Sample records for midlatitude continental convective

  1. Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, MP; Petersen, WA; Del Genio, AD; Giangrande, SE; Heymsfield, A; Heymsfield, G; Hou, AY; Kollias, P; Orr, B; Rutledge, SA; Schwaller, MR; Zipser, E


    The Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) will take place in central Oklahoma during the April–May 2011 period. The experiment is a collaborative effort between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission Ground Validation (GV) program. The field campaign leverages the unprecedented observing infrastructure currently available in the central United States, combined with an extensive sounding array, remote sensing and in situ aircraft observations, NASA GPM ground validation remote sensors, and new ARM instrumentation purchased with American Recovery and Reinvestment Act funding. The overarching goal is to provide the most complete characterization of convective cloud systems, precipitation, and the environment that has ever been obtained, providing constraints for model cumulus parameterizations and space-based rainfall retrieval algorithms over land that have never before been available.

  2. The Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Mark P.; Petersen, Walt A.; Bansemer, Aaron; Bharadwaj, Nitin; Carey, Larry; Cecil, D. J.; Collis, Scott M.; Del Genio, Anthony D.; Dolan, Brenda A.; Gerlach, J.; Giangrande, Scott; Heymsfield, Andrew J.; Heymsfield, Gerald; Kollias, Pavlos; Lang, T. J.; Nesbitt, Steve W.; Neumann, Andrea; Poellot, M. R.; Rutledge, Steven A.; Schwaller, Mathew R.; Tokay, Ali; Williams, C. R.; Wolff, D. B.; Xie, Shaocheng; Zipser, Edward J.


    The Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E), a field program jointly led by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program and the NASA Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission, was conducted in south-central Oklahoma during April – May 2011. MC3E science objectives were motivated by the need to improve understanding of midlatitude continental convective cloud system lifecycles, microphysics, and GPM precipitation retrieval algorithms. To achieve these objectives a multi-scale surface- and aircraft-based in situ and remote sensing observing strategy was employed. A variety of cloud and precipitation events were sampled during the MC3E, of which results from three deep convective events are highlighted. Vertical structure, air motions, precipitation drop-size distributions and ice properties were retrieved from multi-wavelength radar, profiler, and aircraft observations for an MCS on 11 May. Aircraft observations for another MCS observed on 20 May were used to test agreement between observed radar reflectivities and those calculated with forward-modeled reflectivity and microwave brightness temperatures using in situ particle size distributions and ice water content. Multi-platform observations of a supercell that occurred on 23 May allowed for an integrated analysis of kinematic and microphysical interactions. A core updraft of 25 ms-1 supported growth of hail and large rain drops. Data collected during the MC3E campaign is being used in a number of current and ongoing research projects and is available through the DOE ARM and NASA data archives.

  3. Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, MP; Petersen, WA; Del Genio, AD; Giangrande, SE; Heymsfield, A; Heymsfield, G; Hou, AY; Kollias, P; Orr, B; Rutledge, SA; Schwaller, MR; Zipser, E


    Convective processes play a critical role in the Earth’s energy balance through the redistribution of heat and moisture in the atmosphere and subsequent impacts on the hydrologic cycle. Global observation and accurate representation of these processes in numerical models is vital to improving our current understanding and future simulations of Earth’s climate system. Despite improvements in computing power, current operational weather and global climate models are unable to resolve the natural temporal and spatial scales that are associated with convective and stratiform precipitation processes; therefore, they must turn to parameterization schemes to represent these processes. In turn, the physical basis for these parameterization schemes needs to be evaluated for general application under a variety of atmospheric conditions. Analogously, space-based remote sensing algorithms designed to retrieve related cloud and precipitation information for use in hydrological, climate, and numerical weather prediction applications often rely on physical “parameterizations” that reliably translate indirectly related instrument measurements to the physical quantity of interest (e.g., precipitation rate). Importantly, both spaceborne retrieval algorithms and model convective parameterization schemes traditionally rely on field campaign data sets as a basis for evaluating and improving the physics of their respective approaches. The Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) will take place in central Oklahoma during the April–May 2011 period. The experiment is a collaborative effort between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission Ground Validation (GV) program. The field campaign leverages the unprecedented observing infrastructure currently available in the central United States

  4. Biomass Smoke Influences on Deep Convection during the 2011 Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) (United States)

    Dong, X.; Logan, T.; Xi, B.


    Three deep convective cloud cases were selected during the 2011 Mid-Latitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E). Although biomass burning smoke advected from Mexico and Central America was the dominant source of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) for deep convective cloud formation, the 11 May, 20 May, and 23 May cases exhibited different convective characteristics. The convection in the 11 May and 23 May cases formed in smoke laden environments in the presence of convective available potential energy (CAPE) values exceeding 1000 m2 s-2 and 3000 m2 s-2 along with low-level (0-1 km) shear of 10.3 m s-1 and 5.1 m s-1, respectively. The 11 May case had linear convection while the 23 May case featured discrete supercells. The 20 May case featured elevated linear convection that formed in a more moist environment with cleaner aerosol conditions, weak CAPE (9 km) suggesting a warm rain suppression mechanism caused by a combination of strong aerosol loading, large CAPE, and weak low-level wind shear. The observed results for the 20 May and 23 May cases agree well with recent modeling studies that simulated the convection and precipitation in these cases. Furthermore, the modeling of the 11 May case is suggested since the abundant amount of smoke CCN did not greatly enhance the overall precipitation amount and could be a possible aerosol-induced precipitation suppression case.

  5. Aerosol properties and their impacts on surface CCN at the ARM Southern Great Plains site during the 2011 Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (United States)

    Logan, Timothy; Dong, Xiquan; Xi, Baike


    Aerosol particles are of particular importance because of their impacts on cloud development and precipitation processes over land and ocean. Aerosol properties as well as meteorological observations from the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) platform situated in the Southern Great Plains (SGP) are utilized in this study to illustrate the dependence of continental cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) number concentration ( N CCN) on aerosol type and transport pathways. ARM-SGP observations from the 2011 Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment field campaign are presented in this study and compared with our previous work during the 2009-10 Clouds, Aerosol, and Precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer field campaign over the current ARM Eastern North Atlantic site. Northerly winds over the SGP reflect clean, continental conditions with aerosol scattering coefficient ( σ sp) values less than 20 Mm-1 and N CCN values less than 100 cm-3. However, southerly winds over the SGP are responsible for the observed moderate to high correlation ( R) among aerosol loading ( σ sp moisture via the Gulf of Mexico, indicating a strong dependence on air mass type. NASA MERRA-2 reanalysis aerosol and chemical data are moderately to highly correlated with surface ARM-SGP data, suggesting that this facility can represent surface aerosol conditions in the SGP, especially during strong aerosol loading events that transport via the Gulf of Mexico. Future long-term investigations will help to understand the seasonal influences of air masses on aerosol, CCN, and cloud properties over land in comparison to over ocean.

  6. Aerosol Properties and Their Impacts on Surface CCN at the ARM Southern Great Plains Site during the 2011 Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Timothy LOGAN; Xiquan DONG; Baike XI


    Aerosol particles are of particular importance because of their impacts on cloud development and precipitation processes over land and ocean.Aerosol properties as well as meteorological observations from the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) platform situated in the Southern Great Plains (SGP) are utilized in this study to illustrate the dependence of continental cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) number concentration (NCCN) on aerosol type and transport pathways.ARM-SGP observations from the 2011 Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment field campaign are presented in this study and compared with our previous work during the 2009-10 Clouds,Aerosol,and Precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer field campaign over the current ARM Eastern North Atlantic site.Northerly winds over the SGP reflect clean,continental conditions with aerosol scattering coefficient (σsp) values less than 20 Mm-1 and NCCN values less than 100 cm-3.However,southerly winds over the SGP are responsible for the observed moderate to high correlation (R)among aerosol loading (σsp > 60 Mm-1) and NCCN,carbonaceous chemical species (biomass burning smoke),and precipitable water vapor.This suggests a common transport mechanism for smoke aerosols and moisture via the Gulf of Mexico,indicating a strong dependence on air mass type.NASA MERRA-2 reanalysis aerosol and chemical data are moderately to highly correlated with surface ARM-SGP data,suggesting that this facility can represent surface aerosol conditions in the SGP,especially during strong aerosol loading events that transport via the Gulf of Mexico.Future long-term investigations will help to understand the seasonal influences of air masses on aerosol,CCN,and cloud properties over land in comparison to over ocean.

  7. Physical Validation of GPM Retrieval Algorithms Over Land: An Overview of the Mid-Latitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) (United States)

    Petersen, Walter A.; Jensen, Michael P.


    The joint NASA Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) -- DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) was conducted from April 22-June 6, 2011, centered on the DOE-ARM Southern Great Plains Central Facility site in northern Oklahoma. GPM field campaign objectives focused on the collection of airborne and ground-based measurements of warm-season continental precipitation processes to support refinement of GPM retrieval algorithm physics over land, and to improve the fidelity of coupled cloud resolving and land-surface satellite simulator models. DOE ARM objectives were synergistically focused on relating observations of cloud microphysics and the surrounding environment to feedbacks on convective system dynamics, an effort driven by the need to better represent those interactions in numerical modeling frameworks. More specific topics addressed by MC3E include ice processes and ice characteristics as coupled to precipitation at the surface and radiometer signals measured in space, the correlation properties of rainfall and drop size distributions and impacts on dual-frequency radar retrieval algorithms, the transition of cloud water to rain water (e.g., autoconversion processes) and the vertical distribution of cloud water in precipitating clouds, and vertical draft structure statistics in cumulus convection. The MC3E observational strategy relied on NASA ER-2 high-altitude airborne multi-frequency radar (HIWRAP Ka-Ku band) and radiometer (AMPR, CoSMIR; 10-183 GHz) sampling (a GPM "proxy") over an atmospheric column being simultaneously profiled in situ by the University of North Dakota Citation microphysics aircraft, an array of ground-based multi-frequency scanning polarimetric radars (DOE Ka-W, X and C-band; NASA D3R Ka-Ku and NPOL S-bands) and wind-profilers (S/UHF bands), supported by a dense network of over 20 disdrometers and rain gauges, all nested in the coverage of a six-station mesoscale rawinsonde

  8. Explicit simulation of a midlatitude Mesoscale Convective System

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    Alexander, G.D.; Cotton, W.R. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)


    We have explicitly simulated the mesoscale convective system (MCS) observed on 23-24 June 1985 during PRE-STORM, the Preliminary Regional Experiment for the Stormscale Operational and Research and Meterology Program. Stensrud and Maddox (1988), Johnson and Bartels (1992), and Bernstein and Johnson (1994) are among the researchers who have investigated various aspects of this MCS event. We have performed this MCS simulation (and a similar one of a tropical MCS; Alexander and Cotton 1994) in the spirit of the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment Cloud Systems Study (GCSS), in which cloud-resolving models are used to assist in the formulation and testing of cloud parameterization schemes for larger-scale models. In this paper, we describe (1) the nature of our 23-24 June MCS dimulation and (2) our efforts to date in using our explicit MCS simulations to assist in the development of a GCM parameterization for mesoscale flow branches. The paper is organized as follows. First, we discuss the synoptic situation surrounding the 23-24 June PRE-STORM MCS followed by a discussion of the model setup and results of our simulation. We then discuss the use of our MCS simulation. We then discuss the use of our MCS simulations in developing a GCM parameterization for mesoscale flow branches and summarize our results.

  9. Nightside Quiet-Time Mid-Latitude Ionospheric Convection and Its Connection to Penetration Electric Fields (United States)

    Ruohoniemi, J. M.; Maimaiti, M.; Baker, J. B.; Ribeiro, A. J.


    Previous studies have shown that during quiet geomagnetic conditions F-region subauroral ionospheric plasma exhibits drifts of a few tens of m/s, predominantly in the westward direction. However, the exact driving mechanisms for this plasma motion are still not well understood. Recent expansion of SuperDARN radars into the mid-latitude region has provided new opportunities to study subauroral ionospheric convection over large areas and with greater spatial resolution and statistical significance than previously possible. Mid-latitude SuperDARN radars tend to observe subauroral ionospheric backscatter with low Doppler velocities on most geomagnetically quiet nights. In this study, we have used two years of data obtained from the six mid-latitude SuperDARN radars in the North American sector to derive a statistical model of quiet-time nightside mid-latitude plasma convection between 52°- 58° magnetic latitude. The model is organized in MLAT-MLT coordinates and has a spatial resolution of 1°x 7 min with each grid cell typically counting thousands of velocity measurements. Our results show that the flow is predominantly westward (20 - 60 m/s) and weakly northward (0 -20 m/s) near midnight but with a strong seasonal dependence such that the flows tend to be strongest and most spatially variable in winter. These statistical results are in good agreement with previously reported observations from ISR measurements but also show some interesting new features, one being a significant latitudinal variation of zonal flow velocity near midnight in winter. In this presentation, we describe the derivation of the nightside quite-time subauroral convection model, analyze its most prominent features, and discuss the results in terms of the Ionosphere-Thermosphere coupling and penetration electric fields.

  10. Mid-latitude continental temperatures through the early Eocene in western Europe (United States)

    Inglis, Gordon N.; Collinson, Margaret E.; Riegel, Walter; Wilde, Volker; Farnsworth, Alexander; Lunt, Daniel J.; Valdes, Paul; Robson, Brittany E.; Scott, Andrew C.; Lenz, Olaf K.; Naafs, B. David A.; Pancost, Richard D.


    Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) are increasingly used to reconstruct mean annual air temperature (MAAT) during the early Paleogene. However, the application of this proxy in coal deposits is limited and brGDGTs have only been detected in immature coals (i.e. lignites). Using samples recovered from Schöningen, Germany (∼48°N palaeolatitude), we provide the first detailed study into the occurrence and distribution of brGDGTs through a sequence of early Eocene lignites and associated interbeds. BrGDGTs are abundant and present in every sample. In comparison to modern studies, changes in vegetation type do not appear to significantly impact brGDGT distributions; however, there are subtle differences between lignites - representing peat-forming environments - and siliciclastic nearshore marine interbed depositional environments. Using the most recent brGDGT temperature calibration (MATmr) developed for soils, we generate the first continental temperature record from central-western continental Europe through the early Eocene. Lignite-derived MAAT estimates range from 23 to 26 °C while those derived from the nearshore marine interbeds exceed 20 °C. These estimates are consistent with other mid-latitude environments and model simulations, indicating enhanced mid-latitude, early Eocene warmth. In the basal part of the section studied, warming is recorded in both the lignites (∼2 °C) and nearshore marine interbeds (∼2-3 °C). This culminates in a long-term temperature maximum, likely including the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO). Although this long-term warming trend is relatively well established in the marine realm, it has rarely been shown in terrestrial settings. Using a suite of model simulations we show that the magnitude of warming at Schöningen is broadly consistent with a doubling of CO2, in agreement with late Paleocene and early Eocene pCO2 estimates.

  11. A Gigantic Jet Observed Over an Mesoscale Convective System in Midlatitude Region (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Sato, Mitsuteru; Liu, Ningyu; Lu, Gaopeng; Wang, Yu; Wang, Zhichao


    Gigantic jets (GJs) are mostly observed over summer tropical or tropical-like thunderstorms. This study reports observation of a GJ over a mesoscale convective system (MCS) in the midlatitude region in eastern China. The GJ is observed over a relatively weak radar reflectivity region ahead of the leading line, and the maximum radar echo top along the GJ azimuth was lower than the tropopause in the same region, significantly different from past studies that indicate summer GJs are usually associated with convective surges or overshooting tops. Also different from most of previous observations showing GJ-producing summer thunderstorms only produced GJ type of transient luminous events during their life cycles, two sprites were also captured in a time window of 15 min containing the GJ, indicating that the MCS provides favorable conditions not only for the GJ but also for the sprites. The balloon-borne soundings of the MCS show that there were large wind shears in the middle and upper levels of the thundercloud, which may have played important roles for the GJ production.

  12. Characteristics and direct radiative effect of mid-latitude continental aerosols: the ARM case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Iziomon


    Full Text Available A multi-year field measurement analysis of the characteristics and direct radiative effect of aerosols at the Southern Great Plains (SGP central facility of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM Program is presented. Inter-annual mean and standard deviation of submicrometer scattering fraction (at 550 nm and Ångström exponent å (450 nm, 700 nm at the mid-latitude continental site are indicative of the scattering dominance of fine mode aerosol particles, being 0.84±0.03 and 2.25±0.09, respectively. We attribute the diurnal variation of submicron aerosol concentration to coagulation, photochemistry and the evolution of the boundary layer. Precipitation does not seem to play a role in the observed afternoon maximum in aerosol concentration. Submicron aerosol mass at the site peaks in the summer (12.1±6.7mg m-3, with the summer value being twice that in the winter. Of the chemically analyzed ionic components (which exclude carbonaceous aerosols, SO4= and NH4+ constitute the dominant species at the SGP seasonally, contributing 23-30% and 9-12% of the submicron aerosol mass, respectively. Although a minor species, there is a notable rise in NO3- mass fraction in winter. We contrast the optical properties of dust and smoke haze. The single scattering albedo w0 shows the most remarkable distinction between the two aerosol constituents. We also present aircraft measurements of vertical profiles of aerosol optical properties at the site. Annually, the lowest 1.2 km contributes 70% to the column total light scattering coefficient. Column-averaged and surface annual mean values of hemispheric backscatter fraction (at 550 nm, w0 (at 550 nm and å (450 nm, 700 nm agree to within 5% in 2001. Aerosols produce a net cooling (most pronounced in the spring at the ARM site

  13. Simulating deep convection with a shallow convection scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Hohenegger


    Full Text Available Convective processes profoundly affect the global water and energy balance of our planet but remain a challenge for global climate modeling. Here we develop and investigate the suitability of a unified convection scheme, capable of handling both shallow and deep convection, to simulate cases of tropical oceanic convection, mid-latitude continental convection, and maritime shallow convection. To that aim, we employ large-eddy simulations (LES as a benchmark to test and refine a unified convection scheme implemented in the Single-column Community Atmosphere Model (SCAM. Our approach is motivated by previous cloud-resolving modeling studies, which have documented the gradual transition between shallow and deep convection and its possible importance for the simulated precipitation diurnal cycle.

    Analysis of the LES reveals that differences between shallow and deep convection, regarding cloud-base properties as well as entrainment/detrainment rates, can be related to the evaporation of precipitation. Parameterizing such effects and accordingly modifying the University of Washington shallow convection scheme, it is found that the new unified scheme can represent both shallow and deep convection as well as tropical and mid-latitude continental convection. Compared to the default SCAM version, the new scheme especially improves relative humidity, cloud cover and mass flux profiles. The new unified scheme also removes the well-known too early onset and peak of convective precipitation over mid-latitude continental areas.

  14. Enhanced antisunward convection and F region scintillations at mid-latitudes during storm onset

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, J.C.; Aarons, J.


    Millstone Hill radar observations over a wide span of latitudes detail the onset of 300 m/s antisunward (westward) convection at mid and low latitudes in the morning sector as a region of storm-enhanced sunward convection retreats poleward. Ring current observations reported by Lui et al. (1987) suggest that the magnetospheric shielding layer was coincident with the observed reversal between sunward and antisunward convection. A strong southward component of the F region neutral wind is observed at latitudes equatorward of the convection reversal. These observations are in agreement with the model of Spiro et al. (1988), who find that storm-enhanced neutrral winds at latitudes equatorward of the shielding layer can generate a long-lived perturbation electric field in the inner magnetosphere. The observations show the growth of the subauroral electric field as the shielding boundary moves poleward. They observe 136-MHz scintillations in both the auroral sunwarrd convection region and the region of subauroral antisunward convection when the convection electric fields exceed 5 mV/m

  15. Life Cycle of Midlatitude Deep Convective Systems in a Lagrangian Framework (United States)

    Feng, Zhe; Dong, Xiquan; Xie, Baike; McFarlane, Sally A.; Kennedy, Aaron; Lin, Bing; Minnis, Patrick


    Deep Convective Systems (DCSs) consist of intense convective cores (CC), large stratiform rain (SR) regions, and extensive non-precipitating anvil clouds (AC). This study focuses on the evolution of these three components and the factors that affect convective AC production. An automated satellite tracking method is used in conjunction with a recently developed multi-sensor hybrid classification to analyze the evolution of DCS structure in a Lagrangian framework over the central United States. Composite analysis from 4221 tracked DCSs during two warm seasons (May-August, 2010-2011) shows that maximum system size correlates with lifetime, and longer-lived DCSs have more extensive SR and AC. Maximum SR and AC area lag behind peak convective intensity and the lag increases linearly from approximately 1-hour for short-lived systems to more than 3-hours for long-lived ones. The increased lag, which depends on the convective environment, suggests that changes in the overall diabatic heating structure associated with the transition from CC to SR and AC could prolong the system lifetime by sustaining stratiform cloud development. Longer-lasting systems are associated with up to 60% higher mid-tropospheric relative humidity and up to 40% stronger middle to upper tropospheric wind shear. Regression analysis shows that the areal coverage of thick AC is strongly correlated with the size of CC, updraft strength, and SR area. Ambient upper tropospheric wind speed and wind shear also play an important role for convective AC production where for systems with large AC (radius greater than 120-km) they are 24% and 20% higher, respectively, than those with small AC (radius=20 km).

  16. A comparison of single column model simulations of summertime midlatitude continental convection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghan, Steven [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington (United States); Randall, David [Department of Atmospospheric Science, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado (United States); Xu, Kuan-Man [Department of Atmospospheric Science, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado (United States); Cederwall, Richard [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California (United States); Cripe, Douglas [Department of Atmospospheric Science, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado (United States); Hack, James [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado (United States); Iacobellis, Sam [Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, La Jolla (United States); Klein, Stephen [Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey (United States); Krueger, Steven [Department of Meterology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah (United States); Lohmann, Ulrike [Department of Physics and Oceanography, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada)] (and others)


    Eleven different single-column models (SCMs) and one cloud ensemble model (CEM) are driven by boundary conditions observed at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program southern Great Plains site for a 17 day period during the summer of 1995. Comparison of the model simulations reveals common signatures identifiable as products of errors in the boundary conditions. Intermodel differences in the simulated temperature, humidity, cloud, precipitation, and radiative fluxes reflect differences in model resolution or physical parameterizations, although sensitive dependence on initial conditions can also contribute to intermodel differences. All models perform well at times but poorly at others. Although none of the SCM simulations stands out as superior to the others, the simulation by the CEM is in several respects in better agreement with the observations than the simulations by the SCMs. Nudging of the simulated temperature and humidity toward observations generally improves the simulated cloud and radiation fields as well as the simulated temperature and humidity but degrades the precipitation simulation for models with large temperature and humidity biases without nudging. Although some of the intermodel differences have not been explained, others have been identified as model problems that can be or have been corrected as a result of the comparison. (c) 2000 American Geophysical Union.

  17. A comparison of single column model simulations of summertime midlatitude continental convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghan, Steven; Randall, David; Xu, Kuan-Man; Cederwall, Richard; Cripe, Douglas; Hack, James; Iacobellis, Sam; Klein, Stephen; Krueger, Steven; Lohmann, Ulrike


    Eleven different single-column models (SCMs) and one cloud ensemble model (CEM) are driven by boundary conditions observed at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program southern Great Plains site for a 17 day period during the summer of 1995. Comparison of the model simulations reveals common signatures identifiable as products of errors in the boundary conditions. Intermodel differences in the simulated temperature, humidity, cloud, precipitation, and radiative fluxes reflect differences in model resolution or physical parameterizations, although sensitive dependence on initial conditions can also contribute to intermodel differences. All models perform well at times but poorly at others. Although none of the SCM simulations stands out as superior to the others, the simulation by the CEM is in several respects in better agreement with the observations than the simulations by the SCMs. Nudging of the simulated temperature and humidity toward observations generally improves the simulated cloud and radiation fields as well as the simulated temperature and humidity but degrades the precipitation simulation for models with large temperature and humidity biases without nudging. Although some of the intermodel differences have not been explained, others have been identified as model problems that can be or have been corrected as a result of the comparison. (c) 2000 American Geophysical Union

  18. Tropical continental downdraft characteristics: mesoscale systems versus unorganized convection (United States)

    Schiro, Kathleen A.; Neelin, J. David


    Downdrafts and cold pool characteristics for strong mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) and isolated, unorganized deep precipitating convection are analyzed using multi-instrument data from the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) GoAmazon2014/5 campaign. Increases in column water vapor (CWV) are observed leading convection, with higher CWV preceding MCSs than for isolated cells. For both MCSs and isolated cells, increases in wind speed, decreases in surface moisture and temperature, and increases in relative humidity occur coincidentally with system passages. Composites of vertical velocity data and radar reflectivity from a radar wind profiler show that the downdrafts associated with the sharpest decreases in surface equivalent potential temperature (θe) have a probability of occurrence that increases with decreasing height below the freezing level. Both MCSs and unorganized convection show similar mean downdraft magnitudes and probabilities with height. Mixing computations suggest that, on average, air originating at heights greater than 3 km must undergo substantial mixing, particularly in the case of isolated cells, to match the observed cold pool θe, implying a low typical origin level. Precipitation conditionally averaged on decreases in surface equivalent potential temperature (Δθe) exhibits a strong relationship because the most negative Δθe values are associated with a high probability of precipitation. The more physically motivated conditional average of Δθe on precipitation shows that decreases in θe level off with increasing precipitation rate, bounded by the maximum difference between surface θe and its minimum in the profile aloft. Robustness of these statistics observed across scales and regions suggests their potential use as model diagnostic tools for the improvement of downdraft parameterizations in climate models.

  19. Preliminary three-dimensional model of mantle convection with deformable, mobile continental lithosphere (United States)

    Yoshida, Masaki


    Characteristic tectonic structures such as young orogenic belts and suture zones in a continent are expected to be mechanically weaker than the stable part of the continental lithosphere with the cratonic root (or cratonic lithosphere) and yield lateral viscosity variations in the continental lithosphere. In the present-day Earth's lithosphere, the pre-existing, mechanically weak zones emerge as a diffuse plate boundary. However, the dynamic role of a weak (low-viscosity) continental margin (WCM) in the stability of continental lithosphere has not been understood in terms of geophysics. Here, a new numerical simulation model of mantle convection with a compositionally and rheologically heterogeneous, deformable, mobile continental lithosphere is presented for the first time by using three-dimensional regional spherical-shell geometry. A compositionally buoyant and highly viscous continental assemblage with pre-existing WCMs, analogous to the past supercontinent, is modeled and imposed on well-developed mantle convection whose vigor of convection, internal heating rate, and rheological parameters are appropriate for the Earth's mantle. The visco-plastic oceanic lithosphere and the associated subduction of oceanic plates are incorporated. The time integration of the advection of continental materials with zero chemical diffusion is performed by a tracer particle method. The time evolution of mantle convection after setting the model supercontinent is followed over 800 Myr. Earth-like continental drift is successfully reproduced, and the characteristic thermal interaction between the mantle and the continent/supercontinent is observed in my new numerical model. Results reveal that the WCM protects the cratonic lithosphere from being stretched by the convecting mantle and may play a significant role in the stability of the cratonic lithosphere during the geological timescale because it acts as a buffer that prevents the cratonic lithosphere from undergoing global

  20. Where does subduction initiate and die? Insights from global convection models with continental drift (United States)

    Ulvrova, Martina; Williams, Simon; Coltice, Nicolas; Tackley, Paul


    Plate tectonics is a prominent feature on Earth. Together with the underlying convecting mantle, plates form a self-organized system. In order to understand the dynamics of the coupled system, subduction of the lithospheric plates plays the key role since it links the exterior with the interior of the planet. In this work we study subduction initiation and death with respect to the position of the continental rafts. Using thermo-mechanical numerical calculations we investigate global convection models featuring self-consistent plate tectonics and continental drifting employing a pseudo-plastic rheology and testing the effect of a free surface. We consider uncompressible mantle convection in Boussinesq approximation that is basaly and internaly heated. Our calculations indicate that the presence of the continents alterns stress distribution within a certain distance from the margins. Intra-oceanic subudction initiation is favorable during super-continent cycles while the initiation at passive continental margin prevails when continents are dispersed. The location of subduction initiation is additionally controlled by the lithospheric strength. Very weak lithosphere results in domination of intra-oceanic subduction initiation. The subduction zones die more easily in the vicinity of the continent due to the strong rheological contrast between the oceanic and continental lithosphere. In order to compare our findings with subduction positions through time recorded on Earth, we analyse subduction birth in global plate reconstruction back to 410 My.

  1. Self-Consistent Generation of Primordial Continental Crust in Global Mantle Convection Models (United States)

    Jain, C.; Rozel, A.; Tackley, P. J.


    We present the generation of primordial continental crust (TTG rocks) using self-consistent and evolutionary thermochemical mantle convection models (Tackley, PEPI 2008). Numerical modelling commonly shows that mantle convection and continents have strong feedbacks on each other. However in most studies, continents are inserted a priori while basaltic (oceanic) crust is generated self-consistently in some models (Lourenco et al., EPSL 2016). Formation of primordial continental crust happened by fractional melting and crystallisation in episodes of relatively rapid growth from late Archean to late Proterozoic eras (3-1 Ga) (Hawkesworth & Kemp, Nature 2006) and it has also been linked to the onset of plate tectonics around 3 Ga. It takes several stages of differentiation to generate Tonalite-Trondhjemite-Granodiorite (TTG) rocks or proto-continents. First, the basaltic magma is extracted from the pyrolitic mantle which is both erupted at the surface and intruded at the base of the crust. Second, it goes through eclogitic transformation and then partially melts to form TTGs (Rudnick, Nature 1995; Herzberg & Rudnick, Lithos 2012). TTGs account for the majority of the Archean continental crust. Based on the melting conditions proposed by Moyen (Lithos 2011), the feasibility of generating TTG rocks in numerical simulations has already been demonstrated by Rozel et al. (Nature, 2017). Here, we have developed the code further by parameterising TTG formation. We vary the ratio of intrusive (plutonic) and extrusive (volcanic) magmatism (Crisp, Volcanol. Geotherm. 1984) to study the relative volumes of three petrological TTG compositions as reported from field data (Moyen, Lithos 2011). Furthermore, we systematically vary parameters such as friction coefficient, initial core temperature and composition-dependent viscosity to investigate the global tectonic regime of early Earth. Continental crust can also be destroyed by subduction or delamination. We will investigate

  2. Numerical simulations of thermo-compositional global convection with generation of proto-continental crust (United States)

    Rozel, A. B.; Golabek, G.; Gerya, T.; Jain, C.; Tackley, P. J.


    We study the creation of primordial continental crust (TTG rocks) employing fully self-consistent numerical models of thermo-chemical convection on a global scale at the Archean. We use realistic rheological parameters [1] in 2D spherical annulus geometry using the convection code StagYY [2] for a one billion years period. Starting from a pyrolytic composition and an initially warm core, our simulations first generate mafic crust and depleted mantle in the upper mantle. The basaltic material can be both erupted (cold) and/or intruded (warm) at the base of the crust following a predefined partitioning. At all times, water concentration is considered fully saturated in the top 10 km of the domain, and it simply advected with the deforming material elsewhere. We track the pressure-temperature conditions of the newly formed hydrated basalt and check if it matches the conditions necessary for the formation of proto-continental crust [3]. We systematically test the influence of volcanism (eruption, also called "heat pipe") and plutonism (intrusive magmatism) on the time-dependent geotherm in the lithosphere. We show that the "heat-pipe" model (assuming 100% eruption) suggested to be the main heat loss mechanism during the Archean epoch [4] is not able to produce continental crust since it forms a too cold lithosphere. We also systematically test various friction coefficients and show that an intrusion fraction higher than 60% (in agreement with [5]) combined with a friction coefficient larger than 0.1 produces the expected amount of the three main petrological TTG compositions previously reported [3]. This result seems robust as the amount of TTG rocks formed vary over orders of magnitude. A large eruption over intrusion ratio can result in up to 100 times less TTG felsic crust production than a case where plutonism dominates. This study represents a major step towards the production of self-consistent convection models able to generate the continental crust of the Earth

  3. Nonlinear response of hail precipitation rate to environmental moisture content: A real case modeling study of an episodic midlatitude severe convective event (United States)

    Li, Mingxin; Zhang, Fuqing; Zhang, Qinghong; Harrington, Jerry Y.; Kumjian, Matthew R.


    The dependence of hail production on initial moisture content in a simulated midlatitude episodic convective event occurred in northeast China on 10-11 June 2005 was investigated using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with a double-moment microphysics scheme where both graupel and hail are considered. Three sensitivity experiments were performed by modifying the initial water vapor mixing ratio profile to 90% ("Q-10%"), 105% ("Q+5%"), and 110% ("Q+10%") of the initial conditions used for the control simulation. It was found that increasing the initial water vapor content caused the hail and total precipitation rates to increase during the first 5 h. The precipitation response to increasing water vapor content was monotonic for this first episode; however, for the event's second episode, the hail precipitation rate responds to the initial water vapor profile nonlinearly, while the total precipitation rate responds mostly monotonically. In particular, simulation Q+5% achieves the largest hail production rate while simulation Q+10% has the largest total precipitation rate. In contrast, during the second episode simulation Q-10% has the strongest vertical motion, produces the most cloud ice and snow, but has the lowest hail production. Analysis shows that increasing the initial moisture content directly increases the precipitation during the first episode, which subsequently induces a stronger, longer-lasting cold pool that limits the development of deep convection during the second episode.

  4. The Role of Overshooting Convection in Elevated Stratospheric Water Vapor over the Summertime Continental United States (United States)

    Herman, R. L.; Ray, E. A.; Rosenlof, K. H.; Bedka, K. M.; Schwartz, M. J.; Read, W. G.; Troy, R. F.


    The NASA ER-2 aircraft sampled the UTLS region over North America during the NASA Studies of Emissions and Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys (SEAC4RS) field mission. On four flights targeting convectively-influenced air parcels, in situ measurements of enhanced water vapor in the lower stratosphere over the summertime continental United States were made using the JPL Laser Hygrometer (JLH Mark2). Water vapor mixing ratios greater than 10 ppmv, twice the stratospheric background levels, were measured at pressure levels between 80 and 160 hPa. Through satellite observations and analysis, we make the connection between these in situ water measurements and overshooting cloud tops. The overshooting tops (OT) are identified from a SEAC4RS OT detection product based on satellite infrared window channel brightness temperature gradients. Back-trajectory analysis ties enhanced water to OT one to seven days prior to the intercept by the aircraft. The trajectory paths are dominated by the North American Monsoon (NAM) anticyclonic circulation. This connection suggests that ice is convectively transported to the overworld stratosphere in OT events and subsequently sublimated; such events may irreversibly enhance stratospheric water vapor in the summer over Mexico and the United States. Regional context is provided by water observations from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS).

  5. Enhanced stratospheric water vapor over the summertime continental United States and the role of overshooting convection (United States)

    Herman, Robert L.; Ray, Eric A.; Rosenlof, Karen H.; Bedka, Kristopher M.; Schwartz, Michael J.; Read, William G.; Troy, Robert F.; Chin, Keith; Christensen, Lance E.; Fu, Dejian; Stachnik, Robert A.; Bui, T. Paul; Dean-Day, Jonathan M.


    The NASA ER-2 aircraft sampled the lower stratosphere over North America during the field mission for the NASA Studies of Emissions and Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys (SEAC4RS). This study reports observations of convectively influenced air parcels with enhanced water vapor in the overworld stratosphere over the summertime continental United States and investigates three case studies in detail. Water vapor mixing ratios greater than 10 ppmv, which is much higher than the background 4 to 6 ppmv of the overworld stratosphere, were measured by the JPL Laser Hygrometer (JLH Mark2) at altitudes between 16.0 and 17.5 km (potential temperatures of approximately 380 to 410 K). Overshooting cloud tops (OTs) are identified from a SEAC4RS OT detection product based on satellite infrared window channel brightness temperature gradients. Through trajectory analysis, we make the connection between these in situ water measurements and OT. Back trajectory analysis ties enhanced water to OT 1 to 7 days prior to the intercept by the aircraft. The trajectory paths are dominated by the North American monsoon (NAM) anticyclonic circulation. This connection suggests that ice is convectively transported to the overworld stratosphere in OT events and subsequently sublimated; such events may irreversibly enhance stratospheric water vapor in the summer over Mexico and the United States. A regional context is provided by water observations from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS).

  6. A numerical model of mantle convection with deformable, mobile continental lithosphere within three-dimensional spherical geometry (United States)

    Yoshida, M.


    A new numerical simulation model of mantle convection with a compositionally and rheologically heterogeneous, deformable, mobile continental lithosphere is presented for the first time by using three-dimensional regional spherical-shell geometry (Yoshida, 2010, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett.). The numerical results revealed that one of major factor that realizes the supercontinental breakup and subsequent continental drift is a pre-existing, weak (low-viscosity) continental margin (WCM) in the supercontinent. Characteristic tectonic structures such as young orogenic belts and suture zones in a continent are expected to be mechanically weaker than the stable part of the continental lithosphere with the cratonic root (or cratonic lithosphere) and yield lateral viscosity variations in the continental lithosphere. In the present-day Earth's lithosphere, the pre-existing, mechanically weak zones emerge as a diffuse plate boundary. However, the dynamic role of the WCM in the stability of continental lithosphere has not been understood in terms of geophysics. In my numerical model, a compositionally buoyant and highly viscous continental assemblage with pre-existing WCMs, analogous to the past supercontinent, is modeled and imposed on well-developed mantle convection whose vigor of convection, internal heating rate, and rheological parameters are appropriate for the Earth's mantle. The visco-plastic oceanic lithosphere and the associated subduction of oceanic plates are incorporated. The time integration of the advection of continental materials with zero chemical diffusion is performed by a tracer particle method. The time evolution of mantle convection after setting the model supercontinent is followed over 800 Myr. Earth-like continental drift is successfully reproduced, and the characteristic thermal interaction between the mantle and the continent/supercontinent is observed in my new numerical model. Results reveal that the WCM protects the cratonic lithosphere from being

  7. Is There Evidence that Mid-Latitude Stratospheric Ozone Depletion Occurs in Conjunction with North American Monsoon Convection? (United States)

    Rosenlof, K. H.; Ray, E. A.; Portmann, R. W.


    A recent study suggests that during the period of the summertime North American Monsoon (NAM), ozone depletion could occur as a result of catalytic ozone destruction associated with the cold and wet conditions caused by overshooting convection. Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) water vapor measurements do show that the NAM region is wetter than other parts of the globe in regards to both the mean and extremes. However, definitive evidence of ozone depletion occurring in that region has not been presented. In this study, we examine coincident measurements of water vapor, ozone, and tropospheric tracers from aircraft data taken during the Studies of Emissions and Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys (SEAC4RS) aircraft campaign looking specifically for ozone depletion in regions identified as impacted by overshooting convection. Although we do find evidence of lower ozone values in air impacted by convective overshoots, using tropospheric tracers we attribute those observations to input of tropospheric air rather than catalytic ozone destruction. Additionally, we explore the consequences of these lower ozone values on surface UV, and conclude that there is minimal impact on the UV index.

  8. A Climatology of Midlatitude Continental Clouds from the ARM SGP Site. Part I; Low-Level Cloud Macrophysical, Microphysical, and Radiative Properties (United States)

    Dong, Xiquan; Minnis, Patrick; Xi, Baike


    A record of single-layer and overcast low cloud (stratus) properties has been generated using approximately 4000 hours of data collected from January 1997 to December 2002 at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains Central Facility (SCF). The cloud properties include liquid-phase and liquid-dominant, mixed-phase, low cloud macrophysical, microphysical, and radiative properties including cloud-base and -top heights and temperatures, and cloud physical thickness derived from a ground-based radar and lidar pair, and rawinsonde sounding; cloud liquid water path (LWP) and content (LWC), and cloud-droplet effective radius (r(sub e)) and number concentration (N) derived from the macrophysical properties and radiometer data; and cloud optical depth (tau), effective solar transmission (gamma), and cloud/top-of-atmosphere albedos (R(sub cldy)/R(sub TOA)) derived from Eppley precision spectral pyranometer measurements. The cloud properties were analyzed in terms of their seasonal, monthly, and hourly variations. In general, more stratus clouds occur during winter and spring than in summer. Cloud-layer altitudes and physical thicknesses were higher and greater in summer than in winter with averaged physical thicknesses of 0.85 km and 0.73 km for day and night, respectively. The seasonal variations of LWP, LWC, N. tau, R(sub cldy), and R(sub TOA) basically follow the same pattern with maxima and minima during winter and summer, respectively. There is no significant variation in mean r(sub e), however, despite a summertime peak in aerosol loading, Although a considerable degree of variability exists, the 6-yr average values of LWP, LWC, r(sub e), N, tau, gamma, R(sub cldy) and R(sub TOA) are 150 gm(exp -2) (138), 0.245 gm(exp -3) (0.268), 8.7 micrometers (8.5), 213 cm(exp -3) (238), 26.8 (24.8), 0.331, 0.672, 0.563 for daytime (nighttime). A new conceptual model of midlatitude continental low clouds at the ARM SGP site has been developed from this study

  9. Deformation of "stable" continental interiors by mantle convection: Implications for intraplate stress in the New Madrid Seismic Zone (United States)

    Forte, A. M.; Moucha, R.; Simmons, N. A.; Grand, S. P.; Mitrovica, J. X.


    The enigmatic origin of large-magnitude earthquakes far from active plate boundaries, especially those occurring in so-called "stable" continental interiors, is a source of continuing controversy that has eluded a satisfactory explanation using past geophysical models of intraplate deformation and faulting. One outstanding case of such major intraplate earthquakes is the 1811-1812 series of events in the New Madrid Seismic Zone (NMSZ). We contend that the origin of some of these enigmatic intraplate events is due to regional variations in the pattern of tectonic stress generated by mantle convective flow acting on the overlying lithosphere and crust. Mantle convection affects the entire surface of the planet, irrespective of the current configuration of surface plate boundaries. In addition, it must be appreciated that plate tectonics is not a 2-D process, because the convective flow that drives the observed horizontal motions of the tectonic plates also drives vertical displacements of the crust across distances as great as 2 to 3 km. This dynamic topography is directly correlated with convection-driven stress field variations in the crust and lithosphere and these stresses can be locally focussed if the mantle rheology below the lithosphere is characterised by sufficiently low viscosities. We have developed global models of convection-driven mantle flow [Forte et al. 2009,2010] that are based on recent high-resolution 3-D tomography models derived from joint inversions of seismic, geodynamic and mineral physics data [Simmons et al. 2007,2008,2010]. These tomography-based mantle convection models also include a full suite of surface geodynamic (postglacial rebound and convection) constraints on the depth-dependent average viscosity of the mantle [Mitrovica & Forte 2004]. Our latest tomography-based and geodynamically-constrained convection calculations reveal that mantle flow under the central US are driven by density anomalies within the lower mantle associated

  10. The Next-Generation Goddard Convective-Stratiform Heating Algorithm: New Model Simulations for Tropical and Continental Summertime Environments (United States)

    Lang, S. E.; Tao, W. K.; Wu, D.


    The Goddard Convective-Stratiform Heating (or CSH) algorithm is used to retrieve estimates of cloud heating over the global Tropics using TRMM rainfall data and a set of look-up-tables (LUTs) derived from a series of multi-week cloud-resolving model (CRM) simulations using the Goddard Cumulus Ensemble model (or GCE). These simulations link satellite observables (i.e., surface rainfall and stratiform fraction) with cloud heating profiles, which are not directly observable. The strength of the algorithm relies in part on the representativeness of the simulations; more realistic simulations provide a stronger link between the observables and simulated heating profiles. The current "TRMM" version of the CSH algorithm relies on 2D GCE simulations using an improved version of the Goddard 3-class ice scheme (3ICE), a moderate-sized domain, and 1-km horizontal resolution. Updating the LUTs, which are suitable for tropical and continental summertime environments requires new, more realistic GCE simulations. New simulations are performed using a new, improved 4-class ice scheme, which has been shown to outperform the 3ICE scheme, especially for intense convection. Additional grid configurations are also tested and evaluated to find the best overall setup to for re-deriving and updating the CSH tropical/summertime LUTs.

  11. A new framework for the analysis of continental-scale convection-resolving climate simulations (United States)

    Leutwyler, D.; Charpilloz, C.; Arteaga, A.; Ban, N.; Di Girolamo, S.; Fuhrer, O.; Hoefler, T.; Schulthess, T. C.; Christoph, S.


    High-resolution climate simulations at horizontal resolution of O(1-4 km) allow explicit treatment of deep convection (thunderstorms and rain showers). Explicitly treating convection by the governing equations reduces uncertainties associated with parametrization schemes and allows a model formulation closer to physical first principles [1,2]. But kilometer-scale climate simulations with long integration periods and large computational domains are expensive and data storage becomes unbearably voluminous. Hence new approaches to perform analysis are required. In the crCLIM project we propose a new climate modeling framework that allows scientists to conduct analysis at high spatial and temporal resolution. We tackle the computational cost by using the largest available supercomputers such as hybrid CPU-GPU architectures. For this the COSMO model has been adapted to run on such architectures [2]. We then alleviate the I/O-bottleneck by employing a simulation data-virtualizer (SDaVi) that allows to trade-off storage (space) for computational effort (time). This is achieved by caching the simulation outputs and efficiently launching re-simulations in case of cache misses. All this is done transparently from the analysis applications [3]. For the re-runs this approach requires a bit-reproducible version of COSMO. That is to say a model that produces identical results on different architectures to ensure coherent recomputation of the requested data [4]. In this contribution we present a version of SDaVi, a first performance model, and a strategy to obtain bit-reproducibility across hardware architectures.[1] N. Ban, J. Schmidli, C. Schär. Evaluation of the convection-resolving regional climate modeling approach in decade-long simulations. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 7889-7907, 2014.[2] D. Leutwyler, O. Fuhrer, X. Lapillonne, D. Lüthi, C. Schär. Towards European-scale convection-resolving climate simulations with GPUs: a study with COSMO 4.19. Geosci. Model Dev, 3393

  12. Plate Speed-up and Deceleration during Continental Rifting: Insights from Global 2D Mantle Convection Models. (United States)

    Brune, S.; Ulvrova, M.; Williams, S.


    The surface of the Earth is divided into a jigsaw of tectonic plates, some carrrying continents that disperse and aggregate through time, forming transient supercontinents like Pangea and Rodinia. Here, we study continental rifting using large-scale numerical simulations with self-consistent evolution of plate boundaries, where continental break-up emerges spontaneously due to slab pull, basal drag and trench suction forces.We use the StagYY convection code employing a visco-plastic rheology in a spherical annulus geometry. We consider an incompressible mantle under the Boussinesq approximation that is basally and internally heated.We show that continental separation follows a characteristic evolution with three distinctive phases: (1) A pre-rift phase that typically lasts for several hundreds of millions of years with tectonic quiescence in the suture and extensional stresses that are slowly building up. (2) A rift phase that further divides into a slow rift period of several tens of millions of years where stresses continuously increase followed by a rift acceleration period featuring an abrupt stress drop within several millions of years. The speed-up takes place before lithospheric break-up and therefore affects the structural architecture of the rifted margins. (3) The drifting phase with initially high divergence rates persists over tens of millions of years until the system adjust to new conditions and the spreading typically slows down.By illustrating the geodynamic connection between subduction dynamics and rift evolution, our results allow new interpretations of plate tectonic reconstructions. Rift acceleration within the second phase of rifting is compensated by enhanced convergence rates at subduction zones. This model outcome predicts enhanced subduction velocities, e.g. between North America and the Farallon plate during Central Atlantic rifting 200 My ago, or closure of potential back-arc basins such as in the proto-Andean ranges of South America

  13. Importance of Rain Evaporation and Continental Convection in the Tropical Water Cycle (United States)

    Worden, John; Noone, David; Bowman, Kevin; Beer, R.; Eldering, A.; Fisher, B.; Gunson, M.; Goldman, Aaron; Kulawik, S. S.; Lampel, Michael; hide


    Atmospheric moisture cycling is an important aspect of the Earth's climate system, yet the processes determining atmospheric humidity are poorly understood. For example, direct evaporation of rain contributes significantly to the heat and moisture budgets of clouds, but few observations of these processes are available. Similarly, the relative contributions to atmospheric moisture over land from local evaporation and humidity from oceanic sources are uncertain. Lighter isotopes of water vapour preferentially evaporate whereas heavier isotopes preferentially condense and the isotopic composition of ocean water is known. Here we use this information combined with global measurements of the isotopic composition of tropospheric water vapour from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) aboard the Aura spacecraft, to investigate aspects of the atmospheric hydrological cycle that are not well constrained by observations of precipitation or atmospheric vapour content. Our measurements of the isotopic composition of water vapour near tropical clouds suggest that rainfall evaporation contributes significantly to lower troposphere humidity, with typically 20% and up to 50% of rainfall evaporating near convective clouds. Over the tropical continents the isotopic signature of tropospheric water vapour differs significantly from that of precipitation, suggesting that convection of vapour from both oceanic sources and evapotranspiration are the dominant moisture sources. Our measurements allow an assessment of the intensity of the present hydrological cycle and will help identify any future changes as they occur.

  14. Small-scale convection at a continental back-arc to craton transition: Application to the southern Canadian Cordillera (United States)

    Hardebol, N. J.; Pysklywec, R. N.; Stephenson, R.


    A step in the depth of the lithosphere base, associated with lateral variations in the upper mantle temperature structure, can trigger mantle flow that is referred to as edge-driven convection. This paper aims at outlining the implications of such edge-driven flow at a lateral temperature transition from a hot and thin to a cold and thick lithosphere of a continental back-arc. This configuration finds application in the southern Canadian Cordillera, where a hot and thin back-arc is adjacent to the cold and thick North American Craton. A series of geodynamical models tested the thermodynamical behavior of the lithosphere and upper mantle induced by a step in lithosphere thickness. The mantle flow patterns, thickness and heat flow evolution of the lithosphere, and surface topography are examined. We find that the lateral temperature transition shifts cratonward due to the vigorous edge-driven mantle flow that erodes the craton edge, unless the craton has a distinct high viscosity mantle lithosphere. The mantle lithosphere viscosity structure determines the impact of edge-driven flow on crustal deformation and surface heat flow; a dry olivine rheology for the craton prevents the edge from migrating and supports a persistent surface heat flow contrast. These phenomena are well illustrated at the transition from the hot Canadian Cordillera to craton that is supported by a rheological change and that coincides with a lateral change in surface heat flow. Fast seismic wave velocities observed in the upper mantle cratonward of the step can be explained as downwellings induced by the edge-driven flow.

  15. Year-Long Vertical Velocity Statistics Derived from Doppler Lidar Data for the Continental Convective Boundary Layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Larry K. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Newsom, Rob K. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Turner, David D. [Global Systems Division, NOAA/Earth System Research Laboratory, Boulder, Colorado


    One year of Coherent Doppler Lidar (CDL) data collected at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) site in Oklahoma is analyzed to provide profiles of vertical velocity variance, skewness, and kurtosis for cases of cloud-free convective boundary layers. The variance was scaled by the Deardorff convective velocity scale, which was successful when the boundary layer depth was stationary but failed in situations when the layer was changing rapidly. In this study the data are sorted according to time of day, season, wind direction, surface shear stress, degree of instability, and wind shear across the boundary-layer top. The normalized variance was found to have its peak value near a normalized height of 0.25. The magnitude of the variance changes with season, shear stress, and degree of instability, but was not impacted by wind shear across the boundary-layer top. The skewness was largest in the top half of the boundary layer (with the exception of wintertime conditions). The skewness was found to be a function of the season, shear stress, wind shear across the boundary-layer top, with larger amounts of shear leading to smaller values. Like skewness, the vertical profile of kurtosis followed a consistent pattern, with peak values near the boundary-layer top (also with the exception of wintertime data). The altitude of the peak values of kurtosis was found to be lower when there was a large amount of wind shear at the boundary-layer top.

  16. Constraining mass-diameter relations from hydrometeor images and cloud radar reflectivities in tropical continental and oceanic convective anvils (United States)

    Fontaine, E.; Schwarzenboeck, A.; Delanoë, J.; Wobrock, W.; Leroy, D.; Dupuy, R.; Gourbeyre, C.; Protat, A.


    In this study the density of ice hydrometeors in tropical clouds is derived from a combined analysis of particle images from 2-D-array probes and associated reflectivities measured with a Doppler cloud radar on the same research aircraft. Usually, the mass-diameter m(D) relationship is formulated as a power law with two unknown coefficients (pre-factor, exponent) that need to be constrained from complementary information on hydrometeors, where absolute ice density measurement methods do not apply. Here, at first an extended theoretical study of numerous hydrometeor shapes simulated in 3-D and arbitrarily projected on a 2-D plan allowed to constrain the exponent βof the m(D) relationship from the exponent σ of the surface-diameterS(D)relationship, which is likewise written as a power law. Since S(D) always can be determined for real data from 2-D optical array probes or other particle imagers, the evolution of the m(D) exponent can be calculated. After that, the pre-factor α of m(D) is constrained from theoretical simulations of the radar reflectivities matching the measured reflectivities along the aircraft trajectory. The study was performed as part of the Megha-Tropiques satellite project, where two types of mesoscale convective systems (MCS) were investigated: (i) above the African continent and (ii) above the Indian Ocean. For the two data sets, two parameterizations are derived to calculate the vertical variability of m(D) coefficients α and β as a function of the temperature. Originally calculated (with T-matrix) and also subsequently parameterized m(D) relationships from this study are compared to other methods (from literature) of calculating m(D) in tropical convection. The significant benefit of using variable m(D) relations instead of a single m(D) relationship is demonstrated from the impact of all these m(D) relations on Z-CWC (Condensed Water Content) and Z-CWC-T-fitted parameterizations.

  17. Empirical studies of the microwave radiometric response to rainfall in the tropics and midlatitudes (United States)

    Petty, Grant W.; Katsaros, Kristina B.


    Results are presented from quantitative comparisons between satellite microwave radiometer observations and digital radar observations of equatorial convective cloud clusters and midlatitude frontal precipitation. Simultaneous data from the Winter Monsoon Experiment digital radar and the SMMR for December 1978 are analyzed. It is found that the most important differences between the microwave response to rainfall in the equatorial tropics and to stratiform rain in oceanic midlatitude fronts is caused by the different spatial characteristics of stratiform and convective rainfall and by the different background brightness temperature fields associated with tropical and midlatitude levels of atmospheric water vapor.

  18. Atmospheric residence times of continental aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balkanski, Y.J.


    The global atmospheric distributions of Rn-222 are simulated with a three-dimensional model of atmospheric transport based on the meteorology of the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) general circulation model. The short-lived radioactive gas Rn-222 (half-life = 3.8d) is emitted almost exclusively from land, at a relatively uniform rate; hence it is an excellent tracer of continental influences. Lead-210 is produced by decay of Rn-222 and immediately condenses to preexisting aerosol surfaces. It provides an excellent measure of aerosol residence times in the atmosphere because its source is accurately defined by the Rn-222 distribution. Results from the three-dimensional model are compared to measurements of Rn-222 and Pb-210 atmospheric concentrations to evaluate model's long-range transport over oceanic regions and to study the deposition mechanisms of atmospheric aerosols. Model results for Rn-222 are used to examine the long-range transport of continental air over two selected oceanic regions, the subantarctic Indian Ocean and the North Pacific. It is shown that the fast transport of air from southern Africa causes substantial continental pollution at southern mid-latitudes, a region usually regarded as pristine. Air over the North Pacific is heavily impacted by continental influences year round, but the altitude at which the transport occurs varies seasonally. Observations of aerosols at island sites, which are commonly used as diagnostics of continental influences, may be misleading because they do not account for influences at high altitude and because aerosols are efficiently scavenged by deposition during transport. The study of Pb-210 focuses on defining the residence times of submicron aerosols in the troposphere. Scavenging in wet convective updrafts is found to provide the dominant sink on a global scale

  19. A Facies Model for Temperate Continental Glaciers. (United States)

    Ashley, Gail Mowry


    Discusses the presence and dynamics of continental glaciers in the domination of the physical processes of erosion and deposition in the mid-latitudes during the Pleistocene period. Describes the use of a sedimentary facies model as a guide to recognizing ancient temperate continental glacial deposits. (TW)

  20. Improving representation of convective transport for scale-aware parameterization: 2. Analysis of cloud-resolving model simulations (United States)

    Liu, Yi-Chin; Fan, Jiwen; Zhang, Guang J.; Xu, Kuan-Man; Ghan, Steven J.


    Following Part I, in which 3-D cloud-resolving model (CRM) simulations of a squall line and mesoscale convective complex in the midlatitude continental and the tropical regions are conducted and evaluated, we examine the scale dependence of eddy transport of water vapor, evaluate different eddy transport formulations, and improve the representation of convective transport across all scales by proposing a new formulation that more accurately represents the CRM-calculated eddy flux. CRM results show that there are strong grid-spacing dependencies of updraft and downdraft fractions regardless of altitudes, cloud life stage, and geographical location. As for the eddy transport of water vapor, updraft eddy flux is a major contributor to total eddy flux in the lower and middle troposphere. However, downdraft eddy transport can be as large as updraft eddy transport in the lower atmosphere especially at the mature stage of midlatitude continental convection. We show that the single-updraft approach significantly underestimates updraft eddy transport of water vapor because it fails to account for the large internal variability of updrafts, while a single downdraft represents the downdraft eddy transport of water vapor well. We find that using as few as three updrafts can account for the internal variability of updrafts well. Based on the evaluation with the CRM simulated data, we recommend a simplified eddy transport formulation that considers three updrafts and one downdraft. Such formulation is similar to the conventional one but much more accurately represents CRM-simulated eddy flux across all grid scales.

  1. Atmospheric Residence Times of Continental Aerosols. (United States)

    Balkanski, Yves Jacques

    The global atmospheric distributions of ^{222}Rn and ^{210 }Pb are simulated with a three-dimensional model of atmospheric transport based on the meteorology of the NASA GISS^1>=neral circulation model. The short-lived radioactive gas ^ {222}Rn (half-life = 3.8d) is emitted almost exclusively from land, at a relatively uniform rate; hence it is an excellent tracer of continental influences. Lead -210 is produced by decay of ^{222} Rn and immediately condenses to preexisting aerosol surfaces. It provides an excellent measure of aerosol residence times in the atmosphere because its source is accurately defined by the ^{222} Rn distribution. Results from the three-dimensional model are compared to measurements of ^ {222}Rn and ^{210 }Pb atmospheric concentrations to evaluate model's long-range transport over oceanic regions and to study the deposition mechanisms of atmospheric aerosols. Model results for ^{222} Rn are used to examine the long-range transport of continental air over two selected oceanic regions, the subantartic Indian Ocean and the North Pacific. It is shown that fast transport of air from southern Africa causes substantial continental pollution at southern mid-latitudes, a region usually regarded as pristine. Air over the North Pacific is heavily impacted by continental influences year round, but the altitude at which the transport occurs varies seasonally. Observations of aerosols at island sites, which are commonly used as diagnostics of continental influences, may be misleading because they do not account for influences at high altitude and because aerosols are efficiently scavenged by deposition during transport. The study of ^{210}Pb focuses on defining the residence times of submicron aerosols in the troposphere. Scavenging in wet convective updrafts is found to provide the dominant sink on a global scale. The globally averaged residence time for ^{210 }Pb-containing aerosols in the troposphere is 7 days. The average increase in residence time

  2. The Relationship Between Latent Heating, Vertical Velocity, and Precipitation Processes: the Impact of Aerosols on Precipitation in Organized Deep Convective Systems (United States)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo; Li, Xiaowen


    A high-resolution, two-dimensional cloud-resolving model with spectral-bin microphysics is used to study the impact of aerosols on precipitation processes in both a tropical oceanic and a midlatitude continental squall line with regard to three processes: latent heating (LH), cold pool dynamics, and ice microphysics. Evaporative cooling in the lower troposphere is found to enhance rainfall in low cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentration scenarios in the developing stages of a midlatitude convective precipitation system. In contrast, the tropical case produced more rainfall under high CCN concentrations. Both cold pools and low-level convergence are stronger for those configurations having enhanced rainfall. Nevertheless, latent heat release is stronger (especially after initial precipitation) in the scenarios having more rainfall in both the tropical and midlatitude environment. Sensitivity tests are performed to examine the impact of ice and evaporative cooling on the relationship between aerosols, LH, and precipitation processes. The results show that evaporative cooling is important for cold pool strength and rain enhancement in both cases. However, ice microphysics play a larger role in the midlatitude case compared to the tropics. Detailed analysis of the vertical velocity-governing equation shows that temperature buoyancy can enhance updraftsdowndrafts in the middlelower troposphere in the convective core region; however, the vertical pressure gradient force (PGF) is of the same order and acts in the opposite direction. Water loading is small but of the same order as the net PGF-temperature buoyancy forcing. The balance among these terms determines the intensity of convection.

  3. Impacts of microphysics, radiation and environmental winds in mid-latitude and tropical squall-line systems, and their climatic implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, Hung-Neng.


    Cloud-radiation feedback has been identified as the most important factor limiting general circulation models (GCMS) to further progress in climate change research (Cess et al., 1989). It is also regarded as a major uncertainty in estimating the impact of greenhouse gases on climate simulations. As a result, many GCMs showed high sensitivity to the treatment of clouds and cloud radiative properties. Therefore, a better understanding of cloud-radiation feedback on the large-scale environment is absolutely essential to improve the representation of cloud processes in GCMS. To this end, a cloud model with enhanced model physics is used to study the impact of cloud-radiation interactions on mesoscale convective systems (MCSs). Case studies representing a variety of convective systems are important to generalize the overall effects of anvil clouds on the large-scale environment. Our primary interesting is limited to the MCSs in an environment with substantial wind shear, such as squall-line systems, because they have longer lifetime and wider coverage to impact the earth radiation budget and climate. The objective of this study is to investigate the impacts of microphysics, radiation and environmental winds on mid-latitude continental and tropical oceanic squall-line systems. Comparisons between these two systems are presented. Recent studies indicated that the vertical shear of the environmental wind plays an important role in the formation of the anvil cloud through the tilting of MCSS. However, this process has not been represented in GCMS. A detailed investigation on the formation of anvil clouds and their relationship to cumulus portions of MCSs would help develop a better cloud parameterization for use in GCMS. Two important issues are addressed through these comparisons. First, what factors cause the differences between mid-latitude and tropical anvil clouds? Second, do these differences have climatic implications to improve our climate forecasting ability?

  4. Palaeomagnetism and the continental crust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piper, J.D.A.


    This book is an introduction to palaeomagnetism offering treatment of theory and practice. It analyzes the palaeomagnetic record over the whole of geological time, from the Archaean to the Cenozoic, and goes on to examine the impact of past geometries and movements of the continental crust at each geological stage. Topics covered include theory of rock and mineral magnetism, field and laboratory methods, growth and consolidation of the continental crust in Archaean and Proterozoic times, Palaeozoic palaeomagnetism and the formation of Pangaea, the geomagnetic fields, continental movements, configurations and mantle convection.

  5. The Transit-Time Distribution from the Northern Hemisphere Midlatitude Surface (United States)

    Orbe, Clara; Waugh, Darryn W.; Newman, Paul A.; Strahan, Susan; Steenrod, Stephen


    The distribution of transit times from the Northern Hemisphere (NH) midlatitude surface is a fundamental property of tropospheric transport. Here we present an analysis of the transit time distribution (TTD) since air last contacted the northern midlatitude surface layer, as simulated by the NASA Global Modeling Initiative Chemistry Transport Model. We find that throughout the troposphere the TTD is characterized by long flat tails that reflect the recirculation of old air from the Southern Hemisphere and results in mean ages that are significantly larger than the modal age. Key aspects of the TTD -- its mode, mean and spectral width -- are interpreted in terms of tropospheric dynamics, including seasonal shifts in the location and strength of tropical convection and variations in quasi-isentropic transport out of the northern midlatitude surface layer. Our results indicate that current diagnostics of tropospheric transport are insufficient for comparing model transport and that the full distribution of transit times is a more appropriate constraint.

  6. An introduction to mid-latitude ecotone: sustainability and environmental challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Moon


    Full Text Available The mid-latitude zone can be broadly defined as part of the hemisphere between 30°–60° latitude. This zone is home to over 50 % of the world population and encompasses about 36 countries throughout the principal region, which host most of the world’s development and poverty related problems. In reviewing some of the past and current major environmental challenges that parts of mid-latitudes are facing, this study sets the context by limiting the scope of mid-latitude region to that of Northern hemisphere, specifically between 30°–45° latitudes which is related to the warm temperate zone comprising the Mid-Latitude ecotone – a transition belt between the forest zone and southern dry land territories. The ongoing climate change reveals a substantial increase of temperature and simultaneous decrease in the amount of precipitation across vast continental regions in the mid-latitudes. According to climatic predictions, these tendencies will continue during the 21st century, which will likely increase the frequency and severity of droughts and water stress of vegetation. Along with climate change, ongoing land degradation and deforestation are observed in many regions of the mid-latitude region. For example, the Korean peninsula, which is divided into South and North Korea, is characterized by drastically different forest conditions. Deforestation in North Korea has been exacerbating at a noticeable pace due to excessive logging and human intervention. Such problems are not confined to Korean peninsula but are witnessed across vast regions of the mid-latitude region. Within this context – acquiring better understanding in the role of terrestrial ecosystems located at different latitudes is critical – for building resilience against the negative impact of climate change and for maintaining the stability of the environment and landscapes.

  7. Upscaling the impact of convective overshooting (COV) through BRAMS: a continental and wet-season scale study of the water vapour (WV) budget in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL). (United States)

    Behera, Abhinna; Rivière, Emmanuel; Marécal, Virginie; Rysman, Jean-François; Claud, Chantal; Burgalat, Jérémie


    The stratospheric water vapour (WV) has a conceding impact on the radiative and chemical budget of Earth's atmosphere. The convective overshooting (COV) at the tropics is well admitted for playing a role in transporting directly WV to the stratosphere. Nonetheless, its impact on the lower stratosphere is yet to be determined at global scale, as the satellite and other air-borne measurements are not of having fine enough resolution to quantify this impact at large scale. Therefore, efforts have been made to quantify the influence of COV over the WV budget in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) through modelling. Our approach is to build two synthetic tropical wet-seasons; where one would be having only deep convection (DC) but no COV at all, and the second one would be having the COV, and in both cases the WV budget in the TTL would be estimated. Before that, a French-Brazilian TRO-pico campaign was carried out at Bauru, Brazil in order to understand the influence of COV on the WV budget in the TTL. The radio-sounding, and the small balloon-borne WV measurements from the campaign are being utilized to validate the model simulation. Brazilian version of Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (BRAMS) is used with a single grid system to simulate a WV variability in a wet-season. Grell's convective parameterization with ensemble closure, microphysics with double moment scheme and 7 types of hydrometeors are incorporated to simulate the WV variability for a wet-season at the tropics. The grid size of simulation is chosen to be 20 km x 20 km horizontally and from surface to 30 km altitude, so that there cannot be COV at all, only DC due to such a relatively coarse resolution. The European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) operational analyses data are used every 6 hours for grid initialization and boundary conditions, and grid center nudging. The simulation is carried out for a full wet-season (Nov 2012 - Mar 2013) at Brazilian scale, so that it would

  8. New Particle Formation in the Mid-Latitude Upper Troposphere (United States)

    Axisa, Duncan

    Primary aerosol production due to new particle formation (NPF) in the upper troposphere and the impact that this might have on cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentration can be of sufficient magnitude to contribute to the uncertainty in radiative forcing. This uncertainty affects our ability to estimate how sensitive the climate is to greenhouse gas emissions. Therefore, new particle formation must be accurately defined, parametrized and accounted for in models. This research involved the deployment of instruments, data analysis and interpretation of particle formation events during the Mid-latitude Airborne Cirrus Properties Experiment (MACPEX) campaign. The approach combined field measurements and observations with extensive data analysis and modeling to study the process of new particle formation and growth to CCN active sizes. Simultaneous measurements of O3, CO, ultrafine aerosol particles and surface area from a high-altitude research aircraft were used to study tropospheric-stratospheric mixing as well as the frequency and location of NPF. It was found that the upper troposphere was an active region in the production of new particles by gas-to-particle conversion, that nucleation was triggered by convective clouds and mixing processes, and that NPF occurred in regions with high relative humidity and low surface area. In certain cases, mesoscale and synoptic features enhanced mixing and facilitated the formation of new particles in the northern mid-latitudes. A modeling study of particle growth and CCN formation was done based on measured aerosol size distributions and modeled growth. The results indicate that when SO2 is of sufficient concentration NPF is a significant source of potential CCN in the upper troposphere. In conditions where convective cloud outflow eject high concentrations of SO2, a large number of new particles can form especially in the instance when the preexisting surface area is low. The fast growth of nucleated clusters produces a

  9. Impact of Aerosols on Convective Clouds and Precipitation (United States)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo; Chen, Jen-Ping; Li, Zhanqing; Wang, Chien; Zhang, Chidong; Li, Xiaowen


    Aerosols are a critical.factor in the atmospheric hydrological cycle and radiation budget. As a major agent for clouds to form and a significant attenuator of solar radiation, aerosols affect climate in several ways. Current research suggests that aerosols have a major impact on the dynamics, microphysics, and electrification properties of continental mixed-phase convective clouds. In addition, high aerosol concentrations in urban environments could affect precipitation variability by providing a significant source of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Such pollution . effects on precipitation potentially have enormous climatic consequences both in terms of feedbacks involving the land surface via rainfall as well as the surface energy budget and changes in latent heat input to the atmosphere. Basically, aerosol concentrations can influence cloud droplet size distributions, the warm-rain process, the cold-rain process, cloud-top heights, the depth of the mixed-phase region, and the occurrence of lightning. Recently, many cloud resolution models (CRMs) have been used to examine the role of aerosols on mixed-phase convective clouds. These modeling studies have many differences in terms of model configuration (two- or three-dimensional), domain size, grid spacing (150-3000 m), microphysics (two-moment bulk, simple or sophisticated spectral-bin), turbulence (1st or 1.5 order turbulent kinetic energy (TKE)), radiation, lateral boundary conditions (i.e., closed, radiative open or cyclic), cases (isolated convection, tropical or midlatitude squall lines) and model integration time (e.g., 2.5 to 48 hours). Among these modeling studies, the most striking difference is that cumulative precipitation can either increase or decrease in response to higher concentrations of CCN. In this presentation, we review past efforts and summarize our current understanding of the effect of aerosols on convective precipitation processes. Specifically, this paper addresses the following topics

  10. The Impact of Upper Tropospheric Humidity from Microwave Limb Sounder on the Midlatitude Greenhouse Effect (United States)

    Hu, Hua; Liu, W. Timothy


    This paper presents an analysis of upper tropospheric humidity, as measured by the Microwave Limb Sounder, and the impact of the humidity on the greenhouse effect in the midlatitudes. Enhanced upper tropospheric humidity and an enhanced greenhouse effect occur over the storm tracks in the North Pacific and North Atlantic. In these areas, strong baroclinic activity and the large number of deep convective clouds transport more water vapor to the upper troposphere, and hence increase greenhouse trapping. The greenhouse effect increases with upper tropospheric humidity in areas with a moist upper troposphere (such as areas over storm tracks), but it is not sensitive to changes in upper tropospheric humidity in regions with a dry upper troposphere, clearly demonstrating that there are different mechanisms controlling the geographical distribution of the greenhouse effect in the midlatitudes.

  11. Continental tectonics and continental kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allegre, C.J.; Jaupart, C.; Paris-7 Univ., 75


    We present a model of continental growth which combines the results of geochemical studies and tectonic ideas about the evolution of continents through geological time. The process of continental growth is mainly controlled by surface phenomena. Continental material is extracted from the mantle along subduction zones at the periphery of oceans, and is destroyed in collision zones where it is remobilized and made available for subduction. We derive an equation for S, the portion of the Earth's surface occupied by continents, which reads as follows: dS/dt=a . √(1-S)-b . S. Coefficients a and b depend on the geometry of plates, on their number and on their velocities. We assume that they decrease exponentially with time with the same time-scale α. This model satisfies both geochemical and tectonic constraints, and allows the integration of several current observations in a single framework. (orig.)

  12. Tropical influence on boreal summer mid-latitude stationary waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douville, Herve [Meteo-France/CNRM-GAME, Toulouse (France); CNRM/GMGEC/VDR, Toulouse (France); Bielli, S.; Deque, M.; Tyteca, S.; Voldoire, A. [Meteo-France/CNRM-GAME, Toulouse (France); Cassou, C. [CNRS-Cerfacs, Toulouse (France); Hall, N.M.J. [CNES/LEGOS, Toulouse (France)


    While organized tropical convection is a well-known source of extratropical planetary waves, state-of-the-art climate models still show serious deficiencies in simulating accurately the atmospheric response to tropical sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies and the associated teleconnections. In the present study, the remote influence of the tropical atmospheric circulation is evaluated in ensembles of global boreal summer simulations in which the Arpege-Climat atmospheric General Circulation Model (GCM) is nudged towards 6-h reanalyses. The nudging is applied either in the whole tropical band or in a regional summer monsoon domain. Sensitivity tests to the experimental design are first conducted using prescribed climatological SST. They show that the tropical relaxation does not improve the zonal mean extratropical climatology but does lead to a significantly improved representation of the mid-latitude stationary waves in both hemispheres. Low-pass filtering of the relaxation fields has no major effect on the model response, suggesting that high-frequency tropical variability is not responsible for extratropical biases. Dividing the nudging strength by a factor 10 only decreases the magnitude of the response. Model errors in each monsoon domain contribute to deficiencies in the model's mid-latitude climatology, although an exaggerated large-scale subsidence in the central equatorial Pacific appears as the main source of errors for the representation of stationary waves in the Arpege-Climat model. Case studies are then conducted using either climatological or observed SST. The focus is first on summer 2003 characterized by a strong and persistent anticyclonic anomaly over western Europe. This pattern is more realistic in nudging experiments than in simulations only driven by observed SST, especially when the nudging domain is centred over Central America. Other case studies also show a significant tropical forcing of the summer mid-latitude stationary waves

  13. Aerosol transport and wet scavenging in deep convective clouds: a case study and model evaluation using a multiple passive tracer analysis approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Qing; Easter, Richard C.; Campuzano-Jost, Pedro; Jimenez, Jose L.; Fast, Jerome D.; Ghan, Steven J.; Wang, Hailong; Berg, Larry K.; Barth, Mary; Liu, Ying; Shrivastava, ManishKumar B.; Singh, Balwinder; Morrison, H.; Fan, Jiwen; Ziegler, Conrad L.; Bela, Megan; Apel, Eric; Diskin, G. S.; Mikoviny, Tomas; Wisthaler, Armin


    The effect of wet scavenging on ambient aerosols in deep, continental convective clouds in the mid-latitudes is studied for a severe storm case in Oklahoma during the Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry (DC3) field campaign. A new passive-tracer based transport analysis framework is developed to characterize the convective transport based on the vertical distribution of several slowly reacting and nearly insoluble trace gases. The passive gas concentration in the upper troposphere convective outflow results from a mixture of 47% from the lower level (0-3 km), 21% entrained from the upper troposphere, and 32% from mid-atmosphere based on observations. The transport analysis framework is applied to aerosols to estimate aerosol transport and wet-scavenging efficiency. Observations yield high overall scavenging efficiencies of 81% and 68% for aerosol mass (Dp < 1μm) and aerosol number (0.03< Dp < 2.5μm), respectively. Little chemical selectivity to wet scavenging is seen among observed submicron sulfate (84%), organic (82%), and ammonium (80%) aerosols, while nitrate has a much lower scavenging efficiency of 57% likely due to the uptake of nitric acid. Observed larger size particles (0.15 - 2.5μm) are scavenged more efficiently (84%) than smaller particles (64%; 0.03 - 0.15μm). The storm is simulated using the chemistry version of the WRF model. Compared to the observation based analysis, the standard model underestimates the wet scavenging efficiency for both mass and number concentrations with low biases of 31% and 40%, respectively. Adding a new treatment of secondary activation significantly improves simulation results, so that the bias in scavenging efficiency in mass and number concentrations is reduced to <10%. This supports the hypothesis that secondary activation is an important process for wet removal of aerosols in deep convective storms.

  14. Midlatitude magnetometer chains during the IMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mcpherron, R.L.


    The International Magnetospheric Study (IMS) is an international program to study global problems of magnetospheric dynamics. A key element of the U.S. participation in this program was the establishment of a ground magnetometer network. This network included a number of arrays at high and low latitudes. This report describes three chains established at midlatitudes, including the IMS Midlatitude Chain, the AFGL Magnetometer Network, and the Bell Lab Conjugate Array. Descriptions of the type of equipment, station locations, types of data display, and availability of data for each chain are presented in this report. A major problem of the data analysis phase of the IMS will be reducing selected subsets of these data to a common format. Currently, there are no plans to do this in a systematic manner

  15. Contribution of large-scale midlatitude disturbances to hourly precipitation extremes in the United States (United States)

    Barbero, Renaud; Abatzoglou, John T.; Fowler, Hayley J.


    Midlatitude synoptic weather regimes account for a substantial portion of annual precipitation accumulation as well as multi-day precipitation extremes across parts of the United States (US). However, little attention has been devoted to understanding how synoptic-scale patterns contribute to hourly precipitation extremes. A majority of 1-h annual maximum precipitation (AMP) across the western US were found to be linked to two coherent midlatitude synoptic patterns: disturbances propagating along the jet stream, and cutoff upper-level lows. The influence of these two patterns on 1-h AMP varies geographically. Over 95% of 1-h AMP along the western coastal US were coincident with progressive midlatitude waves embedded within the jet stream, while over 30% of 1-h AMP across the interior western US were coincident with cutoff lows. Between 30-60% of 1-h AMP were coincident with the jet stream across the Ohio River Valley and southeastern US, whereas a a majority of 1-h AMP over the rest of central and eastern US were not found to be associated with either midlatitude synoptic features. Composite analyses for 1-h AMP days coincident to cutoff lows and jet stream show that an anomalous moisture flux and upper-level dynamics are responsible for initiating instability and setting up an environment conducive to 1-h AMP events. While hourly precipitation extremes are generally thought to be purely convective in nature, this study shows that large-scale dynamics and baroclinic disturbances may also contribute to precipitation extremes on sub-daily timescales.

  16. Heat Convection (United States)

    Jiji, Latif M.

    Professor Jiji's broad teaching experience lead him to select the topics for this book to provide a firm foundation for convection heat transfer with emphasis on fundamentals, physical phenomena, and mathematical modelling of a wide range of engineering applications. Reflecting recent developments, this textbook is the first to include an introduction to the challenging topic of microchannels. The strong pedagogic potential of Heat Convection is enhanced by the follow ing ancillary materials: (1) Power Point lectures, (2) Problem Solutions, (3) Homework Facilitator, and, (4) Summary of Sections and Chapters.

  17. Continental Rifts (United States)

    Rosendahl, B. R.

    Continental Rifts, edited by A. M. Quennell, is a new member of the Benchmark Papers in Geology Series, edited in toto by R. W. Fairbridge. In this series the individual volume editors peruse the literature on a given topic, select a few dozen papers of ostensibly benchmark quality, and then reorder them in some sensible fashion. Some of the original papers are republished intact, but many are chopped into “McNuggets™” of information. Depending upon the volume editor, the chopping process can range from a butchering job to careful and prudent pruning. The collecting, sifting, and reorganizing tasks are, of course, equally editor-sensitive. The end product of this series is something akin to a set of Reader's Digest of Geology.

  18. Continental divide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, F.J.


    The historical precedents to the idea of continent-wide diversion of water in North America are reviewed, starting from early perceptions of continental drainage and the era of canal building that reached its peak in the mid-1800s. The attitude that natural landscapes can be rearranged to suit human needs has persisted from that era with the proposal for continent-wide water diversion megaprojects, many involving the movement of water from Canada to the southwestern USA. Over 50 water diversions exist in Canada, with a total diverted flow of 4,400 m 3 /s. The density of interconnected and almost-connected lakes and rivers has favored such diversions. Of these diversions, 95% of their storage capacity and 96% of their flow is for hydroelectric power generation. The number of diversions in the USA is similar but water volumes are only a sixth of those in Canada, and the water is mainly used for irrigation or water supply. Experience in both countries shows that diversions are contained by political boundaries. No large-scale diversion of fresh water across the international boundary has received any government support, and no significant change in this policy is anticipated. In the water-short areas of the USA, conservation and reallocation of water resources are receiving priority. 19 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Satellite Simulator database is available for several campaigns: Light Precipitation Evaluation Experiment (LPVEX), Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds...


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Satellite Simulator database is available for several campaigns: Light Precipitation Evaluation Experiment (LPVEX), Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds...


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Satellite Simulator database is available for several campaigns: Light Precipitation Evaluation Experiment (LPVEX), Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds...


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Satellite Simulator database is available for several campaigns: Light Precipitation Evaluation Experiment (LPVEX), Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds...

  3. Classification of Arctic, midlatitude and tropical clouds in the mixed-phase temperature regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Costa


    Full Text Available The degree of glaciation of mixed-phase clouds constitutes one of the largest uncertainties in climate prediction. In order to better understand cloud glaciation, cloud spectrometer observations are presented in this paper, which were made in the mixed-phase temperature regime between 0 and −38 °C (273 to 235 K, where cloud particles can either be frozen or liquid. The extensive data set covers four airborne field campaigns providing a total of 139 000 1 Hz data points (38.6 h within clouds over Arctic, midlatitude and tropical regions. We develop algorithms, combining the information on number concentration, size and asphericity of the observed cloud particles to classify four cloud types: liquid clouds, clouds in which liquid droplets and ice crystals coexist, fully glaciated clouds after the Wegener–Bergeron–Findeisen process and clouds where secondary ice formation occurred. We quantify the occurrence of these cloud groups depending on the geographical region and temperature and find that liquid clouds dominate our measurements during the Arctic spring, while clouds dominated by the Wegener–Bergeron–Findeisen process are most common in midlatitude spring. The coexistence of liquid water and ice crystals is found over the whole mixed-phase temperature range in tropical convective towers in the dry season. Secondary ice is found at midlatitudes at −5 to −10 °C (268 to 263 K and at higher altitudes, i.e. lower temperatures in the tropics. The distribution of the cloud types with decreasing temperature is shown to be consistent with the theory of evolution of mixed-phase clouds. With this study, we aim to contribute to a large statistical database on cloud types in the mixed-phase temperature regime.

  4. Classification of Arctic, midlatitude and tropical clouds in the mixed-phase temperature regime (United States)

    Costa, Anja; Meyer, Jessica; Afchine, Armin; Luebke, Anna; Günther, Gebhard; Dorsey, James R.; Gallagher, Martin W.; Ehrlich, Andre; Wendisch, Manfred; Baumgardner, Darrel; Wex, Heike; Krämer, Martina


    The degree of glaciation of mixed-phase clouds constitutes one of the largest uncertainties in climate prediction. In order to better understand cloud glaciation, cloud spectrometer observations are presented in this paper, which were made in the mixed-phase temperature regime between 0 and -38 °C (273 to 235 K), where cloud particles can either be frozen or liquid. The extensive data set covers four airborne field campaigns providing a total of 139 000 1 Hz data points (38.6 h within clouds) over Arctic, midlatitude and tropical regions. We develop algorithms, combining the information on number concentration, size and asphericity of the observed cloud particles to classify four cloud types: liquid clouds, clouds in which liquid droplets and ice crystals coexist, fully glaciated clouds after the Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen process and clouds where secondary ice formation occurred. We quantify the occurrence of these cloud groups depending on the geographical region and temperature and find that liquid clouds dominate our measurements during the Arctic spring, while clouds dominated by the Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen process are most common in midlatitude spring. The coexistence of liquid water and ice crystals is found over the whole mixed-phase temperature range in tropical convective towers in the dry season. Secondary ice is found at midlatitudes at -5 to -10 °C (268 to 263 K) and at higher altitudes, i.e. lower temperatures in the tropics. The distribution of the cloud types with decreasing temperature is shown to be consistent with the theory of evolution of mixed-phase clouds. With this study, we aim to contribute to a large statistical database on cloud types in the mixed-phase temperature regime.

  5. National Convective Weather Diagnostic (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current convective hazards identified by the National Convective Weather Detection algorithm. The National Convective Weather Diagnostic (NCWD) is an automatically...

  6. Phenomenology of convection-parameterization closure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-I. Yano


    Full Text Available Closure is a problem of defining the convective intensity in a given parameterization. In spite of many years of efforts and progress, it is still considered an overall unresolved problem. The present article reviews this problem from phenomenological perspectives. The physical variables that may contribute in defining the convective intensity are listed, and their statistical significances identified by observational data analyses are reviewed. A possibility is discussed for identifying a correct closure hypothesis by performing a linear stability analysis of tropical convectively coupled waves with various different closure hypotheses. Various individual theoretical issues are considered from various different perspectives. The review also emphasizes that the dominant physical factors controlling convection differ between the tropics and extra-tropics, as well as between oceanic and land areas. Both observational as well as theoretical analyses, often focused on the tropics, do not necessarily lead to conclusions consistent with our operational experiences focused on midlatitudes. Though we emphasize the importance of the interplays between these observational, theoretical and operational perspectives, we also face challenges for establishing a solid research framework that is universally applicable. An energy cycle framework is suggested as such a candidate.

  7. Continental Divide Trail (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This shapefile was created to show the proximity of the Continental Divide to the Continental Divide National Scenic Trail in New Mexico. This work was done as part...

  8. A continuous and prognostic convection scheme based on buoyancy, PCMT (United States)

    Guérémy, Jean-François; Piriou, Jean-Marcel


    A new and consistent convection scheme (PCMT: Prognostic Condensates Microphysics and Transport), providing a continuous and prognostic treatment of this atmospheric process, is described. The main concept ensuring the consistency of the whole system is the buoyancy, key element of any vertical motion. The buoyancy constitutes the forcing term of the convective vertical velocity, which is then used to define the triggering condition, the mass flux, and the rates of entrainment-detrainment. The buoyancy is also used in its vertically integrated form (CAPE) to determine the closure condition. The continuous treatment of convection, from dry thermals to deep precipitating convection, is achieved with the help of a continuous formulation of the entrainment-detrainment rates (depending on the convective vertical velocity) and of the CAPE relaxation time (depending on the convective over-turning time). The convective tendencies are directly expressed in terms of condensation and transport. Finally, the convective vertical velocity and condensates are fully prognostic, the latter being treated using the same microphysics scheme as for the resolved condensates but considering the convective environment. A Single Column Model (SCM) validation of this scheme is shown, allowing detailed comparisons with observed and explicitly simulated data. Four cases covering the convective spectrum are considered: over ocean, sensitivity to environmental moisture (S. Derbyshire) non precipitating shallow convection to deep precipitating convection, trade wind shallow convection (BOMEX) and strato-cumulus (FIRE), together with an entire continental diurnal cycle of convection (ARM). The emphasis is put on the characteristics of the scheme which enable a continuous treatment of convection. Then, a 3D LAM validation is presented considering an AMMA case with both observations and a CRM simulation using the same initial and lateral conditions as for the parameterized one. Finally, global

  9. New results on the mid-latitude midnight temperature maximum (United States)

    Mesquita, Rafael L. A.; Meriwether, John W.; Makela, Jonathan J.; Fisher, Daniel J.; Harding, Brian J.; Sanders, Samuel C.; Tesema, Fasil; Ridley, Aaron J.


    Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) measurements of thermospheric temperatures and winds show the detection and successful determination of the latitudinal distribution of the midnight temperature maximum (MTM) in the continental mid-eastern United States. These results were obtained through the operation of the five FPI observatories in the North American Thermosphere Ionosphere Observing Network (NATION) located at the Pisgah Astronomic Research Institute (PAR) (35.2° N, 82.8° W), Virginia Tech (VTI) (37.2° N, 80.4° W), Eastern Kentucky University (EKU) (37.8° N, 84.3° W), Urbana-Champaign (UAO) (40.2° N, 88.2° W), and Ann Arbor (ANN) (42.3° N, 83.8° W). A new approach for analyzing the MTM phenomenon is developed, which features the combination of a method of harmonic thermal background removal followed by a 2-D inversion algorithm to generate sequential 2-D temperature residual maps at 30 min intervals. The simultaneous study of the temperature data from these FPI stations represents a novel analysis of the MTM and its large-scale latitudinal and longitudinal structure. The major finding in examining these maps is the frequent detection of a secondary MTM peak occurring during the early evening hours, nearly 4.5 h prior to the timing of the primary MTM peak that generally appears after midnight. The analysis of these observations shows a strong night-to-night variability for this double-peaked MTM structure. A statistical study of the behavior of the MTM events was carried out to determine the extent of this variability with regard to the seasonal and latitudinal dependence. The results show the presence of the MTM peak(s) in 106 out of the 472 determinable nights (when the MTM presence, or lack thereof, can be determined with certainty in the data set) selected for analysis (22 %) out of the total of 846 nights available. The MTM feature is seen to appear slightly more often during the summer (27 %), followed by fall (22 %), winter (20 %), and spring

  10. An assessment of the Jenkinson and Collison synoptic classification to a continental mid-latitude location (United States)

    Spellman, Greg


    A weather-type catalogue based on the Jenkinson and Collison method was developed for an area in south-west Russia for the period 1961-2010. Gridded sea level pressure data was obtained from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) reanalysis. The resulting catalogue was analysed for frequency of individual types and groups of weather types to characterise long-term atmospheric circulation in this region. Overall, the most frequent type is anticyclonic (A) (23.3 %) followed by cyclonic (C) (11.9 %); however, there are some key seasonal patterns with westerly circulation being significantly more common in winter than summer. The utility of this synoptic classification is evaluated by modelling daily rainfall amounts. A low level of error is found using a simple model based on the prevailing weather type. Finally, characteristics of the circulation classification are compared to those for the original JC British Isles catalogue and a much more equal distribution of flow types is seen in the former classification.

  11. Development of a parameterization scheme of mesoscale convective systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotton, W.R.


    The goal of this research is to develop a parameterization scheme of mesoscale convective systems (MCS) including diabatic heating, moisture and momentum transports, cloud formation, and precipitation. The approach is to: Perform explicit cloud-resolving simulation of MCSs; Perform statistical analyses of simulated MCSs to assist in fabricating a parameterization, calibrating coefficients, etc.; Test the parameterization scheme against independent field data measurements and in numerical weather prediction (NWP) models emulating general circulation model (GCM) grid resolution. Thus far we have formulated, calibrated, implemented and tested a deep convective engine against explicit Florida sea breeze convection and in coarse-grid regional simulations of mid-latitude and tropical MCSs. Several explicit simulations of MCSs have been completed, and several other are in progress. Analysis code is being written and run on the explicitly simulated data

  12. Midlatitude Storm Potential in a Changing Climate (United States)

    Seeley, J.; Romps, D. M.


    The effect of climate change on severe weather over the continental U.S. is calculated using CMIP5 output from ten GCMs. The potential for severe weather is evaluated in these models using an operational proxy of CAPE times shear; the calculation of CAPE is made possible by the presence of high-frequency data in the CMIP5 archive that was not available in CMIP3. First, the ability of each GCM to replicate modern-day distributions of CAPE and shear is assessed. It is found that the GCMs replicate the observed seasonal cycle of CAPE with reasonable fidelity, but a majority of the GCMs show an erroneous summertime CAPE maximum on the East Coast. The source of this persistent bias is explored. Second, the predicted changes in future severe-storm potential over the continental U.S. are evaluated using the RCP4.5 emissions scenario. The seasonal cycle of domain-averaged undilute CAPE over CONUS for 10 GCMs and radiosonde measurements. Data is averaged over the recent past ("RP") period of 1999-2008. Summertime (JJA) climatologies of CAPE over CONUS for 10 GCMs and radiosonde observations. Data is averaged over the recent past ("RP") period of 1999-2008. Six of the models show an erroneous CAPE maximum on the East Coast.

  13. The continental lithosphere: a geochemical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkesworth, C.J.; Person, G.; Turner, S.P.; Calsteren, P. Van; Gallagher, K.


    The lithosphere is the cool strong outler layer of the Earth that is effectively a boundary layer to the convecting interior. The evidence from mantle xenoliths and continental basalts is that the lower continental crust and uppermost mantle are different beneath Archaen and proterozoic areas. Mantle xenoliths from Archaen terrains, principally the Kaapvaal craton in southern Africa, are significantly depleted in Fe and other major elements which are concentrated in basalts. Nd and Os isotope data on inclusions in diamonds and peridoties respectively, indicate that such mantle is as old as the overlying Archaen crust. Since it appears to have been coupled to the overlying crust, and to have been isolated from the homogenising effects of convection for long periods of time, it is inferred to be within the continental lithosphere. The mantle lithosphere beneath Proterozoic and younger areas is less depleted in major elements, and so it is more fertile, less buoyant, and therefore thinner, than the Archaen mantle lithosphere. (author). 136 refs, 14 figs

  14. The importance of moisture distribution for the growth and energetics of mid-latitude systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Pavan


    Full Text Available A primitive equation model is used to study the sensitivity of baroclinic wave life cycles to the initial latitude-height distribution of humidity. Diabatic heating is parametrized only as a consequence of condensation in regions of large-scale ascent. Experiments are performed in which the initial relative humidity is a simple function of model level, and in some cases latitude bands are specified which are initially relatively dry. It is found that the presence of moisture can either increase or decrease the peak eddy kinetic energy of the developing wave, depending on the initial moisture distribution. A relative abundance of moisture at mid-latitudes tends to weaken the wave, while a relative abundance at low latitudes tends to strengthen it. This sensitivity exists because competing processes are at work. These processes are described in terms of energy box diagnostics. The most realistic case lies on the cusp of this sensitivity. Further physical parametrizations are then added, including surface fluxes and upright moist convection. These have the effect of increasing wave amplitude, but the sensitivity to initial conditions of relative humidity remains. Finally, 'control' and 'doubled CO2' life cycles are performed, with initial conditions taken from the time-mean zonal-mean output of equilibrium GCM experiments. The attenuation of the wave resulting from reduced baroclinicity is more pronounced than any effect due to changes in initial moisture.Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (climatology; convective processes; synoptic-scale meteorology

  15. National Convective Weather Forecast (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NCWF is an automatically generated depiction of: (1) current convection and (2) extrapolated signficant current convection. It is a supplement to, but does NOT...

  16. Deep continental margin reflectors (United States)

    Ewing, J.; Heirtzler, J.; Purdy, M.; Klitgord, Kim D.


    In contrast to the rarity of such observations a decade ago, seismic reflecting and refracting horizons are now being observed to Moho depths under continental shelves in a number of places. These observations provide knowledge of the entire crustal thickness from the shoreline to the oceanic crust on passive margins and supplement Consortium for Continental Reflection Profiling (COCORP)-type measurements on land.

  17. Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances Observed by Midlatitude SuperDARN Radars (United States)

    Frissell, N. A.; Baker, J. B.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.; West, M. L.; Bristow, W. A.


    Medium Scale Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances (MSTIDs) are wave-like perturbations of the F-region ionosphere with horizontal wavelengths on the order of 100-250 km and periods between ~15 - 60 min, and are generally thought to be the ionospheric manifestation of Atmospheric Gravity Waves (AGWs). High-latitude MSTIDs have been studied using SuperDARN radars since 1989, and are typically attributed to auroral sources and propagated by the Earth Reflected Wave (ERW) mode. Tropospheric sources and earthquakes are also known to be sources of MSTIDs. Observations of MSTIDs using both mid- and high- latitude SuperDARN radars are presented. North American radar data from November 2010 - November 2011 were searched for signatures of MSTIDs. Initial results suggest that MSTIDs are observed at high latitudes primarily in the fall/winter months, which is consistent with published results. This search also reveals that mid-latitude MSTIDs often appear concurrently with high-latitude MSTIDs and share similar wave parameters. During the fall/winter months, SuperDARN mid-latitude MSTIDs appear more often than high-latitude MSTIDs, likely due to calmer ionospheric conditions at mid-latitudes. In the springtime, SuperDARN-observed MSTIDs are less likely to be seen at high-latitudes, but still appear at mid-latitudes. Selected events are analyzed for wave parameters using the Multiple Signal Classification (MUSIC) technique.

  18. Winter- and summertime continental influences on tropospheric O3 and CO observed by TES over the western North Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Talbot


    Full Text Available The distributions of tropospheric ozone (O3 and carbon monoxide (CO, and the synoptic factors regulating these distributions over the western North Atlantic Ocean during winter and summer were investigated using profile retrievals from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES for 2004–2006. Seasonal composites of TES retrievals, reprocessed to remove the influence of the a priori on geographical and seasonal structure, exhibited strong seasonal differences. At the 681 hPa level during winter months of December, January and February (DJF the composite O3 mixing ratios were uniformly low (~45 ppbv, but continental export was evident in a channel of enhanced CO (100–110 ppbv flowing eastward from the US coast. In summer months June, July, and August (JJA O3 mixing ratios were variable (45–65 ppbv and generally higher due to increased photochemical production. The summer distribution also featured a channel of enhanced CO (95–105 ppbv flowing northeastward around an anticyclone and exiting the continent over the Canadian Maritimes around 50° N. Offshore O3-CO slopes were generally 0.15–0.20 mol mol−1 in JJA, indicative of photochemical O3 production. Composites for 4 predominant synoptic patterns or map types in DJF suggested that export to the lower free troposphere (681 hPa level was enhanced by the warm conveyor belt airstream of mid-latitude cyclones while stratospheric intrusions increased TES O3 levels at 316 hPa. A major finding in the DJF data was that offshore 681 hPa CO mixing ratios behind cold fronts could be enhanced up to >150 ppbv likely by lofting from the surface via shallow convection resulting from rapid destabilization of cold air flowing over much warmer ocean waters. In JJA composites for 3 map types showed that the general export pattern of the seasonal composites was associated with a synoptic pattern featuring the Bermuda High. However, weak cyclones and frontal troughs could enhance offshore 681 hPa CO

  19. Interactions between tropical cyclones and mid-latitude systems in the Northeastern Pacific (United States)

    Lugo, A.; Abarca, S. F.; Raga, G. B.; Vargas, D. C.


    Major challenges in tropical meteorology include the short-term forecast of tropical cyclone (TC) intensity, which is defined as the maximum tangential wind. Several efforts have been made in order to reach this goal over the last decade: Among these efforts, the study of lightning in the TC inner core (the region inside a disc of 100 km radius from the center) as a proxy to deep convection, has the potential to be used as a predictor to forecast intensity (DeMaria et al, 2012, Mon. Wea. Rev., 140, 1828-1842).While most studies focus their objectives in studying the lightning flash density in the inner core, we study the probability of flash occurrence for intensifying and weakening cyclones. We have analyzed the trajectories of the observed 62 tropical cyclones that developed in the basin from 2006 to 2009, and classified them into separate clusters according to their trajectories. These clusters can broadly be described as having trajectories mostly oriented: East-West, towards the central Pacific, NW far from the Mexican coast, parallel to the Mexican coast and recurving towards the Mexican coast.We estimate that probability of inner core lightning occurrence increases as cyclones intensify but the probability rapidly decrease as the systems weaken. This is valid for cyclones in most of the clusters. However, the cyclones that exhibit trajectories that recurve towards the Mexican coast, do not present the same relationship between intensity and inner-core lightning probability, these cyclones show little or no decrease in the lightning occurrence probability as they weaken.We hypothesize that one of the reasons for this anomalous behavior is likely the fact that these cyclones interact with mid-latitude systems. Mid-latitude systems are important in determining the recurving trajectory but they may also influence the TC by advecting mid-level moisture towards the TC inner core. This additional supply of moisture as the system is approaching land may enhance deep

  20. Retrievals of Ice Cloud Microphysical Properties of Deep Convective Systems using Radar Measurements (United States)

    Tian, J.; Dong, X.; Xi, B.; Wang, J.; Homeyer, C. R.


    This study presents innovative algorithms for retrieving ice cloud microphysical properties of Deep Convective Systems (DCSs) using Next-Generation Radar (NEXRAD) reflectivity and newly derived empirical relationships from aircraft in situ measurements in Wang et al. (2015) during the Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E). With composite gridded NEXRAD radar reflectivity, four-dimensional (space-time) ice cloud microphysical properties of DCSs are retrieved, which is not possible from either in situ sampling at a single altitude or from vertical pointing radar measurements. For this study, aircraft in situ measurements provide the best-estimated ice cloud microphysical properties for validating the radar retrievals. Two statistical comparisons between retrieved and aircraft in situ measured ice microphysical properties are conducted from six selected cases during MC3E. For the temporal-averaged method, the averaged ice water content (IWC) and median mass diameter (Dm) from aircraft in situ measurements are 0.50 g m-3 and 1.51 mm, while the retrievals from radar reflectivity have negative biases of 0.12 g m-3 (24%) and 0.02 mm (1.3%) with correlations of 0.71 and 0.48, respectively. For the spatial-averaged method, the IWC retrievals are closer to the aircraft results (0.51 vs. 0.47 g m-3) with a positive bias of 8.5%, whereas the Dm retrievals are larger than the aircraft results (1.65 mm vs. 1.51 mm) with a positive bias of 9.3%. The retrieved IWCs decrease from ~0.6 g m-3 at 5 km to ~0.15 g m-3 at 13 km, and Dm values decrease from ~2 mm to ~0.7 mm at the same levels. In general, the aircraft in situ measured IWC and Dm values at each level are within one standard derivation of retrieved properties. Good agreements between microphysical properties measured from aircraft and retrieved from radar reflectivity measurements indicate the reasonable accuracy of our retrievals.

  1. Formation of continental crust by intrusive magmatism (United States)

    Rozel, A. B.; Golabek, G. J.; Jain, C.; Tackley, P. J.; Gerya, T.


    How were the continents formed in the Earth? No global numerical simulation of our planet ever managed to generate continental material self-consistently. In the present study, we show that the latest developments of the convection code StagYY enable to estimate how to produce the early continents, more than 3 billion years ago. In our models, melting of pyrolitic rocks generates a basaltic melt and leaves behind a depleted solid residue (a harzburgite). The melt generated in the mantle is transported to the surface. Only basaltic rocks melting again can generate continental crust. Should the basaltic melt always reach the open air and cool down? Should the melt be intruded warm in the pre-existing crust? The present study shows that both processes have to be considered to produce continents. Indeed, granitoids can only be created in a tight window of pressure-temperature. If all basalt is quickly cooled by surface volcanism, the lithosphere will be too cold. If all basalt is intruded warm below the crust then the lithosphere will be too warm. The key is to have both volcanism and plutonism (intrusive magmatism) to reach the optimal temperature and form massive volumes of continental material.

  2. The importance of moisture distribution for the growth and energetics of mid-latitude systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Pavan

    Full Text Available A primitive equation model is used to study the sensitivity of baroclinic wave life cycles to the initial latitude-height distribution of humidity. Diabatic heating is parametrized only as a consequence of condensation in regions of large-scale ascent. Experiments are performed in which the initial relative humidity is a simple function of model level, and in some cases latitude bands are specified which are initially relatively dry. It is found that the presence of moisture can either increase or decrease the peak eddy kinetic energy of the developing wave, depending on the initial moisture distribution. A relative abundance of moisture at mid-latitudes tends to weaken the wave, while a relative abundance at low latitudes tends to strengthen it. This sensitivity exists because competing processes are at work. These processes are described in terms of energy box diagnostics. The most realistic case lies on the cusp of this sensitivity. Further physical parametrizations are then added, including surface fluxes and upright moist convection. These have the effect of increasing wave amplitude, but the sensitivity to initial conditions of relative humidity remains. Finally, 'control' and 'doubled CO2' life cycles are performed, with initial conditions taken from the time-mean zonal-mean output of equilibrium GCM experiments. The attenuation of the wave resulting from reduced baroclinicity is more pronounced than any effect due to changes in initial moisture.

    Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (climatology; convective processes; synoptic-scale meteorology

  3. MANGO Imager Network Observations of Geomagnetic Storm Impact on Midlatitude 630 nm Airglow Emissions (United States)

    Kendall, E. A.; Bhatt, A.


    The Midlatitude Allsky-imaging Network for GeoSpace Observations (MANGO) is a network of imagers filtered at 630 nm spread across the continental United States. MANGO is used to image large-scale airglow and aurora features and observes the generation, propagation, and dissipation of medium and large-scale wave activity in the subauroral, mid and low-latitude thermosphere. This network consists of seven all-sky imagers providing continuous coverage over the United States and extending south into Mexico. This network sees high levels of medium and large scale wave activity due to both neutral and geomagnetic storm forcing. The geomagnetic storm observations largely fall into two categories: Stable Auroral Red (SAR) arcs and Large-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (LSTIDs). In addition, less-often observed effects include anomalous airglow brightening, bright swirls, and frozen-in traveling structures. We will present an analysis of multiple events observed over four years of MANGO network operation. We will provide both statistics on the cumulative observations and a case study of the "Memorial Day Storm" on May 27, 2017.

  4. Observation of Intensified Lower Hybrid Noise in the Midlatitude Ionosphere

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Parrot, M.; Santolík, Ondřej; Brochot, J.; Y.; Berthelier, J. J.


    Roč. 36, č. 4 (2008), s. 1164-1165 ISSN 0093-3813 Grant - others:CNRS/DREI(FR) PICS Grant 3725 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : lower hybrid frequency * midlatitude ionosphere * DEMETER spacecraft Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.447, year: 2008

  5. Balanced and Unbalanced Circulations in a Primitive Equation Simulation of a Midlatitude MCC. Part I: The Numerical Simulation. (United States)

    Olsson, Peter Q.; Cotton, William R.


    A midlatitude mesoscale convective complex (MCC), which occurred over the central United States on 23-24 June 1985, was simulated using the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS). The multiply nested-grid simulation agreed reasonably well with surface, upper-air, and satellite observations and ground-based radar plots. The simulated MCC had a typical structure consisting of a leading line of vigorous convection and a trailing region of less intense stratiform rainfall. Several other characteristic MCC circulations were also simulated: a divergent cold pool in the lower troposphere, midlevel convergence coupled with a relatively cool descending rear-inflow jet, and relatively warm updraft structure, and a cold divergent anticyclone in the tropopause region. Early in the MCC simulation, a mesoscale convectively induced vortex (MCV) formed on the eastern edge of the convective line. While frequently associated with MCCs and other mesoscale convective systems (MCSs), MCVs are more typically reported in the mature and decaying stages of the life cycle. Several hours later, a second MCV formed near the opposite end of the convective line, and by the mature phase of the MCC, these MCVs were embedded within a more complex system-wide vortical flow in the lower troposphere.Analysis of the first MCV during its incipient phase indicates that the vortex initially formed near the surface by convergence/stretching of the large low-level ambient vertical vorticity in this region. Vertical advection appeared largely responsible for the upward extension of this MCV to about 3.5 km above the surface, with tilting of horizontal vorticity playing a secondary role. This mechanism of MCV formation is in contrast to recent idealized high-resolution squall line simulations, where MCVs were found to result from the tilting into the vertical of storm-induced horizontal vorticity formed near the top of the cold pool.Another interesting aspect of the simulation was the development of a

  6. Mid-latitude afforestation shifts general circulation and tropical precipitation. (United States)

    Swann, Abigail L S; Fung, Inez Y; Chiang, John C H


    We show in climate model experiments that large-scale afforestation in northern mid-latitudes warms the Northern Hemisphere and alters global circulation patterns. An expansion of dark forests increases the absorption of solar energy and increases surface temperature, particularly in regions where the land surface is unable to compensate with latent heat flux due to water limitation. Atmospheric circulation redistributes the anomalous energy absorbed in the northern hemisphere, in particular toward the south, through altering the Hadley circulation, resulting in the northward displacement of the tropical rain bands. Precipitation decreases over parts of the Amazon basin affecting productivity and increases over the Sahel and Sahara regions in Africa. We find that the response of climate to afforestation in mid-latitudes is determined by the amount of soil moisture available to plants with the greatest warming found in water-limited regions. Mid-latitude afforestation is found to have a small impact on modeled global temperatures and on global CO(2), but regional heating from the increase in forest cover is capable of driving unintended changes in circulation and precipitation. The ability of vegetation to affect remote circulation has implications for strategies for climate mitigation.

  7. Rocket measurements of energetic particles in the midlatitude precipitation zone (United States)

    Voss, H. D.; Smith, L. G.; Braswell, F. M.


    Measurements of energetic ion and electron properties as a function of altitude in the midlatitude zone of nighttime energetic particle precipitation are reported. The measurements of particle fluxes, energy spectra and pitch angle distributions were obtained by a Langmuir probe, six energetic particle spectrometers and an electrostatic analyzer on board a Nike Apache rocket launched near the center of the midlatitude zone during disturbed conditions. It is found that the incident flux was primarily absorbed rather than backscattered, and consists of mainly energetic hydrogen together with some helium and a small energetic electron component. Observed differential energy spectra of protons having an exponential energy spectrum, and pitch angle distributions at various altitudes indicate that the energetic particle flux decreases rapidly for pitch angles less than 70 deg. An energetic particle energy flux of 0.002 ergs/sq cm per sec is calculated which indicates the significance of energetic particles as a primary nighttime ionization source for altitudes between 120 and 200 km in the midlatitude precipitation zone.

  8. The Next-Generation Goddard Convective-Stratiform Heating Algorithm: Addressing Higher Latitude, Cold Season, and Synoptic Systems (United States)

    Wu, D.; Tao, W. K.; Lang, S. E.


    The Goddard Convective-Stratiform Heating (or CSH) algorithm is used to retrieve estimates of cloud heating over the global Tropics using TRMM rainfall data and a set of look-up-tables (LUTs) derived from a series of multi-week cloud-resolving model (CRM) simulations using the Goddard Cumulus Ensemble model (or GCE). These simulations link satellite observables (i.e., surface rainfall and stratiform fraction) with cloud heating profiles, which are not directly observable. The current CSH LUTs are differentiated with respect to surface rainfall characteristics, which is effective for tropical and continental summertime environments. However, with the launch of GPM in 2014, the range over which such algorithms can be applied has been extended from the Tropics and mid-latitudes to higher latitudes, including cold season and synoptic weather systems. Accordingly, the CSH algorithm and LUTs need to be updated for higher latitude events. In this study, NU-WRF was employed at 1 km to simulate winter systems in the US. A, new methodology has been adopted to construct LUTs utilizing satellite-observable 3D intensity fields, such as radar reflectivity. The new methodology/LUTs can be then applied to simulated radar fields to derive cloud heating for comparison against the model simulated heating. The model heating is treated as the `truth' as it is self-consistent with the simulated radar fields. This `consistency check' approach is a common well-established first step in algorithm development (e.g., the earlier CSH). The LUTs will be improved by iterating the consistency checks to quantitatively evaluate the similarities between the retrieved and simulated heating. The evaluations will be performed for different weather events, including northeast winter storms and atmospheric rivers.

  9. Continental Mathematics League. (United States)

    Quartararo, Joseph


    This article describes the activities of the Continental Mathematics League, which offers a series of meets for children in grades 3 though 9. In addition, a Calculus League and a Computer Contest are offered. The league allows schools to participate by mail so that rural schools can participate. (CR)

  10. Observing Convective Aggregation (United States)

    Holloway, Christopher E.; Wing, Allison A.; Bony, Sandrine; Muller, Caroline; Masunaga, Hirohiko; L'Ecuyer, Tristan S.; Turner, David D.; Zuidema, Paquita


    Convective self-aggregation, the spontaneous organization of initially scattered convection into isolated convective clusters despite spatially homogeneous boundary conditions and forcing, was first recognized and studied in idealized numerical simulations. While there is a rich history of observational work on convective clustering and organization, there have been only a few studies that have analyzed observations to look specifically for processes related to self-aggregation in models. Here we review observational work in both of these categories and motivate the need for more of this work. We acknowledge that self-aggregation may appear to be far-removed from observed convective organization in terms of time scales, initial conditions, initiation processes, and mean state extremes, but we argue that these differences vary greatly across the diverse range of model simulations in the literature and that these comparisons are already offering important insights into real tropical phenomena. Some preliminary new findings are presented, including results showing that a self-aggregation simulation with square geometry has too broad distribution of humidity and is too dry in the driest regions when compared with radiosonde records from Nauru, while an elongated channel simulation has realistic representations of atmospheric humidity and its variability. We discuss recent work increasing our understanding of how organized convection and climate change may interact, and how model discrepancies related to this question are prompting interest in observational comparisons. We also propose possible future directions for observational work related to convective aggregation, including novel satellite approaches and a ground-based observational network.

  11. Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data represents geographic terms used within the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act (OCSLA or Act). The Act defines the United States outer continental shelf...

  12. Scaling of Convection and Plate Tectonics in Super-Earths (United States)

    Valencia, D. C.; O'Connell, R. J.; Sasselov, D. D.


    The discovery of three Super-Earths around different stars, possible only in the last year, prompts us to study the characteristics of our planet within a general context. The Earth, being the most massive terrestrial object in the solar system is the only planet that exhibits plate tectonics. We think this might not be a coincidence and explore the role that mass plays in determining the mode of convection. We use the scaling of convective vigor with Rayleigh number commonly used in parameterized convection. We study how the parameters controlling convection: Rayleigh number (Ra), boundary layer thickness (δ), internal temperature (T_i) and convective velocities (u) scale with mass. This is possible from the scaling of heat flux, mantle density, size and gravity with mass which we reported in Valencia, et. al 2006. The extrapolation to massive rocky planets is done from our knowledge of the Earth. Even though uncertainties arise from extrapolation and assumptions are needed we consider this simple scaling to be a first adequate step. As the mass of a planet increases, Ra increases, yielding a decrease in δ and an increase in u, while T_i increases very slightly. This is true for an isoviscous case and is more accentuated in a temperature dependent viscosity scenario. In a planet with vigorous convection (high u), a thin lithosphere (low δ) is easier to subduct and hence, initiate plate tectonics. The lithosphere also has to be dense enough (cold and thick) to have the bouyancy necessary for subduction. We calculate that a convective cycle for an isoviscous planet is τ ~ M^{-0.3} considering whole mantle convection. Meaning that if these planets have continents, the timescale for continental rearrangement is shorter (about half the Earth's for a 5 earth-mass planet). Additionally, we explore the negative feedback cycle between convection and temperature dependent viscosity and estimate a timescale for this effect.

  13. Convective heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Kakac, Sadik; Pramuanjaroenkij, Anchasa


    Intended for readers who have taken a basic heat transfer course and have a basic knowledge of thermodynamics, heat transfer, fluid mechanics, and differential equations, Convective Heat Transfer, Third Edition provides an overview of phenomenological convective heat transfer. This book combines applications of engineering with the basic concepts of convection. It offers a clear and balanced presentation of essential topics using both traditional and numerical methods. The text addresses emerging science and technology matters, and highlights biomedical applications and energy technologies. What’s New in the Third Edition: Includes updated chapters and two new chapters on heat transfer in microchannels and heat transfer with nanofluids Expands problem sets and introduces new correlations and solved examples Provides more coverage of numerical/computer methods The third edition details the new research areas of heat transfer in microchannels and the enhancement of convective heat transfer with nanofluids....

  14. Stochastic excitation of low frequency variability in the midlatitude atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioannou, P.J.; Farrell, B.F.


    Spectral analysis of the transient geopotential variance of the midlatitude atmosphere reveals a sharp peak in the wavenumber-period spectra concentrated at large scales (zonal wave numbers m 10 days). This is surprising because conventional baroclinic instability calculations predict a broad maximum of the variance at synoptic scale (8 < m < 12) with associated period of a few days. In this work we review the method for calculating the maintained variance and associated fluxes and then discuss some results pertaining to the interpretation of the EOF's which arise from the stochastic dynamics of non-normal dynamical systems

  15. The Myanmar continental shelf

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaswamy, V.; Rao, P.S.

    reveal a minimum of 18 m thick strata of modern muds (Fig. 2g). At the outer boundary of the Gulf of Myanmar Continental Shelf 8 Martaban (15oN Latitude), brown muds overlie coarse sands indicating that modern deltaic sediments... on the Myeik Bank (Rodolfo, 1969a). Modern sediments on the Ayeyarwady shelf General composition, Texture and Grain-size: The distribution and sediment texture on the Ayeyarwady shelf shows fine-grained sediments comprising silty-clay and clayey...

  16. Arctic-midlatitude weather linkages in North America (United States)

    Overland, James E.; Wang, Muyin


    There is intense public interest in whether major Arctic changes can and will impact midlatitude weather such as cold air outbreaks on the central and east side of continents. Although there is progress in linkage research for eastern Asia, a clear gap is conformation for North America. We show two stationary temperature/geopotential height patterns where warmer Arctic temperatures have reinforced existing tropospheric jet stream wave amplitudes over North America: a Greenland/Baffin Block pattern during December 2010 and an Alaska Ridge pattern during December 2017. Even with continuing Arctic warming over the past decade, other recent eastern US winter months were less susceptible for an Arctic linkage: the jet stream was represented by either zonal flow, progressive weather systems, or unfavorable phasing of the long wave pattern. The present analysis lays the scientific controversy over the validity of linkages to the inherent intermittency of jet stream dynamics, which provides only an occasional bridge between Arctic thermodynamic forcing and extended midlatitude weather events.

  17. Continental outflow from the US to the upper troposphere over the North Atlantic during the NASA INTEX-NA Airborne Campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Y. Kim


    Full Text Available A case of continental outflow from the United States (US was examined using airborne measurements from NASA DC-8 flight 13 during the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment – North America (INTEX-NA. Mixing ratios of methane (CH4 and carbon monoxide (CO at 8–11 km altitude over the North Atlantic were elevated to 1843 ppbv and 134 ppbv respectively, while those of carbon dioxide (CO2 and carbonyl sulfide (COS were reduced to 372.4 ppmv and 411 pptv respectively. In this region, urban and industrial influences were evidenced by elevated mixing ratios and good linear relationships between urban and industrial tracers compared to North Atlantic background air. Moreover, low mixing ratios and a good correlation between COS and CO2 showed a fingerprint of terrestrial uptake and minimal dilution during rapid transport over a 1–2 day time period. Analysis of synoptic conditions, backward trajectories, and photochemical aging estimates based on C3H8/C2H6 strongly suggested that elevated anthropogenic tracers in the upper troposphere of the flight region were the result of transport via convection and warm conveyor belt (WCB uplifting of boundary layer air over the southeastern US. This mechanism is supported by the similar slope values of linear correlations between long-lived (months anthropogenic tracers (e.g., C2Cl4 and CHCl3 from the flight region and the planetary boundary layer in the southeastern US. In addition, the aircraft measurements suggest that outflow from the US augmented the entire tropospheric column at mid-latitudes over the North Atlantic. Overall, the flight 13 data demonstrate a pervasive impact of US anthropogenic emissions on the troposphere over the North Atlantic.

  18. Evaluation of cloud convection and tracer transport in a three-dimensional chemical transport model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Feng


    large improvement compared to the archived mass fluxes.

    Including a radon tracer in the model confirms the importance of convection for reproducing observed midlatitude profiles. The model run using archived mass fluxes transports significantly more radon to the upper troposphere but the available data does not strongly discriminate between the different model versions.

  19. Aerosol midlatitude cyclone indirect effects in observations and high-resolution simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. T. McCoy


    Full Text Available Aerosol–cloud interactions are a major source of uncertainty in inferring the climate sensitivity from the observational record of temperature. The adjustment of clouds to aerosol is a poorly constrained aspect of these aerosol–cloud interactions. Here, we examine the response of midlatitude cyclone cloud properties to a change in cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC. Idealized experiments in high-resolution, convection-permitting global aquaplanet simulations with constant CDNC are compared to 13 years of remote-sensing observations. Observations and idealized aquaplanet simulations agree that increased warm conveyor belt (WCB moisture flux into cyclones is consistent with higher cyclone liquid water path (CLWP. When CDNC is increased a larger LWP is needed to give the same rain rate. The LWP adjusts to allow the rain rate to be equal to the moisture flux into the cyclone along the WCB. This results in an increased CLWP for higher CDNC at a fixed WCB moisture flux in both observations and simulations. If observed cyclones in the top and bottom tercile of CDNC are contrasted it is found that they have not only higher CLWP but also cloud cover and albedo. The difference in cyclone albedo between the cyclones in the top and bottom third of CDNC is observed by CERES to be between 0.018 and 0.032, which is consistent with a 4.6–8.3 Wm−2 in-cyclone enhancement in upwelling shortwave when scaled by annual-mean insolation. Based on a regression model to observed cyclone properties, roughly 60 % of the observed variability in CLWP can be explained by CDNC and WCB moisture flux.

  20. Cloud-Resolving Modeling Intercomparison Study of a Squall Line Case from MC3E - Properties of Convective Core (United States)

    Fan, J.; Han, B.; Varble, A.; Morrison, H.; North, K.; Kollias, P.; Chen, B.; Dong, X.; Giangrande, S. E.; Khain, A.; Lin, Y.; Mansell, E.; Milbrandt, J.; Stenz, R.; Thompson, G.; Wang, Y.


    The large spread in CRM model simulations of deep convection and aerosol effects on deep convective clouds (DCCs) makes it difficult to (1) further our understanding of deep convection and (2) define "benchmarks" and then limit their use in parameterization developments. A constrained model intercomparsion study on a mid-latitude mesoscale squall line is performed using the Weather Research & Forecasting (WRF) model at 1-km horizontal grid spacing with eight cloud microphysics schemes to understand specific processes that lead to the large spreads of simulated convection and precipitation. Various observational data are employed to evaluate the baseline simulations. All simulations tend to produce a wider convective area but a much narrower stratiform area. The magnitudes of virtual potential temperature drop, pressure rise, and wind speed peak associated with the passage of the gust front are significantly smaller compared with the observations, suggesting simulated cool pools are weaker. Simulations generally overestimate the vertical velocity and radar reflectivity in convective cores compared with the retrievals. The modeled updraft velocity and precipitation have a significant spread across eight schemes. The spread of updraft velocity is the combination of both low-level pressure perturbation gradient (PPG) and buoyancy. Both PPG and thermal buoyancy are small for simulations of weak convection but both are large for those of strong convection. Ice-related parameterizations contribute majorly to the spread of updraft velocity, while they are not the reason for the large spread of precipitation. The understandings gained in this study can help to focus future observations and parameterization development.

  1. Link between the Barents Oscillation and recent boreal winter cooling over the Asian midlatitudes (United States)

    Shu, Qi; Qiao, Fangli; Song, Zhenya; Song, Yajuan


    The link between boreal winter cooling over the midlatitudes of Asia and the Barents Oscillation (BO) since the late 1980s is discussed in this study, based on five datasets. Results indicate that there is a large-scale boreal winter cooling during 1990-2015 over the Asian midlatitudes, and that it is a part of the decadal oscillations of long-term surface air temperature (SAT) anomalies. The SAT anomalies over the Asian midlatitudes are significantly correlated with the BO in boreal winter. When the BO is in its positive phase, anomalously high sea level pressure over the Barents region, with a clockwise wind anomaly, causes cold air from the high latitudes to move over the midlatitudes of Asia, resulting in anomalous cold conditions in that region. Therefore, the recent increasing trend of the BO has contributed to recent winter cooling over the Asian midlatitudes.

  2. The continental waters pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsily, G. de


    This work deals with the continental water pollution. The sewage affect considerably the quality of some rivers water and of some basins. Moreover, a slow and general damage of natural waters has been established. The direct effects on men and on the natural medium (climatic change, aquatic ecosystems, water cycle) are given as well as the protection means (waste processing, the water-bearing bed and underground water protection, the aquatic ecosystems protection and planning) used and future to abate the water pollution. (O.L.). 17 refs., 6 tabs

  3. Convection and stellar oscillations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarslev, Magnus Johan


    for asteroseismology, because of the challenges inherent in modelling turbulent convection in 1D stellar models. As a result of oversimplifying the physics near the surface, theoretical calculations systematically overestimate the oscillation frequencies. This has become known as the asteroseismic surface effect. Due...... to lacking better options, this frequency difference is typically corrected for with ad-hoc formulae. The topic of this thesis is the improvement of 1D stellar convection models and the effects this has on asteroseismic properties. The source of improvements is 3D simulations of radiation...... atmospheres to replace the outer layers of stellar models. The additional turbulent pressure and asymmetrical opacity effects in the atmosphere model, compared to convection in stellar evolution models, serve to expand the atmosphere. The enlarged acoustic cavity lowers the pulsation frequencies bringing them...

  4. Active control of convection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bau, H.H. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)


    Using stability theory, numerical simulations, and in some instances experiments, it is demonstrated that the critical Rayleigh number for the bifurcation (1) from the no-motion (conduction) state to the motion state and (2) from time-independent convection to time-dependent, oscillatory convection in the thermal convection loop and Rayleigh-Benard problems can be significantly increased or decreased. This is accomplished through the use of a feedback controller effectuating small perturbations in the boundary data. The controller consists of sensors which detect deviations in the fluid`s temperature from the motionless, conductive values and then direct actuators to respond to these deviations in such a way as to suppress the naturally occurring flow instabilities. Actuators which modify the boundary`s temperature/heat flux are considered. The feedback controller can also be used to control flow patterns and generate complex dynamic behavior at relatively low Rayleigh numbers.

  5. Convective transport in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Ippolito, D.A.; Myra, J.R.; Russell, D.A.; Krasheninnikov, S.I.; Pigarov, A.Yu.; Yu, G.Q.; Xu, X.Q.; Nevins, W.M.


    Scrape-off-layer (SOL) convection in fusion experiments appears to be a universal phenomenon that can 'short-circuit' the divertor in some cases. The theory of 'blob' transport provides a simple and robust physical paradigm for studying convective transport. This paper summarizes recent advances in the theory of blob transport and its comparison with 2D and 3D computer simulations. We also discuss the common physical basis relating radial transport of blobs, pellets, and ELMs and a new blob regime that may lead to a connection between blob transport and the density limit. (author)

  6. Physics of Stellar Convection (United States)

    Arnett, W. David


    We review recent progress using numerical simulations as a testbed for development of a theory of stellar convection, much as envisaged by John von Newmann. Necessary features of the theory, non-locality and fluctuations, are illustrated by computer movies. It is found that the common approximation of convection as a diffusive process presents the wrong physical picture, and improvements are suggested. New observational results discussed at the conference are gratifying in their validation of some of our theoretical ideas, especially the idea that SNIb and SNIc events are related to the explosion of massive star cores which have been stripped by mass loss and binary interactions [1

  7. Parameterizing convective organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Earle Mapes


    Full Text Available Lateral mixing parameters in buoyancy-driven deep convection schemes are among the most sensitive and important unknowns in atmosphere models. Unfortunately, there is not a true optimum value for plume mixing rate, but rather a dilemma or tradeoff: Excessive dilution of updrafts leads to unstable stratification bias in the mean state, while inadequate dilution allows deep convection to occur too easily, causing poor space and time distributions and variability. In this too-small parameter space, compromises are made based on competing metrics of model performance. We attempt to escape this “entrainment dilemma” by making bulk plume parameters (chiefly entrainment rate depend on a new prognostic variable (“organization,” org meant to reflect the rectified effects of subgrid-scale structure in meteorological fields. We test an org scheme in the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5 with a new unified shallow-deep convection scheme (UW-ens, a 2-plume version of the University of Washington scheme. Since buoyant ascent involves natural selection, subgrid structure makes convection systematically deeper and stronger than the pure unorganized case: plumes of average (or randomly sampled air rising in the average environment. To reflect this, org is nonnegative, but we leave it dimensionless. A time scale characterizes its behavior (here ∼3 h for a 2o model. Currently its source is rain evaporation, but other sources can be added easily. We also let org be horizontally transported by advection, as a mass-weighted mean over the convecting layer. Linear coefficients link org to a plume ensemble, which it assists via: 1 plume base warmth above the mean temperature 2 plume radius enhancement (reduced mixing, and 3 increased probability of overlap in a multi-plume scheme, where interactions benefit later generations (this part has only been implemented in an offline toy column model. Since rain evaporation is a source for org, it functions as a time

  8. Mathematical models of convection

    CERN Document Server

    Andreev, Victor K; Goncharova, Olga N; Pukhnachev, Vladislav V


    Phenomena of convection are abundant in nature as well as in industry. This volume addresses the subject of convection from the point of view of both, theory and application. While the first three chapters provide a refresher on fluid dynamics and heat transfer theory, the rest of the book describes the modern developments in theory. Thus it brings the reader to the ""front"" of the modern research. This monograph provides the theoretical foundation on a topic relevant to metallurgy, ecology, meteorology, geo-and astrophysics, aerospace industry, chemistry, crystal physics, and many other fiel

  9. Convective aggregation in realistic convective-scale simulations


    Holloway, Christopher E.


    To investigate the real-world relevance of idealized-model convective self-aggregation, five 15-day cases of real organized convection in the tropics are simulated. These include multiple simulations of each case to test sensitivities of the convective organization and mean states to interactive radiation, interactive surface fluxes, and evaporation of rain. These simulations are compared to self-aggregation seen in the same model configured to run in idealized radiative-convective equilibriu...

  10. GPM SLH: Convective Latent Heating Estimated with GPM Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar Data (United States)

    Takayabu, Y. N.; Hamada, A.; Yokoyama, C.; Ikuta, Y.; Shige, S.; Yamaji, M.; Kubota, T.


    Three dimensional diabatic heating distribution plays essential roles to determine large-scale circulation, as well as to generate mesoscale circulation associated with tropical convection (e.g. Hartmann et al., 1984; Houze et al. 1982). For mid-latitude systems also, diabatic heating contributes to generate PVs resulting in, for example, explosive intensifications of mid-lattitude storms (Boettcher and Wernli, 2011). Previously, with TRMM PR data, we developed a Spectral Latent Heating algorithm (SLH; Shige et al. 2004, etc.) for 36N-36S region. It was based on the spectral LH tables produced from a simulation utilizing the Goddard Cloud Ensemble Model forced with the TOGA-COARE data. With GPM DPR, the observation region is extended to 65N-65S. Here, we introduce a new version of SLH algorithm which is applicable also to the mid-latitude precipitation. A new global GPM SLH ver.5 product is released as one of NASA/JAXA GPM standard products on July 11, 2017. For GPM SLH mid-latitude algorithm, we employ the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)'s high resolution (horizontally 2km) Local Forecast Model (LFM) to construct the LUTs. With collaborations of JMA's forecast group, forecast data for 8 extratropical cyclone cases are collected and utilized. For mid-latitude precipitation, we have to deal with large temperature gradients and complex relationship between the freezing level and cloud base levels. LUTs are constructed for LH, Q1-QR, and Q2 (Yanai et al. 1973), for six different precipitation types: Convective and shallow stratiform LUTs are made against precipitation top heights. For deep stratiform and other precipitation, LUTs are made against maximum precipitation to handle the unknown cloud-bases. Finally, three-dimensional convective latent heating is retrieved, utilizing the LUTs and precipitation profile data from GPM 2AKu. We can confirm that retrieved LH looks very similar to simulated LH, for a consistency check. We also confirm a good continuities of

  11. Trapped waves on the mid-latitude β-plane (United States)

    Paldor, Nathan; Sigalov, Andrey


    A new type of approximate solutions of the Linearized Shallow Water Equations (LSWE) on the mid-latitude β-plane, zonally propagating trapped waves with Airy-like latitude-dependent amplitude, is constructed in this work, for sufficiently small radius of deformation. In contrast to harmonic Poincare and Rossby waves, these newly found trapped waves vanish fast in the positive half-axis, and their zonal phase speed is larger than that of the corresponding harmonic waves for sufficiently large meridional domains. Our analysis implies that due to the smaller radius of deformation in the ocean compared with that in the atmosphere, the trapped waves are relevant to observations in the ocean whereas harmonic waves typify atmospheric observations. The increase in the zonal phase speed of trapped Rossby waves compared with that of harmonic ones is consistent with recent observations that showed that Sea Surface Height features propagated westwards faster than the phase speed of harmonic Rossby waves.

  12. CDM Convective Forecast Planning guidance (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CDM Convective Forecast Planning (CCFP) guidance product provides a foreast of en-route aviation convective hazards. The forecasts are updated every 2 hours and...

  13. Presentation on Tropical Mesoscale convective Systems and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Shallow convection- 70% of the storm heights are below 6 km. ♢ Deep convection ... Decay convection, the convective top is found at a higher altitude than deep .... Stratospheric Fountain – Two step process. Warm tropopause- preferable for.

  14. Oceanic-type accretion may begin before complete continental break-up (United States)

    Geoffroy, L.; Zalan, P. V.; Viana, A. R.


    Oceanic accretion is thought to be the process of oceanic crust (and lithosphere) edification through adiabatic melting of shallow convecting mantle at oceanic spreading ridges. It is usually considered as a post-breakup diagnostic process following continents rupturing. However, this is not always correct. The structure of volcanic passive margins (representing more than 50% of passive continental margins) outlines that the continental lithosphere is progressively changed into oceanic-type lithosphere during the stage of continental extension. This is clear at least, at crustal level. The continental crust is 'changed' from the earliest stages of extension into a typical -however thicker- oceanic crust with the typical oceanic magmatic layers (from top to bottom: lava flows/tuffs, sheeted dyke complexes, dominantly (sill-like) mafic intrusions in the lower crust). The Q-rich continental crust is highly extended and increases in volume (due to the magma) during the extensional process. At the continent-ocean transition there is, finally, no seismic difference between this highly transformed continental crust and the oceanic crust. Using a large range of data (including deep seismic reflection profiles), we discuss the mantle mechanisms that governs the process of mantle-assisted continental extension. We outline the large similarity between those mantle processes and those acting at purely-oceanic spreading axis and discuss the effects of the inherited continental lithosphere in the pattern of new mafic crust edification.

  15. Convective overshooting in stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andrássy, R.


    Numerous observations provide evidence that the standard picture, in which convective mixing is limited to the unstable layers of a star, is incomplete. The mixing layers in real stars are significantly more extended than what the standard models predict. Some of the observations require changing

  16. A Climatology of Midlatitude Continental Clouds from the ARM SGP Site. Part II; Cloud Fraction and Surface Radiative Forcing (United States)

    Xi, B.; Minnis, P.


    Data collected at the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) Central Facility (SCF) are analyzed to determine the monthly and hourly variations of cloud fraction and radiative forcing between January 1997 and December 2002. Cloud fractions are estimated for total cloud cover and for single-layered low (0-3 km), middle (3-6 km), and high clouds (more than 6 km) using ARM SCG ground-based paired lidar-radar measurements. Shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) fluxes are derived from up- and down-looking standard precision spectral pyranometers and precision infrared radiometer measurements with uncertainties of approximately 10 Wm(exp -2). The annual averages of total, and single-layered low, middle and high cloud fractions are 0.49, 0.11, 0.03, and 0.17, respectively. Both total and low cloud amounts peak during January and February and reach a minimum during July and August, high clouds occur more frequently than other types of clouds with a peak in summer. The average annual downwelling surface SW fluxes for total and low clouds (151 and 138 Wm(exp-2), respectively) are less than those under middle and high clouds (188 and 201 Wm(exp -2), respectively), but the downwelling LW fluxes (349 and 356 Wm(exp -2)) underneath total and low clouds are greater than those from middle and high clouds (337 and 333 Wm(exp -2)). Low clouds produce the largest LW warming (55 Wm(exp -2) and SW cooling (-91 Wm(exp -2)) effects with maximum and minimum absolute values in spring and summer, respectively. High clouds have the smallest LW warming (17 Wm(exp -2)) and SW cooling (-37 Wm(exp -2)) effects at the surface. All-sky SW CRF decreases and LW CRF increases with increasing cloud fraction with mean slopes of -0.984 and 0.616 Wm(exp -2)%(exp -1), respectively. Over the entire diurnal cycle, clouds deplete the amount of surface insolation more than they add to the downwelling LW flux. The calculated CRFs do not appear to be significantly affected by uncertainties in data sampling and clear-sky screening. Traditionally, cloud radiative forcing includes, not only the radiative impact of the hydrometeors, but also the changes in the environment. Taken together over the ARM SCF, changes in humidity and surface albedo between clear and cloudy conditions offset approximately 20% of the NET radiative forcing caused by the cloud hydrometeors alone. Variations in water vapor, on average, account for 10% and 83% of the SW and LW CRFs, respectively, in total cloud cover conditions. The error analysis further reveals that the cloud hydrometeors dominate the SW CRF, while water vapor changes are most important for LW flux changes in cloudy skies. Similar studies over other locales are encouraged where water and surface albedo changes from clear to cloudy conditions may be much different than observed over the ARM SCF.

  17. A Climatology of Midlatitude Continental Clouds from the ARM SGP Central Facility. Part II; Cloud Fraction and Radiative Forcing (United States)

    Dong, Xiquan; Xi, Baike; Minnis, Patrick


    Data collected at the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) central facility are analyzed for determining the variability of cloud fraction and radiative forcing at several temporal scales between January 1997 and December 2002. Cloud fractions are estimated for total cloud cover and for single-layer low (0-3 km), middle (3-6 km), and high clouds (greater than 6 km) using ARM SGP ground-based paired lidar-radar measurements. Shortwave (SW), longwave (LW), and net cloud radiative forcings (CRF) are derived from up- and down-looking standard precision spectral pyranometers and precision infrared radiometer measurements. The annual averages of total, and single-layer, nonoverlapped low, middle and high cloud fractions are 0.49, 0.11, 0.03, and 0.17, respectively. Total and low cloud amounts were greatest from December through March and least during July and August. The monthly variation of high cloud amount is relatively small with a broad maximum from May to August. During winter, total cloud cover varies diurnally with a small amplitude, mid-morning maximum and early evening minimum, and during summer it changes by more than 0.14 over the daily cycle with a pronounced early evening minimum. The diurnal variations of mean single-layer cloud cover change with season and cloud height. Annual averages of all-sky, total, and single-layer high, middle, and low LW CRFs are 21.4, 40.2, 16.7, 27.2, and 55.0 Wm(sup -2), respectively; and their SW CRFs are -41.5, -77.2, -37.0, -47.0, and -90.5 Wm(sup -2). Their net CRFs range from -20 to -37 Wm(sup -2). For all-sky, total, and low clouds, the maximum negative net CRFs of -40.1, -70, and -69.5 Wm(sup -2), occur during April; while the respective minimum values of -3.9, -5.7, and -4.6 Wm(sup -2), are found during December. July is the month having maximum negative net CRF of -46.2 Wm(sup -2) for middle clouds, and May has the maximum value of -45.9 Wm(sup -2) for high clouds. An uncertainty analysis demonstrates that the calculated CRFs are not significantly affected by the difference between clear-sky and cloudy conditions. A more comprehensive cloud fraction study from both surface and satellite observations will follow.

  18. The continental lithosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artemieva, Irina


    The goal of the present study is to extract non-thermal signal from seismic tomography models in order to distinguish compositional variations in the continental lithosphere and to examine if geochemical and petrologic constraints on global-scale compositional variations in the mantle...... are consistent with modern geophysical data. In the lithospheric mantle of the continents, seismic velocity variations of a non-thermal origin (calculated from global Vs seismic tomography data [Grand S.P., 2002. Mantle shear-wave tomography and the fate of subducted slabs. Philosophical Transactions...... and evolution of Precambrian lithosphere: A global study. Journal of Geophysical Research 106, 16387–16414.] show strong correlation with tectono-thermal ages and with regional variations in lithospheric thickness constrained by surface heat flow data and seismic velocities. In agreement with xenolith data...

  19. Simulation of convection over the ocean in the region of the intertropical convergence zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levkov, L; Eppel, D; Grassl, H


    A parameterization scheme for the simulation of mid-latitude convective structures is incorporated into a three-dimensional hydrostatic mesoscale model using data from GATE 1974. The scheme gives realistic space extension and evolution time scales of tropical cloud clusters. The rainfall computed in the model agrees with the magnitude of the radar rainfall. According to the different treatment of the microphysics we have found considerable differences in the microphysical and dynamical evolution of the clouds but not considerable changes in the final mean vertical profiles after precipitation.

  20. Convective Propagation Characteristics Using a Simple Representation of Convective Organization (United States)

    Neale, R. B.; Mapes, B. E.


    Observed equatorial wave propagation is intimately linked to convective organization and it's coupling to features of the larger-scale flow. In this talk we a use simple 4 level model to accommodate vertical modes of a mass flux convection scheme (shallow, mid-level and deep). Two paradigms of convection are used to represent convective processes. One that has only both random (unorganized) diagnosed fluctuations of convective properties and one with organized fluctuations of convective properties that are amplified by previously existing convection and has an explicit moistening impact on the local convecting environment We show a series of model simulations in single-column, 2D and 3D configurations, where the role of convective organization in wave propagation is shown to be fundamental. For the optimal choice of parameters linking organization to local atmospheric state, a broad array of convective wave propagation emerges. Interestingly the key characteristics of propagating modes are the low-level moistening followed by deep convection followed by mature 'large-scale' heating. This organization structure appears to hold firm across timescales from 5-day wave disturbances to MJO-like wave propagation.

  1. Hotspots and sunspots - Surface tracers of deep mantle convection in the earth and sun (United States)

    Stothers, Richard B.


    The evolution of the hot-spot distribution on earth in time and space is investigated using available age data. The statistics of continental flood basalt eruptions suggests the formation of a total of about 40 hot spots worldwide during the Cenozoic and Mesozoic, with no true antipodal pairs found. It was found that hot spots tend to concentrate mainly in mid-latitudes, but the pattern of new appearances of hot spots may migrate from high to low latitudes in both hemispheres in long cycles, and may also drift in longitude, although much more slowly prograde.

  2. Lightning NOx influence on large-scale NOy and O3 plumes observed over the northern mid-latitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Gressent


    Full Text Available This paper describes the NOy plumes originating from lightning emissions based on 4 yr (2001–2005 of MOZAIC measurements in the upper troposphere of the northern mid-latitudes, together with ground- and space-based observations of lightning flashes and clouds. This analysis is primarily for the North Atlantic region where the MOZAIC flights are the most frequent and for which the measurements are well representative in space and time. The study investigates the influence of lightning NOx (LNOx emissions on large-scale (300–2000 km plumes (LSPs of NOy. One hundred and twenty seven LSPs (6% of the total MOZAIC NOy dataset have been attributed to LNOx emissions. Most of these LSPs were recorded over North America and the Atlantic mainly in spring and summer during the maximum lightning activity occurrence. The majority of the LSPs (74% is related to warm conveyor belts and extra-tropical cyclones originating from North America and entering the intercontinental transport pathway between North America and Europe, leading to a negative (positive west to east NOy (O3 zonal gradient with −0.4 (+18 ppbv difference during spring and −0.6 (+14 ppbv difference in summer. The NOy zonal gradient can correspond to the mixing of the plume with the background air. On the other hand, the O3 gradient is associated with both mixing of background air and with photochemical production during transport. Such transatlantic LSPs may have a potential impact on the European pollution. The remaining sampled LSPs are related to mesoscale convection over Western Europe and the Mediterranean Sea (18% and to tropical convection (8%.

  3. The 'Blue-Shift' in midlatitude dynamics in a Changing Climate (United States)

    Carvalho, L. V.


    low and upper level circulation. This research uses two sources of data: global daily Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) (1979- 2010) and the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) global daily simulations from the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). Two sets of simulations are investigated: the Historic and Pi-control runs. Here the term ';blue-shift' is used to indicate long-term increase in the amplitude of the synoptic scale relatively to the annual cycle amplitude derived from wavelet analysis as an analogy to the definition commonly used in physics (i.e., a shift toward shorter wavelengths of the spectral lines). It is shown that the blue-shift has been observed in midlatitudes of some continental areas of the Northern Hemisphere and North Pacific but in relatively higher latitudes in the Southern Hemisphere. Tropical areas and high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere have experienced opposite trend (red-shift). Moreover, the pattern of the blue and red-shifts exhibits seasonal changes. References: Cannon, F., L. M. V. Carvalho, C. Jones, B. Bookhagen, 2013: Multi-Annual Variations in Winter Westerly Disturbance Activity Affecting the Himalaya. Submitted to Climate Dynamics

  4. Upper-Level Waves of Synoptic Scale at Midlatitudes (United States)

    Rivest, Chantal


    Upper-level waves of synoptic scale are important dynamical entities at midlatitudes. They often induce surface cyclogenesis (cf. Peterssen and Smebye, 1971), and their life duration is typically longer than time scales for disruption by the ambient shear (Sanders, 1988). The objectives of the present thesis are to explain the maintenance and genesis of upper-level synoptic-scale waves in the midlatitude flow. We develop an analytical model of waves on generalized Eady basic states that have uniform tropospheric and stratospheric potential vorticity, but allow for the decay of density with height. The Eady basic state represents the limiting case of infinite stratospheric stability and constant density. We find that the Eady normal mode characteristics hold in the presence of realistic tropopause and stratosphere. In particular, the basic states studied support at the synoptic scale upper-level normal modes. These modes provide simple models for the dynamics of upper-level synoptic-scale waves, as waves supported by the large latitudinal gradients of potential vorticity at the tropopause. In the presence of infinitesimal positive tropospheric gradients of potential vorticity, the upper-level normal mode solutions no longer exist, as was demonstrated in Green (1960). Disappearance of the normal mode solution when a parameter changes slightly represents a dilemma that we seek to understand. We examine what happens to the upper-level normal modes in the presence of tropospheric gradients of potential vorticity in a series of initial -value experiments. Our results show that the normal modes become slowly decaying quasi-modes. Mathematically the quasi-modes consist of a superposition of singular modes sharply peaked in the phase speed domain, and their decay proceeds as the modes interfere with one another. We repeat these experiments in basic states with a smooth tropopause in the presence of tropospheric and stratospheric gradients, and similar results are obtained

  5. Convection heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Bejan, Adrian


    Written by an internationally recognized authority on heat transfer and thermodynamics, this second edition of Convection Heat Transfer contains new and updated problems and examples reflecting real-world research and applications, including heat exchanger design. Teaching not only structure but also technique, the book begins with the simplest problem solving method (scale analysis), and moves on to progressively more advanced and exact methods (integral method, self similarity, asymptotic behavior). A solutions manual is available for all problems and exercises.

  6. Concepts of magnetospheric convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasyliunas, V.M.


    Magnetospheric physics, which grew out of attempts to understand the space environment of the Earth, is becoming increasingly applicable to other systems in the Universe. Among the planets, in addition to the Earth, Jupiter, Mercury, Mars and (in a somewhat different way) Venus are now known to have magnetospheres. The magnetospheres of pulsars have been regarded as an essential part of the pulsar phenomenon. Other astrophysical systems, such as supernova remnant shells or magnetic stars and binary star systems, may be describable as magnetospheres. The major concepts of magnetospheric physics thus need to be formulated in a general way not restricted to the geophysical context in which they may have originated. Magnetospheric convection has been one of the most important and fruitful concepts in the study of the Earth's magnetosphere. This paper describes the basic theoretical notions of convection in a manner applicable to magnetospheres generally and discusses the relative importance of convective corotational motions, with particular reference to the comparison of the Earth and Jupiter. (Auth.)


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validaiton KICT NEXRAD MC3E dataset was collected from April 22, 2011 to June 6, 2011 for the Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment...


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation NCAR Cloud Microphysics Particle Probes MC3E dataset was collected during the Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E),...


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Oklahoma Climatological Survey Mesonet MC3E data were collected during the Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) in...


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NOAA UHF 449 Profiler Raw SPC foramt data was collected during the NASA supported Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E). The Ultra High...


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Pawnee radar data for the Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) held in Oklahoma were collected on May 24, 2011 to support the CHILL radar...


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation NOAA UHF 449 Profiler Raw Data SPC Format MC3E dataset was collected during the NASA supported Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds...


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The CHILL radar data for the Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) held in Oklahoma were collected while the NASA ER-2 aircraft conducted a...


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The S-band Profiler Original Dwell dataset in the netCDF format was gathered during the Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) in Oklahoma...


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation NOAA S-Band Profiler Minute Data MC3E dataset was gathered during the Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) in...

  16. Habitable periglacial landscapes in martian mid-latitudes (United States)

    Ulrich, M.; Wagner, D.; Hauber, E.; de Vera, J.-P.; Schirrmeister, L.


    Subsurface permafrost environments on Mars are considered to be zones where extant life could have survived. For the identification of possible habitats it is important to understand periglacial landscape evolution and related subsurface and environmental conditions. Many landforms that are interpreted to be related to ground ice are located in the martian mid-latitudinal belts. This paper summarizes the insights gained from studies of terrestrial analogs to permafrost landforms on Mars. The potential habitability of martian mid-latitude periglacial landscapes is exemplarily deduced for one such landscape, that of Utopia Planitia, by a review and discussion of environmental conditions influencing periglacial landscape evolution. Based on recent calculations of the astronomical forcing of climate changes, specific climate periods are identified within the last 10 Ma when thaw processes and liquid water were probably important for the development of permafrost geomorphology. No periods could be identified within the last 4 Ma which met the suggested threshold criteria for liquid water and habitable conditions. Implications of past and present environmental conditions such as temperature variations, ground-ice conditions, and liquid water activity are discussed with respect to the potential survival of highly-specialized microorganisms known from terrestrial permafrost. We conclude that possible habitable subsurface niches might have been developed in close relation to specific permafrost landform morphology on Mars. These would have probably been dominated by lithoautotrophic microorganisms (i.e. methanogenic archaea).

  17. Movements of the mid-latitude ionospheric trough

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodger, A.S.; Pinnock, M.


    A new method for monitoring the position and movement of large ionospheric structures is described. The technique uses data from an ionosonde nominally operating at vertical incidence, but relies on there being present a significant gradient in electron concentration. The position and dynamics of the poleward edge of the mid-latitude trough over Halley Bay, Antarctica (L = 4.2) is investigated using this method. Analyses show that the trough moves rapidly equatorward over Halley Bay in the early evening hours, during geomagnetically active periods. For magnetically quiet periods, the trough is not observed till after midnight, when its equatorward motion is comparatively slow. These results showed marked differences from those predicted from published empirical relationships describing variations in trough position with time, particularly before midnight. Changes in the position of the plasma pause with time, determined from two theoretical models and from observations are compared with these results for the trough. Also, one case study is presented in which there is determination of the positions of both the trough and the plasmapause over a 7 h period. Similarities and differences in their relative positions and movements of the two features are identified and their possible causes are briefly discussed. (author)

  18. Cluster observations of mid-latitude hiss near the plasmapause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Masson


    Full Text Available In the vicinity of the plasmapause, around the geomagnetic equator, the four Cluster satellites often observe banded hiss-like electromagnetic emissions (BHE; below the electron gyrofrequency but above the lower hybrid resonance, from 2kHz to 10kHz. We show that below 4kHz, these waves propagate in the whistler mode. Using the first year of scientific operations of WHISPER, STAFF and WBD wave experiments on Cluster, we have identified the following properties of the BHE waves: (i their location is strongly correlated with the position of the plasmapause, (ii no MLT dependence has been found, (iii their spectral width is generally 1 to 2kHz, and (iv the central frequency of their emission band varies from 2kHz to 10kHz. All these features suggest that BHE are in fact mid-latitude hiss emissions (MLH. Moreover, the central frequency was found to be correlated with the Kp index. This suggests either that these banded emissions are generated in a given f/fce range, or that there is a Kp dependent Doppler shift between the satellites and a possible moving source of the MLH.

  19. From Plate Tectonic to Continental Dynamics (United States)

    Molnar, P. H.


    tectonics, many of the questions that loomed large 3 or 4 decades ago remain controversial, such as at what depth in the lithosphere does the strength lie?, How do chemical differences between mantle lithosphere and asthenosphere manifest themselves in continental geodynamics?, or To what extent can mantle lithosphere be removed as part of convective flow?

  20. Continental United States Hurricane Strikes (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Continental U.S. Hurricane Strikes Poster is our most popular poster which is updated annually. The poster includes all hurricanes that affected the U.S. since...

  1. Bidispersive-inclined convection (United States)

    Mulone, Giuseppe; Straughan, Brian


    A model is presented for thermal convection in an inclined layer of porous material when the medium has a bidispersive structure. Thus, there are the usual macropores which are full of a fluid, but there are also a system of micropores full of the same fluid. The model we employ is a modification of the one proposed by Nield & Kuznetsov (2006 Int. J. Heat Mass Transf. 49, 3068–3074. (doi:10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2006.02.008)), although we consider a single temperature field only. PMID:27616934

  2. Cosmic rays linked to rapid mid-latitude cloud changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Laken


    Full Text Available The effect of the Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR flux on Earth's climate is highly uncertain. Using a novel sampling approach based around observing periods of significant cloud changes, a statistically robust relationship is identified between short-term GCR flux changes and the most rapid mid-latitude (60°–30° N/S cloud decreases operating over daily timescales; this signal is verified in surface level air temperature (SLAT reanalysis data. A General Circulation Model (GCM experiment is used to test the causal relationship of the observed cloud changes to the detected SLAT anomalies. Results indicate that the anomalous cloud changes were responsible for producing the observed SLAT changes, implying that if there is a causal relationship between significant decreases in the rate of GCR flux (~0.79 GU, where GU denotes a change of 1% of the 11-year solar cycle amplitude in four days and decreases in cloud cover (~1.9 CU, where CU denotes a change of 1% cloud cover in four days, an increase in SLAT (~0.05 KU, where KU denotes a temperature change of 1 K in four days can be expected. The influence of GCRs is clearly distinguishable from changes in solar irradiance and the interplanetary magnetic field. However, the results of the GCM experiment are found to be somewhat limited by the ability of the model to successfully reproduce observed cloud cover. These results provide perhaps the most compelling evidence presented thus far of a GCR-climate relationship. From this analysis we conclude that a GCR-climate relationship is governed by both short-term GCR changes and internal atmospheric precursor conditions.

  3. A numerical study of ionospheric profiles for mid-latitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.-R. Zhang


    Full Text Available This paper presents a numerical model and results for the mid-latitude ionospheric profile below the peak of the F2-layer. The basis of the model is the solving of equations for four ionic species O+, NO+, O+2 and N+2, as well as the meta-stable O+(2D and O+(2P. Diffusion and wind-induced drifts and 21 photo-chemical reactions are also taken into account. Neutral atmospheric density and temperature are derived from the MSIS86 model and solar extreme ultraviolate irradiance from the EUV91 model. In an effort to obtain a more realistic ionospheric profile, the key point at foF2 and hmF2 is fitted from the simulation to observations. The model also utilizes the vertical drifts derived from ionosonde data with the help of the Servo model. It is shown that the ionospheric height of peak can be reproduced more accurately under the derived vertical drifts from the Servo theory than with the HWM90 model. Results from the simulation are given for Wuchang (30.5°N, 114.4°E and Wakkanai (45.6°N, 141.7°E, showing the profile changes with season and solar activity, and the E-F valley structure (the depth and the width. This simulation also reveals the importance of meta-stable ions and dynamical transport processes on the formation of the F1-ledge and F1-F2 valley.

  4. Considering bioactivity in modelling continental growth and the Earth's evolution (United States)

    Höning, D.; Spohn, T.


    The complexity of planetary evolution increases with the number of interacting reservoirs. On Earth, even the biosphere is speculated to interact with the interior. It has been argued (e.g., Rosing et al. 2006; Sleep et al, 2012) that the formation of continents could be a consequence of bioactivity harvesting solar energy through photosynthesis to help build the continents and that the mantle should carry a chemical biosignature. Through plate tectonics, the surface biosphere can impact deep subduction zone processes and the interior of the Earth. Subducted sediments are particularly important, because they influence the Earth's interior in several ways, and in turn are strongly influenced by the Earth's biosphere. In our model, we use the assumption that a thick sedimentary layer of low permeability on top of the subducting oceanic crust, caused by a biologically enhanced weathering rate, can suppress shallow dewatering. This in turn leads to greater vailability of water in the source region of andesitic partial melt, resulting in an enhanced rate of continental production and regassing rate into the mantle. Our model includes (i) mantle convection, (ii) continental erosion and production, and (iii) mantle water degassing at mid-ocean ridges and regassing at subduction zones. The mantle viscosity of our model depends on (i) the mantle water concentration and (ii) the mantle temperature, whose time dependency is given by radioactive decay of isotopes in the Earth's mantle. Boundary layer theory yields the speed of convection and the water outgassing rate of the Earth's mantle. Our results indicate that present day values of continental surface area and water content of the Earth's mantle represent an attractor in a phase plane spanned by both parameters. We show that the biologic enhancement of the continental erosion rate is important for the system to reach this fixed point. An abiotic Earth tends to reach an alternative stable fixed point with a smaller

  5. Tidal signatures of the thermospheric mass density and zonal wind at midlatitude: CHAMP and GRACE observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Xiong


    Full Text Available By using the accelerometer measurements from CHAMP and GRACE satellites, the tidal signatures of the thermospheric mass density and zonal wind at midlatitudes have been analyzed in this study. The results show that the mass density and zonal wind at southern midlatitudes are dominated by a longitudinal wave-1 pattern. The most prominent tidal components in mass density and zonal wind are the diurnal tides D0 and DW2 and the semidiurnal tides SW1 and SW3. This is consistent with the tidal signatures in the F region electron density at midlatitudes as reported by Xiong and Lühr (2014. These same tidal components are observed both in the thermospheric and ionospheric quantities, supporting a mechanism that the non-migrating tides in the upper atmosphere are excited in situ by ion–neutral interactions at midlatitudes, consistent with the modeling results of Jones Jr. et al. (2013. We regard the thermospheric dynamics as the main driver for the electron density tidal structures. An example is the in-phase variation of D0 between electron density and mass density in both hemispheres. Further research including coupled atmospheric models is probably needed for explaining the similarities and differences between thermospheric and ionospheric tidal signals at midlatitudes.

  6. Continental temperatures through the early Eocene in western central Europe (United States)

    Inglis, G. N.; Collinson, M. E.; Riegel, W.; Wilde, V.; Farnsworth, A.; Lunt, D. J.; Robson, B.; Scott, A. C.; Lenz, O.; Pancost, R.


    In contrast to the marine realm, our understanding of terrestrial temperature change during greenhouse climates is poorly constrained. Recently, branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) have been used to successfully reconstruct mean annual air temperature (MAAT) during the early Paleogene. However, despite the potential to provide new insights into terrestrial climate, the application of this proxy in lignite and coal deposits is still limited. Using samples recovered from Schöningen, Germany ( 48°N), we provide the first detailed study into the occurrence and distribution of brGDGTs through a sequence of Early Eocene lignites and associated marine interbeds. Branched GDGTs are abundant and present in every sample. In comparison to modern studies, changes in vegetation type do not appear to significantly impact brGDGT distributions; however, there are subtle differences in these distributions between lignites and siliciclastic nearshore marine interbed sediments. Using the most recent brGDGT temperature calibration, we generate the first continental temperature record from central-western continental Europe through the Early Eocene. Lignite-derived MAAT estimates range from 23 to 26°C and those derived from the nearshore marine interbeds always exceed 20°C. These estimates are consistent with other mid-latitude palaeoclimate proxy records which indicate enhanced early Eocene warmth. In the basal part of the section, warming is recorded in both the lignites ( 2°C) and nearshore marine interbeds ( 2-3°C). This culminates in a long-term temperature maximum, likely including the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO). Although this trend is relatively well established in marginal marine sediments within the SW Pacific, it has rarely been shown in other regions or terrestrial settings. Using a suite of new climate model simulations, our warming trend is consistent with a doubling of CO2 (from 560ppmv to 1120ppmv) which broadly agrees with proxy

  7. Storm time electric field penetration observed at mid-latitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, H.C.; Foster, J.C.; Rich, F.J.; Swider, W.


    During the height of the February 8-9, 1986, magnetic storm the Millstone Hill radar was in the evening local time sector (1600-2200 MLT). Radar observations indicate that high speed (>1,000 m s -1 ) westward ion flow penetrated deeply below 50 degree invariant latitude (Λ) and persisted for 6 hours between 2100 UT on February 8 and 0300 UT on February 9. The double-peaked ion convection feature was pronounced throughout the period, and the separation in the dual maxima ranged from 4 degree to 10 degree. The latitude positions of the high-latitude ion drift peak and the convection reversal varied in unison. The low-latitude ion drift peak (∼49 degree Λ or L =2.3) did not show significant universal time/magnetic local time (UT/MLT) variation in its latitude location but showed a decrease in magnitude during the initial recovery phase of the storm. Using simultaneous particle (30 eV-30 keV) precipitation data from the DMSP F6 and F7 satellites, the authors find the high-latitude ion drift peak to coincide with the boundary plasma sheet/central plasma sheet transition in the high ionospheric conductivity (>15 mho) region. The low-latitude ion drift peak lay between the equatorward edges of the electron and soft ( + dominated ring current energy density in magnetic latitude. The low-latitude ion drift peak is the low-altitude signature of the electric field shielding effect associated with ring current penetration into the outer layer of the storm time plasmasphere

  8. Extensional basin evolution in the presence of small-scale convection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kenni Dinesen; Nielsen, S.B.; Clausen, O.R.


    -steady-state. Extension of the convecting equilibrium model causes the formation of rifts or continental margins which, posterior to extension, cools and subsides as predicted by the plate model. However, in contrast to the plate model, the ascended asthenosphere is not instantaneously decoupled from the convecting upper...... mantle below, and cooling is thus not entirely conductive above the former base of the lithosphere. This causes significantly protracted cooling and subsidence.We show that our model features improved consistency with subsidence data from several rifted margins and intracontinental basins. Furthermore...

  9. A Mid-Latitude Skywave Propagation Experiment: Overview and Results (United States)

    Munton, D. C.; Calfas, R. S.; Gaussiran, T., II; Rainwater, D.; Flesichmann, A. M.; Schofield, J. R.


    We will describe a mid-latitude HF skywave propagation experiment conducted during 19-27 January, 2014. There were two primary goals to the experiment. First, we wanted to build an understanding of the impact that medium scale traveling ionospheric disturbances have on the angles of arrival of the HF signals. The second goal was to provide a diverse data set that could serve as a baseline for propagation model development and evaluation. We structured individual tests during the experiment to increase the knowledge of temporal and spatial length scales of various ionospheric features. The experiment was conducted during both day and night periods and spanned a wide range of ionospheric states. We conducted the experiment at White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico and in the surrounding area. As part of the experiment, we deployed a number of active HF transmitters, and an array of dipole antennas to provide angle of arrival measurements. We also deployed a smaller array of more novel compact electro-magnetic vector sensors (EMVSs). Other instrumentation specific to the remote sensing of the ionosphere included digisondes, GNSS receivers, beacon satellite receivers, and optical instruments. We will provide a complete description of the experiment configuration and the data products.Finally, we will provide a discussion of experimental results, focusing on ionospheric conditions during the angle-of-arrival determinations, and the impact ionospheric disturbances can have on these measurements. We use the angle-of-arrival determinations to estimate TID properties, including velocity and direction.This research is based upon work supported in part by the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI), Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA), via US Navy Contract N00024-07-D-6200. The views and conclusions contained herein are those of the authors and should not be interpreted as necessarily representing the official policies or endorsements

  10. Convection in Porous Media

    CERN Document Server

    Nield, Donald A


    Convection in Porous Media, 4th Edition, provides a user-friendly introduction to the subject, covering a wide range of topics, such as fibrous insulation, geological strata, and catalytic reactors. The presentation is self-contained, requiring only routine mathematics and the basic elements of fluid mechanics and heat transfer. The book will be of use not only to researchers and practicing engineers as a review and reference, but also to graduate students and others entering the field. The new edition features approximately 1,750 new references and covers current research in nanofluids, cellular porous materials, strong heterogeneity, pulsating flow, and more. Recognized as the standard reference in the field Includes a comprehensive, 250-page reference list Cited over 2300 times to date in its various editions Serves as an introduction for those entering the field and as a comprehensive reference for experienced researchers Features new sections on nanofluids, carbon dioxide sequestration, and applications...

  11. Temperature-Driven Convection (United States)

    Bohan, Richard J.; Vandegrift, Guy


    Warm air aloft is stable. This explains the lack of strong winds in a warm front and how nighttime radiative cooling can lead to motionless air that can trap smog. The stability of stratospheric air can be attributed to the fact that it is heated from above as ultraviolet radiation strikes the ozone layer. On the other hand, fluid heated from below is unstable and can lead to Bernard convection cells. This explains the generally turbulent nature of the troposphere, which receives a significant fraction of its heat directly from the Earth's warmer surface. The instability of cold fluid aloft explains the violent nature of a cold front, as well as the motion of Earth's magma, which is driven by radioactive heating deep within the Earth's mantle. This paper describes how both effects can be demonstrated using four standard beakers, ice, and a bit of food coloring.

  12. Convection in porous media

    CERN Document Server

    Nield, Donald A


    This book provides a user-friendly introduction to the topic of convection in porous media The authors as- sume that the reader is familiar with the basic elements of fluid mechanics and heat transfer, but otherwise the book is self-contained The book will be useful both as a review (for reference) and as a tutorial work, suitable as a textbook in a graduate course or seminar The book brings into perspective the voluminous research that has been performed during the last two decades The field has recently exploded because of worldwide concern with issues such as energy self-sufficiency and pollution of the environment Areas of application include the insulation of buildings and equipment, energy storage and recovery, geothermal reservoirs, nuclear waste disposal, chemical reactor engineering, and the storage of heat-generating materials such as grain and coal Geophysical applications range from the flow of groundwater around hot intrusions to the stability of snow against avalanches

  13. Intensity fluctuations of mid-latitude background VLF-noises and the interplanetary magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorshkov, Yu.N.; Klejmenova, N.G.


    Influence of interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) sector structure polarity and also variations of solar wind velocity and density on the intensity of mid-latitude VLF background noises are studied. For analysis continuous observations of VLF radiations in Magadan Observatory (phi=53.7 deg, L=2.7) from November, 1972 to June, 1973 were used. It is shown that IMF sector sign has no sufficient effect on the level of mid-latitude VLF background noises at the frequences f < 4-5 kHz. In magnetoperturbed periods when IMF Bsub(z)-component was directed to the South and the Earth was in the region of high-speed plasma flux, in mid-latitudes abatement of intensity of VLF background noises was seen

  14. Stellar convection and dynamo theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennings, R L


    In considering the large scale stellar convection problem the outer layers of a star are modelled as two co-rotating plane layers coupled at a fluid/fluid interface. Heating from below causes only the upper fluid to convect, although this convection can penetrate into the lower fluid. Stability analysis is then used to find the most unstable mode of convection. With parameters appropriate to the Sun the most unstable mode is steady convection in thin cells (aspect ratio {approx equal} 0.2) filling the convection zone. There is negligible vertical motion in the lower fluid, but considerable thermal penetration, and a large jump in helicity at the interface, which has implications for dynamo theory. An {alpha}{omega} dynamo is investigated in isolation from the convection problem. Complexity is included by allowing both latitudinal and time dependence in the magnetic fields. The nonlinear dynamics of the resulting partial differential equations are analysed in considerable detail. On varying the main control parameter D (the dynamo number), many transitions of behaviour are found involving many forms of time dependence, but not chaos. Further, solutions which break equatorial symmetry are common and provide a theoretical explanation of solar observations which have this symmetry. Overall the behaviour was more complicated than expected. In particular, there were multiple stable solutions at fixed D, meaning that similar stars can have very different magnetic patterns, depending upon their history. (author).

  15. Density Sorting During the Evolution of Continental Crust (United States)

    Kelemen, P. B.; Behn, M. D.; Hacker, B. R.


    We consider two settings - in addition to "delamination" of arc lower crust - in which dense, mafic eclogites founder into the convecting mantle while buoyant, felsic lithologies accumulate at the base of evolving continental crust. Arc processes play a central role in generating continental crust, but it remains uncertain how basaltic arc crust is transformed to andesitic continental crust. Dense, SiO2-poor products of fractionation may founder from the base of arc crust by "delamination", but lower arc crust after delamination has significantly different trace elements compared to lower continental crust (LCC). In an alternative model, buoyant magmatic rocks generated at arcs are first subducted, mainly via subduction erosion. Upon heating, these buoyant lithologies ascend through the mantle wedge or along a subduction channel, and are "relaminated" at
the base of overlying crust (e.g., Hacker et al EPSL 11, AREPS 15). Average buoyant lavas and plutons
for the Aleutians, Izu-Bonin-Marianas, Kohistan and Talkeetna arcs fall within the range of estimated LCC major and trace elements. Relamination is more efficient in generating continental crust than delamination. Himalayan cross-sections show Indian crust thrust beneath Tibetan crust, with no intervening mantle. There is a horizontal Moho at ca 80 km depth, extending from thickened Indian crust, across the region where Tibetan crust overlies Indian crust, into thickened Tibetan crust. About half the subducted Indian crust is present, whereas the other half is missing. Data (Vp/Vs; Miocene lavas formed by interaction of continental crust with mantle; xenolith thermometry) indicate 1000°C or more from ca 50 km depth to the Moho since the Miocene. We build on earlier studies (LePichon et al Tectonics 92, T'phys 97; Schulte-Pelkum et al Nature 05; Monsalve et al JGR 08) to advance the hypothesis that rapid growth of garnet occurs at 70-80 km and 1000°C within subducting Indian crust. Dense eclogites founder

  16. The convection patterns in microemulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korneta, W.; Lopez Quintela, M.A.; Fernandez Novoa, A.


    The Rayleigh-Benard convection in the microemulsion consisting of water (7.5%), cyclohexan (oil-61.7%) and diethylenglycolmonobutylether (surfactant-30.8%) is studied from the onset of convection to the phase separation. The five classes of convection patterns are observed and recorded on the video: localized travelling waves, travelling waves, travelling waves and localized steady rolls, steady rolls and steady polygons. The Fourier transforms and histograms of these patterns are presented. The origin of any pattern is discussed. The intermittent behaviour close to the phase separation was observed. Possible applications of the obtained results are suggested. (author). 6 refs, 4 figs

  17. PCA and vTEC climatology at midnight over mid-latitude regions (United States)

    Natali, M. P.; Meza, A.


    The effect of the thermospheric vertical neutral wind on vertical total electron content (vTEC) variations including longitudinal anomaly, remaining winter anomaly, mid-latitude summer night anomaly, and semiannual anomaly is studied at mid-latitude regions around zero magnetic declination at midnight during high solar activity. By using the principal component analysis (PCA) numerical technique, this work studies the spatial and temporal variations of the ionosphere at midnight over mid-latitude regions during 2000-2002. PCA is applied to a time series of global vTEC maps produced by the International Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Service. Four regions were studied in particular, each located at mid-latitude and approximately centered at zero magnetic declination, with two in the northern hemisphere and two in southern hemisphere, and all are located near and far from geomagnetic poles in each case. This technique provides an effective method to analyze the main ionospheric variabilities at mid-latitudes. PCA is also applied to the vTEC computed using the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) 2012 model, to analyze the capability of this model to represent ionospheric variabilities at mid-latitude. Also, the Horizontal Wind Model 2007 (HWM07) is used to improve our climatology interpretation, by analyzing the relationship between vTEC and thermospheric wind, both quantitatively and qualitatively. At midnight, the behavior of mean vTEC values strongly responds to vertical wind variation, experiencing a decrease of about 10-15% with the action of the positive vertical component of the field-aligned neutral wind lasting for 2 h in all regions except for Oceania. Notable results include: a significant increase toward higher latitudes during summer in the South America and Asia regions, associated with the mid-latitude summer night anomaly, and an increase toward higher latitudes in winter in the North America and Oceania regions, highlighting the

  18. Influence of dynamic topography on landscape evolution and passive continental margin stratigraphy (United States)

    Ding, Xuesong; Salles, Tristan; Flament, Nicolas; Rey, Patrice


    Quantifying the interaction between surface processes and tectonics/deep Earth processes is one important aspect of landscape evolution modelling. Both observations and results from numerical modelling indicate that dynamic topography - a surface expression of time-varying mantle convection - plays a significant role in shaping landscape through geological time. Recent research suggests that dynamic topography also has non-negligible effects on stratigraphic architecture by modifying accommodation space available for sedimentation. In addition, dynamic topography influences the sediment supply to continental margins. We use Badlands to investigate the evolution of a continental-scale landscape in response to transient dynamic uplift or subsidence, and to model the stratigraphic development on passive continental margins in response to sea-level change, thermal subsidence and dynamic topography. We consider a circularly symmetric landscape consisting of a plateau surrounded by a gently sloping continental plain and a continental margin, and a linear wave of dynamic topography. We analyze the evolution of river catchments, of longitudinal river profiles and of the χ values to evaluate the dynamic response of drainage systems to dynamic topography. We calculate the amount of cumulative erosion and deposition, and sediment flux at shoreline position, as a function of precipitation rate and erodibility coefficient. We compute the stratal stacking pattern and Wheeler diagram on vertical cross-sections at the continental margin. Our results indicate that dynamic topography 1) has a considerable influence on drainage reorganization; 2) contributes to shoreline migration and the distribution of depositional packages by modifying the accommodation space; 3) affects sediment supply to the continental margin. Transient dynamic topography contributes to the migration of drainage divides and to the migration of the mainstream in a drainage basin. The dynamic uplift

  19. Midlatitude Cirrus Clouds Derived from Hurricane Nora: A Case Study with Implications for Ice Crystal Nucleation and Shape. (United States)

    Sassen, Kenneth; Arnott, W. Patrick; O'C. Starr, David; Mace, Gerald G.; Wang, Zhien; Poellot, Michael R.


    Hurricane Nora traveled up the Baja Peninsula coast in the unusually warm El Niño waters of September 1997 until rapidly decaying as it approached southern California on 24 September. The anvil cirrus blowoff from the final surge of tropical convection became embedded in subtropical flow that advected the cirrus across the western United States, where it was studied from the Facility for Atmospheric Remote Sensing (FARS) in Salt Lake City, Utah, on 25 September. A day later, the cirrus shield remnants were redirected southward by midlatitude circulations into the southern Great Plains, providing a case study opportunity for the research aircraft and ground-based remote sensors assembled at the Clouds and Radiation Testbed (CART) site in northern Oklahoma. Using these comprehensive resources and new remote sensing cloud retrieval algorithms, the microphysical and radiative cloud properties of this unusual cirrus event are uniquely characterized.Importantly, at both the FARS and CART sites the cirrus generated spectacular halos and arcs, which acted as a tracer for the hurricane cirrus, despite the limited lifetimes of individual ice crystals. Lidar depolarization data indicate widespread regions of uniform ice plate orientations, and in situ particle replicator data show a preponderance of pristine, solid hexagonal plates and columns. It is suggested that these unusual aspects are the result of the mode of cirrus particle nucleation, presumably involving the lofting of sea salt nuclei in strong thunderstorm updrafts into the upper troposphere. This created a reservoir of haze particles that continued to produce halide-salt-contaminated ice crystals during the extended period of cirrus cloud maintenance. The inference that marine microbiota are embedded in the replicas of some ice crystals collected over the CART site points to the longevity of marine effects. Various nucleation scenarios proposed for cirrus clouds based on this and other studies, and the

  20. Climatology of medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances observed by the midlatitude Blackstone SuperDARN radar (United States)

    Frissell, N. A.; Baker, J. B. H.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.; Gerrard, A. J.; Miller, E. S.; Marini, J. P.; West, M. L.; Bristow, W. A.


    A climatology of daytime midlatitude medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (MSTIDs) observed by the Blackstone Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) radar is presented. MSTIDs were observed primarily from fall through spring. Two populations were observed: a dominant population heading southeast (centered at 147° geographic azimuth, ranging from 100° to 210°) and a secondary population heading northwest (centered at -50° azimuth, ranging from -75° to -25°). Horizontal velocities ranged from 50 to 250 m s-1 with a distribution maximum between 100 and 150 m s-1. Horizontal wavelengths ranged from 100 to 500 km with a distribution peak at 250 km, and periods between 23 and 60 min, suggesting that the MSTIDs may be consistent with thermospheric gravity waves. A local time (LT) dependence was observed such that the dominant (southeastward) population decreased in number as the day progressed until a late afternoon increase. The secondary (northwestward) population appeared only in the afternoon, possibly indicative of neutral wind effects or variability of sources. LT dependence was not observed in other parameters. Possible solar-geomagnetic and tropospheric MSTID sources were considered. The auroral electrojet (AE) index showed a correlation with MSTID statistics. Reverse ray tracing with the HINDGRATS model indicates that the dominant population has source regions over the Great Lakes and near the geomagnetic cusp, while the secondary population source region is 100 km above the Atlantic Ocean east of the Carolinas. This suggests that the dominant population may come from a region favorable to either tropospheric or geomagnetic sources, while the secondary population originates from a region favorable to secondary waves generated via lower atmospheric convection.

  1. Midlatitude D region variations measured from broadband radio atmospherics (United States)

    Han, Feng

    The high power, broadband very low frequency (VLF, 3--30 kHz) and extremely low frequency (ELF, 3--3000 Hz) electromagnetic waves generated by lightning discharges and propagating in the Earth-ionosphere waveguide can be used to measure the average electron density profile of the lower ionosphere (D region) across the wave propagation path due to several reflections by the upper boundary (lower ionosphere) of the waveguide. This capability makes it possible to frequently and even continuously monitor the D region electron density profile variations over geographically large regions, which are measurements that are essentially impossible by other means. These guided waves, usually called atmospherics (or sferics for short), are recorded by our sensors located near Duke University. The purpose of this work is to develop and implement algorithms to derive the variations of D region electron density profile which is modeled by two parameters (one is height and another is sharpness), by comparing the recorded sferic spectra to a series of model simulated sferic spectra from using a finite difference time domain (FDTD) code. In order to understand the time scales, magnitudes and sources for the midlatitude nighttime D region variations, we analyzed the sferic data of July and August 2005, and extracted both the height and sharpness of the D region electron density profile. The heights show large temporal variations of several kilometers on some nights and the relatively stable behavior on others. Statistical calculations indicate that the hourly average heights during the two months range between 82.0 km and 87.2 km with a mean value of 84.9 km and a standard deviation of 1.1 km. We also observed spatial variations of height as large as 2.0 km over 5 degrees latitudes on some nights, and no spatial variation on others. In addition, the measured height variations exhibited close correlations with local lightning occurrence rate on some nights but no correlation with local

  2. Long-term changes in lower tropospheric baseline ozone concentrations: Comparing chemistry-climate models and observations at northern midlatitudes (United States)

    Parrish, D. D.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Naik, V.; Horowitz, L.; Shindell, D. T.; Staehelin, J.; Derwent, R.; Cooper, O. R.; Tanimoto, H.; Volz-Thomas, A.; Gilge, S.; Scheel, H.-E.; Steinbacher, M.; Fröhlich, M.


    Two recent papers have quantified long-term ozone (O3) changes observed at northern midlatitude sites that are believed to represent baseline (here understood as representative of continental to hemispheric scales) conditions. Three chemistry-climate models (NCAR CAM-chem, GFDL-CM3, and GISS-E2-R) have calculated retrospective tropospheric O3 concentrations as part of the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project and Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 model intercomparisons. We present an approach for quantitative comparisons of model results with measurements for seasonally averaged O3 concentrations. There is considerable qualitative agreement between the measurements and the models, but there are also substantial and consistent quantitative disagreements. Most notably, models (1) overestimate absolute O3 mixing ratios, on average by 5 to 17 ppbv in the year 2000, (2) capture only 50% of O3 changes observed over the past five to six decades, and little of observed seasonal differences, and (3) capture 25 to 45% of the rate of change of the long-term changes. These disagreements are significant enough to indicate that only limited confidence can be placed on estimates of present-day radiative forcing of tropospheric O3 derived from modeled historic concentration changes and on predicted future O3 concentrations. Evidently our understanding of tropospheric O3, or the incorporation of chemistry and transport processes into current chemical climate models, is incomplete. Modeled O3 trends approximately parallel estimated trends in anthropogenic emissions of NOx, an important O3 precursor, while measured O3 changes increase more rapidly than these emission estimates.

  3. Convection in the Labrador Sea

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Davis, R


    The long-term goal of this grant was to describe the process of deep oceanic convection well enough to provide critical tests of, and guidance to, models used to predict subsurface ocean conditions...

  4. Convective heat flow probe (United States)

    Dunn, James C.; Hardee, Harry C.; Striker, Richard P.


    A convective heat flow probe device is provided which measures heat flow and fluid flow magnitude in the formation surrounding a borehole. The probe comprises an elongate housing adapted to be lowered down into the borehole; a plurality of heaters extending along the probe for heating the formation surrounding the borehole; a plurality of temperature sensors arranged around the periphery of the probe for measuring the temperature of the surrounding formation after heating thereof by the heater elements. The temperature sensors and heater elements are mounted in a plurality of separate heater pads which are supported by the housing and which are adapted to be radially expanded into firm engagement with the walls of the borehole. The heat supplied by the heater elements and the temperatures measured by the temperature sensors are monitored and used in providing the desired measurements. The outer peripheral surfaces of the heater pads are configured as segments of a cylinder and form a full cylinder when taken together. A plurality of temperature sensors are located on each pad so as to extend along the length and across the width thereof, with a heating element being located in each pad beneath the temperature sensors. An expansion mechanism driven by a clamping motor provides expansion and retraction of the heater pads and expandable packer-type seals are provided along the probe above and below the heater pads.

  5. Convective sources of trajectories traversing the tropical tropopause layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.-S. Tissier


    Full Text Available Transit properties across the tropical tropopause layer are studied using extensive forward and backward Lagrangian diabatic trajectories between cloud tops and the reference surface 380 K. After dividing the tropical domain into 11 subregions according to the distribution of land and convection, we estimate the contribution of each region to the upward mass flux across the 380 K surface and to the vertical distribution of convective sources and transit times over the period 2005–2008. The good agreement between forward and backward statistics is the basis of the results presented here. It is found that about 85 % of the tropical parcels at 380 K originate from convective sources throughout the year. From November to April, the sources are dominated by the warm pool which accounts for up to 70 % of the upward flux. During boreal summer, the Asian monsoon region is the largest contributor with similar contributions from the maritime and continental parts of the region; however, the vertical distributions and transit times associated with these two subregions are very different. Convective sources are generally higher over the continental part of the Asian monsoon region, with shorter transit times. We estimate the monthly averaged upward mass flux on the 380 K surface and show that the contribution from convective outflow accounts for 80 % on average and explains most of its seasonal variations. The largest contributor to the convective flux is the South Asian Pacific region (warm pool at 39 % throughout the year followed by oceanic regions surrounding continental Asia at 18 % and Africa at 10.8 %. Continental Asian lowlands account for 8 %. The Tibetan Plateau is a minor overall contributor (0.8 %, but transport from convective sources in this region is very efficient due to its central location beneath the Asian upper level anticyclone. The core results are robust to uncertainties in data and methods, but the vertical source

  6. Convection-enhanced water evaporation


    B. M. Weon; J. H. Je; C. Poulard


    Water vapor is lighter than air; this can enhance water evaporation by triggering vapor convection but there is little evidence. We directly visualize evaporation of nanoliter (2 to 700 nL) water droplets resting on silicon wafer in calm air using a high-resolution dual X-ray imaging method. Temporal evolutions of contact radius and contact angle reveal that evaporation rate linearly changes with surface area, indicating convective (instead of diffusive) evaporation in nanoliter water droplet...

  7. Effects of High-Latitude Forcing Uncertainty on the Low-Latitude and Midlatitude Ionosphere (United States)

    Pedatella, N. M.; Lu, G.; Richmond, A. D.


    Ensemble simulations are performed using the Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Electrodynamics General Circulation Model (TIE-GCM) in order to understand the role of high-latitude forcing uncertainty on the low-latitude and midlatitude ionosphere response to the April 2010 geomagnetic storm. The ensemble is generated by perturbing either the high-latitude electric potential or auroral energy flux in the assimilative mapping for ionosphere electrodynamics (AMIE). Simulations with perturbed high-latitude electric potential result in substantial intraensemble variability in the low-latitude and midlatitude ionosphere response to the geomagnetic storm, and the ensemble standard deviation for the change in NmF2 reaches 50-100% of the mean change. Such large intraensemble variability is not seen when perturbing the auroral energy flux. In this case, the effects of the forcing uncertainty are primarily confined to high latitudes. We therefore conclude that the specification of high-latitude electric fields is an important source of uncertainty when modeling the low-latitude and midlatitude ionosphere response to a geomagnetic storm. A multiple linear regression analysis of the results indicates that uncertainty in the storm time changes in the equatorial electric fields, neutral winds, and neutral composition can all contribute to the uncertainty in the ionosphere electron density. The results of the present study provide insight into the possible uncertainty in simulations of the low-latitude and midlatitude ionosphere response to geomagnetic storms due to imperfect knowledge of the high-latitude forcing.

  8. The cloud radiative feedback of a midlatitude squall line system and implication for climate study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, H.N.S.


    The main objectives of this study are (1) to study the impact of longwave and shortwave radiation on the thermodynamic and kinematic structure of a midlatitude squall line; and (2) to explore the influence of specifically including the ice phase in the cloud-radiation feedback mechanism for climate models

  9. Hydrological indications of aeolian salts in mid-latitude deserts of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hydrological indications of aeolian salts in mid-latitude deserts of northwestern China. B Q Zhu. Supplementary data. Figure S1. Photograph views of Quaternary and modern sediments of aeolian and lacustrine/fluvial facies that consisted of clay and sand/silt sand alternations in the Taklamakan and Badanjilin Deserts.

  10. Tropical Cyclone Signatures in Atmospheric Convective Available Potential Energy (United States)

    Studholme, Joshua; Gulev, Sergey


    Tropical cyclones play an important role in the climate system providing transports of energy and water vapor, forcing the ocean, and also affecting mid-latitude circulation phenomena. Tropical cyclone tracks experience strong interannual variability and in addition, longer term trend-like changes in all ocean basins. Analysis of recent historical data reveal a poleward shift in the locations of tropical cyclone tracks in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres (Kossin et al. 2014, Nature, 509, 349-352). The physical consequences of these alterations are largely unconstrained. For example, the increasing encroachment of tropical cyclone activity into the extra-tropical environment presents a novel and still poorly understood paradigm for tropical-extratropical interactions. In this respect, the role that the atmospheric convective available potential energy (CAPE) plays in the dynamics of tropical cyclones is highly interesting. The two characteristic global-scale spatial patterns in CAPE are identified using EOF analysis. The first pattern shows an abundance of CAPE in the centre of the Pacific and corresponds to the El Nino Southern Oscillation. The second one is capturing positive CAPE anomalies in the oceanic tropics and negative anomalies over equatorial Africa. Associated with these buoyancy patterns, alterations in tropical cyclone activity occur in all basins forming both zonal and meridional patterns. Atmospheric buoyancy is the trigger for deep convection, and subsequently cyclone genesis. This is the mechanism of impact upon location at the start of cyclone tracks. It is found to have less impact upon where cyclones subsequently move, whether or not they undergo extratropical transition and when and where they experience lysis. It is shown that CAPE plays a critical role in the general circulation in the tropics which in turn is the larger steering context for embedded systems within the Walker and Hadley cells. So this lack of `latter life' impact

  11. Mid-latitude mesospheric clouds and their environment from SOFIE observations (United States)

    Hervig, Mark E.; Gerding, Michael; Stevens, Michael H.; Stockwell, Robert; Bailey, Scott M.; Russell, James M.; Stober, Gunter


    Observations from the Solar Occultation For Ice Experiment (SOFIE) on the Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) satellite are used to examine noctilucent clouds (NLC) and their environment at middle latitudes ( 56°N and 52°S). Because SOFIE is uniquely capable of measuring NLC, water vapor, and temperature simultaneously, the local cloud environment can be specified to examine what controls their formation at mid-latitudes. Compared to higher latitudes, mid-latitude NLCs are less frequent and have lower ice mass density, by roughly a factor of five. Compared to higher latitudes at NLC heights, mid-latitude water vapor is only 12% lower while temperatures are more than 10 K higher. As a result the reduced NLC mass and frequency at mid-latitudes can be attributed primarily to temperature. Middle and high latitude NLCs contain a similar amount of meteoric smoke, which was not anticipated because smoke abundance increases towards the equator in summer. SOFIE indicates that mid-latitude NLCs may or may not be associated with supersaturation with respect to ice. It is speculated that this situation is due in part to SOFIE uncertainties related to the limb measurement geometry combined with the non-uniform nature of NLCs. SOFIE is compared with concurrent NLC, temperature, and wind observations from Kühlungsborn, Germany (54°N) during the 2015 summer. The results indicate good agreement in temperature and NLC occurrence frequency, backscatter, and height. SOFIE indicates that NLCs were less frequent over Europe during 2015 compared to other longitudes, in contrast to previous years at higher latitudes that showed no clear longitude dependence. Comparisons of SOFIE and the Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV) indicate good agreement in average ice water column (IWC), although differences in occurrence frequency were often large.

  12. Scotland's forgotten carbon: a national assessment of mid-latitude fjord sedimentary carbon stocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Smeaton


    Full Text Available Fjords are recognised as hotspots for the burial and long-term storage of carbon (C and potentially provide a significant climate regulation service over multiple timescales. Understanding the magnitude of marine sedimentary C stores and the processes which govern their development is fundamental to understanding the role of the coastal ocean in the global C cycle. In this study, we use the mid-latitude fjords of Scotland as a natural laboratory to further develop methods to quantify these marine sedimentary C stores on both the individual fjord and national scale. Targeted geophysical and geochemical analysis has allowed the quantification of sedimentary C stocks for a number of mid-latitude fjords and, coupled with upscaling techniques based on fjord classification, has generated the first full national sedimentary C inventory for a fjordic system. The sediments within these mid-latitude fjords hold 640.7 ± 46 Mt of C split between 295.6 ± 52 and 345.1 ± 39 Mt of organic and inorganic C, respectively. When compared, these marine mid-latitude sedimentary C stores are of similar magnitude to their terrestrial equivalents, with the exception of the Scottish peatlands, which hold significantly more C. However, when area-normalised comparisons are made, these mid-latitude fjords are significantly more effective as C stores than their terrestrial counterparts, including Scottish peatlands. The C held within Scotland's coastal marine sediments has been largely overlooked as a significant component of the nation's natural capital; such coastal C stores are likely to be key to understanding and constraining improved global C budgets.

  13. Scotland's forgotten carbon: a national assessment of mid-latitude fjord sedimentary carbon stocks (United States)

    Smeaton, Craig; Austin, William E. N.; Davies, Althea L.; Baltzer, Agnes; Howe, John A.; Baxter, John M.


    Fjords are recognised as hotspots for the burial and long-term storage of carbon (C) and potentially provide a significant climate regulation service over multiple timescales. Understanding the magnitude of marine sedimentary C stores and the processes which govern their development is fundamental to understanding the role of the coastal ocean in the global C cycle. In this study, we use the mid-latitude fjords of Scotland as a natural laboratory to further develop methods to quantify these marine sedimentary C stores on both the individual fjord and national scale. Targeted geophysical and geochemical analysis has allowed the quantification of sedimentary C stocks for a number of mid-latitude fjords and, coupled with upscaling techniques based on fjord classification, has generated the first full national sedimentary C inventory for a fjordic system. The sediments within these mid-latitude fjords hold 640.7 ± 46 Mt of C split between 295.6 ± 52 and 345.1 ± 39 Mt of organic and inorganic C, respectively. When compared, these marine mid-latitude sedimentary C stores are of similar magnitude to their terrestrial equivalents, with the exception of the Scottish peatlands, which hold significantly more C. However, when area-normalised comparisons are made, these mid-latitude fjords are significantly more effective as C stores than their terrestrial counterparts, including Scottish peatlands. The C held within Scotland's coastal marine sediments has been largely overlooked as a significant component of the nation's natural capital; such coastal C stores are likely to be key to understanding and constraining improved global C budgets.

  14. Regimes of Axisymmetric Flow and Scaling Laws in a Rotating Annulus with Local Convective Forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susie Wright


    Full Text Available We present a numerical study of axisymmetric flow in a rotating annulus in which local thermal forcing, via a heated annular ring on the outside of the base and a cooled circular disk in the centre of the top surface, drives convection. This new configuration is a variant of the classical thermally-driven annulus, where uniform heating and cooling are applied through the outer and inner sidewalls respectively. The annulus provides an analogue to a planetary circulation and the new configuration, with its more relaxed vertical thermal boundary conditions, is expected to better emulate vigorous convection in the tropics and polar regions as well as baroclinic instability in the mid-latitude baroclinic zone. Using the Met Office/Oxford Rotating Annulus Laboratory (MORALS code, we have investigated a series of equilibrated, two dimensional axisymmetric flows across a large region of parameter space. These are characterized in terms of their velocity and temperature fields. When rotation is applied several distinct flow regimes may be identified for different rotation rates and strengths of differential heating. These regimes are defined as a function of the ratio of the horizontal Ekman layer thickness to the non-rotating thermal boundary layer thickness and are found to be similar to those identified in previous annulus experiments. Convection without rotation is also considered and the scaling of the heat transport with Rayleigh number is calculated. This is then compared with existing work on the classical annulus as well as horizontal and Rayleigh-Bénard convection. As with previous studies on both rotating and non-rotating convection the system’s behaviour is found to be aspect ratio dependent. This dependence is seen in the scaling of the non-rotating Nusselt number and in transitions between regimes in the rotating case although further investigation is required to fully explain these observations.

  15. Numerical simulation of convective generated gravity waves in the stratosphere and MLT regions. (United States)

    Heale, C. J.; Snively, J. B.


    Convection is an important source of gravity wave generation, especially in the summer tropics and midlatitudes, and coherent wave fields above convection are now routinely measured in the stratosphere and mesosphere [e.g. Hoffmann et al., JGR, 118, 2013; Gong et al., JGR, 120, 2015; Perwitasari et al., GRL, 42, 22, 2016]. Numerical studies have been performed to investigate the generation mechanisms, source spectra, and their effects on the middle and upper atmosphere [e.g. Fovell et al., AMS, 49,16, 1992; Alexander and Holton, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 4 2004; Vincent et al., JGR, 1118, 2013], however there is still considerable work needed to fully describe these parameters. GCMs currently lack the resolution to explicitly simulate convection generation and rely on simplified parameterizations while full cloud resolving models are computationally expensive and often only extend into the stratosphere. More recent studies have improved the realism of these simulations by using radar derived precipitation rates to drive latent heating in models that simulate convection [Grimsdell et al., AMS, 67, 2010; Stephan and Alexander., J. Adv. Model. Earth. Syst, 7, 2015], however they too only consider wave propagation in the troposphere and stratosphere. We use a 2D nonlinear, fully compressible model [Snively and Pasko., JGR, 113, 2008] to excite convectively generated waves, based on NEXRAD radar data, using the Stephan and Alexander [2015] algorithms. We study the propagation, and spectral evolution of the generated waves up into the MLT region. Ambient atmosphere parameters are derived from observations and MERRA-2 reanalysis data, and stratospheric (AIRS) and mesospheric (Lidar, OH airglow) observations enable comparisons with simulation results.

  16. Microphysical effects determine macrophysical response for aerosol impacts on deep convective clouds. (United States)

    Fan, Jiwen; Leung, L Ruby; Rosenfeld, Daniel; Chen, Qian; Li, Zhanqing; Zhang, Jinqiang; Yan, Hongru


    Deep convective clouds (DCCs) play a crucial role in the general circulation, energy, and hydrological cycle of our climate system. Aerosol particles can influence DCCs by altering cloud properties, precipitation regimes, and radiation balance. Previous studies reported both invigoration and suppression of DCCs by aerosols, but few were concerned with the whole life cycle of DCC. By conducting multiple monthlong cloud-resolving simulations with spectral-bin cloud microphysics that capture the observed macrophysical and microphysical properties of summer convective clouds and precipitation in the tropics and midlatitudes, this study provides a comprehensive view of how aerosols affect cloud cover, cloud top height, and radiative forcing. We found that although the widely accepted theory of DCC invigoration due to aerosol's thermodynamic effect (additional latent heat release from freezing of greater amount of cloud water) may work during the growing stage, it is microphysical effect influenced by aerosols that drives the dramatic increase in cloud cover, cloud top height, and cloud thickness at the mature and dissipation stages by inducing larger amounts of smaller but longer-lasting ice particles in the stratiform/anvils of DCCs, even when thermodynamic invigoration of convection is absent. The thermodynamic invigoration effect contributes up to ~27% of total increase in cloud cover. The overall aerosol indirect effect is an atmospheric radiative warming (3-5 W m(-2)) and a surface cooling (-5 to -8 W m(-2)). The modeling findings are confirmed by the analyses of ample measurements made at three sites of distinctly different environments.

  17. Mantle Convection on Modern Supercomputers (United States)

    Weismüller, J.; Gmeiner, B.; Huber, M.; John, L.; Mohr, M.; Rüde, U.; Wohlmuth, B.; Bunge, H. P.


    Mantle convection is the cause for plate tectonics, the formation of mountains and oceans, and the main driving mechanism behind earthquakes. The convection process is modeled by a system of partial differential equations describing the conservation of mass, momentum and energy. Characteristic to mantle flow is the vast disparity of length scales from global to microscopic, turning mantle convection simulations into a challenging application for high-performance computing. As system size and technical complexity of the simulations continue to increase, design and implementation of simulation models for next generation large-scale architectures is handled successfully only in an interdisciplinary context. A new priority program - named SPPEXA - by the German Research Foundation (DFG) addresses this issue, and brings together computer scientists, mathematicians and application scientists around grand challenges in HPC. Here we report from the TERRA-NEO project, which is part of the high visibility SPPEXA program, and a joint effort of four research groups. TERRA-NEO develops algorithms for future HPC infrastructures, focusing on high computational efficiency and resilience in next generation mantle convection models. We present software that can resolve the Earth's mantle with up to 1012 grid points and scales efficiently to massively parallel hardware with more than 50,000 processors. We use our simulations to explore the dynamic regime of mantle convection and assess the impact of small scale processes on global mantle flow.

  18. Generation of continental rifts, basins, and swells by lithosphere instabilities (United States)

    Fourel, Loïc.; Milelli, Laura; Jaupart, Claude; Limare, Angela


    Continents may be affected simultaneously by rifting, uplift, volcanic activity, and basin formation in several different locations, suggesting a common driving mechanism that is intrinsic to continents. We describe a new type of convective instability at the base of the lithosphere that leads to a remarkable spatial pattern at the scale of an entire continent. We carried out fluid mechanics laboratory experiments on buoyant blocks of finite size that became unstable due to cooling from above. Dynamical behavior depends on three dimensionless numbers, a Rayleigh number for the unstable block, a buoyancy number that scales the intrinsic density contrast to the thermal one, and the aspect ratio of the block. Within the block, instability develops in two different ways in an outer annulus and in an interior region. In the outer annulus, upwellings and downwellings take the form of periodically spaced radial spokes. The interior region hosts the more familiar convective pattern of polygonal cells. In geological conditions, such instabilities should manifest themselves as linear rifts striking at a right angle to the continent-ocean boundary and an array of domal uplifts, volcanic swells, and basins in the continental interior. Simple scaling laws for the dimensions and spacings of the convective structures are derived. For the subcontinental lithospheric mantle, these dimensions take values in the 500-1000 km range, close to geological examples. The large intrinsic buoyancy of Archean lithospheric roots prevents this type of instability, which explains why the widespread volcanic activity that currently affects Western Africa is confined to post-Archean domains.

  19. Convective behaviour in severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, C.F.


    The nature and magnitude of the hazard from radioactivity posed by a possible nuclear accident depend strongly on convective behaviour within and immediately adjacent to the plant in question. This behaviour depends upon the nature of the vapour-gas-aerosol mixture concerned, and can show unusual properties such as 'upside-down' convection in which hot mixtures fall and cold mixtures rise. Predictions and criteria as to the types of behaviour which could possibly occur are summarised. Possible applications to present reactors are considered, and ways in which presently expected convection could be drastically modified are described. In some circumstances these could be used to suppress the radioactive source term or to switch its effect between distant dilute contamination and severe local contamination. (author). 8 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  20. Topology Optimization for Convection Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexandersen, Joe


    This report deals with the topology optimization of convection problems.That is, the aim of the project is to develop, implement and examine topology optimization of purely thermal and coupled thermomechanical problems,when the design-dependent eects of convection are taken into consideration.......This is done by the use of a self-programmed FORTRAN-code, which builds on an existing 2D-plane thermomechanical nite element code implementing during the course `41525 FEM-Heavy'. The topology optimizationfeatures have been implemented from scratch, and allows the program to optimize elastostatic mechanical...

  1. Experimental methods in natural convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koster, J.N.


    Some common experimental techniques to determine local velocities and to visualize temperature fields in natural convection research are discussed. First the physics and practice of anemometers are discussed with emphasis put on optical anemometers. In the second and third case the physics and practice of the most developed interferometers are discussed; namely differential interferometry for visualization of temperature gradient fields and holographic interferometry for visualization of temperature fields. At the Institut fuer Reaktorbauelemente these three measuring techniques are applied for convection and pipe flow studies. (orig.) [de

  2. Whither the UK Continental Shelf?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemp, A.G.


    The development of the oil and gas fields on the United Kingdom continental shelf has been carried out with remarkable success. However, low oil prices now threaten fresh investment and make it likely that both oil and gas output will start to fall in about 2001. The impact of a number of different price scenarios on further development is assessed. It is concluded that continuing technological improvements and the provision of adequate incentives by government should ensure a long productive future for the province. (UK)

  3. Continental growth and mantle hydration as intertwined feedback cycles in the thermal evolution of Earth (United States)

    Höning, Dennis; Spohn, Tilman


    A model of Earth's continental coverage and mantle water budget is discussed along with its thermal evolution. The model links a thermal evolution model based on parameterized mantle convection with a model of a generic subduction zone that includes the oceanic crust and a sedimentary layer as carriers of water. Part of the subducted water is used to produce continental crust while the remainder is subducted into the mantle. The total length of the subduction zones is calculated from the total surface area of continental crust assuming randomly distributed continents. The mantle viscosity is dependent of temperature and the water concentration. Sediments are generated by continental crust erosion, and water outgassing at mid-oceanic ridges closes the water cycle. We discuss the strongly coupled, non-linear model using a phase plane defined by the continental coverage and mantle water concentration. Fixed points are found in the phase plane at which the rates of change of both variables are zero. These fixed points evolve with time, but in many cases, three fixed points emerge of which two are stable and an intermediate point is unstable with respect to continental coverage. With initial conditions from a Monte-Carlo scheme we calculate evolution paths in the phase plane and find a large spread of final states that all have a mostly balanced water budget. The present day observed 40% continental surface coverage is found near the unstable fixed point. Our evolution model suggests that Earth's continental coverage formed early and has been stable for at least 1.5 Gyr. The effect of mantle water regassing (and mantle viscosity depending on water concentration) is found to lower the present day mantle temperature by about 120 K, but the present day mantle viscosity is affected little. The water cycle thus complements the well-known thermostat effect of viscosity and mantle temperature. Our results further suggest that the biosphere could impact the feedback cycles by

  4. Glacial vs. Interglacial Period Contrasts in Midlatitude Fluvial Systems, with Examples from Western Europe and the Texas Coastal Plain (United States)

    Blum, M.


    Mixed bedrock-alluvial valleys are the conveyor belts for sediment delivery to passive continental margins. Mapping, stratigraphic and sedimentologic investigations, and development of geochronological frameworks for large midlatitude rivers of this type, in Western Europe and the Texas Coastal Plain, provide for evaluation of fluvial responses to climate change over the last glacial-interglacial period, and the foundations for future quantitative evaluation of long profile evolution, changes through time in flood magnitude, and changes in storage and flux of sediments. This paper focuses on two issues. First, glacial vs. interglacial period fluvial systems are fundamentally different in terms of channel geometry, depositional style, and patterns of sediment storage. Glacial-period systems were dominated by coarse-grained channel belts (braided channels in Europe, large-wavelength meandering in Texas), and lacked fine-grained flood-plain deposits, whereas Holocene units, especially those of late Holocene age, contain appreciable thicknesses of flood-plain facies. Hence, extreme overbank flooding was not significant during the long glacial period, most flood events were contained within bankfull channel perimeters, and fine sediments were bypassed through the system to marine basins. By contrast, extreme overbank floods have been increasingly important during the relatively short Holocene, and a significant volume of fine sediment is sequestered in flood-plain settings. Second, glacial vs. interglacial systems exhibit different amplitudes and frequencies of fluvial adjustment to climate change. High-amplitude but low-frequency adjustments characterized the long glacial period, with 2-3 extended periods of lateral migration and sediment storage puncuated by episodes of valley incision. Low-amplitude but high-frequency adjustments have been more typical of the short Holocene, when there has been little net valley incision or net changes in sediment storage, but

  5. Urban Heat Island phenomenon in extreme continental climate (Astana, Kazakhstan) (United States)

    Konstantinov, Pavel; Akhmetova, Alina


    Urban Heat Island (UHI) phenomenon is well known in scientific literature since first half of the 19th century [1]. By now a wide number of world capitals is described from climatological point of view, especially in mid-latitudes. In beginning of XXI century new studies focus on heat island of tropical cities. However dynamics UHI in extreme continental climates is insufficiently investigated, due to the fact that there isn't large cities in Europe and Northern America within that climate type. In this paper we investigate seasonal and diurnal dynamics UHI intensity for Astana, capital city of Kazakhstan (population larger than 835 000 within the city) including UHI intensity changes on different time scales. Now (since 1998) Astana is the second coldest capital city in the world after Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia [3] For this study we use the UHI investigation technology, described in [2]. According to this paper, we selected three stations: one located into city in high and midrise buildings area (including extensive lowrise and high-energy industrial - LCZ classification) and two others located in rural site (sparsely built or open-set and lightweight lowrise according LCZ classification). Also these stations must be close by distance (less than 100 km) and altitude. Therefore, first for Astana city were obtained numerical evaluations for UHI climate dynamics, UHI dependence of synoptic situations and total UHI climatology on monthly and daily averages. References: 1.Howard, L. (1833) The Climate of London, Deduced from Meteorological Observations. Volume 2, London. 2.Kukanova E.A., Konstantinov P.I. An urban heat islands climatology in Russia and linkages to the climate change In Geophysical Research Abstracts, volume 16 of EGU General Assembly, pages EGU2014-10833-1, Germany, 2014. Germany.

  6. Thermal models pertaining to continental growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, P.; Ashwal, L.


    Thermal models are important to understanding continental growth as the genesis, stabilization, and possible recycling of continental crust are closely related to the tectonic processes of the earth which are driven primarily by heat. The thermal energy budget of the earth was slowly decreasing since core formation, and thus the energy driving the terrestrial tectonic engine was decreasing. This fundamental observation was used to develop a logic tree defining the options for continental growth throughout earth history

  7. Segregation and convection in dendritic alloys (United States)

    Poirier, D. R.


    Microsegregation in dentritic alloys is discussed, including solidification with and without thermal gradient, the convection of interdendritic liquid. The conservation of momentum, energy, and solute is considered. Directional solidification and thermosolutal convection are discussed.

  8. The importance of resolution on the response of mid-latitude transients to enhanced CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senior, C.A.


    The impact of global warming on the activity of the mid-latitude transients is not well understood. Work with simple models suggests that there will be two competing effects on transient activity. Firstly, there will be a reduction in the baroclinicity due to a smaller pole-equator temperature gradient and secondly there will be increased moisture availability in a warmer atmosphere. A comparison of the mid-latitude transients from two versions of the Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research GCM run at different resolutions is presented and the importance of resolution on the simulation of the high and low frequency variability is discussed. At higher resolution, one of the largest responses of the model to a doubling of atmospheric CO 2 is an enhancement of the westerly flow in the North Atlantic, but this is much reduced at lower resolution. Consistency is sort between changes in the time mean flow and the transient behavior

  9. Modelling of the electron density height profiles in the mid-latitude ionospheric D-region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Y. Mukhtarov


    Full Text Available A new mid-latitude D-region (50-105 km model of the electron density is presented obtained on the basis of a full wave theory and by a trial-and-error inversion method. Daytime (at different solar zenith angles absorption measurements by A3-technique made in Bulgaria yielded data with the aid of which the seasonal and diurnal courses of the Ne(h-profiles were derived. Special attention is drawn to the event diurnal asymmetry, or uneven formation of the ionosphere as a function of insulation. The latter is probably connected with the influence of the diurnal fluctuations in the local temperature on the chemistry involved in the electron loss rate, as well as the diurnal variations of the main ionizing agent (NO in the D-region. That is why the Ne(h-profiles in the midlatitude D-region are modelled separately for morning and afternoon hours.

  10. Heat stress increase under climate change twice as large in cities as in rural areas: A study for a densely populated midlatitude maritime region (United States)

    Wouters, Hendrik; De Ridder, Koen; Poelmans, Lien; Willems, Patrick; Brouwers, Johan; Hosseinzadehtalaei, Parisa; Tabari, Hossein; Vanden Broucke, Sam; van Lipzig, Nicole P. M.; Demuzere, Matthias


    Urban areas are usually warmer than their surrounding natural areas, an effect known as the urban heat island effect. As such, they are particularly vulnerable to global warming and associated increases in extreme temperatures. Yet ensemble climate-model projections are generally performed on a scale that is too coarse to represent the evolution of temperatures in cities. Here, for the first time, we combine unprecedented long-term (35 years) urban climate model integrations at the convection-permitting scale (2.8 km resolution) with information from an ensemble of general circulation models to assess temperature-based heat stress for Belgium, a densely populated midlatitude maritime region. We discover that the heat stress increase toward the mid-21st century is twice as large in cities compared to their surrounding rural areas. The exacerbation is driven by the urban heat island itself, its concurrence with heat waves, and urban expansion. Cities experience a heat stress multiplication by a factor 1.4 and 15 depending on the scenario. Remarkably, the future heat stress surpasses everywhere the urban hot spots of today. Our results demonstrate the need to combine information from climate models, acting on different scales, for climate change risk assessment in heterogeneous regions. Moreover, these results highlight the necessity for adaptation to increasing heat stress, especially in urban areas.

  11. Boiling Suppression in Convective Flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aounallah, Y.


    The development of convective boiling heat transfer correlations and analytical models has almost exclusively been based on measurements of the total heat flux, and therefore on the overall two-phase heat transfer coefficient, when the well-known heat transfer correlations have often assumed additive mechanisms, one for each mode of heat transfer, convection and boiling. While the global performance of such correlations can readily be assessed, the predictive capability of the individual components of the correlation has usually remained elusive. This becomes important when, for example, developing mechanistic models for subcooled void formation based on the partitioning of the wall heat flux into a boiling and a convective component, or when extending a correlation beyond its original range of applications where the preponderance of the heat transfer mechanisms involved can be significantly different. A new examination of existing experimental heat transfer data obtained under fixed hydrodynamic conditions, whereby the local flow conditions are decoupled from the local heat flux, has allowed the unequivocal isolation of the boiling contribution over a broad range of thermodynamic qualities (0 to 0.8) for water at 7 MPa. Boiling suppression, as the quality increases, has consequently been quantified, thus providing valuable new insights on the functionality and contribution of boiling in convective flows. (author)

  12. Synoptic-scale circulation patterns during summer derived from tree rings in mid-latitude Asia (United States)

    Seim, Andrea; Schultz, Johannes A.; Leland, Caroline; Davi, Nicole; Byambasuren, Oyunsanaa; Liang, Eryuan; Wang, Xiaochun; Beck, Christoph; Linderholm, Hans W.; Pederson, Neil


    Understanding past and recent climate and atmospheric circulation variability is vital for regions that are affected by climate extremes. In mid-latitude Asia, however, the synoptic climatology is complex and not yet fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate dominant synoptic-scale circulation patterns during the summer season using a multi-species tree-ring width (TRW) network comprising 78 sites from mid-latitude Asia. For each TRW chronology, we calculated an atmospheric circulation tree-ring index (ACTI), based on 1000 hPa geopotential height data, to directly link tree growth to 13 summertime weather types and their associated local climate conditions for the period 1871-1993. Using the ACTI, three groups of similarly responding tree-ring sites can be associated with distinct large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns: 1. growth of drought sensitive trees is positively affected by a cyclone over northern Russia; 2. temperature sensitive trees show positive associations to a cyclone over northwestern Russia and an anticyclone over Mongolia; 3. trees at two high elevation sites show positive relations to a zonal cyclone extending from mid-latitude Eurasia to the West Pacific. The identified synoptic-scale circulation patterns showed spatiotemporal variability in their intensity and position, causing temporally varying climate conditions in mid-latitude Asia. Our results highlight that for regions with less pronounced atmospheric action centers during summer such as the occurrence of large-scale cyclones and anticyclones, synoptic-scale circulation patterns can be extracted and linked to the Northern Hemisphere circulation system. Thus, we provide a new and solid envelope for climate studies covering the past to the future.

  13. Height and critical frequency variations of the sporadic-E layer at midlatitudes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šauli, Petra; Bourdillon, A.


    Roč. 70, č. 15 (2008), s. 1904-1910 ISSN 1364-6826 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300420704 Grant - others:European Union(XE) COST 296 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : Sporadic E * Planetary waves * Tidal waves * Mid-latitude ionosphere * Wavelet transform Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.667, year: 2008

  14. Depositional environments and cyclo- and chronostratigraphy of uppermost Carboniferous-Lower Triassic -lacustrine deposits, southern Bogda Mountains, NW China - A terrestrfluvialial paleoclimatic record of mid-latitude NE Pangea (United States)

    Yang, W.; Feng, Q.; Liu, Yajing; Tabor, N.; Miggins, D.; Crowley, J.L.; Lin, J.; Thomas, S.


    semiarid–subhumid conditions from Sakamarian to Artinskian–Kungurian (?) and from middle Induan to end of Olenekian are in conflict with modern mid-latitude east coast meso- and macrothermal humid climate. Extreme continentality, regional orographic effect, and/or abnormal circulation of Paleo-Tethys maybe are possible causes. Our work serves as a rare data point at mid-latitude NE Pangea for climate modeling to seek explanations on the origin(s) of climate variability in NE Pangea from latest Carboniferous to Early Triassic.

  15. A transilient matrix for moist convection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romps, D.; Kuang, Z.


    A method is introduced for diagnosing a transilient matrix for moist convection. This transilient matrix quantifies the nonlocal transport of air by convective eddies: for every height z, it gives the distribution of starting heights z{prime} for the eddies that arrive at z. In a cloud-resolving simulation of deep convection, the transilient matrix shows that two-thirds of the subcloud air convecting into the free troposphere originates from within 100 m of the surface. This finding clarifies which initial height to use when calculating convective available potential energy from soundings of the tropical troposphere.

  16. How Continental Bank outsourced its "crown jewels.". (United States)

    Huber, R L


    No industry relies more on information than banking does, yet Continental, one of America's largest banks, outsources its information technology. Why? Because that's the best way to service the customers that form the core of the bank's business, says vice chairman Dick Huber. In the late 1970s and early 1980s, Continental participated heavily with Penn Square Bank in energy investments. When falling energy prices burst Penn Square's bubble in 1982, Continental was stuck with more than $1 billion in bad loans. Eight years later when Dick Huber came on board, Continental was working hard to restore its once solid reputation. Executives had made many tough decisions already, altering the bank's focus from retail to business banking and laying off thousands of employees. Yet management still needed to cut costs and improve services to stay afloat. Regulators, investors, and analysts were watching every step. Continental executives, eager to focus on the bank's core mission of serving business customers, decided to outsource one after another in-house service--from cafeteria services to information technology. While conventional wisdom holds that banks must retain complete internal control of IT, Continental bucked this argument when it entered into a ten-year, multimillion-dollar contract with Integrated Systems Solutions Corporation. Continental is already reaping benefits from outsourcing IT. Most important, Continental staffers today focus on their true core competencies: intimate knowledge of customers' needs and relationships with customers.

  17. Contribution to the tritium continental effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, R.R.; Froehlich, K.; Hebert, D.


    The results of tritium measurements of atmospheric water vapour and precipitation samples for 1982 and 1983 are presented. The data were used to establish a simple model describing the tritium continental effect taking into account re-evaporation of tritium from the continental land surfaces and man-made tritium. (author)

  18. Contribution to the tritium continental effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, R.R.; Froehlich, K.; Hebert, D.


    The results of tritium measurements of atmospheric water vapour and precipitation samples for 1982 and 1983 are presented. The data were used to establish a simple model describing the tritium continental effect taking into account re-evaporation of tritium from the continental land surfaces. Some comments on man made tritium are given. (author)

  19. First airborne water vapor lidar measurements in the tropical upper troposphere and mid-latitudes lower stratosphere: accuracy evaluation and intercomparisons with other instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Schiller


    Full Text Available In the tropics, deep convection is the major source of uncertainty in water vapor transport to the upper troposphere and into the stratosphere. Although accurate measurements in this region would be of first order importance to better understand the processes that govern stratospheric water vapor concentrations and trends in the context of a changing climate, they are sparse because of instrumental shortcomings and observational challenges. Therefore, the Falcon research aircraft of the Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR flew a zenith-viewing water vapor differential absorption lidar (DIAL during the Tropical Convection, Cirrus and Nitrogen Oxides Experiment (TROCCINOX in 2004 and 2005 in Brazil. The measurements were performed alternatively on three water vapor absorption lines of different strength around 940 nm. These are the first aircraft DIAL measurements in the tropical upper troposphere and in the mid-latitudes lower stratosphere. Sensitivity analyses reveal an accuracy of 5% between altitudes of 8 and 16 km. This is confirmed by intercomparisons with the Fast In-situ Stratospheric Hygrometer (FISH and the Fluorescent Advanced Stratospheric Hygrometer (FLASH onboard the Russian M-55 Geophysica research aircraft during five coordinated flights. The average relative differences between FISH and DIAL amount to −3%±8% and between FLASH and DIAL to −8%±14%, negative meaning DIAL is more humid. The average distance between the probed air masses was 129 km. The DIAL is found to have no altitude- or latitude-dependent bias. A comparison with the balloon ascent of a laser absorption spectrometer gives an average difference of 0%±19% at a distance of 75 km. Six tropical DIAL under-flights of the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS on board ENVISAT reveal a mean difference of −8%±49% at an average distance of 315 km. While the comparison with MIPAS is somewhat less significant due to poorer

  20. Convective aggregation in realistic convective-scale simulations (United States)

    Holloway, Christopher E.


    To investigate the real-world relevance of idealized-model convective self-aggregation, five 15 day cases of real organized convection in the tropics are simulated. These include multiple simulations of each case to test sensitivities of the convective organization and mean states to interactive radiation, interactive surface fluxes, and evaporation of rain. These simulations are compared to self-aggregation seen in the same model configured to run in idealized radiative-convective equilibrium. Analysis of the budget of the spatial variance of column-integrated frozen moist static energy shows that control runs have significant positive contributions to organization from radiation and negative contributions from surface fluxes and transport, similar to idealized runs once they become aggregated. Despite identical lateral boundary conditions for all experiments in each case, systematic differences in mean column water vapor (CWV), CWV distribution shape, and CWV autocorrelation length scale are found between the different sensitivity runs, particularly for those without interactive radiation, showing that there are at least some similarities in sensitivities to these feedbacks in both idealized and realistic simulations (although the organization of precipitation shows less sensitivity to interactive radiation). The magnitudes and signs of these systematic differences are consistent with a rough equilibrium between (1) equalization due to advection from the lateral boundaries and (2) disaggregation due to the absence of interactive radiation, implying disaggregation rates comparable to those in idealized runs with aggregated initial conditions and noninteractive radiation. This points to a plausible similarity in the way that radiation feedbacks maintain aggregated convection in both idealized simulations and the real world.Plain Language SummaryUnderstanding the processes that lead to the organization of tropical rainstorms is an important challenge for weather

  1. CRUCIB: an axisymmetric convection code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertram, L.A.


    The CRUCIB code was written in support of an experimental program aimed at measurement of thermal diffusivities of refractory liquids. Precise values of diffusivity are necessary to realistic analysis of reactor safety problems, nuclear waste disposal procedures, and fundamental metal forming processes. The code calculates the axisymmetric transient convective motions produced in a right circular cylindrical crucible, which is surface heated by an annular heat pulse. Emphasis of this report is placed on the input-output options of the CRUCIB code, which are tailored to assess the importance of the convective heat transfer in determining the surface temperature distribution. Use is limited to Prandtl numbers less than unity; larger values can be accommodated by replacement of a single block of the code, if desired. (U.S.)

  2. Fluid convection, constraint and causation (United States)

    Bishop, Robert C.


    Complexity—nonlinear dynamics for my purposes in this essay—is rich with metaphysical and epistemological implications but is receiving sustained philosophical analysis only recently. I will explore some of the subtleties of causation and constraint in Rayleigh–Bénard convection as an example of a complex phenomenon, and extract some lessons for further philosophical reflection on top-down constraint and causation particularly with respect to causal foundationalism. PMID:23386955

  3. Cryogenic helium gas convection research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnelly, R.J.


    This is a report prepared by a group interested in doing research in thermal convection using the large scale refrigeration facilities available at the SSC Laboratories (SSCL). The group preparing this report consists of Michael McAshan at SSCL, Robert Behringer at Duke University, Katepalli Sreenivasan at Yale University, Xiao-Zhong Wu at Northern Illinois University and Russell Donnelly at the University of Oregon, who served as Editor for this report. This study reports the research and development opportunities in such a project, the technical requirements and feasibility of its construction and operation, and the costs associated with the needed facilities and support activities. The facility will be a unique national resource for studies of high-Reynolds-number and high-Rayleigh-number and high Rayleigh number turbulence phenomena, and is one of the six items determined as suitable for potential funding through a screening of Expressions of Interest. The proposed facility is possible only because of the advanced cryogenic technology available at the SSCL. Typical scientific issues to be addressed in the facility will be discussed. It devolved during our study, that while the main experiment is still considered to be the thermal convection experiment discussed in our original Expression of Interest, there are now a very substantial set of other, important and fundamental experiments which can be done with the large cryostat proposed for the convection experiment. We believe the facility could provide several decades of front-line research in turbulence, and shall describe why this is so

  4. Thermosolutal convection during dendritic solidification (United States)

    Heinrich, J. C.; Nandapurkar, P.; Poirier, D. R.; Felicelli, S.


    This paper presents a mathematical model for directional solidification of a binary alloy including a dendritic region underlying an all-liquid region. It is assumed initially that there exists a nonconvecting state with planar isotherms and isoconcentrates solidifying at a constant velocity. The stability of this system has been analyzed and nonlinear calculations are performed that show the effect of convection in the solidification process when the system is unstable. Results of calculations for various cases defined by the initial temperature gradient at the dendrite tips and varying strength of the gravitational field are presented for systems involving lead-tin alloys. The results show that the systems are stable for a gravitational constant of 0.0001 g(0) and that convection can be suppressed by appropriate choice of the container's size for higher values of the gravitational constant. It is also concluded that for the lead-tin systems considered, convection in the mushy zone is not significant below the upper 20 percent of the dendritic zone, if al all.

  5. Atmospheric circulation changes and neoglacial conditions in the Southern Hemisphere mid-latitudes: insights from PMIP2 simulations at 6 kyr (United States)

    Rojas, Maisa; Moreno, Patricio I.


    Glacial geologic studies in the Southern Hemisphere (SH) mid-latitudes (40-54°S) indicate renewed glacial activity in southern South America (Patagonia) and New Zealand's (NZ) South Island starting at ˜7 kyr, the so-called neoglaciation. Available data indicate that neoglacial advances in these regions occurred during a rising trend in atmospheric CO2 and CH4 concentrations, lower-than-present but increasing summer insolation and seasonality contrasts. In this paper we examine the climatological context in which neoglaciations occurred through analysis of the complete Paleoclimate Modelling Inter-comparison Project (PMIP2) database of simulations at 6 kyr for the SH. We observe that the amplitude of the annual insolation cycle in the SH did not change significantly at 6 kyr compared to the pre-industrial values, the largest difference occurring in autumn (MAM, negative anomalies) and spring (SON, positive anomalies). The simulated changes in temperatures over the SH respond to the insolation changes, with a 1-2 month delay over the oceans. This results in a reduced amplitude of the annual cycle of temperature and precipitation over most continental regions, except over Patagonia and NZ, that show a slight increase. In contrast, large-scale circulation features, such as the low and upper level winds and the subtropical anticyclones show an amplified annual cycle, as a direct response to the increased/decreased insolation during the transitional seasons SON/MAM. In the annual mean, there is a small but consistent equatorward shift of the latitude of maximum wind speed of 1-3° over the entire SH, which results in a small increase of wind speed over the South Pacific and Atlantic Oceans north of ˜50°S and a widespread decline south of 50°S. PMIP2 simulations for 6 kyr, indicate that in the annual mean, the SH mid-latitudes were colder, wetter and with stronger winds north of about 50°S. These conditions are consistent with the observed neoglacial advances in the

  6. Atmospheric circulation changes and neoglacial conditions in the Southern Hemisphere mid-latitudes: insights from PMIP2 simulations at 6 kyr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas, Maisa [University of Chile, Department of Geophysics, Santiago (Chile); Moreno, Patricio I. [University of Chile, Department of Ecology, Santiago (Chile)


    Glacial geologic studies in the Southern Hemisphere (SH) mid-latitudes (40-54 S) indicate renewed glacial activity in southern South America (Patagonia) and New Zealand's (NZ) South Island starting at {proportional_to}7 kyr, the so-called neoglaciation. Available data indicate that neoglacial advances in these regions occurred during a rising trend in atmospheric CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} concentrations, lower-than-present but increasing summer insolation and seasonality contrasts. In this paper we examine the climatological context in which neoglaciations occurred through analysis of the complete Paleoclimate Modelling Inter-comparison Project (PMIP2) database of simulations at 6 kyr for the SH. We observe that the amplitude of the annual insolation cycle in the SH did not change significantly at 6 kyr compared to the pre-industrial values, the largest difference occurring in autumn (MAM, negative anomalies) and spring (SON, positive anomalies). The simulated changes in temperatures over the SH respond to the insolation changes, with a 1-2 month delay over the oceans. This results in a reduced amplitude of the annual cycle of temperature and precipitation over most continental regions, except over Patagonia and NZ, that show a slight increase. In contrast, large-scale circulation features, such as the low and upper level winds and the subtropical anticyclones show an amplified annual cycle, as a direct response to the increased/decreased insolation during the transitional seasons SON/MAM. In the annual mean, there is a small but consistent equatorward shift of the latitude of maximum wind speed of 1-3 over the entire SH, which results in a small increase of wind speed over the South Pacific and Atlantic Oceans north of {proportional_to}50 S and a widespread decline south of 50 S. PMIP2 simulations for 6 kyr, indicate that in the annual mean, the SH mid-latitudes were colder, wetter and with stronger winds north of about 50 S. These conditions are consistent

  7. 3D numerical simulations of multiphase continental rifting (United States)

    Naliboff, J.; Glerum, A.; Brune, S.


    Observations of rifted margin architecture suggest continental breakup occurs through multiple phases of extension with distinct styles of deformation. The initial rifting stages are often characterized by slow extension rates and distributed normal faulting in the upper crust decoupled from deformation in the lower crust and mantle lithosphere. Further rifting marks a transition to higher extension rates and coupling between the crust and mantle lithosphere, with deformation typically focused along large-scale detachment faults. Significantly, recent detailed reconstructions and high-resolution 2D numerical simulations suggest that rather than remaining focused on a single long-lived detachment fault, deformation in this phase may progress toward lithospheric breakup through a complex process of fault interaction and development. The numerical simulations also suggest that an initial phase of distributed normal faulting can play a key role in the development of these complex fault networks and the resulting finite deformation patterns. Motivated by these findings, we will present 3D numerical simulations of continental rifting that examine the role of temporal increases in extension velocity on rifted margin structure. The numerical simulations are developed with the massively parallel finite-element code ASPECT. While originally designed to model mantle convection using advanced solvers and adaptive mesh refinement techniques, ASPECT has been extended to model visco-plastic deformation that combines a Drucker Prager yield criterion with non-linear dislocation and diffusion creep. To promote deformation localization, the internal friction angle and cohesion weaken as a function of accumulated plastic strain. Rather than prescribing a single zone of weakness to initiate deformation, an initial random perturbation of the plastic strain field combined with rapid strain weakening produces distributed normal faulting at relatively slow rates of extension in both 2D and


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passos, Dário; Charbonneau, Paul; Miesch, Mark


    The form of solar meridional circulation is a very important ingredient for mean field flux transport dynamo models. However, a shroud of mystery still surrounds this large-scale flow, given that its measurement using current helioseismic techniques is challenging. In this work, we use results from three-dimensional global simulations of solar convection to infer the dynamical behavior of the established meridional circulation. We make a direct comparison between the meridional circulation that arises in these simulations and the latest observations. Based on our results, we argue that there should be an equatorward flow at the base of the convection zone at mid-latitudes, below the current maximum depth helioseismic measures can probe (0.75 R ⊙ ). We also provide physical arguments to justify this behavior. The simulations indicate that the meridional circulation undergoes substantial changes in morphology as the magnetic cycle unfolds. We close by discussing the importance of these dynamical changes for current methods of observation which involve long averaging periods of helioseismic data. Also noteworthy is the fact that these topological changes indicate a rich interaction between magnetic fields and plasma flows, which challenges the ubiquitous kinematic approach used in the vast majority of mean field dynamo simulations

  9. Video Tutorial of Continental Food (United States)

    Nurani, A. S.; Juwaedah, A.; Mahmudatussa'adah, A.


    This research is motivated by the belief in the importance of media in a learning process. Media as an intermediary serves to focus on the attention of learners. Selection of appropriate learning media is very influential on the success of the delivery of information itself both in terms of cognitive, affective and skills. Continental food is a course that studies food that comes from Europe and is very complex. To reduce verbalism and provide more real learning, then the tutorial media is needed. Media tutorials that are audio visual can provide a more concrete learning experience. The purpose of this research is to develop tutorial media in the form of video. The method used is the development method with the stages of analyzing the learning objectives, creating a story board, validating the story board, revising the story board and making video tutorial media. The results show that the making of storyboards should be very thorough, and detailed in accordance with the learning objectives to reduce errors in video capture so as to save time, cost and effort. In video capturing, lighting, shooting angles, and soundproofing make an excellent contribution to the quality of tutorial video produced. In shooting should focus more on tools, materials, and processing. Video tutorials should be interactive and two-way.

  10. Continental energy plan. Canadian perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The 'continental energy plan' was first mentioned by US President George Bush during his election campaign, and relates to the adjustment of energy resources development in Canada and Mexico. The US energy policy aims to reduce US dependence on middle east oil supplies, increase US energy production, increase regional integration of energy supplies throughout North America, increase US refining capacity, reduce regulatory barriers, increase use of alternative energies, and to increase support for research and development. Under the Canada/US FTA (Free Trade Agreement) and NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement), not less than 50% of Canadian crude oil and natural gas are imported to the US market. As for Mexico, it exempted most portions of its energy sector from the agreement during the NAFTA negotiations. Now that Mexico itself is facing energy shortage, however, it is anticipated that under President Vincente Fox it will adopt a policy like that of Canada and start development by introducing foreign money into the fields of oil, gas, and electricity. (NEDO)

  11. Using GPS TEC measurements to probe ionospheric spatial spectra at mid-latitudes (United States)

    Lay, E. H.; Parker, P. A.; Light, M. E.; Carrano, C. S.; Debchoudhury, S.; Haaser, R. A.


    The physics of how random ionospheric structure causes signal degradation is well understood as weak forward scattering through an effective diffraction grating created by plasma irregularities in the ionosphere. However, the spatial scale spectrum of those irregularities required for input into scintillation models and models of traveling ionospheric disturbances is poorly characterized, particularly at the kilometer to tens of kilometer scale lengths important for very-high-frequency (VHF) scintillation prediction. Furthermore, the majority of characterization studies have been performed in low-latitude or high-latitude regions where geomagnetic activity dominates the physical processes. At mid-latitudes, tropospheric and geomagnetic phenomena compete in disturbing the ionosphere, and it is not well understood how these multiple sources affect the drivers that influence the spatial spectrum. In this study, we are interested in mid-latitude electron density irregularities on the order of 10s of kilometers that would affect VHF signals. Data from the GPS networks Japan GEONET and the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO, UNAVCO) in the western United States were analyzed for this study. Japan GEONET is a dense network of GPS receivers (station spacing of tens of km), with fairly evenly spaced positions over all of Japan. The PBO, on the other hand, has several pockets of extremely dense coverage (station spacing within a few km), but is less dense on average. We analyze a day with a large solar storm (2015/03/17, St. Patrick's Day Storm) to allow high scintillation potential at mid-latitudes, a day with low geomagnetic activity and low thunderstorm activity (2016/01/31), and a day with low geomagnetic activity and high thunderstorm activity (2015/08/02). We then perform two-dimensional spatial analyses on the TEC data from these two networks on scale lengths of 20 to 200 km to infer the spatial scale spectra.

  12. Seasonal ionospheric scintillation analysis during increasing solar activity at mid-latitude (United States)

    Ahmed, Wasiu Akande; Wu, Falin; Agbaje, Ganiyu Ishola; Ednofri, Ednofri; Marlia, Dessi; Zhao, Yan


    Monitoring of ionospheric parameters (such as Total Electron Content and scintillation) is of great importance as it affects and contributes to the errors encountered by radio signals. It thus requires constant measurements to avoid disastrous situation for space agencies, parastatals and departments that employ GNSS applications in their daily operations. The research objective is to have a better understanding of the behaviour of ionospheric scintillation at midlatitude as it threatens the performances of satellite communication, navigation systems and military operations. This paper adopts seasonal ionospheric scintillation scenario. The mid-latitude investigation of ionospheric effect of scintillation was conducted during the increasing solar activity from 2011-2015. Ionospheric scintillation data were obtained from four ionospheric monitoring stations located at mid-latitude (i.e Shenzhen North Station, Beijing Changping North Station Branch, Beijing North Station and Beijing Miyun ground Station). The data was collected from January 2011 to December 2015. There were absence of data due to software problem or system failure at some locations. The scintillation phenomenon was computed using Global Ionospheric Scintillation and TEC Monitoring Model. There are four seasons which existed in China namely: Spring, Summer, Autumn and Winter. The relationship between TEC, amplitude and phase scintillation were observed for each of these seasons. The results indicated that the weak amplitude scintillation was observed as against phase scintillation which was high. Phase scintillation was gradually enhanced from 2011 to 2012 and later declined till 2014. TEC was also at peak around 00:00-10:00 UT (08:00-18:00 LT). The seasonal events temporal density characteristics comply with solar cycle prediction as such it ascended from 2011 to 2013 and then scintillation parameters declined significantly afterwards.

  13. Recent Basal Melting of a Mid-Latitude Glacier on Mars (United States)

    Butcher, Frances E. G.; Balme, M. R.; Gallagher, C.; Arnold, N. S.; Conway, S. J.; Hagermann, A.; Lewis, S. R.


    Evidence for past basal melting of young (late Amazonian-aged), debris-covered glaciers in Mars' mid-latitudes is extremely rare. Thus, it is widely thought that these viscous flow features (VFFs) have been perennially frozen to their beds. We identify an instance of recent, localized wet-based mid-latitude glaciation, evidenced by a candidate esker emerging from a VFF in a tectonic rift in Tempe Terra. Eskers are sedimentary ridges deposited in ice-walled meltwater conduits and are indicative of glacial melting. We compare the candidate esker to terrestrial analogues, present a geomorphic map of landforms in the rift, and develop a landsystem model to explain their formation. We propose that the candidate esker formed during a transient phase of wet-based glaciation. We then consider the similarity between the geologic setting of the new candidate esker and that of the only other candidate esker to be identified in association with an existing mid-latitude VFF; both are within tectonic graben/rifts proximal to volcanic provinces. Finally, we calculate potential basal temperatures for a range of VFF thicknesses, driving stresses, mean annual surface temperatures, and geothermal heat fluxes, which unlike previous studies, include the possible role of internal strain heating. Strain heating can form an important additional heat source, especially in flow convergence zones, or where ice is warmer due to elevated surface temperatures or geothermal heat flux. Elevated geothermal heat flux within rifts, perhaps combined with locally-elevated strain heating, may have permitted wet-based glaciation during the late Amazonian, when cold climates precluded more extensive wet-based glaciation on Mars.

  14. Effects of Major Sudden Stratospheric Warmings Identified in Midlatitude Mesospheric Rayleigh-Scatter Lidar Temperatures (United States)

    Sox, L.; Wickwar, V. B.; Fish, C. S.; Herron, J. P.


    Mesospheric temperature anomalies associated with Sudden Stratospheric Warmings (SSWs) have been observed extensively in the polar regions. However, observations of these anomalies at midlatitudes are sparse. The very dense 11-year data set, collected between 1993-2004, with the Rayleigh-scatter lidar at the Atmospheric Lidar Observatory (ALO; 41.7°N, 111.8°W) at the Center for Atmospheric and Space Sciences (CASS) on the campus of Utah State University (USU), has been carefully examined for such anomalies. The temperatures derived from these data extend over the mesosphere, from 45 to 90 km. During this period extensive data were acquired during seven major SSW events. In this work we aim to determine the characteristics of the midlatitude mesospheric temperatures during these seven major SSWs. To do this, comparisons were made between the temperature profiles on individual nights before, during, and after the SSW events and the corresponding derived climatological temperature profiles (31-day by 11-year average) for those nights. A consistent disturbance pattern was observed in the mesospheric temperatures during these SSWs. A distinct shift from the nominal winter temperature pattern to a pattern more characteristic of summer temperatures was seen in the midlatitude mesosphere close to when the zonal winds in the polar stratosphere (at 10 hPa, 60° N) reversed from eastward to westward. This shift lasted for several days. This change in pattern included coolings in the upper mesosphere, comparable to those seen in the polar regions, and warmings in the lower mesosphere.

  15. Continental crust formation: Numerical modelling of chemical evolution and geological implications (United States)

    Walzer, U.; Hendel, R.


    Oceanic plateaus develop by decompression melting of mantle plumes and have contributed to the growth of the continental crust throughout Earth's evolution. Occasional large-scale partial melting events of parts of the asthenosphere during the Archean produced large domains of precursor crustal material. The fractionation of arc-related crust during the Proterozoic and Phanerozoic contributed to the growth of continental crust. However, it remains unclear whether the continents or their precursors formed during episodic events or whether the gaps in zircon age records are a function of varying preservation potential. This study demonstrates that the formation of the continental crust was intrinsically tied to the thermoconvective evolution of the Earth's mantle. Our numerical solutions for the full set of physical balance equations of convection in a spherical shell mantle, combined with simplified equations of chemical continent-mantle differentiation, demonstrate that the actual rate of continental growth is not uniform through time. The kinetic energy of solid-state mantle creep (Ekin) slowly decreases with superposed episodic but not periodic maxima. In addition, laterally averaged surface heat flow (qob) behaves similarly but shows peaks that lag by 15-30 Ma compared with the Ekin peaks. Peak values of continental growth are delayed by 75-100 Ma relative to the qob maxima. The calculated present-day qob and total continental mass values agree well with observed values. Each episode of continental growth is separated from the next by an interval of quiescence that is not the result of variations in mantle creep velocity but instead reflects the fact that the peridotite solidus is not only a function of pressure but also of local water abundance. A period of differentiation results in a reduction in regional water concentrations, thereby increasing the temperature of the peridotite solidus and the regional viscosity of the mantle. By plausibly varying the

  16. A Regional GPS Receiver Network For Monitoring Mid-latitude Total Electron Content During Storms (United States)

    Vernon, A.; Cander, Lj. R.

    A regional GPS receiver network has been used for monitoring mid-latitude total elec- tron content (TEC) during ionospheric storms at the current solar maximum. Differ- ent individual storms were examined to study how the temporal patterns of changes develop and how they are related to solar and geomagnetic activity for parameter de- scriptive of plasmaspheric-ionospheric ionisation. Use is then made of computer con- touring techniques to produce snapshot maps of TEC for different study cases. Com- parisons with the local ionosonde data at different phases of the storms enable the storm developments to be studied in detail.

  17. Delayed storm-time increases in the whistler rate at mid-latitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, M.K.


    The occurrence of whistlers during 105 magnetic storms in the period 1963 to 1968 is studied. Evidence that more whistlers occur during the storm recovery period is presented. Assuming that the increased whistler rate implies the presence of more ducts, similarities are noted between the storm-time duct population and the incidence of mid-latitude spread-F in both time and space. It is suggested that a fresh examination of the physical processes involved in spread-F may aid understanding of the formation of whistler ducts. (author)

  18. Convective overshoot at the solar tachocline (United States)

    Brown, Benjamin; Oishi, Jeffrey S.; Anders, Evan H.; Lecoanet, Daniel; Burns, Keaton; Vasil, Geoffrey M.


    At the base of the solar convection zone lies the solar tachocline. This internal interface is where motions from the unstable convection zone above overshoot and penetrate downward into the stiffly stable radiative zone below, driving gravity waves, mixing, and possibly pumping and storing magnetic fields. Here we study the dynamics of convective overshoot across very stiff interfaces with some properties similar to the internal boundary layer within the Sun. We use the Dedalus pseudospectral framework and study fully compressible dynamics at moderate to high Peclet number and low Mach number, probing a regime where turbulent transport is important, and where the compressible dynamics are similar to those of convective motions in the deep solar interior. We find that the depth of convective overshoot is well described by a simple buoyancy equilibration model, and we consider implications for dynamics at the solar tachocline and for the storage of magnetic fields there by overshooting convection.

  19. The convection electric field in auroral substorms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerløv, Jesper Wittendorff; Hoffman, R.A.


    Dynamics Explorer 2 (DE 2) electric field and ion drift data are used in a statistical study of the ionospheric convection electric field in bulge-type auroral substorms. Thirty-one individual DE 2 substorm crossings were carefully selected and organized by the use of global auroral images obtained...... this database enabled us to compile a model of the ionospheric convection electric field. The characteristics of the premidnight convection reversal show a pronounced local time dependency. Far west of the surge it is a fairly well defined point reversal or convection shear. Approaching the surge and within...... the surge it is a region of weak electric fields increasing in width toward midnight that separates regions of equatorward and poleward electric fields. Therefore we adopt the term Harang region rather than the Harang discontinuity for the premidnight convection reversal. A relatively narrow convection...

  20. The pattern of convection in the Sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, N.O.


    The structure of solar magnetic fields is dominated by the effects of convection, which should be incorporated in any model of the solar cycle. Although mixing length theory is adequate for calculating the structure of main sequence stars, a better description of convection is needed for any detailed dynamo model. Recent work on nonlinear convection at low Prandt numbers is reviewed. There has been some progress towards a theory of compressible convection, though there is still no firm theoretical evidence for cells with scales less than the depth of the convecting layer. However, it remains likely that the pattern of solar convection is dominated by granules, supergranules and giant cells. The effects of rotation on these cells are briefly considered. (Auth.)

  1. Spatio-Temporal Variability of Western Central African Convection from Infrared Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derbetini A. Vondou


    Full Text Available The present study has used Meteosat infrared brightness temperature images to investigate the regional and interannual variability of Central African cloudiness. Spatial and temporal variability were investigated using half–hourly data from the Meteosat-7 during June–July–August (JJA of 1998–2002. The full domain of study (1.5E–17E, 1N–15N was divided into six regions and statistics in each region were derived. Analysis of the dependence of cloud fraction to the brightness temperature threshold is explored both over land and ocean. Three diurnal cycle regimes (continental, oceanic, and coastal are depicted according to the amplitude and peak time. Over regions of relatively flat terrain, results indicate enhancement of deep convection in the afternoon followed by a gradual decrease in the night. The diurnal cycle of convection is characterised by afternoon and early evening (around 15:00–18:00 LST maxima located mainly downwind of the major mountain chains, and a more rapid nighttime decay. In terms of the harmonic amplitude, the diurnal signal shows significant regional contrast with the strongest manifestation over the Adamaoua Plateau and the weakest near the South Cameroon Plateau. This remarkable spatial dependence is clear evidence of orographic and heterogeneous land-surface impacts on convective development. Oceanic region exhibits weak activity of convective cloudiness with a maximum at noon. It is suggested that daytime heating of the land surface and moist environment may play a role in determining the spatial distribution of cloud fraction. This study further demonstrates the importance of the Cameroon coastline concavity and coastal mountains in regulating regional frequencies of convection and their initialization. The strength of the diurnal cycle of convective activity depends on mountain height, mean flow, coastal geometry.

  2. The timescales of plume generation caused by continental aggregation (United States)

    Honda, Satoru; Yoshida, Masaki; Ootorii, Sakie; Iwase, Yasuyuki


    To understand the thermal evolution of the mantle following the aggregation of non-subductable thick continental lithosphere, we study a numerical model in which a supercontinent, simulated by high viscosity raft, HVR, covers a part of the top surface of a convection layer. We model infinite Prandtl number convection either in a three-dimensional (3D) spherical shell, 3D rectangular box (aspect ratios: 8 and 4) or two-dimensional (2D) rectangular box (aspect ratio: 8) and except for the HVR, we specify a constant viscosity. The HVR, which has a viscosity higher than that of its surrounding, is instantaneously placed on the top surface of a well-developed convection layer and its position is fixed. Our results from 3D spherical shell cases with and without phase transitions show the emergence of a large plume characterized by a long wavelength thermal anomaly (a degree one pattern) for a Pangea-like geometry. We analyze the volume averaged temperature under the HVR (=) the remaining (oceanic) area (=) and total area (=) to determine the timescale of plume generation. The difference between and (=Δ TCO) and show the existence of two characteristic timescales.Δ TCO exhibits an initial rapid increase and may become constant or continue to gradually increase. Meanwhile, shows a similar behavior but with a longer timescale. We find that these timescales associated with the increase of Δ TCO and can be attributed to the formation of large scale flow (i.e. plume) and response of the whole system to the emplacement of the HVR, respectively. For 3D spherical cases, we find that the timescale of plume generation is 1-2 Gyr, if the Rayleigh number is 10 6. To determine the effects of the viscosity of the HVR, 2D versus 3D modeling and the effects of the internal heating, we have also studied 2D and 3D rectangular box cases. A factor of about two variation exists in the timescale of plume generation. It appears that the timescale becomes greater for a smaller amount of

  3. Environments of Long-Lived Mesoscale Convective Systems Over the Central United States in Convection Permitting Climate Simulations: Long-Lived Mesoscale Convective Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Qing [Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Houze, Robert A. [Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle WA USA; Leung, L. Ruby [Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Feng, Zhe [Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA


    Continental-scale convection-permitting simulations of the warm seasons of 2011 and 2012 reproduce realistic structure and frequency distribution of lifetime and event mean precipitation of mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) over the central United States. Analysis is performed to determine the environmental conditions conducive to generating the longest-lived MCSs and their subsequent interactions. The simulations show that MCSs systematically form over the Great Plains ahead of a trough in the westerlies in combination with an enhanced low-level jet from the Gulf of Mexico. These environmental properties at the time of storm initiation are most prominent for the MCSs that persist for the longest times. Systems reaching 9 h or more in lifetime exhibit feedback to the environment conditions through diabatic heating in the MCS stratiform regions. As a result, the parent synoptic-scale wave is strengthened as a divergent perturbation develops over the MCS at high levels, while a cyclonic circulation perturbation develops in the midlevels of the trough, where the vertical gradient of heating in the MCS region is maximized. The quasi-balanced mesoscale vortex helps to maintain the MCS over a long period of time by feeding dry, cool air into the environment at the rear of the MCS region, so that the MCS can draw in air that increases the evaporative cooling that helps maintain the MCS. At lower levels the south-southeasterly jet of warm moist air from the Gulf is enhanced in the presence of the synoptic-scale wave. That moisture supply is essential to the continued redevelopment of the MCS.

  4. Volatile components and continental material of planets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florenskiy, K.P.; Nikolayeva, O.V.


    It is shown that the continental material of the terrestrial planets varies in composition from planet to planet according to the abundances and composition of true volatiles (H 2 0, CO 2 , etc.) in the outer shells of the planets. The formation of these shells occurs very early in a planet's evolution when the role of endogenous processes is indistinct and continental materials are subject to melting and vaporizing in the absence of an atmosphere. As a result, the chemical properties of continental materials are related not only to fractionation processes but also to meltability and volatility. For planets retaining a certain quantity of true volatile components, the chemical transformation of continental material is characterized by a close interaction between impact melting vaporization and endogeneous geological processes

  5. Exploration of the continental margins of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Siddiquie, H.N.; Hashimi, N.H.; Vora, K.H.; Pathak, M.C.

    impetus from sponsored surveys of other organizations, chiefly the oil industry, ports and harbours as well as industries disposing of their effluents in the marine environment. By now the entire western continental shelf and a large part...

  6. Titan Balloon Convection Model, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This innovative research effort is directed at determining, quantitatively, the convective heat transfer coefficients applicable to a Montgolfiere balloon operating...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M. Vodinchar


    Full Text Available We describe the large-scale model geodynamo, which based on indirect data of inhomogeneities in the density of the Earth’s core. Convection structure is associated with spherical harmonic Y24 , which defines the basic poloidal component of velocity. Coriolis drift of this mode determines the toroidal component of velocity. Thus, 6 convective cells are formed. The model takes into account the feedback effect of the magnetic field on convection. It was ascertained that the model contains stable regimes of field generation. The velocity of convection and the dipole component of the magnetic field are close to the observed ones.

  8. Scale analysis of convective clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micha Gryschka


    Full Text Available The size distribution of cumulus clouds due to shallow and deep convection is analyzed using satellite pictures, LES model results and data from the German rain radar network. The size distributions found can be described by simple power laws as has also been proposed for other cloud data in the literature. As the observed precipitation at ground stations is finally determined by cloud numbers in an area and individual sizes and rain rates of single clouds, the cloud size distributions might be used for developing empirical precipitation forecasts or for validating results from cloud resolving models being introduced to routine weather forecasts.

  9. Characterizing Convection in Stellar Atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanner, Joel; Basu, Sarbani; Demarque, Pierre; Robinson, Frank


    We perform 3D radiative hydrodynamic simulations to study the properties of convection in the superadiabatic layer of stars. The simulations show differences in both the stratification and turbulent quantities for different types of stars. We extract turbulent pressure and eddy sizes, as well as the T-τ relation for different stars and find that they are sensitive to the energy flux and gravity. We also show that contrary to what is usually assumed in the field of stellar atmospheres, the structure and gas dynamics of simulations of turbulent atmospheres cannot be parameterized with T eff and log(g) alone.

  10. Continental Contributions to Philosophy of Science




    The author reviews the book Continental Philosophy of Science, edited by Gary Gutting. Introductory remarks about the historical relationship between philosophy and science are followed by a presentation and discussion of different philosophies of science and commentaries on the eleven German and French authors whose texts are found in this volume. In addition to her assessment of Guttings’s collection, the author’s overall conclusion is that one characteristic trait of the Continental philos...

  11. Coordination: southeast continental shelf studies. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, D.W.


    The objectives are to identify important physical, chemical and biological processes which affect the transfer of materials on the southeast continental shelf, determine important parameters which govern observed temporal and spatial varibility on the continental shelf, determine the extent and modes of coupling between events at the shelf break and nearshore, and determine physical, chemical and biological exchange rates on the inner shelf. Progress in meeting these research objectives is presented. (ACR)

  12. Role of Acclimatization in Weather-Related Human Mortality During the Transition Seasons of Autumn and Spring in a Thermally Extreme Mid-Latitude Continental Climate (United States)

    de Freitas, Christopher R.; Grigorieva, Elena A.


    Human mortality is closely related to natural climate-determined levels of thermal environmental stress and the resulting thermophysiological strain. Most climate-mortality research has focused on seasonal extremes during winter and summer when mortality is the highest, while relatively little attention has been paid to mortality during the transitional seasons of autumn and spring. The body acclimatizes to heat in the summer and cold in winter and readjusts through acclimatization during the transitions between the two during which time the body experiences the thermophysiological strain of readjustment. To better understand the influences of weather on mortality through the acclimatization process, the aim here is to examine the periods that link very cold and very warms seasons. The study uses the Acclimatization Thermal Strain Index (ATSI), which is a comparative measure of short-term thermophysiological impact on the body. ATSI centers on heat exchange with the body’s core via the respiratory system, which cannot be protected. The analysis is based on data for a major city in the climatic region of the Russian Far East characterized by very hot summers and extremely cold winters. The results show that although mortality peaks in winter (January) and is at its lowest in summer (August), there is not a smooth rise through autumn nor a smooth decline through spring. A secondary peak occurs in autumn (October) with a smaller jump in May. This suggests the acclimatization from warm-to-cold produces more thermophysiological strain than the transition from cold-to-warm. The study shows that ATSI is a useful metric for quantifying the extent to which biophysical adaptation plays a role in increased strain on the body during re-acclimatization and for this reason is a more appropriate climatic indictor than air temperature alone. The work gives useful bioclimatic information on risks involved in transitional seasons in regions characterized by climatic extremes. This could be handy in planning and managing health services to the public and measures that might be used to help mitigate impacts. PMID:26703633

  13. Thermal comfort in Quebec City, Canada: sensitivity analysis of the UTCI and other popular thermal comfort indices in a mid-latitude continental city. (United States)

    Provençal, Simon; Bergeron, Onil; Leduc, Richard; Barrette, Nathalie


    The newly developed Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI), along with the physiological equivalent temperature (PET), the humidex (HX) and the wind chill index (WC), was calculated in Quebec City, Canada, a city with a strong seasonal climatic variability, over a 1-year period. The objective of this study is twofold: evaluate the operational benefits of implementing the UTCI for a climate monitoring program of public comfort and health awareness as opposed to relying on traditional and simple indices, and determine whether thermal comfort monitoring specific to dense urban neighborhoods is necessary to adequately fulfill the goals of the program. In order to do so, an analysis is performed to evaluate each of these indices' sensitivity to the meteorological variables that regulate them in different environments. Overall, the UTCI was found to be slightly more sensitive to mean radiant temperature, moderately more sensitive to humidity and much more sensitive to wind speed than the PET. This dynamic changed slightly depending on the environment and the season. In hot weather, the PET was found to be more sensitive to mean radiant temperature and therefore reached high values that could potentially be hazardous more frequently than the UTCI and the HX. In turn, the UTCI's stronger sensitivity to wind speed makes it a superior index to identify potentially hazardous weather in winter compared to the PET and the WC. Adopting the UTCI broadly would be an improvement over the traditionally popular HX and WC indices. The urban environment produced favorable conditions to sustain heat stress conditions, where the indices reached high values more frequently there than in suburban locations, which advocates for weather monitoring specific to denser urban areas.

  14. Thermal comfort in Quebec City, Canada: sensitivity analysis of the UTCI and other popular thermal comfort indices in a mid-latitude continental city (United States)

    Provençal, Simon; Bergeron, Onil; Leduc, Richard; Barrette, Nathalie


    The newly developed Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI), along with the physiological equivalent temperature (PET), the humidex (HX) and the wind chill index (WC), was calculated in Quebec City, Canada, a city with a strong seasonal climatic variability, over a 1-year period. The objective of this study is twofold: evaluate the operational benefits of implementing the UTCI for a climate monitoring program of public comfort and health awareness as opposed to relying on traditional and simple indices, and determine whether thermal comfort monitoring specific to dense urban neighborhoods is necessary to adequately fulfill the goals of the program. In order to do so, an analysis is performed to evaluate each of these indices' sensitivity to the meteorological variables that regulate them in different environments. Overall, the UTCI was found to be slightly more sensitive to mean radiant temperature, moderately more sensitive to humidity and much more sensitive to wind speed than the PET. This dynamic changed slightly depending on the environment and the season. In hot weather, the PET was found to be more sensitive to mean radiant temperature and therefore reached high values that could potentially be hazardous more frequently than the UTCI and the HX. In turn, the UTCI's stronger sensitivity to wind speed makes it a superior index to identify potentially hazardous weather in winter compared to the PET and the WC. Adopting the UTCI broadly would be an improvement over the traditionally popular HX and WC indices. The urban environment produced favorable conditions to sustain heat stress conditions, where the indices reached high values more frequently there than in suburban locations, which advocates for weather monitoring specific to denser urban areas.

  15. The Continental Market Seen from the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romieu, Michel


    In this presentation, the Chairman of a French gas company (Elf) comments on the evolution of the Continental gas market from a British point of view. He first discusses the differences between the US, British and Continental gas markets, recalls the provisions of the European Gas Directive and states why a fully competitive system is a long-term prospect in Continental Europe. Seen from the UK, the provisions of the EU directive may appear modest. Due to the long transportation, British gas companies may find it hard to compete on the gas market of Continental Europe. When Inter connector, the gas pipeline connecting the gas markets in UK and the Continent, begins operation, there will be a flow of gas from the UK to the Continent according to already signed contracts. But there may be contractual flows both ways. Gas prices will level off between the UK and Northern Europe, at least for the industry. The continental markets will change gradually, the Gas Directive and the Inter connector will help the move towards a more competitive gas industry, but the fundamentals will not change: low gas prices for the next few years, competition between the big three exporters to Continental Europe, and long-term contracts that will extend beyond 2005

  16. Analysis of Mid-Latitude Plasma Density Irregularities in the Presence of Finite Larmor Radius Effects (United States)

    Sotnikov, V. I.; Kim, T. C.; Mishin, E. V.; Kil, H.; Kwak, Y. S.; Paraschiv, I.


    Ionospheric irregularities cause scintillations of electromagnetic signals that can severely affect navigation and transionospheric communication, in particular during space storms. At mid-latitudes the source of F-region Field Aligned Irregularities (FAI) is yet to be determined. They can be created in enhanced subauroral flow channels (SAI/SUBS), where strong gradients of electric field, density and plasma temperature are present. Another important source of FAI is connected with Medium-scale travelling ionospheric disturbances (MSTIDs). Related shear flows and plasma density troughs point to interchange and Kelvin-Helmholtz type instabilities as a possible source of plasma irregularities. A model of nonlinear development of these instabilities based on the two-fluid hydrodynamic description with inclusion of finite Larmor radius effects will be presented. This approach allows to resolve density irregularities on the meter scale. A numerical code in C language to solve the derived nonlinear equations for analysis of interchange and flow velocity shear instabilities in the ionosphere was developed. This code will be used to analyze competition between interchange and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities in the mid-latitude region. The high-resolution simulations with continuous density and velocity profiles will be driven by the ambient conditions corresponding to the in situ data obtained during the 2016 Daejeon (Korea) and MU (Japan) radar campaign and data collected simultaneously by the Swarm satellites passed over Korea and Japan. PA approved #: 88ABW-2017-3641

  17. Statistical analysis of midlatitude spread F using multi-station digisonde observations (United States)

    Bhaneja, P.; Earle, G. D.; Bullett, T. W.


    A comprehensive statistical study of midlatitude spread F (MSF) is presented for five midlatitude stations in the North American sector. These stations include Ramey AFB, Puerto Rico (18.5°N, 67.1°W, -14° declination angle), Wallops Island, Virginia (37.95°N, 75.5°W, -11° declination angle), Dyess, Texas (32.4°N, 99.8°W, 6.9° declination angle), Boulder, Colorado (40°N, 105.3°W, 10° declination angle), and Vandenberg AFB, California (34.8°N, 120.5°W, 13° declination angle). Pattern recognition algorithms are used to determine the presence of both range and frequency spread F. Data from 1996 to 2011 are analyzed, covering all of Solar Cycle 23 and the beginning of Solar Cycle 24. Variations with respect to season and solar activity are presented, including the effects of the extended minimum between cycles 23 and 24.

  18. Mid-latitude summer response of the middle atmosphere to short-term solar UV changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Keckhut


    Full Text Available Temperature and wind data obtained with Rayleigh lidar since 1979 and Russian rockets since 1964 are analyzed to deduce the summer response of the middle atmosphere to short-term solar UV changes. The equivalent width of the 1083 nm He I line is used as a proxy to monitor the short-term UV flux changes. Spectral analyses are performed on 108-day windows to extract the 27-day component from temperature, wind and solar data sets. Linear regressions between these spectral harmonics show some significant correlations around 45 km at mid-latitudes. For large 27-day solar cycles, amplitudes of 2 K and 6 m s-1 are calculated for temperature data series over the south of France (44°N, and on wind data series over Volgograd (49°N, respectively. Cross-spectrum analyses have indicated correlations between these atmospheric parameters and the solar proxy with a phase lag of less than 2 days. These statistically correlative results, which provide good qualitative agreement with numerical simulations, are both obtained at mid-latitude. However, the observed amplitudes are larger than expected, with numerical models suggesting that dynamical processes such as equatorial or gravity waves may be responsible.

  19. Mid-latitude summer response of the middle atmosphere to short-term solar UV changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Keckhut

    Full Text Available Temperature and wind data obtained with Rayleigh lidar since 1979 and Russian rockets since 1964 are analyzed to deduce the summer response of the middle atmosphere to short-term solar UV changes. The equivalent width of the 1083 nm He I line is used as a proxy to monitor the short-term UV flux changes. Spectral analyses are performed on 108-day windows to extract the 27-day component from temperature, wind and solar data sets. Linear regressions between these spectral harmonics show some significant correlations around 45 km at mid-latitudes. For large 27-day solar cycles, amplitudes of 2 K and 6 m s-1 are calculated for temperature data series over the south of France (44°N, and on wind data series over Volgograd (49°N, respectively. Cross-spectrum analyses have indicated correlations between these atmospheric parameters and the solar proxy with a phase lag of less than 2 days. These statistically correlative results, which provide good qualitative agreement with numerical simulations, are both obtained at mid-latitude. However, the observed amplitudes are larger than expected, with numerical models suggesting that dynamical processes such as equatorial or gravity waves may be responsible.

  20. Prominent Midlatitude Circulation Signature in High Asia's Surface Climate During Monsoon (United States)

    Mölg, Thomas; Maussion, Fabien; Collier, Emily; Chiang, John C. H.; Scherer, Dieter


    High Asia has experienced strong environmental changes in recent decades, as evident in records of glaciers, lakes, tree rings, and vegetation. The multiscale understanding of the climatic drivers, however, is still incomplete. In particular, few systematic assessments have evaluated to what degree, if at all, the midlatitude westerly circulation modifies local surface climates in the reach of the Indian Summer Monsoon. This paper shows that a southward shift of the upper-tropospheric westerlies contributes significantly to climate variability in the core monsoon season (July-September) by two prominent dipole patterns at the surface: cooling in the west of High Asia contrasts with warming in the east, while moist anomalies in the east and northwest occur with drying along the southwestern margins. Circulation anomalies help to understand the dipoles and coincide with shifts in both the westerly wave train and the South Asian High, which imprint on air mass advection and local energy budgets. The relation of the variabilities to a well-established index of midlatitude climate dynamics allows future research on climate proxies to include a fresh hypothesis for the interpretation of environmental changes.

  1. Microphysical effects determine macrophysical response for aerosol impacts on deep convective clouds (United States)

    Fan, Jiwen; Leung, L. Ruby; Rosenfeld, Daniel; Chen, Qian; Li, Zhanqing; Zhang, Jinqiang; Yan, Hongru


    Deep convective clouds (DCCs) play a crucial role in the general circulation, energy, and hydrological cycle of our climate system. Aerosol particles can influence DCCs by altering cloud properties, precipitation regimes, and radiation balance. Previous studies reported both invigoration and suppression of DCCs by aerosols, but few were concerned with the whole life cycle of DCC. By conducting multiple monthlong cloud-resolving simulations with spectral-bin cloud microphysics that capture the observed macrophysical and microphysical properties of summer convective clouds and precipitation in the tropics and midlatitudes, this study provides a comprehensive view of how aerosols affect cloud cover, cloud top height, and radiative forcing. We found that although the widely accepted theory of DCC invigoration due to aerosol's thermodynamic effect (additional latent heat release from freezing of greater amount of cloud water) may work during the growing stage, it is microphysical effect influenced by aerosols that drives the dramatic increase in cloud cover, cloud top height, and cloud thickness at the mature and dissipation stages by inducing larger amounts of smaller but longer-lasting ice particles in the stratiform/anvils of DCCs, even when thermodynamic invigoration of convection is absent. The thermodynamic invigoration effect contributes up to ∼27% of total increase in cloud cover. The overall aerosol indirect effect is an atmospheric radiative warming (3-5 Wṡm-2) and a surface cooling (-5 to -8 Wṡm-2). The modeling findings are confirmed by the analyses of ample measurements made at three sites of distinctly different environments.

  2. Two-dimensional turbulent convection (United States)

    Mazzino, Andrea


    We present an overview of the most relevant, and sometimes contrasting, theoretical approaches to Rayleigh-Taylor and mean-gradient-forced Rayleigh-Bénard two-dimensional turbulence together with numerical and experimental evidences for their support. The main aim of this overview is to emphasize that, despite the different character of these two systems, especially in relation to their steadiness/unsteadiness, turbulent fluctuations are well described by the same scaling relationships originated from the Bolgiano balance. The latter states that inertial terms and buoyancy terms balance at small scales giving rise to an inverse kinetic energy cascade. The main difference with respect to the inverse energy cascade in hydrodynamic turbulence [R. H. Kraichnan, "Inertial ranges in two-dimensional turbulence," Phys. Fluids 10, 1417 (1967)] is that the rate of cascade of kinetic energy here is not constant along the inertial range of scales. Thanks to the absence of physical boundaries, the two systems here investigated turned out to be a natural physical realization of the Kraichnan scaling regime hitherto associated with the elusive "ultimate state of thermal convection" [R. H. Kraichnan, "Turbulent thermal convection at arbitrary Prandtl number," Phys. Fluids 5, 1374-1389 (1962)].

  3. Benard convection in gaps and cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, U.


    The article contains two parts. In the first part a condensed review of the most striking phenomena in Benard convection in laterally confined fluid layers is given. In the second part recent experimental and theoretical work on Benard convection in gaps is presented an analysed. (orig.) [de

  4. Convective mixing and accretion in white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koester, D.


    The evolution of convection zones in cooling white dwarfs with helium envelopes and outer hydrogen layers is calculated with a complete stellar evolution code. It is shown that white dwarfs of spectral type DB cannot be formed from DA stars by convective mixing. However, for cooler temperatures (Tsub(e) [de

  5. Modelling the Impact of Life on Continental Growth - Mechanisms and Results (United States)

    Höning, D.; Spohn, T.


    The complexity of planetary evolution increases with the number of interacting reservoirs. On Earth, even the biosphere is speculated to interact with the interior. It has been argued (e.g., Rosing et al. 2006; Sleep et al, 2012) that the formation of continents could be a consequence of bioactivity harvesting solar energy through photosynthesis to help build the continents and that the mantle should carry a chemical biosignature. Through plate tectonics, the surface biosphere can impact deep subduction zone processes and the interior of the Earth. Subducted sediments are particularly important, because they influence the Earth's interior in several ways, and in turn are strongly influenced by the Earth's biosphere. In our model, we use the assumption that a thick sedimentary layer of low permeability on top of the subducting oceanic crust, caused by a biologically enhanced weathering rate, can suppress shallow dewatering. This in turn leads to greater availability of water in the source region of andesitic partial melt, resulting in an enhanced rate of continental production and regassing rate into the mantle. Our model includes (i) mantle convection, (ii) continental erosion and production, and (iii) mantle water degassing at mid-ocean ridges and regassing at subduction zones. The mantle viscosity of our model depends on (i) the mantle water concentration and (ii) the mantle temperature, whose time dependency is given by radioactive decay of isotopes in the Earth's mantle. Boundary layer theory yields the speed of convection and the water outgassing rate of the Earth's mantle. Our results indicate that present day values of continental surface area and water content of the Earth's mantle represent an attractor in a phase plane spanned by both parameters. We show that the biologic enhancement of the continental erosion rate is important for the system to reach this fixed point. An abiotic Earth tends to reach an alternative stable fixed point with a smaller

  6. Characteristics of the oceanic MCC, continental MCC, and coastal MCC over the Indonesian maritime continent (United States)



    This study explains the comparison of mesoscale convective complexes (MCC) characteristics in the oceans, land and in the coast over Indonesian maritime continent (IMC). MCCs were identified and tracked during 15-years (2001-2015) over IMC by infrared satellite imagery using an algorithm that combines criteria of cloud coverage, eccentricity, and cloud lifetime. Infrared satellite imagery was obtained from Himawari generation satellite data. This study showed most of the continental MCC found near the mountains and the high elevation areas. The frequency of MCC occurrences was larger over the land than over the ocean. The oceanic MCCs, which lasted for more than 12 hours, were longer-lived than the continental MCCs. The MCCs with small size most frequently occurred in the continent, in contrast, the MCC with the medium and large size were most concentrated over the ocean. Generally, the continental and coastal MCC initiation occurs in the late afternoon and reach maximum size around midnight before decaying the next morning. In contrast, the oceanic MCC dominantly develops in midnight, and reach maximum size in the morning and then MCC decayed and dissipated from noon until afternoon. The evolution of MCC development in the ocean, land, and in the coast has almost the same stages and ways.

  7. Southern Ocean Convection and tropical telleconnections (United States)

    Marinov, I.; Cabre, A.; Gnanadesikan, A.


    We show that Southern Ocean (SO) temperatures in the latest generation of Earth System Models exhibit two major modes of variation, one driven by deep convection, the other by tropical variability. We perform a CMIP5 model intercomparison to understand why different climate models represent SO variability so differently in long, control simulations. We show that multiyear variability in Southern Ocean sea surface temperatures (SSTs) can in turn influence oceanic and atmospheric conditions in the tropics on short (atmospheric) time-scales. We argue that the strength and pattern of SO-tropical teleconnections depends on the intensity of SO deep convection. Periodic convection in the SO is a feature of most CMIP5 models under preindustrial forcing (deLavergne et al., 2014). Models show a wide distribution in the spatial extent, periodicity and intensity of their SO convection, with some models convecting most of the time, and some showing very little convection. In a highly convective coupled model, we find that multidecadal variability in SO and global SSTs, as well as SO heat storage are driven by Weddell Sea convective variability, with convective decades relatively warm due to the heat released from the deep southern ocean and non-convective decades cold due to the subsurface storage of heat. Furthermore, pulses of SO convection drive SST and sea ice variations, influencing absorbed shortwave and emitted longwave radiation, wind, cloud and precipitation patterns, with climatic implications for the low latitudes via fast atmospheric teleconnections. We suggest that these high-low latitude teleconnection mechanisms are relevant for understanding hiatus decades. Additionally, Southern Ocean deep convection varied significantly during past, natural climate changes such as during the last deglaciation. Weddell Sea open convection was recently weakened, likely as a consequence of anthropogenic forcing and the resulting surface freshening. Our study opens up the

  8. Contributions to knowledge of the continental margin of Uruguay. Uruguayan continental margin: Physiographic and seismic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preciozzi, F


    This work is about the kind of continental margins such as a )Atlantic type passive margins which can be hard or soft b) An active or Pacific margins that because of the very frequent earthquakes develop a morphology dominated by tectonic processes. The Uruguayan continental margin belongs to a soft Atlantic margin

  9. Topology Optimisation for Coupled Convection Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexandersen, Joe

    This thesis deals with topology optimisation for coupled convection problems. The aim is to extend and apply topology optimisation to steady-state conjugate heat transfer problems, where the heat conduction equation governs the heat transfer in a solid and is coupled to thermal transport...... in a surrounding uid, governed by a convection-diffusion equation, where the convective velocity field is found from solving the isothermal incompressible steady-state Navier-Stokes equations. Topology optimisation is also applied to steady-state natural convection problems. The modelling is done using stabilised...... finite elements, the formulation and implementation of which was done partly during a special course as prepatory work for this thesis. The formulation is extended with a Brinkman friction term in order to facilitate the topology optimisation of fluid flow and convective cooling problems. The derived...

  10. Convective penetration in a young sun (United States)

    Pratt, Jane; Baraffe, Isabelle; Goffrey, Tom; MUSIC developers group


    To interpret the high-quality data produced from recent space-missions it is necessary to study convection under realistic stellar conditions. We describe the multi-dimensional, time implicit, fully compressible, hydrodynamic, implicit large eddy simulation code MUSIC. We use MUSIC to study convection during an early stage in the evolution of our sun where the convection zone covers approximately half of the solar radius. This model of the young sun possesses a realistic stratification in density, temperature, and luminosity. We approach convection in a stellar context using extreme value theory and derive a new model for convective penetration, targeted for one-dimensional stellar evolution calculations. This model provides a scenario that can explain the observed lithium abundance in the sun and in solar-like stars at a range of ages.

  11. Numerical simulations of convectively excited gravity waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glatzmaier, G.A.


    Magneto-convection and gravity waves are numerically simulated with a nonlinear, three-dimensional, time-dependent model of a stratified, rotating, spherical fluid shell heated from below. A Solar-like reference state is specified while global velocity, magnetic field, and thermodynamic perturbations are computed from the anelastic magnetohydrodynamic equations. Convective overshooting from the upper (superadiabatic) part of the shell excites gravity waves in the lower (subadiabatic) part. Due to differential rotation and Coriolis forces, convective cell patterns propagate eastward with a latitudinally dependent phase velocity. The structure of the excited wave motions in the stable region is more time-dependent than that of the convective motions above. The magnetic field tends to be concentrated over giant-cell downdrafts in the convective zone but is affected very little by the wave motion in the stable region

  12. On the Role of Convection and Turbulence for Tropospheric Ozone and its Precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivie, D.J.L.


    the TM model. Because the distribution of 222Rn is strongly influenced by convection, 222Rn is a useful tracer to investigate the transport characteristics of CTMs. The model simulated distribution of 222Rn is compared with observations from airborne field campaigns. We will also study the effect of these archived convective fluxes on the global distribution of NOx and ozone. In Chapter 3, question 2 and part of question 3 are addressed. The description of vertical diffusion in CTMs is still rather uncertain. Comparison with ground based observations of 222Rn at four continental locations are used to compare the effect of archived and off-line diagnosed vertical diffusion coefficients on the distribution of trace gases in the TM model. In Chapter 4, questions 4 and 5 are addressed. The parameterisation of NOx produced by lightning in CTMs is still a subject of much ongoing research. In this chapter, different aspects of the parameterisations of the production of NOx by lightning are investigated. We separately focus on the horizontal distribution of the lightning flashes, and on the vertical distribution of the produced NOx. For the horizontal distribution, we compare the effect of the standard TM model parameterisation that uses the convective precipitation as a proxy for the lightning ash frequency and a parameterisation that uses a combination of the updraft top and vertical velocity in the updraft as a proxy for the ash frequency. For the vertical distribution we compare how prescribed emission profiles perform opposed to emission profiles that are generated by explicitly describing the transport in lightning clouds. We use these different simulations to perform model simulations in the TM model which are compared with airborne measurements of NO and NOx. Chapter 5 presents the main conclusions of this thesis and an outlook to further research

  13. Magnetic Fields in the Solar Convection Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Yuhong


    Full Text Available Recent studies of the dynamic evolution of magnetic flux tubes in the solar convection zone are reviewed with focus on emerging flux tubes responsible for the formation of solar active regions. The current prevailing picture is that active regions on the solar surface originate from strong toroidal magnetic fields generated by the solar dynamo mechanism at the thin tachocline layer at the base of the solar convection zone. Thus the magnetic fields need to traverse the entire convection zone before they reach the photosphere to form the observed solar active regions. This review discusses results with regard to the following major topics: 1. the equilibrium properties of the toroidal magnetic fields stored in the stable overshoot region at the base of the convection zone, 2. the buoyancy instability associated with the toroidal magnetic fields and the formation of buoyant magnetic flux tubes, 3. the rise of emerging flux loops through the solar convective envelope as modeled by the thin flux tube calculations which infer that the field strength of the toroidal magnetic fields at the base of the solar convection zone is significantly higher than the value in equipartition with convection, 4. the minimum twist needed for maintaining cohesion of the rising flux tubes, 5. the rise of highly twisted kink unstable flux tubes as a possible origin of d -sunspots, 6. the evolution of buoyant magnetic flux tubes in 3D stratified convection, 7. turbulent pumping of magnetic flux by penetrative compressible convection, 8. an alternative mechanism for intensifying toroidal magnetic fields to significantly super-equipartition field strengths by conversion of the potential energy associated with the superadiabatic stratification of the solar convection zone, and finally 9. a brief overview of our current understanding of flux emergence at the surface and post-emergence evolution of the subsurface magnetic fields.

  14. Mid-latitude Narrowband Stimulated Electromagnetic Emissions (NSEE): New Observations and Modeling (United States)

    Nossa, E.; Mahmoudian, A.; Isham, B.; Bernhardt, P. A.; Briczinski, S. J., Jr.


    High power electromagnetic waves (EM) transmitted from the ground interact with the local plasma in the ionosphere and can produce Stimulated Electromagnetic Emissions (SEE) through the parametric decay instability (PDI). The classical SEE features known as wideband SEE (WSEE) with frequency offset of 1 kHz up to 100 kHz have been observed and studied in detail in the 1980s and 1990s. A new era of ionospheric remote sensing techniques was begun after the recent update of the HF transmitter at the HAARP. Sideband emissions of unprecedented strength have been reported during recent campaigns at HAARP, reaching up to 10 dB relative to the reflected pump wave which are by far the strongest spectral features of secondary radiation that have been reported. These emissions known as narrowband SEE (NSEE) are shifted by only up to a few tens of Hertz from radio-waves transmitted at several megahertz. One of these new NSEE features are emission lines within 100 Hz of the pump frequency and are produced through magnetized stimulated Brillouin scatter (MSBS) process. Stimulated Brillouin Scatter (SBS) is a strong SEE mode involving a direct parametric decay of the pump wave into an electrostatic wave (ES) and a secondary EM wave that sometimes could be stronger than the HF pump. SBS has been studied in laboratory plasma experiments by the interaction of high power lasers with plasmas. The SBS instability in magnetized ionospheric plasma was observed for the first time at HAARP in 2010. Our recent work at HAARP has shown that MSBS emission lines can be used to asses electron temperature in the heated region, ion mass spectrometry, determine minor ion species and their densities in the ionosphere, study the physics associated with electron acceleration and artificial airglow. Here, we present new observations of narrowband SEE (NSEE) features at the new mid-latitude heating facility at Arecibo. This includes the direct mode conversion of pump wave through MSBS process. Collected

  15. Cluster analysis of midlatitude oceanic cloud regimes: mean properties and temperature sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. D. Gordon


    Full Text Available Clouds play an important role in the climate system by reducing the amount of shortwave radiation reaching the surface and the amount of longwave radiation escaping to space. Accurate simulation of clouds in computer models remains elusive, however, pointing to a lack of understanding of the connection between large-scale dynamics and cloud properties. This study uses a k-means clustering algorithm to group 21 years of satellite cloud data over midlatitude oceans into seven clusters, and demonstrates that the cloud clusters are associated with distinct large-scale dynamical conditions. Three clusters correspond to low-level cloud regimes with different cloud fraction and cumuliform or stratiform characteristics, but all occur under large-scale descent and a relatively dry free troposphere. Three clusters correspond to vertically extensive cloud regimes with tops in the middle or upper troposphere, and they differ according to the strength of large-scale ascent and enhancement of tropospheric temperature and humidity. The final cluster is associated with a lower troposphere that is dry and an upper troposphere that is moist and experiencing weak ascent and horizontal moist advection.

    Since the present balance of reflection of shortwave and absorption of longwave radiation by clouds could change as the atmosphere warms from increasing anthropogenic greenhouse gases, we must also better understand how increasing temperature modifies cloud and radiative properties. We therefore undertake an observational analysis of how midlatitude oceanic clouds change with temperature when dynamical processes are held constant (i.e., partial derivative with respect to temperature. For each of the seven cloud regimes, we examine the difference in cloud and radiative properties between warm and cold subsets. To avoid misinterpreting a cloud response to large-scale dynamical forcing as a cloud response to temperature, we require horizontal and vertical

  16. Studies of midlatitude mesospheric temperature variability and its relationship to gravity waves, tides, and planetary waves (United States)

    Beissner, Kenneth C.


    Temperature observations of the middle atmosphere have been carried out from September 1993 through July 1995 using a Rayleigh backscatter lidar located at Utah State University (42oN, 111oW). Data have been analyzed to obtain absolute temperature profiles from 40 to 90 km. Various sources of error were reviewed in order to ensure the quality of the measurements. This included conducting a detailed examination of the data reduction procedure, integration methods, and averaging techniques, eliminating errors of 1-3%. The temperature structure climatology has been compared with several other mid-latitude data sets, including those from the French lidars, the SME spacecraft, the sodium lidars at Ft. Collins and Urbana, the MSISe90 model, and a high- latitude composite set from Andenes, Norway. In general, good agreement occurs at mid-latitudes, but areas of disagreement do exist. Among these, the Utah temperatures are significantly warmer than the MSISe90 temperatures above approximately 80 km, they are lower below 80 km than any of the others in summer, they show major year- to-year variability in the winter profiles, and they differ from the sodium lidar data at the altitudes where the temperature profiles should overlap. Also, comparisons between observations and a physics based global circulation model, the TIME-GCM, were conducted for a mid-latitude site. A photo-chemical model was developed to predict airglow intensity of OH based on output from the TIME-GCM. Many discrepancies between the model and observations were found, including a modeled summer mesopause too high, a stronger summer inversion not normally observed by lidar, a fall-spring asymmetry in the OH winds and lidar temperatures but not reproduced in the TIME-GCM equinoctial periods, larger winter seasonal wind tide than observed by the FPI, and a failure of the model to reverse the summertime mesospheric jet. It is our conclusion these discrepancies are due to a gravity wave parameterization in the

  17. Classification of Arctic, Mid-Latitude and Tropical Clouds in the Mixed-Phase Temperature Regime (United States)

    Costa, Anja; Afchine, Armin; Luebke, Anna; Meyer, Jessica; Dorsey, James R.; Gallagher, Martin W.; Ehrlich, André; Wendisch, Manfred; Krämer, Martina


    The degree of glaciation and the sizes and habits of ice particles formed in mixed-phase clouds remain not fully understood. However, these properties define the mixed clouds' radiative impact on the Earth's climate and thus a correct representation of this cloud type in global climate models is of importance for an improved certainty of climate predictions. This study focuses on the occurrence and characteristics of two types of clouds in the mixed-phase temperature regime (238-275K): coexistence clouds (Coex), in which both liquid drops and ice crystals exist, and fully glaciated clouds that develop in the Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen regime (WBF clouds). We present an extensive dataset obtained by the Cloud and Aerosol Particle Spectrometer NIXE-CAPS, covering Arctic, mid-latitude and tropical regions. In total, we spent 45.2 hours within clouds in the mixed-phase temperature regime during five field campaigns (Arctic: VERDI, 2012 and RACEPAC, 2014 - Northern Canada; mid-latitude: COALESC, 2011 - UK and ML-Cirrus, 2014 - central Europe; tropics: ACRIDICON, 2014 - Brazil). We show that WBF and Coex clouds can be identified via cloud particle size distributions. The classified datasets are used to analyse temperature dependences of both cloud types as well as range and frequencies of cloud particle concentrations and sizes. One result is that Coex clouds containing supercooled liquid drops are found down to temperatures of -40 deg C only in tropical mixed clouds, while in the Arctic and mid-latitudes no liquid drops are observed below about -20 deg C. In addition, we show that the cloud particles' aspherical fractions - derived from polarization signatures of particles with diameters between 20 and 50 micrometers - differ significantly between WBF and Coex clouds. In Coex clouds, the aspherical fraction of cloud particles is generally very low, but increases with decreasing temperature. In WBF clouds, where all cloud particles are ice, about 20-40% of the cloud

  18. Actively convected liquid metal divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Michiya; Hirooka, Yoshi


    The use of actively convected liquid metals with j × B force is proposed to facilitate heat handling by the divertor, a challenging issue associated with magnetic fusion experiments such as ITER. This issue will be aggravated even more for DEMO and power reactors because the divertor heat load will be significantly higher and yet the use of copper would not be allowed as the heat sink material. Instead, reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel alloys with heat conductivities substantially lower than that of copper, will be used as the structural materials. The present proposal is to fill the lower part of the vacuum vessel with liquid metals with relatively low melting points and low chemical activities including Ga and Sn. The divertor modules, equipped with electrodes and cooling tubes, are immersed in the liquid metal. The electrode, placed in the middle of the liquid metal, can be biased positively or negatively with respect to the module. The j × B force due to the current between the electrode and the module provides a rotating motion for the liquid metal around the electrodes. The rise in liquid temperature at the separatrix hit point can be maintained at acceptable levels from the operation point of view. As the rotation speed increases, the current in the liquid metal is expected to decrease due to the v × B electromotive force. This rotating motion in the poloidal plane will reduce the divertor heat load significantly. Another important benefit of the convected liquid metal divertor is the fast recovery from unmitigated disruptions. Also, the liquid metal divertor concept eliminates the erosion problem. (letter)

  19. Study of midlatitude ionospheric irregularities and E- and F-region coupling based on rocket and radar observations from Japan (United States)

    Yamamoto, M.


    We have been studying ionspheric irregularities in mid-latitude region by using radars, sounding rockets, etc. The mid-latitude ionosphere was considered much stable than those in the equatorial or polar region in the past, but our studies for years have revealed that there are much active variabilities. We found variety of wave-like structures that are specific in the mid-latitudes. One of the phenomena is quasi-periodic echoes (QP echoes) first observed by the MU radar that reflects horizontal plasma-density structures associated to sporadic-E layers. Another phenomenon is medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbance (MSTID) in the F-region. In the generation mechanism we think that Ionospheric E- and F-region coupling process is important. In this presentation, we will discuss nature of mid-latitude ionosphere based on our observations; the MU radar, sounding rocket campaigns of SEEK-1/2, and recent MSTID rocket experiment from JAXA Uchinoura Space Center in July 2013.

  20. A comparison of the relative locations of the mid-latitude electron density trough and the scintillation boundary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tulunay, Y.K.; Demir, O.; Tauriainen, A.


    The mid-latitude electron density trough position and the scintillation boundary have been compared for magnetically quiet periods by using the data returned by Ariel 3 and Explorer 22 satellites. The scintillation boundary is found southward of the trough during daytime, but at night the positions are reversed. (author)

  1. MECO Warming Changes Continental Rainfall Patterns in Eocene Western North America (United States)

    Methner, K.; Mulch, A.; Fiebig, J.; Wacker, U.; Gerdes, A.; Graham, S. A.; Chamberlain, C. P.


    Eocene hyperthermals represent temperature extremes superimposed on an existing warm climate. They dramatically affected the marine and terrestrial biosphere, but still remain among the most enigmatic phenomena of Cenozoic climate dynamics. To evaluate the impacts of global warm periods on terrestrial temperature and rainfall records in continental interiors, we sampled a suite of middle Eocene ( 40 Ma) paleosols from a high-elevation mammal fossil locality in the hinterland of the North American Cordillera (Sage Creek Basin, Montana, USA) and integrated laser ablation U-Pb dating of pedogenic carbonate, stable isotope (δ18O) and clumped isotope temperature (Δ47) records. Δ47 temperature data of soil carbonates progressively increase from 23 °C ±3 °C to peak temperatures of 32 °C ±3 °C and subsequently drop to 21 °C ±2 °C and delineate a rapid +9/-11 °C temperature excursion in the paleosol record. This hyperthermal event is accompanied by large and rapid shifts towards low δ18O values and reduced pedogenic CaCO3 contents. U-Pb geochronology of the paleosol carbonate confirms a middle Eocene age for soil carbonate formation (39.5 ±1.4 Ma and 40.1 ±0.8 Ma). Based on U-Pb geochronology, magneto- and biostratigraphy we suggest that the recorded Δ47 temperature excursion reflects peak warming during the Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum (MECO). The MECO in continental western North America appears to be characterized by warmer and wetter (sub-humid) conditions in this high-elevation site. Shifts in δ18O values of precipitation and pedogenic CaCO3 contents parallel temperature changes and require modification of mid-latitude rainfall patterns, indicating a profound impact of the MECO on the hydrological cycle and consequently on atmospheric circulation patterns in the hinterland of the North American Cordillera.

  2. WRF nested large-eddy simulations of deep convection during SEAC4RS (United States)

    Heath, Nicholas K.; Fuelberg, Henry E.; Tanelli, Simone; Turk, F. Joseph; Lawson, R. Paul; Woods, Sarah; Freeman, Sean


    Large-eddy simulations (LES) and observations are often combined to increase our understanding and improve the simulation of deep convection. This study evaluates a nested LES method that uses the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and, specifically, tests whether the nested LES approach is useful for studying deep convection during a real-world case. The method was applied on 2 September 2013, a day of continental convection that occurred during the Studies of Emissions and Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys (SEAC4RS) campaign. Mesoscale WRF output (1.35 km grid length) was used to drive a nested LES with 450 m grid spacing, which then drove a 150 m domain. Results reveal that the 450 m nested LES reasonably simulates observed reflectivity distributions and aircraft-observed in-cloud vertical velocities during the study period. However, when examining convective updrafts, reducing the grid spacing to 150 m worsened results. We find that the simulated updrafts in the 150 m run become too diluted by entrainment, thereby generating updrafts that are weaker than observed. Lastly, the 450 m simulation is combined with observations to study the processes forcing strong midlevel cloud/updraft edge downdrafts that were observed on 2 September. Results suggest that these strong downdrafts are forced by evaporative cooling due to mixing and by perturbation pressure forces acting to restore mass continuity around neighboring updrafts. We conclude that the WRF nested LES approach, with further development and evaluation, could potentially provide an effective method for studying deep convection in real-world cases.

  3. Rapid Water Transport by Long-Lasting Modon Eddy Pairs in the Southern Midlatitude Oceans (United States)

    Hughes, Chris W.; Miller, Peter I.


    Water in the ocean is generally carried with the mean flow, mixed by eddies, or transported westward by coherent eddies at speeds close to the long baroclinic Rossby wave speed. Modons (dipole eddy pairs) are a theoretically predicted exception to this behavior, which can carry water to the east or west at speeds much larger than the Rossby wave speed, leading to unusual transports of heat, nutrients, and carbon. We provide the first observational evidence of such rapidly moving modons propagating over large distances. These modons are found in the midlatitude oceans around Australia, with one also seen in the South Atlantic west of the Agulhas region. They can travel at more than 10 times the Rossby wave speed of 1-2 cm s-1 and typically persist for about 6 months carrying their unusual water mass properties with them, before splitting into individual vortices, which can persist for many months longer.

  4. Characterization of Nightside Mid-latitude Irregularities Observed with the Blackstone SuperDARN Radar (United States)

    Ruohoniemi, J. M.; Ribeiro, A. J.; Baker, J. B.; Greenwald, R. A.; Newell, P. T.


    The new mid-latitude SuperDARN radars at Wallops Island and Blackstone observe strong coherent backscattering on an almost nightly basis from latitudes that appear to be subauroral. One study has demonstrated an excellent correlation with the occurrence of density and temperature gradients within the ionospheric projection of the plasmapause (Greenwald et al., Geophys. Res. Lett. [2006]). We have processed all the data collected with the Blackstone radar since its inception in February 2008 for a characterization of the occurrence and properties of ‘plasmapause’ scatter. We have determined the local time and Kp dependencies of the activity and the relation of the spatial distribution of the irregularities to magnetospheric boundaries and ionospheric density gradients. We establish that the irregularities are a feature of the quiet-time subauroral ionosphere and provide a valuable diagnostic of the electric fields in the inner magnetosphere.

  5. Wind structure during mid-latitude storms and its application in Wind Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsén, Xiaoli Guo; Du, Jianting; Bolanos, Rodolfo


    in Denmark. The extreme wind and wave conditions in the coastal area for wind energy application are important but have rarely been studied in the literature. Our experiments are done to the Danish coasts where the mid-latitude depression systems are causes of the extreme wind and wave conditions....... The numerical modeling is done through an atmosphere-wave coupled system, where the atmospheric model is the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and the wave model is the Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN) model. Measurements from offshore stations, Horns Rev and the FINO platform, as well as satellite...... and the modeling will be presented. Here the “key” is referring both to the application of wind energy and the wind-wave coupling system. The various parameterization of the interface parameter for the atmospheric and wave modeling, the roughness length, has been examined. Data analysis reveals the importance...

  6. Application of Wuhan Ionospheric Oblique Backscattering Sounding System (WIOBSS) for the investigation of midlatitude ionospheric irregularities (United States)

    Wang, Jin; Zhou, Xiaoming; Qiao, Lei; Gong, Wanlin


    An upgrade of Wuhan Ionospheric Backscattering Sounding System (WIOBSS) was developed in 2015. Based on the Universal Serial Bus (USB), and a high performance FPGA, the newly designed WIOBSS has a completely digital structure, which makes it portable and flexible. Two identical WIOBSSs, which were situated at Mile (24.31°N, 103.39°E) and Puer (22.74°N, 101.05°E) respectively, were used to investigate the ionospheric irregularities. The comparisons of group distance, Doppler shift and width between Mile-Puer and Puer-Mile VHF ionospheric propagation paths indicate that the reciprocity of the irregularities is satisfied at midlatitude region. The WIOBSS is robust in the detection of ionospheric irregularities.

  7. Seasat microwave wind and rain observations in severe tropical and midlatitude marine storms (United States)

    Black, P. G.; Hawkins, J. D.; Gentry, R. C.; Cardone, V. J.


    Initial results of studies concerning Seasat measurements in and around tropical and severe midlatitude cyclones over the open ocean are presented, together with an assessment of their accuracy and usefulness. Complementary measurements of surface wind speed and direction, rainfall rate, and the sea surface temperature obtained with the Seasat-A Satellite Scatterometer (SASS), the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR), and the Seasat SAR are analyzed. The Seasat data for the Hurrricanes Fico, Ella, and Greta and the QE II storm are compared with data obtained from aircraft, buoys, and ships. It is shown that the SASS-derived wind speeds are accurate to within 10 percent, and the directions are accurate to within 20 percent. In general, the SASS estimates tend to measure light winds too high and intense winds too low. The errors of the SMMR-derived measurements of the winds in hurricanes tend to be higher than those of the SASS-derived measurements.

  8. Atlantic continental margin of the United States (United States)

    Grow, John A.; Sheridan, Robert E.; Palmer, A.R.


    The objective of this Decade of North American Geology (D-NAG) volume will be to focus on the Mesozoic and Cenozoic evolution of the U.S. Atlantic continental margin, including the onshore coastal plain, related onshore Triassic-Jurassic rift grabens, and the offshore basins and platforms. Following multiple compressional tectonic episodes between Africa and North America during the Paleozoic Era that formed the Appalachian Mountains, the Mesozoic and Cenozoic Eras were dominated by tensional tectonic processes that separated Africa and North America. Extensional rifting during Triassic and Early Jurassic times resulted in numerous tensional grabens both onshore and offshore, which filled with nonmarine continental red beds, lacustrine deposits, and volcanic flows and debris. The final stage of this breakup between Africa and North America occurred beneath the present outer continental shelf and continental slope during Early or Middle Jurassic time when sea-floor spreading began to form new oceanic crust and lithosophere between the two continents as they drifted apart. Postrift subsidence of the marginal basins continued in response to cooling of the lithosphere and sedimentary loading.Geophysical surveys and oil-exploration drilling along the U.S. Atlantic continental margin during the past 5 years are beginning to answer many questions concerning its deep structure and stratigraphy and how it evolved during the rifting and early sea-floor-spreading stages of the separation of this region from Africa. Earlier geophysical studies of the U.S. continental margin used marine refraction and submarine gravity measurements. Single-channel seismic-reflection, marine magnetic, aeromagnetic, and continuous gravity measurements became available during the 1960s.

  9. A thermodynamically general theory for convective vortices (United States)

    Renno, Nilton O.


    Convective vortices are common features of atmospheres that absorb lower-entropy-energy at higher temperatures than they reject higher-entropy-energy to space. These vortices range from small to large-scale and play an important role in the vertical transport of heat, momentum, and tracer species. Thus, the development of theoretical models for convective vortices is important to our understanding of some of the basic features of planetary atmospheres. The heat engine framework is a useful tool for studying convective vortices. However, current theories assume that convective vortices are reversible heat engines. Since there are questions about how reversible real atmospheric heat engines are, their usefulness for studying real atmospheric vortices is somewhat controversial. In order to reduce this problem, a theory for convective vortices that includes irreversible processes is proposed. The paper's main result is that the proposed theory provides an expression for the pressure drop along streamlines that includes the effects of irreversible processes. It is shown that a simplified version of this expression is a generalization of Bernoulli's equation to convective circulations. It is speculated that the proposed theory not only explains the intensity, but also sheds light on other basic features of convective vortices such as their physical appearance.

  10. Diurnal and Seasonal Variations in Mid-Latitude Geomagnetic Field During International Quiet Days: BOH Magnetometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junga Hwang


    Full Text Available Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute researchers have installed and operated magnetometers at Bohyunsan Observatory to measure the Earth's magnetic field variations in South Korea. In 2007, we installed a fluxgate magnetometer (RFP-523C to measure H, D, and Z components of the geomagnetic field. In addition, in 2009, we installed a Overhauser proton sensor to measure the absolute total magnetic field F and a three-axis magneto-impedance sensor for spectrum analysis. Currently three types of magnetometer data have been accumulated. In this paper, we use the H, D, Z components of fluxgate magnetometer data to investigate the characteristics of mid-latitude geomagnetic field variation. To remove the temporary changes in Earth’s geomagnetic filed by space weather, we use the international quiet days’ data only. In other words, we performed a superposed epoch analysis using five days per each month during 2008-2011. We find that daily variations of H, D, and Z shows similar tendency compared to previous results using all days. That is, H, D, Z all three components’ quiet intervals terminate near the sunrise and shows maximum 2-3 hours after the culmination and the quiet interval start from near the sunset. Seasonal variations show similar dependences to the Sun. As it becomes hot season, the geomagnetic field variation’s amplitude becomes large and the quiet interval becomes shortened. It is well-known that these variations are effects of Sq current system in the Earth’s atmosphere. We confirm that the typical mid-latitude geomagnetic field variations due to the Sq current system by excluding all possible association with the space weather.

  11. Trans-pacific glacial response to the Antarctic Cold Reversal in the southern mid-latitudes (United States)

    Sagredo, Esteban A.; Kaplan, Michael R.; Araya, Paola S.; Lowell, Thomas V.; Aravena, Juan C.; Moreno, Patricio I.; Kelly, Meredith A.; Schaefer, Joerg M.


    Elucidating the timing and regional extent of abrupt climate events during the last glacial-interglacial transition (∼18-11.5 ka) is critical for identifying spatial patterns and mechanisms responsible for large-magnitude climate events. The record of climate change in the Southern Hemisphere during this time period, however, remains scarce and unevenly distributed. We present new geomorphic, chronological, and equilibrium line altitude (ELA) data from a climatically sensitive mountain glacier at Monte San Lorenzo (47°S), Central Patagonia. Twenty-four new cosmogenic 10Be exposure ages from moraines provide a comprehensive glacial record in the mid-latitudes of South America, which constrain the timing, spatial extent and magnitude of glacial fluctuations during the Antarctic Cold Reversal (ACR, ∼14.5-12.9 ka). Río Tranquilo glacier advanced and reached a maximum extent at 13.9 ± 0.7 ka. Three additional inboard moraines afford statistically similar ages, indicating repeated glacier expansions or marginal fluctuations over the ACR. Our record represents the northernmost robust evidence of glacial fluctuations during the ACR in southern South America, documenting not only the timing of the ACR maximum, but also the sequence of glacier changes within this climate event. Based on ELA reconstructions, we estimate a cooling of >1.6-1.8 °C at the peak of the ACR. The Río Tranquilo record along with existing glacial reconstructions from New Zealand (43°S) and paleovegetation records from northwestern (41°S) and central-west (45°S) Patagonia, suggest an uniform trans-Pacific glacier-climate response to an ACR trigger across the southern mid-latitudes. We posit that the equatorial migration of the southern westerly winds provides an adequate mechanism to propagate a common ACR signal across the Southern Hemisphere.

  12. Physical Modeling of the Processes Responsible for the Mid-Latitude Storm Enhanced Plasma Density (United States)

    Fuller-Rowell, T. J.; Maruyama, N.; Fedrizzi, M.; Codrescu, M.; Heelis, R. A.


    Certain magnetic local time sectors at mid latitudes see substantial increases in plasma density in the early phases of a geomagnetic storm. The St. Patrick's Day storms of 2013 and 2015 were no exception, both producing large increases of total electron content at mid latitudes. There are theories for the build up of the storm enhanced density (SED), but can current theoretical ionosphere-thermosphere coupled models actually reproduce the response for an actual event? Not only is it necessary for the physical model to contain the appropriate physics, they also have to be forced by the correct drivers. The SED requires mid-latitude zonal transport to provide plasma stagnation in sunlight to provide the production. The theory also requires a poleward drift perpendicular to the magnetic field to elevate the plasma out of the body of the thermosphere to regions of substantially less loss rate. It is also suggested that equatorward winds are necessary to further elevate the plasma to regions of reduced loss. However, those same winds are also likely to transport molecular nitrogen rich neutral gas equatorward, potentially canceling out the benefits of the neutral circulation. Observations of mid-latitude zonal plasma flow are first analyzed to see if this first necessary ingredient is substantiated. The drift observations are then used to tune the driver to determine if, with the appropriate electric field driver, the latest physical models can reproduce the substantial plasma build up. If it can, the simulation can also be used to assess the contribution of the equatorward meridional wind; are they an asset to the plasma build up, or does the enhanced molecular species they carry counteract their benefit.

  13. Anthropogenic Changes in Mid-latitude Storm and Blocking Activities from Observations and Climate Models (United States)

    Li, D.


    Fingerprints of anthropogenic climate change can be most readily detected in the high latitudes of Northern Hemisphere, where temperature has been rising faster than the rest of the globe and sea ice cover has shrunk dramatically over recent decades. Reducing the meridional temperature gradient, this amplified warming over the high latitudes influences weather in the middle latitudes by modulating the jet stream, storms, and atmospheric blocking activities. Whether observational records have revealed significant changes in mid-latitude storms and blocking activities, however, has remained a subject of much debate. Buried deep in strong year-to-year variations, the long-term dynamic responses of the atmosphere are more difficult to identify, compared with its thermodynamic responses. Variabilities of decadal and longer timescales further obscure any trends diagnosed from satellite observations, which are often shorter than 40 years. Here, new metrics reflecting storm and blocking activities are developed using surface air temperature and pressure records, and their variations and long-term trends are examined. This approach gives an inkling of the changes in storm and blocking activities since the Industrial Revolution in regions with abundant long-term observational records, e.g. Europe and North America. The relationship between Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation and variations in storm and blocking activities across the Atlantic is also scrutinized. The connection between observed centennial trends and anthropogenic forcings is investigated using a hierarchy of numerical tools, from highly idealized to fully coupled atmosphere-ocean models. Pre-industrial control simulations and a set of large ensemble simulations forced by increased CO2 are analyzed to evaluate the range of natural variabilities, which paves the way to singling out significant anthropogenic changes from observational records, as well as predicting future changes in mid-latitude storm and

  14. Effects of electric field methods on modeling the midlatitude ionospheric electrodynamics and inner magnetosphere dynamics (United States)

    Yu, Yiqun; Jordanova, Vania K.; Ridley, Aaron J.; Toth, Gabor; Heelis, Roderick


    We report a self-consistent electric field coupling between the midlatitude ionospheric electrodynamics and inner magnetosphere dynamics represented in a kinetic ring current model. This implementation in the model features another self-consistency in addition to its already existing self-consistent magnetic field coupling with plasma. The model is therefore named as Ring current-Atmosphere interaction Model with Self-Consistent magnetic (B) and electric (E) fields, or RAM-SCB-E. With this new model, we explore, by comparing with previously employed empirical Weimer potential, the impact of using self-consistent electric fields on the modeling of storm time global electric potential distribution, plasma sheet particle injection, and the subauroral polarization streams (SAPS) which heavily rely on the coupled interplay between the inner magnetosphere and midlatitude ionosphere. We find the following phenomena in the self-consistent model: (1) The spatially localized enhancement of electric field is produced within 2.5 penetration as found in statistical observations. (2) The electric potential contours show more substantial skewing toward the postmidnight than the Weimer potential, suggesting the resistance on the particles from directly injecting toward the low-L region. (3) The proton flux indeed indicates that the plasma sheet inner boundary at the dusk-premidnight sector is located further away from the Earth than in the Weimer potential, and a "tongue" of low-energy protons extends eastward toward the dawn, leading to the Harang reversal. (4) SAPS are reproduced in the subauroral region, and their magnitude and latitudinal width are in reasonable agreement with data.

  15. MAGSAT anomaly map and continental drift (United States)

    Lemouel, J. L. (Principal Investigator); Galdeano, A.; Ducruix, J.


    Anomaly maps of high quality are needed to display unambiguously the so called long wave length anomalies. The anomalies were analyzed in terms of continental drift and the nature of their sources is discussed. The map presented confirms the thinness of the oceanic magnetized layer. Continental magnetic anomalies are characterized by elongated structures generally of east-west trend. Paleomagnetic reconstruction shows that the anomalies found in India, Australia, and Antarctic exhibit a fair consistency with the African anomalies. It is also shown that anomalies are locked under the continents and have a fixed geometry.

  16. Boundary Layer Control of Rotating Convection Systems (United States)

    King, E. M.; Stellmach, S.; Noir, J.; Hansen, U.; Aurnou, J. M.


    Rotating convection is ubiquitous in the natural universe, and is likely responsible for planetary processes such magnetic field generation. Rapidly rotating convection is typically organized by the Coriolis force into tall, thin, coherent convection columns which are aligned with the axis of rotation. This organizational effect of rotation is thought to be responsible for the strength and structure of magnetic fields generated by convecting planetary interiors. As thermal forcing is increased, the relative influence of rotation weakens, and fully three-dimensional convection can exist. It has long been assumed that rotational effects will dominate convection dynamics when the ratio of buoyancy to the Coriolis force, the convective Rossby number, Roc, is less than unity. We investigate the influence of rotation on turbulent Rayleigh-Benard convection via a suite of coupled laboratory and numerical experiments over a broad parameter range: Rayleigh number, 10310; Ekman number, 10-6≤ E ≤ ∞; and Prandtl number, 1≤ Pr ≤ 100. In particular, we measure heat transfer (as characterized by the Nusselt number, Nu) as a function of the Rayleigh number for several different Ekman and Prandtl numbers. Two distinct heat transfer scaling regimes are identified: non-rotating style heat transfer, Nu ~ Ra2/7, and quasigeostrophic style heat transfer, Nu~ Ra6/5. The transition between the non-rotating regime and the rotationally dominant regime is described as a function of the Ekman number, E. We show that the regime transition depends not on the global force balance Roc, but on the relative thicknesses of the thermal and Ekman boundary layers. The transition scaling provides a predictive criterion for the applicability of convection models to natural systems such as Earth's core.

  17. Diagnosing sea ice from the north american multi model ensemble and implications on mid-latitude winter climate (United States)

    Elders, Akiko; Pegion, Kathy


    Arctic sea ice plays an important role in the climate system, moderating the exchange of energy and moisture between the ocean and the atmosphere. An emerging area of research investigates how changes, particularly declines, in sea ice extent (SIE) impact climate in regions local to and remote from the Arctic. Therefore, both observations and model estimates of sea ice become important. This study investigates the skill of sea ice predictions from models participating in the North American Multi-Model Ensemble (NMME) project. Three of the models in this project provide sea-ice predictions. The ensemble average of these models is used to determine seasonal climate impacts on surface air temperature (SAT) and sea level pressure (SLP) in remote regions such as the mid-latitudes. It is found that declines in fall SIE are associated with cold temperatures in the mid-latitudes and pressure patterns across the Arctic and mid-latitudes similar to the negative phase of the Arctic Oscillation (AO). These findings are consistent with other studies that have investigated the relationship between declines in SIE and mid-latitude weather and climate. In an attempt to include additional NMME models for sea-ice predictions, a proxy for SIE is used to estimate ice extent in the remaining models, using sea surface temperature (SST). It is found that SST is a reasonable proxy for SIE estimation when compared to model SIE forecasts and observations. The proxy sea-ice estimates also show similar relationships to mid-latitude temperature and pressure as the actual sea-ice predictions.

  18. Plate tectonics, mantle convection and D'' seismic structures (United States)

    Wen, Lianxing

    This thesis adopts multidisciplinary (geodynamical and seismological) approaches toward understanding dynamics of the Earth's mantle. My geodynamical approach is directed at understanding the relationship between large-scale surface observables (geoid, topography, plate motions) and mantle rheology and convection of the present-day Earth. In chapter 2, I remove shallow mantle structure of various tectonic features to generate "residual tomography." In chapter 3, I show that the pattern, spectrum and amplitude of the "residual topography" are consistent with shallow origin of the "Earth surface dynamic topography;" the long wavelength geoid and topography (l = 2-3) are successfully explained by density models inferred from the "residual tomography," assuming layered mantle convection stratified at the "920 km seismic discontinuity." In chapter 4, I develop a new method to calculate mantle flow with lateral variation of viscosity. The viscosity contrast between continental and oceanic regions is identified to have dominating effects on both the observed poloidal/toroidal ratio and pattern of toroidal motions at long wavelengths. My seismological approach is focused on exploring fine structures near the core-mantle boundary (CMB) and developing new seismic techniques. I discuss the method development and strategies to explore fine structures in the following chapters. In chapter 5, I develop a hybrid method, a combination of analytical and numerical methods, with numerical methods applied in heterogeneous regions only. In chapter 6, I constrain the general structures of the ultra low velocity zones (ULVZ) near the CMB under the south-east Pacific and Iceland. The SKS-SPdKS data are explained by ULVZ with P-velocity reduction of 10%, horizontal length-scales of about 250 km and height of about 40 km. S-velocity reduction of 30% is consistent with the data. In chapter 7, I constrain the detailed structures of the ULVZ near the CMB from observed broadband PKP precursors

  19. Measuring Convective Mass Fluxes Over Tropical Oceans (United States)

    Raymond, David


    Deep convection forms the upward branches of all large-scale circulations in the tropics. Understanding what controls the form and intensity of vertical convective mass fluxes is thus key to understanding tropical weather and climate. These mass fluxes and the corresponding conditions supporting them have been measured by recent field programs (TPARC/TCS08, PREDICT, HS3) in tropical disturbances considered to be possible tropical storm precursors. In reality, this encompasses most strong convection in the tropics. The measurements were made with arrays of dropsondes deployed from high altitude. In some cases Doppler radar provided additional measurements. The results are in some ways surprising. Three factors were found to control the mass flux profiles, the strength of total surface heat fluxes, the column-integrated relative humidity, and the low to mid-tropospheric moist convective instability. The first two act as expected, with larger heat fluxes and higher humidity producing more precipitation and stronger lower tropospheric mass fluxes. However, unexpectedly, smaller (but still positive) convective instability produces more precipitation as well as more bottom-heavy convective mass flux profiles. Furthermore, the column humidity and the convective instability are anti-correlated, at least in the presence of strong convection. On spatial scales of a few hundred kilometers, the virtual temperature structure appears to be in dynamic balance with the pattern of potential vorticity. Since potential vorticity typically evolves on longer time scales than convection, the potential vorticity pattern plus the surface heat fluxes then become the immediate controlling factors for average convective properties. All measurements so far have taken place in regions with relatively flat sea surface temperature (SST) distributions. We are currently seeking funding for a measurement program in the tropical east Pacific, a region that exhibits strong SST gradients and

  20. Transient Mixed Convection Validation for NGNP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Barton [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States); Schultz, Richard [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    The results of this project are best described by the papers and dissertations that resulted from the work. They are included in their entirety in this document. They are: (1) Jeff Harris PhD dissertation (focused mainly on forced convection); (2) Blake Lance PhD dissertation (focused mainly on mixed and transient convection). This dissertation is in multi-paper format and includes the article currently submitted and one to be submitted shortly; and, (3) JFE paper on CFD Validation Benchmark for Forced Convection.

  1. Convective cells and transport in toroidal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassam, A.B.; Kulsrud, R.M.


    The properties of convective cells and the diffusion resulting from such cells are significantly influenced by an inhomogeneity in the extermal confining magnetic field, such as that in toroidal plasmas. The convective diffusion in the presence of a field inhomogeneity is estimated. For a thermal background, this diffusion is shown to be substantially smaller than classical collisional diffusion. For a model nonthermal background, the diffusion is estimated, for typical parameters, to be at most of the order of collisional diffusion. The model background employed is based on spectra observed in numerical simulations of drift-wave-driven convective cells

  2. Transient Mixed Convection Validation for NGNP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Barton; Schultz, Richard


    The results of this project are best described by the papers and dissertations that resulted from the work. They are included in their entirety in this document. They are: (1) Jeff Harris PhD dissertation (focused mainly on forced convection); (2) Blake Lance PhD dissertation (focused mainly on mixed and transient convection). This dissertation is in multi-paper format and includes the article currently submitted and one to be submitted shortly; and, (3) JFE paper on CFD Validation Benchmark for Forced Convection.

  3. Numerical modeling of continental lithospheric weak zone over plume (United States)

    Perepechko, Y. V.; Sorokin, K. E.


    The work is devoted to the development of magmatic systems in the continental lithosphere over diffluent mantle plumes. The areas of tension originating over them are accompanied by appearance of fault zones, and the formation of permeable channels, which are distributed magmatic melts. The numerical simulation of the dynamics of deformation fields in the lithosphere due to convection currents in the upper mantle, and the formation of weakened zones that extend up to the upper crust and create the necessary conditions for the formation of intermediate magma chambers has been carried out. Thermodynamically consistent non-isothermal model simulates the processes of heat and mass transfer of a wide class of magmatic systems, as well as the process of strain localization in the lithosphere and their influence on the formation of high permeability zones in the lower crust. The substance of the lithosphere is a rheologic heterophase medium, which is described by a two-velocity hydrodynamics. This makes it possible to take into account the process of penetration of the melt from the asthenosphere into the weakened zone. The energy dissipation occurs mainly due to interfacial friction and inelastic relaxation of shear stresses. The results of calculation reveal a nonlinear process of the formation of porous channels and demonstrate the diversity of emerging dissipative structures which are determined by properties of both heterogeneous lithosphere and overlying crust. Mutual effect of a permeable channel and the corresponding filtration process of the melt on the mantle convection and the dynamics of the asthenosphere have been studied. The formation of dissipative structures in heterogeneous lithosphere above mantle plumes occurs in accordance with the following scenario: initially, the elastic behavior of heterophase lithosphere leads to the formation of the narrow weakened zone, though sufficiently extensive, with higher porosity. Further, the increase in the width of

  4. The Cameroon line, West Africa, and its bearing on the origin of oceanic and continental alkali basalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitton, J.G.


    The Cameroon line is a unique within-plate volcanic province which straddles a continental margin. It consists of a chain of Tertiary to Recent, generally alkaline volcanoes stretching from the Atlantic island of Pagalu to the interior of the African continent. It provides, therefore, an ideal area in which to compare the sub-oceanic and sub-continental mantle sources for alkali basalt. Basaltic rocks in the oceanic and continental sectors are geochemically and isotopically indistinguishable which suggests that they have identical mantle sources. This conclusion rules out substantial lithosphere involvement in the generation of alkali basalts and therefore weakens the case for mantle metasomatism as a necessary precursor to alkaline magmatism. The convecting upper mantle is a much more likely source as it will be well-stirred and unlikely to show any ocean-continent differences. The long history of Cameroon line magmatism (65 Ma) and lack of evidence for migration of volcanism with time makes a deeper mantle source unlikely. Mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) also originate within the convecting upper mantle and so must share a common source with the Cameroon line alkali basalts (and, by implication, ocean island and continental rift basalts). A grossly homogeneous mantle with a bulk composition depleted in large-ion lithophile elements (LILE), but containing streaks of old, LILE-enriched material, provides a plausible common source. Large degree, near-surface melting of such a source would produce MORB. Smaller degree melts produced at deeper levels would percolate upwards along grain boundaries and become enriched in LILE by leaching LILE-rich grain boundary films. The mixing of these liquids with melts from the LILE-rich streaks will produce magmas with the geochemical and isotopic features of ocean island basalts. (orig.)

  5. Convection in complex shaped vessel; Convection dans des enceintes de forme complexe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The 8 november 2000, the SFT (Societe Francaise de Thermique) organized a technical day on the convection in complex shaped vessels. Nine papers have been presented in the domains of the heat transfers, the natural convection, the fluid distribution, the thermosyphon effect, the steam flow in a sterilization cycle and the transformers cooling. Eight papers are analyzed in ETDE and one paper dealing with the natural convection in spent fuels depository is analyzed in INIS. (A.L.B.)

  6. Coordination: Southeast Continental Shelf studies. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, D.W.


    An overview of the Oceanograhic Program of Skidaway Institute of Oceanograhy is presented. Included are the current five year plan for studies of the Southeast Continental Shelf, a summary of research accomplishments, proposed research for 1981-1982, current status of the Savannah Navigational Light Tower, and a list of publications. (ACR)

  7. Steady, three-dimensional, internally heated convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, G.; Glatzmaier, G.A.; Travis, B.


    Numerical calculations have been carried out of steady, symmetric, three-dimensional modes of convection in internally heated, infinite Prandtl number, Boussinesq fluids at a Rayleigh number of 1.4x10 4 in a spherical shell with inner/outer radius of 0.55 and in a 3x3x1 rectangular box. Multiple patterns of convection occur in both geometries. In the Cartesian geometry the patterns are dominated by cylindrical cold downflows and a broad hot upwelling. In the spherical geometry the patterns consist of cylindrical cold downwellings centered either at the vertices of a tetrahedron or the centers of the faces of a cube. The cold downflow cylinders are immersed in a background of upwelling within which there are cylindrical hot concentrations (plumes) and hot halos around the downflows. The forced hot upflow return plumes of internally heated spherical convection are fundamentally different from the buoyancy-driven plumes of heated from below convection

  8. Convective Radio Occultations Final Campaign Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biondi, R. [Atmospheric Radiation Measurement, Washington, DC (United States)


    Deep convective systems are destructive weather phenomena that annually cause many deaths and injuries as well as much damage, thereby accounting for major economic losses in several countries. The number and intensity of such phenomena have increased over the last decades in some areas of the globe. Damage is mostly caused by strong winds and heavy rain parameters that are strongly connected to the structure of the particular storm. Convection over land is usually stronger and deeper than over the ocean and some convective systems, known as supercells, also develop tornadoes through processes that remain mostly unclear. The intensity forecast and monitoring of convective systems is one of the major challenges for meteorology because in situ measurements during extreme events are too sparse or unreliable and most ongoing satellite missions do not provide suitable time/space coverage.

  9. Ignition in Convective-Diffusive Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Law, Chung


    ... efficiency as well as the knock and emission characteristics. The ignition event is clearly controlled by the chemical reactions of fuel oxidation and the fluid mechanics of convective and diffusive transport...

  10. Understanding and controlling plasmon-induced convection (United States)

    Roxworthy, Brian J.; Bhuiya, Abdul M.; Vanka, Surya P.; Toussaint, Kimani C.


    The heat generation and fluid convection induced by plasmonic nanostructures is attractive for optofluidic applications. However, previously published theoretical studies predict only nanometre per second fluid velocities that are inadequate for microscale mass transport. Here we show both theoretically and experimentally that an array of plasmonic nanoantennas coupled to an optically absorptive indium-tin-oxide (ITO) substrate can generate >micrometre per second fluid convection. Crucially, the ITO distributes thermal energy created by the nanoantennas generating an order of magnitude increase in convection velocities compared with nanoantennas on a SiO2 base layer. In addition, the plasmonic array alters absorption in the ITO, causing a deviation from Beer-Lambert absorption that results in an optimum ITO thickness for a given system. This work elucidates the role of convection in plasmonic optical trapping and particle assembly, and opens up new avenues for controlling fluid and mass transport on the micro- and nanoscale.

  11. What favors convective aggregation and why? (United States)

    Muller, Caroline; Bony, Sandrine


    The organization of convection is ubiquitous, but its physical understanding remains limited. One particular type of organization is the spatial self-aggregation of convection, taking the form of cloud clusters, or tropical cyclones in the presence of rotation. We show that several physical processes can give rise to self-aggregation and highlight the key features responsible for it, using idealized simulations. Longwave radiative feedbacks yield a "radiative aggregation." In that case, sufficient spatial variability of radiative cooling rates yields a low-level circulation, which induces the upgradient energy transport and radiative-convective instability. Not only do vertically integrated radiative budgets matter but the vertical profile of cooling is also crucial. Convective aggregation is facilitated when downdrafts below clouds are weak ("moisture-memory aggregation"), and this is sufficient to trigger aggregation in the absence of longwave radiative feedbacks. These results shed some light on the sensitivity of self-aggregation to various parameters, including resolution or domain size.

  12. Antartic observations of plasma convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, H.J.


    This thesis is concerned with the use of whistler duct tracking as a diagnostic for the behaviour of plasma in the plasmasphere. As a setting for the results given in the thesis, a broad review is presented which embraces pertinent aspects of previous experimental and theoretical studies of the plasmasphere. From a study of 24 hours of continuous whistler data recorded at Sanae, (L = 3,98), it is shown that associated with quiet magnetic conditions (Av Ksub(p)=1), there exists two plasmasphere bulges centred on about 1700 and 0100 UT. There is evidence that these plasmasphere bulge structures are part of a ground-state or reference base drift pattern. Electric field measurements provide some evidence that quiet time plasmasphere drift behaviour is controlled by the internal ionospheric current systems of dynamo origin, rather than being controlled by magnetospheric convection. Finally, this thesis describes an application of the whistler duct tracking technique to whistler data recorded simultaneously at two ground-based stations (Sanae (L = 3,98) and Halley (L = 4,23)). The identification of common whistler components on each station's data set provides a means of estimating the lifetimes of the associated whistler ducts. Duct lifetimes of as little as 30 minutes are found. Such short lived ducts have important implications for current theories of duct formation

  13. Dynamics of acoustic-convective drying of sunflower cake (United States)

    Zhilin, A. A.


    The dynamics of drying sunflower cake by a new acoustic-convective method has been studied. Unlike the conventional (thermal-convective) method, the proposed method allows moisture to be extracted from porous materials without applying heat to the sample to be dried. Kinetic curves of drying by the thermal-convective and acoustic-convective methods were obtained and analyzed. The advantages of the acoustic-convective extraction of moisture over the thermal-convective method are discussed. The relaxation times of drying were determined for both drying methods. An intermittent drying mode which improves the efficiency of acoustic-convective extraction of moisture is considered.

  14. Modulation of Terrestrial Convection by Tropospheric Humidity, and Implications for Other Planets (United States)

    Genio, Anthony Del


    For decades, deep cumulus convection was viewed as consisting partly of undilute plumes that do not interact with their surrounding environment in order to explain their observed tendency to reach or penetrate the tropical tropopause. This behavior was built into all cumulus parameterizations used in terrestrial global climate and numerical weather prediction models, and it still persists in some models today. In the past decade, though, some embarrassing failures of global models have come to light, notably their tendency to rain over land near noon rather than in late afternoon or evening as observed, and the absence in the models of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), the major source of intraseasonal (30-90 day) precipitation variability in the Indian Ocean, West Pacific, and surrounding continental regions. In the past decade it has become clear that an important missing component of parameterizations is strong turbulent entrainment of drier environmental air into cumulus updrafts, which reduces the buoyancy of the updrafts and thus limits their vertical development. Tropospheric humidity thus serves as a throttle on convective penetration to high altitudes and delays the convective response to large-scale destabilizing influences in the environment.

  15. Relation between the continental TCZ and the TCZ over Equatorial ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    So the relationship between the continental and oceanic TCZ is complex. On the one hand, the oceanic TCZ maintains the continental TCZ by propagations, on the other it tries to suppress it by competition.

  16. 75 FR 1076 - Outer Continental Shelf Civil Penalties (United States)


    ... initiate civil penalty proceedings; however, violations that cause injury, death, or environmental damage... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Minerals Management Service Outer Continental Shelf Civil Penalties... daily civil penalty assessment. SUMMARY: The Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act requires the MMS to...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, F. [Department of the Geophysical Sciences, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Pierrehumbert, R. T., E-mail: [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom)


    Condensible substances are nearly ubiquitous in planetary atmospheres. For the most familiar case—water vapor in Earth’s present climate—the condensible gas is dilute, in the sense that its concentration is everywhere small relative to the noncondensible background gases. A wide variety of important planetary climate problems involve nondilute condensible substances. These include planets near or undergoing a water vapor runaway and planets near the outer edge of the conventional habitable zone, for which CO{sub 2} is the condensible. Standard representations of convection in climate models rely on several approximations appropriate only to the dilute limit, while nondilute convection differs in fundamental ways from dilute convection. In this paper, a simple parameterization of convection valid in the nondilute as well as dilute limits is derived and used to discuss the basic character of nondilute convection. The energy conservation properties of the scheme are discussed in detail and are verified in radiative-convective simulations. As a further illustration of the behavior of the scheme, results for a runaway greenhouse atmosphere for both steady instellation and seasonally varying instellation corresponding to a highly eccentric orbit are presented. The latter case illustrates that the high thermal inertia associated with latent heat in nondilute atmospheres can damp out the effects of even extreme seasonal forcing.

  18. Mid-latitude trans-Pacific reconstructions and comparisons of coupled glacial/interglacial climate cycles based on soil stratigraphy of cover-beds (United States)

    Alloway, B. V.; Almond, P. C.; Moreno, P. I.; Sagredo, E.; Kaplan, M. R.; Kubik, P. W.; Tonkin, P. J.


    South Westland, New Zealand, and southern Chile, are two narrow continental corridors effectively confined between the Pacific Ocean in the west and high mountain ranges in the east which impart significant influence over regional climate, vegetation and soils. In both these southern mid-latitude regions, evidence for extensive and repeated glaciations during cold phases of the Quaternary is manifested by arrays of successively older glacial drift deposits with corresponding outwash plain remnants. In South Westland, these variably aged glacial landforms are mantled by layered (multisequal) soils characterised by slow loess accretion and pedogenesis in an extreme leaching and weathering environment. These cover-bed successions have undergone repeated coupled phases of topdown and upbuilding soil formation that have been related to fluctuating cycles of interglacial/warm and glacial/cold climate during the Quaternary. In this study, we recognise multisequal soils overlying glacial landforms in southern continental Chile but, unlike the spodic (podzolic) soil sequences of South Westland, these are of dominantly volcanigenic (andic) provenance and are very similar to multisequal soils of andic provenance that predominate in, and adjacent to, areas of rhyolitic to andesitic volcanism in North Island, New Zealand. Here we develop a soil-stratigraphic model to explain the observed occurrence of multisequal soils mantling dominantly glacial landforms of southern continental Chile. Based on proxy data from southern Chile, we propose that persistent vegetation cover and high precipitation on the western side of the Andes, during colder-than-present episodes tended to suppress the widespread production of glacially-derived loessial materials despite the pervasive occurrence of glacial and glacio-fluvial deposits that have frequently inundated large tracts of this landscape during the Quaternary. Given the lack of loess cover-beds that have traditionally assisted in the

  19. 78 FR 32184 - Importation of Fresh Apricots From Continental Spain (United States)


    .... APHIS-2011-0132] RIN 0579-AD62 Importation of Fresh Apricots From Continental Spain AGENCY: Animal and... United States of fresh apricots from continental Spain. This action will allow interested persons... importation of fruits and vegetables to allow the importation of fresh apricots from continental Spain into...

  20. 78 FR 6227 - Importation of Fresh Apricots From Continental Spain (United States)


    .... APHIS-2011-0132] RIN 0579-AD62 Importation of Fresh Apricots From Continental Spain AGENCY: Animal and... continental Spain. As a condition of entry, fresh apricots from continental Spain would have to be produced in... organization of Spain certifying that the fruit is free from all quarantine pests and has been produced in...

  1. 78 FR 32183 - Importation of Avocados From Continental Spain (United States)


    .... APHIS-2012-0002] RIN 0579-AD63 Importation of Avocados From Continental Spain AGENCY: Animal and Plant... continental Spain (excluding the Balearic Islands and Canary Islands) into the United States. This action will... avocados from continental Spain (excluding the Balearic Islands and Canary Islands) into the United States...

  2. Contributions to knowledge of the continental margin of Uruguay. Description of background samples in the continental margin of Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preciozzi, F


    This study provide data concerning of the background sediments of the continental margin of Uruguay. There were carried out different works with witnesses in order to extract various sediment samples from the continental shelf

  3. Does the bipolar seesaw extend to the terrestrial southern mid-latitudes? (United States)

    Newnham, Rewi M.; Vandergoes, Marcus J.; Sikes, Elisabeth; Carter, Lionel; Wilmshurst, Janet M.; Lowe, David J.; McGlone, Matt S.; Sandiford, Anna


    High precision comparison of Greenland and Antarctic ice cores, suggesting a pervasive antiphased temperature relationship between the polar hemispheres during the last glaciation, lends strong support to the bipolar seesaw model (EPICA, 2006). The extent to which reorganisation of ocean-heat transport during abrupt climate change events affected the southern mid-latitudes remains unclear, however, owing to a paucity of well-dated records with robust climate proxies, variability between some records, and varying interpretations of their significance. Here we present temperature reconstructions for three key pollen records recognised by the NZ-INTIMATE (NZ-I) group which, along with the preliminary NZ-I climate event stratigraphy (Alloway et al., 2007) and published marine records, are compared with polar ice core records for the interval 30-10 cal. ka. We focus on key events within the context of Dansgard Oeschger cycles 4-1 and The Antarctic Cold Reversal/Younger Dryas intervals. The New Zealand records are broadly consistent with an extended bipolar seesaw whereby the oceanic southern mid-latitudes are warmed at times of MOC weakening or cessation in the North Atlantic, and vice versa. Variability between records indicate that other factors must be involved, however, and nor do these records refute alternative models that predict an antiphased inter-hemispheric pattern. Nevertheless an extended bipolar model may explain an early onset of LGM conditions in New Zealand and elsewhere in the Southern Hemisphere at a time when interstadials GI3 and GI4 kept Greenland warm. Similar inter-hemispheric dynamics have been invoked to explain an earlier termination of the LGM in Antarctica than in Greenland (Wolff et al., 2009) which is also evident in the New Zealand records. A prominent mid-LGM interstadial complex observed in several New Zealand records, connected by tephrochronology may represent another antiphased event although stronger chronological control is needed

  4. Towards a Theory of Tropical/Midlatitude Mass Exchange from the Earth's Surface through the Stratosphere (United States)

    Hartley, Dana


    associated solely with vortex PV anomalies are derived and their impact on the stratospheric subtropical circulation is evaluated. Combined PV inversion and Contour Advection (CA) calculations indicate that transient large scale disturbances of the polar vortex do have a far reaching impact that extends beyond the midlatitude surf zone all the way to the subtropics. This vortex influence is clearly non-local so that even simple wave 2 distortions that leave the vortex well confined within the midlatitudes are observed to excite subtropical waves. Treating subtropical PV as active tracers also showed that upon entrainment, these large scale tongues of low PV air also influenced the dynamics of their own poleward migration.

  5. Sea Surface Warming and Increased Aridity at Mid-latitudes during Eocene Thermal Maximum 2 (United States)

    Harper, D. T.; Zeebe, R. E.; Hoenisch, B.; Schrader, C.; Lourens, L. J.; Zachos, J. C.


    Early Eocene hyperthermals, i.e. abrupt global warming events characterized by the release of isotopically light carbon to the atmosphere, can provide insight into the sensitivity of the Earth's climate system and hydrologic cycle to carbon emissions. Indeed, the largest Eocene hyperthermal, the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), has provided one case study of extreme and abrupt global warming, with a mass of carbon release roughly equivalent to total modern fossil fuel reserves and a release rate 1/10 that of modern. Global sea surface temperatures (SST) increased by 5-8°C during the PETM and extensive evidence from marine and terrestrial records indicates significant shifts in the hydrologic cycle consistent with an increase in poleward moisture transport in response to surface warming. The second largest Eocene hyperthermal, Eocene Thermal Maximum 2 (ETM-2) provides an additional calibration point for determining the sensitivity of climate and the hydrologic cycle to massive carbon release. Marine carbon isotope excursions (CIE) and warming at the ETM-2 were roughly half as large as at the PETM, but reliable evidence for shifts in temperature and the hydrologic cycle are sparse for the ETM-2. Here, we utilize coupled planktic foraminiferal δ18O and Mg/Ca to determine ΔSST and ΔSSS (changes in sea surface temperature and salinity) for ETM-2 at ODP Sites 1209 (28°N paleolatitude in the Pacific) and 1265 (42°S paleolatitude in the S. Atlantic), accounting for potential pH influence on the two proxies by using LOSCAR climate-carbon cycle simulated ΔpH. Our results indicate a warming of 2-4°C at both mid-latitude sites and an increase in SSS of 1-3ppt, consistent with simulations of early Paleogene hydroclimate that suggest an increase in low- to mid-latitude aridity due to an intensification of moisture transport to high-latitudes. Furthermore, the magnitude of the CIE and warming for ETM-2 scales with the CIE and warming for the PETM, suggesting that

  6. It's the Physics: Organized Complexity in the Arctic/Midlatitude Weather Controversy (United States)

    Overland, J. E.; Francis, J. A.; Wang, M.


    There is intense scientific and public interest in whether major Arctic changes can and will impact mid-latitude weather. Despite numerous workshops and a growing literature, convergence of understanding is lacking, with major objections about possible large impacts within the scientific community. Yet research on the Arctic as a new potential driver in improving subseasonal forecasting at midlatitudes remains a priority. A recent review laid part of the controversy on shortcomings in experimental design and ill-suited metrics, such as examining the influence of only sea-ice loss rather than overall Arctic temperature amplification, and/or calculating averages over large regions, long time periods, or many ensemble members that would tend to obscure event-like Arctic connections. The present analysis lays the difficulty at a deeper level owing to the inherently complex physics. Jet-stream dynamics and weather linkages on the scale of a week to months has characteristics of an organized complex system, with large-scale processes that operate in patterned, quasi-geostrophic ways but whose component feedbacks are continually changing. Arctic linkages may be state dependent, i.e., relationships may be more robust in one atmospheric wave pattern than another, generating intermittency. The observational network is insufficient to fully initialize such a system and the inherent noise obscures linkage signals, leading to an underdetermined problem; often more than one explanation can fit the data. Further, the problem may be computationally irreducible; the only way to know the result of these interactions is to trace out their path over time. Modeling is a suggested approach, but at present it is unclear whether previous model studies fully resolve anticipated complexity. The jet stream from autumn to early winter is characterized by non-linear interactions among enhanced atmospheric planetary waves, irregular transitions between the zonal and meridional flows, and the

  7. Vertical natural convection: application of the unifying theory of thermal convection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ng, C.S.; Ooi, A.; Lohse, Detlef; Chung, D.


    Results from direct numerical simulations of vertical natural convection at Rayleigh numbers 1.0×10 5 –1.0×10 9 and Prandtl number 0.709 support a generalised applicability of the Grossmann–Lohse (GL) theory, which was originally developed for horizontal natural (Rayleigh–Bénard) convection. In

  8. The health status of adolescents living at mid-latitude or in the European North in relation to anthropogenic pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Kuznetsova


    Full Text Available The distribution of health groups among 14-year-old adolescents (n = 707 living since birth under the conditions of mid-latitudes (the towns of Kirov and Yaransk and in the European North (the town of Ukhta and the settlement of Sedyu was compared to determine the impact of anthropogenic pollution at different latitudes on this indicator. It was shown that the conditions of the European North in the absence of anthropogenic pollution failed to affect the number of 14-year-old boys and girls having health groups I, II, III, IV, and V. Anthropogenic pollution was found to decline the number of health group I adolescents living in the European North, without influencing this indicator in those dwelling at mid-latitudes, but, in spite of the latitude of their residence, to increase that of persons with health group II, without having an impact on the number of persons with health groups III, IV, and V.

  9. Fractional activation of accumulation-mode particles in warm continental stratiform clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillani, N.V.; Daum, P.H.; Schwartz, S.E.; Leaitch, W.R.; Strapp, J.W.; Isaac, G.A.


    The degree of activation of accumulation-mode particles (AMP) in clouds has been studied using continuous (1 second average) aircraft measurements of the number concentrations of cloud droplets (N cd , 2 to 35 μm diameter) and of unactivated AMP (N amp , 0.17 to 2.07 μm diameter) in cloud interstitial air. The magnitude and spatial variation of the activated fraction (F) of all measured particles (defined as F triple-bond N cd /N tot , where N tot = N cd + N amp ) are investigated, based on measurements made during ten aircraft flights in non-precipitating warm continental stratiform clouds near Syracuse NY in the fall of 1984. Based on instantaneous observations throughout the clouds, the spatial distribution of F was found to be quite nonuniform. In general, F was low in cloud edges and where total particle loading was high and/or cloud convective activity was low. In the interior of clouds, the value of F exceeded 0.9 for 36% of the data, but was below 0.6 for 28%. Factors influencing F the most were the total particle loading (N tot ) and the thermal stability of the cloud layer. The dependence of F on N tot in cloud interior was characterized by two distinct regimes. For N tot -3 , F was generally close to unity and relatively insensitive to N tot . For N tot > 800 cm -3 , F tended to decrease with increasing N tot . This decrease was greatest in a stable stratus deck embedded in a warm moist airmass. The results suggest that, in warm continental stratiform clouds, the process of particle activation becomes nonlinear and self-limiting at high particle loading. The degree of this nonlinearity depends on cloud convective activity (thermal instability)

  10. Regional magnetic anomaly constraints on continental rifting (United States)

    Vonfrese, R. R. B.; Hinze, W. J.; Olivier, R.; Bentley, C. R.


    Radially polarized MAGSAT anomalies of North and South America, Europe, Africa, India, Australia and Antarctica demonstrate remarkably detailed correlation of regional magnetic lithospheric sources across rifted margins when plotted on a reconstruction of Pangea. These major magnetic features apparently preserve their integrity until a superimposed metamorphoric event alters the magnitude and pattern of the anomalies. The longevity of continental scale magnetic anomalies contrasts markedly with that of regional gravity anomalies which tend to reflect predominantly isostatic adjustments associated with neo-tectonism. First observed as a result of NASA's magnetic satellite programs, these anomalies provide new and fundamental constraints on the geologic evolution and dynamics of the continents and oceans. Accordingly, satellite magnetic observations provide a further tool for investigating continental drift to compliment other lines of evidence in paleoclimatology, paleontology, paleomagnetism, and studies of the radiometric ages and geometric fit of the continents.

  11. Root zone of a continental rift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirsch, Moritz; Svenningsen, Olaf


    melt are considered to account for the compositional range exhibited by the KIC igneous rocks. U/Pb SIMS geochronological data from zircon rims yield an emplacement age of 578 ± 9 Ma. The KIC is thus younger and more depleted than coeval mafic rocks found in the Seve Nappe, and is interpreted...... to represent a high-level magma plumbing system in a late-stage continental rift. The composition and volume of rift-related igneous rocks in the Seve Nappes are inconsistent with a mantle plume origin, but are thought to record progressive lithospheric thinning and increasing involvement of an asthenospheric......Mafic magmatic rocks formed between ca. 615 and 560 Ma along the Neoproterozoic margins of Baltica and Laurentia are classically attributed to continental rifting heralding the opening of the Iapetus Ocean. We report new data for the Kebnekaise Intrusive Complex (KIC) exposed in the Seve Nappes...

  12. More evidence for a planetary wave link with midlatitude E region coherent backscatter and sporadic E layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Schlegel

    Full Text Available Measurements of midlatitude E region coherent backscatter obtained during four summers with SESCAT, a 50 MHz Doppler system operating in Crete, Greece, and concurrent ionosonde recordings from the same ionospheric volume obtained with a CADI for one of these summers, are used to analyse the long-term variability in echo and Es occurrence. Echo and Es layer occurrences, computed in percent of time over a 12-h nighttime interval, take the form of time sequences. Linear power spectrum analysis shows that there are dominant spectral peaks in the range of 2–9 days, the most commonly observed periods appearing in two preferential bands, of 2–3 days and 4–7 days. No connection with geomagnetic activity was found. The characteristics of these periodicities compare well with similar properties of planetary waves, which suggests the possibility that planetary waves are responsible for the observed long-term periodicities. These findings indicate also a likely close relation between planetary wave (PW activity and the well known but not well understood seasonal Es dependence. To test the PW postulation, we used simultaneous neutral wind data from the mesopause region around 95 km, measured from Collm, Germany. Direct comparison of the long-term periodicities in echo and Es layer occurrence with those in the neutral wind show some reasonable agreement. This new evidence, although not fully conclusive, is the first direct indication in favour of a planetary wave role on the unstable midlatitude E region ionosphere. Our results suggest that planetary waves observation is a viable option and a new element into the physics of midlatitude Es layers that needs to be considered and investigated.Key words: Ionosphere (ionosphere irregularities; mid-latitude ionosphere – Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (waves and tides

  13. Chlorine-36 dating of continental evaporites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Qi


    Teh chloring-36 production, principle and experimental method of 36 Cl dating are briefly described. The ages calculated from the 36 Cl/Cl ratios are generally concordant with those obtained by using 14 C, 230 Th and magnetostratigraphic techniques. It confirms the constancy of the chlorine input ratio over the last million years and implys that 36 Cl can provide accurate dates on continental saline sediments

  14. Swell propagation across a wide continental shelf


    Hendrickson, Eric J.


    The effects of wave refraction and damping on swell propagation across a wide continental shelf were examined with data from a transect of bottom pressure recorders extending from the beach to the shelf break near Duck, North Carolina. The observations generally show weak variations in swell energy across the shelf during benign conditions, in qualitative agreement with predictions of a spectral refraction model. Although the predicted ray trajectories are quite sensitive to the irregular she...

  15. Cloud-resolving model intercomparison of an MC3E squall line case: Part I-Convective updrafts: CRM Intercomparison of a Squall Line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Jiwen [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Han, Bin [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; School of Atmospheric Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing China; Varble, Adam [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Utah, Salt Lake City Utah USA; Morrison, Hugh [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder Colorado USA; North, Kirk [Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, McGill University, Montreal Quebec USA; Kollias, Pavlos [Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, McGill University, Montreal Quebec USA; School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook New York USA; Chen, Baojun [School of Atmospheric Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing China; Dong, Xiquan [Department of Hydrology and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson Arizona USA; Giangrande, Scott E. [Environmental and Climate Sciences Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton New York USA; Khain, Alexander [The Institute of the Earth Science, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem Israel; Lin, Yun [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, Texas A& M University, College Station Texas USA; Mansell, Edward [NOAA/OAR/National Severe Storms Laboratory, Norman Oklahoma USA; Milbrandt, Jason A. [Meteorological Research Division, Environment and Climate Change Canada, Dorval Canada; Stenz, Ronald [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks North Dakota USA; Thompson, Gregory [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder Colorado USA; Wang, Yuan [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena California USA


    A constrained model intercomparison study of a mid-latitude mesoscale squall line is performed using the Weather Research & Forecasting (WRF) model at 1-km horizontal grid spacing with eight cloud microphysics schemes, to understand specific processes that lead to the large spread of simulated cloud and precipitation at cloud-resolving scales, with a focus of this paper on convective cores. Various observational data are employed to evaluate the baseline simulations. All simulations tend to produce a wider convective area than observed, but a much narrower stratiform area, with most bulk schemes overpredicting radar reflectivity. The magnitudes of the virtual potential temperature drop, pressure rise, and the peak wind speed associated with the passage of the gust front are significantly smaller compared with the observations, suggesting simulated cool pools are weaker. Simulations also overestimate the vertical velocity and Ze in convective cores as compared with observational retrievals. The modeled updraft velocity and precipitation have a significant spread across the eight schemes even in this strongly dynamically-driven system. The spread of updraft velocity is attributed to the combined effects of the low-level perturbation pressure gradient determined by cold pool intensity and buoyancy that is not necessarily well correlated to differences in latent heating among the simulations. Variability of updraft velocity between schemes is also related to differences in ice-related parameterizations, whereas precipitation variability increases in no-ice simulations because of scheme differences in collision-coalescence parameterizations.

  16. Thermodynamic phase profiles of optically thin midlatitude cloud and their relation to temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naud, C. M.; Del Genio, Anthony D.; Haeffelin, M.; Morille, Y.; Noel, V.; Dupont, Jean-Charles; Turner, David D.; Lo, Chaomei; Comstock, Jennifer M.


    Winter cloud phase and temperature profiles derived from ground-based lidar depolarization and radiosonde measurements are analyzed for two midlatitude locations: the United States Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Southern Great Plains (SGP) site and the Site Instrumental de Recherche par Télédétection Atmosphérique (SIRTA) in France. Because lidars are attenuated in optically thick clouds, the dataset only includes optically thin clouds (optical thickness < 3). At SGP, 57% of the clouds observed with the lidar in the temperature range 233-273 K are either completely liquid or completely glaciated, while at SIRTA only 42% of the observed clouds are single phase, based on a depolarization ratio threshold of 11% for differentiating liquid from ice. Most optically thin mixed phase clouds show an ice layer at cloud top, and clouds with liquid at cloud top are less frequent. The relationship between ice phase occurrence and temperature only slightly changes between cloud base and top. At both sites liquid is more prevalent at colder temperatures than has been found previously in aircraft flights through frontal clouds of greater optical thicknesses. Liquid in clouds persists to colder temperatures at SGP than SIRTA. This information on the average temperatures of mixed phase clouds at both locations complements earlier passive satellite remote sensing measurements that sample cloud phase near cloud top and for a wider range of cloud optical thicknesses.

  17. Impacts of Early Summer Eurasian Snow Cover Change on Atmospheric Circulation in Northern Mid-Latitudes (United States)

    Nozawa, T.


    Recently, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) has developed a new long-term snow cover extent (SCE) product using Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data spanning from 1980's to date. This new product (JAXA/SCE) has higher spatial resolution and smaller commission error compared with traditional SCE dataset of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA/SCE). Continuity of the algorithm is another strong point in JAXA/SCE. According to the new JAXA/SCE dataset, the Eurasian SCE has been significantly retreating since 1980's, especially in late spring and early summer. Here, we investigate impacts of early summer Eurasian snow cover change on atmospheric circulation in Northern mid-latitudes, especially over the East Asia, using the new JAXA/SCE dataset and a few reanalysis data. We will present analyzed results on relationships between early summer SCE anomaly over the Eurasia and changes in atmospheric circulations such as upper level zonal jets (changes in strength, positions, etc.) over the East Asia.

  18. Multi-instrument observations of midlatitude summer nighttime anomaly from satellite and ground (United States)

    Yamamoto, Mamoru; Thampi, Smitha V.; Liu, Huixin; Lin, Charles

    "Midlatitude Summer Nighttime Anomaly (MSNA)" is a phenomenon that the nighttime elec-tron densities exceed the daytime values on almost all days in summer over latitudes of 33-34N of more. We recently found the MSNA over the northeast Asian region from multi-instrument observations. The observations include the tomography analysis based on the chain of digital beacon receivers at Shionomisaki (33.45N, 135.8E), Shigaraki (34.85N, 136.1E), and Fukui (36.06N,136E), the ionosonde network over Japan (especially data from Wakkanai (45.4N, 141.7E)), ground-based GPS TEC observations using the GEONET. Also from satellites, CHAMP in situ electron density measurements, and Formosat3/COSMIC (F3/C) occultation measurements are useful to confirm the presence of MSNA over this region. In the presen-tation we show detailed features of the MSNA based on these multi-instrument, and discuss importance of the neutral atmosphere as a driver of the phenomenon.

  19. A Lagrangian analysis of mid-latitude stratospheric ozone variability and long-term trends. (United States)

    Koch, G.; Wernli, H.; Staehelin, J.; Peter, T.


    A systematic Lagrangian investigation is performed of wintertime high-resolution stratospheric ozone soundings at Payerne, Switzerland, from January 1970 to March 2001. For every ozone sounding, 10-day backward trajectories have been calculated on 16 isentropic levels using NCEP reanalysis data. Both the minimum/maximum latitude and potential vorticity (PV) averaged along the trajectories are used as indicators of the air parcels' ``origin''. The importance of transport for the understandin g of single ozone profiles is confirmed by a statistical analysis which shows that negative/positive ozone deviations gener ally coincide with transport from regions with climatologically low/high ozone values. The stable relationship between PV and ozone for the 32 year period indicates either no direct chemical impact or no temporal change of this impact. In the upper layer the PV-ozone relationship changes significantly after 1987 and a separate trend analysis for air masses transported from the polar, midlatitude and subtropical regions shows negative ozone trends in all three categories (with a maximum for the polar region). This is not direct evidence for, but would be in agreement with, an increased chemical ozone depletion in the Arctic since the late 1980s. The reasons for the negative trend in the mid-stratospheric air masses with subtropical origin that are in qualitative agreement with recent satellite observations are presently unknown.

  20. Midlatitude Plasma Bubbles Over China and Adjacent Areas During a Magnetic Storm on 8 September 2017 (United States)

    Aa, Ercha; Huang, Wengeng; Liu, Siqing; Ridley, Aaron; Zou, Shasha; Shi, Liqin; Chen, Yanhong; Shen, Hua; Yuan, Tianjiao; Li, Jianyong; Wang, Tan


    This paper presents observations of postsunset super plasma bubbles over China and adjacent areas during the second main phase of a storm on 8 September 2017. The signatures of the plasma bubbles can be seen or deduced from (1) deep field-aligned total electron content depletions embedded in regional ionospheric maps derived from dense Global Navigation Satellite System networks, (2) significant equatorial and midlatitudinal plasma bite-outs in electron density measurements on board Swarm satellites, and (3) enhancements of ionosonde virtual height and scintillation in local evening associated with strong southward interplanetary magnetic field. The bubbles/depletions covered a broad area mainly within 20°-45°N and 80°-110°E with bifurcated structures and persisted for nearly 5 hr (˜13-18 UT). One prominent feature is that the bubbles extended remarkably along the magnetic field lines in the form of depleted flux tubes, reaching up to midlatitude of around 50°N (magnetic latitude: 45.5°N) that maps to an altitude of 6,600 km over the magnetic equator. The maximum upward drift speed of the bubbles over the magnetic equator was about 700 m/s and gradually decreased with altitude and time. The possible triggering mechanism of the plasma bubbles was estimated to be storm time eastward prompt penetration electric field, while the traveling ionospheric disturbance could play a role in facilitating the latitudinal extension of the depletions.

  1. A survey of plasma irregularities as seen by the midlatitude Blackstone SuperDARN radar (United States)

    Ribeiro, A. J.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.; Baker, J. B. H.; Clausen, L. B. N.; Greenwald, R. A.; Lester, M.


    The Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) is a chain of HF radars that monitor plasma dynamics in the ionosphere. In recent years, SuperDARN has expanded to midlatitudes in order to provide enhanced coverage during geomagnetically active periods. A new type of backscatter from F region plasma irregularities with low Doppler velocity has been frequently observed on the nightside during quiescent conditions. Using three years of data from the Blackstone, VA radar, we have implemented a method for extracting this new type of backscatter from routine observations. We have statistically characterized the occurrence properties of the Sub Auroral Ionospheric Scatter (SAIS) events, including the latitudinal relationships to the equatorward edge of the auroral oval and the ionospheric projection of the plasmapause. We find that the backscatter is confined to local night, occurs on ≈70% of nights, is fixed in geomagnetic latitude, and is equatorward of both the auroral region and the plasmapause boundary. We conclude that SAIS irregularities are observed within a range of latitudes that is conjugate to the inner magnetosphere (plasmasphere).

  2. Equatorial Precession Drove Mid-Latitude Changes in ENSO-Scale Variation in the Earliest Miocene (United States)

    Fox, B.; D'Andrea, W. J.; Lee, D. E.; Wilson, G. S.


    Foulden Maar is an annually laminated lacustrine diatomite deposit from the South Island of New Zealand. The deposit was laid down over ~100 kyr of the latest Oligocene and earliest Miocene, during the peak and deglaciation phase of the Mi-1 Antarctic glaciation event. At this time, New Zealand was located at approximately the same latitude as today (~45°S). Evidence from organic geochemical proxies (δD, δ13C) and physical properties (density, colour) indicates the presence of an 11-kyr cycle at the site. Although it is known that 11-kyr insolation (half-precession) cycles occur between the Tropics, this cycle is rarely seen in sedimentary archives deposited outside the immediate vicinity of the Equator. Records from Foulden Maar correlate well with the amplitude and phase of the modelled equatorial half-precession cycle for the earliest Miocene. High-resolution (50 µm) colour intensity measurements and lamina thickness measurements both indicate the presence of significant ENSO-like (2-8 year) variation in the Foulden Maar sediments. Early results from targeted lamina thickness measurements suggest that ENSO-band variation is modulated by the 11-kyr cycle, with power in the ENSO band increasing during periods of increased insolation at the Equator. This implies that equatorial half-precession had a significant effect on ENSO-like variation in the early Miocene, and that this effect was felt as far afield as the mid-latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere.

  3. Modelling geomagnetically induced currents in midlatitude Central Europe using a thin-sheet approach (United States)

    Bailey, Rachel L.; Halbedl, Thomas S.; Schattauer, Ingrid; Römer, Alexander; Achleitner, Georg; Beggan, Ciaran D.; Wesztergom, Viktor; Egli, Ramon; Leonhardt, Roman


    Geomagnetically induced currents (GICs) in power systems, which can lead to transformer damage over the short and the long term, are a result of space weather events and geomagnetic variations. For a long time, only high-latitude areas were considered to be at risk from these currents, but recent studies show that considerable GICs also appear in midlatitude and equatorial countries. In this paper, we present initial results from a GIC model using a thin-sheet approach with detailed surface and subsurface conductivity models to compute the induced geoelectric field. The results are compared to measurements of direct currents in a transformer neutral and show very good agreement for short-period variations such as geomagnetic storms. Long-period signals such as quiet-day diurnal variations are not represented accurately, and we examine the cause of this misfit. The modelling of GICs from regionally varying geoelectric fields is discussed and shown to be an important factor contributing to overall model accuracy. We demonstrate that the Austrian power grid is susceptible to large GICs in the range of tens of amperes, particularly from strong geomagnetic variations in the east-west direction.

  4. Solar activity influence on climatic variations of stratosphere and mesosphere in mid-latitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taubenheim, J.; Entzian, G.; Voncossart, G.


    The direct modulation of temperature of the mid-latitude mesosphere by the solar-cycle EUV variation, which leads to greater heat input at higher solar activity, is well established. Middle atmosphere temperature modulation by the solar cycle is independently confirmed by the variation of reflection heights of low frequency radio waves in the lower ionosphere, which are regularly monitored over about 30 years. As explained elsewhere in detail, these reflection heights depend on the geometric altitude of a certain isobaric surface (near 80 k), and on the solar ionizing Lyman-alpha radiation flux. Knowing the solar cycle variation of Lyman-alpha how much the measured reflection heights would be lowered with the transition from solar minimum to maximum can be calculated, if the vertical baric structure of the neutral atmosphere would remain unchanged. Any discrepancy between expected and observed height change must be explained by an uplifting of the isobaric level from solar minimum to maximum, caused by the temperature rise in the mesosphere. By integrating the solar cycle temperature changes over the height region of the middle atmosphere, and assuming that the lower boundary (tropopause) has no solar cycle variation, the magnitude of this uplifting can be estimated. It is given for the Lidar-derived and for the rocket-measured temperature variations. Comparison suggests that the real amplitude of the solar cycle temperature variation in the mesosphere is underestimated when using the rocket data, but probably overestimated with the Lidar data

  5. Features of HF Radio Wave Attenuation in the Midlatitude Ionosphere Near the Skip Zone Boundary (United States)

    Denisenko, P. F.; Skazik, A. I.


    We briefly describe the history of studying the decameter radio wave attenuation by different methods in the midlatitude ionosphere. A new method of estimating the attenuation of HF radio waves in the ionospheric F region near the skip zone boundary is presented. This method is based on an analysis of the time structure of the interference field generated by highly stable monochromatic X-mode radio waves at the observation point. The main parameter is the effective electron collision frequency νeff, which allows for all energy losses in the form of equivalent heat loss. The frequency νeff is estimated by matching the assumed (model) and the experimentally observed structures. Model calculations are performed using the geometrical-optics approximation. The spatial attenuation caused by the influence of the medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances is taken into account. Spherical shape of the ionosphere and the Earth's magnetic field are roughly allowed for. The results of recording of the level of signals from the RWM (Moscow) station at a frequency of 9.996 MHz at point Rostov are used.

  6. Atmospheric water distribution in a midlatitude cyclone observed by the Seasat Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (United States)

    Mcmurdie, L. A.; Katsaros, K. B.


    Patterns in the horizontal distribution of integrated water vapor, integrated liquid water and rainfall rate derived from the Seasat Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) during a September 10-12, 1978 North Pacific cyclone are studied. These patterns are compared with surface analyses, ship reports, radiosonde data, and GOES-West infrared satellite imagery. The SMMR data give a unique view of the large mesoscale structure of a midlatitude cyclone. The water vapor distribution is found to have characteristic patterns related to the location of the surface fronts throughout the development of the cyclone. An example is given to illustrate that SMMR data could significantly improve frontal analysis over data-sparse oceanic regions. The distribution of integrated liquid water agrees qualitatively well with corresponding cloud patterns in satellite imagery and appears to provide a means to distinguish where liquid water clouds exist under a cirrus shield. Ship reports of rainfall intensity agree qualitatively very well with SMMR-derived rainrates. Areas of mesoscale rainfall, on the order of 50 km x 50 km or greater are detected using SMMR derived rainrates.

  7. Historical deforestation locally increased the intensity of hot days in northern mid-latitudes (United States)

    Lejeune, Quentin; Davin, Edouard L.; Gudmundsson, Lukas; Winckler, Johannes; Seneviratne, Sonia I.


    The effects of past land-cover changes on climate are disputed1-3. Previous modelling studies have generally concluded that the biogeophysical effects of historical deforestation led to an annual mean cooling in the northern mid-latitudes3,4, in line with the albedo-induced negative radiative forcing from land-cover changes since pre-industrial time reported in the most recent Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report5. However, further observational and modelling studies have highlighted strong seasonal and diurnal contrasts in the temperature response to deforestation6-10. Here, we show that historical deforestation has led to a substantial local warming of hot days over the northern mid-latitudes—a finding that contrasts with most previous model results11,12. Based on observation-constrained state-of-the-art climate-model experiments, we estimate that moderate reductions in tree cover in these regions have contributed at least one-third of the local present-day warming of the hottest day of the year since pre-industrial time, and were responsible for most of this warming before 1980. These results emphasize that land-cover changes need to be considered when studying past and future changes in heat extremes, and highlight a potentially overlooked co-benefit of forest-based carbon mitigation through local biogeophysical mechanisms.

  8. Theory and observations of the low- and mid-latitude ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandler, M.O.


    Measured and calculated values of electron concentration, electron temperature and ion temperature in the low- and mid-latitude ionosphere are presented and discussed. The existence of horizontal, spatial gradients in electron temperature on 13 September 1980 above Arecibo, Puerto Rico is shown. The gradients were northward with maximum values of about 1.5 km -1 . The ionosphere model presented by Young et al. (1979) was tested by comparison with another theoretical model and with observations. The tests show that the model values of electron concentration are in agreement with the observations, but that the model electron temperatures are too low. An increase in the model electron heating rate by a factor of 1.5 to 4 is shown to result in better agreement. The suggestion is made that the photoelectron transport equations are incorrect in calculating the photoelectron flux at low energies. The possibility of an error in the electron cooling rate due to interactions with positive ions could not be ruled out. The model is used to explain the observed electron temperature gradients. By assuming the existence of a poleward meridional neutral wind with a poleward velocity gradient, it is shown that the resulting change in the height of the F-region causes differences in electron temperature such as those observed at Arecibo on 13 September 1980. Comparisons of simultaneous measurements from the Arecibo and Millstone Hill observatories are presented. These observations show that significant differences existed in the electron temperature as a function of latitude on 27 June 1981

  9. Northern hemisphere mid-latitude geomagnetic anomaly revealed from Levantine Archaeomagnetic Compilation (LAC). (United States)

    Shaar, R.; Tauxe, L.; Agnon, A.; Ben-Yosef, E.; Hassul, E.


    The rich archaeological heritage of Israel and nearby Levantine countries provides a unique opportunity for archaeomagnetic investigation in high resolution. Here we present a summary of our ongoing effort to reconstruct geomagnetic variations of the past several millennia in the Levant at decadal to millennial resolution. This effort at the Southern Levant, namely the "Levantine Archaeomagnetic Compilation" (LAC), presently consists of data from over 650 well-dated archaeological objects including pottery, slag, ovens, and furnaces. In this talk we review the methodological challenges in achieving a robust master secular variation curve with realistic error estimations from a large number of different datasets. We present the current status of the compilation, including the southern and western Levant LAC data (Israel, Cyprus, and Jordan) and other published north-eastern Levant data (Syria and southern Turkey), and outline the main findings emerging from these data. The main feature apparent from the new compilation is an extraordinary intensity high that developed over the Levant region during the first two millennia BCE. The climax of this event is a double peak intensity maximum starting at ca. 1000 BCE and ending at ca. 735 BCE, accompanied with at least two events of geomagnetic spikes. Paleomagnetic directions from this period demonstrate anomalies of up to 20 degrees far from the averaged GAD field. This leads us to postulate that the maximum in the intensity is a manifestation of an intense mid-latitude local positive geomagnetic anomaly that persisted for over two centuries.

  10. The Occurrence of Small-scale Irregularities in the Mid-latitude Ionosphere from SuperDARN HF Radar Observations (United States)

    Ruohoniemi, J. M.; Baker, J. B.; Maimaiti, M.; Oksavik, K.; Erickson, P. J.; Scales, W.; Eltrass, A.


    The mid-latitude radars of the SuperDARN network routinely observe backscatter from nighttime decameter-scale F region irregularities at latitudes well equatorward of the auroral boundary. This Sub-Auroral Ionospheric Scatter (SAIS) is strongly distinguished from auroral and SAPS backscatter by low Doppler velocities ( tens m/s) and stable, long-lived ( hours) occurrence in discrete events that are extended in both latitude and longitude. Statistical and event studies of SAIS with the SuperDARN radars indicate that the subauroral F region ionosphere is replete with irregularities during events, at least poleward of the 50° Λ horizon of the North American mid-latitude radars, and that radar observation of SAIS backscatter is then primarily limited by the magnetic aspect condition. Joint experiments with incoherent scatter radar have furnished sets of plasma measurements suitable for testing theories of plasma instability. Modeling work stimulated by the observations has explored the temperature-gradient instability (TGI) and the gradient drift instability (GDI) as possible sources of the irregularities. In this talk we review the findings on the occurrence of the SAIS category of mid-latitude F region irregularities, summarize the results of the modeling work, and discuss future research directions.

  11. Convective transport resistance in the vitreous humor (United States)

    Penkova, Anita; Sadhal, Satwindar; Ratanakijsuntorn, Komsan; Moats, Rex; Tang, Yang; Hughes, Patrick; Robinson, Michael; Lee, Susan


    It has been established by MRI visualization experiments that the convection of nanoparticles and large molecules with high rate of water flow in the vitreous humor will experience resistance, depending on the respective permeabilities of the injected solute. A set of experiments conducted with Gd-DTPA (Magnevist, Bayer AG, Leverkusen, Germany) and 30 nm gadolinium-based particles (Gado CELLTrackTM, Biopal, Worcester, MA) as MRI contrast agents showed that the degree of convective transport in this Darcy-type porous medium varies between the two solutes. These experiments consisted of injecting a mixture of the two (a 30 μl solution of 2% Magnevist and 1% nanoparticles) at the middle of the vitreous of an ex vivo whole bovine eye and subjecting the vitreous to water flow rate of 100 μl/min. The water (0.9% saline solution) was injected at the top of the eye, and was allowed to drain through small slits cut at the bottom of the eyeball. After 50 minutes of pumping, MRI images showed that the water flow carried the Gd-DTPA farther than the nanoparticles, even though the two solutes, being mixed, were subjected to the same convective flow conditions. We find that the convected solute lags the water flow, depending on the solute permeability. The usual convection term needs to be adjusted to allow for the filtration effect on the larger particles in the form (1- σ) u . ∇ c with important implications for the modeling of such systems.

  12. Basins in ARC-continental collisions (United States)

    Draut, Amy E.; Clift, Peter D.; Busby, Cathy; Azor, Antonio


    Arc-continent collisions occur commonly in the plate-tectonic cycle and result in rapidly formed and rapidly collapsing orogens, often spanning just 5-15 My. Growth of continental masses through arc-continent collision is widely thought to be a major process governing the structural and geochemical evolution of the continental crust over geologic time. Collisions of intra-oceanic arcs with passive continental margins (a situation in which the arc, on the upper plate, faces the continent) involve a substantially different geometry than collisions of intra-oceanic arcs with active continental margins (a situation requiring more than one convergence zone and in which the arc, on the lower plate, backs into the continent), with variable preservation potential for basins in each case. Substantial differences also occur between trench and forearc evolution in tectonically erosive versus tectonically accreting margins, both before and after collision. We examine the evolution of trenches, trench-slope basins, forearc basins, intra-arc basins, and backarc basins during arc-continent collision. The preservation potential of trench-slope basins is low; in collision they are rapidly uplifted and eroded, and at erosive margins they are progressively destroyed by subduction erosion. Post-collisional preservation of trench sediment and trench-slope basins is biased toward margins that were tectonically accreting for a substantial length of time before collision. Forearc basins in erosive margins are usually floored by strong lithosphere and may survive collision with a passive margin, sometimes continuing sedimentation throughout collision and orogeny. The low flexural rigidity of intra-arc basins makes them deep and, if preserved, potentially long records of arc and collisional tectonism. Backarc basins, in contrast, are typically subducted and their sediment either lost or preserved only as fragments in melange sequences. A substantial proportion of the sediment derived from

  13. Practices for Alleviating Heat Stress of Dairy Cows in Humid Continental Climates: A Literature Review (United States)

    Fournel, Sébastien; Ouellet, Véronique; Charbonneau, Édith


    Simple Summary The severity of heat stress issues on dairy cows will increase as global warming progresses. Fortunately, major advances in environmental management, including fans, misters, sprinklers, and cooled waterbeds, can attenuate the effects of thermal stress on cow health, production, and reproduction. These cooling systems were, however, tested in subtropical areas and their efficiency in northern regions is uncertain. This article assesses the potential of existing technologies to cool cows in humid continental climates through calculation of heat stress indices. Abstract Heat stress negatively affects the health and performance of dairy cows, resulting in considerable economic losses for the industry. In future years, climate change will exacerbate these losses by making the climate warmer. Physical modification of the environment is considered to be the primary means of reducing adverse effects of hot weather conditions. At present, to reduce stressful heat exposure and to cool cows, dairy farms rely on shade screens and various forms of forced convection and evaporative cooling that may include fans and misters, feed-line sprinklers, and tunnel- or cross-ventilated buildings. However, these systems have been mainly tested in subtropical areas and thus their efficiency in humid continental climates, such as in the province of Québec, Canada, is unclear. Therefore, this study reviewed the available cooling applications and assessed their potential for northern regions. Thermal stress indices such as the temperature-humidity index (THI) were used to evaluate the different cooling strategies. PMID:28468329

  14. Reconstructing Rodinia by Fitting Neoproterozoic Continental Margins (United States)

    Stewart, John H.


    Reconstructions of Phanerozoic tectonic plates can be closely constrained by lithologic correlations across conjugate margins by paleontologic information, by correlation of orogenic belts, by paleomagnetic location of continents, and by ocean floor magmatic stripes. In contrast, Proterozoic reconstructions are hindered by the lack of some of these tools or the lack of their precision. To overcome some of these difficulties, this report focuses on a different method of reconstruction, namely the use of the shape of continents to assemble the supercontinent of Rodinia, much like a jigsaw puzzle. Compared to the vast amount of information available for Phanerozoic systems, such a limited approach for Proterozoic rocks, may seem suspect. However, using the assembly of the southern continents (South America, Africa, India, Arabia, Antarctica, and Australia) as an example, a very tight fit of the continents is apparent and illustrates the power of the jigsaw puzzle method. This report focuses on Neoproterozoic rocks, which are shown on two new detailed geologic maps that constitute the backbone of the study. The report also describes the Neoproterozoic, but younger or older rocks are not discussed or not discussed in detail. The Neoproterozoic continents and continental margins are identified based on the distribution of continental-margin sedimentary and magmatic rocks that define the break-up margins of Rodinia. These Neoproterozoic continental exposures, as well as critical Neo- and Meso-Neoproterozoic tectonic features shown on the two new map compilations, are used to reconstruct the Mesoproterozoic supercontinent of Rodinia. This approach differs from the common approach of using fold belts to define structural features deemed important in the Rodinian reconstruction. Fold belts are difficult to date, and many are significantly younger than the time frame considered here (1,200 to 850 Ma). Identifying Neoproterozoic continental margins, which are primarily

  15. Convective mixing in helium white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vauclair, G.; Fontaine, G.


    The conditions under which convective mixing episodes take place between the helium envelopes and the underlying carbon layers in helium-rich white dwarfs are investigated. It is found that, for essentially any value of the initial helium content less than the maximum mass a helium convection zone can have, mixing does occur, and leads, in the vast majority of cases, to an almost pure carbon superficial composition. Mixing products that show only traces of carbon while retaining helium-dominated envelopes are possible only if the initial helium content is quite close to the maximum possible mass of the helium convection zone. In the presence of turbulence, this restriction could be relaxed, however, and the helium-rich lambda4670 stars may possibly be explained in this fashion

  16. SuperDARN HOP radars observation of ionospheric convection associated with low-latitude aurora observed at Hokkaido, Japan (United States)

    Nishitani, N.; Hori, T.; Kataoka, R.; Ebihara, Y.; Shiokawa, K.; Otsuka, Y.; Suzuki, H.; Yoshikawa, A.


    The SuperDARN HOkkaido Pair of (HOP) radars, consisting of the Hokkaido East (2006-) and West (2014-) radars, are the SuperDARN radars located at the lowest geomagnetic latitude (36.5 degrees), and have been continuously measuring ionospheric convection at high to subauroral and middle latitudes with high temporal resolutions (Japan from 15 to 19 UT on March 17, 2015 and from 1900 to 2030 UT on December 20, 2015, identified using optical instruments such as all-sky CCD camera, wide field of view digital camera and meridian scanning photometer. Both events occurred during the main phase of the relatively large geomagnetic storms with minimum Dst of -223 nT and -170 nT respectively. The ionospheric convection at mid-latitude regions associated with the low-latitude auroral emission is characterized by (1) transient equatorward flows up to about 500 m/s in the initial phase of the emission (the geomagnetic field data at Paratunka, Far East Russia show corresponding negative excursions), and (2) sheared flow structure consisting of westward flow (about 500 m/s) equatorward of eastward flow (1000 m/s), with the equatorward boundary of auroral emission embedded in the westward flow region which expanded up to below 50 deg geomagnetic latitude. These observations imply that the electric field / convection distribution plays important roles in continuously generating the low latitude auroral emission. In particular the observation of the equatorward flow (dawn-dusk electric field) up to as low as about 50 deg geomagnetic latitude is the direct evidence for the presence of electric field to drive ring current particles into the plasmaspheric regions.

  17. Natural Convective Heat Transfer from Narrow Plates

    CERN Document Server

    Oosthuizen, Patrick H


    Natural Convective Heat Transfer from Narrow Plates deals with a heat transfer situation that is of significant practical importance but which is not adequately dealt with in any existing textbooks or in any widely available review papers. The aim of the book is to introduce the reader to recent studies of natural convection from narrow plates including the effects of plate edge conditions, plate inclination, thermal conditions at the plate surface and interaction of the flows over adjacent plates. Both numerical and experimental studies are discussed and correlation equations based on the results of these studies are reviewed.

  18. Introductory analysis of Benard-Marangoni convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maroto, J A; Perez-Munuzuri, V; Romero-Cano, M S


    We describe experiments on Benard-Marangoni convection which permit a useful understanding of the main concepts involved in this phenomenon such as, for example, Benard cells, aspect ratio, Rayleigh and Marangoni numbers, Crispation number and critical conditions. In spite of the complexity of convection theory, we carry out a simple and introductory analysis which has the additional advantage of providing very suggestive experiments. As a consequence, we recommend our device for use as a laboratory experiment for undergraduate students of the thermodynamics of nonlinear and fluid physics

  19. Might electrical earthing affect convection of light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budrikis, Z.L.


    Partial convection of light by moving media was predicted by Fresnel and verified by Fizeau, Zeeman and others. It is accepted as an important argument in favour of the Special Theory of Relativity. The suggestion is made here that the convection is partial only when the propagating medium is moved with respect to its electrically earthed surroundings and that it would be total if an earthed shield was co-moving with the medium. This is based on a reinterpretation of Maxwell's equations wherein they are seen as macroscopic relationships that are in each case valid only in respect of a particular inertial frame of reference, the local electrical earth frame. (Auth.)

  20. Introductory analysis of Benard-Marangoni convection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maroto, J A [Group of Physics and Chemistry of Linares, Escuela Politecnica Superior, St Alfonso X El Sabio, 28, University of Jaen, E-23700 Linares, Jaen (Spain); Perez-Munuzuri, V [Group of Nonlinear Physics, University of Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Romero-Cano, M S [Group of Complex Fluids Physics, Department of Applied Physics, University of Almeria, E-04120 Almeria (Spain)


    We describe experiments on Benard-Marangoni convection which permit a useful understanding of the main concepts involved in this phenomenon such as, for example, Benard cells, aspect ratio, Rayleigh and Marangoni numbers, Crispation number and critical conditions. In spite of the complexity of convection theory, we carry out a simple and introductory analysis which has the additional advantage of providing very suggestive experiments. As a consequence, we recommend our device for use as a laboratory experiment for undergraduate students of the thermodynamics of nonlinear and fluid physics.

  1. Topology Optimisation for Coupled Convection Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexandersen, Joe; Andreasen, Casper Schousboe; Aage, Niels

    stabilised finite elements implemented in a parallel multiphysics analysis and optimisation framework DFEM [1], developed and maintained in house. Focus is put on control of the temperature field within the solid structure and the problems can therefore be seen as conjugate heat transfer problems, where heat...... conduction governs in the solid parts of the design domain and couples to convection-dominated heat transfer to a surrounding fluid. Both loosely coupled and tightly coupled problems are considered. The loosely coupled problems are convection-diffusion problems, based on an advective velocity field from...

  2. Lattice BGK simulation of natural convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yu; Ohashi, Hirotada; Akiyama, Mamoru


    Recently a new thermal lattice Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook fluid model was suggested by the authors. In this study, this new model was applied into the numerical simulation of natural convection, namely the Rayleigh Benard flow. The critical number for the onset of convective phenomenon was numerically measured and compared with that of theoretical prediction. A gravity dependent deviation was found in the numerical simulation, which is explained as an unavoidable consequence of the incorporation of gravity force in the lattice BGK system. (author)

  3. Comparing convective heat fluxes derived from thermodynamics to a radiative-convective model and GCMs (United States)

    Dhara, Chirag; Renner, Maik; Kleidon, Axel


    The convective transport of heat and moisture plays a key role in the climate system, but the transport is typically parameterized in models. Here, we aim at the simplest possible physical representation and treat convective heat fluxes as the result of a heat engine. We combine the well-known Carnot limit of this heat engine with the energy balances of the surface-atmosphere system that describe how the temperature difference is affected by convective heat transport, yielding a maximum power limit of convection. This results in a simple analytic expression for convective strength that depends primarily on surface solar absorption. We compare this expression with an idealized grey atmosphere radiative-convective (RC) model as well as Global Circulation Model (GCM) simulations at the grid scale. We find that our simple expression as well as the RC model can explain much of the geographic variation of the GCM output, resulting in strong linear correlations among the three approaches. The RC model, however, shows a lower bias than our simple expression. We identify the use of the prescribed convective adjustment in RC-like models as the reason for the lower bias. The strength of our model lies in its ability to capture the geographic variation of convective strength with a parameter-free expression. On the other hand, the comparison with the RC model indicates a method for improving the formulation of radiative transfer in our simple approach. We also find that the latent heat fluxes compare very well among the approaches, as well as their sensitivity to surface warming. What our comparison suggests is that the strength of convection and their sensitivity in the climatic mean can be estimated relatively robustly by rather simple approaches.

  4. Characteristics of mid-latitude planetary waves in the lower atmosphere derived from radiosonde data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Wang


    Full Text Available The activities of mid-latitude planetary waves (PWs in the troposphere and lower stratosphere (TLS are presented by using the radiosonde data from 2000 to 2004 over four American stations (Miramar Nas, 32.9° N, 117.2° W; Santa Teresa, 31.9° N, 106.7° W; Fort Worth, 32.8° N, 97.3° W; and Birmingham, 33.1° N, 86.7° W and one Chinese station (Wuhan, 30.5° N, 114.4° E. Statistically, strong PWs mainly appear around subtropical jet stream in the troposphere and lower stratosphere. In the troposphere, the activities of the mid-latitude PWs are strong around the centre of the subtropical jet stream in winter and become small near the tropopause, which indicates that the subtropical jet stream may strengthen the propagation of PWs or even be one of the PW excitation sources. Among the three disturbance components of temperature, zonal and meridional winds, PWs at Wuhan are stronger in the temperature component, but weaker in the zonal wind component than at the other four American stations. While in the meridional wind component, the strengths of PW spectral amplitudes at the four American stations decrease from west to east, and their amplitudes are all larger than that of Wuhan. However, the PWs are much weaker in the stratosphere and only the lower frequency parts remain. The amplitudes of the PWs in the stratosphere increase with height and are strong in winter with the zonal wind component being the strongest. Using the refractive index, we found that whether the PWs could propagate upward to the stratosphere depends on the thickness of the tropopause reflection layer. In the case study of the 2000/2001 winter, it is observed that the quasi 16-day wave in the troposphere is a quasi standing wave in the vertical direction and propagates upward slowly with vertical wavelength greater than 24 km in the meridional component. It propagates eastward with the zonal numbers between 5 and 8, and the quasi 16-day wave at Wuhan is probably the same

  5. Collocated ionosonde and dense GPS/GLONASS network measurements of midlatitude MSTIDs (United States)

    Sherstyukov, R. O.; Akchurin, A. D.; Sherstyukov, O. N.


    To analyze midlatitude medium-scale travelling ionospheric disturbances (MSTIDs) over Kazan (55.5°N, 49°E), Russia, the sufficiently dense network of GNSS receivers (more than 150 ground-based stations) were used. For the first time, daytime MSTIDs in the form of their main signature (band structure) on high-resolution two-dimensional maps of the total electron content perturbation (TEC maps) are compared with ionosonde data with a high temporal resolution. For a pair of events, a relationship between southwestward TEC perturbations and evolution of F2 layer traces was established. So F2 peak frequency varied in antiphase to TEC perturbations. The ionograms show that during the movement of plasma depletion band (overhead ionosonde) the F2 peak frequency is the highest, and vice versa, for the plasma enhancement band, the F2 peak frequency is the lowest. One possible explanation may be a greater inclination of the radio beam from the vertical during the placement of a plasma enhancement band above the ionosonde, as evidenced by the absence of multiple reflections and the increased occurrence rate of additional cusp trace. Another possible explanation may be the redistribution of the electron content in the topside ionosphere with a small decrease in the F peak concentration of the layer with a small increase in TEC along the line-of-sight. Analysis of F2 peak frequency variation shows that observed peak-to-peak values of TEC perturbation equal to 0.4 and 1 TECU correspond to the values of ΔN/N equal to 13% and 28%. The need for further research is evident.

  6. A mechanism of midlatitude noontime foE long-term variations inferred from European observations (United States)

    Mikhailov, A. V.; Perrone, L.; Nusinov, A. A.


    Manually scaled June noontime monthly median foE values at three European stations Rome, Juliusruh, and Slough/Chilton were used to understand the mechanism of foE long-term variations. The 11 year running mean smoothed foE manifests long-term (for some solar cycles) variations with the rising phase at the end of 1960-1985 and the falling phase after 1985. A close relationship (even in details) between (foEave)11y and (R12)11y variations with the correlation coefficient of 0.996 (absolutely significant according to Fisher F criterion) suggests that the Sun is the source of these (foEave)11y long-term variations. After removing solar activity long-term variations the residual (foEave)11y trend is very small ( 0.029% per decade) being absolutely insignificant. This means that all (foEave)11y variations are removed with one solar activity index, (R12)11y, i.e., this means that long-term variations are fully controlled by solar activity. Theory of midlatitude daytime E region tells us that long-term variations of solar EUV in two lines λ = 977 Å (CIII) and λ = 1025.7 Å (HLyβ) and X-ray radiation with λ foE long-term variations have a natural (not anthropogenic) origin related to long-term variations of solar activity. No peculiarities in relation with the last deep solar minimum in 2008-2009 have been revealed.

  7. Evaluation of cloud resolving model simulations of midlatitude cirrus with ARM and A-Train observations (United States)

    Muehlbauer, A. D.; Ackerman, T. P.; Lawson, P.; Xie, S.; Zhang, Y.


    This paper evaluates cloud resolving model (CRM) and cloud system-resolving model (CSRM) simulations of a midlatitude cirrus case with comprehensive observations collected under the auspices of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program and with spaceborne observations from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) A-train satellites. Vertical profiles of temperature, relative humidity and wind speeds are reasonably well simulated by the CSRM and CRM but there are remaining biases in the temperature, wind speeds and relative humidity, which can be mitigated through nudging the model simulations toward the observed radiosonde profiles. Simulated vertical velocities are underestimated in all simulations except in the CRM simulations with grid spacings of 500m or finer, which suggests that turbulent vertical air motions in cirrus clouds need to be parameterized in GCMs and in CSRM simulations with horizontal grid spacings on the order of 1km. The simulated ice water content and ice number concentrations agree with the observations in the CSRM but are underestimated in the CRM simulations. The underestimation of ice number concentrations is consistent with the overestimation of radar reflectivity in the CRM simulations and suggests that the model produces too many large ice particles especially toward cloud base. Simulated cloud profiles are rather insensitive to perturbations in the initial conditions or the dimensionality of the model domain but the treatment of the forcing data has a considerable effect on the outcome of the model simulations. Despite considerable progress in observations and microphysical parameterizations, simulating the microphysical, macrophysical and radiative properties of cirrus remains challenging. Comparing model simulations with observations from multiple instruments and observational platforms is important for revealing model deficiencies and for providing rigorous benchmarks. However, there still is considerable

  8. Changes of benthic fauna in the Kattegat - An indication of climate change at mid-latitudes? (United States)

    Göransson, Peter


    Several predictions point to changes in the marine benthic macrofauna associated with climate change, but so far only a few and minor changes have been reported. This study relates observed changes in the species composition to climate change by looking on the past decades in the Kattegat between Denmark and Sweden. A reduction of the total number species and a reduction of species with a northern range parallel to an increase of species with a southern range have been observed. The most likely explanation of the changes is the increase in temperature of the bottom water. Increased temperature could change the species distributions but also decrease primary production which impacts recruitment and growth. Hypoxia and bottom trawling could also act synergistic in this process. A sparse occurrence of previously encountered Arctic-Boreal species and critical foundation species, which gives the area its special character, suggests a change in biodiversity and might therefore be designated as early warning signals of a warmer climate. The northern fauna below the halocline with limited capacity of dispersal and low reproduction potential, can be considered as sensitive with low adaptive capacity to climate change. Therefore, not only tropical and high-latitude species, but also benthos on deep bottoms at mid-latitudes, could be vulnerable to warming. As many species live at the edge of their range in the Kattegat, and also are dependent of distant recruitment, large scale changes will probably be detected here at an early stage. It is important to protect relatively undisturbed reference areas in the Kattegat for future studies, but also for preserving a large number of ecosystem services, biotopes, habitats, and fish species.

  9. Observational Analysis of Cloud and Precipitation in Midlatitude Cyclones: Northern Versus Southern Hemisphere Warm Fronts (United States)

    Naud, Catherine M.; Posselt, Derek J.; van den Heever, Susan C.


    Extratropical cyclones are responsible for most of the precipitation and wind damage in the midlatitudes during the cold season, but there are still uncertainties on how they will change in a warming climate. An ubiquitous problem amongst General Circulation Models (GCMs) is a lack of cloudiness over the southern oceans that may be in part caused by a lack of clouds in cyclones. We analyze CloudSat, CALIPSO and AMSR-E observations for 3 austral and boreal cold seasons and composite cloud frequency of occurrence and precipitation at the warm fronts for northern and southern hemisphere oceanic cyclones. We find that cloud frequency of occurrence and precipitation rate are similar in the early stage of the cyclone life cycle in both northern and southern hemispheres. As cyclones evolve and reach their mature stage, cloudiness and precipitation at the warm front increase in the northern hemisphere but decrease in the southern hemisphere. This is partly caused by lower amounts of precipitable water being available to southern hemisphere cyclones, and smaller increases in wind speed as the cyclones evolve. Southern hemisphere cloud occurrence at the warm front is found to be more sensitive to the amount of moisture in the warm sector than to wind speeds. This suggests that cloudiness in southern hemisphere storms may be more susceptible to changes in atmospheric water vapor content, and thus to changes in surface temperature than their northern hemisphere counterparts. These differences between northern and southern hemisphere cyclones are statistically robust, indicating A-Train-based analyses as useful tools for evaluation of GCMs in the next IPCC report.

  10. Study of the mid-latitude ionospheric response to geomagnetic storms in the European region (United States)

    Berényi, Kitti Alexandra; Barta, Veronika; Kis, Arpad


    Geomagnetic storms affect the ionospheric regions of the terrestrial upper atmosphere through different physical and atmospheric processes. The phenomena that can be regarded as a result of these processes, generally is named as "ionospheric storm". The processes depend on altitude, segment of the day, the geomagnetic latitude and longitude, strength of solar activity and the type of the geomagnetic storm. We examine the data of ground-based radio wave ionosphere sounding measurements of European ionospheric stations (mainly the data of Nagycenk Geophysical Observatory) in order to determine how and to what extent a geomagnetic disturbance of a certain strength affects the mid-latitude ionospheric regions in winter and in summer. For our analysis we used disturbed time periods between November 2012 and June 2015. Our results show significant changing of the ionospheric F2 layer parameters on strongly disturbed days compared to quiet ones. We show that the critical frequencies (foF2) increase compared to their quiet day value when the ionospheric storm was positive. On the other hand, the critical frequencies become lower, when the storm was negative. In our analysis we determined the magnitude of these changes on the chosen days. For a more complete analysis we compare also the evolution of the F2 layer parameters of the European ionosonde stations on a North-South geographic longitude during a full storm duration. The results present the evolution of an ionospheric storm over a geographic meridian. Furthermore, we compared the two type of geomagnetic storms, namely the CME caused geomagnetic storm - the so-called Sudden impulse (Si) storms- and the HSS (High Speed Solar Wind Streams) caused geomagnetic storms -the so-called Gradual storms (Gs)- impact on the ionospheric F2-layer (foF2 parameter). The results show a significant difference between the effect of Si and of the Gs storms on the ionospheric F2-layer.

  11. Recent increased warming of the Alaskan marine Arctic due to midlatitude linkages (United States)

    Overland, James E.; Wang, Muyin; Ballinger, Thomas J.


    Alaskan Arctic waters have participated in hemispheric-wide Arctic warming over the last two decades at over two times the rate of global warming. During 2008-13, this relative warming occurred only north of the Bering Strait and the atmospheric Arctic front that forms a north-south thermal barrier. This front separates the southeastern Bering Sea temperatures from Arctic air masses. Model projections show that future temperatures in the Chukchi and Beaufort seas continue to warm at a rate greater than the global rate, reaching a change of +4°C by 2040 relative to the 1981-2010 mean. Offshore at 74°N, climate models project the open water duration season to increase from a current average of three months to five months by 2040. These rates are occasionally enhanced by midlatitude connections. Beginning in August 2014, additional Arctic warming was initiated due to increased SST anomalies in the North Pacific and associated shifts to southerly winds over Alaska, especially in winter 2015-16. While global warming and equatorial teleconnections are implicated in North Pacific SSTs, the ending of the 2014-16 North Pacific warm event demonstrates the importance of internal, chaotic atmospheric natural variability on weather conditions in any given year. Impacts from global warming on Alaskan Arctic temperature increases and sea-ice and snow loss, with occasional North Pacific support, are projected to continue to propagate through the marine ecosystem in the foreseeable future. The ecological and societal consequences of such changes show a radical departure from the current Arctic environment.

  12. Validation of Martilli's urban boundary layer scheme with measurements from two mid-latitude European cities (United States)

    Hamdi, R.; Schayes, G.


    Martilli's urban parameterization scheme is improved and implemented in a mesoscale model in order to take into account the typical effects of a real city on the air temperature near the ground and on the surface exchange fluxes. The mesoscale model is run on a single column using atmospheric data and radiation recorded above roof level as forcing. Here, the authors validate Martilli's urban boundary layer scheme using measurements from two mid-latitude European cities: Basel, Switzerland and Marseilles, France. For Basel, the model performance is evaluated with observations of canyon temperature, surface radiation, and energy balance fluxes obtained during the Basel urban boundary layer experiment (BUBBLE). The results show that the urban parameterization scheme represents correctly most of the behavior of the fluxes typical of the city center of Basel, including the large heat uptake by the urban fabric and the positive sensible heat flux at night. For Marseilles, the model performance is evaluated with observations of surface temperature, canyon temperature, surface radiation, and energy balance fluxes collected during the field experiments to constrain models of atmospheric pollution and transport of emissions (ESCOMPTE) and its urban boundary layer (UBL) campaign. At both urban sites, vegetation cover is less than 20%, therefore, particular attention was directed to the ability of Martilli's urban boundary layer scheme to reproduce the observations for the Marseilles city center, where the urban parameters and the synoptic forcing are totally different from Basel. Evaluation of the model with wall, road, and roof surface temperatures gave good results. The model correctly simulates the net radiation, canyon temperature, and the partitioning between the turbulent and storage heat fluxes.

  13. High Ra, high Pr convection with viscosity gradients

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. High Ra, high Pr convection with viscosity gradients. Weak upward flow through mesh. Top fluid more viscous. Unstable layer Instability Convection.

  14. Stretched flow of Carreau nanofluid with convective boundary ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    journal of. January 2016 physics pp. 3–17. Stretched flow of Carreau nanofluid with ... fluid over a flat plate subjected to convective surface condition. ... the steady laminar boundary layer flow over a permeable plate with a convective boundary.

  15. Initiation of continental accretion: metamorphic conditions (United States)

    Clement, Conand; Frederic, Mouthereau; Gianreto, Manatschal; Adbeltif, Lahfid


    The physical processes involved at the beginning of the continental collision are largely unknown because they are transient and therefore hardly identifiable from the rock record. Despite the importance of key parameters for understanding mountain building processes, especially the formation of deep mountain roots and their impacts on earthquakes nucleation, rock/fluid transfers and oil/gas resources in the continental crust, observations from the earliest collision stages remain fragmentary. Here, we focus on the example of Taiwan, a young and active mountain belt where the transition from oceanic subduction, accretion of the first continental margin to mature collision can be followed in space and time. We present preliminary results and provide key questions regarding the reconstruction of time-pressure-temperature paths of rocks & fluids to allow discriminating between rift-related thermal/rheological inheritance and burial/heating phases during convergence. Previous studies have focused on peak temperatures analyzed by Raman Spectrometry of Carbonaceous Matter from the deeper structural layers exposed in the Central Range of Taiwan. In the pre-rift sediments, these studies reported a positive gradient from West to Est, and values from geothermal gradients (up to 60°C/km) known in the region, and higher temperature closer to the pre-rift units. Cross sections and maps with high resolution peak temperatures are in process as well as pressure estimations to determine how the sediments were metamorphosed. In addition to this work, we report a few inherited temperatures in the 390-570 °C range, indicating recycling of organic matter from metasediments that recorded HT events, likely originated from higher grade metamorphic units of mainland China, which have been eroded and deposited in the post-rift sediments.

  16. Fractal behavior in continental crustal heat production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Vedanti


    Full Text Available The distribution of crustal heat production, which is the most important component in the elucidation of continental thermal structure, still remains a theoretical assumption. In general the heat production values must decrease with depth, but the form of decrease of heat production in the crust is not well understood. The commonly used heat production models are: "block model", in which heat production is constant from the surface to a given depth and the "exponential model", in which heat production diminishes as an exponential function of depth. The exponential model is more widely used wherein sources of the errors are heterogeneity of rock and long wavelength changes due to changes in lithology and tectonic elements, and as such exponential distribution does not work satisfactorily for the entire crust. In the present study, we analyze for the first time, deep crustal heat production data of six global areas namely Dharwar craton (India, Kaapvaal craton (South Africa, Baltic shield (Kola, Russia, Hidaka metamorphic belt (Japan, Nissho pluton (Japan and Continental Deep Drilling site (KTB, Germany. The power spectrum of all the studied data sets exhibits power law behaviour. This would mean slower decay of heat production with depth, which conforms to the known geologic composition of the crust. Minimum value of the scaling exponent has been found for the KTB borehole, which is apparently related to higher heat production of gneisses, however for other study areas, scaling exponent is almost similar. We also found that the lower values of scaling exponents are related to higher heat production in the crust as is the case in KTB. Present finding has a direct relevance in computation of temperature-depth profiles in continental regions.

  17. Fractal behavior in continental crustal heat production (United States)

    Vedanti, N.; Srivastava, R. P.; Pandey, O. P.; Dimri, V. P.


    The distribution of crustal heat production, which is the most important component in the elucidation of continental thermal structure, still remains a theoretical assumption. In general the heat production values must decrease with depth, but the form of decrease of heat production in the crust is not well understood. The commonly used heat production models are: "block model", in which heat production is constant from the surface to a given depth and the "exponential model", in which heat production diminishes as an exponential function of depth. The exponential model is more widely used wherein sources of the errors are heterogeneity of rock and long wavelength changes due to changes in lithology and tectonic elements, and as such exponential distribution does not work satisfactorily for the entire crust. In the present study, we analyze for the first time, deep crustal heat production data of six global areas namely Dharwar craton (India), Kaapvaal craton (South Africa), Baltic shield (Kola, Russia), Hidaka metamorphic belt (Japan), Nissho pluton (Japan) and Continental Deep Drilling site (KTB, Germany). The power spectrum of all the studied data sets exhibits power law behaviour. This would mean slower decay of heat production with depth, which conforms to the known geologic composition of the crust. Minimum value of the scaling exponent has been found for the KTB borehole, which is apparently related to higher heat production of gneisses, however for other study areas, scaling exponent is almost similar. We also found that the lower values of scaling exponents are related to higher heat production in the crust as is the case in KTB. Present finding has a direct relevance in computation of temperature-depth profiles in continental regions.

  18. Magmatism and deformation during continental breakup (United States)

    Keir, Derek


    The rifting of continents and the transition to seafloor spreading is characterised by extensional faulting and thinning of the lithosphere, and is sometimes accompanied by voluminous intrusive and extrusive magmatism. In order to understand how these processes develop over time to break continents apart, we have traditionally relied on interpreting the geological record at the numerous fully developed, ancient rifted margins around the world. In these settings, however, it is difficult to discriminate between different mechanisms of extension and magmatism because the continent-ocean transition is typically buried beneath thick layers of volcanic and sedimentary rocks, and the tectonic and volcanic activity that characterised breakup has long-since ceased. Ongoing continental breakup in the African and Arabian rift systems offers a unique opportunity to address these problems because it exposes several sectors of tectonically active rift sector development spanning the transition from embryonic continental rifting in the south to incipient seafloor spreading in the north. Here I synthesise exciting, multidisciplinary observational and modelling studies using geophysical, geodetic, petrological and numerical techniques that uniquely constrain the distribution, time-scales, and interactions between extension and magmatism during the progressive breakup of the African Plate. This new research has identified the previously unrecognised role of rapid and episodic dike emplacement in accommodating a large proportion of extension during continental rifting. We are now beginning to realise that changes in the dominant mechanism for strain over time (faulting, stretching and magma intrusion) impact dramatically on magmatism and rift morphology. The challenge now is to take what we're learned from East Africa and apply it to the rifted margins whose geological record documents breakup during entire Wilson Cycles.

  19. Crew coordination concepts: Continental Airlines CRM training (United States)

    Christian, Darryl; Morgan, Alice


    The outline of the crew coordination concepts at Continental airlines is: (1) Present relevant theory: Contained in a pre-work package and in lecture/discussion form during the work course, (2) Discuss case examples: Contained in the pre-work for study and use during the course; and (3) Simulate practice problems: Introduced during the course as the beginning of an ongoing process. These concepts which are designed to address the problem pilots have in understanding the interaction between situations and their own theories of practice are briefly discussed.

  20. An infinite-dimensional model of free convection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iudovich, V.I. (Rostovskii Gosudarstvennyi Universitet, Rostov-on-Don (USSR))


    An infinite-dimensional model is derived from the equations of free convection in the Boussinesq-Oberbeck approximation. The velocity field is approximated by a single mode, while the heat-conduction equation is conserved fully. It is shown that, for all supercritical Rayleigh numbers, there exist exactly two secondary convective regimes. The case of ideal convection with zero viscosity and thermal conductivity is examined. The averaging method is used to study convection regimes at high Reynolds numbers. 10 refs.

  1. Education: DNA replication using microscale natural convection. (United States)

    Priye, Aashish; Hassan, Yassin A; Ugaz, Victor M


    There is a need for innovative educational experiences that unify and reinforce fundamental principles at the interface between the physical, chemical, and life sciences. These experiences empower and excite students by helping them recognize how interdisciplinary knowledge can be applied to develop new products and technologies that benefit society. Microfluidics offers an incredibly versatile tool to address this need. Here we describe our efforts to create innovative hands-on activities that introduce chemical engineering students to molecular biology by challenging them to harness microscale natural convection phenomena to perform DNA replication via the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Experimentally, we have constructed convective PCR stations incorporating a simple design for loading and mounting cylindrical microfluidic reactors between independently controlled thermal plates. A portable motion analysis microscope enables flow patterns inside the convective reactors to be directly visualized using fluorescent bead tracers. We have also developed a hands-on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) exercise based on modeling microscale thermal convection to identify optimal geometries for DNA replication. A cognitive assessment reveals that these activities strongly impact student learning in a positive way.

  2. Evolution of Excited Convective Cells in Plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pécseli, Hans; Juul Rasmussen, Jens; Sugai, H.


    Convective cells are excited externally in a fully ionized magnetized plasma and their space-time evolution is investigated by two-dimensional potential measurements. A positive cell is excited externally by control of the end losses in the 'scrape off' layer of a plasma column produced by surface...

  3. Free convection film flows and heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Shang, Deyi


    Presents development of systematic studies for hydrodynamics and heat and mass transfer in laminar free convection, accelerating film boiling and condensation of Newtonian fluids, and accelerating film flow of non-Newtonian power-law fluids. This book provides a system of analysis models with a developed velocity component method.

  4. Penetrative convection at high Rayleigh numbers (United States)

    Toppaladoddi, Srikanth; Wettlaufer, John S.


    We study penetrative convection of a fluid confined between two horizontal plates, the temperatures of which are such that a temperature of maximum density lies between them. The range of Rayleigh numbers studied is Ra=[0.01 ,4 ]106,108 and the Prandtl numbers are Pr=1 and 11.6. An evolution equation for the growth of the convecting region is obtained through an integral energy balance. We identify a new nondimensional parameter, Λ , which is the ratio of temperature difference between the stable and unstable regions of the flow; larger values of Λ denote increased stability of the upper stable layer. We study the effects of Λ on the flow field using well-resolved lattice Boltzmann simulations and show that the characteristics of the flow depend sensitively upon it. For the range Λ = , we find that for a fixed Ra the Nusselt number, Nu, increases with decreasing Λ . We also investigate the effects of Λ on the vertical variation of convective heat flux and the Brunt-Väisälä frequency. Our results clearly indicate that in the limit Λ →0 the problem reduces to that of the classical Rayleigh-Bénard convection.

  5. Radiative-convective equilibrium model intercomparison project (United States)

    Wing, Allison A.; Reed, Kevin A.; Satoh, Masaki; Stevens, Bjorn; Bony, Sandrine; Ohno, Tomoki


    RCEMIP, an intercomparison of multiple types of models configured in radiative-convective equilibrium (RCE), is proposed. RCE is an idealization of the climate system in which there is a balance between radiative cooling of the atmosphere and heating by convection. The scientific objectives of RCEMIP are three-fold. First, clouds and climate sensitivity will be investigated in the RCE setting. This includes determining how cloud fraction changes with warming and the role of self-aggregation of convection in climate sensitivity. Second, RCEMIP will quantify the dependence of the degree of convective aggregation and tropical circulation regimes on temperature. Finally, by providing a common baseline, RCEMIP will allow the robustness of the RCE state across the spectrum of models to be assessed, which is essential for interpreting the results found regarding clouds, climate sensitivity, and aggregation, and more generally, determining which features of tropical climate a RCE framework is useful for. A novel aspect and major advantage of RCEMIP is the accessibility of the RCE framework to a variety of models, including cloud-resolving models, general circulation models, global cloud-resolving models, single-column models, and large-eddy simulation models.

  6. Vortex statistics in turbulent rotating convection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunnen, R.P.J.; Clercx, H.J.H.; Geurts, B.J.


    The vortices emerging in rotating turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection in water at Rayleigh number Ra=6.0×108 are investigated using stereoscopic particle image velocimetry and by direct numerical simulation. The so-called Q criterion is used to detect the vortices from velocity fields. This

  7. Oscillatory Convection in Rotating Liquid Metals (United States)

    Bertin, Vincent; Grannan, Alex; Aurnou, Jonathan


    We have performed laboratory experiments in a aspect ratio Γ = 2 cylinder using liquid gallium (Pr = 0 . 023) as the working fluid. The Ekman number varies from E = 4 ×10-5 to 4 ×10-6 and the Rayleigh number varies from Ra = 3 ×105 to 2 ×107 . Using heat transfer and temperature measurements within the fluid, we characterize the different styles of low Pr rotating convective flow. The convection threshold is first overcome in the form of a container scale inertial oscillatory mode. At stronger forcing, wall-localized modes develop, coexisting with the inertial oscillatory modes in the bulk. When the strength of the buoyancy increases further, the bulk flow becomes turbulent while the wall modes remain. Our results imply that rotating convective flows in liquid metals do not develop in the form of quasi-steady columns, as in Pr = 1 planetary and stellar dynamo models, but in the form of oscillatory motions. Therefore, convection driven dynamo action in low Pr fluids can differ substantively than that occurring in typical Pr = 1 numerical models. Our results also suggest that low wavenumber, wall modes may be dynamically and observationally important in liquid metal dynamo systems. We thank the NSF Geophysics Program for support of this project.

  8. Natural convection in horizontal fluid layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suo-Antilla, A.J.


    The experimental work includes developing and using a thermal convection cell to obtain measurements of the heat flux and turbulent core temperature of a horizontal layer of fluid heated internally and subject to both stabilizing and destabilizing temperature differences. The ranges of Rayleigh numbers tested were 10 7 equal to or less than R/sub I/ equal to or less than 10 13 and -10 10 equal to or less than R/sub E/ equal to or less than 10 10 . Power integral methods were found to be adequate for interpolating and extrapolating the data. The theoretical work consists of the derivation, solution and use of the mean field equations for study of thermally driven convection in horizontal layers of infinite extent. The equations were derived by a separation of variables technique where the horizontal directions were described by periodic structures and the vertical being some function of z. The derivation resulted in a coupled set of momentum and energy equations. The equations were simplified by using the infinite Prandtl number limit and neglecting direct intermodal interaction. Solutions to these equations are used to predict the existence of multi-wavenumber flows at all supercritical Rayleigh numbers. Subsequent inspection of existing experimental photographs of convecting fluids confirms their existence. The onset of time dependence is found to coincide with the onset of the second convective mode. Each mode is found to consist of two wavenumbers and typically the velocity and temperature fields of the right modal branch are found to be out of phase

  9. Unstable mixed convective transport in groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schincariol, R.A.; Schwartz, F.W.


    This study is an experimental investigation of variable density groundwater flow in homogeneous and lenticular porous media. A solution of 500 mg/l Rhodamine WT dye served as the carrier for various concentrations of solute (NaCl) introduced into a two-dimensional flow tank at concentrations ranging from 1000 to 100,000 mg/l. At the scale of the experiments, mass transport depends upon both forced and free convection. In addition, density differences as low as 0.008 g/cm 3 (1000 mg/l NaCl) between a plume of dense water and ambient groundwater in homogeneous medium produces gravitational instabilities at realistic groundwater velocities. These instabilities are manifest by lobe-shaped protuberances that formed first along the bottom edge of the plume and later within the plume. As the density difference increases to 0.0015 g/cm 3 (2000 mg/l NaCl), 0.0037 g/cm 3 (5000 mg/l NaCl) or higher, this unstable mixing due to convective dispersion significantly alters the spreading process, resulting in a large degree of vertical spreading of the plume. In a lenticular medium the combination of convective dispersion and nonuniform flow due to heterogeneities results in relatively large dispersion. Scale considerations indicate that convective dispersion may provide an important component of mixing at the field scale. (Author) (30 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.)

  10. Solar Hot Water Heating by Natural Convection. (United States)

    Noble, Richard D.


    Presents an undergraduate laboratory experiment in which a solar collector is used to heat water for domestic use. The working fluid is moved by natural convection so no pumps are required. Experimental apparatus is simple in design and operation so that data can be collected quickly and easily. (Author/JN)

  11. A 'backward' free-convective boundary layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiken, H.K.


    In this paper the cooling of a low-heat-resistance sheet that moves downwards is considered. The free-convective velocities are assumed to be much larger than the velocity of the sheet. As a result the motion of the fluid is mainly towards the point where the sheet enters the system and a ‘backward’

  12. Natural convection inside an irregular porous cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beltran, Jorge I. LLagostera; Trevisan, Osvair Vidal


    Natural convection flow induced by heating from below in a irregular porous cavity is investigated numerically. The influence of the modified Rayleigh number and geometric ratios on heat transfer and fluid flow is studied. Global and local Nusselt for Rayleigh numbers covering the range 0 - 1600 and for several geometric ratios. The fluid flow and the temperature field are illustrated by contour maps. (author)

  13. Convection in Slab and Spheroidal Geometries (United States)

    Porter, David H.; Woodward, Paul R.; Jacobs, Michael L.


    Three-dimensional numerical simulations of compressible turbulent thermally driven convection, in both slab and spheroidal geometries, are reviewed and analyzed in terms of velocity spectra and mixing-length theory. The same ideal gas model is used in both geometries, and resulting flows are compared. The piecewise-parabolic method (PPM), with either thermal conductivity or photospheric boundary conditions, is used to solve the fluid equations of motion. Fluid motions in both geometries exhibit a Kolmogorov-like k(sup -5/3) range in their velocity spectra. The longest wavelength modes are energetically dominant in both geometries, typically leading to one convection cell dominating the flow. In spheroidal geometry, a dipolar flow dominates the largest scale convective motions. Downflows are intensely turbulent and up drafts are relatively laminar in both geometries. In slab geometry, correlations between temperature and velocity fluctuations, which lead to the enthalpy flux, are fairly independent of depth. In spheroidal geometry this same correlation increases linearly with radius over the inner 70 percent by radius, in which the local pressure scale heights are a sizable fraction of the radius. The effects from the impenetrable boundary conditions in the slab geometry models are confused with the effects from non-local convection. In spheroidal geometry nonlocal effects, due to coherent plumes, are seen as far as several pressure scale heights from the lower boundary and are clearly distinguishable from boundary effects.

  14. Preserving Symmetry in Convection-Diffusion Schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verstappen, R.W.C.P.; Veldman, A.E.P.; Drikakis, D.; Geurts, B.J.


    We propose to perform turbulent flow simulations in such manner that the difference operators do have the same symmetry properties as the corresponding differential operators. That is, the convective operator is represented by a skew-symmetric difference operator and the diffusive operator is

  15. Theories for convection in stellar atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordlund, Aa.


    A discussion of the fundamental differences between laboratory convection in a stellar atmosphere is presented. The shortcomings of laterally homogeneous model atmospheres are analysed, and the extent to which these shortcoming are avoided in the two-component representation is discussed. Finally a qualitative discussion on the scaling properties of stellar granulation is presented. (Auth.)

  16. Terminal project heat convection in thin cylinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales Corona, J.


    Heat convection in thin cylinders and analysis about natural convection for straight vertical plates, and straight vertical cylinders submersed in a fluid are presented some works carry out by different authors in the field of heat transfer. In the part of conduction, deduction of the equation of heat conduction in cylindrical coordinates by means of energy balance in a control volume is presented. Enthalpy and internal energy are used for the outlining of the equation and finally the equation in its vectorial form is obtained. In the convection part development to calculate the Nusselt number for a straight vertical plate by a forces analysis, an energy balance and mass conservation over a control volume is outlined. Several empiric correlations to calculate the Nusselt number and its relations with other dimensionless numbers are presented. In the experimental part the way in which a prototype rode is assembled is presented measurements of temperatures attained in steady state and in free convection for working fluids as air and water are showed in tables. Also graphs of Nusselt numbers obtained in the experimental way through some empiric correlations are showed (Author)

  17. Influence of convective conditions on three dimensional mixed convective hydromagnetic boundary layer flow of Casson nanofluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauf, A., E-mail: [Department of Mathematics, Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Sahiwal 57000 (Pakistan); Siddiq, M.K. [Centre for Advanced Studies in Pure and Applied Mathematics, Department of Mathematics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 63000 (Pakistan); Abbasi, F.M. [Department of Mathematics, Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Meraj, M.A. [Department of Mathematics, Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Sahiwal 57000 (Pakistan); Ashraf, M. [Centre for Advanced Studies in Pure and Applied Mathematics, Department of Mathematics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 63000 (Pakistan); Shehzad, S.A. [Department of Mathematics, Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Sahiwal 57000 (Pakistan)


    The present work deals with the steady laminar three-dimensional mixed convective magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) boundary layer flow of Casson nanofluid over a bidirectional stretching surface. A uniform magnetic field is applied normal to the flow direction. Similarity variables are implemented to convert the non-linear partial differential equations into ordinary ones. Convective boundary conditions are utilized at surface of the sheet. A numerical technique of Runge–Kutta–Fehlberg (RFK45) is used to obtain the results of velocity, temperature and concentration fields. The physical dimensionless parameters are discussed through tables and graphs. - Highlights: • Mixed convective boundary layer flow of Casson nanofluid is taken into account. • Impact of magnetic field is examined. • Convective heat and mass conditions are imposed. • Numerical solutions are presented and discussed.

  18. Testing particle filters on convective scale dynamics (United States)

    Haslehner, Mylene; Craig, George. C.; Janjic, Tijana


    Particle filters have been developed in recent years to deal with highly nonlinear dynamics and non Gaussian error statistics that also characterize data assimilation on convective scales. In this work we explore the use of the efficient particle filter (P.v. Leeuwen, 2011) for convective scale data assimilation application. The method is tested in idealized setting, on two stochastic models. The models were designed to reproduce some of the properties of convection, for example the rapid development and decay of convective clouds. The first model is a simple one-dimensional, discrete state birth-death model of clouds (Craig and Würsch, 2012). For this model, the efficient particle filter that includes nudging the variables shows significant improvement compared to Ensemble Kalman Filter and Sequential Importance Resampling (SIR) particle filter. The success of the combination of nudging and resampling, measured as RMS error with respect to the 'true state', is proportional to the nudging intensity. Significantly, even a very weak nudging intensity brings notable improvement over SIR. The second model is a modified version of a stochastic shallow water model (Würsch and Craig 2013), which contains more realistic dynamical characteristics of convective scale phenomena. Using the efficient particle filter and different combination of observations of the three field variables (wind, water 'height' and rain) allows the particle filter to be evaluated in comparison to a regime where only nudging is used. Sensitivity to the properties of the model error covariance is also considered. Finally, criteria are identified under which the efficient particle filter outperforms nudging alone. References: Craig, G. C. and M. Würsch, 2012: The impact of localization and observation averaging for convective-scale data assimilation in a simple stochastic model. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc.,139, 515-523. Van Leeuwen, P. J., 2011: Efficient non-linear data assimilation in geophysical

  19. Impact of convective activity on precipitation δ18O in isotope-enabled models (United States)

    Hu, J.; Emile-Geay, J.; Dee, S.


    The ^18O signal preserved in paleo-archives (e.g. speleothem, tree ring cellulose, ice cores) is widely used to reconstruct precipitation or temperature. In the tropics, the inverse relationship between precipitation ^18O and rainfall amount, namely "amount effect" [Dansgaard, Tellus, 1964], is often used to interpret precipitation ^18O. However, recent studies have shown that precipitation ^18O is also influenced by precipitation type [Kurita et al, JGR, 2009; Moerman et al, EPSL, 2013], and recent observations indicate that it is negatively correlated with the fraction of precipitation associated with stratiform clouds [Aggarwal et al, Nature Geosci, 2016]. It is thus important to determine to what extent isotope-enabled climate models can reproduce these relationships. Here we do so using output from LMDZ, CAM2, and isoGSM from the Stable Water Isotope Intercomparison Group, Phase 2 (SWING2) project and results of SPEEDY-IER [Dee et al, JGR, 2015] from an AMIP-style experiment. The results show that these models simulate the "amount effect" well in the tropics, and the relationship between precipitation ^18O and precipitation is reversed in many places in mid-latitudes, in accordance with observations [Bowen, JGR, 2008]. Also, these models can all reproduce the negative correlation between monthly precipitation ^18O and stratiform precipitation proportion in mid-latitude (30°N-50°N; 50°S-30°S), but in the tropics (30°S-30°N), models show a positive correlation instead. The reason for this bias will be investigated within idealized experiments with SPEEDY-IER. The correct simulations of the impact of convective activity on precipitation ^18O in isotope-enabled models will improve our interpretation of paleoclimate proxies with respect to hydroclimate variability. P. K. Aggarwal et al. (2016), Nature Geosci., 9, 624-629, doi:10.1038/ngeo2739. G. J. Bowen. (2008), J. Geophys. Res., 113, D05113, doi:10.1029/2007JD009295. W. Dansgaard (1964), Tellus, 16(4), 436

  20. Novel Natural Convection Heat Sink Design Concepts From First Principles (United States)



  1. International symposium on transient convective heat transfer: book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The international symposium on convective heat transfer was held on 19-23 August 1996, in Cesme, Izmir, Turkey. The spesialists discussed forced convection, heat exchangers, free convection and multiphase media and phase change at the meeting. Almost 53 papers were presented in the meeting

  2. Basal melting driven by turbulent thermal convection (United States)

    Rabbanipour Esfahani, Babak; Hirata, Silvia C.; Berti, Stefano; Calzavarini, Enrico


    Melting and, conversely, solidification processes in the presence of convection are key to many geophysical problems. An essential question related to these phenomena concerns the estimation of the (time-evolving) melting rate, which is tightly connected to the turbulent convective dynamics in the bulk of the melt fluid and the heat transfer at the liquid-solid interface. In this work, we consider a convective-melting model, constructed as a generalization of the Rayleigh-Bénard system, accounting for the basal melting of a solid. As the change of phase proceeds, a fluid layer grows at the heated bottom of the system and eventually reaches a turbulent convection state. By means of extensive lattice-Boltzmann numerical simulations employing an enthalpy formulation of the governing equations, we explore the model dynamics in two- and three-dimensional configurations. The focus of the analysis is on the scaling of global quantities like the heat flux and the kinetic energy with the Rayleigh number, as well as on the interface morphology and the effects of space dimensionality. Independently of dimensionality, we find that the convective-melting system behavior shares strong resemblances with that of the Rayleigh-Bénard one, and that the heat flux is only weakly enhanced with respect to that case. Such similarities are understood, at least to some extent, considering the resulting slow motion of the melting front (with respect to the turbulent fluid velocity fluctuations) and its generally little roughness (compared to the height of the fluid layer). Varying the Stefan number, accounting for the thermodynamical properties of the material, also seems to have only a mild effect, which implies the possibility of extrapolating results in numerically delicate low-Stefan setups from more convenient high-Stefan ones. Finally, we discuss the implications of our findings for the geophysically relevant problem of modeling Arctic ice melt ponds.

  3. Convective mass transfer around a dissolving bubble (United States)

    Duplat, Jerome; Grandemange, Mathieu; Poulain, Cedric


    Heat or mass transfer around an evaporating drop or condensing vapor bubble is a complex issue due to the interplay between the substrate properties, diffusion- and convection-driven mass transfer, and Marangoni effects, to mention but a few. In order to disentangle these mechanisms, we focus here mainly on the convective mass transfer contribution in an isothermal mass transfer problem. For this, we study the case of a millimetric carbon dioxide bubble which is suspended under a substrate and dissolved into pure liquid water. The high solubility of CO2 in water makes the liquid denser and promotes a buoyant-driven flow at a high (solutal) Rayleigh number (Ra˜104 ). The alteration of p H allows the concentration field in the liquid to be imaged by laser fluorescence enabling us to measure both the global mass flux (bubble volume, contact angle) and local mass flux around the bubble along time. After a short period of mass diffusion, where the boundary layer thickens like the square root of time, convection starts and the CO2 is carried by a plume falling at constant velocity. The boundary layer thickness then reaches a plateau which depends on the bubble cross section. Meanwhile the plume velocity scales like (dV /d t )1 /2 with V being the volume of the bubble. As for the rate of volume loss, we recover a constant mass flux in the diffusion-driven regime followed by a decrease in the volume V like V2 /3 after convection has started. We present a model which agrees well with the bubble dynamics and discuss our results in the context of droplet evaporation, as well as high Rayleigh convection.

  4. Seaweed culture and continental shelf protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Przhemenetskaya, V F


    The initial impression that the resources of the oceans were limitless has been replaced by a more rational appreciation that everything has its limits, including the seemingly infinite resources of marine plant life. In addition, experience in California, Australia, China, Japan and Korea has demonstrated that depletion of seaweed resources for commercial utilization has a deleterious effect on the biocenotic status of the continental shelf. In view of this, many countries, such as Japan, China, Korea, the Philippines and the USSR, have embarked on aquaculture programs, in which seaweeds are cultivated on marine plantations. Successful developments in this direction should go a long way to preserving the natural ecologic balance on the continental shelf, and yet provide mankind with the resources of the deep. Many difficulties remain to be resolved before aquaculture programs become fully cost effective, one of which deals with the susceptibility of a monoculture to a given predator or disease. To that end, such programs necessitate the creation of well balanced systems that would support a variety of marine plant and animal life without an adverse effect on the desired crop. 4 references, 6 figures.

  5. A vision for a continental energy strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, R.; Tobin, B.; Angevine, G.; Fryer, K.; Martin, L.T.


    This paper presented a vision with respect to a continental energy strategy and the principles and goals that must underlie such a strategy. These principles include relying on signals emanating from energy markets to guide investment; limiting the role of government to that of ensuring that the policy and institutional framework is conducive to the development and operation of competitive and innovative energy markets; and ensuring free and open energy trade in energy commodities, both within the continent and with the rest of the world. The paper also identified a number of important factors that, would shape and condition continental energy development and trade. The paper provided an overview of the North American energy use and supply situation for the following resources: oil; natural gas; electricity; coal; nuclear power; hydroelectricity; geothermal energy; wind power; solar power; and ethanol. It also discussed the contribution of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) through increased natural gas exports. It was concluded that given the petroleum resources of the three countries and their increased value because of higher oil and gas prices, there was considerable incentive for Canada, the United States, and Mexico to streamline regulations in order to facilitate the efficient development, transportation, and use of the continent's energy resources in accordance with market conditions. 38 refs., 2 tabs., 21 figs

  6. A Spatial Model of Erosion and Sedimentation on Continental Margins

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pratson, Lincoln


    .... A computer model that simulates the evolution of continental slope morphology under the interaction of sedimentation, slope failure, and sediment flow erosion has been constructed and validated...

  7. A relatively reduced Hadean continental crust (United States)

    Yang, Xiaozhi; Gaillard, Fabrice; Scaillet, Bruno


    Among the physical and chemical parameters used to characterize the Earth, oxidation state, as reflected by its prevailing oxygen fugacity (fO2), is a particularly important one. It controls many physicochemical properties and geological processes of the Earth's different reservoirs, and affects the partitioning of elements between coexisting phases and the speciation of degassed volatiles in melts. In the past decades, numerous studies have been conducted to document the evolution of mantle and atmospheric oxidation state with time and in particular the possible transition from an early reduced state to the present oxidized conditions. So far, it has been established that the oxidation state of the uppermost mantle is within ±2 log units of the quartz-fayalite-magnetite (QFM) buffer, probably back to ~4.4 billion years ago (Ga) based on trace-elements studies of mantle-derived komatiites, kimberlites, basalts, volcanics and zircons, and that the O2 levels of atmosphere were initially low and rose markedly ~2.3 Ga known as the Great Oxidation Event (GOE), progressively reaching its present oxidation state of ~10 log units above QFM. In contrast, the secular evolution of oxidation state of the continental crust, an important boundary separating the underlying upper mantle from the surrounding atmosphere and buffering the exchanges and interactions between the Earth's interior and exterior, has rarely been addressed, although the presence of evolved crustal materials on the Earth can be traced back to ~4.4 Ga, e.g. by detrital zircons. Zircon is a common accessory mineral in nature, occurring in a wide variety of igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks, and is almost ubiquitous in crustal rocks. The physical and chemical durability of zircons makes them widely used in geochemical studies in terms of trace-elements, isotopes, ages and melt/mineral inclusions; in particular, zircons are persistent under most crustal conditions and can survive many secondary

  8. Examining the controlling factors on Southern Ocean clouds and their radiative effects in the context of midlatitude weather systems (United States)

    Kelleher, M. K.; Grise, K. M.


    Clouds and their associated radiative effects are one of the largest sources of uncertainty in the present generation of global climate models. One region where model biases are especially large is over the Southern Ocean, where many models systematically underestimate the climatological shortwave cloud radiative effects (CRE) and/or misrepresent the relationship between shortwave CRE and atmospheric dynamics. Previous research has shown that two "cloud controlling factors", estimated inversion strength (EIS) and mid-tropospheric vertical velocity, are helpful in explaining the relationship between CRE and atmospheric dynamics on monthly timescales. For example, when the Southern Hemisphere midlatitude jet shifts poleward on monthly timescales, the high clouds and their associated longwave CRE shift poleward with the jet, consistent with a poleward shift of the storm track and the attendant vertical velocity anomalies. However, the observed changes in shortwave CRE with a poleward jet shift are small due to a trade-off between the competing effects of opposing EIS and vertical velocity anomalies. This study extends these previous findings to examine the relationship between Southern Ocean cloud controlling factors and CRE on daily timescales. On a daily timescale, the relationship of EIS and vertical velocity with CRE is more complex, due in part to the presence of transient weather systems. Composites of EIS, vertical velocity, longwave CRE, and shortwave CRE around extratropical cyclones and anticyclones are constructed to examine how the CRE anomalies vary in different sectors of midlatitude weather systems and the role that EIS and vertical velocity play in determining those anomalies. The relationships between the cloud controlling factors and CRE on daily timescales provide key insight into the underlying physical processes responsible for the relationships between midlatitude cloud controlling factors and CRE previously documented on monthly timescales.

  9. Numerical simulation of mid-latitude ionospheric E-region based on SEEK and SEEK-2 observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Yokoyama


    Full Text Available Observational campaigns of the mid-latitude ionospheric E-region with sounding rockets and ground-based instruments were conducted in 1996 (SEEK and 2002 (SEEK-2. Both of them were successfully conducted to bring important findings about the mid-latitude E-region and quasi-periodic (QP VHF radar echoes. The observational results in the SEEK and the SEEK-2 are compared with numerical simulations and discussed in this paper. While sporadic-E (Es-layers are actually formed by the observed neutral wind, it is difficult for the constant wind shear to produce the sharp Es-layer gradient. However, once they are formed in the lower E-region, they cannot easily be dissipated by the simple diffusive motion. The polarization electric field, calculated under the condition at the rocket launch time, shows similar amplitude and structure to the measurement around the Es-layer altitude. The structure of the plasma density and the electric field above the Es-layer observed in the SEEK-2 showed a wave-like pattern up to an altitude of 150 km. Considering a mapping of the polarization electric field generated within the Es-layers, gravity waves are the possible source of the wave-like structure of the measured electric fields and sub-peaks of the electron density above the main Es-layers. Fluctuation of the measured magnetic field is reproduced by Hall or field-aligned current driven by the polarization electric field. The current theoretical models for QP echoes and the polarization electric field are basically verified by the discussion in this paper. Keywords. Ionospheric irregularities – Mid-latitude ionosphere – Numerical simulation studies

  10. Changes on Mid-Latitude Cyclones due to Global Warming Simulated by a Global 20-km-mesh Atmospheric Model (United States)

    Miyamoto, K.


    I investigate how the intensity and the activity of mid-latitude cyclones change as a result of global warming, based on a time-slice experiment with a super-high resolution Atmospheric General Circulation Model (20-km mesh TL959L60 MRI/JMA AGCM). The model was developed by the RR2002 project "Development of Super High Resolution Global and Regional Climate Models" funded by the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. In this context, I use a 10-year control simulation with the climatological SST and a 10-year time-slice global warming simulation using the SST anomalies derived from the SRES A1B scenario run with the MRI-CGCM2.3 (T42L30 atmosphere, 0.5-2.0 x 2.5 L23 ocean) corresponding to the end of the 21st century. I have analyzed the sea-level pressure field and the kinetic energy field of the wind at the 500 hPa pressure level associated with mid-latitude transients from October through April. According to a comparison of 10-day average fields between present and future in the North Pacific, some statistically significant changes are found in a warmer climate for the both of sea-level pressure and the kinetic energy fields. In particular, from late winter through early spring, the sea-level pressure decreases on many parts of the whole Pacific. The kinetic energy of the wind becomes higher on center of the basin. Therefore, I suppose the Aleutian Low is likely to settle in longer by about one month than the present. Hereafter, I plan to investigate what kind of phenomena may accompany the changes on mid-latitude transients.

  11. Construction of Improved Maps of Mercury's Crustal Magnetic Field at Northern Midlatitudes (United States)

    Hood, L. L.; Oliveira, J. S.


    We report progress toward the construction of a refined version of the northern midlatitude crustal magnetic field map of Hood [GRL, 2016], extended to cover latitudes from 35N to 80N and all longitudes. The main improvements include: (1) Combining MESSENGER magnetometer data from August and September of 2014 with that from February, March, and April of 2015 to provide the best overall input data set for mapping and the largest possible area of coverage; (2) improving the elimination of external and core field contamination by using a model for Mercury's core field and a more conservative high-pass filter length; and (3) improving the equivalent source dipole (ESD) mapping technique using an equidistant equivalent source dipole array and varying the depth, orientation, and resolution of the array to minimize the overall root mean square misfit. Combining data from the two time intervals allows the total latitude range of the final map to be increased by at least 5 degrees to 35N - 80N. Also, previous mapping has concentrated on the hemisphere from 90E to 270E; inclusion of all available data will allow the final maps to be extended to all longitudes, more than doubling the coverage reported by Hood [2016]. Previous work has demonstrated a concentration of relatively strong magnetic anomalies near and within the Caloris impact basin. A secondary concentration near Sobkou Planitia, which contains an older impact basin, was also found. The existence of anomalies within the Caloris rim implies that a steady magnetizing field, i.e., a core dynamo, was present when this basin formed. A major application of the improved map will be to investigate whether anomalies are concentrated near and within other impact basins. If some basins are found not to have concentrations of magnetic anomalies, this could imply a role of impactor composition (e.g., iron content) in producing the crustal materials that are most strongly magnetized, as has previously been proposed to be the

  12. Titan’s mid-latitude surface regions with Cassini VIMS and RADAR (United States)

    Solomonidou, Anezina; Lopes, Rosaly M. C.; Coustenis, Athena; Malaska, Michael; Rodriguez, Sebastien; Maltagliati, Luca; Drossart, Pierre; Janssen, Michael; Lawrence, Kenneth; Jaumann, Ralf; Sohl, Frank; Stephan, Katrin; Brown, Robert H.; Bratsolis, Emmanuel; Matsoukas, Christos


    The Cassini-Huygens mission instruments have revealed Titan to have a complex and dynamic atmosphere and surface. Data from the remote sensing instruments have shown the presence of diverse surface terrains in terms of morphology and composition, suggesting both exogenic and endogenic processes [1]. We define both the surface and atmospheric contributions in the VIMS spectro-imaging data by use of a radiative transfer code in the near-IR range [2]. To complement this dataset, the Cassini RADAR instrument provides additional information on the surface morphology, from which valuable geological interpretations can be obtained [3]. We examine the origin of key Titan terrains, covering the mid-latitude zones extending from 50ºN to 50ºS. The different geological terrains we investigate include: mountains, plains, labyrinths, craters, dune fields, and possible cryovolcanic and/or evaporite features. We have found that the labyrinth terrains and the undifferentiated plains seem to consist of a very similar if not the same material, while the different types of plains show compositional variations [3]. The processes most likely linked to their formation are aeolian, fluvial, sedimentary, lacustrine, in addition to the deposition of atmospheric products though the process of photolysis and sedimentation of organics. We show that temporal variations of surface albedo exist for two of the candidate cryovolcanic regions. The surface albedo variations together with the presence of volcanic-like morphological features suggest that the active regions are possibly related to the deep interior, possibly via cryovolcanism processes (with important implications for the satellite’s astrobiological potential) as also indicated by new interior structure models of Titan and corresponding calculations of the spatial pattern of maximum tidal stresses [4]. However, an explanation attributed to exogenic processes is also possible [5]. We will report on results from our most recent

  13. Ice exposures and landscape evolution in the Martian mid-latitudes (United States)

    Dundas, C. M.; Bramson, A. M.; Ojha, L.; Wray, J. J.; Mellon, M. T.; Byrne, S.; McEwen, A. S.; Putzig, N. E.; Viola, D.; Sutton, S.


    The large-scale geographic distribution of Martian shallow ground ice is now relatively well-known, but the vertical structure of the ice is not as well understood. Here we report on erosional scarps in kilometer-scale pits near ±55-60 degrees latitude that expose cross-sections through ice-rich mantling deposits covering much of the mid-latitudes. HiRISE images of the scarps reveal ice-rich deposits (i.e., not regolith-pore-filling ice) that are >100 m thick and occur within 1 m of the top of the scarps. CRISM spectra confirm the presence of water ice through late summer, implying exposed ground ice rather than seasonal frost. SHARAD sounding radar data show some candidate reflectors similar to those inferred to be from the base of excess ice deposits elsewhere on Mars, but no internal structure is resolved. Ice-exposing impacts and thermokarst landforms convey information about excess ice abundance in the upper few meters, but not its deeper structure. The overall structure of the ice table is simple, with massive ice (sometimes layered) under a relatively thin lithic mantle, plus a boulder-rich interior lens in one scarp. The latter may be partly ice-cemented. The ice is commonly fractured. These observations demonstrate how deep ice sheets link with the shallow ice table, at least locally. The likely origin of the ice is accumulation of snow with some admixed dust during a different climate. This snow accumulation could be related to 370 ka changes observed at the poles [1] but some ice sheets may be tens of Myr old [2]. the origin of superposed boulder-sized rocks is puzzling; possible explanations include glacial flow, impact gardening, or some form of frost heave or cryoturbation. Repeat HiRISE observations demonstrate that the scarps are actively retreating, as boulders have fallen from one scarp and there are albedo changes elsewhere. This activity demonstrates that local sublimation is contributing to present-day Martian landscape evolution and is an

  14. Mid-latitude Ozone Depletion Events Caused by Halogens from the Great Salt Lake in Utah (United States)

    Fibiger, D. L.; Goldberger, L.; Womack, C.; McDuffie, E. E.; Dube, W. P.; Franchin, A.; Middlebrook, A. M.; Thornton, J. A.; Brown, S. S.


    Halogens are highly reactive chemicals and play an important role in atmospheric chemistry. They can be involved in many cycles which influence the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere, including through destruction of ozone (O3). While the influence of halogens on O3 is well documented in the arctic, there are very few observations of O3 depletion driven by halogens in the mid-latitudes. To date, the most comprehensive study observed co-occurring plumes of BrO and depleted O3 near the Dead Sea in 1997. During the Utah Wintertime Fine Particulate Study (UWFPS) in winter 2017, simultaneous measurements of a comprehensive suite of halogen measurements by I- chemical ionization mass spectrometry and O3 from cavity ring-down spectroscopy, both at 1-second time resolution, were taken on a NOAA Twin Otter Aircraft over the Great Salt Lake and in the surrounding valleys. Many O3 depletion events were observed over the lake with O3 values sometimes below the instrument detection limit of 0.5 ppbv. Corresponding increases in BrO and/or ClO were observed. Many of these events were caused by extremely high levels of halogens (up to 1 ppmv Cl2) emitted from the U.S. Magnesium plant on the edge of the lake. The O3 depletion caused by U.S. Magnesium was usually isolated to a distinct vertical layer, but in other cases O3 depletion was vertically mixed and the origin of halogen activation was not immediately clear. The most complete O3 depletion was observed over the lake, but there were smaller events of a few ppbv observed in the adjacent valleys, including the highly populated Salt Lake Valley, with corresponding plumes of BrO and ClO, due to transport from the lake. Additionally, meteorology played a role in the observed O3 depletion. The strongest O3 depletion was observed during inversion events, when there is a low boundary layer and little mixing out of the air above the lake. During non-inversion conditions, only small depletions were observed, covering a much smaller

  15. The photochemistry and kinetics of chlorine compounds important to stratospheric mid-latitude ozone destruction (United States)

    Goldfarb, Leah


    The catalytic destruction of stratospheric ozone via chlorinated species was first proposed in the 1970's. Since that time a decline in column ozone abundance in the polar regions as well as at mid-latitudes has been observed. Much of this reduction has been attributed to the increases in anthropogenic chlorine compounds such as CFCs. This study summarizes experimental results obtained using pulsed-photolysis resonance fluorescence and pulsed- photolysis long-path absorption methods to study processes important to chlorine-catalyzed ozone destruction: the quantum yields of the products in the dissociation of ClONO2 and the reactions of free radicals with ClONO2 and ClO. The quantum yields for the production of O, Cl and ClO from ClONO2 were studied at specific laser wavelengths (193, 222, 248, and 308 nm). Cl and ClO yields were comparable at nearly all the wavelengths, expect for 193 nm, where the O atom yield was appreciable. The yields at 308 nm (a wavelength available in the stratosphere) were 0.64 ± 0.17 for Cl, 0.37 ± 0.18 for ClO and product yield for the former reaction, previously unreported, was determined to be ~1. The kinetics of the reaction of O atoms with ClO were measured using a new experimental system built specifically to investigate such radical-radical reactions. A slight negative temperature dependence (E/B = -90 ± 30) was observed over the temperature range (227-363 K). From the measured Arrhenius equation the rate constant at 240 K is 4.1 × 10-11 cm3molecule-1s-1 which is in excellent agreement (l.4% greater) with the currently recommended value. This observation is significant, since this reaction is the rate limiting the dominate chlorine catalytic cycle that destroys O3 near 40 km. To analyze the implications of the kinetic and photochemical information from this work, a box model was constructed. The vertical profile of ozone concentrations and loss rates calculated by this simple model compare well with atmospheric measurements and

  16. A composite study of the MJO influence on the surface air temperature and precipitation over the Continental United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Shuntai [NOAA/NWS/NCEP, Camp Springs, MD (United States); Wyle, Inc., McLean, VA (United States); L' Heureux, Michelle; Weaver, Scott; Kumar, Arun [NOAA/NWS/NCEP, Camp Springs, MD (United States)


    The influence of the MJO on the continental United States (CONUS) surface air temperature (SAT) and precipitation is examined based on 30 years of daily data from 1979-2008. Composites are constructed for each of the eight phases of the Wheeler-Hendon MJO index over 12 overlapping three-month seasons. To ensure that the MJO signal is distinguished from other patterns of climate variability, several steps are taken: (a) only days classified as ''MJO events'' are used in the composites, (b) statistical significance of associated composites is assessed using a Monte Carlo procedure, and (c) intraseasonal frequencies are matched to the unfiltered data. Composites of other fields are also shown in order to examine how the SAT and precipitation anomalies are associated with large-scale circulations providing a link between the tropics and extratropics. The strongest and most significant MJO effects on SAT are found during the northern winter seasons. When enhanced convection is located over the equatorial Indian Ocean, below-average SAT tends to occur in New England and the Great Lakes region. As enhanced tropical convection shifts over the Maritime continent, above-average SAT appears in the eastern states of the US from Maine to Florida. The MJO influence on precipitation is also significant during northern winter seasons. When enhanced convection is located over the Maritime continent, more precipitation is observed in the central plains of the US. Enhanced precipitation also occurs over the west coast of the US when convective activity is stronger over the Indian Ocean. During the northern summer and fall, the MJO impact on precipitation is mainly significant at lower latitudes, over Mexico and southeastern US. (orig.)

  17. Behaviors and transitions along the path to magnetostrophic convection (United States)

    Grannan, A. M.; Vogt, T.; Horn, S.; Hawkins, E. K.; Aggarwal, A.; Aurnou, J. M.


    The generation of magnetic fields in planetary and stellar interiors are believed to be controlled primarily by turbulent convection constrained by Coriolis and Lorentz forces in their electrically conducting fluid layers. Yet relatively few laboratory experiments are capable of investigating the different regimes of turbulent magnetohydrodynamic convection. In this work, we perform one laboratory experiment in a cylinder at a fixed heat flux using the liquid metal gallium in order to investigate, sequentially: Rayleigh-Bènard convection without any imposed constraints, magnetoconvection with a Lorentz constraint imposed by vertical magnetic field, rotating convection with a Coriolis constraint imposed by rotation, and finally the magnetostrophic convective regime where both Coriolis and Lorentz are imposed and equal. Using an array of internal and external temperature probes, we show that each regime along the path to magnetostrophic convection is unique. The behaviors and transitions in the dominant modes of convection as well as their fundamental frequencies and wavenumbers are investigated.

  18. Convective equilibrium and mixing-length theory for stellarator reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, D.D.M.; Kulsrud, R.M.


    In high β stellarator and tokamak reactors, the plasma pressure gradient in some regions of the plasma may exceed the critical pressure gradient set by ballooning instabilities. In these regions, convective cells break out to enhance the transport. As a result, the pressure gradient can rise only slightly above the critical gradient and the plasma is in another state of equilibrium - ''convective equilibrium'' - in these regions. Although the convective transport cannot be calculated precisely, it is shown that the density and temperature profiles in the convective region can still be estimated. A simple mixing-length theory, similar to that used for convection in stellar interiors, is introduced in this paper to provide a qualitative description of the convective cells and to show that the convective transport is highly efficient. A numerical example for obtaining the density and temperature profiles in a stellarator reactor is given

  19. OESbathy version 1.0: a method for reconstructing ocean bathymetry with realistic continental shelf-slope-rise structures (United States)

    Goswami, A.; Olson, P. L.; Hinnov, L. A.; Gnanadesikan, A.


    We present a method for reconstructing global ocean bathymetry that uses a plate cooling model for the oceanic lithosphere, the age distribution of the oceanic crust, global oceanic sediment thicknesses, plus shelf-slope-rise structures calibrated at modern active and passive continental margins. Our motivation is to reconstruct realistic ocean bathymetry based on parameterized relationships of present-day variables that can be applied to global oceans in the geologic past, and to isolate locations where anomalous processes such as mantle convection may affect bathymetry. Parameters of the plate cooling model are combined with ocean crustal age to calculate depth-to-basement. To the depth-to-basement we add an isostatically adjusted, multicomponent sediment layer, constrained by sediment thickness in the modern oceans and marginal seas. A continental shelf-slope-rise structure completes the bathymetry reconstruction, extending from the ocean crust to the coastlines. Shelf-slope-rise structures at active and passive margins are parameterized using modern ocean bathymetry at locations where a complete history of seafloor spreading is preserved. This includes the coastal regions of the North, South, and Central Atlantic Ocean, the Southern Ocean between Australia and Antarctica, and the Pacific Ocean off the west coast of South America. The final products are global maps at 0.1° × 0.1° resolution of depth-to-basement, ocean bathymetry with an isostatically adjusted, multicomponent sediment layer, and ocean bathymetry with reconstructed continental shelf-slope-rise structures. Our reconstructed bathymetry agrees with the measured ETOPO1 bathymetry at most passive margins, including the east coast of North America, north coast of the Arabian Sea, and northeast and southeast coasts of South America. There is disagreement at margins with anomalous continental shelf-slope-rise structures, such as around the Arctic Ocean, the Falkland Islands, and Indonesia.

  20. Heat flow in the rifted continental margin of the South China Sea near Taiwan and its tectonic implications (United States)

    Liao, Wei-Zhi; Lin, Andrew T.; Liu, Char-Shine; Oung, Jung-Nan; Wang, Yunshuen


    Temperature measurements carried out on 9 hydrocarbon exploration boreholes together with Bottom Simulating Reflectors (BSRs) from reflection seismic images are used in this study to derive geothermal gradients and heat flows in the northern margin of the South China Sea near Taiwan. The method of Horner plot is applied to obtain true formation temperatures from measured borehole temperatures, which are disturbed by drilling processes. Sub-seafloor depths of BSRs are used to calculate sub-bottom temperatures using theoretical pressure/temperature phase boundary that marks the base of gas hydrate stability zone. Our results show that the geothermal gradients and heat flows in the study area range from 28 to 128 °C/km and 40 to 159 mW/m2, respectively. There is a marked difference in geothermal gradients and heat flow beneath the shelf and slope regions. It is cooler beneath the shelf with an average geothermal gradient of 34.5 °C/km, and 62.7 mW/m2 heat flow. The continental slope shows a higher average geothermal gradient of 56.4 °C/km, and 70.9 mW/m2 heat flow. Lower heat flow on the shelf is most likely caused by thicker sediments that have accumulated there compared to the sediment thickness beneath the slope. In addition, the continental crust is highly extended beneath the continental slope, yielding higher heat flow in this region. A half graben exists beneath the continental slope with a north-dipping graben-bounding fault. A high heat-flow anomaly coincides at the location of this graben-bounding fault at the Jiulong Ridge, indicating vigorous vertical fluid convection which may take place along this fault.

  1. Moisture Vertical Structure, Deep Convective Organization, and Convective Transition in the Amazon (United States)

    Schiro, K. A.; Neelin, J. D.


    Constraining precipitation processes in climate models with observations is crucial to accurately simulating current climate and reducing uncertainties in future projections. Results from the Green Ocean Amazon (GOAmazon) field campaign (2014-2015) provide evidence that deep convection is strongly controlled by the availability of moisture in the free troposphere over the Amazon, much like over tropical oceans. Entraining plume buoyancy calculations confirm that CWV is a good proxy for the conditional instability of the environment, yet differences in convective onset as a function of CWV exist over land and ocean, as well as seasonally and diurnally over land. This is largely due to variability in the contribution of lower tropospheric humidity to the total column moisture. Boundary layer moisture shows a strong relationship to the onset during the day, which largely disappears during nighttime. Using S-Band radar, these transition statistics are examined separately for unorganized and mesoscale-organized convection, which exhibit sharp increases in probability of occurrence with increasing moisture throughout the column, particularly in the lower free troposphere. Retrievals of vertical velocity from a radar wind profiler indicate updraft velocity and mass flux increasing with height through the lower troposphere. A deep-inflow mixing scheme motivated by this — corresponding to deep inflow of environmental air into a plume that grows with height — provides a weighting of boundary layer and free tropospheric air that yields buoyancies consistent with the observed onset of deep convection across seasons and times of day, across land and ocean sites, and for all convection types. This provides a substantial improvement relative to more traditional constant mixing assumptions, and a dramatic improvement relative to no mixing. Furthermore, it provides relationships that are as strong or stronger for mesoscale-organized convection as for unorganized convection.

  2. Asymmetry in convection and restratification in the Nordic Seas: an idealized model study (United States)

    Ypma, Stefanie L.; Brüggemann, Nils; Pietrzak, Julie D.; Katsman, Caroline A.


    The Nordic Seas are an important production region for dense water masses that feed the lower limb of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. They display a pronounced hydrographic asymmetry, with a warm eastern basin, and a cold western basin. Previous studies have shown that this asymmetry is set by the interplay between large eddies shed near the coast of Norway where the continental slope steepens, and the Mohn-Knipovich ridge that separates the Lofoten Basin in the east from the Greenland Basin in the west. While it is known from earlier studies that eddies play a crucial role for the yearly cycle of wintertime convection and summertime restratification in marginal seas like the Labrador Sea, the situation in the Nordic Seas is different as the large eddies can only restratify the eastern part of the Nordic Seas due to the presence of the ridge. Possibly due to this asymmetry in eddy activity and a weaker stratification as a result, the western basin is more sensitive for intense deep convection. The question remains how this area is restratified after a deep convection event in the absence of large eddies and how the dense water is able to leave the basin. An high resolution, idealized model configuration of the MITgcm is used that reproduces the main characteristics of the Nordic Seas, including a warm cyclonic boundary current, a strong eddy field in the east and the hydrographic asymmetry between east and west. The idealized approach enables multiple sensitivity studies to changes in the eddy field and the boundary current and provides the possibility to investigate cause and effect, while keeping the set-up simple. We will present results of tracer studies where the sensitivity of the spreading and the restratification of dense water to the formation location in both basins is studied.

  3. Coupling of convection and circulation at various resolutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathy Hohenegger


    Full Text Available A correct representation of the coupling between convection and circulation constitutes a prerequisite for a correct representation of precipitation at all scales. In this study, the coupling between convection and a sea breeze is investigated across three main resolutions: large-eddy resolution where convection is fully explicit, convection-permitting resolution where convection is partly explicit and coarse resolution where convection is parameterised. The considered models are the UCLA-LES, COSMO and ICON. Despite the use of prescribed surface fluxes, comparison of the simulations reveals that typical biases associated with a misrepresentation of convection at convection-permitting and coarser resolutions significantly alter the characteristics of the sea breeze. The coarse-resolution simulations integrated without convective parameterisation and the convection-permitting simulations simulate a too slow propagation of the breeze front as compared to the large-eddy simulations. From the various factors affecting the propagation, a delayed onset and intensification of cold pools primarily explains the differences. This is a direct consequence of a delayed development of convection when the grid spacing is coarsened. Scaling the time the sea breeze reaches the centre of the land patch by the time precipitation exceeds 2 mm day−1, used as a measure for significant evaporation, yields a collapse of the simulations onto a simple linear relationship although subtle differences remain due to the use of different turbulence and microphysical schemes. Turning on the convection scheme significantly disrupts the propagation of the sea breeze due to a misrepresented timing (too early triggering and magnitude (too strong precipitation evaporation in one of the tested convection schemes of the convective processes.

  4. Continental Transform Boundaries: Tectonic Evolution and Geohazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Steckler


    Full Text Available Continental transform boundaries cross heavily populated regions, and they are associated with destructive earthquakes,for example, the North Anatolian Fault (NAFacross Turkey, the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault in Haiti,the San Andreas Fault in California, and the El Pilar fault in Venezuela. Transform basins are important because they are typically associated with 3-D fault geometries controlling segmentation—thus, the size and timing of damaging earthquakes—and because sediments record both deformation and earthquakes. Even though transform basins have been extensively studied, their evolution remains controversial because we don’t understand the specifics about coupling of vertical and horizontal motions and about the basins’long-term kinematics. Seismic and tsunami hazard assessments require knowing architecture and kinematics of faultsas well as how the faults are segmented.

  5. Moho and magmatic underplating in continental lithosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thybo, Hans; Artemieva, Irina M.


    interacts with the surrounding crustal rocks which leads to smearing of geophysical signals from the underplated material. In terms of processes, there is no direct discriminator between the traditional concept of underplated material and lower crustal magmatic intrusions in the form of batholiths and sill......Underplating was originally proposed as the process of magma ponding at the base of the crust and was inferred from petrologic considerations. This process not only may add high density material to the deep crust, but also may contribute low density material to the upper parts of the crust by magma...... fractionation during cooling and solidification in the lower crust. Separation of the low density material from the high-density residue may be a main process of formation of continental crust with its characteristic low average density, also during the early evolution of the Earth. Despite the assumed...

  6. Natural convection in heat-generating fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bol'shov, Leonid A; Kondratenko, Petr S; Strizhov, Valerii F


    Experimental and theoretical studies of convective heat transfer from a heat-generating fluid confined to a closed volume are reviewed. Theoretical results are inferred from analytical estimates based on the relevant conservation laws and the current understanding of the convective heat-transfer processes. Four basic and one asymptotic regime of heat transfer are identified depending on the heat generation rate. Limiting heat-transfer distribution patterns are found for the lower boundary. Heat transfer in a quasi-two-dimensional geometry is analyzed. Quasi-steady-state heat transfer from a cooling-down fluid without internal heat sources is studied separately. Experimental results and theoretical predictions are compared. (reviews of topical problems)

  7. Topology optimisation of natural convection problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexandersen, Joe; Aage, Niels; Andreasen, Casper Schousboe


    This paper demonstrates the application of the density-based topology optimisation approach for the design of heat sinks and micropumps based on natural convection effects. The problems are modelled under the assumptions of steady-state laminar flow using the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations...... coupled to the convection-diffusion equation through the Boussinesq approximation. In order to facilitate topology optimisation, the Brinkman approach is taken to penalise velocities inside the solid domain and the effective thermal conductivity is interpolated in order to accommodate differences...... in thermal conductivity of the solid and fluid phases. The governing equations are discretised using stabilised finite elements and topology optimisation is performed for two different problems using discrete adjoint sensitivity analysis. The study shows that topology optimisation is a viable approach...

  8. Convective instabilities in SN 1987A (United States)

    Benz, Willy; Thielemann, Friedrich-Karl


    Following Bandiera (1984), it is shown that the relevant criterion to determine the stability of a blast wave, propagating through the layers of a massive star in a supernova explosion, is the Schwarzschild (or Ledoux) criterion rather than the Rayleigh-Taylor criterion. Both criteria coincide only in the incompressible limit. Results of a linear stability analysis are presented for a one-dimensional (spherical) explosion in a realistic model for the progenitor of SN 1987A. When applying the Schwarzschild criterion, unstable regions get extended considerably. Convection is found to develop behind the shock, with a characteristic growth rate corresponding to a time scale much smaller than the shock traversal time. This ensures that efficient mixing will take place. Since the entire ejected mass is found to be convectively unstable, Ni can be transported outward, even into the hydrogen envelope, while hydrogen can be mixed deep into the helium core.

  9. Natural convection heat transfer in SIGMA experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Dong; Lee, Gang Hee; Suh, Kune Yull


    A loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) results in core melt formation and relocation at various locations within the reactor core over a considerable period of time. If there is no effective cooling mechanism, the core debris may heat up and commence natural circulation. The high temperature pool of molten core material will threaten the structural integrity of the reactor vessel. The extent and urgency of this threat depend primarily upon the intensity of the internal heat sources and upon the consequent distribution of the heat fluxes on the vessel walls in contact with the molten core material pools. In such a steady molten pool convection state, the thermal loads against the vessel would be determined by the in-vessel heat transfer distribution involving convective and conductive heat transfer from the decay-heated core material pool to the lower head wall in contact with the core material. In this study, upward and downward heat transfer fraction ratio is focused on

  10. Convective phenomena at high resolution over Europe and the Mediterranean. The join EURO-CORDEX and Med-CORDEX flagship pilot study (United States)

    Coppola, E.; Sobolowski, S.


    The join EURO-CORDEX and Med-CORDEX Flagship Pilot Study dedicated to the frontier research of using convective permitting (CP) models to address the impact of human induced climate change on convection, has been recently approved and the scientific community behind the project is made of 30 different scientific European institutes. The motivations for such a challenge is the availability of large field campaigns dedicated to the study of heavy precipitation events; the increased computing capacity and model developments; the emerging trend signals in extreme precipitation at daily and mainly sub-daily time scale in the Mediterranean and Alpine regions and the priority of convective extreme events under the WCRP Grand Challenge on climate extremes. The main objective of this effort are to investigate convective-scale events, their processes and changes in a few key regions of Europe and the Mediterranean using CP RCMs, statistical models and available observations. To provide a collective assessment of the modeling capacity at CP scale and to shape a coherent and collective assessment of the consequences of climate change on convective event impacts at local to regional scales. The scientific aims of this research are to investigate how the convective events and the damaging phenomena associated with them will respond to changing climate conditions in different European climates zone. To understand if an improved representation of convective phenomena at convective permitting scales will lead to upscaled added value and finally to assess the possibility to replace these costly convection-permitting experiments with statistical approaches like "convection emulators". The common initial domain will be an extended Alpine domain and all the groups will simulate a minimum of 10 years period with ERA-interim boundary conditions, with the possibility of other two sub-domains one in the Northwest continental Europe and another in the Southeast Mediterranean. The scenario

  11. Precursory enhancement of EIA in the morning sector: Contribution from mid-latitude large earthquakes in the north-east Asian region (United States)

    Ryu, Kwangsun; Oyama, Koh-Ichiro; Bankov, Ludmil; Chen, Chia-Hung; Devi, Minakshi; Liu, Huixin; Liu, Jann-Yenq


    To investigate whether the link between seismic activity and EIA (equatorial ionization anomaly) enhancement is valid for mid-latitude seismic activity, DEMETER observations around seven large earthquakes in the north-east Asian region were fully analyzed (M ⩾ 6.8). In addition, statistical analysis was performed for 35 large earthquakes (M ⩾ 6.0) that occurred during the DEMETER observation period. The results suggest that mid-latitude earthquakes do contribute to EIA enhancement, represented as normalized equatorial Ne , and that ionospheric change precedes seismic events, as has been reported in previous studies. According to statistical studies, the normalized equatorial density enhancement is sensitive and proportional to both the magnitude and the hypocenter depth of an earthquake. The mechanisms that can explain the contribution of mid-latitude seismic activity to EIA variation are briefly discussed based on current explanations of the geochemical and ionospheric processes involved in lithosphere-ionosphere interaction.

  12. Temporal change in fragmentation of continental US forests (United States)

    James D. Wickham; Kurt H. Riitters; Timothy G. Wade; Collin Homer


    Changes in forest ecosystem function and condition arise from changes in forest fragmentation. Previous studies estimated forest fragmentation for the continental United States (US). In this study, new temporal land-cover data from the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) were used to estimate changes in forest fragmentation at multiple scales for the continental US....

  13. 31 CFR 515.321 - United States; continental United States. (United States)


    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 515.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof, including the Trust Territory of...

  14. 31 CFR 500.321 - United States; continental United States. (United States)


    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 500.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof, including U.S. trust territories...

  15. 31 CFR 535.321 - United States; continental United States. (United States)


    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 535.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof including the Trust Territory of...

  16. State of the soft bottoms of the continental shelf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzman Alvis, Angela I; Solano, Oscar David


    The presented information, it is based on studies carried out on the continental shelf of the Colombian Caribbean, mainly in the Gulf of Morrosquillo and the Magdalena and Guajira departments in the last ten years. A diagnostic is done of the soft bottoms of the Colombian continental shelf

  17. Mean Lagrangian drift in continental shelf waves (United States)

    Drivdal, M.; Weber, J. E. H.


    The time- and depth-averaged mean drift induced by barotropic continental shelf waves (CSW's) is studied theoretically for idealized shelf topography by calculating the mean volume fluxes to second order in wave amplitude. The waves suffer weak spatial damping due to bottom friction, which leads to radiation stress forcing of the mean fluxes. In terms of the total wave energy density E¯ over the shelf region, the radiation stress tensor component S¯11 for CSW's is found to be different from that of shallow water surface waves in a non-rotating ocean. For CSW's, the ratio ¯S11/¯E depends strongly on the wave number. The mean Lagrangian flow forced by the radiation stress can be subdivided into a Stokes drift and a mean Eulerian drift current. The magnitude of the latter depends on the ratio between the radiation stress and the bottom stress acting on the mean flow. When the effect of bottom friction acts equally strong on the waves and the mean current, calculations for short CSW's show that the Stokes drift and the friction-dependent wave-induced mean Eulerian current varies approximately in anti-phase over the shelf, and that the latter is numerically the largest. For long CSW's they are approximately in phase. In both cases the mean Lagrangian current, which is responsible for the net particle drift, has its largest numerical value at the coast on the shallow part of the shelf. Enhancing the effect of bottom friction on the Eulerian mean flow, results in a general current speed reduction, as well as a change in spatial structure for long waves. Applying realistic physical parameters for the continental shelf west of Norway, calculations yield along-shelf mean drift velocities for short CSW's that may be important for the transport of biological material, neutral tracers, and underwater plumes of dissolved oil from deep water drilling accidents.

  18. Progress towards Continental River Dynamics modeling (United States)

    Yu, Cheng-Wei; Zheng, Xing; Liu, Frank; Maidment, Daivd; Hodges, Ben


    The high-resolution National Water Model (NWM), launched by U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) in August 2016, has shown it is possible to provide real-time flow prediction in rivers and streams across the entire continental United States. The next step for continental-scale modeling is moving from reduced physics (e.g. Muskingum-Cunge) to full dynamic modeling with the Saint-Venant equations. The Simulation Program for River Networks (SPRNT) provides a computational approach for the Saint-Venant equations, but obtaining sufficient channel bathymetric data and hydraulic roughness is seen as a critical challenge. However, recent work has shown the Height Above Nearest Drainage (HAND) method can be applied with the National Elevation Dataset (NED) to provide automated estimation of effective channel bathymetry suitable for large-scale hydraulic simulations. The present work examines the use of SPRNT with the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) and HAND-derived bathymetry for automated generation of rating curves that can be compared to existing data. The approach can, in theory, be applied to every stream reach in the NHD and thus provide flood guidance where none is available. To test this idea we generated 2000+ rating curves in two catchments in Texas and Alabama (USA). Field data from the USGS and flood records from an Austin, Texas flood in May 2015 were used as validation. Large-scale implementation of this idea requires addressing several critical difficulties associated with numerical instabilities, including ill-posed boundary conditions generated in automated model linkages and inconsistencies in the river geometry. A key to future progress is identifying efficient approaches to isolate numerical instability contributors in a large time-space varying solution. This research was supported in part by the National Science Foundation under grant number CCF-1331610.

  19. Ethical Wills – a Continental Law Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederik Swennen


    Full Text Available Ethical wills are testaments, or planning instruments mortis causa alike, that contain provisions regarding the deceased’s (non-economic values rather than his (economic valuables. The authors define and analyse the substance and form of ethical wills from a comparative Continental law perspective, drawing on Belgian, Dutch, French and German law. The focus primarily is on charges or conditions in restraint or constraint of (non- denominational or family choices by testamentary beneficiaries; and in this context it is contended that both the doctrine of public policy (“ordre public” and the horizontal application of the ECHR extensively restrict testamentary freedom. Nevertheless, the analogous application of estate planning techniques increasingly allows benevolent testators to plan their ethical legacy. Los testamentos éticos son testamentos, similares a instrumentos de planificación mortis causa, que contienen disposiciones relativas a los valores (no económicos del difunto, en lugar de sus objetos de valor (económico. Los autores definen y analizan el contenido y la forma de los testamentos éticos desde una perspectiva comparativa de derecho continental, basada en la legislación belga, holandesa, francesa y alemana. Se centra principalmente en los cargos o las condiciones de restricción o limitación de las opciones (aconfesionales o familiares de los herederos; y en este contexto se afirma que tanto la doctrina de política pública ("ordre public" como la aplicación horizontal del Tribunal Europeo de Derechos Humanos, restringen ampliamente la libertad testamentaria. Sin embargo, la aplicación análoga de técnicas de planificación y gestión patrimonial y sucesoria, permite cada vez más a los testadores de últimas voluntades planificar su legado ético.

  20. An experimental study of mixed convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saez, Manuel


    The aim of our study is to establish a reliable data base for improving thermal-hydraulic codes, in the field of turbulent flows with buoyancy forces. The flow considered is mixed convection in the Reynolds and Richardson number range: Re=10"3 to 6*10"4 and Ri=10"-"4 to 1. Experiments are carried out in an upward turbulent flow between vertical parallel plates at different wall temperatures. Part 1 gives a detailed data base of turbulent mixed flow of free and forced convection. Part II presents the installation and the calibration system intended for probes calibration. Part III describes the measurement technique (constant-temperature probe and cold-wire probe) and the method for measuring the position of the hot-wire anemometer from the wall surface. The measurement accuracy is within 0.001 mm in the present system. Part IV relates the development of a method for near wall measurements. This correction procedure for hot-wire anemometer close to wall has been derived on the basis of a two-dimensional numerical study. The method permits to obtain a quantitative correction of the wall influence on hot-wires and takes into account the velocity profile and the effects the wall material has on the heat loss. Part V presents the experimental data obtained in the channel in forced and mixed convection. Results obtained in the forced convection regime serve as a verification of the measurement technique close to the wall and give the conditions at the entrance of the test section. The effects of the buoyancy force on the mean velocity and temperature profiles are confirmed. The buoyancy strongly affects the flow structure and deforms the distribution of mean velocity. The velocity profiles are asymmetric. The second section of part V gives an approach of analytical wall functions with buoyancy forces, on the basis of the experimental data obtained in the test section. (author) [fr

  1. Convection and crystal settling in sills (United States)

    Gibb, Fergus G. F.; Henderson, C. Michael B.


    It has been advocated that convective and crystal settling processes play significant, and perhaps crucial, roles in magmatic differentiation. The fluid dynamics of magma chambers have been extensively studied in recent years, both theoretically and experimentally, but there is disagreement over the nature and scale of the convection, over its bearing on fractionation and possibly over whether it occurs at all. The differential distribution of modal olivine with height in differentiated alkaline basic sills provides critical evidence to resolve this controversy, at least for small to medium-large magma chambers. Our own and others' published data for such sills show that, irrespective of overall olivine content, modal olivine contents tend to increase in a roughly symmetrical manner inwards from the upper and lower margins of the sill, i.e. the distribution patterns are more often approximately D-shaped rather than the classic S-shape generally ascribed to gravity settling. We concur with the majority of other authors that this is an original feature of the filling process which has survived more or less unchanged since emplacement. We therefore conclude that the magmas have not undergone turbulent convection and that gravity settling has usually played only a minor modifying role since the intrusion of these sills. We offer a possible explanation for the apparent contradiction between fluid dynamical theory and the petrological evidence by suggesting that such sills rarely fill by the rapid injection of a single pulse of magma. Rather, they form from a series of pulses or a continuous pulsed influx over a protracted interval during which marginal cooling severely limits the potential for thermal convection.

  2. Nonlinear Convective Models of RR Lyrae Stars (United States)

    Feuchtinger, M.; Dorfi, E. A.

    The nonlinear behavior of RR Lyrae pulsations is investigated using a state-of-the-art numerical technique solving the full time-dependent system of radiation hydrodynamics. Grey radiative transfer is included by a variable Eddington-factor method and we use the time-dependent turbulent convection model according to Kuhfuss (1986, A&A 160, 116) in the version of Wuchterl (1995, Comp. Phys. Comm. 89, 19). OPAL opacities extended by the Alexander molecule opacities at temperatures below 6000 K and an equation of state according to Wuchterl (1990, A&A 238, 83) close the system. The resulting nonlinear system is discretized on an adaptive mesh developed by Dorfi & Drury (1987, J. Comp. Phys. 69, 175), which is important to provide the necessary spatial resolution in critical regions like ionization zones and shock waves. Additionally, we employ a second order advection scheme, a time centered temporal discretizaton and an artificial tensor viscosity in order to treat discontinuities. We compute fundamental as well first overtone models of RR Lyrae stars for a grid of stellar parameters both with and without convective energy transport in order to give a detailed picture of the pulsation-convection interaction. In order to investigate the influence of the different features of the convection model calculations with and without overshooting, turbulent pressure and turbulent viscosity are performed and compared with each other. A standard Fourier decomposition is used to confront the resulting light and radial velocity variations with recent observations and we show that the well known RR Lyrae phase discrepancy problem (Simon 1985, ApJ 299, 723) can be resolved with these stellar pulsation computations.

  3. Natural convective heat transfer from square cylinder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novomestský, Marcel, E-mail:; Smatanová, Helena, E-mail:; Kapjor, Andrej, E-mail: [University of Žilina, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Department of Power Engineering, Univerzitná 1, 010 26 Žilina (Slovakia)


    This article is concerned with natural convective heat transfer from square cylinder mounted on a plane adiabatic base, the cylinders having an exposed cylinder surface according to different horizontal angle. The cylinder receives heat from a radiating heater which results in a buoyant flow. There are many industrial applications, including refrigeration, ventilation and the cooling of electrical components, for which the present study may be applicable.

  4. Habitat-specific bioaccumulation of methylmercury in invertebrates of small mid-latitude lakes in North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chetelat, John, E-mail: john.chetelat@ec.gc.c [Groupe de recherche interuniversitaire en limnologie, Departement de sciences biologiques, Universite de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7 (Canada); Amyot, Marc; Garcia, Edenise [Groupe de recherche interuniversitaire en limnologie, Departement de sciences biologiques, Universite de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7 (Canada)


    We examined habitat-specific bioaccumulation of methylmercury (MeHg) in aquatic food webs by comparing concentrations in pelagic zooplankton to those in littoral macroinvertebrates from 52 mid-latitude lakes in North America. Invertebrate MeHg concentrations were primarily correlated with water pH, and after controlling for this influence, pelagic zooplankton had significantly higher MeHg concentrations than littoral primary consumers but lower MeHg than littoral secondary consumers. Littoral primary consumers and pelagic zooplankton are two dominant prey for fish, and greater MeHg in zooplankton is likely sufficient to increase bioaccumulation in pelagic feeders. Intensive sampling of 8 lakes indicated that habitat-specific bioaccumulation in invertebrates (of similar trophic level) may result from spatial variation in aqueous MeHg concentration or from more efficient uptake of aqueous MeHg into the pelagic food web. Our findings demonstrate that littoral-pelagic differences in MeHg bioaccumulation are widespread in small mid-latitude lakes. - Methylmercury levels in dominant invertebrate prey for fish differ between littoral and pelagic habitats within a lake.

  5. Habitat-specific bioaccumulation of methylmercury in invertebrates of small mid-latitude lakes in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chetelat, John; Amyot, Marc; Garcia, Edenise


    We examined habitat-specific bioaccumulation of methylmercury (MeHg) in aquatic food webs by comparing concentrations in pelagic zooplankton to those in littoral macroinvertebrates from 52 mid-latitude lakes in North America. Invertebrate MeHg concentrations were primarily correlated with water pH, and after controlling for this influence, pelagic zooplankton had significantly higher MeHg concentrations than littoral primary consumers but lower MeHg than littoral secondary consumers. Littoral primary consumers and pelagic zooplankton are two dominant prey for fish, and greater MeHg in zooplankton is likely sufficient to increase bioaccumulation in pelagic feeders. Intensive sampling of 8 lakes indicated that habitat-specific bioaccumulation in invertebrates (of similar trophic level) may result from spatial variation in aqueous MeHg concentration or from more efficient uptake of aqueous MeHg into the pelagic food web. Our findings demonstrate that littoral-pelagic differences in MeHg bioaccumulation are widespread in small mid-latitude lakes. - Methylmercury levels in dominant invertebrate prey for fish differ between littoral and pelagic habitats within a lake.

  6. Simulated East-west differences in F-region peak electron density at Far East mid-latitude region (United States)

    Ren, Z.; Wan, W.


    In the present work, using Three-Dimensional Theoretical Ionospheric Model of the Earth in Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (TIME3D-IGGCAS), we simulated the east-west differences in Fregion peak electron density (NmF2) at Far East mid-latitude region.We found that, after removing the longitudinal variations of neutral parameters, TIME3D-IGGCAS can better represent the observed relative east-west difference (Rew) features. Rew is mainly negative (West NmF2 > East NmF2) at noon and positive (East NmF2 >West NmF2) at evening-night. The magnitude of daytime negative Rew is weak at local winter and strong at local summer, and the daytime Rew show two negative peaks around two equinoxes. With the increasing of solar flux level, the magnitude of Rew mainly become larger, and two daytime negative peaks slight shifts to June Solstice. With the decreasing of geographical latitude, Rew mainly become positive, and two daytime negative peaks slight shifts to June Solstice. Our simulation also suggested that the thermospheric zonal wind combined with the geomagnetic field configuration play a pivotal role in the formation of the ionospheric east-west differences at Far East midlatitude region.

  7. Multi-layer structure of mid-latitude sporadic-E observed during the SEEK-2 campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ono


    Full Text Available In the mid-latitude ionospheric region, sporadic-E layers (Es layers have often been observed, revealing multiple layers. The Es layers observed during the SEEK-2 rocket campaign showed double electron density peaks; namely, there are stable lower peaks and relatively unstable upper peaks. We examined the effects of wind shear and the electric fields on the generation of the multiple layer structure, in comparison with the electron density profile, the neutral wind, and the DC electric field observed by the S310 rocket experiments. The results showed that the neutral wind shear is mainly responsible for the generation of the lower layer, while the DC electric field makes a significant contribution to the formation of the upper layer. The difference between the lower and upper layers was also explained by the enhanced AC electric field observed at about 103–105 km altitude. The external DC electric field intensity is expected to be ~5 mV/m, which is enough to contribute to generate the Es layers in the ionosphere. Keywords. Ionosphere (Electric fields; Ionospheric irregularities, Mid-latitude ionosphere

  8. Study of mixed convection in sodium pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhou; Chen Yan


    The mixed convection phenomena in the sodium pool of fast reactor have been studied systematically by the two dimensional modeling method. A generalized concept of circumferential line in the cylindrical coordinates was proposed to overcome the three dimensional effect induced by the pool geometry in an analysis of two dimensional modeling. A method of sub-step in time was developed for solving the turbulent equations. The treatments on the boundary condition for the auxiliary velocity field have been proposed, and the explanation of allowing the flow function method to be used in the flow field in presence of a mass source term was given. As examples of verification, the experiments were conducted with water flow in a rectangular cavity. The results from theoretical analysis were applied to the numerical computation for the mixed convection in the cavity. The mechanism of stratified flow in the cavity was studied. A numerical calculation was carried out for the mixed convection in hot plenum of a typical fast reactor

  9. Heat transport in bubbling turbulent convection. (United States)

    Lakkaraju, Rajaram; Stevens, Richard J A M; Oresta, Paolo; Verzicco, Roberto; Lohse, Detlef; Prosperetti, Andrea


    Boiling is an extremely effective way to promote heat transfer from a hot surface to a liquid due to numerous mechanisms, many of which are not understood in quantitative detail. An important component of the overall process is that the buoyancy of the bubble compounds with that of the liquid to give rise to a much-enhanced natural convection. In this article, we focus specifically on this enhancement and present a numerical study of the resulting two-phase Rayleigh-Bénard convection process in a cylindrical cell with a diameter equal to its height. We make no attempt to model other aspects of the boiling process such as bubble nucleation and detachment. The cell base and top are held at temperatures above and below the boiling point of the liquid, respectively. By keeping this difference constant, we study the effect of the liquid superheat in a Rayleigh number range that, in the absence of boiling, would be between 2 × 10(6) and 5 × 10(9). We find a considerable enhancement of the heat transfer and study its dependence on the number of bubbles, the degree of superheat of the hot cell bottom, and the Rayleigh number. The increased buoyancy provided by the bubbles leads to more energetic hot plumes detaching from the cell bottom, and the strength of the circulation in the cell is significantly increased. Our results are in general agreement with recent experiments on boiling Rayleigh-Bénard convection.

  10. Modeling mantle convection in the spherical annulus (United States)

    Hernlund, John W.; Tackley, Paul J.


    Most methods for modeling mantle convection in a two-dimensional (2D) circular annular domain suffer from innate shortcomings in their ability to capture several characteristics of the spherical shell geometry of planetary mantles. While methods such as rescaling the inner and outer radius to reduce anomalous effects in a 2D polar cylindrical coordinate system have been introduced and widely implemented, such fixes may have other drawbacks that adversely affect the outcome of some kinds of mantle convection studies. Here we propose a new approach that we term the "spherical annulus," which is a 2D slice that bisects the spherical shell and is quantitatively formulated at the equator of a spherical polar coordinate system after neglecting terms in the governing equations related to variations in latitude. Spherical scaling is retained in this approximation since the Jacobian function remains proportional to the square of the radius. We present example calculations to show that the behavior of convection in the spherical annulus compares favorably against calculations performed in other 2D annular domains when measured relative to those in a fully three-dimensional (3D) spherical shell.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The paper presents the spatial and temporal variability of thermal continentality in Central Europe. Gorczyński’s and Johansson-Ringleb’s formulae were used to derive the continentality index. The study also looked at the annual patterns of air temperature amplitude (A, a component of both of these formulae, and D; the difference between the average temperatures of autumn (Sep.-Nov. and spring (Mar.-May. Records of six weather stations representing the climate of Central Europe were included in the study covering the period 1775-2012 (Potsdam, Drezden, Prague, Vienna, Krakow, Debrecen. The highest continentality index was found in Debrecen and the lowest in Potsdam. The continentality index fluctuated with time with two pronounced dips at the turn of the 19th century and in the second half of the 20th century. The highest continentality index values were recorded during the 1930s and 1940s.

  12. Net Rotation of the Lithosphere in Mantle Convection Models with Self-consistent Plate Generation (United States)

    Gerault, M.; Coltice, N.


    Lateral variations in the viscosity structure of the lithosphere and the mantle give rise to a discordant motion between the two. In a deep mantle reference frame, this motion is called the net rotation of the lithosphere. Plate motion reconstructions, mantle flow computations, and inferences from seismic anisotropy all indicate some amount of net rotation using different mantle reference frames. While the direction of rotation is somewhat consistent across studies, the predicted amplitudes range from 0.1 deg/Myr to 0.3 deg/Myr at the present-day. How net rotation rates could have differed in the past is also a subject of debate and strong geodynamic arguments are missing from the discussion. This study provides the first net rotation calculations in 3-D spherical mantle convection models with self-consistent plate generation. We run the computations for billions of years of numerical integration. We look into how sensitive the net rotation is to major tectonic events, such as subduction initiation, continental breakup and plate reorganisations, and whether some governing principles from the models could guide plate motion reconstructions. The mantle convection problem is solved with the finite volume code StagYY using a visco-pseudo-plastic rheology. Mantle flow velocities are solely driven by buoyancy forces internal to the system, with free slip upper and lower boundary conditions. We investigate how the yield stress, the mantle viscosity structure and the properties of continents affect the net rotation over time. Models with large lateral viscosity variations from continents predict net rotations that are at least threefold faster than those without continents. Models where continents cover a third of the surface produce net rotation rates that vary from nearly zero to over 0.3 deg/Myr with rapide increase during continental breakup. The pole of rotation appears to migrate along no particular path. For all models, regardless of the yield stress and the

  13. Natural convection of nanofluids over a convectively heated vertical plate embedded in a porous medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghalambaz, M.; Noghrehabadi, A.; Ghanbarzadeh, A., E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    In this paper, the natural convective flow of nanofluids over a convectively heated vertical plate in a saturated Darcy porous medium is studied numerically. The governing equations are transformed into a set of ordinary differential equations by using appropriate similarity variables, and they are numerically solved using the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method associated with the Gauss-Newton method. The effects of parametric variation of the Brownian motion parameter (Nb), thermophoresis parameter (Nt) and the convective heating parameter (Nc) on the boundary layer profiles are investigated. Furthermore, the variation of the reduced Nusselt number and reduced Sherwood number, as important parameters of heat and mass transfer, as a function of the Brownian motion, thermophoresis and convective heating parameters is discussed in detail. The results show that the thickness of the concentration profiles is much lower than the temperature and velocity profiles. For low values of the convective heating parameter (Nc), as the Brownian motion parameter increases, the non-dimensional wall temperature increases. However, for high values of Nc, the effect of the Brownian motion parameter on the non-dimensional wall temperature is not significant. As the Brownian motion parameter increases, the reduced Sherwood number increases and the reduced Nusselt number decreases. (author)

  14. For how long can we predict the weather? - Insights into atmospheric predictability from global convection-allowing simulations (United States)

    Judt, Falko


    A tremendous increase in computing power has facilitated the advent of global convection-resolving numerical weather prediction (NWP) models. Although this technological breakthrough allows for the seamless prediction of weather from local to global scales, the predictability of multiscale weather phenomena in these models is not very well known. To address this issue, we conducted a global high-resolution (4-km) predictability experiment using the Model for Prediction Across Scales (MPAS), a state-of-the-art global NWP model developed at the National Center for Atmospheric Research. The goals of this experiment are to investigate error growth from convective to planetary scales and to quantify the intrinsic, scale-dependent predictability limits of atmospheric motions. The globally uniform resolution of 4 km allows for the explicit treatment of organized deep moist convection, alleviating grave limitations of previous predictability studies that either used high-resolution limited-area models or global simulations with coarser grids and cumulus parameterization. Error growth is analyzed within the context of an "identical twin" experiment setup: the error is defined as the difference between a 20-day long "nature run" and a simulation that was perturbed with small-amplitude noise, but is otherwise identical. It is found that in convectively active regions, errors grow by several orders of magnitude within the first 24 h ("super-exponential growth"). The errors then spread to larger scales and begin a phase of exponential growth after 2-3 days when contaminating the baroclinic zones. After 16 days, the globally averaged error saturates—suggesting that the intrinsic limit of atmospheric predictability (in a general sense) is about two weeks, which is in line with earlier estimates. However, error growth rates differ between the tropics and mid-latitudes as well as between the troposphere and stratosphere, highlighting that atmospheric predictability is a complex

  15. Analysis of the moments and parameters of a gamma DSD to infer precipitation properties: A convective stratiform discrimination algorithm (United States)

    Caracciolo, C.; Prodi, F.; Battaglia, A.; Porcu', F.


    , defined as m/ Λ, is identified. A theoretical relationship between the m and Λ parameters is successively derived, conducing to a new convective/stratiform discrimination algorithm: in an m- Λ plot the line (1.635 Λ- m) = 1 can be considered as the discriminator; the stratiform events fall in the upper part, the convective ones in the lower. A classical tropical oceanic convective/stratiform discrimination algorithm is also tested, showing that it is not suitable to correctly discriminate the mid-latitude precipitations analyzed here.

  16. The extent of continental crust beneath the Seychelles (United States)

    Hammond, J. O. S.; Kendall, J.-M.; Collier, J. S.; Rümpker, G.


    The granitic islands of the Seychelles Plateau have long been recognised to overlie continental crust, isolated from Madagascar and India during the formation of the Indian Ocean. However, to date the extent of continental crust beneath the Seychelles region remains unknown. This is particularly true beneath the Mascarene Basin between the Seychelles Plateau and Madagascar and beneath the Amirante Arc. Constraining the size and shape of the Seychelles continental fragment is needed for accurate plate reconstructions of the breakup of Gondwana and has implications for the processes of continental breakup in general. Here we present new estimates of crustal thickness and VP/VS from H-κ stacking of receiver functions from a year long deployment of seismic stations across the Seychelles covering the topographic plateau, the Amirante Ridge and the northern Mascarene Basin. These results, combined with gravity modelling of historical ship track data, confirm that continental crust is present beneath the Seychelles Plateau. This is ˜30-33 km thick, but with a relatively high velocity lower crustal layer. This layer thins southwards from ˜10 km to ˜1 km over a distance of ˜50 km, which is consistent with the Seychelles being at the edge of the Deccan plume prior to its separation from India. In contrast, the majority of the Seychelles Islands away from the topographic plateau show no direct evidence for continental crust. The exception to this is the island of Desroche on the northern Amirante Ridge, where thicker low density crust, consistent with a block of continental material is present. We suggest that the northern Amirantes are likely continental in nature and that small fragments of continental material are a common feature of plume affected continental breakup.

  17. Butterflies, Black swans and Dragon kings: How to use the Dynamical Systems Theory to build a "zoology" of mid-latitude circulation atmospheric extremes? (United States)

    Faranda, D.; Yiou, P.; Alvarez-Castro, M. C. M.


    A combination of dynamical systems and statistical techniques allows for a robust assessment of the dynamical properties of the mid-latitude atmospheric circulation. Extremes at different spatial and time scales are not only associated to exceptionally intense weather structures (e.g. extra-tropical cyclones) but also to rapid changes of circulation regimes (thunderstorms, supercells) or the extreme persistence of weather structure (heat waves, cold spells). We will show how the dynamical systems theory of recurrence combined to the extreme value theory can take into account the spatial and temporal dependence structure of the mid-latitude circulation structures and provide information on the statistics of extreme events.

  18. A Model of Continental Growth and Mantle Degassing Comparing Biotic and Abiotic Worlds (United States)

    Höning, D.; Hansen-Goos, H.; Spohn, T.


    While examples for interaction of the biosphere with the atmosphere can be easily cited (e.g., production and consumption of O2), interaction between the biosphere and the solid planet and its interior is much less established. It has been argued (e.g., Rosing et al. 2006; Sleep et al, 2012) that the formation of continents could be a consequence of bioactivity harvesting solar energy through photosynthesis to help build the continents and that the mantle should carry a chemical biosignature. We present an interaction model that includes mantle convection, mantle water vapor degassing at mid-oceanic ridges and regassing through subduction zones, continental crust formation and erosion and water storage and transport in a porous oceanic crust that includes hydrous mineral phases. The mantle viscosity in this model depends on the water concentration in the mantle. We use boundary layer theory of mantle convection to parameterize the mantle convection flow rate and assume that the plate speed equals the mantle flow rate. The biosphere enters the calculation through the assumption that the continental erosion rate is enhanced by a factor of several through bioactivity and through an assumed reduction of the kinetic barrier to diagenetic and metamorphic reactions (e.g., Kim et al. 2004) in the sedimentary basins in subduction zones that would lead to increased water storage capacities. We further include a stochastic model of continent-to-continent interactions that limits the effective total length of subduction zones. We use present day parameters of the Earth and explore a phase plane spanned by the percentage of surface coverage of the Earth by continents and the total water content of the mantle. We vary the ratio of the erosion rate in a postulated abiotic Earth to the present Earth, as well as the activation barrier to diagenetic and metamorphic reactions that affect the water storage capacity of the subducting crust. We find stable and unstable fixed points in

  19. Convective Heat Transfer Coefficients of the Human Body under Forced Convection from Ceiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurazumi, Yoshihito; Rezgals, Lauris; Melikov, Arsen Krikor


    The average convective heat transfer coefficient for a seated human body exposed to downward flow from above was determined. Thermal manikin with complex body shape and size of an average Scandinavian female was used. The surface temperature distribution of the manikin’s body was as the skin...... of the convective heat transfer coefficient of the whole body (hc [W/(m2•K)]) was proposed: hc=4.088+6.592V1.715 for a seated naked body at 20ºC and hc=2.874+7.427V1.345 for a seated naked body at 26ºC. Differences in the convective heat transfer coefficient of the whole body in low air velocity range, V

  20. Convergence behavior of idealized convection-resolving simulations of summertime deep moist convection over land (United States)

    Panosetti, Davide; Schlemmer, Linda; Schär, Christoph


    Convection-resolving models (CRMs) can explicitly simulate deep convection and resolve interactions between convective updrafts. They are thus increasingly used in numerous weather and climate applications. However, the truncation of the continuous energy cascade at scales of O (1 km) poses a serious challenge, as in kilometer-scale simulations the size and properties of the simulated convective cells are often determined by the horizontal grid spacing (Δ x ).In this study, idealized simulations of deep moist convection over land are performed to assess the convergence behavior of a CRM at Δ x = 8, 4, 2, 1 km and 500 m. Two types of convergence estimates are investigated: bulk convergence addressing domain-averaged and integrated variables related to the water and energy budgets, and structural convergence addressing the statistics and scales of individual clouds and updrafts. Results show that bulk convergence generally begins at Δ x =4 km, while structural convergence is not yet fully achieved at the kilometer scale, despite some evidence that the resolution sensitivity of updraft velocities and convective mass fluxes decreases at finer resolution. In particular, at finer grid spacings the maximum updraft velocity generally increases, and the size of the smallest clouds is mostly determined by Δ x . A number of different experiments are conducted, and it is found that the presence of orography and environmental vertical wind shear yields more energetic structures at scales much larger than Δ x , sometimes reducing the resolution sensitivity. Overall the results lend support to the use of kilometer-scale resolutions in CRMs, despite the inability of these models to fully resolve the associated cloud field.

  1. Earth's evolving subcontinental lithospheric mantle: inferences from LIP continental flood basalt geochemistry (United States)

    Greenough, John D.; McDivitt, Jordan A.


    Archean and Proterozoic subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SLM) is compared using 83 similarly incompatible element ratios (SIER; minimally affected by % melting or differentiation, e.g., Rb/Ba, Nb/Pb, Ti/Y) for >3700 basalts from ten continental flood basalt (CFB) provinces representing nine large igneous provinces (LIPs). Nine transition metals (TM; Fe, Mn, Sc, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn) in 102 primitive basalts (Mg# = 0.69-0.72) from nine provinces yield additional SLM information. An iterative evaluation of SIER values indicates that, regardless of age, CFB transecting Archean lithosphere are enriched in Rb, K, Pb, Th and heavy REE(?); whereas P, Ti, Nb, Ta and light REE(?) are higher in Proterozoic-and-younger SLM sources. This suggests efficient transfer of alkali metals and Pb to the continental lithosphere perhaps in association with melting of subducted ocean floor to form Archean tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite terranes. Titanium, Nb and Ta were not efficiently transferred, perhaps due to the stabilization of oxide phases (e.g., rutile or ilmenite) in down-going Archean slabs. CFB transecting Archean lithosphere have EM1-like SIER that are more extreme than seen in oceanic island basalts (OIB) suggesting an Archean SLM origin for OIB-enriched mantle 1 (EM1). In contrast, OIB high U/Pb (HIMU) sources have more extreme SIER than seen in CFB provinces. HIMU may represent subduction-processed ocean floor recycled directly to the convecting mantle, but to avoid convective homogenization and produce its unique Pb isotopic signature may require long-term isolation and incubation in SLM. Based on all TM, CFB transecting Proterozoic lithosphere are distinct from those cutting Archean lithosphere. There is a tendency for lower Sc, Cr, Ni and Cu, and higher Zn, in the sources for Archean-cutting CFB and EM1 OIB, than Proterozoic-cutting CFB and HIMU OIB. All CFB have SiO2 (pressure proxy)-Nb/Y (% melting proxy) relationships supporting low pressure, high % melting


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diamantino Insua Pereira


    Full Text Available São representadas cartograficamente as unidades geomorfológicas identificadas para os 89015 km2 do território de Portugal Continental. A delimitação das unidades teve por base a análise dos padrões da textura fornecida por imagens SRTM, com revisão e adaptação posterior à altimetria e à geologia, para os quais foram usadas bases cartográficas digitais. Foram considerados três níveis taxionómicos que permitem descrever e caracterizar áreas homogéneas do ponto de vista geomorfológico. As três unidades de 1º nível baseiam-se nas unidades morfostruturais clássicas consideradas para a Península Ibérica. As dez unidades de 2º nível constituem, na sua maioria, divisões clássicas do relevo de Portugal Continental, agora agrupadas de acordo com a metodologia adoptada e designadas como unidades morfosculturais. As 56 unidades de 3º nível, ou subunidades morfosculturais, foram individualizadas com base nos padrões de relevo identificados nas imagens SRTM e na observação de campo e adquiriram uma designação baseada essencialmente nas geoformas que as individualizam e na toponímia local. As unidades geomorfológicas identificadas são descritas através de características do relevo, dissecação fluvial, estruturas, tipo de drenagem e base geológica, bem como de parâmetros numéricos gerados de forma automática, como classes de altitude e de declividade. Pretende-se que o mapa elaborado possa contribuir para a gestão territorial, em especial na tomada de decisões em conservação da natureza.

  3. Commercial helium reserves, continental rifting and volcanism (United States)

    Ballentine, C. J.; Barry, P. H.; Hillegonds, D.; Fontijn, K.; Bluett, J.; Abraham-James, T.; Danabalan, D.; Gluyas, J.; Brennwald, M. S.; Pluess, B.; Seneshens, D.; Sherwood Lollar, B.


    Helium has many industrial applications, but notably provides the unique cooling medium for superconducting magnets in medical MRI scanners and high energy beam lines. In 2013 the global supply chainfailed to meet demand causing significant concern - the `Liquid Helium Crisis' [1]. The 2017 closure of Quatar borders, a major helium supplier, is likely to further disrupt helium supply, and accentuates the urgent need to diversify supply. Helium is found in very few natural gas reservoirs that have focused 4He produced by the dispersed decay (a-particle) of U and Th in the crust. We show here, using the example of the Rukwa section of the Tanzanian East African Rift, how continental rifting and local volcanism provides the combination of processes required to generate helium reserves. The ancient continental crust provides the source of 4He. Rifting and associated magmatism provides the tectonic and thermal mechanism to mobilise deep fluid circulation, focusing flow to the near surface along major basement faults. Helium-rich springs in the Tanzanian Great Rift Valley were first identified in the 1950's[2]. The isotopic compositions and major element chemistry of the gases from springs and seeps are consistent with their release from the crystalline basement during rifting [3]. Within the Rukwa Rift Valley, helium seeps occur in the vicinity of trapping structures that have the potential to store significant reserves of helium [3]. Soil gas surveys over 6 prospective trapping structures (1m depth, n=1486) show helium anomalies in 5 out of the 6 at levels similar to those observed over a known helium-rich gas reservoir at 1200m depth (7% He - Harley Dome, Utah). Detailed macroseep gas compositions collected over two days (n=17) at one site allows us to distinguish shallow gas contributions and shows the deep gas to contain between 8-10% helium, significantly increasing resource estimates based on uncorrected values (1.8-4.2%)[2,3]. The remainder of the deep gas is

  4. Vorticity imbalance and stability in relation to convection (United States)

    Read, W. L.; Scoggins, J. R.


    A complete synoptic-scale vorticity budget was related to convection storm development in the eastern two-thirds of the United States. The 3-h sounding interval permitted a study of time changes of the vorticity budget in areas of convective storms. Results of analyses revealed significant changes in values of terms in the vorticity equation at different stages of squall line development. Average budgets for all areas of convection indicate systematic imbalance in the terms in the vorticity equation. This imbalance resulted primarily from sub-grid scale processes. Potential instability in the lower troposphere was analyzed in relation to the development of convective activity. Instability was related to areas of convection; however, instability alone was inadequate for forecast purposes. Combinations of stability and terms in the vorticity equation in the form of indices succeeded in depicting areas of convection better than any one item separately.

  5. A Thermodynamically General Theory for Convective Circulations and Vortices (United States)

    Renno, N. O.


    Convective circulations and vortices are common features of atmospheres that absorb low-entropy-energy at higher temperatures than they reject high-entropy-energy to space. These circulations range from small to planetary-scale and play an important role in the vertical transport of heat, momentum, and tracer species. Thus, the development of theoretical models for convective phenomena is important to our understanding of many basic features of planetary atmospheres. A thermodynamically general theory for convective circulations and vortices is proposed. The theory includes irreversible processes and quantifies the pressure drop between the environment and any point in a convective updraft. The article's main result is that the proposed theory provides an expression for the pressure drop along streamlines or streamtubes that is a generalization of Bernoulli's equation to convective circulations. We speculate that the proposed theory not only explains the intensity, but also shed light on other basic features of convective circulations and vortices.

  6. Thermo-electro-hydrodynamic convection under microgravity: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mutabazi, Innocent; Yoshikawa, Harunori N; Fogaing, Mireille Tadie; Travnikov, Vadim; Crumeyrolle, Olivier [Laboratoire Ondes et Milieux Complexes, UMR 6294, CNRS-Université du Havre, CS 80450, F-76058 Le Havre Cedex (France); Futterer, Birgit; Egbers, Christoph, E-mail: [Department of Aerodynamics and Fluid Mechanics, Brandenburg University of Technology Cottbus-Senftenberg, Cottbus (Germany)


    Recent studies on thermo-electro-hydrodynamic (TEHD) convection are reviewed with focus on investigations motivated by the analogy with natural convection. TEHD convection originates in the action of the dielectrophoretic force generated by an alternating electric voltage applied to a dielectric fluid with a temperature gradient. This electrohydrodynamic force is analogous to Archimedean thermal buoyancy and can be regarded as a thermal buoyancy force in electric effective gravity. The review is concerned with TEHD convection in plane, cylindrical, and spherical capacitors under microgravity conditions, where the electric gravity can induce convection without any complexities arising from geometry or the buoyancy force due to the Earth’s gravity. We will highlight the convection in spherical geometry, comparing developed theories and numerical simulations with the GEOFLOW experiments performed on board the International Space Station (ISS). (paper)

  7. On the Land-Ocean Contrast of Tropical Convection and Microphysics Statistics Derived from TRMM Satellite Signals and Global Storm-Resolving Models (United States)

    Matsui, Toshihisa; Chern, Jiun-Dar; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Lang, Stephen E.; Satoh, Masaki; Hashino, Tempei; Kubota, Takuji


    A 14-year climatology of Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) collocated multi-sensor signal statistics reveal a distinct land-ocean contrast as well as geographical variability of precipitation type, intensity, and microphysics. Microphysics information inferred from the TRMM precipitation radar and Microwave Imager (TMI) show a large land-ocean contrast for the deep category, suggesting continental convective vigor. Over land, TRMM shows higher echo-top heights and larger maximum echoes, suggesting taller storms and more intense precipitation, as well as larger microwave scattering, suggesting the presence of morelarger frozen convective hydrometeors. This strong land-ocean contrast in deep convection is invariant over seasonal and multi-year time-scales. Consequently, relatively short-term simulations from two global storm-resolving models can be evaluated in terms of their land-ocean statistics using the TRMM Triple-sensor Three-step Evaluation via a satellite simulator. The models evaluated are the NASA Multi-scale Modeling Framework (MMF) and the Non-hydrostatic Icosahedral Cloud Atmospheric Model (NICAM). While both simulations can represent convective land-ocean contrasts in warm precipitation to some extent, near-surface conditions over land are relatively moisture in NICAM than MMF, which appears to be the key driver in the divergent warm precipitation results between the two models. Both the MMF and NICAM produced similar frequencies of large CAPE between land and ocean. The dry MMF boundary layer enhanced microwave scattering signals over land, but only NICAM had an enhanced deep convection frequency over land. Neither model could reproduce a realistic land-ocean contrast in in deep convective precipitation microphysics. A realistic contrast between land and ocean remains an issue in global storm-resolving modeling.

  8. Primary Issues of Mixed Convection Heat Transfer Phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chae, Myeong-Seon; Chung, Bum-Jin [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)


    The computer code analyzing the system operating and transient behavior must distinguish flow conditions involved with convective heat transfer flow regimes. And the proper correlations must be supplied to those flow regimes. However the existing safety analysis codes are focused on the Light Water Reactor and they are skeptical to be applied to the GCRs (Gas Cooled Reactors). One of the technical issues raise by the development of the VHTR is the mixed convection, which occur when the driving forces of both forced and natural convection are of comparable magnitudes. It can be encountered as in channel of the stacked with fuel elements and a decay heat removal system and in VHTR. The mixed convection is not intermediate phenomena with natural convection and forced convection but independent complicated phenomena. Therefore, many researchers have been studied and some primary issues were propounded for phenomena mixed convection. This paper is to discuss some problems identified through reviewing the papers for mixed convection phenomena. And primary issues of mixed convection heat transfer were proposed respect to thermal hydraulic problems for VHTR. The VHTR thermal hydraulic study requires an indepth study of the mixed convection phenomena. In this study we reviewed the classical flow regime map of Metais and Eckert and derived further issues to be considered. The following issues were raised: (1) Buoyancy aided an opposed flows were not differentiated and plotted in a map. (2) Experimental results for UWT and UHF condition were also plotted in the same map without differentiation. (3) The buoyancy coefficient was not generalized for correlating with buoyancy coefficient. (4) The phenomenon analysis for laminarization and returbulization as buoyancy effects in turbulent mixed convection was not established. (5) The defining to transition in mixed convection regime was difficult.

  9. Some problems of free convection in a macrocapillary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luikov, A V; Berkovsky, B M; Kolpashchikov, V L


    Solution is given to a number of problems of free convection in incompressible viscous fluid in elementary macrocapillaries with nonuniform temperature distribution at the boundary. The fluid flow structure and effect of a magnetic field on convection in the case of conducting fluid has been studied in detail. The influence of macrocapillary properties on the flow structure, rate of convection, and temperature distribution has been estimated.

  10. Convective Cold Pool Structure and Boundary Layer Recovery in DYNAMO (United States)

    Savarin, A.; Chen, S. S.; Kerns, B. W.; Lee, C.; Jorgensen, D. P.


    One of the key factors controlling convective cloud systems in the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) over the tropical Indian Ocean is the property of the atmospheric boundary layer. Convective downdrafts and precipitation from the cloud systems produce cold pools in the boundary layer, which can inhibit subsequent development of convection. The recovery time is the time it takes for the boundary layer to return to pre convective conditions. It may affect the variability of the convection on various time scales during the initiation of MJO. This study examines the convective cold pool structure and boundary layer recovery using the NOAA WP-3D aircraft observations, include the flight-level, Doppler radar, and GPS dropsonde data, collected during the Dynamics of MJO (DYNAMO) field campaign from November-December 2011. The depth and strength of convective cold pools are defined by the negative buoyancy, which can be computed from the dropsonde data. Convective downdraft can be affected by environmental water vapor due to entrainment. Mid-level dry air observed during the convectively suppressed phase of MJO seems to enhance convective downdraft, making the cold pools stronger and deeper. Recovery of the cold pools in the boundary layer is determined by the strength and depth of the cold pools and also the air-sea heat and moisture fluxes. Given that the water vapor and surface winds are distinct for the convectively active and suppressed phases of MJO over the Indian Ocean, the aircraft data are stratified by the two different large-scale regimes of MJO. Preliminary results show that the strength and depth of the cold pools are inversely correlated with the surrounding mid-level moisture. During the convectively suppressed phase, the recovery time is ~5-20 hours in relative weak wind condition with small air-sea fluxes. The recovery time is generally less than 6 hours during the active phase of MJO with moist mid-levels and stronger surface wind and air-sea fluxes.

  11. Strategic Repositioning for Convection Business Case Study: AR Vendor


    Anindita, Pratisara Satwika; Toha, Mohamad


    The study aims to determine suitable position and strategy in order to reach superiority in convection business based on the company strengths and weaknesses. A study conducted in late 2012 at AR Vendor, a home-based convection company which focus on the t-shirt screen printing service. In response to the issue of the below average profit margin, the company has to rethink their position and strategy in handling the convection business environment. While AR Vendor business may growth in accor...

  12. Convection Cells in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer (United States)

    Fodor, Katherine; Mellado, Juan-Pedro


    In dry, shear-free convective boundary layers (CBLs), the turbulent flow of air is known to organise itself on large scales into coherent, cellular patterns, or superstructures, consisting of fast, narrow updraughts and slow, wide downdraughts which together form circulations. Superstructures act as transport mechanisms from the surface to the top of the boundary layer and vice-versa, as opposed to small-scale turbulence, which only modifies conditions locally. This suggests that a thorough investigation into superstructure properties may help us better understand transport across the atmospheric boundary layer as a whole. Whilst their existence has been noted, detailed studies into superstructures in the CBL have been scarce. By applying methods which are known to successfully isolate similar large-scale patterns in turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection, we can assess the efficacy of those detection techniques in the CBL. In addition, through non-dimensional analysis, we can systematically compare superstructures in various convective regimes. We use direct numerical simulation of four different cases for intercomparison: Rayleigh-Bénard convection (steady), Rayleigh-Bénard convection with an adiabatic top lid (quasi-steady), a stably-stratified CBL (quasi-steady) and a neutrally-stratified CBL (unsteady). The first two are non-penetrative and the latter two penetrative. We find that although superstructures clearly emerge from the time-mean flow in the non-penetrative cases, they become obscured by temporal averaging in the CBL. This is because a rigid lid acts to direct the flow into counter-rotating circulation cells whose axis of rotation remains stationary, whereas a boundary layer that grows in time and is able to entrain fluid from above causes the circulations to not only grow in vertical extent, but also to move horizontally and merge with neighbouring circulations. Spatial filtering is a useful comparative technique as it can be performed on boundary

  13. Mg/Ca of Continental Ostracode Shells (United States)

    Ito, E.; Forester, R. M.; Marco-Barba, J.; Mezquita, F.


    Marine ionic chemistry is thought to remain constant. This, together with the belief that marine calcifiers partition Mg/Ca in a systematic manner as functions of temperature (and Mg/Ca) of water forms the basis of the Mg/Ca thermometer. In continental settings both of these assumptions are usually not true. Continental waters contain a wide variety of solutes in absolute and relative ion concentrations. Hence, waters with identical Mg/Ca may have very different concentrations of Mg and Ca and very different anions. Here we use two examples to focus on the effects of ion chemistry on Mg/Ca partitioning in continental ostracode shells and we ignore the complexities of solute evolution, which can change Mg/Ca over timescales of minutes to millennia. Palacios-Fest and Dettman (2001) conducted a monthly study of ,Cypridopsis vidua at El Yeso Lake in Sonora, Mexico. They established a relation between temperature and average shell Mg/Ca using regression analyses on averaged data. When their Mg/Ca-temperature relation is applied to monthly ,C. vidua data from Page Pond near Cleveland, Ohio, water temperatures of -8 to -1°C are obtained. The observed Mg/Ca ranges for El Yeso Lake (0.31 to 0.46) and Page Pond (0.33 to 0.46) are similar, as are their specific conductivities (700 to 850μS for El Yeso Lake; 400 to 600μS for Page Pond). However, [Ca] is 140-260 mg/L for El Yeso, but only 70-90 mg/L for Page Pond. Page Pond data, in fact, shows a good temperature shell Mg/Ca relation for .C. vidua, but the relation is different from that at El Yeso. Hence, shell Mg/Ca is a multi-valued, family of curves function of temperature and Mg/Ca of water that depends on the [Mg] and [Ca] values in water and perhaps other factors. Our second example comes from sites near Valencia, Spain and involves shell data for ,Cyprideis torosa, an estuarine ostracode that is tolerant of a wide range of salinity and can live in continental waters as long as the carbonate alkalinity to Ca ratio is

  14. Monthly hydroclimatology of the continental United States (United States)

    Petersen, Thomas; Devineni, Naresh; Sankarasubramanian, A.


    Physical/semi-empirical models that do not require any calibration are of paramount need for estimating hydrological fluxes for ungauged sites. We develop semi-empirical models for estimating the mean and variance of the monthly streamflow based on Taylor Series approximation of a lumped physically based water balance model. The proposed models require mean and variance of monthly precipitation and potential evapotranspiration, co-variability of precipitation and potential evapotranspiration and regionally calibrated catchment retention sensitivity, atmospheric moisture uptake sensitivity, groundwater-partitioning factor, and the maximum soil moisture holding capacity parameters. Estimates of mean and variance of monthly streamflow using the semi-empirical equations are compared with the observed estimates for 1373 catchments in the continental United States. Analyses show that the proposed models explain the spatial variability in monthly moments for basins in lower elevations. A regionalization of parameters for each water resources region show good agreement between observed moments and model estimated moments during January, February, March and April for mean and all months except May and June for variance. Thus, the proposed relationships could be employed for understanding and estimating the monthly hydroclimatology of ungauged basins using regional parameters.

  15. Transitions in rapidly rotating convection dynamos (United States)

    Tilgner, A.


    It is commonly assumed that buoyancy in the fluid core powers the geodynamo. We study here the minimal model of a convection driven dynamo, which is a horizontal plane layer in a gravity field, filled with electrically conducting fluid, heated from below and cooled from above, and rotating about a vertical axis. Such a plane layer may be viewed as a local approximation to the geophysically more relevant spherical geometry. The numerical simulations have been run on graphics processing units with at least 960 cores. If the convection is driven stronger and stronger at fixed rotation rate, the flow behaves at some point as if it was not rotating. This transition shows in the scaling of the heat transport which can be used to distinguish slow from rapid rotation. One expects dynamos to behave differently in these two flow regimes. But even within the convection flows which are rapidly rotating according to this criterion, it will be shown that different types of dynamos exist. In one state, the magnetic field strength obeys a scaling indicative of a magnetostrophic balance, in which the Lorentz force is in equilibrium with the Coriolis force. The flow in this case is helical. A different state exists at higher magnetic Reynolds numbers, in which the magnetic energy obeys a different scaling law and the helicity of the flow is much reduced. As one increases the Rayleigh number, all other parameters kept constant, one may find both types of dynamos separated by an interval of Rayleigh numbers in which there are no dynamos at all. The effect of these transitions on energy dissipation and mean field generation have also been studied.

  16. What Determines Upscale Growth of Oceanic Convection into MCSs? (United States)

    Zipser, E. J.


    Over tropical oceans, widely scattered convection of various depths may or may not grow upscale into mesoscale convective systems (MCSs). But what distinguishes the large-scale environment that favors such upscale growth from that favoring "unorganized", scattered convection? Is it some combination of large-scale low-level convergence and ascending motion, combined with sufficient instability? We recently put this to a test with ERA-I reanalysis data, with disappointing results. The "usual suspects" of total column water vapor, large-scale ascent, and CAPE may all be required to some extent, but their differences between large MCSs and scattered convection are small. The main positive results from this work (already published) demonstrate that the strength of convection is well correlated with the size and perhaps "organization" of convective features over tropical oceans, in contrast to tropical land, where strong convection is common for large or small convective features. So, important questions remain: Over tropical oceans, how should we define "organized" convection? By size of the precipitation area? And what environmental conditions lead to larger and better organized MCSs? Some recent attempts to answer these questions will be described, but good answers may require more data, and more insights.

  17. Natural convection in superposed fluid-porous layers

    CERN Document Server

    Bagchi, Aniruddha


    Natural Convection in Composite Fluid-Porous Domains provides a timely overview of the current state of understanding on the phenomenon of convection in composite fluid-porous layers. Natural convection in horizontal fluid-porous layers has received renewed attention because of engineering problems such as post-accident cooling of nuclear reactors, contaminant transport in groundwater, and convection in fibrous insulation systems. Because applications of the problem span many scientific domains, the book serves as a valuable resource for a wide audience.

  18. Urban Influences on Convection and Lightning Over Houston

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gauthier, Michael L


    The research presented in this dissertation addresses a fundamental question regarding urban, ultimately anthropogenic, influences on convection as it relates to lightning production and precipitation structure...

  19. Effects of variable thermal diffusivity on the structure of convection (United States)

    Shcheritsa, O. V.; Getling, A. V.; Mazhorova, O. S.


    The structure of multiscale convection in a thermally stratified plane horizontal fluid layer is investigated by means of numerical simulations. The thermal diffusivity is assumed to produce a thin boundary sublayer convectively much more unstable than the bulk of the layer. The simulated flow is a superposition of cellular structures with three different characteristic scales. In contrast to the largest convection cells, the smaller ones are localised in the upper portion of the layer. The smallest cells are advected by the larger-scale convective flows. The simulated flow pattern qualitatively resembles that observed on the Sun.

  20. Cumulus convection and the terrestrial water-vapor distribution (United States)

    Donner, Leo J.


    Cumulus convection plays a significant role in determining the structure of the terrestrial water vapor field. Cumulus convection acts directly on the moisture field by condensing and precipitating water vapor and by redistributing water vapor through cumulus induced eddy circulations. The mechanisms by which cumulus convection influences the terrestrial water vapor distribution is outlined. Calculations using a theory due to Kuo is used to illustrate the mechanisms by which cumulus convection works. Understanding of these processes greatly aids the ability of researchers to interpret the seasonal and spatial distribution of atmospheric water vapor by providing information on the nature of sources and sinks and the global circulation.

  1. Numerical modelling of edge-driven convection during rift-to-drift transition: application to the Red Sea (United States)

    Fierro, Elisa; Capitanio, Fabio A.; Schettino, Antonio; Morena Salerno, V.


    We use numerical modeling to investigate the coupling of mantle instabilities and surface tectonics along lithospheric steps developing during rifting. We address whether edge driven convection (EDC) beneath rifted continental margins and shear flow during rift-drift transition can play a role in the observed post-rift compressive tectonic evolution of the divergent continental margins along the Red Sea. We run a series of 2D simulations to examine the relationship between the maximum compression and key geometrical parameters of the step beneath continental margins, such as the step height due to lithosphere thickness variation and the width of the margins, and test the effect of rheology varying temperature- and stress-dependent viscosity in the lithosphere and asthenosphere. The development of instabilities is initially illustrated as a function of these parameters, to show the controls on the lithosphere strain distribution and magnitude. We then address the transient evolution of the instabilities to characterize their duration. In an additional suite of models, we address the development of EDC during plate motions, thus accounting for the mantle shearing due to spreading. Our results show an increase of strain with the step height as well as with the margin width up to 200 km. After this value the influence of ridge margin can be neglected. Strain rates are, then, quantified for a range of laboratory-constrained constitutive laws for mantle and lithosphere forming minerals. These models propose a viable mechanism to explain the post-rift tectonic inversion observed along the Arabian continental margin and the episodic ultra-fast sea floor spreading in the central Red Sea, where the role of EDC has been invoked.

  2. Mixing in heterogeneous internally-heated convection (United States)

    Limare, A.; Kaminski, E. C.; Jaupart, C. P.; Farnetani, C. G.; Fourel, L.; Froment, M.


    Past laboratory experiments of thermo chemical convection have dealt with systems involving fluids with different intrinsic densities and viscosities in a Rayleigh-Bénard setup. Although these experiments have greatly improved our understanding of the Earth's mantle dynamics, they neglect a fundamental component of planetary convection: internal heat sources. We have developed a microwave-based method in order to study convection and mixing in systems involving two layers of fluid with different densities, viscosities, and internal heat production rates. Our innovative laboratory experiments are appropriate for the early Earth, when the lowermost mantle was likely enriched in incompatible and heat producing elements and when the heat flux from the core probably accounted for a small fraction of the mantle heat budget. They are also relevant to the present-day mantle if one considers that radioactive decay and secular cooling contribute both to internal heating. Our goal is to quantify how two fluid layers mix, which is still very difficult to resolve accurately in 3-D numerical calculations. Viscosities and microwave absorptions are tuned to achieve high values of the Rayleigh-Roberts and Prandtl numbers relevant for planetary convection. We start from a stably stratified system where the lower layer has higher internal heat production and density than the upper layer. Due to mixing, the amount of enriched material gradually decreases to zero over a finite time called the lifetime. Based on more than 30 experiments, we have derived a scaling law that relates the lifetime of an enriched reservoir to the layer thickness ratio, a, to the density and viscosity contrasts between the two layers, and to their two different internal heating rates in the form of an enrichment factor beta=1+2*a*H1/H, where H1 is the heating rate of the lower fluid and H is the average heating rate. We find that the lifetime of the lower enriched reservoir varies as beta**(-7/3) in the low

  3. Natural convection between two concentric spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blondel-Roux, Marie


    After an overview of researches on natural convection in a confined or semi-confined environment, this research thesis reports the use of the Caltagirone and Mojtabi numerical model and the study of its validity for different values of the Rayleigh and Prandtl numbers. Results obtained with this model are compared with experimental ones. Thermal transfer curves are presented and discussed, as well as the different temperature fields numerically obtained, flow function fields, velocities in the fluid layer, and temperature profiles with respect to the Rayleigh number [fr

  4. Measurement of natural convection by speckle photography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wernekinck, U.; Merzkirch, W.


    The principle of speckle photography can be applied to the measurement of density variations in fluids. A modification of existing experimental arrangements allows for the measurement of large values of the light deflection angles as they may occur in heat and mass transfer situations. The method is demonstrated for the case of a helium jet exhausting into still air and the natural convective flow along a heated plate. The obtained data are compared with results measured with classical optical interferometers, and good agreement is found. The advantages of the new technique over the classical optical methods are briefly discussed. 11 references

  5. Hamiltonian Description of Convective-cell Generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krommes, J.A.; Kolesnikov, R.A.


    The nonlinear statistical growth rate eq for convective cells driven by drift-wave (DW) interactions is studied with the aid of a covariant Hamiltonian formalism for the gyrofluid nonlinearities. A statistical energy theorem is proven that relates eq to a second functional tensor derivative of the DW energy. This generalizes to a wide class of systems of coupled partial differential equations a previous result for scalar dynamics. Applications to (i) electrostatic ion-temperature-gradient-driven modes at small ion temperature, and (ii) weakly electromagnetic collisional DW's are noted

  6. Sunspots and the physics of magnetic flux tubes. VI - Convective propulsion. VII - Heat flow in a convective downdraft (United States)

    Parker, E. N.


    The effect of negative aerodynamic drag in an ideal fluid subject to convective instability is considered. It is shown that a cylinder moving in such a fluid is propelled forward in its motion by the convective forces and that the characteristic acceleration time is comparable to the onset time of convective motions in the fluid. It is suggested that convective propulsion plays an important role in the dynamics of flux tubes extending through the surface of the sun. The suppression of the upward heat flow in a Boussinesq convective cell with free upper and lower boundaries by a downdraft is then analyzed. Application to the solar convection zone indicates that downdrafts of 1 to 2 km/s at depths of 1000 to 4000 km beneath the visible surface of the sun are sufficient to reduce the upward heat flux to a small fraction of the ambient value.

  7. Convectively coupled Kelvin waves in aquachannel simulations: 2. Life cycle and dynamical-convective coupling (United States)

    Blanco, Joaquín. E.; Nolan, David S.; Mapes, Brian E.


    This second part of a two-part study uses Weather Research and Forecasting simulations with aquachannel and aquapatch domains to investigate the time evolution of convectively coupled Kelvin waves (CCKWs). Power spectra, filtering, and compositing are combined with object-tracking methods to assess the structure and phase speed propagation of CCKWs during their strengthening, mature, and decaying phases. In this regard, we introduce an innovative approach to more closely investigate the wave (Kelvin) versus entity (super cloud cluster or "SCC") dualism. In general, the composite CCKW structures represent a dynamical response to the organized convective activity. However, pressure and thermodynamic fields in the boundary layer behave differently. Further analysis of the time evolution of pressure and low-level moist static energy finds that these fields propagate eastward as a "moist" Kelvin wave (MKW), faster than the envelope of organized convection or SCC. When the separation is sufficiently large the SCC dissipates, and a new SCC generates to the east, in the region of strongest negative pressure perturbations. We revisit the concept itself of the "coupling" between convection and dynamics, and we also propose a conceptual model for CCKWs, with a clear distinction between the SCC and the MKW components.

  8. An application of the unifying theory of thermal convection in vertical natural convection (United States)

    Ng, Chong Shen; Ooi, Andrew; Lohse, Detlef; Chung, Daniel


    Using direct numerical simulations of vertical natural convection (VNC) at Rayleigh numbers 1 . 0 ×105 - 1 . 0 ×109 and Prandtl number 0 . 709 , we provide support for a generalised applicability of the Grossmann-Lohse (GL) theory, originally developed for horizontal natural (Rayleigh-Bénard) convection. In accordance with the theory, the boundary-layer thicknesses of the velocity and temperature fields in VNC obey laminar-like scaling, whereas away from the walls, the dissipation of the turbulent fluctuations obey the scaling for fully developed turbulence. In contrast to Rayleigh-Bénard convection, the direction of gravity in VNC is parallel to the mean flow. Thus, there no longer exists an exact relation linking the normalised global dissipations to the Nusselt, Rayleigh and Prandtl numbers. Nevertheless, we show that the unclosed term, namely the global-averaged buoyancy flux, also exhibits laminar and turbulent scaling, consistent with the GL theory. The findings suggest that, similar to Rayleigh-Bénard convection, a pure power-law relationship between the Nusselt, Rayleigh and Prandtl numbers is not the best description for VNC and existing empirical power-law relationships should be recalibrated to better reflect the underlying physics.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In the present paper, the effect of solar radiation on automobiles has been studied by both experimentally and numerically. The numerical solution is done by an operation friendly and fast CFD code – SC/Tetra with a full scale model of a SM3 car and turbulence is modeled by the standard k-ε equation. Numerical analysis of the three-dimensional model predicts a detailed description of fluid flow and temperature distribution in the passenger compartment during both the natural convection due to the incoming solar radiation and mixed convection due to the flow from defrost nozzle and radiation. It can be seen that solar radiation is an important parameter to raise the compartment temperature above the ambient temperature during summer. During natural convection, the rate of heat transfer is fast at the initial period. In the mixed convection analyses, it is found that the temperature drops down to a comfortable range almost linearly at the initial stage. Experimental investigations are performed to determine the temperature contour on the windshield and the local temperature at a particular point for further validation of the numerical results.

  10. From convection rolls to finger convection in double-diffusive turbulence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Yantao; Verzicco, Roberto; Lohse, Detlef


    Double-diffusive convection (DDC), which is the buoyancy-driven flow with fluid density depending on two scalar components, is ubiquitous in many natural and engineering environments. Of great interests are scalars’ transfer rate and flow structures. Here we systematically investigate DDC flow

  11. Upscale Impact of Mesoscale Disturbances of Tropical Convection on Convectively Coupled Kelvin Waves (United States)

    Yang, Q.; Majda, A.


    Tropical convection associated with convectively coupled Kelvin waves (CCKWs) is typically organized by an eastward-moving synoptic-scale convective envelope with numerous embedded westward-moving mesoscale disturbances. It is of central importance to assess upscale impact of mesoscale disturbances on CCKWs as mesoscale disturbances propagate at various tilt angles and speeds. Here a simple multi-scale model is used to capture this multi-scale structure, where mesoscale fluctuations are directly driven by mesoscale heating and synoptic-scale circulation is forced by mean heating and eddy transfer of momentum and temperature. The two-dimensional version of the multi-scale model drives the synoptic-scale circulation, successfully reproduces key features of flow fields with a front-to-rear tilt and compares well with results from a cloud resolving model. In the scenario with an elevated upright mean heating, the tilted vertical structure of synoptic-scale circulation is still induced by the upscale impact of mesoscale disturbances. In a faster propagation scenario, the upscale impact becomes less important, while the synoptic-scale circulation response to mean heating dominates. In the unrealistic scenario with upward/westward tilted mesoscale heating, positive potential temperature anomalies are induced in the leading edge, which will suppress shallow convection in a moist environment. In its three-dimensional version, results show that upscale impact of mesoscale disturbances that propagate at tilt angles (110o 250o) induces negative lower-tropospheric potential temperature anomalies in the leading edge, providing favorable conditions for shallow convection in a moist environment, while the remaining tilt angle cases have opposite effects. Even in the presence of upright mean heating, the front-to-rear tilted synoptic-scale circulation can still be induced by eddy terms at tilt angles (120o 240o). In the case with fast propagating mesoscale heating, positive

  12. The effect of convection and semi-convection on the C/O yield of massive stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dearborn, D.S.


    The C/O ratio produced during core helium burning affects the future evolution and nucleosynthetic yield of massive stars. This ratio is shown to be sensitive to the treatment of convection as well as uncertainties in nuclear rates. By minimizing the effect of semi-convection and reducing the size of the convective core, mass loss in OB stars increases the C/O ratio. (Author)

  13. Changes in the convective population and thermodynamic environments in convection-permitting regional climate simulations over the United States (United States)

    Rasmussen, K. L.; Prein, A. F.; Rasmussen, R. M.; Ikeda, K.; Liu, C.


    Novel high-resolution convection-permitting regional climate simulations over the US employing the pseudo-global warming approach are used to investigate changes in the convective population and thermodynamic environments in a future climate. Two continuous 13-year simulations were conducted using (1) ERA-Interim reanalysis and (2) ERA-Interim reanalysis plus a climate perturbation for the RCP8.5 scenario. The simulations adequately reproduce the observed precipitation diurnal cycle, indicating that they capture organized and propagating convection that most climate models cannot adequately represent. This study shows that weak to moderate convection will decrease and strong convection will increase in frequency in a future climate. Analysis of the thermodynamic environments supporting convection shows that both convective available potential energy (CAPE) and convective inhibition (CIN) increase downstream of the Rockies in a future climate. Previous studies suggest that CAPE will increase in a warming climate, however a corresponding increase in CIN acts as a balancing force to shift the convective population by suppressing weak to moderate convection and provides an environment where CAPE can build to extreme levels that may result in more frequent severe convection. An idealized investigation of fundamental changes in the thermodynamic environment was conducted by shifting a standard atmospheric profile by ± 5 °C. When temperature is increased, both CAPE and CIN increase in magnitude, while the opposite is true for decreased temperatures. Thus, even in the absence of synoptic and mesoscale variations, a warmer climate will provide more CAPE and CIN that will shift the convective population, likely impacting water and energy budgets on Earth.

  14. Modeling solar flare induced lower ionosphere changes using VLF/LF transmitter amplitude and phase observations at a midlatitude site (United States)

    Schmitter, E. D.


    Remote sensing of the ionosphere bottom using long wave radio signal propagation is a still going strong and inexpensive method for continuous monitoring purposes. We present a propagation model describing the time development of solar flare effects. Based on monitored amplitude and phase data from VLF/LF transmitters gained at a mid-latitude site during the currently increasing solar cycle no. 24 a parameterized electron density profile is calculated as a function of time and fed into propagation calculations using the LWPC (Long Wave Propagation Capability). The model allows to include lower ionosphere recombination and attachment coefficients, as well as to identify the relevant forcing X-ray wavelength band, and is intended to be a small step forward to a better understanding of the solar-lower ionosphere interaction mechanisms within a consistent framework.

  15. Future C loss in mid-latitude mineral soils: climate change exceeds land use mitigation potential in France. (United States)

    Meersmans, Jeroen; Arrouays, Dominique; Van Rompaey, Anton J J; Pagé, Christian; De Baets, Sarah; Quine, Timothy A


    Many studies have highlighted significant interactions between soil C reservoir dynamics and global climate and environmental change. However, in order to estimate the future soil organic carbon sequestration potential and related ecosystem services well, more spatially detailed predictions are needed. The present study made detailed predictions of future spatial evolution (at 250 m resolution) of topsoil SOC driven by climate change and land use change for France up to the year 2100 by taking interactions between climate, land use and soil type into account. We conclude that climate change will have a much bigger influence on future SOC losses in mid-latitude mineral soils than land use change dynamics. Hence, reducing CO 2 emissions will be crucial to prevent further loss of carbon from our soils.

  16. Deep depletions of total electron content associated with severe mid-latitude gigahertz scintillations during geomagnetic storms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, T.; Kumagai, H.


    Using 136-MHz Faraday rotation data obtained at three closely spaced stations, we present evidence that severe nightime gigahertz scintillations, which appear rarely at mid-latitudes around Japan only during geomagnetic storm conditions, are closely associated with deep depletions of total electron content (TEC). The TEC depletions amount to 2--8 x 10 16 el/m 2 (10--30% of the background TEC), and their durations range from 10 min to 1 hour. These depletions move northeastward or eastward with velocities between 60 and 260 m/s. The depletions are probably not counterparts of the equatorial bubbles but seem to be formed in localized regions around Japan under complicated and peculiar ionospheric conditions. There is an indication that the oscillation of the F region caused by large-scale TID's propagating from north to south (approx.600 m/s) may initiate the generation of the depletion

  17. The sub-auroral electric field as observed by DMSP and the new SuperDARN mid-latitude radars (United States)

    Talaat, E. R.; Sotirelis, T.; Hairston, M. R.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.; Greenwald, R. A.; Lester, M.


    In this paper we present analyses of the sub-auroral electric field environment as observed from both space and ground. We discuss the dependency of the configuration and strength of the sub-auroral electric field on IMF and geomagnetic activity, longitudinal, seasonal, and solar cycle variability. Primarily, e use ~20 years of electric field measurement dataset derived from the suite of DMSP ion drift meters. A major component of our analysis is correctly specifying the aurora boundary, as the behavior and magnitude of these fields will be drastically different away from the high-conductance auroral oval. As such, we use the coincident particle flux measurements from the DMSP SSJ4 monitors. We also present the solar minimum observations of the sub-auroral flow newly available from the mid-latitude SuperDARN radars at Wallops and Blackstone in Virginia. Preliminary comparisons between these flows and the DMSP climatology are discussed.

  18. A simple climatology of westerly jet streams in global reanalysis datasets part 1: mid-latitude upper tropospheric jets (United States)

    Rikus, Lawrie


    A simple closed contour object identification scheme has been applied to the zonal mean monthly mean zonal wind fields from nine global reanalysis data sets for 31 years of the satellite era (1979-2009) to identify objects corresponding to westerly jet streams. The results cluster naturally into six individual jet streams but only the mid-latitude upper-tropospheric jets are considered here. The time series of the jet properties from all reanalyses are decomposed into seasonal means and anomalies, and correlations between variables are evaluated, with the aim of identifying robust features which can form the basis of evaluation metrics for climate model simulations of the twentieth century. There is substantial agreement between all the reanalyses for all jet properties although there are some systematic differences with particular data sets. Some of the results from the object identification applied to the reanalyses are used in a simple example of a model evaluation score for the zonal mean jet seasonal cycle.

  19. Longitudinal effect in the night-time mid-latitude ionosphere according to the Interkosmos-19 data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deminov, M.G.; Karpachev, A.T.


    Longitudinal effects in the night-time mid-latitude external ionosphere for summer and winter conditions of the high solar activity period are analysed. The high amplitude of longitudinal changes of the external ionosphere, including changes of the height (upto 150 km) and the concentration (7-8 times) of the F2-layer maximum, is shown to be provided under winter mid-night-time conditions with high values of the zone component of the wind velocity and strong latitude gradients and with longitudinal changes of the meridional projection of the wind velocity. N changes with the longitude before the Sun setting, when the zone component of the wind velocity is maximum, made the main contribution in summer to longitudinal changes of the electron concentration of the N night ionosphere. The wind velocity phase shift during the season lleads to the fact that the maximum amplitude of N longitudinal changes is observed till midnight in summer and after midnight in winter

  20. Evidence for a continental unstable triple junction as an alternate model for Vrancea seismicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besutiu, L.


    The Vrancea active seismic zone located in the bending area of Romanian Carpathians stands for a long time as a challenge to geoscientists all over the world. Deep seismicity in continental collision circumstances is rather rare and always constraints on dynamics of subduction. The pattern of the intermediate-depth seismicity in the Vrancea region suggests a confined prismatic nearly vertical seismic body. The small size and geometry of the seismic zone have made it difficult to interpret the kinematics of subduction and continental collision in the area. During the years, several models, almost all subduction-related, have more or less successfully tried to explain this phenomenon. The paper represents an attempt to explain the Vrancea intermediate depth seismicity starting from a new concept, as introduced by the plate tectonics theory: the triple junction. A continental unstable triple junction is proposed as an alternate model to explain the unusual seismicity in the Vrancea seismic area. Three tectonic plates / microplates seem to join in the region: East European Plate (EEP), Moesian microplate (MoP), and the Intra-Alpine microplate (IaP). Their edges are geophysically documented and their motion is evidenced. The differentiation in their relative velocities generated an unstable transform-transform-compression triple junction that determined the vertical collapse of the lithospheric segment to which the intermediate seismicity within Vrancea zone is associated. Three major plates' wedges bound the seismic body: Tornquist-Teissyere zone, Peceneaga-Camena fault, and Trans-Getica fault. Temperature accommodation phenomena associated to the sinking lithospheric body into the hotter upper mantle environment (such as convective cells, phase-transform processes, and devolatilization) could be responsible for the earthquakes occurrence. The problem of the missing subduction related volcanism within Vrancea triple junction (VTJ) area is definitely solved in the case

  1. Simulating the convective precipitation diurnal cycle in a North American scale convection-permitting model (United States)

    Scaff, L.; Li, Y.; Prein, A. F.; Liu, C.; Rasmussen, R.; Ikeda, K.


    A better representation of the diurnal cycle of convective precipitation is essential for the analysis of the energy balance and the water budget components such as runoff, evaporation and infiltration. Convection-permitting regional climate modeling (CPM) has been shown to improve the models' performance of summer precipitation, allowing to: (1) simulate the mesoscale processes in more detail and (2) to provide more insights in future changes in convective precipitation under climate change. In this work we investigate the skill of the Weather Research and Forecast model (WRF) in simulating the summer precipitation diurnal cycle over most of North America. We use 4 km horizontal grid spacing in a 13-years long current and future period. The future scenario is assuming no significant changes in large-scale weather patterns and aims to answer how the weather of the current climate would change if it would reoccur at the end of the century under a high-end emission scenario (Pseudo Global Warming). We emphasize on a region centered on the lee side of the Canadian Rocky Mountains, where the summer precipitation amount shows a regional maximum. The historical simulations are capable to correctly represent the diurnal cycle. At the lee-side of the Canadian Rockies the increase in the convective available potential energy as well as pronounced low-level moisture flux from the southeast Prairies explains the local maximum in summer precipitation. The PGW scenario shows an increase in summer precipitation amount and intensity in this region, consistently with a stronger source of moisture and convective energy.

  2. Midlatitude Ice-Rich Ground on Mars: An Important Target for Science and In Situ Resource Utilization on Human Missions (United States)

    Stoker, Carol; Heldmann, Jennifer


    The region of ROI is characterized by proven presence of near surface ground ice and numerous periglacial features. Midlatitude ground ice on Mars is of significant scientific interest for understanding the history and evolution of ice stability on Mars, the impact that changes in insolation produced by variations in Mars’ orbital parameters has on the regions climate, and could provide human exploration with a reliable and plentiful in situ resource. For both science and exploration, assessing the astrobiological potential of the ice is important in terms of (1) understanding the potential for life on Mars and (2) evaluating the presence of possible biohazards in advance of human exploration. Heldmann et al. (2014) studied locations on Mars in the Amazonis Planitia region where near surface ground ice was exposed by new impact craters (Byrne et al. 2009). The study examined whether sites in this region were suitable for human exploration including reviewing the evidence for midlatitude ground ice, discussing the possible explanations for its occurrence, assessing its potential habitability for modern life, and evaluating the resource potential. They systematically analyzed remote-sensing data sets to identify a viable landing site. Five sites where ground ice was exposed were examined with HiRise imaging and were classified according to (1) presence of polygons as a proxy for subsurface ice, (2) presence and abundance of rough topographic obstacles (e.g., large cracks, cliffs, uneven topography), (3) rock density, (4) presence and abundance of large boulders, and (5) presence of craters. A suitable landing site was found having ground ice at only 0.15m depth, and no landing site hazards within a 25 km landing ellipse. This paper presents results of that study and examines the relevance of this ROI to the workshop goals.

  3. Classification of Global Land Development Phases by Forest and GDP Changes for Appropriate Land Management in the Mid-Latitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cholho Song


    Full Text Available To implement appropriate land management strategies, it is essential to identify past and current land cover and land use conditions. In addition, an assessment of land development phases (LDPs in a human-dominated landscape coupled with an analysis of the water-food-ecosystem (WFE nexus can deepen our understanding of sustainable land management. In this study, we proposed the concept of land development phases (LDPs by forest and GDP changes using previously-applied theoretical and empirical approaches. The positive relationship between GDP growth and forest stock changes was used to analyze the timing of forest stock changes as five-year averages, which were aggregated over 20 years to classify LDPs. In addition, forest area changes compared with GDP and GDP per capita changes were analyzed to identify LDPs. Based on two conceptual approaches, we suggested global land into three LDPs: degradation, restoration and sustainability. Using this approach, most of Europe, North America and northeast Asia were classified as sustainability phases, while Africa and Central Asia in the Mid-Latitude region appeared to have degradation or restoration phases. The LDPs described could be improved with further incorporation of solid data analysis and clear standards, but even at this stage, these LDP classifications suggest points for implementing appropriate land management. In addition, indices from comparative analysis of the LDPs with the WFE nexus can be connected with socio-economic global indices, such as the Global Hunger Index, the Food Production Index and the Climate Change Performance Index. The LDPs have the potential to facilitate appropriate land management strategies through integrating WFE nexus and ecosystem services; we propose future research that uses this integration for the Mid-Latitude region and worldwide.

  4. Electron density and plasma waves in mid-latitude sporadic-E layer observed during the SEEK-2 campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wakabayashi


    Full Text Available The SEEK-2 campaign was carried out over Kyushu Island in Japan on 3 August 2002, by using the two sounding rockets of S310-31 and S310-32. This campaign was planned to elucidate generation mechanisms of Quasi-Periodic Echoes (QPEs associated with mid-latitude sporadic-E (Es layers. Electron number densities were successfully measured in the Es layers by using the impedance probe on board two rockets. The plasma waves in the VLF and ELF ranges were also observed on board the S310-32 rocket. Results of electron density measurement showed that there were one or two major peaks in the Es layers along the rockets' trajectories near the altitude of about 10km. There were some smaller peaks associated with the main Es layers in the altitude range from 90 to 120 km. These density peaks were distributed in a very large extent during the SEEK-2 campaign. The Es layer structure is also measured by using the Fixed Bias Probe (FBP, which has a high spatial resolution of several meters (the impedance probe has an altitude resolution of about 400 m. The comparison with the total electron content (TEC measured by the Dual Band Beacon revealed that the Es layer was also modulated in the horizontal direction with the scale size of 30–40 km. It was shown that the QP echoes observed by the ground-based coherent radar come from the major density peak of the Es layer. The plasma wave instrument detected the enhancement of VLF and ELF plasma waves associated with the operation of the TMA release, and also with the passage of the Es layers. Keywords. Ionosphere (Ionospheric irregularities; Midlatitude ionosphere; Plasma temeperature and density

  5. Level III and IV Ecoregions of the Continental United States (United States)

    Information and downloadable maps and datasets for Level III and IV ecoregions of the continental United States. Ecoregions are areas of general similarity in the type, quality, and quantity of environmental resources.

  6. Neotectonism - An offshore evidence from eastern continental shelf off Visakhapatnam

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Subrahmanyam, A.S.; Venkateswarlu, K.; Murthy, K.S.R.; Rao, M.M.M.; Rao, K.M.; Raju, Y.S.N.

    tremor provide evidence of Neo-tectonic activity in this regio. The epicentral region falls in a shallow marine environment ideal for generating a geophysical database for stable continental region earthquakes....

  7. Late Devonian and Triassic basalts from the southern continental ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    continental margin of the East European Platform, tracers of a single heterogeneous ... Areas of Precambrian consolidation within the Late Paleozoic orogen; 3. Areas of ...... and hydrocarbon accumulations; J. Petroleum Geology. 16 183–196.

  8. Topographic features over the continental shelf off Visakhapatnam

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, T.C.S.; Machado, T.; Murthy, K.S.R.

    water depth and the continental shelfedge several interesting topographic features such as Terraces, Karstic structures associated with pinnacles and troughs and smooth dome shaped reef structures are recorded. The nature of these features...

  9. ISLSCP II Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Consumption by Continental Erosion (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: The Continental Atmospheric CO2 Consumption data set represents gridded estimates for the riverine export of carbon and of sediments based on empirical...

  10. Continental United States Hurricane Strikes 1950-2012 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Continental U.S. Hurricane Strikes Poster is our most popular poster which is updated annually. The poster includes all hurricanes that affected the U.S. since...

  11. Persistence of Initial Conditions in Continental Scale Air Quality Simulations (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset contains the data used in Figures 1 – 6 and Table 2 of the technical note "Persistence of Initial Conditions in Continental Scale Air Quality...

  12. Seabottom backscatter studies in the western continental shelf of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, B.; Pathak, D.

    The study is initiated to observe the interaction effects of the sound signal with three different sediment bottoms in the shelf area between Cochin and Mangalore in the western continental shelf of India. An echo signal acquisition system has been...

  13. Glacier-influenced sedimentation on high-latitude continental margins

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dowdeswell, J. A; Cofaigh, C. Ó


    This book examines the process and patterns of glacier-influenced sedimentation on high-latitude continental margins and the geophysical and geological signatures of the resulting sediments and landform...

  14. Sediments of the western continental shelf of India - Environmental significance

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Guptha, M.V.S.

    The degree of fragmentation and colour of the skeletal fragments, colouration in benthic foraminifers have been studied in surficial sediment samples collected from forty stations from the continental shelf region between Ratnagiri in the south...

  15. and three-dimensional gravity modeling along western continental ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    weaknesses (lineaments) along the path of Indian plate motion over the Réunion hotspot. .... Tectonic map of western and central parts of peninsular India showing the western continental ... basaltic layers and their theoretical gravitational.

  16. U.S. East Coast Continental Margin (CONMAR) Sediment Data (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The USGS/WHOI Continental Margin (CONMAR) Data set was compiled by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution as a joint program of...

  17. Forced convection heat transfer in He II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashani, A.


    An investigation of forced convection heat transfer in He II is conducted. The study includes both experimental and theoretical treatments of the problem. The experiment consists of a hydraulic pump and a copper flow tube, 3 mm in ID and 2m long. The system allows measurements of one-dimensional heat and mass transfer in He II. The heat transfer experiments are performed by applying heat at the midpoint along the length of the flow tube. Two modes of heat input are employed, i.e., step function heat input and square pulse heat input. The heat transfer results are discussed in terms of temperature distribution in the tube. The experimental temperature profiles are compared with numerical solutions of an analytical model developed from the He II energy equation. The bath temperature is set at three different values of 1.65, 1.80, and 1.95 K. The He II flow velocity is varied up to 90 cm/s. Pressure is monitored at each end of the flow tube, and the He II pressure drop is obtained for different flow velocities. Results indicate that He II heat transfer by forced convention is considerably higher than that by internal convection. The theoretical model is in close agreement with the experiment. He II pressure drop and friction factor are very similar to those of an ordinary fluid

  18. Vertical Slot Convection: A linear study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAllister, A.; Steinolfson, R.; Tajima, T.


    The linear stability properties of fluid convection in a vertical slot were studied. We use a Fourier-Chebychev decomposition was used to set up the linear eigenvalue problems for the Vertical Slot Convection and Benard problems. The eigenvalues, neutral stability curves, and critical point values of the Grashof number, G, and the wavenumber were determined. Plots of the real and imaginary parts of the eigenvalues as functions of G and α are given for a wide range of the Prandtl number, Pr, and special note is made of the complex mode that becomes linearly unstable above Pr ∼ 12.5. A discussion comparing different special cases facilitates the physical understanding of the VSC equations, especially the interaction of the shear-flow and buoyancy induced physics. Making use of the real and imaginary eigenvalues and the phase properties of the eigenmodes, the eigenmodes were characterized. One finds that the mode structure becomes progressively simpler with increasing Pr, with the greatest complexity in the mid ranges where the terms in the heat equation are of roughly the same size

  19. Land surface sensitivity of mesoscale convective systems (United States)

    Tournay, Robert C.

    Mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) are important contributors to the hydrologic cycle in many regions of the world as well as major sources of severe weather. MCSs continue to challenge forecasters and researchers alike, arising from difficulties in understanding system initiation, propagation, and demise. One distinct type of MCS is that formed from individual convective cells initiated primarily by daytime heating over high terrain. This work is aimed at improving our understanding of the land surface sensitivity of this class of MCS in the contiguous United States. First, a climatology of mesoscale convective systems originating in the Rocky Mountains and adjacent high plains from Wyoming southward to New Mexico is developed through a combination of objective and subjective methods. This class of MCS is most important, in terms of total warm season precipitation, in the 500 to 1300m elevations of the Great Plains (GP) to the east in eastern Colorado to central Nebraska and northwest Kansas. Examining MCSs by longevity, short lasting MCSs (15 hrs) reveals that longer lasting systems tend to form further south and have a longer track with a more southerly track. The environment into which the MCS is moving showed differences across commonly used variables in convection forecasting, with some variables showing more favorable conditions throughout (convective inhibition, 0-6 km shear and 250 hPa wind speed) ahead of longer lasting MCSs. Other variables, such as convective available potential energy, showed improving conditions through time for longer lasting MCSs. Some variables showed no difference across longevity of MCS (precipitable water and large-scale vertical motion). From subsets of this MCS climatology, three regions of origin were chosen based on the presence of ridgelines extending eastward from the Rocky Mountains known to be foci for convection initiation and subsequent MCS formation: Southern Wyoming (Cheyenne Ridge), Colorado (Palmer divide) and

  20. Solutocapillary Convection Effects on Polymeric Membrane Morphology (United States)

    Krantz, William B.; Todd, Paul W.; Kinagurthu, Sanjay


    Macro voids are undesirable large pores in membranes used for purification. They form when membranes are cast as thin films on a smooth surface by evaporating solvent (acetone) from a polymer solution. There are two un-tested hypotheses explaining the growth of macro voids. One states that diffusion of the non-solvent (water) is solely responsible, while the other states that solutocapillary convection is the primary cause of macro void growth. Solutocapillary convection is flow-caused by a concentration induced surface-tension gradient. Macrovoid growth in the former hypothesis is gravity independent, while in the latter it is opposed by gravity. To distinguish between these two hypotheses, experiments were designed to cast membranes in zero-gravity. A semi-automated apparatus was designed and built for casting membranes during the 20 secs of zero-g time available in parabolic aircraft flight such as NASA's KC-135. The phase changes were monitored optically, and membrane morphology was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). These studies appear to be the first quantitative studies of membrane casting in micro-gravity which incorporate real-time data acquisition. Morphological studies of membranes cast at 0, 1, and 1.8 g revealed the presence of numerous, sparse and no macrovoids respectively. These results are consistent with the predictions of the solutocapillary hypothesis of macrovoid growth.