 organic aerosols collected in July 2016 at the remote mid-latitude forest field site during PROPHET. Samples were analyzed via liquid and gas chromatography coupled with a quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (MS×MS) following electrospray ionization (ESI) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI). 8 hr samples were collected during day- and night-time sampling periods rather than more typical 24-hour samples. This analysis of the organic aerosol yielded over 12,000 unique compounds for which we have high accuracy molecular masses, formulas, and additional information on structural features using MS×MS. O:C ratios were 0.3 on average, yet the top 10% of compounds ranged 0.7-2.3. 70% and 69% of day- and night-time samples were nitrogen-containing, whereas 26% and 24% contained sulfur, respectively. Within these broader molecular categories, we observed a wide variety of molecular features that reveal a diversity of functional groups and moieties. In this presentation, we present the results of our speciation, temporal variability, connections to air parcel back trajectories and other bulk properties, and potential formation pathways.

  15. Aerosol properties and their impacts on surface CCN at the ARM Southern Great Plains site during the 2011 Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Timothy; Dong, Xiquan; Xi, Baike

    2018-02-01

    Aerosol particles are of particular importance because of their impacts on cloud development and precipitation processes over land and ocean. Aerosol properties as well as meteorological observations from the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) platform situated in the Southern Great Plains (SGP) are utilized in this study to illustrate the dependence of continental cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) number concentration ( N CCN) on aerosol type and transport pathways. ARM-SGP observations from the 2011 Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment field campaign are presented in this study and compared with our previous work during the 2009-10 Clouds, Aerosol, and Precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer field campaign over the current ARM Eastern North Atlantic site. Northerly winds over the SGP reflect clean, continental conditions with aerosol scattering coefficient ( σ sp) values less than 20 Mm-1 and N CCN values less than 100 cm-3. However, southerly winds over the SGP are responsible for the observed moderate to high correlation ( R) among aerosol loading ( σ sp moisture via the Gulf of Mexico, indicating a strong dependence on air mass type. NASA MERRA-2 reanalysis aerosol and chemical data are moderately to highly correlated with surface ARM-SGP data, suggesting that this facility can represent surface aerosol conditions in the SGP, especially during strong aerosol loading events that transport via the Gulf of Mexico. Future long-term investigations will help to understand the seasonal influences of air masses on aerosol, CCN, and cloud properties over land in comparison to over ocean.

  16. Climatology and long-term evolution of ozone and carbon monoxide in the upper troposphere–lower stratosphere (UTLS at northern midlatitudes, as seen by IAGOS from 1995 to 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Cohen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In situ measurements in the upper troposphere–lower stratosphere (UTLS have been performed in the framework of the European research infrastructure IAGOS (In-service Aircraft for a Global Observing System for ozone since 1994 and for carbon monoxide (CO since 2002. The flight tracks cover a wide range of longitudes in the northern extratropics, extending from the North American western coast (125° W to the eastern Asian coast (135° E and more recently over the northern Pacific Ocean. Several tropical regions are also sampled frequently, such as the Brazilian coast, central and southern Africa, southeastern Asia, and the western half of the Maritime Continent. As a result, a new set of climatologies for O3 (August 1994–December 2013 and CO (December 2001–December 2013 in the upper troposphere (UT, tropopause layer, and lower stratosphere (LS are made available, including gridded horizontal distributions on a semi-global scale and seasonal cycles over eight well-sampled regions of interest in the northern extratropics. The seasonal cycles generally show a summertime maximum in O3 and a springtime maximum in CO in the UT, in contrast to the systematic springtime maximum in O3 and the quasi-absence of a seasonal cycle of CO in the LS. This study highlights some regional variabilities in the UT, notably (i a west–east difference of O3 in boreal summer with up to 15 ppb more O3 over central Russia compared with northeast America, (ii a systematic west–east gradient of CO from 60 to 140° E, especially noticeable in spring and summer with about 5 ppb by 10 degrees longitude, (iii a broad spring/summer maximum of CO over northeast Asia, and (iv a spring maximum of O3 over western North America. Thanks to almost 20 years of O3 and 12 years of CO measurements, the IAGOS database is a unique data set to derive trends in the UTLS at northern midlatitudes. Trends in O3 in the UT are positive and statistically significant in most

  17. DC Electric Field measurement in the Mid-latitude Ionosphere during MSTID by S-520-27 Sounding Rocket Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishisaka, K.; Yamamoto, M.; Yokoyama, T.; Tanaka, M.; Abe, T.; Kumamoto, A.

    2015-12-01

    In the middle latitude ionospheric F region, mainly in summer, wave structures of electron density that have wave length of 100-200 km and period of one hour are observed. This phenomena is called Medium Scale Traveling Ionosphiric Disturbance; MSTID. MSTID has been observed by GPS receiving network, and its characteristic were studied. In the past, MSTID was thought to be generated by the Perkins instability, but its growth ratio was too small to be effective so far smaller than the real. Recently coupling process between ionospheric E and F regions are studied by using two radars and by computer simulations. Through these studies, we now have hypothesis that MSTID is generated by the combination of E-F region coupling and Perkins instability. The S-520-27 sounding rocket experiment on E-layer and F-layer was planned in order to verify this hypothesis. S-520-27 sounding rocket was launched at 23:57 JST on 20th July, 2013 from JAXA Uchinoura Space Center. S-520-27 sounding rocket reached 316km height. The S-520-27 payload was equipped with Electric Field Detector (EFD) with a two set of orthogonal double probes to measure DC electric field in the spin plane of the payload. The electrodes of two double probe antennas were used to gather the potentials which were detected with high impedance pre-amplifier using the floating (unbiased) double probe technique. As a results of measurements of DC electric fields by the EFD, the natural electric field was about +/-5mV/m, and varied the direction from southeast to east. Then the electric field was mapped to the horizontal plane at 280km height along the geomagnetic field line. In this presentation, we show the detail result of DC electric field measurement by S-520-27 sounding rocket and then we discuss about the correlation between the natural electric field and TEC variation by using the GPS-TEC.

  18. Prediction of the Midlatitude Response to Strong Madden-Julian Oscillation Events on S2S Time Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, K.-C.; Barnes, E. A.; Maloney, E. D.

    2018-01-01

    The Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) forces strong variations in extratropical atmospheric circulations that have important implications for subseasonal-to-seasonal (S2S) prediction. In particular, certain MJO phases are characterized by a consistent modulation of geopotential height in the North Pacific and adjacent regions across different MJO events. Until recently, only limited research has examined the relationship between these robust MJO tropical-extratropical teleconnections and model prediction skill. In this study, reanalysis data and numerical forecast model ensemble hindcasts are used to demonstrate that robust teleconnections in specific MJO phases and time lags are also characterized by excellent agreement in the prediction of geopotential height anomalies across model ensemble members at forecast leads of up to 3 weeks. These periods of enhanced prediction capabilities extend the possibility for skillful extratropical weather prediction beyond traditional 10-13 day limits.

  19. Field-aligned flows of H+ and He+ in the mid-latitude topside ionosphere at solar maximum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, G.J.; Sellek, R.

    1992-01-01

    A time-dependent mathematical model of the Earth's ionosphere and plasmasphere has been used to investigate the field-aligned flows of H + and He + in the topside ionosphere at L = 3 during solar maximum. When the flux-tube content is low there are upward flows of H + and He + during daytime in both the winter and summer topside ionospheres. During winter night-time the directions of flow are, in general, downwards for He + , because of the night-time decrease in He + scale height, and upwards for H + , because of the replenishment needs of the flux tube. In the winter topside ionosphere, during the later stages of flux-tube replenishment, H + generally flows downwards during both day and night as a result of the greater plasma pressure in the summer hemisphere whilst He + flows upwards during the day and downwards at night. In the summer topside ionosphere H + flows upward to replace the H + lost from the plasmasphere to the winter topside ionosphere whilst the winter helium bulge leads to flows of He + that are in the direction winter hemisphere to summer hemisphere. When the flux-tube content is low, counterstreaming of H + and He + , with H + flowing upwards and He + downwards, occurs for most of the day above about 5000 km altitude in the summer hemisphere. There are occurrences of this type of counterstreaming in both the summer and winter hemispheres during the night. When the flux-tube content is high, counterstreaming of H + and He + occurs less frequently and over smaller regions of the flux tube. There are regions in both hemispheres where H + flows downwards whilst He + flows upwards. (Author)

  20. Final focus nomenclature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, R.

    1986-01-01

    The formal names and common names for all devices in the final focus system of the SLC are listed. The formal names consist of a device type designator, microprocessor designator, and a four-digit unit number

  1. Final focus test beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-03-01

    This report discusses the following: the Final Focus Test Beam Project; optical design; magnets; instrumentation; magnetic measurement and BPM calibration; mechanical alignment and stabilization; vacuum system; power supplies; control system; radiation shielding and personnel protection; infrastructure; and administration

  2. WMO Marine Final Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Final reports of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Commission for Marine Meteorology, Commission for Synoptic Meteorology, and Commission for Basic...

  3. Transacsys PLC - Final Results

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Final results from Transacsys PLC. A subsidary of this company was set up to develop the CERN EDH system into a commercial product but incurred too much financial loss so the project was cancelled (1/2 page).

  4. Final focus nomenclature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, R.

    1986-08-08

    The formal names and common names for all devices in the final focus system of the SLC are listed. The formal names consist of a device type designator, microprocessor designator, and a four-digit unit number. (LEW)

  5. Data breaches. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-11

    This document adopts, without change, the interim final rule that was published in the Federal Register on June 22, 2007, addressing data breaches of sensitive personal information that is processed or maintained by the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). This final rule implements certain provisions of the Veterans Benefits, Health Care, and Information Technology Act of 2006. The regulations prescribe the mechanisms for taking action in response to a data breach of sensitive personal information.

  6. Investigation of the distal margins of the LVF/LDA environments in the northern midlatitudes of Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, G. A.; Head, J. W., III

    2008-09-01

    Introduction The northern dichotomy boundary on Mars consists of an abrupt escarpment between the cratered uplands and the northern plains. The boundary is characterized by fretted valleys which divide the uplands into a series of plateaus and mesas which become progressively smaller to the north and eventually merge with the northern plains [1]. Lineated Valley Fill (LVF) and Lobate Debris Aprons (LDA) deposits are a prominent feature of the dichotomy boundary [2] and have been attributed by some [e.g., 3] to be the remains of debris-covered glaciers that were active during previous climatic regimes when snow was deposited along the dichotomy boundary [4-5]. Recent in depth analysis of LVF/LDA has been made possible by new comprehensive high-resolution data from Mars Odyssey, Mars Express and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. and has revealed evidence for multiple LVF/LDA emplacement events [6-8], as well as evidence for plateau glaciation [4] and evidence that glacial conditions extended much further from the margins of the dichotomy boundary than previously thought [4]. However, remaining unexamined, however, are the regions adjacent to the current positions of the LVF/LDA deposits where one can explore the relationship between the distal landforms present there and the main bodies of LVF/LDA. We have therefore investigated an area of the northern plains directly north of a region of the dichotomy boundary where detailed studies have reported largescale integrated LVF systems >10,000 km3 in extent, that are analogous to terrestrial debris covered glacial systems [3,6-8]. Through the utilization of the most recent data sets (CTX and HiRISE) we have categorized the distinct landform assemblages associated with this area and documented the degraded nature of lobate debris aprons and related features present there. Degraded Lobate Debris Aprons All of the LDAs in the study region have troughs cut into their surface which are aligned in the same direction as the flanks of

  7. Regions Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Keld; Masciarelli, Francesca; Prencipe, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    capital at the regional level, with a large-scale data set of the innovative activities of a representative sample of 2,413 Italian manufacturing firms from 21 regions, and controlling for a large set of firm and regional characteristics, we find that being located in a region characterized by a high...

  8. Characterizing of a Mid-Latitude Ice-Rich Landing Site on Mars to Enable in Situ Habitability Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldmann, J.; Schurmeier, L. R.; Wilhelm, M.; Stoker, C.; McKay, C.; Davila, A.; Marinova, M.; Karcz, J.; Smith, H.

    2012-01-01

    We suggest an ice-rich landing site at 188.5E 46.16N within Amazonis Planitia as a candidate location to support a Mars lander mission equipped to study past habitability and regions capable of preserving the physical and chemical signs of life and organic matter. Studies of the ice-rich subsurface on Mars are critical for several reasons. The subsurface environment provides protection from radiation to shield organic and biologic compounds from destruction. The ice-rich substrate is also ideal for preserving organic and biologic molecules and provides a source of H2O for biologic activity. Examination of martian ground ice can test several hypotheses such as: 1) whether ground ice supports habitable conditions, 2) that ground ice can preserve and accumulate organic compounds, and 3) that ice contains biomolecules evident of past or present biological activity on Mars. This Amazonis site, located near the successful Viking Lander 2, shows indirect evidence of subsurface ice (ubiquitous defined polygonal ground, gamma ray spectrometer hydrogen signature, and numerical modeling of ice stability) and direct evidence of exposed subsurface ice. This site also provides surface conditions favorable to a safe landing including no boulders, low rock density, minimal rough topography, and few craters.

  9. The Southern Hemisphere and equatorial region ionization response for a 22 September 1999 severe magnetic storm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Yizengaw

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The ionospheric storm evolution process was monitored during the 22 September 1999 magnetic storm over the Australian eastern region, through measurements of the ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC from seven Global Positioning Systems (GPS stations. The spatial and temporal variations of the ionosphere were analysed as a time series of TEC maps. Results of our analysis show that the main ionospheric effect of the storm under consideration are: the long lasting negative storm effect during a magnetic storm at mid-latitude regions; the strong, positive disturbances during the storm's main phase at auroral latitude regions; the effects of storm-induced equatorward directed wind causing a positive disturbance at high and mid-latitude stations with appropriate time shift between higher and lower latitudes; daytime poleward movement of depleted plasma that causes temporary suppression of the equatorial anomaly during the start of the storm recovery phase; and prompt penetration of eastward electric fields to ionospheric altitudes and the production of nearly simultaneous TEC enhancement at all latitudes. In general, we found dominant negative disturbance over mid and high latitudes and positive disturbance at low latitudes. A comparison of storm-time behaviour of TEC determined from GPS satellites, and foF2 derived from ionosondes at a range of latitudes, showed reasonable agreement between the two independent measurements.

  10. Open oceanic productivity changes at mid-latitudes during interglacials and its relation to the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nave, Silvia; Lebreiro, S.; Kissel, C.; Guihou, A.; Figueiredo, M. O.; Silva, T. P.; Michel, E.; Cortijo, E.; Labeyrie, L.; Voelker, A.

    2010-05-01

    Variations in the interactions between marine ecosystems, thermohaline circulation, external forcing and atmospheric greenhouse gases concentrations are not yet fully represented in detailed models of the glacial-interglacial transitions. Most of the research on past productivity changes has been focused so far on high-productivity areas such as upwelling areas (i.e. equatorial or coastal upwelling areas) even though those regions appraise only a little part of the ocean. Accordingly, the importance of oceanic productivity changes over glacial/interglacial cycles should be better known, as it may also play an important role on the loss of photosynthetically generated carbon as a central mechanism in the global carbon cycle. Its understanding will help quantifying the parameters needed to run comprehensive climate models, and subsequently help to better predict climate change for the near future. A high-resolution study of oceanic productivity, bottom water flow speed, surface and deep-water mass, bottom water ventilation, and terrestrial input changes during two interglacials (Holocene and Marine Isotope Stage [MIS] 5), at an open ocean site approximately 300 km west off Portugal [IMAGES core MD01-2446: 39°03'N, 12°37'W, 3547 m water depth] was conducted within the AMOCINT project (ESF-EUROCORES programme, 06-EuroMARC-FP-008). Even though siliceous productivity is expectedly low for oceanic regions, it shows a robust and consistent pattern with increased values during cold phases of MIS 5, and during the glacial stages 4 and 6 suggesting higher nutrient availability, during these periods. The same pattern is observed for MIS2 and the last deglaciation. The opal record is fully supported by the organic carbon content and to the estimated productivity using foraminifera based FA20 and SIMMAX.28 transfer functions for a near location. The benthic δ13C record suggests less North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) coincident with periods of higher productivity. The grain

  11. Cloud effects on the SW radiation at the surface at a mid-latitude site in southwestern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgueiro, Vanda; João Costa, Maria; Silva, Ana Maria; Lanconelli, Christian; Bortoli, Daniele

    2017-04-01

    This work presents a study of cloud radiative effects on shortwave (CRESW) radiation at the surface in Évora region (southwestern Europe) during 2015 and a case study is analyzed. CRESW (in Wm-2) is defined as the difference between the net shortwave irradiance (downward minus upward shortwave irradiance) in cloudy and clear sky conditions. This measure is usually used to translate changes in the SW radiation that reaches the surface due to changes in clouds (type and/or cover). The CRESW is obtained using measured SW irradiance recorded with a Kipp&Zonen CM 6B pyranometer (broadband 305 - 2800 nm) during the period from January to December 2015, and is related with the cloud liquid water path (LWP) and with cloud ice water path (IWP) showing the importance of the different type of clouds in attenuating the SW radiation at the surface. The cloud modification factor, also a measure of the cloud radiative effects (CMF; ratio between the measured SW irradiance under cloudy conditions and the estimated SW irradiance in clear-sky conditions) is related with the cloud optical thickness (COT; obtained from satellite data). This relation between CMF and COT is shown for different cloud fractions revealing an exponential decreasing of CMF as COT increases. Reductions in the SW radiation of the order of 80% (CMF = 0.2) as well enhancements in the SW radiation larger than 30% (CMF = 1.3) were found for small COT values and for different cloud fractions. A case study to analyse the enhancement events in a cloudy day was considered and the cloud properties, COT and LWP (from satellite and surface measurements), were related with the CRESW.

  12. Impact of soil moisture initialization on boreal summer subseasonal forecasts: mid-latitude surface air temperature and heat wave events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Eunkyo; Lee, Myong-In; Jeong, Jee-Hoon; Koster, Randal D.; Schubert, Siegfried D.; Kim, Hye-Mi; Kim, Daehyun; Kang, Hyun-Suk; Kim, Hyun-Kyung; MacLachlan, Craig; Scaife, Adam A.

    2018-05-01

    This study uses a global land-atmosphere coupled model, the land-atmosphere component of the Global Seasonal Forecast System version 5, to quantify the degree to which soil moisture initialization could potentially enhance boreal summer surface air temperature forecast skill. Two sets of hindcast experiments are performed by prescribing the observed sea surface temperature as the boundary condition for a 15-year period (1996-2010). In one set of the hindcast experiments (noINIT), the initial soil moisture conditions are randomly taken from a long-term simulation. In the other set (INIT), the initial soil moisture conditions are taken from an observation-driven offline Land Surface Model (LSM) simulation. The soil moisture conditions from the offline LSM simulation are calibrated using the forecast model statistics to minimize the inconsistency between the LSM and the land-atmosphere coupled model in their mean and variability. Results show a higher boreal summer surface air temperature prediction skill in INIT than in noINIT, demonstrating the potential benefit from an accurate soil moisture initialization. The forecast skill enhancement appears especially in the areas in which the evaporative fraction—the ratio of surface latent heat flux to net surface incoming radiation—is sensitive to soil moisture amount. These areas lie in the transitional regime between humid and arid climates. Examination of the extreme 2003 European and 2010 Russian heat wave events reveal that the regionally anomalous soil moisture conditions during the events played an important role in maintaining the stationary circulation anomalies, especially those near the surface.

  13. The topside ionospheric effective scale heights (HT) derived with ROCSAT-1 and ground-based Ionosonde observations at equatorial and mid-latitude stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram Sudarsanam, Tulasi; Su, Shin-Yi; Liu, C. H.; Reinisch, Bodo

    In this study, we propose the assimilation of topside in situ electron density data from ROCSAT-1 satellite along with the ionosonde measurements for accurate determination of topside iono-spheric effective scale heights (HT) using -Chapman function. The reconstructed topside elec-tron density profiles using these scale heights exhibit an excellent similitude with Jicamarca Incoherent Scatter Radar (ISR) profiles, and are much better representations than the existing methods of Reinisch-Huang method and/or the empirical IRI-2007 model. The main advan-tage with this method is that it allows the precise determination of the effective scale height (HT) and the topside electron density profiles at a dense network of ionosonde/digisonde sta-tions where no ISR facilities are available. The demonstration of the method is applied by investigating the diurnal, seasonal and solar activity variations of HT over the dip-equatorial station Jicamarca and the mid-latitude station Grahamstown. The diurnal variation of scale heights over Jicamarca consistently exhibits a morning time descent followed by a minimum around 0700-0800 LT and a pronounced maximum at noon during all the seasons of both high and moderate solar activity periods. Further, the scale heights exhibit a secondary maximum during the post-sunset hours of equinoctial and summer months, whereas the post-sunset peak is absent during the winter months. These typical features are further investigated using the topside ion properties obtained by ROCSAT-1 as well as SAMI2 model simulations. The re-sults consistently indicate that the diurnal variation of the effective scale height (HT) does not closely follow the plasma temperature variation and at equatorial latitudes is largely controlled by the vertical ExB drift.

  14. A multievent study of broadband electrons observed by the DMSP satellites and their relation to red aurora observed at midlatitude stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiokawa, K.; Meng, C.; Reeves, G.D.; Rich, F.J.; Yumoto, K.

    1997-01-01

    Broadband electrons during magnetic storms are characterized by an unusually intense flux of precipitating electrons in the broadband energy range from 30 eV to 30 keV near the equatorward edge of the auroral oval (47 degree endash 66 degree magnetic latitude). Broadband electrons were first reported by Shiokawa et al. [1996]. In this paper, we report a multievent study of broadband electrons, using particle data obtained by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites during 23 magnetic storms from January 1989 through May 1992. Twelve broadband electron events are identified. Most of them are observed in the night sector, but some are observed in the morning sector. Particle data for successive polar passes of the DMSP multisatellites are used to show that broadband electrons generally last for less than 30 min and that for some events, they precipitate over a wide range of local times simultaneously. On the basis of a quantitative calculation of optical emissions from electrons in the neutral atmosphere, we conclude that broadband electrons are a possible cause of red auroras observed at midlatitude ground stations. We suggest that broadband electrons are associated with certain substorms during the main phase of magnetic storms. This conjecture comes from observations of H component positive bays and Pi 2 pulsations observed at low-latitude magnetic stations and from magnetic field variations observed at geosynchronous satellites. We conclude that the magnetospheric source of broadband electrons lies within the inner part of the plasma sheet. This conclusion is based on the facts that broadband electrons appear in latitudes where plasma sheet particles were observed before the event and that broadband electrons are observed poleward of the subauroral ion drifts, a position that corresponds to the inner edge of the injected particle layer during storms. (Abstract Truncated)

  15. Measurements of the movement of the jet streams at mid-latitudes, in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, 1979 to 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. D. Hudson

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that the mean latitude of the sub-tropical jet streams in both hemispheres have shifted toward the poles over the last few decades. This paper presents a study of the movement of both the subtropical and Polar fronts, the location of the respective jet streams, between 1979 and 2010 at mid-latitudes, using total ozone measurements to identify the sharp horizontal boundary that occurs at the position of the fronts. Previous studies have shown that the two fronts are the boundaries of three distinct regimes in the stratosphere, corresponding to the Hadley, Ferrel, and polar meridionally overturning circulation cells in the troposphere. Over the period of study the horizontal area of the Hadley cell has increased at latitudes between 20 and 60 degrees while the area of the Polar cell has decreased. A linear regression analysis was performed to identify the major factors associated with the movement of the subtropical jet streams. These were: (1 changes in the Tropical land plus ocean temperature, (2 direct radiative forcing from greenhouse gases in the troposphere, (3 changes in the temperature of the lower tropical stratosphere, (4 the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation, and (5 volcanic eruptions. The dominant mechanism was the direct radiative forcing from greenhouse gases. Between 1979 and 2010 the poleward movement of the subtropical jet streams was 3.7 ± 0.3 degrees in the Northern Hemisphere and 6.5 ± 0.2 degrees in the Southern Hemisphere. Previous studies have shown that weather systems tend to follow the jet streams. The observed poleward movement in both hemispheres over the past thirty years represents a significant change in the position of the sub-tropical jet streams, which should lead to significant latitudinal shifts in the global weather patterns and the hydrologic cycle.

  16. Aerosol Properties and Their Impacts on Surface CCN at the ARM Southern Great Plains Site during the 2011 Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Timothy LOGAN; Xiquan DONG; Baike XI

    2018-01-01

    Aerosol particles are of particular importance because of their impacts on cloud development and precipitation processes over land and ocean.Aerosol properties as well as meteorological observations from the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) platform situated in the Southern Great Plains (SGP) are utilized in this study to illustrate the dependence of continental cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) number concentration (NCCN) on aerosol type and transport pathways.ARM-SGP observations from the 2011 Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment field campaign are presented in this study and compared with our previous work during the 2009-10 Clouds,Aerosol,and Precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer field campaign over the current ARM Eastern North Atlantic site.Northerly winds over the SGP reflect clean,continental conditions with aerosol scattering coefficient (σsp) values less than 20 Mm-1 and NCCN values less than 100 cm-3.However,southerly winds over the SGP are responsible for the observed moderate to high correlation (R)among aerosol loading (σsp > 60 Mm-1) and NCCN,carbonaceous chemical species (biomass burning smoke),and precipitable water vapor.This suggests a common transport mechanism for smoke aerosols and moisture via the Gulf of Mexico,indicating a strong dependence on air mass type.NASA MERRA-2 reanalysis aerosol and chemical data are moderately to highly correlated with surface ARM-SGP data,suggesting that this facility can represent surface aerosol conditions in the SGP,especially during strong aerosol loading events that transport via the Gulf of Mexico.Future long-term investigations will help to understand the seasonal influences of air masses on aerosol,CCN,and cloud properties over land in comparison to over ocean.

  17. Northeastern Regional geologic characterization report. Volume 3. Plates. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    Volume 7(3) contains the following maps: index map; faults, ground acceleration, and in situ stress; rock and mineral resources; drainage basins and ground water discharge zones; ground water resources; and crystalline rock bodies

  18. Host state screening process: Regional management plan: [Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drobny, N.L.

    1986-01-01

    This report discusses the procedure and cirteria that the Commission selected for designating a host state, should a state not volunteer for this role. Section 2 describes the wide range of approaches considered. Advantages and disadvantages of each are reviewed briefly, and the overall timetable established by the Commission for host state selection is presented. Section 3 describes the selected process for host state designation which involves emphasis on waste quantities generated and transportation factors. Section 4 presents relevant data on characteristics of wastes presently generated and presents estimates for future waste generation to Year 2015. Section 5 presents the results of transportation analyses considering the distance over which waste would be transported and safety (accident) statistics for waste transport routes. Section 6 integrates the conclusions from the analysis of waste volumes generated and transportation factors and suggests how these results might be used to designate a host state. 11 refs., 6 figs., 9 tabs

  19. Regional development and regional policy

    OpenAIRE

    Šabić, Dejan; Vujadinović, Snežana

    2017-01-01

    Economic polarization is a process that is present at global, national and regional level. Economic activity is extremely spatially concentrated. Cities and developed regions use the agglomeration effect to attract labor and capital, thus achieving more favorable economic conditions than the agrarian region. Scientific research and European experiences over the past decades have contributed to the discrepancy among theorists about the causes and consequences of regional inequalities. Regional...

  20. Wind climate from the regional climate model REMO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsén, Xiaoli Guo; Mann, Jakob; Berg, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    Selected outputs from simulations with the regional climate model REMO from the Max Planck Institute, Hamburg, Germany were studied in connection with wind energy resource assessment. It was found that the mean wind characteristics based on observations from six mid-latitude stations are well...... described by the standard winds derived from the REMO pressure data. The mean wind parameters include the directional wind distribution, directional and omni-directional mean values and Weibull fitting parameters, spectral analysis and interannual variability of the standard winds. It was also found that......, on average, the wind characteristics from REMO are in better agreement with observations than those derived from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) re-analysis pressure data. The spatial correlation of REMO surface winds in Europe...

  1. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Ross

    2003-04-30

    The Final Technical Report summarizes research accomplishments and Publications in the period of 5/1/99 to 4/30/03 done on the grant. Extensive progress was made in the period covered by this report in the areas of chemical kinetics of non-linear systems; spatial structures, reaction - diffusion systems, and thermodynamic and stochastic theory of electrochemical and general systems.

  2. Deep inelastic final states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girardi, G.

    1980-11-01

    In these lectures we attempt to describe the final states of deep inelastic scattering as given by QCD. In the first section we shall briefly comment on the parton model and give the main properties of decay functions which are of interest for the study of semi-inclusive leptoproduction. The second section is devoted to the QCD approach to single hadron leptoproduction. First we recall basic facts on QCD log's and derive after that the evolution equations for the fragmentation functions. For this purpose we make a short detour in e + e - annihilation. The rest of the section is a study of the factorization of long distance effects associated with the initial and final states. We then show how when one includes next to leading QCD corrections one induces factorization breaking and describe the double moments useful for testing such effects. The next section contains a review on the QCD jets in the hadronic final state. We begin by introducing the notion of infrared safe variable and defining a few useful examples. Distributions in these variables are studied to first order in QCD, with some comments on the resummation of logs encountered in higher orders. Finally the last section is a 'gaullimaufry' of jet studies

  3. The 'final order' problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunter, RH; Haneveld, WKK

    1998-01-01

    When the service department of a company selling machines stops producing and supplying spare parts for certain machines, customers are offered an opportunity to place a so-called final order for these spare parts. We focus on one customer with one machine. The customer plans to use this machine up

  4. Structural region

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Structural region. The two groups had 4 substitutions similar to Yawat strain. The Yawat strain had 5 unique mutations. 3 in the E2 region and 2 in the E1 region. The mutation, I702V (E2), though different from all the recent Indian and Reunion sequences was similar ...

  5. Techno-economic accompanying research the national competition ''Bioenergy Regions''. Final report funding measure 2009-2012; Technisch-oekonomische Begleitforschung des Bundeswettbewerbes ''Bioenergie-Regionen''. Endbericht Foerdermassnahme 2009-2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohnet, Sebastian; Haak, Falko; Gawor, Marek [DBFZ Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gemeinnuetzige GmbH, Leipzig (Germany); Thraen, Daniela [DBFZ Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gemeinnuetzige GmbH, Leipzig (Germany); Helmholtz-Zentrum fuer Umweltforschung (UFZ), Leipzig (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    This final report describes the results of the techno-economic accompanying research of the competition of bioenergy regions. The competition was realized as a three-year funding project of the Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection (BMELV), wherein the DBFZ analyzed the bioenergy development in the project regions and effects for regional development. The aim of the techno-economic accompanying research was to evaluate the project regions regarding the use of bioenergy. To this end, the bioenergy plants and supply chains of bioenergy as well as the raw materials used were the focus of investigations. Hereby the comparison between the regions and classification of the national average should be made possible. It was also necessary to be able to make statements about the climate protection contribution of funding the project. Not least the DBFZ supported the office of competition and the regions in answering technical-economic issues. The report is divided into a theoretical part A and the result Part B. After a summary of the results (chapter 1) and a brief overview of important and higher-level indicators (Chapter 2) the background and objectives of the competition are in Part A, first presented (Chapter 3). This is followed by Chapter 4 of the explanation of the methodological approach. Part B contains the results of the accompanying research project. The individual chapters are based respectively on the specific questions or thematic blocks of techno-economic accompanying research (Section 5-8). The final chapter 9 takes a brief look at the second funding phase from 2012 to 2015. [German] Der vorliegende Endbericht beschreibt die Ergebnisse der technisch-oekonomischen Begleitforschung zum Wettbewerb Bioenergie-Regionen. Der Wettbewerb wurde als dreijaehriges Foerdervorhaben des Bundesministeriums fuer Ernaehrung, Landwirtschaft und Verbraucherschutz (BMELV) realisiert, bei dem das DBFZ die Bioenergieentwicklung in den Projektregionen sowie

  6. Characterization of the radon source in North-Central Florida. Final report part 1 -- Final project report; Final report part 2 -- Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This report contains two separate parts: Characterization of the Radon Source in North-Central Florida (final report part 1 -- final project report); and Characterization of the Radon Source in North-Central Florida (technical report). The objectives were to characterize the radon 222 source in a region having a demonstrated elevated indoor radon potential and having geology, lithology, and climate that are different from those in other regions of the U.S. where radon is being studied. Radon availability and transport in this region were described. Approaches for predicting the radon potential of lands in this region were developed

  7. Program GICC, final report (March 2005), inventory of carbonaceous aerosol particles from 1860 to 2100 or which carbonaceous aerosol for a significant climatic regional/global impact?; Programme GICC, RAPPORT DEFINITIF (Mars 2005), inventaire d'emissions d'aerosol carbone de 1860 a 2100 ou quelles emissions d'aerosol carbone pour un impact climatique regional/global significatif?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cachier, H.; Guinot, B. [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnment, UMR CEA/CNRS 1572 - CEA Saclay, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Criqui, P.; Mima, S. [IEPE, 38 - Grenoble (France); Brignon, J.M. [INERIS, 60 - Verneuil-en-Halatte (France); Penner, J. [Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Carmichael, G. [Iowa Univ., Iowa City, IA (United States); Gadi, R. [National Physical Lab., New Delhi (India); Denier Van der Gon, H. [TNO Hollande (Netherlands); Gregoire, J.M. [JRC, Ispra (Italy); Liousse, C.; Michel, C.; Guillaume, B.; Junker, C

    2007-07-01

    The aim of our program is to determine past, present and future emission inventories of carbonaceous particles from 1860 to 2100 for fossil fuel and biofuel sources. Emission inventories for savannah and forest fires have been developed by using burnt area products given by satellite for Asia and Africa. The strong collaboration with the different groups attending this GICC program has allowed to develop the following results. 1- With the improvement of algorithms and new choices for emission factors, emission inventories for black carbon (BC), primary organic carbon (OCp) and total organic carbon (OCtot) have been constructed for the period 1950 to 1997 for fossil fuel and biofuel sources. With these new development, biofuel sources have been seen to be significant, especially in the developing countries. 2- Past inventories have been developed for fossil fuel and biofuel sources from 1860 to 1997 by taking into account the evolution of fuel consumption, fuel use and emission factors. 3- Savannah and forest fire inventories have been constructed based on burnt area products, for Africa (1981-1991, 2000) and Asia (2000-2001). These results show the importance of using real time data instead of statistics. 4-Future emission inventory of black carbon by fossil fuel sources has been constructed for 2100 following the IPCC scenario A2 (catastrophic case) and B1 (perfect world). 5-Characterization of biofuel emissions has been realized by organizing an experiment in a combustion chamber where indian and chinese biofuels (fuelwood, agricultural wastes, dung-cake etc..). were burnt, reproducing the burning methods used in these countries. 6-Finally, the differences between the existing inventories of carbonaceous aerosols has been explained. (A.L.B.)

  8. CMS Is Finally Completed

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Yet another step in the completion of the Large Hadron Collider was taken yesterday morning, as the final element of the Compact Muon Solenoid was lowered nearly 100 meters bellow ground. After more than eight years of work at the world's most powerful particle accelerator, scientists hope that they will be able to start initial experiments with the LHC until the end of this year.

  9. Catarse e Final Feliz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Ávila

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: É a certeza de que nada mais – ou nada importante – pode acontecer após o final de um conto que permite o acontecimento da catarse. Se na maioria das narrativas existe algum tipo de dénouement, em algumas delas isso acontece de maneira especialmente satisfatória e afirmativa. O conto de fadas é uma dessas formas narrativas onde o efeito catártico é extremo e preenche objetivos específicos, de acordo com Bruno Bettelheim. Hollywood mimetizou essa forma como estratégia de sedução, iniciando a tradição do final feliz no cinema. A partir do conto de fadas Cinderela, em diferentes versões, juntamente com a animação homônima da Disney e ainda duas versões do filme Sabrina, será traçada aqui uma relação entre a catarse e o final feliz nos contos de fada, bem como seu uso pela indústria cultural. Palavras-chave: catarse, contos de fada, Hollywood

  10. Regional Focus on Small-scale wind power (<50kW) in southeastern Sweden within the Network for wind farms. Final Report, Project No. 31852-1. ; Regional Satsning paa Smaaskalig vindkraft (<50kW) i sydoestra Sverige inom Naetverket foer vindbruk. Slutrapport, projekt nr 31852-1.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyrberg, Lennart (ed.)

    2011-07-01

    Energy Agency for Southeast Sweden AB, the Swedish Network for wind farming and the EU project RuralRES have collaborated in this project. The project has resulted in a competence buildup and dissemination of small-scale wind power knowledge. The project has, among other things documented good practices and performs feasibility studies for establishment of small scale wind power. This work has led to an understanding of preconditions for a successful investment in small-scale wind power. The dissemination of this knowledge here in the region, in other parts of Sweden and to other partners in the EU project has contributed to a more realistic level of expectations on small-scale wind power, something that is very important for the industry's continued development. A good wind location is the most important prerequisite for a successful wind power project; this applies to small as well as large-scale wind power. Availability of reliable wind turbines with good performance is important for the development of the industry. Further, it should be reasonably easy to get building permits and permits for electricity connection. The growth might be stimulated by the introduction of net charging and an adaptation of the electricity certificate system for small producers.

  11. A Climatology of Midlatitude Continental Clouds from the ARM SGP Site. Part I; Low-Level Cloud Macrophysical, Microphysical, and Radiative Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiquan; Minnis, Patrick; Xi, Baike

    2005-01-01

    A record of single-layer and overcast low cloud (stratus) properties has been generated using approximately 4000 hours of data collected from January 1997 to December 2002 at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains Central Facility (SCF). The cloud properties include liquid-phase and liquid-dominant, mixed-phase, low cloud macrophysical, microphysical, and radiative properties including cloud-base and -top heights and temperatures, and cloud physical thickness derived from a ground-based radar and lidar pair, and rawinsonde sounding; cloud liquid water path (LWP) and content (LWC), and cloud-droplet effective radius (r(sub e)) and number concentration (N) derived from the macrophysical properties and radiometer data; and cloud optical depth (tau), effective solar transmission (gamma), and cloud/top-of-atmosphere albedos (R(sub cldy)/R(sub TOA)) derived from Eppley precision spectral pyranometer measurements. The cloud properties were analyzed in terms of their seasonal, monthly, and hourly variations. In general, more stratus clouds occur during winter and spring than in summer. Cloud-layer altitudes and physical thicknesses were higher and greater in summer than in winter with averaged physical thicknesses of 0.85 km and 0.73 km for day and night, respectively. The seasonal variations of LWP, LWC, N. tau, R(sub cldy), and R(sub TOA) basically follow the same pattern with maxima and minima during winter and summer, respectively. There is no significant variation in mean r(sub e), however, despite a summertime peak in aerosol loading, Although a considerable degree of variability exists, the 6-yr average values of LWP, LWC, r(sub e), N, tau, gamma, R(sub cldy) and R(sub TOA) are 150 gm(exp -2) (138), 0.245 gm(exp -3) (0.268), 8.7 micrometers (8.5), 213 cm(exp -3) (238), 26.8 (24.8), 0.331, 0.672, 0.563 for daytime (nighttime). A new conceptual model of midlatitude continental low clouds at the ARM SGP site has been developed from this study

  12. Ten-year trends of atmospheric mercury in the high Arctic compared to Canadian sub-Arctic and mid-latitude sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Cole

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Global emissions of mercury continue to change at the same time as the Arctic is experiencing ongoing climatic changes. Continuous monitoring of atmospheric mercury provides important information about long-term trends in the balance between transport, chemistry, and deposition of this pollutant in the Arctic atmosphere. Ten-year records of total gaseous mercury (TGM from 2000 to 2009 were analyzed from two high Arctic sites at Alert (Nunavut, Canada and Zeppelin Station (Svalbard, Norway; one sub-Arctic site at Kuujjuarapik (Nunavik, Québec, Canada; and three temperate Canadian sites at St. Anicet (Québec, Kejimkujik (Nova Scotia and Egbert (Ontario. Five of the six sites examined showed a decreasing trend over this time period. Overall trend estimates at high latitude sites were: −0.9% yr−1 (95% confidence limits: −1.4, 0 at Alert and no trend (−0.5, +0.7 at Zeppelin Station. Faster decreases were observed at the remainder of the sites: −2.1% yr−1 (−3.1, −1.1 at Kuujjuarapik, −1.9% yr−1 (−2.1, −1.8 at St. Anicet, −1.6% yr−1 (−2.4, −1.0 at Kejimkujik and −2.2% yr−1 (−2.8, −1.7 at Egbert. Trends at the sub-Arctic and mid-latitude sites agree with reported decreases in background TGM concentration since 1996 at Mace Head, Ireland, and Cape Point, South Africa, but conflict with estimates showing an increase in global anthropogenic emissions over a similar period. Trends in TGM at the two high Arctic sites were not only less negative (or neutral overall but much more variable by season. Possible reasons for differences in seasonal and overall trends at the Arctic sites compared to those at lower latitudes are discussed, as well as implications for the Arctic mercury cycle. The first calculations of multi-year trends in reactive gaseous mercury (RGM and total particulate mercury (TPM at Alert were also performed, indicating increases from 2002 to 2009

  13. Regional TEC model under quiet geomagnetic conditions and low-to-moderate solar activity based on CODE GIMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jiandi; Jiang, Weiping; Wang, Zhengtao; Zhao, Zhenzhen; Nie, Linjuan

    2017-08-01

    Global empirical total electron content (TEC) models based on TEC maps effectively describe the average behavior of the ionosphere. However, the accuracy of these global models for a certain region may not be ideal. Due to the number and distribution of the International GNSS Service (IGS) stations, the accuracy of TEC maps is geographically different. The modeling database derived from the global TEC maps with different accuracy is likely one of the main reasons that limits the accuracy of the new models. Moreover, many anomalies in the ionosphere are geographic or geomagnetic dependent, and as such the accuracy of global models can deteriorate if these anomalies are not fully incorporated into the modeling approach. For regional models built in small areas, these influences on modeling are immensely weakened. Thus, the regional TEC models may better reflect the temporal and spatial variations of TEC. In our previous work (Feng et al., 2016), a regional TEC model TECM-NEC is proposed for northeast China. However, this model is only directed against the typical region of Mid-latitude Summer Nighttime Anomaly (MSNA) occurrence, which is meaningless in other regions without MSNA. Following the technique of TECM-NEC model, this study proposes another regional empirical TEC model for other regions in mid-latitudes. Taking a small area BeiJing-TianJin-Tangshan (JJT) region (37.5°-42.5° N, 115°-120° E) in China as an example, a regional empirical TEC model (TECM-JJT) is proposed using the TEC grid data from January 1, 1999 to June 30, 2015 provided by the Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE) under quiet geomagnetic conditions. The TECM-JJT model fits the input CODE TEC data with a bias of 0.11TECU and a root mean square error of 3.26TECU. Result shows that the regional model TECM-JJT is consistent with CODE TEC data and GPS-TEC data.

  14. Fiscal competition and regional differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Justman, Moshe; Thisse, Jacques-François; Van Ypersele, Tanguy

    2001-01-01

    Regions can benefit by offering infrastructure services that are differentiated. Competition between regions over potential investors is then less direct, allowing them to realize greater benefits from external investors. The two polar cases of full and incomplete information about investors' needs are studied. In both cases, there is regional differentiation. However, fiscal competition is efficient in the former case but not in the latter. Finally, it is shown that free entry in the loc...

  15. Energy Impact Illinois - Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, Daniel [Senior Energy Efficiency Planner; Plagman, Emily [Senior Energy Planner; Silberhorn, Joey-Lin [Energy Efficiency Program Assistant

    2014-02-18

    Energy Impact Illinois (EI2) is an alliance of government organizations, nonprofits, and regional utility companies led by the Chicago Metropolitan Agency for Planning (CMAP) that is dedicated to helping communities in the Chicago metropolitan area become more energy efficient. Originally organized as the Chicago Region Retrofit Ramp-Up (CR3), EI2 became part of the nationwide Better Buildings Neighborhood Program (BBNP) in May 2010 after receiving a $25 million award from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) authorized through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA). The program’s primary goal was to fund initiatives that mitigate barriers to energy efficiency retrofitting activities across residential, multifamily, and commercial building sectors in the seven-county CMAP region and to help to build a sustainable energy efficiency marketplace. The EI2 Final Technical Report provides a detailed review of the strategies, implementation methods, challenges, lessons learned, and final results of the EI2 program during the initial grant period from 2010-2013. During the program period, EI2 successfully increased direct retrofit activity in the region and was able to make a broader impact on the energy efficiency market in the Chicago region. As the period of performance for the initial grant comes to an end, EI2’s legacy raises the bar for the region in terms of helping homeowners and building owners to take action on the continually complex issue of energy efficiency.

  16. DANAERO MW: Final Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troldborg, Niels; Bak, Christian; Aagaard Madsen, Helge

    This report describes the results of the EUDP funded DANAERO MW II project carried out by DTU Wind Energy (formerly Risø DTU) and the industrial partners, LM Wind Power, Vestas Wind Systems A/S and Siemens Wind Power. An overview of the data available from the project as well as the results from...... analysis of the data is given with the main objective to explore in detail the influence of atmospheric and wake turbulence on MW turbine performance, loading and stability. Finally, validation and demonstration of simulation codes are carried out....

  17. Evolved H II regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churchwell, E.

    1975-01-01

    A probable evolutionary sequence of H II regions based on six distinct types of observed objects is suggested. Two examples which may deviate from this idealized sequence, are discussed. Even though a size-mean density relation of H II regions can be used as a rough indication of whether a nebula is very young or evolved, it is argued that such a relation is not likely to be useful for the quantitative assignment of ages to H II regions. Evolved H II regions appear to fit into one of four structural types: rings, core-halos, smooth structures, and irregular or filamentary structures. Examples of each type are given with their derived physical parameters. The energy balance in these nebulae is considered. The mass of ionized gas in evolved H II regions is in general too large to trace the nebula back to single compact H II regions. Finally, the morphological type of the Galaxy is considered from its H II region content. 2 tables, 2 figs., 29 refs

  18. Regional Externalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijman, W.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    The book offers practical and theoretical insights in regional externalities. Regional externalities are a specific subset of externalities that can be defined as externalities where space plays a dominant role. This class of externalities can be divided into three categories: (1) externalities

  19. The final cool down

    CERN Multimedia

    Thursday 29th May, the cool-down of the final sector (sector 4-5) of LHC has begun, one week after the start of the cool-down of sector 1-2. It will take five weeks for the sectors to be cooled from room temperature to 5 K and a further two weeks to complete the cool down to 1.9 K and the commissioning of cryogenic instrumentation, as well as to fine tune the cryogenic plants and the cooling loops of cryostats.Nearly a year and half has passed since sector 7-8 was cooled for the first time in January 2007. For Laurent Tavian, AT/CRG Group Leader, reaching the final phase of the cool down is an important milestone, confirming the basic design of the cryogenic system and the ability to operate complete sectors. “All the sectors have to operate at the same time otherwise we cannot inject the beam into the machine. The stability and reliability of the cryogenic system and its utilities are now very important. That will be the new challenge for the coming months,” he explains. The status of the cool down of ...

  20. Cosmology Without Finality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahootian, F.

    2009-12-01

    The rapid convergence of advancing sensor technology, computational power, and knowledge discovery techniques over the past decade has brought unprecedented volumes of astronomical data together with unprecedented capabilities of data assimilation and analysis. A key result is that a new, data-driven "observational-inductive'' framework for scientific inquiry is taking shape and proving viable. The anticipated rise in data flow and processing power will have profound effects, e.g., confirmations and disconfirmations of existing theoretical claims both for and against the big bang model. But beyond enabling new discoveries can new data-driven frameworks of scientific inquiry reshape the epistemic ideals of science? The history of physics offers a comparison. The Bohr-Einstein debate over the "completeness'' of quantum mechanics centered on a question of ideals: what counts as science? We briefly examine lessons from that episode and pose questions about their applicability to cosmology. If the history of 20th century physics is any indication, the abandonment of absolutes (e.g., space, time, simultaneity, continuity, determinacy) can produce fundamental changes in understanding. The classical ideal of science, operative in both physics and cosmology, descends from the European Enlightenment. This ideal has for over 200 years guided science to seek the ultimate order of nature, to pursue the absolute theory, the "theory of everything.'' But now that we have new models of scientific inquiry powered by new technologies and driven more by data than by theory, it is time, finally, to relinquish dreams of a "final'' theory.

  1. Evaluation of PMIP2 and PMIP3 simulations of mid-Holocene climate in the Indo-Pacific, Australasian and Southern Ocean regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Ackerley

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study uses the simplified patterns of temperature and effective precipitation approach from the Australian component of the international palaeoclimate synthesis effort (INTegration of Ice core, MArine and TErrestrial records – OZ-INTIMATE to compare atmosphere–ocean general circulation model (AOGCM simulations and proxy reconstructions. The approach is used in order to identify important properties (e.g. circulation and precipitation of past climatic states from the models and proxies, which is a primary objective of the Southern Hemisphere Assessment of PalaeoEnvironment (SHAPE initiative. The AOGCM data are taken from the Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project (PMIP mid-Holocene (ca. 6000 years before present, 6 ka and pre-industrial control (ca. 1750 CE, 0 ka experiments. The synthesis presented here shows that the models and proxies agree on the differences in climate state for 6 ka relative to 0 ka, when they are insolation driven. The largest uncertainty between the models and the proxies occurs over the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool (IPWP. The analysis shows that the lower temperatures in the Pacific at around 6 ka in the models may be the result of an enhancement of an existing systematic error. It is therefore difficult to decipher which one of the proxies and/or the models is correct. This study also shows that a reduction in the Equator-to-pole temperature difference in the Southern Hemisphere causes the mid-latitude westerly wind strength to reduce in the models; however, the simulated rainfall actually increases over the southern temperate zone of Australia as a result of higher convective precipitation. Such a mechanism (increased convection may be useful for resolving disparities between different regional proxy records and model simulations. Finally, after assessing the available datasets (model and proxy, opportunities for better model–proxy integrated research are discussed.

  2. Evaluation of PMIP2 and PMIP3 simulations of mid-Holocene climate in the Indo-Pacific, Australasian and Southern Ocean regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerley, Duncan; Reeves, Jessica; Barr, Cameron; Bostock, Helen; Fitzsimmons, Kathryn; Fletcher, Michael-Shawn; Gouramanis, Chris; McGregor, Helen; Mooney, Scott; Phipps, Steven J.; Tibby, John; Tyler, Jonathan

    2017-11-01

    This study uses the simplified patterns of temperature and effective precipitation approach from the Australian component of the international palaeoclimate synthesis effort (INTegration of Ice core, MArine and TErrestrial records - OZ-INTIMATE) to compare atmosphere-ocean general circulation model (AOGCM) simulations and proxy reconstructions. The approach is used in order to identify important properties (e.g. circulation and precipitation) of past climatic states from the models and proxies, which is a primary objective of the Southern Hemisphere Assessment of PalaeoEnvironment (SHAPE) initiative. The AOGCM data are taken from the Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project (PMIP) mid-Holocene (ca. 6000 years before present, 6 ka) and pre-industrial control (ca. 1750 CE, 0 ka) experiments. The synthesis presented here shows that the models and proxies agree on the differences in climate state for 6 ka relative to 0 ka, when they are insolation driven. The largest uncertainty between the models and the proxies occurs over the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool (IPWP). The analysis shows that the lower temperatures in the Pacific at around 6 ka in the models may be the result of an enhancement of an existing systematic error. It is therefore difficult to decipher which one of the proxies and/or the models is correct. This study also shows that a reduction in the Equator-to-pole temperature difference in the Southern Hemisphere causes the mid-latitude westerly wind strength to reduce in the models; however, the simulated rainfall actually increases over the southern temperate zone of Australia as a result of higher convective precipitation. Such a mechanism (increased convection) may be useful for resolving disparities between different regional proxy records and model simulations. Finally, after assessing the available datasets (model and proxy), opportunities for better model-proxy integrated research are discussed.

  3. Climatic Consequences and Agricultural Impact of Regional Nuclear Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toon, O. B.; Robock, A.; Mills, M. J.; Xia, L.

    2013-05-01

    A nuclear war between India and Pakistan, with each country using 50 Hiroshima-sized atom bombs as airbursts on urban areas, would inject smoke from the resulting fires into the stratosphere.This could produce climate change unprecedented in recorded human history and global-scale ozone depletion, with enhanced ultraviolet (UV) radiation reaching the surface.Simulations with the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM), run at higher vertical and horizontal resolution than a previous simulation with the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies ModelE, and incorporating ozone chemistry for the first time, show a longer stratospheric residence time for smoke and hence a longer-lasting climate response, with global average surface air temperatures still 1.1 K below normal and global average precipitation 4% below normal after a decade.The erythemal dose from the enhanced UV radiation would greatly increase, in spite of enhanced absorption by the remaining smoke, with the UV index more than 3 units higher in the summer midlatitudes, even after a decade. Scenarios of changes in temperature, precipitation, and downward shortwave radiation from the ModelE and WACCM simulations, applied to the Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer crop model for winter wheat, rice, soybeans, and maize by perturbing observed time series with anomalies from the regional nuclear war simulations, produce decreases of 10-50% in yield averaged over a decade, with larger decreases in the first several years, over the midlatitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. The impact of the nuclear war simulated here, using much less than 1% of the global nuclear arsenal, would be devastating to world agricultural production and trade, possibly sentencing a billion people now living marginal existences to starvation.The continued environmental threat of the use of even a small number of nuclear weapons must be considered in nuclear policy deliberations in Russia, the U.S., and the rest of

  4. The reconciliation of an F-region irregularity model with sunspot-cycle variations in spread-F occurrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singleton, D.G.

    1974-11-01

    A recently proposed means of combining models of ionospheric F-layer peak electron density and irregularity incremental electron density (ΔN) so as to simulate the global occurrence probability of the frequency spreading component of spread-F is discussed. This procedure is then used to model experimental spread-F occurrence results. It is found possible to readily simulate the sunspot-maximum results, independently of season, with only small adjustments to the amplitudes of the empirical expressions used to ΔN in the several latitude regimes. However, at sunspot minimum and for each season, the ΔN model requires modification in the equatorial and mid-latitude regions of high irregularity incidence, before successful simulations of the spread-F data can be obtained. These modifications, which include a broadening of the equatorial region and a polewards shift to the mid-latitude region with decreasing sunspot number, are discussed in detail. It is concluded that the scintillation data base, from which the original ΔN model derives, is not sufficiently representative with regard to sunspot number and magnetic index. The use of the spread-F adaptation of the ΔN model, as well as its original scintillation version, to rectify these failings of the ΔN model are also discussed. (author)

  5. IRIS Toxicological Review of Tetrahydrofuran (THF) (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has released the Toxicological Review of Tetrahydrofuran: in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Now final, this assessment may be used by EPA’s program and regional offices to inform decisions to protect human health.

  6. Evaluation of the absolute regional temperature potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. T. Shindell

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Absolute Regional Temperature Potential (ARTP is one of the few climate metrics that provides estimates of impacts at a sub-global scale. The ARTP presented here gives the time-dependent temperature response in four latitude bands (90–28° S, 28° S–28° N, 28–60° N and 60–90° N as a function of emissions based on the forcing in those bands caused by the emissions. It is based on a large set of simulations performed with a single atmosphere-ocean climate model to derive regional forcing/response relationships. Here I evaluate the robustness of those relationships using the forcing/response portion of the ARTP to estimate regional temperature responses to the historic aerosol forcing in three independent climate models. These ARTP results are in good accord with the actual responses in those models. Nearly all ARTP estimates fall within ±20% of the actual responses, though there are some exceptions for 90–28° S and the Arctic, and in the latter the ARTP may vary with forcing agent. However, for the tropics and the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes in particular, the ±20% range appears to be roughly consistent with the 95% confidence interval. Land areas within these two bands respond 39–45% and 9–39% more than the latitude band as a whole. The ARTP, presented here in a slightly revised form, thus appears to provide a relatively robust estimate for the responses of large-scale latitude bands and land areas within those bands to inhomogeneous radiative forcing and thus potentially to emissions as well. Hence this metric could allow rapid evaluation of the effects of emissions policies at a finer scale than global metrics without requiring use of a full climate model.

  7. Final Scientific EFNUDAT Workshop

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2010-01-01

    The Final Scientific EFNUDAT Workshop - organized by the CERN/EN-STI group on behalf of n_TOF Collaboration - will be held at CERN, Geneva (Switzerland) from 30 August to 2 September 2010 inclusive.EFNUDAT website: http://www.efnudat.euTopics of interest include: Data evaluationCross section measurementsExperimental techniquesUncertainties and covariancesFission propertiesCurrent and future facilities  International Advisory Committee: C. Barreau (CENBG, France)T. Belgya (IKI KFKI, Hungary)E. Gonzalez (CIEMAT, Spain)F. Gunsing (CEA, France)F.-J. Hambsch (IRMM, Belgium)A. Junghans (FZD, Germany)R. Nolte (PTB, Germany)S. Pomp (TSL UU, Sweden) Workshop Organizing Committee: Enrico Chiaveri (Chairman)Marco CalvianiSamuel AndriamonjeEric BerthoumieuxCarlos GuerreroRoberto LositoVasilis Vlachoudis Workshop Assistant: Géraldine Jean

  8. AIPM Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Mookken

    2006-06-30

    The final AIPM project report consists of six sections. Each section includes information on the original AIPM project and extension work on the high temperature design. The first section (1) provides an overview of the program and highlights the significant targets to meet at the end of the program. The next section (2) summarizes the significant technical accomplishments by the SEMIKRON AIPM team during the course of the project. Greater technical details are provided in a collection of all the quarterly reports which can be found in the appendix. Section three (3) presents some the more significant technical data collected from technology demonstrators. Section four (4) analyzes the manufacturing cost or economic aspects of producing 100,000 units/yr. Section five (5) describes the commercialization efforts of the AIPM technology into the automotive market. The last section (6) recommends follow on work that will build on the efforts and achievements of the AIPM program.

  9. Chernobyl: the final warning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gale, R.P.; Hauser, Thomas.

    1988-01-01

    Following the Chernobyl accident in 1986, a book has been written with firstly an introduction to the basic principles and development of nuclear power, followed by a brief review of previous nuclear power plant accidents and then a short account of the Chernobyl accident itself. The main text of the book however contains the personal story of Dr. Robert Peter Yale, head of the Bone Marrow Transplant Unit at the UCLA Medical Center in Los Angeles who travelled to Russia six times to help the victims of the Chernobyl accident. The final part of the book discusses the safety of nuclear power and the dangers of the proliferation of nuclear weapons. (U.K.)

  10. Cosmological Final Focus Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irwin, J

    2004-01-01

    We develop the many striking parallels between the dynamics of light streams from distant galaxies and particle beams in accelerator final focus systems. Notably the deflections of light by mass clumps are identical to the kicks arising from the long-range beam-beam interactions of two counter-rotating particle beams (known as parasitic crossings). These deflections have sextupolar as well as quadrupolar components. We estimate the strength of such distortions for a variety of circumstances and argue that the sextupolar distortions from clumping within clusters may be observable. This possibility is enhanced by the facts that (1) the sextupolar distortions of background galaxies is a factor of 5 smaller than the quadrupolar distortion, (2) the angular orientation of the sextupolar and quadrupolar distortions from a mass distribution would be correlated, appearing as a slightly curved image, (3) these effects should be spatially clumped on the sky

  11. Multimuon final states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crespo, J.-M.

    1980-04-01

    Multimuon final states have been detected by 3 experiments in the interactions of the muon beams of CERN (280 GeV) and FNAL (210 GeV) with heavy targets. For the first time production of J/PSI (3100) by space-like photons has been observed and its dependence on ν, Q 2 and t compared to Vector Dominance and photon-gluon fusion models. Also a clear signal has been seen for 3μ above QED tridents (outside J/PSI mass range) and 2μ events which are well described by charm production. An upper limit for the production of the T by high energy muons has been set

  12. Stardust Final Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Minisci, Edmondo; Summerer, Leopold; McGinty, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Space debris and asteroid impacts pose a very real, very near-term threat to Earth. In order to help study and mitigate these risks, the Stardust program was formed in 2013. This training and research network was devoted to developing and mastering techniques such as removal, deflection, exploitation, and tracking. This book is a collection of many of the topics addressed at the Final Stardust Conference, describing the latest in asteroid monitoring and how engineering efforts can help us reduce space debris. It is a selection of studies bringing together specialists from universities, research institutions, and industry, tasked with the mission of pushing the boundaries of space research with innovative ideas and visionary concepts. Topics covered by the Symposium: Orbital and Attitude Dynamics Modeling Long Term Orbit and Attitude Evolution Particle Cloud Modeling and Simulation Collision and Impact Modelling and Simulation, Re-entry Modeling and Simulation Asteroid Origins and Characterization Orbit and A...

  13. Final technical report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Thomas Winther; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    gas jet chamber and laser beam path from the final focusing mirror. The project consists of three phases: Phase 1: Fundamental studies of cutting front mechanisms, beam propagation, nozzle design and chemical reactions in the cut kerf with special emphasize on high laser powers and thick sections...... cutting nozzle which can be adjusted independently to the laser beam has been developed. The position of the focus relative the workpiece can be adjusted to cutting applications with relatively large processing windows, i.e. both mild and stainless steels, and of a broad thickness range. A build-in auto......This project entails research with the goal to extend laser cutting of steel based metals to thickness above 20 mm and laser powers in the 10 kW range, with adequate accuracy and economically viable cutting speeds. The technical approach is to develop mirror based cutting heads with truly coaxial...

  14. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.; Long, S.; Li, Binsheng; Lamke, A.J.

    1994-07-01

    The overall goal of the contract is to provide general support and advice to the DOE, Office of Fossil Energy (DOE/EF) on the opportunities for coal and Clean Coal Technology trade in the Asia-Pacific region. The report which follows is divided into six subsections, each pertaining to separate subtasks the U.S. Department of Energy requested. Subtask A includes two reports, one which outlines important coal and clean coal technology news events which occurred during the second half of 1993, and another which outlines the potential for Clean Coal Technology in the Asia-Pacific Region. Subtask B and the first paper in Subtask C contain advisories and briefing papers that present and explain the coal, electricity and Clean Coal Technology situation in China. The second paper in Subtask C is an overview of the coal supply, demand and trade situation in the Asian region with coal projections to the year 2010. Subtask D is an overview of meetings with Asian energy and policy representatives which were carried out to (1) gather key information relevant to this contract, and (2) examine areas for closer cooperation on important coal/CCT-related energy issues. The tasks listed in the contract proposal as Subtasks E and F are summarized in respective sections of this report. Subtask E specifies the activities carried out under the APEC Experts` Group on Clean Coal Technologies, and Subtask F explains the work done by the Coal Project in building contacts and working relationships with key energy and technology planners in China (including The State Science and Technology Commission, the Ministry of Electric Power and Tsinghua University, and the State Planning Commission). The Subtask E section also includes activities to develop and strengthen the role of the APEC Experts Group on Clean Coal Activities.

  15. ROLL OUT THE TALENT : Final project report

    OpenAIRE

    Eerola, Tuomas; Tuominen, Pirjo; Hakkarainen, Riitta-Liisa; Laurikainen, Marja; Mero, Niina

    2014-01-01

    The ROLL OUT THE TALENT project was born out of the desire to recognise and support the strengths of vocational students and to develop new and innovative operating models. ROLL OUT THE TALENT promoted regional cooperation between institutes and companies. The project produced operating and study path models that take into consideration the individual strengths of vocational students and the principles of lifelong learning. This is the final report of the ROLL OUT THE TALENT project, and ...

  16. New final doublets and power densities for the international linear ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper we use current and proposed final doublet magnet technologies to reoptimise the interaction region of the international linear collider and reduce the power losses. The result is a set of three new final doublet layouts with improved beam transport properties. The effect of localised power deposition and ...

  17. IRIS Toxicological Review of Thallium and Compounds (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has finalized the Toxicological Review of Thallium and Compounds: in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Now final, this assessment may be used by EPA’s program and regional offices to inform decisions to protect human health.

  18. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Held, Isaac [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Balaji, V. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Fueglistaler, Stephan [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    2016-09-19

    We have constructed and analyzed a series of idealized models of tropical convection interacting with large-scale circulations, with 25-50km resolution and with 1-2km cloud resolving resolution to set the stage for rigorous tests of convection closure schemes in high resolution global climate models. Much of the focus has been on the climatology of tropical cyclogenesis in rotating systems and the related problem of the spontaneous aggregation of convection in non-rotating systems. The PI (Held) will be delivering the honorary Bjerknes lecture at the Fall 2016 AGU meeting in December on this work. We have also provided new analyses of long-standing issues related to the interaction between convection and the large-scale circulation: Kelvin waves in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere, water vapor transport into the stratosphere, and upper tropospheric temperature trends. The results of these analyses help to improve our understanding of processes, and provide tests for future high resolution global modeling. Our final goal of testing new convections schemes in next-generation global atmospheric models at GFDL has been left for future work due to the complexity of the idealized model results meant as tests for these models uncovered in this work and to computational resource limitations. 11 papers have been published with support from this grant, 2 are in review, and another major summary paper is in preparation.

  19. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velasco, Mayda [Northwestern University

    2013-11-01

    This work is focused on the design and construction of novel beam diagnostic and instrumentation for charged particle accelerators required for the next generation of linear colliders. Our main interest is in non-invasive techniques. The Northwestern group of Velasco has been a member of the CLIC Test Facility 3 (CTF3) collaboration since 2003, and the beam instrumentation work is developed mostly at this facility1. This 4 kW electron beam facility has a 25-170 MeV electron LINAC. CTF3 performed a set of dedicated measurements to finalize the development of our RF-Pickup bunch length detectors. The RF-pickup based on mixers was fully commissioned in 2009 and the RF-pickup based on diodes was finished in time for the 2010-11 data taking. The analysis of all the data taken in by the summer of 2010 was finish in time and presented at the main conference of the year, LINAC 2010 in Japan.

  20. Acoustic Separation Technology; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fred Ahrens; Tim Patterson

    2002-01-01

    Today's restrictive environmental regulations encourage paper mills to close their water systems. Closed water systems increase the level of contaminants significantly. Accumulations of solid suspensions are detrimental to both the papermaking process and the final products. To remove these solids, technologies such as flotation using dissolved air (DAF), centrifuging, and screening have been developed. Dissolved Air Flotation systems are commonly used to clarify whitewater. These passive systems use high pressure to dissolve air into whitewater. When the pressure is released, air micro-bubbles form and attach themselves to fibers and particles, which then float to the surface where they are mechanically skimmed off. There is an economic incentive to explore alternatives to the DAF technology to drive down the cost of whitewater processing and minimize the use of chemicals. The installed capital cost for a DAF system is significant and a typical DAF system takes up considerable space. An alternative approach, which is the subject of this project, involves a dual method combining the advantages of chemical flocculation and in-line ultrasonic clarification to efficiently remove flocculated contaminants from a water stream

  1. AIMES Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katz, Daniel S [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States). National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA); Jha, Shantenu [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Weissman, Jon [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Turilli, Matteo [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States)

    2017-01-31

    This is the final technical report for the AIMES project. Many important advances in science and engineering are due to large-scale distributed computing. Notwithstanding this reliance, we are still learning how to design and deploy large-scale production Distributed Computing Infrastructures (DCI). This is evidenced by missing design principles for DCI, and an absence of generally acceptable and usable distributed computing abstractions. The AIMES project was conceived against this backdrop, following on the heels of a comprehensive survey of scientific distributed applications. AIMES laid the foundations to address the tripartite challenge of dynamic resource management, integrating information, and portable and interoperable distributed applications. Four abstractions were defined and implemented: skeleton, resource bundle, pilot, and execution strategy. The four abstractions were implemented into software modules and then aggregated into the AIMES middleware. This middleware successfully integrates information across the application layer (skeletons) and resource layer (Bundles), derives a suitable execution strategy for the given skeleton and enacts its execution by means of pilots on one or more resources, depending on the application requirements, and resource availabilities and capabilities.

  2. Final NOMAD results on $\

    CERN Document Server

    Astier, P.; Baldisseri, A.; Baldo-Ceolin, M.; Banner, M.; Bassompierre, G.; Benslama, K.; Besson, N.; Bird, I.; Blumenfeld, Barry J.; Bobisut, F.; Bouchez, J.; Boyd, S.; Bueno, A.; Bunyatov, S.; Camilleri, L.; Cardini, A.; Cattaneo, P.W.; Cavasinni, V.; Cervera-Villanueva, A.; Chukanov, A.; Collazuol, G.; Conforto, G.; Conta, C.; Contalbrigo, M.; Cousins, R.; Daniels, D.; Degaudenzi, H.; Del Prete, T.; De Santo, A.; Dignan, T.; Di Lella, L.; do Couto e Silva, E.; Dumarchez, J.; Ellis, Malcolm; Feldman, G.J.; Ferrari, R.; Ferrere, D.; Flaminio, V.; Fraternali, M.; Gaillard, J.M.; Gangler, E.; Geiser, A.; Geppert, D.; Gibin, D.; Gninenko, S.; Godley, A.; Gomez-Cadenas, J.J.; Gosset, J.; Gossling, C.; Gouanere, M.; Grant, A.; Graziani, G.; Guglielmi, A.; Hagner, C.; Hernando, J.; Hubbard, D.; Hurst, P.; Hyett, N.; Iacopini, E.; Joseph, C.; Juget, F.; Kirsanov, M.; Klimov, O.; Kokkonen, J.; Kovzelev, A.; Krasnoperov, A.; Kustov, D.; Kuznetsov, V.E.; Lacaprara, S.; Lachaud, C.; Lakic, B.; Lanza, A.; La Rotonda, L.; Laveder, M.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Levy, J.M.; Linssen, L.; Ljubicic, A.; Long, J.; Lupi, A.; Marchionni, A.; Martelli, F.; Mechain, X.; Mendiburu, J.P.; Meyer, J.P.; Mezzetto, M.; Mishra, S.R.; Moorhead, G.F.; Naumov, D.; Nedelec, P.; Nefedov, Yu.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Orestano, D.; Pastore, F.; Peak, L.S.; Pennacchio, E.; Pessard, H.; Petti, R.; Placci, A.; Polesello, G.; Pollmann, D.; Polyarush, A.; Popov, B.; Poulsen, C.; Rico, J.; Riemann, P.; Roda, C.; Rubbia, A.; Salvatore, F.; Schahmaneche, K.; Schmidt, B.; Schmidt, T.; Sconza, A.; Sevior, M.; Sillou, D.; Soler, F.J.P.; Sozzi, G.; Steele, D.; Stiegler, U.; Stipcevic, M.; Stolarczyk, T.; Tareb-Reyes, M.; Taylor, G.N.; Tereshchenko, V.; Toropin, A.; Touchard, A.M.; Tovey, S.N.; Tran, M.T.; Tsesmelis, E.; Ulrichs, J.; Vacavant, L.; Valdata-Nappi, M.; Valuev, V.; Vannucci, F.; Varvell, K.E.; Veltri, M.; Vercesi, V.; Vidal-Sitjes, G.; Vieira, J.M.; Vinogradova, T.; Weber, F.V.; Weisse, T.; Wilson, F.F.; Winton, L.J.; Yabsley, Bruce D.; Zaccone, H.; Zuber, K.; Zuccon, P.; Krasnoperov, A V

    2001-01-01

    Results from the nu_tau appearance search in a neutrino beam using the full NOMAD data sample are reported. A new analysis unifies all the hadronic tau decays, significantly improving the overall sensitivity of the experiment to oscillations. The "blind analysis" of all topologies yields no evidence for an oscillation signal. In the two-family oscillation scenario, this sets a 90% C.L. allowed region in the sin^2(2theta)-Delta m^2 plane which includes sin^2(2theta)nu_tau oscillation hypothesis results in sin^2(2theta)<1.5 x 10^{-2} at large Delta m^2 and Delta m^2 < 5.9 eV^2/c^4 at sin^2(2theta)=1. We also derive limits on effective couplings of the tau lepton to nu_mu or nu_e.

  3. Secure ICCP Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, Mark J.; Bonebrake, Christopher A.; Dayley, Greg K.; Becker, Larry J.

    2017-06-30

    Inter-Control Center Communications Protocol (ICCP), defined by the IEC 60870-6 TASE.2 standard, was developed to enable data exchange over wide area networks between electric system entities, including utility control centers, Independent System Operators (ISOs), Regional Transmission Operators (RTOs) and Independent Power Producers (IPP) also known as Non-Utility Generators (NUG). ICCP is an unprotected protocol, and as a result is vulnerable to such actions as integrity violation, interception or alteration, spoofing, and eavesdropping. Because of these vulnerabilities with unprotected ICCP communication, security enhancements, referred to as Secure ICCP, have been added and are included in the ICCP products that utilities have received since 2003 when the standard was defined. This has resulted in an ICCP product whose communication can be encrypted and authenticated to address these vulnerabilities.

  4. Schedulability Analysis for Java Finalizers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgholm, Thomas; Hansen, Rene Rydhof; Søndergaard, Hans

    2010-01-01

    Java finalizers perform clean-up and finalisation of objects at garbage collection time. In real-time Java profiles the use of finalizers is either discouraged (RTSJ, Ravenscar Java) or even disallowed (JSR-302), mainly because of the unpredictability of finalizers and in particular their impact...... on the schedulability analysis. In this paper we show that a controlled scoped memory model results in a structured and predictable execution of finalizers, more reminiscent of C++ destructors than Java finalizers. Furthermore, we incorporate finalizers into a (conservative) schedulability analysis for Predictable Java...... programs. Finally, we extend the SARTS tool for automated schedulability analysis of Java bytecode programs to handle finalizers in a fully automated way....

  5. Toward the Development of a Cold Regions Regional-Scale Hydrologic Model, Final Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinzman, Larry D [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States); Bolton, William Robert [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States); Young-Robertson, Jessica (Cable) [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States)

    2018-01-02

    This project improves meso-scale hydrologic modeling in the boreal forest by: (1) demonstrating the importance of capturing the heterogeneity of the landscape using small scale datasets for parameterization for both small and large basins; (2) demonstrating that in drier parts of the landscape and as the boreal forest dries with climate change, modeling approaches must consider the sensitivity of simulations to soil hydraulic parameters - such as residual water content - that are usually held constant. Thus, variability / flexibility in residual water content must be considered for accurate simulation of hydrologic processes in the boreal forest; (3) demonstrating that assessing climate change impacts on boreal forest hydrology through multiple model integration must account for direct effects of climate change (temperature and precipitation), and indirect effects from climate impacts on landscape characteristics (permafrost and vegetation distribution). Simulations demonstrated that climate change will increase runoff, but will increase ET to a greater extent and result in a drying of the landscape; and (4) vegetation plays a significant role in boreal hydrologic processes in permafrost free areas that have deciduous trees. This landscape type results in a decoupling of ET and precipitation, a tight coupling of ET and temperature, low runoff, and overall soil drying.

  6. Particle acceleration at corotating interaction regions in the three-dimensional heliosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desai, M.I.; Marsden, R.G.; Sanderson, T.R.; Balogh, A.; Forsyth, R.J.; Gosling, J.T.

    1998-01-01

    We have investigated the relationship between the energetic (∼1MeV) proton intensity (J) and the magnetic compression ratio (C) measured at the trailing edges of corotating interaction regions observed at Ulysses. In general, our results show that the proton intensity was well correlated with the compression ratio, provided that the seed intensity remained constant, consistent with predictions of the Fermi model. Specifically, our results indicate that particles were accelerated to above ∼1MeV in energy at or near the trailing edges of the compression regions observed in the midlatitude southern heliosphere, irrespective of whether the bounding reverse shocks were present or not. On the basis of this, we conclude that shock acceleration is probably not the only mechanism by which particles are accelerated to above ∼1MeV in energy at compression or interaction regions (CIRs). On the basis of magnetic field measurements obtained near the trailing edges of several midlatitude CIRs, we propose that particles could have been accelerated via the Fermi mechanism by being scattered back and forth across the trailing edges of the compression regions by large-amplitude Alfvacute en waves. Our results also show that the proton intensity was well correlated with the compression ratio during low solar activity periods but was essentially independent of C during periods of high solar activity. We suggest that the correlation between J and C was not observed during solar active periods because of significant variations in the seed intensity that result from sporadic contributions from transient solar events. In contrast, the correlation was observable during quiescent periods probably because contributions from transients had decreased dramatically, which allowed the CIRs to accelerate particles out of a seed population whose intensity remained relatively unperturbed. copyright 1998 American Geophysical Union

  7. AMHARA REGION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the contribution of school curriculum committee in facilitating and coordinating ... schools of Amhara Region' ln undertaking the study the descriptive survey method was used. .... pupil and the teacher are available. ... prepared for each level and grade has ..... the principals have the opinion that the.

  8. Atlantic Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elands, B.H.M.; Bell, S.; Blok, J.

    2010-01-01

    Chapter 2 explores recreation and tourism practices in forest areas in the Atlantic region, which refers to the geographical area close to the North Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. The Atlantic countries described in this section are Belgium (Flanders and Wallonia), Denmark, Iceland, Ireland, the

  9. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohdan W. Oppenheim; Rudolf Marloth

    2007-10-26

    Executive Summary The document contains Final Technical Report on the Industrial Assessment Center Program at Loyola Marymount University in Los Angeles, covering the contract period of 9/1/2002 to 11/30/2006, under the contract DE-FC36-02GO 12073. The Report describes six required program tasks, as follows: TASK 1 is a summary of the assessments performed over the life of the award: 77 assessments were performed, 595 AR were recommended, covering a very broad range of manufacturing plants. TASK 2 is a description of the efforts to promote and increase the adoption of assessment recommendations and employ innovative methods to assist in accomplishing these goals. The LMU IAC has been very successful in accomplishing the program goals, including implemented savings of $5,141,895 in energy, $10,045,411 in productivity and $30,719 in waste, for a total of $15,218,025. This represents 44% of the recommended savings of $34,896,392. TASK 3 is a description of the efforts promoting the IAC Program and enhancing recruitment efforts for new clients and expanded geographic coverage. LMU IAC has been very successful recruiting new clients covering Southern California. Every year, the intended number of clients was recruited. TASK 4 describes the educational opportunities, training, and other related activities for IAC students. A total of 38 students graduated from the program, including 2-3 graduate students every semester, and the remainder undergraduate students, mostly from the Mechanical Engineering Department. The students received formal weekly training in energy (75%) and productivity (25). All students underwent extensive safety training. All students praised the IAC experience very highly. TASK 5 describes the coordination and integration of the Center activities with other Center and IAC Program activities, and DOE programs. LMU IAC worked closely with MIT, and SDSU IAC and SFSU IAC, and enthusiastically supported the SEN activities. TASK 6 describes other tasks

  10. Final report. [Nonlinear magnetohydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, D.C.

    1998-01-01

    This is a final report on the research activities carried out under the above grant at Dartmouth. During the period considered, the grant was identified as being for nonlinear magnetohydrodynamics, considered as the most tractable theoretical framework in which the plasma problems associated with magnetic confinement of fusion plasmas could be studied. During the first part of the grant's lifetime, the author was associated with Los Alamos National Laboratory as a consultant and the work was motivated by the reversed-field pinch. Later, when that program was killed at Los Alamos, the problems became ones that could be motivated by their relation to tokamaks. Throughout the work, the interest was always on questions that were as fundamental as possible, compatible with those motivations. The intent was always to contribute to plasma physics as a science, as well as to the understanding of mission-oriented confined fusion plasmas. Twelve Ph.D. theses were supervised during this period and a comparable number of postdoctoral research associates were temporarily supported. Many of these have gone on to distinguished careers, though few have done so in the context of the controlled fusion program. Their work was a combination of theory and numerical computation, in gradually less and less idealized settings, moving from rectangular periodic boundary conditions in two dimensions, through periodic straight cylinders and eventually, before the grant was withdrawn, to toroids, with a gradually more prominent role for electrical and mechanical boundary conditions. The author never had access to a situation where he could initiate experiments and relate directly to the laboratory data he wanted. Computers were the laboratory. Most of the work was reported in referred publications in the open literature, copies of which were transmitted one by one to DOE at the time they appeared. The Appendix to this report is a bibliography of published work which was carried out under the

  11. Final Performance Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houldin, Joseph [Delaware Valley Industrial Resource Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Saboor, Veronica [Delaware Valley Industrial Resource Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2016-03-30

    about assessing a company’s technical assets, broadening our view of the business to go beyond what they make or what NAICS code they have…to better understand their capacity, capability, and expertise, and to learn more about THEIR customers. Knowing more about the markets they serve can often provide insight into their level of technical knowledge and sophistication. Finally, in the spirit of realizing the intent of the Accelerator we strove to align and integrate the work and activities supported by the five funding agencies to leverage each effort. To that end, we include in the Integrated Work Plan a graphic that illustrates that integration. What follows is our summary report of the project, aggregated from prior reports.

  12. Santa Barbara Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hacker, Angela; Hansen, Sherman; Watkins, Ashley

    2013-11-30

    This report serves as the Final Report for Santa Barbara County’s Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant (EECBG) BetterBuildings Neighborhood Program (BBNP) award from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This report explains how DOE BBNP funding was invested to develop robust program infrastructure designed to help property owners complete energy improvements, thereby generating substantial outcomes for the local environment and economy. It provides an overview of program development and design within the grant period, program accomplishments and challenges to date, and a plan for the future sustainability of emPower, the County’s innovative clean energy and building efficiency program. During the grant period, Santa Barbara County’s emPower program primarily targeted 32,000 owner occupied, single family, detached residential homes over 25 years old within the County. In order to help these homeowners and their contractors overcome market barriers to completing residential energy improvements, the program developed and promoted six voluntary, market-based service areas: 1) low cost residential financing (loan loss reserve with two local credit unions), 2) residential rebates, 3) local customer service, 4) expert energy advising, 5) workforce development and training, and 6) marketing, education and outreach. The main goals of the program were to lower building energy use, create jobs and develop a lasting regional building performance market. These services have generated important early outcomes and lessons after the program’s first two years in service. The DOE BBNP funding was extended through October 2014 to enable Santa Barbara County to generate continued outcomes. In fact, funding related to residential financing remains wholly available for the foreseeable future to continue offering Home Upgrade Loans to approximately 1,300 homeowners. The County’s investment of DOE BBNP funding was used to build a lasting, effective, and innovative

  13. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sara Bergan, Executive Director; Brendan Jordan, Program Manager; Subcontractors as listed on the report.

    2007-06-06

    attractive; Although we were able to create available glucose from the AHG fraction in the bio-oil it proved recalcitrant to fermentation by yeast. Although fermentation results were much more positive with wood based bio-oil sugars, ethanol does not appear to be a likely product from grass based bio-oil; and A package of policy recommendations has been developed with roughly 75 key stakeholders from throughout the region that would support the transition to greater development of advanced biofuels and products in the region, as well as a strong role for native grass agriculture to support those industries.

  14. Regional scale temperature and circulation impacts of short-lived climate pollutants reductions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudar, T.; Kushner, P. J.; Fyfe, J. C.; von Salzen, K.; Shrestha, R.

    2017-12-01

    The role of anthropogenic aerosols on climate is still not clearly understood. Aerosol forcing is spatially heterogeneous and their emissions are controlled by regional economic and regulatory factors. For example, it is known that black carbon is responsible for a global net warming but its regional impacts are less understood. We evaluate the regional climate impacts of anthropogenic aerosol emission changes over the recent past and near future. Specifically, we report on numerical experiments using aerosol emissions from the Evaluating the Climate and Air Quality Impacts of Short-Lived Pollutants (ECLIPSE, Stohl et al., 2015) project. These scenarios are alternative mitigation pathways for black carbon and organic aerosol over the period from 1990 to 2050. With these scenarios, we carried out three sets of simulation using the second generation Canadian Earth System Model (CanESM2): 1) A current legislation emission (CLE) scenario for black carbon and organic aerosols; 2) A mitigation (MIT) scenario for black carbon and organic aerosols, and; 3) A black carbon only mitigation scenario (MIT-BC). Five simulations were carried out for each scenario and the response analyzed in the context of a large fifty-member initial condition ensemble of simulations using historical anthropogenic aerosol forcings to 2005 as well as those forcing from the RCP8.5 scenario to 2020. Our main finding is a significant springtime cooling over the Northern midlatitudes that attributable to black carbon. Other cooling signals attributable to black carbon reductions are found in the boreal summer over Southern Europe as well as over the Northern Hemisphere midlatitudes and tropical troposphere in boreal summer and fall. All of these cooling signals are to some degree offset by simultaneous reductions in organic aerosols. As a check on the robustness, we will also report on results of five-member draws from the large ensemble over periods of comparably strong radiative forcing changes, to

  15. Transition region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, C.

    1977-01-01

    The Glossary is designed to be a technical dictionary that will provide solar workers of various specialties, students, other astronomers and theoreticians with concise information on the nature and the properties of phenomena of solar and solar-terrestrial physics. Each term, or group of related terms, is given a concise phenomenological and quantitative description, including the relationship to other phenomena and an interpretation in terms of physical processes. The references are intended to lead the non-specialist reader into the literature. This section deals with: transition region; di-electronic recombination; intersystem or intercombination lines; satellite lines; grazing-incidence optics; and crystal spectrometers. (B.R.H.)

  16. FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loren F. Goodrich

    2011-05-31

    arena and to meet the aggressive performance goals. The latest high-performance Nb{sub 3}Sn wires are being designed with higher current densities, larger effective filament diameter, less Cu stabilizer, and, in some cases, larger wire diameters than ever before. In addition, some of the conductor designs and heat treatments cause the residual resistivity ratio (RRR, ratio of room temperature resistivity to the resistivity at 20 K) of the stabilizer to be less than 20. These parameters are pushing the conductors towards less intrinsic stability, into a region we call marginally stable. These parameters also create a whole series of challenges for routine I{sub c} testing on short-samples, even when tested with the sample immersed in liquid helium. High-current, variable-temperature I{sub c} measurements are even more difficult than those made in liquid helium because the sample is only cooled by flowing helium gas. Providing accurate I{sub c} results under these conditions requires a complex system that provide adequate cooling as well as uniform sample temperature. We have been make variable-temperature measurements for about 15 years, but we started to design the first high-current (at least 500 A), variable-temperature, variable-strain apparatus in late 2006. Our first critical-current measurements as a function of strain, temperature, and magnetic field, I{sub c}(B,T,{var_epsilon}), in a new single, unified apparatus (full matrix characterization) were made in the summer of 2008. This is the only such facility in the U.S. and it has some unique components that are not duplicated anywhere in the world. The compounding of all three variables (H, T, {var_epsilon}) makes an already labor and time intensive characterization very formidable; however, the results cannot be generated any other way and are needed to answer key questions about strain and temperature safety margins and about the reliability of using scaling laws based on small data sets to predict performance

  17. National Institute for Global Environmental Change. Final Technical Report 1990-2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Athanasios Toulopoulos

    2007-11-01

    Research conducted by the six NIGEC Regional Centers during recent years is reported. An overview of the NIGEC program from its beginnings provides a description and evaluation of the program's vision, strategy and major accomplishments. The program's purpose was to support academic research on environmental change in regions of the country that had historically received relatively little federal funding. The overall vision of NIGEC may be stated as the performance of academic research on the regional interactions between ecosystems and climate. NIGEC's research presents impor