Sample records for midland training simulator

  1. Nuclear power plant diagnostics study at the Midland Training Simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reifman, J.; Rank, P.; Lee, J.C.; Wehe, D.K.


    This paper discusses the implementation of two advanced diagnostic concepts for nuclear power plant diagnostics, the systematic generation and updating of a rule-based system and the simulation filter, at the Midland Nuclear Power Plant Unit 2 Training Simulator. The authors use an entropy minimax pattern recognition algorithm for the systematic construction of the diagnostic rule base. By extracting information from a transient database constructed with the Midland Simulator, the algorithm searches for trends in plant parameters, forming patterns or rules that describe the behavior of the transients. The rules are updated in an incremental manner within the context of the entropy minimax algorithm. The simulation filter is a nonlinear parameter estimation algorithm based on the extended Kalman filter. The authors use the simulation filter to improve the results of crude simulation models by optimally estimating system states given a set of measurements and results from a nonlinear simulation program. The Midland Simulator results of the Three Mile Island accident are significantly improved with the use of the simulation filter

  2. Nuclear power plant diagnostics study at the Midland training simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reifman, J.; Rank, P.; Lee, J.C.


    Training simulators provide a real world environment for testing advanced diagnostic and control systems as an aid to nuclear power plant operators. The simulators not only duplicate the hardware din the actual control room, allowing for analysis of man-machine interface, but also represent the dynamic behavior of the reference plant in real-time, in a realistic manner. Training simulators provide the means to representing the reference plant operations in a wide range of operation conditions including off-normal and emergency conditions. Transient events with very low probability of occurrence can then be represented and used to test the capabilities of advanced diagnostic and control systems. For these reasons, full-scope operator training simulators have been used as a test bed for a number of advanced diagnostic concepts. The University of Michigan and Consumers Power Company have been collaborating in a program devoted to the development and study of advanced concepts for automatic diagnostics and control of nuclear power plants. The program has been focused on the use of the full-scope operator training Midland Nuclear Power Plant Unit 2 (MNP-2) Simulator for development, testing, and verification of advanced diagnostics concepts. In their current efforts, the authors have developed two artificial intelligent (AI) diagnostic concepts that have been applied to the MNP-2 Simulator: the systematic generation and updating of a rule-based knowledge system for nuclear power plant diagnostics and a nonlinear parameter estimation algorithm called the simulation filter. The simulation filter algorithm is used with the MNP-2 Simulator to improve the simulation of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) accident. 11 refs., 4 figs

  3. The East Midlands in 2006: the demography of the East Midlands


    Lawton, C


    The East Midlands in 2006 is the evidence base that was produced to underpin the devleopment of the regional economic strategy, A Flourishing Region. This document presents detailed analysis of the demography of the East Midlands.

  4. Co-producing public involvement training with members of the public and research organisations in the East Midlands: creating, delivering and evaluating the lay assessor training programme. (United States)

    Horobin, Adele; Brown, George; Higton, Fred; Vanhegan, Stevie; Wragg, Andrew; Wray, Paula; Walker, Dawn-Marie


    Members of the public share their views with researchers to improve health and social care research. Lay assessing is one way of doing this. This is where people, drawing upon personal and general life experience, comment on material, such as grant applications and patient information, to highlight strengths and weaknesses and to suggest improvements. This paper reports on setting up a training programme for lay assessors. Meetings were held between interested public and staff from research organisations. People discussed what lay assessing is, why they want to do it, skills and support needed and if training was wanted. They were invited to form a group to develop the training together. Training was delivered in the East Midlands. People who attended gave their thoughts about it by completing questionnaires and joining a feedback event. The group developed the structure of the training programme together and it oversaw the development of the training content by individual members. People who attended training reported feeling more confident about lay assessing. This was particularly so for those who had not done lay assessing before. They indicated how valuable it was to talk with others at the training. Our findings support the National Institute for Health Research recommendations for improving learning and development for public involvement in research. This project has created a solid base for local research organisations to work together in public involvement training. Lay assessor training is now part of a wider programme of shared resources called the Sharebank. Background Involving members of the public in research can improve its quality and incorporate the needs and views of patients. One method for doing this is lay assessing, where members of the public are consulted to improve research materials. This paper documents the establishment of a pilot training programme for lay assessors. It describes a way of working that embodies a regional, cross

  5. Report on accreditation learning sets in the West Midlands region of the NHS. (United States)

    Giles, G


    This article reports on the evaluation of the first year of a project, which utilized learning sets to support librarians undergoing the accreditation process, in the health libraries in the West Midlands region of the NHS. The West Midlands Health region is divided up into education consortia patches. Each group of patch librarians was allocated a local accreditation facilitator. The groups met regularly to discuss problems and progress relating to their library's accreditation. The results of the evaluation suggest that this is a valuable approach to use. The recommendations state that regular, frequent meetings are needed. Extra training and guidance would help the facilitators to be more effective in their role.

  6. Midland reactor pressure vessel flaw distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foulds, J.R.; Kennedy, E.L.; Rosinski, S.T.


    The results of laboratory nondestructive examination (NDE), and destructive cross-sectioning of selected weldment sections of the Midland reactor pressure vessel were analyzed per a previously developed methodology in order to develop a flaw distribution. The flaw distributions developed from the NDE results obtained by two different ultrasonic test (UT) inspections (Electric Power Research Institute NDE Center and Pacific Northwest Laboratories) were not statistically significantly different. However, the distribution developed from the NDE Center's (destructive) cross-sectioning-based data was found to be significantly different than those obtained through the UT inspections. A fracture mechanics-based comparison of the flaw distributions showed that the cross-sectioning-based data, conservatively interpreted (all defects considered as flaws), gave a significantly lower vessel failure probability when compared with the failure probability values obtained using the UT-based distributions. Given that the cross-sectioning data were reportedly biased toward larger, more significant-appearing (by UT) indications, it is concluded that the nondestructive examinations produced definitively conservative results. In addition to the Midland vessel inspection-related analyses, a set of twenty-seven numerical simulations, designed to provide a preliminary quantitative assessment of the accuracy of the flaw distribution method used here, were conducted. The calculations showed that, in more than half the cases, the analysis produced reasonably accurate predictions


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek M. Peters


    Full Text Available The objectives were to identify the participation motivations and the perceived importance of certain participation factors in martial artists in the West Midlands, England, UK. A 28-item adapted version of the Participation Motivation Questionnaire with additional demographic questions was distributed to 30 martial arts clubs in the West Midlands region. Eight questions that assessed the perceived importance for participation of progression through grades, learning self defence skills, technical ability of instructors, cost of participating, development of confidence, underpinning philosophy and instructional style were included. Seventy-five questionnaires were returned from a total of 11 clubs from across representing practitioners in Tai Chi, Karate, Kung fu, Aikido, Jeet Kune Do, British Free Fighting, Taekwon-Do and Jujitsu. Results indicated that the rank order in terms of participation motives was: 1-Affiliation; 2-Friendship; 3-Fitness; 4-Reward/status; 5-Competition; 6-Situational and 7-Skill development. Participants who trained for more than 4 hours per week placed greater importance on the underpinning philosophy of the martial art. Findings suggest that whilst there is a gender discrepancy in participation level, once engaged, females were equally committed to weekly training. The 'style' of the instructor is of paramount importance for enhancing student motivation to participate. High volume practitioners would appear to be fully immersed in the holistic appreciation of the martial art through increased value placed on its underpinning philosophy

  8. Destination 2010: regional economic strategy for the East Midlands 2003-2010


    East Midlands Development Agency


    Destination 2010 is the second regional economic strategy for the East Midlands. The strategy is a high level framework that sets out a vision for the East Midlands economy in 2010 and provides a blueprint for economic development activity in the region for the period 2003-2010.

  9. Participation motivation in martial artists in the west midlands region of England. (United States)

    Jones, Gareth W; Mackay, Ken S; Peters, Derek M


    The objectives were to identify the participation motivations and the perceived importance of certain participation factors in martial artists in the West Midlands, England, UK. A 28-item adapted version of the Participation Motivation Questionnaire with additional demographic questions was distributed to 30 martial arts clubs in the West Midlands region. Eight questions that assessed the perceived importance for participation of progression through grades, learning self defence skills, technical ability of instructors, cost of participating, development of confidence, underpinning philosophy and instructional style were included. Seventy-five questionnaires were returned from a total of 11 clubs from across representing practitioners in Tai Chi, Karate, Kung fu, Aikido, Jeet Kune Do, British Free Fighting, Taekwon-Do and Jujitsu. Results indicated that the rank order in terms of participation motives was: 1-Affiliation; 2-Friendship; 3-Fitness; 4-Reward/status; 5-Competition; 6-Situational and 7-Skill development. Participants who trained for more than 4 hours per week placed greater importance on the underpinning philosophy of the martial art. Findings suggest that whilst there is a gender discrepancy in participation level, once engaged, females were equally committed to weekly training. The 'style' of the instructor is of paramount importance for enhancing student motivation to participate. High volume practitioners would appear to be fully immersed in the holistic appreciation of the martial art through increased value placed on its underpinning philosophy. Key PointsWhilst there is a gender discrepancy in participation level, once engaged, females were equally committed to weekly training.The four most important participation motivations evident were 'Affiliation', 'Fitness', 'Skill Development' and 'Friendship'.The three least influential motives were 'Rewards/status; 'Situational' and 'Competition'. " There were no significant gender or experience

  10. East Midlands healthcare and bioscience sector strategy


    East Midlands Development Agency


    The healthcare and bioscience sector is one of four priority sectors identified in the regional economic strategy, A Flourishing Region. This document sets out a strategy for maximising the contribution of the healthcare and biosciences sector to the economic development of the East Midlands.

  11. Lapses haunt Midland A-plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    The US's first nuclear cogeneration project (Consumer's Power Co.) broke ground 11 years ago, in Midland, Michigan. From the beginning, it has been plagued by lawsuits, stiff new regulations on safety from the NRC, breakdowns in several quality assurance programs and major foundation problems. The two unit station is getting a new turbine-auxiliary building foundation, at a cost of $250 million, due to poorly compacted soils which caused extensive settlement in some areas

  12. Primary coolant feed and bleed operating regions for the Midland Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, M.S.


    Operating regions for primary coolant feed and bleed cooling are developed for the Midland Plant using core decay heat, the high-pressure injection (HPI) system capacity, and flow rate relief through the power-operated relief valve (PORV). This mode of cooling is used for accident scenarios in which the normal core cooling means of a nuclear power plant is lost because of loss of water inventory in the steam generators. The HPI flow is based on the capacities of one and two pumps. Saturated steam, saturated water, and subcooled water are considered to be possible states of the fluid being relieved through the PORV. In estimating the PORV relief rate, flow equations are derived from the Electric Power Research Institute test data obtained from the same model and size valve that is used in the Midland Plant. For easy reference by operators, the operating region is displayed on a plane of reactor coolant system pressure and temperature. The technique developed for the Midland Plant provides a convenient method for examining the feed and bleed cooling capability for a nuclear power plant that employs a pressurized water reactor system

  13. Simulator training effectiveness: instructor training and qualifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholand, G.W.


    Nuclear power plant simulators have become the most important tool in training nuclear power plant operators. Yet, as these machines continue to become even more sophisticated, highly trained and experienced instructors with unique skills and insights are still essential in order to achieve effective and meaningful training. The making of a qualified simulator instructor involves training and techniques that exceed the traditional programs required of a Senior Reactor Operator (SRO). This paper discusses (i) the training necessary to produce a competent simulator instructor; and (ii) the continuing task of maintaining his or her proficiency. (author)

  14. Design and construction of the liner plate for the Arkansas and Midland containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiedner, K.; Shah, G.H.; Chang-Lo, P.


    This paper presents the design criteria and features of the containment liner plate systems utilized for the Arkansas and Midland Nuclear Power Plant. For the Arkansas project, the liner plate system was erected in circumferential rings approximately 3 m high, and the penetration assemblies were welded into the liner after erection. For the Midland project, the liner plate system was erected in vertical segments approximately 6 m wide x 24 m high, and the penetration assemblies were welded into the liner prior to erection. The differences between the schemes are discussed. (author)

  15. Legal advocacy and nuclear power: the impact of litigation on the Midland nuclear plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, C.E.


    The use of litigation as an interest-group strategy is analyzed in relation to the controversy over the development of nuclear power. An assessment is made of the impact of the judicial process, with the litigation involving the Midland, Michigan, nuclear plant serving as a representative case study. In the construction permit hearings for the Midland nuclear plant, which began in 1970, the interest groups were Consumers Power Company, a Michigan utility, and the Saginaw and Mapleton Intervernors, environmentalists dwelling near the proposed plant site. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission issued a construction permit for the plant after a two-year licensing process, but the environmental groups appealed the permit to the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit. In 1976, the permit was remanded by the court to the Commission for reconsideration, and Consumers Power Company appealed that decision. In 1978, the Supreme Court handed down a unanimous and definitive opinion, Consumers Power Company vs Aeschliman, that upheld the Commission's original issuance of the construction plant. The Midland case well illustrates the detrimental impact that legal advocacy has had on atomic energy by prolonging the regulatory process. The positive consequences of the Court ruling favoring the utility's position were outweighed by the expense involved in the initial ten years of thelicensing and subsequent lawsuits concerning the Midland plant. Consequently, Consumers Power Company is representative of most other American electric companies in its determination that it cannot build additional nuclear plants without mitigation of the uncertainty and duration of the regulatory process. Thus, it may be concluded that the environmental groups' use of legal advocacy at Midland and elsewhere has proven to be an effective strategy for undermining the nuclear industry and for deterring the future development of nuclear power

  16. Statistical and optimization methods to expedite neural network training for transient identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reifman, J.; Vitela, E.J.; Lee, J.C.


    Two complementary methods, statistical feature selection and nonlinear optimization through conjugate gradients, are used to expedite feedforward neural network training. Statistical feature selection techniques in the form of linear correlation coefficients and information-theoretic entropy are used to eliminate redundant and non-informative plant parameters to reduce the size of the network. The method of conjugate gradients is used to accelerate the network training convergence and to systematically calculate the Teaming and momentum constants at each iteration. The proposed techniques are compared with the backpropagation algorithm using the entire set of plant parameters in the training of neural networks to identify transients simulated with the Midland Nuclear Power Plant Unit 2 simulator. By using 25% of the plant parameters and the conjugate gradients, a 30-fold reduction in CPU time was obtained without degrading the diagnostic ability of the network

  17. Operator training and the training simulator experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, D.

    The author outlines the approach used by Ontario Hydro to train operators from the day they are hired as Operators-in-Training until they are Authorized Unit First Operators. He describes in detail the use of the simulator in the final year of the authorization program, drawing on experience with the Pickering NGS A simulator. Simulators, he concludes, are important aids to training but by no means all that is required to guarantee capable First Operators

  18. Full-scope training simulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ugedo, E.


    The following topics to be covered in this report are: Reasons justifying the use of full-scope simulators for operator qualification. Full-scope simulator description: the control room, the physical models, the computer complex, the instructor's console. Main features of full-scope simulators. Merits of simulator training. The role of full-scope simulators in the training programs. The process of ordering and acquiring a full-scope simulator. Maintaining and updating simulator capabilities. (orig./GL)

  19. Midland Plant, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-329 and 50-330): Draft supplement to the Final environmental statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The Midland Plant, Units 1 and 2 is to be owned and operated by the Consumers Power Company of Michigan. The approximately 1190-acre plant is on the south of the Tittabawassee River immediately across from the Dow Chemical Company's main industrial complex which is within the Midland city limits. The site itself was, and the area south of the site is, partially wooded flat land with farming the only economically significant human activity. To the east and north within one mile of the site, the land is industrial, both developed and undeveloped. To the west, the land is used for suburban residences and light farming. The plant will utilize two pressurized-water nuclear reactor systems. The Consumers Power Company filed with AEC (now NRC) an application for construction permits and operating licenses for the Midland Plant on January 13, 1969. The Final Environmental Statement was issued in March 1972 and on December 15, 1972 construction permits were issued for the Midland Plant. On July 21, 1976, the US Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit handed down decisions in the generic fuel cycle rulemaking and Midland appeals ruling that nuclear waste disposal and fuel reprocessing issues had been insufficiently considered by the AEC. In addition to consideration of the fuel cycle issues, the Court of Appeals remanded Consumer Power's construction permits for Midland to the NRC for further proceedings to consider energy conservation as an alternative to plant construction, and to consider any changed circumstances concerning the need of Dow for the process steam from the Midland Plant. 10 refs., 13 tabs

  20. The West Midlands breast cancer screening status algorithm - methodology and use as an audit tool. (United States)

    Lawrence, Gill; Kearins, Olive; O'Sullivan, Emma; Tappenden, Nancy; Wallis, Matthew; Walton, Jackie


    To illustrate the ability of the West Midlands breast screening status algorithm to assign a screening status to women with malignant breast cancer, and its uses as a quality assurance and audit tool. Breast cancers diagnosed between the introduction of the National Health Service [NHS] Breast Screening Programme and 31 March 2001 were obtained from the West Midlands Cancer Intelligence Unit (WMCIU). Screen-detected tumours were identified via breast screening units, and the remaining cancers were assigned to one of eight screening status categories. Multiple primaries and recurrences were excluded. A screening status was assigned to 14,680 women (96% of the cohort examined), 110 cancers were not registered at the WMCIU and the cohort included 120 screen-detected recurrences. The West Midlands breast screening status algorithm is a robust simple tool which can be used to derive data to evaluate the efficacy and impact of the NHS Breast Screening Programme.

  1. Simulators in driver training.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    In 2010, about 150 driving simulators were being used for the basic driver training in the Netherlands. According to theories about how people learn, simulator training has both advantages and disadvantages. In order to be able to learn something from a simulator, its technical quality must be

  2. Training by simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelini, E.


    Effective training by simulation is a matter of 1. accurate definition of the training need, 2. selecting the right hardware/software package to do the job cost effectively, 3. careful, methodical building of the training program and 4. an appropriate setting, such as a well-equipped training center. Several points seem clear: 1. ''Computer shock'' or computer phobia -- that is, fear of the simulator, can be a factor with some of the older operators. But it quickly disappears once they're into the program, and learn the versatility and the exciting dynamics of simulators. 2. Operator training is becoming more sophisticated throughout the HPI. Among other things, operators should get out into the plant to learn more about how their actions in the control room impact the plant. Operators are becoming more ''big picture'' oriented. 3. When inexperienced training instructors are used, they should attend a good ''train the trainer'' course emphasizing platform skills and instructional technology. 4. Operators need as much ''hands on'' experience with the plant's actual operating equipment as possible. The cognitive ''linkage'' between that equipment and what they see on the CRT is vitally important.

  3. Training and Simulation in Otolaryngology (United States)

    Wiet, Gregory J.; Stredney, Don; Wan, Dinah


    This article focuses on key issues surrounding the needs and application of simulation technologies for technical skills training in otolaryngology. The discussion includes an overview of key topics in training and learning, the application of these issues in simulation environments, and the subsequent applications of these simulation environments to the field of otolaryngology. Examples of past applications are presented, with discussion of how the interplay of cultural changes in surgical training in general, along with the rapid advancements in technology have shaped and influenced their adoption and adaptation. The authors conclude with emerging trends and potential influences advanced simulation and training will have on technical skills training in otolaryngology. PMID:22032486

  4. Simulator training for endobronchial ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konge, Lars; Clementsen, Paul Frost; Ringsted, Charlotte


    performance.A total of 16 respiratory physicians, without EBUS experience, were randomised to either virtual-reality simulator training or traditional apprenticeship training on patients, and then each physician performed EBUS-TBNA procedures on three patients. Three blinded, independent assessor assessed......-trained novices and apprenticeship-trained novices failing the test, respectively; pVirtual-reality simulator training was shown to be more...

  5. Surgical simulators in urological training--views of UK Training Programme Directors. (United States)

    Forster, James A; Browning, Anthony J; Paul, Alan B; Biyani, C Shekhar


    What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? The role of surgical simulators is currently being debated in urological and other surgical specialties. Simulators are not presently implemented in the UK urology training curriculum. The availability of simulators and the opinions of Training Programme Directors' (TPD) on their role have not been described. In the present questionnaire-based survey, the trainees of most, but not all, UK TPDs had access to laparoscopic simulators, and that all responding TPDs thought that simulators improved laparoscopic training. We hope that the present study will be a positive step towards making an agreement to formally introduce simulators into the UK urology training curriculum. To discuss the current situation on the use of simulators in surgical training. To determine the views of UK Urology Training Programme Directors (TPDs) on the availability and use of simulators in Urology at present, and to discuss the role that simulators may have in future training. An online-questionnaire survey was distributed to all UK Urology TPDs. In all, 16 of 21 TPDs responded. All 16 thought that laparoscopic simulators improved the quality of laparoscopic training. The trainees of 13 TPDs had access to a laparoscopic simulator (either in their own hospital or another hospital in the deanery). Most TPDs thought that trainees should use simulators in their free time, in quiet time during work hours, or in teaching sessions (rather than incorporated into the weekly timetable). We feel that the current apprentice-style method of training in urological surgery is out-dated. We think that all TPDs and trainees should have access to a simulator, and that a formal competency based simulation training programme should be incorporated into the urology training curriculum, with trainees reaching a minimum proficiency on a simulator before undertaking surgical procedures. © 2012 THE AUTHORS. BJU INTERNATIONAL © 2012 BJU INTERNATIONAL.

  6. Final environmental statement related to construction of Midland Plant, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-329 and 50-330)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This is a Final Detailed Statement on Environmental Considerations associated with construction and operation of Midland Plant Units 1 and 2 at Midland, Michigan, pursuant to a construction permit and operating license which has been applied for by the Consumers Power Company. The application is under review by the US Atomic Energy Commission's Regulatory Staff. The environmental impact, including adverse and beneficial effects, of the Midland Plant includes reassignment of use of about 1100 acres of agricultural and residential land for the cooling pond (the plant buildings are located on industrial zoned land); this resulted in the dislocation of approximately 25 residences and relocation of the Midland County Farm to a newly built structure; the destruction of a maximum of 4400 tons of phytoplankton per year at the intake of makeup water from the Tittabawassee River; and a predicted small increase in fogging effects in the near vicinity of the cooling pond. 34 refs., 19 figs., 26 tabs

  7. Development of training simulator for LWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sureshbabu, R.M.


    A full-scope training simulator was developed for a light water reactor (LWR). This paper describes how the development evolved from a desktop simulator to the full-scope training simulator. It also describes the architecture and features of the simulator including the large number of failures that it simulates. The paper also explains the three-level validation tests that were used to qualify the training simulator. (author)

  8. Accurately fitting advanced training. Flexible simulator training by modular training course concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sickora, Katrin; Cremer, Hans-Peter


    Every employee of a power plant contributes with his individual expertise to the success of the enterprise. Certainly personal skills of employees differ from each other as well as power plants are different. With respect to effective simulator training this means that no two simulator training courses can be identical. To exactly meet the requirements of our customers KWS has developed modules for simulation training courses. Each module represents either a technical subject or addresses a topic in the field of soft skills. An accurately fitting combination of several of these modules to the needs of our customers allows for most efficient simulator training courses. (orig.)

  9. Upgraded operator training by using advanced simulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwashita, Akira; Toeda, Susumu; Fujita, Eimitsu; Moriguchi, Iwao; Wada, Kouji


    BWR Operator Training Center Corporation (BTC) has been conducting the operator training for all BWR utilities in Japan using fullscope simulators. Corresponding to increasing quantitative demands and higher qualitative needs of operator training, BTC put advanced simulators in operation (BTC-2 simulator in 1983 and BTC-3 simulator in 1989). This paper describes the methods and the effects of upgraded training contents by using these advanced simulators. These training methods are applied to the 'Advanced Operator Training course,' the 'Operator Retraining Course' and also the 'Family (crew) Training Course.' (author)

  10. Twenty-five years of simulator training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    The first training simulator for nuclear power plant personnel in Germany was commissioned twenty-five years ago. The strategy of training by simulators was developed and pursued consistently and continuously in order to ensure sound training of nuclear power plant personnel. The present thirteen simulators cover a broad range of plants. A systematic training concept also helps to ensure a high level of competence and permanent qualification of plant personnel. The anniversary was marked by a festive event at which Erich K. Steiner read a paper on 'The Importance of Simulator Training', and Professor Dr. Adolf Birkhofer spoke about 'Nuclear Technology Education and Training'. (orig.)

  11. Upgrading BWR training simulators for annual outage operation training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamakabe, K.; Nakajima, A.; Shiyama, H.; Noji, K.; Okabe, N.; Murata, F.


    Based upon the recently developed quality assurance program by the Japanese electric companies, BWR Operator Training Center (BTC) identified the needs to enhance operators' knowledge and skills for operations tasks during annual outage, and started to develop a dedicated operator training course specialized for them. In this paper, we present the total framework of the training course for annual outage operations and the associated typical three functions of our full-scope simulators specially developed and upgraded to conduct the training; namely, (1) Simulation model upgrade for the flow and temperature behavior concerning residual heat removal (RHR) system with shutdown cooling mode, (2) Addition of malfunctions for DC power supply equipment, (3) Simulation model upgrade for water filling operation for reactor pressurization (future development). We have implemented a trial of the training course by using the upgraded 800MW full-scope training simulator with functions (1) and (2) above. As the result of this trial, we are confident that the developed training course is effective for enhancing operators' knowledge and skills for operations tasks during annual outage. (author)

  12. Safety evaluation report related to the operation of Midland Plant, Units 1 and 2. Docket Nos. 50-329 and 50-330, Consumers Power Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This report supplements the Safety Evaluation Report related to the Operation of Midland Plant, Units 1 and 2 (SER) (NUREG-0793) issued in May 1982 by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission with respect to the application filed by Consumers Power Company, as applicant and owner, for licenses to operate the Midland Plant, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-329 and 50-330). The facility is located in the city of Midland in Midland County, Michigan. This supplement provides recent information regarding resolution of the soils settlement issue, one of the open items identified in the SER. Certain confirmatory issues identified in the SER also are addressed

  13. Monju operator training report. Training results and upgrade of the operation training simulator in 2002 YF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyagoshi, Naoki; Sasaki, Kazuichi; Sawada, Makoto; Kawanishi, Tomotake; Yoshida, Kazuo


    The prototype fast breeder reactor, Monju, has been performing deliberately the operator training which is composed of the regulated training required by the government and the self-training. The training used a full scope type simulator (MARS: Monju Advanced Reactor Simulator) plays an important role among of the above mentioned trainings and greatly contributes to the Monju operator training for Monju restarting. This report covers the activities of Monju operator training in 2002 FY, i.e. the training results and the remodeling working of the MARS in progress since 1999. (1) Eight simulator training courses were carried out 46 times and 180 trainees participated. Additionally, both the regulated training and self-training were held total 10 times by attended 34 trainees, as besides simulator training. (2) Above training data was reduced compare with the last year's data (69 times (338 trainees)) due to the indispensable training courses in Monju operator training were changed by reorganized operator's number and decreasing of training times owing to remodeling working of the simulator was conducted. (3) By means of upgrading of the MARS completed in 2002 FY, its logic arithmetic time was became speedier and its instructing function was improved remarkably, thus, the simulator training was became to be more effective. Moreover, it's planning to do both remodeling in the next year as the final working: remodeling of reactor core model with the aim of improvement simulating accuracy and corresponding to the sodium leakage measures. Regarding on the Monju training results and simulator's remodeling so far finished, please referring JNC report number of JNC TN 4410 2002-001 Translation of Monju Simulator Training owing Monju Accident and Upgrade of MARS''. (author)

  14. Simulation training: a systematic review of simulation in arthroscopy and proposal of a new competency-based training framework. (United States)

    Tay, Charison; Khajuria, Ankur; Gupte, Chinmay


    Traditional orthopaedic training has followed an apprenticeship model whereby trainees enhance their skills by operating under guidance. However the introduction of limitations on training hours and shorter training programmes mean that alternative training strategies are required. To perform a literature review on simulation training in arthroscopy and devise a framework that structures different simulation techniques that could be used in arthroscopic training. A systematic search of Medline, Embase, Google Scholar and the Cochrane Databases were performed. Search terms included "virtual reality OR simulator OR simulation" and "arthroscopy OR arthroscopic". 14 studies evaluating simulators in knee, shoulder and hip arthroplasty were included. The majority of the studies demonstrated construct and transference validity but only one showed concurrent validity. More studies are required to assess its potential as a training and assessment tool, skills transference between simulators and to determine the extent of skills decay from prolonged delays in training. We also devised a "ladder of arthroscopic simulation" that provides a competency-based framework to implement different simulation strategies. The incorporation of simulation into an orthopaedic curriculum will depend on a coordinated approach between many bodies. But the successful integration of simulators in other areas of surgery supports a possible role for simulation in advancing orthopaedic education. Copyright © 2014 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Measurement of effectiveness for training simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korteling, J.E.; Oprins, E.A.P.B.; Kallen, V.L.


    This paper presents and discusses experimental designs, measures, and measurement methods for determining the effectiveness of training simulators. First, we describe experimental designs in which training effects of training simulators are compared to those of conventional training. Next, the most

  16. Simulation-Based Training for Thoracoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjurström, Johanna Margareta; Konge, Lars; Lehnert, Per


    An increasing proportion of thoracic procedures are performed using video-assisted thoracic surgery. This minimally invasive technique places special demands on the surgeons. Using simulation-based training on artificial models or animals has been proposed to overcome the initial part of the lear......An increasing proportion of thoracic procedures are performed using video-assisted thoracic surgery. This minimally invasive technique places special demands on the surgeons. Using simulation-based training on artificial models or animals has been proposed to overcome the initial part...... of the learning curve. This study aimed to investigate the effect of simulation-based training and to compare self-guided and educator-guided training....

  17. [Simulation-based robot-assisted surgical training]. (United States)

    Kolontarev, K B; Govorov, A V; Rasner, P I; Sheptunov, S A; Prilepskaya, E A; Maltsev, E G; Pushkar, D Yu


    Since the first use of robotic surgical system in 2000, the robot-assisted technology has gained wide popularity throughout the world. Robot-assisted surgical training is a complex issue that requires significant efforts from students and teacher. During the last two decades, simulation-based training had received active development due to wide-spread occurrence and popularization of laparoscopic and robot-assisted surgical techniques. We performed a systematic review to identify the currently available simulators for robot-assisted surgery. We searched the Medline and Pubmed, English sources of literature data, using the following key words and phrases: "robotics", "robotic surgery", "computer assisted surgery", "simulation", "computer simulation", "virtual reality", "surgical training", and "surgical education". There were identified 565 publications, which meet the key words and phrases; 19 publications were selected for the final analysis. It was established that simulation-based training is the most promising teaching tool that can be used in the training of the next generation robotic surgeons. Today the use of simulators to train surgeons is validated. Price of devices is an obvious barrier for inclusion in the program for training of robotic surgeons, but the lack of this tool will result in a sharp increase in the duration of specialists training.

  18. NPP Krsko simulator training for operations personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pribozic, F.; Krajnc, J.


    Acquisition of a full scope replica simulator represents an important achievement for Nuclear power Plant Krsko. Operating nuclear power plant systems is definitely a set of demanding and complex tasks. The most important element in the goal of assuring capabilities for handling such tasks is efficient training of operations personnel who manipulate controls in the main control room. Use of a simulator during the training process is essential and can not be substituted by other techniques. This article gives an overview of NPP Krsko licensed personnel training historical background, current experience and plans for future training activities. Reactor operator initial training lasts approximately two and a half years. Training is divided into several phases, consisting of theoretical and practical segments, including simulator training. In the past, simulator initial training and annual simulator retraining was contracted, thus operators were trained on non-specific full scope simulators. Use of our own plant specific simulator and associated infrastructure will have a significant effect on the operations personnel training process and, in addition, will also support secondary uses, with the common goal to improve safe and reliable plant operation. A regular annual retraining program has successfully started. Use of the plant specific simulator assures consistent training and good management oversight, enhances conformity of operational practices and supports optimization of operating procedures. (author)

  19. Development, validity and reliability testing of the East Midlands Evaluation Tool (EMET) for measuring impacts on trainees' confidence and competence following end of life care training. (United States)

    Whittaker, B; Parry, R; Bird, L; Watson, S; Faull, C


    To develop, test and validate a versatile questionnaire, the East Midlands Evaluation Tool (EMET), for measuring effects of end of life care training events on trainees' self-reported confidence and competence. A paper-based questionnaire was designed on the basis of the English Department of Health's core competences for end of life care, with sections for completion pretraining, immediately post-training and also for longer term follow-up. Preliminary versions were field tested at 55 training events delivered by 13 organisations to 1793 trainees working in diverse health and social care backgrounds. Iterative rounds of development aimed to maximise relevance to events and trainees. Internal consistency was assessed by calculating interitem correlations on questionnaire responses during field testing. Content validity was assessed via qualitative content analysis of (1) responses to questionnaires completed by field tester trainers and (2) field notes from a workshop with a separate cohort of experienced trainers. Test-retest reliability was assessed via repeat administration to a cohort of student nurses. The EMET comprises 27 items with Likert-scaled responses supplemented with questions seeking free-text responses. It measures changes in self-assessed confidence and competence on 5 subscales: communication skills; assessment and care planning; symptom management; advance care planning; overarching values and knowledge. Test-retest reliability was found to be good, as was internal consistency: the questions successfully assess different aspects of the same underlying concept. The EMET provides a time-efficient, reliable and flexible means of evaluating effects of training on self-reported confidence and competence in the key elements of end of life care. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  20. Introduction of the computer-based operation training tools in classrooms to support simulator training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noji, K.; Suzuki, K.; Kobayashi, A.


    Operation training with full-scope simulators is effective to improve trainees operation competency. To obtain more effective results of simulator training, roles of the ''classroom operation training'' closely cooperated to simulator training are important. The ''classroom operation training'' is aimed at pre- and post-studies for operation knowledge related to operation training using full-scope simulators. We have been developing computer-based operation training tools which are used in classroom training sessions. As the first step, we developed the Simulator Training Replay System. This is an aiding tool in the classroom used to enhance trainees operation performance. This system can synchronously replay plant behavior on CRT display with operators action on a video monitor in the simulator training sessions. This system is used to review plant behavior - trainees response after simulator training sessions and to understand plant behavior - operation procedure before operation training. (author)

  1. Measurement of effectiveness for training simulations


    Korteling, J.E.; Oprins, E.A.P.B.; Kallen, V.L.


    This paper presents and discusses experimental designs, measures, and measurement methods for determining the effectiveness of training simulators. First, we describe experimental designs in which training effects of training simulators are compared to those of conventional training. Next, the most commonly used metrics for quantifying the potential beneficial effects of training applications are explicated. We also present and discuss three main categories of measurement methods that may be ...

  2. 14 CFR 121.409 - Training courses using airplane simulators and other training devices. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Training courses using airplane simulators... Program § 121.409 Training courses using airplane simulators and other training devices. (a) Training courses utilizing airplane simulators and other training devices may be included in the certificate holder...

  3. Integrated training support system for PWR operator training simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakaguchi, Junichi; Komatsu, Yasuki


    The importance of operator training using operator training simulator has been recognized intensively. Since 1986, we have been developing and providing many PWR simulators in Japan. We also have developed some training support systems connected with the simulator and the integrated training support system to improve training effect and to reduce instructor's workload. This paper describes the concept and the effect of the integrated training support system and of the following sub-systems. We have PES (Performance Enhancement System) that evaluates training performance automatically by analyzing many plant parameters and operation data. It can reduce the deviation of training performance evaluation between instructors. PEL (Parameter and Event data Logging system), that is the subset of PES, has some data-logging functions. And we also have TPES (Team Performance Enhancement System) that is used aiming to improve trainees' ability for communication between operators. Trainee can have conversation with virtual trainees that TPES plays automatically. After that, TPES automatically display some advice to be improved. RVD (Reactor coolant system Visual Display) displays the distributed hydraulic-thermal condition of the reactor coolant system in real-time graphically. It can make trainees understand the inside plant condition in more detail. These sub-systems have been used in a training center and have contributed the improvement of operator training and have gained in popularity. (author)

  4. Dioxin in Midland: A Case Study of Press Coverage of Expert Disagreement. (United States)

    Palen, John

    Drawing from articles appearing in several national publications about the dioxin contamination found in Midland, Michigan, in l983, a case study examined how the publications handled the phenomenon of expert disagreement concerning the nature of dioxin. Specifically, it examined how the publications handled expert disagreement about (1) the way…

  5. Virtual reality simulators and training in laparoscopic surgery. (United States)

    Yiannakopoulou, Eugenia; Nikiteas, Nikolaos; Perrea, Despina; Tsigris, Christos


    Virtual reality simulators provide basic skills training without supervision in a controlled environment, free of pressure of operating on patients. Skills obtained through virtual reality simulation training can be transferred on the operating room. However, relative evidence is limited with data available only for basic surgical skills and for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. No data exist on the effect of virtual reality simulation on performance on advanced surgical procedures. Evidence suggests that performance on virtual reality simulators reliably distinguishes experienced from novice surgeons Limited available data suggest that independent approach on virtual reality simulation training is not different from proctored approach. The effect of virtual reality simulators training on acquisition of basic surgical skills does not seem to be different from the effect the physical simulators. Limited data exist on the effect of virtual reality simulation training on the acquisition of visual spatial perception and stress coping skills. Undoubtedly, virtual reality simulation training provides an alternative means of improving performance in laparoscopic surgery. However, future research efforts should focus on the effect of virtual reality simulation on performance in the context of advanced surgical procedure, on standardization of training, on the possibility of synergistic effect of virtual reality simulation training combined with mental training, on personalized training. Copyright © 2014 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. To improve training methods in an engine room simulator-based training


    Lin, Chingshin


    The simulator based training are used widely in both industry and school education to reduce the accidents nowadays. This study aims to suggest the improved training methods to increase the effectiveness of engine room simulator training. The effectiveness of training in engine room will be performance indicators and the self-evaluation by participants. In the first phase of observation, the aim is to find out the possible shortcomings of current training methods based on train...

  7. Recent technology for BWR operator training simulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Takao; Hashimoto, Shigeo; Kato, Kanji; Mizuno, Toshiyuki; Asaoka, Koichi.


    As one of the important factors for maintaining the high capacity ratio in Japanese nuclear power stations, the contribution of excellent operators is pointed out. BWR Operation Training Center has trained many operators using two full scope simulators for operation training modeling BWRs. But in order to meet the demands of the recent increase of training needs and the upgrading of the contents, it was decided to install the third simulator, and Hitachi Ltd. received the order to construct the main part, and delivered it. This simulator obtained the good reputation as its range of simulation is wide, and the characteristics resemble very well those of the actual plants. Besides, various new designs were adopted in the control of the simulator, and its handling became very easy. Japanese nuclear power plants are operated at constant power output, and the unexpected stop is very rare, therefore the chance of operating the plants by operators is very few. Accordingly, the training using the simulators which can simulate the behavior of the plants with computers, and can freely generate abnormal phenomena has become increasingly important. The mode and positioning of the simulators for operation training, the full scope simulator BTC-3 and so on are reported. (K.I.)

  8. Safety evaluation report related to the operation of Midland Plant, Units 1 and 2. Docket Nos. 50-329 and 50-330, Consumers Power Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The Safety Evaluation Report for the application filed by the Consumers Power Company, as applicant and owner, for a license to operate the Midland Plant Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-329 and 50-330), has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The facility is located near the city of Midland in Midland County, Michigan. Subject to favorable resolution of the items discussed in this report, the staff concludes that the facility can be operated by the applicant without endangering the health and safety of the public

  9. Development and utilization of simulator training replay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Koichi; Noji, Kunio


    The BWR Operator Training Center Corporation (BTC) has introduced an advanced training system called the Simulator Training Replay System. The intention of introducing this system is to enhance the effectiveness of simulator training synthetically by means of; (i) sufficient analytical pre- and post-studies in the classroom, thus, enabling instructors to use the classroom as a means of explanation and discussion with an optimized system which is closely correlated with the full-scope simulator and (ii) sufficient practical operation training using a full-scope simulator without excessive suppression of time. With this system, operational data and video images during simulator training can be reproduced in the classroom. Instructors use this system with their trainees before and after simulator training for pre- and post-studies in the classroom. (author)

  10. Cadaver-based training is superior to simulation training for cricothyrotomy and tube thoracostomy. (United States)

    Takayesu, James Kimo; Peak, David; Stearns, Dana


    Emergency medicine (EM) training mandates that residents be able to competently perform low-frequency critical procedures upon graduation. Simulation is the main method of training in addition to clinical patient care. Access to cadaver-based training is limited due to cost and availability. The relative fidelity and perceived value of cadaver-based simulation training is unknown. This pilot study sought to describe the relative value of cadaver training compared to simulation for cricothyrotomy and tube thoracostomy. To perform a pilot study to assess whether there is a significant difference in fidelity and educational experience of cadaver-based training compared to simulation training. To understand how important this difference is in training residents in low-frequency procedures. Twenty-two senior EM residents (PGY3 and 4) who had completed standard simulation training on cricothyrotomy and tube thoracostomy participated in a formalin-fixed cadaver training program. Participants were surveyed on the relative fidelity of the training using a 100 point visual analogue scale (VAS) with 100 defined as equal to performing the procedure on a real patient. Respondents were also asked to estimate how much the cadaveric training improved the comfort level with performing the procedures on a scale between 0 and 100 %. Open-response feedback was also collected. The response rate was 100 % (22/22). The average fidelity of the cadaver versus simulation training was 79.9 ± 7.0 vs. 34.7 ± 13.4 for cricothyrotomy (p Cadaver-based training provides superior landmark and tissue fidelity compared to simulation training and may be a valuable addition to EM residency training for certain low-frequency procedures.

  11. [Simulation in surgical training]. (United States)

    Nabavi, A; Schipper, J


    Patient safety during operations hinges on the surgeon's skills and abilities. However, surgical training has come under a variety of restrictions. To acquire dexterity with decreasingly "simple" cases, within the legislative time constraints and increasing expectations for surgical results is the future challenge. Are there alternatives to traditional master-apprentice learning? A literature review and analysis of the development, implementation, and evaluation of surgical simulation are presented. Simulation, using a variety of methods, most important physical and virtual (computer-generated) models, provides a safe environment to practice basic and advanced skills without endangering patients. These environments have specific strengths and weaknesses. Simulations can only serve to decrease the slope of learning curves, but cannot be a substitute for the real situation. Thus, they have to be an integral part of a comprehensive training curriculum. Our surgical societies have to take up that challenge to ensure the training of future generations.

  12. Simulation Training: Evaluating the Instructor's Contribution to a Wizard of Oz Simulator in Obstetrics and Gynecology Ultrasound Training. (United States)

    Katz, Aric; Tepper, Ronnie; Shtub, Avraham


    Workplaces today demand graduates who are prepared with field-specific knowledge, advanced social skills, problem-solving skills, and integration capabilities. Meeting these goals with didactic learning (DL) is becoming increasingly difficult. Enhanced training methods that would better prepare tomorrow's graduates must be more engaging and game-like, such as feedback based e-learning or simulation-based training, while saving time. Empirical evidence regarding the effectiveness of advanced learning methods is lacking. Objective quantitative research comparing advanced training methods with DL is sparse. This quantitative study assessed the effectiveness of a computerized interactive simulator coupled with an instructor who monitored students' progress and provided Web-based immediate feedback. A low-cost, globally accessible, telemedicine simulator, developed at the Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel-was used. A previous study in the field of interventional cardiology, evaluating the efficacy of the simulator to enhanced learning via knowledge exams, presented promising results of average scores varying from 94% after training and 54% before training (n=20) with Padvantage (P=.01) was found in favor of the WOZ training approach. Content type and training audience were not significant. This study evaluated the contribution of an integrated teaching environment using a computerized interactive simulator, with an instructor providing immediate Web-based immediate feedback to trainees. Involvement of an instructor in the simulation-based training process provided better learning outcomes that varied training content and trainee populations did not affect the overall learning gains. ©Aric Katz, Ronnie Tepper, Avraham Shtub. Originally published in JMIR Medical Education (, 21.04.2017.

  13. Training simulator takes to the road

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, J.; Moore, R.


    A peripatetic approach to technical training is being adopted by Nuclear Electric in the use with its plants to adopt a compact, mobile simulator for certain training applications. Unlike the fixed digital power plant simulators housed at the company's Oldbury Nuclear Training Center near Bristol and the Cliff Quay Training Centre in Ipswich, these are designed to travel around the country to server users. The first of the mobile simulators will be used to train operators in the safe switching of high voltage apparatus between power stations and the UK National Grid transmission system. The simulator comprises a four-piece, four-position suite of equipment, providing power station and sub-station control room panels and a grid control module, all of which are managed by a tutor's station. It is driven by six IBM PC compatibles - four 486 and two 386 machines - operating under MS-DOS 5 and to a program written in Turbo Pascal. The simulator packs away inside a trailer, which can then be towed behind the tutor's car to its next location. One person can unload and set up the equipment in 30 minutes. Fully staffed, the simulator can be used with up to six operators or for individual tuition at each work station. (author)

  14. [Anesthesia simulators and training devices]. (United States)

    Hartmannsgruber, M; Good, M; Carovano, R; Lampotang, S; Gravenstein, J S


    Simulators and training devices are used extensively by educators in 'high-tech' occupations, especially those requiring an understanding of complex systems and co-ordinated psychomotor skills. Because of advances in computer technology, anaesthetised patients can now be realistically simulated. This paper describes several training devices and a simulator currently being employed in the training of anaesthesia personnel at the University of Florida. This Gainesville Anesthesia Simulator (GAS) comprises a patient mannequin, anaesthesia gas machine, and a full set of normally operating monitoring instruments. The patient can spontaneously breathe, has audible heart and breath sounds, and palpable pulses. The mannequin contains a sophisticated lung model that consumes and eliminates gas according to physiological principles. Interconnected computers controlling the physical signs of the mannequin enable the presentation of a multitude of clinical signs. In addition, the anaesthesia machine, which is functionally intact, has hidden fault activators to challenge the user to correct equipment malfunctions. Concealed sensors monitor the users' actions and responses. A robust data acquisition and control system and a user-friendly scripting language for programming simulation scenarios are key features of GAS and make this system applicable for the training of both the beginning resident and the experienced practitioner. GAS enhances clinical education in anaesthesia by providing a non-threatening environment that fosters learning by doing. Exercises with the simulator are supported by sessions on a number of training devices. These present theoretical and practical interactive courses on the anaesthesia machine and on monitors. An extensive system, for example, introduces the student to the physics and clinical application of transoesophageal echocardiography.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Operator training simulator for BWR nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Tadasu


    For the operation management of nuclear power stations with high reliability and safety, the role played by operators is very important. The effort of improving the man-machine interface in the central control rooms of nuclear power stations is energetically advanced, but the importance of the role of operators does not change. For the training of the operators of nuclear power stations, simulators have been used from the early stage. As the simulator facilities for operator training, there are the full scope simulator simulating faithfully the central control room of an actual plant and the small simulator mainly aiming at learning the plant functions. For BWR nuclear power stations, two full scope simulators are installed in the BWR Operator Training Center, and the training has been carried out since 1974. The plant function learning simulators have been installed in respective electric power companies as the education and training facilities in the companies. The role of simulators in operator training, the BTC No.1 simulator of a BWR-4 of 780 MWe and the BTC No.2 simulator of a BWR-5 of 1,100 MWe, plant function learning simulators, and the design of the BTC No.2 simulator and plant function learning simulators are reported. (K.I.)

  16. Severe accident training simulator APROS SA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raiko, Eerikki; Salminen, Kai; Lundstroem, Petra; Harti, Mika; Routamo, Tomi


    APROS SA is a severe accident training simulator based on the APROS simulation environment. APROS SA has been developed in Fortum Nuclear Services Ltd to serve as a training tool for the personnel of the Loviisa NPP. Training with APROS SA gives the personnel a deeper understanding of the severe accident phenomena and thus it is an important part of the implementation of the severe accident management strategy. APROS SA consists of two parts, a comprehensive Loviisa plant model and an external severe accident model. The external model is an extension to the Loviisa plant model, which allows the simulation to proceed into the severe accident phase. The severe accident model has three submodels: the core melting and relocation model, corium pool model and fission product model. In addition to these, a new thermal-hydraulic solver is introduced to the core region of the Loviisa plant model to replace the more limited APROS thermal-hydraulic solver. The full APROS SA training simulator has a graphical user interface with visualizations of both severe accident management panels at the operator room and the important physical phenomena during the accident. This paper describes the background of the APROS SA training simulator, the severe accident submodels and the graphical user interface. A short description how APROS SA will be used as a training tool at the Loviisa NPP is also given

  17. Training and training simulators for emergency situations in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit, G.


    The aim of this paper is to present principles and means set up by Electricite de France (E.D.F.) to provide the required tailor-made training. Today, recent advantages in computing capacities and software engineering along with the completion of Research and Development Training Division programs in the reactor safety (R+D) field (CATHARE, BETHSY..) give E.D.F. the opportunity to conceive and operate new tools for training which are described in the paper: RTGV-SEPIA: a simulator devoted to self training in SGTR field, thanks to a powerful expert system. SIPA: a 'generator of simulators' aiming at control and engineering studies and training, provided with a software able to give in real time a relevant description of complex topologies with diphasic flow patterns (up to a 12'' break in the primary coolant system of a reactor). (orig./DG) [de

  18. Training using power plant simulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Distler, K.; Struss, H.


    Simulators which mimick process sequence, control technology and the operator's place of work (the control room, as a rule) are feasible means for filling in gaps in practical experience. The programmes and computers required for the simulation of process sequences are derived from the training requirements and from the processes proper. The authors demonstrate the requirements made for training and on the models and computers to be used. (orig.) [de

  19. Advanced technology for BWR operator training simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibuya, Akira; Fujita, Eimitsu; Nakao, Toshihiko; Nakabaru, Mitsugu; Asaoka, Kouchi.


    This paper describes an operator training simulator for BWR nuclear power plants which went into service recently. The simulator is a full scope replica type simulator which faithfully replicates the control room environment of the reference plant with six main control panels and twelve auxiliary ones. In comparison with earlier simulators, the scope of the simulation is significantly extended in both width and depth. The simulation model is also refined in order to include operator training according to sympton-based emergency procedure guidelines to mitigate the results in accident cases. In particular, the core model and the calculational model of the radiation intensity distribution, if radioactive materials were released, are improved. As for simulator control capabilities by which efficient and effective training can be achieved, various advanced designs are adopted allowing easy use of the simulators. (author)

  20. A survey of simulators for palpation training. (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Phillips, Roger; Ward, James; Pisharody, Sandhya


    Palpation is a widely used diagnostic method in medical practice. The sensitivity of palpation is highly dependent upon the skill of clinicians, which is often difficult to master. There is a need of simulators in palpation training. This paper summarizes important work and the latest achievements in simulation for palpation training. Three types of simulators; physical models, Virtual Reality (VR) based simulations, and hybrid (computerized and physical) simulators, are surveyed. Comparisons among different kinds of simulators are presented.

  1. Surgical simulation training in orthopedics: current insights. (United States)

    Kalun, Portia; Wagner, Natalie; Yan, James; Nousiainen, Markku T; Sonnadara, Ranil R


    While the knowledge required of residents training in orthopedic surgery continues to increase, various factors, including reductions in work hours, have resulted in decreased clinical learning opportunities. Recent work suggests residents graduate from their training programs without sufficient exposure to key procedures. In response, simulation is increasingly being incorporated into training programs to supplement clinical learning. This paper reviews the literature to explore whether skills learned in simulation-based settings results in improved clinical performance in orthopedic surgery trainees. A scoping review of the literature was conducted to identify papers discussing simulation training in orthopedic surgery. We focused on exploring whether skills learned in simulation transferred effectively to a clinical setting. Experimental studies, systematic reviews, and narrative reviews were included. A total of 15 studies were included, with 11 review papers and four experimental studies. The review articles reported little evidence regarding the transfer of skills from simulation to the clinical setting, strong evidence that simulator models discriminate among different levels of experience, varied outcome measures among studies, and a need to define competent performance in both simulated and clinical settings. Furthermore, while three out of the four experimental studies demonstrated transfer between the simulated and clinical environments, methodological study design issues were identified. Our review identifies weak evidence as to whether skills learned in simulation transfer effectively to clinical practice for orthopedic surgery trainees. Given the increased reliance on simulation, there is an immediate need for comprehensive studies that focus on skill transfer, which will allow simulation to be incorporated effectively into orthopedic surgery training programs.

  2. Laparoscopic skills acquisition: a study of simulation and traditional training. (United States)

    Marlow, Nicholas; Altree, Meryl; Babidge, Wendy; Field, John; Hewett, Peter; Maddern, Guy J


    Training in basic laparoscopic skills can be undertaken using traditional methods, where trainees are educated by experienced surgeons through a process of graduated responsibility or by simulation-based training. This study aimed to assess whether simulation trained individuals reach the same level of proficiency in basic laparoscopic skills as traditional trained participants when assessed in a simulated environment. A prospective study was undertaken. Participants were allocated to one of two cohorts according to surgical experience. Participants from the inexperienced cohort were randomized to receive training in basic laparoscopic skills on either a box trainer or a virtual reality simulator. They were then assessed on the simulator on which they did not receive training. Participants from the experienced cohort, considered to have received traditional training in basic laparoscopic skills, did not receive simulation training and were randomized to either the box trainer or virtual reality simulator for skills assessment. The assessment scores from different cohorts on either simulator were then compared. A total of 138 participants completed the assessment session, 101 in the inexperienced simulation-trained cohort and 37 on the experienced traditionally trained cohort. There was no statistically significant difference between the training outcomes of simulation and traditionally trained participants, irrespective of the simulator type used. The results demonstrated that participants trained on either a box trainer or virtual reality simulator achieved a level of basic laparoscopic skills assessed in a simulated environment that was not significantly different from participants who had been traditionally trained in basic laparoscopic skills. © 2013 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  3. Simulation Training: Evaluating the Instructor’s Contribution to a Wizard of Oz Simulator in Obstetrics and Gynecology Ultrasound Training (United States)

    Tepper, Ronnie


    Background Workplaces today demand graduates who are prepared with field-specific knowledge, advanced social skills, problem-solving skills, and integration capabilities. Meeting these goals with didactic learning (DL) is becoming increasingly difficult. Enhanced training methods that would better prepare tomorrow’s graduates must be more engaging and game-like, such as feedback based e-learning or simulation-based training, while saving time. Empirical evidence regarding the effectiveness of advanced learning methods is lacking. Objective quantitative research comparing advanced training methods with DL is sparse. Objectives This quantitative study assessed the effectiveness of a computerized interactive simulator coupled with an instructor who monitored students’ progress and provided Web-based immediate feedback. Methods A low-cost, globally accessible, telemedicine simulator, developed at the Technion—Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel—was used. A previous study in the field of interventional cardiology, evaluating the efficacy of the simulator to enhanced learning via knowledge exams, presented promising results of average scores varying from 94% after training and 54% before training (n=20) with Pe-learning in the field of Ob-Gyn. Results from objective knowledge tests were analyzed using hypothesis testing and model fitting. Results A significant advantage (P=.01) was found in favor of the WOZ training approach. Content type and training audience were not significant. Conclusions This study evaluated the contribution of an integrated teaching environment using a computerized interactive simulator, with an instructor providing immediate Web-based immediate feedback to trainees. Involvement of an instructor in the simulation-based training process provided better learning outcomes that varied training content and trainee populations did not affect the overall learning gains. PMID:28432039

  4. Simulators for training nuclear power plant personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Simulator training and retraining of operations personnel is essential for their acquiring the necessary knowledge, skills and qualification for operating a nuclear power plant, and for effective feedback of experience including human based operating errors. Simulator training is the most effective way by far of training operations personnel in co-operation and communication in a team, which also involves instilling attitudes and approaches for achieving excellence and individual responsibility and alertness. This technical document provides guidance to Member States on the procurement, setting up and utilization of a simulator training centre; it will also be useful for organizations with previous experience in the use of simulators for training. The document is the result of a series of advisory and consultants meetings held in the framework of the International Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation in 1989-1992. 17 refs, 2 tabs

  5. A spectrum of power plant simulators for effective training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foulke, L.R.


    This paper discusses the subject of training simulator fidelity and describes a spectrum of fidelity levels of power plant simulators to optimize training effectiveness. The body of knowledge about the relationship between power plant simulator fidelity and training effectiveness is reviewed, and a number of conjectures about this relationship are made based on the perspective of over 20 simulator-years of experience in training nuclear power plant operators. Developments are described for a new class of emerging simulator which utilize high resolution graphics to emphasize the visualization step of effective training

  6. Helicopter training simulators: Key market factors (United States)

    Mcintosh, John


    Simulators will gain an increasingly important role in training helicopter pilots only if the simulators are of sufficient fidelity to provide positive transfer of skills to the aircraft. This must be done within an economic model of return on investment. Although rotor pilot demand is still only a small percentage of overall pilot requirements, it will grow in significance. This presentation described the salient factors influencing the use of helicopter training simulators.

  7. Simulation training in video-assisted urologic surgery. (United States)

    Hoznek, András; Salomon, Laurent; de la Taille, Alexandre; Yiou, René; Vordos, Dimitrios; Larre, Stéphane; Abbou, Clément-Claude


    The current system of surgical education is facing many challenges in terms of time efficiency, costs, and patient safety. Training using simulation is an emerging area, mostly based on the experience of other high-risk professions like aviation. The goal of simulation-based training in surgery is to develop not only technical but team skills. This learning environment is stress-free and safe, allows standardization and tailoring of training, and also objectively evaluate performances. The development of simulation training is straightforward in endourology, since these procedures are video-assisted and the low degree of freedom of the instruments is easily replicated. On the other hand, these interventions necessitate a long learning curve, training in the operative room is especially costly and risky. Many models are already in use or under development in all fields of video-assisted urologic surgery: ureteroscopy, percutaneous surgery, transurethral resection of the prostate, and laparoscopy. Although bench models are essential, simulation increasingly benefits from the achievements and development of computer technology. Still in its infancy, virtual reality simulation will certainly belong to tomorrow's teaching tools.

  8. Determining procedures for simulation-based training in radiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nayahangan, Leizl Joy; Nielsen, Kristina Rue; Albrecht-Beste, Elisabeth


    , and basic abdominal ultrasound. CONCLUSION: A needs assessment identified and prioritized 13 technical procedures to include in a simulation-based curriculum. The list may be used as guide for development of training programs. KEY POINTS: • Simulation-based training can supplement training on patients......OBJECTIVES: New training modalities such as simulation are widely accepted in radiology; however, development of effective simulation-based training programs is challenging. They are often unstructured and based on convenience or coincidence. The study objective was to perform a nationwide needs...... assessment to identify and prioritize technical procedures that should be included in a simulation-based curriculum. METHODS: A needs assessment using the Delphi method was completed among 91 key leaders in radiology. Round 1 identified technical procedures that radiologists should learn. Round 2 explored...

  9. How does the outcome of research training fellowships funded via the NHS compare with that from competitively funded fellowships from the MRC and other charities: a cross-sectional retrospective survey of trainees undertaking research training in the West Midlands. (United States)

    Maybury, Charlotte; Morgan, Matthew David; Smith, Russell; Harper, Lorraine


    This study aimed to investigate the impact of research training funded via the National Health Service (NHS) on medical trainees compared with traditional clinical research training fellowships (CRTFs). Online survey of 221 clinical trainees who had completed a period of research during their clinical training between 2009 and 2015 in the West Midlands. Research outcomes. Overall response rate was 59%, of whom 72 participants were funded by CRTFs and 51 funded by the NHS. Although participants with CRTFs were more likely to be awarded a higher degree compared with those on NHS-administered funding (66/72 CRTFs and 37/51 NHS, P=0.005), similar proportions of NHS-funded and CRTF-funded participants entered clinical lecturer posts on completing initial research training (8/51 NHS and 16/72 CRTF, P=0.37). 77% of participants had three or more publications (CRTF 57 and NHS 39, P=0.72). 57 participants had completed clinical training; similar proportions of CRTF-funded and NHS-funded trainees had research included in their consultant contract (12/22 NHS and 14/26 CRTF, P=0.96) or were appointed to academic posts (3 of 25 NHS funded and 6 of 32 CRTF, P>0.05). 95% of participants would recommend to colleagues and 82% of participants felt the research experience improved their provision of clinical care with no difference between CRTF-funded and NHS-funded participants (P=0.49). Continuing to participate in clinical work during the research reduced reports of trainee difficulty on returning to clinical work (23/108 continued clinical work vs 12/22 no clinical work, P=0.001). Research training funded by the NHS provides a quality experience and contributes to the clinical academic capacity within the UK. More needs to be done to support NHS participants to successfully achieve a higher degree. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly

  10. Simulator training and licensing examination for nuclear power station operator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Pingsheng


    For the recruitment, training and position qualification of the simulator instructors and feedback of training effect, the management approaches are formulated in 'The System for Simulator Training and Licensing Examination of Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station Operators'. The concrete requirements on the professional knowledge, work experience and foreign language ability of a simulator instructor are put forward. The process of instructor training is designed. The training items include the trainer training, pedagogy training, time management training, operation activities training during outage of unit, 'shadow' training and on-the-jot training on simulator courses. Job rotation is realized between simulator instructor and licensing personnel on site. New simulator instructor must pass the qualification identification. After a duration of 2 years, re-qualification has to be carried out. On the basis of the operator training method introduced from EDF (electricite De France), some new courses are developed and the improvement on the initial training, retaining courses, the technical support and the experience feedback by using the simulator is done also. (authors)

  11. Simulation training for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Brum


    Full Text Available Background: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO is a complex treatment. Despite this, there are a lack of training programs designed to develop relevant clinical and nonclinical skills required for ECMO specialists. The aim of the current study was to describe the design, implementation and evaluation of a 1-day simulation course for delivering training in ECMO. Methods: A 1-day simulation course was developed with educational and intensive care experts. First, the delegates received a lecture on the principles of simulation training and the importance of human factors. This was, followed by a practical demonstration and discussion of the ECMO circuit, console components, circuit interactions effects and potential complications. There were then five ECMO simulation scenarios with debriefing that covered technical and nontechnical issues. The course culminated in a knowledge-based assessment. Course outcomes were assessed using purpose-designed questionnaires. Results: We held 3 courses with a total of 14 delegates (9 intensive care nurses, 3 adult intensive care consultants and 2 ECMO technicians. Following the course, 8 (57% gained familiarity in troubleshooting an ECMO circuit, 6 (43% increased their familiarity with the ECMO pump and circuit, 8 (57% perceived an improvement in their communication skills and 7 (50% perceived an improvement in their leadership skills. At the end of the course, 13 (93% delegates agreed that they felt more confident in dealing with ECMO. Conclusions: Simulation-training courses may increase knowledge and confidence in dealing with ECMO emergencies. Further studies are indicated to determine whether simulation training improves clinical outcomes and translates to reduced complication rates in patients receiving ECMO.

  12. Virtual Reality Simulator Systems in Robotic Surgical Training. (United States)

    Mangano, Alberto; Gheza, Federico; Giulianotti, Pier Cristoforo


    The number of robotic surgical procedures has been increasing worldwide. It is important to maximize the cost-effectiveness of robotic surgical training and safely reduce the time needed for trainees to reach proficiency. The use of preliminary lab training in robotic skills is a good strategy for the rapid acquisition of further, standardized robotic skills. Such training can be done either by using a simulator or by exercises in a dry or wet lab. While the use of an actual robotic surgical system for training may be problematic (high cost, lack of availability), virtual reality (VR) simulators can overcome many of these obstacles. However, there is still a lack of standardization. Although VR training systems have improved, they cannot yet replace experience in a wet lab. In particular, simulated scenarios are not yet close enough to a real operative experience. Indeed, there is a difference between technical skills (i.e., mechanical ability to perform a simulated task) and surgical competence (i.e., ability to perform a real surgical operation). Thus, while a VR simulator can replace a dry lab, it cannot yet replace training in a wet lab or operative training in actual patients. However, in the near future, it is expected that VR surgical simulators will be able to provide total reality simulation and replace training in a wet lab. More research is needed to produce more wide-ranging, trans-specialty robotic curricula.

  13. 14 CFR 121.407 - Training program: Approval of airplane simulators and other training devices. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Training program: Approval of airplane... Program § 121.407 Training program: Approval of airplane simulators and other training devices. (a) Each airplane simulator and other training device that is used in a training course permitted under § 121.409...

  14. Users' Perception of Medical Simulation Training: A Framework for Adopting Simulator Technology (United States)

    Green, Leili Hayati


    Users play a key role in many training strategies, yet some organizations often fail to understand the users' perception after a simulation training implementation, their attitude about acceptance or rejection of and integration of emerging simulation technology in medical training (Gaba, 2007, and Topol, 2012). Several factors are considered to…

  15. Perceptions, training experiences, and preferences of surgical residents toward laparoscopic simulation training: a resident survey. (United States)

    Shetty, Shohan; Zevin, Boris; Grantcharov, Teodor P; Roberts, Kurt E; Duffy, Andrew J


    Simulation training for surgical residents can shorten learning curves, improve technical skills, and expedite competency. Several studies have shown that skills learned in the simulated environment are transferable to the operating room. Residency programs are trying to incorporate simulation into the resident training curriculum to supplement the hands-on experience gained in the operating room. Despite the availability and proven utility of surgical simulators and simulation laboratories, they are still widely underutilized by surgical trainees. Studies have shown that voluntary use leads to minimal participation in a training curriculum. Although there are several simulation tools, there is no clear evidence of the superiority of one tool over the other in skill acquisition. The purpose of this study was to explore resident perceptions, training experiences, and preferences regarding laparoscopic simulation training. Our goal was to profile resident participation in surgical skills simulation, recognize potential barriers to voluntary simulator use, and identify simulation tools and tasks preferred by residents. Furthermore, this study may help to inform whether mandatory/protected training time, as part of the residents' curriculum is essential to enhance participation in the simulation laboratory. A cross-sectional study on general surgery residents (postgraduate years 1-5) at Yale University School of Medicine and the University of Toronto via an online questionnaire was conducted. Overall, 67 residents completed the survey. The institutional review board approved the methods of the study. Overall, 95.5% of the participants believed that simulation training improved their laparoscopic skills. Most respondents (92.5%) perceived that skills learned during simulation training were transferrable to the operating room. Overall, 56.7% of participants agreed that proficiency in a simulation curriculum should be mandatory before operating room experience. The

  16. East Midlands healthcare and bioscience sector strategy appendix 1: healthcare and bioscience res implementation plan


    East Midlands Development Agency


    The healthcare and bioscience sector is one of four priority sectors identified in the regional economic strategy, A Flourishing Region. This document sets out the implementation plan for maximising the contribution of the healthcare and biosciences sector to the economic development of the East Midlands.

  17. Astronaut Neil Armstrong participates in simulation training (United States)


    Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, Apollo 11 commander, participates in simulation training in preparation for the scheduled lunar landing mission. He is in the Apollo Lunar Module Mission SImulator in the Kennedy Space Center's Flight Crew Training Building.

  18. Comparative Economics of Cattle and Wildlife Ranching in the Zimbabwe Midlands


    Kreuter, Urs P.


    The economics of ranches in the Zimbabwe Midlands, generating income from cattle, or wildlife, or both, were compared during 1989/90 to test the claim that wildlife ranching can generate greater profits than cattle ranching on semi-arid African savannas. Both financial (market) prices and economic prices (opportunity cost) were used. Financial data were obtained from 15 cattle, 7 wildlife and 13 mixed ranches in four areas with wildlife and from 15 cattle ranches in two areas with sparse w...

  19. Use of video taping during simulator training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helton, M.; Young, P.


    The use of a video camera for training is not a new idea and is used throughout the country for training in such areas as computers, car repair, music and even in such non-technical areas as fishing. Reviewing a taped simulator training session will aid the student in his job performance regardless of the position he holds in his organization. If the student is to be examined on simulator performance, video will aid in this training in many different ways

  20. Experience with simulator training for emergency conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The training of operators by the use of simulators is common to most countries with nuclear power plants. Simulator training programmes are generally well developed, but their value can be limited by the age, type, size and capability of the simulator. Within these limits, most full scope simulators have a capability of training operators for a range of design basis accidents. It is recognized that human performance under accident conditions is difficult to predict or analyse, particularly in the area of severe accidents. These are rare events and by their very nature, unpredictable. Of importance, therefore, is to investigate the training of operators for severe accident conditions, and to examine ways in which simulators may be used in this task. The International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group (INSAG) has reviewed this field and the associated elements of human behaviour. It has recommended that activities are concentrated on this area. Initially it is encouraging the following objectives: i) To train operators for accident conditions including severe accidents and to strongly encourage the development and use of simulators for this purpose; ii) To improve the man-machine interface by the use of computer aids to the operator; iii) To develop human performance requirements for plant operating staff. As part of this work, the IAEA convened a technical committee on 15-19 September 1986 to review the experience with simulator training for emergency conditions, to review simulator modelling for severe accident training, to examine the role of human cognitive behaviour modelling, and to review guidance on accident scenarios. A substantial deviation may be a major fuel failure, a Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA), etc. Examples of engineered safety features are: an Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS), and Containment Systems. This report was prepared by the participants during the meeting and reviewed further in a Consultant's Meeting. It also includes papers which were

  1. Simulation-based point-of-care ultrasound training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J K; Dyre, L; Jørgensen, M E


    before being performed on actual patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the learning curves for novices training the FAST protocol on a virtual-reality simulator. METHODS: Ultrasound novices (N = 25) were instructed to complete a FAST training program on a virtual-reality ultrasound simulator....... Participants were instructed to continue training until they reached a previously established mastery learning level, which corresponds to the performance level of a group of ultrasound experts. Performance scores and time used during each FAST examination were used to determine participants' learning curves....... RESULTS: The participants attained the mastery learning level within a median of three (range two to four) attempts corresponding to a median of 1 h 46 min (range 1 h 2 min to 3 h 37 min) of simulation training. The ultrasound novices' examination speed improved significantly with training, and continued...

  2. Surgical simulators in cataract surgery training. (United States)

    Sikder, Shameema; Tuwairqi, Khaled; Al-Kahtani, Eman; Myers, William G; Banerjee, Pat


    Virtual simulators have been widely implemented in medical and surgical training, including ophthalmology. The increasing number of published articles in this field mandates a review of the available results to assess current technology and explore future opportunities. A PubMed search was conducted and a total of 10 articles were reviewed. Virtual simulators have shown construct validity in many modules, successfully differentiating user experience levels during simulated phacoemulsification surgery. Simulators have also shown improvements in wet-lab performance. The implementation of simulators in the residency training has been associated with a decrease in cataract surgery complication rates. Virtual reality simulators are an effective tool in measuring performance and differentiating trainee skill level. Additionally, they may be useful in improving surgical skill and patient outcomes in cataract surgery. Future opportunities rely on taking advantage of technical improvements in simulators for education and research.

  3. Exploiting the possibilities of simulators for driver training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Groot, S.


    Training in a simulator offers potential advantages compared to training in a non-simulated environment. Generally it is cheaper, safer, there is more control over the environment, and data collection is less complicated. These potential advantages give simulators the possibility to offer effective

  4. Exploring Management Strategies to Reduce Cheating in Written Examinations: Case Study of Midlands State University (United States)

    Taderera, Ever; Nyikahadzoi, Loveness; Matamande, Wilson; Mandimika, Elinah


    This study was concerned about cheating in written examinations at Midlands State University (MSU). The study revealed that both male and female students cheat in written examination; business studies students cheat more than other faculties, and younger (lower class) students cheat more than (upper class) older students. Factors influencing…

  5. Operator training simulator for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiozuka, Hiromi


    In nuclear power plants, training of the operators is important. In Japan, presently there are two training centers, one is BWR operation training center at Okuma-cho, Fukushima Prefecture, and another the nuclear power generation training center in Tsuruga City, Fukui Prefecture, where the operators of PWR nuclear power plants are trained. This report describes the BWR operation training center briefly. Operation of a nuclear power plant is divided into three stages of start-up, steady state operation, and shut down. Start-up is divided into the cold-state start-up after the shut down for prolonged period due to periodical inspection or others and the hot-state start-up from stand-by condition after the shut down for a short time. In the cold-state start-up, the correction of reactivity change and the heating-up control to avoid excessive thermal stress to the primary system components are important. The BWR operation training center offers the next three courses, namely beginner's course, retraining course and specific training course. The training period is 12 weeks and the number of trainees is eight/course in the beginner's course. The simulator was manufactured by modeling No. 3 plant of Fukushima First Nuclear Power Station, Tokyo Electric Power Co. The simulator is composed of the mimic central control panel and the digital computer. The software system comprises the monitor to supervise the whole program execution, the logic model simulating the plant interlock system and the dynamic model simulating the plant physical phenomena. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  6. [Simulation training in surgical education - application of virtual reality laparoscopic simulators in a surgical skills course]. (United States)

    Lehmann, K S; Gröne, J; Lauscher, J C; Ritz, J-P; Holmer, C; Pohlen, U; Buhr, H-J


    Training and simulation are gaining importance in surgical education. Today, virtual reality surgery simulators provide sophisticated laparoscopic training scenarios and offer detailed assessment methods. This also makes simulators interesting for the application in surgical skills courses. The aim of the current study was to assess the suitability of a virtual surgery simulator for training and assessment in an established surgical training course. The study was conducted during the annual "Practical Course for Visceral Surgery" (Warnemuende, Germany). 36 of 108 course participants were assigned at random for the study. Training was conducted in 15 sessions over 5 days with 4 identical virtual surgery simulators (LapSim) and 2 standardised training tasks. The simulator measured 16 individual parameters and calculated 2 scores. Questionnaires were used to assess the test persons' laparoscopic experience, their training situation and the acceptance of the simulator training. Data were analysed with non-parametric tests. A subgroup analysis for laparoscopic experience was conducted in order to assess the simulator's construct validity and assessment capabilities. Median age was 32 (27 - 41) years; median professional experience was 3 (1 - 11) years. Typical laparoscopic learning curves with initial significant improvements and a subsequent plateau phase were measured over 5 days. The individual training sessions exhibited a rhythmic variability in the training results. A shorter night's sleep led to a marked drop in performance. The participants' different experience levels could clearly be discriminated ( ≤ 20 vs. > 20 laparoscopic operations; p ≤ 0.001). The questionnaire showed that the majority of the participants had limited training opportunities in their hospitals. The simulator training was very well accepted. However, the participants severely misjudged the real costs of the simulators that were used. The learning curve on the

  7. Seismic and potential field studies over the East Midlands (United States)

    Kirk, Wayne John

    A seismic refraction profile was undertaken to investigate the source of an aeromagnetic anomaly located above the Widmerpool Gulf, East Midlands. Ten shots were fired into 51 stations at c. 1.5km spacing in a 70km profile during 41 days recording. The refraction data were processed using standard techniques to improve the data quality. A new filtering technique, known as Correlated Adaptive Noise Cancellation was tested on synthetic data and successfully applied to controlled source and quarry blast data. Study of strong motion data reveals that the previous method of site calibration is invalid. A new calibration technique, known as the Scaled Amplitude method is presented to provide safer charge size estimation. Raytrace modelling of the refraction data and two dimensional gravity interpretation confirms the presence of the Widmerpool Gulf but no support is found for the postulated intrusion. Two dimensional magnetic interpretation revealed that the aeromagnetic anomaly could be modelled with a Carboniferous igneous source. A Lower Palaeozoic refractor with a velocity of 6.0 km/s is identified at a maximum depth of c. 2.85km beneath the Widmerpool Gulf. Carboniferous and post-Carboniferous sediments within the gulf have velocities between 2.6-5.5 km/s with a strong vertical gradient. At the gulf margins, a refractor with a constant velocity of 5.2 km/s is identified as Dinantian limestone. A low velocity layer of proposed unaltered Lower Palaeozoics is identified beneath the limestone at the eastern edge of the Derbyshire Dome. The existence and areal extent of this layer are also determined from seismic reflection data. Image analysis of potential field data, presents a model identifying 3 structural provinces, the Midlands Microcraton, the Welsh and English Caledonides and a central region of complex linears. This model is used to explain the distribution of basement rocks determined from seismic and gravity profiles.

  8. The simulator Neck-Mfgs and its training status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setnikar, T.; Pribozic, F.; Srebotnjak, E.; Gortnar, O.; Kovacic, J.; Stritar, A.


    This paper presents the status and training possibilities on Krsko NPP Multi-Functional Simulator (NEK-MFS). Since spring 1997 it serves as a training facility in Nuclear Training Center. During first year of operation the simulator NEK-MFS was found to be a very useful Krsko NPP specific tool which is capable to support both the initial operator training program and licensed operator retraining activities.(author)

  9. Common modelling approaches for training simulators for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Training simulators for nuclear power plant operating staff have gained increasing importance over the last twenty years. One of the recommendations of the 1983 IAEA Specialists' Meeting on Nuclear Power Plant Training Simulators in Helsinki was to organize a Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on some aspects of training simulators. The goal statement was: ''To establish and maintain a common approach to modelling for nuclear training simulators based on defined training requirements''. Before adapting this goal statement, the participants considered many alternatives for defining the common aspects of training simulator models, such as the programming language used, the nature of the simulator computer system, the size of the simulation computers, the scope of simulation. The participants agreed that it was the training requirements that defined the need for a simulator, the scope of models and hence the type of computer complex that was required, the criteria for fidelity and verification, and was therefore the most appropriate basis for the commonality of modelling approaches. It should be noted that the Co-ordinated Research Programme was restricted, for a variety of reasons, to consider only a few aspects of training simulators. This report reflects these limitations, and covers only the topics considered within the scope of the programme. The information in this document is intended as an aid for operating organizations to identify possible modelling approaches for training simulators for nuclear power plants. 33 refs

  10. Final environmental statement related to the operation of Midland Plant, Units 1 and 2. Docket Nos. 50-329 and 50-330, Consumers Power Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This final environmental statement contains the second assessment of the environmental impact associated with operation of the Midland Plant, Units 1 and 2 pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and 10 CFR Part 51, as amended, of the NRC's regulations. This statement examines: the purpose and need for the Midland project, alternatives to the project, the affected environment, environment consequences and mitigating actions, and environmental and economic benefits and costs

  11. Virtual reality simulators for gastrointestinal endoscopy training. (United States)

    Triantafyllou, Konstantinos; Lazaridis, Lazaros Dimitrios; Dimitriadis, George D


    The use of simulators as educational tools for medical procedures is spreading rapidly and many efforts have been made for their implementation in gastrointestinal endoscopy training. Endoscopy simulation training has been suggested for ascertaining patient safety while positively influencing the trainees' learning curve. Virtual simulators are the most promising tool among all available types of simulators. These integrated modalities offer a human-like endoscopy experience by combining virtual images of the gastrointestinal tract and haptic realism with using a customized endoscope. From their first steps in the 1980s until today, research involving virtual endoscopic simulators can be divided in two categories: investigation of the impact of virtual simulator training in acquiring endoscopy skills and measuring competence. Emphasis should also be given to the financial impact of their implementation in endoscopy, including the cost of these state-of-the-art simulators and the potential economic benefits from their usage. Advances in technology will contribute to the upgrade of existing models and the development of new ones; while further research should be carried out to discover new fields of application.

  12. The HTR-PM Plant Full Scope Training Simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Junsan; Wang Yuding; Zhou Shuyong; Cai Ruizhong; Cao Jianting


    This paper describes the technical aspects of the Full Scope Training Simulator developed for HTR-PM Plant in Shidao Bay, Shandong Province, China. An overview of the HTR-PM plant and simulator structure is presented. The models developed for the simulator are discussed in detail. Some important verification tests have been conducted on the HTR-PM Plant Training Simulator. (author)

  13. Progress in virtual reality simulators for surgical training and certification. (United States)

    de Visser, Hans; Watson, Marcus O; Salvado, Olivier; Passenger, Joshua D


    There is increasing evidence that educating trainee surgeons by simulation is preferable to traditional operating-room training methods with actual patients. Apart from reducing costs and risks to patients, training by simulation can provide some unique benefits, such as greater control over the training procedure and more easily defined metrics for assessing proficiency. Virtual reality (VR) simulators are now playing an increasing role in surgical training. However, currently available VR simulators lack the fidelity to teach trainees past the novice-to-intermediate skills level. Recent technological developments in other industries using simulation, such as the games and entertainment and aviation industries, suggest that the next generation of VR simulators should be suitable for training, maintenance and certification of advanced surgical skills. To be effective as an advanced surgical training and assessment tool, VR simulation needs to provide adequate and relevant levels of physical realism, case complexity and performance assessment. Proper validation of VR simulators and an increased appreciation of their value by the medical profession are crucial for them to be accepted into surgical training curricula.

  14. Simulation-based training for thoracoscopic lobectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Katrine; Ringsted, Charlotte; Hansen, Henrik Jessen


    overcome the first part of the learning curve, but no virtual-reality simulators for thoracoscopy are commercially available. This study aimed to investigate whether training on a laparoscopic simulator enables trainees to perform a thoracoscopic lobectomy. METHODS: Twenty-eight surgical residents were...... randomized to either virtual-reality training on a nephrectomy module or traditional black-box simulator training. After a retention period they performed a thoracoscopic lobectomy on a porcine model and their performance was scored using a previously validated assessment tool. RESULTS: The groups did...... not differ in age or gender. All participants were able to complete the lobectomy. The performance of the black-box group was significantly faster during the test scenario than the virtual-reality group: 26.6 min (SD 6.7 min) versus 32.7 min (SD 7.5 min). No difference existed between the two groups when...

  15. Surgical simulation in orthopaedic skills training. (United States)

    Atesok, Kivanc; Mabrey, Jay D; Jazrawi, Laith M; Egol, Kenneth A


    Mastering rapidly evolving orthopaedic surgical techniques requires a lengthy period of training. Current work-hour restrictions and cost pressures force trainees to face the challenge of acquiring more complex surgical skills in a shorter amount of time. As a result, alternative methods to improve the surgical skills of orthopaedic trainees outside the operating room have been developed. These methods include hands-on training in a laboratory setting using synthetic bones or cadaver models as well as software tools and computerized simulators that enable trainees to plan and simulate orthopaedic operations in a three-dimensional virtual environment. Laboratory-based training offers potential benefits in the development of basic surgical skills, such as using surgical tools and implants appropriately, achieving competency in procedures that have a steep learning curve, and assessing already acquired skills while minimizing concerns for patient safety, operating room time, and financial constraints. Current evidence supporting the educational advantages of surgical simulation in orthopaedic skills training is limited. Despite this, positive effects on the overall education of orthopaedic residents, and on maintaining the proficiency of practicing orthopaedic surgeons, are anticipated.

  16. Simulation in training for nuclear power plant operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stammers, R.B.


    The need for simulation in nuclear operator training is reviewed, and the use of simulators is justified on a number of criteria. The role of simulators is discussed against the background of training media that are or could be used. The question of the degree of realism or fidelity of simulation is tackled, with comparisons being made between views from the industry and views from the area of instructional technology. Training research in the general area of process control is outlined and emphasis is placed on the importance of instructional control. Finally, some future directions for study are sketched. (author)

  17. Decision process simulation in training systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zajtsev, K.S.; Serov, A.A.; Ajnutdinov, V.A.


    One of the approaches to arrangement of training process an automated trainning systems (ATS) based on actjve use of knowledge of experienced operators is presented. Problems of mathematical model simulatjon of decision process by people not having special knowledge in mathematics are considered. A language of solution tables based on indistinct tables is suggested to the used as a simulation language. The problem of automation of decision process simulation in ATS is solued

  18. Emotion, cognitive load and learning outcomes during simulation training. (United States)

    Fraser, Kristin; Ma, Irene; Teteris, Elise; Baxter, Heather; Wright, Bruce; McLaughlin, Kevin


    Simulation training has emerged as an effective way to complement clinical training of medical students. Yet outcomes from simulation training must be considered suboptimal when 25-30% of students fail to recognise a cardiac murmur on which they were trained 1 hour previously. There are several possible explanations for failure to improve following simulation training, which include the impact of heightened emotions on learning and cognitive overload caused by interactivity with high-fidelity simulators. This study was conducted to assess emotion during simulation training and to explore the relationships between emotion and cognitive load, and diagnostic performance. We trained 84 Year 1 medical students on a scenario of chest pain caused by symptomatic aortic stenosis. After training, students were asked to rate their emotional state and cognitive load. We then provided training on a dyspnoea scenario before asking participants to diagnose the murmur in which they had been trained (aortic stenosis) and a novel murmur (mitral regurgitation). We used factor analysis to identify the principal components of emotion, and then studied the associations between these components of emotion and cognitive load and diagnostic performance. We identified two principal components of emotion, which we felt represented invigoration and tranquillity. Both of these were associated with cognitive load with adjusted regression coefficients of 0.63 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.28-0.99; p = 0.001) and - 0.44 (95% CI - 0.77 to - 0.10; p = 0.009), respectively. We found a significant negative association between cognitive load and the odds of subsequently identifying the trained murmur (odds ratio 0.27, 95% CI 0.11-0.67; p = 0.004). We found that increased invigoration and reduced tranquillity during simulation training were associated with increased cognitive load, and that the likelihood of correctly identifying a trained murmur declined with increasing cognitive load. Further

  19. A High-Speed Train Operation Plan Inspection Simulation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Rui


    Full Text Available We developed a train operation simulation tool to inspect a train operation plan. In applying an improved Petri Net, the train was regarded as a token, and the line and station were regarded as places, respectively, in accordance with the high-speed train operation characteristics and network function. Location change and running information transfer of the high-speed train were realized by customizing a variety of transitions. The model was built based on the concept of component combination, considering the random disturbance in the process of train running. The simulation framework can be generated quickly and the system operation can be completed according to the different test requirements and the required network data. We tested the simulation tool when used for the real-world Wuhan to Guangzhou high-speed line. The results showed that the proposed model can be developed, the simulation results basically coincide with the objective reality, and it can not only test the feasibility of the high-speed train operation plan, but also be used as a support model to develop the simulation platform with more capabilities.

  20. Verification and validation methodology of training simulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, M.W.; Khan, N.M.; Ali, S.; Jafri, M.N.


    A full scope training simulator comprising of 109 plant systems of a 300 MWe PWR plant contracted by Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) from China is near completion. The simulator has its distinction in the sense that it will be ready prior to fuel loading. The models for the full scope training simulator have been developed under APROS (Advanced PROcess Simulator) environment developed by the Technical Research Center (VTT) and Imatran Voima (IVO) of Finland. The replicated control room of the plant is contracted from Shanghai Nuclear Engineering Research and Design Institute (SNERDI), China. The development of simulation models to represent all the systems of the target plant that contribute to plant dynamics and are essential for operator training has been indigenously carried out at PAEC. This multifunctional simulator is at present under extensive testing and will be interfaced with the control planes in March 1998 so as to realize a full scope training simulator. The validation of the simulator is a joint venture between PAEC and SNERDI. For the individual components and the individual plant systems, the results have been compared against design data and PSAR results to confirm the faithfulness of the simulator against the physical plant systems. The reactor physics parameters have been validated against experimental results and benchmarks generated using design codes. Verification and validation in the integrated state has been performed against the benchmark transients conducted using the RELAP5/MOD2 for the complete spectrum of anticipated transient covering the well known five different categories. (author)

  1. Classification and optimization of training tools for NPP simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billoen, G. van


    The training cycle of nuclear power plant (NPP) operators has evolved during the last decade in parallel with the evolution of the training tools. The phases of the training cycle can be summarized as follows: (1) basic principle learning, (2) specific functional training, (3) full operating range training, and (4) detailed accident analyses. The progress in simulation technology and man/machine interface (MMI) gives the training centers new opportunities to improve their training methods and effectiveness in the transfer of knowledge. To take advantage of these new opportunities a significant investment in simulation tools may be required. It is therefore important to propose an optimized approach when dealing with the overall equipment program for these training centers. An overall look of tools proposed on the international simulation market shows that there is a need for systematic approach in this field. Classification of the different training tools needed for each training cycle is the basis for an optimized approach in terms of hardware configuration and software specifications of the equipment to install in training centers. The 'Multi-Function Simulator' is one of the approaches. (orig.) (3 tabs.)

  2. Phasor Simulator for Operator Training Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyer, Jim [Electric Power Group, Llc, Pasadena, CA (United States)


    Synchrophasor systems are being deployed in power systems throughout the North American Power Grid and there are plans to integrate this technology and its associated tools into Independent System Operator (ISO)/utility control room operations. A pre-requisite to using synchrophasor technologies in control rooms is for operators to obtain training and understand how to use this technology in real-time situations. The Phasor Simulator for Operator Training (PSOT) project objective was to develop, deploy and demonstrate a pre-commercial training simulator for operators on the use of this technology and to promote acceptance of the technology in utility and ISO/Regional Transmission Owner (RTO) control centers.

  3. Training of nuclear power plant personnel in the German simulator centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, E.


    The paper describes the German simulator scene. The simulator training is mainly being performed in a centre. The simulators used are nothing but fullscope simulators and were specified and built in accordance to a common design requirements philosophy. The simulators also support theoretical training by means of data processing devices in the classrooms, being connected to the simulators. As the quality of simulator training depends at least as much upon the instructors qualification as upon the simulators, the centre makes every effort to qualify and train their instructors including a final license and the obligation for maintaining competence. All simulator courses are prepared individually according to a common quality standard. The outcome of the course preparation are training materials for the instructors, the trainees and as well for the assessing course observers. The used assessment system is based on an observation of the trainees. Instructors and plant representatives evaluate the trainees performance against a detailed set of predefined training goals. It is the Simulator Centre's continuous effort to optimize all elements of simulator training, the simulators, the instructors and the didactical methods. (author)

  4. Ultrasound-Guided Regional Anesthesia Simulation Training: A Systematic Review. (United States)

    Chen, Xiao Xu; Trivedi, Vatsal; AlSaflan, AbdulHadi A; Todd, Suzanne Clare; Tricco, Andrea C; McCartney, Colin J L; Boet, Sylvain

    Ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia (UGRA) has become the criterion standard of regional anesthesia practice. Ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia teaching programs often use simulation, and guidelines have been published to help guide URGA education. This systematic review aimed to examine the effectiveness of simulation-based education for the acquisition and maintenance of competence in UGRA. Studies identified in MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and ERIC were included if they assessed simulation-based UGRA teaching with outcomes measured at Kirkpatrick level 2 (knowledge and skills), 3 (transfer of learning to the workplace), or 4 (patient outcomes). Two authors independently reviewed all identified references for eligibility, abstracted data, and appraised quality. After screening 176 citations and 45 full-text articles, 12 studies were included. Simulation-enhanced training improved knowledge acquisition (Kirkpatrick level 2) when compared with nonsimulation training. Seven studies measuring skill acquisition (Kirkpatrick level 2) found that simulation-enhanced UGRA training was significantly more effective than alternative teaching methods or no intervention. One study measuring transfer of learning into the clinical setting (Kirkpatrick level 3) found no difference between simulation-enhanced UGRA training and non-simulation-based training. However, this study was discontinued early because of technical challenges. Two studies examined patient outcomes (Kirkpatrick level 4), and one of these found that simulation-based UGRA training improved patient outcomes compared with didactic teaching. Ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia knowledge and skills significantly improved with simulation training. The acquired UGRA skills may be transferred to the clinical setting; however, further studies are required to confirm these changes translate to improved patient outcomes.

  5. Virtual reality simulation training of mastoidectomy - studies on novice performance. (United States)

    Andersen, Steven Arild Wuyts


    Virtual reality (VR) simulation-based training is increasingly used in surgical technical skills training including in temporal bone surgery. The potential of VR simulation in enabling high-quality surgical training is great and VR simulation allows high-stakes and complex procedures such as mastoidectomy to be trained repeatedly, independent of patients and surgical tutors, outside traditional learning environments such as the OR or the temporal bone lab, and with fewer of the constraints of traditional training. This thesis aims to increase the evidence-base of VR simulation training of mastoidectomy and, by studying the final-product performances of novices, investigates the transfer of skills to the current gold-standard training modality of cadaveric dissection, the effect of different practice conditions and simulator-integrated tutoring on performance and retention of skills, and the role of directed, self-regulated learning. Technical skills in mastoidectomy were transferable from the VR simulation environment to cadaveric dissection with significant improvement in performance after directed, self-regulated training in the VR temporal bone simulator. Distributed practice led to a better learning outcome and more consolidated skills than massed practice and also resulted in a more consistent performance after three months of non-practice. Simulator-integrated tutoring accelerated the initial learning curve but also caused over-reliance on tutoring, which resulted in a drop in performance when the simulator-integrated tutor-function was discontinued. The learning curves were highly individual but often plateaued early and at an inadequate level, which related to issues concerning both the procedure and the VR simulator, over-reliance on the tutor function and poor self-assessment skills. Future simulator-integrated automated assessment could potentially resolve some of these issues and provide trainees with both feedback during the procedure and immediate

  6. Physically realistic modeling of maritime training simulation


    Cieutat , Jean-Marc


    Maritime training simulation is an important matter of maritime teaching, which requires a lot of scientific and technical skills.In this framework, where the real time constraint has to be maintained, all physical phenomena cannot be studied; the most visual physical phenomena relating to the natural elements and the ship behaviour are reproduced only. Our swell model, based on a surface wave simulation approach, permits to simulate the shape and the propagation of a regular train of waves f...

  7. Airway management education: simulation based training versus non-simulation based training-A systematic review and meta-analyses. (United States)

    Sun, Yanxia; Pan, Chuxiong; Li, Tianzuo; Gan, Tong J


    Simulation-based training (SBT) has become a standard for medical education. However, the efficacy of simulation based training in airway management education remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate all published evidence comparing the effectiveness of SBT for airway management versus non-simulation based training (NSBT) on learner and patient outcomes. Systematic review with meta-analyses were used. Data were derived from PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, Scopus, the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from inception to May 2016. Published comparative trials that evaluated the effect of SBT on airway management training in compared with NSBT were considered. The effect sizes with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for outcomes measures. Seventeen eligible studies were included. SBT was associated with improved behavior performance [standardized mean difference (SMD):0.30, 95% CI: 0.06 to 0.54] in comparison with NSBT. However, the benefits of SBT were not seen in time-skill (SMD:-0.13, 95% CI: -0.82 to 0.52), written examination score (SMD: 0.39, 95% CI: -0.09 to 0.86) and success rate of procedure completion on patients [relative risk (RR): 1.26, 95% CI: 0.96 to 1.66]. SBT may be not superior to NSBT on airway management training.

  8. Virtual reality simulator training of laparoscopic cholecystectomies - a systematic review. (United States)

    Ikonen, T S; Antikainen, T; Silvennoinen, M; Isojärvi, J; Mäkinen, E; Scheinin, T M


    Simulators are widely used in occupations where practice in authentic environments would involve high human or economic risks. Surgical procedures can be simulated by increasingly complex and expensive techniques. This review gives an update on computer-based virtual reality (VR) simulators in training for laparoscopic cholecystectomies. From leading databases (Medline, Cochrane, Embase), randomised or controlled trials and the latest systematic reviews were systematically searched and reviewed. Twelve randomised trials involving simulators were identified and analysed, as well as four controlled studies. Furthermore, seven studies comparing black boxes and simulators were included. The results indicated any kind of simulator training (black box, VR) to be beneficial at novice level. After VR training, novice surgeons seemed to be able to perform their first live cholecystectomies with fewer errors, and in one trial the positive effect remained during the first ten cholecystectomies. No clinical follow-up data were found. Optimal learning requires skills training to be conducted as part of a systematic training program. No data on the cost-benefit of simulators were found, the price of a VR simulator begins at EUR 60 000. Theoretical background to learning and limited research data support the use of simulators in the early phases of surgical training. The cost of buying and using simulators is justified if the risk of injuries and complications to patients can be reduced. Developing surgical skills requires repeated training. In order to achieve optimal learning a validated training program is needed.

  9. Simulation-based training for nurses: Systematic review and meta-analysis. (United States)

    Hegland, Pål A; Aarlie, Hege; Strømme, Hilde; Jamtvedt, Gro


    Simulation-based training is a widespread strategy to improve health-care quality. However, its effect on registered nurses has previously not been established in systematic reviews. The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate effect of simulation-based training on nurses' skills and knowledge. We searched CDSR, DARE, HTA, CENTRAL, CINAHL, MEDLINE, Embase, ERIC, and SveMed+ for randomised controlled trials (RCT) evaluating effect of simulation-based training among nurses. Searches were completed in December 2016. Two reviewers independently screened abstracts and full-text, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias. We compared simulation-based training to other learning strategies, high-fidelity simulation to other simulation strategies, and different organisation of simulation training. Data were analysed through meta-analysis and narrative syntheses. GRADE was used to assess the quality of evidence. Fifteen RCTs met the inclusion criteria. For the comparison of simulation-based training to other learning strategies on nurses' skills, six studies in the meta-analysis showed a significant, but small effect in favour of simulation (SMD -1.09, CI -1.72 to -0.47). There was large heterogeneity (I 2 85%). For the other comparisons, there was large between-study variation in results. The quality of evidence for all comparisons was graded as low. The effect of simulation-based training varies substantially between studies. Our meta-analysis showed a significant effect of simulation training compared to other learning strategies, but the quality of evidence was low indicating uncertainty. Other comparisons showed inconsistency in results. Based on our findings simulation training appears to be an effective strategy to improve nurses' skills, but further good-quality RCTs with adequate sample sizes are needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Training of nuclear power plant personnel on Czechoslovak WWER-440 simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dugovic, M.


    The aim of simulator training is to train personnel for control work observing technical and technological regulations of nuclear power plant operation. Training is implemented in two forms: basic training and recurrent training. The daily regime of the training course is divided into theoretical education, simulator training and evaluation. Simulator training is oriented to the preparation of the workplace, presentation, controlled intermittent work and independent control work. (J.C.)

  11. Sophistication of operator training using BWR plant simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohshiro, Nobuo; Endou, Hideaki; Fujita, Eimitsu; Miyakita, Kouji


    In Japanese nuclear power stations, owing to the improvement of fuel management, thorough maintenance and inspection, and the improvement of facilities, high capacity ratio has been attained. The thorough training of operators in nuclear power stations also contributes to it sufficiently. The BWR operator training center was established in 1971, and started the training of operators in April, 1974. As of the end of March, 1986, more than 1800 trainees completed training. At present, in the BWR operator training center, No.1 simulator of 800 MW class and No.2 simulator of 1100 MW class are operated for training. In this report, the method, by newly adopting it, good result was obtained, is described, that is, the method of introducing the feeling of being present on the spot into the place of training, and the new testing method introduced in retraining course. In the simulator training which is apt to place emphasis on a central control room, the method of stimulating trainees by playing the part of correspondence on the spot and heightening the training effect of multiple monitoring was tried, and the result was confirmed. The test of confirmation on the control board was added. (Kako, I.)

  12. Training for teamwork through in situ simulations (United States)

    Sorensen, Asta; Poehlman, Jon; Bollenbacher, John; Riggan, Scott; Davis, Stan; Miller, Kristi; Ivester, Thomas; Kahwati, Leila


    In situ simulations allow healthcare teams to practice teamwork and communication as well as clinical management skills in a team's usual work setting with typically available resources and equipment. The purpose of this video is to demonstrate how to plan and conduct in situ simulation training sessions, with particular emphasis on how such training can be used to improve communication and teamwork. The video features an in situ simulation conducted at a labour and delivery unit in response to postpartum hemorrhage. PMID:26294962

  13. Current status of endoscopic simulation in gastroenterology fellowship training programs. (United States)

    Jirapinyo, Pichamol; Thompson, Christopher C


    Recent guidelines have encouraged gastroenterology and surgical training programs to integrate simulation into their core endoscopic curricula. However, the role that simulation currently has within training programs is unknown. This study aims to assess the current status of simulation among gastroenterology fellowship programs. This questionnaire study consisted of 38 fields divided into two sections. The first section queried program directors' experience on simulation and assessed the current status of simulation at their institution. The second portion surveyed their opinion on the potential role of simulation on the training curriculum. The study was conducted at the 2013 American Gastroenterological Association Training Directors' Workshop in Phoenix, Arizona. The participants were program directors from Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education accredited gastroenterology training programs, who attended the workshop. The questionnaire was returned by 69 of 97 program directors (response rate of 71%). 42% of programs had an endoscopic simulator. Computerized simulators (61.5%) were the most common, followed by mechanical (30.8%) and animal tissue (7.7%) simulators, respectively. Eleven programs (15%) required fellows to use simulation prior to clinical cases. Only one program has a minimum number of hours fellows have to participate in simulation training. Current simulators are deemed as easy to use (76%) and good educational tools (65%). Problems are cost (72%) and accessibility (69%). The majority of program directors believe that there is a need for endoscopic simulator training, with only 8% disagreeing. Additionally, a majority believe there is a role for simulation prior to initiation of clinical cases with 15% disagreeing. Gastroenterology fellowship program directors widely recognize the importance of simulation. Nevertheless, simulation is used by only 42% of programs and only 15% of programs require that trainees use simulation prior to

  14. Pipeline operators training and certification using thermohydraulic simulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreto, Claudio V.; Plasencia C, Jose [Pontificia Universidade Catolica (PUC-Rio), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Nucleo de Simulacao Termohidraulica de Dutos (SIMDUT); Montalvao, Filipe; Costa, Luciano [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    The continuous pipeline operators training and certification of the TRANSPETRO's Pipeline National Operations Control Center (CNCO) is an essential task aiming the efficiency and safety of the oil and derivatives transport operations through the Brazilian pipeline network. For this objective, a hydraulic simulator is considered an excellent tool that allows the creation of different operational scenarios for training the pipeline hydraulic behavior as well as for testing the operator's responses to normal and abnormal real time operational conditions. The hydraulic simulator is developed based on a pipeline simulation software that supplies the hydraulic responses normally acquired from the pipeline remote units in the field. The pipeline simulation software has a communication interface system that sends and receives data to the SCADA supervisory system database. Using the SCADA graphical interface to create and to customize human machine interfaces (HMI) from which the operator/instructor has total control of the pipeline/system and instrumentation by sending commands. Therefore, it is possible to have realistic training outside of the real production systems, while acquiring experience during training hours with the operation of a real pipeline. A pilot Project was initiated at TRANSPETRO - CNCO targeting to evaluate the hydraulic simulators advantages in pipeline operators training and certification programs. The first part of the project was the development of three simulators for different pipelines. The excellent results permitted the project expansion for a total of twenty different pipelines, being implemented in training programs for pipelines presently operated by CNCO as well as for the new ones that are being migrated. The main objective of this paper is to present an overview of the implementation process and the development of a training environment through a pipe simulation environment using commercial software. This paper also presents

  15. Central venous catheterization training: current perspectives on the role of simulation (United States)

    Soffler, Morgan I; Hayes, Margaret M; Smith, C Christopher


    Simulation is a popular and effective training modality in medical education across a variety of domains. Central venous catheterization (CVC) is commonly undertaken by trainees, and carries significant risk for patient harm when carried out incorrectly. Multiple studies have evaluated the efficacy of simulation-based training programs, in comparison with traditional training modalities, on learner and patient outcomes. In this review, we discuss relevant adult learning principles that support simulation-based CVC training, review the literature on simulation-based CVC training, and highlight the use of simulation-based CVC training programs at various institutions. PMID:29872360

  16. Specification of Training Simulator Fidelity: A Research Plan (United States)


    Knowlede --Dunnette (1976) has recently reviewed the literature in the areas of human skills, abilities, and knowledges. The establishment of what types... management 6. Other than rational user responses to R&D studies and to training simulators 7. Deficiencies in training simulator design 23...proficient at managing the introduction of training innovations by applying those factors that can be controlled to influence acceptance. (p. 19) The

  17. The effect of distributed virtual reality simulation training on cognitive load during subsequent dissection training. (United States)

    Andersen, Steven Arild Wuyts; Konge, Lars; Sørensen, Mads Sølvsten


    Complex tasks such as surgical procedures can induce excessive cognitive load (CL), which can have a negative effect on learning, especially for novices. To investigate if repeated and distributed virtual reality (VR) simulation practice induces a lower CL and higher performance in subsequent cadaveric dissection training. In a prospective, controlled cohort study, 37 residents in otorhinolaryngology received VR simulation training either as additional distributed practice prior to course participation (intervention) (9 participants) or as standard practice during the course (control) (28 participants). Cognitive load was estimated as the relative change in secondary-task reaction time during VR simulation and cadaveric procedures. Structured distributed VR simulation practice resulted in lower mean reaction times (32% vs. 47% for the intervention and control group, respectively, p training. Repeated and distributed VR simulation causes a lower CL to be induced when the learning situation is increased in complexity. A suggested mechanism is the formation of mental schemas and reduction of the intrinsic CL. This has potential implications for surgical skills training and suggests that structured, distributed training be systematically implemented in surgical training curricula.

  18. Education and training by utilizing irradiation test reactor simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eguchi, Shohei; Koike, Sumio; Takemoto, Noriyuki; Tanimoto, Masataka; Kusunoki, Tsuyoshi


    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency, at its Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR), completed an irradiation test reactor simulator in May 2012. This simulator simulates the operation, irradiation test, abnormal transient change during operation, and accident progress events, etc., and is able to perform operation training on reactor and irradiation equipment corresponding to the above simulations. This simulator is composed of a reactor control panel, process control panel, irradiation equipment control panel, instructor control panel, large display panel, and compute server. The completed simulator has been utilized in the education and training of JMTR operators for the purpose of the safe and stable operation of JMTR and the achievement of high operation rate after resuming operation. For the education and training, an education and training curriculum has been prepared for use in not only operation procedures at the time of normal operation, but also learning of fast and accurate response in case of accident events. In addition, this simulator is also being used in operation training for the purpose of contributing to the cultivation of human resources for atomic power in and out of Japan. (A.O.)

  19. Use of Simulation in Canadian Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine Training Programs. (United States)

    Wong, Jonathan; Finan, Emer; Campbell, Douglas


    Introduction Simulation is used for the delivery of education and on occasion assessment. Before such a tool is used routinely in neonatal training programs across Canada, a need assessment is required to determine its current usage by accredited training programs. Our aim was to characterize the type of simulation modalities used and the perceived simulation-based training needs in Canadian neonatal-perinatal medicine (NPM) training programs. Methods A 22-item and 13-item online descriptive survey was sent to all NPM program directors and fellows in Canada, respectively. The survey was modeled on a previously validated tool by Johnston, et al. and responses were collected over 30 days. Results In total, eight (63%) program directors and 24 (28%) fellows completed the survey, with all respondents indicating that simulation is being used. Both lab-based and in situ simulations are occurring, with a range of simulation modalities employed to primarily teach resuscitation, procedural and communication skills. Fellows indicated that simulation should also be used to also teach other important topics, including disease-specific management, crisis resource management, and prevention of medical error. Five (63%) programs have faculty with formal simulation training and four (50%) programs have at least one faculty involved in simulation research. Conclusion Simulation is widely used in Canadian NPM training programs, with program directors and fellows identifying this as an important tool. Simulation can be used to teach a range of skills, but programs need to align their curriculum with both training objectives and learner needs. There is an opportunity for faculty development and increased simulation research.

  20. [Simulation as possible training for palliative emergencies: prospective initial data analysis of participants from two simulation training sessions]. (United States)

    Wiese, C H R; Bosse, G; Schröder, T; Lassen, C L; Bundscherer, A C; Graf, B M; Zausig, Y A


    Palliative emergencies describe an acute situation in patients with a life-limiting illness. At present defined curricula for prehospital emergency physician training for palliative emergencies are limited. Simulation-based training (SBT) for such palliative emergency situations is an exception both nationally and internationally. This article presents the preparation of recommendations in the training and development of palliative care emergency situations. A selected literature search was performed using PubMed, EMBASE, Medline and the Cochrane database (1990-2013). Reference lists of included articles were checked by two reviewers. Data of the included articles were extracted, evaluated und summarized. In the second phase the participants of two simulated scenarios of palliative emergencies were asked to complete an anonymous 15-item questionnaire. The results of the literature search and the questionnaire-based investigation were compared and recommendations were formulated based on the results. Altogether 30 eligible national and international articles were included. Overall, training curricula in palliative emergencies are currently being developed nationally and internationally but are not yet widely integrated into emergency medical training and education. In the second part of the investigation, 25 participants (9 male, 16 female, 20 physicians and 5 nurses) were included in 4 multiprofessional emergency medical simulation training sessions. The most important interests of the participants were the problems for training and further education concerning palliative emergencies described in the national and international literature. The literature review and the expectations of the participants underlined that the development and characteristics of palliative emergencies will become increasingly more important in outpatient emergency medicine. All participants considered palliative care to be very important concerning the competency for end-of-life decisions

  1. Vertical flight training: An overview of training and flight simulator technology with emphasis on rotary-wing requirements (United States)

    Alderete, Thomas S.; Ascencio-Lee, Carmen E.; Bray, Richard; Carlton, John; Dohme, Jack; Eshow, Michelle M.; Francis, Stephen; Lee, Owen M.; Lintern, Gavan; Lombardo, David A.


    The principal purpose of this publication is to provide a broad overview of the technology that is relevant to the design of aviation training systems and of the techniques applicable to the development, use, and evaluation of those systems. The issues addressed in our 11 chapters are, for the most part, those that would be expected to surface in any informed discussion of the major characterizing elements of aviation training systems. Indeed, many of the same facets of vertical-flight training discussed were recognized and, to some extent, dealt with at the 1991 NASA/FAA Helicopter Simulator Workshop. These generic topics are essential to a sound understanding of training and training systems, and they quite properly form the basis of any attempt to systematize the development and evaluation of more effective, more efficient, more productive, and more economical approaches to aircrew training. Individual chapters address the following topics: an overview of the vertical flight industry: the source of training requirements; training and training schools: meeting current requirements; training systems design and development; transfer of training and cost-effectiveness; the military quest for flight training effectiveness; alternative training systems; training device manufacturing; simulator aero model implementation; simulation validation in the frequency domain; cockpit motion in helicopter simulation; and visual space perception in flight simulators.

  2. Fracture toughness evaluation of a low upper-shelf weld metal from the Midland Reactor using the master curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCabe, D.E.; Sokolov, M.A.; Nanstad, R.K.


    The primary objective of the Heavy-Section Steel Irradiation (HSSI) Program Tenth Irradiation Series was to develop a fracture mechanics evaluation of weld metal WF-70, which was taken from the beltline and nozzle course girth weld joints of the Midland Reactor vessel. This material became available when Consumers Power Company of Midland, Michigan, decided to abort plans to operate their nuclear power plant. WF-70 is classified as a low upper-shelf steel primarily due to the Linde 80 flux that was used in the submerged-arc welding process. The master curve concept is introduced to model the transition range fracture toughness when the toughness is quantified in terms of K Jc values. K Jc is an elastic-plastic stress intensity factor calculated by conversion from J c ; i.e., J-integral at onset of cleavage instability

  3. Training simulator for operations at LNG terminals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuta, T.; Yamamoto, K.; Tetsuka, S.; Koyama, K.


    The Tokyo Gas LNG terminals are among the major energy centers of the Tokyo area, supplying 8 million customers with city gas, and also supplying fuel for thermal power generation at the neighboring thermal power plant operated by the Tokyo Electric Power Company. For this reason, in the event of an emergency at the terminal operators have to be able to respond quickly and accurately to restore operations and prevent secondary damage. Modern LNG terminals are highly reliable and are equipped with backup systems, and occurrences of major trouble are now almost nil. Operators therefore have to be trained to respond to emergencies using simulators, in order to heighten their emergency response capabilities. Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd. has long been aware of the need for simulators and has used them in training, but a new large-scale, real-time simulator has now developed in response to new training needs, applying previously accumulated expertise to create a model of an entire LNG terminal incorporating new features. The development of this new simulator has made possible training for emergencies affecting an entire terminal, and this has been very effective in raising the standards of operators. (au)

  4. Applying virtual environments to training and simulation (abstract)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jense, G.J.; Kuijper, F.


    Virtual environment (VE) technology is expected to make a big impact on future training and simulation systems. Direct stimulation of human-senses (eyesight, auditory, tactile) and new paradigms for user input will improve the realism of simulations and thereby the effectiveness of training systems.

  5. Air Support Control Officer Individual Position Training Simulation (United States)


    example, simulation-aided performance improvement was shown during the Royal Australian Air Forces live training event, Pitch Black (Francis, Best...behind Black Skies was to prepare trainees for the more expensive live training of the Pitch Black exercise. Results demonstrated a twenty percent...evaluation of the system by subject matter experts suggests that a training simulation such as the prototype developed in the course of this work could

  6. Accurately fitting advanced training. Flexible simulator training by modular training course concepts; Passgenaue Weiterbildung. Flexibilitaet im Simulatortraining durch modulare Kurskonzepte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sickora, Katrin; Cremer, Hans-Peter [Kraftwerksschule e.V., Essen (Germany)


    Every employee of a power plant contributes with his individual expertise to the success of the enterprise. Certainly personal skills of employees differ from each other as well as power plants are different. With respect to effective simulator training this means that no two simulator training courses can be identical. To exactly meet the requirements of our customers KWS has developed modules for simulation training courses. Each module represents either a technical subject or addresses a topic in the field of soft skills. An accurately fitting combination of several of these modules to the needs of our customers allows for most efficient simulator training courses. (orig.)

  7. Clinical training: a simulation program for phlebotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araki Toshitaka


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Basic clinical skills training in the Japanese medical education system has traditionally incorporated on-the-job training with patients. Recently, the complementary use of simulation techniques as part of this training has gained popularity. It is not known, however, whether the participants view this new type of education program favorably; nor is the impact of this program known. In this study we developed a new simulation-based training program in phlebotomy for new medical residents and assessed their satisfaction with the program Methods The education program comprised two main components: simulator exercise sessions and the actual drawing of blood from other trainees. At the end of the session, we surveyed participant sentiment regarding the program. Results There were 43 participants in total. In general, they were highly satisfied with the education program, with all survey questions receiving scores of 3 or more on a scale of 1–5 (mean range: 4.3 – 4.8, with 5 indicating the highest level of satisfaction. Additionally, their participation as a 'patient' for their co-trainees was undertaken willingly and was deemed to be a valuable experience. Conclusion We developed and tested an education program using a simulator for blood collection. We demonstrated a high satisfaction level among the participants for this unique educational program and expect that it will improve medical training, patient safety, and quality of care. The development and dissemination of similar educational programs involving simulation for other basic clinical skills will be undertaken in the future.

  8. 14 CFR 141.41 - Flight simulators, flight training devices, and training aids. (United States)


    ..., and training aids. 141.41 Section 141.41 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... aids. An applicant for a pilot school certificate or a provisional pilot school certificate must show that its flight simulators, flight training devices, training aids, and equipment meet the following...

  9. Development of a training simulator for offshore crane operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, S.J.


    The crane simulator, trade name KraneSIM-6000, underpins an integrated training package developed to provide crane operator exposure to simulated normal and dangerous conditions in a safe training environment. The prototype simulator is significantly more sophisticated than the system initially envisaged: a number of conceptual changes incorporated during its development ensured that the very latest in simulation computer technology was incorporate unique in that it offers the opportunity to practice the lifting and laying down of loads between a moving (floating) rig and moving supply vessels, together with the possibility of benchmarking crane operator competency. Concludes that there is great scope for expansion of the simulator facilities so far developed. In particular, it is recognised that training and competency testing of teams of personnel such as banksman and supply ship's master could be integrated into crane simulator training scenarios, and that this approach offers great potential for reducing the number of crane related accidents. (Author)

  10. Simulation-based ureteroscopy training: a systematic review. (United States)

    Brunckhorst, Oliver; Aydin, Abdullatif; Abboudi, Hamid; Sahai, Arun; Khan, Muhammad Shamim; Dasgupta, Prokar; Ahmed, Kamran


    Simulation is a common adjunct to operative training and various modalities exist for ureteroscopy. This systematic review aims the following: (1) to identify available ureteroscopy simulators, (2) to explore evidence for their effectiveness using characteristic criterion, and (3) to provide recommendations for simulation-based ureteroscopy training. The preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analysis statement guidelines were used. A literature search was performed using the PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases. In total, 20 articles concerning ureteroscopy simulators were included. Overall, 3 high-fidelity bench models are available. The Uro-Scopic Trainer has demonstrated face, construct, and concurrent validity, whereas the Scope Trainer has undergone content, construct, and predictive validation. The adult ureteroscopy trainer has demonstrated face, content, and construct validity. The URO Mentor is the only available ureteroscopy virtual-reality system; 10 studies were identified demonstrating its face, content, construct, concurrent, and predictive validity. The Uro-Scopic Trainer, the Scope Trainer, and the URO Mentor have demonstrated high educational impact. A noncommercially available, low-fidelity model has demonstrated effectiveness comparable to its high-fidelity counterpart at 185 times lesser than the price of the Uro-Scopic Trainer. The use of porcine models has also been described in 3 studies but require further study. Valid models are available for simulation-based ureteroscopy training. However, there is a lack of many high-level studies conducted, and further investigation is required in this area. Furthermore, current research focuses on the technical skills acquisition with little research conducted on nontechnical skills acquisition within ureteroscopy. The next step for ureteroscopy training is a formalized and validated curriculum, incorporating simulation, training models, development of nontechnical skills

  11. Clinical simulation training improves the clinical performance of Chinese medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-ya Zhang


    Full Text Available Background: Modern medical education promotes medical students’ clinical operating capacity rather than the mastery of theoretical knowledge. To accomplish this objective, clinical skill training using various simulations was introduced into medical education to cultivate creativity and develop the practical ability of students. However, quantitative analysis of the efficiency of clinical skill training with simulations is lacking. Methods: In the present study, we compared the mean scores of medical students (Jinan University who graduated in 2013 and 2014 on 16 stations between traditional training (control and simulative training groups. In addition, in a clinical skill competition, the objective structured clinical examination (OSCE scores of participating medical students trained using traditional and simulative training were compared. The data were statistically analyzed and qualitatively described. Results: The results revealed that simulative training could significantly enhance the graduate score of medical students compared with the control. The OSCE scores of participating medical students in the clinical skill competition, trained using simulations, were dramatically higher than those of students trained through traditional methods, and we also observed that the OSCE marks were significantly increased for the same participant after simulative training for the clinical skill competition. Conclusions: Taken together, these data indicate that clinical skill training with a variety of simulations could substantially promote the clinical performance of medical students and optimize the resources used for medical education, although a precise analysis of each specialization is needed in the future.

  12. The German simulator center for the training of nuclear power plant operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, E.


    Simulator training for nuclear power plant operators in Germany is conducted in The Simulator Center in Essen. The companies operating The Center are KSG/GfS. KSG provides simulators, GfS performs the training. The German Simulator Center is equipped with five simulators in training, nine simulators are under construction and will be ready for training until the beginning of 1997. This institution serves 22 nuclear power plants units in Germany, Switzerland (NPP Goesgen-Daeniken) and the Netherlands (NPP Borssele) and trains 1,800 persons every year. As a common enterprise the company is owned by 12 utilities, which leads to the necessity to prepare common rules and guidelines for simulator specification, training of instructors, assessment of trainees, training material and preparation and methodical running of simulator courses

  13. Selection, specification, design and use of various nuclear power plant training simulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruno, R.; Neboyan, V.


    Several IAEA guidance publications on safety culture and NPP personnel training consider the role of training and particularly the role of simulators training to enhance the safety of NPP operations. Initially, the focus has been on full-scope simulators for the training of main control room operators. Presently, a wide range of different types of simulators are used at training center. Several guidance publications concerning development and use of full-scope simulators are currently available. Experience shows that other types of simulators are also effective training tools that allow simulator training for a broader range of target groups and training objectives. Based on this need, the IAEA undertook a project to prepare a report on selection, specification, design and use of various training simulators, which provides guidance to training centers and suppliers for proper selection, specification, design, and use of various form of simulators. In addition, it provides examples of their use in several Member States. This paper presents a summary of the IAEATECDOC publication on the subject. (author)

  14. Incorporating simulation into gynecologic surgical training. (United States)

    Wohlrab, Kyle; Jelovsek, J Eric; Myers, Deborah


    Today's educational environment has made it more difficult to rely on the Halstedian model of "see one, do one, teach one" in gynecologic surgical training. There is decreased surgical volume, but an increased number of surgical modalities. Fortunately, surgical simulation has evolved to fill the educational void. Whether it is through skill generalization or skill transfer, surgical simulation has shifted learning from the operating room back to the classroom. This article explores the principles of surgical education and ways to introduce simulation as an adjunct to residency training. We review high- and low-fidelity surgical simulators, discuss the progression of surgical skills, and provide options for skills competency assessment. Time and money are major hurdles when designing a simulation curriculum, but low-fidelity models, intradepartmental cost sharing, and utilizing local experts for simulation proctoring can aid in developing a simulation program. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Simulators in catheter-based interventional radiology: training or computer games?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gould, D.A.; Kessel, D.O.; Healey, A.E.; Johnson, S.J.; Lewandowski, W.E.


    Training in interventional radiology (IR) relies on a traditional apprenticeship; to protect patients, expert supervision is mandatory until knowledge, attitudes and practical skills have been certified as satisfactory. However, the current quality of IR training is threatened by reduced time for trainees to learn, as well as a loss of basic diagnostic, training cases to non-invasive imaging. At the same time, IR techniques are becoming a focus of interest to a range of other clinical specialities. To address this training shortfall there is a need to develop novel training alternatives such as simulator models. Few simulator models in any medical field have been successfully validated to show improved clinical skills in treating patients. To date no endovascular simulator has met this standard. A good simulator must be based around key performance measures (metrics) derived from careful analysis of the procedure to be replicated. Metrics can be determined by trained psychologists from a direct analysis of the content of the job or task to be tested. The identification of these critical measures of performance is a complex process which must be tailored to a training curriculum to be effective. Simulators based on flawed metrics will invariably lead to unsatisfactory assessment. It follows that simulator development must involve the statutory licensing authorities. Equally it is essential that we do not assume that training on a particular simulator will correlate with the ability to perform the task in the real world. This 'transfer of training' must be rigorously proven by validation studies

  16. A review of virtual reality based training simulators for orthopaedic surgery. (United States)

    Vaughan, Neil; Dubey, Venketesh N; Wainwright, Thomas W; Middleton, Robert G


    This review presents current virtual reality based training simulators for hip, knee and other orthopaedic surgery, including elective and trauma surgical procedures. There have not been any reviews focussing on hip and knee orthopaedic simulators. A comparison of existing simulator features is provided to identify what is missing and what is required to improve upon current simulators. In total 11 hip replacements pre-operative planning tools were analysed, plus 9 hip trauma fracture training simulators. Additionally 9 knee arthroscopy simulators and 8 other orthopaedic simulators were included for comparison. The findings are that for orthopaedic surgery simulators in general, there is increasing use of patient-specific virtual models which reduce the learning curve. Modelling is also being used for patient-specific implant design and manufacture. Simulators are being increasingly validated for assessment as well as training. There are very few training simulators available for hip replacement, yet more advanced virtual reality is being used for other procedures such as hip trauma and drilling. Training simulators for hip replacement and orthopaedic surgery in general lag behind other surgical procedures for which virtual reality has become more common. Further developments are required to bring hip replacement training simulation up to date with other procedures. This suggests there is a gap in the market for a new high fidelity hip replacement and resurfacing training simulator. Copyright © 2015 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Role of virtual reality simulation in endoscopy training. (United States)

    Harpham-Lockyer, Louis; Laskaratos, Faidon-Marios; Berlingieri, Pasquale; Epstein, Owen


    Recent advancements in virtual reality graphics and models have allowed virtual reality simulators to be incorporated into a variety of endoscopic training programmes. Use of virtual reality simulators in training programmes is thought to improve skill acquisition amongst trainees which is reflected in improved patient comfort and safety. Several studies have already been carried out to ascertain the impact that usage of virtual reality simulators may have upon trainee learning curves and how this may translate to patient comfort. This article reviews the available literature in this area of medical education which is particularly relevant to all parties involved in endoscopy training and curriculum development. Assessment of the available evidence for an optimal exposure time with virtual reality simulators and the long-term benefits of their use are also discussed.

  18. I and C maintenance training simulators meeting the goals of nuclear plant training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shilmover, S. Jr.


    An instructor's overall goal in I and C training is to impart as much skill and knowledge as possible about the operation, tune up and troubleshooting of a piece of equipment. Through the use of a training simulator, the instructor has the actual equipment to demonstrate the principles he is trying to make. A student's goal in training is to improve his skills by learning as much as possible about the equipment he will be responsible for. When a simulator is used, a student gets hands-on time with the equipment where normal and abnormal conditions can be demonstrated. The students may be asked to perform job-related tasks and be evaluated on their performance. An employer's goal is to get personnel who can quickly fit into their work force. When training is performed using simulators, the employee receives the knowledge and hands-on skills necessary to quickly fit into the work force. The employee also gains confidence in working with the equipment. Another advantage for the employer is that training can be performed without shutting down the plant equipment. The employer thus can use the trained employees sooner and mainstream them into the work force

  19. Role of virtual reality simulation in endoscopy training


    Harpham-Lockyer, Louis; Laskaratos, Faidon-Marios; Berlingieri, Pasquale; Epstein, Owen


    Recent advancements in virtual reality graphics and models have allowed virtual reality simulators to be incorporated into a variety of endoscopic training programmes. Use of virtual reality simulators in training programmes is thought to improve skill acquisition amongst trainees which is reflected in improved patient comfort and safety. Several studies have already been carried out to ascertain the impact that usage of virtual reality simulators may have upon trainee learning curves and how...

  20. Resident simulation training in endoscopic endonasal surgery utilizing haptic feedback technology. (United States)

    Thawani, Jayesh P; Ramayya, Ashwin G; Abdullah, Kalil G; Hudgins, Eric; Vaughan, Kerry; Piazza, Matthew; Madsen, Peter J; Buch, Vivek; Sean Grady, M


    Simulated practice may improve resident performance in endoscopic endonasal surgery. Using the NeuroTouch haptic simulation platform, we evaluated resident performance and assessed the effect of simulation training on performance in the operating room. First- (N=3) and second- (N=3) year residents were assessed using six measures of proficiency. Using a visual analog scale, the senior author scored subjects. After the first session, subjects with lower scores were provided with simulation training. A second simulation served as a task-learning control. Residents were evaluated in the operating room over six months by the senior author-who was blinded to the trained/untrained identities-using the same parameters. A nonparametric bootstrap testing method was used for the analysis (Matlab v. 2014a). Simulation training was associated with an increase in performance scores in the operating room averaged over all measures (p=0.0045). This is the first study to evaluate the training utility of an endoscopic endonasal surgical task using a virtual reality haptic simulator. The data suggest that haptic simulation training in endoscopic neurosurgery may contribute to improvements in operative performance. Limitations include a small number of subjects and adjudication bias-although the trained/untrained identity of subjects was blinded. Further study using the proposed methods may better describe the relationship between simulated training and operative performance in endoscopic Neurosurgery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Retention of Mastoidectomy Skills After Virtual Reality Simulation Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steven Arild Wuyts; Konge, Lars; Cayé-Thomasen, Per


    IMPORTANCE: The ultimate goal of surgical training is consolidated skills with a consistently high performance. However, surgical skills are heterogeneously retained and depend on a variety of factors, including the task, cognitive demands, and organization of practice. Virtual reality (VR......) simulation is increasingly being used in surgical skills training, including temporal bone surgery, but there is a gap in knowledge on the retention of mastoidectomy skills after VR simulation training. OBJECTIVES: To determine the retention of mastoidectomy skills after VR simulation training...... with distributed and massed practice and to investigate participants' cognitive load during retention procedures. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A prospective 3-month follow-up study of a VR simulation trial was conducted from February 6 to September 19, 2014, at an academic teaching hospital among 36 medical...

  2. Integration of laparoscopic virtual-reality simulation into gynaecology training. (United States)

    Burden, C; Oestergaard, J; Larsen, C R


    Surgery carries the risk of serious harm, as well as benefit, to patients. For healthcare organisations, theatre time is an expensive commodity and litigation costs for surgical specialities are very high. Advanced laparoscopic surgery, now widely used in gynaecology for improved outcomes and reduced length of stay, involves longer operation times and a higher rate of complications for surgeons in training. Virtual-reality (VR) simulation is a relatively new training method that has the potential to promote surgical skill development before advancing to surgery on patients themselves. VR simulators have now been on the market for more than 10 years and, yet, few countries in the world have fully integrated VR simulation training into their gynaecology surgical training programmes. In this review, we aim to summarise the VR simulators currently available together with evidence of their effectiveness in gynaecology, to understand their limitations and to discuss their incorporation into national training curricula. © 2011 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2011 RCOG.

  3. Bronchoscopy Simulation Training as a Tool in Medical School Education. (United States)

    Gopal, Mallika; Skobodzinski, Alexus A; Sterbling, Helene M; Rao, Sowmya R; LaChapelle, Christopher; Suzuki, Kei; Litle, Virginia R


    Procedural simulation training is rare at the medical school level and little is known about its usefulness in improving anatomic understanding and procedural confidence in students. Our aim is to assess the impact of bronchoscopy simulation training on bronchial anatomy knowledge and technical skills in medical students. Medical students were recruited by email, consented, and asked to fill out a survey regarding their baseline experience. Two thoracic surgeons measured their knowledge of bronchoscopy on a virtual reality bronchoscopy simulator using the Bronchoscopy Skills and Tasks Assessment Tool (BSTAT), a validated 65-point checklist (46 for anatomy, 19 for simulation). Students performed four self-directed training sessions of 15 minutes per week. A posttraining survey and BSTAT were completed afterward. Differences between pretraining and posttraining scores were analyzed with paired Student's t tests and random intercept linear regression models accounting for baseline BSTAT score, total training time, and training year. The study was completed by 47 medical students with a mean training time of 81.5 ± 26.8 minutes. Mean total BSTAT score increased significantly from 12.3 ± 5.9 to 48.0 ± 12.9 (p training time and frequency of training did not have a significant impact on level of improvement. Self-driven bronchoscopy simulation training in medical students led to improvements in bronchial anatomy knowledge and bronchoscopy skills. Further investigation is under way to determine the impact of bronchoscopy simulation training on future specialty interest and long-term skills retention. Copyright © 2018 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Use of control room simulators for training of nuclear power plant personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Safety analysis and operational experience consistently indicate that human error is the greatest contributor to the risk of a severe accident in a nuclear power plant. Subsequent to the Three Mile Island accident, major changes were made internationally in reducing the potential for human error through improved procedures, information presentation, and training of operators. The use of full scope simulators in the training of operators is an essential element of these efforts to reduce human error. The operators today spend a large fraction of their time training and retraining on the simulator. As indicated in the IAEA Safety Guide on Recruitment, Qualification and Training of Personnel for Nuclear Power Plants, NS-G-2.8, 2002, representative simulator facilities should be used for training of control room operators and shift supervisors. Simulator training should incorporate normal, abnormal and accident conditions. The ability of the simulator to closely represent the actual conditions and environment that would be experienced in a real situation is critical to the value of the training received. The objective of this report is to provide nuclear power plant (NPP) managers, training centre managers and personnel involved with control room simulator training with practical information they can use to improve the performance of their personnel. While the emphasis in this publication is on simulator training of control room personnel using full scope simulators, information is also provided on how organizations have effectively used control room simulators for training of other NPP personnel, including simulators other than full-scope simulators

  5. Immersive Learning Simulations in Aircraft Maintenance Training (United States)


    You might just get a “serious game,” or “as proposed by the eLearning Guild, you could get an Immersive Learning Simulation.”3 Quoting the... eLearning Guild, Caspian Learning, in a report for the United Kingdom Ministry of Defense, defined an Immersive Learning Simulation (ILS) as “an is necessary, and will be for the foreseeable future , our current computer systems can provide realistic training that could save substantial time

  6. Intensive care unit nurses' evaluation of simulation used for team training. (United States)

    Ballangrud, Randi; Hall-Lord, Marie Louise; Hedelin, Birgitta; Persenius, Mona


    To implement a simulation-based team training programme and to investigate intensive care nurses' evaluations of simulation used for team training. Simulation-based training is recommended to make health care professionals aware of and understand the importance of teamwork related to patient safety. The study was based on a questionnaire evaluation design. A total of 63 registered nurses were recruited: 53 from seven intensive care units in four hospitals in one hospital trust and 10 from an intensive care postgraduate education programme. After conducting a simulation-based team training programme with two scenarios related to emergency situations in the intensive care, the participants evaluated each simulation activity with regard to: (i) outcome of satisfaction and self-confidence in learning, (ii) implementation of educational practice and (iii) simulation design/development. Intensive care nurses were highly satisfied with their simulation-based learning, and they were mostly in agreement with the statements about self-confidence in learning. They were generally positive in their evaluation of the implementation of the educational practice and the simulation design/development. Significant differences were found with regard to scenario roles, prior simulation experience and area of intensive care practice. The study indicates a positive reception of a simulation-based programme with regard to team training in emergency situations in an intensive care unit. The findings may motivate and facilitate the use of simulation for team training to promote patient safety in intensive care and provide educators with support to develop and improve simulation-based training programmes. © 2013 British Association of Critical Care Nurses.

  7. Instructional psychology and the design of training simulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stammers, R.B.


    In this paper the role of instructional psychology in simulator design and use is discussed. It is suggested that research and development work has tended to focus upon the face validity of simulators rather than their instructional utility. Dimensions of simulation are reviewed as are the variety of uses to which a simulator may be put. The nature of instructional psychology is briefly described under the following headings: task analysis, the acquisition of knowledge and skill and theories of instruction. Attention is also given to the potential role of computer-based training and the topic of retention of training is introduced. (author)

  8. Virtual reality simulation training for health professions trainees in gastrointestinal endoscopy. (United States)

    Walsh, Catharine M; Sherlock, Mary E; Ling, Simon C; Carnahan, Heather


    Traditionally, training in gastrointestinal endoscopy has been based upon an apprenticeship model, with novice endoscopists learning basic skills under the supervision of experienced preceptors in the clinical setting. Over the last two decades, however, the growing awareness of the need for patient safety has brought the issue of simulation-based training to the forefront. While the use of simulation-based training may have important educational and societal advantages, the effectiveness of virtual reality gastrointestinal endoscopy simulators has yet to be clearly demonstrated. To determine whether virtual reality simulation training can supplement and/or replace early conventional endoscopy training (apprenticeship model) in diagnostic oesophagogastroduodenoscopy, colonoscopy and/or sigmoidoscopy for health professions trainees with limited or no prior endoscopic experience. Health professions, educational and computer databases were searched until November 2011 including The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science, Biosis Previews, CINAHL, Allied and Complementary Medicine Database, ERIC, Education Full Text, CBCA Education, Career and Technical Education @ Scholars Portal, Education Abstracts @ Scholars Portal, Expanded Academic ASAP @ Scholars Portal, ACM Digital Library, IEEE Xplore, Abstracts in New Technologies and Engineering and Computer & Information Systems Abstracts. The grey literature until November 2011 was also searched. Randomised and quasi-randomised clinical trials comparing virtual reality endoscopy (oesophagogastroduodenoscopy, colonoscopy and sigmoidoscopy) simulation training versus any other method of endoscopy training including conventional patient-based training, in-job training, training using another form of endoscopy simulation (e.g. low-fidelity simulator), or no training (however defined by authors) were included.  Trials comparing one method of virtual reality training versus

  9. 78 FR 15714 - Welch Motel, Inc., Welch Oil, Inc., Boondocks USA Truck Stop, Bob Welch v. Midland Power... (United States)


    ..., Inc., Welch Oil, Inc., Boondocks USA Truck Stop, Bob Welch v. Midland Power Cooperative, Corn Belt..., Welch Motel, Inc., Welch Oil, Inc., Boondocks USA Truck Stop, and Bob Welch (collectively, Complainants... into a contract to consume all of the electric energy and capacity generated by [[Page 15715...

  10. 76 FR 28019 - Gregory R. Swecker, Beverly F. Swecker v. Midland Power Cooperative, State of Iowa; Notice of... (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. EL11-39-000] Gregory R. Swecker, Beverly F. Swecker v. Midland Power Cooperative, State of Iowa; Notice of Complaint Take notice... 1978 (PURPA),\\1\\ Gregory R. Swecker and Beverly F. Swecker (Complainants) filed a petition requesting...

  11. Qualified operator training in the simulated control room environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionescu, Teodor; Studineanu, Emil; Radulescu, Catalina; Bolocan, Gabriel


    Full text: Mainly designed for the training of the Cernavoda NPP Unit 2 operators, the virtual simulated environment allows the training of the already qualified operators for Cernavoda NPP Unit 1, adding to the already trained knowledge, the differences which has occurred in the Unit 2 design. Using state-of-the-art computers and displays and qualified software, the virtual simulated panels could offer a viable alternative to classic hardware-based training. This approach allows quick training of the new procedures required by the new configuration of the re-designed operator panels in the main control room of Cernavoda NPP Unit 2. (authors)

  12. Qualified operator training in the simulated control room environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionescu, Teodor; Studineanu, Emil; Radulescu, Catalina; Bolocan, Gabriel


    Mainly designed for the training of the Cernavoda NPP Unit 2 operators, the virtual simulated environment allows the training of the already qualified operators for Cernavoda NPP Unit 1, adding to the already trained knowledge, the differences which have occurred in the Unit 2 design. Using state-of-the-art computers and displays and qualified software, the virtual simulated panels could offer a viable alternative to classic hardware-based training. This approach allows quick training of the new procedures required by the new configuration of the re-designed operator panels in the main control room of Cernavoda NPP Unit 2. (authors)

  13. Virtual reality: emerging role of simulation training in vascular access. (United States)

    Davidson, Ingemar J A; Lok, Charmaine; Dolmatch, Bart; Gallieni, Maurizio; Nolen, Billy; Pittiruti, Mauro; Ross, John; Slakey, Douglas


    Evolving new technologies in vascular access mandate increased attention to patient safety; an often overlooked yet valuable training tool is simulation. For the end-stage renal disease patient, simulation tools are effective for all aspects of creating access for peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis. Based on aviation principles, known as crew resource management, we place equal emphasis on team training as individual training to improve interactions between team members and systems, cumulating in improved safety. Simulation allows for environmental control and standardized procedures, letting the trainee practice and correct mistakes without harm to patients, compared with traditional patient-based training. Vascular access simulators range from suture devices, to pressurized tunneled conduits for needle cannulation, to computer-based interventional simulators. Simulation training includes simulated case learning, root cause analysis of adverse outcomes, and continual update and refinement of concepts. Implementation of effective human to complex systems interaction in end-stage renal disease patients involves a change in institutional culture. Three concepts discussed in this article are as follows: (1) the need for user-friendly systems and technology to enhance performance, (2) the necessity for members to both train and work together as a team, and (3) the team assigned to use the system must test and practice it to a proficient level before safely using the system on patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Train-to-Ground communications of a Train Control and Monitoring Systems: A simulation platform modelling approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouaziz, Maha; Yan, Ying; Kassab, Mohamed


    wireless technologies, e.g. Wi-Fi and LTE. Different T2G scenarios are defined in order to evaluate the performances of the Mobile Communication Gateway (managing train communications) and Quality of Services (QoS) offered to TCMS applications in the context of various environments (regular train lines......Under the SAFE4RAIL project, we are developing a simulation platform based on a discrete-events network simulator. This platform models the Train-to-Ground (T2G) link in the framework of a system-level simulation of Train Control Management System (TCMS). The modelled T2G link is based on existing...

  15. Virtual reality simulators for rock engineering related training.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Squelch, A


    Full Text Available Virtual reality (VR) has been investigated by SIMRAC and CSIR Miningtek as a means of providing an enhancement to current training methods that will lead to more effective hazard awareness training programmes. A VR training simulator developed under...

  16. Simulation training tools for nonlethal weapons using gaming environments (United States)

    Donne, Alexsana; Eagan, Justin; Tse, Gabriel; Vanderslice, Tom; Woods, Jerry


    Modern simulation techniques have a growing role for evaluating new technologies and for developing cost-effective training programs. A mission simulator facilitates the productive exchange of ideas by demonstration of concepts through compellingly realistic computer simulation. Revolutionary advances in 3D simulation technology have made it possible for desktop computers to process strikingly realistic and complex interactions with results depicted in real-time. Computer games now allow for multiple real human players and "artificially intelligent" (AI) simulated robots to play together. Advances in computer processing power have compensated for the inherent intensive calculations required for complex simulation scenarios. The main components of the leading game-engines have been released for user modifications, enabling game enthusiasts and amateur programmers to advance the state-of-the-art in AI and computer simulation technologies. It is now possible to simulate sophisticated and realistic conflict situations in order to evaluate the impact of non-lethal devices as well as conflict resolution procedures using such devices. Simulations can reduce training costs as end users: learn what a device does and doesn't do prior to use, understand responses to the device prior to deployment, determine if the device is appropriate for their situational responses, and train with new devices and techniques before purchasing hardware. This paper will present the status of SARA's mission simulation development activities, based on the Half-Life gameengine, for the purpose of evaluating the latest non-lethal weapon devices, and for developing training tools for such devices.

  17. Take-home training in a simulation-based laparoscopy course

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thinggaard, Ebbe; Konge, Lars; Bjerrum, Flemming


    efficient method of training. Our aim was to investigate how box trainers are used in take-home training to help guide the design of take-home training courses. METHODS: This study was designed using a mixed methods approach. Junior doctors participating in a laparoscopy curriculum, which included...... practising at home on box trainers, were invited. Quantitative data on training patterns was collected from logbooks. Qualitative data on the use of box trainers was retrieved from focus groups and individual interviews. RESULTS: From logbooks, we found that 14 out of 18 junior doctors mixed their training......BACKGROUND: Simulation training can prepare trainees for clinical practice in laparoscopic surgery. Training on box trainers allows for simulation training at home, which studies have shown to be a feasible method of training. However, little research has been conducted into how to make it a more...

  18. Select review of the recent (1979-1983) behavioral research literature on training simulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laughery, K.R.


    This report summarizes some selected reports of behavioral research performed in the years 1979 to 1983 on training simulator application technology, and discusses findings related to nuclear power plant operators' simulator training. Findings are organized as related to the design, testing, and use of training simulators. Topics include Simulator Fidelity in Training Effectiveness, Operator Performance Measurement, Measuring Simulator Effectiveness, and Simulator Utilization Practices

  19. Simulation training in neurosurgery: advances in education and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konakondla S


    Full Text Available Sanjay Konakondla, Reginald Fong, Clemens M Schirmer Department of Neurosurgery and Neuroscience Institute, Geisinger Medical Center, Geisinger Health System, Danville, PA, USA Abstract: The current simulation technology used for neurosurgical training leaves much to be desired. Significant efforts are thoroughly exhausted in hopes of developing simulations that translate to give learners the “real-life” feel. Though a respectable goal, this may not be necessary as the application for simulation in neurosurgical training may be most useful in early learners. The ultimate uniformly agreeable endpoint of improved outcome and patient safety drives these investments. We explore the development, availability, educational taskforces, cost burdens and the simulation advancements in neurosurgical training. The technologies can be directed at achieving early resident milestones placed by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. We discuss various aspects of neurosurgery disciplines with specific technologic advances of simulation software. An overview of the scholarly landscape of the recent publications in the realm of medical simulation and virtual reality pertaining to neurologic surgery is provided. We analyze concurrent concept overlap between PubMed headings and provide a graphical overview of the associations between these terms. Keywords: residency education, simulation, neurosurgery training, virtual reality, haptic feedback, task analysis, ACGME 

  20. Simulator fidelity and training effectiveness: a comprehensive bibliography with selected annotations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, W.L.; Bolton, P.A.; Shikiar, R.; Saari, L.M.


    This document contains a comprehensive bibliography on the topic of simulator fidelity and training effectiveness, prepared during the preliminary phases of work on an NRC-sponsored project on the Role of Nuclear Power Plant Simulators in Operator Licensing and Training. Section A of the document is an annotated bibliography consisting of articles and reports with relevance to the psychological aspects of simulator fidelity and the effectiveness of training simulators in a variety of settings, including military. The annotated items are drawn from a more comprehensive bibliography, presented in Section B, listing documents treating the role of simulators in operator training both in the nuclear industry and elsewhere

  1. Simulators in the training program for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimm, E.


    The principle simulator of the reactor school of the Paul Scherrer Institute is described. A compact simulator at the nuclear power plant Beznau is used for beginners as well as for refresher courses. Full simulator training cannot be taken in Switzerland. The Swiss nuclear power plants take advantage of the services of foreign nuclear power plants or training centers. The role of the instructor is discussed

  2. Rural women's perspectives of maternity services in the Midland Region of New Zealand. (United States)

    Gibbons, Veronique; Lancaster, Gytha; Gosman, Kim; Lawrenson, Ross


    INTRODUCTION Rural women face many challenges with regards to maternity services. Many rural primary birthing facilities in New Zealand have closed. The Lead Maternity Carer (LMC) model of maternity care, introduced in 1990, has moved provision of rural maternity care from doctors to independent midwifery services. Shortages of rural midwives in the Midland region led to rural maternity care being seen as a vulnerable service. AIM To understand the views and experiences of rural women concerning maternity care, to inform the future design and provision of rural maternity services. METHODS Participants were drawn from areas purposively selected to represent the five District Health Boards comprising the Midland health region. A demographic questionnaire, focus groups and individual interviews explored rural women's perspectives of antenatal care provision. These were analysed thematically. RESULTS Sixty-two women were recruited. Key themes emerging from focus groups and interviews included: access to services, the importance of safety and quality of care, the need for appropriate information at different stages, and the role of partners, family and friends in the birthing journey. While most women were happy with access to services, quality of care, provision of information, and the role of family in their care, for some women, this experience could be enhanced. CONCLUSION Midwives are the frontline service for women seeking antenatal services. Support for rural midwives and for local birthing units is needed to ensure rural women receive services equal to that of their urban counterparts.

  3. Task 5: role of simulators in operator training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The purpose of the report is to present an analysis of the role of simulators in the training of nuclear power plant operators, from a human factors point of view. Task 5, and this report, consist of the following main parts: 'Current practices in operator training with simulators' (its objective was to identify the role of simulators in the operator training programs, from a human factors point of view, in OECD countries; the information requested was oriented towards the techniques and criteria used for establishing and evaluating that role in the different countries). 'Experiences or studies on specific issues' (its objective was to discuss in-depth some of the issues more difficult or not completely solved yet, with the aim to draw lessons learned and current practices which are used to avoid incidents originated by operator errors due to inadequate training; the selected issues were: Teamwork, Diagnosis and Decision-Making, Stress, and Simulator Fidelity, Issues and Concerns). 'Conclusions and recommendations' (its objective was to gather, present and sum up the conclusions and recommendations reached all over the contributions reported by the ETF-HF members and during the discussions held at the ETF-HF meetings)

  4. Modelling, simulation and applications of longitudinal train dynamics (United States)

    Cole, Colin; Spiryagin, Maksym; Wu, Qing; Sun, Yan Quan


    Significant developments in longitudinal train simulation and an overview of the approaches to train models and modelling vehicle force inputs are firstly presented. The most important modelling task, that of the wagon connection, consisting of energy absorption devices such as draft gears and buffers, draw gear stiffness, coupler slack and structural stiffness is then presented. Detailed attention is given to the modelling approaches for friction wedge damped and polymer draft gears. A significant issue in longitudinal train dynamics is the modelling and calculation of the input forces - the co-dimensional problem. The need to push traction performances higher has led to research and improvement in the accuracy of traction modelling which is discussed. A co-simulation method that combines longitudinal train simulation, locomotive traction control and locomotive vehicle dynamics is presented. The modelling of other forces, braking propulsion resistance, curve drag and grade forces are also discussed. As extensions to conventional longitudinal train dynamics, lateral forces and coupler impacts are examined in regards to interaction with wagon lateral and vertical dynamics. Various applications of longitudinal train dynamics are then presented. As an alternative to the tradition single wagon mass approach to longitudinal train dynamics, an example incorporating fully detailed wagon dynamics is presented for a crash analysis problem. Further applications of starting traction, air braking, distributed power, energy analysis and tippler operation are also presented.

  5. Development of training simulator based on critical assemblies test bench

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narozhnyi, A.T.; Vorontsov, S.V.; Golubeva, O.A.; Dyudyaev, A.M.; Il'in, V.I.; Kuvshinov, M.I.; Panin, A.V.; Peshekhonov, D.P.


    When preparing critical mass experiment, multiplying system (MS) parts are assembled manually. This work is connected with maximum professional risk to personnel. Personnel training and keeping the skill of working experts is the important factor of nuclear safety maintenance. For this purpose authors develop a training simulator based on functioning critical assemblies test bench (CATB), allowing simulation of the MS assemblage using training mockups made of inert materials. The control program traces the current status of MS under simulation. A change in the assembly neutron physical parameters is mapped in readings of the regular devices. The simulator information support is provided by the computer database on physical characteristics of typical MS components The work in the training mode ensures complete simulation of real MS assemblage on the critical test bench. It makes it possible to elaborate the procedures related to CATB operation in a standard mode safely and effectively and simulate possible abnormal situations. (author)

  6. Development in Rubber Preparation for Endoscopic Training Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Surangsrirat


    Full Text Available Endoscopy is one of the most important procedures in diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestinal tract problems. While endoscopic procedure has tremendous benefits, physicians require considerable practice and time to develop competency. Current endoscopic training process involves cognitive learning and hands-on training under the supervision of an expert gastroenterologist. Previous studies have shown that fellow involvement prolongs procedural time and incurs additional expenses to the institution. Moreover, the patient also experiences more discomfort and injury risk. Introduction of training simulator into the training process could reduce the involvement of the patients and thus reduce the risk. Porcine model is commonly used for training in endoscopy due to the similar tactile response to a human gastrointestinal tract. However, information on elastic behavior of pig or human gastrointestinal tract for the engineering purposes was limited. In this study, the modulus of elasticity and ultimate tensile stress data of the pig stomach and intestines, small and large intestines, were measured and compared with multiple rubber stomach and intestines models. Based on the experimental results and experienced gastroenterologists feedback, the proposed dipped rubber composition can provide a satisfactory tactile feedback and could be used to simulate a human gastrointestinal tract for an endoscopic simulation training model.

  7. The current role of simulation in urological training. (United States)

    Preece, Ryan


    Simulation is becoming an increasingly popular educational tool in numerous surgical specialities, including urology. This article reviews the current role of urological simulators; discussing their need, availability, incorporation and current limitations. A literature review of the electronic databases Medline, Embase and Google Scholar was performed. For increasingly limited urological training programs, simulation can act as a valuable adjunct to clinical training. Evidence suggests that simulation enables the trainee to bypass the early, error-prone part of the surgical learning curve. It should be incorporated into proficiency-based curricula, with junior trainees initially beginning with low fidelity simulators to grasp basic surgical skills before moving onto full-procedural simulation as they progress through their training. A wide variety of simulators of differing fidelity are currently available, teaching both technical (eg. cystoscopy) and non-technical (eg. communication) urological surgical skills. Whist numerous studies have assessed the face, content and construct validity of various urological simulators, further work needs to be undertaken to determine whether the skills learnt actually improve trainee performance in the operating room. Then, educators will be able to make informed decisions about whether these resource demanding (financially and in terms of demands on faculty) simulators are a worthwhile educational tool. Although further investigation is required, urological simulators appear to have a considerable role for developing both technical and non-technical urological skills in an increasingly restricted educational environment in modern urogynecology.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru GHEORGHIU


    Full Text Available For decades the issue of training through simulation has been discussed and studied to show its value and importance in fighter pilot training programs. Besides the fact that simulators are less expensive than a real airplane, and eliminate the operational risks that are present in a real flight they bring a significant contribution to the pilot training by their fidelity and realism that they show in such scenarios as in the reality. To measure the efficiency of training transfer from simulator to the aircraft, performance indicators were defined. The purpose of this article is to define these performance indicators and measurement of training transfer within the flight simulator involvement.

  9. The Evolution of Medical Training Simulation in the U.S. Military. (United States)

    Linde, Amber S; Kunkler, Kevin


    The United States has been at war since 2003. During that time, training using Medical Simulation technology has been developed and integrated into military medical training for combat medics, nurses and surgeons. Efforts stemming from the Joint Programmatic Committee-1 (JPC-1) Medical Simulation and Training Portfolio has allowed for the improvement and advancement in military medical training by focusing on research in simulation training technology in order to achieve this. Based upon lessons learned capability gaps have been identified concerning the necessity to validate and enhance combat medial training simulators. These capability gaps include 1) Open Source/Open Architecture; 2) Modularity and Interoperability; and 3) Material and Virtual Reality (VR) Models. Using the capability gaps, JPC-1 has identified important research endeavors that need to be explored.

  10. Simulation training in neurosurgery: advances in education and practice (United States)

    Konakondla, Sanjay; Fong, Reginald; Schirmer, Clemens M


    The current simulation technology used for neurosurgical training leaves much to be desired. Significant efforts are thoroughly exhausted in hopes of developing simulations that translate to give learners the “real-life” feel. Though a respectable goal, this may not be necessary as the application for simulation in neurosurgical training may be most useful in early learners. The ultimate uniformly agreeable endpoint of improved outcome and patient safety drives these investments. We explore the development, availability, educational taskforces, cost burdens and the simulation advancements in neurosurgical training. The technologies can be directed at achieving early resident milestones placed by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. We discuss various aspects of neurosurgery disciplines with specific technologic advances of simulation software. An overview of the scholarly landscape of the recent publications in the realm of medical simulation and virtual reality pertaining to neurologic surgery is provided. We analyze concurrent concept overlap between PubMed headings and provide a graphical overview of the associations between these terms. PMID:28765716

  11. Application of Nuclear Power Plant Simulator for High School Student Training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Chi Dong; Choi, Soo Young; Park, Min Young; Lee, Duck Jung [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)


    In this context, two lectures on nuclear power plant simulator and practical training were provided to high school students in 2014. The education contents were composed of two parts: the micro-physics simulator and the macro-physics simulator. The micro-physics simulator treats only in-core phenomena, whereas the macro-physics simulator describes whole system of a nuclear power plant but it considers a reactor core as a point. The high school students showed strong interests caused by the fact that they operated the simulation by themselves. This abstract reports the training detail and evaluation of the effectiveness of the training. Lectures on nuclear power plant simulator and practical exercises were performed at Ulsan Energy High School and Ulsan Meister High School. Two simulators were used: the macro- and micro-physics simulator. Using the macro-physics simulator, the following five simulations were performed: reactor power increase/decrease, reactor trip, single reactor coolant pump trip, large break loss of coolant accident, and station black-out with D.C. power loss. Using the micro-physics simulator, the following three analyses were performed: the transient analysis, fuel rod performance analysis, and thermal-hydraulics analysis. The students at both high schools showed interest and strong support for the simulator-based training. After the training, the students showed passionate responses that the education was of help for them to get interest in a nuclear power plant.

  12. Application of Nuclear Power Plant Simulator for High School Student Training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, Chi Dong; Choi, Soo Young; Park, Min Young; Lee, Duck Jung


    In this context, two lectures on nuclear power plant simulator and practical training were provided to high school students in 2014. The education contents were composed of two parts: the micro-physics simulator and the macro-physics simulator. The micro-physics simulator treats only in-core phenomena, whereas the macro-physics simulator describes whole system of a nuclear power plant but it considers a reactor core as a point. The high school students showed strong interests caused by the fact that they operated the simulation by themselves. This abstract reports the training detail and evaluation of the effectiveness of the training. Lectures on nuclear power plant simulator and practical exercises were performed at Ulsan Energy High School and Ulsan Meister High School. Two simulators were used: the macro- and micro-physics simulator. Using the macro-physics simulator, the following five simulations were performed: reactor power increase/decrease, reactor trip, single reactor coolant pump trip, large break loss of coolant accident, and station black-out with D.C. power loss. Using the micro-physics simulator, the following three analyses were performed: the transient analysis, fuel rod performance analysis, and thermal-hydraulics analysis. The students at both high schools showed interest and strong support for the simulator-based training. After the training, the students showed passionate responses that the education was of help for them to get interest in a nuclear power plant

  13. Full-scope nuclear training simulator -brought to the desktop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaPointe, D.J.; Manz, A.; Hall, G.S.


    RighTSTEP is a suite of simulation software which has been initially designed to facilitate upgrade of Ontario Hydro's full-scope simulators, but is also adaptable to a variety of other roles. it is presently being commissioned at Bruch A Training Simulator and has seen preliminary use in desktop and classroom roles. Because of the flexibility of the system, we anticipate it will see common use in the corporation for full-scope simulation roles. A key reason for developing RighTSTEP (Real Time Simulator Technology Extensible and Portable) was the need to modernize and upgrade the full-scope training simulator while protecting the investment in modelling code. This modelling code represents the end product of 18 years of evolution from the beginning of its development in 1979. Bringing this modelling code to a modern and more useful framework - the combination of simulator host, operating system, and simulator operating system - also could provide many spin-off benefits. The development (and first implementation) of the righTSTEP system was cited for saving the corporation 5.6M$ and was recognized by a corporate New Technology Award last year. The most important spin-off from this project has been the desktop version of the full-scope simulator. The desktop simulator uses essentially the same software as does its full-scope counterpart, and may be used for a variety of new purposes. Classroom and individual simulator training can now be easily accommodated since a desktop simulator is both affordable and relatively ease to use. Further, a wide group of people can be trained using the desktop simulator: by contrast the full-scope simulators were almost exclusively devoted to front-line operating staff. The desktop is finding increasing use in support of engineering applications, resulting from its easy accessibility, breadth of station systems represented, and tools for analysis and viewing. As further plant models are made available on the new simulator platform and

  14. A geographically-restricted but prevalent Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain identified in the West Midlands Region of the UK between 1995 and 2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason T Evans


    Full Text Available We describe the identification of, and risk factors for, the single most prevalent Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain in the West Midlands region of the UK.Prospective 15-locus MIRU-VNTR genotyping of all M. tuberculosis isolates in the West Midlands between 2004 and 2008 was undertaken. Two retrospective epidemiological investigations were also undertaken using univariable and multivariable logistic regression analysis. The first study of all TB patients in the West Midlands between 2004 and 2008 identified a single prevalent strain in each of the study years (total 155/3,056 (5% isolates. This prevalent MIRU-VNTR profile (32333 2432515314 434443183 remained clustered after typing with an additional 9-loci MIRU-VNTR and spoligotyping. The majority of these patients (122/155, 79% resided in three major cities located within a 40 km radius. From the apparent geographical restriction, we have named this the "Mercian" strain. A multivariate analysis of all TB patients in the West Midlands identified that infection with a Mercian strain was significantly associated with being UK-born (OR =  9.03, 95%CI = 4.56-17.87, p65 years old (OR = 0.25, 95% CI = 0.09-0.67, p < 0.01. A second more detailed investigation analyzed a cohort of 82 patients resident in Wolverhampton between 2003 and 2006. A significant association with being born in the UK remained after a multivariate analysis (OR = 9.68, 95% CI = 2.00-46.78, p < 0.01 and excess alcohol intake and cannabis use (OR = 6.26, 95%CI = 1.45-27.02, p =  .01 were observed as social risk factors for infection.The continued consistent presence of the Mercian strain suggests ongoing community transmission. Whilst significant associations have been found, there may be other common risk factors yet to be identified. Future investigations should focus on targeting the relevant risk groups and elucidating the biological factors that mediate continued transmission of this strain.

  15. [Educational usefulness of lung auscultation training with an auscultation simulator]. (United States)

    Arimura, Yasuji; Komatsu, Hiroyuki; Yanagi, Shigehisa; Matsumoto, Nobuhiro; Okayama, Akihiko; Hayashi, Katsuhiro; Nakazato, Masamitsu


    We examined the educational usefulness of lung auscultation training with an auscultation simulator "Mr. Lung". Auscultation training was conducted for fifth-year students of the Medical Department of the University of Miyazaki, and consisted of a lecture by a pulmonologist (Board Certified Member of the Japanese Respiratory Society) and skill training using Mr. Lung for a total of 90 min. We compared the percentages of students who correctly identified 4 adventitious sounds before and after training. We also investigated the responses to a self-report questionnaire on self-evaluation after training, auscultation experiences before training, and opinions regarding medical education with the simulator. The subjects' correct answer rate before training was 40% or less and that for the correct identification of rhonchi was the lowest (5%). The correct answer rate, which was not influenced by previous experience of auscultation, significantly increased after training (80% or more). In the self-report questionnaire, about 90% of the students answered that the ability to identify lung sounds by auscultation was necessary for all doctors and that the simulator was effective for acquiring this skill. The auscultation simulator may be useful for medical students not only to enhance auscultatory skills but also to realize the importance of auscultation in clinical examination.

  16. A review of computer-based simulators for ultrasound training. (United States)

    Blum, Tobias; Rieger, Andreas; Navab, Nassir; Friess, Helmut; Martignoni, Marc


    Computer-based simulators for ultrasound training are a topic of recent interest. During the last 15 years, many different systems and methods have been proposed. This article provides an overview and classification of systems in this domain and a discussion of their advantages. Systems are classified and discussed according to the image simulation method, user interactions and medical applications. Computer simulation of ultrasound has one key advantage over traditional training. It enables novel training concepts, for example, through advanced visualization, case databases, and automatically generated feedback. Qualitative evaluations have mainly shown positive learning effects. However, few quantitative evaluations have been performed and long-term effects have to be examined.

  17. Exploring the use of high-fidelity simulation training to enhance clinical skills. (United States)

    Ann Kirkham, Lucy


    The use of interprofessional simulation training to enhance nursing students' performance of technical and non-technical clinical skills is becoming increasingly common. Simulation training can involve the use of role play, virtual reality or patient simulator manikins to replicate clinical scenarios and assess the nursing student's ability to, for example, undertake clinical observations or work as part of a team. Simulation training enables nursing students to practise clinical skills in a safe environment. Effective simulation training requires extensive preparation, and debriefing is necessary following a simulated training session to review any positive or negative aspects of the learning experience. This article discusses a high-fidelity simulated training session that was used to assess a group of third-year nursing students and foundation level 1 medical students. This involved the use of a patient simulator manikin in a scenario that required the collaborative management of a deteriorating patient. ©2018 RCN Publishing Company Ltd. All rights reserved. Not to be copied, transmitted or recorded in any way, in whole or part, without prior permission of the publishers.

  18. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Spraberry Formation of the Midland Basin, Permian Basin Province, Texas, 2017 (United States)

    Marra, Kristen R.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Klett, Timothy R.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Le, Phuong A.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Finn, Thomas M.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Brownfield, Michael E.


    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean resources of 4.2 billion barrels of oil and 3.1 trillion cubic feet of gas in the Spraberry Formation of the Midland Basin, Permian Basin Province, Texas.

  19. Simulation-based training in echocardiography. (United States)

    Biswas, Monodeep; Patel, Rajendrakumar; German, Charles; Kharod, Anant; Mohamed, Ahmed; Dod, Harvinder S; Kapoor, Poonam Malhotra; Nanda, Navin C


    The knowledge gained from echocardiography is paramount for the clinician in diagnosing, interpreting, and treating various forms of disease. While cardiologists traditionally have undergone training in this imaging modality during their fellowship, many other specialties are beginning to show interest as well, including intensive care, anesthesia, and primary care trainees, in both transesophageal and transthoracic echocardiography. Advances in technology have led to the development of simulation programs accessible to trainees to help gain proficiency in the nuances of obtaining quality images, in a low stress, pressure free environment, often with a functioning ultrasound probe and mannequin that can mimic many of the pathologies seen in living patients. Although there are various training simulation programs each with their own benefits and drawbacks, it is clear that these programs are a powerful tool in educating the trainee and likely will lead to improved patient outcomes. © 2016, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Cognitive Load in Mastoidectomy Skills Training: Virtual Reality Simulation and Traditional Dissection Compared. (United States)

    Andersen, Steven Arild Wuyts; Mikkelsen, Peter Trier; Konge, Lars; Cayé-Thomasen, Per; Sørensen, Mads Sølvsten


    The cognitive load (CL) theoretical framework suggests that working memory is limited, which has implications for learning and skills acquisition. Complex learning situations such as surgical skills training can potentially induce a cognitive overload, inhibiting learning. This study aims to compare CL in traditional cadaveric dissection training and virtual reality (VR) simulation training of mastoidectomy. A prospective, crossover study. Participants performed cadaveric dissection before VR simulation of the procedure or vice versa. CL was estimated by secondary-task reaction time testing at baseline and during the procedure in both training modalities. The national Danish temporal bone course. A total of 40 novice otorhinolaryngology residents. Reaction time was increased by 20% in VR simulation training and 55% in cadaveric dissection training of mastoidectomy compared with baseline measurements. Traditional dissection training increased CL significantly more than VR simulation training (p < 0.001). VR simulation training imposed a lower CL than traditional cadaveric dissection training of mastoidectomy. Learning complex surgical skills can be a challenge for the novice and mastoidectomy skills training could potentially be optimized by employing VR simulation training first because of the lower CL. Traditional dissection training could then be used to supplement skills training after basic competencies have been acquired in the VR simulation. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Training and assessment of psychomotor skills for performing laparoscopic surgery using BEST-IRIS virtual reality training simulator. (United States)

    Makam, Ramesh; Rajan, C S; Brendon, Tulip; Shreedhar, V; Saleem, K; Shrivastava, Sangeeta; Sudarshan, R; Naidu, Prakash


    In this article, we present the results of a pilot study that examined the performance of people training on a Virtual Reality based BEST-IRIS Laparoscopic Surgery Training Simulator. The performance of experienced surgeons was examined and compared to the performance of residents. The purpose of this study is to validate the BEST-IRIS training simulator. It appeared to be a useful training and assessment tool.

  2. An Innovative Virtual Training Simulator for Columbus Astronauts (United States)

    Risola, F.; Morzuch, G.


    The International Space Station (ISS) is a co-operative programme among the main world space agencies. The European Space Agency contribution is the Automated Transfer Vehicle and the Columbus Orbital Facility, which is the European laboratory of the ISS. It provides a pressurized environment to house up to ten payload racks containing scientific instruments for the conduct of a broad band of experiments. The astronauts on-board of the ISS interact with the payloads for the preparation and execution of the experiments and before their expedition, they have to train on ground in the most realistic manner. The training is carried out at the European Astronauts Centre in the Columbus Trainer, a complex facility that reproduces the physical layout of the ISS European laboratory and a set of payload racks simulators. These simulators are being developed by Dataspazio with an innovative low-cost approach combining the high realism of the simulation with the flexibility and re-usability of the payloads simulators. The hearth of this approach is the interactive payload Virtual Front-panel Interface. The development of these high-realism training payload simulators incorporate several technological issues such as Digital Light ProcessingTM, projected capacitance touch-screen, high-fidelity graphics and simulation software.

  3. [Does simulator-based team training improve patient safety?]. (United States)

    Trentzsch, H; Urban, B; Sandmeyer, B; Hammer, T; Strohm, P C; Lazarovici, M


    Patient safety became paramount in medicine as well as in emergency medicine after it was recognized that preventable, adverse events significantly contributed to morbidity and mortality during hospital stay. The underlying errors cannot usually be explained by medical technical inadequacies only but are more due to difficulties in the transition of theoretical knowledge into tasks under the conditions of clinical reality. Crew Resource Management and Human Factors which determine safety and efficiency of humans in complex situations are suitable to control such sources of error. Simulation significantly improved safety in high reliability organizations, such as the aerospace industry.Thus, simulator-based team training has also been proposed for medical areas. As such training is consuming in cost, time and human resources, the question of the cost-benefit ratio obviously arises. This review outlines the effects of simulator-based team training on patient safety. Such course formats are not only capable of creating awareness and improvements in safety culture but also improve technical team performance and emphasize team performance as a clinical competence. A few studies even indicated improvement of patient-centered outcome, such as a reduced rate of adverse events but further studies are required in this respect. In summary, simulator-based team training should be accepted as a suitable strategy to improve patient safety.

  4. Surgical skills simulation in trauma and orthopaedic training. (United States)

    Stirling, Euan R B; Lewis, Thomas L; Ferran, Nicholas A


    Changing patterns of health care delivery and the rapid evolution of orthopaedic surgical techniques have made it increasingly difficult for trainees to develop expertise in their craft. Working hour restrictions and a drive towards senior led care demands that proficiency be gained in a shorter period of time whilst requiring a greater skill set than that in the past. The resulting conflict between service provision and training has necessitated the development of alternative methods in order to compensate for the reduction in 'hands-on' experience. Simulation training provides the opportunity to develop surgical skills in a controlled environment whilst minimising risks to patient safety, operating theatre usage and financial expenditure. Many options for simulation exist within orthopaedics from cadaveric or prosthetic models, to arthroscopic simulators, to advanced virtual reality and three-dimensional software tools. There are limitations to this form of training, but it has significant potential for trainees to achieve competence in procedures prior to real-life practice. The evidence for its direct transferability to operating theatre performance is limited but there are clear benefits such as increasing trainee confidence and familiarity with equipment. With progressively improving methods of simulation available, it is likely to become more important in the ongoing and future training and assessment of orthopaedic surgeons.

  5. Connecting the Links: Narratives, Simulations and Serious Games in Prehospital Training. (United States)

    Heldal, Ilona; Backlund, Per; Johannesson, Mikael; Lebram, Mikael; Lundberg, Lars


    Due to rapid and substantial changes in the health sector, collaboration and supporting technologies get more into focus. Changes in education and training are also required. Simulations and serious games (SSG) are often advocated as promising technologies supporting training of many and in the same manner, or increasing the skills necessary to deal with new, dangerous, complex or unexpected situations. The aim of this paper is to illustrate and discuss resources needed for planning and performing collaborative contextual training scenarios. Based on a practical study involving prehospital nurses and different simulator technologies the often-recurring activity chains in prehospital training were trained. This paper exemplifies the benefit of using narratives and SSGs for contextual training contributing to higher user experiences. The benefits of using simulation technologies aligned by processes can be easier defined by narratives from practitioners. While processes help to define more efficient and effective training, narratives and SSGs are beneficial to design scenarios with clues for higher user experiences. By discussing illustrative examples, the paper contributes to better understanding of how to plan simulation-technology rich training scenarios.

  6. Effectiveness of online simulation training: Measuring faculty knowledge, perceptions, and intention to adopt. (United States)

    Kim, Sujeong; Park, Chang; O'Rourke, Jennifer


    Best practice standards of simulation recommend standardized simulation training for nursing faculty. Online training may offer an effective and more widely available alternative to in-person training. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior, this study evaluated the effectiveness of an online simulation training program, examining faculty's foundational knowledge of simulation as well as perceptions and intention to adopt. One-group pretest-posttest design. A large school of nursing with a main campus and five regional campuses in the Midwestern United States. Convenience sample of 52 faculty participants. Knowledge of foundational simulation principles was measured by pre/post-training module quizzes. Perceptions and the intention to adopt simulation were measured using the Faculty Attitudes and Intent to Use Related to the Human Patient Simulator questionnaire. There was a significant improvement in faculty knowledge after training and observable improvements in attitudes. Attitudes significantly influenced the intention to adopt simulation (B=2.54, p<0.001). Online simulation training provides an effective alternative for training large numbers of nursing faculty who seek to implement best practice of standards within their institutions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Simulation-based interpersonal communication skills training for neurosurgical residents. (United States)

    Harnof, Sagi; Hadani, Moshe; Ziv, Amitai; Berkenstadt, Haim


    Communication skills are an important component of the neurosurgery residency training program. We developed a simulation-based training module for neurosurgery residents in which medical, communication and ethical dilemmas are presented by role-playing actors. To assess the first national simulation-based communication skills training for neurosurgical residents. Eight scenarios covering different aspects of neurosurgery were developed by our team: (1) obtaining informed consent for an elective surgery, (2) discharge of a patient following elective surgery, (3) dealing with an unsatisfied patient, (4) delivering news of intraoperative complications, (5) delivering news of a brain tumor to parents of a 5 year old boy, (6) delivering news of brain death to a family member, (7) obtaining informed consent for urgent surgery from the grandfather of a 7 year old boy with an epidural hematoma, and (8) dealing with a case of child abuse. Fifteen neurosurgery residents from all major medical centers in Israel participated in the training. The session was recorded on video and was followed by videotaped debriefing by a senior neurosurgeon and communication expert and by feedback questionnaires. All trainees participated in two scenarios and observed another two. Participants largely agreed that the actors simulating patients represented real patients and family members and that the videotaped debriefing contributed to the teaching of professional skills. Simulation-based communication skill training is effective, and together with thorough debriefing is an excellent learning and practical method for imparting communication skills to neurosurgery residents. Such simulation-based training will ultimately be part of the national residency program.

  8. Needs assessment for simulation training in neuroendoscopy: a Canadian national survey. (United States)

    Haji, Faizal A; Dubrowski, Adam; Drake, James; de Ribaupierre, Sandrine


    In recent years, dramatic changes in surgical education have increased interest in simulation-based training for complex surgical skills. This is particularly true for endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV), given the potential for serious intraoperative errors arising from surgical inexperience. However, prior to simulator development, a thorough assessment of training needs is essential to ensure development of educationally relevant platforms. The purpose of this study was to conduct a national needs assessment addressing specific goals of instruction, to guide development of simulation platforms, training curricula, and assessment metrics for ETV. Canadian neurosurgeons performing ETV were invited to participate in a structured online questionnaire regarding the procedural steps for ETV, the frequency and significance of intraoperative errors committed while learning the technique, and simulation training modules of greatest potential educational benefit. Descriptive data analysis was completed for both quantitative and qualitative responses. Thirty-two (55.2%) of 58 surgeons completed the survey. All believed that virtual reality simulation training for ETV would be a valuable addition to clinical training. Selection of ventriculostomy site, navigation within the ventricles, and performance of the ventriculostomy ranked as the most important steps to simulate. Technically inadequate ventriculostomy and inappropriate fenestration site selection were ranked as the most frequent/significant errors. A standard ETV module was thought to be most beneficial for resident training. To inform the development of a simulation-based training program for ETV, the authors have conducted a national needs assessment. The results provide valuable insight to inform key design elements necessary to construct an educationally relevant device and educational program.

  9. Cost-effective and low-technology options for simulation and training in neonatology. (United States)

    Bruno, Christie J; Glass, Kristen M


    The purpose of this review is to explore low-cost options for simulation and training in neonatology. Numerous cost-effective options exist for simulation and training in neonatology. Lower cost options are available for teaching clinical skills and procedural training in neonatal intubation, chest tube insertion, and pericardiocentesis, among others. Cost-effective, low-cost options for simulation-based education can be developed and shared in order to optimize the neonatal simulation training experience. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Simulator training analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollnagel, E.; Rasmussen, J.


    This paper presents a suggestion for systematic collection of data during the normal use of training simulators, with the double purpose of supporting trainee debriefing and providing data for further theoretical studies of operator performance. The method is based on previously described models of operator performance and decision-making, and is a specific instance of the general method for analysis of operator performance data. The method combines a detailed transient-specific description of the expected performance with transient-independent tools for observation of critical activities. (author)

  11. Implementation of full patient simulation training in surgical residency. (United States)

    Fernandez, Gladys L; Lee, Patrick C; Page, David W; D'Amour, Elizabeth M; Wait, Richard B; Seymour, Neal E


    Simulated patient care has gained acceptance as a medical education tool but is underused in surgical training. To improve resident clinical management in critical situations relevant to the surgical patient, high-fidelity full patient simulation training was instituted at Baystate Medical Center in 2005 and developed during successive years. We define surgical patient simulation as clinical management performed in a high fidelity environment using a manikin simulator. This technique is intended to be specifically modeled experiential learning related to the knowledge, skills, and behaviors that are fundamental to patient care. We report 3 academic years' use of a patient simulation curriculum. Learners were PGY 1-3 residents; 26 simulated patient care experiences were developed based on (1) designation as a critical management problem that would otherwise be difficult to practice, (2) ability to represent the specific problem in simulation, (3) relevance to the American Board of Surgery (ABS) certifying examination, and/or (4) relevance to institutional quality or morbidity and mortality reports. Although training started in 2005, data are drawn from the period of systematic and mandatory training spanning from July 2006 to June 2009. Training occurred during 1-hour sessions using a computer-driven manikin simulator (METI, Sarasota, Florida). Educational content was provided either before or during presimulation briefing sessions. Scenario areas included shock states, trauma and critical care case management, preoperative processes, and postoperative conditions and complications. All sessions were followed by facilitated debriefing. Likert scale-based multi-item assessments of core competency in medical knowledge, patient care, diagnosis, management, communication, and professionalism were used to generate a performance score for each resident for each simulation (percentage of best possible score). Performance was compared across PGYs by repeated

  12. Data-Driven Scenario Generation for Enhanced Realism of Equipment Training Simulators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vahdatikhaki, Faridaddin; Hammad, Amin; olde Scholtenhuis, Léon Luc; Miller, Seirgei Rosario; Makarov, Denis


    Improving the training of heavy equipment operators can make a significant contribution to improving the safety of construction sites. In recent years, Virtual Reality (VR)-based simulators have gained increased popularity for the use in equipment training programs. While VR training simulators for

  13. Role of in-situ simulation for training in healthcare: opportunities and challenges. (United States)

    Kurup, Viji; Matei, Veronica; Ray, Jessica


    Simulation has now been acknowledged as an important part of training in healthcare, and most academic hospitals have a dedicated simulation center. In-situ simulation occurs in patient care units with scenarios involving healthcare professionals in their actual working environment. The purpose of this review is to describe the process of putting together the components of in-situ simulation for training programs and to review outcomes studied, and challenges with this approach. In-situ simulation has been used to 'test-drive' new centers, train personnel in new procedures in existing centers, for recertification training and to uncover latent threats in clinical care areas. It has also emerged as an attractive alternative to traditional simulations for institutions that do not have their own simulation center. In-situ simulation can be used to improve reliability and safety especially in areas of high risk, and in high-stress environments. It is also a reasonable and attractive alternative for programs that want to conduct interdisciplinary simulations for their trainees and faculty, and for those who do not have access to a fully functional simulation center. Further research needs to be done in assessing effectiveness of training using this method and the effect of such training on clinical outcomes.

  14. The effect of virtual endoscopy simulator training on novices: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiguang Qiao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Advances in virtual endoscopy simulators have paralleled an interest in medical simulation for gastrointestinal endoscopy training. OBJECTIVE: The primary objective was to determine whether the virtual endoscopy simulator training could improve the performance of novices. DESIGN: A systematic review. SETTING: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs that compared virtual endoscopy simulator training with bedside teaching or any other intervention for novices were collected. PATIENTS: Novice endoscopists. INTERVENTIONS: The PRISMA statement was followed during the course of the research. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and ScienceDirect were searched (up to July 2013. Data extraction and assessment were independently performed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: Independent procedure completion, total procedure time and required assistance. RESULTS: Fifteen studies (n = 354 were eligible for inclusion: 9 studies designed for colonoscopy training, 6 for gastroscopy training. For gastroscopy training, procedure completed independently was reported in 87.7% of participants in simulator training group compared to 70.0% of participants in control group (1 study; 22 participants; RR 1.25; 95% CI 1.13-1.39; P<0.0001. For colonoscopy training, procedure completed independently was reported in 89.3% of participants in simulator training group compared to 88.9% of participants in control group (7 study; 163 participants; RR 1.10; 95% CI 0.88-1.37; P = 0.41; I(2 = 85%. LIMITATIONS: The included studies are quite in-homogeneous with respect to training schedule and procedure. CONCLUSIONS: Virtual endoscopy simulator training might be effective for gastroscopy, but so far no data is available to support this for colonoscopy.

  15. An advanced simulator for orthopedic surgical training. (United States)

    Cecil, J; Gupta, Avinash; Pirela-Cruz, Miguel


    The purpose of creating the virtual reality (VR) simulator is to facilitate and supplement the training opportunities provided to orthopedic residents. The use of VR simulators has increased rapidly in the field of medical surgery for training purposes. This paper discusses the creation of the virtual surgical environment (VSE) for training residents in an orthopedic surgical process called less invasive stabilization system (LISS) surgery which is used to address fractures of the femur. The overall methodology included first obtaining an understanding of the LISS plating process through interactions with expert orthopedic surgeons and developing the information centric models. The information centric models provided a structured basis to design and build the simulator. Subsequently, the haptic-based simulator was built. Finally, the learning assessments were conducted in a medical school. The results from the learning assessments confirm the effectiveness of the VSE for teaching medical residents and students. The scope of the assessment was to ensure (1) the correctness and (2) the usefulness of the VSE. Out of 37 residents/students who participated in the test, 32 showed improvements in their understanding of the LISS plating surgical process. A majority of participants were satisfied with the use of teaching Avatars and haptic technology. A paired t test was conducted to test the statistical significance of the assessment data which showed that the data were statistically significant. This paper demonstrates the usefulness of adopting information centric modeling approach in the design and development of the simulator. The assessment results underscore the potential of using VR-based simulators in medical education especially in orthopedic surgery.

  16. Modular modeling and simulation of hybrid power trains; Modulare Modellbildung und Simulation von hybriden Antriebstraengen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelz, Gerald; Hirschberg, Wolfgang [Inst. fuer Fahrzeugtechnik, Technische Univ. Graz (Austria)


    The power train of a hybrid vehicle is considerably more complex than that of conventional vehicles. Whilst the topology of a conventional vehicle is normally fixed, the arrangement of the power train components for innovative propulsion systems is a flexible one. The aim is to find those topologies and configurations which are optimal for the intended use. Fuel consumption potentials can be derived with the aid of vehicle longitudinal dynamics simulation. Mostly these simulations are carried out using commercial software which is optimized for the standard topology and do not offer the flexibility to calculate arbitrary topologies. This article covers the modular modeling and the fuel consumption simulation of complex hybrid power trains for topology analysis. A component library for the development of arbitrary hybrid propulsion systems is introduced. The focus lies on an efficient and fast modeling which provides exact simulation results. Several models of power train components are introduced. (orig.)

  17. Automated testing and reverification for training simulators using SATAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charles, R.D.; Gaddy, C.D.; Nargarkar, A.; Colley, R.


    This paper reports that simulators used to train nuclear power plant operators must be recertified periodically to ensure fidelity for training (10 CFR 55.45). The objective of the Simulator Automated Testing and Reverification (SATAR) project was to develop software to reverify dynamic simulator performance automatically. The software resides in a standard configuration personal computer and in the simulator computer; the two computers are linked via serial ports. SATAR will automatically run performance tests, collect and analyze data, and compare data with baseline performance data. With SATAR, support from operations and simulator support personnel can be reduced greatly, and the repeatability of performance tests can be improved

  18. Retention of Mastoidectomy Skills After Virtual Reality Simulation Training. (United States)

    Andersen, Steven Arild Wuyts; Konge, Lars; Cayé-Thomasen, Per; Sørensen, Mads Sølvsten


    The ultimate goal of surgical training is consolidated skills with a consistently high performance. However, surgical skills are heterogeneously retained and depend on a variety of factors, including the task, cognitive demands, and organization of practice. Virtual reality (VR) simulation is increasingly being used in surgical skills training, including temporal bone surgery, but there is a gap in knowledge on the retention of mastoidectomy skills after VR simulation training. To determine the retention of mastoidectomy skills after VR simulation training with distributed and massed practice and to investigate participants' cognitive load during retention procedures. A prospective 3-month follow-up study of a VR simulation trial was conducted from February 6 to September 19, 2014, at an academic teaching hospital among 36 medical students: 19 from a cohort trained with distributed practice and 17 from a cohort trained with massed practice. Participants performed 2 virtual mastoidectomies in a VR simulator a mean of 3.2 months (range, 2.4-5.0 months) after completing initial training with 12 repeated procedures. Practice blocks were spaced apart in time (distributed), or all procedures were performed in 1 day (massed). Performance of the virtual mastoidectomy as assessed by 2 masked senior otologists using a modified Welling scale, as well as cognitive load as estimated by reaction time to perform a secondary task. Among 36 participants, mastoidectomy final-product skills were largely retained at 3 months (mean change in score, 0.1 points; P = .89) regardless of practice schedule, but the group trained with massed practice took more time to complete the task. The performance of the massed practice group increased significantly from the first to the second retention procedure (mean change, 1.8 points; P = .001), reflecting that skills were less consolidated. For both groups, increases in reaction times in the secondary task (distributed practice group: mean

  19. Design of 3D simulation engine for oilfield safety training (United States)

    Li, Hua-Ming; Kang, Bao-Sheng


    Aiming at the demand for rapid custom development of 3D simulation system for oilfield safety training, this paper designs and implements a 3D simulation engine based on script-driven method, multi-layer structure, pre-defined entity objects and high-level tools such as scene editor, script editor, program loader. A scripting language been defined to control the system's progress, events and operating results. Training teacher can use this engine to edit 3D virtual scenes, set the properties of entity objects, define the logic script of task, and produce a 3D simulation training system without any skills of programming. Through expanding entity class, this engine can be quickly applied to other virtual training areas.

  20. Collection and analysis of training simulator data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krois, P.A.; Haas, P.M.


    The purposes of this paper are: (1) to review the objectives, approach, and results of a series of research experiments performed on nuclear power plant training simulators in support of regulatory and research programs of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and (2) to identify general research issues that may lead to an improved research methodology using the training simulator as a field setting. Research products consist of a refined field research methodology, a data store on operator performance, and specific results pertinent to NRC regulatory positions. Issues and potential advances in operator performance measurement are discussed

  1. Basic principles simulators - concept training simulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benkert, J.


    Basic Principles Simulators have the purpose of teaching general concepts, demonstrating and displaying the fundamental physical processes of a plant. They are used to illustrate theory to students and also to provide a preliminary training to the operators, to aquaint them with the basic dynamic interactions of the various systems during the normal operation of a plant, and to show the consequences of the most important and common transients and malfunctions. Basic principles simulators may vary in size from small desk cabinets to large panels. They represent with a certain detail the nuclear and thermohydraulic part of the plant. The availability of video displays allows to present detailed information about process parameters which are not shown on the control panels. In general the overall plant behaviour is represented well. Limitations are mostly found in the areas of logic and control. (orig./HP)

  2. Determining procedures for simulation-based training in radiology: a nationwide needs assessment. (United States)

    Nayahangan, Leizl Joy; Nielsen, Kristina Rue; Albrecht-Beste, Elisabeth; Bachmann Nielsen, Michael; Paltved, Charlotte; Lindorff-Larsen, Karen Gilboe; Nielsen, Bjørn Ulrik; Konge, Lars


    New training modalities such as simulation are widely accepted in radiology; however, development of effective simulation-based training programs is challenging. They are often unstructured and based on convenience or coincidence. The study objective was to perform a nationwide needs assessment to identify and prioritize technical procedures that should be included in a simulation-based curriculum. A needs assessment using the Delphi method was completed among 91 key leaders in radiology. Round 1 identified technical procedures that radiologists should learn. Round 2 explored frequency of procedure, number of radiologists performing the procedure, risk and/or discomfort for patients, and feasibility for simulation. Round 3 was elimination and prioritization of procedures. Response rates were 67 %, 70 % and 66 %, respectively. In Round 1, 22 technical procedures were included. Round 2 resulted in pre-prioritization of procedures. In round 3, 13 procedures were included in the final prioritized list. The three highly prioritized procedures were ultrasound-guided (US) histological biopsy and fine-needle aspiration, US-guided needle puncture and catheter drainage, and basic abdominal ultrasound. A needs assessment identified and prioritized 13 technical procedures to include in a simulation-based curriculum. The list may be used as guide for development of training programs. • Simulation-based training can supplement training on patients in radiology. • Development of simulation-based training should follow a structured approach. • The CAMES Needs Assessment Formula explores needs for simulation training. • A national Delphi study identified and prioritized procedures suitable for simulation training. • The prioritized list serves as guide for development of courses in radiology.

  3. Central venous catheterization training: current perspectives on the role of simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soffler MI


    Full Text Available Morgan I Soffler,1,2 Margaret M Hayes,2–4 C Christopher Smith3–5 1Harvard Combined Pulmonary and Critical Care Fellowship at Massachusetts General Hospital and Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA; 2Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA; 3Internal Medicine Residency Program, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA; 4Shapiro Institute for Education and Research, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; 5Division of General Internal Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: Simulation is a popular and effective training modality in medical education across a variety of domains. Central venous catheterization (CVC is commonly undertaken by trainees, and carries significant risk for patient harm when carried out incorrectly. Multiple studies have evaluated the efficacy of simulation-based training programs, in comparison with traditional training modalities, on learner and patient outcomes. In this review, we discuss relevant adult learning principles that support simulation-based CVC training, review the literature on simulation-based CVC training, and highlight the use of simulation-based CVC training programs at various institutions. Keywords: simulation, central venous catheterization, assessment, competency, central line insertion

  4. Lack of transfer of skills after virtual reality simulator training with haptic feedback. (United States)

    Våpenstad, Cecilie; Hofstad, Erlend Fagertun; Bø, Lars Eirik; Kuhry, Esther; Johnsen, Gjermund; Mårvik, Ronald; Langø, Thomas; Hernes, Toril Nagelhus


    Virtual reality (VR) simulators enrich surgical training and offer training possibilities outside of the operating room (OR). In this study, we created a criterion-based training program on a VR simulator with haptic feedback and tested it by comparing the performances of a simulator group against a control group. Medical students with no experience in laparoscopy were randomly assigned to a simulator group or a control group. In the simulator group, the candidates trained until they reached predefined criteria on the LapSim ® VR simulator (Surgical Science AB, Göteborg, Sweden) with haptic feedback (Xitact TM IHP, Mentice AB, Göteborg, Sweden). All candidates performed a cholecystectomy on a porcine organ model in a box trainer (the clinical setting). The performances were video rated by two surgeons blinded to subject training status. In total, 30 students performed the cholecystectomy and had their videos rated (N = 16 simulator group, N = 14 control group). The control group achieved better video rating scores than the simulator group (p training program did not transfer skills to the clinical setting. Poor mechanical performance of the simulated haptic feedback is believed to have resulted in a negative training effect.

  5. Laparoscopic skill improvement after virtual reality simulator training in medical students as assessed by augmented reality simulator. (United States)

    Nomura, Tsutomu; Mamada, Yasuhiro; Nakamura, Yoshiharu; Matsutani, Takeshi; Hagiwara, Nobutoshi; Fujita, Isturo; Mizuguchi, Yoshiaki; Fujikura, Terumichi; Miyashita, Masao; Uchida, Eiji


    Definitive assessment of laparoscopic skill improvement after virtual reality simulator training is best obtained during an actual operation. However, this is impossible in medical students. Therefore, we developed an alternative assessment technique using an augmented reality simulator. Nineteen medical students completed a 6-week training program using a virtual reality simulator (LapSim). The pretest and post-test were performed using an object-positioning module and cholecystectomy on an augmented reality simulator(ProMIS). The mean performance measures between pre- and post-training on the LapSim were compared with a paired t-test. In the object-positioning module, the execution time of the task (P virtual reality simulator improved the operative skills of medical students as objectively evaluated by assessment using an augmented reality simulator instead of an actual operation. We hope that these findings help to establish an effective training program for medical students. © 2015 Japan Society for Endoscopic Surgery, Asia Endosurgery Task Force and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  6. A Study on Evaluation of Training Program for MCR Operators of SMART Simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyun Jun; Lee, Joon Ku; Jeong, Kwang Il [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    It is important to develop a training program by simulators in main control room of nuclear power plants because there is no an operation expert and no operating experience in the pre-construction phase of nuclear power plants. It is also necessary to develop a training program and its evaluation method taking human error into account. The purpose of this study is developing evaluation model of simulators. In a training program, once training requirements are selected, evaluation of training is as important as its implementation. Training effectiveness is available value in a simulator-based environment. The main control room of SMART (System-integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor) is consist of workstation, visual display units such as LDP and FPD based on digital systems. Cognitive behaviors of a high level are required to operators in these man-machine interface system (MMIS). Therefore, it is essential to identify training requirements and to develop its evaluation model. Virtual Environments such as a simulator have utilized by a lot of industries and companies for training and accident prevention. Simulators have three primary benefits. The first is that training by simulators is less expensive than those in real environment. The second is that simulators enable safety enhancement using systematic training program. The third is that simulators provide a preliminary to prevent human error. It is significant to apply TER, TCR, TCE in evaluation of training effect. It is expected that these could be applied to revise training criteria and enable to consider efficiency in terms of cost and benefit.

  7. A Study on Evaluation of Training Program for MCR Operators of SMART Simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyun Jun; Lee, Joon Ku; Jeong, Kwang Il


    It is important to develop a training program by simulators in main control room of nuclear power plants because there is no an operation expert and no operating experience in the pre-construction phase of nuclear power plants. It is also necessary to develop a training program and its evaluation method taking human error into account. The purpose of this study is developing evaluation model of simulators. In a training program, once training requirements are selected, evaluation of training is as important as its implementation. Training effectiveness is available value in a simulator-based environment. The main control room of SMART (System-integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor) is consist of workstation, visual display units such as LDP and FPD based on digital systems. Cognitive behaviors of a high level are required to operators in these man-machine interface system (MMIS). Therefore, it is essential to identify training requirements and to develop its evaluation model. Virtual Environments such as a simulator have utilized by a lot of industries and companies for training and accident prevention. Simulators have three primary benefits. The first is that training by simulators is less expensive than those in real environment. The second is that simulators enable safety enhancement using systematic training program. The third is that simulators provide a preliminary to prevent human error. It is significant to apply TER, TCR, TCE in evaluation of training effect. It is expected that these could be applied to revise training criteria and enable to consider efficiency in terms of cost and benefit

  8. Individualized feedback during simulated laparoscopic training:a mixed methods study. (United States)

    Ahlborg, Liv; Weurlander, Maria; Hedman, Leif; Nisel, Henry; Lindqvist, Pelle G; Felländer-Tsai, Li; Enochsson, Lars


    This study aimed to explore the value of individualized feedback on performance, flow and self-efficacy during simulated laparoscopy. Furthermore, we wished to explore attitudes towards feedback and simulator training among medical students. Sixteen medical students were included in the study and randomized to laparoscopic simulator training with or without feedback. A teacher provided individualized feedback continuously throughout the procedures to the target group. Validated questionnaires and scales were used to evaluate self-efficacy and flow. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to evaluate differences between groups regarding laparoscopic performance (instrument path length), self-efficacy and flow. Qualitative data was collected by group interviews and interpreted using inductive thematic analyses. Sixteen students completed the simulator training and questionnaires. Instrument path length was shorter in the feedback group (median 3.9 m; IQR: 3.3-4.9) as compared to the control group (median 5.9 m; IQR: 5.0-8.1), pfeedback group were more concentrated on the task and also more anxious. Both groups had high ambitions to succeed and also expressed the importance of getting feedback. The authenticity of the training scenario was important for the learning process. This study highlights the importance of individualized feedback during simulated laparoscopy training. The next step is to further optimize feedback and to transfer standardized and individualized feedback from the simulated setting to the operating room.

  9. The CANDU man-machine interface and simulator training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinchley, E.M.; Yanofsky, N.


    The most significant features of the man-machine interface for CANDU power stations are the extensive use of computer-driven colour graphics displays and the small number of manual controls. The man-machine interface in CANDU stations is designed to present the operator with concise, easy-to-understand information. Future developments in the use of computers in safety shutdown systems, and the use of data highway technologies in plant regulating systems will present special requirements and new opportunities in the application of human factors engineering to the control room. Good man-machine interaction depends on operator training as much as on control room design. In Canada computerized training simulators, which indicate plant response to operator action, are being introducted for operator training. Such simulators support training in normal operation of all plant systems and also in the fault management tasks following malfunctions

  10. The effect of self-directed virtual reality simulation on dissection training performance in mastoidectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steven Arild Wuyts; Foghsgaard, Søren; Konge, Lars


    OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To establish the effect of self-directed virtual reality (VR) simulation training on cadaveric dissection training performance in mastoidectomy and the transferability of skills acquired in VR simulation training to the cadaveric dissection training setting. STUDY DESIGN......: Prospective study. METHODS: Two cohorts of 20 novice otorhinolaryngology residents received either self-directed VR simulation training before cadaveric dissection training or vice versa. Cadaveric and VR simulation performances were assessed using final-product analysis with three blinded expert raters....... RESULTS: The group receiving VR simulation training before cadaveric dissection had a mean final-product score of 14.9 (95 % confidence interval [CI] [12.9-16.9]) compared with 9.8 (95% CI [8.4-11.1]) in the group not receiving VR simulation training before cadaveric dissection. This 52% increase...

  11. Full scope simulator commissioning and training experience at Cernavoda NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balan, M.


    The paper presents the experience gained during commissioning and the initial use of the CANDU training full-scope simulator for operation personnel at Cernavoda NPP. The full-scope simulator as an integral part of the training programs that take place in Cernavoda Nuclear Training Department (CNTD), is mainly used for the development of operational skills, knowledge and attitudes required to operate the plant in a safe and efficient manner. (author)

  12. Advanced training simulator models. Implementation and validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borkowsky, Jeffrey; Judd, Jerry; Belblidia, Lotfi; O'farrell, David; Andersen, Peter


    Modern training simulators are required to replicate plant data for both thermal-hydraulic and neutronic response. Replication is required such that reactivity manipulation on the simulator properly trains the operator for reactivity manipulation at the plant. This paper discusses advanced models which perform this function in real-time using the coupled code system THOR/S3R. This code system models the all fluids systems in detail using an advanced, two-phase thermal-hydraulic a model. The nuclear core is modeled using an advanced, three-dimensional nodal method and also by using cycle-specific nuclear data. These models are configured to run interactively from a graphical instructor station or handware operation panels. The simulator models are theoretically rigorous and are expected to replicate the physics of the plant. However, to verify replication, the models must be independently assessed. Plant data is the preferred validation method, but plant data is often not available for many important training scenarios. In the absence of data, validation may be obtained by slower-than-real-time transient analysis. This analysis can be performed by coupling a safety analysis code and a core design code. Such a coupling exists between the codes RELAP5 and SIMULATE-3K (S3K). RELAP5/S3K is used to validate the real-time model for several postulated plant events. (author)

  13. Simulators in the urological training armamentarium: A boon or a bane? (United States)

    Aggarwal, Gaurav; Adhikary, Samiran D


    Simulation devices have grasped the attention of almost all industries worldwide and the medical field has not been exempt. With technological advancement, it becomes important to assess whether medical simulators are the way forward as an adjunct or as a replacement to traditional training approaches by assessing their safety, efficacy and cost-effectiveness, and whether they should be made mandatory in the curriculum of urology training. The present review aims to clarify some of these issues, as well as assess their role in urological training and present both the pros and cons of this simulation-based training.

  14. The efficacy of virtual reality simulation training in laparoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian Rifbjerg; Oestergaard, Jeanett; Ottesen, Bent S


    Background. Virtual reality (VR) simulators for surgical training might possess the properties needed for basic training in laparoscopy. Evidence for training efficacy of VR has been investigated by research of varying quality over the past decade. Objective. To review randomized controlled trial...

  15. The use of simulation on courses at the CEGB's nuclear power training centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madden, V.J.; Tompsett, P.A.


    Simulation used during training courses held at the Central Electricity Generating Board's (CEGB's) Nuclear Power Training Centre takes the form of desk-top kinetics units, generic Magnox and plant specific Advanced Gas Cooled Reactor (AGR) simulators. This paper reviews the CEGB's experience in the training use of the first three AGR simulators and describes both the developments made since their first commissioning and those currently envisaged. The Heysham 2 simulator is compared with the earlier units and its use during training courses is discussed. The role of the tutor in the provision of simulator training is considered together with the various facilities which he controls. (author)

  16. Development of a virtual training simulator for a challenging refurbishment task

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mort, P.E.


    An overview is presented of the technology, developed by British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL), to create a virtual training simulator for refurbishment tasks. It focuses on the Raffinate Project, a challenging plant modification take, performed remotely, during which component removal, welding and installation of new components are all undertaken. The Training Simulator developed required fast multiprocessor computing with system intercommunication. Operators responded well to the Training Simulator and further improvements to the system are underway. (UK)

  17. Upgrade of the Hunterston B AGR operator training simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, J.; Nicol, D.; Hacking, D.


    Nuclear power plant simulators provide a vital tool in the training of operational staff in the statutory procedures and operational requirements of the nuclear industry. Scottish Nuclear, and its predecessor the South of Scotland Electricity Board, recognised the value such facilities offered to safety and efficiency and commissioned the construction of the Hunterston Operator Training Simulator as early as 1980. The simulator is a full scope, total plant, and real time system, with a complete 'as plant' replication of the operator interface, together with extensive instructor and tutorial facilities. Its uses have extended beyond the operator training role into plant engineering post incident analysis, evolving to be an essential feature of the station as a whole. Operation of the simulator for the foreseeable life of the station was the main driving force behind the current simulator update project, and whilst the need to move to a new computing platform, avoiding impending obsolescence problems, was the prime reason, the retention of 17 years of software development was seen as a valuable legacy to preserve. This paper discusses the main criteria considered during the simulator upgrade programme, highlighting the main technical issues and risks involved. (author)

  18. Simulation technology for resuscitation training: a systematic review and meta-analysis. (United States)

    Mundell, William C; Kennedy, Cassie C; Szostek, Jason H; Cook, David A


    To summarize current available data on simulation-based training in resuscitation for health care professionals. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ERIC, Web of Science, Scopus and reference lists of published reviews. Published studies of any language or date that enrolled health professions' learners to investigate the use of technology-enhanced simulation to teach resuscitation in comparison with no intervention or alternative training. Data were abstracted in duplicate. We identified themes examining different approaches to curriculum design. We pooled results using random effects meta-analysis. 182 studies were identified involving 16,636 participants. Overall, simulation-based training of resuscitation skills, in comparison to no intervention, appears effective regardless of assessed outcome, level of learner, study design, or specific task trained. In comparison to no intervention, simulation training improved outcomes of knowledge (Hedges' g) 1.05 (95% confidence interval, 0.81-1.29), process skill 1.13 (0.99-1.27), product skill 1.92 (1.26-2.60), time skill 1.77 (1.13-2.42) and patient outcomes 0.26 (0.047-0.48). In comparison with non-simulation intervention, learner satisfaction 0.79 (0.27-1.31) and process skill 0.35 (0.12-0.59) outcomes favored simulation. Studies investigating how to optimize simulation training found higher process skill outcomes in courses employing "booster" practice 0.13 (0.03-0.22), team/group dynamics 0.51 (0.06-0.97), distraction 1.76 (1.02-2.50) and integrated feedback 0.49 (0.17-0.80) compared to courses without these features. Most analyses reflected high between-study inconsistency (I(2) values >50%). Simulation-based training for resuscitation is highly effective. Design features of "booster" practice, team/group dynamics, distraction and integrated feedback improve effectiveness. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Design and use of an engineering simulator for power plant and training simulator updates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharawy, P.S.; Kennard, J.R.; Chou, Q.B.


    The advancement in real-time simulators has been facilitated by the availability of increasingly powerful computing devices at reduced costs for use in conjunction with high-fidelity simulation software. Ontario Hydro's commitment to the safe and reliable operation of its nuclear power plants was one of the factors which influenced its decision to build a plant-replica operator training simulator for each of its nuclear generating stations. This investment soon proved to have advantages beyond those originally envisaged. It become apparent that because the software developed for these simulators met rigorous acceptance criteria, it could be used on an engineering simulator to effectively investigate problems occurring at the stations. It could also serve as a design aid for station modifications. Encouraged by the success of early experimentation in the use of its training simulators for concept validation and verification, Ontario Hydro is developing a low-cost central facility - the Instrumentation and Control Engineering Simulator (ICES) - for use in its design work. This facility incorporates the software of its training simulators and includes a user-friendly generic interface which enables designers to configure and operate it. Inclusion of the engineering simulator in all phases of the design process, from the original concept to implementation and verification, will make it possible to shorten the design period significantly while achieving a high level of quality. It will also facilitate the rapid retrofit of simulators to reflect station modifications. This paper will recount Ontario Hydro's experience in the use of simulators for design work and will specifically discuss the design features and system performance of its engineering simulator


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. I. Shakhtarin


    Full Text Available In the article issues of the organization of imitating modeling complexes for training operators of Remotely Operated Underwater Vehicle are considered. It is reported about practical development of sea exercise simulation in Bauman MSTU.

  1. Why does it take so long? ‘Lean processing’ in the aseptic compounding unit at the Midland Regional Hospital Tullamore

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Greene, C


    Increasing numbers of oncology\\/haematology patients attending Midland Regional Hospital Tullamore (MRHT) has increased the workload of the Regional Oncology Haematology Pharmacy (ROHP) compounding unit. Staff restrictions require optimisation of current workflow practices. This audit (November 2010 and June 2011) focused on workflow in the aseptic compounding unit.\\r\

  2. Enhanced operator-training simulator for the Fast Flux Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrader, F.D.; Swanson, C.D.


    The FFTF Plant Operator Training Simulator Facility has proven to be a valuable asset throughtout the testing, startup and early operational phases of the Fast Flux Test facility. However, limitations inherent in the existing simulation facility, increased emphasis on the required quality of operator training, and an expanded scope of applications (e.g., MNI development) justify an enhanced facility. Direct use of plant operators in the development of improved reactor control room displays and other man/machine interface equipment and procedures increases the credibility of proposed techniques and reported results. The FFTF Plant Operator Training Simulator provides a key element in this development program

  3. Virtual reality simulation in endovascular surgical training.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tsang, J S


    Shortened trainingtimes duetothe European Working Time Directive (EWTD) and increased public scrutiny of surgical competency have led to a move away from the traditional apprenticeship model of training. Virtual reality (VR) simulation is a fascinating innovation allowing surgeons to develop without the need to practice on real patients and it may be a solution to achieve competency within a shortened training period.

  4. The role of simulation training in anesthesiology resident education. (United States)

    Yunoki, Kazuma; Sakai, Tetsuro


    An increasing number of reports indicate the efficacy of simulation training in anesthesiology resident education. Simulation education helps learners to acquire clinical skills in a safe learning environment without putting real patients at risk. This useful tool allows anesthesiology residents to obtain medical knowledge and both technical and non-technical skills. For faculty members, simulation-based settings provide the valuable opportunity to evaluate residents' performance in scenarios including airway management and regional, cardiac, and obstetric anesthesiology. However, it is still unclear what types of simulators should be used or how to incorporate simulation education effectively into education curriculums. Whether simulation training improves patient outcomes has not been fully determined. The goal of this review is to provide an overview of the status of simulation in anesthesiology resident education, encourage more anesthesiologists to get involved in simulation education to propagate its influence, and stimulate future research directed toward improving resident education and patient outcomes.

  5. Disaster response team FAST skills training with a portable ultrasound simulator compared to traditional training: pilot study. (United States)

    Paddock, Michael T; Bailitz, John; Horowitz, Russ; Khishfe, Basem; Cosby, Karen; Sergel, Michelle J


    Pre-hospital focused assessment with sonography in trauma (FAST) has been effectively used to improve patient care in multiple mass casualty events throughout the world. Although requisite FAST knowledge may now be learned remotely by disaster response team members, traditional live instructor and model hands-on FAST skills training remains logistically challenging. The objective of this pilot study was to compare the effectiveness of a novel portable ultrasound (US) simulator with traditional FAST skills training for a deployed mixed provider disaster response team. We randomized participants into one of three training groups stratified by provider role: Group A. Traditional Skills Training, Group B. US Simulator Skills Training, and Group C. Traditional Skills Training Plus US Simulator Skills Training. After skills training, we measured participants' FAST image acquisition and interpretation skills using a standardized direct observation tool (SDOT) with healthy models and review of FAST patient images. Pre- and post-course US and FAST knowledge were also assessed using a previously validated multiple-choice evaluation. We used the ANOVA procedure to determine the statistical significance of differences between the means of each group's skills scores. Paired sample t-tests were used to determine the statistical significance of pre- and post-course mean knowledge scores within groups. We enrolled 36 participants, 12 randomized to each training group. Randomization resulted in similar distribution of participants between training groups with respect to provider role, age, sex, and prior US training. For the FAST SDOT image acquisition and interpretation mean skills scores, there was no statistically significant difference between training groups. For US and FAST mean knowledge scores, there was a statistically significant improvement between pre- and post-course scores within each group, but again there was not a statistically significant difference between

  6. Detailed Numerical Simulation of the Graniteville Train Collision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, R. L.


    An unfortunate accident occurred in Graniteville, South Carolina on 6 January, 2005 when a train carrying a variety of hazardous chemicals collided with a stationary train parked on a siding rail (spur). The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) runs prognostic atmospheric simulations of the Central Savannah River Area (CSRA) on an operational basis in the event of such airborne releases. Although forecast information was provided at 2-km horizontal grid spacing during the accident response, a higher-resolution simulation was later performed to examine influences of local topography on plume migration. The Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS, version 4.3.0) was used to simulate meteorology using multiple grids with an innermost grid spacing of 125 meters. This report discusses comparisons of simulated meteorology with local observations and applications using two separate transport models. Results from the simulations are shown to generally agree with meteorological observations at the time. Use of a dense gas model to simulate localized effects indicates agreement with fatalities in the immediate area and visible damage to vegetation.

  7. Simulation laboratories for training in obstetrics and gynecology. (United States)

    Macedonia, Christian R; Gherman, Robert B; Satin, Andrew J


    Simulations have been used by the military, airline industry, and our colleagues in other medical specialties to educate, evaluate, and prepare for rare but life-threatening scenarios. Work hour limits for residents in obstetrics and gynecology and decreased patient availability for teaching of students and residents require us to think creatively and practically on how to optimize their education. Medical simulations may address scenarios in clinical practice that are considered important to know or understand. Simulations can take many forms, including computer programs, models or mannequins, virtual reality data immersion caves, and a combination of formats. The purpose of this commentary is to call attention to a potential role for medical simulation in obstetrics and gynecology. We briefly describe an example of how simulation may be incorporated into obstetric and gynecologic residency training. It is our contention that educators in obstetrics and gynecology should be aware of the potential for simulation in education. We hope this commentary will stimulate interest in the field, lead to validation studies, and improve training in and the practice of obstetrics and gynecology.

  8. Surgical simulation: Current practices and future perspectives for technical skills training. (United States)

    Bjerrum, Flemming; Thomsen, Ann Sofia Skou; Nayahangan, Leizl Joy; Konge, Lars


    Simulation-based training (SBT) has become a standard component of modern surgical education, yet successful implementation of evidence-based training programs remains challenging. In this narrative review, we use Kern's framework for curriculum development to describe where we are now and what lies ahead for SBT within surgery with a focus on technical skills in operative procedures. Despite principles for optimal SBT (proficiency-based, distributed, and deliberate practice) having been identified, massed training with fixed time intervals or a fixed number of repetitions is still being extensively used, and simulators are generally underutilized. SBT should be part of surgical training curricula, including theoretical, technical, and non-technical skills, and be based on relevant needs assessments. Furthermore, training should follow evidence-based theoretical principles for optimal training, and the effect of training needs to be evaluated using relevant outcomes. There is a larger, still unrealized potential of surgical SBT, which may be realized in the near future as simulator technologies evolve, more evidence-based training programs are implemented, and cost-effectiveness and impact on patient safety is clearly demonstrated.

  9. Review of 3-Dimensional Printing on Cranial Neurosurgery Simulation Training. (United States)

    Vakharia, Vejay N; Vakharia, Nilesh N; Hill, Ciaran S


    Shorter working times, reduced operative exposure to complex procedures, and increased subspecialization have resulted in training constraints within most surgical fields. Simulation has been suggested as a possible means of acquiring new surgical skills without exposing patients to the surgeon's operative "learning curve." Here we review the potential impact of 3-dimensional printing on simulation and training within cranial neurosurgery and its implications for the future. In accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis guidelines, a comprehensive search of PubMed, OVID MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews was performed. In total, 31 studies relating to the use of 3-dimensional (3D) printing within neurosurgery, of which 16 were specifically related to simulation and training, were identified. The main impact of 3D printing on neurosurgical simulation training was within vascular surgery, where patient-specific replication of vascular anatomy and pathologies can aid surgeons in operative planning and clip placement for reconstruction of vascular anatomy. Models containing replicas of brain tumors have also been reconstructed and used for training purposes, with some providing realistic representations of skin, subcutaneous tissue, bone, dura, normal brain, and tumor tissue. 3D printing provides a unique means of directly replicating patient-specific pathologies. It can identify anatomic variation and provide a medium in which training models can be generated rapidly, allowing the trainee and experienced neurosurgeon to practice parts of operations preoperatively. Future studies are required to validate this technology in comparison with current simulators and show improved patient outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Performance measurement system for training simulators. Interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bockhold, G. Jr.; Roth, D.R.


    In the first project phase, the project team has designed, installed, and test run on the Browns Ferry nuclear power plant training simulator a performance measurement system capable of automatic recording of statistical information on operator actions and plant response. Key plant variables and operator actions were monitored and analyzed by the simulator computer for a selected set of four operating and casualty drills. The project has the following objectives: (1) To provide an empirical data base for statistical analysis of operator reliability and for allocation of safety and control functions between operators and automated controls; (2) To develop a method for evaluation of the effectiveness of control room designs and operating procedures; and (3) To develop a system for scoring aspects of operator performance to assist in training evaluations and to support operator selection research. The performance measurement system has shown potential for meeting the research objectives. However, the cost of training simulator time is high; to keep research program costs reasonable, the measurement system is being designed to be an integral part of operator training programs. In the pilot implementation, participating instructors judged the measurement system to be a valuable and objective extension of their abilities to monitor trainee performance

  11. Virtual reality bronchoscopy simulation: a revolution in procedural training. (United States)

    Colt, H G; Crawford, S W; Galbraith, O


    In the airline industry, training is costly and operator error must be avoided. Therefore, virtual reality (VR) is routinely used to learn manual and technical skills through simulation before pilots assume flight responsibilities. In the field of medicine, manual and technical skills must also be acquired to competently perform invasive procedures such as flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FFB). Until recently, training in FFB and other endoscopic procedures has occurred on the job in real patients. We hypothesized that novice trainees using a VR skill center could rapidly acquire basic skills, and that results would compare favorably with those of senior trainees trained in the conventional manner. We prospectively studied five novice bronchoscopists entering a pulmonary and critical care medicine training program. They were taught to perform inspection flexible bronchoscopy using a VR bronchoscopy skill center; dexterity, speed, and accuracy were tested using the skill center and an inanimate airway model before and after 4 h of group instruction and 4 h of individual unsupervised practice. Results were compared to those of a control group of four skilled physicians who had performed at least 200 bronchoscopies during 2 years of training. Student's t tests were used to compare mean scores of study and control groups for the inanimate model and VR bronchoscopy simulator. Before-training and after-training test scores were compared using paired t tests. For comparisons between after-training novice and skilled physician scores, unpaired two-sample t tests were used. Novices significantly improved their dexterity and accuracy in both models. They missed fewer segments after training than before training, and had fewer contacts with the bronchial wall. There was no statistically significant improvement in speed or total time spent not visualizing airway anatomy. After training, novice performance equaled or surpassed that of the skilled physicians. Novices performed

  12. Models and Methods for Adaptive Management of Individual and Team-Based Training Using a Simulator (United States)

    Lisitsyna, L. S.; Smetyuh, N. P.; Golikov, S. P.


    Research of adaptive individual and team-based training has been analyzed and helped find out that both in Russia and abroad, individual and team-based training and retraining of AASTM operators usually includes: production training, training of general computer and office equipment skills, simulator training including virtual simulators which use computers to simulate real-world manufacturing situation, and, as a rule, the evaluation of AASTM operators’ knowledge determined by completeness and adequacy of their actions under the simulated conditions. Such approach to training and re-training of AASTM operators stipulates only technical training of operators and testing their knowledge based on assessing their actions in a simulated environment.

  13. Computer based training simulator for Hunterston Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowden, R.S.M.; Hacking, D.


    For reasons which are stated, the Hunterston-B nuclear power station automatic control system includes a manual over-ride facility. It is therefore essential for the station engineers to be trained to recognise and control all feasible modes of plant and logic malfunction. A training simulator has been built which consists of a replica of the shutdown monitoring panel in the Central Control Room and is controlled by a mini-computer. This paper highlights the computer aspects of the simulator and relevant derived experience, under the following headings: engineering background; shutdown sequence equipment; simulator equipment; features; software; testing; maintenance. (U.K.)

  14. Next Generation Simulation Training for Pararescue Forces (United States)


    design, and analysis as well as the build out of its information technology systems and training infrastructure at its Design and Development Center...sessions conducted immediately after training. • Written feedback – Obtained through a web-based survey tool (SurveyMonkey) Data Analysis : Analysis of the...brevity, being detailed in a classical Strengths, Weatknesses, Opportunities, Threats ( SWOT ) structure. STRENGTHS: Identified strengths of the simulation

  15. A small-scale experimental reactor combined with a simulator for training purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Destot, M.; Hagendorf, M.; Vanhumbeeck, D.; Lecocq-Bernard, J.


    The authors discuss how a small-scale reactor combined to a training simulator can be a valuable aid in all forms of training. They describe the CEN-based SILOETTE reactor in Grenoble and its combined simulator. They also take a look at prospects for the future of the system in the light of experience acquired with the ARIANE reactor and the trends for the development of simulators for training purposes [fr

  16. Competency-Based Training and Simulation: Making a "Valid" Argument. (United States)

    Noureldin, Yasser A; Lee, Jason Y; McDougall, Elspeth M; Sweet, Robert M


    The use of simulation as an assessment tool is much more controversial than is its utility as an educational tool. However, without valid simulation-based assessment tools, the ability to objectively assess technical skill competencies in a competency-based medical education framework will remain challenging. The current literature in urologic simulation-based training and assessment uses a definition and framework of validity that is now outdated. This is probably due to the absence of awareness rather than an absence of comprehension. The following review article provides the urologic community an updated taxonomy on validity theory as it relates to simulation-based training and assessments and translates our simulation literature to date into this framework. While the old taxonomy considered validity as distinct subcategories and focused on the simulator itself, the modern taxonomy, for which we translate the literature evidence, considers validity as a unitary construct with a focus on interpretation of simulator data/scores.

  17. Learning curves and long-term outcome of simulation-based thoracentesis training for medical students (United States)


    Background Simulation-based medical education has been widely used in medical skills training; however, the effectiveness and long-term outcome of simulation-based training in thoracentesis requires further investigation. The purpose of this study was to assess the learning curve of simulation-based thoracentesis training, study skills retention and transfer of knowledge to a clinical setting following simulation-based education intervention in thoracentesis procedures. Methods Fifty-two medical students were enrolled in this study. Each participant performed five supervised trials on the simulator. Participant's performance was assessed by performance score (PS), procedure time (PT), and participant's confidence (PC). Learning curves for each variable were generated. Long-term outcome of the training was measured by the retesting and clinical performance evaluation 6 months and 1 year, respectively, after initial training on the simulator. Results Significant improvements in PS, PT, and PC were noted among the first 3 to 4 test trials (p 0.05). Clinical competency in thoracentesis was improved in participants who received simulation training relative to that of first year medical residents without such experience (p simulation-based thoracentesis training can significantly improve an individual's performance. The saturation of learning from the simulator can be achieved after four practice sessions. Simulation-based training can assist in long-term retention of skills and can be partially transferred to clinical practice. PMID:21696584

  18. The Drive-Wise Project: Driving Simulator Training increases real driving performance in healthy older drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianclaudio eCasutt


    Full Text Available Background: Age-related cognitive decline is often associated with unsafe driving behavior. We hypothesized that 10 active training sessions in a driving simulator increase cognitive and on-road driving performance. In addition, driving simulator training should outperform cognitive training.Methods: Ninety-one healthy active drivers (62 – 87 years were randomly assigned to either (1 a driving simulator training group, (2 an attention training group (vigilance and selective attention, or (3 a control group. The main outcome variables were on-road driving and cognitive performance. Seventy-seven participants (85% completed the training and were included in the analyses. Training gains were analyzed using a multiple regression analysis with planned comparisons.Results: The driving simulator training group showed an improvement in on-road driving performance compared to the attention training group. In addition, both training groups increased cognitive performance compared to the control group. Conclusion: Driving simulator training offers the potential to enhance driving skills in older drivers. Compared to the attention training, the simulator training seems to be a more powerful program for increasing older drivers’ safety on the road.

  19. Business Simulations Applied in Support of ERP Training (United States)

    Conroy, George


    This quantitative, quasi-experimental study examined the application of a business simulation against training in support of an Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system. Defining more effective training strategies is a critical concern for organizational leaders and stakeholders concerned by today's economic challenges. The scope of this…

  20. PWR plant operator training used full scope simulator incorporated MAAP model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Y.; Tabuchi, T.; Yamashita, T.; Komatsu, Y.; Tsubouchi, K.; Banka, T.; Mochizuki, T.; Nishimura, K.; Iizuka, H.


    NTC makes an effort with the understanding of plant behavior of core damage accident as part of our advanced training. For the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident, we introduced the MAAP model into PWR operator training full scope simulator and also made the Severe Accident Visual Display unit. From 2014, we will introduce new training program for a core damage accident with PWR operator training full scope simulator incorporated the MAAP model and the Severe Accident Visual Display unit. (author)

  1. Nuclear power plant simulators for operator licensing and training. Part I. The need for plant-reference simulators. Part II. The use of plant-reference simulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, W.L.; Bolton, P.A.; Shikiar, R.; Saari, L.M.


    Part I of this report presents technical justification for the use of plant-reference simulators in the licensing and training of nuclear power plant operators and examines alternatives to the use of plant-reference simulators. The technical rationale is based on research on the use of simulators in other industries, psychological learning and testing principles, expert opinion and user opinion. Part II discusses the central considerations in using plant-reference simulators for licensing examination of nuclear power plant operators and for incorporating simulators into nuclear power plant training programs. Recommendations are presented for the administration of simulator examinations in operator licensing that reflect the goal of maximizing both reliability and validity in the examination process. A series of organizational tasks that promote the acceptance, use, and effectiveness of simulator training as part of the onsite training program is delineated

  2. Mobile telecommunications and health: report of an investigation into an alleged cancer cluster in Sandwell, West Midlands. (United States)

    Stewart, Antony; Rao, Jammi N; Middleton, John D; Pearmain, Philippa; Evans, Tim


    Residents of one street expressed concern about the number of incident cancers, following the installation of a nearby mobile phone base station. The investigation explored whether the base station could be responsible for the cancers. Data were collected from residents' medical records. GPs and oncologists provided further information. Ward-level cancer incidence and mortality data were also obtained, over four three-year time periods. A total of 19 residents had developed cancer. The collection of cancers did not fulfil the criteria for a cancer cluster. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for all malignant neoplasms (excluding non-melanoma skin cancers) in females (1.38 (95% CI, 1.08-1.74)) and all persons (1.27 (CI, 1.06-1.51)) were significantly higher than in the West Midlands during 2001-3. There were no significant differences for colorectal, female breast and prostate cancers, for any time period. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) for non-melanoma skin cancers in males and all persons was significantly lower than in the West Midlands during 1999-2001, and significantly lower in males, females and all persons during 2002-4. We cannot conclude that the base station was responsible for the cancers. It is unlikely that information around a single base station can either demonstrate or exclude causality.

  3. Acute care simulation training for foundation doctors: the perceived impact on practice in the workplace. (United States)

    Patel, P; Sockalingam, I


    High fidelity simulation allows training of foundation doctors in a safe, structured environment. We explored the perceived impact of such training on subsequent clinical practice. 82 doctors attended and 52% responded to a follow up questionnaire sent two months after their training. 88% felt better able to manage the acutely ill patient than they did before their training. All cited simulation training as a reason for this and 44% felt simulation training was the main contributor. The remainder cited clinical experience as the main contributor. 53% gave real clinical examples where they applied skills attributed to simulation training. Doctors reflected positively on simulation training sometime after the experience, demonstrated transference of learnt skills and felt more confident at work.

  4. The Effects of Simulation-based Transvaginal Ultrasound Training on Quality and Efficiency of Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolsgaard, Martin Grønnebæk; Ringsted, Charlotte; Rosthøj, Susanne


    , but no studies have examined its effects on quality and efficiency of care. METHODS: Trainees from 4 University Hospitals in East Denmark were included (N = 54). Participants were randomized to either simulation-based ultrasound training and clinical training (intervention group, n = 28), or to clinical training......, 33.5-55.1) and 19.8% (95% CI, 4.1-32.9) in the intervention and control group, respectively (P = 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: Simulation-based ultrasound training improved quality of care and reduced the need for repeated patient examination and trainee supervision.......OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of adding simulation-based transvaginal ultrasound training to trainees' clinical training compared with only clinical training on quality of and efficiency of care. BACKGROUND: Simulation-based ultrasound training may be an effective adjunct to clinical training...

  5. The importance of expert feedback during endovascular simulator training.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Boyle, Emily


    Complex endovascular skills are difficult to obtain in the clinical environment. Virtual reality (VR) simulator training is a valuable addition to current training curricula, but is there a benefit in the absence of expert trainers?

  6. Simulation training improves medical students' learning experiences when performing real vaginal deliveries. (United States)

    Dayal, Ashlesha K; Fisher, Nelli; Magrane, Diane; Goffman, Dena; Bernstein, Peter S; Katz, Nadine T


    To determine the relationship between simulation training for vaginal delivery maneuvers and subsequent participation in live deliveries during the clinical rotation and to assess medical students' performance and confidence in vaginal delivery maneuvers with and without simulation training. Medical students were randomized to receive or not to receive simulation training for vaginal delivery maneuvers on a mannequin simulator at the start of a 6-week clerkship. Both groups received traditional didactic and clinical teaching. One researcher, blinded to randomization, scored student competence of delivery maneuvers and overall delivery performance on simulator. Delivery performance was scored (1-5, with 5 being the highest) at weeks 1 and 5 of the clerkship. Students were surveyed to assess self-confidence in the ability to perform delivery maneuvers at weeks 1 and 5, and participation in live deliveries was evaluated using student obstetric patient logs. Thirty-three students were randomized, 18 to simulation training [simulation group (SIM)] and 15 to no simulation training [control group (CON)]. Clerkship logs demonstrated that SIM students participated in more deliveries than CON students (9.8 +/- 3.7 versus 6.2 +/- 2.8, P < 0.005). SIM reported increased confidence in ability to perform a vaginal delivery, when compared with CON at the end of the clerkship (3.81 +/- 0.83 versus 3.00 +/- 1.0, respectively, P < 0.05). The overall delivery performance score was significantly higher in SIM, when compared with CON at week 1 (3.94 +/- 0.94 versus 2.07 +/- 1.22, respectively, P < 0.001) and week 5 (4.88 +/- 0.33 versus 4.31 +/- 0.63, P < 0.001) in the simulated environment. Students who receive simulation training participate more actively in the clinical environment during the course of the clerkship. Student simulation training is beneficial to learn obstetric skills in a minimal risk environment, demonstrate competency with maneuvers, and translate this competence

  7. The effect of dyad versus individual simulation-based ultrasound training on skills transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolsgaard, Martin G; Madsen, Mette E; Oxlund, Birgitte S


    : This study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of simulation-based ultrasound training in pairs (dyad practice) with that of training alone (single-student practice) on skills transfer. METHODS: In a non-inferiority trial, 30 ultrasound novices were randomised to dyad (n = 16) or single-student (n...... through pre-, post- and transfer tests. The transfer test involved the assessment of a transvaginal ultrasound scan by one of two clinicians using the Objective Structured Assessment of Ultrasound Skills (OSAUS). RESULTS: Thirty participants completed the simulation-based training and 24...... interactions between training type and performance (p = 0.59). The dyad group demonstrated higher training efficiency in terms of simulator score per number of attempts compared with the single-student group (p = 0.03). CONCLUSION: Dyad practice improves the efficiency of simulation-based training and is non...

  8. Full immersion simulation: validation of a distributed simulation environment for technical and non-technical skills training in Urology. (United States)

    Brewin, James; Tang, Jessica; Dasgupta, Prokar; Khan, Muhammad S; Ahmed, Kamran; Bello, Fernando; Kneebone, Roger; Jaye, Peter


    To evaluate the face, content and construct validity of the distributed simulation (DS) environment for technical and non-technical skills training in endourology. To evaluate the educational impact of DS for urology training. DS offers a portable, low-cost simulated operating room environment that can be set up in any open space. A prospective mixed methods design using established validation methodology was conducted in this simulated environment with 10 experienced and 10 trainee urologists. All participants performed a simulated prostate resection in the DS environment. Outcome measures included surveys to evaluate the DS, as well as comparative analyses of experienced and trainee urologist's performance using real-time and 'blinded' video analysis and validated performance metrics. Non-parametric statistical methods were used to compare differences between groups. The DS environment demonstrated face, content and construct validity for both non-technical and technical skills. Kirkpatrick level 1 evidence for the educational impact of the DS environment was shown. Further studies are needed to evaluate the effect of simulated operating room training on real operating room performance. This study has shown the validity of the DS environment for non-technical, as well as technical skills training. DS-based simulation appears to be a valuable addition to traditional classroom-based simulation training. © 2014 The Authors BJU International © 2014 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Interprofessional communication in a simulation-based team training session in healthcare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aase, Ingunn; Aase, Karina; Dieckmann, Gerhard Peter


    and attitudes towards interprofessional communication in a simulation-based training session. Methods: The study was designed as an explorative case study based on qualitative content analysis Data was based on observation of two simulation scenarios (“Internal Bleeding”, “Huddle”) and analysis of debriefing...... less explicit in the training session. Conclusion: Exploring the student perspective of interprofessional communication has the following implications for the design and implementation of simulation-based training sessions: (a) to balance clinical exchange and collaborative exchange, (b) to introduce......Background: Interprofessional teamwork and communication training have entered the healthcare education setting, mainly investigated through surveys. However, little is known about the student’s perceptions in more depth. The aim of the study was to investigate healthcare students’ perspectives...

  10. Training auscultatory skills: computer simulated heart sounds or additional bedside training? A randomized trial on third-year medical students (United States)


    Background The present study compares the value of additional use of computer simulated heart sounds, to conventional bedside auscultation training, on the cardiac auscultation skills of 3rd year medical students at Oslo University Medical School. Methods In addition to their usual curriculum courses, groups of seven students each were randomized to receive four hours of additional auscultation training either employing a computer simulator system or adding on more conventional bedside training. Cardiac auscultation skills were afterwards tested using live patients. Each student gave a written description of the auscultation findings in four selected patients, and was rewarded from 0-10 points for each patient. Differences between the two study groups were evaluated using student's t-test. Results At the auscultation test no significant difference in mean score was found between the students who had used additional computer based sound simulation compared to additional bedside training. Conclusions Students at an early stage of their cardiology training demonstrated equal performance of cardiac auscultation whether they had received an additional short auscultation course based on computer simulated training, or had had additional bedside training. PMID:20082701

  11. Faculty Development for Simulation Programs: Five Issues for the Future of Debriefing Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Adan; Grant, Vincent; Dieckmann, Peter


    STATEMENT: Debriefing is widely recognized as a critically important element of simulation-based education. Simulation educators obtain and/or seek debriefing training from various sources, including workshops at conferences, simulation educator courses, formal fellowships in debriefings, or thro...... be used to improve debriefing quality within programs? (5) How can we individualize debriefing training opportunities to the learning needs of our educators?......STATEMENT: Debriefing is widely recognized as a critically important element of simulation-based education. Simulation educators obtain and/or seek debriefing training from various sources, including workshops at conferences, simulation educator courses, formal fellowships in debriefings......, or through advanced degrees. Although there are many options available for debriefing training, little is known about how faculty development opportunities should be structured to maintain and enhance the quality of debriefing within simulation programs. In this article, we discuss 5 key issues to help shape...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoryana Kocherga


    Full Text Available Current system of medical education in Ukraine needs improvement and reforms in order to enhance the proficiency of doctors and paramedics. Training of practical/technical skills, communication, as well as teamwork skills is considerably important.The use of simulation techniques and methods in medical education is called simulation training in medicine. Medical skills are acquired through cognitive (knowledge and psychomotor (practice skills. The first medical simulation centers appeared in Ukraine in 2006 according to the order of the Ministry of Health Care of Ukraine.On June 20, 2013, a new simulation training center was opened in Ivano-Frankivsk on the base of Regional Perinatal Center. Similar medical simulation centers were opened in the second half of 2013 in Volyn and Vinnytsia regions under the Ukrainian-Swiss Mother and Child Health Programme, which started in the area of perinatology. Their goal is to improve the teamwork of all specialists involved in the process of delivery and neonatal intensive care,as well as to engage internship doctors and senior medical students in clinical skills training programmes.The use of simulation techniques and training programs offers a powerful platform to study and practice clinical reasoning behaviors and patterns.

  13. Best practices across surgical specialties relating to simulation-based training. (United States)

    Gardner, Aimee K; Scott, Daniel J; Pedowitz, Robert A; Sweet, Robert M; Feins, Richard H; Deutsch, Ellen S; Sachdeva, Ajit K


    Simulation-based training is playing an increasingly important role in surgery. However, there is insufficient discussion among the surgical specialties regarding how simulation may best be leveraged for training. There is much to be learned from one another as we all strive to meet new requirements within the context of Undergraduate Medical Education, Graduate Medical Education, and Continuing Medical Education. To address this need, a panel was convened at the 6th Annual Meeting of the Consortium of the American College of Surgeons-Accredited Education Institutes consisting of key leaders in the field of simulation from 4 surgical subspecialties, namely, general surgery, orthopedic surgery, cardiothoracic surgery, urology, and otolaryngology. An overview of how the 5 surgical specialties are using simulation-based training to meet a wide array of educational needs for all levels of learners is presented. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Simulation-based camera navigation training in laparoscopy-a randomized trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Cecilia; Sørensen, Jette Led; Konge, Lars


    patient safety. The objectives of this trial were to examine how to train laparoscopic camera navigation and to explore the transfer of skills to the operating room. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A randomized, single-center superiority trial with three groups: The first group practiced simulation-based camera...... navigation tasks (camera group), the second group practiced performing a simulation-based cholecystectomy (procedure group), and the third group received no training (control group). Participants were surgical novices without prior laparoscopic experience. The primary outcome was assessment of camera.......033), had a higher score. CONCLUSIONS: Simulation-based training improves the technical skills required for camera navigation, regardless of practicing camera navigation or the procedure itself. Transfer to the clinical setting could, however, not be demonstrated. The control group demonstrated higher...

  15. The EPR operators are trained on simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maincent, G.


    Three years before the EPR reactor of Flamanville (Normandie, France) is generating its very first kilowatt hours, Electricite de France has started to train its teams on a simulator which reproduces the man-machine interface of the future nuclear power plant. The simulator used is an evolutive tool specific to the Flamanville reactor and capable to test about 20 different accidental situations. (J.S.)

  16. Cultural respect encompassing simulation training: being heard about health through broadband

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phyllis Min-yu Lau


    Full Text Available Background. Cultural Respect Encompassing Simulation Training (CREST is a learning program that uses simulation to provide health professional students and practitioners with strategies to communicate sensitively with culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD patients. It consists of training modules with a cultural competency evaluation framework and CALD simulated patients to interact with trainees in immersive simulation scenarios. The aim of this study was to test the feasibility of expanding the delivery of CREST to rural Australia using live video streaming; and to investigate the fidelity of cultural sensitivity – defined within the process of cultural competency which includes awareness, knowledge, skills, encounters and desire – of the streamed simulations. Design and Methods. In this mixed-methods evaluative study, health professional trainees were recruited at three rural academic campuses and one rural hospital to pilot CREST sessions via live video streaming and simulation from the city campus in 2014. Cultural competency, teaching and learning evaluations were conducted. Results. Forty-five participants rated 26 reliable items before and after each session and reported statistically significant improvement in 4 of 5 cultural competency domains, particularly in cultural skills (P<0.05. Qualitative data indicated an overall acknowledgement amongst participants of the importance of communication training and the quality of the simulation training provided remotely by CREST. Conclusions. Cultural sensitivity education using live video-streaming and simulation can contribute to health professionals’ learning and is effective in improving cultural competency. CREST has the potential to be embedded within health professional curricula across Australian universities to address issues of health inequalities arising from a lack of cultural sensitivity training.

  17. Self-perceived long-term transfer of learning after postpartum hemorrhage simulation training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melo, Brena C P; Falbo, Ana R; Sorensen, Jette Led


    OBJECTIVE: To explore long-term transfer (application of acquired knowledge and skills on the job) after postpartum hemorrhage simulation training based on either instructional design (ID) principles or conventional best practice. METHODS: In this qualitative study, semi-structured interviews...... simulation format, residents perceived long-term transfer effects. Training design factors influencing transfer were, in their opinion, related to trainees' characteristics, simulation design, and workplace environment. Trainees who participated in the ID-based simulation perceived better communication...... skills and better overall situational awareness: "I didn't do that before." CONCLUSION: All residents perceived long-term transfer after simulation training for postpartum hemorrhage. Those who attended the ID format additionally perceived improvements in communication skills and situational awareness...

  18. Arthroscopic Shoulder Surgical Simulation Training Curriculum: Transfer Reliability and Maintenance of Skill Over Time. (United States)

    Dunn, John C; Belmont, Philip J; Lanzi, Joseph; Martin, Kevin; Bader, Julia; Owens, Brett; Waterman, Brian R


    Surgical education is evolving as work hour constraints limit the exposure of residents to the operating room. Potential consequences may include erosion of resident education and decreased quality of patient care. Surgical simulation training has become a focus of study in an effort to counter these challenges. Previous studies have validated the use of arthroscopic surgical simulation programs both in vitro and in vivo. However, no study has examined if the gains made by residents after a simulation program are retained after a period away from training. In all, 17 orthopedic surgery residents were randomized into simulation or standard practice groups. All subjects were oriented to the arthroscopic simulator, a 14-point anatomic checklist, and Arthroscopic Surgery Skill Evaluation Tool (ASSET). The experimental group received 1 hour of simulation training whereas the control group had no additional training. All subjects performed a recorded, diagnostic arthroscopy intraoperatively. These videos were scored by 2 blinded, fellowship-trained orthopedic surgeons and outcome measures were compared within and between the groups. After 1 year in which neither group had exposure to surgical simulation training, all residents were retested intraoperatively and scored in the exact same fashion. Individual surgical case logs were reviewed and surgical case volume was documented. There was no difference between the 2 groups after initial simulation testing and there was no correlation between case volume and initial scores. After training, the simulation group improved as compared with baseline in mean ASSET (p = 0.023) and mean time to completion (p = 0.01). After 1 year, there was no difference between the groups in any outcome measurements. Although individual technical skills can be cultivated with surgical simulation training, these advancements can be lost without continued education. It is imperative that residency programs implement a simulation curriculum and

  19. Current state of virtual reality simulation in robotic surgery training: a review. (United States)

    Bric, Justin D; Lumbard, Derek C; Frelich, Matthew J; Gould, Jon C


    Worldwide, the annual number of robotic surgical procedures continues to increase. Robotic surgical skills are unique from those used in either open or laparoscopic surgery. The acquisition of a basic robotic surgical skill set may be best accomplished in the simulation laboratory. We sought to review the current literature pertaining to the use of virtual reality (VR) simulation in the acquisition of robotic surgical skills on the da Vinci Surgical System. A PubMed search was conducted between December 2014 and January 2015 utilizing the following keywords: virtual reality, robotic surgery, da Vinci, da Vinci skills simulator, SimSurgery Educational Platform, Mimic dV-Trainer, and Robotic Surgery Simulator. Articles were included if they were published between 2007 and 2015, utilized VR simulation for the da Vinci Surgical System, and utilized a commercially available VR platform. The initial search criteria returned 227 published articles. After all inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied, a total of 47 peer-reviewed manuscripts were included in the final review. There are many benefits to utilizing VR simulation for robotic skills acquisition. Four commercially available simulators have been demonstrated to be capable of assessing robotic skill. Three of the four simulators demonstrate the ability of a VR training curriculum to improve basic robotic skills, with proficiency-based training being the most effective training style. The skills obtained on a VR training curriculum are comparable with those obtained on dry laboratory simulation. The future of VR simulation includes utilization in assessment for re-credentialing purposes, advanced procedural-based training, and as a warm-up tool prior to surgery.

  20. Simulation in Canadian postgraduate emergency medicine training - a national survey. (United States)

    Russell, Evan; Hall, Andrew Koch; Hagel, Carly; Petrosoniak, Andrew; Dagnone, Jeffrey Damon; Howes, Daniel


    Simulation-based education (SBE) is an important training strategy in emergency medicine (EM) postgraduate programs. This study sought to characterize the use of simulation in FRCPC-EM residency programs across Canada. A national survey was administered to residents and knowledgeable program representatives (PRs) at all Canadian FRCPC-EM programs. Survey question themes included simulation program characteristics, the frequency of resident participation, the location and administration of SBE, institutional barriers, interprofessional involvement, content, assessment strategies, and attitudes about SBE. Resident and PR response rates were 63% (203/321) and 100% (16/16), respectively. Residents reported a median of 20 (range 0-150) hours of annual simulation training, with 52% of residents indicating that the time dedicated to simulation training met their needs. PRs reported the frequency of SBE sessions ranging from weekly to every 6 months, with 15 (94%) programs having an established simulation curriculum. Two (13%) of the programs used simulation for resident assessment, although 15 (94%) of PRs indicated that they would be comfortable with simulation-based assessment. The most common PR-identified barriers to administering simulation were a lack of protected faculty time (75%) and a lack of faculty experience with simulation (56%). Interprofessional involvement in simulation was strongly valued by both residents and PRs. SBE is frequently used by Canadian FRCPC-EM residency programs. However, there exists considerable variability in the structure, frequency, and timing of simulation-based activities. As programs transition to competency-based medical education, national organizations and collaborations should consider the variability in how SBE is administered.

  1. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of LTR Training versus Simulation Training and Stress Inoculation (United States)


    noncash compensation including health care, 16 retirement pay, child care and free or subsidized food, housing and education . Those supplements...the impact of a stressful environment on acquisition and retention of clinical skills is critically important . The Combat Casualty Training...translation of the Department of Defense’s medical education training objectives. The integration of simulation technology has augmented but not replaced the

  2. Quantitative evaluation for training results of nuclear plant operator on BWR simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Takao; Sato, Tatsuaki; Onishi, Hiroshi; Miyakita, Kohji; Mizuno, Toshiyuki


    Recently, the reliability of neclear power plants has largely risen, and the abnormal phenomena in the actual plants are rarely encountered. Therefore, the training using simulators becomes more and more important. In BWR Operator Training Center Corp., the training of the operators of BWR power plants has been continued for about ten years using a simulator having the nearly same function as the actual plants. The recent high capacity ratio of nuclear power plants has been mostly supported by excellent operators trained in this way. Taking the opportunity of the start of operation of No.2 simulator, effort has been exerted to quantitatively grasp the effect of training and to heighten the quality of training. The outline of seven training courses is shown. The technical ability required for operators, the items of quantifying the effect of training, that is, operational errors and the time required for operation, the method of quantifying, the method of collecting the data and the results of the application to the actual training are described. It was found that this method is suitable to quantify the effect of training. (Kako, I.)

  3. The development of fully dynamic rotating machine models for nuclear training simulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birsa, J.J.


    Prior to beginning the development of an enhanced set of electrical plant models for several nuclear training simulators, an extensive literature search was conducted to evaluate and select rotating machine models for use on these simulators. These models include the main generator, diesel generators, in-plant electric power distribution and off-side power. Form the results of this search, various models were investigated and several were selected for further evaluation. Several computer studies were performed on the selected models in order to determine their suitability for use in a training simulator environment. One surprising result of this study was that a number of established, classical models could not be made to reproduce actual plant steady-state data over the range necessary for a training simulator. This evaluation process and its results are presented in this paper. Various historical, as well as contemporary, electrical models of rotating machines are discussed. Specific criteria for selection of rotating machine models for training simulator use are presented

  4. Virtual Reality and Simulation in Neurosurgical Training. (United States)

    Bernardo, Antonio


    Recent biotechnological advances, including three-dimensional microscopy and endoscopy, virtual reality, surgical simulation, surgical robotics, and advanced neuroimaging, have continued to mold the surgeon-computer relationship. For developing neurosurgeons, such tools can reduce the learning curve, improve conceptual understanding of complex anatomy, and enhance visuospatial skills. We explore the current and future roles and application of virtual reality and simulation in neurosurgical training. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Training Effectiveness of Visual and Motion Simulation (United States)


    and checkride scores. No statistical differeLes between the two groups were found. Creelman (1959) reported that students trained in theSNJ Link with...simulated and aircraft hvurs or sorsies (Dricisom a Burger, 1976; Brown. Matheny, & Fleaman. 1951; Creelman , 1959; Gray et al., 1969- Payne at al., 1976...reirtionohip between flight simulator motion and trainiag requirmumenia. Human Factors. 1979. 2). 493-50)1. Creelman , J.A. Evaluation of approach

  6. Service experience with AISI type 316 steel components in CEGB Midlands Region power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plastow, B.; Bagnall, B.I.; Yeldham, D.E.


    The service performance of AISI Type 316 steel components in sections up to 100 mm thick in Power Plant of the Midlands Region of the C.E.G.B. is reviewed. A comparison is drawn between the satisfactory performance of components whose dimensional stability is not critical and the difficulties experienced when rapid rates of change of temperature cause distortion in thick section components. Weldment manufacture and performance are reviewed and both are considered to be satisfactory. In general the material has performed well and the difficulties due to distortion have been overcome by imposing operating regimes which limit rates of temperature change. (author)

  7. Simulation training for medical emergencies in the dental setting using an inexpensive software application. (United States)

    Kishimoto, N; Mukai, N; Honda, Y; Hirata, Y; Tanaka, M; Momota, Y


    Every dental provider needs to be educated about medical emergencies to provide safe dental care. Simulation training is available with simulators such as advanced life support manikins and robot patients. However, the purchase and development costs of these simulators are high. We have developed a simulation training course on medical emergencies using an inexpensive software application. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the educational effectiveness of this course. Fifty-one dental providers participated in this study from December 2014 to March 2015. Medical simulation software was used to simulate a patient's vital signs. We evaluated participants' ability to diagnose and treat vasovagal syncope or anaphylaxis with an evaluation sheet and conducted a questionnaire before and after the scenario-based simulation training. The median evaluation sheet score for vasovagal syncope increased significantly from 7/9 before to 9/9 after simulation training. The median score for anaphylaxis also increased significantly from 8/12 to 12/12 (P simulation training. This simulation course improved participants' ability to diagnose and treat medical emergencies and improved their confidence. This course can be offered inexpensively using a software application. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Enhancing Job-Site Training of Supported Workers With Autism: A Reemphasis on Simulation


    Perry Lattimore, L; Parsons, Marsha B; Reid, Dennis H; Ahearn, William


    Currently recommended practice in supported work emphasizes training job skills to workers with severe disabilities while on the job. Early behavioral research indicated that skills needed in natural environments could also be trained in simulated settings. We compared job-site plus simulation training for teaching job skills to supported workers with autism to provision of training exclusively on the job. Job-site training occurred in a small publishing company during the regular work routin...

  9. A research reactor simulator for operators training and teaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Carvalho, R. P.; Maiorino, J. R.


    This work describes a training simulator of Research Reactors (RR). The simulator is an interactive tool for teaching and operator training of the bases of the RR operation, reactor physics and thermal hydraulics. The Brazilian IEA-R1 RR was taken as the reference (default configuration). The implementation of the simulator consists of the modeling of the process and system (neutronics, thermal hydraulics), its numerical solution, and the implementation of the man-machine interface through visual interactive screens. The point kinetics model was used for the nuclear process and the heat and mass conservation models were used for the thermal hydraulic feed back in the average core channel. The heat exchanger and cooling tower were also modeled. The main systems were: the reactivity control system, including the automatic control, and the primary and secondary coolant systems. The Visual C++ was used to codes and graphics lay-outs. The simulator is to be used in a PC with Windows XP system. The simulator allows simulation in real time of start up, power maneuver, and shut down. (authors)

  10. The effect of a simulation training package on skill acquisition for duplex arterial stenosis detection. (United States)

    Jaffer, Usman; Normahani, Pasha; Singh, Prashant; Aslam, Mohammed; Standfield, Nigel J


    In vascular surgery, duplex ultrasonography is a valuable diagnostic tool in patients with peripheral vascular disease, and there is increasing demand for vascular surgeons to be able to perform duplex scanning. This study evaluates the role of a novel simulation training package on vascular ultrasound (US) skill acquisition. A total of 19 novices measured predefined stenosis in a simulated pulsatile vessel using both peak systolic velocity ratio (PSVR) and diameter reduction (DR) methods before and after a short period of training using a simulated training package. The training package consisted of a simulated pulsatile vessel phantom, a set of instructional videos, duplex ultrasound objective structured assessment of technical skills (DUOSATS) tool, and a portable US scanner. Quantitative metrics (procedure time, percentage error using PSVR and DR methods, DUOSAT scores, and global rating scores) before and after training were compared. Subjects spent a median time of 144 mins (IQR: 60-195) training using the simulation package. Subjects exhibited statistically significant improvements when comparing pretraining and posttraining DUOSAT scores (pretraining = 17 [16-19.3] vs posttraining = 30 [27.8-31.8]; p duplex images in a pulsatile simulated phantom following a short period of goal direct training using a simulation training package. A simulation training package may be a valuable tool for integration into a vascular training program. However, further work is needed to explore whether these newly attained skills are translated into clinical assessment. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A neural-symbolic system for automated assessment in training simulators - A position paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penning, H.L.H. de; Kappé, B.; Bosch, K. van den


    Performance assessment in training simulators is a complex task. It requires monitoring and interpreting the student’s behaviour in the simulator using knowledge of the training task, the environment and a lot of experience. Assessment in simulators is therefore generally done by human observers. To

  12. Studying distributed cognition of simulation-based team training with DiCoT. (United States)

    Rybing, Jonas; Nilsson, Heléne; Jonson, Carl-Oscar; Bang, Magnus


    Health care organizations employ simulation-based team training (SBTT) to improve skill, communication and coordination in a broad range of critical care contexts. Quantitative approaches, such as team performance measurements, are predominantly used to measure SBTTs effectiveness. However, a practical evaluation method that examines how this approach supports cognition and teamwork is missing. We have applied Distributed Cognition for Teamwork (DiCoT), a method for analysing cognition and collaboration aspects of work settings, with the purpose of assessing the methodology's usefulness for evaluating SBTTs. In a case study, we observed and analysed four Emergo Train System® simulation exercises where medical professionals trained emergency response routines. The study suggests that DiCoT is an applicable and learnable tool for determining key distributed cognition attributes of SBTTs that are of importance for the simulation validity of training environments. Moreover, we discuss and exemplify how DiCoT supports design of SBTTs with a focus on transfer and validity characteristics. Practitioner Summary: In this study, we have evaluated a method to assess simulation-based team training environments from a cognitive ergonomics perspective. Using a case study, we analysed Distributed Cognition for Teamwork (DiCoT) by applying it to the Emergo Train System®. We conclude that DiCoT is useful for SBTT evaluation and simulator (re)design.

  13. The method research of the simulator training and examination of the nuclear electricity staff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Fangzhi; Zhang Yuanfang


    The simulator training and examination of nuclear power plant operator are of an important guarantee for the nuclear power plant operation safety. The authors introduce various training courses which have been held in the Nuclear Power Plant Simulation Training Center of Tsinghua University since 1988, and analyze the different requirements and features for different classes such as operator candidate training course, operator retraining course and nuclear and electricity staff course. The lesson arrangement, examination method and mark standard are presented, which is carried out in the Nuclear Power Plant Simulation Training Center of Tsinghua University

  14. Teaching aseptic technique for central venous access under ultrasound guidance: a randomized trial comparing didactic training alone to didactic plus simulation-based training. (United States)

    Latif, Rana K; Bautista, Alexander F; Memon, Saima B; Smith, Elizabeth A; Wang, Chenxi; Wadhwa, Anupama; Carter, Mary B; Akca, Ozan


    Our goal was to determine whether simulation combined with didactic training improves sterile technique during ultrasound (US)-guided central venous catheter (CVC) insertion compared with didactic training alone among novices. We hypothesized that novices who receive combined didactic and simulation-based training would perform similarly to experienced residents in aseptic technique, knowledge, and perception of comfort during US-guided CVC insertion on a simulator. Seventy-two subjects were enrolled in a randomized, controlled trial of an educational intervention. Fifty-four novices were randomized into either the didactic group or the simulation combined with didactic group. Both groups received didactic training but the simulation combined with didactic group also received simulation-based CVC insertion training. Both groups were tested by demonstrating US-guided CVC insertion on a simulator. Aseptic technique was scored on 8 steps as "yes/no" and also using a 7-point Likert scale with 7 being "excellent technique" by a rater blinded to subject randomization. After initial testing, the didactic group was offered simulation-based training and retesting. Both groups also took a pre- and posttraining test of knowledge and rated their comfort with US and CVC insertion pre- and posttraining on a 5-point Likert scale. Subsequently, 18 experienced residents also took the test of knowledge, rated their comfort level, and were scored while performing aseptic US-guided CVC insertion using a simulator. The simulation combined with didactic group achieved a 167% (95% confidence interval [CI] 133%-167%) incremental increase in yes/no scores and 115% (CI 112%-127%) incremental increase in Likert scale ratings on aseptic technique compared with novices in the didactic group. Compared with experienced residents, simulation combined with didactic trained novices achieved an increase in aseptic scores with a 33.3% (CI 16.7%-50%) increase in yes/no ratings and a 20% (CI 13

  15. Reliance on Simulation in Initial Entry Rifle Marksmanship Training and Future Directions for Simulation (United States)


    drills has direct and valuable application to training marksmanship skills, for the novice firers in the assessment, more attention was needed to insure... training in a simulator at real time, actual flight seemed to take place at a much faster time frame. However, pilots reported that after practicing in...who used the EST 2000 (Scholtes & Stapp, 1994), where a concern was raised about less attention paid to weapon safety during EST training than on

  16. Mapping the plateau of novices in virtual reality simulation training of mastoidectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A.W. Andersen, Steven; Konge, Lars; Mikkelsen, Peter Trier


    To explore why novices' performance plateau in directed, self-regulated virtual reality (VR) simulation training and how performance can be improved.......To explore why novices' performance plateau in directed, self-regulated virtual reality (VR) simulation training and how performance can be improved....

  17. Shoulder Arthroscopy Simulator Training Improves Shoulder Arthroscopy Performance in a Cadaver Model (United States)

    Henn, R. Frank; Shah, Neel; Warner, Jon J.P.; Gomoll, Andreas H.


    Purpose The purpose of this study was to quantify the benefits of shoulder arthroscopy simulator training with a cadaver model of shoulder arthroscopy. Methods Seventeen first year medical students with no prior experience in shoulder arthroscopy were enrolled and completed this study. Each subject completed a baseline proctored arthroscopy on a cadaveric shoulder, which included controlling the camera and completing a standard series of tasks using the probe. The subjects were randomized, and nine of the subjects received training on a virtual reality simulator for shoulder arthroscopy. All subjects then repeated the same cadaveric arthroscopy. The arthroscopic videos were analyzed in a blinded fashion for time to task completion and subjective assessment of technical performance. The two groups were compared with students t-tests, and change over time within groups was analyzed with paired t-tests. Results There were no observed differences between the two groups on the baseline evaluation. The simulator group improved significantly from baseline with respect to time to completion and subjective performance (parthroscopy simulator training resulted in significant benefits in clinical shoulder arthroscopy time to task completion in this cadaver model. This study provides important additional evidence of the benefit of simulators in orthopaedic surgical training. Clinical Relevance There may be a role for simulator training in shoulder arthroscopy education. PMID:23591380

  18. Shoulder arthroscopy simulator training improves shoulder arthroscopy performance in a cadaveric model. (United States)

    Henn, R Frank; Shah, Neel; Warner, Jon J P; Gomoll, Andreas H


    The purpose of this study was to quantify the benefits of shoulder arthroscopy simulator training with a cadaveric model of shoulder arthroscopy. Seventeen first-year medical students with no prior experience in shoulder arthroscopy were enrolled and completed this study. Each subject completed a baseline proctored arthroscopy on a cadaveric shoulder, which included controlling the camera and completing a standard series of tasks using the probe. The subjects were randomized, and 9 of the subjects received training on a virtual reality simulator for shoulder arthroscopy. All subjects then repeated the same cadaveric arthroscopy. The arthroscopic videos were analyzed in a blinded fashion for time to task completion and subjective assessment of technical performance. The 2 groups were compared by use of Student t tests, and change over time within groups was analyzed with paired t tests. There were no observed differences between the 2 groups on the baseline evaluation. The simulator group improved significantly from baseline with respect to time to completion and subjective performance (P arthroscopy simulator training resulted in significant benefits in clinical shoulder arthroscopy time to task completion in this cadaveric model. This study provides important additional evidence of the benefit of simulators in orthopaedic surgical training. There may be a role for simulator training in shoulder arthroscopy education. Copyright © 2013 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Laparoscopic simulation training in gynaecology: Current provision and staff attitudes - a cross-sectional survey. (United States)

    Burden, Christy; Fox, Robert; Hinshaw, Kim; Draycott, Timothy J; James, Mark


    The objectives of this study were to explore current provision of laparoscopic simulation training, and to determine attitudes of trainers and trainees to the role of simulators in surgical training across the UK. An anonymous cross-sectional survey with cluster sampling was developed and circulated. All Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RCOG) Training Programme Directors (TPD), College Tutors (RCT) and Trainee representatives (TR) across the UK were invited to participate. One hundred and ninety-six obstetricians and gynaecologists participated. Sixty-three percent of hospitals had at least one box trainer, and 14.6% had least one virtual-reality simulator. Only 9.3% and 3.6% stated that trainees used a structured curriculum on box and virtual-reality simulators, respectively. Respondents working in a Large/Teaching hospital (p = 0.008) were more likely to agree that simulators enhance surgical training. Eighty-nine percent agreed that simulators improve the quality of training, and should be mandatory or desirable for junior trainees. Consultants (p = 0.003) and respondents over 40 years (p = 0.011) were more likely to hold that a simulation test should be undertaken before live operation. Our data demonstrated, therefore, that availability of laparoscopic simulators is inconsistent, with limited use of mandatory structured curricula. In contrast, both trainers and trainees recognise a need for greater use of laparoscopic simulation for surgical training.

  20. Features of ABWR operator training with a full-scope simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondou, Shin'ichi


    Many innovations have been incorporated into the Advanced BWR (ABWR) type control panels. In the BWR Operator Training Center (BTC), we started ABWR operator training using an ABWR full-scope simulator prior to the first ABWR plant's commercial operation. In consideration of the features of the ABWR type control panels, BTC has been conducting ABWR operator training focusing on the following 2 points; (1) Operator training reflecting the differences in the Human-Machine Interface (HMI). The new HMI devices which have the touch-operation function were introduced. These devices have higher operability, however, they require new operational skills. We planned the training program so that operators can fully acquire these skills. Also the compact main console and the new HMI devices made it relatively difficult for the operator crews to grasp visually what an operator was doing. We provide the training to have proper communication skills, and check trainees' operation using monitoring systems for simulator training. (2) Operator training responding to the expanded operation automation system. The scope of the automation system was expanded to reduce the operators' burden. We provide the training to improve the trainees' competence for 'operation and monitoring' suitable to both manual and automatic operational modes. (author)

  1. The efficacy of virtual reality simulation training in laparoscopy: a systematic review of randomized trials. (United States)

    Larsen, Christian Rifbjerg; Oestergaard, Jeanett; Ottesen, Bent S; Soerensen, Jette Led


    Virtual reality (VR) simulators for surgical training might possess the properties needed for basic training in laparoscopy. Evidence for training efficacy of VR has been investigated by research of varying quality over the past decade. To review randomized controlled trials regarding VR training efficacy compared with traditional or no training, with outcome measured as surgical performance in humans or animals. In June 2011 Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science and Google Scholar were searched using the following medical subject headings (MeSh) terms: Laparoscopy/standards, Computing methodologies, Programmed instruction, Surgical procedures, Operative, and the following free text terms: Virtual real* OR simulat* AND Laparoscop* OR train* Controlled trials. All randomized controlled trials investigating the effect of VR training in laparoscopy, with outcome measured as surgical performance. A total of 98 studies were screened, 26 selected and 12 included, with a total of 241 participants. Operation time was reduced by 17-50% by VR training, depending on simulator type and training principles. Proficiency-based training appeared superior to training based on fixed time or fixed numbers of repetition. Simulators offering training for complete operative procedures came out as more efficient than simulators offering only basic skills training. Skills in laparoscopic surgery can be increased by proficiency-based procedural VR simulator training. There is substantial evidence (grade IA - IIB) to support the use of VR simulators in laparoscopic training. © 2012 The Authors  Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica© 2012 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  2. Crisis Management Simulation: Establishing a Dual Neurosurgery and Anesthesia Training Experience. (United States)

    Ciporen, Jeremy; Gillham, Haley; Noles, Michele; Dillman, Dawn; Baskerville, Mark; Haley, Caleb; Spight, Donn; Turner, Ryan C; Lucke-Wold, Brandon P


    Simulation training has been shown to be an effective teaching tool. Learner management of an intraoperative crisis such as a major cerebrovascular bleed requires effective teamwork, communication, and implementation of key skill sets at appropriate time points. This study establishes a first of a kind simulation experience in a neurosurgery/anesthesia resident (learners) team working together to manage an intraoperative crisis. Using a cadaveric cavernous carotid injury perfusion model, 7 neurosurgery and 6 anesthesia learners, were trained on appropriate vascular injury management using an endonasal endoscopic technique. Learners were evaluated on communication skills, crisis management algorithms, and implementation of appropriate skill sets at the right time. A preanatomic and postanatomic examination and postsimulation survey was administered to neurosurgery learners. Anesthesia learners provided posttraining evaluation through a tailored realism and teaching survey. Neurosurgery learners' anatomic examination score improved from presimulation (33.89%) to postsimulation (86.11%). No significant difference between learner specialties was observed for situation awareness, decision making, communications and teamwork, or leadership evaluations. Learners reported the simulation realistic, beneficial, and highly instructive. Realistic, first of kind, clinical simulation scenarios were presented to a neurosurgery/anesthesia resident team who worked together to manage an intraoperative crisis. Learners were effectively trained on crisis management, the importance of communication, and how to develop algorithms for future implementation in difficult scenarios. Learners were highly satisfied with the simulation training experience and requested that it be integrated more consistently into their residency training programs.

  3. Effectiveness of simulator-based echocardiography training of noncardiologists in congenital heart diseases. (United States)

    Wagner, Robert; Razek, Vit; Gräfe, Florentine; Berlage, Thomas; Janoušek, Jan; Daehnert, Ingo; Weidenbach, Michael


    Congenital heart diseases (CHD) are responsible for substantial morbidity and mortality in neonates. The preliminary diagnosis often is made by noncardiologists. For this reason, there is a huge demand of training in echocardiography of CHD. This is difficult to achieve due to limited resources of specialized centers. The goal of this study was to investigate the training effect of the echocardiography simulator EchoCom on trainee's ability to diagnose CHD. We enrolled 10 residents for simulator-based training in echocardiography of CHD. All participants were instructed on the simulator's basic handling and had one hour to scan the first 9 datasets information (ventricular septal defect, atrial septal defect, atrioventricular septal defect, Tetralogy of Fallot, transposition of great arteries, congenital corrected transposition of great arteries, common arterial trunk, hypoplastic left heart syndrome, normal anatomy) and establish a diagnosis. No help was given except for support regarding simulator related issues. Afterward, 2 rounds of structured simulator based echocardiography training focused on echocardiographic anatomy, spatial orientation, standard views, and echocardiographic anatomy of different CHD followed. All participants completed a standardized questionnaire containing 10 multiple-choice (MC) questions focusing on basic theoretical knowledge in echocardiographic anatomy and common CHD. Almost all of the residents invited from the affiliated children's hospital had little (20%) or no experience (80%) in echocardiography of CHD. Their Pretest and Posttest scores showed significant improvement for both, MC test and performance test, respectively. Our study showed that simulator-based training in echocardiography in CHD could be very effective and may assist with training outside the scope of CHD. © 2013, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Capturing differences in dental training using a virtual reality simulator. (United States)

    Mirghani, I; Mushtaq, F; Allsop, M J; Al-Saud, L M; Tickhill, N; Potter, C; Keeling, A; Mon-Williams, M A; Manogue, M


    Virtual reality simulators are becoming increasingly popular in dental schools across the world. But to what extent do these systems reflect actual dental ability? Addressing this question of construct validity is a fundamental step that is necessary before these systems can be fully integrated into a dental school's curriculum. In this study, we examined the sensitivity of the Simodont (a haptic virtual reality dental simulator) to differences in dental training experience. Two hundred and eighty-nine participants, with 1 (n = 92), 3 (n = 79), 4 (n = 57) and 5 (n = 61) years of dental training, performed a series of tasks upon their first exposure to the simulator. We found statistically significant differences between novice (Year 1) and experienced dental trainees (operationalised as 3 or more years of training), but no differences between performance of experienced trainees with varying levels of experience. This work represents a crucial first step in understanding the value of haptic virtual reality simulators in dental education. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Simulator training and non-technical factors improve laparoscopic performance among OBGYN trainees. (United States)

    Ahlborg, Liv; Hedman, Leif; Nisell, Henry; Felländer-Tsai, Li; Enochsson, Lars


    To investigate how simulator training and non-technical factors affect laparoscopic performance among residents in obstetrics and gynecology. In this prospective study, trainees were randomized into three groups. The first group was allocated to proficiency-based training in the LapSimGyn(®) virtual reality simulator. The second group received additional structured mentorship during subsequent laparoscopies. The third group served as control group. At baseline an operation was performed and visuospatial ability, flow and self-efficacy were assessed. All groups subsequently performed three tubal occlusions. Self-efficacy and flow were assessed before and/or after each operation. Simulator training was conducted at the Center for Advanced Medical Simulation and Training, Karolinska University Hospital. Sterilizations were performed at each trainee's home clinic. Twenty-eight trainees/residents from 21 hospitals in Sweden were included. Visuospatial ability was tested by the Mental Rotation Test-A. Flow and self-efficacy were assessed by validated scales and questionnaires. Laparoscopic performance was measured as the duration of surgery. Visuospatial ability, self-efficacy and flow were correlated to the laparoscopic performance using Spearman's correlations. Differences between groups were analyzed by the Mann-Whitney U-test. No differences across groups were detected at baseline. Self-efficacy scores before and flow scores after the third operation were significantly higher in the trained groups. Duration of surgery was significantly shorter in the trained groups. Flow and self-efficacy correlate positively with laparoscopic performance. Simulator training and non-technical factors appear to improve the laparoscopic performance among trainees/residents in obstetrics and gynecology. © 2013 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  6. Requirements for a reactor simulator of the konvoi generation of nuclear power plants according to training programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinartz, S.J.; Reinartz, G.


    This report is based an a review of the literature published on simulator training and on discussions with representatives from the German nuclear power plant operator training schools. A brief description of the organisation and content of the simulator training of control room operators in a number of countries, together with a categorisation of the various types of simulators which are used. The concepts of the systems approach to training and simulator fidelity are discussed. Some general training principles which are considered important for simulator training are summarised. From the available descriptions and analyses of control room operator tasks, the skills (in most general terms) which can be trained on simulators have been identified. Methods for training these skills which are used in the simulator training programmes in various industries and which have been developed in research work in the area of training psychology have been summarised. Using these methods as a basis, the necessary instructor facilities which should be included in the design of a full simulator for the Konvoi generation of nuclear power plants have been derived. (orig.) [de

  7. Multidisciplinary crisis simulations: the way forward for training surgical teams. (United States)

    Undre, Shabnam; Koutantji, Maria; Sevdalis, Nick; Gautama, Sanjay; Selvapatt, Nowlan; Williams, Samantha; Sains, Parvinderpal; McCulloch, Peter; Darzi, Ara; Vincent, Charles


    High-reliability organizations have stressed the importance of non-technical skills for safety and of regularly providing such training to their teams. Recently safety skills training has been applied in the practice of medicine. In this study, we developed and piloted a module using multidisciplinary crisis scenarios in a simulated operating theatre to train entire surgical teams. Twenty teams participated (n = 80); each consisted of a trainee surgeon, anesthetist, operating department practitioner (ODP), and scrub nurse. Crisis scenarios such as difficult intubation, hemorrhage, or cardiac arrest were simulated. Technical and non-technical skills (leadership, communication, team skills, decision making, and vigilance), were assessed by clinical experts and by two psychologists using relevant technical and human factors rating scales. Participants received technical and non-technical feedback, and the whole team received feedback on teamwork. Trainees assessed the training favorably. For technical skills there were no differences between surgical trainees' assessment scores and the assessment scores of the trainers. However, nurses overrated their technical skill. Regarding non-technical skills, leadership and decision making were scored lower than the other three non-technical skills (communication, team skills, and vigilance). Surgeons scored lower than nurses on communication and teamwork skills. Surgeons and anesthetists scored lower than nurses on leadership. Multidisciplinary simulation-based team training is feasible and well received by surgical teams. Non-technical skills can be assessed alongside technical skills, and differences in performance indicate where there is a need for further training. Future work should focus on developing team performance measures for training and on the development and evaluation of systematic training for technical and non-technical skills to enhance team performance and safety in surgery.

  8. First experiences of high-fidelity simulation training in junior nursing students in Korea. (United States)

    Lee, Suk Jeong; Kim, Sang Suk; Park, Young-Mi


    This study was conducted to explore first experiences of high-fidelity simulation training in Korean nursing students, in order to develop and establish more effective guidelines for future simulation training in Korea. Thirty-three junior nursing students participated in high-fidelity simulation training for the first time. Using both qualitative and quantitative methods, data were collected from reflective journals and questionnaires of simulation effectiveness after simulation training. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze simulation effectiveness and content analysis was performed with the reflective journal data. Five dimensions and 31 domains, both positive and negative experiences, emerged from qualitative analysis: (i) machine-human interaction in a safe environment; (ii) perceived learning capability; (iii) observational learning; (iv) reconciling practice with theory; and (v) follow-up debriefing effect. More than 70% of students scored high on increased ability to identify changes in the patient's condition, critical thinking, decision-making, effectiveness of peer observation, and debriefing in effectiveness of simulation. This study reported both positive and negative experiences of simulation. The results of this study could be used to set the level of task difficulty in simulation. Future simulation programs can be designed by reinforcing the positive experiences and modifying the negative results. © 2014 The Authors. Japan Journal of Nursing Science © 2014 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  9. Virtual reality simulation for the operating room: proficiency-based training as a paradigm shift in surgical skills training. (United States)

    Gallagher, Anthony G; Ritter, E Matt; Champion, Howard; Higgins, Gerald; Fried, Marvin P; Moses, Gerald; Smith, C Daniel; Satava, Richard M


    To inform surgeons about the practical issues to be considered for successful integration of virtual reality simulation into a surgical training program. The learning and practice of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) makes unique demands on surgical training programs. A decade ago Satava proposed virtual reality (VR) surgical simulation as a solution for this problem. Only recently have robust scientific studies supported that vision A review of the surgical education, human-factor, and psychology literature to identify important factors which will impinge on the successful integration of VR training into a surgical training program. VR is more likely to be successful if it is systematically integrated into a well-thought-out education and training program which objectively assesses technical skills improvement proximate to the learning experience. Validated performance metrics should be relevant to the surgical task being trained but in general will require trainees to reach an objectively determined proficiency criterion, based on tightly defined metrics and perform at this level consistently. VR training is more likely to be successful if the training schedule takes place on an interval basis rather than massed into a short period of extensive practice. High-fidelity VR simulations will confer the greatest skills transfer to the in vivo surgical situation, but less expensive VR trainers will also lead to considerably improved skills generalizations. VR for improved performance of MIS is now a reality. However, VR is only a training tool that must be thoughtfully introduced into a surgical training curriculum for it to successfully improve surgical technical skills.

  10. Training in trauma management: the role of simulation-based medical education. (United States)

    Berkenstadt, Haim; Ben-Menachem, Erez; Simon, Daniel; Ziv, Amitai


    Simulation-based medical education (SBME) offers a safe and "mistake-forgiving" environment to teach and train medical professionals. The diverse range of medical-simulation modalities enables trainees to acquire and practice an array of tasks and skills. SBME offers the field of trauma training multiple opportunities to enhance the effectiveness of the education provided in this challenging domain. Further research is needed to better learn the role of simulation-based learning in trauma management and education. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Improving operator training and performance through simulator observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynn, J.P.


    This paper describes the methods and results of INPO observations of simulator training for licensed operators. It discusses the history of the observation program to the present. Effective methods for conducting and documenting simulator observations are discussed. The methods used to analyze the observations is also discussed. The major conclusion of the analysis is that opportunities exist for improvement in the use of emergency operating procedures. Teamwork, communication, and simulator instructor skills are also areas where improvement could be made

  12. WWER-1000 reactor simulator. Material for training courses and workshops. 2. ed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has established an activity in nuclear reactor simulation computer programs to assist its Member States in education. The objective is to provide, for a variety of advanced reactor types, insight and practice in their operational characteristics and their response to perturbations and accident situations. To achieve this, the IAEA arranges for the development and distribution of simulation programs and educational material and sponsors courses and workshops. The workshops are in two parts: techniques and tools for reactor simulator development; and the use of reactor simulators in education. Workshop material for the first part is covered in the IAEA publication: Training Course Series No.12, Reactor Simulator Development (2001). Course material for workshops using a pressurized water reactor (PWR) simulator developed for the IAEA by Cassiopeia Technologies Inc. of Canada is presented in the IAEA publication, Training Course Series No. 22, 2nd edition, Pressurized Water Reactor Simulator (2005) and Training Course Series No.23, 2nd edition, Boiling Water Reactor Simulator (2005). This report consists of course material for workshops using the WWER-1000 Reactor Department Simulator from the Moscow Engineering and Physics Institute, Russian Federation

  13. GPU-Based Simulation of Ultrasound Imaging Artifacts for Cryosurgery Training (United States)

    Keelan, Robert; Shimada, Kenji


    This study presents an efficient computational technique for the simulation of ultrasound imaging artifacts associated with cryosurgery based on nonlinear ray tracing. This study is part of an ongoing effort to develop computerized training tools for cryosurgery, with prostate cryosurgery as a development model. The capability of performing virtual cryosurgical procedures on a variety of test cases is essential for effective surgical training. Simulated ultrasound imaging artifacts include reverberation and reflection of the cryoprobes in the unfrozen tissue, reflections caused by the freezing front, shadowing caused by the frozen region, and tissue property changes in repeated freeze–thaw cycles procedures. The simulated artifacts appear to preserve the key features observed in a clinical setting. This study displays an example of how training may benefit from toggling between the undisturbed ultrasound image, the simulated temperature field, the simulated imaging artifacts, and an augmented hybrid presentation of the temperature field superimposed on the ultrasound image. The proposed method is demonstrated on a graphic processing unit at 100 frames per second, on a mid-range personal workstation, at two orders of magnitude faster than a typical cryoprocedure. This performance is based on computation with C++ accelerated massive parallelism and its interoperability with the DirectX-rendering application programming interface. PMID:26818026

  14. Procedural wound geometry and blood flow generation for medical training simulators (United States)

    Aras, Rifat; Shen, Yuzhong; Li, Jiang


    Efficient application of wound treatment procedures is vital in both emergency room and battle zone scenes. In order to train first responders for such situations, physical casualty simulation kits, which are composed of tens of individual items, are commonly used. Similar to any other training scenarios, computer simulations can be effective means for wound treatment training purposes. For immersive and high fidelity virtual reality applications, realistic 3D models are key components. However, creation of such models is a labor intensive process. In this paper, we propose a procedural wound geometry generation technique that parameterizes key simulation inputs to establish the variability of the training scenarios without the need of labor intensive remodeling of the 3D geometry. The procedural techniques described in this work are entirely handled by the graphics processing unit (GPU) to enable interactive real-time operation of the simulation and to relieve the CPU for other computational tasks. The visible human dataset is processed and used as a volumetric texture for the internal visualization of the wound geometry. To further enhance the fidelity of the simulation, we also employ a surface flow model for blood visualization. This model is realized as a dynamic texture that is composed of a height field and a normal map and animated at each simulation step on the GPU. The procedural wound geometry and the blood flow model are applied to a thigh model and the efficiency of the technique is demonstrated in a virtual surgery scene.

  15. Development of severe accident management advisory and training simulator (SAMAT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, K.-S.; Kim, K.-R.; Jung, W.-D.; Ha, J.-J.


    The most operator support systems including the training simulator have been developed to assist the operator and they cover from normal operation to emergency operation. For the severe accident, the overall architecture for severe accident management is being developed in some developed countries according to the development of severe accident management guidelines which are the skeleton of severe accident management architecture. In Korea, the severe accident management guideline for KSNP was recently developed and it is expected to be a central axis of logical flow for severe accident management. There are a lot of uncertainties in the severe accident phenomena and scenarios and one of the major issues for developing a operator support system for a severe accident is the reduction of these uncertainties. In this paper, the severe accident management advisory system with training simulator, SAMAT, is developed as all available information for a severe accident are re-organized and provided to the management staff in order to reduce the uncertainties. The developed system includes the graphical display for plant and equipment status, the previous research results by knowledge-base technique, and the expected plant behavior using the severe accident training simulator. The plant model used in this paper is oriented to severe accident phenomena and thus can simulate the plant behavior for a severe accident. Therefore, the developed system may make a central role of the information source for decision-making for a severe accident management, and will be used as the training simulator for severe accident management

  16. Simulation-Based Training in Flexible Bronchoscopy and Endobronchial Ultrasound-Guided Transbronchial Needle Aspiration (EBUS-TBNA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naur, Therese Maria Henriette; Nilsson, Philip Mørkeberg; Pietersen, Pia Iben


    . The studies included participants of varying experience and most commonly used a virtual reality simulator as a training modality. Assessment of the participants' skills was based on simulator metrics or on an assessment tool. Some studies included performance on patients for assessment of the operator after...... training on a simulator. CONCLUSIONS: Simulation-based training was demonstrated to be more efficient than the traditional apprenticeship model. Physical models and virtual reality simulators complement each other. Simulation-based education should be based on a mastery learning approach and structured...

  17. Simulated patient training: Using inter-rater reliability to evaluate simulated patient consistency in nursing education. (United States)

    MacLean, Sharon; Geddes, Fiona; Kelly, Michelle; Della, Phillip


    Simulated patients (SPs) are frequently used for training nursing students in communication skills. An acknowledged benefit of using SPs is the opportunity to provide a standardized approach by which participants can demonstrate and develop communication skills. However, relatively little evidence is available on how to best facilitate and evaluate the reliability and accuracy of SPs' performances. The aim of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of an evidenced based SP training framework to ensure standardization of SPs. The training framework was employed to improve inter-rater reliability of SPs. A quasi-experimental study was employed to assess SP post-training understanding of simulation scenario parameters using inter-rater reliability agreement indices. Two phases of data collection took place. Initially a trial phase including audio-visual (AV) recordings of two undergraduate nursing students completing a simulation scenario is rated by eight SPs using the Interpersonal Communication Assessments Scale (ICAS) and Quality of Discharge Teaching Scale (QDTS). In phase 2, eight SP raters and four nursing faculty raters independently evaluated students' (N=42) communication practices using the QDTS. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were >0.80 for both stages of the study in clinical communication skills. The results support the premise that if trained appropriately, SPs have a high degree of reliability and validity to both facilitate and evaluate student performance in nurse education. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Implementation of laparoscopic virtual-reality simulation training in gynaecology: a mixed-methods design. (United States)

    Burden, Christy; Appleyard, Tracy-Louise; Angouri, Jo; Draycott, Timothy J; McDermott, Leanne; Fox, Robert


    Virtual-reality (VR) training has been demonstrated to improve laparoscopic surgical skills in the operating theatre. The incorporation of laparoscopic VR simulation into surgical training in gynaecology remains a significant educational challenge. We undertook a pilot study to assess the feasibility of the implementation of a laparoscopic VR simulation programme into a single unit. An observational study with qualitative analysis of semi-structured group interviews. Trainees in gynaecology (n=9) were scheduled to undertake a pre-validated structured training programme on a laparoscopic VR simulator (LapSim(®)) over six months. The main outcome measure was the trainees' progress through the training modules in six months. Trainees' perceptions of the feasibility and barriers to the implementation of laparoscopic VR training were assessed in focus groups after training. Sixty-six percent of participants completed six of ten modules. Overall, feedback from the focus groups was positive; trainees felt training improved their dexterity, hand-eye co-ordination and confidence in theatre. Negative aspects included lack of haptic feedback, and facility for laparoscopic port placement training. Time restriction emerged as the main barrier to training. Despite positive perceptions of training, no trainee completed more than two-thirds of the modules of a self-directed laparoscopic VR training programme. Suggested improvements to the integration of future laparoscopic VR training include an additional theoretical component with a fuller understanding of benefits of VR training, and scheduled supervision. Ultimately, the success of a laparoscopic VR simulation training programme might only be improved if it is a mandatory component of the curriculum, together with dedicated time for training. Future multi-centred implementation studies of validated laparoscopic VR curricula are required. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Continuity and Innovation. 25 years of simulator training for nuclear power plants in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindauer, E.


    The first training simulator for nuclear power plant personnel in Germany was commissioned twenty-five years ago. This date was rather early, both when measured by the development of the German nuclear power program and when compared with the international situation. This farsighted decision demonstrates the importance nuclear power plant operators attach to the sound training of plant personnel. The consistent, and also costly, further development over the past twenty-five years shows that this attitude has not changed. A modern simulator center was built at a total cost of approx. 250 million Euro which can be characterized briefly as follows: - 13 full simulators cover most specific features of existing nuclear power plants. These simulators are backfitted continuously and represent the current state of simulation technology. - Their experience over many years has allowed the staff of approx. 140 to accumulate a high level of know-how in training and simulator operation. Learning from experience is greatly assisted by the fact that all activities are concentrated at one center. - The way in which the center is organized ensures close cooperation with the nuclear power plants responsible for the training of their personnel. - There is a systematic training concept which is being actively developed further. Some of the main developments in recent years include training for emergencies; intensified training in behavioral aspects, such as communication and leadership; the use of simulators for emergency drills; testing of modifications, etc. (orig.) [de

  20. Training of NPP operators: OJT completes use of non replica simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billoen, G. van


    In the paper, it is discussed the contribution of a Multifunctional Optimised Scope Simulator (MOSS), to the training of nuclear power plant operators and we will explain how this tool can be integrated into a training plan including On the Job Training (OJT). Then it is analyzed to what extent OJT and MOSS based training can be complementary

  1. Sustained effect of simulation-based ultrasound training on clinical performance: a randomized trial (United States)

    Tolsgaard, M G; Ringsted, C; Dreisler, E; Nørgaard, L N; Petersen, J H; Madsen, M E; Freiesleben, N L C; Sørensen, J L; Tabor, A


    Objective To study the effect of initial simulation-based transvaginal sonography (TVS) training compared with clinical training only, on the clinical performance of residents in obstetrics and gynecology (Ob-Gyn), assessed 2 months into their residency. Methods In a randomized study, new Ob-Gyn residents (n = 33) with no prior ultrasound experience were recruited from three teaching hospitals. Participants were allocated to either simulation-based training followed by clinical training (intervention group; n = 18) or clinical training only (control group; n = 15). The simulation-based training was performed using a virtual-reality TVS simulator until an expert performance level was attained, and was followed by training on a pelvic mannequin. After 2 months of clinical training, one TVS examination was recorded for assessment of each resident's clinical performance (n = 26). Two ultrasound experts blinded to group allocation rated the scans using the Objective Structured Assessment of Ultrasound Skills (OSAUS) scale. Results During the 2 months of clinical training, participants in the intervention and control groups completed an average ± SD of 58 ± 41 and 63 ± 47 scans, respectively (P = 0.67). In the subsequent clinical performance test, the intervention group achieved higher OSAUS scores than did the control group (mean score, 59.1% vs 37.6%, respectively; P training leads to substantial improvement in clinical performance that is sustained after 2 months of clinical training. © 2015 The Authors. Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology. PMID:25580809

  2. Simulator training and human factor reliability in Kozloduy NPP, Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoychev, Kosta


    This is a PowerPoint presentation. Situated in North Bulgaria, in the vicinity of the town of Kozloduy, near the Danube River bank, there is the Bulgarian Kozloduy Nuclear Power plant operating four WWER-440 and two WWER-1000 units. Units 1 and 2 were commissioned in July, 1974 and November, 1975, respectively. These were shut down at the end of 2003. Units 3 and 4 were commissioned in December, 1980 and May, 1982. They were shut down at the end of 2006 as a precondition for Bulgaria's accession to the European Union. The 1000 MW units 5 and 6 of Kozloduy NPP were commissioned in September, 1988 and December, 1993, respectively. Large-scale modernization have been implemented and now the units meet all international safety standards. The paper describes the multifunctional simulator Kozloduy NPP for the operational staff training. The training stages are as follows: - Preparatory; -Theoretical studies; - Training at the Training Centre by means of technical devices; - Preparation and sitting for an exam before a Kozloduy NPP expert commission; - Simulator training ; - Preparation to obtain a permit for a license, corresponding to the position to begin work at the NPP; - Exams before the Nuclear Regulatory Agency (NRA) and licensing; - Shadow training at the working place; - Permission for unaided operation. The following positions are addressed by the simulator training: - Chief Plant Supervisor; - Shift Unit Supervisor; - Senior Reactor Operator; - Simulator Instructor; - Controller physicist; -Senior Turbine Operator; - Senior Operator of Turbine Feedwater Pumps of Kozloduy NPP. Improving of training method led to a reduction of number of significant events while worldwide practice proves that improvement of engineering resulted in an increase in the percentage of events, related to human factor. Analysis of human reliability in 2005 and 2006 in cooperation with representatives from Great Britain and the Technical University in Sofia were worked on the DTI NSP B

  3. Use of Low-Fidelity Simulation Laboratory Training for Teaching Radiology Residents CT-Guided Procedures. (United States)

    Picard, Melissa; Nelson, Rachel; Roebel, John; Collins, Heather; Anderson, M Bret


    To determine the benefit of the addition of low-fidelity simulation-based training to the standard didactic-based training in teaching radiology residents common CT-guided procedures. This was a prospective study involving 24 radiology residents across all years in a university program. All residents underwent standard didactic lecture followed by low-fidelity simulation-based training on three common CT-guided procedures: random liver biopsy, lung nodule biopsy, and drain placement. Baseline knowledge, confidence, and performance assessments were obtained after the didactic session and before the simulation training session. Approximately 2 months later, all residents participated in a simulation-based training session covering all three of these procedures. Knowledge, confidence, and performance data were obtained afterward. These assessments covered topics related to preprocedure workup, intraprocedure steps, and postprocedure management. Knowledge data were collected based on a 15-question assessment. Confidence data were obtained based on a 5-point Likert-like scale. Performance data were obtained based on successful completion of predefined critical steps. There was significant improvement in knowledge (P = .005), confidence (P simulation-based training to the standard didactic curriculum for all procedures. This study suggests that the addition of low-fidelity simulation-based training to a standard didactic-based curriculum is beneficial in improving resident knowledge, confidence, and tested performance of common CT-guided procedures. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Development of a prototype graphic simulation program for severe accident training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ko Ryu; Jeong, Kwang Sub; Ha, Jae Joo


    This is a report of the development process and related technologies of severe accident graphic simulators, required in industrial severe accident management and training. Here, we say 'a severe accident graphic simulator' as a graphics add-in system to existing calculation codes, which can show the severe accident phenomena dynamically on computer screens and therefore which can supplement one of main defects of existing calculation codes. With graphic simulators it is fairly easy to see the total behavior of nuclear power plants, where it was very difficult to see only from partial variable numerical information. Moreover, the fast processing and control feature of a graphic simulator can give some opportunities of predicting the severe accident advancement among several possibilities, to one who is not an expert. Utilizing graphic simulators' we expect operators' and TSC members' physical phenomena understanding enhancement from the realistic dynamic behavior of plants. We also expect that severe accident training course can gain better training effects using graphic simulator's control functions and predicting capabilities, and therefore we expect that graphic simulators will be effective decision-aids tools both in sever accident training course and in real severe accident situations. With these in mind, we have developed a prototype graphic simulator having surveyed related technologies, and from this development experiences we have inspected the possibility to build a severe accident graphic simulator. The prototype graphic simulator is developed under IBM PC WinNT environments and is suited to Uljin 3and4 nuclear power plant. When supplied with adequate severe accident scenario as an input, the prototype can provide graphical simulations of plant safety systems' dynamic behaviors. The prototype is composed of several different modules, which are phenomena display module, MELCOR data interface module and graphic database interface module. Main functions of


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. B. Demchenko


    Full Text Available Purpose. One of the priorities of station sorting complex functioning improvement is the breaking-up process energy consumptions reduction, namely: fuel consumption for train pushing and electric energy consumption for cut braking. In this regard, an effective solution of the problem of energy consumption reduction at breaking-up subsystem requires a comprehensive handling of train pushing and cut rolling down processes. At the same time, the analysis showed that the current task of pushing process improvement and cut rolling down effectiveness increase are solved separately. To solve this problem it is necessary to develop the complex simulation model of train breaking up process at humps. Methodology. Pushing process simulation was done based on adapted under the shunting conditions traction calculations. In addition, the features of shunting locomotives work at the humps were taken into account. In order to realize the current pushing mode the special algorithm of hump locomotive controlling, which along with the safety shunting operation requirements takes into account behavioral factors associated with engineer control actions was applied. This algorithm provides train smooth acceleration and further movement with speed, which is close to the set speed. Hump locomotive fuel consumptions were determined based on the amount of mechanical work performed by locomotive traction. Findings. The simulation model of train pushing process was developed and combined with existing cut rolling down model. Cut initial velocity is determined during simulation process. The obtained initial velocity is used for further cut rolling process modeling. In addition, the modeling resulted in sufficiently accurate determination of the fuel rates consumed for train breaking-up. Originality. The simulation model of train breaking-up process at the humps, which in contrast to the existing models allows reproducing complexly all the elements of this process in detail

  6. An Evaluation of the Role of Simulation Training for Teaching Surgical Skills in Sub-Saharan Africa. (United States)

    Campain, Nicholas J; Kailavasan, Mithun; Chalwe, Mumba; Gobeze, Aberra A; Teferi, Getaneh; Lane, Robert; Biyani, Chandra Shekhar


    An estimated 5 billion people worldwide lack access to any surgical care, whilst surgical conditions account for 11-30% of the global burden of disease. Maximizing the effectiveness of surgical training is imperative to improve access to safe and essential surgical care on a global scale. Innovative methods of surgical training have been used in sub-Saharan Africa to attempt to improve the efficiency of training healthcare workers in surgery. Simulation training may have an important role in up-scaling and improving the efficiency of surgical training and has been widely used in SSA. Though not intended to be a systematic review, the role of simulation for teaching surgical skills in Sub-Saharan Africa was reviewed to assess the evidence for use and outcomes. A systematic search strategy was used to retrieve relevant studies from electronic databases PubMed, Ovid, Medline for pertinent articles published until August 2016. Studies that reported the use of simulation-based training for surgery in Africa were included. In all, 19 articles were included. A variety of innovative surgical training methods using simulation techniques were identified. Few studies reported any outcome data. Compared to the volume of surgical training initiatives that are known to take place in SSA, there is very limited good quality published evidence for the use of simulation training in this context. Simulation training presents an excellent modality to enhance and improve both volume and access to high quality surgical skills training, alongside other learning domains. There is a desperate need to meticulously evaluate the appropriateness and effectiveness of simulation training in SSA, where simulation training could have a large potential beneficial impact. Training programs should attempt to assess and report learner outcomes.

  7. Systematic review of the implementation of simulation training in surgical residency curriculum. (United States)

    Kurashima, Yo; Hirano, Satoshi


    We reviewed the literature regarding the specific methods and strategies for implementing simulation-based training into the modern surgical residency curriculum. Residency programs are still struggling with how best to implement it into their curricula from a practical viewpoint. A systematic review was performed using Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, PsycINFO, Web of Science, and other resources for studies involving the use of simulation for technical skills training in the surgical residency curriculum. Studies were selected based on the integration of simulation into the curriculum and/or a description of the details of implementation and the resources required. In total, 2533 unique citations were retrieved based on this search, and 31 articles met the inclusion criteria. Most simulators were focused on laparoscopic procedures, and training occurred most often in a skills lab. The assessment of skills consisted mostly of speed of task completion. Only 4 studies addressed issues of cost, and 6 programs mentioned human resources without any mention of skills center personnel or administrative support. All of the studies described the nature of the simulation training, but very few commented on how it was actually implemented and what was needed from organizational, administrative and logistical perspectives.

  8. Nuclear Power Reactor simulator - based training program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelwahab, S.A.S.


    nuclear power stations will continue playing a major role as an energy source for electric generation and heat production in the world. in this paper, a nuclear power reactor simulator- based training program will be presented . this program is designed to aid in training of the reactor operators about the principles of operation of the plant. also it could help the researchers and the designers to analyze and to estimate the performance of the nuclear reactors and facilitate further studies for selection of the proper controller and its optimization process as it is difficult and time consuming to do all experiments in the real nuclear environment.this program is written in MATLAB code as MATLAB software provides sophisticated tools comparable to those in other software such as visual basic for the creation of graphical user interface (GUI). moreover MATLAB is available for all major operating systems. the used SIMULINK reactor model for the nuclear reactor can be used to model different types by adopting appropriate parameters. the model of each component of the reactor is based on physical laws rather than the use of look up tables or curve fitting.this simulation based training program will improve acquisition and retention knowledge also trainee will learn faster and will have better attitude

  9. Using the mind as a simulator: a randomized controlled trial of mental training. (United States)

    Eldred-Evans, David; Grange, Philippe; Cheang, Adrian; Yamamoto, Hidekazu; Ayis, Salma; Mulla, Mubashir; Immenroth, Marc; Sharma, Davendra; Reedy, Gabriel


    Laparoscopic simulators have been introduced as safe and effective methods of developing basic skills. Mental training is a novel training method likened to using the mind as a simulator to mentally rehearse the movements of a task or operation. It is widely used by professional athletes and musicians and has been suggested as a technique that could be used by surgical trainees. The purpose of this study was to assess the use of mental training in developing basic laparoscopic skills in novices. Sixty-four medical students without laparoscopic experience were randomized into 4 groups. The first 3 groups were trained to cut a circle on a box trainer. Group 1 received no additional training (BT), Group 2 received additional virtual reality training (BT + VRS), and Group 3 received additional mental training (BT + MT). The fourth group was trained on a virtual reality simulator with additional mental training (box-free). The following 4 assessment criterias: time, accuracy, precision and overall performance were measured on both the box-trainer and virtual simulator. The mental training group (BT + MT) demonstrated improved laparoscopic skills over both assessments. The improvement in skills in the VRS group (BT + VRS) was limited to VRS assessment and not observed in the box assessment. The fourth group (box-free) had the worst performance on both methods of assessment. The addition of mental training led to improved laparoscopic skills development. It is a flexible technique and has the potential to challenge VRS as a more cost-effective training method associated with lower capital investment. Given the benefits of mental training with further research, it could be considered for inclusion in training curricula. Copyright © 2013 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluating Behavioral Skills Training with and without Simulated in Situ Training for Teaching Safety Skills to Children (United States)

    Miltenberger, Raymond; Gross, Amy; Knudson, Peter; Bosch, Amanda; Jostad, Candice; Breitwieser, Carrie Brower


    This study compared the effectiveness of behavioral skills training (BST) to BST plus simulated in situ training (SIT) for teaching safety skills to children to prevent gun play. The results were evaluated in a posttest only control group design. Following the first assessment, participants in both training groups and the control group who did not…

  11. Can surgical simulation be used to train detection and classification of neural networks? (United States)

    Zisimopoulos, Odysseas; Flouty, Evangello; Stacey, Mark; Muscroft, Sam; Giataganas, Petros; Nehme, Jean; Chow, Andre; Stoyanov, Danail


    Computer-assisted interventions (CAI) aim to increase the effectiveness, precision and repeatability of procedures to improve surgical outcomes. The presence and motion of surgical tools is a key information input for CAI surgical phase recognition algorithms. Vision-based tool detection and recognition approaches are an attractive solution and can be designed to take advantage of the powerful deep learning paradigm that is rapidly advancing image recognition and classification. The challenge for such algorithms is the availability and quality of labelled data used for training. In this Letter, surgical simulation is used to train tool detection and segmentation based on deep convolutional neural networks and generative adversarial networks. The authors experiment with two network architectures for image segmentation in tool classes commonly encountered during cataract surgery. A commercially-available simulator is used to create a simulated cataract dataset for training models prior to performing transfer learning on real surgical data. To the best of authors' knowledge, this is the first attempt to train deep learning models for surgical instrument detection on simulated data while demonstrating promising results to generalise on real data. Results indicate that simulated data does have some potential for training advanced classification methods for CAI systems.

  12. Integrating Soft Set Theory and Fuzzy Linguistic Model to Evaluate the Performance of Training Simulation Systems. (United States)

    Chang, Kuei-Hu; Chang, Yung-Chia; Chain, Kai; Chung, Hsiang-Yu


    The advancement of high technologies and the arrival of the information age have caused changes to the modern warfare. The military forces of many countries have replaced partially real training drills with training simulation systems to achieve combat readiness. However, considerable types of training simulation systems are used in military settings. In addition, differences in system set up time, functions, the environment, and the competency of system operators, as well as incomplete information have made it difficult to evaluate the performance of training simulation systems. To address the aforementioned problems, this study integrated analytic hierarchy process, soft set theory, and the fuzzy linguistic representation model to evaluate the performance of various training simulation systems. Furthermore, importance-performance analysis was adopted to examine the influence of saving costs and training safety of training simulation systems. The findings of this study are expected to facilitate applying military training simulation systems, avoiding wasting of resources (e.g., low utility and idle time), and providing data for subsequent applications and analysis. To verify the method proposed in this study, the numerical examples of the performance evaluation of training simulation systems were adopted and compared with the numerical results of an AHP and a novel AHP-based ranking technique. The results verified that not only could expert-provided questionnaire information be fully considered to lower the repetition rate of performance ranking, but a two-dimensional graph could also be used to help administrators allocate limited resources, thereby enhancing the investment benefits and training effectiveness of a training simulation system.

  13. Sustained effect of simulation-based ultrasound training on clinical performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolsgaard, M G; Ringsted, C; Dreisler, E


    on a virtual-reality transvaginal ultrasound simulator until an expert performance level was attained followed by training on a pelvic mannequin. After two months of clinical training, one transvaginal ultrasound scan was recorded for assessment of participants' clinical performance. Two blinded ultrasound...

  14. Medical Team Training: Using Simulation as a Teaching Strategy for Group Work (United States)

    Moyer, Michael R.; Brown, Rhonda Douglas


    Described is an innovative approach currently being used to inspire group work, specifically a medical team training model, referred to as The Simulation Model, which includes as its major components: (1) Prior Training in Group Work of Medical Team Members; (2) Simulation in Teams or Groups; (3) Multidisciplinary Teamwork; (4) Team Leader…

  15. A simulation-based training program improves emergency department staff communication. (United States)

    Sweeney, Lynn A; Warren, Otis; Gardner, Liz; Rojek, Adam; Lindquist, David G


    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effectiveness of Project CLEAR!, a novel simulation-based training program designed to instill Crew Resource Management (CRM) as the communication standard and to create a service-focused environment in the emergency department (ED) by standardizing the patient encounter. A survey-based study compared physicians' and nurses' perceptions of the quality of communication before and after the training program. Surveys were developed to measure ED staff perceptions of the quality of communication between staff members and with patients. Pretraining and posttraining survey results were compared. After the training program, survey scores improved significantly on questions that asked participants to rate the overall communication between staff members and between staff and patients. A simulation-based training program focusing on CRM and standardizing the patient encounter improves communication in the ED, both between staff members and between staff members and patients.

  16. Applied Research on Laparoscopic Simulator in the Resident Surgical Laparoscopic Operation Technical Training. (United States)

    Fu, Shangxi; Liu, Xiao; Zhou, Li; Zhou, Meisheng; Wang, Liming


    The purpose of this study was to estimate the effects of surgical laparoscopic operation course on laparoscopic operation skills after the simulated training for medical students with relatively objective results via data gained before and after the practice course of laparoscopic simulator of the resident standardized trainees. Experiment 1: 20 resident standardized trainees with no experience in laparoscopic surgery were included in the inexperienced group and finished simulated cholecystectomy according to simulator videos. Simulator data was collected (total operation time, path length, average speed of instrument movement, movement efficiency, number of perforations, the time cautery is applied without appropriate contact with adhesions, number of serious complications). Ten attending doctors were included in the experienced group and conducted the operation of simulated cholecystectomy directly. Data was collected with simulator. Data of two groups was compared. Experiment 2: Participants in inexperienced group were assigned to basic group (receiving 8 items of basic operation training) and special group (receiving 8 items of basic operation training and 4 items of specialized training), and 10 persons for each group. They received training course designed by us respectively. After training level had reached the expected target, simulated cholecystectomy was performed, and data was collected. Experimental data between basic group and special group was compared and then data between special group and experienced group was compared. Results of experiment 1 showed that there is significant difference between data in inexperienced group in which participants operated simulated cholecystectomy only according to instructors' teaching and operation video and data in experienced group. Result of experiment 2 suggested that, total operation time, number of perforations, number of serious complications, number of non-cauterized bleeding and the time cautery is applied

  17. Role of simulator training in developing teamwork and diagnostic skills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimme, W.E.


    A review of the evolution of the control room team is necessary to understand team training needs. As control room responsibilities have increased and members have been added to the operating crews, teamwork and strong leadership has become crucial to the efficiency of these operating crews. In order to conduct effective team training in a simulated control room, it is essential that the fundamental principles of role definition and common team values are fully developed. The diagnostics model used to develop problem-solving skills must be adaptable to the dynamic environment of the control room. Once the fundamental principles of team building and a good diagnostics model are mastered, many training techniques using a simulator are available to perfect the development of team building and diagnostic skills

  18. A comparison of educational strategies for the acquisition of nursing student's performance and critical thinking: simulation-based training vs. integrated training (simulation and critical thinking strategies). (United States)

    Zarifsanaiey, Nahid; Amini, Mitra; Saadat, Farideh


    There is a need to change the focus of nursing education from traditional teacher-centered training programs to student-centered active methods. The integration of the two active learning techniques will improve the effectiveness of training programs. The objective of this study is to compare the effects of the integrated training (simulation and critical thinking strategies) and simulation-based training on the performance level and critical thinking ability of nursing students. The present quasi-experimental study was performed in 2014 on 40 students who were studying practical nursing principles and skills course in the first half of the academic year in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Students were randomly divided into control (n = 20) and experimental (n = 20) groups. After training students through simulation and integrated education (simulation and critical thinking strategies), the students' critical thinking ability and performance were evaluated via the use of California Critical Thinking Ability Questionnaire B (CCTST) and Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) comprising 10 stations, respectively. The external reliability of the California Critical Thinking questionnaire was reported by Case be between 0.78 and 0.80 and the validity of OSCE was approved by 5 members of the faculty. Furthermore, by using Split Half method (the correlation between odd and even stations), the reliability of the test was approved with correlation coefficient of 0.66. Data were analyzed using t-test and Mann-Whitney test. A significance level of 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. The mean scores of the experimental group performance level were higher than the mean score of the control group performance level. This difference was statistically significant and students in the experimental group in OSCE stations had significantly higher performance than the control group (P critical thinking did not increase before and after the

  19. Neurosurgical tactile discrimination training with haptic-based virtual reality simulation. (United States)

    Patel, Achal; Koshy, Nick; Ortega-Barnett, Juan; Chan, Hoi C; Kuo, Yong-Fan; Luciano, Cristian; Rizzi, Silvio; Matulyauskas, Martin; Kania, Patrick; Banerjee, Pat; Gasco, Jaime


    To determine if a computer-based simulation with haptic technology can help surgical trainees improve tactile discrimination using surgical instruments. Twenty junior medical students participated in the study and were randomized into two groups. Subjects in Group A participated in virtual simulation training using the ImmersiveTouch simulator (ImmersiveTouch, Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) that required differentiating the firmness of virtual spheres using tactile and kinesthetic sensation via haptic technology. Subjects in Group B did not undergo any training. With their visual fields obscured, subjects in both groups were then evaluated on their ability to use the suction and bipolar instruments to find six elastothane objects with areas ranging from 1.5 to 3.5 cm2 embedded in a urethane foam brain cavity model while relying on tactile and kinesthetic sensation only. A total of 73.3% of the subjects in Group A (simulation training) were able to find the brain cavity objects in comparison to 53.3% of the subjects in Group B (no training) (P  =  0.0183). There was a statistically significant difference in the total number of Group A subjects able to find smaller brain cavity objects (size ≤ 2.5 cm2) compared to that in Group B (72.5 vs. 40%, P  =  0.0032). On the other hand, no significant difference in the number of subjects able to detect larger objects (size ≧ 3 cm2) was found between Groups A and B (75 vs. 80%, P  =  0.7747). Virtual computer-based simulators with integrated haptic technology may improve tactile discrimination required for microsurgical technique.

  20. Pressurized water reactor simulation in the training environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wills, A.G.


    The paper gives a brief history of PWR Simulation within the DNST and an outline of the training courses leading to the requirement for the Display Array Simulation System. Focus is then placed upon the flexible use of real time simulation in the teaching of plant dynamics by the use of model generated data. The use of interactive consoles and a large scale colour graphic display has led to the success of the Display Array Simulation System within the DNST. Realisation of the potential of the system has led to many other proposed uses for the installed system and the paper concludes by discussing some of these. (orig./DG)

  1. Development of Reactor TRIGA PUSPATI Simulator for Education and Training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Sabri Minhat; Zarina Masood; Muhammad Rawi Mohamed Zin


    The real-time simulator for Reactor TRIGA PUSPATI (RTP) which is under development. The main purpose of this simulator is operator training and a dynamic test bed (DTB) to test and validate the control logics in reactor regulating system (RRS) of RTP. The simulator configuration is divided into hardware and software. The simulator hardware consists of a host computer, operator station, a network switch, control rod drive mechanism and a large display panel. The RTP hardwired panel is replicated similar to real console. The software includes a mathematical model includes reactor kinetics and thermal-hydraulics that implements plant dynamics in real-time using LabVIEW, an instructor station module work as host computer that manages user instructions, and a human machine interface module as a graphical user interface which is used in the real RTP plant. The developed TRIGA reactor simulators are installed in the Malaysian Nuclear Agency nuclear training center for reactor operator training. To use the simulator as a dynamic test-bed, the reactor regulating system modeling software of the simulator was replaced by actual RRS cabinet which is consist of Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) S7-1500, and was interfaced using a hard-wired and network-based interface. RRS cabinet generates control signals for reactor power control based on the various feedback signals from DTB such as neutron detector signal and control rod positions, and the DTB runs plant dynamics based on the RRS control signals. Thus the Hardware-In-the-Loop Simulation between RRS and the emulated plant (DTB) has been implemented and tested in this configuration. Normal and abnormal case test have been emulated for this project. In conclusion, the functions and the control performance of the developed RTP dynamic test bed simulator have been tested showing reasonable and acceptable results. (author)

  2. Is simulation training effective in increasing podiatrists' confidence in foot ulcer management?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Régo Patricia M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Foot ulcers are a frequent reason for diabetes-related hospitalisation. Clinical training is known to have a beneficial impact on foot ulcer outcomes. Clinical training using simulation techniques has rarely been used in the management of diabetes-related foot complications or chronic wounds. Simulation can be defined as a device or environment that attempts to replicate the real world. The few non-web-based foot-related simulation courses have focused solely on training for a single skill or "part task" (for example, practicing ingrown toenail procedures on models. This pilot study aimed to primarily investigate the effect of a training program using multiple methods of simulation on participants' clinical confidence in the management of foot ulcers. Methods Sixteen podiatrists participated in a two-day Foot Ulcer Simulation Training (FUST course. The course included pre-requisite web-based learning modules, practicing individual foot ulcer management part tasks (for example, debriding a model foot ulcer, and participating in replicated clinical consultation scenarios (for example, treating a standardised patient (actor with a model foot ulcer. The primary outcome measure of the course was participants' pre- and post completion of confidence surveys, using a five-point Likert scale (1 = Unacceptable-5 = Proficient. Participants' knowledge, satisfaction and their perception of the relevance and fidelity (realism of a range of course elements were also investigated. Parametric statistics were used to analyse the data. Pearson's r was used for correlation, ANOVA for testing the differences between groups, and a paired-sample t-test to determine the significance between pre- and post-workshop scores. A minimum significance level of p Results An overall 42% improvement in clinical confidence was observed following completion of FUST (mean scores 3.10 compared to 4.40, p Conclusions This pilot study suggests simulation training

  3. Simulation and computation in health physics training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakey, S.R.A.; Gibbs, D.C.C.; Marchant, C.P.


    The Royal Naval College has devised a number of computer aided learning programmes applicable to health physics which include radiation shield design and optimisation, environmental impact of a reactor accident, exposure levels produced by an inert radioactive gas cloud, and the prediction of radiation detector response in various radiation field conditions. Analogue computers are used on reduced or fast time scales because time dependent phenomenon are not always easily assimilated in real time. The build-up and decay of fission products, the dynamics of intake of radioactive material and reactor accident dynamics can be effectively simulated. It is essential to relate these simulations to real time and the College applies a research reactor and analytical phantom to this end. A special feature of the reactor is a chamber which can be supplied with Argon-41 from reactor exhaust gases to create a realistic gaseous contamination environment. Reactor accident situations are also taught by using role playing sequences carried out in real time in the emergency facilities associated with the research reactor. These facilities are outlined and the training technique illustrated with examples of the calculations and simulations. The training needs of the future are discussed, with emphasis on optimisation and cost-benefit analysis. (H.K.)

  4. B-1 Systems Approach to Training. Simulation Technology Assessment Report (STAR) (United States)


    Psychology in the Air Force, 1974. Creelman , J.A., Evaluation of Approach Training Procedures, U.S. Naval School of Aviation Med., Proj. No. 3.2 PHYSICAL VERSUS PSYCHOLOGICAL SIMULATION In the previous section, the term "physical simulation" was used to represent the case where... psychology that there is no "step function" threshold. Rather, detection capability plotted against phys- ical parameter strength results in an ogival

  5. Innovative teaching methods in the professional training of nurses – simulation education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Miertová


    Full Text Available Introduction: The article is aimed to highlight usage of innovative teaching methods within simulation education in the professional training of nurses abroad and to present our experience based on passing intensive study programme at School of Nursing, Midwifery and Social Work, University of Salford (United Kingdom, UK within Intensive EU Lifelong Learning Programme (LPP Erasmus EU RADAR 2013. Methods: Implementation of simulation methods such as role-play, case studies, simulation scenarios, practical workshops and clinical skills workstation within structured ABCDE approach (AIM© Assessment and Management Tool was aimed to promote the development of theoretical knowledge and skills to recognize and manage acutely deteriorated patients. Structured SBAR approach (Acute SBAR Communication Tool was used for the training of communication and information sharing among the members of multidisciplinary health care team. OSCE approach (Objective Structured Clinical Examination was used for student’s individual formative assessment. Results: Simulation education is proved to have lots of benefits in the professional training of nurses. It is held in safe, controlled and realistic conditions (in simulation laboratories reflecting real hospital and community care environment with no risk of harming real patients accompanied by debriefing, discussion and analysis of all activities students have performed within simulated scenario. Such learning environment is supportive, challenging, constructive, motivated, engaging, skilled, flexible, inspiring and respectful. Thus the simulation education is effective, interactive, interesting, efficient and modern way of nursing education. Conclusion: Critical thinking and clinical competences of nurses are crucial for early recognition and appropriate response to acute deterioration of patient’s condition. These competences are important to ensure the provision of high quality nursing care. Methods of

  6. Training, Simulation, the Learning Curve, and How to Reduce Complications in Urology. (United States)

    Brunckhorst, Oliver; Volpe, Alessandro; van der Poel, Henk; Mottrie, Alexander; Ahmed, Kamran


    Urology is at the forefront of minimally invasive surgery to a great extent. These procedures produce additional learning challenges and possess a steep initial learning curve. Training and assessment methods in surgical specialties such as urology are known to lack clear structure and often rely on differing operative flow experienced by individuals and institutions. This article aims to assess current urology training modalities, to identify the role of simulation within urology, to define and identify the learning curves for various urologic procedures, and to discuss ways to decrease complications in the context of training. A narrative review of the literature was conducted through December 2015 using the PubMed/Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases. Evidence of the validity of training methods in urology includes observation of a procedure, mentorship and fellowship, e-learning, and simulation-based training. Learning curves for various urologic procedures have been recommended based on the available literature. The importance of structured training pathways is highlighted, with integration of modular training to ensure patient safety. Valid training pathways are available in urology. The aim in urology training should be to combine all of the available evidence to produce procedure-specific curricula that utilise the vast array of training methods available to ensure that we continue to improve patient outcomes and reduce complications. The current evidence for different training methods available in urology, including simulation-based training, was reviewed, and the learning curves for various urologic procedures were critically analysed. Based on the evidence, future pathways for urology curricula have been suggested to ensure that patient safety is improved. Copyright © 2016 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Self-rotations in simulated microgravity: performance effects of strategy training. (United States)

    Stirling, Leia; Newman, Dava; Willcox, Karen


    This research studies reorientation methodologies in a simulated microgravity environment using an experimental framework to reduce astronaut adaptation time and provide for a safety countermeasure during extravehicular activity. There were 20 subjects (10 men, 10 women, mean age of 23.6 +/- 3.5) who were divided into 2 groups, fully trained and minimally trained, which determined the amount of motion strategy training received. Subjects performed a total of 48 rotations about their pitch, roll, and yaw axes in a suspension system that simulated microgravity. In each trial subjects either rotated 90 degrees in pitch, 90 degrees in roll, or 180 degrees in yaw. Experimental measures include subject coordination, performance time, cognitive workload assessments, and qualitative motion control strategies. Subjects in the fully trained group had better initial performance with respect to performance time and workload scores for the pitch and yaw rotations. Further, trained subjects reached a steady-state performance time in fewer trials than those with minimal training. The subjects with minimal training tended to use motions that were common in an Earth environment since no technique was provided. For roll rotations they developed motions that would have led to significant off-axis (pitch and yaw) rotations in a true microgravity environment. We have shown that certain body axes are easier to rotate about than others and that fully trained subjects had an easier time performing the body rotations than the minimally trained subjects. This study has provided the groundwork for the development of an astronaut motion-control training program.

  8. Integration and Validation of Hysteroscopy Simulation in the Surgical Training Curriculum. (United States)

    Elessawy, Mohamed; Skrzipczyk, Moritz; Eckmann-Scholz, Christel; Maass, Nicolai; Mettler, Liselotte; Guenther, Veronika; van Mackelenbergh, Marion; Bauerschlag, Dirk O; Alkatout, Ibrahim

    The primary objective of our study was to test the construct validity of the HystSim hysteroscopic simulator to determine whether simulation training can improve the acquisition of hysteroscopic skills regardless of the previous levels of experience of the participants. The secondary objective was to analyze the performance of a selected task, using specially designed scoring charts to help reduce the learning curve for both novices and experienced surgeons. The teaching of hysteroscopic intervention has received only scant attention, focusing mainly on the development of physical models and box simulators. This encouraged our working group to search for a suitable hysteroscopic simulator module and to test its validation. We decided to use the HystSim hysteroscopic simulator, which is one of the few such simulators that has already completed a validation process, with high ratings for both realism and training capacity. As a testing tool for our study, we selected the myoma resection task. We analyzed the results using the multimetric score system suggested by HystSim, allowing a more precise interpretation of the results. Between June 2014 and May 2015, our group collected data on 57 participants of minimally invasive surgical training courses at the Kiel School of Gynecological Endoscopy, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Hospitals Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel. The novice group consisted of 42 medical students and residents with no prior experience in hysteroscopy, whereas the expert group consisted of 15 participants with more than 2 years of experience of advanced hysteroscopy operations. The overall results demonstrated that all participants attained significant improvements between their pretest and posttests, independent of their previous levels of experience (p hysteroscopic skills, proving an adequate construct validation of the HystSim. Using the multimetric scoring system enabled a more accurate analysis of the performance of the

  9. Discrete event model-based simulation for train movement on a single-line railway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Xiao-Ming; Li Ke-Ping; Yang Li-Xing


    The aim of this paper is to present a discrete event model-based approach to simulate train movement with the considered energy-saving factor. We conduct extensive case studies to show the dynamic characteristics of the traffic flow and demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. The simulation results indicate that the proposed discrete event model-based simulation approach is suitable for characterizing the movements of a group of trains on a single railway line with less iterations and CPU time. Additionally, some other qualitative and quantitative characteristics are investigated. In particular, because of the cumulative influence from the previous trains, the following trains should be accelerated or braked frequently to control the headway distance, leading to more energy consumption. (general)

  10. A functional model for simulator based training in the pacific basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, K.; MacBeth, M.J.


    According to expert estimate, the nuclear power installed capacity in the Pacific Basin region may reach 20 GWe by the year 2010. Facing a phenomenal growth in nuclear power development in the region, the development of high quality nuclear human resources for 'nuclear power ready' developing countries in the Pacific Basin is an important issue at this time. This paper recommends a timely and cost-effective functional training model to the Pacific Basin countries. The model utilizes high quality simulation executed on low cost and readily available PCs to deliver desktop simulator based training programs, as an efficient and economical complement to full scope simulators, which may not be available for initial training until five years after the NPP project has started. The objective is to ensure the goals of self-reliance and the transfer of necessary NPP knowledge at the onset of the project, to build up a technological infrastructure in areas vital for subsequent technical support of the NPP in design, commissioning, and operator training: comprehension of control systems; familiarization of plant responses to accident conditions; man machine interface (MMI) functions and interactions; early guide to commissioning and operating procedures; presentation to safety reviewers, etc. An example of this model is demonstrated with the use of the (1) CANDU 9 (CANada Deuterium Uranium 900 MW Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor) desktop nuclear simulator and (2) CASSIM (CASsiopeia SIMulation development system). (author)

  11. Simulators and their use in the training of CEGB reactor operations engineers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madden, V.J.; Tompsett, P.A.


    The development of simulators in the Central Electricity Generating Board's nuclear power training are traced, and, in describing the overall training programme of an advanced gas-cooled reactor operations engineer, the contribution made by a range of simulation devices from concept through to full-scope replica simulators is indicated. The capabilities of today's simulators are such that they are also making other contributions to the commissioning and safe operation of nuclear power plants. They are being successfully used for ergonomic and procedure validation work and the testing and commissioning of software for automatic control systems, and data and alarm processing systems. (author)

  12. Simulation-based training in brain death determination. (United States)

    MacDougall, Benjamin J; Robinson, Jennifer D; Kappus, Liana; Sudikoff, Stephanie N; Greer, David M


    Despite straightforward guidelines on brain death determination by the American Academy of Neurology (AAN), substantial practice variability exists internationally, between states, and among institutions. We created a simulation-based training course on proper determination based on the AAN practice parameters to address and assess knowledge and practice gaps at our institution. Our intervention consisted of a didactic course and a simulation exercise, and was bookended by before and after multiple-choice tests. The 40-min didactic course, including a video demonstration, covered all aspects of the brain death examination. Simulation sessions utilized a SimMan 3G manikin and involved a complete examination, including an apnea test. Possible confounders and signs incompatible with brain death were embedded throughout. Facilitators evaluated performance with a 26-point checklist based on the most recent AAN guidelines. A senior neurologist conducted all aspects of the course, including the didactic session, simulation, and debriefing session. Ninety physicians from multiple specialties have participated in the didactic session, 38 of whom have completed the simulation. Pre-test scores were poor (41.4 %), with attendings scoring higher than residents (46.6 vs. 40.4 %, p = 0.07), and neurologists and neurosurgeons significantly outperforming other specialists (53.9 vs. 38.9 %, p = 0.003). Post-test scores (73.3 %) were notably higher than pre-test scores (45.4 %). Participant feedback has been uniformly positive. Baseline knowledge of brain death determination among providers was low but improved greatly after the course. Our intervention represents an effective model that can be replicated at other institutions to train clinicians in the determination of brain death according to evidence-based guidelines.

  13. Hybrid simulation using mixed reality for interventional ultrasound imaging training. (United States)

    Freschi, C; Parrini, S; Dinelli, N; Ferrari, M; Ferrari, V


    Ultrasound (US) imaging offers advantages over other imaging modalities and has become the most widespread modality for many diagnostic and interventional procedures. However, traditional 2D US requires a long training period, especially to learn how to manipulate the probe. A hybrid interactive system based on mixed reality was designed, implemented and tested for hand-eye coordination training in diagnostic and interventional US. A hybrid simulator was developed integrating a physical US phantom and a software application with a 3D virtual scene. In this scene, a 3D model of the probe with its relative scan plane is coherently displayed with a 3D representation of the phantom internal structures. An evaluation study of the diagnostic module was performed by recruiting thirty-six novices and four experts. The performances of the hybrid (HG) versus physical (PG) simulator were compared. After the training session, each novice was required to visualize a particular target structure. The four experts completed a 5-point Likert scale questionnaire. Seventy-eight percentage of the HG novices successfully visualized the target structure, whereas only 45% of the PG reached this goal. The mean scores from the questionnaires were 5.00 for usefulness, 4.25 for ease of use, 4.75 for 3D perception, and 3.25 for phantom realism. The hybrid US training simulator provides ease of use and is effective as a hand-eye coordination teaching tool. Mixed reality can improve US probe manipulation training.

  14. VVER-440 training simulators upgrades - Experience of CORYS T.E.S.S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartak, J.; Fallon, B.


    The paper presents recent projects of upgrading screen operated simulators of VVER-440 nuclear power plants to full scale replica simulators, implemented by CORYS TESS. Control room replica full scope simulators were built for the Bohunice NPP in Slovakia and the Novovoronezh NPP in Russia. The scope of simulation was extended to reflect the current status of the units, which have undergone significant modernization programs over the last few years. The paper describes the software and hardware adaptations and evolutions of the existing simulators, the implementation in the simulator of modern supervision systems as well as of systems and equipment designed in the seventies and still used on the reference units. The training benefits of parallel use of control room replica and screen-operated simulators in the training process are discussed. (author)

  15. Phantom-based interactive simulation system for dental treatment training. (United States)

    Sae-Kee, Bundit; Riener, Robert; Frey, Martin; Pröll, Thomas; Burgkart, Rainer


    In this paper, we propose a new interactive simulation system for dental treatment training. The system comprises a virtual reality environment and a force-torque measuring device to enhance the capabilities of a passive phantom of tooth anatomy in dental treatment training processes. The measuring device is connected to the phantom, and provides essential input data for generating the graphic animations of physical behaviors such as drilling and bleeding. The animation methods of those physical behaviors are also presented. This system is not only able to enhance interactivity and accessibility of the training system compared to conventional methods but it also provides possibilities of recording, evaluating, and verifying the training results.

  16. Burnout among pilots: psychosocial factors related to happiness and performance at simulator training. (United States)

    Demerouti, Evangelia; Veldhuis, Wouter; Coombes, Claire; Hunter, Rob


    In this study among airline pilots, we aim to uncover the work characteristics (job demands and resources) and the outcomes (job crafting, happiness and simulator training performance) that are related to burnout for this occupational group. Using a large sample of airline pilots, we showed that 40% of the participating pilots experience high burnout. In line with Job Demands-Resources theory, job demands were detrimental for simulator training performance because they made pilots more exhausted and less able to craft their job, whereas job resources had a favourable effect because they reduced feelings of disengagement and increased job crafting. Moreover, burnout was negatively related to pilots' happiness with life. These findings highlight the importance of psychosocial factors and health for valuable outcomes for both pilots and airlines. Practitioner Summary: Using an online survey among the members of a European pilots' professional association, we examined the relationship between psychosocial factors (work characteristics, burnout) and outcomes (simulator training performance, happiness). Forty per cent of the participating pilots experience high burnout. Job demands were detrimental, whereas job resources were favourable for simulator training performance/happiness. Twitter text: 40% of airline pilots experience burnout and psychosocial work factors and burnout relate to performance at pilots' simulator training.

  17. Simulation and training of ultrasound supported anaesthesia: a low-cost approach (United States)

    Schaaf, T.; Lamontain, M.; Hilpert, J.; Schilling, F.; Tolxdorff, T.


    The use of ultrasound imaging technology during techniques of peripheral nerve blockade offers several clinical benefits. Here we report on a new method to educate residents in ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia. The daily challenge for the anesthesiologists is the 3D angle-depending handling of the stimulation needle and the ultrasound probe while watching the 2D ultrasound image on the monitor. Purpose: Our approach describes how a computer-aided simulation and training set for ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia could be built based on wireless low-cost devices and an interactive simulation of a 2D ultrasound image. For training purposes the injection needle and the ultrasound probe are replaced by wireless Bluetooth-connected 3D tracking devices, which are embedded in WII-mote controllers (Nintendo-Brand). In correlation to the tracked 3D positions of the needle and transducer models the visibility and position of the needle should be simulated in the 2D generated ultrasound image. Conclusion: In future, this tracking and visualization software module could be integrated in a more complex training set, where complex injection paths could be trained based on a 3D segmented model and the training results could be part of a curricular e-learning module.

  18. Effects of training on recognition of musical instruments presented through cochlear implant simulations. (United States)

    Driscoll, Virginia D; Oleson, Jacob; Jiang, Dingfeng; Gfeller, Kate


    The simulation of the CI (cochlear implant) signal presents a degraded representation of each musical instrument, which makes recognition difficult. To examine the efficiency and effectiveness of three types of training on recognition of musical instruments as presented through simulations of the sounds transmitted through a CI. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three training conditions: repeated exposure, feedback, and direct instruction. Sixty-six adults with normal hearing. Each participant completed three training sessions per week, over a five-week time period, in which they listened to the CI simulations of eight different musical instruments. Analyses on percent of instruments identified correctly showed statistically significant differences between recognition accuracy of the three training conditions (p different types of training are differentially effective with regard to improving recognition of musical instruments presented through a degraded signal, which has practical implications for the auditory rehabilitation of persons who use cochlear implants.

  19. Co-simulation Platform for Train-to-Ground communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Ying; Bouaziz, Maha; Kassab, Mohamed

    The project SAFE4RAIL (SAFE architecture for Robust distributed Application Integration in roLling stock) from the Shift2Rail Joint Undertaking will provide a cosimulation platform based on hardware/software co-simulation. The platform will be used for Train-to-Ground (T2G) test environments...... in the context of the validation of the new wireless Train Control Management System (TCMS) transmission over LTE technologies in order to evaluate performances with realistic services and under various railway traffic conditions....

  20. Development of a prototype graphic simulation program for severe accident training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ko Ryu; Jeong, Kwang Sub; Ha, Jae Joo


    This is a report of the development process and related technologies of severe accident graphic simulators, required in industrial severe accident management and training. Here, we say 'a severe accident graphic simulator' as a graphics add-in system to existing calculation codes, which can show the severe accident phenomena dynamically on computer screens and therefore which can supplement one of main defects of existing calculation codes. With graphic simulators it is fairly easy to see the total behavior of nuclear power plants, where it was very difficult to see only from partial variable numerical information. Moreover, the fast processing and control feature of a graphic simulator can give some opportunities of predicting the severe accident advancement among several possibilities, to one who is not an expert. Utilizing graphic simulators' we expect operators' and TSC members' physical phenomena understanding enhancement from the realistic dynamic behavior of plants. We also expect that severe accident training course can gain better training effects using graphic simulator's control functions and predicting capabilities, and therefore we expect that graphic simulators will be effective decision-aids tools both in sever accident training course and in real severe accident situations. With these in mind, we have developed a prototype graphic simulator having surveyed related technologies, and from this development experiences we have inspected the possibility to build a severe accident graphic simulator. The prototype graphic simulator is developed under IBM PC WinNT environments and is suited to Uljin 3and4 nuclear power plant. When supplied with adequate severe accident scenario as an input, the prototype can provide graphical simulations of plant safety systems' dynamic behaviors. The prototype is composed of several different modules, which are phenomena display module, MELCOR data interface module and graphic database

  1. Application of simulation techniques for accident management training in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    core. These capabilities include the optimized use of design margins as well as complementary measures for the prevention of accident progression, its monitoring, and the mitigation of severe accidents. Finally, level 5 includes off-site emergency response measures, the objective of which is to mitigate the radiological consequences of significant releases of radioactive material. Accident management is defined in the IAEA Safety Report on Development and Implementation of Accident Management Programmes in Nuclear Power Plants. The IAEA definitions are in line with the definitions of severe accident management in OECD/NEA documents as given, for example. This report describes simulation techniques used in the training of personnel involved in accident management of NPPs. This concerns both the plant personnel and the persons involved in the management of off-site releases. The report pertains to light water reactors (LWRs) and pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWRs), but it can equally be applied to power reactors of other types. The report is intended for use by experts responsible for planning, developing, executing or supervising the training of personnel involved in the implementation of AMPs in NPPs. It concentrates on existing techniques, but future prospects are also discussed. Various simulation techniques are considered, from incorporating graphical interfaces into existing severe accident codes to full-scope replica simulators. Both preventive and mitigative accident management measures, different training levels and different target personnel groups are taken into account. Based on the available information compiled worldwide, present views on the applicability of simulation techniques for the training of personnel involved in accident management are provided in this report. Apart from the introduction, this report consists of four sections and three appendices. In Section 2, specific aspects of accident management are summarized. Basic approaches in the

  2. Maritime Safety and Security Challenges – 3D Simulation Based Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Felsenstein


    Full Text Available Maritime Safety and Security on board ships very much depends on well trained crews. That is why training and exercising emergency response procedures as well as efficiency in reliable management are extremely necessary. On the other hand research as well as technological development in safety and security, tools and other kinds of technical and organizational systems contribute to further improvement and guarantee high levels of safety and security in maritime transportation. Simulation facilities are essential for both exercising and training but also for research and technological development. This paper introduces the innovative concept of a safety and security training simulator (SST7 and describes research work related to the implementation of training scenarios. Selected results of a case study will be presented. A shorter version of this paper was originally presented at the International Conference on “Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation” at Gdynia in June 2013.

  3. Evaluation of a haptics-based virtual reality temporal bone simulator for anatomy and surgery training. (United States)

    Fang, Te-Yung; Wang, Pa-Chun; Liu, Chih-Hsien; Su, Mu-Chun; Yeh, Shih-Ching


    Virtual reality simulation training may improve knowledge of anatomy and surgical skills. We evaluated a 3-dimensional, haptic, virtual reality temporal bone simulator for dissection training. The subjects were 7 otolaryngology residents (3 training sessions each) and 7 medical students (1 training session each). The virtual reality temporal bone simulation station included a computer with software that was linked to a force-feedback hand stylus, and the system recorded performance and collisions with vital anatomic structures. Subjects performed virtual reality dissections and completed questionnaires after the training sessions. Residents and students had favorable responses to most questions of the technology acceptance model (TAM) questionnaire. The average TAM scores were above neutral for residents and medical students in all domains, and the average TAM score for residents was significantly higher for the usefulness domain and lower for the playful domain than students. The average satisfaction questionnaire for residents showed that residents had greater overall satisfaction with cadaver temporal bone dissection training than training with the virtual reality simulator or plastic temporal bone. For medical students, the average comprehension score was significantly increased from before to after training for all anatomic structures. Medical students had significantly more collisions with the dura than residents. The residents had similar mean performance scores after the first and third training sessions for all dissection procedures. The virtual reality temporal bone simulator provided satisfactory training for otolaryngology residents and medical students. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  4. Nuclear power plant training simulator system and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, R.W.; Converse, R.E. Jr.


    A system is described for simulating the real-time dynamic operation of a full scope nuclear powered electrical generating plant for operator training utilizing apparatus that includes a control console with plant component control devices and indicating devices for monitoring plant operation. A general purpose digital computer calculates the dynamic simulation data for operating the indicating devices in accordance with the operation of the control devices. The functions for synchronization and calculation are arranged in a priority structure so as to insure an execution order that provides a maximum overlap of data exchange and simulation calculations. (Official Gazette)

  5. Characterization of bedded salt for storage caverns -- A case study from the Midland Basin, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hovorka, Susan D.; Nava, Robin


    The geometry of Permian bedding salt in the Midland Basin is a product of interaction between depositional facies and postdepositional modification by salt dissolution. Mapping high-frequency cycle patterns in cross section and map view using wireline logs documents the salt geometry. Geologically based interpretation of depositional and dissolution processes provides a powerful tool for mapping and geometry of salt to assess the suitability of sites for development of solution-mined storage caverns. In addition, this process-based description of salt geometry complements existing data about the evolution of one of the best-known sedimentary basins in the world, and can serve as a genetic model to assist in interpreting other salts.

  6. Simulation training for pediatric residents on central venous catheter placement: a pilot study. (United States)

    Thomas, Scott M; Burch, Wesley; Kuehnle, Sarah E; Flood, Robert G; Scalzo, Anthony J; Gerard, James M


    To assess the effect of simulation training on pediatric residents' acquisition and retention of central venous catheter insertion skills. A secondary objective was to assess the effect of simulation training on self-confidence to perform the procedure. Prospective observational pilot study. Single university clinical simulation center. Pediatric residents, postgraduate years 1-3. Residents participated in a 60- to 90-minute ultrasound-guided central venous catheter simulation training session. Video recordings of residents performing simulated femoral central venous catheter insertions were made before (baseline), after, and at 3-month following training. Three blinded expert raters independently scored the performances using a 24-item checklist and 100-mm global rating scale. At each time point, residents rated their confidence to perform the procedure on a 100-mm scale. Twenty-six residents completed the study. Compared with baseline, immediately following training, median checklist score (54.2% [interquartile range, 40.8-68.8%] vs 83.3% [interquartile range, 70.0-91.7%]), global rating score (8.0 mm [interquartile range, 0.0-64.3 mm] vs 79.5 mm [interquartile range, 16.3-91.7 mm]), success rate (38.5% vs 80.8%), and self-confidence (8.0 mm [interquartile range, 3.8-19.0 mm] vs 52.0 mm [interquartile range, 43.5-66.5 mm]) all improved (p interquartile range, 40.8-68.8%] vs 54.2% [interquartile range, 45.8-80.4%], p = 0.47), global rating score (8.0 mm [interquartile range, 0.0-64.3 mm] vs 35.5 mm [interquartile range, 5.3-77.0], p = 0.62), and success rate (38.5% vs 65.4%, p = 0.35) were similar at 3-month follow-up. Self-confidence, however, remained above baseline at 3-month follow-up (8.0 mm [interquartile range, 3.8-19.0 mm] vs 61.0 mm [interquartile range, 31.5-71.8 mm], p < 0.01). Simulation training improved pediatric residents' central venous catheter insertion procedural skills. Decay in skills was found at 3-month follow-up. This suggests that

  7. A comparison of educational strategies for the acquisition of nursing student’s performance and critical thinking: simulation-based training vs. integrated training (simulation and critical thinking strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Zarifsanaiey


    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a need to change the focus of nursing education from traditional teacher-centered training programs to student-centered active methods. The integration of the two active learning techniques will improve the effectiveness of training programs. The objective of this study is to compare the effects of the integrated training (simulation and critical thinking strategies and simulation-based training on the performance level and critical thinking ability of nursing students. Methods The present quasi-experimental study was performed in 2014 on 40 students who were studying practical nursing principles and skills course in the first half of the academic year in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Students were randomly divided into control (n = 20 and experimental (n = 20 groups. After training students through simulation and integrated education (simulation and critical thinking strategies, the students' critical thinking ability and performance were evaluated via the use of California Critical Thinking Ability Questionnaire B (CCTST and Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE comprising 10 stations, respectively. The external reliability of the California Critical Thinking questionnaire was reported by Case be between 0.78 and 0.80 and the validity of OSCE was approved by 5 members of the faculty. Furthermore, by using Split Half method (the correlation between odd and even stations, the reliability of the test was approved with correlation coefficient of 0.66. Data were analyzed using t-test and Mann–Whitney test. A significance level of 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results The mean scores of the experimental group performance level were higher than the mean score of the control group performance level. This difference was statistically significant and students in the experimental group in OSCE stations had significantly higher performance than the control group (P <0

  8. Utility of Ambulance Data for Real-Time Syndromic Surveillance: A Pilot in the West Midlands Region, United Kingdom. (United States)

    Todkill, Dan; Loveridge, Paul; Elliot, Alex J; Morbey, Roger A; Edeghere, Obaghe; Rayment-Bishop, Tracy; Rayment-Bishop, Chris; Thornes, John E; Smith, Gillian


    Introduction The Public Health England (PHE; United Kingdom) Real-Time Syndromic Surveillance Team (ReSST) currently operates four national syndromic surveillance systems, including an emergency department system. A system based on ambulance data might provide an additional measure of the "severe" end of the clinical disease spectrum. This report describes the findings and lessons learned from the development and preliminary assessment of a pilot syndromic surveillance system using ambulance data from the West Midlands (WM) region in England. Hypothesis/Problem Is an Ambulance Data Syndromic Surveillance System (ADSSS) feasible and of utility in enhancing the existing suite of PHE syndromic surveillance systems? An ADSSS was designed, implemented, and a pilot conducted from September 1, 2015 through March 1, 2016. Surveillance cases were defined as calls to the West Midlands Ambulance Service (WMAS) regarding patients who were assigned any of 11 specified chief presenting complaints (CPCs) during the pilot period. The WMAS collected anonymized data on cases and transferred the dataset daily to ReSST, which contained anonymized information on patients' demographics, partial postcode of patients' location, and CPC. The 11 CPCs covered a broad range of syndromes. The dataset was analyzed descriptively each week to determine trends and key epidemiological characteristics of patients, and an automated statistical algorithm was employed daily to detect higher than expected number of calls. A preliminary assessment was undertaken to assess the feasibility, utility (including quality of key indicators), and timeliness of the system for syndromic surveillance purposes. Lessons learned and challenges were identified and recorded during the design and implementation of the system. The pilot ADSSS collected 207,331 records of individual ambulance calls (daily mean=1,133; range=923-1,350). The ADSSS was found to be timely in detecting seasonal changes in patterns of respiratory

  9. The Relationship of Endoscopic Proficiency to Educational Expense for Virtual Reality Simulator Training Amongst Surgical Trainees. (United States)

    Raque, Jessica; Goble, Adam; Jones, Veronica M; Waldman, Lindsey E; Sutton, Erica


    With the introduction of Fundamentals of Endoscopic Surgery, training methods in flexible endoscopy are being augmented with simulation-based curricula. The investment for virtual reality simulators warrants further research into its training advantage. Trainees were randomized into bedside or simulator training groups (BED vs SIM). SIM participated in a proficiency-based virtual reality curriculum. Trainees' endoscopic skills were rated using the Global Assessment of Gastrointestinal Endoscopic Skills (GAGES) in the patient care setting. The number of cases to reach 90 per cent of the maximum GAGES score and calculated costs of training were compared. Nineteen residents participated in the study. There was no difference in the average number of cases required to achieve 90 per cent of the maximum GAGES score for esophagogastroduodenoscopy, 13 (SIM) versus11 (BED) (P = 0.63), or colonoscopy 21 (SIM) versus 4 (BED) (P = 0.34). The average per case cost of training for esophagogastroduodenoscopy was $35.98 (SIM) versus $39.71 (BED) (P = 0.50), not including the depreciation costs associated with the simulator ($715.00 per resident over six years). Use of a simulator appeared to increase the cost of training without accelerating the learning curve or decreasing faculty time spent in instruction. The importance of simulation in endoscopy training will be predicated on more cost-effective simulators.

  10. [Simulation training in pulmonary medicine: Rationale, review of the literature and perspectives]. (United States)

    Hureaux, J; Urban, T


    Training in pulmonary medicine requires the acquisition of a great deal of knowledge, but also technical know-how and interpersonal skills. The prevailing teaching pattern is mentorship. It implies a direct transmission of knowledge, but also entails some drawbacks such as disparity in learning opportunities, subjective evaluation of the trainee and potential risks for patients. There is growing interest in simulation training as a teaching technique, where students practice their skills in a secure environment, then analyse their performance in a debriefing session. It is complementary to other learning methods (abstraction, observation or mentorship) and forms part of an ethical approach: 'never practice on a real patient for the first time'. We have reviewed the literature related to simulation training in pulmonary medicine and in particular for physical examination, technical skills, pathologies, communication with patients and therapeutic education. In most of the studies, simulation training is a way of speeding up students' training - without necessarily yielding better results - and of respecting the procedures. We then present the French regulations and official guidelines regarding the use of this training method in the teaching of medicine. Finally, we shall consider some prospects of this approach for the community of pulmonologists. Copyright © 2015 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. A Full Scope Nuclear Power Plant Training Simulator: Design and Implementation Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro A. Corcuera


    Full Text Available This paper describes the development of a full scope training simulator for a Spanish nuclear power plant. The simulator is based on a client/server architecture that allows the distributed execution in a network with many users to participate in the same simulation. The interface was designed to support the interaction of the operators with the simulator through virtual panels supported by touch screens with high fidelity graphic displays. The simulation environment is described including the extension added to facilitate an easy operation by instructors. The graphical interface has been developed using component software technology. The appropriate selection of hardware for visualization and interaction, in terms of cost and performance, resulted in a facility much less expensive than the classic hard panels replica simulators and, at the same time, able to fulfill most of the training requirements. The main features of the simulator are the distributed execution control of the models and the flexibility of design and maintenance of the interface. The benefits of virtual panels approach are the automatic switch reposition and tagging, configuration flexibility, low maintenance requirements, or capability to support multiple users distributed across the corporate intranet. After exhaustive validation and testing, the training sessions are being conducted successfully.

  12. Interactive Anatomy-Augmented Virtual Simulation Training. (United States)

    Aebersold, Michelle; Voepel-Lewis, Terri; Cherara, Leila; Weber, Monica; Khouri, Christina; Levine, Robert; Tait, Alan R


    Traditionally, clinical psychomotor skills are taught through videos and demonstration by faculty which does not allow for the visualization of internal structures and anatomical landmarks that would enhance the learner skill performance. Sophomore and junior nursing students attending a large Midwestern Institution (N=69) participated in this mixed methods study. Students demonstrated their ability to place a nasogastric tube (NGT) after being randomly assigned to usual training (Control group) or an iPad anatomy-augmented virtual simulation training module (AR group). The ability of the participants to demonstrate competence in placing the NGT was assessed using a 17-item competency checklist. After the demonstration, students completed a survey to elicit information about students' level of training, prior experience with NGT placement, satisfaction with the AR technology, and perceptions of AR as a potential teaching tool for clinical skills training. The ability to correctly place the NGT through all the checklist items was statistically significant in the AR group compared with the control group (P = 0.011). Eighty-six percent of participants in the AR group rated AR as superior/far superior to other procedural training programs to which they had been exposed, whereas, only 5.9% of participants in the control group rated the control program as superior/far superior (P < 0.001). Overall the AR module was better received compared with the control group with regards to realism, identifying landmarks, visualization of internal organs, ease of use, usefulness, and promoting learning and understanding.

  13. Simulating train movement in an urban railway based on an improved car-following model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Jing-Jing; Jin Xin-Min; Li Ke-Ping


    Based on the optimal velocity car-following model, in this paper, we propose an improved model for simulating train movement in an urban railway in which the regenerative energy of a train is considered. Here a new additional term is introduced into a traditional car-following model. Our aim is to analyze and discuss the dynamic characteristics of the train movement when the regenerative energy is utilized by the electric locomotive. The simulation results indicate that the improved car-following model is suitable for simulating the train movement. Further, some qualitative relationships between regenerative energy and dynamic characteristics of a train are investigated, such as the measurement data of regenerative energy presents a power-law distribution. Our results are useful for optimizing the design and plan of urban railway systems. (general)

  14. Simulation-based multidisciplinary team training decreases time to critical operations for trauma patients. (United States)

    Murphy, Margaret; Curtis, Kate; Lam, Mary K; Palmer, Cameron S; Hsu, Jeremy; McCloughen, Andrea


    Simulation has been promoted as a platform for training trauma teams. However, it is not clear if this training has an impact on health service delivery and patient outcomes. This study evaluates the association between implementation of a simulation based multidisciplinary trauma team training program at a metropolitan trauma centre and subsequent patient outcomes. This was a retrospective review of trauma registry data collected at an 850-bed Level 1 Adult Trauma Centre in Sydney, Australia. Two concurrent four-year periods, before and after implementation of a simulation based multidisciplinary trauma team training program were compared for differences in time to critical operations, Emergency Department (ED) length of stay (LOS) and patient mortality. There were 2389 major trauma patients admitted to the hospital during the study, 1116 in the four years preceding trauma team training (the PREgroup) and 1273 in the subsequent 4 years (the POST group). There were no differences between the groups with respect to gender, body region injured, incidence of polytrauma, and pattern of arrival to ED. The POST group was older (median age 54 versus 43 years, p team training was associated with a reduction in time to critical operation while overall ED length of stay increased. Simulation is promoted as a platform for training teams; but the complexity of trauma care challenges efforts to demonstrate direct links between multidisciplinary team training and improved outcomes. There remain considerable gaps in knowledge as to how team training impacts health service delivery and patient outcomes. Retrospective comparative therapeutic/care management study, Level III evidence. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A nuclear training simulator implementing a capability for multiple, concurrent-training sessions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groeneveld, B.J.; Nannister, D.G.; Estes, K.R.; Johnsen, M.R.


    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Simulator at the Test Reactor Area of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has recently been upgraded to reflect plant installation of a distributed control system (DCS). The ATR Simulator re-design implements traditional needs for software extensibility and plant installation prototyping, but the driving force behind its new design was an instruction requirement for multiple, concurrent-training sessions. Support is provided for up to three concurrent, independent or interacting, training sessions of reactor, balance of plant, and experiment loop operators. This capability has been achieved by modifying the existing design to consistently apply client-server, parent-child, and peer-to-peer processing technologies, and then to encapsulate concurrency software into all interfaces. When the resulting component-oriented design is linked with build and runtime flexibility in a distributed computing environment, traditional needs for extensibility and parallel software and scenario development are satisfied with minimal additional effort. Sensible configuration management practices coupled with the ability to perform piecewise system builds also greatly facilitate prototyping of plant changes prior to installation

  16. The use of driving simulators for enhancing train driver’s performance in terms of energy consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvador Zuriaga, P.; Garcia Roman, C.; Pineda Jaramillo, J.D.; Insa Franco, R.


    This paper presents a driving simulator to be used by train drivers for training their driving skills in terms of energy-efficiency. In railway operations, previous experiences have shown differences in energy consumption up to 20 % among train drivers for the same journey in similar operational conditions. This shows great saving potentials in both economic and environmental terms. For this reason, railway companies wishing to become more efficient must encourage their train drivers to balance the energy consumption towards the minimum threshold. In this sense, driving simulators are a good complement for training courses on energy-saving best practices given to train drivers, where they can put into practice the learned contents. The developed driving simulator consists in an Excel spreadsheet including an accurate energy consumption model, which was previously developed from real measurements on different train services. The fact of being an Excel spreadsheet provides a familiar interface to train drivers, making easier its use, and becomes an affordable tool for small and medium size freight private railway companies. Furthermore, the fact of being a non-real-time simulation makes possible to perform a journey of several hours in a few minutes, thus being able to test different driving strategies for the same train journey in a short time period. In this paper, the driving simulator was applied to the Valencia-Cuenca-Aranjuez railway line operated by Renfe Operadora with Diesel Multiple Units. The results are given in terms of fuel consumption, costs of fuel and CO2 emissions and enable train drivers to find by themselves the most efficient way to drive the train between two stations. Finally, this driving simulator may serve as the basis for training and evaluating train drivers in order to set up a bonus/penalty policy for rewarding the most efficient train drivers and achieve an overall energy consumption reduction. (Author)

  17. Mapping the plateau of novices in virtual reality simulation training of mastoidectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steven A W; Konge, Lars; Mikkelsen, Peter Trier


    OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To explore why novices' performance plateau in directed, self-regulated virtual reality (VR) simulation training and how performance can be improved. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective study. METHODS: Data on the performances of 40 novices who had completed repeated, directed, self......-regulated VR simulation training of mastoidectomy were included. Data were analyzed to identify key areas of difficulty as well as the procedures terminated without using all the time allowed. RESULTS: Novices had difficulty in avoiding drilling holes in the outer anatomical boundaries of the mastoidectomy...... and often did not make use of the allowed time, lacking knowledge on when to stop or how to excel. CONCLUSION: Directed, self-regulated VR simulation training of mastoidectomy needs a strong instructional design with specific process goals to support deliberate practice because cognitive effort is needed...

  18. Designing and using computer simulations in medical education and training: an introduction. (United States)

    Friedl, Karl E; O'Neil, Harold F


    Computer-based technologies informed by the science of learning are becoming increasingly prevalent in education and training. For the Department of Defense (DoD), this presents a great potential advantage to the effective preparation of a new generation of technologically enabled service members. Military medicine has broad education and training challenges ranging from first aid and personal protective skills for every service member to specialized combat medic training; many of these challenges can be met with gaming and simulation technologies that this new generation has embraced. However, comprehensive use of medical games and simulation to augment expert mentorship is still limited to elite medical provider training programs, but can be expected to become broadly used in the training of first responders and allied health care providers. The purpose of this supplement is to review the use of computer games and simulation to teach and assess medical knowledge and skills. This review and other DoD research policy sources will form the basis for development of a research and development road map and guidelines for use of this technology in military medicine. Reprint & Copyright © 2013 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  19. CFD transient simulation of an isolator shock train in a scramjet engine (United States)

    Hoeger, Troy Christopher

    For hypersonic flight, the scramjet engine uses an isolator to contain the pre-combustion shock train formed by the pressure difference between the inlet and the combustion chamber. If this shock train were to reach the inlet, it would cause an engine unstart, disrupting the flow through the engine and leading to a loss of thrust and potential loss of the vehicle. Prior to this work, a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation of the isolator was needed for simulating and characterizing the isolator flow and for finding the relationship between back pressure and changes in the location of the leading edge of the shock train. In this work, the VULCAN code was employed with back pressure as an input to obtain the time history of the shock train leading location. Results were obtained for both transient and steady-state conditions. The simulation showed a relationship between back-to-inlet pressure ratios and final locations of the shock train. For the 2-D runs, locations were within one isolator duct height of experimental results while for 3-D runs, the results were within two isolator duct heights.

  20. A study on optimization of hybrid drive train using Advanced Vehicle Simulator (ADVISOR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Same, Adam; Stipe, Alex; Grossman, David; Park, Jae Wan [Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, University of California, Davis, One Shields Ave, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)


    This study investigates the advantages and disadvantages of three hybrid drive train configurations: series, parallel, and ''through-the-ground'' parallel. Power flow simulations are conducted with the MATLAB/Simulink-based software ADVISOR. These simulations are then applied in an application for the UC Davis SAE Formula Hybrid vehicle. ADVISOR performs simulation calculations for vehicle position using a combined backward/forward method. These simulations are used to study how efficiency and agility are affected by the motor, fuel converter, and hybrid configuration. Three different vehicle models are developed to optimize the drive train of a vehicle for three stages of the SAE Formula Hybrid competition: autocross, endurance, and acceleration. Input cycles are created based on rough estimates of track geometry. The output from these ADVISOR simulations is a series of plots of velocity profile and energy storage State of Charge that provide a good estimate of how the Formula Hybrid vehicle will perform on the given course. The most noticeable discrepancy between the input cycle and the actual velocity profile of the vehicle occurs during deceleration. A weighted ranking system is developed to organize the simulation results and to determine the best drive train configuration for the Formula Hybrid vehicle. Results show that the through-the-ground parallel configuration with front-mounted motors achieves an optimal balance of efficiency, simplicity, and cost. ADVISOR is proven to be a useful tool for vehicle power train design for the SAE Formula Hybrid competition. This vehicle model based on ADVISOR simulation is applicable to various studies concerning performance and efficiency of hybrid drive trains. (author)

  1. Virtual vitreoretinal surgery: construction of a training programme on the Eyesi Surgical Simulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vergmann, Anna Stage; Vestergaard, Anders Højslet; Grauslund, Jakob

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to test the construct validity of a full virtual reality vitreoretinal training program at the Eyesi Surgical simulator. Design and methods: A virtual vitreoretinal training program was composed on the Eyesi Surgical simulator, software version 2.9.2 (VRmagic...... GmbH, Manheim, Germany). It was completed twice by three groups: Group 1: Twenty medical students Group 2: Ten ophthalmology residents Group 3: Five vitreoretinal surgeons The program consisted of six training modules (Figure 1): Navigation level 2 (Nav2) Forceps Training level 5 (ForT5) Bimanual...... developed a training program in virtual vitreoretinal surgery with construct validity for four out of six modules and for overall score. This makes the program a useful tool in the training of future vitreoretinal surgeons....

  2. Current Status of Simulation-Based Training in Graduate Medical Education. (United States)

    Willis, Ross E; Van Sickle, Kent R


    The use of simulation in Graduate Medical Education has evolved significantly over time, particularly during the past decade. The applications of simulation include introductory and basic technical skills, more advanced technical skills, and nontechnical skills, and simulation is gaining acceptance in high-stakes assessments. Simulation-based training has also brought about paradigm shifts in the medical and surgical education arenas and has borne new and exciting national and local consortia that will ensure that the scope and impact of simulation will continue to broaden. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Development of a virtual training simulator for a challenging refurbishment task

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mort, P.E.


    The development by British Nuclear Fuels plc BNFL of a training simulator for a plant modification task, the Raffinate Project, is described. The Project involves the remote removal of a section of a vertical process pipeline, welding a new pipe to the upper part and installing a new cap on the lower part. The equipment required to carry out this task comprises a number of work heads, a carriage mounted manipulator system and ancillary equipment including 22 closed-circuit television cameras. The technology put together to create the training simulator for this operation incorporates virtual reality and graphic simulation techniques researched by BNFL's Remote Handling and Robotics Programme over the past five years. (UK)

  4. An integrated neural-symbolic cognitive agent architecture for training and assessment in simulators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penning, H.L.H. de; d'Avila Garcez, A.S.; Lamb, L.C.; Meyer, J.J.C.


    Training and assessment of complex tasks has always been a complex task in itself. Training simulators can be used for training and assessment of low-order skills. High-order skills (e.g. safe driving, leadership, tactical manoeuvring, etc.) are generally trained and assessed by human experts, due

  5. Variability in the Use of Simulation for Procedural Training in Radiology Residency: Opportunities for Improvement. (United States)

    Matalon, Shanna A; Chikarmane, Sona A; Yeh, Eren D; Smith, Stacy E; Mayo-Smith, William W; Giess, Catherine S


    Increased attention to quality and safety has led to a re-evaluation of the classic apprenticeship model for procedural training. Many have proposed simulation as a supplementary teaching tool. The purpose of this study was to assess radiology resident exposure to procedural training and procedural simulation. An IRB-exempt online survey was distributed to current radiology residents in the United States by e-mail. Survey results were summarized using frequency and percentages. Chi-square tests were used for statistical analysis where appropriate. A total of 353 current residents completed the survey. 37% (n = 129/353) of respondents had never used procedure simulation. Of the residents who had used simulation, most did not do so until after having already performed procedures on patients (59%, n = 132/223). The presence of a dedicated simulation center was reported by over half of residents (56%, n = 196/353) and was associated with prior simulation experience (P = 0.007). Residents who had not had procedural simulation were somewhat likely or highly likely (3 and 4 on a 4-point Likert-scale) to participate if it were available (81%, n = 104/129). Simulation training was associated with higher comfort levels in performing procedures (P simulation training is associated with higher comfort levels when performing procedures, there is variable use in radiology resident training and its use is not currently optimized. Given the increased emphasis on patient safety, these results suggest the need to increase procedural simulation use during residency, including an earlier introduction to simulation before patient exposure. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A simulator for training in endovascular aneurysm repair: The use of three dimensional printers. (United States)

    Torres, I O; De Luccia, N


    To develop an endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) simulation system using three dimensional (3D) printed aneurysms, and to evaluate the impact of patient specific training prior to EVAR on the surgical performance of vascular surgery residents in a university hospital in Brazil. This was a prospective, controlled, single centre study. During 2015, the aneurysms of patients undergoing elective EVAR at São Paulo University Medical School were 3D printed and used in training sessions with vascular surgery residents. The 3D printers Stratasys-Connex 350, Formlabs-Form1+, and Makerbot were tested. Ten residents were enrolled in the control group (five residents and 30 patients in 2014) or the training group (five residents and 25 patients in 2015). The control group performed the surgery under the supervision of a senior vascular surgeon (routine procedure, without simulator training). The training group practised the surgery in a patient specific simulator prior to the routine procedure. Objective parameters were analysed, and a subjective questionnaire addressing training utility and realism was answered. Patient specific training reduced fluoroscopy time by 30% (mean 48 min, 95% confidence interval [CI] 40-58 vs. 33 min, 95% CI 26-42 [p training useful and realistic, and reported that it increased their self confidence. The 3D printers Form1+ (using flexible resin) and Makerbot (using silicone) provided the best performance based on simulator quality and cost. An EVAR simulation system using 3D printed aneurysms was feasible. The best results were obtained with the 3D printers Form1+ (using flexible resin) and Makerbot (using silicone). Patient specific training prior to EVAR at a university hospital in Brazil improved residents' surgical performance (based on fluoroscopy time, surgery time, and volume of contrast used) and increased their self confidence. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. SIMULA - C a simplified PC simulation training fool developed for the initial training of NPP operations personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuhl, R.


    During initial training of some 50 young reactor operators and shift supervisors in the last 5 years in Biblis it was found that it takes some time before trainees gain a food overview of the most important plant systems and develop a ''feeling'' of the dynamic plant behaviour which is an important prerequisite for the first full-scope simulator training courses. To enhance this, a PC software training tool was developed SIMULA - C. (author)

  8. RELAP/SCDAPSIM Reactor System Simulator Development and Training for University and Reactor Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohorst, J.K.; Allison, C.M.


    The RELAP/SCDAPSIM code, designed to predict the behaviour of reactor systems during normal and accident conditions, is being developed as part of an international nuclear technology development program called SDTP (SCDAP Development and Training Program). SDTP involves more than 60 organizations in 28 countries. One of the important applications of the code is for simulator training of university faculty and students, reactor analysts, and reactor operations and technical support staff. Examples of RELAP/SCDAPSIM-based system thermal hydraulic and severe accident simulator packages include the SAFSIM simulator developed by NECSA for the SAFARI research reactor in South Africa, university-developed simulators at the University of Mexico and Shanghai Jiao Tong University in China, and commercial VISA and RELSIM packages used for analyst and reactor operations staff training. This paper will briefly describe the different packages/facilities. (authors)

  9. RELAP/SCDAPSIM Reactor System Simulator Development and Training for University and Reactor Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohorst, J.K.; Allison, C.M. [Innovative Systems Software, 1242 South Woodruff Avenue, Idaho Falls, Idaho 83404 (United States)


    The RELAP/SCDAPSIM code, designed to predict the behaviour of reactor systems during normal and accident conditions, is being developed as part of an international nuclear technology development program called SDTP (SCDAP Development and Training Program). SDTP involves more than 60 organizations in 28 countries. One of the important applications of the code is for simulator training of university faculty and students, reactor analysts, and reactor operations and technical support staff. Examples of RELAP/SCDAPSIM-based system thermal hydraulic and severe accident simulator packages include the SAFSIM simulator developed by NECSA for the SAFARI research reactor in South Africa, university-developed simulators at the University of Mexico and Shanghai Jiao Tong University in China, and commercial VISA and RELSIM packages used for analyst and reactor operations staff training. This paper will briefly describe the different packages/facilities. (authors)

  10. Hybrid simulation: bringing motivation to the art of teamwork training in the operating room. (United States)

    Kjellin, A; Hedman, L; Escher, C; Felländer-Tsai, L


    Crew resource management-based operating room team training will be an evident part of future surgical training. Hybrid simulation in the operating room enables the opportunity for trainees to perform higher fidelity training of technical and non-technical skills in a realistic context. We focus on situational motivation and self-efficacy, two important factors for optimal learning in light of a prototype course for teams of residents in surgery and anesthesiology and nurses. Authentic operating room teams consisting of residents in anesthesia (n = 2), anesthesia nurses (n = 3), residents in surgery (n = 2), and scrub nurses (n = 6) were, during a one-day course, exposed to four different scenarios. Their situational motivation was self-assessed (ranging from 1 = does not correspond at all to 7 = corresponds exactly) immediately after training, and their self-efficacy (graded from 1 to 7) before and after training. Training was performed in a mock-up operating theater equipped with a hybrid patient simulator (SimMan 3G; Laerdal) and a laparoscopic simulator (Lap Mentor Express; Simbionix). The functionality of the systematic hybrid procedure simulation scenario was evaluated by an exit questionnaire (graded from 1 = disagree entirely to 5 = agree completely). The trainees were mostly intrinsically motivated, engaged for their own sake, and had a rather great degree of self-determination toward the training situation. Self-efficacy among the team members improved significantly from 4 to 6 (median). Overall evaluation showed very good result with a median grading of 5. We conclude that hybrid simulation is feasible and has the possibility to train an authentic operating team in order to improve individual motivation and confidence. © The Finnish Surgical Society 2014.

  11. A teleoperation training simulator with visual and kinesthetic force virtual reality (United States)

    Kim, Won S.; Schenker, Paul


    A force-reflecting teleoperation training simulator with a high-fidelity real-time graphics display has been developed for operator training. A novel feature of this simulator is that it enables the operator to feel contact forces and torques through a force-reflecting controller during the execution of the simulated peg-in-hole task, providing the operator with the feel of visual and kinesthetic force virtual reality. A peg-in-hole task is used in our simulated teleoperation trainer as a generic teleoperation task. A quasi-static analysis of a two-dimensional peg-in-hole task model has been extended to a three-dimensional model analysis to compute contact forces and torques for a virtual realization of kinesthetic force feedback. The simulator allows the user to specify force reflection gains and stiffness (compliance) values of the manipulator hand for both the three translational and the three rotational axes in Cartesian space. Three viewing modes are provided for graphics display: single view, two split views, and stereoscopic view.

  12. Using simulation to train orthopaedic trainees in non-technical skills: A pilot study. (United States)

    Heaton, Samuel R; Little, Zoe; Akhtar, Kash; Ramachandran, Manoj; Lee, Joshua


    To enhance non-technical skills and to analyse participant's experience of a course tailored for orthopaedic surgeons. A Delphi technique was used to develop a course in human factors specific to orthopaedic residents. Twenty-six residents (six per course) participated in total with seven course facilitators all trained in Crisis Resource Management providing structured feedback. Six scenarios recreated challenging real-life situations using high-fidelity mannequins and simulated patients. Environments included a simulated operating suite, clinic room and ward setting. All were undertaken in a purpose built simulation suite utilising actors, mock operating rooms, mock clinical rooms and a high fidelity adult patient simulator organised through a simulation control room. Participants completed a 5-point Likert scale questionnaire (strongly disagree to strongly agree) before and after the course. This assessed their understanding of non-technical skills, scenario validity, relevance to orthopaedic training and predicted impact of the course on future practice. A course evaluation questionnaire was also completed to assess participants' feedback on the value and quality of the course itself. Twenty-six orthopaedic residents participated (24 male, 2 female; post-graduation 5-10 years), mean year of residency program 2.6 out of 6 years required in the United Kingdom. Pre-course questionnaires showed that while the majority of candidates recognised the importance of non-technical (NT) skills in orthopaedic training they demonstrated poor understanding of non-technical skills and their role. This improved significantly after the course (Likert score 3.0-4.2) and the perceived importance of these skills was reported as good or very good in 100%. The course was reported as enjoyable and provided an unthreatening learning environment with the candidates placing particular value on the learning opportunity provided by reflecting on their performance. All agreed that the

  13. Enhancing Operational Effectiveness in the Norwegian Army through Simulation-Based Training


    B. Bakken; O. Boe


    The Norwegian Military Academy (Army) has initiated a project with the main ambition to explore possible avenues to enhancing operational effectiveness through an increased use of simulation-based training and exercises. Within a cost/benefit framework, we discuss opportunities and limitations of vertical and horizontal integration of the existing tactical training system. Vertical integration implies expanding the existing training system to span the full range of traini...

  14. Engineering and training simulators: A combined approach for nuclear plant construction projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harnois, Olivier; Gain, Pascal; Bartak, Jan; Gathmann, Ralf


    Full text: Simulation technologies have always been widely used on nuclear applications, but with a clear division between engineering application, using highly validated code run in batch mode, and training purpose where real time computation is a mandatory requirement. Thanks to the flexibility of modern simulation technology and the increased performance of computers, it becomes now possible to develop Nuclear Power plant simulators that can be used both for engineering and training purposes. In the last years, the revival of nuclear industry raised a number of new construction or plant finishing projects in which the application of this combined approach would result in decisive improvement on plant construction lead times, better project control and cost optimizations. The simulator development is to be executed in a step-wise approach, scheduled in parallel with the plant design and construction phases. During a first step, the simulator will model the plant nuclear island systems plus the corresponding instrumentation and control, specific malfunctions and local commands. It can then be used for engineering activities defining and validating the plant operating strategies in case of incidents or accidents. The Simulator executive Station and Operator Station will be in prototype version with an interface imagery enabling monitoring and control of the simulator. Availability of such simulation platform leads to a significant increase in efficiency of the engineering works, the possibility to validate basic design hypotheses and detect defects and conflicts early. The second phase will consist in the fully detailed simulation of Main Control Room plant supervision and control MMI, taking into account I and C control loops detailed design improvement, while having sufficient fidelity in order to be suitable for the future operator training. Its use will enable the engineering units not only to specify and validate normal, incident and accident detailed plant

  15. Self-perceived long-term transfer of learning after postpartum hemorrhage simulation training. (United States)

    de Melo, Brena Carvalho Pinto; Rodrigues Falbo, Ana; Sorensen, Jette Led; van Merriënboer, Jeroen J G; van der Vleuten, Cees


    To explore long-term transfer (application of acquired knowledge and skills on the job) after postpartum hemorrhage simulation training based on either instructional design (ID) principles or conventional best practice. In this qualitative study, semi-structured interviews with obstetrics and gynecology healthcare practitioners were conducted between August 7 and September 26, 2015, in Recife, Brazil. The participants were randomly selected from each of two postpartum hemorrhage simulations attended 2 years earlier (one ID and one conventional best practice). Thematic analysis was used to explore (1) residents' perceptions of long-term transfer of learning, (2) ID elements influencing the perceived long-term transfer, and (3) differences in the participants' perceptions according to the type of simulation attended. There were 12 interview participants. After either simulation format, residents perceived long-term transfer effects. Training design factors influencing transfer were, in their opinion, related to trainees' characteristics, simulation design, and workplace environment. Trainees who participated in the ID-based simulation perceived better communication skills and better overall situational awareness: "I didn't do that before." All residents perceived long-term transfer after simulation training for postpartum hemorrhage. Those who attended the ID format additionally perceived improvements in communication skills and situational awareness, which are fundamental factors in the management of postpartum hemorrhage. © 2018 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  16. Using virtual reality in simulation training system of radiation reconnaissance by vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Shuijun


    The article introduced the Virtual Reality and development tools. It put forward the component and the characteristic feature of the simulation training system. It opens up prospects for chemical defense military training. (author)

  17. Impact of crisis resource management simulation-based training for interprofessional and interdisciplinary teams: A systematic review. (United States)

    Fung, Lillia; Boet, Sylvain; Bould, M Dylan; Qosa, Haytham; Perrier, Laure; Tricco, Andrea; Tavares, Walter; Reeves, Scott


    Crisis resource management (CRM) abilities are important for different healthcare providers to effectively manage critical clinical events. This study aims to review the effectiveness of simulation-based CRM training for interprofessional and interdisciplinary teams compared to other instructional methods (e.g., didactics). Interprofessional teams are composed of several professions (e.g., nurse, physician, midwife) while interdisciplinary teams are composed of several disciplines from the same profession (e.g., cardiologist, anaesthesiologist, orthopaedist). Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and ERIC were searched using terms related to CRM, crisis management, crew resource management, teamwork, and simulation. Trials comparing simulation-based CRM team training versus any other methods of education were included. The educational interventions involved interprofessional or interdisciplinary healthcare teams. The initial search identified 7456 publications; 12 studies were included. Simulation-based CRM team training was associated with significant improvements in CRM skill acquisition in all but two studies when compared to didactic case-based CRM training or simulation without CRM training. Of the 12 included studies, one showed significant improvements in team behaviours in the workplace, while two studies demonstrated sustained reductions in adverse patient outcomes after a single simulation-based CRM team intervention. In conclusion, CRM simulation-based training for interprofessional and interdisciplinary teams show promise in teaching CRM in the simulator when compared to didactic case-based CRM education or simulation without CRM teaching. More research, however, is required to demonstrate transfer of learning to workplaces and potential impact on patient outcomes.

  18. Student peer teaching in paediatric simulation training is a feasible low-cost alternative for education. (United States)

    Wagner, Michael; Mileder, Lukas P; Goeral, Katharina; Klebermass-Schrehof, Katrin; Cardona, Francesco S; Berger, Angelika; Schmölzer, Georg M; Olischar, Monika


    The World Health Organization recommends regular simulation training to prevent adverse healthcare events. We used specially trained medical students to provide paediatric simulation training to their peers and assessed feasibility, cost and confidence of students who attended the courses. Students at the Medical University of Vienna, Austria were eligible to participate. Students attended two high-fidelity simulation training sessions, delivered by peers, which were videorecorded for evaluation. The attendees then completed questionnaires before and after the training. Associated costs and potential benefits were analysed. From May 2013 to June 2015, 152 students attended the sessions and 57 (37.5%) completed both questionnaires. Satisfaction was high, with 95% stating their peer tutor was competent and 90% saying that peer tutors were well prepared. The attendees' confidence in treating critically ill children significantly improved after training (p peer tutor were six Euros per working hour, compared to 35 Euros for a physician. Using peer tutors for paediatric simulation training was a feasible and low-cost option that increased the number of medical students who could be trained and increased the self-confidence of the attendees. Satisfaction with the peer tutors was high. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. A review of simulation-enhanced, team-based cardiopulmonary resuscitation training for undergraduate students. (United States)

    Onan, Arif; Simsek, Nurettin; Elcin, Melih; Turan, Sevgi; Erbil, Bülent; Deniz, Kaan Zülfikar


    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation training is an essential element of clinical skill development for healthcare providers. The International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation has described issues related to cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care education. Educational interventions have been initiated to try to address these issues using a team-based approach and simulation technologies that offer a controlled, safe learning environment. The aim of the study is to review and synthesize published studies that address the primary question "What are the features and effectiveness of educational interventions related to simulation-enhanced, team-based cardiopulmonary resuscitation training?" We conducted a systematic review focused on educational interventions pertaining to cardiac arrest and emergencies that addressed this main question. The findings are presented together with a discussion of the effectiveness of various educational interventions. In conclusion, student attitudes toward interprofessional learning and simulation experiences were more positive. Research reports emphasized the importance of adherence to established guidelines, adopting a holistic approach to training, and that preliminary training, briefing, deliberate practices, and debriefing should help to overcome deficiencies in cardiopulmonary resuscitation training. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Impact of a simulation training curriculum on technical and nontechnical skills in colonoscopy: a randomized trial. (United States)

    Grover, Samir C; Garg, Ankit; Scaffidi, Michael A; Yu, Jeffrey J; Plener, Ian S; Yong, Elaine; Cino, Maria; Grantcharov, Teodor P; Walsh, Catharine M


    GI endoscopy simulation-based training augments early clinical performance; however, the optimal manner by which to deliver training is unknown. We aimed to validate a simulation-based structured comprehensive curriculum (SCC) designed to teach technical, cognitive, and integrative competencies in colonoscopy. Single-blinded, randomized, controlled trial. Endoscopic simulation course at an academic hospital. Thirty-three novice endoscopists were allocated to an SCC group or self-regulated learning (SRL) group. The SCC group received a curriculum consisting of 6 hours of didactic lectures and 8 hours of virtual reality simulation-based training with expert feedback. The SRL group was provided a list of desired objectives and was instructed to practice on the simulator for an equivalent time (8 hours). Clinical transfer was assessed during 2 patient colonoscopies using the Joint Advisory Group Direct Observation of Procedural Skills (JAG DOPS) scale. Secondary outcome measures included differences in procedural knowledge, immediate post-training simulation performance, and delayed post-training (4-6 weeks) performance during an integrated scenario test on the JAG DOPS communication and integrated scenario global rating scales. There was no significant difference in baseline or post-training performance on the simulator task. The SCC group performed superiorly during their first and second clinical colonoscopies. Additionally, the SCC group demonstrated significantly better knowledge and colonoscopy-specific performance, communication, and global performance during the integrated scenario. We were unable to measure SRL participants' effort outside of mandatory training. In addition, feedback metrics and number of available simulation cases are limited. These results support integration of endoscopy simulation into a structured curriculum incorporating instructional feedback and complementary didactic knowledge as a means to augment technical, cognitive, and

  1. Effect of Training in Rational Decision Making on the Quality of Simulated Career Decisions. (United States)

    Krumboltz, John D.; And Others


    Determined if training in rational decision making improves the quality of simulated career decisions. Training in rational decision making resulted in superior performance for females on one subscore of the knowledge measure. It also resulted in superior simulated career choices by females and younger males. (Author)

  2. Cardiovascular Surgery Residency Program: Training Coronary Anastomosis Using the Arroyo Simulator and UNIFESP Models. (United States)

    Maluf, Miguel Angel; Gomes, Walter José; Bras, Ademir Massarico; Araújo, Thiago Cavalcante Vila Nova de; Mota, André Lupp; Cardoso, Caio Cesar; Coutinho, Rafael Viana dos S


    Engage the UNIFESP Cardiovascular Surgery residents in coronary anastomosis, assess their skills and certify results, using the Arroyo Anastomosis Simulator and UNIFESP surgical models. First to 6th year residents attended a weekly program of technical training in coronary anastomosis, using 4 simulation models: 1. Arroyo simulator; 2. Dummy with a plastic heart; 3. Dummy with a bovine heart; and 4. Dummy with a beating pig heart. The assessment test was comprised of 10 items, using a scale from 1 to 5 points in each of them, creating a global score of 50 points maximum. The technical performance of the candidate showed improvement in all items, especially manual skill and technical progress, critical sense of the work performed, confidence in the procedure and reduction of the time needed to perform the anastomosis after 12 weeks practice. In response to the multiplicity of factors that currently influence the cardiovascular surgeon training, there have been combined efforts to reform the practices of surgical medical training. 1 - The four models of simulators offer a considerable contribution to the field of cardiovascular surgery, improving the skill and dexterity of the surgeon in training. 2 - Residents have shown interest in training and cooperate in the development of innovative procedures for surgical medical training in the art.

  3. A 3D virtual reality simulator for training of minimally invasive surgery. (United States)

    Mi, Shao-Hua; Hou, Zeng-Gunag; Yang, Fan; Xie, Xiao-Liang; Bian, Gui-Bin


    For the last decade, remarkable progress has been made in the field of cardiovascular disease treatment. However, these complex medical procedures require a combination of rich experience and technical skills. In this paper, a 3D virtual reality simulator for core skills training in minimally invasive surgery is presented. The system can generate realistic 3D vascular models segmented from patient datasets, including a beating heart, and provide a real-time computation of force and force feedback module for surgical simulation. Instruments, such as a catheter or guide wire, are represented by a multi-body mass-spring model. In addition, a realistic user interface with multiple windows and real-time 3D views are developed. Moreover, the simulator is also provided with a human-machine interaction module that gives doctors the sense of touch during the surgery training, enables them to control the motion of a virtual catheter/guide wire inside a complex vascular model. Experimental results show that the simulator is suitable for minimally invasive surgery training.

  4. Outcomes of a virtual-reality simulator-training programme on basic surgical skills in robot-assisted laparoscopic surgery. (United States)

    Phé, Véronique; Cattarino, Susanna; Parra, Jérôme; Bitker, Marc-Olivier; Ambrogi, Vanina; Vaessen, Christophe; Rouprêt, Morgan


    The utility of the virtual-reality robotic simulator in training programmes has not been clearly evaluated. Our aim was to evaluate the impact of a virtual-reality robotic simulator-training programme on basic surgical skills. A simulator-training programme in robotic surgery, using the da Vinci Skills Simulator, was evaluated in a population including junior and seasoned surgeons, and non-physicians. Their performances on robotic dots and suturing-skin pod platforms before and after virtual-simulation training were rated anonymously by surgeons experienced in robotics. 39 participants were enrolled: 14 medical students and residents in surgery, 14 seasoned surgeons, 11 non-physicians. Junior and seasoned surgeons' performances on platforms were not significantly improved after virtual-reality robotic simulation in any of the skill domains, in contrast to non-physicians. The benefits of virtual-reality simulator training on several tasks to basic skills in robotic surgery were not obvious among surgeons in our initial and early experience with the simulator. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Psychomotor skills training in pediatric airway endoscopy simulation. (United States)

    Jabbour, Noel; Reihsen, Troy; Sweet, Robert M; Sidman, James D


    To develop a robust psychomotor skills curriculum to teach pediatric airway foreign body retrieval and to assess the effect of this curriculum on residents' confidence in and ability to perform the complete task in an infant airway mannequin. Instructional course. Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS). Surgical simulation laboratory. A half-day simulation-based course was developed to train otolaryngology residents in bronchoscopic foreign body retrieval. This complex psychomotor skill was deconstructed into subtasks. The following curricular learning objectives were presented and assessed: understanding of tracheobronchial anatomy, ability to adequately visualize the larynx with laryngoscopy, proficiency in rigid bronchoscopy, and familiarity with foreign body instrumentation. Residents were objectively evaluated on their ability to perform the complete task on a simulator before and after the course using an OSATS grading system. Confidence in successfully assembling the instruments and completing the task was assessed at these time periods. Seventeen otolaryngology residents completed the study. Confidence in assembling the instruments and in performing the complete task increased on average by 81% and 43%, respectively (P < .001). Using a 15-point OSATS grading system, the average score for the precourse was 7 and for the postcourse was 11.3 (P < .001). Simulation-based subtask training shows promise as an effective and reproducible method to teach the complex psychomotor task of airway foreign body retrieval. Completion of the curriculum led to a significant improvement in residents' confidence in and ability to perform bronchoscopic foreign body retrieval in an infant airway mannequin.

  6. Training simulator for advanced gas-cooled reactor (AGR) shutdown sequence equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shankland, J.P.; Nixon, G.L.


    Successful shutdown of nuclear plant is of prime importance for both safety and economic reasons and large sums of money are spent on equipment to make shutdowns fully automatic, thus removing the possibility of operator errors. While this aim can largely be realized, one must consider the possibility of automatic equipment or plant failures when operators are required to take manual action, and off-line training facilities should be available to operating staff to minimize the risk of incorrect actions being taken. This paper presents the practice adopted at Hunterston 'B' Nuclear Power Station to solve this problem and concerns the computer-based training simulator for the Reactor Shutdown Sequence Equipment (RSSE) which was commissioned in January 1977. The plant associated with shutdown is briefly described and the reasoning which shows the need for a simulator is outlined. The paper also gives details of the comprehensive facilities available on the simulator and goes on to describe the form that shutdown training takes and the experience gained at this time. (author)

  7. Current Issues in the Use of Virtual Simulations for Dismounted Soldier Training

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Knerr, Bruce W


    Research on the use of virtual simulation to train Soldiers and leaders in small dismounted units has largely focused on the use of specially developed, relatively high-fidelity PC-based simulators...

  8. Extending the features of RBMK refuelling machine simulator with a training tool based on virtual reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoudiakov, M.; Slonimsky, V.; Mitrofanov, S.


    The paper describes a continuation of efforts of an international Russian - Norwegian joint team to improve operational safety during the refuelling process of an RBMK-type reactor by implementing a training simulator based on an innovative Virtual Reality (VR) approach. During the preceding 1st stage of the project a display-based simulator was extended with VR models of the real Refuelling Machine (RM) and its environment in order to improve both the learning process and operation's effectiveness. The simulator's challenge is to support the performance (operational activity) of RM operational staff firstly by helping them to develop basic knowledge and skills as well as to keep skilled staff in close touch with the complex machinery of the Refuelling Machine. During the 2nd stage of the joint project the functional scope of the VR-simulator was greatly enhanced - firstly, by connecting to the RBMK-unit full-scope simulator, and, secondly, by including a training program and simulator model upgrade. The present 3rd stage of the Project is primarily oriented towards the improvement of the training process for maintenance and operational personnel by means of a development of the Training Support Methodology and Courses (TSMC) to be based on Virtual Reality and enlarged functionality of 3D and process modelling. The TMSC development is based on Russian and International Regulatory Bodies requirements and recommendations. Design, development and creation of a specialised VR-based Training System for RM Maintenance Personnel are very important for the Russian RBMK plants. The main goal is to create a powerful, autonomous VR-based simulator for training technical maintenance personnel on the Refuelling Machine. VR based training is expected to improve the effect of training compared to the current training based on traditional methods using printed documentation. The LNPP management and the Regulatory Bodies supported this goal. The VR-based Training System should

  9. An A BWR demonstration simulator for training and developing technical staff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, J.; Yonezawa, H.; Aoyagi, Y.; Kataoka, K.


    The US-Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (A BWR), certified by the US NRC, is a third generation, evolutionary boiling water reactor design which is the reference for the South Texas Project Units 3 and 4 (STP3-4) Combined License Application (Cola). Nuclear Innovation North America (Nina) is the License Applicant for this new build project, and Toshiba is the selected primary technology contractor. Toshiba has developed a Demonstration Simulator of the A BWR control room that provides a realistic experience for training and education on BWR principles and operations fundamentals. The Demonstration Simulator is located in the Toshiba America Nuclear Energy (Tane) office in Charlotte, North Carolina and is composed of standard office computer equipment set up in a specific arrangement that is representative of the layout of an A BWR control room. The Demonstration Simulator is not intended for licensed operator training, but can provide a framework for encouraging entry level technically oriented nuclear workers to enter the operations field; strengthening the linkage between university energy field curricula and real-life application of theory; and, improving understanding of integrated plant operations for developing station technical staff. This paper describes the A BWR Demonstration Simulator and its applications for training and educating future nuclear workers. (Author)

  10. An A BWR demonstration simulator for training and developing technical staff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, J. [Toshiba America Nuclear Energy, Charlotte, North Carolina (United States); Yonezawa, H.; Aoyagi, Y.; Kataoka, K., E-mail: [Toshiba Corporation, Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan)


    The US-Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (A BWR), certified by the US NRC, is a third generation, evolutionary boiling water reactor design which is the reference for the South Texas Project Units 3 and 4 (STP3-4) Combined License Application (Cola). Nuclear Innovation North America (Nina) is the License Applicant for this new build project, and Toshiba is the selected primary technology contractor. Toshiba has developed a Demonstration Simulator of the A BWR control room that provides a realistic experience for training and education on BWR principles and operations fundamentals. The Demonstration Simulator is located in the Toshiba America Nuclear Energy (Tane) office in Charlotte, North Carolina and is composed of standard office computer equipment set up in a specific arrangement that is representative of the layout of an A BWR control room. The Demonstration Simulator is not intended for licensed operator training, but can provide a framework for encouraging entry level technically oriented nuclear workers to enter the operations field; strengthening the linkage between university energy field curricula and real-life application of theory; and, improving understanding of integrated plant operations for developing station technical staff. This paper describes the A BWR Demonstration Simulator and its applications for training and educating future nuclear workers. (Author)

  11. Student perception of two different simulation techniques in oral and maxillofacial surgery undergraduate training. (United States)

    Lund, Bodil; Fors, Uno; Sejersen, Ronny; Sallnäs, Eva-Lotta; Rosén, Annika


    Yearly surveys among the undergraduate students in oral and maxillofacial surgery at Karolinska Institutet have conveyed a wish for increased clinical training, and in particular, in surgical removal of mandibular third molars. Due to lack of resources, this kind of clinical supervision has so far not been possible to implement. One possible solution to this problem might be to introduce simulation into the curriculum. The purpose of this study was to investigate undergraduate students' perception of two different simulation methods for practicing clinical reasoning skills and technical skills in oral and maxillofacial surgery. Forty-seven students participating in the oral and maxillofacial surgery course at Karolinska Institutet during their final year were included. Three different oral surgery patient cases were created in a Virtual Patient (VP) Simulation system (Web-SP) and used for training clinical reasoning. A mandibular third molar surgery simulator with tactile feedback, providing hands on training in the bone removal and tooth sectioning in third molar surgery, was also tested. A seminar was performed using the combination of these two simulators where students' perception of the two different simulation methods was assessed by means of a questionnaire. The response rate was 91.5% (43/47). The students were positive to the VP cases, although they rated their possible improvement of clinical reasoning skills as moderate. The students' perception of improved technical skills after training in the mandibular third molar surgery simulator was rated high. The majority of the students agreed that both simulation techniques should be included in the curriculum and strongly agreed that it was a good idea to use the two simulators in concert. The importance of feedback from the senior experts during simulator training was emphasised. The two tested simulation methods were well accepted and most students agreed that the future curriculum would benefit from

  12. Training Community Modeling and Simulation Business Plan: 2008 Edition (United States)


    and Cyber Constructive Environment– Information Operations System ASCOT Airspace Control and Operations Trainer ASDA Advanced Seal Delivery System...Advanced Seal Delivery System ( ASDA ). Simulates a submarine training system for providing stealthy submerged transportation for insertion into Special

  13. Local and national laparoscopic skill competitions: residents' opinions and impact on adoption of simulation-based training. (United States)

    McCreery, Greig L; El-Beheiry, Mostafa; Schlachta, Christopher M


    Dedicated practice using laparoscopic simulators improves operative performance. Yet, voluntary utilization is minimal. We hypothesized that skill competition between peers, at the local and national level, positively influences residents' use of laparoscopic simulators. A web-based survey evaluated the relationship between Canadian General Surgery residents' use of laparoscopic simulation and participation in competition. Secondary outcomes assessed attitudes regarding simulation training, factors limiting use, and associations between competition level and usage. One hundred ninety (23%) of 826 potential participants responded. Eighty-three percent rated their laparoscopic abilities as novice or intermediate. More than 70% agreed that use of simulation practice improves intra-operative performance, and should be a mandatory component of training. However, 58% employed simulator practice less than once per month, and 18% never used a simulator. Sixty-five percent engaged in simulator training for 5 h or less over the preceding 6 months. Seventy-three percent had participated in laparoscopic skill competition. Of those, 51% agreed that competition was a motivation for simulation practice. No association was found between those with competition experience and simulator use. However, 83% of those who had competed nationally reported >5 h of simulator use in the previous 6 months compared to those with no competition experience (26%), local competition (40%), and local national-qualifying competition (23%) (p simulation-based training, with only the minority of individuals competing at the national level demonstrated significantly higher simulation use. However, simulation training was perceived as a valuable exercise. Lack of time and access to simulators, as opposed to lack of interest, were the most commonly reported to limited use.

  14. Networked simulation for team training of Space Station astronauts, ground controllers, and scientists - A training and development environment (United States)

    Hajare, Ankur R.; Wick, Daniel T.; Bovenzi, James J.


    The purpose of this paper is to describe plans for the Space Station Training Facility (SSTF) which has been designed to meet the envisioned training needs for Space Station Freedom. To meet these needs, the SSTF will integrate networked simulators with real-world systems in five training modes: Stand-Alone, Combined, Joint-Combined, Integrated, and Joint-Integrated. This paper describes the five training modes within the context of three training scenaries. In addition, this paper describes an authoring system which will support the rapid integration of new real-world system changes in the Space Station Freedom Program.

  15. Application of Modern Simulation Technology in Mechanical Outstanding Engineer Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gongfa Li


    Full Text Available This text has described the relationship between outstanding engineer training and modern simulation technology, have recommended the characteristics of mechanical outstanding engineer in detail. Aiming at the importance of the teaching practice link to course of theory of mechanics, mechanical design and mechanical signal analysis, have expounded the function of modern simulation technology in the mechanical outstanding engineer training, especially on teaching practice in the theory of mechanics, mechanical design and mechanical signal analysis. It has the advantages of economizing the teaching cost, overcoming the hardware constrains, model prediction, promoting student's innovation and manipulative ability, so can popularize and develop in a more cost-effective manner in the university.

  16. Training Knowledge Bots for Physics-Based Simulations Using Artificial Neural Networks (United States)

    Samareh, Jamshid A.; Wong, Jay Ming


    Millions of complex physics-based simulations are required for design of an aerospace vehicle. These simulations are usually performed by highly trained and skilled analysts, who execute, monitor, and steer each simulation. Analysts rely heavily on their broad experience that may have taken 20-30 years to accumulate. In addition, the simulation software is complex in nature, requiring significant computational resources. Simulations of system of systems become even more complex and are beyond human capacity to effectively learn their behavior. IBM has developed machines that can learn and compete successfully with a chess grandmaster and most successful jeopardy contestants. These machines are capable of learning some complex problems much faster than humans can learn. In this paper, we propose using artificial neural network to train knowledge bots to identify the idiosyncrasies of simulation software and recognize patterns that can lead to successful simulations. We examine the use of knowledge bots for applications of computational fluid dynamics (CFD), trajectory analysis, commercial finite-element analysis software, and slosh propellant dynamics. We will show that machine learning algorithms can be used to learn the idiosyncrasies of computational simulations and identify regions of instability without including any additional information about their mathematical form or applied discretization approaches.

  17. The College of Anaesthetists of Ireland Simulation Training programme: a descriptive report and analysis of course participants' feedback. (United States)

    Cafferkey, Aine; Coyle, Elizabeth; Greaney, David; Harte, Sinead; Hayes, Niamh; Langdon, Miriam; Straub, Birgitt; Burlacu, Crina


    Simulation-based education is a modern training modality that allows healthcare professionals to develop knowledge and practice skills in a safe learning environment. The College of Anaesthetists of Ireland (CAI) was the first Irish postgraduate medical training body to introduce mandatory simulation training into its curriculum. Extensive quality assurance and improvement data has been collected on all simulation courses to date. Describe The College of Anaesthetists of Ireland Simulation Training (CAST) programme and report the analysis of course participants' feedback. A retrospective review of feedback forms from four simulation courses from March 2010 to August 2016 took place. Qualitative and quantitative data from 1069 participants who attended 112 courses was analysed. Feedback was overall very positive. Course content and delivery were deemed to be appropriate. Participants agreed that course participation would influence their future practice. A statistically significant difference (P simulation training in specialist anaesthesia training in Ireland.

  18. Technical Basis for Physical Fidelity of NRC Control Room Training Simulators for Advanced Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minsk, Brian S.; Branch, Kristi M.; Bates, Edward K.; Mitchell, Mark R.; Gore, Bryan F.; Faris, Drury K.


    The objective of this study is to determine how simulator physical fidelity influences the effectiveness of training the regulatory personnel responsible for examination and oversight of operating personnel and inspection of technical systems at nuclear power reactors. It seeks to contribute to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s (NRC’s) understanding of the physical fidelity requirements of training simulators. The goal of the study is to provide an analytic framework, data, and analyses that inform NRC decisions about the physical fidelity requirements of the simulators it will need to train its staff for assignment at advanced reactors. These staff are expected to come from increasingly diverse educational and experiential backgrounds.

  19. A mixed reality simulator for feline abdominal palpation training in veterinary medicine. (United States)

    Parkes, Rebecca; Forrest, Neil; Baillie, Sarah


    The opportunities for veterinary students to practice feline abdominal palpation are limited as cats have a low tolerance to being examined. Therefore, a mixed reality simulator was developed to complement clinical training. Two PHANToM premium haptic devices were positioned either side of a modified toy cat. Virtual models of the chest and some abdominal contents were superimposed on the physical model. The haptic properties of the virtual models were set by seven veterinarians; values were adjusted while the simulation was being palpated until the representation was satisfactory. Feedback from the veterinarians was encouraging suggesting that the simulator has a potential role in student training.

  20. Randomized Clinical Trial of Virtual Reality Simulation Training for Transvaginal Gynecologic Ultrasound Skills. (United States)

    Chao, Coline; Chalouhi, Gihad E; Bouhanna, Philippe; Ville, Yves; Dommergues, Marc


    To compare the impact of virtual reality simulation training and theoretical teaching on the ability of inexperienced trainees to produce adequate virtual transvaginal ultrasound images. We conducted a randomized controlled trial with parallel groups. Participants included inexperienced residents starting a training program in Paris. The intervention consisted of 40 minutes of virtual reality simulation training using a haptic transvaginal simulator versus 40 minutes of conventional teaching including a conference with slides and videos and answers to the students' questions. The outcome was a 19-point image quality score calculated from a set of 4 images (sagittal and coronal views of the uterus and left and right ovaries) produced by trainees immediately after the intervention, using the same simulator on which a new virtual patient had been uploaded. Experts assessed the outcome on stored images, presented in a random order, 2 months after the trial was completed. They were blinded to group assignment. The hypothesis was an improved outcome in the intervention group. Randomization was 1 to 1. The mean score was significantly greater in the simulation group (n = 16; mean score, 12; SEM, 0.8) than the control group (n = 18; mean score, 9; SEM, 1.0; P= .0302). The quality of virtual vaginal images produced by inexperienced trainees was greater immediately after a single virtual reality simulation training session than after a single theoretical teaching session. © 2015 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  1. Limitations of subjective cognitive load measures in simulation-based procedural training. (United States)

    Naismith, Laura M; Cheung, Jeffrey J H; Ringsted, Charlotte; Cavalcanti, Rodrigo B


    The effective implementation of cognitive load theory (CLT) to optimise the instructional design of simulation-based training requires sensitive and reliable measures of cognitive load. This mixed-methods study assessed relationships between commonly used measures of total cognitive load and the extent to which these measures reflected participants' experiences of cognitive load in simulation-based procedural skills training. Two groups of medical residents (n = 38) completed three questionnaires after participating in simulation-based procedural skills training sessions: the Paas Cognitive Load Scale; the NASA Task Load Index (TLX), and a cognitive load component (CLC) questionnaire we developed to assess total cognitive load as the sum of intrinsic load (how complex the task is), extraneous load (how the task is presented) and germane load (how the learner processes the task for learning). We calculated Pearson's correlation coefficients to assess agreement among these instruments. Group interviews explored residents' perceptions about how the simulation sessions contributed to their total cognitive load. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and subjected to qualitative content analysis. Total cognitive load scores differed significantly according to the instrument used to assess them. In particular, there was poor agreement between the Paas Scale and the TLX. Quantitative and qualitative findings supported intrinsic cognitive load as synonymous with mental effort (Paas Scale), mental demand (TLX) and task difficulty and complexity (CLC questionnaire). Additional qualitative themes relating to extraneous and germane cognitive loads were not reflected in any of the questionnaires. The Paas Scale, TLX and CLC questionnaire appear to be interchangeable as measures of intrinsic cognitive load, but not of total cognitive load. A more complete understanding of the sources of extraneous and germane cognitive loads in simulation-based training contexts is

  2. Computer Simulation Model to Train Medical Personnel on Glucose Clamp Procedures. (United States)

    Maghoul, Pooya; Boulet, Benoit; Tardif, Annie; Haidar, Ahmad


    A glucose clamp procedure is the most reliable way to quantify insulin pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, but skilled and trained research personnel are required to frequently adjust the glucose infusion rate. A computer environment that simulates glucose clamp experiments can be used for efficient personnel training and development and testing of algorithms for automated glucose clamps. We built 17 virtual healthy subjects (mean age, 25±6 years; mean body mass index, 22.2±3 kg/m 2 ), each comprising a mathematical model of glucose regulation and a unique set of parameters. Each virtual subject simulates plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in response to intravenous insulin and glucose infusions. Each virtual subject provides a unique response, and its parameters were estimated from combined intravenous glucose tolerance test-hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp data using the Bayesian approach. The virtual subjects were validated by comparing their simulated predictions against data from 12 healthy individuals who underwent a hyperglycemic glucose clamp procedure. Plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were predicted by the virtual subjects in response to glucose infusions determined by a trained research staff performing a simulated hyperglycemic clamp experiment. The total amount of glucose infusion was indifferent between the simulated and the real subjects (85±18 g vs. 83±23 g; p=NS) as well as plasma insulin levels (63±20 mU/L vs. 58±16 mU/L; p=NS). The virtual subjects can reliably predict glucose needs and plasma insulin profiles during hyperglycemic glucose clamp conditions. These virtual subjects can be used to train personnel to make glucose infusion adjustments during clamp experiments. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Barriers to the implementation and uptake of simulation-based training programs in general surgery: a multinational qualitative study. (United States)

    Hosny, Shady G; Johnston, Maximilian J; Pucher, Philip H; Erridge, Simon; Darzi, Ara


    Despite evidence demonstrating the advantages of simulation training in general surgery, it is not widely integrated into surgical training programs worldwide. The aim of this study was to identify barriers and facilitators to the implementation and uptake of surgical simulation training programs. A multinational qualitative study was conducted using semi-structured interviews of general surgical residents and experts. Each interview was audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and underwent emergent theme analysis. All data were anonymized and results pooled. A total of 37 individuals participated in the study. Seventeen experts (Program Directors and Surgical Attendings with an interest in surgical education) and 20 residents drawn from the United States, Canada, United Kingdom, France, and Japan were interviewed. Barriers to simulation-based training were identified based on key themes including financial cost, access, and translational benefit. Participants described cost (89%) and access (76%) as principal barriers to uptake. Common facilitators included a mandatory requirement to complete simulation training (78%) and on-going assessment of skills (78%). Participants felt that simulation training could improve patient outcomes (76%) but identified a lack of evidence to demonstrate benefit (38%). There was a consensus that simulation training has not been widely implemented (70%). There are multiple barriers to the implementation of surgical simulation training programs, however, there is agreement that these programs could potentially improve patient outcomes. Identifying these barriers enable the targeted use of facilitators to deliver simulation training programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. RPA Field Simulations:Dilemma Training for Legal and Ethical Decision Making (United States)


    RPA Field Simulations: Dilemma-Training for Legal and Ethical Decision-Making Professor Wilbur Scott Dept of...Sciences & Leadership all take the Capstone Experience Course (CEC)  CEC offers several different kinds of projects, one consists of RPA Field...Simulation  Two phases in RPA Field Simulation – classroom phase and field phase  Purpose: link theoretical understanding/moral reasoning with

  5. A review of virtual reality based training simulators for orthopaedic surgery


    Vaughan, Neil; Dubey, Venketesh N.; Wainwright, Tom; Middleton, Robert


    This review presents current virtual reality based training simulators for hip, knee and other orthopaedic surgery, including elective and trauma surgical procedures. There have not been any reviews focussing on hip and knee orthopaedic simulators. A comparison of existing simulator features is provided to identify what is missing and what is required to improve upon current simulators. In total 11 total hip replacement pre-operative planning tools were analysed, plus 9 hip trauma fracture tr...

  6. Leningrad NPP full scope simulator - new generation tool for training and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malkin, S.D.; Shalia, V.V.; Rakitin, I.D.; Khoudiakov, M.M.


    Recent developments of Russian Research Center 'Kurchatov Institute' are aimed at the soonest and minimum expenditure's creation of modern high-performance means for personnel's training and regular restraining and also at the development of means of modeling, safety analysis and operators' support with severe accidents to be included. In this view, the most elaborated one is the Training Support Center (TSC) created at the Leningrad NPP, Sosnovy Bor, Russia. To be applied in this center, GSE Systems of USA and RRC 'Kurchatov Institute' have jointly developed the Total Training System that incorporates full-scope simulator; analytical full-scope simulator, expert system, interactive system, psycho-physiological system; and training support programs. Mathematical models creating and special software development were the responsibility of RRC 'Kurchatov Institute', the hardware and general purpose software were the responsibility of GSE Systems. (author)

  7. Enhancing residents’ neonatal resuscitation competency through unannounced simulation-based training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey W. Surcouf


    Full Text Available Background: Almost half of pediatric third-year residents surveyed in 2000 had never led a resuscitation event. With increasing restrictions on residency work hours and a decline in patient volume in some hospitals, there is potential for fewer opportunities. Purpose: Our primary purpose was to test the hypothesis that an unannounced mock resuscitation in a high-fidelity in-situ simulation training program would improve both residents’ self-confidence and observed performance of adopted best practices in neonatal resuscitation. Methods: Each pediatric and medicine–pediatric resident in one pediatric residency program responded to an unannounced scenario that required resuscitation of the high fidelity infant simulator. Structured debriefing followed in the same setting, and a second cycle of scenario response and debriefing occurred before ending the 1-hour training experience. Measures included pre- and post-program confidence questionnaires and trained observer assessments of live and videotaped performances. Results: Statistically significant pre–post gains for self-confidence were observed for 8 of the 14 NRP critical behaviors (p=0.00–0.03 reflecting knowledge, technical, and non-technical (teamwork skills. The pre–post gain in overall confidence score was statistically significant (p=0.00. With a maximum possible assessment score of 41, the average pre–post gain was 8.28 and statistically significant (p<0.001. Results of the video-based assessments revealed statistically significant performance gains (p<0.0001. Correlation between live and video-based assessments were strong for pre–post training scenario performances (pre: r=0.64, p<0.0001; post: r=0.75, p<0.0001. Conclusions: Results revealed high receptivity to in-situ, simulation-based training and significant positive gains in confidence and observed competency-related abilities. Results support the potential for other applications in residency and continuing education.

  8. Training methods and facilities on reactor and simulators at the Grenoble Nuclear Research Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Destot, M.; Siebert, S.


    Siloette is a CEA unit with a threshold vocation: operation of the Siloette 100 KW pool-type research reactor; basic training in reactor physics for nuclear power plant operators; and production of nuclear power plant simulators: PWR, GCR and more generally of all types of industrial unit simulators, thermal power plant, network, chemical plant, etc. From this experience, they would emphasize in particular the synergy arising from these complementary activities, the essential role of training in basic principles as a complement to operation training, and the ever-increasing importance of design ergonomics of the training means

  9. [Physiological aspects of altitude training and the use of altitude simulators]. (United States)

    Ranković, Goran; Radovanović, Dragan


    Altitude training in various forms is widely practiced by athletes and coaches in an attempt to improve sea level endurance. Training at high altitude may improve performance at sea level through altitude acclimatisation, which improves oxygen transport and/or utilisation, or through hypoxia, which intensifies the training stimulus. This basic physiological aspect allows three training modalities: live high and train high (classic high-altitude training), live low and train high (training through hypoxia), and live high and train low (the new trend). In an effort to reduce the financial and logistical challenges of travelling to high-altitude training sites, scientists and manufactures have developed artificial high-altitude environments, which simulate the hypoxic conditions of moderate altitude (2000-3000 meters). Endurance athletes from many sports have recently started using nitrogen environments, or hypoxic rooms and tents as part of their altitude training programmes. The results of controlled studies on these modalities of high-altitude training, their practical approach, and ethics are summarised.

  10. Physiological aspects of altitude training and the use of altitude simulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranković Goran


    Full Text Available Altitude training in various forms is widely practiced by athletes and coaches in an attempt to improve sea level endurance. Training at high altitude may improve performance at sea level through altitude acclimatization, which improves oxygen transport and/or utilization, or through hypoxia, which intensifies the training stimulus. This basic physiological aspect allows three training modalities: live high and train high (classic high-altitude training, live low and train high (training through hypoxia, and live high and train low (the new trend. In an effort to reduce the financial and logistical challenges of traveling to high-altitude training sites, scientists and manufactures have developed artificial high-altitude environments, which simulate the hypoxic conditions of moderate altitude (2000-3000 meters. Endurance athletes from many sports have recently started using nitrogen environments, or hypoxic rooms and tents as part of their altitude training programmes. The results of controlled studies on these modalities of high-altitude training, their practical approach, and ethics are summarized.

  11. Development and validation of a virtual reality simulator: human factors input to interventional radiology training. (United States)

    Johnson, Sheena Joanne; Guediri, Sara M; Kilkenny, Caroline; Clough, Peter J


    This study developed and validated a virtual reality (VR) simulator for use by interventional radiologists. Research in the area of skill acquisition reports practice as essential to become a task expert. Studies on simulation show skills learned in VR can be successfully transferred to a real-world task. Recently, with improvements in technology, VR simulators have been developed to allow complex medical procedures to be practiced without risking the patient. Three studies are reported. In Study I, 35 consultant interventional radiologists took part in a cognitive task analysis to empirically establish the key competencies of the Seldinger procedure. In Study 2, 62 participants performed one simulated procedure, and their performance was compared by expertise. In Study 3, the transferability of simulator training to a real-world procedure was assessed with 14 trainees. Study I produced 23 key competencies that were implemented as performance measures in the simulator. Study 2 showed the simulator had both face and construct validity, although some issues were identified. Study 3 showed the group that had undergone simulator training received significantly higher mean performance ratings on a subsequent patient procedure. The findings of this study support the centrality of validation in the successful design of simulators and show the utility of simulators as a training device. The studies show the key elements of a validation program for a simulator. In addition to task analysis and face and construct validities, the authors highlight the importance of transfer of training in validation studies.

  12. Factors associated with male involvement in the prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV, Midlands Province, Zimbabwe, 2015 - a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamercy Makoni


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Uptake of and adherence to the prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV (PMTCT interventions are a challenge to most women if there is no male partner involvement. Organizations which include the National AIDS Council and the Zimbabwe AIDS Prevention Project- University of Zimbabwe have been working towards mobilizing men for couple HIV testing and counseling (HTC in antenatal care (ANC. In 2013, Midlands province had 19 % males who were tested together with their partners in ANC, an increase by 9 % from 2011. However, this improvement was still far below the national target, hence this study was conducted to determine the associated factors. Methods A1:1 unmatched case control study was conducted. A case was a man who did not receive HIV testing and counseling together with his pregnant wife in ANC in Midlands province from January to June 2015. A control was a man who received HIV testing and counseling together with his pregnant wife in ANC in Midlands province from January to June 2015. Simple random sampling was used to select 112 cases and 112 controls. Epi Info statistical software was used to analyze data. Written informed consent was obtained from each study participant. Results Independent factors that predicted male involvement in PMTCT were: having been previously tested as a couple (aOR 0.22, 95 % CI = 0.12, 0.41 and having time to visit the clinic (aOR 0.41, 95 % CI = 0.21, 0.80. Being afraid of knowing one’s HIV status (aOR 2.22, 95 % CI = 1.04, 4.76 was independently associated with low male involvement in PMTCT. Conclusion Multiple factors were found to be associated with male involvement in PMTCT. Routine PMTCT educational campaigns in places where men gather, community based couple HTC and accommodating the working class during weekends are essential in fostering male involvement in PMTCT thereby reducing HIV transmission to the baby.

  13. Surgeon Training in Telerobotic Surgery via a Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Li


    Full Text Available This work presents a software and hardware framework for a telerobotic surgery safety and motor skill training simulator. The aims are at providing trainees a comprehensive simulator for acquiring essential skills to perform telerobotic surgery. Existing commercial robotic surgery simulators lack features for safety training and optimal motion planning, which are critical factors in ensuring patient safety and efficiency in operation. In this work, we propose a hardware-in-the-loop simulator directly introducing these two features. The proposed simulator is built upon the Raven-II™ open source surgical robot, integrated with a physics engine and a safety hazard injection engine. Also, a Fast Marching Tree-based motion planning algorithm is used to help trainee learn the optimal instrument motion patterns. The main contributions of this work are (1 reproducing safety hazards events, related to da Vinci™ system, reported to the FDA MAUDE database, with a novel haptic feedback strategy to provide feedback to the operator when the underlying dynamics differ from the real robot’s states so that the operator will be aware and can mitigate the negative impact of the safety-critical events, and (2 using motion planner to generate semioptimal path in an interactive robotic surgery training environment.

  14. Validity of Cognitive Load Measures in Simulation-Based Training: A Systematic Review. (United States)

    Naismith, Laura M; Cavalcanti, Rodrigo B


    Cognitive load theory (CLT) provides a rich framework to inform instructional design. Despite the applicability of CLT to simulation-based medical training, findings from multimedia learning have not been consistently replicated in this context. This lack of transferability may be related to issues in measuring cognitive load (CL) during simulation. The authors conducted a review of CLT studies across simulation training contexts to assess the validity evidence for different CL measures. PRISMA standards were followed. For 48 studies selected from a search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycInfo, CINAHL, and ERIC databases, information was extracted about study aims, methods, validity evidence of measures, and findings. Studies were categorized on the basis of findings and prevalence of validity evidence collected, and statistical comparisons between measurement types and research domains were pursued. CL during simulation training has been measured in diverse populations including medical trainees, pilots, and university students. Most studies (71%; 34) used self-report measures; others included secondary task performance, physiological indices, and observer ratings. Correlations between CL and learning varied from positive to negative. Overall validity evidence for CL measures was low (mean score 1.55/5). Studies reporting greater validity evidence were more likely to report that high CL impaired learning. The authors found evidence that inconsistent correlations between CL and learning may be related to issues of validity in CL measures. Further research would benefit from rigorous documentation of validity and from triangulating measures of CL. This can better inform CLT instructional design for simulation-based medical training.

  15. Simulation game provides financial management training. (United States)

    Uhles, Neville; Weimer-Elder, Barbette; Lee, James G


    Adventist HealthCare developed a workshop with a reality simulation game as an engaging means to teach nonfinancial managers about the relationships between cash flow, income statements, and balance sheets. Thirty AHC staff, about half financial and half nonfinancial, were trained as workshop facilitators, and all managers with budget oversight were asked to complete the workshop. The workshop was very positively received; participants' average scores on workshop questionnaires increased from 77.4 percent correct on a presession questionnaire to 91.3 percent correct on a postsession questionnaire.

  16. Porcine cadaver organ or virtual-reality simulation training for laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a randomized, controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bruwaene, Siska; Schijven, Marlies P.; Napolitano, Daniel; de Win, Gunter; Miserez, Marc


    As conventional laparoscopic procedural training requires live animals or cadaver organs, virtual simulation seems an attractive alternative. Therefore, we compared the transfer of training for the laparoscopic cholecystectomy from porcine cadaver organs vs virtual simulation to surgery in a live

  17. Kinematic Skeleton Based Control of a Virtual Simulator for Military Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soyeon Lee


    Full Text Available Virtual simulation technology has been considered as a highly efficient and cost-effective solution for a soldier training system, and evolved into diverse combinations of hardware and software. To maximize the virtual reality effect within a restricted space, a locomotion interface such as an omni-directional treadmill is introduced as a major component of a virtual simulator, therefore real time interaction between human and the virtual simulator becomes very important. Displacement and heading changes of the trainee are crucial information to control the virtual simulator when we implement highly reactive motion control for the omni-directional treadmill and interaction control of the virtual contents. This paper proposes a control parameter estimation algorithm for the virtual training simulator by using two types of motion capture sensors and presents the experimental results. Kinematic joint positions are analyzed to estimate the trainee’s location and velocity for feedback and feedforward control of the omni-directional treadmill. The accuracy of two approaches is evaluated by comparing with the reference system, which gives a ground truth value.

  18. Numerical Simulations for a Typical Train Fire in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. K. Chow


    Full Text Available Railway is the key transport means in China including the Mainland, Taiwan, and Hong Kong. Consequent to so many big arson and accidental fires in the public transport systems including trains and buses, fire safety in passenger trains is a concern. Numerical simulations with Computational Fluid Dynamics on identified fire scenarios with typical train compartments in China will be reported in this paper. The heat release rate of the first ignited item was taken as the input parameter. The mass lost rate of fuel vapor of other combustibles was estimated to predict the resultant heat release rates by the combustion models in the software. Results on air flow, velocity vectors, temperature distribution, smoke layer height, and smoke spread patterns inside the train compartment were analyzed. The results are useful for working out appropriate fire safety measures for train vehicles and determining the design fire for subway stations and railway tunnels.

  19. Simulation training for breast and pelvic physical examination: a systematic review and meta-analysis. (United States)

    Dilaveri, C A; Szostek, J H; Wang, A T; Cook, D A


    Breast and pelvic examinations are challenging intimate examinations. Technology-based simulation may help to overcome these challenges. To synthesise the evidence regarding the effectiveness of technology-based simulation training for breast and pelvic examination. Our systematic search included MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsychINFO, Scopus, and key journals and review articles; the date of the last search was January 2012. Original research studies evaluating technology-enhanced simulation of breast and pelvic examination to teach learners, compared with no intervention or with other educational activities. The reviewers evaluated study eligibility and abstracted data on methodological quality, learners, instructional design, and outcomes, and used random-effects models to pool weighted effect sizes. In total, 11 272 articles were identified for screening, and 22 studies were eligible, enrolling 2036 trainees. In eight studies comparing simulation for breast examination training with no intervention, simulation was associated with a significant improvement in skill, with a pooled effect size of 0.86 (95% CI 0.52-1.19; P < 0.001). Four studies comparing simulation training for pelvic examination with no intervention had a large and significant benefit, with a pooled effect size of 1.18 (95% CI 0.40-1.96; P = 0.003). Among breast examination simulation studies, dynamic models providing feedback were associated with improved outcomes. In pelvic examination simulation studies, the addition of a standardised patient to the simulation model and the use of an electronic model with enhanced feedback improved outcomes. In comparison with no intervention, breast and pelvic examination simulation training is associated with moderate to large effects for skills outcomes. Enhanced feedback appears to improve learning. © 2013 RCOG.

  20. Theoretical aspects of virtual simulators to train crews of fishing fleet (United States)

    Lisitsyna, L.; Smetyuh, N.


    The use of virtual simulators is an important trend in the modern education, including the continuous training of specialists to meet the rapidly changing requirements for their qualification. Modern virtual simulators are multifunctional, i.e. they can be used to develop and enhance the skills as well as to control professional skills and abilities of specialists of diverse profiles under various working conditions. This study is based on the generalization of a large experience in the sphere of applying ready-made multifunctional virtual simulators (MFVS) and developing new ones for the training and retraining of the crews of the Azov-Black Sea fishing vessels. The results of the experimental studies of the MFVS "Fishing Simulator for Trawling and Purse Seining" show that at least 10 sessions are required to develop sustainable purse seining fishing skills. Almost all trainees (95%) successfully cope with the task within the time permitted by the standard requirements (three minutes) after 15 sessions.

  1. Modelling renewable energy resource and the electricity network (East Midlands region)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newton, P.A.; Ma, T.


    The UK Government's targets for renewable generation and combined heat and power (CHP) are expected to result in a significant growth in embedded generation. This report describes the results of a study of the capability of the electricity distribution network in the East Midlands to accept embedded generation. Detailed network studies were performed for two sample networks: one representing an urban network (Leicester) and one representing a rural network (Boston). The 132 kV networks of the grid groups covering these areas were also studied. This included an examination of the connection points from major 132 kV busbars at grid supply points down to 11 kV primary substations. Power system studies were performed to identify the constraints and capabilities of the existing network, These studies included load flow to examine voltage profile and overloading, fault level analysis and transient studies to examine generator and network stability following faults on the network and voltage step change due to generator tripping. Space network capacity for the region was identified and used to assess the ability to accommodate regional targets for renewables and CHP. The study also examined constraining factors and potential solutions, including four improvement scenarios.

  2. STS-37 crewmembers train in JSC's FB shuttle mission simulator (SMS) (United States)


    STS-37 Commander Steven R. Nagel (left) and Mission Specialist (MS) Jerry L. Ross rehearse some of their scheduled duties on the flight deck of JSC's fixed-based (FB) shuttle mission simulator (SMS) located in the Mission Simulation and Training Facility Bldg 5. During the unsuited simulation, Nagel reviews checklist while seated at the commanders station as Ross looks on from the pilots station.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Stokłosa


    Full Text Available On the LHS line (Broad-gauge Metallurgical Line, far out West of the railway line with a gauge of 1520 mm, heavy goods trains for a gross weight 5500 tons and a length of 850 m are operated. The article presents the results of a simulation study of the forces that occur in the automatic coupling device of SA-3 type of Russian production train consisting of 60 coal wagons of Russian construction of gross mass 91 tons each. The train moves on the 1520 mm gauge tracks curve S type (the radius of curvature of curves 300 m. Simulation studies were conducted using the Train Module of program to dynamic study multi-elements systems of Universal Mechanism UM 6.0.

  4. Possible causes of poverty within a group of land reform beneficiaries in the midlands of KwaZulu-Natal: Analysis and policy recommendations


    Shinns, L.H.; Lyne, Michael C.


    This study investigates possible causes of poverty afflicting a community of land reform beneficiaries in the Midlands of KwaZulu-Natal. The 38 beneficiary households had previously been clustered into four groups displaying different symptoms of poverty. Linear Discriminant Analysis was used first to distinguish households that were relatively income and asset "rich" from those that were relatively income and asset "poor", and second to distinguish households that were relatively income poor...

  5. [Non-biological 3D printed simulator for training in percutaneous nephro- lithotripsy]. (United States)

    Alyaev, Yu G; Sirota, E S; Bezrukov, E A; Ali, S Kh; Bukatov, M D; Letunovskiy, A V; Byadretdinov, I Sh


    To develop a non-biological 3D printed simulator for training and preoperative planning in percutaneous nephrolithotripsy (PCNL), which allows doctors to master and perform all stages of the operation under ultrasound and fluoroscopy guidance. The 3D model was constructed using multislice spiral computed tomography (MSCT) images of a patient with staghorn urolithiasis. The MSCT data were processed and used to print the model. The simulator consisted of two parts: a non-biological 3D printed soft model of a kidney with reproduced intra-renal vascular and collecting systems and a printed 3D model of a human body. Using this 3D printed simulator, PCNL was performed in the interventional radiology operating room under ultrasound and fluoroscopy guidance. The designed 3D printed model of the kidney completely reproduces the individual features of the intra-renal structures of the particular patient. During the training, all the main stages of PCNL were performed successfully: the puncture, dilation of the nephrostomy tract, endoscopic examination, intra-renal lithotripsy. Our proprietary 3D-printed simulator is a promising development in the field of endourologic training and preoperative planning in the treatment of complicated forms of urolithiasis.

  6. Two Hours of Teamwork Training Improves Teamwork in Simulated Cardiopulmonary Arrest Events. (United States)

    Mahramus, Tara L; Penoyer, Daleen A; Waterval, Eugene M E; Sole, Mary L; Bowe, Eileen M


    Teamwork during cardiopulmonary arrest events is important for resuscitation. Teamwork improvement programs are usually lengthy. This study assessed the effectiveness of a 2-hour teamwork training program. A prospective, pretest/posttest, quasi-experimental design assessed the teamwork training program targeted to resident physicians, nurses, and respiratory therapists. Participants took part in a simulated cardiac arrest. After the simulation, participants and trained observers assessed perceptions of teamwork using the Team Emergency Assessment Measure (TEAM) tool (ratings of 0 [low] to 4 [high]). A debriefing and 45 minutes of teamwork education followed. Participants then took part in a second simulated cardiac arrest scenario. Afterward, participants and observers assessed teamwork. Seventy-three team members participated-resident physicians (25%), registered nurses (32%), and respiratory therapists (41%). The physicians had significantly less experience on code teams (P teamwork scores were 2.57 to 2.72. Participants' mean (SD) scores on the TEAM tool for the first and second simulations were 3.2 (0.5) and 3.7 (0.4), respectively (P teamwork educational intervention resulted in improved perceptions of teamwork behaviors. Participants reported interactions with other disciplines, teamwork behavior education, and debriefing sessions were beneficial for enhancing the program.

  7. Proficiency-based laparoscopic and endoscopic training with virtual reality simulators: a comparison of proctored and independent approaches. (United States)

    Snyder, Christopher W; Vandromme, Marianne J; Tyra, Sharon L; Hawn, Mary T


    Virtual reality (VR) simulators for laparoscopy and endoscopy may be valuable tools for resident education. However, the cost of such training in terms of trainee and instructor time may vary depending upon whether an independent or proctored approach is employed. We performed a randomized controlled trial to compare independent and proctored methods of proficiency-based VR simulator training. Medical students were randomized to independent or proctored training groups. Groups were compared with respect to the number of training hours and task repetitions required to achieve expert level proficiency on laparoscopic and endoscopic simulators. Cox regression modeling was used to compare time to proficiency between groups, with adjustment for appropriate covariates. Thirty-six medical students (18 independent, 18 proctored) were enrolled. Achievement of overall simulator proficiency required a median of 11 hours of training (range, 6-21 hours). Laparoscopic and endoscopic proficiency were achieved after a median of 11 (range, 6-32) and 10 (range, 5-27) task repetitions, respectively. The number of repetitions required to achieve proficiency was similar between groups. After adjustment for covariates, trainees in the independent group achieved simulator proficiency with significantly fewer hours of training (hazard ratio, 2.62; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-6.85; p = 0.048). Our study quantifies the cost, in instructor and trainee hours, of proficiency-based laparoscopic and endoscopic VR simulator training, and suggests that proctored instruction does not offer any advantages to trainees. The independent approach may be preferable for surgical residency programs desiring to implement VR simulator training.

  8. Feedback Simulation for Acupressure Training and Skill Assessment. (United States)

    Noll, Eric; Romeiser, Jamie; Shodhan, Shivam; Madariaga, Maria Cecilia; Guo, Xiaojun; Rizwan, Sabeen; Al-Bizri, Ehab; Bennett-Guerrero, Elliott


    Previous acupressure studies have yielded varying results. This could be due to differences in the amount of pressure applied to the acupressure point (acupoint) by study personnel within a study as well as between studies. Standardizing the level of pressure applied at an acupoint could improve clinical care and future research. As part of an ongoing randomized clinical trial of postoperative acupressure, five trainees were asked to perform 2 minutes of acupressure and light touch sessions on a simulator. The applied weight was recorded every minute. Individual skill assessment was performed using cumulative sum analysis. Six pretraining and 20 posttraining measurements in each acupressure and light touch group were compared with an expert's simulation values. Before training (baseline), there was significant difference in applied weight (grams) between the expert [5705 (636)] and five trainees [2998 (798), P = 0.004]. Four of the five trainees crossed the lower decision limit assessing proficiency in the acupressure group, and all five trainees were successful in the light touch group. The trainees' average number of measurements needed to cross the lower decision limit (H0), that is, defining that an individual failure rate does not statistically differ from the acceptable failure rate, was 21.3 measurements for acupressure. After this feedback simulation, trainees' scores showed no significant difference (P > 0.05) when assessed against the expert. Feedback simulation for acupressure training and skill assessment, evaluated by cumulative sum analysis, may help in improving the standardization of acupressure therapy performed during clinical practice or research.

  9. Towards developing high-fidelity simulated learning environment training modules in audiology. (United States)

    Dzulkarnain, A A; Rahmat, S; Mohd Puzi, N A F; Badzis, M


    This discussion paper reviews and synthesises the literature on simulated learning environment (SLE) from allied health sciences, medical and nursing in general and audiology specifically. The focus of the paper is on discussing the use of high-fidelity (HF) SLE and describing the challenges for developing a HF SLE for clinical audiology training. Through the review of the literature, this paper discusses seven questions, (i) What is SLE? (ii) What are the types of SLEs? (iii) How is SLE classified? (iv) What is HF SLE? (v) What types of SLEs are available in audiology and their level of fidelity? (vi) What are the components needed for developing HF SLE? (vii) What are the possible types of HF SLEs that are suitable for audiology training? Publications were identified by structured searches from three major databases PubMed, Web of Knowledge and PsychInfo and from the reference lists of relevant articles. The authors discussed and mapped the levels of fidelity of SLE audiology training modules from the literature and the learning domains involved in the clinical audiology courses. The discussion paper has highlighted that most of the existing SLE audiology training modules consist of either low- or medium-fidelity types of simulators. Those components needed to achieve a HF SLE for audiology training are also highlighted. Overall, this review recommends that the combined approach of different levels and types of SLE could be used to obtain a HF SLE training module in audiology training.

  10. Requirements to be made on the methodology of staff training on a nuclear power plant simulator of the new Konvoi generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinartz, S.J.; Reinartz, G.


    This report is based on a review of the literature published on simulator training and on discussions with representatives from the German nuclear power plant operator training schools. A brief description of the organisation and content of the simulator training of control room operators in a number of countries, together with a catagorisation of the various types of simulators which are used. The concepts of the systems approach to training and simulator fidelity are discussed. Some general training principles which are considered important for simulator training are summarised. From the available descriptions and analyses of control room operator tasks, the skills (in most general terms) which can be trained at simulators have been identified. Methods for training these skills which are used in the simulator training programmes in various industries and which have been developed in research work in the area of training psychology have been summarised. Using these methods as a basis, the necessary instructor facilities which should be included in the design of a full simulator for the Konvoi generation of nuclear power plants have been derived. (orig.) [de

  11. The international forum of ophthalmic simulation: developing a virtual reality training curriculum for ophthalmology. (United States)

    Saleh, George M; Lamparter, Julia; Sullivan, Paul M; O'Sullivan, Fiona; Hussain, Badrul; Athanasiadis, Ioannis; Litwin, Andre S; Gillan, Stewart N


    To investigate the effect of a structured, supervised, cataract simulation programme on ophthalmic surgeons in their first year of training, and to evaluate the level of skill transfer. Trainees with minimal intraocular and simulator experience in their first year of ophthalmology undertook a structured, sequential, customised, virtual reality (VR) cataract training programme developed through the International Forum of Ophthalmic Simulation. A set of one-handed, bimanual, static and dynamic tasks were evaluated before and after the course and scores obtained. Statistical significance was evaluated with the Wilcoxon sign-rank test. The median precourse score of 101.50/400 (IQR 58.75-145.75) was significantly improved after completing the training programme ((postcourse score: 302/400, range: 266.25-343), p<0.001). While improvement was evident and found to be statistically significant in all parameters, greatest improvements were found for capsulorhexis and antitremor training ((Capsulorhexis: precourse score=0/100, range 0-4.5; postcourse score=81/100, range 13-87.75; p=0.002), (antitremor training: precourse score=0/100, range 0-0; postcourse score=80/100, range 60.25-91.50; p=0.001)). Structured and supervised VR training can offer a significant level of skills transfer to novice ophthalmic surgeons. VR training at the earliest stage of ophthalmic surgical training may, therefore, be of benefit.

  12. Cricothyroidotomy In Situ Simulation Curriculum (CRIC Study): Training Residents for Rare Procedures. (United States)

    Petrosoniak, Andrew; Ryzynski, Agnes; Lebovic, Gerald; Woolfrey, Karen


    Technical skill acquisition for rare procedures can be challenging given the few real-life training opportunities. In situ simulation (ISS), a training technique that takes place in the actual workplace, is a promising method to promote environmental fidelity for rare procedures. This study evaluated a simulation-based technical skill curriculum for cricothyroidotomy using deliberate practice, followed by an ISS evaluation session. Twenty emergency medicine residents participated in a two-part curriculum to improve cricothryoidotomy performance. A pretest established participant baseline technical skill. The training session consisted of two parts, didactic teaching followed by deliberate practice using a task-training manikin. A posttest consisted of an unannounced, high-fidelity ISS, during an emergency department shift. The primary outcome was the mean performance time between the pretest and posttest sessions. Skill performance was also evaluated using a checklist scale and global rating scale. Cricothyroidotomy performance time improved significantly from pretest to posttest sessions (mean difference, 59 seconds; P training session consisting of didactic learning and deliberate practice, improved cricothyroidotomy skill performance was observed during an unannounced ISS in the emergency department. The integration of ISS in cricothyroidotomy training represents a promising approach; however, further study is needed to establish its role.

  13. Visual-spatial ability is more important than motivation for novices in surgical simulator training: a preliminary study. (United States)

    Schlickum, Marcus; Hedman, Leif; Felländer-Tsai, Li


    To investigate whether surgical simulation performance and previous video gaming experience would correlate with higher motivation to further train a specific simulator task and whether visual-spatial ability would rank higher in importance to surgical performance than the above. It was also examined whether or not motivation would correlate with a preference to choose a surgical specialty in the future and if simulator training would increase the interest in choosing that same work field. Motivation and general interest in surgery was measured pre- and post-training in 30 medical students at Karolinska Institutet who were tested in a laparoscopic surgical simulator in parallel with measurement of visual-spatial ability and self-estimated video gaming experience. Correlations between simulator performance metrics, visual-spatial ability and motivation were statistically analyzed using regression analysis. A good result in the first simulator trial correlated with higher self-determination index (r =-0.46, p=0.05) in male students. Visual-spatial ability was the most important underlying factor followed by intrinsic motivation score and finally video gaming experience (p=0.02, p=0.05, p=0.11) regarding simulator performance in male students. Simulator training increased interest in surgery when studying all subjects (p=0.01), male subjects (p=0.02) as well as subjects with low video gaming experience (p=0.02). This preliminary study highlights individual differences regarding the effect of simulator training on motivation that can be taken into account when designing simulator training curricula, although the sample size is quite small and findings should be interpreted carefully.

  14. Feasibility of scenario-based simulation training versus traditional workshops in continuing medical education: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan Kerr


    Full Text Available Introduction: Although simulation-based training is increasingly used for medical education, its benefits in continuing medical education (CME are less established. This study seeks to evaluate the feasibility of incorporating simulation-based training into a CME conference and compare its effectiveness with the traditional workshop in improving knowledge and self-reported confidence. Methods: Participants (N=27 were group randomized to either a simulation-based workshop or a traditional case-based workshop. Results: Post-training, knowledge assessment score neither did increase significantly in the traditional group (d=0.13; p=0.76 nor did significantly decrease in the simulation group (d= − 0.44; p=0.19. Self-reported comfort in patient assessment parameters increased in both groups (p<0.05 in all. However, only the simulation group reported an increase in comfort in patient management (d=1.1, p=0.051 for the traditional group and d=1.3; p= 0.0003 for the simulation group. At 1 month, comfort measures in the traditional group increased consistently over time while these measures in the simulation group increased post-workshop but decreased by 1 month, suggesting that some of the effects of training with simulation may be short lived. Discussion: The use of simulation-based training was not associated with benefits in knowledge acquisition, knowledge retention, or comfort in patient assessment. It was associated with superior outcomes in comfort in patient management, but this benefit may be short-lived. Further studies are required to better define the conditions under which simulation-based training is beneficial.

  15. The experiences of last-year student midwives with High-Fidelity Perinatal Simulation training: A qualitative descriptive study. (United States)

    Vermeulen, Joeri; Beeckman, Katrien; Turcksin, Rivka; Van Winkel, Lies; Gucciardo, Léonardo; Laubach, Monika; Peersman, Wim; Swinnen, Eva


    Simulation training is a powerful and evidence-based teaching method in healthcare. It allows students to develop essential competences that are often difficult to achieve during internships. High-Fidelity Perinatal Simulation exposes them to real-life scenarios in a safe environment. Although student midwives' experiences need to be considered to make the simulation training work, these have been overlooked so far. To explore the experiences of last-year student midwives with High-Fidelity Perinatal Simulation training. A qualitative descriptive study, using three focus group conversations with last-year student midwives (n=24). Audio tapes were transcribed and a thematic content analysis was performed. The entire data set was coded according to recurrent or common themes. To achieve investigator triangulation and confirm themes, discussions among the researchers was incorporated in the analysis. Students found High-Fidelity Perinatal Simulation training to be a positive learning method that increased both their competence and confidence. Their experiences varied over the different phases of the High-Fidelity Perinatal Simulation training. Although uncertainty, tension, confusion and disappointment were experienced throughout the simulation trajectory, they reported that this did not affect their learning and confidence-building. As High-Fidelity Perinatal Simulation training constitutes a helpful learning experience in midwifery education, it could have a positive influence on maternal and neonatal outcomes. In the long term, it could therefore enhance the midwifery profession in several ways. The present study is an important first step in opening up the debate about the pedagogical use of High-Fidelity Perinatal Simulation training within midwifery education. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Development and evaluation of a simulator-based laparoscopic training program for surgical novices. (United States)

    Nugent, Emmeline; Shirilla, Nicole; Hafeez, Adnan; O'Riordain, Diarmuid S; Traynor, Oscar; Harrison, Anthony M; Neary, Paul


    The use of simulation to train novice surgeons in laparoscopic skills is becoming increasingly popular. To maximize benefit from simulation, training needs to be delivered and assessed in a structured manner. This study aimed to define performance goals, demonstrate construct validity of the training program, and evaluate whether novice surgeons could reach the preset performance goals. Nine expert laparoscopic surgeons established performance goals for three basic modules of an augmented-reality laparoscopic simulator. The three laparoscopic modules were used by 40 novice surgeons and 40 surgical trainees (postgraduate years [PGYs] 1-4). The performance outcomes were analyzed across the different groups (novice, PGYs 1 and 2, PGYs 3 and 4, expert) to determine construct validity. Then 26 recruited novices trained on the three modules with the aim of reaching the performance goals. The results demonstrated a significant difference in performance between all levels of experience for time (p < 0.001), motion analysis (p < 0.001), and error score (p < 0.001), thus demonstrating construct validity. All 26 novice surgeons significantly improved in performance with repetition for the metrics of time (p < 0.001) and motion analysis (p < 0.001). For two of the modules, the proficiency goals were reached in fewer than 10 trials by 80% of the study participants. Basic skills in laparoscopic surgery can be learned and improved using proficiency-based simulation training. It is possible for novice surgeons to achieve predefined performance goals in a reasonable time frame.

  17. Does virtual reality simulation have a role in training trauma and orthopaedic surgeons? (United States)

    Bartlett, J D; Lawrence, J E; Stewart, M E; Nakano, N; Khanduja, V


    Aims The aim of this study was to assess the current evidence relating to the benefits of virtual reality (VR) simulation in orthopaedic surgical training, and to identify areas of future research. Materials and Methods A literature search using the MEDLINE, Embase, and Google Scholar databases was performed. The results' titles, abstracts, and references were examined for relevance. Results A total of 31 articles published between 2004 and 2016 and relating to the objective validity and efficacy of specific virtual reality orthopaedic surgical simulators were identified. We found 18 studies demonstrating the construct validity of 16 different orthopaedic virtual reality simulators by comparing expert and novice performance. Eight studies have demonstrated skill acquisition on a simulator by showing improvements in performance with repeated use. A further five studies have demonstrated measurable improvements in operating theatre performance following a period of virtual reality simulator training. Conclusion The demonstration of 'real-world' benefits from the use of VR simulation in knee and shoulder arthroscopy is promising. However, evidence supporting its utility in other forms of orthopaedic surgery is lacking. Further studies of validity and utility should be combined with robust analyses of the cost efficiency of validated simulators to justify the financial investment required for their use in orthopaedic training. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2018;100-B:559-65.

  18. Development of the severe accident management guidance module for the SATS training simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K. R.; Park, S. H.; Kim, D. H.


    Recently KAERI has developed severe accident management guidance to establish Korea standard severe accident management system. On the other hand PC-based severe accident training simulator SATS has been developed, which uses MELCOR computing code as the simulation engine. SATS graphically displays and simulates the severe accident progression with interactive user inputs. The control capability of SATS makes a severe accident training course more interesting and effective. In this paper the development and functions of HyperKAMG module are explained. Furthermore easiness and effectiveness of the HyperKAMG-SATS system in severe accident management are described

  19. Randomized trial to examine procedure-to-procedure transfer in laparoscopic simulator training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, F; Sorensen, J L; Konge, L


    -centre educational superiority trial. Surgical novices practised basic skills on a laparoscopic virtual reality simulator. On reaching proficiency, participants were randomized to proficiency-based training. The intervention group practised two procedures on the simulator (appendicectomy followed by salpingectomy...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. O. Potapov


    improved the results of the basic skills after undergoing training. The introduction in the educational process of simulation training promotes quality practical skills and more efficient formation of students' motivation to learn.

  1. Film reading in the East Midlands Breast Screening Programme – Are we missing opportunities for earlier diagnosis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, J.; Murphy, A.E.; Edmondson-Jones, M.; Sibbering, D.M.; Turnbull, A.E.


    Aim: To assess whether there are any significant differences in the film-reading histories of interval or screen-detected cancers, and whether this affects stage at diagnosis. Materials and methods: The rates of screen-detected and interval cancers (overall and by radiological categorization) were observed from 268,067 women screened in the East Midlands Breast Screening Programme over 2004–2007 to assess whether there were differences in incidence based on previous film-reading history. Cancers detected at the subsequent screen and film-reading history were analysed to assess whether this affected stage at diagnosis. Analysis undertaken involved cancer detection rates, confidence intervals, and chi-square tests with Monte Carlo simulation. Results: Rates of interval cancers were similar in all groups where at least one reader had indicated recall to assessment (6.1–7.7/1000) and were significantly higher in comparison to women whose previous film-reading outcome was unanimous routine rescreen (2.9/1000; p < 0.001). Four point one percent of interval cancers with no previous recall outcomes were false negatives, which was significantly lower compared to the groups where at least one reader had indicated recall (10.9%; p = 0.005). Cancers detected at the subsequent screen demonstrated no significant difference in prognosis dependent on previous film-reading history (p = 0.503). Conclusion: The prognosis of screen-detected cancers was similar and few cancers were false negatives regardless of film-reading history at the previous screen

  2. The Development of Dispatcher Training Simulator in a Thermal Energy Generation System (United States)

    Hakim, D. L.; Abdullah, A. G.; Mulyadi, Y.; Hasan, B.


    A dispatcher training simulator (DTS) is a real-time Human Machine Interface (HMI)-based control tool that is able to visualize industrial control system processes. The present study was aimed at developing a simulator tool for boilers in a thermal power station. The DTS prototype was designed using technical data of thermal power station boilers in Indonesia. It was then designed and implemented in Wonderware Intouch 10. The resulting simulator came with component drawing, animation, control display, alarm system, real-time trend, historical trend. This application used 26 tagnames and was equipped with a security system. The test showed that the principles of real-time control worked well. It is expected that this research could significantly contribute to the development of thermal power station, particularly in terms of its application as a training simulator for beginning dispatchers.

  3. A microcontroller-based simulation of dural venous sinus injury for neurosurgical training. (United States)

    Cleary, Daniel R; Siler, Dominic A; Whitney, Nathaniel; Selden, Nathan R


    OBJECTIVE Surgical simulation has the potential to supplement and enhance traditional resident training. However, the high cost of equipment and limited number of available scenarios have inhibited wider integration of simulation in neurosurgical education. In this study the authors provide initial validation of a novel, low-cost simulation platform that recreates the stress of surgery using a combination of hands-on, model-based, and computer elements. Trainee skill was quantified using multiple time and performance measures. The simulation was initially validated using trainees at the start of their intern year. METHODS The simulation recreates intraoperative superior sagittal sinus injury complicated by air embolism. The simulator model consists of 2 components: a reusable base and a disposable craniotomy pack. The simulator software is flexible and modular to allow adjustments in difficulty or the creation of entirely new clinical scenarios. The reusable simulator base incorporates a powerful microcomputer and multiple sensors and actuators to provide continuous feedback to the software controller, which in turn adjusts both the screen output and physical elements of the model. The disposable craniotomy pack incorporates 3D-printed sections of model skull and brain, as well as artificial dura that incorporates a model sagittal sinus. RESULTS Twelve participants at the 2015 Western Region Society of Neurological Surgeons postgraduate year 1 resident course ("boot camp") provided informed consent and enrolled in a study testing the prototype device. Each trainee was required to successfully create a bilateral parasagittal craniotomy, repair a dural sinus tear, and recognize and correct an air embolus. Participant stress was measured using a heart rate wrist monitor. After participation, each resident completed a 13-question categorical survey. CONCLUSIONS All trainee participants experienced tachycardia during the simulation, although the point in the simulation

  4. Development of a mechanical maintenance training simulator in OpenSimulator for F-16 aircraft engines


    Pinheiro, André; Fernandes, Paulo; Maia, Ana; Cruz, Gonçalo; Pedrosa, Daniela; Fonseca, Benjamim; Paredes, Hugo; Martins, Paulo; Morgado, Leonel; Rafael, Jorge


    Mechanical maintenance of F-16 engines is carried out as a team effort involving 3–4 skilled engine technicians, but the details of its procedures and requisites change constantly, to improve safety, optimize resources, and respond to knowledge learned from field outcomes. This provides a challenge for development of training simulators, since simulated actions risk becoming obsolete rapidly and require costly reimplementation. This paper presents the development of a 3D mechanical maintenanc...

  5. Real-Time Simulation of Ship Impact for Crew Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup


    Real-time simulation of marine accidents and representation in a realistic, virtual environment may be an efficient way to train emergency procedures for ship?s crews and thus improve safety at sea. However, although various fast, simplified methods have been presented over the past decades...

  6. Effect of simulated emergency skills training and assessments on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of emergency skills in simulation was highly effective in enhancing the competence and confidence of medical students when managing a clinical emergency. However, students appeared to be overconfident, which could be ascribed to ignorance, and possibly indicates that feedback during training should be improved.

  7. Evaluation of different time schedules in training with the Da Vinci simulator. (United States)

    Güldner, C; Orth, A; Dworschak, P; Diogo, I; Mandapathil, M; Teymoortash, A; Walliczek-Dworschak, U


    This prospective study analyzed the effect of different time schedules in training on the main performance outcomes: overall score, time to complete, and economy of motion. The study was performed on the da Vinci Skills Simulator from December 2014 to April 2016. Forty robotic novices were randomized into two groups of 20 participants, which trained in the same three exercises but with different intervals between their training sessions. Each group performed training in Peg Board 1 in their first week, Match Board 2 in their second week, and Ring and Rail 2 in their third week. On their last day, Needle Targeting and Energy Dissection 2, for which no previous training had been received, were performed. Regarding the different training intervals, group 1 trained each exercise six times in a row once a week. Group 2 performed their training once a day for 5 days. Technical performance parameters were recorded by the Mimics simulator software for further analysis. In addition, the participants were asked to fill out a questionnaire concerning the robotics training. Group 2 performed significantly better compared to group 1 in the main metrics in the more advanced exercises. For the easier exercises, the training frequency did not lead to significant differences in performance outcome. A significant skills gain was seen between the first and last training sessions for all exercises in both groups. Performance in the final exercise NT was significantly better in group 2 than group 1. Regarding ED 2, no difference was found between the two groups. As the training of group 2 led to significantly better outcomes, we suggest that, especially for advanced exercises, it seems to be more favorable to perform training every day for a short period than to train once a week six times in a row.

  8. Multiple-point statistical simulation for hydrogeological models: 3-D training image development and conditioning strategies (United States)

    Høyer, Anne-Sophie; Vignoli, Giulio; Mejer Hansen, Thomas; Thanh Vu, Le; Keefer, Donald A.; Jørgensen, Flemming


    Most studies on the application of geostatistical simulations based on multiple-point statistics (MPS) to hydrogeological modelling focus on relatively fine-scale models and concentrate on the estimation of facies-level structural uncertainty. Much less attention is paid to the use of input data and optimal construction of training images. For instance, even though the training image should capture a set of spatial geological characteristics to guide the simulations, the majority of the research still relies on 2-D or quasi-3-D training images. In the present study, we demonstrate a novel strategy for 3-D MPS modelling characterized by (i) realistic 3-D training images and (ii) an effective workflow for incorporating a diverse group of geological and geophysical data sets. The study covers an area of 2810 km2 in the southern part of Denmark. MPS simulations are performed on a subset of the geological succession (the lower to middle Miocene sediments) which is characterized by relatively uniform structures and dominated by sand and clay. The simulated domain is large and each of the geostatistical realizations contains approximately 45 million voxels with size 100 m × 100 m × 5 m. Data used for the modelling include water well logs, high-resolution seismic data, and a previously published 3-D geological model. We apply a series of different strategies for the simulations based on data quality, and develop a novel method to effectively create observed spatial trends. The training image is constructed as a relatively small 3-D voxel model covering an area of 90 km2. We use an iterative training image development strategy and find that even slight modifications in the training image create significant changes in simulations. Thus, this study shows how to include both the geological environment and the type and quality of input information in order to achieve optimal results from MPS modelling. We present a practical workflow to build the training image and

  9. Comparing the Cost-Effectiveness of Simulation Modalities: A Case Study of Peripheral Intravenous Catheterization Training (United States)

    Isaranuwatchai, Wanrudee; Brydges, Ryan; Carnahan, Heather; Backstein, David; Dubrowski, Adam


    While the ultimate goal of simulation training is to enhance learning, cost-effectiveness is a critical factor. Research that compares simulation training in terms of educational- and cost-effectiveness will lead to better-informed curricular decisions. Using previously published data we conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis of three…

  10. Applying Open Source Game Engine for Building Visual Simulation Training System of Fire Fighting (United States)

    Yuan, Diping; Jin, Xuesheng; Zhang, Jin; Han, Dong

    There's a growing need for fire departments to adopt a safe and fair method of training to ensure that the firefighting commander is in a position to manage a fire incident. Visual simulation training systems, with their ability to replicate and interact with virtual fire scenarios through the use of computer graphics or VR, become an effective and efficient method for fire ground education. This paper describes the system architecture and functions of a visual simulated training system of fire fighting on oil storage, which adopting Delat3D, a open source game and simulation engine, to provide realistic 3D views. It presents that using open source technology provides not only the commercial-level 3D effects but also a great reduction of cost.

  11. Nontechnical skills training for the operating room: A prospective study using simulation and didactic workshop. (United States)

    Pena, Guilherme; Altree, Meryl; Field, John; Sainsbury, David; Babidge, Wendy; Hewett, Peter; Maddern, Guy


    The best surgeons demonstrate skills beyond those required for the performance of technically competent surgery. These skills are described under the term nontechnical skills. Failure in these domains has been associated with adverse events inside the operating room. These nontechnical skills are not learned commonly in a structured manner during surgery training. The main purpose of this study was to explore the effects of participation in simulation-based training, either as a sole strategy or as part of a combined approach on surgeons and surgical trainees nontechnical skills performance in simulation environment. The study consisted of a single-blinded, prospective comparative trial. Forty participants were enrolled, all participating in 2 simulation sessions challenging nontechnical skills comprising 3 surgical scenarios. Seventeen participants attended a 1-day, nontechnical skills workshop between simulation sessions. Scenarios were video-recorded for assessment and debriefing purposes. Assessment was made by 2 observers using the Non-Technical Skills for Surgeons (NOTSS) scoring system. There was a significant improvement in nontechnical skills performance of both groups from the first to the second simulation session, for 2 of the 3 scenarios. No difference in performance between the simulation and the simulation plus workshop groups was noted. This study provides evidence that formal training in nontechnical skills is feasible and can impact positively participants' nontechnical performance in a simulated environment. The addition of a 1-day didactic workshop does not seem to provide additional benefit over simulation-based training as a sole strategy for nontechnical skills training. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Simulation-based crisis resource management training for pediatric critical care medicine: a review for instructors. (United States)

    Cheng, Adam; Donoghue, Aaron; Gilfoyle, Elaine; Eppich, Walter


    To review the essential elements of crisis resource management and provide a resource for instructors by describing how to use simulation-based training to teach crisis resource management principles in pediatric acute care contexts. A MEDLINE-based literature source. OUTLINE OF REVIEW: This review is divided into three main sections: Background, Principles of Crisis Resource Management, and Tools and Resources. The background section provides the brief history and definition of crisis resource management. The next section describes all the essential elements of crisis resource management, including leadership and followership, communication, teamwork, resource use, and situational awareness. This is followed by a review of evidence supporting the use of simulation-based crisis resource management training in health care. The last section provides the resources necessary to develop crisis resource management training using a simulation-based approach. This includes a description of how to design pediatric simulation scenarios, how to effectively debrief, and a list of potential assessment tools that instructors can use to evaluate crisis resource management performance during simulation-based training. Crisis resource management principles form the foundation for efficient team functioning and subsequent error reduction in high-stakes environments such as acute care pediatrics. Effective instructor training is required for those programs wishing to teach these principles using simulation-based learning. Dissemination and integration of these principles into pediatric critical care practice has the potential for a tremendous impact on patient safety and outcomes.

  13. Evaluation of the isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) program in Shurugwi District, Midlands Province, Zimbabwe, January 2013 to August 2014. (United States)

    Makoni, Annamercy; Chemhuru, Milton; Tshimanga, Mufuta; Gombe, Notion Tafara; Mungati, More; Bangure, Donewell


    Midlands Province started implementing the Isoniazid (INH) preventive therapy (IPT) program in January 2013. Shurugwi and Gokwe North were the piloting district hospitals. In May 2014, four more districts hospitals (Gokwe South, Gweru, Kwekwe and Zvishavane) started implementing IPT. Shurugwi District decentralized the program to its rural health facilities in January 2014. A review of the Shurugwi IPT program, 2013 data, indicated that the majority of eligible clients were not started on IPT. None out of the 400 eligible clients were started on IPT in November against the 100% target according to the World Health Organization and the National Tuberculosis (TB) Program. We conducted a study to evaluate the IPT program in Shurugwi District from January 2013 to August 2014. The logical framework approach was used to evaluate inputs, processes, outputs and outcomes of the IPT program. An interviewer administered questionnaire was used to collect data from key informants. Checklists were used to collect data from IPT program records. Sixteen health facilities were implementing IPT in Shurugwi District. All the facilities had TB screening tools and three did not have TB screening algorithms. The district experienced medicine stock outs in 2013. One formal training at district level and on job trainings in implementing health facilities were done. From January 2013 to August 2014, Shurugwi District screened 6794 antiretroviral (ART) clients for TB. Out of those screened, 5255 were eligible for IPT and 2831 (54%) were started on IPT. A total of 700 clients had completed the IPT 6 month's course by August 2014. The dropout rate due to INH toxicity and TB was 0.6% (n = 18) and 0.3% (n = 8) respectively. Fifty-three advocacy and community sensitization meetings were done. The program had no Information Education and Communication (IEC) materials. The IPT program in Shurugwi District achieved half its target. This could be due to inadequate formally trained staff, lack of IEC

  14. A Qualitative Study of the Impact of the London 2012 Olympics on Families in the East Midlands of England: Lessons for Sports Development Policy and Practice (United States)

    Mackintosh, Chris; Darko, Natalie; Rutherford, Zoe; Wilkins, Hetty-May


    The dynamics and culture of families are central to individual and community sport and physical activity participation. This research project examined the lived experiences and day-to-day realities of the London 2012 Olympics from the perspectives of five families in the East Midlands region of England. The aims of the project were to assess the…

  15. A novel variable-gravity simulation method: potential for astronaut training. (United States)

    Sussingham, J C; Cocks, F H


    Zero gravity conditions for astronaut training have traditionally used neutral buoyancy tanks, and with such tanks hypogravity conditions are produced by the use of supplemental weights. This technique does not allow for the influence of water viscosity on any reduced gravity exercise regime. With a water-foam fluid produced by using a microbubble air flow together with surface active agents to prevent bubble agglomeration, it has been found possible to simulate a range of gravity conditions without the need for supplemental weights and additionally with a substantial reduction in the resulting fluid viscosity. This new technique appears to have application in improving the simulation environment for astronaut training under the reduced gravity conditions to be found on the moon or on Mars, and may have terrestrial applications in patient rehabilitation and exercise as well.

  16. Cost-Effectiveness of Flight Simulators for Military Training. Volume 1. Use and Effectiveness of Flight Simulators (United States)


    Training Division DCS for Personnel LCOL Ralph H. Lauder Aviation Systems Division DCS, RDA CAPT James LeBlanc Aviation Manpower and Training...Since. a commercial flight brings in money to the airlines, their pilots are encouraged to fly up to the limit supported by the market. A 17 percent in FY 1981. Thus, while flight simulators may save money by reducing flying hours, it is also necessary to demonstrate that they are

  17. Comparison between Simulation-based Training and Lecture-based Education in Teaching Situation Awareness. A Randomized Controlled Study. (United States)

    Lee Chang, Alfredo; Dym, Andrew A; Venegas-Borsellino, Carla; Bangar, Maneesha; Kazzi, Massoud; Lisenenkov, Dmitry; Qadir, Nida; Keene, Adam; Eisen, Lewis Ari


    Situation awareness has been defined as the perception of the elements in the environment within volumes of time and space, the comprehension of their meaning, and the projection of their status in the near future. Intensivists often make time-sensitive critical decisions, and loss of situation awareness can lead to errors. It has been shown that simulation-based training is superior to lecture-based training for some critical scenarios. Because the methods of training to improve situation awareness have not been well studied in the medical field, we compared the impact of simulation vs. lecture training using the Situation Awareness Global Assessment Technique (SAGAT) score. To identify an effective method for teaching situation awareness. We randomly assigned 17 critical care fellows to simulation vs. lecture training. Training consisted of eight cases on airway management, including topics such as elevated intracranial pressure, difficult airway, arrhythmia, and shock. During the testing scenario, at random times between 4 and 6 minutes into the simulation, the scenario was frozen, and the screens were blanked. Respondents then completed the 28 questions on the SAGAT scale. Sample items were categorized as Perception, Projection, and Comprehension of the situation. Results were analyzed using SPSS Version 21. Eight fellows from the simulation group and nine from the lecture group underwent simulation testing. Sixty-four SAGAT scores were recorded for the simulation group and 48 scores were recorded for the lecture group. The mean simulation vs. lecture group SAGAT score was 64.3 ± 10.1 (SD) vs. 59.7 ± 10.8 (SD) (P = 0.02). There was also a difference in the median Perception ability between the simulation vs. lecture groups (61.1 vs. 55.5, P = 0.01). There was no difference in the median Projection and Comprehension scores between the two groups (50.0 vs. 50.0, P = 0.92, and 83.3 vs. 83.3, P = 0.27). We found a significant, albeit

  18. Simulation training using cadaver sheep chest in pleuroscopy - A step towards skills enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmud, T.; Saqib, M.; Nasir, T.; Siddique, N.


    Objectives: For assessing the use of if simulation training on animal cadavers as a useful tool for training in pleuroscopy. Methods: The email-based cross-sectional study was conducted in December 2014 at Shaikh Zayed Hospital, Federal Postgraduate Medical Institute, Lahore, Pakistan, and comprised respiratory physicians and trainees after their participation in a two-day hands-on training course on pleuroscopy and pleural medical procedures. The responses were analysed and the responses of physicians and trainees were compared. Results: Of the 44 individuals who attended the course and were contacted through emails, 38(86.4%) responded, including 20(52.6%) physicians and 18(47.3%) trainees. All the 38(100%) subjects uniformly accepted the utility of simulation training in enhancing education, improving skill, and improving confidence by repeated practice, and felt that the inclusion of animal models for learning fundamental pleuroscopic procedures can help a lot in teaching. Conclusion: Animal cadavers can be used as an effective teaching tool for pleuroscopy training. (author)

  19. A Comparison of the Perceptual and Technical Demands of Tennis Training, Simulated Match Play, and Competitive Tournaments. (United States)

    Murphy, Alistair P; Duffield, Rob; Kellett, Aaron; Reid, Machar


    High-performance tennis environments aim to prepare athletes for competitive demands through simulated-match scenarios and drills. With a dearth of direct comparisons between training and tournament demands, the current investigation compared the perceptual and technical characteristics of training drills, simulated match play, and tournament matches. Data were collected from 18 high-performance junior tennis players (gender: 10 male, 8 female; age 16 ± 1.1 y) during 6 ± 2 drill-based training sessions, 5 ± 2 simulated match-play sessions, and 5 ± 3 tournament matches from each participant. Tournament matches were further distinguished by win or loss and against seeded or nonseeded opponents. Notational analysis of stroke and error rates, winners, and serves, along with rating of perceived physical exertion (RPE) and mental exertion was measured postsession. Repeated-measures analyses of variance and effect-size analysis revealed that training sessions were significantly shorter in duration than tournament matches (P training and simulated match-play sessions were lower than in tournaments (P > .05; d = 1.26, d = 1.05, respectively). Mental exertion in training was lower than in both simulated match play and tournaments (P > .05; d = 1.10, d = 0.86, respectively). Stroke rates during tournaments exceeded those observed in training (P .05, d Training in the form of drills or simulated match play appeared to inadequately replicate tournament demands in this cohort of players. Coaches should be mindful of match demands to best prescribe sessions of relevant duration, as well as internal (RPE) and technical (stroke rate) load, to aid tournament preparation.

  20. Efficacy of standardized training on a virtual reality simulator to advance knee and shoulder arthroscopic motor skills. (United States)

    Rahm, Stefan; Wieser, Karl; Bauer, David E; Waibel, Felix Wa; Meyer, Dominik C; Gerber, Christian; Fucentese, Sandro F


    Most studies demonstrated, that training on a virtual reality based arthroscopy simulator leads to an improvement of technical skills in orthopaedic surgery. However, how long and what kind of training is optimal for young residents is unknown. In this study we tested the efficacy of a standardized, competency based training protocol on a validated virtual reality based knee- and shoulder arthroscopy simulator. Twenty residents and five experts in arthroscopy were included. All participants performed a test including knee -and shoulder arthroscopy tasks on a virtual reality knee- and shoulder arthroscopy simulator. The residents had to complete a competency based training program. Thereafter, the previously completed test was retaken. We evaluated the metric data of the simulator using a z-score and the Arthroscopic Surgery Skill Evaluation Tool (ASSET) to assess training effects in residents and performance levels in experts. The residents significantly improved from pre- to post training in the overall z-score: - 9.82 (range, - 20.35 to - 1.64) to - 2.61 (range, - 6.25 to 1.5); p < 0.001. The overall ASSET score improved from 55 (27 to 84) percent to 75 (48 to 92) percent; p < 0.001. The experts, however, achieved a significantly higher z-score in the shoulder tasks (p < 0.001 and a statistically insignificantly higher z-score in the knee tasks with a p = 0.921. The experts mean overall ASSET score (knee and shoulder) was significantly higher in the therapeutic tasks (p < 0.001) compared to the residents post training result. The use of a competency based simulator training with this specific device for 3-5 h is an effective tool to advance basic arthroscopic skills of resident in training from 0 to 5 years based on simulator measures and simulator based ASSET testing. Therefore, we conclude that this sort of training method appears useful to learn the handling of the camera, basic anatomy and the triangulation with instruments.

  1. Commissioning methods applied to the Hunterston 'B' AGR operator training simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hacking, D.


    The Hunterston 'B' full scope AGR Simulator, built for the South of Scotland Electricity Board by Marconi Instruments, encompasses all systems under direct and indirect control of the Hunterston central control room operators. The resulting breadth and depth of simulation together with the specification for the real time implementation of a large number of highly interactive detailed plant models leads to the classic problem of identifying acceptance and acceptability criteria. For example, whilst the ultimate criterion for acceptability must clearly be that within the context of the training requirement the simulator should be indistinguishable from the actual plant, far more measurable (i.e. less subjective) statements are required if a formal contractual acceptance condition is to be achieved. Within the framework, individual models and processes can have radically different acceptance requirements which therefore reflect on the commissioning approach applied. This paper discusses the application of a combination of quality assurance methods, design code results, plant data, theoretical analysis and operator 'feel' in the commissioning of the Hunterston 'B' AGR Operator Training Simulator. (author)

  2. SAGRAD: A Program for Neural Network Training with Simulated Annealing and the Conjugate Gradient Method. (United States)

    Bernal, Javier; Torres-Jimenez, Jose


    SAGRAD (Simulated Annealing GRADient), a Fortran 77 program for computing neural networks for classification using batch learning, is discussed. Neural network training in SAGRAD is based on a combination of simulated annealing and Møller's scaled conjugate gradient algorithm, the latter a variation of the traditional conjugate gradient method, better suited for the nonquadratic nature of neural networks. Different aspects of the implementation of the training process in SAGRAD are discussed, such as the efficient computation of gradients and multiplication of vectors by Hessian matrices that are required by Møller's algorithm; the (re)initialization of weights with simulated annealing required to (re)start Møller's algorithm the first time and each time thereafter that it shows insufficient progress in reaching a possibly local minimum; and the use of simulated annealing when Møller's algorithm, after possibly making considerable progress, becomes stuck at a local minimum or flat area of weight space. Outlines of the scaled conjugate gradient algorithm, the simulated annealing procedure and the training process used in SAGRAD are presented together with results from running SAGRAD on two examples of training data.

  3. Adaptation to a simulated central scotoma during visual search training. (United States)

    Walsh, David V; Liu, Lei


    Patients with a central scotoma usually use a preferred retinal locus (PRL) consistently in daily activities. The selection process and time course of the PRL development are not well understood. We used a gaze-contingent display to simulate an isotropic central scotoma in normal subjects while they were practicing a difficult visual search task. As compared to foveal search, initial exposure to the simulated scotoma resulted in prolonged search reaction time, many more fixations and unorganized eye movements during search. By the end of a 1782-trial training with the simulated scotoma, the search performance improved to within 25% of normal foveal search. Accompanying the performance improvement, there were also fewer fixations, fewer repeated fixations in the same area of the search stimulus and a clear tendency of using one area near the border of the scotoma to identify the search target. The results were discussed in relation to natural development of PRL in central scotoma patients and potential visual training protocols to facilitate PRL development. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Simulation-Based Training for Residents in the Management of Acute Agitation: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial. (United States)

    Vestal, Heather S; Sowden, Gillian; Nejad, Shamim; Stoklosa, Joseph; Valcourt, Stephanie C; Keary, Christopher; Caminis, Argyro; Huffman, Jeff


    Simulations are used extensively in medicine to train clinicians to manage high-risk situations. However, to our knowledge, no studies have determined whether this is an effective means of teaching residents to manage acutely agitated patients. This study aimed to determine whether simulation-based training in the management of acute agitation improves resident knowledge and performance, as compared to didactic-based instruction. Following a standard lecture on the management of agitated patients, first-year psychiatry residents were randomized (in clusters of three to four residents) to either the intervention (n = 15) or control arm (n = 11). Residents in the intervention arm then received simulation-based training on the management of acute agitation using a scenario with an agitated standardized patient. Those in the control arm received simulation-based training on a clinical topic unrelated to the management of agitation using a scenario with a non-agitated standardized patient who had suffered a fall. Baseline confidence and knowledge were assessed using pre-intervention self-assessment questionnaires and open-ended clinical case vignettes. Efficacy of the intervention as a teaching tool was assessed with post-intervention open-ended clinical case vignettes and videotaped simulation-based assessment, using a different scenario of an agitated standardized patient. Residents who received the agitation simulation-based training showed significantly greater improvement in knowledge (intervention = 3.0 vs. control = 0.3, p = 0.007, Cohen's d = 1.2) and performance (intervention = 39.6 vs control = 32.5, p = 0.001, Cohen's d = 1.6). Change in self-perceived confidence did not differ significantly between groups. In this study, simulation-based training appeared to be more effective at teaching knowledge and skills necessary for the management of acutely agitated patients, as compared to didactic-based instruction alone

  5. Requirements for the training simulator of the new nuclear power plants of the convoi/pre-convoi type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon; Buettner; Vallana; Reppmann; Emmerich.


    The requirements have been investigated with regard to the training aspect only and therefore no proposals concerning the technical realisation are given. Within these investigations aspects of simulator training, simulator hardware and software, and plant simulation have been considered. The experiences gathered up to now with simulators are included and already existing studies on this area have been evaluated. (orig./HP) [de

  6. The evaluation of cutoff rigidities and reentrant albedo calculations for Palestine, Dallas, and Midland, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shea, M.A.; Smart, D.F.


    By using the trajectory-tracing technique, cutoff rigidities for Palestine, Dallas, and Midland, Texas, have been calculated as a function of various zenith and azimuth angles. Extensive analysis of the trajectory calculations shows that there is a systematic uncertainty involved in computing the lowest allowed rigidity, and this uncertainty may be a significant fraction of the penumbral width. Continuation of the trajectory-tracing process below the Stormer cutoff allows an evaluation of the reentrant albedo, showing that the average invariant latitude of the guiding center of the trajectory at the albedo origin is the same as the average invariant latitude of the guiding center of the particle trajectory at the detection point. No significant difference in the cutoff rigidities for these locations is found when the external magnetic fields present in the magnetosphere are added to the geomagnetic field of internal origin

  7. Multicenter, randomized, controlled trial of virtual-reality simulator training in acquisition of competency in colonoscopy. (United States)

    Cohen, Jonathan; Cohen, Seth A; Vora, Kinjal C; Xue, Xiaonan; Burdick, J Steven; Bank, Simmy; Bini, Edmund J; Bodenheimer, Henry; Cerulli, Maurice; Gerdes, Hans; Greenwald, David; Gress, Frank; Grosman, Irwin; Hawes, Robert; Mullin, Gerard; Mullen, Gerard; Schnoll-Sussman, Felice; Starpoli, Anthony; Stevens, Peter; Tenner, Scott; Villanueva, Gerald


    The GI Mentor is a virtual reality simulator that uses force feedback technology to create a realistic training experience. To define the benefit of training on the GI Mentor on competency acquisition in colonoscopy. Randomized, controlled, blinded, multicenter trial. Academic medical centers with accredited gastroenterology training programs. First-year GI fellows. Subjects were randomized to receive 10 hours of unsupervised training on the GI Mentor or no simulator experience during the first 8 weeks of fellowship. After this period, both groups began performing real colonoscopies. The first 200 colonoscopies performed by each fellow were graded by proctors to measure technical and cognitive success, and patient comfort level during the procedure. A mixed-effects model comparison between the 2 groups of objective and subjective competency scores and patient discomfort in the performance of real colonoscopies over time. Forty-five fellows were randomized from 16 hospitals over 2 years. Fellows in the simulator group had significantly higher objective competency rates during the first 100 cases. A mixed-effects model demonstrated a higher objective competence overall in the simulator group (P < .0001), with the difference between groups being significantly greater during the first 80 cases performed. The median number of cases needed to reach 90% competency was 160 in both groups. The patient comfort level was similar. Fellows who underwent GI Mentor training performed significantly better during the early phase of real colonosc